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Sample records for western blot analysis

  1. Western blotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurien, Biji T; Scofield, R Hal

    2006-04-01

    Western blotting (protein blotting or immunoblotting) is a powerful and important procedure for the immunodetection of proteins post-electrophoresis, particularly proteins that are of low abundance. Since the inception of the protocol for protein transfer from an electrophoresed gel to a membrane in 1979, protein blotting has evolved greatly. The scientific community is now confronted with a variety of ways and means to carry out this transfer. This review describes the various procedures that have been used to transfer proteins from a gel to a membrane based on the principles of simple diffusion, vacuum-assisted solvent flow and electrophoretic elution. Finally, a brief description of methods generally used to detect antigens on blots is also described.

  2. Western blotting: an introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurien, Biji T; Scofield, R Hal

    2015-01-01

    Western blotting is an important procedure for the immunodetection of proteins, particularly proteins that are of low abundance. This process involves the transfer of protein patterns from gel to microporous membrane. Electrophoretic as well as non-electrophoretic transfer of proteins to membranes was first described in 1979. Protein blotting has evolved greatly since the inception of this protocol, allowing protein transfer to be accomplished in a variety of ways.

  3. Characterization of Nora Virus Structural Proteins via Western Blot Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericson, Brad L; Carlson, Darby J; Carlson, Kimberly A

    2016-01-01

    Nora virus is a single stranded RNA picorna-like virus with four open reading frames (ORFs). The coding potentials of the ORFs are not fully characterized, but ORF3 and ORF4 are believed to encode the capsid proteins (VP3, VP4a, VP4b, and VP4c) comprising the virion. To determine the polypeptide composition of Nora virus virions, polypeptides from purified virus were compared to polypeptides detected in Nora virus infected Drosophila melanogaster. Nora virus was purified from infected flies and used to challenge mice for the production of antisera. ORF3, ORF4a, ORF4b, and ORF4c were individually cloned and expressed in E. coli; resultant recombinant proteins purified and were used to make monospecific antisera. Antisera were evaluated via Western blot against whole virus particles and Nora virus infected fly lysates. Viral purification yielded two particle types with densities of ~1.31 g/mL (empty particles) and ~1.33 g/mL (complete virions). Comparison of purified virus polypeptide composition to Nora virus infected D. melanogaster lysate showed the number of proteins in infected cell lysates is less than purified virus. Our results suggest the virion is composed of 6 polypeptides, VP3, VP4a, two forms of VP4b, and two forms of VP4c. This polypeptide composition is similar to other small RNA insect viruses.

  4. Cy5 total protein normalization in Western blot analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagner-McWhirter, Åsa; Laurin, Ylva; Larsson, Anita; Bjerneld, Erik J; Rönn, Ola

    2015-10-01

    Western blotting is a widely used method for analyzing specific target proteins in complex protein samples. Housekeeping proteins are often used for normalization to correct for uneven sample loads, but these require careful validation since expression levels may vary with cell type and treatment. We present a new, more reliable method for normalization using Cy5-prelabeled total protein as a loading control. We used a prelabeling protocol based on Cy5 N-hydroxysuccinimide ester labeling that produces a linear signal response. We obtained a low coefficient of variation (CV) of 7% between the ratio of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) target to Cy5 total protein control signals over the whole loading range from 2.5 to 20.0μg of Chinese hamster ovary cell lysate protein. Corresponding experiments using actin or tubulin as controls for normalization resulted in CVs of 13 and 18%, respectively. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase did not produce a proportional signal and was not suitable for normalization in these cells. A comparison of ERK1/2 signals from labeled and unlabeled samples showed that Cy5 prelabeling did not affect antibody binding. By using total protein normalization we analyzed PP2A and Smad2/3 levels with high confidence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Fastest Western in Town: A Contemporary Twist on the Classic Western Blot Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Jillian M.; McMahon, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The Western blot techniques that were originally established in the late 1970s are still actively utilized today. However, this traditional method of Western blotting has several drawbacks that include low quality resolution, spurious bands, decreased sensitivity, and poor protein integrity. Recent advances have drastically improved numerous aspects of the standard Western blot protocol to produce higher qualitative and quantitative data. The Bis-Tris gel system, an alternative to the convent...

  6. A Laboratory Exercise Illustrating the Sensitivity and Specificity of Western Blot Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ming-Mei; Lovett, Janice

    2011-01-01

    Western blot analysis, commonly known as "Western blotting," is a standard tool in every laboratory where proteins are analyzed. It involves the separation of polypeptides in polyacrylamide gels followed by the electrophoretic transfer of the separated polypeptides onto a nitrocellulose or polyvinylidene fluoride membrane. A replica of the…

  7. Western Blotting using Capillary Electrophoresis

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Gwendolyn J.; Cipolla, Cynthia; Kennedy, Robert T.

    2011-01-01

    A microscale Western blotting system based on separating sodium-dodecyl sulfate protein complexes by capillary gel electrophoresis followed by deposition onto a blotting membrane for immunoassay is described. In the system, the separation capillary is grounded through a sheath capillary to a mobile X-Y translation stage which moves a blotting membrane past the capillary outlet for protein deposition. The blotting membrane is moistened with a methanol and buffer mixture to facilitate protein a...

  8. Western blotting using capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Gwendolyn J; M Cipolla, Cynthia; Kennedy, Robert T

    2011-02-15

    A microscale Western blotting system based on separating sodium-dodecyl sulfate protein complexes by capillary gel electrophoresis followed by deposition onto a blotting membrane for immunoassay is described. In the system, the separation capillary is grounded through a sheath capillary to a mobile X-Y translation stage which moves a blotting membrane past the capillary outlet for protein deposition. The blotting membrane is moistened with a methanol and buffer mixture to facilitate protein adsorption. Although discrete protein zones could be detected, bands were broadened by ∼1.7-fold by transfer to membrane. A complete Western blot for lysozyme was completed in about one hour with 50 pg mass detection limit from low microgram per milliliter samples. These results demonstrate substantial reduction in time requirements and improvement in mass sensitivity compared to conventional Western blots. Western blotting using capillary electrophoresis shows promise to analyze low volume samples with reduced reagents and time, while retaining the information content of a typical Western blot.

  9. Western blotting using chemiluminescent substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegria-Schaffer, Alice

    2014-01-01

    Western blotting is a powerful and commonly used tool to identify and quantify a specific protein in a complex mixture (Towbin et al., 1979). The technique enables indirect detection of protein samples immobilized on a nitrocellulose or polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Multistrip Western blotting: a tool for comparative quantitative analysis of multiple proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksamitiene, Edita; Hoek, Jan B; Kiyatkin, Anatoly

    2015-01-01

    The qualitative and quantitative measurements of protein abundance and modification states are essential in understanding their functions in diverse cellular processes. Typical Western blotting, though sensitive, is prone to produce substantial errors and is not readily adapted to high-throughput technologies. Multistrip Western blotting is a modified immunoblotting procedure based on simultaneous electrophoretic transfer of proteins from multiple strips of polyacrylamide gels to a single membrane sheet. In comparison with the conventional technique, Multistrip Western blotting increases data output per single blotting cycle up to tenfold; allows concurrent measurement of up to nine different total and/or posttranslationally modified protein expression obtained from the same loading of the sample; and substantially improves the data accuracy by reducing immunoblotting-derived signal errors. This approach enables statistically reliable comparison of different or repeated sets of data and therefore is advantageous to apply in biomedical diagnostics, systems biology, and cell signaling research.

  11. Total protein analysis as a reliable loading control for quantitative fluorescent Western blotting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha L Eaton

    Full Text Available Western blotting has been a key technique for determining the relative expression of proteins within complex biological samples since the first publications in 1979. Recent developments in sensitive fluorescent labels, with truly quantifiable linear ranges and greater limits of detection, have allowed biologists to probe tissue specific pathways and processes with higher resolution than ever before. However, the application of quantitative Western blotting (QWB to a range of healthy tissues and those from degenerative models has highlighted a problem with significant consequences for quantitative protein analysis: how can researchers conduct comparative expression analyses when many of the commonly used reference proteins (e.g. loading controls are differentially expressed? Here we demonstrate that common controls, including actin and tubulin, are differentially expressed in tissues from a wide range of animal models of neurodegeneration. We highlight the prevalence of such alterations through examination of published "-omics" data, and demonstrate similar responses in sensitive QWB experiments. For example, QWB analysis of spinal cord from a murine model of Spinal Muscular Atrophy using an Odyssey scanner revealed that beta-actin expression was decreased by 19.3±2% compared to healthy littermate controls. Thus, normalising QWB data to β-actin in these circumstances could result in 'skewing' of all data by ∼20%. We further demonstrate that differential expression of commonly used loading controls was not restricted to the nervous system, but was also detectable across multiple tissues, including bone, fat and internal organs. Moreover, expression of these "control" proteins was not consistent between different portions of the same tissue, highlighting the importance of careful and consistent tissue sampling for QWB experiments. Finally, having illustrated the problem of selecting appropriate single protein loading controls, we demonstrate

  12. Northern blotting analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Knud; Nielsen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Northern blotting analysis is a classical method for analysis of the size and steady-state level of a specific RNA in a complex sample. In short, the RNA is size-fractionated by gel electrophoresis and transferred by blotting onto a membrane to which the RNA is covalently bound. Then, the membrane...... is analysed by hybridization to one or more specific probes that are labelled for subsequent detection. Northern blotting is relatively simple to perform, inexpensive, and not plagued by artefacts. Recent developments of hybridization membranes and buffers have resulted in increased sensitivity closing...

  13. A single-step simultaneous protein staining procedure for polyacrylamide gels and nitrocellulose membranes by Alta during western blot analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Jayanta K; Berwal, Sunil K; Soni, Rupali N

    2012-01-01

    A simple method for staining of proteins simultaneously on sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) polyacrylamide gels and nitrocellulose membranes by Alta during western blot analysis is described. A 5% solution of Alta, a commercially available cosmetic preparation, is added in the upper tank buffer during electrophoresis. On completion of electrophoresis, the gel is washed in distilled water and viewed on a white light plate and a transilluminator to photograph the protein profiles. The gel is processed for western blot transfer of proteins onto a nitrocellulose membrane, and upon completion, the protein profiles on the membrane are viewed and photographed as stated above. The membrane can then be processed for immunostaining as per the standard procedure. Thus, the staining procedure using Alta is simple, rapid (without any need of destaining), and cost-effective.

  14. Western Blotting of the Endocannabinoid System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wager-Miller, Jim; Mackie, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Measuring expression levels of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) is an important step for understanding the distribution, function, and regulation of these receptors. A common approach for detecting proteins from complex biological systems is Western blotting. In this chapter, we describe a general approach to Western blotting protein components of the endocannabinoid system using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and nitrocellulose membranes, with a focus on detecting type 1 cannabinoid (CB1) receptors. When this technique is carefully used, specifically with validation of the primary antibodies, it can provide quantitative information on protein expression levels. Additional information can also be inferred from Western blotting such as potential posttranslational modifications that can be further evaluated by specific analytical techniques.

  15. Northern blotting analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Knud; Nielsen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    is analysed by hybridization to one or more specific probes that are labelled for subsequent detection. Northern blotting is relatively simple to perform, inexpensive, and not plagued by artefacts. Recent developments of hybridization membranes and buffers have resulted in increased sensitivity closing...

  16. Multiplexed Western Blotting Using Microchip Electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Shi; Furtaw, Michael D; Chen, Huaxian; Lamb, Don T; Ferguson, Stephen A; Arvin, Natalie E; Dawod, Mohamed; Kennedy, Robert T

    2016-07-05

    Western blotting is a commonly used protein assay that combines the selectivity of electrophoretic separation and immunoassay. The technique is limited by long time, manual operation with mediocre reproducibility, and large sample consumption, typically 10-20 μg per assay. Western blots are also usually used to measure only one protein per assay with an additional housekeeping protein for normalization. Measurement of multiple proteins is possible; however, it requires stripping membranes of antibody and then reprobing with a second antibody. Miniaturized alternatives to Western blot based on microfluidic or capillary electrophoresis have been developed that enable higher-throughput, automation, and greater mass sensitivity. In one approach, proteins are separated by electrophoresis on a microchip that is dragged along a polyvinylidene fluoride membrane so that as proteins exit the chip they are captured on the membrane for immunoassay. In this work, we improve this method to allow multiplexed protein detection. Multiple injections made from the same sample can be deposited in separate tracks so that each is probed with a different antibody. To further enhance multiplexing capability, the electrophoresis channel dimensions were optimized for resolution while keeping separation and blotting times to less than 8 min. Using a 15 μm deep × 50 μm wide × 8.6 cm long channel, it is possible to achieve baseline resolution of proteins that differ by 5% in molecular weight, e.g., ERK1 (44 kDa) from ERK2 (42 kDa). This resolution allows similar proteins detected by cross-reactive antibodies in a single track. We demonstrate detection of 11 proteins from 9 injections from a single Jurkat cell lysate sample consisting of 400 ng of total protein using this procedure. Thus, multiplexed Western blots are possible without cumbersome stripping and reprobing steps.

  17. The Design of a Quantitative Western Blot Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean C. Taylor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Western blotting is a technique that has been in practice for more than three decades that began as a means of detecting a protein target in a complex sample. Although there have been significant advances in both the imaging and reagent technologies to improve sensitivity, dynamic range of detection, and the applicability of multiplexed target detection, the basic technique has remained essentially unchanged. In the past, western blotting was used simply to detect a specific target protein in a complex mixture, but now journal editors and reviewers are requesting the quantitative interpretation of western blot data in terms of fold changes in protein expression between samples. The calculations are based on the differential densitometry of the associated chemiluminescent and/or fluorescent signals from the blots and this now requires a fundamental shift in the experimental methodology, acquisition, and interpretation of the data. We have recently published an updated approach to produce quantitative densitometric data from western blots (Taylor et al., 2013 and here we summarize the complete western blot workflow with a focus on sample preparation and data analysis for quantitative western blotting.

  18. Diagnostic potential of Western blot analysis of sera from dogs with leishmaniasis in endemic areas and significance of the pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aisa, M J; Castillejo, S; Gallego, M; Fisa, R; Riera, M C; de Colmenares, M; Torras, S; Roura, X; Sentis, J; Portus, M

    1998-02-01

    Serum samples collected from 237 dogs in Catalonia (northeastern Spain) were screened by Western blot analysis to detect the presence of antibodies specific to different Leishmania infantum polypeptide fractions. Leishmaniasis was confirmed in 72 of these dogs by direct examination and/or culture. Another 165 animals from the Priorat region were studied periodically for 2-8 years between 1987 and 1995, giving a total of 565 determinations. A control group of 93 dogs from nonendemic areas was also studied. Sera from dogs with leishmaniasis recognized antigens with molecular weights ranging from 12 to 85 kD. The most sensitive antigens were those of 70, 65, 46, 30, 28, 14, and 12 kD, which were recognized by 75%, 75%, 78%, 75%, 81%, 79%, and 75%, respectively, of the sera from dogs with positive parasitologic examination results. Antigens of 70 and 65 kD were also recognized by two dogs from nonendemic areas. Antigens of 14 and 12 kD were the first to be recognized by sera of asymptomatic dogs with titers less than the cut-off value of the dot-ELISA that increased during the longitudinal study, and the presence of antibodies specific for these fractions was observed for up to six years before seroconversion observed by dot-ELISA. These antibodies were also the first to disappear in dogs in which the disease was self-limited. The study corroborates the high sensitivity and specificity of Western blots in the diagnosis of canine leishmaniasis when the bands of low molecular weight (less than 46 kD) are considered, and indicates that fractions of 14 and 12 kD are useful in detecting early forms of the disease.

  19. [Better performance of Western blotting: quick vs slow protein transfer, blotting membranes and the visualization methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Ling-Quan; Pu, Ying-Hui; Ma, Shi-Kun

    2008-01-01

    To study how the choices of the quick vs slow protein transfer, the blotting membranes and the visualization methods influence the performance of Western blotting. The cellular proteins were abstracted from human breast cell line MDA-MB-231 for analysis with Western blotting using quick (2 h) and slow (overnight) protein transfer, different blotting membranes (nitrocellulose, PVDF and nylon membranes) and different visualization methods (ECL and DAB). In Western blotting with slow and quick protein transfer, the prestained marker presented more distinct bands on nitrocellulose membrane than on the nylon and PVDF membranes, and the latter also showed clear bands on the back of the membrane to very likely cause confusion, which did not occur with nitrocellulose membrane. PVDF membrane allowed slightly clearer visualization of the proteins with DAB method as compared with nitrocellulose and nylon membranes, and on the latter two membranes, quick protein transfer was likely to result in somehow irregular bands in comparison with slow protein transfer. With slow protein transfer and chemiluminescence for visualization, all the 3 membranes showed clear background, while with quick protein transfer, nylon membrane gave rise to obvious background noise but the other two membranes did not. Different membranes should be selected for immunoblotting according to the actual needs of the experiment. Slow transfer of the proteins onto the membranes often has better effect than quick transfer, and enhanced chemiluminescence is superior to DAB for protein visualization and allows highly specific and sensitive analysis of the protein expressions.

  20. Detection of Potentially Diagnostic Leishmania Antigens with Western Blot Analysis of Sera from Patients with Cutaneous and Visceral Leishmaniases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Javad SEYYEDTABAEI

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL and cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL are important public health problems in Iran. We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic potential of Western blot (WB compared with indirect immunofluorescence test (IFAT to serodiagnosis of leishmaniasis.Methods: This study was performed from 2010-2014 and participants were different parts of Iran. Serum samples were obtained from 43 patients with proven CL, 33 patients with proven VL, 39 patients with other parasitic diseases and 23 healthy individuals. Results: WB sensitivity for CL and VL was 100% and 91%, compared to IFA 4.6% and 87.8%, respectively. Sera from patients with CL and VL recognized numerous antigens with molecular weights ranging from 14 to 68 kDa and 12 to 94 kDa, respectively. The most sensitive antigens were 14 and 16 kDa for CL recognized by 100% of the sera from patients with proven CL and 12, 14 and 16 kDa for VL, recognized by 63.6%, 100% and 63.6% of the sera from patients with proven VL respectively. WB analysis is more sensitive than IFAT for the diagnosis of leishmaniasis particularly in cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis. The 12, 14 and 16 kDa can be valuable diagnostic molecules for serodiagnosis of leishmaniasis because at least two immunogenic molecules were simultaneously detected by all patient sera, as well as produced antibodies against these antigens have no cross-reactivity with other control groups.Conclusion: WB could be useful for screening and serodiagnosis of CL and VL in epidemiologic studies in endemic areas.

  1. Routine Western blot to check autophagic flux : Cautions and recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gomez-Sanchez, Ruben; Pizarro-Estrella, Elisa; Yakhine-Diop, Sokhna M. S.; Rodriguez-Arribas, Mario; Bravo-San Pedro, Jose M.; Fuentes, Jose M.; Gonzalez-Polo, Rosa A.

    2015-01-01

    At present, the analysis of autophagic flux by Western blotting (WB), which measures two of the most important markers of autophagy, i.e., microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) and p62, is widely accepted in the scientific community. In this study, we addressed the possible

  2. Western Blot of Stained Proteins from Dried Polyacrylamide Gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Claudia; Stan-Lotter, Helga

    1996-01-01

    Western blotting of proteins is customarily performed following their separation on polyacrylamide gels, either prior to staining (1) or, as recently reported, following staining (2). We describe here Western blotting with stained gels, which had been dried and some of which had been stored for years. This procedure permits immunological analysis of proteins, to which antisera may have become available only later, or where the application of newly developed sensitive detection methods is desired. Once rehydration of the gels is achieved, proteins can be-transferred to blotting membranes by any appropriate protocol. Proteins stained with Coomassie Blue have to be detected with a non-chromogenic method, such as the film-based enhanced chemiluminescence (ECL)2) procedure (3). Silver stained proteins, which transfer in the colorless form, may be visualized by any detection method, although, because of the usually very low amounts of proteins, detection by ECL is preferable. Blotting of stained proteins from rehydrated gels is as rapid and as quantitative as from freshly prepared gels, in contrast to blotting from wet stained gels, which requires extensive washing and results in low transfer efficiency (2). Together with a photographic record of the gel pattern, unambiguous identification of immunoreactive proteins from complex mixtures is possible. Some further applications of this work are discussed.

  3. Exposure to Sarcocystis spp. in horses from Spain determined by Western blot analysis using Sarcocystis neurona merozoites as heterologous antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, M; Yeargan, M; Francisco, I; Dangoudoubiyam, S; Becerra, P; Francisco, R; Sánchez-Andrade, R; Paz-Silva, A; Howe, D K

    2012-04-30

    Horses serve as an intermediate host for several species of Sarcocystis, all of which utilize canids as the definitive host. Sarcocystis spp. infection and formation of latent sarcocysts in horses often appears to be subclinical, but morbidity can occur, especially when the parasite burden is large. A serological survey was conducted to determine the presence of antibodies against Sarcocystis spp. in seemingly healthy horses from the Galicia region of Spain. Western blot analyses using Sarcocystis neurona merozoites as heterologous antigen suggested greater than 80% seroprevalance of Sarcocystis spp. in a sample set of 138 horses. The serum samples were further tested with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) based on recombinant S. neurona-specific surface antigens (rSnSAGs). As expected for horses from the Eastern Hemisphere, less than 4% of the serum samples were positive when analyzed with either the rSnSAG2 or the rSnSAG4/3 ELISAs. An additional 246 horses were tested using the rSnSAG2 ELISA, which revealed that less than 3% of the 384 samples were seropositive. Collectively, the results of this serologic study suggested that a large proportion of horses from this region of Spain are exposed to Sarcocystis spp. Furthermore, the anti-Sarcocystis seroreactivity in these European horses could be clearly distinguished from anti-S. neurona antibodies using the rSnSAG2 and rSnSAG4/3 ELISAs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Characterization of Sm14 related components in different helminths by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blotting analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Thaumaturgo

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Sm14 was the first fatty acid-binding protein homologue identified in helminths. Thereafter, members of the same family were identified in several helminth species, with high aminoacid sequence homology between them. In addition, immune crossprotection was also reported against Fasciola hepatica infection, in animals previously immunized with the Schistosoma mansoni vaccine candidate, r-Sm14. In the present study, data on preliminary sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blotting analysis of nine different helminth extracts focusing the identification of Sm14 related proteins, is reported. Out of these, three extracts - Ascaris suum (males and females, Echinostoma paraensei, and Taenia saginata - presented components that comigrated with Sm14 in SDS-PAGE, and that were recognized by anti-rSm14 policlonal serum, in Western blotting tests.

  5. Multistrip Western blotting to increase quantitative data output

    OpenAIRE

    Kiyatkin, Anatoly; Aksamitiene, Edita

    2009-01-01

    The qualitative and quantitative measurements of protein abundance and modification states are essential in understanding their functions in diverse cellular processes. Typical Western blotting, though sensitive, is prone to produce substantial errors and is not readily adapted to high-throughput technologies. Multistrip Western blotting is a modified immunoblotting procedure based on simultaneous electrophoretic transfer of proteins from multiple strips of polyacrylamide gels to a single mem...

  6. Determination of Diagnostic Antigens in Cattle Amphistomiasis Using Western Blotting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Halajian

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Mixed infection with amphistomes seems common in native cattle of Iran. The aim of this study was to determine diagnostic antigens in cattle mixed amphistomiasis."nMethods: Specific antigens of Cotylophoron cotylophorum, Gastrothylax crumenifer and Paramphisto­mum cervi (mixed infection, the most common species, were collected from cattle was deter­mined. Adult trematodes were collected from the rumen of naturally infected cattle at meat inspec­tion. After their homogenization and centrifugation, somatic antigens were prepared and ana­lyzed by SDS-PAGE. Specific antigens were determinated by western blot with homologous and heterolo­gous sera. SDS-PAGE of whole worms extract was performed at different concentrations and subse­quent gels staining. Immunoblotting analysis using sera from cattle naturally infected with am­phistomes, Dicrocoelium dendriticum, Fasciola spp. and hydatid cyst was performed."nResults: Electrophorese analysis of somatic antigens revealed the presence of 10 and 21 protein bands at 4 µgr/ml and 8 µgr/ml with molecular weights ranging from 25-120 and 25-150 kDa, respectively. The best result was taken at 8 mg/ml concentration. Although western blot of these proteins demon­strate 5 major antigenic polypeptides ranging from 50 to 100 kDa which were recognized by serum of cat­tle naturally infected with mixed amphistomes.

  7. Multistrip western blotting to increase quantitative data output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyatkin, Anatoly; Aksamitiene, Edita

    2009-01-01

    The qualitative and quantitative measurements of protein abundance and modification states are essential in understanding their functions in diverse cellular processes. Typical western blotting, though sensitive, is prone to produce substantial errors and is not readily adapted to high-throughput technologies. Multistrip western blotting is a modified immunoblotting procedure based on simultaneous electrophoretic transfer of proteins from multiple strips of polyacrylamide gels to a single membrane sheet. In comparison with the conventional technique, Multistrip western blotting increases the data output per single blotting cycle up to tenfold, allows concurrent monitoring of up to nine different proteins from the same loading of the sample, and substantially improves the data accuracy by reducing immunoblotting-derived signal errors. This approach enables statistically reliable comparison of different or repeated sets of data, and therefore is beneficial to apply in biomedical diagnostics, systems biology, and cell signaling research.

  8. Acid-Urea Gel Electrophoresis and Western Blotting of Histones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazzalin, Catherine A; Mahadevan, Louis C

    2017-01-01

    Acid-urea gel electrophoresis offers significant advantages over SDS-PAGE for analysis of post-translational protein modifications, being capable of resolving proteins of similar size but varying in charge. Hence, it can be used to separate protein variants with small charge-altering differences in primary sequence, and is particularly useful in the analysis of histones whose charge variation arises from post-translational modification, such as phosphorylation or acetylation. On acid-urea gels, histones that carry multiple modifications, each with a characteristic charge, are resolved into distinct bands, the so-called "histone ladder." Thus, the extent and distribution of different modification states of histones can be visualized. Here, we describe the analysis of histone H3 by acid-urea gel electrophoresis and western blotting.

  9. A Secondary Antibody-Detecting Molecular Weight Marker with Mouse and Rabbit IgG Fc Linear Epitopes for Western Blot Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wen-Wei; Chen, I-Ju; Cheng, Ta-Chun; Tung, Yi-Ching; Chu, Pei-Yu; Chuang, Chih-Hung; Hsieh, Yuan-Chin; Huang, Chien-Chiao; Wang, Yeng-Tseng; Kao, Chien-Han; Roffler, Steve R; Cheng, Tian-Lu

    2016-01-01

    Molecular weight markers that can tolerate denaturing conditions and be auto-detected by secondary antibodies offer great efficacy and convenience for Western Blotting. Here, we describe M&R LE protein markers which contain linear epitopes derived from the heavy chain constant regions of mouse and rabbit immunoglobulin G (IgG Fc LE). These markers can be directly recognized and stained by a wide range of anti-mouse and anti-rabbit secondary antibodies. We selected three mouse (M1, M2 and M3) linear IgG1 and three rabbit (R1, R2 and R3) linear IgG heavy chain epitope candidates based on their respective crystal structures. Western blot analysis indicated that M2 and R2 linear epitopes are effectively recognized by anti-mouse and anti-rabbit secondary antibodies, respectively. We fused the M2 and R2 epitopes (M&R LE) and incorporated the polypeptide in a range of 15-120 kDa auto-detecting markers (M&R LE protein marker). The M&R LE protein marker can be auto-detected by anti-mouse and anti-rabbit IgG secondary antibodies in standard immunoblots. Linear regression analysis of the M&R LE protein marker plotted as gel mobility versus the log of the marker molecular weights revealed good linearity with a correlation coefficient R2 value of 0.9965, indicating that the M&R LE protein marker displays high accuracy for determining protein molecular weights. This accurate, regular and auto-detected M&R LE protein marker may provide a simple, efficient and economical tool for protein analysis.

  10. Multi-strip Western blotting to increase quantitative data output

    OpenAIRE

    Aksamitiene, Edita; Hoek, Jan B.; Kholodenko, Boris; Kiyatkin, Anatoly

    2007-01-01

    The qualitative and quantitative measurement of protein abundance and protein modification states are essential in understanding their role in diverse cellular processes. Traditional Western blotting technique, though sensitive, is prone to produce substantial errors and is not readily adapted to high-throughput technologies. We propose a modified immunoblotting procedure, which is based on simultaneous transfer of proteins from multiple gel-strips onto the same membrane, and is compatible wi...

  11. Fluorescence-based Western blotting for quantitation of protein biomarkers in clinical samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellner, Maria; Babeluk, Rita; Diestinger, Michael; Pirchegger, Petra; Skeledzic, Senada; Oehler, Rudolf

    2008-09-01

    Since most high throughput techniques used in biomarker discovery are very time and cost intensive, highly specific and quantitative analytical alternative application methods are needed for the routine analysis. Conventional Western blotting allows detection of specific proteins to the level of single isotypes while its quantitative accuracy is rather limited. We report a novel and improved quantitative Western blotting method. The use of fluorescently labelled secondary antibodies strongly extends the dynamic range of the quantitation and improves the correlation with the protein amount (r=0.997). By an additional fluorescent staining of all proteins immediately after their transfer to the blot membrane, it is possible to visualise simultaneously the antibody binding and the total protein profile. This allows for an accurate correction for protein load. Applying this normalisation it could be demonstrated that fluorescence-based Western blotting is able to reproduce a quantitative analysis of two specific proteins in blood platelet samples from 44 subjects with different diseases as initially conducted by 2D-DIGE. These results show that the proposed fluorescence-based Western blotting is an adequate application technique for biomarker quantitation and suggest possibilities of employment that go far beyond.

  12. Effects of Reusing Gel Electrophoresis and Electrotransfer Buffers on Western Blotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heda, Ghanshyam D; Omotola, Oluwabukola B; Heda, Rajiv P; Avery, Jamie

    2016-09-01

    SDS-PAGE and Western blotting are 2 of the most commonly used biochemical methods for protein analysis. Proteins are electrophoretically separated based on their MWs by SDS-PAGE and then electrotransferred to a solid membrane surface for subsequent protein-specific analysis by immunoblotting, a procedure commonly known as Western blotting. Both of these procedures use a salt-based buffer, with the latter procedure consisting of methanol as an additive known for its toxicity. Previous reports present a contradictory view in favor or against reusing electrotransfer buffer, also known as Towbin's transfer buffer (TTB), with an aim to reduce the toxic waste. In this report, we present a detailed analysis of not only reusing TTB but also gel electrophoresis buffer (EB) on proteins of low to high MW range. Our results suggest that EB can be reused for at least 5 times without compromising the electrophoretic separation of mixture of proteins in an MW standard, BSA, and crude cell lysates. Additionally, reuse of EB did not affect the quality of subsequent Western blots. Successive reuse of TTB, on the other hand, diminished the signal of proteins of different MWs in a protein standard and a high MW membrane protein cystic fibrosis transmembrane-conductance regulator (CFTR) in Western blotting.

  13. [Clinical manifestation of Lyme borreliosis in children with positive and negatiwe western blot results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ołdak, Elzbieta; Rozkiewicz, Doroto; Sulik, Artur

    2008-01-01

    In the afforested area of North-Eastern Poland the risk of Borrelia burgdorferi infection seems to be higher compared to the other regions. Because of unspecific clinical manifestation of Lyme borreliosis in children the positive ELISA IgM results should be confirmed with Western blot IgM tests. Retrospective analysis of clinical signs and symptoms of Lyme borreliosis in children with positive ELISA IgM and positive Western blot IgM results and in children with positive ELISA IgM and negative Western blot IgM results. The study included 20 children reactive with ELISA IgM (Bellco Biomedica, Austria), hospitalized in Pediatric Infectious Diseases Clinic in 2007 due to probable diagnosis of Lyme disease. All children were tested with B. burgdorferi Western blot IgM and/or IgG assay (DRG, Diagnostics, Germany) as a second-step diagnosis. In 10 (50% females, 50% males) out of 20 children the results were positive (borreliosis) and in other 10 (80% females, 20% males) the results were negative (controls). In both groups of patients the retrospective analysis of signs and symptoms was done. The most often clinical manifestation of Lyme borreliosis in children was neuroborreliosis. Children presented Lyme meningitis (30%), facial nerve palsy (10%) and chronic or recurrent headaches (40%), associated with vertigo (20%), weakness (30%), fever (40%), and fatigue syndrome (30%). One patient presented Lyme arthritis. Children of control group presented with unspecific symptoms like isolated headaches (40%), arthralgias (70%), myalgias (10%) and abdomen pain (20%) (1) The most frequent clinical presentation of Lyme borreliosis in analyzed children was neuroborreliosis; (2) Isolated arthralgias in children reactive with B. burgdorferi ELISA IgM need to be confirmed with Western blot assay before implementing the antibiotic therapy.

  14. Evaluation of two commercial systems for automated processing, reading, and interpretation of Lyme borreliosis Western blots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binnicker, M J; Jespersen, D J; Harring, J A; Rollins, L O; Bryant, S C; Beito, E M

    2008-07-01

    The diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis (LB) is commonly made by serologic testing with Western blot (WB) analysis serving as an important supplemental assay. Although specific, the interpretation of WBs for diagnosis of LB (i.e., Lyme WBs) is subjective, with considerable variability in results. In addition, the processing, reading, and interpretation of Lyme WBs are laborious and time-consuming procedures. With the need for rapid processing and more objective interpretation of Lyme WBs, we evaluated the performances of two automated interpretive systems, TrinBlot/BLOTrix (Trinity Biotech, Carlsbad, CA) and BeeBlot/ViraScan (Viramed Biotech AG, Munich, Germany), using 518 serum specimens submitted to our laboratory for Lyme WB analysis. The results of routine testing with visual interpretation were compared to those obtained by BLOTrix analysis of MarBlot immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG and by ViraScan analysis of ViraBlot and ViraStripe IgM and IgG assays. BLOTrix analysis demonstrated an agreement of 84.7% for IgM and 87.3% for IgG compared to visual reading and interpretation. ViraScan analysis of the ViraBlot assays demonstrated agreements of 85.7% for IgM and 94.2% for IgG, while ViraScan analysis of the ViraStripe IgM and IgG assays showed agreements of 87.1 and 93.1%, respectively. Testing by the automated systems yielded an average time savings of 64 min/run compared to processing, reading, and interpretation by our current procedure. Our findings demonstrated that automated processing and interpretive systems yield results comparable to those of visual interpretation, while reducing the subjectivity and time required for Lyme WB analysis.

  15. HIV‑2 antibody detection after indeterminate or negative HIV‑1 Western blot in Cuba, 2005-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Dervel F; Ortiz, Eva; Martín, Dayamí; Nibot, Carmen; Rizo, Adis; Silva, Eladio

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Differentiating between HIV-1 and HIV-2 infection is the first step to understanding HIV transmission, epidemiology and pathogenesis in geographical areas where both viruses circulate. In Cuba, positive results in mixed HIV-1/2 screening assays are confirmed by HIV-1 Western blot. Indeterminate results constitute the main limitation of this test and HIV-2 infection is among their possible causes; hence the importance of second-stage screening and confirmatory tests for HIV-2 infection. OBJECTIVE Investigate the contribution of HIV-2 antibodies to negative or indeterminate HIV-1 Western blot results in serum samples from 2005 through 2008 in Cuba. METHODS HIV-2 reactivity was studied using the ELISA DAVIH-VIH-2 diagnostic kit (Cuba) in 1723 serum samples with negative or indeterminate results for HIV-1 Western blot from January 2005 through December 2008. Duplicate sera reactive by ELISA were confirmed by HIV-2 Western blot, results interpreted according to WHO criteria. The epidemiological interview established by Cuba's National Program for Prevention and Control Sexually-Transmitted Diseases and HIV/AIDS was applied to HIV-2 Western blot-positive patients. RESULTS Among all sera studied, HIV-2 ELISA identified 12 reactive serum samples (0.70%) and 1711 non-reactive (99.30%). Western blot analysis of the 12 ELISA-reactive samples confirmed two positive samples (16.67%), 4 negative (33.33%) and 6 indeterminate (50%). Positive samples reacted against the p16, p26, gp36, p53, p56, p68 and gp105 proteins. All 12 ELISA-reactive samples belonged to the HIV-1 Western blot indeterminate group. The two HIV-2-positive samples showed well defined reactivity to gp160, p53, p55 and p34 of HIV-1. HIV-1 seroconversion was observed in all 10 remaining samples during serological followup. CONCLUSIONS Two new HIV-2 seropositive cases were diagnosed using DAVIH-VIH-2 and HIV-2 Western blot in indeterminate HIV-1 Western blot samples. Results support the recommendation

  16. Ultrasensitive Detection of Proteins on Western Blots with Semiconducting Polymer Dots

    OpenAIRE

    Ye, Fangmao; Smith, Polina B.; Wu, Changfeng; Chiu, Daniel T.

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate ultrasensitive fluorescence imaging of proteins on Western blots using a bright, compact, and orange-emitting semiconducting polymer dot (CN-PPV). We achieved a detection limit at the single-picogram level in dot blots; with conventional Western blotting, we detected 50 pg of transferrin and trypsin inhibitor after SDS-PAGE and transfer onto a PVDF membrane. Our method does not require any additional equipment or time compared to the conventional procedure with traditional fluo...

  17. Conditions that allow for effective transfer of membrane proteins onto nitrocellulose membrane in Western blots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeyrathne, Priyanka D; Lam, Joseph S

    2007-04-01

    A major hurdle in characterizing bacterial membrane proteins by Western blotting is the ineffectiveness of transferring these proteins from sodium dodecyl sulfate -- polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) gel onto nitrocellulose membrane, using standard Western blot buffers and electrophoretic conditions. In this study, we compared a number of modified Western blotting buffers and arrived at a composition designated as the SDS-PAGE-Urea Lysis buffer. The use of this buffer and specific conditions allowed the reproducible transfer of highly hydrophobic bacterial membrane proteins with 2-12 transmembrane-spanning segments as well as soluble proteins onto nitrocellulose membranes. This method should be broadly applicable for immunochemical studies of other membrane proteins.

  18. SDS-Polyacrylamide Electrophoresis and Western Blotting Applied to the Study of Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Solaesa, Virginia; Abad, Sara Ciria

    2016-01-01

    Western blotting is used to analyze proteins after being separated by electrophoresis and subsequently electro-transferred to a membrane. Once immobilized, a specific protein can be identified through its reaction with a labeled antibody or antigen. It is a methodology commonly used in biomedical research such as asthma studies, to assess the pathways of inflammatory mediators involved in the disease.Here, we describe an example of western blotting to determine the factors involved in asthma. In this chapter, the methodology of western blotting is reviewed, paying attention on potential problems and giving interesting recommendations.

  19. ANALYSIS OF Treponema pallidum RECOMBINANT ANTIGENS FOR DIAGNOSIS OF SYPHILIS BY WESTERN BLOTTING TECHNIQUE Análise de antígenos recombinantes de Treponema pallidum no diagnóstico da sífilis utilizando a técnica de Western Blotting

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    Neuza Satomi SATO

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Three GST fusion recombinant antigen of Treponema pallidum, described as GST-rTp47, GST-rTp17 and GST-rTp15 were analyzed by Western blotting techniques. We have tested 53 serum samples: 25 from patients at different clinical stages of syphilis, all of them presenting anti-treponemal antibody, 25 from healthy blood donors and three from patients with sexually transmitted disease (STD other than syphilis. Almost all samples from patients with syphilis presented a strong reactivity with GST-rTp17 antigen. Some samples were non-reactive or showed a weak reaction with GST-rTp47 and/or GST-rTp15, and apparently there was no correlation with the stage of disease. There was no seropositivity among blood donors. No sample reacted with purified GST. We concluded that due to their specificity these recombinant antigens can be used as GST fusion protein for development of syphilis diagnostic assays.Os antígenos recombinantes de Treponema pallidum GST-rTp47, GST-rTp17 e GST-rTp15, produzidos em fusão com glutationa S-transferase (GST em E. coli, foram analisados quanto ao potencial diagnóstico da sífilis pela técnica de Western blotting. Foram testadas 53 amostras, sendo 25 de pacientes em diferentes estágios clínicos da sífilis, com resultados positivos no teste treponêmico clássico; 25 amostras procedentes de doadores de banco de sangue, com sorologia negativa e 3 de pacientes com doença sexualmente transmissível não relacionado à sífilis. Todas as amostras de pacientes com sífilis apresentaram alta reatividade com o antígeno GST-rTp17. Quanto aos antígenos GST-rTp47 e GST-Tp15 verificou-se uma variação na presença ou na intensidade da reação em diferentes amostras de pacientes com sífilis, sem mostrar correlação com o estágio da doença. Nenhuma reatividade contra quaisquer desses antígenos foi observada com as amostras do grupo controle. Nenhuma das amostras testadas apresentaram reatividade com a GST purificada. A

  20. Immunocytochemical electron microscopic study and western blot analysis of paramyosin in different invertebrate muscle cell types of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, the earthworm Eisenia foetida, and the snail Helix aspersa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royuela, M; García-Anchuelo, R; Arenas, M I; Cervera, M; Fraile, B; Paniagua, R

    1996-04-01

    The presence and distribution pattern of paramyosin have been examined in different invertebrate muscle cell types by means of Western blot analysis and electron microscopy immunogold labelling. The muscles studied were: transversely striated muscle with continuous Z lines (flight muscle from Drosophila melanogaster), transversely striated muscle with discontinuous Z lines (heart muscle from the snail Helix aspersa), obliquely striated body wall muscle from the earthworm Eisenia foetida, and smooth muscles (retractor muscle from the snail and pseudoheart outer muscular layer from the earthworm). Paramyosin-like immunoreactivity was localized in thick filaments of all muscles studied. Immunogold particle density was similar along the whole thick filament length in insect flight muscle but it predominated in filament tips of fusiform thick filaments in both snail heart and earthworm body wall musculature when these filaments were observed in longitudinal sections. In obliquely sectioned thick filaments, immunolabelling was more abundant at the sites where filaments disappeared from the section. These results agree with the notion that paramyosin extended along the whole filament length, but that it can only be immunolabelled when it is not covered by myosin. In all muscles examined, immunolabelling density was lower in cross-sectioned myofilaments than in longitudinally sectioned myofilaments. This suggests that paramyosin does not form a continuous filament. The results of a semiquantitative analysis of paramyosin-like immunoreactivity indicated that it was more abundant in striated than in smooth muscles, and that, within striated muscles, transversely striated muscles contain more paramyosin than obliquely striated muscles.

  1. Improvement of western blot test specificity for detecting equine serum antibodies to Sarcocystis neurona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossano, M G; Mansfield, L S; Kaneene, J B; Murphy, A J; Brown, C M; Schott, H C; Fox, J C

    2000-01-01

    Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) is a neurological disease of horses and ponies caused by the apicomplexan protozoan parasite Sarcocystis neurona. The purposes of this study were to develop the most stringent criteria possible for a positive test result, to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of the EPM Western blot antibody test, and to assess the ability of bovine antibodies to Sarcocystis cruzi to act as a blocking agent to minimize false-positive results in the western blot test for S. neurona. Sarcocystis neurona merozoites harvested from equine dermal cell culture were heat denatured, and the proteins were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in a 12-20% linear gradient gel. Separated proteins were electrophoretically transferred to polyvinylidene fluoride membranes and blocked in 1% bovine serum albumin and 0.5% Tween-Tris-buffered saline. Serum samples from 6 horses with S. neurona infections (confirmed by culture from neural tissue) and 57 horses without infections (horses from the Eastern Hemisphere, where S. neurona does not exist) were tested by Western blot. Horses from both groups had reactivity to the 62-, 30-, 16-, 13-, 11-, 10.5-, and 10-kD bands. Testing was repeated with another step. Blots were treated with bovine S. cruzi antibodies prior to loading the equine samples. After this modification of the Western blot test, positive infection status was significantly associated with reactivity to the 30- and 16-kD bands (Pblot had a sample sensitivity of 100% and sample specificity of 98%. It is concluded that the specificity of the Western blot test is improved by blocking proteins not specific to S. neurona and using reactivity to the 30- and 16-kD bands as the criterion for a positive test.

  2. COMPARISONS OF ELISA AND WESTERN BLOT ASSAYS FOR DETECTION OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM ANTIBODY

    Science.gov (United States)

    A seroprevalence survey was conducted using ELISA and Western blot (WB) assays for antibody to three Cryptosporidium antigens on 380 blood donors in Jackson County, Oregon. The purpose was to determine if either assay could detect serological evidence of an outbreak which occurre...

  3. A streamlined Western blot exercise: An efficient and greener approach in the laboratory classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness, Traci L; Robinson, Rebekah L; Mojadedi, Wais; Peavy, Lydia; Weiland, Mitch H

    2015-01-01

    SDS-PAGE and western blotting are two commonly taught protein detection techniques in biochemistry and molecular biology laboratory classrooms. A pitfall associated with incorporating these techniques into the laboratory is the significant wait times that do not allow students to obtain timely results. The waiting associated with SDS-PAGE comes from staining and destaining, whereas with western blotting it is the times required for antibody incubations and the numerous wash steps. This laboratory exercise incorporates 2,2,2-trichloroethanol (TCE) into the SDS-PAGE gel allowing for visualization of migrated proteins in a matter of minutes, saving both the time and chemical waste associated with traditional Coomassie staining. Additionally, TCE staining does not affect protein transfer eliminating the requirement for duplicated gels for total protein and western analyses. Protein transfer can be confirmed immediately without the use of Ponceau S staining. Lastly, this western blot procedure has been further shortened by using an HRP-conjugated primary antibody, which eliminates the secondary antibody incubation and washes, and uses a colorimetric detection to allow for visualization by students without the need for specialized equipment. © 2015 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  4. Western Blotting Using the Invitrogen NuPage Novex Bis Tris MiniGels

    OpenAIRE

    Penna, Aubin; Cahalan, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Western Blotting (or immunoblotting) is a standard laboratory procedure allowing investigators to verify the expression of a protein, determine the relative amount of the protein present in different samples, and analyze the results of co-immunoprecipitation experiments. In this method, a target protein is detected with a specific primary antibody in a given sample of tissue homogenate or extract. Protein separation according to molecular weight is achieved using denaturing SDS-PAGE. After tr...

  5. Antibody responses to Borrelia burgdorferi detected by western blot vary geographically in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Ogden, Nicholas H.; Arsenault, Julie; Hatchette, Todd F.; Mechai, Samir; Lindsay, L. Robbin

    2017-01-01

    Lyme disease is emerging in eastern and central Canada, and most cases are diagnosed using the two-tier serological test (Enzyme Immuno Assay [EIA] followed by Western blot [WB]). Simplification of this algorithm would be advantageous unless it impacts test performance. In this study, accuracy of individual proteins of the IgG WB algorithm in predicting the overall test result in samples from Canadians was assessed. Because Borrelia burgdorferi strains vary geographically in Canada, geographi...

  6. Banding pattern indicative of echinococcosis in a commercial cysticercosis western blot

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    Tappe D

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective A commercial cysticercosis Western blot was evaluated for serological cross-reactivity of sera from patients with alveolar (AE and cystic echinococcosis (CE. Methods A total of 161 sera were examined, including 31 sera from AE-patients, 11 sera from CE-patients, 9 sera from patients with other parasitic diseases and 109 sera from patients with unrelated medical conditions. All AE-and CE-sera were also examined by the echinococcosis Western blot. Results More sera from patients with AE than with CE showed cross-reactivity in the form of ladder-like patterns ("Mikado aspect" and untypical bands at 6-8 kDa (71% and 77.4% versus 27.3% and 45.5%, respectively. In contrast, triplets of bands in the area above 50 kDa and between 24 and 39-42 kDa were more frequent in CE than in AE sera. The fuzzy band at 50-55 kDa typical for cysticercosis was absent in all AE and CE sera. Conclusions Atypical banding patterns in the cysticercosis Western blot should raise the suspicion of a metacestode infection different from Taenia solium, i.e. Echinococcus multilocularis or E. granulosus, especially when the Mikado aspect and an altered 6-8 kDa band is visible in the absence of a fuzzy 50-55 kDa band.

  7. Positive IgG Western Blot for Borrelia burgdorferi in Colombia

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    Palacios Ricardo

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the presence of specific IgG antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi in patients with clinical manifestations associated with Lyme borreliosis in Cali, Colombia, 20 serum samples from patients with dermatologic signs, one cerebrospinal fluid (CSF sample from a patient with chronic neurologic and arthritic manifestations, and twelve serum samples from individuals without clinical signs associated with Lyme borreliosis were analyzed by IgG Western blot. The results were interpreted following the recommendations of the Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention (CDC for IgG Western blots. Four samples fulfilled the CDC criteria: two serum specimens from patients with morphea (localized scleroderma, the CSF from the patient with neurologic and arthritic manifestations, and one of the controls. Interpretation of positive serology for Lyme disease in non-endemic countries must be cautious. However these results suggest that the putative "Lyme-like" disease may correlate with positivity on Western blots, thus raising the possibility that a spirochete genospecies distinct from B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, or a Borrelia species other than B. burgdorferi sensu lato is the causative agent. Future work will focus on a survey of the local tick and rodent population for evidence of spirochete species that could be incriminated as the etiologic agent.

  8. Use of a Western blot technique for the serodiagnosis of glanders

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    de Souza Marcilia MA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The in vivo diagnosis of glanders relies on the highly sensitive complement fixation test (CFT. Frequently observed false positive results are troublesome for veterinary authorities and cause financial losses to animal owners. Consequently, there is an urgent need to develop a test with high specificity. Hence, a Western blot assay making use of a partly purified lipopolysaccaride (LPS containing antigen of three Burkholderia mallei strains was developed. The test was validated investigating a comprehensive set of positive and negative sera obtained from horses and mules from endemic and non endemic areas. Results The developed Western blot assay showed a markedly higher diagnostic specificity when compared to the prescribed CFT and therefore can be used as a confirmatory test. However, the CFT remains the test of choice for routine testing of glanders due to its high sensitivity, its feasibility using standard laboratory equipment and its worldwide distribution in diagnostic laboratories. Conclusions The CFT should be amended by the newly validated Western blot to increase the positive likelihood ratio of glanders serodiagnosis in non endemic areas or areas with low glanders prevalence. Its use for international trade of horses and mules should be implemented by the OIE.

  9. Identification of toxocara canis antigens by Western blot in experimentally infected rabbits

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    MORALES Olga Lucía

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxocariasis is a frequent helminthiasis that can cause visceral and ocular damage in humans specially in children. The identification of specific antigens of Toxocara canis is important in order to develop better diagnostic techniques. Ten rabbits were infected orally with a dose of 5000 Toxocara canis embryonated eggs. Rabbits were bled periodically and an ELISA assay was performed to determine levels of specific Toxocara IgG antibodies. ELISA detected antibodies at day 15 after infection. Western blot (WB assay was performed using excretory/secretory antigens (E/S of T. canis second stage larvae. Different antigen concentrations were evaluated: 150, 200, 250 and 300 µg/mL. The concentration of 250 µg/mL was retained for analysis. Rabbit sera were diluted 1:100. Secondary antibody was used at a dilution of 1:1000. Results of WB indicated that in the first month after infection specific antibodies against the 200 KDa, 116 KDa, 92 KDa and 35 KDa antigens were detected; antibodies against the 92 KDa, 80 KDa, 66 KDa, 45 KDa, 31 KDa and 28 KDa antigens appeared later. All positive sera in the ELISA test were also positive in WB. Two antigen bands, 92 KDa and 35 KDa, were identified since the beginning and throughout the course of infection. These antigens merit further evaluation as candidates for use in diagnosis.

  10. FANCD2 Western blot as a diagnostic tool for Brazilian patients with Fanconi anemia

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    D.V. Pilonetto

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Fanconi anemia is a rare hereditary disease showing genetic heterogeneity due to a variety of mutations in genes involved in DNA repair pathways, which may lead to different clinical manifestations. Phenotypic variability makes diagnosis difficult based only on clinical manifestations, therefore laboratory tests are necessary. New advances in molecular pathogenesis of this disease led researchers to develop a diagnostic test based on Western blot for FANCD2. The objective of the present study was to determine the efficacy of this method for the diagnosis of 84 Brazilian patients with Fanconi anemia, all of whom tested positive for the diepoxybutane test, and 98 healthy controls. The FANCD2 monoubiquitinated isoform (FANCDS+/FANCD2L- was not detected in 77 patients (91.7%. In 2 patients (2.4%, there was an absence of both the monoubiquitinated and the non-ubiquitinated proteins (FANCD2S-/FANCD2L- and 5 patients (5.9% had both isoforms (FANCD2S+/FANCD2L+. This last phenotype suggests downstream subtypes or mosaicism. All controls were diepoxybutane negative and were also negative on the FANCD2 Western blot. The Western blot for FANCD2 presented a sensitivity of 94% (79/84 and specificity of 100% (98/98. This method was confirmed as an efficient approach to screen Brazilian patients with deleterious mutations on FANCD2 (FANCD2S-/FANCD2L- or other upstream genes of the FA/BRCA pathway (FANCDS+/FANCD2L-, to confirm the chromosome breakage test and to classify patients according to the level of FA/BRCA pathway defects. However, patients showing both FANCD2 isoforms (FANCD2S+/FANCD2L+ require additional studies to confirm mutations on downstream Fanconi anemia genes or the presence of mosaicism.

  11. Proteínas inmunodominantes de Brucella Melitensis evaluadas por Western Blot

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    Elizabeth Anaya

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Se separaron extractos de proteínas totales de Brucella melitensis en gel 15% SDS-PAGE. Su seroreactividad fue analizada por Western Blot con resultados satisfactorios. Para éste propósito sueros controles negativos (n=03, sueros de pacientes con brucelosis (n=34, cólera (n=12, tifoidea (n=02 y tuberculosis (n=02 fueron usados. Esta prueba inmunodiagnóstica detectó bandas seroreactivas altamente específicas (100% correspondientes a 8,14,18, un complejo de 25-48 y 58kDa. La sensibilidad del test fue del 90% usando los sueros antes mencionados.

  12. Immunodiagnosis of Echinococcus Infections: Confirmatory Testing and Species Differentiation by a New Commercial Western Blot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liance, Martine; Janin, Veronique; Bresson-Hadni, Solange; Vuitton, Dominique-Angele; Houin, Rene; Piarroux, Renaud

    2000-01-01

    The Echinococcus Western Blot IgG (LDBIO Diagnostics, Lyon, France), using a whole larval antigen from Echinococcus multilocularis, was evaluated for serodiagnosis and differentiation between two human parasitic infections of worldwide importance: cystic echinococcosis, due to Echinococcus granulosus, and alveolar echinococcosis, due to E. multilocularis. Fifty and 61 serum samples from patients with cystic and alveolar echinococcosis, respectively, were used for assessing diagnostic sensitivity. The sensitivity of the assay was compared with those of screening tests used for these applications. Sera used for assessing cross-reactivities were from 154 patients with other diseases, either parasitic or not. The assay allowed the detection of serum immunoglobulin G antibodies in 97% of Echinococcus-infected patients. It had a higher sensitivity than screening assays for the detection for each echinococcosis. The assay allowed us to correctly distinguish between E. granulosus- and E. multilocularis-infected patients in 76% of cases. It did not allow us to distinguish active from inactive forms of both echinococcoses. The occurrence of cross-reactivities with neurocysticercosis indicates the necessity for retesting sera with species-specific antigens, for rare patients with neurologic disorders. This study shows the usefulness of the commercially available Echinococcus Western Blot IgG for the serological confirmation of human echinococcosis. PMID:11015390

  13. Checking transfer efficiency and equal loading via qualitative optical way in western blotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jun-Hua; Gong, Jian-Ping; Zheng, Kai-Wen

    2017-11-01

    The ability to determine that successful transfer and equal loading occur prior to using primary antibodies is important. And total protein staining is commonly used to check transfer efficiency and normalization, which play a crucial role in western blotting. Ponceau S and coomassie blue are commonly used, but there are disadvantages reported in recent years. Therefore, we are interested in finding another method, which is cheap, easy and fast. As we know, protein binding region of PVDF membrane is still hydrophilic when carbinol volatilizes, however, the non-protein binding region of PVDF membrane became hydrophobic again. And this different wettability between non-protein binding region and protein binding region of Polyvinylidene difluoride membrane may be used to check transfer efficiency and equal loading in western blotting. Based on the principle above, we describe an optical approach where an experimenter can observe that the proteins have been transferred to the membrane without any staining within minutes. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Western blot banding pattern in early Lyme borreliosis among patients from an endemic region of north-eastern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flisiak, R; Wierzbicka, I; Prokopowicz, D

    1998-01-01

    Aim of this study was evaluation of Western blot banding patterns in different clinical forms of early Lyme borreliosis diagnosed in patients from north-eastern Poland, recognized as endemic for tick-borne diseases. Study was performed on serum samples of 48 patients with Lyme borreliosis and 26 healthy volunteers, as controls. Samples tested routinely for total antibody with enzyme immunoassay were subsequently analysed for specific antibodies with Western blot based on antigen extract of European strain of Borrelia burgdorferi. In patients, IgM antibodies were the most frequently directed against 41 kDa and 58 kDa antigens, whereas in control group only antibodies against 45 kDa and 58 kDa were present. Similar response was observed in respect to IgG antibodies. Evaluation of banding pattern in respect to clinical form of the disease revealed the highest prevalence of IgM and IgG anti-41 kDa antibodies in patients with erythema migrans and Lyme arthritis, and anti-58 kDa in neuroborreliosis patients, who had no anti-21 kDa antibodies. Relatively high frequency of IgG antibodies against 21, 30 and 93 kDa antigens was typical for neuroborreliosis. Bands count was significantly higher in different clinical forms of the disease than in controls, and it was the highest in neuroborreliosis. Combined analysis of Western blot results (IgM/IgG) enabled to achieve higher sensitivity (84%) and specificity (100%) than available with the most recommended EIA kits.

  15. Should we ignore western blots when selecting antibodies for other applications?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uhlén, Mathias

    2017-01-01

    .In the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) program, we have validated more than 24,000 in-house-generated antibodies directed to 17,000 human target proteins2. Although there is often a correlation between performance in different applications, we have observed many examples of antibodies that show strong support...... applications and that this influences the epitopes exposed on the target protein, which might have profound consequences for the ability of a given antibody to bind specifically to its target. As an example, proteins that are analyzed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) are normally first cross-linked with formalin.......In conclusion, western blot and protein array analyses can indeed be useful tools when selecting specific antibodies for other applications. The use of these methods is encouraged both for antibody providers and users, and antibodies with signs of cross-reactivity in these applications should be treated...

  16. TSE strain differentiation in mice by immunohistochemical PrP(Sc) profiles and triplex Western blot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Keulen, Lucien J M; Langeveld, Jan P M; Dolstra, Corry H; Jacobs, Jorg; Bossers, Alex; van Zijderveld, Fred G

    2015-10-01

    TSE strains are routinely identified by their incubation period and vacuolation profile in the brain after intracerebral inoculation and serial passaging in inbred mouse lines. There are some major drawbacks to this method that are related to the variation in vacuolation that exists in the brains of mice infected with the same TSE strain and to variation between observers and laboratories in scoring vacuolation and determining the final incubation period. We investigated the potential of PrP(Sc) immunohistochemistry and triplex Western blotting as possible alternative methods to differentiate between TSE strains. TSE reference strains ME7, 87A/87V, 22A/22C, 79A/79V and 301C/301V were intracerebrally inoculated in RIII or VM inbred mice that differ in their PrP genotype. Immunohistochemical PrP(Sc) profiles were drawn up by scanning light microscopy both on coronal and sagittal sections. On the basis of the localization of PrP(Sc) in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellar cortex and the overall type of PrP(Sc) staining, all TSE strains could be well differentiated from each other through their typical strain dependent characteristics. In addition, Western blot showed that the combination of glycosylation profile and 12B2 epitope content of PrP(Sc) allowed to distinguish between all reference strains except for ME7 and 22A in VM mice. TSE strains in mice can be identified on the basis of their PrP(Sc) profile alone. The potential to identify TSE strains in ruminants with these PrP(Sc) profiles after a single primary passage in mice will be the topic of future studies. © 2014 British Neuropathological Society.

  17. Profiling EGFR activity in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma by using a novel layered membrane Western blot technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vyomesh; Ramesh, Arun; Traicoff, June L; Baibakov, Galina; Emmert-Buck, Michael R; Gutkind, J Silvio; Knezevic, Vladimir

    2005-05-01

    Given the role of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC), several rational approaches have now been utilized to abrogate tyrosine kinase activity and its disengagement from downstream signal transducers. Monitoring the activity of these molecules could potentially be useful to determine not only drug efficacy but also to identify HNSCC patients most likely to benefit from this type of therapy. In this study we have used a novel high throughput multi-layered Western blotting (MLWestern) method that allows the detection of multiple proteins from a single experiment in order to characterize key components in the EGFR signaling pathway in HNSCC cells. Total and activated forms of EGFR and the downstream effectors, Erk and Akt were readily detected in HNSCC cells, where in the control cells (HaCaT) these proteins could only be detected in EGF stimulated cells. Results from conventional Western blot and MLWestern were comparable. Clustering analysis of protein expression revealed similarities in cellular response between some of the cell lines indicative of similarities in their biological response. The data indicate that MLWestern can be potentially applied to identify molecular targets that could be used for rational therapeutic intervention strategies.

  18. Quantum dot bio-conjugate: as a western blot probe for highly sensitive detection of cellular proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kale, Sonia [Agharkar Research Institute (India); Kale, Anup [University of Alabama, Center for Materials for Information Technology (United States); Gholap, Haribhau; Rana, Abhimanyu [National Chemical Laboratory, Physical and Materials Chemistry Division (India); Desai, Rama [National Centre for Cell Science (India); Banpurkar, Arun [University of Pune, Department of Physics (India); Ogale, Satishchandra, E-mail: sb.ogale@ncl.res.in [National Chemical Laboratory, Physical and Materials Chemistry Division (India); Shastry, Padma, E-mail: padma@nccs.res.in [National Centre for Cell Science (India)

    2012-03-15

    In the present study, we report a quantum dot (QD)-tailored western blot analysis for a sensitive, rapid and flexible detection of the nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins. Highly luminescent CdTe and (CdTe)ZnS QDs are synthesized by aqueous method. High resolution transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction are used to characterize the properties of the quantum dots. The QDs are functionalized with antibodies of prostate apoptosis response-4 (Par-4), poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases and {beta} actin to specifically bind with the proteins localized in the nucleus and cytoplasm of the cells, respectively. The QD-conjugated antibodies are used to overcome the limitations of conventional western blot technique. The sensitivity and rapidity of protein detection in QD-based approach is very high, with detection limits up to 10 pg of protein. In addition, these labels provide the capability of enhanced identification and localization of marker proteins in intact cells by confocal laser scanning microscopy.

  19. Comparison of Multispot EIA with Western blot for confirmatory serodiagnosis of HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torian, Lucia V; Forgione, Lisa A; Punsalang, Amado E; Pirillo, Robert E; Oleszko, William R

    2011-12-01

    Recent improvements in the sensitivity of immunoassays (IA) used for HIV screening, coupled with increasing recognition of the importance of rapid point-of-care testing, have led to proposals to adjust the algorithm for serodiagnosis of HIV so that screening and confirmation can be performed using a dual or triple IA sequence that does not require Western blotting for confirmation. One IA that has been proposed as a second or confirmatory test is the Bio-Rad Multispot(®) Rapid HIV-1/HIV-2 Test. This test would have the added advantage of differentiating between HIV-1 and HIV-2 antibodies. To compare the sensitivity and type-specificity of an algorithm combining a 3rd generation enzyme immunoassay (EIA) followed by a confirmatory Multispot with the conventional algorithm that combines a 3rd generation EIA (Bio-Rad GS HIV-1/HIV-2 Plus O EIA) followed by confirmatory Western blot (Bio-Rad GS HIV-1 WB). 8760 serum specimens submitted for HIV testing to the New York City Public Health Laboratory between May 22, 2007, and April 30, 2010, tested repeatedly positive on 3rd generation HIV-1-2+O EIA screening and received parallel confirmatory testing by WB and Multispot (MS). 8678/8760 (99.1%) specimens tested WB-positive; 82 (0.9%) tested WB-negative or indeterminate (IND). 8690/8760 specimens (99.2%) tested MS-positive, of which 14 (17.1%) had been classified as negative or IND by WB. Among the HIV-1 WB-positive specimens, MS classified 26 (0.29%) as HIV-2. Among the HIV-1 WB negative and IND, MS detected 12 HIV-2. MS detected an additional 14 HIV-1 infections among WB negative or IND specimens, differentiated 26 HIV-1 WB positives as HIV-2, and detected 12 additional HIV-2 infections among WB negative/IND. A dual 3rd generation EIA algorithm incorporating MS had equivalent HIV-1 sensitivity to the 3rd generation EIA-WB algorithm and had the added advantage of detecting 12 HIV-2 specimens that were not HIV-1 WB cross-reactors. In this series an algorithm using EIA

  20. Indeterminate human immunodeficiency virus western blot results in Iranian patients with discordant screening assay results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravanshad, M.; Sabahi, F.; Mahboudi, F.; Sabahi, F.

    2006-01-01

    The Western blot (WB) assay is the most widely accepted confirmatory assay for the detection and confirmation of antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and 2 (HIV-2). However, indeterminate WB reactivity to HIV-1 and HIV-2 proteins may occur in individuals who do not appear to be infected with HIV. In this study, we describe the results of indeterminate WB reactivity in Iranian patients with discordant screening assays. The samples were obtained from Iranian Blood Transfusion Center, Tehran, Iran and evaluated in the Biotechnology Process Development Center, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran between 2003 and 2004. A total of 4707 were tested for the presence of HIV-1 antibodies. Six hundred and four (12.8%) patients tested for HIV were positive for HIV-1 antibody. Nine (1.49%) have discordant results among screening assays and indeterminate WB results as interpreted by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) criteria. Most (66.7%) of these indeterminate WB results were due to p24 reactivity. However, 2(22.2%) display reactivity to both gp41 and gp120 proteins [Positive by World Health Organization (WHO) criteria]. Of 9 WB assays initially indeterminate by the CDC criteria and with follow-up samples 8(88.8%) became negative when retested subsequently while one (11.1%) remained indeterminate for more than a year and were thus considered negative. In addition all the indeterminate samples were negative when assessed by polymerase chain reaction assay. In general, there were was an 88.8% concordance between the CDC and WHO criteria for an indeterminate WB result. The CDC II criteria for an indeterminate WB result. The CDC II criteria best met the specified objectives for diagnosis in our setting. (author)

  1. Antibody responses to Borrelia burgdorferi detected by western blot vary geographically in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Nicholas H; Arsenault, Julie; Hatchette, Todd F; Mechai, Samir; Lindsay, L Robbin

    2017-01-01

    Lyme disease is emerging in eastern and central Canada, and most cases are diagnosed using the two-tier serological test (Enzyme Immuno Assay [EIA] followed by Western blot [WB]). Simplification of this algorithm would be advantageous unless it impacts test performance. In this study, accuracy of individual proteins of the IgG WB algorithm in predicting the overall test result in samples from Canadians was assessed. Because Borrelia burgdorferi strains vary geographically in Canada, geographic variations in serological responses were also explored. Metrics of relative sensitivity, specificity and the kappa statistic measure of concordance were used to assess the capacity of responses to individual proteins to predict the overall IgG WB result of 2524 EIA (C6)-positive samples from across Canada. Geographic and interannual variations in proportions of samples testing positive were explored by logistic regression. No one protein was highly concordant with the IgG WB result. Significant variations were found amongst years and geographic regions in the prevalence of samples testing positive using the overall IgG WB algorithm, and for individual proteins of the algorithm. In most cases the prevalence of samples testing positive were highest in Nova Scotia, and lower in samples from Manitoba westwards. These findings suggest that the current two tier test may not be simplified and continued use of the current two-tier test method and interpretation is recommended. Geographic and interannual variations in the prevalence of samples testing positive may be consistent with B. burgdorferi strain variation in Canada, and further studies are needed to explore this.

  2. Antibody responses to Borrelia burgdorferi detected by western blot vary geographically in Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas H Ogden

    Full Text Available Lyme disease is emerging in eastern and central Canada, and most cases are diagnosed using the two-tier serological test (Enzyme Immuno Assay [EIA] followed by Western blot [WB]. Simplification of this algorithm would be advantageous unless it impacts test performance. In this study, accuracy of individual proteins of the IgG WB algorithm in predicting the overall test result in samples from Canadians was assessed. Because Borrelia burgdorferi strains vary geographically in Canada, geographic variations in serological responses were also explored. Metrics of relative sensitivity, specificity and the kappa statistic measure of concordance were used to assess the capacity of responses to individual proteins to predict the overall IgG WB result of 2524 EIA (C6-positive samples from across Canada. Geographic and interannual variations in proportions of samples testing positive were explored by logistic regression. No one protein was highly concordant with the IgG WB result. Significant variations were found amongst years and geographic regions in the prevalence of samples testing positive using the overall IgG WB algorithm, and for individual proteins of the algorithm. In most cases the prevalence of samples testing positive were highest in Nova Scotia, and lower in samples from Manitoba westwards. These findings suggest that the current two tier test may not be simplified and continued use of the current two-tier test method and interpretation is recommended. Geographic and interannual variations in the prevalence of samples testing positive may be consistent with B. burgdorferi strain variation in Canada, and further studies are needed to explore this.

  3. Northern blot analysis to investigate the abundance of microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, D.O.

    2005-01-01

    areas known as hyper-variable regions which have a high degree of sequence variation. As a result of this structure, it is possible to design signature oligonucleotide probes varying in length from about 15 to 30 nucleotides that are diagnostic of microorganisms at the kingdom, domain, genus and even species level. These signature sequences can be used in a variety of applications such as PCR analysis, construction of clone libraries or direct probing of bulk rRNA. In this chapter, I provide detailed protocols for the analysis of extracted rRNA and give detailed procedures that must be followed to do northern blot analysis of bulk RNA extracted from the rumen

  4. Development of EMab-51, a Sensitive and Specific Anti-Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Monoclonal Antibody in Flow Cytometry, Western Blot, and Immunohistochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itai, Shunsuke; Kaneko, Mika K; Fujii, Yuki; Yamada, Shinji; Nakamura, Takuro; Yanaka, Miyuki; Saidoh, Noriko; Handa, Saori; Chang, Yao-Wen; Suzuki, Hiroyoshi; Harada, Hiroyuki; Kato, Yukinari

    2017-10-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a member of the human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER) family of receptor tyrosine kinases and is involved in cell growth and differentiation. EGFR homodimers or heterodimers with other HER members, such as HER2 and HER3, activate downstream signaling cascades in many cancers. In this study, we developed novel anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and characterized their efficacy in flow cytometry, Western blot, and immunohistochemical analyses. First, we expressed the full-length or ectodomain of EGFR in LN229 glioblastoma cells and then immunized mice with LN229/EGFR or ectodomain of EGFR, and performed the first screening using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Subsequently, we selected mAbs according to their efficacy in flow cytometry (second screening), Western blot (third screening), and immunohistochemical (fourth screening) analyses. Among 100 mAbs, only one clone EMab-51 (IgG 1 , kappa) reacted with EGFR in Western blot analysis. Finally, immunohistochemical analyses with EMab-51 showed sensitive and specific reactions against oral cancer cells, warranting the use of EMab-51 to detect EGFR in pathological analyses of EGFR-expressing cancers.

  5. La técnica de Western Blot como criterio de identidad para la vacuna antimeningocócica Men B Western Blot technique as an identity criterion for Men B antimeningococcal vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rosario Diéguez Castro

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Se desarrolló y validó la técnica de Western Blot aplicada a la vacuna antimeningocócica Men B producida en el Instituto Finlay con el objetivo de demostrar un criterio de identidad. En el estudio de las proteínas antigénicas de la vacuna, P1.15 y P1.4 en vesícula de membrana externa,monograneles y producto final se emplearon en la identificación anticuerpos monoclonales específicos para estas proteínas. Los parámetros desarrollados en la validación de la técnica fueron: especificidad, límite de detección, repetibilidad, precisión intermedia, reproducibilidad y robustez. El método cumplió con los parámetros señalados, por lo que se consideró validado.Western Blot technique was developed and validated, applied to Men B meningococcal vaccine produced in "Carlos J, Finlay" Institute to demonstrate an identity criterion. In study of antigenic proteins of the vaccine, we used P1.15 y P1.4 in vesicle of external membrane, monogranels, and end product to identify the monoclonal antibodies specific of these proteins. Parameters developed in technique validation included: specificity, detection limit, repetition, average accuracy, reproduction, and strength. Method fulfilled with specified parameters, thus considering its validation.

  6. Glycophospholipid Formulation with NADH and CoQ10 Significantly Reduces Intractable Fatigue in Western Blot-Positive ‘Chronic Lyme Disease’ Patients: Preliminary Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garth L. Nicolson

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: An open label 8-week preliminary study was conducted in a small number of patients to determine if a combination oral supplement containing a mixture of phosphoglycolipids, coenzyme Q10 and microencapsulated NADH and other nutrients could affect fatigue levels in long-term, Western blot-positive, multi-symptom ‘chronic Lyme disease’ patients (also called ‘post-treatment Lyme disease’ or ‘post Lyme syndrome’ with intractable fatigue. Methods: The subjects in this study were 6 males (mean age = 45.1 ± 12.4 years and 10 females (mean age = 54.6 ± 7.4 years with ‘chronic Lyme disease’ (determined by multiple symptoms and positive Western blot analysis that had been symptomatic with chronic fatigue for an average of 12.7 ± 6.6 years. They had been seen by multiple physicians (13.3 ± 7.6 and had used many other remedies, supplements and drugs (14.4 ± 7.4 without fatigue relief. Fatigue was monitored at 0, 7, 30 and 60 days using a validated instrument, the Piper Fatigue Scale.Results: Patients in this preliminary study responded to the combination test supplement, showing a 26% reduction in overall fatigue by the end of the 8-week trial (p< 0.0003. Analysis of subcategories of fatigue indicated that there were significant improvements in the ability to complete tasks and activities as well as significant improvements in mood and cognitive abilities. Regression analysis of the data indicated that reductions in fatigue were consistent and occurred with a high degree of confidence (R2= 0.998. Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2012, 2(3:35-47 Conclusions: The combination supplement was a safe and effective method to significantly reduce intractable fatigue in long-term patients with Western blot-positive ‘chronic Lyme disease.’

  7. Rapid Preparation of a Plasma Membrane Fraction: Western Blot Detection of Translocated Glucose Transporter 4 from Plasma Membrane of Muscle and Adipose Cells and Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Norio; Yamashita, Yoko; Yoshioka, Yasukiyo; Nishiumi, Shin; Ashida, Hitoshi

    2016-08-01

    Membrane proteins account for 70% to 80% of all pharmaceutical targets, indicating their clinical relevance and underscoring the importance of identifying differentially expressed membrane proteins that reflect distinct disease properties. The translocation of proteins from the bulk of the cytosol to the plasma membrane is a critical step in the transfer of information from membrane-embedded receptors or transporters to the cell interior. To understand how membrane proteins work, it is important to separate the membrane fraction of cells. This unit provides a protocol for rapidly obtaining plasma membrane fractions for western blot analysis. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  8. Detection of anti-HIV-1 IgG antibodies in whole saliva by GACELISA and Western blot assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matee, M I; Lyamuya, E F; Simon, E; Mbena, E C; Kagoma, C; Samaranayake, L P; Scheutz, F

    1996-05-01

    The present study, based on 158 HIV seropositives and 167 HIV seronegatives, demonstrates that saliva collected with the Omni-SAL device and tested with GACELISA (an IgG antibody capture ELISA) is an effective non-invasive alternative to serum for anti-HIV IgG antibody screening. The study also shows that a conventional serum Western blot kit can be used, with slight modifications, for confirmatory testing of saliva specimens. Collecting saliva with the Omni-SAL device had a very good acceptance rate among Tanzanian subjects, and although this diagnostic method is not yet known by the general public, 65% of the study participants preferred to give saliva instead of blood for HIV testing.

  9. Standardisation of Western blotting to detect HTLV-1 antibodies synthesised in the central nervous system of HAM/TSP patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Claudio Pereira Ribeiro

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Intrathecal synthesis of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1 antibodies (Abs represents conclusive evidence of a specific immune response in the central nervous system of HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP patients. Western blotting (WB for HTLV Abs in serum is a confirmatory test for HTLV-1 infection. The aim of this study was to standardise the Western blot to demonstrate the intrathecal pattern of Abs against HTLV-1 proteins in HAM/TSP patients. Paired cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and serum samples were selected from 20 patients with definite HAM/TSP, 19 HTLV-1 seronegative patients and two HTLV-1 patients without definite HAM/TSP. The presence of reactive bands of greater intensity in the CSF compared to serum (or bands in only the CSF indicated the intrathecal synthesis of anti-HTLV-1 Abs. All definite HAM/TSP patients presented with an intrathecal synthesis of anti-HTLV-1 Abs; these Abs were not detected in the control patients. The most frequent intrathecal targets of anti-HTLV-1 Abs were GD21, rgp46-I and p24 and, to a lesser extent, p19, p26, p28, p32, p36, p53 gp21 and gp46. The intrathecal immune response against env (GD21 and rgp46-I and gag (p24 proteins represents the most important humoral pattern in HAM/TSP. This response may be used as a diagnostic marker, considering the frequent association of intrathecal anti-HTLV-1 Ab synthesis with HAM/TSP and the pathogenesis of this neurological disease.

  10. [Western Blot diagnostic yield for simultaneous antibody-detection in patients with human cysticercosis, hydatidosis, and human fascioliasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davelois, Kelly; Escalante, Hermes; Jara, César

    2016-01-01

    . To determine the diagnostic yield using western blotting to simultaneously detect antibodies in patients with human cysticercosis, hydatidosis, and human fascioliasis. Materials and methods . Cross-sectional study of diagnostic yield assessment. Excretory/secretory antigens were obtained from Taenia solium larvae, Echinococcus granulosus cysts, and the adult flukes of Fasciola hepática, which were then separated using the polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis technique, transferred, and attached to a nitrocellulose membrane to be probed with sera from the patient infected with the three parasites. The sensitivity of the technique was assessed using 300 individual serum samples, 60 pools of two parasites, and 20 pools of three parasites with 75 sera from patients with other parasites, 10 from patients with other diseases, and 15 from patients without parasites. Results . The technique revealed 13 glycoproteins (GP): GP 35, 31, 24, 23, 18, 17, 14, and 13 kDa for cysticercosis; GP 8, 16, and 21 kDa for hydatidosis; and GP 17 and 23 kDa for fascioliasis. The test detected the presence of antibodies with a sensitivity of 96% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 94.62-98.54%) in the detection of one or the thirteen bands, a specificity of 100% (95% CI = 99.50-100.00%); individually, there was a sensitivity for cysticercosis of 97% (95% CI = 93.16-100.00%), for hydatidosis of 94% (95% CI = 88.85-99.15%) and for fascioliasis of 96% (95% CI = 91.66-100.00%). Conclusions . Western blotting is effective in the simultaneous detection of antibodies in patients with human cysticercosis, hydatidosis, and fascioliasis, and it can be used as a diagnostic test to either rule out or confirm the presence of antibodies in endemic areas.

  11. Southern blotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, T

    2001-05-01

    Southern blotting is the transfer of DNA fragments from an electrophoresis gel to a membrane support (the properties and advantages of the different types of membrane, transfer buffer, and transfer method are discussed in detail), resulting in immobilization of the DNA fragments, so the membrane carries a semipermanent reproduction of the banding pattern of the gel. After immobilization, the DNA can be subjected to hybridization analysis, enabling bands with sequence similarity to a labeled probe to be identified. This appendix describes Southern blotting via upward capillary transfer of DNA from an agarose gel onto a nylon or nitrocellulose membrane, using a high-salt transfer buffer to promote binding of DNA to the membrane. With the high-salt buffer, the DNA becomes bound to the membrane during transfer but not permanently immobilized. Immobilization is achieved by UV irradiation (for nylon) or baking (for nitrocellulose). A Support Protocol describes how to calibrate a UV transilluminator for optimal UV irradiation of a nylon membrane. An alternate protocol details transfer using nylon membranes and an alkaline buffer, and is primarily used with positively charged nylon membranes. The advantage of this combination is that no post-transfer immobilization step is required, as the positively charged membrane binds DNA irreversibly under alkaline transfer conditions. The method can also be used with neutral nylon membranes but less DNA will be retained. A second alternate protocol describes a transfer method based on a different transfer-stack setup. The traditional method of upward capillary transfer of DNA from gel to membrane described in the first basic and alternate protocols has certain disadvantages, notably the fact that the gel can become crushed by the weighted filter papers and paper towels that are laid on top of it. This slows down the blotting process and may reduce the amount of DNA that can be transferred. The downward capillary method described in

  12. Mucin Agarose Gel Electrophoresis: Western Blotting for High-molecular-weight Glycoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Kathryn A; Rushton, Zachary L; Ehre, Camille

    2016-06-14

    Mucins, the heavily-glycosylated proteins lining mucosal surfaces, have evolved as a key component of innate defense by protecting the epithelium against invading pathogens. The main role of these macromolecules is to facilitate particle trapping and clearance while promoting lubrication of the mucosa. During protein synthesis, mucins undergo intense O-glycosylation and multimerization, which dramatically increase the mass and size of these molecules. These post-translational modifications are critical for the viscoelastic properties of mucus. As a result of the complex biochemical and biophysical nature of these molecules, working with mucins provides many challenges that cannot be overcome by conventional protein analysis methods. For instance, their high-molecular-weight prevents electrophoretic migration via regular polyacrylamide gels and their sticky nature causes adhesion to experimental tubing. However, investigating the role of mucins in health (e.g., maintaining mucosal integrity) and disease (e.g., hyperconcentration, mucostasis, cancer) has recently gained interest and mucins are being investigated as a therapeutic target. A better understanding of the production and function of mucin macromolecules may lead to novel pharmaceutical approaches, e.g., inhibitors of mucin granule exocytosis and/or mucolytic agents. Therefore, consistent and reliable protocols to investigate mucin biology are critical for scientific advancement. Here, we describe conventional methods to separate mucin macromolecules by electrophoresis using an agarose gel, transfer protein into nitrocellulose membrane, and detect signal with mucin-specific antibodies as well as infrared fluorescent gel reader. These techniques are widely applicable to determine mucin quantitation, multimerization and to test the effects of pharmacological compounds on mucins.

  13. The early days of blotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern, Edwin

    2015-01-01

    The history of the development of DNA blotting is described in this chapter. DNA blotting, involving the transfer of electrophoretically separated DNA fragments to a membrane support through capillary action, is also known as Southern blotting. This procedure enables the detection of a specific DNA sequence by hybridization with probes. The term Southern blotting led to a "geographic" naming tradition, with RNA blotting bearing the name Northern blotting and protein transfer to membranes becoming known as Western blotting.

  14. Demonstration of monoclonal anti-carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) antibody internalization by electron microscopy, western blotting and radioimmunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsaltas, G; Ford, C H; Gallant, M

    1992-01-01

    One of the important factors affecting the action of monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) or immunoconjugates on tumour sites depends on whether the Mab is internalized by the cancer cells in question. The underexplored subject of internalization is discussed in this paper, and a number of in vitro techniques for investigating internalization are evaluated, using a model which consists of a well characterized anti-carcinoembryonic antigen (anti-CEA) Mab and a number of CEA expressing human cancer cell lines. Employing two alternative radiolabeling assays, evidence for internalization of the anti-CEA Mab by a CEA-positive colorectal cancer cell line (LS174T) was obtained throughout the time intervals examined (5 min to 150 min). Electronmicroscopy employing horseradish-peroxidase labeled anti-CEA Mab and control antibody permitted direct visualization of anti-CEA Mab-related staining in intracellular compartments of a high CEA-expressor human colorectal cell line (SKCO1). Finally Western blots of samples derived from cytosolic and membrane components of solubilized cells from lung and colonic cancer cell lines provided evidence for internalized anti-CEA Mab throughout seven half hour intervals, starting at 5 minutes. Internalized anti-CEA was detected in all CEA expressing cell lines (LS174T, SKCO1, BENN) but not in the case of a very low CEA expressor line (COLO 320).

  15. Cross-Reactions between Toxocara canis and Ascaris suum in the diagnosis of visceral larva migrans by western blotting technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NUNES Cáris Maroni

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Visceral larva migrans (VLM is a clinical syndrome caused by infection of man by Toxocara spp, the common roundworm of dogs and cats. Tissue migration of larval stages causes illness specially in children. Because larvae are difficult to detect in tissues, diagnosis is mostly based on serology. After the introduction of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA using the larval excretory-secretory antigen of T. canis (TES, the diagnosis specificity was greatly improved although cross-reactivity with other helminths are still being reported. In Brazil, diagnosis is routinely made after absorption of serum samples with Ascaris suum antigens, a nematode antigenicaly related with Ascaris lumbricoides which is a common intestinal nematode of children. In order to identify T. canis antigens that cross react to A. suum antigens we analyzed TES antigen by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting techniques. When we used serum samples from patients suspected of VLM and positive result by ELISA as well as a reference serum sample numerous bands were seen (molecular weight of 210-200 kDa, 116-97 kDa, 55-50 kDa and 35-29 kDa. Among these there is at least one band with molecular weight around 55-66 kDa that seem to be responsible for the cross-reactivity between T. canis e A. suum once it disappears when previous absorption of serum samples with A. suum antigens is performed

  16. Delineation of pulmonary airway fluid protein fractions with HRPO binding-avidity by far-Western ligand blot and mass spectrometry analyses: a model methodology for detecting mannose-binding protein expression profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Cody P; Rashmir-Raven, Ann; Jones, Toni; Mochal, Cathleen; Linford, Robert L; Brashier, Michael; Eddy, Alison

    2009-01-01

    Limited research to date has characterized the potential for HRPO to function as a primary molecular probe. Pulmonary airway fluid was developed by non-reducing far-Western (ligand) blot analyses utilizing conjugated HRPO-strepavidin or non-conjugated HRPO without the presence of primary immunoglobulin. Endogenous esterase-like biochemical activity of fractions within pulmonary airway fluid was inactivated to determine if they were capable of biochemically converting HRPO chemiluminescent substrate. Complementary analyses modified pulmonary fluid and HRPO with beta-galactosidase and alpha-mannosidase respectively, in addition to determining the influence of mannose and maltose competitive binding on HRPO far-Western (ligand) blot analyses. Identification of pulmonary fluid fractions detected by HRPO far-Western blot analyses was determined by mass spectrometry. Modification of pulmonary fluid with beta-galactosidase, and HRPO with alpha-mannosidase in concert with maltose and mannose competitive binding analyses altered the intensity and spectrum of pulmonary fluid fractions detected by HRPO far-Western blot analysis. Identity of pulmonary airway fluid fractions detected by HRPO far-Western (ligand) blot analysis were transferrin, dynein, albumin precursor, and two 156 kDa equine peptide fragments. HRPO can function as a partially-selective primary molecular probe when applied in either a conjugated or non-conjugated form. Some protein fractions can form complexes with HRPO through molecular mechanisms that involve physical interactions at the terminal alpha-mannose-rich regions of HRPO glycan side-chains. Based on its known molecular composition and structure, HRPO provides an opportunity for the development of diagnostics methodologies relevant to disease biomarkers that possess mannose-binding avidity.

  17. Optimization of northern analysis by vacuum-blotting, RNA-transfer visualization, and ultraviolet fixation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroczek, R.A.; Siebert, E.

    1990-01-01

    We have optimized Northern analysis at several steps. Overnight electrophoresis was replaced by short gel runs and overnight capillary transfer by rapid vacuum-blotting adapted to Northern analysis. Short uv irradiation was used as a substitute for the usual RNA fixation by baking. Direct staining of RNA before electrophoresis made it possible to check RNA integrity and to evaluate the quality of the size separation immediately after electrophoresis. In this system, RNA transfer onto the membrane support could also be quickly assessed after the blotting step. The net result of all modifications was a doubling of the autoradiography signal compared with that obtained by modern Northern protocols. At the same time, the duration of the procedure was shortened drastically, allowing an autoradiography signal to be obtained within 24 h

  18. Inheritance of resistance to barley yellow dwarf virus detected by northern blot analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorens, G.F.; Falk, B.W.; Qualset, C.O.

    1989-01-01

    Development of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars tolerant to the barley yellow dwarf virus disease (BYD) has been limited by lack of precision in rating plants for response to infection, usually done by visual scoring of plant symptoms under field conditions. Other methodologies have been developed to study the host/pathogen relationship and to assess resistance or susceptibility. In this study northern dot blot analysis was used to determine barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) RNA concentrations of six wheat cultivars that differed in visual BYD symptom expression. Plants were infected with the NYPAV (PAV) isolate of BYDV in the greenhouse. At several dates after inoculation crude plant extracts were blotted on nitrocellulose and hybridized with a 32 P-labeled probe of the pPA8 cDNA clone of BYDV. The distribution of PRC for the F 2 population was compared to the distribution of BYD visual symptom scores for 403 F 2 plants of a similar F 2 population of NS 879/4 x Seri 82 under field conditions. The results were qualitatively similar, suggesting that northern dot blot analysis to measure PRC may be useful in understanding the genetics of resistance to BYD. This technique, when incorporated into breeding programs, could be important in the development of highly tolerant wheat cultivars with reduced losses to BYD

  19. Western blot seroindeterminate individuals for Human T-lymphotropic Virus 1/2 (HTLV-1/2 in Fortaleza (Brazil: a serological and molecular diagnostic and epidemiological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Terezinha de Jesus Teixeira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available How to handle Western blot (WB seroindeterminate individuals for Human T-lymphotropic Virus 1/2 (HTLV-1/2 constitutes a challenge for blood banks and fam ilies. We made a cross-sectional study of 191 enzyme linked immunoassay (EIA reactive individuals from the hematological center (HEMOCE of Fortaleza (Brazil, examining their serological (WB and molecular (PCR diagnosis, and demographic profiles, as well as a possible association of their condition with other infectious pathologies and risk factors. Ethical institutional approval and personal consent were obtained. Out of 191 EIA reactive individuals, 118 were WB seroindeterminate and 73 were seropositive for HTLV-1/2. In the PCR analysis of 41 WB seroindeterminate individuals, 9 (22% were positive and 32 (78% were negative for HTLV-1/2. The demographic analysis indicated a trend towards a predominance of males among the seroindeterminate individuals and females in the seropositive ones. The seroindeterminate individuals were younger than the seropositive ones. We did not find any association of these conditions with syphilis, Chagas disease or HIV or hepatitis, and with risk factors such as breast-feeding, blood transfusion, STD (syphilis and IDU.

  20. Western blot seroindeterminate individuals for Human T-lymphotropic Virus 1/2 (HTLV-1/2 in Fortaleza (Brazil: a serological and molecular diagnostic and epidemiological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terezinha de Jesus Teixeira Santos

    Full Text Available How to handle Western blot (WB seroindeterminate individuals for Human T-lymphotropic Virus 1/2 (HTLV-1/2 constitutes a challenge for blood banks and fam ilies. We made a cross-sectional study of 191 enzyme linked immunoassay (EIA reactive individuals from the hematological center (HEMOCE of Fortaleza (Brazil, examining their serological (WB and molecular (PCR diagnosis, and demographic profiles, as well as a possible association of their condition with other infectious pathologies and risk factors. Ethical institutional approval and personal consent were obtained. Out of 191 EIA reactive individuals, 118 were WB seroindeterminate and 73 were seropositive for HTLV-1/2. In the PCR analysis of 41 WB seroindeterminate individuals, 9 (22% were positive and 32 (78% were negative for HTLV-1/2. The demographic analysis indicated a trend towards a predominance of males among the seroindeterminate individuals and females in the seropositive ones. The seroindeterminate individuals were younger than the seropositive ones. We did not find any association of these conditions with syphilis, Chagas disease or HIV or hepatitis, and with risk factors such as breast-feeding, blood transfusion, STD (syphilis and IDU.

  1. Use of a sensitive EnVision +-based detection system for Western blotting: avoidance of streptavidin binding to endogenous biotin and biotin-containing proteins in kidney and other tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Rosamonde E; Craven, Rachel A; Harnden, Patricia A; Selby, Peter J

    2003-04-01

    Western blotting remains a central technique in confirming identities of proteins, their quantitation and analysis of various isoforms. The biotin-avidin/streptavidin system is often used as an amplification step to increase sensitivity but in some tissues such as kidney, "nonspecific" interactions may be a problem due to high levels of endogenous biotin-containing proteins. The EnVision system, developed for immunohistochemical applications, relies on binding of a polymeric conjugate consisting of up to 100 peroxidase molecules and 20 secondary antibody molecules linked directly to an activated dextran backbone, to the primary antibody. This study demonstrates that it is also a viable and sensitive alternative detection system in Western blotting applications.

  2. Differential staining of Western blots of human secreted glycoproteins from serum, milk, saliva, and seminal fluid using lectins displaying diverse sugar specificities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilboa-Garber, Nechama; Lerrer, Batya; Lesman-Movshovich, Efrat; Dgani, Orly

    2005-12-01

    Human milk, serum, saliva, and seminal fluid glycoproteins (gps) nourish and protect newborn and adult tissues. Their saccharides, which resemble cell membrane components, may block pathogen adhesion and infection. In the present study, they were examined by a battery of lectins from plants, animals, and bacteria, using hemagglutination inhibition and Western blot analyses. The lectins included galactophilic ones from Aplysia gonad, Erythrina corallodendron, Maclura pomifera (MPL), peanut, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA-IL); fucose-binding lectins from Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA-IIL), Ralstonia solanacearum (RSL), and Ulex europaeus (UEA-I), and mannose/glucose-binding Con A. The results demonstrated the chosen lectin efficiency for differential analysis of human secreted gps as compared to CBB staining. They unveiled the diversity of these body fluid gp glycans (those of the milk and seminal fluid being highest): the milk gps interacted most strongly with PA-IIL, followed by RSL; the saliva gps with RSL, followed by PA-IIL and MPL; the serum gps with Con A and MPL, followed by PA-IIL and RSL, and the seminal plasma gps with RSL and MPL, followed by UEA-I and PA-IIL. The potential usage of these lectins as probes for scientific, industrial, and medical purposes, and for quality control of the desired gps is clearly indicated.

  3. The combination of quantitative PCR and western blot detecting CP4-EPSPS component in Roundup Ready soy plant tissues and commercial soy-related foodstuffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiao; Wu, Honghong; Zhou, Xinghu; Xu, Sheng; He, Jian; Shen, Wenbiao; Zhou, Guanghong; Huang, Ming

    2012-06-01

    With the widespread use of Roundup Ready soy (event 40-3-2) (RRS), the comprehensive detection of genetically modified component in foodstuffs is of significant interest, but few protein-based approaches have been found useful in processed foods. In this report, the combination of quantitative PCR (qPCR) and western blot was used to detect cp4-epsps gene and its protein product in different RRS plant tissues and commercial soy-containing foodstuffs. The foods included those of plant origin produced by different processing procedures and also some products containing both meat and plant protein concentrates. The validity of the 2 methods was confirmed first. We also showed that the CP4-EPSPS protein existed in different RRS plant tissues. In certain cases, the results from the western blot and the qPCR were not consistent. To be specific, at least 2 degraded fragments of CP4-EPSPS protein (35.5 and 24.6 kDa) were observed. For dried bean curd crust and deep-fried bean curd, a degraded protein fragment with the size of 24.6 kDa appeared, while cp4-epsps gene could not be traced by qPCR. In contrast, we found a signal of cp4-epsps DNA in 3 foodstuffs, including soy-containing ham cutlet product, meat ball, and sausage by qPCR, while CP4-EPSPS protein could not be detected by western blot in such samples. Our study therefore concluded that the combination of DNA- and protein-based methods would compensate each other, thus resulting in a more comprehensive detection from nucleic acid and protein levels. The combination of quantitative PCR (qPCR) and western blot was used to detect cp4-epsps gene and its protein product in different Roundup Ready soy (event 40-3-2) plant tissues and commercial soy-containing foodstuffs. The foods included those of plant origin produced by different processing procedures and also some products containing a combination of both meat and plant protein concentrates. This study indicated that the combination of DNA- and protein-based methods

  4. Protein blotting protocol for beginners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrasovits, Lars A

    2014-01-01

    The transfer and immobilization of biological macromolecules onto solid nitrocellulose or nylon (polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF)) membranes subsequently followed by specific detection is referred to as blotting. DNA blots are called Southerns after the inventor of the technique, Edwin Southern. By analogy, RNA blots are referred to as northerns and protein blots as westerns (Burnette, Anal Biochem 112:195-203, 1981). With few exceptions, western blotting involves five steps, namely, sample collection, preparation, separation, immobilization, and detection. In this chapter, protocols for the entire process from sample collection to detection are described.

  5. A comparison of the immune parameters of dogs infected with visceral leishmaniasis using Western blot and neutralization techniques Comparação dos parâmetros imunológicos de cães infectados com leishmaniose visceral usando as técnicas de Western blot e neutralização

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeda L. Nogueira

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The Western blot technique was used to demonstrate the presence of antibodies in the blood of dogs that presented canine visceral leishmaniasis. This technique was used against some specific molecules present in the lysate of the promastigote form of Leshmania chagasi.Through the association of the results of the Western blot technique with the morphological alterations seen as a result of the serum neutralization technique performed in McCoy cells (which mimetizes the macrophage it was possible to observe the role of some molecules of great relevance in determining the disease in symptomatic dogs as well as that of some other molecules associated with asymptomatic infected dogs that may become transmitters as well as differentiating them as asymptomatic resistant dogs. In the sera analyses carried out during the immunobloting a variation of 9 to 27 immunoreacting bands was observed, which were then compared using Dice's similarity coefficient. In the dendrogram constructed on the basis of the coefficient, 50% similarity was observed among the total number of reagent bands with the promastigote lysate, thus creating five groups. The main difference observed related to the clinical condition of the dogs: symptomatic and asymptomatic dogs were found in separate groups. The asymptomatic group of dogs was distributed in two different places in the dendrogram because they presented two different behavior patterns regarding the cellular morphology in the serum neutralization reaction: the presence or absence of cellular lysis. According to this analysis it is possible to evaluate the immune status and associate it with specific markers observed in the reaction found in the Western blot strips.A técnica de Western blot foi utilizada para demonstrar a presença de anticorpos do soro de cães, que apresentavam leishmaniose visceral canina, contra algumas moléculas específicas no lisado da forma promastigota de Leshmania chagasi.Através da associa

  6. Standardization of micro-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot for detection of Trypanosoma cruzi antibodies using extracts from Mexican strains as antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, B; Monteón, V; Reyes, P A; Espinoza, B

    2001-01-01

    This report describes two assays for the detection of anti-Trypanosoma cruzi antibodies using Mexican strains of the parasite and the concordance with two assays previously evaluated at the Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez in Mexico City. Micro-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot were used for the detection of T. cruzi antibodies with a total extract of epimastigote from Ninoa and Queretaro, which are Mexican strains of T. cruzi. To standardize these methods, a total of 246 serum samples was used. In addition, sera from six confirmed Mexican chronic individuals in the asymptomatic phase were also used for comparison with the Argentinean antigen. ELISA was 100% specific in that no false positive results were found with sera of both healthy individuals and non-Chagasic cardiopaths. Sera from individuals infected with Leishmania sp. showed approximately 16% of cross-reaction with ELISA. The test showed a positive predictive value of 90% and a negative predictive value of 100%. Western blot was also a highly sensitive test for detecting chronic Chagasic symptomatic patients from Mexico because no false negative results were obtained. Furthermore, it was possible to use Western blot to detect seven immunodominant antigens of approximately 30, 32, 40, 42, 65, 70, and 83 kDa. Concordance with two previous standardized tests at the Instituto Nacional de Cardiología showed a Kappa index of 0.96, indicating high concordance between the results obtained at these two laboratories. Finally, ELISA using Ninoa antigen extract was more sensitive than ELISA with an Argentinean extract, which failed to detect individuals in the chronic asymptomatic phase (undetermined phase) of infection. This study indicates that ELISA and Western blot using Ninoa and/or Queretaro extracts of T. cruzi as antigens are useful tools in the detection of individuals who have been exposed to T. cruzi both in the undetermined/asymptomatic and symptomatic phases

  7. Northern and Southern blot analysis of human RNA and DNA in autopsy material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, S; Rygaard, K; Asnaes, S

    1992-01-01

    was obtained less than two days postmortem. Histological examination showing slight or no autolysis and the presence of ribosomal bands after gel electrophoresis were both indicative parameters of RNA preservation. DNA was appropriate for Southern blotting when the tissue was obtained less than three to five...

  8. Serum detection of IgG antibodies against Demodex canis by western blot in healthy dogs and dogs with juvenile generalized demodicosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravera, Ivan; Ferreira, Diana; Gallego, Laia Solano; Bardagí, Mar; Ferrer, Lluís

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of canine immunoglobulins (Ig) G against Demodex proteins in the sera of healthy dogs and of dogs with juvenile generalized demodicosis (CanJGD) with or without secondary pyoderma. Demodex mites were collected from dogs with CanJGD. Protein concentration was measured and a western blot technique was performed. Pooled sera from healthy dogs reacted mainly with antigen bands ranging from 55 to 72 kDa. Pooled sera from dogs with CanJGD without secondary pyoderma reacted either with 10 kDa antigen band or 55 to 72 kDa bands. Pooled sera from dogs with CanJGD with secondary pyoderma reacted only with a 10 kDa antigen band. The results of this study suggest that both healthy dogs and dogs with CanJGD develop a humoral response against different proteins of Demodex canis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Standardization of Licorice and TCM Formulations Using Eastern Blot Fingerprinting Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukihiro Shoyama

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To prepare the antiglycyrrhizin (GC monoclonal antibody (MAb, GC was treated with NaIO4 resulting in aldehyde which can be combined with carrier protein. An antigen conjugate was performed by a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization TOF mass spectrometry to determine the hapten numbers in the conjugate. Anti-GC MAb was prepared from a hybridoma which was fixed from the spleen cells producing anti-GC MAb and the myeloma cells after immunization. The TCM and licorice extract were developed by TLC and blotted to a polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF membrane. The membrane was treated by NaIO4 and protein, enzyme labeled secondary MAb, and finally substrate was added. Clear spot appeared on PVDF membrane identifying GC against a background containing large amount of impurities. In eastern blotting, the GC molecule was divided into two functions. The aglycone part is recognized as an epitope and the sugar moiety can be combined to membrane. The specific reactivity of sugar moiety in the GC molecule against anti-GC MAb might be modified by the NaIO4 treatment on the membrane because glycyrrhetic acid 3-O-glucuronide can be stained although the cross-reactivity is only 4.3%. Eastern blotting for GC can not only apply for the standardization of licorice and TCM, but also it can open for the other bioactive products.

  10. Analysis of sperm antigens by sodium dodecyl sulfate gel/protein blot radioimmunobinding method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, C.Y.G.; Huang, Y.S.; Hu, P.C.; Gomel, V.; Menge, A.C.

    1982-01-01

    A radioimmunobinding method based on the blotting of renatured proteins from sodium dodecyl sulfate gels on to nitrocellulose filter papers was developed to analyze the sperm antigens that elicit serum anti-sperm antibodies. In rabbits, serum anti-sperm antibodies were raised by immunization with homologous epididymal spermatozoa mixed with complete Freund's adjuvant. The raised antisera from either male or female rabbits were shown to react with three major sperm protein bands on sodium dodecyl sulfate gels with the corresponding molecular weights of about 70,000 +/- 5000, 14,000, and 13,000, respectively. In humans, the monoclonal antibodies against human sperm were raised by a hybridoma technique. Out of six independent hybrid cell lines that were generated, three of them were shown to secrete immunoglobulins that react with the same two protein bands on sodium dodecyl sulfate gels, which have the approximate molecular weight of 10,000. The same procedure was also used to analyze human serum samples that were shown to contain anti-sperm antibodies by the known techniques. Unique sperm antigens that elicit anti-sperm antibodies in humans were identified and correlated. The results of this study suggest that sodium dodecyl sulfate gel/protein blot radioimmunobinding method may be a sensitive and useful tool for the study of sperm antigens that elicit autoimmune responses and their association with human infertility

  11. Rendimiento diagnóstico del Western Blot para detectar simultáneamente anticuerpos en pacientes con cisticercosis, hidatidosis y fascioliasis humana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Davelois

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar el rendimiento diagnóstico de la técnica de Western Blot para detectar simultáneamente anticuerpos en pacientes con cisticercosis, hidatidosis y fascioliasis humana. Materiales y métodos. Estudio transversal de evaluación de prueba diagnóstica. Se obtuvieron los antígenos de excreción-secreción de las larvas de Taenia solium, quistes de Echinococcus granulosus; y la forma adulta de Fasciola hepática; que luego fueron separados electroforéticamente en geles de poliacrilamida individuales, transferidos y fijados a una membrana de nitrocelulosa para ser enfrentados con sueros de pacientes con las tres parasitosis. La sensibilidad de la técnica se evaluó empleando 300 sueros individuales, 60 pools de dos parasitosis y 20 pools de tres parasitosis y la especificidad con 75 sueros de pacientes con otras parasitosis, 10 de pacientes con otras enfermedades y 15 sueros de personas no parasitadas. Resultados. La técnica reconoció trece glicoproteínas (GP: GP 35, 31, 24, 23, 18, 17, 14 y 13 kDa para cisticercosis, GP 8,16 y 21 kDa para hidatidosis y GP: 17 y 23 kDa para fascioliasis. La prueba detectó la presencia de anticuerpos alcanzando una sensibilidad de 96% (IC95%: 94,62-98,54% en la detección de una o las trece bandas, una especificidad de 100% (IC95%: 99,50 - 100,00%; individualmente, se tuvo una sensibilidad para cisticercosis de 97% (IC95%: 93,16-100%, para hidatidosis de 94% (IC95%: 88,85-99,15% y para fascioliasis de 96% (IC95%: 91,66-100%. Conclusiones. La prueba de Western blot es eficaz en la detección, simultanea de anticuerpos en pacientes con cisticercosis, hidatidosis y fascioliasis humana, y puede ser utilizada como prueba de descarte o confirmatoria en zonas endémicas.

  12. Direct visualization of epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR) in A431 and placental cell membrane by western blot with 125I-EGF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, P.H.; Selinfreund, R.; Wharton, W.

    1986-01-01

    Using the western blot technique, they have devised a new procedure that allowed the direct visualization of both the 150KD and the 170KD forms of EGFR by its natural ligand, 125 I-EGF. A431, and placental plasmalemma were purified and solubilized in either SDS-PAGE buffer (without DTT, EDTA) or Triton X-100 (0.5%), resolved on PAGE and electrophoretically transferred onto nitrocellulose (NC) paper. In the absence of boiling, SDS did not denature the EGFR. Although EGER band can be detected after hybridization with 125 I-EGF, the receptor signal was considerably improved with the addition of 0.1% Tween-20. The binding of 125 I-EGF to the both the 150KD and the 170KD bands of the EGFR was specific, reversible and increased with the amount of membrane protein present. The direct visualization of the EGFR using its natural ligand eliminated the necessity for the time consuming antibody preparation. Presently, they are using this technique to identify specific receptors for other ligands

  13. A Western blot-based investigation of the yeast secretory pathway designed for an intermediate-level undergraduate cell biology laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood-Degrenier, Jennifer K

    2008-01-01

    The movement of newly synthesized proteins through the endomembrane system of eukaryotic cells, often referred to generally as the secretory pathway, is a topic covered in most intermediate-level undergraduate cell biology courses. An article previously published in this journal described a laboratory exercise in which yeast mutants defective in two distinct steps of protein secretion were differentiated using a genetic reporter designed specifically to identify defects in the first step of the pathway, the insertion of proteins into the endoplasmic reticulum (Vallen, 2002). We have developed two versions of a Western blotting assay that serves as a second way of distinguishing the two secretory mutants, which we pair with the genetic assay in a 3-wk laboratory module. A quiz administered before and after students participated in the lab activities revealed significant postlab gains in their understanding of the secretory pathway and experimental techniques used to study it. A second survey administered at the end of the lab module assessed student perceptions of the efficacy of the lab activities; the results of this survey indicated that the experiments were successful in meeting a set of educational goals defined by the instructor.

  14. Myostatin inhibitors in sports drug testing: Detection of myostatin-neutralizing antibodies in plasma/serum by affinity purification and Western blotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walpurgis, Katja; Thomas, Andreas; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Thevis, Mario

    2016-02-01

    Myostatin is a key regulator of skeletal muscle growth and inhibition of its signaling pathway results in an increased muscle mass and function. The aim of this study was to develop a qualitative detection assay for myostatin-neutralizing antibodies for doping control purposes by using immunological approaches. To detect different types of myostatin-neutralizing antibodies irrespective of their amino acid sequence, an immunological assay specific for antibodies directed against myostatin and having a human Fc domain was established. Affinity purification and Western blotting strategies were combined to allow extracting and identifying relevant analytes from 200 μL of plasma/serum in a non-targeted approach. The assay was characterized regarding specificity, linearity, precision, robustness, and recovery. The assay was found to be highly specific, robust, and linear from 0.1 to 1 μg/mL. The precision was successfully specified at three different concentrations and the recovery of the affinity purification was 58%. Within this study, an immunological detection assay for myostatin-neutralizing antibodies present in plasma/serum specimens was developed and successfully characterized. The presented approach can easily be modified to include other therapeutic antibodies and serves as proof-of-concept for the detection of antibody-based myostatin inhibitors in doping control samples. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. IgG western blot for confirmatory diagnosis of equivocal cases of toxoplasmosis by EIA-IgG and fluorescent antibody test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khammari, Imen; Saghrouni, Fatma; Yaacoub, Alia; Gaied Meksi, Sondoss; Ach, Hinda; Garma, Lamia; Fathallah, Akila; Ben Saïd, Moncef

    2013-08-01

    The performance values of available techniques used in serodiagnosis of toxoplasmosis are satisfactory but they raise problems of equivocal and discordant results for very low IgG titers. Recently marketed, LDBio-Toxo II IgG Western blot (IB) showed an excellent correlation with the dye test. We estimated the proportion of equivocal and discordant results between the enzyme immunoassay Platelia Toxo IgG (EIA-IgG) and fluorescent antibody test (FAT) and assessed the usefulness of the IB as a confirmatory test. Out of 2,136 sera collected from pregnant women, 1,644 (77.0%) tested unequivocally positive and 407 (19.0%) were negative in both EIA-IgG and FAT. The remaining 85 (4%) sera showed equivocal or discordant results. Among them, 73 (85.9%) were positive and 12 (14.1%) were negative in IB. Forty-one (89.1%) equivocal sera in EIA-IgG and 46 (86.8%) equivocal sera in FAT were positive in IB. Reducing the cut-off values of both screening techniques improved significantly their sensitivity in detecting very low IgG titers at the expense of their specificity. In conclusion, equivocal results in routine-used techniques and their discordance in determination of the immune status in pregnancy women were not uncommon. IB test appeard to be highly useful in these situations as a confirmatory technique.

  16. Evaluación de la técnica Western blot para la detección de antígenos de Hymenolepis nana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flora Chávez-Salas

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo tuvo como objetivo evaluar la técnica de inmunoelectrotransferencia (Western Blot para detectar los antígenos específicos de excreción/secreción de Hymenolepis nana en sueros de pacientes con himenolepiosis y con otras helmintiosis confirmadas. Se utilizó a Mesocricetus auratus “hamster” para obtener ejemplares adultos de H. nana. Los antígenos de excreción/secreción fueron obtenidos en el medio MEM (Minimum Essential Medium Eagle, y enfrentados con un grupo de sueros de pacientes con himenolepiosis confirmada para evaluar su calidad inmunológica y con sueros individuales de pacientes con himenolepiosis y con otras helmintiosis confirmadas para detectar mediante la técnica de “Western Blot”, los antígenos específicos de este cestode. El grupo de sueros de pacientes con himenolepiosis confirmada reconoció las bandas antigénicas de 50,1; 42,6; 38,9; 32,9; 26,3; 22,4 y 18,6 kDa; sin embargo, los sueros individuales reconocieron diferente número de bandas, siendo la de 50,1 KDa la que fue reconocida por todos ellos. Los sueros de pacientes con helmintiosis confirmadas no reconocieron la banda de 50,1 kDa; sin embargo, dieron reacción cruzada con algunas de las demás bandas, a excepción de los sueros de pacientes con cisticercosis que no reconocieron a ninguna de las bandas de estos antígenos. Se concluye que el antígeno de excreción/secreción de H. nana de 50,1 kDa es específico de este cestode por ser reconocido por todos los sueros de pacientes con himenolepiosis confirmada y no por sueros de pacientes con otras helmintiosis utilizando la técnica de “Western Blot”.

  17. TLC blot (far-eastern blot) and its applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taki, Takao; Gonzalez, Tania Valdes; Goto-Inoue, Naoko; Hayasaka, Takahiro; Setou, Mitsutoshi

    2009-01-01

    A simple method for transfer of lipids including phospholipids, glycolipids, and neutral lipids from a high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) plate to a polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) membrane, called TLC blot (far-eastern blot), is presented. Lipids separated on a HPTLC plate are blotted quantitatively. This procedure made it possible to purify individual lipids from a blotted membrane in a short time. Binding study, immunodetection, and mass spectrometric analysis are available for PVDF membrane. Furthermore, the world of molecular species imaging is opened by a scanning analysis with a combination of TLC blot and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization quadrupole ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TLC-Blot/MALDI-TOF MS).

  18. Estandarización de la técnica de Western blot para el diagnóstico de la fasciolosis humana utilizando antígenos de excreción-secreción de Fasciola hepática Western blot technique standardization of the diagnosis of human fasciolosis using Fasciola hepatica excreted-secreted antigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermes Escalante

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Evaluar la eficacia de la técnica de electroinmunotransferencia (EITB o Western blot utilizando antígenos de excreción-secreción de las formas adultas de Fasciola hepatica (Fh E/S Ag para el diagnóstico de la fasciolosis humana. Materiales y métodos. Los antígenos fueron obtenidos a las 18 horas de incubación en medio Minimum Essential Eagle y preparados a la concentración proteica de 0,15 ug/uL; los cuales, al ser enfrentados con un pool de sueros de pacientes con fasciolosis confirmada por el hallazgo de huevos del parásito en las heces, se detectaron los antígenos de 10, 12, 17, 23, 27, 30, 36, 43, 66 y 136 KDa, con los cuales se desarrolló la técnica de Western blot. La sensibilidad se evaluó empleando sueros de 67 pacientes con fasciolosis, y la especificidad con sueros de 57 pacientes con otras parasitosis y diez sueros de personas no parasitadas. Resultados. De los 67 sueros, 64 reaccionaron con la banda de 23 KDa y 61 con la banda de 17KDa. Estas dos bandas no fueron detectadas por ninguno de los sueros de pacientes con otras parasitosis, ni de personas no parasitadas, siendo por ello consideradas como específicas y diagnósticas. Conclusiones. La sensibilidad de la prueba, utilizando las bandas de 17 y 23 KDa, fue de 95,5 % cuando se presenta reacción positiva en una o en las dos bandas, siendo la especificidad para estos dos antígenos de 100 % con un valor predictivo positivo de 100 % y un valor predictivo negativo de 95,71 %.Objectives. To evaluate the performance of the enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot assay (EITB, Western blot using excretory/secretory antigens from adult forms of Fasciola hepatica (Fh E/S Ag for the diagnosis of human fasciolosis. Materials and methods. Antigens were obtained after 18 hours of incubation in culture medium Minimum Essential Eagle, prepared at a protein concentration of 0.15 ug/uL and run against a pool of sera of patients with proven fasciolosis (confirmed by the

  19. Western blot data using two distinct anti-O-GlcNAc monoclonal antibodies showing unique glycosylation status on cellular proteins under 2-deoxy-d-glucose treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuya Okuda

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Protein modification by O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAcylation is one of the post transcriptional modifications occurring on cellular proteins. This paper provides a data set relating to the O-GlcNAcylation of cellular proteins detected by RL2 and CTD110.6 antibodies, which are commonly used for detection of protein O-GlcNAcylation, in 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2DG-treated human teratocarcinoma NCCIT cells in support of the research article entitled “A novel, promoter-based, target-specific assay identifies 2-deoxy-d-glucose as an inhibitor of globotriaosylceramide biosynthesis” (Okuda et al., 2009 [1]. The main article described a suppressive effect of 2DG on an Sp1 target gene in NCCIT cells and discussed the relationship between the effect of 2DG and O-GlcNAcylation status of Sp1. The data in this paper complements this relationship by Western blotting and clearly showed that the 2DG treatment increased O-GlcNAcylation of cellular proteins in NCCIT cells, whereas the RL2 and CTD110.6 epitopes were detected in a different manner. The RL2 epitope was detected on Sp1 during 2DG treatment, and the level was transiently increased at 24 h. In contrast, the CTD110.6 epitope became detectable on Sp1 over 72 h after 2DG treatment, and then the other proteins containing CTD110.6 epitopes also appeared in the cell lysates and the anti-Sp1 antibody precipitates.

  20. HIV-1/2 indeterminate Western blot results: follow-up of asymptomatic blood donors in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    CARNEIRO-PROIETTI A.B.F.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinical and public health importance of indeterminate results in HIV-1/2 testing is still difficult to evaluate in volunteer blood donors. At Fundação Hemominas, HIV-1/2 ELISA is used as the screening test and, if reactive, is followed by Western blot (WB. We have evaluated 84 blood donors who had repeatedly reactive ELISA tests for HIV-1/2, but indeterminate WB results. Sixteen of the 84 donors (19.0% had history of sexually transmitted diseases; 18/84 (21.4% informed receiving or paying for sex; 3/84 (3.6% had homosexual contact; 2/26 women (7.6% had past history of multiple illegal abortions and 3/84 (3.6% had been previously transfused. Four out of 62 donors (6.5% had positive anti-nuclear factor (Hep2, with titles up to 1:640. Parasitological examination of the stool revealed eggs of S. mansoni in 4/62 (6.4% donors and other parasites in 8/62 (12.9%. Five (5.9% of the subjects presented overt seroconversion for HIV-1/2, 43/84 (51.2% had negative results on the last visit, while 36/84 (42.9% remained WB indeterminate. Although some conditions could be found associated with the HIV-1/2 indeterminate WB results and many donors had past of risky behavior, the significance of the majority of the results remains to be determined.

  1. Discordant human T-lymphotropic virus screening with Western blot confirmation: evaluation of the dual-test algorithm for US blood donations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stramer, Susan L; Townsend, Rebecca L; Foster, Gregory A; Johnson, Ramona; Weixlmann, Barbara; Dodd, Roger Y

    2018-03-01

    Human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) blood donation screening has used a dual-testing algorithm beginning with either a chemiluminescent immunoassay or enzyme-linked immunosorbent screening assay (ELISA). Before the availability of a licensed HTLV supplemental assay, repeat-reactive (RR) samples on a first assay (Assay 1) were retested with a second screening assay (Assay 2). Donors with RR results by Assay 2 were deferred from blood donation and further tested using an unlicensed supplemental test to confirm reactivity while nonreactive (NR) donors remained eligible for donation until RR on a subsequent donation. This "dual-test" algorithm was replaced in May 2016 with the requirement that all RRs by Assay 1 be further tested by a licensed HTLV supplemental test (Western blot [WB]). In this study, we have requalified the dual-test algorithm using the available licensed HTLV WB. We tested 100 randomly selected HTLV RRs on screening Assay 1 (Abbott PRISM chemiluminescent immunoassay) but NR on screening Assay 2 (Avioq ELISA) by a Food and Drug Administration-licensed WB (MP Biomedicals) to ensure that no confirmed positives were among those that were RR by Assay 1 but NR by Assay 2. Of the 100 samples evaluated, 79 of 100 were WB seronegative, 21 of 100 indeterminate, and 0 of 100 seropositive. Of the 79 of 100 seronegative specimens, 73 of 79 did not express any bands on WB. We demonstrated that none of the 100 samples RR on Assay 1 but NR on Assay 2 were confirmed positive. This algorithm prevents such donors from requiring further testing and from being deferred. © 2018 AABB.

  2. Low Proviral Load is Associated with Indeterminate Western Blot Patterns in Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 Infected Individuals: Could Punctual Mutations be Related?

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    Camila Cánepa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: indeterminate Western blot (WB patterns are a major concern for diagnosis of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1 infection, even in non-endemic areas. Objectives: (a to define the prevalence of indeterminate WB among different populations from Argentina; (b to evaluate if low proviral load (PVL is associated with indeterminate WB profiles; and (c to describe mutations in LTR and tax sequence of these cases. Results: Among 2031 samples, 294 were reactive by screening. Of them, 48 (16.3% were WB indeterminate and of those 15 (31.3% were PCR+. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR was performed to 52 HTLV-1+ samples, classified as Group 1 (G1: 25 WB+ samples from individuals with pathologies; Group 2 (G2: 18 WB+ samples from asymptomatic carriers (AC; and Group 3 (G3: 9 seroindeterminate samples from AC. Median PVL was 4.78, 2.38, and 0.15 HTLV-1 copies/100 PBMCs, respectively; a significant difference (p=0.003 was observed. Age and sex were associated with PVL in G1 and G2, respectively. Mutations in the distal and central regions of Tax Responsive Elements (TRE 1 and 2 of G3 were observed, though not associated with PVL.The 8403A>G mutation of the distal region, previously related to high PVL, was absent in G3 but present in 50% of WB+ samples (p = 0.03. Conclusions: indeterminateWBresults confirmed later as HTLV-1 positive may be associated with low PVL levels. Mutations in LTR and tax are described; their functional relevance remains to be determined.

  3. Utility of Western Blot Analysis for the Diagnosis of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

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    Marzieh ASHRAFMANSOURI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is a parasitic disease with a relatively wide distribution in different areas of the world, including Iran. The parasite is mainly diagnosed microscopically, but serological approaches might be useful for diagnosis as well.  This study aimed to assess the efficacy of an immunoblotting system for serodiagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Iran.Methods: Sixty-one sera samples from parasitologically confirmed CL patients and 50 sera samples from healthy controls along with 50 sera sample from non-CL patients were collected. Native strain of Leishmania major was cultured in Schnei­der medium and soluble Leishmania antigens were prepared from amastigotes-like parasites. All of sera samples were evaluated by an immunoblot­ting system.Results: Components of 14 to 135 kDa were detectable by the sera of CL pa­tients. From 61 sera of CL patients, 59 cases (96.7% detected a 63 kDa subunit and 51 cases (83.6% recognized a 32-35 kDa component. Among all subunits, the 63 kDa band showed the highest sensitivity (96.7% and a 75 kDa band had the highest (98% specificity.Conclusion: Immunoblotting has a satisfactory performance in diagnosis of CL and this test can be used, as an aid, for proper diagnosis of CL.

  4. Testing UK blood donors for exposure to human parvovirus 4 using a time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay to screen sera and Western blot to confirm reactive samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maple, Peter A C; Beard, Stuart; Parry, Ruth P; Brown, Kevin E

    2013-10-01

    Human parvovirus 4 (ParV4), a newly described member of the family Parvoviridae, like B19V, has been found in pooled plasma preparations. The extent, and significance, of ParV4 exposure in UK blood donors remain to be determined and reliable detection of ParV4 immunoglobulin (Ig)G, using validated methods, is needed. With ParV4 virus-like particles a ParV4 IgG time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay (TRFIA) was developed. There is no gold standard or reference assay for measuring ParV4 IgG and the utility of the TRFIA was first examined using a panel of sera from people who inject drugs (PWIDS)--a high-prevalence population for ParV4 infection. Western blotting was used to confirm the specificity of TRFIA-reactive sera. Two cohorts of UK blood donor sera comprising 452 sera collected in 1999 and 156 sera collected in 2009 were tested for ParV4 IgG. Additional testing for B19V IgG, hepatitis C virus antibodies (anti-HCV), and ParV4 DNA was also undertaken. The rate of ParV4 IgG seroprevalence in PWIDS was 20.7% and ParV4 IgG was positively associated with the presence of anti-HCV with 68.4% ParV4 IgG-positive sera testing anti-HCV-positive versus 17.1% ParV4 IgG-negative sera. Overall seropositivity for ParV4 IgG, in 608 UK blood donors was 4.76%. The ParV4 IgG seropositivity for sera collected in 1999 was 5.08%, compared to 3.84% for sera collected in 2009. No ParV4 IgG-positive blood donor sera had detectable ParV4 DNA. ParV4 IgG has been found in UK blood donors and this finding needs further investigation. © 2013 American Association of Blood Banks.

  5. Identification of liver protein targets modified by tienilic acid metabolites using a two-dimensional Western blot-mass spectrometry approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methogo, Ruth Menque; Dansette, Patrick M.; Klarskov, Klaus

    2007-12-01

    A combined approach based on two-dimensional electrophoresis-immuno-blotting and nanoliquid chromatography coupled on-line with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (nLC-MS/MS) was used to identify proteins modified by a reactive intermediate of tienilic acid (TA). Liver homogenates from rats exposed to TA were fractionated using ultra centrifugation; four fractions were obtained and subjected to 2D electrophoresis. Following transfer to PVDF membranes, modified proteins were visualized after India ink staining, using an anti-serum raised against TA and ECL detection. Immuno-reactive spots were localized on the PVDF membrane by superposition of the ECL image, protein spots of interest were excised, digested on the membrane with trypsin followed by nLC-MS/MS analysis and protein identification. A total of 15 proteins were identified as likely targets modified by a TA reactive metabolite. These include selenium binding protein 2, senescence marker protein SMP-30, adenosine kinase, Acy1 protein, adenosylhomocysteinase, capping protein (actin filament), protein disulfide isomerase, fumarylacetoacetase, arginase chain A, ketohexokinase, proteasome endopeptidase complex, triosephosphate isomerase, superoxide dismutase, dna-type molecular chaperone hsc73 and malate dehydrogenase.

  6. Detection of Sleeping Beauty transposition in the genome of host cells by non-radioactive Southern blot analysis

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    Aravalli, Rajagopal N., E-mail: aravalli@umn.edu [Department of Radiology, University of Minnesota Medical School, MMC 292, 420 Delaware Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Park, Chang W. [Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota Medical School, MMC 36, 420 Delaware Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Steer, Clifford J., E-mail: steer001@umn.edu [Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota Medical School, MMC 36, 420 Delaware Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Department of Genetics, Cell Biology and Development, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2016-08-26

    The Sleeping Beauty transposon (SB-Tn) system is being used widely as a DNA vector for the delivery of therapeutic transgenes, as well as a tool for the insertional mutagenesis in animal models. In order to accurately assess the insertional potential and properties related to the integration of SB it is essential to determine the copy number of SB-Tn in the host genome. Recently developed SB100X transposase has demonstrated an integration rate that was much higher than the original SB10 and that of other versions of hyperactive SB transposases, such as HSB3 or HSB17. In this study, we have constructed a series of SB vectors carrying either a DsRed or a human β-globin transgene that was encompassed by cHS4 insulator elements, and containing the SB100X transposase gene outside the SB-Tn unit within the same vector in cis configuration. These SB-Tn constructs were introduced into the K-562 erythroid cell line, and their presence in the genomes of host cells was analyzed by Southern blot analysis using non-radioactive probes. Many copies of SB-Tn insertions were detected in host cells regardless of transgene sequences or the presence of cHS4 insulator elements. Interestingly, the size difference of 2.4 kb between insulated SB and non-insulated controls did not reflect the proportional difference in copy numbers of inserted SB-Tns. We then attempted methylation-sensitive Southern blots to assess the potential influence of cHS4 insulator elements on the epigenetic modification of SB-Tn. Our results indicated that SB100X was able to integrate at multiple sites with the number of SB-Tn copies larger than 6 kb in size. In addition, the non-radioactive Southern blot protocols developed here will be useful to detect integrated SB-Tn copies in any mammalian cell type.

  7. Detection of Sleeping Beauty transposition in the genome of host cells by non-radioactive Southern blot analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aravalli, Rajagopal N.; Park, Chang W.; Steer, Clifford J.

    2016-01-01

    The Sleeping Beauty transposon (SB-Tn) system is being used widely as a DNA vector for the delivery of therapeutic transgenes, as well as a tool for the insertional mutagenesis in animal models. In order to accurately assess the insertional potential and properties related to the integration of SB it is essential to determine the copy number of SB-Tn in the host genome. Recently developed SB100X transposase has demonstrated an integration rate that was much higher than the original SB10 and that of other versions of hyperactive SB transposases, such as HSB3 or HSB17. In this study, we have constructed a series of SB vectors carrying either a DsRed or a human β-globin transgene that was encompassed by cHS4 insulator elements, and containing the SB100X transposase gene outside the SB-Tn unit within the same vector in cis configuration. These SB-Tn constructs were introduced into the K-562 erythroid cell line, and their presence in the genomes of host cells was analyzed by Southern blot analysis using non-radioactive probes. Many copies of SB-Tn insertions were detected in host cells regardless of transgene sequences or the presence of cHS4 insulator elements. Interestingly, the size difference of 2.4 kb between insulated SB and non-insulated controls did not reflect the proportional difference in copy numbers of inserted SB-Tns. We then attempted methylation-sensitive Southern blots to assess the potential influence of cHS4 insulator elements on the epigenetic modification of SB-Tn. Our results indicated that SB100X was able to integrate at multiple sites with the number of SB-Tn copies larger than 6 kb in size. In addition, the non-radioactive Southern blot protocols developed here will be useful to detect integrated SB-Tn copies in any mammalian cell type.

  8. Southern blot analysis of skin biopsies for human papillomavirus DNA: renal allograft recipients in south-eastern Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenfield, K; Salmond, C A; Pope, J H; Hardie, I R

    1993-01-01

    The 104 skin biopsies from 34 patients who attended a Renal Transplant Unit in Brisbane over 12 months included 40 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), 22 solar keratoses, 4 hyperkeratoses, 18 warts and 11 basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA was identified by Southern blot hybridisation using, as individual probes, purified insert DNA from recombinant HPV 1, 2, 3 or 3/10, 4, 5 or 5/8, 7, 11, 16, 18 and 41 under relaxed conditions and characterised by restriction enzyme analysis and Southern blot hybridisation under more stringent conditions. Genomic HPV DNA was characterised in 7 skin biopsies from 4 renal allograft recipients (RARs): HPV 1A in a SCC (20 copies/cell) and a BCC (10 copies/cell) from the one patient, HPV 36 (20 copies/cell) in a SCC, HPV 1A [symbol: see text] 1000 copies/cell) in a wart and HPV 2B (200-800 copies/cell) in 3 warts from the one patient. Only HPV 1A in the SCC exhibited a significant degree of subtype variation. HPV DNA was identified in another 5 skin biopsies from another 4 RARs: HPV 3A in a wart and a hyperkeratosis, HPV 3/10-related DNA in 2 solar keratoses and HPV 5/8-related DNA in another (20-50 copies/cell). The incidence of HPV 5 (or 5-related HPVs) in RAR SCC was very low and that of HPV DNA in RAR warts was lower than that recorded elsewhere but this was not due to insensitivity of the assays. There was no evidence for a role for HPV in the aetiology of skin cancer in RARs in south-eastern Queensland but the possibility remains that as yet unidentified HPV types are involved.

  9. Introduction to protein blotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurien, Biji T; Scofield, R Hal

    2009-01-01

    Protein blotting is a powerful and important procedure for the immunodetection of proteins following electrophoresis, particularly proteins that are of low abundance. Since the inception of the protocol for protein transfer from an electrophoresed gel to a membrane in 1979, protein blotting has evolved greatly. The scientific community is now confronted with a variety of ways and means to carry out this transfer.

  10. Lectin-Array Blotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos, Raquel; Echevarria, Juan; Hernandez, Alvaro; Reichardt, Niels-Christian

    2017-09-01

    Aberrant protein glycosylation is a hallmark of cancer, infectious diseases, and autoimmune or neurodegenerative disorders. Unlocking the potential of glycans as disease markers will require rapid and unbiased glycoproteomics methods for glycan biomarker discovery. The present method is a facile and rapid protocol for qualitative analysis of protein glycosylation in complex biological mixtures. While traditional lectin arrays only provide an average signal for the glycans in the mixture, which is usually dominated by the most abundant proteins, our method provides individual lectin binding profiles for all proteins separated in the gel electrophoresis step. Proteins do not have to be excised from the gel for subsequent analysis via the lectin array but are transferred by contact diffusion from the gel to a glass slide presenting multiple copies of printed lectin arrays. Fluorescently marked glycoproteins are trapped by the printed lectins via specific carbohydrate-lectin interactions and after a washing step their binding profile with up to 20 lectin probes is analyzed with a fluorescent scanner. The method produces the equivalent of 20 lectin blots in a single experiment, giving detailed insight into the binding epitopes present in the fractionated proteins. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  11. Detection of proteins on blot transfer membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasse, Joachim; Gallagher, Sean R

    2003-11-01

    In the basic and alternate protocols of this unit, proteins are stained after electroblotting from polyacrylamide gels to blot transfer membranes. If the samples of interest are electrophoresed in duplicate and transferred to a blot transfer membrane, half of the membrane can be stained to determine the efficiency of transfer to the membrane and the other half can be used for immunoblotting (i.e., western blotting). Detection limits of each staining method are given along with a list of compatible blot transfer membranes and gels. A support protocol describes a method for alkali treatment that enhances subsequent staining of bound proteins.

  12. Screening for simian foamy virus infection by using a combined antigen Western blot assay: evidence for a wide distribution among Old World primates and identification of four new divergent viruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, Althaf I.; Shanmugam, Vedapuri; Bhullar, Vinod B.; Beer, Brigitte E.; Vallet, Dominique; Gautier-Hion, Annie; Wolfe, Nathan D.; Karesh, William B.; Kilbourn, Annelisa M.; Tooze, Zeena; Heneine, Walid; Switzer, William M.

    2003-01-01

    Simian foamy viruses (SFVs) belong to a genetically and antigenically diverse class of retroviruses that naturally infect a wide range of nonhuman primates (NHPs) and can also be transmitted to humans occupationally exposed to NHPs. Current serologic detection of SFV infection requires separate Western blot (WB) testing by using two different SFV antigens [SFV AGM (African green monkey) and SFV CPZ (chimpanzee)]. However, this method is labor intensive and validation is limited to only small numbers of NHPs. To facilitate serologic SFV testing, we developed a WB assay that combines antigens from both SFV AGM and SFV CPZ . The combined-antigen WB (CA-WB) assay was validated with 145 serum samples from 129 NHPs (32 African and Asian species) and 16 humans, all with known SFV infection status determined by PCR. Concordant CA-WB results were obtained for all 145 PCR-positive or -negative primate and human specimens, giving the assay a 100% sensitivity and specificity. In addition, no reactivity was observed in sera from persons positive for human immunodeficiency virus or human T cell lymphotropic virus (HIV/HTLV) (n = 25) or HIV/HTLV-negative U.S. blood donors (n = 100). Using the CA-WB assay, we screened 360 sera from 43 Old World primate species and found an SFV prevalence of about 68% in both African and Asian primates. We also isolated SFV from the blood of four seropositive primates (Allenopithecus nigroviridis, Trachypithecus francoisi, Hylobates pileatus, and H. leucogenys) not previously known to be infected with SFV. Phylogenetic analysis of integrase sequences from these isolates confirmed that all four SFVs represent new, distinct, and highly divergent lineages. These results demonstrate the ability of the CA-WB assay to detect infection in a large number of NHP species, including previously uncharacterized infections with divergent SFVs

  13. Prediction of the optimum hybridization conditions of dot-blot-SNP analysis using estimated melting temperature of oligonucleotide probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiokai, Sachiko; Kitashiba, Hiroyasu; Nishio, Takeshi

    2010-08-01

    Although the dot-blot-SNP technique is a simple cost-saving technique suitable for genotyping of many plant individuals, optimization of hybridization and washing conditions for each SNP marker requires much time and labor. For prediction of the optimum hybridization conditions for each probe, we compared T (m) values estimated from nucleotide sequences using the DINAMelt web server, measured T (m) values, and hybridization conditions yielding allele-specific signals. The estimated T (m) values were comparable to the measured T (m) values with small differences of less than 3 degrees C for most of the probes. There were differences of approximately 14 degrees C between the specific signal detection conditions and estimated T (m) values. Change of one level of SSC concentrations of 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, and 1.0x SSC corresponded to a difference of approximately 5 degrees C in optimum signal detection temperature. Increasing the sensitivity of signal detection by shortening the exposure time to X-ray film changed the optimum hybridization condition for specific signal detection. Addition of competitive oligonucleotides to the hybridization mixture increased the suitable hybridization conditions by 1.8. Based on these results, optimum hybridization conditions for newly produced dot-blot-SNP markers will become predictable.

  14. Blot hybridization analysis of TCR genes of T cells for five people exposed in a radiation accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min Rui; Liu Benti; Cheng Tianmin; Yang Rujun; Meng Xiangshun; Xiao Jinsong

    1996-01-01

    Human lymphocyte total DNA was prepared in agarose plug by mixing cells with low melting agarose, and two restriction endonucleases were used for digestion of the total DNA with human α and β TCR cDNA probes. The total digested DNA from five people who were whole body exposed to 2.0-2.5 Gy ionizing radiation in an accident 4.5 years ago was hybridized by Southern blot method. The results showed that no obvious difference in hybridization bands was found between controls and the five victims when hybridizations were fulfilled in the total DNA which was digested by Hind III restriction endonuclease with both α and β probes. However, when the total DNA was digested with restriction endonuclease EcoR I and was hybridized with TCR α probe, four of the five exposed people showed a different hybridizing band pattern compared with the controls. The results are also discussed

  15. Evaluation of a new eastern blotting technique for the analysis of ginsenoside Re in American ginseng berry pulp extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morinaga, Osamu; Uto, Takuhiro; Yuan, Chun-Su; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Shoyama, Yukihiro

    2010-06-01

    A new eastern blotting technique has been established for ginsenoside Re (G-Re) contained in American ginseng berry pulp extracts. G-Re in American ginseng berry pulp was extracted using 100% methanol, 100% ethanol, 50% aqueous methanol, and 50% aqueous ethanol. The combined crude extracts were applied onto a polyethersulfone membrane and developed using the methanol-water-acetic acid solvent system (45:55:1 v/v). Separated components were immunostained using anti-G-Re monoclonal antibody. G-Re was first specifically detected and then quantitatively analyzed using NIH Imaging software. We also confirmed that the most suitable solvent was 50% aqueous methanol for extracting G-Re from American ginseng berry pulp. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Reverse line blot probe design and polymerase chain reaction optimization for bloodmeal analysis of ticks from the eastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, M C; Harmon, J R; Tsao, J I; Jones, C J; Hickling, G J

    2012-05-01

    Determining the host preference of vector ticks is vital to elucidating the eco-epidemiology of the diseases they spread. Detachment of ticks from captured hosts can provide evidence of feeding on those host species, but only for those species that are feasible to capture. Recently developed, highly sensitive molecular assays show great promise in allowing host selection to be determined from minute traces of host DNA that persist in recently molted ticks. Using methods developed in Europe as a starting-point, we designed 12S rDNA mitochondrial gene probes suitable for use in a reverse line blot (RLB) assay of ticks feeding on common host species in the eastern United States. This is the first study to use the 12S mitochondrial gene in a RLB bloodmeal assay in North America. The assay combines conventional PCR with a biotin-labeled primer and reverse line blots that can be stripped and rehybridized up to 20 times, making the method less expensive and more straightforward to interpret than previous methods of tick bloodmeal identification. Probes were designed that target the species, genus, genus group, family, order, or class of eight reptile, 13 birds, and 32 mammal hosts. After optimization, the RLB assay correctly identified the current hostspecies for 99% of ticks [Amblyomma americanum (L.) and eight other ixodid tick species] collected directly from known hosts. The method identified previous-host DNA for approximately half of all questing ticks assayed. Multiple bloodmeal determinations were obtained in some instances from feeding and questing ticks; this pattern is consistent with previous RLB studies but requires further investigation. Development of this probe library, suitable for eastern U.S. ecosystems, opens new avenues for eco-epidemiological investigations of this region's tick-host systems.

  17. Detection of Zika virus using reverse-transcription LAMP coupled with reverse dot blot analysis in saliva.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maite Sabalza

    Full Text Available In recent years, there have been increasing numbers of infectious disease outbreaks that spread rapidly to population centers resulting from global travel, population vulnerabilities, environmental factors, and ecological disasters such as floods and earthquakes. Some examples of the recent outbreaks are the Ebola epidemic in West Africa, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-Co in the Middle East, and the Zika outbreak through the Americas. We have created a generic protocol for detection of pathogen RNA and/or DNA using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP and reverse dot-blot for detection (RDB and processed automatically in a microfluidic device. In particular, we describe how a microfluidic assay to detect HIV viral RNA was converted to detect Zika virus (ZIKV RNA. We first optimized the RT-LAMP assay to detect ZIKV RNA using a benchtop isothermal amplification device. Then we implemented the assay in a microfluidic device that will allow analyzing 24 samples simultaneously and automatically from sample introduction to detection by RDB technique. Preliminary data using saliva samples spiked with ZIKV showed that our diagnostic system detects ZIKV RNA in saliva. These results will be validated in further experiments with well-characterized ZIKV human specimens of saliva. The described strategy and methodology to convert the HIV diagnostic assay and platform to a ZIKV RNA detection assay provides a model that can be readily utilized for detection of the next emerging or re-emerging infectious disease.

  18. A brief review of other notable protein blotting methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurien, Biji T; Scofield, R Hal

    2009-01-01

    A plethora of methods have been used for transferring proteins from the gel to the membrane. These include centrifuge blotting, electroblotting of proteins to Teflon tape and membranes for N- and C-terminal sequence analysis, multiple tissue blotting, a two-step transfer of low and high molecular weight proteins, blotting of Coomassie Brilliant Blue (CBB)-stained proteins from polyacrylamide gels to transparencies, acid electroblotting onto activated glass, membrane-array method for the detection of human intestinal bacteria in fecal samples, protein microarray using a new black cellulose nitrate support, electrotransfer using square wave alternating voltage for enhanced protein recovery, polyethylene glycol-mediated significant enhancement of the immunoblotting transfer, parallel protein chemical processing before and during western blot and the molecular scanner concept, electronic western blot of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry-identified polypeptides from parallel processed gel-separated proteins, semidry electroblotting of peptides and proteins from acid-urea polyacrylamide gels, transfer of silver-stained proteins from polyacrylamide gels to polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) membranes, and the display of K(+) channel proteins on a solid nitrocellulose support for assaying toxin binding. The quantification of proteins bound to PVDF membranes by elution of CBB, clarification of immunoblots on PVDF for transmission densitometry, gold coating of nonconductive membranes before MALDI tandem mass spectrometric analysis to prevent charging effect for analysis of peptides from PVDF membranes, and a simple method for coating native polysaccharides onto nitrocellulose are some of the methods involving either the manipulation of membranes with transferred proteins or just a passive transfer of antigens to membranes. All these methods are briefly reviewed in this chapter.

  19. Other notable protein blotting methods: a brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurien, Biji T; Scofield, R Hal

    2015-01-01

    Proteins have been transferred from the gel to the membrane by a variety of methods. These include vacuum blotting, centrifuge blotting, electroblotting of proteins to Teflon tape and membranes for N- and C-terminal sequence analysis, multiple tissue blotting, a two-step transfer of low- and high-molecular-weight proteins, acid electroblotting onto activated glass, membrane-array method for the detection of human intestinal bacteria in fecal samples, protein microarray using a new black cellulose nitrate support, electrotransfer using square wave alternating voltage for enhanced protein recovery, polyethylene glycol-mediated significant enhancement of the immunoblotting transfer, parallel protein chemical processing before and during western blot and the molecular scanner concept, electronic western blot of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometric-identified polypeptides from parallel processed gel-separated proteins, semidry electroblotting of peptides and proteins from acid-urea polyacrylamide gels, transfer of silver-stained proteins from polyacrylamide gels to polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) membranes, and the display of K(+) channel proteins on a solid nitrocellulose support for assaying toxin binding. The quantification of proteins bound to PVDF membranes by elution of CBB, clarification of immunoblots on PVDF for transmission densitometry, gold coating of nonconductive membranes before matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem mass spectrometric analysis to prevent charging effect for analysis of peptides from PVDF membranes, and a simple method for coating native polysaccharides onto nitrocellulose are some of the methods involving either the manipulation of membranes with transferred proteins or just a passive transfer of antigens to membranes. All these methods are briefly reviewed in this chapter.

  20. Investigation of the effects of experimental autolysis on the detection of abnormal prion protein in lymphoid and central nervous system tissues from elk and sheep using the Western blotting method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hongsheng; Soutyrine, Andrei; Rendulich, Jasmine; O'Rourke, Katherine; Balachandran, Aru

    2011-01-01

    Tissues unsuitable for standard immunohistochemical and histopathological examinations for chronic wasting disease (CWD) in cervids and for scrapie in sheep are frequently submitted for testing. This study investigated the effects of experimental autolysis on the detection of abnormal prion protein (PrPsc) in lymphoid and central nervous system (CNS) tissues from elk and sheep. The PrPsc was detected using a Western blotting (WB) test following PrPsc enrichment using sodium phosphotungstic acid (PTA) precipitation (PTA-WB). A commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used as a reference test for quantitative measurement. This study showed that the amount of PrPsc in lymphoid and CNS tssues from elk and sheep decreased gradually as a result of autolysis, but PrPsc was still detectable after 5 and 15 d incubation at 37°C by PTA-WB for all lymphoid and CNS samples. The results of the ELISA supported those of PTA-WB, particularly for CNS tissues. In conclusion, autolysis at 37°C for 15 d would not significantly affect the detection of PrPsc in lymphoid and CNS tissues by WB and ELISA and, particularly, PTA-WB is a valuable and alternative confirmatory test to detect PrPsc in autolyzed lymphoid and CNS samples.

  1. Analysis of differentially expressed genes in two immunologically distinct strains of Eimeria maxima using suppression subtractive hybridization and dot-blot hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background It is well known that different Eimeria maxima strains exhibit significant antigenic variation. However, the genetic basis of these phenotypes remains unclear. Methods Total RNA and mRNA were isolated from unsporulated oocysts of E. maxima strains SH and NT, which were found to have significant differences in immunogenicity in our previous research. Two subtractive cDNA libraries were constructed using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) and specific genes were further analyzed by dot-blot hybridization and qRT-PCR analysis. Results A total of 561 clones were selected from both cDNA libraries and the length of the inserted fragments was 0.25–1.0 kb. Dot-blot hybridization revealed a total of 86 differentially expressed clones (63 from strain SH and 23 from strain NT). Nucleotide sequencing analysis of these clones revealed ten specific contigs (six from strain SH and four from strain NT). Further analysis found that six contigs from strain SH and three from strain NT shared significant identities with previously reported proteins, and one contig was presumed to be novel. The specific differentially expressed genes were finally verified by RT-PCR and qRT-PCR analyses. Conclusions The data presented here suggest that specific genes identified between the two strains may be important molecules in the immunogenicity of E. maxima that may present potential new drug targets or vaccine candidates for coccidiosis. PMID:24894832

  2. A 15-year-long Southern blotting analysis of FMR1 to detect female carriers and for prenatal diagnosis of fragile X syndrome in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzeng, C-C; Tsai, L-P; Chang, Y-K; Hung, Y-J; Chang, Y-Y; Su, Y-P; Jiang, J-J; Liang, H-M

    2017-08-01

    Here, we review the results of Southern blotting analyses of the FMR1 gene performed in our reference laboratory in Taiwan over a 15-year period. In total, 725 high-risk women with a family history of fragile X syndrome (FXS) or idiopathic intellectual disability, 3911 low-risk pregnant women without such family history, and prenatal diagnosis data for 32 foetuses from 24 carrier mothers were included. Only 2 carriers were in the low-risk group, which indicated a prevalence of 1 of 1955 women (95% confidence interval: 1/7156-1/539). A total of 100 carriers were found to be in the high-risk group, thus revealing a significantly higher frequency than the low-risk group (100/725 vs 2/3911, P<0.0001). Eight of the 14 foetuses that inherited the maternal mutant allele were verified to have a full mutation, with the smallest maternal pre-mutation allele carrying 56 CGG repeats. The overall findings confirmed that the carrier prevalence among low-risk women in Taiwan is significantly lower than that reported in western countries. Therefore, the most important step for preventing FXS in Taiwan would be to focus on high-risk women by promoting general awareness of this disease and spreading knowledge regarding the benefits of carrier screening and prenatal testing. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Accurate and Practical Identification of 20 Fusarium Species by Seven-Locus Sequence Analysis and Reverse Line Blot Hybridization, and an In Vitro Antifungal Susceptibility Study▿†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, He; Xiao, Meng; Kong, Fanrong; Chen, Sharon; Dou, Hong-Tao; Sorrell, Tania; Li, Ruo-Yu; Xu, Ying-Chun

    2011-01-01

    Eleven reference and 25 clinical isolates of Fusarium were subject to multilocus DNA sequence analysis to determine the species and haplotypes of the fusarial isolates from Beijing and Shandong, China. Seven loci were analyzed: the translation elongation factor 1 alpha gene (EF-1α); the nuclear rRNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS), large subunit (LSU), and intergenic spacer (IGS) regions; the second largest subunit of the RNA polymerase gene (RPB2); the calmodulin gene (CAM); and the mitochondrial small subunit (mtSSU) rRNA gene. We also evaluated an IGS-targeted PCR/reverse line blot (RLB) assay for species/haplotype identification of Fusarium. Twenty Fusarium species and seven species complexes were identified. Of 25 clinical isolates (10 species), the Gibberella (Fusarium) fujikuroi species complex was the commonest (40%) and was followed by the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) (36%) and the F. incarnatum-F. equiseti species complex (12%). Six FSSC isolates were identified to the species level as FSSC-3+4, and three as FSSC-5. Twenty-nine IGS, 27 EF-1α, 26 RPB2, 24 CAM, 18 ITS, 19 LSU, and 18 mtSSU haplotypes were identified; 29 were unique, and haplotypes for 24 clinical strains were novel. By parsimony informative character analysis, the IGS locus was the most phylogenetically informative, and the rRNA gene regions were the least. Results by RLB were concordant with multilocus sequence analysis for all isolates. Amphotericin B was the most active drug against all species. Voriconazole MICs were high (>8 μg/ml) for 15 (42%) isolates, including FSSC. Analysis of larger numbers of isolates is required to determine the clinical utility of the seven-locus sequence analysis and RLB assay in species classification of fusaria. PMID:21389150

  4. Automated design of genomic Southern blot probes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komiyama Noboru H

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sothern blotting is a DNA analysis technique that has found widespread application in molecular biology. It has been used for gene discovery and mapping and has diagnostic and forensic applications, including mutation detection in patient samples and DNA fingerprinting in criminal investigations. Southern blotting has been employed as the definitive method for detecting transgene integration, and successful homologous recombination in gene targeting experiments. The technique employs a labeled DNA probe to detect a specific DNA sequence in a complex DNA sample that has been separated by restriction-digest and gel electrophoresis. Critically for the technique to succeed the probe must be unique to the target locus so as not to cross-hybridize to other endogenous DNA within the sample. Investigators routinely employ a manual approach to probe design. A genome browser is used to extract DNA sequence from the locus of interest, which is searched against the target genome using a BLAST-like tool. Ideally a single perfect match is obtained to the target, with little cross-reactivity caused by homologous DNA sequence present in the genome and/or repetitive and low-complexity elements in the candidate probe. This is a labor intensive process often requiring several attempts to find a suitable probe for laboratory testing. Results We have written an informatic pipeline to automatically design genomic Sothern blot probes that specifically attempts to optimize the resultant probe, employing a brute-force strategy of generating many candidate probes of acceptable length in the user-specified design window, searching all against the target genome, then scoring and ranking the candidates by uniqueness and repetitive DNA element content. Using these in silico measures we can automatically design probes that we predict to perform as well, or better, than our previous manual designs, while considerably reducing design time. We went on to

  5. The Use of Biotin to Demonstrate Immunohistochemistry, Western Blotting, and Dot Blots in University Practical Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, Thomas James; Knighton, Ronald; Chuck, Jo-Anne

    2012-01-01

    Immunological detection of proteins is an essential method to demonstrate to undergraduate biology students, however, is often difficult in resource and time poor student laboratory sessions. This method describes a failsafe method to rapidly and economically demonstrate this technique using biotinylated proteins or biotin itself as targets for…

  6. Analysis of Western Australian zebra rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, M.J.; Cashion, J.D.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Zebra rock is a striking rock from the Ord River area of Western Australia which contains regularly spaced white and red-brown bands or rods. Its ease of working has made it popular for use in ornaments and costume jewellery. However, the mechanism for its formation has been a source of controversy for 75 years and is still not settled. Possible mechanisms proposed include slow sedimentation with regular addition of hydrated iron oxides, leaching of a reddish mudstone, post-depositional mobilisation and subsequent rhythmic precipitation of iron oxides from groundwaters, and accumulation of iron-containing minerals in ripple troughs. Loughnan and Roberts suggested a more detailed explanation and from a detailed mineralogical examination, including XRD, XRF, SEM and TEM, they concluded that the only major difference between the two coloured bands was the presence of hematite, α-Fe 2 O 3 . In an attempt to throw more light on the problem, we have taken 57 Fe Moessbauer spectra of samples from the two different coloured regions. As expected, the white coloured material contained little iron, giving a weak, broad single line spectrum at room temperature. At 78 K, the spectrum has split into a magnetic sextet which has not yet been positively identified. As expected from the XRD, the spectrum of the red part principally consists of a strong sextet due to hematite, although there is also a weak component from the phase in the white material. It is hoped that further analysis will help us to eliminate at least some of the proposed mechanisms for the formation of zebra rock

  7. Post-staining electroblotting for efficient and reliable peptide blotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Der-Yen; Chang, Geen-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Post-staining electroblotting has been previously described to transfer Coomassie blue-stained proteins from polyacrylamide gel onto polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) membranes. Actually, stained peptides can also be efficiently and reliably transferred. Because of selective staining procedures for peptides and increased retention of stained peptides on the membrane, even peptides with molecular masses less than 2 kDa such as bacitracin and granuliberin R are transferred with satisfactory results. For comparison, post-staining electroblotting is about 16-fold more sensitive than the conventional electroblotting for visualization of insulin on the membrane. Therefore, the peptide blots become practicable and more accessible to further applications, e.g., blot overlay detection or immunoblotting analysis. In addition, the efficiency of peptide transfer is favorable for N-terminal sequence analysis. With this method, peptide blotting can be normalized for further analysis such as blot overlay assay, immunoblotting, and N-terminal sequencing for identification of peptide in crude or partially purified samples.

  8. Histone gene expression in early development of Xenopus laevis. Analysis of histone mRNA in oocytes and embryos by blot-hybridization and cell-free translation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dongen, W. M.; Moorman, A. F.; Destrée, O. H.

    1983-01-01

    This study comprises the hybridization analysis of electrophoretically separated histone mRNAs from oocytes and embryos of Xenopus laevis, and analysis of in vitro translation products of these mRNAs on polyacrylamide gels containing sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) or Triton X-100. In oocytes and

  9. Phenylglyoxal-Based Visualization of Citrullinated Proteins on Western Blots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanne M. M. Hensen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Citrullination is the conversion of peptidylarginine to peptidylcitrulline, which is catalyzed by peptidylarginine deiminases. This conversion is involved in different physiological processes and is associated with several diseases, including cancer and rheumatoid arthritis. A common method to detect citrullinated proteins relies on anti-modified citrulline antibodies directed to a specific chemical modification of the citrulline side chain. Here, we describe a versatile, antibody-independent method for the detection of citrullinated proteins on a membrane, based on the selective reaction of phenylglyoxal with the ureido group of citrulline under highly acidic conditions. The method makes use of 4-azidophenylglyoxal, which, after reaction with citrullinated proteins, can be visualized with alkyne-conjugated probes. The sensitivity of this procedure, using an alkyne-biotin probe, appeared to be comparable to the antibody-based detection method and independent of the sequence surrounding the citrulline.

  10. Analysis of glabrous canary seeds by ELISA, mass spectrometry, and Western blotting for the absence of cross-reactivity with major plant food allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boye, Joyce Irene; Achouri, Allaoua; Raymond, Nancy; Cleroux, Chantal; Weber, Dorcas; Koerner, Terence B; Hucl, Pierre; Patterson, Carol Ann

    2013-06-26

    Glabrous (hairless) canary seed belongs to the Poaceae (Gramineae) family and could serve as an alternative source of gluten-free cereal grain. In this study, allergenic cross-reactivities between hairless, dehulled canary seeds (Phalaris canariensis) and major allergenic proteins from gluten, soy, peanuts, tree nuts, sesame, and mustard were studied using commercial enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA) kits specific for these target allergens. Mass spectrometry (MS) and immunoblotting were further used to assess for the presence of gluten-specific protein fragments. MS results revealed the likely presence of proteins homologous with rice, oat, corn, carrot, tomato, radish, beet, and chickpea. However, no presence of celiac-related gluten fragments from wheat, rye, barley, or their derivatives was found. Immunoblotting studies yielded negative results, further confirming the absence of gluten in the canary seed samples tested. No cross-reactivities were detected between canary seeds and almond, hazelnut, mustard, peanut, sesame, soy, walnut, and gluten using ELISA.

  11. An analysis of Western European food retailers' buying behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Hans; Blunch, Niels Johan

    In this paper, a project analysing food retailers' buying behaviour is presented. A conjoint analysis has been conducted in 17 Western European countries. The project encompasses the retail buyers' buying behaving of pork, fish and cheese products. The paper presents the aim and outline of the st......In this paper, a project analysing food retailers' buying behaviour is presented. A conjoint analysis has been conducted in 17 Western European countries. The project encompasses the retail buyers' buying behaving of pork, fish and cheese products. The paper presents the aim and outline...

  12. TLC-Blot (Far-Eastern Blot) and Its Application to Functional Lipidomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taki, Takao

    2015-01-01

    A simple method for transfer of lipids-including phospholipids, glycolipids, and neutral lipids-from a high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) plate to a polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) membrane, TLC-Blot (Far-Eastern Blot), and its biochemical applications are presented. This chapter presents the conventional procedures for separating lipid from tissue samples, cultured cells, and serum and the subsequent development of TLC. Individual lipids separated on an HPTLC plate can be transferred to the PVDF membrane quantitatively and also isolated from the lipid-blotted membrane by a one-step purification procedure. Immunodetection with monoclonal antibodies and treatment with lipid-metabolizing enzymes on the lipid-blotted membrane are possible. The method for identification of individual lipids transferred on the PVDF membrane using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization quadrupole ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TLC-Blot/MALDI-TOF MS) is shown as a functional lipidomics application.

  13. Linking Ayurveda and Western medicine by integrative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauzi, Fazlin Mohd; Koutsoukas, Alexios; Lowe, Robert; Joshi, Kalpana; Fan, Tai-Ping; Glen, Robert C; Bender, Andreas

    2013-04-01

    In this article, we discuss our recent work in elucidating the mode-of-action of compounds used in traditional medicine including Ayurvedic medicine. Using computational ('in silico') approach, we predict potential targets for Ayurvedic anti-cancer compounds, obtained from the Indian Plant Anticancer Database given its chemical structure. In our analysis, we observed that: (i) the targets predicted can be connected to cancer pathogenesis i.e. steroid-5-alpha reductase 1 and 2 and estrogen receptor-β, and (ii) predominantly hormone-dependent cancer targets were predicted for the anti-cancer compounds. Through the use of our in silico target prediction, we conclude that understanding how traditional medicine such as Ayurveda work through linking with the 'western' understanding of chemistry and protein targets can be a fruitful avenue in addition to bridging the gap between the two different schools of thinking. Given that compounds used in Ayurveda have been tested and used for thousands of years (although not in the same approach as Western medicine), they can potentially be developed into potential new drugs. Hence, to further advance the case of Ayurvedic medicine, we put forward some suggestions namely: (a) employing and integrating novel analytical methods given the advancements of 'omics' and (b) sharing experimental data and clinical results on studies done on Ayurvedic compounds in an easy and accessible way.

  14. Comparative Analysis of Music Recordings from Western and Non-Western traditions by Automatic Tonal Feature Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Gómez

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The automatic analysis of large musical corpora by means of computational models overcomes some limitations of manual analysis, and the unavailability of scores for most existing music makes necessary to work with audio recordings. Until now, research on this area has focused on music from the Western tradition. Nevertheless, we might ask if the available methods are suitable when analyzing music from other cultures. We present an empirical approach to the comparative analysis of audio recordings, focusing on tonal features and data mining techniques. Tonal features are related to the pitch class distribution, pitch range and employed scale, gamut and tuning system. We provide our initial but promising results obtained when trying to automatically distinguish music from Western and non- Western traditions; we analyze which descriptors are most relevant and study their distribution over 1500 pieces from different traditions and styles. As a result, some feature distributions differ for Western and non-Western music, and the obtained classification accuracy is higher than 80% for different classification algorithms and an independent test set. These results show that automatic description of audio signals together with data mining techniques provide means to characterize huge music collections from different traditions and complement musicological manual analyses.

  15. Matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization mass spectrometry peptide mass fingerprinting for proteome analysis: identification efficiency after on-blot or in-gel digestion with and without desalting procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamer, S; Jungblut, P R

    2001-03-10

    In theory, peptide mass fingerprinting by matrix assisted laser desorption-ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) has the potential to identify all of the proteins detected by silver staining on gels. In practice, if the genome of the organism investigated is completely sequenced, using current techniques, all proteins stained by Coomassie Brilliant Blue can be identified. This loss of identification sensitivity of ten to hundred-fold is caused by loss of peptides by surface contacts. Therefore, we performed digestion and transfer of peptides in the lower microl range and reduced the number of steps. The peptide mix obtained from in-gel or on-blot digestion was analyzed directly after digestion or after concentration on POROS R2 beads. Eight protein spots of a 2-DE gel from Mycobacterium bovis BCG were identified using these four preparation procedures for MALDI-MS. Overall, on-blot digestion was as effective as in-gel digestion. Whereas higher signal intensities resulted after concentration, hydrophilic peptides are better detected by direct measurement of the peptide mix without POROS R2 concentration.

  16. A bead-based western for high-throughput cellular signal transduction analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treindl, Fridolin; Ruprecht, Benjamin; Beiter, Yvonne; Schultz, Silke; Döttinger, Anette; Staebler, Annette; Joos, Thomas O.; Kling, Simon; Poetz, Oliver; Fehm, Tanja; Neubauer, Hans; Kuster, Bernhard; Templin, Markus F.

    2016-01-01

    Dissecting cellular signalling requires the analysis of large number of proteins. The DigiWest approach we describe here transfers the western blot to a bead-based microarray platform. By combining gel-based protein separation with immobilization on microspheres, hundreds of replicas of the initial blot are created, thus enabling the comprehensive analysis of limited material, such as cells collected by laser capture microdissection, and extending traditional western blotting to reach proteomic scales. The combination of molecular weight resolution, sensitivity and signal linearity on an automated platform enables the rapid quantification of hundreds of specific proteins and protein modifications in complex samples. This high-throughput western blot approach allowed us to identify and characterize alterations in cellular signal transduction that occur during the development of resistance to the kinase inhibitor Lapatinib, revealing major changes in the activation state of Ephrin-mediated signalling and a central role for p53-controlled processes. PMID:27659302

  17. Linking Ayurveda and Western medicine by integrative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazlin Mohd Fauzi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we discuss our recent work in elucidating the mode-of-action of compounds used in traditional medicine including Ayurvedic medicine. Using computational (′in silico′ approach, we predict potential targets for Ayurvedic anti-cancer compounds, obtained from the Indian Plant Anticancer Database given its chemical structure. In our analysis, we observed that: (i the targets predicted can be connected to cancer pathogenesis i.e. steroid-5-alpha reductase 1 and 2 and estrogen receptor-β, and (ii predominantly hormone-dependent cancer targets were predicted for the anti-cancer compounds. Through the use of our in silico target prediction, we conclude that understanding how traditional medicine such as Ayurveda work through linking with the ′western′ understanding of chemistry and protein targets can be a fruitful avenue in addition to bridging the gap between the two different schools of thinking. Given that compounds used in Ayurveda have been tested and used for thousands of years (although not in the same approach as Western medicine, they can potentially be developed into potential new drugs. Hence, to further advance the case of Ayurvedic medicine, we put forward some suggestions namely: (a employing and integrating novel analytical methods given the advancements of ′omics′ and (b sharing experimental data and clinical results on studies done on Ayurvedic compounds in an easy and accessible way.

  18. Discrepancy of cytogenetic analysis in Western and eastern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Hsun; Chen, Pui-Yi; Li, Tzu-Ying; Yeh, Chung-Nan; Li, Yi-Shian; Chu, Shao-Yin; Lee, Ming-Liang

    2013-06-01

    This study aimed at investigating the results of second-trimester amniocyte karyotyping in western and eastern Taiwan, and identifying any regional differences in the prevalence of fetal chromosomal anomalies. From 2004 to 2009, pregnant women who underwent amniocentesis in their second trimester at three hospitals in western Taiwan and at four hospitals in eastern Taiwan were included. All the cytogenetic analyses of cultured amniocytes were performed in the cytogenetics laboratory of the Genetic Counseling Center of Hualien Buddhist Tzu Chi General Hospital. We used the chi-square test, Student t test, and Mann-Whitney U test to evaluate the variants of clinical indications, amniocyte karyotyping results, and prevalence and types of chromosomal anomalies in western and eastern Taiwan. During the study period, 3573 samples, 1990 (55.7%) from western Taiwan and 1583 (44.3%) from eastern Taiwan, were collected and analyzed. The main indication for amniocyte karyotyping was advanced maternal age (69.0% in western Taiwan, 67.1% in eastern Taiwan). The detection rates of chromosomal anomalies by amniocyte karyotyping in eastern Taiwan (45/1582, 2.8%) did not differ significantly from that in western Taiwan (42/1989, 2.1%) (p = 1.58). Mothers who had abnormal ultrasound findings and histories of familial hereditary diseases or chromosomal anomalies had higher detection rates of chromosomal anomalies (9.3% and 7.2%, respectively). The detection rate of autosomal anomalies was higher in eastern Taiwan (93.3% vs. 78.6%, p = 0.046), but the detection rate of sex-linked chromosomal anomalies was higher in western Taiwan (21.4% vs. 6.7%, p = 0.046). We demonstrated regional differences in second-trimester amniocyte karyotyping results and established a database of common chromosomal anomalies that could be useful for genetic counseling, especially in eastern Taiwan. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Western Wind and Solar Integration Study: Hydropower Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acker, T.; Pete, C.

    2012-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) study of 20% Wind Energy by 2030 was conducted to consider the benefits, challenges, and costs associated with sourcing 20% of U.S. energy consumption from wind power by 2030. This study found that with proactive measures, no insurmountable barriers were identified to meet the 20% goal. Following this study, DOE and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducted two more studies: the Eastern Wind Integration and Transmission Study (EWITS) covering the eastern portion of the U.S., and the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS) covering the western portion of the United States. The WWSIS was conducted by NREL and research partner General Electric (GE) in order to provide insight into the costs, technical or physical barriers, and operational impacts caused by the variability and uncertainty of wind, photovoltaic, and concentrated solar power when employed to serve up to 35% of the load energy in the WestConnect region (Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and Wyoming). WestConnect is composed of several utility companies working collaboratively to assess stakeholder and market needs to and develop cost-effective improvements to the western wholesale electricity market. Participants include the Arizona Public Service, El Paso Electric Company, NV Energy, Public Service of New Mexico, Salt River Project, Tri-State Generation and Transmission Cooperative, Tucson Electric Power, Xcel Energy and the Western Area Power Administration.

  20. The Western and Yoruba Concept of Beauty: A Comparative Analysis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The subject of aesthetic appreciation in Western culture for example is preserved in museums, whereas in African culture, the objects of aesthetic appreciation take its roots in what Placide Tempel called vital forces, the ontological structure which permeates everything. This serves as the basis for communal values and ...

  1. Analysis of pecan cultivars Mahan and Western in East China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, X; Li, Z; Sun, Z; Wan, X

    2016-09-16

    Pecan (Carya illinoensis) has been introduced to East China for over one hundred years, but its planting is still only occurring at a small scale. The key limiting factor is its low yield. To enhance the yield pecan in East China, two pecan cultivars, Mahan and Western, were examined. Twenty traits describing phasic development, yield, nut quality, and cultural practice were investigated. We found that pecan cultivar Mahan gives a higher yield and nut quality than cultivar Western. We recommend interplanting of cultivar Pawnee to act as a pollinator tree. Appropriate cultivation practices that can be implemented to enhance fruit yield of cultivars Mahan and Western include soil-applied paclobutrazol (PBZ) at certain concentrations, pinching, and supplementary pollination. For example, the addition of 1.25 g/m 2 of PBZ inhibits pecan branch growth and stimulates short bearing branches, which promotes fruit yield. We found that soil-applied PBZ reached optimal performance 82 days after application. A pinching length of 40 cm resulted in a fruit yield increase. In addition, grafting and transplantation may promote male flowering, but delays female flowering. These cultural practices may provide insights that can be used to improve pecan cultivation in East China.

  2. BLOTS AND ALL: A HISTORY OF THE RORSCHACH INK BLOT TEST IN BRITAIN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Katherine; Hegarty, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Despite the easily recognizable nature of the Rorschach ink blot test very little is known about the history of the test in Britain. We attend to the oft-ignored history of the Rorschach test in Britain and compare it to its history in the US. Prior to the Second World War, Rorschach testing in Britain had attracted advocates and critiques. Afterward, the British Rorschach Forum, a network with a high proportion of women, developed around the Tavistock Institute in London and The Rorschach Newsletter. In 1968, the International Rorschach Congress was held in London but soon after the group became less exclusive, and fell into decline. A comparative account of the Rorschach in Britain demonstrates how different national institutions invested in the 'projective hypothesis' according to the influence of psychoanalysis, the adoption of a nationalized health system, and the social positioning of 'others' throughout the twentieth century. In comparing and contrasting the history of the Rorschach in Britain and the US, we decentralize and particularize the history of North American Psychology. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Analysis of prospects for advanced nuclear reactors in western countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Sapia, R. [ENEA, Rome (Italy). Area Energetica; Foskolos, K. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1994-05-01

    Nuclear energy deployment faces stagnation in western european and north american countries as a result of barriers that have appeared over the years. Such barriers were identified in the domains of economics, public acceptance, energy policy, technology, licensing and regulations as well as environment and waste disposal. It is to the nuclear community and particularly the industry to take the initiative and the leadership role for the most significant approaches to overcome these barriers. These approaches include concetration of efforts, lowering of costs and financial risks and extensive use of the experience accumulated so far; clear setting of priorities and long-term global consideration of the energy issue; encouraging an appropriate, stable regulatory environment and harmonisation of general safety objectives and principles, and adequate, globally consistent and clear information to the public. Also within the prime responsability of the nuclear community belong the safe operation of existing plants; making available all necessary information to the public, the media and the political leaders, supporting the development and execution of national energy polcies; supporting authorities in improving regulatory processes; taking all measures to improve economics of nuclear power; pursuing plans for the safe disposal of radioactive wastes. Governments should place energy issues in the appropriate priority level and encourage the establishment of an equally favourable environment for nuclear energy, including a greater consensus among controversial opinion representatives. Finally, authorities should established reasonable, transparent and predictable regulatory enviroments. This paper describes the barriers in a systematic way and proposes appropriate measures to overcame them.

  4. Analysis of prospects for advanced nuclear reactors in western countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Sapia, R.

    1994-01-01

    Nuclear energy deployment faces stagnation in western european and north american countries as a result of barriers that have appeared over the years. Such barriers were identified in the domains of economics, public acceptance, energy policy, technology, licensing and regulations as well as environment and waste disposal. It is to the nuclear community and particularly the industry to take the initiative and the leadership role for the most significant approaches to overcome these barriers. These approaches include concentration of efforts, lowering of costs and financial risks and extensive use of the experience accumulated so far; clear setting of priorities and long-term global consideration of the energy issue; encouraging an appropriate, stable regulatory environment and harmonization of general safety objectives and principles, and adequate, globally consistent and clear information to the public. Also within the prime responsibility of the nuclear community belong the safe operation of existing plants; making available all necessary information to the public, the media and the political leaders, supporting the development and execution of national energy policies; supporting authorities in improving regulatory processes; taking all measures to improve economics of nuclear power; pursuing plans for the safe disposal of radioactive wastes. Governments should place energy issues in the appropriate priority level and encourage the establishment of an equally favourable environment for nuclear energy, including a greater consensus among controversial opinion representatives. Finally, authorities should established reasonable, transparent and predictable regulatory enviroments. This paper describes the barriers in a systematic way and proposes appropriate measures to overcame them

  5. Quantitative analysis of the IgG and IgG subclass immune responses to chromosomal Pseudomonas aeruginosa beta-lactamase in serum from patients with cystic fibrosis by western blotting and laser scanning densitometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, T D; Ciofu, O; Pressler, T

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Antibodies against chromosomal beta-lactamase of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (a beta ab) are markers of the development of resistance of P aeruginosa to beta-lactam antibiotics in patients with cystic fibrosis and chronic lung infection. The role of these antibodies in patients with chronic...... of the chronic infection the a beta ab titres were higher in patients with good lung function than in those with poor lung function. CONCLUSIONS: The association of a weak IgG3 and a strong IgG4 a beta ab response suggests that the contribution of a beta ab antibodies to lung diseases mediated by immune...... complexes might be less important than other antipseudomonal antibodies. A beneficial neutralising effect of the a beta ab antibodies on the antibiotic destroying enzymes may be an additional factor....

  6. Genetic relatedness of orbiviruses by RNA-RNA blot hybridization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodkin, D.K.

    1985-01-01

    RNA-RNA blot hybridization was developed in order to identify type-specific genes among double-stranded (ds) RNA viruses, to assess the genetic relatedness of dsRNA viruses and to classify new strains. Viral dsRNA segments were electrophoresed through 10% polyacrylamide gels, transferred to membranes, and hybridized to [5' 32 P]-pCp labeled genomic RNA from a related strain. Hybridization was performed at 52 0 C, 50% formamide, 5X SSC. Under these conditions heterologous RNA species must share ≥ 74% sequence homology in order to form stable dsRNA hybrids. Cognate genes of nine members of the Palyam serogroup of orbiviruses were identified and their sequence relatedness to the prototype. Palyam virus, was determined. Reciprocal blot hybridizations were performed using radiolabeled genomic RNA of all members of the Palyam serogroup. Unique and variant genes were identified by lack of cross-homology or by weak homology between segments. Since genes 2 and 6 exhibited the highest degree of sequence variability, response to the vertebrate immune system may be a major cause of sequence divergence among members of a single serogroup. Changuinola serogroup isolates were compared by dot-blot hybridization, while Colorado tick fever (CTF) serogroup isolates were compared by the RNA-RNA blot hybridization procedure described for reovirus and Palyam serogroup isolates. Preliminary blot hybridization data were also obtained on the relatedness of members of different Orbivirus serogroups

  7. Strategic analysis of a factory built home opportunity in Western Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Henderson, Stephen Gary

    2006-01-01

    A strategic analysis was completed to determine the feasibility of initiating a factory-built home manufacturing facility in Western Canada. We completed an industry analysis, internal analysis, an opportunity analysis and provide a recommendation on how to proceed. The results indicate a factory built facility is economically feasible if a market of 60 houses per year can be established. The competitive advantages of factory built homes over on-site homes indicate a better quality home can b...

  8. An alternative method for processing northern blots after capillary transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Timothy W

    2015-03-02

    Different laboratories use different methods for the prehybridization, hybridization, and washing steps of the northern blotting procedure. In this protocol, a northern blot is pretreated with Church and Gilbert hybridization buffer to block nonspecific probe-binding sites. The immobilized RNA is then hybridized to a DNA probe specific for the RNA of interest. Finally, the membrane is washed and subjected to autoradiography or phosphorimaging. The solutions and conditions described here may be ideal for those who prefer to use fewer ingredients in their solutions. This protocol is designed to achieve the same goals as other northern blotting approaches. It minimizes background (nonspecific adherence of probe to membrane and nonspecific hybridization) and maximizes specific hybridization to RNAs immobilized on a membrane. © 2015 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  9. An analysis of Western Europe's food retailers' buying behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blunch, Niels Johan; Skytte, Hans

    A study concerning food retailers' buying behaviour is presented. A conjoint analysis has been conducted in 17 West European countries. The study encompasses the retail buyers' buying behaving towards pork, fish and cheese products. The paper presents the background for the study, the outline...

  10. Influence of DNA treatments on Southern blot hybridization analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-06-03

    Jun 3, 2008 ... DNA samples obtained by a non-phenol/chloroform isolation method, from three races of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici ... Key words: Fusarium oxysporum, DIG-IGS Probe, Southern hybridization. INTRODUCTION .... Detection of Fusarium spp in plants with monoclonal antibody. Ann. Phytopathol.

  11. Mammalian α-polymerase: cloning of partial complementary DNA and immunobinding of catalytic subunit in crude homogenate protein blots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SenGupta, D.N.; Kumar, P.; Zmudzka, B.Z.; Coughlin, S.; Vishwanatha, J.K.; Robey, F.A.; Parrott, C.; Wilson, S.H.

    1987-01-01

    A new polyclonal antibody against the α-polymerase catalytic polypeptide was prepared by using homogeneous HeLa cellα-polymerase. The antibody neutralized α-polymerase activity and was strong and specific for the α-polymerase catalytic polypeptide (M/sub r/ 183,000) in Western blot analysis of crude extracts of HeLa cells. The antibody was used to screen a cDNA library of newborn rat brain poly(A+) RNA in λgt11. A positive phage was identified and plaque purified. This phage, designated λpolα1.2, also was found to be positive with an antibody against Drosophila α-polymerase. The insert in λpolα1.2 (1183 base pairs) contained a poly(A) sequence at the 3' terminus and a short in-phase open reading frame at the 5' terminus. A synthetic oligopeptide (eight amino acids) corresponding to the open reading frame was used to raise antiserum in rabbits. Antibody affinity purified from this serum was found to be immunoreactive against purified α-polymerase by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and was capable of immunoprecipitating α-polymerase. This indicated the λpolα1.2 insert encoded an α-polymerase epitope and suggested that the cDNA corresponded to an α-polymerase mRNA. This was confirmed in hybrid selection experiments using pUC9 containing the cDNA insert and poly(A+) RNA from newborn rat brain; the insert hybridized to mRNA capable of encoding α-polymerase catalytic polypeptides. Northern blot analysis of rat brain poly(A+) RNA revealed that this mRNA is ∼5.4 kilobases

  12. Hydrogen and Biofuels - A Modeling Analysis of Competing Energy Carriers for Western Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guel, Timur; Kypreos, Socrates; Barreto, Leonardo

    2007-07-01

    This paper deals with the prospects of hydrogen and biofuels as energy carriers in the Western European transportation sector. The assessment is done by combining the US hydrogen analysis H2A models for the design of hydrogen production and delivery chains, and the Western European Hydrogen Markal Model EHM with a detailed representation of biofuels, and the European electricity and transportation sector. The paper derives policy recommendations to support the market penetration of hydrogen and biofuels, and investigates learning interactions between the different energy carriers. (auth)

  13. In Situ Blotting : A Novel Method for Direct Transfer of Native Proteins from Sectioned Tissue to Blotting Membrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okabe, Masashi; Nyakas, Csaba; Buwalda, Bauke; Luiten, Paul G.M.

    1993-01-01

    We describe a novel technique for direct transfer of native proteins from unfixed frozen tissue sections to an immobilizing matrix, e.g., nitrocellulose, polyvinyliden difluoride, or positively charged nylon membranes. Proteins are directly blotted onto the membrane, providing optimal accessibility

  14. Blotting from PhastGel to Membranes by Ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kost, Joseph; Azagury, Aharon

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound based approach for enhanced protein blotting is proposed. Three minutes of ultrasound exposure (1 MHz, 2.5 W/cm(2)) was sufficient for a clear transfer of proteins from a polyacrylamide gel (PhastGel) to nitrocellulose or Nylon 66 Biotrans membrane. The proteins evaluated were prestained sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide standards (18,500-106,000 Da) and 14C-labeled Rainbow protein molecular weight markers (14,300-200,000 Da).

  15. Western blotting of high and low molecular weight proteins using heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurien, Biji T; Scofield, R Hal

    2015-01-01

    A method for the electrophoretic transfer of high and low molecular weight proteins to nitrocellulose membranes following sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) polyacrylamide gel is described here. The transfer was performed with heated (70-75 °C) normal transfer buffer from which methanol had been omitted. Complete transfer of high and low molecular weight antigens (molecular weight protein standards, a purified protein, and proteins from a human tissue extract) could be carried out in 10 min for a 7 % (0.75 mm) SDS polyacrylamide gel. For 10 and 12.5 % gels (0.75 mm) the corresponding time was 15 min. A complete transfer could be carried out in 20 min for 7, 10, and 12.5 % gels (1.5 mm gels). The permeability of the gel is increased by heat, such that the proteins trapped in the polyacrylamide gel matrix can be easily transferred to the membrane. The heat mediated transfer method was compared with a conventional transfer protocol, under similar conditions. The conventional method transferred minimal low molecular weight proteins while retaining most of the high molecular weight proteins in the gel. In summary, this procedure is particularly useful for the transfer of high molecular weight proteins, very rapid, and avoids the use of methanol.

  16. Indeterminate HIV-1 Western Blots: Etiology, Natural History, and Psychological Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-16

    William Lafferty, Departments of Medicine. Laboratori’ Medicine. Epidenrioloý k. .nd Thomas S. Inui, Pamela H. Louie, Carol A. Gates, Biostatistics ...and dentistry . Finally, the psychosoclal onsequences of lWB are considerable.16 1655;LBISOTO2 JAB 13:33 03-17-92 P0003 U3 C9439 0021 11655 JGLM Nov

  17. A Western Dietary Pattern Increases Prostate Cancer Risk: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabiani, Roberto; Minelli, Liliana; Bertarelli, Gaia; Bacci, Silvia

    2016-10-12

    Dietary patterns were recently applied to examine the relationship between eating habits and prostate cancer (PC) risk. While the associations between PC risk with the glycemic index and Mediterranean score have been reviewed, no meta-analysis is currently available on dietary patterns defined by "a posteriori" methods. A literature search was carried out (PubMed, Web of Science) to identify studies reporting the relationship between dietary patterns and PC risk. Relevant dietary patterns were selected and the risks estimated were calculated by a random-effect model. Multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs), for a first-percentile increase in dietary pattern score, were combined by a dose-response meta-analysis. Twelve observational studies were included in the meta-analysis which identified a "Healthy pattern" and a "Western pattern". The Healthy pattern was not related to PC risk (OR = 0.96; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.88-1.04) while the Western pattern significantly increased it (OR = 1.34; 95% CI: 1.08-1.65). In addition, the "Carbohydrate pattern", which was analyzed in four articles, was positively associated with a higher PC risk (OR = 1.64; 95% CI: 1.35-2.00). A significant linear trend between the Western ( p = 0.011) pattern, the Carbohydrate ( p = 0.005) pattern, and the increment of PC risk was observed. The small number of studies included in the meta-analysis suggests that further investigation is necessary to support these findings.

  18. Forest inventory and analysis program in the Western U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley. Lehman

    2015-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest (PNW) Research Station’s Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the USDA Forest Service monitors and reports on the status and trends of the Pacific Island’s forest resources and ecosystem services. Since 2001 the FIA program has partnered with State and Private Forestry’s, Region 5 and the local governments in the U.S. Affiliated Western...

  19. Recent Vs. Historical Seismicity Analysis For Banat Seismic Region (Western Part Of Romania)

    OpenAIRE

    Oros Eugen; Diaconescu Mihai

    2015-01-01

    The present day seismic activity from a region reflects the active tectonics and can confirm the seismic potential of the seismogenic sources as they are modelled using the historical seismicity. This paper makes a comparative analysis of the last decade seismicity recorded in the Banat Seismic Region (western part of Romania) and the historical seismicity of the region (Mw≥4.0). Four significant earthquake sequences have been recently localized in the region, three of them nearby the city of...

  20. Methodological and theoretical issues in the comparative analysis of gender relations in Western Europe

    OpenAIRE

    S Walby

    1994-01-01

    The aim in this paper is to contribute to the development of a research agenda for the comparative analysis of gender relations in Western Europe. Its focus is the clarification of the methodological and theoretical issues involved. Several different indices of gender inequality are assessed. It is argued that it is important to distinguish between the form and degree of patriarchy, rather than assuming that these are closely associated. Data from the EC and Scandinavia are used to illustrate...

  1. Unsettled Conflicts in the Post-Soviet Space in the Analysis of the Western Research Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantine Petrovich Kurylev

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the ideas of some leading western expert analytical centers about the problems of the conflicts development on the CIS space. The subject of research is the positions of the “think tanks” of the USA, Great Britain, Germany and France. Among a large number of the regional conflicts in the CIS the authors focused attention on the conflicts in the East of Ukraine, in Transnistria and in the Nagorno-Karabakh. Such selection is explained by the acute character and impact of these conflicts on the interests of Russia and the other leading states and the international organizations. The theoretical and methodological background of the article consists of the approaches and methods, which are used by the modern political science for the comprehensive analysis of the architecture and structure of the international relations, the mechanism of formation and functioning of the certain states’ foreign policy. The research has the cross-disciplinary character and is made at the intersection of such disciplines as history, political science, conflictology and the international relations. The authors reveal positions of the western “think tanks” on the genesis, evolution and the potential settlement of the armed conflicts in the CIS region. The article highlights the estimates of the western “think tanks” of the reasons of the “frozen” conflicts on the post-USSR space, of the Russian Federation’s role and the participation of external actors (the EU and the USA in their settlement. Giving the research of the approaches of the western expert analytical centers, the authors reach a conclusion about a set course of the western political scientists’ estimates. It reflects in assignment of a unilateral responsibility for a conflict inhaling or its unleashing on Russia, or on the party of a conflict, closed to the official Moscow. It is particularly obvious in the Ukrainian crisis: the Western countries consider our state

  2. Silver and gold nanoparticle coated membranes applied to protein dot blots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, F.; Drozdowicz-Tomsia, K.; Shtoyko, T.; Goldys, E. M.

    2011-01-01

    Detection and identification of low abundance biomarker proteins is frequently based on various types of membrane-based devices. Lowering of the protein detection limits is vital in commercial applications such as lateral flow assays and in Western blots widely used in proteomics. These currently suffer from insufficient detection sensitivity and low retention for small 2–5 kDa proteins. In this study, we report the deposition of two types of metal nanoparticles: gold colloids (50–95 nm diameter) and silver fractals onto a range of commonly used types of membranes including polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF). Due to strong affinity of proteins to noble metals, such modified membranes have the potential to effectively capture trace proteins preventing their loss. The membranes modified by metal particles were characterized optically and by SEM. The membrane performance in protein dot blots was evaluated using the protein—fluorophore conjugates Deep Purple-bovine serum albumin and fluorescein—human serum albumin. We found that the metal nanoparticles increase light extinction by metals, which is balanced by increased fluorescence, so that the effective fluorescence signal is unchanged. This feature combined with the capture of proteins by the nanoparticles embedded in the membrane increases the detection limit of membrane assays.

  3. Thermo Gravimetric and Differential Thermal Analysis of Clay of Western Rajasthan (india)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhawat, M. S.

    The paper presents the study of thermo gravimetric and differential thermal analysis of blended clay. Western part of Rajasthan (India) is rich resource of Ball clays and it is mainly used by porcelain, sanitary ware, and tile industry. The quality and grade of clay available in the region vary from one deposit to other. To upgrade the fired colour and strength properties, different variety of clays may be blended together. The paper compares the results of thermal analysis one of blended clay B2 with reference clay of Ukraine which is imported by industries owners. The result revealed that the blended clay is having mineral kaolinite while the Ukrainian clay is Halloysite.

  4. Lineament and Morphometric Analysis for Watershed Development of Tarali River Basin, Western India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikrant Bartakke

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Tarali river is major tributary of River Krishna, which is flowing in western India. The study area lies between latitude 17°23' to 17°38' N and longitude 73°48' to 74°7' E. The area has steep to moderate slope and elevation ranges from 584 - 1171m above mean sea level. Basin exhibits hilly and mountain terrain forming ridges and Western Ghats with deep valley, plateaus and plain. The whole area can be obtained in topographical maps i.e. 47 G/14, 47 G/15 47 K/2, 47 K/3 covering area of about 627 sq.km, acquired from Survey of India. Present study includes lineament and morphometric analysis of Tarali River basin for management and conservation of watershed.

  5. 13th New Mexico Analysis Seminar & Western Spring Sectional Meeting of the AMS

    CERN Document Server

    Marcantognini, Stefania; Stokolos, Alexander; Urbina, Wilfredo; Harmonic analysis, partial differential equations, complex analysis, Banach spaces, and operator theory : celebrating Cora Sadosky's life

    2016-01-01

    Covering a range of subjects from operator theory and classical harmonic analysis to Banach space theory, this book contains survey and expository articles by leading experts in their corresponding fields, and features fully-refereed, high-quality papers exploring new results and trends in spectral theory, mathematical physics, geometric function theory, and partial differential equations. Graduate students and researchers in analysis will find inspiration in the articles collected in this volume, which emphasize the remarkable connections between harmonic analysis and operator theory. Another shared research interest of the contributors of this volume lies in the area of applied harmonic analysis, where a new notion called chromatic derivatives has recently been introduced in communication engineering. The material for this volume is based on the 13th New Mexico Analysis Seminar held at the University of New Mexico, April 3-4, 2014 and on several special sections of the Western Spring Sectional Meeting at th...

  6. Far Western: probing membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einarson, Margret B; Pugacheva, Elena N; Orlinick, Jason R

    2007-08-01

    INTRODUCTIONThe far-Western technique described in this protocol is fundamentally similar to Western blotting. In Western blots, an antibody is used to detect a query protein on a membrane. In contrast, in a far-Western blot (also known as an overlay assay) the antibody is replaced by a recombinant GST fusion protein (produced and purified from bacteria), and the assay detects the interaction of this protein with target proteins on a membrane. The membranes are washed and blocked, incubated with probe protein, washed again, and subjected to autoradiography. The GST fusion (probe) proteins are often labeled with (32)P; alternatively, the membrane can be probed with unlabeled GST fusion protein, followed by detection using commercially available GST antibodies. The nonradioactive approach is substantially more expensive (due to the purchase of antibody and detection reagents) than using radioactively labeled proteins. In addition, care must be taken to control for nonspecific interactions with GST alone and a signal resulting from antibody cross-reactivity. In some instances, proteins on the membrane are not able to interact after transfer. This may be due to improper folding, particularly in the case of proteins expressed from a phage expression library. This protocol describes a way to overcome this by washing the membrane in denaturation buffer, which is then serially diluted to permit slow renaturation of the proteins.

  7. The Impact of Tourism on Economic Growth in the Western Balkan Countries: An Empirical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Dr Nasir Selimi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this research paper is to empirically analyse the effects of tourism on economic growth in Western Balkan countries (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, FYROM, Montenegro and Serbia. Design/Methodology/Approach: The empirical analysis consists of 17-year panel data of 6 countries over the period 1998 to 2014. Several models are analysed using the panel regression econometric techniques. The study investigates the random and fixed effects, as well as individual heterogeneity across those countries. Also, the Hausman Taylor IV estimator is used as the most appropriate model for this analysis. The real income per capita of the sample countries is modelled as dependent on the lagged income per capita, tourist arrivals, tourism receipts, FDI stock, exports and government expenditures. Findings: The estimation results in all types of models, and indicate that tourism has a positive and significant impact on economic growth in the Western Balkan countries. The Hausman Taylor IV model suggests that for every 1% increase of tourist arrivals, the output will increase approximately by 0.08%. Research limitations/implications: Although the Hausman Taylor IV model performs well, the results should be interpreted with caution. The analysis has its limitations; firstly, the total number of observations is relatively small for a panel regression analysis; secondly, the problem of endogenity is not completely avoided. However, the study implies that these countries should enhance efforts for joint tourism sector policies to engender economic sustainability. Originality/Value: To our best knowledge, this is the first attempt of estimating the effects of tourism on economic growth in the Western Balkan countries using the Hausman Taylor IV model.

  8. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF SPECIES COMPOSITION OF GROUND BEETLES OF COASTAL AND ISLAND ECOSYSTEMS OF THE WESTERN CASPIAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Abdurakhmanov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available For the first time studied the species composition of ground beetles of coastal and island ecosystems of the Western Caspian. The article provides a comparative analysis of species composition of ground beetles and adjacent areas.

  9. Mutation analysis of β-thalassemia in East-Western Indian population: a recent molecular approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah PS

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Parth S Shah,1 Nidhi D Shah,2 Hari Shankar P Ray,3 Nikunj B Khatri,3 Ketan K Vaghasia,3 Rutvik J Raval,4 Sandip C Shah,3 Mandava V Rao5 1Department of Medicine, Lahey Hospital and Medical Center, Boston, MA, 2Department of Pediatrics, Nassau University Medical Centre, New York, NY, USA; 3Supratech Micropath Laboratory and Research Institute, 4Department of Zoology, 5School of Sciences, Gujarat University, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India Background: β-Thalassemia is the most prevalent genetic disorder in India. Its traits and coinheritance vary from mild to severe conditions, resulting in thalassemia minor, intermediate, and major, depending upon many factors.Purpose: The objective of this study was to identify the incidence of β-thalassemia traits, their coinheritance, and mutations, as well as to support the patients already diagnosed with β-thalassemia in East-Western Indian population for better management.Patients and methods: Seventy-five referral cases for β-thalassemia were analyzed for various β-thalassemia traits, heterozygosity, and homozygosity conditions. Blood phenotypic parameters using cell counter and capillary electrophoresis were investigated. Analyses of eight common mutations of thalassemia in India were carried out using polymerase chain reaction-amplification refractory mutation system, end point polymerase chain reaction, and DNA sequencing methods.Results: Of these (75 referral cases from East-Western Indian region, 68 were positive for β-thalassemia (90.67%. The majority of case types were of β-thalassemia minor (49, 65.33%, followed by HbE traits (6, 8.0% and β-thalassemia major, including heterozygous and homozygous (5, 6.66%; 4, 5.33% types and then HbE homozygous (2, 2.66%, as well as one each of the HbE/β-thalassemia and HbD/β-thalassemia (1, 1.34% combination. Mutation analysis also revealed that the highest frequency of mutation was c.92+5G>C (41, 60.29% followed by deletion 619bp (9, 13.23% and c.79G>A (8, 11

  10. Western classical music development: a statistical analysis of composers similarity, differentiation and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georges, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a statistical analysis that captures similarities and differences between classical music composers with the eventual aim to understand why particular composers 'sound' different even if their 'lineages' (influences network) are similar or why they 'sound' alike if their 'lineages' are different. In order to do this we use statistical methods and measures of association or similarity (based on presence/absence of traits such as specific 'ecological' characteristics and personal musical influences) that have been developed in biosystematics, scientometrics, and bibliographic coupling. This paper also represents a first step towards a more ambitious goal of developing an evolutionary model of Western classical music.

  11. Study of movement of the western and central belts of Peninsular Malaysia using GPS data analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramli, Siti Hafizah; Samsudin, Abdul Rahim [Geology Programme, School of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-09-03

    Since the large earthquakes in Sumatera and Nias, there were some tremors incidents at Bukit Tinggi. Therefore, a study on the earth’s crust movement and the effects of the earthquake in Indonesia on the tectonic blocks of Peninsular Malaysia have been carried out using GPS data analysis. GPS data from five MyRTKnet stations within Peninsular Malaysia have been analyzed to monitor the movement of two major tectonic blocks of Peninsular Malaysia which are the western belt represented by the Behrang (BEHR) and UPM Serdang (UPMS) stations and the central belt represented by Bentong (BENT), Jerantut (JRNT) and Temerloh (TLOH) stations. GPS data recorded from 2005 to 2010 were analysed based on horizontal and vertical displacements of the respective stations by using Trimble Business Centre (TBC) software. Based on the results of accumulated displacements of recorded GPS data from January 2006 to December 2013, it shows that the western belt which represented by UPMS has shifted 0.096m towards northwest with changes of ellipsoidal height of +0.030m while the central belt which represented by TLOH has shifted 0.080m towards northwest with changes of ellipsoidal height of −0.015m. Meanwhile, BENT station which is located on the Bentong-Raub suture zone turns to its original position as well as JRNT station. However, BEHR station which are located in western belt do not show any movements. All of these movements may be due to the influence of reactive faults in the stations area stimulated by several large earthquakes that occurred in 2005 to 2010. Study on using the GPS data analysis and combine with integrated geophysical methods are necessary to understand in detail about the tectonic evolution of Peninsular Malaysia.

  12. Effects of Case Western Reserve University's transverse analysis on the quality of orthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yehya Mostafa, Raweya; Bous, Rany M; Hans, Mark G; Valiathan, Manish; Copeland, Garrison E; Palomo, Juan Martin

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of using the transverse analysis developed at Case Western Reserve University (CWRU) in Cleveland, Ohio. The hypotheses were based on the following: (1) Does following CWRU's transverse analysis improve the orthodontic results? (2) Does following CWRU's transverse analysis minimize the active treatment duration? A retrospective cohort research study was conducted on a randomly selected sample of 100 subjects. The sample had CWRU's analysis performed retrospectively, and the sample was divided according to whether the subjects followed what CWRU's transverse analysis would have suggested. The American Board of Orthodontics discrepancy index was used to assess the pretreatment records, and quality of the result was evaluated using the American Board of Orthodontics cast/radiograph evaluation. The Mann-Whitney test was used for the comparison. CWRU's transverse analysis significantly improved the total cast/radiograph evaluation scores (P = 0.041), especially the buccolingual inclination component (P = 0.001). However, it did not significantly affect treatment duration (P = 0.106). CWRU's transverse analysis significantly improves the orthodontic results but does not have significant effects on treatment duration. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Analysis of Well ER-EC-2a Testing, Western Pahute Mesa-Oasis Valley FY 2000 Testing Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2002-09-30

    This report documents the analysis of the data collected for Well ER-EC-2a during the Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley (WPM-OV) well development and testing program that was conducted during fiscal year (FY) 2000. The data collection for that program is documented in Appendix A, Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley, Well ER-EC-2a Data Report for Development and Hydraulic Testing.

  14. Analysis of well ER-18-2 testing, Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley FY 2000 testing program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2002-09-30

    This report documents the analysis of the data collected for Well ER-18-2 during the Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley (WPM-OV) well development and testing program that was conducted during fiscal year (FY) 2000. The data collection for that program is documented in Appendix A, Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley, Well ER-18-2 Data Report for Development and Hydraulic Testing.

  15. Analysis of Well ER-EC-7 Testing, Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley FY 2000 Testing Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2002-09-30

    This report documents the analysis of the data collected for Well ER-EC-7 during the Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley (WPM-OV) well development and testing program that was conducted during fiscal year (FY) 2000. The data collection for that program was documented in Appendix A, Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley, Well ER-EC-7 Data Report for Development and Hydraulic Testing.

  16. Analysis of Well ER-EC-8 testing, Western Pahute Mesa-Oasis Valley FY 2000 testing program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2002-09-30

    This report documents the analysis of the data collected for Well ER-EC-8 during the Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley (WPM-OV) well development and testing program that was conducted during fiscal year (FY) 2000. The data collection for that program is documented in Appendix A, Western Pahute Mesa-Oasis Valley, Well ER-EC-8 Data Report for development and Hydraulic Testing.

  17. Analysis of Well ER-EC-4 Testing, Western Pahute Mesa-Oasis Valley FY 2000 Testing Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2002-09-30

    This report documents the analysis of the data collected for Well ER-EC-4 during the Western Pahute Mesa-Oasis Valley (WPM-OV) well development and testing program that was conducted during fiscal year (FY) 2000. The data collection for that program is documented in Appendix A, Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley, Well ER-EC-4 Data Report for Development and Hydraulic Testing.

  18. Analysis of Well ER-EC-5 Testing, Western Pahute Mesa-Oasis Valley FY 2000 Testing Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2002-09-30

    This report documents the analysis of the data collected for Well ER-EC-5 during the Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley (WPM-OV) well development and testing program that was conducted during fiscal year (FY) 2000. The data collection for that program is documented in Appendix A, Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley, Well ER-EC-5 Data Report for Development and Hydraulic Testing.

  19. Analysis of Well ER-EC-6 Testing, Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley FY 2000 Testing Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2002-09-30

    This report documents the analysis of the data collected for Well ER-EC-6 during the Western Pahute Mesa-Oasis Valley (WPM-OV) well development and testing program that was conducted during fiscal year (FY) 2000. The data collection for that program is documented in Appendix A, Western Pahute Mesa-Oasis Valley, Well ER-EC-6 Data Report for Development and Hydraulic Testing.

  20. Analysis of Well ER-EC-1 Testing, Western Pahute Mesa-Oasis Valley FY 2000 Testing Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2002-09-30

    This report documents the analysis of the data collected for Well ER-EC-1 during the Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley (WPM-OV) well development and testing program that was conducted during fiscal year (FY) 2000. The data collection for that program is documented in Appendix A, Western Pahute Mesa - Oasis Valley, Well ER-EC-1 Data Report for Development and Hydraulic Testing.

  1. PIXE analysis of western han dynasty ancient glasses unearthed in Yangzhou city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qinghui; Gu Donghong; Gan Fuxi; Zhang Bin; Ma Bo; Cheng Huansheng

    2003-01-01

    Chemical composition analysis is one of the most important research aspects to provide scientific proof for the technical origin and development of Chinese ancient glass. Proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique is a kind of multi-element quantitative analysis method with high sensitivity and without destruction of samples. Chemical composition of the Western Han dynasty glass garment flakes, which were excavated from Yangzhou city, was analyzed by PIXE, quantitatively. It was found that these glass flakes were attributed to PbO-BaO-SiO 2 glass originated in China. These flakes all consist of a glass core and a corroded outer layer with different thickness. There are relatively higher PbO, P 2 O 5 and CaO, while much lower BaO and SiO 2 in the corroded layers than in the glass cores. The experimental results were discussed

  2. Population Structure Analysis of Bull Genomes of European and Western Ancestry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chung, Neo Christopher; Szyda, Joanna; Frąszczak, Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    Since domestication, population bottlenecks, breed formation, and selective breeding have radically shaped the genealogy and genetics of Bos taurus. In turn, characterization of population structure among diverse bull (males of Bos taurus) genomes enables detailed assessment of genetic resources...... and origins. By analyzing 432 unrelated bull genomes from 13 breeds and 16 countries, we demonstrate genetic diversity and structural complexity among the European/Western cattle population. Importantly, we relaxed a strong assumption of discrete or admixed population, by adapting latent variable models...... harboring largest genetic differentiation suggest positive selection underlying population structure. We carried out gene set analysis using SNP annotations to identify enriched functional categories such as energy-related processes and multiple development stages. Our population structure analysis of bull...

  3. Tournament ABC analysis of the western Palaearctic population history of an oak gall wasp, Synergus umbraculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Graham N; White, Sarah C; Csóka, György; Melika, George; Mutun, Serap; Pénzes, Zsolt; Sadeghi, S Ebrahim; Schönrogge, Karsten; Tavakoli, Majid; Nicholls, James A

    2017-12-01

    Approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) is a powerful and widely used approach in inference of population history. However, the computational effort required to discriminate among alternative historical scenarios often limits the set that is compared to those considered more likely a priori. While often justifiable, this approach will fail to consider unexpected but well-supported population histories. We used a hierarchical tournament approach, in which subsets of scenarios are compared in a first round of ABC analyses and the winners are compared in a second analysis, to reconstruct the population history of an oak gall wasp, Synergus umbraculus (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae) across the Western Palaearctic. We used 4,233 bp of sequence data across seven loci to explore the relationships between four putative Pleistocene refuge populations in Iberia, Italy, the Balkans and Western Asia. We compared support for 148 alternative scenarios in eight pools, each pool comprising all possible rearrangements of four populations over a given topology of relationships, with or without founding of one population by admixture and with or without an unsampled "ghost" population. We found very little support for the directional "out of the east" scenario previously inferred for other gall wasp community members. Instead, the best-supported models identified Iberia as the first-regional population to diverge from the others in the late Pleistocene, followed by divergence between the Balkans and Western Asia, and founding of the Italian population through late Pleistocene admixture from Iberia and the Balkans. We compare these results with what is known for other members of the oak gall community, and consider the strengths and weaknesses of using a tournament approach to explore phylogeographic model space. © 2017 The Authors. Molecular Ecology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Blotting Assisted by Heating and Solvent Extraction for DESI-MS Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Elaine C.; Mirabelli, Mario F.; Perez, Consuelo J.; Ifa, Demian R.

    2013-06-01

    Imprints of potato sprout ( Solanum tuberosum L.), gingko leaves (Gingko biloba L. ) and strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa Duch. ) were successfully imaged by desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) on TLC plates through blotting assisted by heating and/or solvent extraction. Ion images showing the distribution of significant compounds such as glycoalkaloid toxins in potato sprout, ginkgolic acids and flavonoids in ginkgo leaves, and sugars and anthocyanidin in strawberry were obtained. Practical implications of this work include analysis of a wide range of irregular or soft materials by different imprinting conditions without requiring the addition of matrices or use of specific kinds of surfaces.

  5. Mutation analysis of β-thalassemia in East-Western Indian population: a recent molecular approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Parth S; Shah, Nidhi D; Ray, Hari Shankar P; Khatri, Nikunj B; Vaghasia, Ketan K; Raval, Rutvik J; Shah, Sandip C; Rao, Mandava V

    2017-01-01

    Background β-Thalassemia is the most prevalent genetic disorder in India. Its traits and coinheritance vary from mild to severe conditions, resulting in thalassemia minor, intermediate, and major, depending upon many factors. Purpose The objective of this study was to identify the incidence of β-thalassemia traits, their coinheritance, and mutations, as well as to support the patients already diagnosed with β-thalassemia in East-Western Indian population for better management. Patients and methods Seventy-five referral cases for β-thalassemia were analyzed for various β-thalassemia traits, heterozygosity, and homozygosity conditions. Blood phenotypic parameters using cell counter and capillary electrophoresis were investigated. Analyses of eight common mutations of thalassemia in India were carried out using polymerase chain reaction-amplification refractory mutation system, end point polymerase chain reaction, and DNA sequencing methods. Results Of these (75) referral cases from East-Western Indian region, 68 were positive for β-thalassemia (90.67%). The majority of case types were of β-thalassemia minor (49, 65.33%), followed by HbE traits (6, 8.0%) and β-thalassemia major, including heterozygous and homozygous (5, 6.66%; 4, 5.33%) types and then HbE homozygous (2, 2.66%), as well as one each of the HbE/β-thalassemia and HbD/β-thalassemia (1, 1.34%) combination. Mutation analysis also revealed that the highest frequency of mutation was c.92+5G>C (41, 60.29%) followed by deletion 619bp (9, 13.23%) and c.79G>A (8, 11.76%) in our study group. Five cases (nos. 24, 27, 33, 58, and 71) exhibited coinheritance between β0/β+ (2), β0/β D (1), and c.124_127delTTCT/β+ or β0(2) affecting the Rajasthani and Gujarati populations in our study of the Western region of India. Conclusion We strongly recommend these Western populations for genetic screening before adopting reproductive technologies and interracial marital relations. PMID:28546763

  6. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of Fasciola gigantica from western Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Kei; Ichikawa-Seki, Madoka; Allamanda, Puttik; Wibowo, Putut Eko; Mohanta, Uday Kumar; Sodirun; Guswanto, Azirwan; Nishikawa, Yoshifumi

    2016-10-01

    Fasciola gigantica and aspermic (hybrid) Fasciola flukes are thought to be distributed in Southeast Asian countries. The objectives of this study were to investigate the distribution of these flukes from unidentified ruminants in western Java, Indonesia, and to determine their distribution history into the area. Sixty Fasciola flukes from western Java were identified as F. gigantica based on the nucleotide sequences of the nuclear phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (pepck) and DNA polymerase delta (pold) genes. The flukes were then analyzed phylogenetically based on the nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1) gene, together with Fasciola flukes from other Asian countries. All but one F. gigantica fluke were classified in F. gigantica haplogroup C, which mainly contains nad1 haplotypes detected in flukes from Thailand, Vietnam, and China. A population genetic analysis suggested that haplogroup C spread from Thailand to the neighboring countries including Indonesia together with domestic ruminants, such as the swamp buffalo, Bubalus bubalis. The swamp buffalo is one of the important definitive hosts of Fasciola flukes in Indonesia, and is considered to have been domesticated in the north of Thailand. The remaining one fluke displayed a novel nad1 haplotype that has never been detected in the reference countries. Therefore, the origin of the fluke could not be established. No hybrid Fasciola flukes were detected in this study, in contrast to neighboring Asian countries. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  7. Farmer cooperatives in the food economy of Western Europe: an analysis from the Marketing point of view

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulenberg, M.T.G.

    1979-01-01

    This paper is concerned with an analysis of farmer cooperatives in Western Europe from the marketing point of view. The analysis is restricted to marketing and processing cooperatives. First some basic characteristics of farmer cooperatives are discussed from a systems point of view. Afterwards

  8. Recent Vs. Historical Seismicity Analysis For Banat Seismic Region (Western Part Of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oros Eugen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present day seismic activity from a region reflects the active tectonics and can confirm the seismic potential of the seismogenic sources as they are modelled using the historical seismicity. This paper makes a comparative analysis of the last decade seismicity recorded in the Banat Seismic Region (western part of Romania and the historical seismicity of the region (Mw≥4.0. Four significant earthquake sequences have been recently localized in the region, three of them nearby the city of Timisoara (January 2012 and March 2013 and the fourth within Hateg Basin, South Carpathians (October 2013. These sequences occurred within the epicentral areas of some strong historical earthquakes (Mw≥5.0. The main events had some macroseismic effects on people up to some few kilometers from the epicenters. Our results update the Romanian earthquakes catalogue and bring new information along the local seismic hazard sources models and seismotectonics.

  9. Random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis of Anopheles nuneztovari (Diptera: Culicidae from Western and Northeastern Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Elisa Posso

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD markers were used to analyze 119 DNA samples of three Colombian Anopheles nuneztovari populations to study genetic variation and structure. Genetic diversity, estimated from heterozygosity, averaged 0.34. Genetic flow was greater between the two populations located in Western Colombia (F ST: 0.035; Nm: 6.8 but lower between these two and the northeastern population (F ST: 0.08; Nm: 2.8. According to molecular variance analysis, the genetic distance between populations was significant (phiST 0.1131, P < 0.001. The variation among individuals within populations (phiST 0.8869, P < 0.001was also significant, suggesting a greater degree of population subdivision, not considered in this study. Both the parameters evaluated and the genetic flow suggest that Colombian An. nuneztovari populations are co-specific.

  10. Typological analysis of social linear blocks: Spain 1950-1983. The case study of western Andalusia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Guajardo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A main challenge that cities will need to face in the next few years is the regeneration of the social housing estates built during the decades of 1950s, 1960s and 1970s. One of the causes of their obsolescence is the mismatch between their hous-ing typologies and the contemporary needs. The main target of this study is to contribute to take a step forward in the un-derstanding of these typologies to be able to intervene on them efficiently. With this purpose, a study on 42 linear blocks built in Spain between 1950 and 1983 in western Andalusia has been carried out. The analysis includes three stages: 1 classification of the houses in recognizable groups; 2 an identification of the most used spatial configurations and 3 definition of their programmatic and size characteristics. As a result, a characterization of linear blocks is proposed as a reference model for future regenerative interventions.

  11. Pollen analysis of coal-bearing Miocene sedimentary rocks from the Seyitomer basin (Kutahya), western Anatolia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yavuz-Isik, N. [Ondokuz Mayis University, Kurupelit (Turkey). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    2007-09-15

    The late Early-Middle Miocene sequences of the Seyitomer Basin (western Anatolia) were palynologically investigated. Fifty-five taxa belonging to seven gymnospermous and 48 angiospermous pollen genera were identified in the 19 productive samples. Two pollen zones were recognised based on the changing abundance of individual tree taxa. Zone 1 is characterized by predominance of Pinus and Cedrus. Zone 2 is characterized by predominance of deciduous Quercus and evergreen Quercus and a marked reduction in representation of Taxodiaceae. The differences in the pollen spectra between Zone 1 and Zone 2 may reflect the global Middle Miocene cooling. These results are largely comparable to pollen data derived from the neighbouring areas. The vegetation of the Seyitomer Basin was dominated by trees. This palynological analysis reveals the existence of a swamp-forest developed in a subtropical to warm-temperate humid climate.

  12. Spatio-temporal analysis of agricultural land-use intensity across the Western Siberian grain belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühling, Insa; Broll, Gabriele; Trautz, Dieter

    2016-02-15

    The Western Siberian grain belt covers 1millionkm² in Asiatic Russia and is of global importance for agriculture. Massive land-use changes took place in that region after the dissolution of the Soviet Union and the collapse of the state farm system. Decreasing land-use intensity (LUI) in post-Soviet Western Siberia was observed on grassland due to declining livestock whilst on cropland trends of land abandonment reversed in the early 2000s. Recultivation of abandoned cropland as well as increasing fertilizer inputs and narrowing crop rotations led to increasing LUI on cropland during the last two decades. Beyond that general trend, no information is available about spatial distribution and magnitude but a crucial precondition for the development of strategies for sustainable land management. To quantify changes and patterns in LUI, we developed an intensity index that reflects the impacts of land-based agricultural production. Based on subnational yearly statistical data, we calculated two separate input-orientated indices for cropland and grassland, respectively. The indices were applied on two spatial scale: at seven provinces covering the Western Siberian grain belt (Altay Kray, Chelyabinsk, Kurgan, Novosibirsk, Omsk, Sverdlovsk and Tyumen) and at all districts of the central province Tyumen. The spatio-temporal analysis clearly showed opposite trends for the two land-use types: decreasing intensity on grassland (-0.015 LUI units per year) and intensification on cropland (+0.014 LUI units per year). Furthermore, a spatial concentration towards intensity centres occurred during transition from a planned to a market economy. A principal component analysis enabled the individual calculations of both land-use types to be combined and revealed a strong link between biophysical conditions and LUI. The findings clearly showed the need for having a different strategy for future sustainable land management for grassland (predominantly used by livestock of households

  13. Benefits, barriers and enablers of breastfeeding: factor analysis of population perceptions in Western Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Daly

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate knowledge and community perceptions of breastfeeding in Western Australia using a factor analysis approach. METHODS: Data were pooled from five Nutrition Monitoring Survey Series which included information on breastfeeding from 4,802 Western Australian adults aged 18-64 years. Tetrachoric factor analysis was conducted for data reduction and significant associations identified using logistic, ordinal and poisson regression analyses. RESULTS: Four factors were derived for benefits (it's natural, good nutrition, good for the baby, and convenience, barriers (breastfeeding problems, poor community acceptability, having to go back to work, and inconvenience and for enablers (breastfeeding education, community support, family support and not having to work. As assessed by standardized odds ratios the most important covariates across benefit factors were: importance of breastfeeding (ORs range from 1.22-1.44, female gender (ORs range from 0.80 to 1.46, being able to give a time for how long a baby should be breastfed (ORs range from 0.96 to 1.27 and education (less than high school to university completion (ORs range from 0.95 to 1.23; the most important covariate across barrier factors was being able to give a time for how long a baby should be breastfed (ORs range from 0.89 to 1.93; and the most important covariates across all enabling factors were education (ORs range from 1.14 to 1.32 and being able to give a time for how long a baby should be breastfed (ORs range from 1.17 to 1.42. CONCLUSIONS: Being female, rating breastfeeding as important, believing that babies should be breastfed for a period of time and education accounted for most of the statistically significant associations. The differences between male and female perceptions require investigation particularly in relation to returning to work.

  14. Analysis of Potential Energy Corridors Proposed by the Western Electricity Coordinating Council

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuiper, James A.; Cantwell, Brian J.; Hlava, Kevin J.; Moore, H Robert; Orr, Andrew B.; Zvolanek, Emily A.

    2014-02-24

    This report, Analysis of Potential Energy Corridors Proposed by the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC), was prepared by the Environmental Science Division of Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne). The intent of WECC’s work was to identify planning-level energy corridors that the Department of Energy (DOE) and its affiliates could study in greater detail. Argonne was tasked by DOE to analyze the WECC Proposed Energy Corridors in five topic areas for use in reviewing and revising existing corridors, as well as designating additional energy corridors in the 11 western states. In compliance with Section 368 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct), the Secretaries of Energy, Agriculture, and the Interior (Secretaries) published a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement in 2008 to address the proposed designation of energy transport corridors on federal lands in the 11 western states. Subsequently, Records of Decision designating the corridors were issued in 2009 by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and the U.S. Forest Service (USFS). The 2012 settlement of a lawsuit, brought by The Wilderness Society and others against the United States, which identified environmental concerns for many of the corridors requires, among other things, periodic reviews of the corridors to assess the need for revisions, deletions, or additions. A 2013 Presidential Memorandum requires the Secretaries to undertake a continuing effort to identify and designate energy corridors. The WECC Proposed Energy Corridors and their analyses in this report provide key information for reviewing and revising existing corridors, as well as designating additional energy corridors in the 11 western states. Load centers and generation hubs identified in the WECC analysis, particularly as they reflect renewable energy development, would be useful in reviewing and potentially updating the designated Section 368 corridor network. Argonne used Geographic Information System (GIS) technology to

  15. A Stochastic Frontier Analysis of Output Level and Growth in Poland and Western Economies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osiewalski, J.; Koop, G.; Steel, M.F.J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper uses Bayesian stochastic frontier methods to measure the productivity gap between Poland and Western countries that existed before the beginning of the main Polish economic reform. Using data for 20 Western economies, Poland and Yugoslavia (1980-1990) we estimate a translog stochastic

  16. A habitat overlap analysis derived from Maxent for Tamarisk and the South-western Willow Flycatcher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia York; Paul Evangelista; Sunil Kumar; James Graham; Curtis Flather; Thomas Stohlgren

    2011-01-01

    Biologic control of the introduced and invasive, woody plant tamarisk (Tamarix spp, saltcedar) in south-western states is controversial because it affects habitat of the federally endangered South-western Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus). These songbirds sometimes nest in tamarisk where floodplain-level invasion replaces native habitats. Biologic control...

  17. A Critical Discourse Analysis of the Images of Iranians in Western Movies: The Case of Iranium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Amirian

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The significant role of the media, in general, and the movies, in particular, in disseminating information and creating images of the real life by use of the language as a powerful social tool is totally irrefutable. Although critical analysis of the movie discourse is a fashionable trend among the critical discourse analysts, there is a paucity of research on movie discourse in Iran. Besides, the increasing number of the anti-Iranian movies produced in the last decade and the growing tendency among the English students to watch American movies, have established the need for conducting a research to investigate the images of Iranians represented in the Western movies. Thus, in this article an anti-Iranian movie called Iranium, allegedly labeled as documentary, has been critically analyzed using Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA. For this purpose, Van Dijk’s framework (2004 has been utilized to uncover the ideological manipulations and misrepresentations of this movie. The analysis revealed that the dichotomy of in-group favoritism vs. out-group derogation is a very effective discursive strategy at the disposal of the movie makers who have used language as a weapon to attack Iran by representing a distorted and unrealistic image of the Iranians’ history, culture and ideologies. The findings of the present study imply that adopting a critical discourse analysis perspective in the EFL classes is a necessity which needs the development of the required materials, by the curriculum developers, that raise the students’ critical awareness as well as their language skills and proficiency.

  18. Analysis of measured L-band airborne land clutter from the Western Cape region of South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Witt, JJ

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available -band Airborne Land Clutter from the Western Cape region of South Africa J.J. de Witt and J.J. Strydom Abstract: This paper presents backscatter analysis of L-band land clutter data, measured from an airborne platform, over various terrain types...

  19. Evaluation of Two Commercial Systems for Automated Processing, Reading, and Interpretation of Lyme Borreliosis Western Blots▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binnicker, M. J.; Jespersen, D. J.; Harring, J. A.; Rollins, L. O.; Bryant, S. C.; Beito, E. M.

    2008-01-01

    The diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis (LB) is commonly made by serologic testing with Western blot (WB) analysis serving as an important supplemental assay. Although specific, the interpretation of WBs for diagnosis of LB (i.e., Lyme WBs) is subjective, with considerable variability in results. In addition, the processing, reading, and interpretation of Lyme WBs are laborious and time-consuming procedures. With the need for rapid processing and more objective interpretation of Lyme WBs, we evaluated the performances of two automated interpretive systems, TrinBlot/BLOTrix (Trinity Biotech, Carlsbad, CA) and BeeBlot/ViraScan (Viramed Biotech AG, Munich, Germany), using 518 serum specimens submitted to our laboratory for Lyme WB analysis. The results of routine testing with visual interpretation were compared to those obtained by BLOTrix analysis of MarBlot immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG and by ViraScan analysis of ViraBlot and ViraStripe IgM and IgG assays. BLOTrix analysis demonstrated an agreement of 84.7% for IgM and 87.3% for IgG compared to visual reading and interpretation. ViraScan analysis of the ViraBlot assays demonstrated agreements of 85.7% for IgM and 94.2% for IgG, while ViraScan analysis of the ViraStripe IgM and IgG assays showed agreements of 87.1 and 93.1%, respectively. Testing by the automated systems yielded an average time savings of 64 min/run compared to processing, reading, and interpretation by our current procedure. Our findings demonstrated that automated processing and interpretive systems yield results comparable to those of visual interpretation, while reducing the subjectivity and time required for Lyme WB analysis. PMID:18463211

  20. Air quality analysis for the Western Area Power Administration's 2004 Power Marketing Plan Environmental Impact Statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glantz, C.S.; Dagle, J.E.; Bilyard, G.R.

    1997-01-01

    The Western Area Power Administration (Western) markets and transmits electric power throughout 15 western states. Western's Sierra Nevada Customer Service Region (Sierra Nevada Region) markets approximately 1,480 megawatts (MW) of firm power (plus 100 MW of seasonal peaking capacity) from the Central Valley Project (CVP) and other resources. Western's mission is to sell and deliver electricity generated from these resources. Western's capacity and energy sales must be in conformance with the laws that govern its sale of electrical power. Further, Western's hydropower operations at each facility must comply with minimum and maximum flows and other constraints set by other regulatory agencies. The Sierra Nevada Region proposes to develop a marketing plan that defines the products and services it would offer beyond the year 2004 and the eligibility and allocation criteria for its electric power resources. Because determining levels of long-term firm power resources to be marketed and subsequently entering into contracts for the delivery of related products and services could be a major Federal action with potentially significant impacts to the human environment, the 2004 Power Marketing Plan Environmental Impact Statement (2004 EIS) is being prepared. Decisions made by the Sierra Nevada Region on how and when to supply power to its customers would influence the operation of power plants within the Western Systems Coordinating Council (WSCC). If the resources affected are thermal resources, this could in turn affect the amount, timing, and location of pollutant emissions to the air at locations throughout the western United States. This report has been produced in conjunction with the 2004 EIS to provide a more detailed discussion of the air quality implications of the 2004 power marketing plan

  1. Keeping pace with the science: Seismic hazard analysis in the western United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youngs, R.R.; Coppersmith, K.J.

    1989-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed rapid advances in the understanding of the earthquake generation process in the western US, with particular emphasis on geologic studies of fault behavior and seismologic studies of the rupture process. The authors discuss how probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) methodologies have been refined to keep pace with scientific understanding. Identified active faults are modeled as three-dimensional surfaces with the rupture shape and distribution of nucleation points estimated from physical constraints and seismicity. Active blind thrust ramps at depth and sources associated with subduction zones such as the Cascadia zone off Oregon and Washington can also be modeled. Maximum magnitudes are typically estimated from evaluations of possible rupture dimensions and empirical relations between these dimensions and earthquake magnitude. A rapidly evolving technique for estimating the length of future ruptures on a fault is termed segmentation, and incorporates behavior and geometric fault characteristics. To extend the short historical record, fault slip rate is now commonly used to constrain earthquake recurrence. Paleoseismic studies of fault behavior have led to the characteristic earthquake recurrence model specifying the relative frequency of earthquakes of various sizes. Recent studies have indicated the importance of faulting style and crustal structure on earthquake ground motions. For site-specific applications, empirical estimation techniques are being supplemented with numerical modeling approaches

  2. Energy conversion of animal manures: Feasibility analysis for thirteen western states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whittier, J.; Haase, S.; Milward, R.; Churchill, G.; Searles, M.B. [NEOS Corp., Lakewood, CO (United States); Moser, M. [Resource Conservation Management, Inc., Berkeley, CA (United States); Swanson, D.; Morgan, G. [Western Regional Biomass Energy Program, Golden, CO (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The growth and concentration of the livestock industry has led to environmental disposal problems for large quantities of manure at feedlots, dairies, poultry production plants, animal holding areas and pasturelands. Consequently, waste management systems that facilitate energy recovery are becoming increasingly attractive since they address pollution problems and allow for energy generation from manure resources. This paper presents a manure resource assessment for the 13 US Department of Energy, Western Regional Biomass Energy Program states, describes and evaluates available energy conversion technologies, identifies environmental and regulatory factors associated with manure collection, storage and disposal, and identifies common disposal practices specific to animal types and areas within the WRBEP region. The paper also presents a pro forma economic analysis for selected manure-to-energy conversion technologies. The annual energy potential of various manures within the WRBEP region is equivalent to approximately 111 {times} 10{sup 13} Btu. Anaerobic digestion systems, both lagoon and plug flow, offer positive economic returns in a broad range of utility service territories.

  3. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacogenetics of the MEK1/2 inhibitor, selumetinib, in Asian and Western healthy subjects: a pooled analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dymond, Angela W; Elks, Cathy; Martin, Paul; Carlile, David J; Mariani, Gabriella; Lovick, Susan; Huang, Yifan; Lorch, Ulrike; Brown, Helen; So, Karen

    2017-06-01

    Emerging data on selumetinib, a MEK1/2 inhibitor in clinical development, suggest a possible difference in pharmacokinetics (PK) between Japanese and Western patients. This pooled analysis sought to assess the effect of ethnicity on selumetinib exposure in healthy Western and Asian subjects, and to identify any association between genetic variants in the UGT1A1, CYP2C19 and ABCG2 genes and observed differences in selumetinib PK. A pooled analysis of data from ten Phase I studies, one in Asian subjects (encompassing Japanese, non-Japanese Asian and Indian Asian subjects) and nine in Western subjects, was conducted. Key findings were derived from the collective exposure data across doses of 25, 35, 50 and 75 mg selumetinib; primary variables were dose-normalized AUC and C max . PK data from 308 subjects (10 studies) were available for the pooled analysis; genetic data from 87 subjects (3 studies) were available for the pharmacogenetic analysis. Dose-normalized AUC and C max were 35% (95% CI: 25-47%) and 39% (95% CI: 24-56%) higher in the pooled Asian group, respectively, compared with Western subjects. PK exposure parameters were similar between the Japanese, non-Japanese Asian and Indian groups. There was no evidence that the polymorphisms assessed in the genes UGT1A1, CYP2C19 and ABCG2 account for observed PK differences. Selumetinib exposure was higher in healthy Asian subjects compared with Western subjects, and these data provide valuable insight for clinicians to consider when treating patients of Asian ethnicity with selumetinib.

  4. Beyond Positive Sciences : an Anthropological Approach to Market Analysis in North-Western Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dessein, JPG.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Western science has often been thought of as an universally applicable, dominant and neutral knowledge system. Recently this view has been challenged by various scientists, who try to revalue the subjugated knowledge systems of local people by appreciating its characteristics. But this upgrading of endogenous knowledge often is but another example of the hegemonie position of Western science : it evaluates local situations with Western criteria, neglecting the cultural paradigms of the people involved. This article is a plea for a new multidisciplinary and intercultural research approach which takes as its foundation an understanding of the local culture and paradigms on which selected topics can be analysed, rather than a traditional disciplinary approach in which, afterwards, a foreign cultural component is being inscribed. This appeal is supported by material from a local market in North-western Ghana, where the Lobi peasants sell their harvest to the Wala traders.

  5. Analysis of the agricultural and rural development policies of the Western Balkan countries

    OpenAIRE

    BAJRAMOVIĆ Sabahudin; BOGDANOV Natalija; BUTKOVIĆ Jakub; DIMITROVSKI Dragi; ERJAVEC Emil; GJECI Grigor; GJOKAJ Ekrem; HOXHA Bekim; STOMENKOVSKA Ivana Janeska; KONJEVIĆ Darko; KOTEVSKA Ana; MARTINOVIĆ Aleksandra; MIFTARI Iliriana; NACKA Marina; OGNJENOVIĆ Dragana

    2016-01-01

    This report was prepared by a team of academic experts from Western Balkan (WB) countries coordinated by the Regional Rural Development Standing Working Group (SWG) in South-East Europe. The study targets EU candidate and potential candidate countries from the Western Balkan region (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia and Kosovo*). The main objectives of the study is the monitoring and evaluation of agricultural policies in the period 2012-2014 and assessment of the...

  6. Understanding north-western Mediterranean climate variability: a multi-proxy and multi-sequence approach based on wavelet analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuara, Julien; Lebreton, Vincent; Jalali, Bassem; Sicre, Marie-Alexandrine; Sabatier, Pierre; Dezileau, Laurent; Peyron, Odile; Frigola, Jaime; Combourieu-Nebout, Nathalie

    2017-04-01

    Forcings and physical mechanisms underlying Holocene climate variability still remain poorly understood. Comparison of different paleoclimatic reconstructions using spectral analysis allows to investigate their common periodicities and helps to understand the causes of past climate changes. Wavelet analysis applied on several proxy time series from the Atlantic domain already revealed the first key-issues on the origin of Holocene climate variability. However the differences in duration, resolution and variance between the time-series are important issues for comparing paleoclimatic sequences in the frequency domain. This work compiles 7 paleoclimatic proxy records from 4 time-series from the north-western Mediterranean all ranging from 7000 to 1000 yrs cal BP: -pollen and clay mineral contents from the lagoonal sediment core PB06 recovered in southern France, -Sea Surface Temperatures (SST) derived from alkenones, concentration of terrestrial alkanes and their average chain length (ACL) from core KSGC-31_GolHo-1B recovered in the Gulf of Lion inner-shelf, - δ18O record from speleothems recovered in the Asiul Cave in north-western Spain, -grain size record from the deep basin sediment drift core MD99-2343 north of Minorca island. A comparison of their frequency content is proposed using wavelet analysis and cluster analysis of wavelet power spectra. Common cyclicities are assessed using cross-wavelet analysis. In addition, a new algorithm is used in order to propagate the age model errors within wavelet power spectra. Results are consistents with a non-stationnary Holocene climate variability. The Halstatt cycles (2000-2500 years) depicted in many proxies (ACL, errestrial alkanes and SSTs) demonstrate solar activity influence in the north-western Mediterranean climate. Cluster analysis shows that pollen and ACL proxies, both indicating changes in aridity, are clearly distinct from other proxies and share significant common periodicities around 1000 and 600 years

  7. Diffusion of non-traditional cookstoves across western Honduras: A social network analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, Sebastian; Dwivedi, Puneet; Ghilardi, Adrian; Bailis, Robert

    2014-01-01

    A third of the world's population uses inefficient biomass stoves, contributing to severe health problems, forest degradation, and climate change. Clean burning, fuel-efficient, non-traditional cookstoves (NTCS) are a promising solution; however, numerous projects fail during the diffusion process. We use social network analysis to reveal patterns driving a successful stove intervention in western Honduras. The intervention lacks formal marketing, but has spread across a wide area in just a few years. To understand the process, we map the social network of active community members who drove diffusion across a large swath of the country. We find that most ACMs heard about stoves twice before sharing information about it with others and introducing the stove into their own communities. On average, the social distance between ACMs and the project team is 3 degrees of separation. Both men and women are critical to the diffusion process, but men tend to communicate over longer distances, while women principally communicate over shorter distances. Government officials are also crucial to diffusion. Understanding how information moves through social networks and across geographic space allows us to theorize how knowledge about beneficial technologies spreads in the absence of formal marketing and inform policies for NTCS deployment worldwide. - Highlights: • We build a chain of referrals to track spread of information about non traditional cookstoves. • We find differences among gender and occupations that should inform policy. • People hear about the stoves twice before becoming suppliers of information. • Government officials play a substantial role in the diffusion. • Males play leading role in diffusion over long distances, females in short distances

  8. Spatial and spatio-temporal analysis of malaria in the state of Acre, western Amazon, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Augusto Kohara Melchior

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Since 2005, the State of Acre, western Amazon, Brazil, has reported the highest annual parasite incidence (API of malaria among the Brazilian states. This study examines malaria incidence in Acre using spatial and spatio-temporal analysis based on an ecological time series study analyzing malaria cases and deaths for the time period 1992- 2014 and using secondary data. API indexes were calculated by age, sex, parasite species, ratio of Plasmodium vivax to P. falciparum malaria, malaria mortality rate and case fatality rate. SaTScan was used to detect spatial and spatio-temporal clusters of malaria cases and data were represented in the form of choropleth maps. A high-risk cluster of malaria was detected in Vale do Juruá and three low-risk clusters in Vale do Acre for both parasite species. Those younger than 19 years of age and females showed a high incidence of malaria in Vale do Juruá, but working-age males were the most affected in Vale do Acre. The malaria mortality rate showed a decreasing trend across the state, while the case fatality rate increased only in the micro-region of Rio Branco during the study period. We conclude that malaria is a focal disease in Acre showing different spatial and spatio-temporal patterns of cases and deaths that vary by age, sex, and parasite species. Malaria incidence is thought to be influenced by factors related to regional characteristics; therefore, appropriate disease and vector control strategies must be implemented at each locality.

  9. Finite Strain Analysis of the Wadi Fatima Shear Zone in Western Arabia, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, O. M. K.; Hamimi, Z.

    2018-03-01

    Neoproterozoic rocks, Oligocene to Neogene sediments and Tertiary Red Sea rift-related volcanics (Harrat) are three dominant major groups exposed in the Jeddah tectonic terrane in Western Arabia. The basement complex comprises amphibolites, schists, and older and younger granites unconformably overlain by a post-amalgamation volcanosedimentary sequence (Fatima Group) exhibiting post-accretionary thrusting and thrust-related structures. The older granites and/or the amphibolites and schists display mylonitization and shearing in some outcrops, and the observed kinematic indicators indicate dextral monoclinic symmetry along the impressive Wadi Fatima Shear Zone. Finite strain analysis of the mylonitized lithologies is used to interpret the deformation history of the Wadi Fatima Shear Zone. The measured finite strain data demonstrate that the amphibolites, schists, and older granites are mildly to moderately deformed, where XZ (axial ratios in XZ direction) vary from 2.76 to 4.22 and from 2.04 to 3.90 for the Rf/φ and Fry method respectively. The shortening axes ( Z) have subvertical attitude and are associated with subhorizontal foliation. The data show oblate strain ellipsoids in the different rocks in the studied area and indication bulk flattening strain. We assume that the different rock types have similar deformation behavior. In the deformed granite, the strain data are identical in magnitude with those obtained in the Fatima Group volcanosedimentary sequence. Finite strain accumulated without any significant volume change contemporaneously with syn-accretionary transpressive structures. It is concluded that a simple-shear deformation with constant-volume plane strain exists, where displacement is strictly parallel to the shear plane. Furthermore, the contacts between various lithological units in the Wadi Fatima Shear Zone were formed under brittle to semi-ductile deformation conditions.

  10. Zinc blotting assay for detection of zinc binding prolamin in barley (Hordeum vulgare) grain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uddin, Mohammad Nasir; Nielsen, Ane Langkilde-Lauesen; Vincze, Eva

    2014-01-01

    In plants, zinc is commonly found bound to proteins. In barley (Hordeum vulgare), major storage proteins are alcohol-soluble prolamins known as hordeins, and some of them have the potential to bind or store zinc. 65Zn overlay and blotting techniques have been widely used for detecting zinc......-binding protein. However, to our knowledge so far this zinc blotting assay has never been applied to detect a prolamin fraction in barley grains. A radioactive zinc (65ZnCl2) blotting technique was optimized to detect zinc-binding prolamins, followed by development of an easy-to-follow nonradioactive colorimetric...... zinc blotting method with a zinc-sensing dye, dithizone. Hordeins were extracted from mature barley grain, separated by SDS-PAGE, blotted on a membrane, renatured, overlaid, and probed with zinc; subsequently, zinc-binding specificity of certain proteins was detected either by autoradiography or color...

  11. Economic analysis of different supporting policies for the production of electrical energy by solar photovoltaics in western European Union countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dusonchet, Luigi; Telaretti, Enrico

    2010-01-01

    Within various renewable energy technologies, photovoltaics (PV) today attracts considerable attention due to its potential to contribute a major share of renewable energy in the future. However, PV market development is, undoubtedly, dependent on the political support of any given country. In this paper, after a brief analysis of national support policies in PV technology in western European Union (EU) countries, the authors perform an economic analysis of the main support mechanisms as implemented in the same countries, based on the calculation of the cash flow, the Net Present Value (NPV) and the Internal Rate of Return (IRR) indices. The analysis shows that in some situations support policies can be inconvenient for the owner of the PV-based generation system and that, in many cases, the differences between the implementation of the same support policy in different countries, can give rise to significantly different results. The analysis carried out in this work could help: ·to assess the impact of PV energy policies in different western European member states; ·renewable energy companies to identify potential PV markets and investigate the policy landscape across western EU countries.

  12. Characterization of archaeological ceramics from the north western lowland Maya Area, using the technique of neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez R, M. C.; Tenorio, D.; Jimenez R, M.; Terreros, E.; Ochoa, L.

    2008-01-01

    It is a study on 50 samples of ceramics from various archaeological sites of the north western lowland Maya Area. This study was performed by neutron activation analysis of 19 chemical elements and the treatments relevant statistical data. Significant differences were found among the pieces that led to group them into five major groups, the difference is the site of their manufacture and therefore in the raw materials used for this. (Author)

  13. Late- and post-glacial vegetation dynamics in Western Rhodopes (Bulgaria) based on pollen analysis and radiocarbon dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipovitch, L.; Lazarova, M.

    2002-01-01

    This study offers a reconstruction of Quaternary vegetation in the region of Shiroka Polyana (Western Rhodopes mountains) on the basis of pollen analysis and 14 C dating. It helps to trace out the trends in vegetation dynamics. The palaeosuccession cycle providing valuable floristic and coenotic information about the Late Glacial (13000 BP) and the entire Holocene throughout several major stages is recreated: grassy communities, thermophilus deciduous forests, fir-hornbeam-beech forests, spruce-pine forests, pine-spruce forests. (authors)

  14. Trafficking Golden Crescent Drugs into Western China: An Analysis and Translation of a Recent Chinese Police Research Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    illegal drug exchanges and consumption markets in Xinjiang, and soon this heroin even exceeded the market position of traditional Golden Triangle heroin...tons of the precursor chemical acetic anhydride {cusucmgan; WiW. iff) being smuggled out of the border. • 800,000 tabs of the psychoactive drug ...Trafficking Golden Crescent Drugs into Western China: An Analysis and Translation of a Recent Chinese Police Research Article Dr. Murray Scot

  15. INSITU BLOTTING - A NOVEL METHOD FOR DIRECT TRANSFER OF NATIVE PROTEINS FROM SECTIONED TISSUE TO BLOTTING MEMBRANE - PROCEDURE AND SOME APPLICATIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    OKABE, M; NYAKAS, C; BUWALDA, B; LUITEN, PGM

    We describe a novel technique for direct transfer of native proteins from unfixed frozen tissue sections to an immobilizing matrix, e.g., nitrocellulose, polyvinyliden difluoride, or positively charged nylon membranes. Proteins are directly blotted onto the membrane, providing optimal accessibility

  16. Meta-analysis shows similar re-bleeding rates among Western and Eastern populations after index video capsule endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tziatzios, Georgios; Gkolfakis, Paraskevas; Hassan, Cesare; Toth, Ervin; Zullo, Angelo; Koulaouzidis, Anastasios; Dimitriadis, George D; Triantafyllou, Konstantinos

    2018-03-01

    Video capsule endoscopy (VCE) is the first-line diagnostic procedure for investigating obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB). Different re-bleeding rates following index VCE have been reported among Western and Eastern studies. We conducted a comprehensive literature search to identify studies examining re-bleeding rates after VCE for OGIB. Meta-analysis assessed the pooled proportion of re-bleeding events after VCE for OGIB according to study's origin (Western vs. Eastern) and according to the length of follow-up (≥24 months vs. Western and 16 Eastern) studies with 5796 patients. Significant heterogeneity was detected among meta-analyzed studies. Overall, the pooled re-bleeding rate was similar between Western (29%; 95% CI: 23-34) and Eastern (21%; 95% CI: 15-27) populations, irrespective of the length of follow-up. The odds of re-bleeding was significantly higher after positive as compared to negative index VCE in Eastern studies (OR: 1.77; 95% CI: 1.07-2.94). Application of specific treatment after positive index VCE was associated with lower re-bleeding odds in both Western (OR: 0.37; 95% CI: 0.16-0.87) and Eastern (OR: 0.39; 95% CI: 0.21-0.72) populations. Patients undergoing VCE for OGIB have similar re-bleeding rates in the East and the West, regardless of the length of follow-up. However, increased re-bleeding odds after positive index VCE is observed in Eastern studies. Copyright © 2018 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A risk analysis for gas transport network planning expansion under regulatory uncertainty in Western Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelletier, 27736; Wortmann, J.C.; Noteboom, H.J.

    The natural gas industry in Western Europe went through drastic changes induced by the unbundling of the national companies, followed by the liberalization of gas trade and the regulation of gas transmission. Natural gas transmission is operated through a network of interconnected grids, and is

  18. AN ANALYSIS OF LATE-SERAL FOREST CONNECTIVITY IN WESTERN OREGON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habitat loss and fragmentation due to timber harvest in western Oregon has put wildlife species reliant on late-seral forest under demographic pressure as available habitat shrinks and local populations become isolated. Few studies have examined the effects of habitat removal an...

  19. Threats to riparian ecosystems in western North America: An analysis of existing literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boris Poff; Karen A. Koestner; Dan Neary; Victoria Henderson

    2011-01-01

    A total of 453 journal articles, reports, books, and book chapters addressing threats to riparian ecosystems in western North America were analyzed to identify, quantify, and qualify the major threats to these ecosystems as represented in the existing literature. Publications were identified either as research, policy, literature review, historical comparison, or...

  20. 77 FR 14523 - Western Digital Corporation; Analysis of Agreement Containing Consent Order to Aid Public Comment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-12

    ... purchases from several suppliers simultaneously in order to obtain competitive pricing and adequate supply... to coordinate on pricing or output. In addition, HDD customers generally wish to have at least three... Consent Agreement resolves the competitive concerns raised by Western Digital's proposed acquisition of...

  1. Economic analysis of prescribed burning for wildfire management in Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronique Florec; David Pannell; Michael Burton; Joel Kelso; Drew Mellor; George Milne

    2013-01-01

    Wildfires can cause significant damage to ecosystems, life and property, and wildfire events that do not involve people and property are becoming rare. With the expansion of the rural– urban interface in Western Australia and elsewhere, objectives of life and property protection become more difficult to achieve. We applied the cost plus net value change (C+NVC) model...

  2. Improved Bean Varieties Make a difference in Western Kenya: An Impact Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odendo, M.

    2002-01-01

    A survey was conducted in Kakamega and Vihiga District of Western Kenya during 2001 cropping seasons to analyze impacts of root rot resistance bean varieties introduced in Kakamega and Vihiga Districts by KARI and CIAT between 1989 and 1998. The objective of the study were to: assess adoption of the introduced root rot resistance bush and climbing bean varieties, determine technological and socio-economic factors that enhances or lessen adoption and attainment of the impacts, and examine types and magnitude of the impacts of adoption of the improved bean varieties at farm-level. To form a composite picture on spread and impact of the varieties, a systematic approach was developed to collect and put together data from several sources mainly literature reviews and household surveys. Data were collected through interviews of 233 randomly selected households, using a structured questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and Tobit model were used to analyse the data. The study showed that although several improved bean varieties were disseminated, most farmers did not adopt all the varieties; 35-80% of the farmers had mainly adopted three bush beans KK22, KK15 and KK8. A relatively small portion of farmers (8-19%) adopted climbers. Disease resistance (root rot) was only one of the criteria, but not the most important one, farmers used in selecting the varieties they adopted. Result of Tobit analysis showed that farmers perception of the trait of the bean varieties as well as farm-farmer characteristics were important determinants of decisions to adopt and intensity the adoption. The main impacts of the new beans were their contribution to equity by improving food self-sufficiency for about 97-99% of te farmers. Most farmers used their bean harvest mainly for subsistence, only a few farmers sold beans in any given season. The 63% of the households that sold beans to earn cash income to purchase other types of food as well as investing in capital assets, especially household

  3. Analysis of the Construction of Ecological Civilization in the Western Ethnic Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yongli

    2017-01-01

    Ecological civilization is a mode of civilization which is constructed on the concept of multiple-wins, such as economic benefit, social benefit and environmental benefit, etc. It requires that a harmonious relationship between man and nature permeate various aspects of civilization, such as material civilization, spiritual civilization, and political civilization, forming an ecological mode for production, living, consumption, and other behaviors. The theories and practices of eco ̄logical civilization both at home and abroad, as well as the strategic planning for the construction of ecological civilization in China, have constituted important theoretical and practical guidelines for the construction of ecological civilization in the western ethnic areas of China. Constructing ecological civilization in the western ethnic areas has important theoretical and practical significance. Compared with the eastern part of China or the whole country, the level of e ̄conomic and social development in the western eth ̄nic areas still lags behind; energy consumption is generally high , and the number of national key ecologically functional areas is large. Furthermore, these areas face a daunting task for their environ ̄mental protection and energy saving. In addition, the most concentrated areas of desertification in China are found in the western ethnic areas, espe ̄cially Xinjiang, Inner Mongolia, Tibet and Qing ̄hai. Therefore, the construction of ecological civi ̄lization in the western ethnic areas has an impor ̄tant role for the sustainable development of the e ̄conomy and society, ecological security, energy saving and emission reduction, and the prevention of land desertification. Generally speaking, the western ethnic areas actively participate in the national demonstration areas of the construction of ecological civilization, and constantly improve the level of ecological civi ̄lization construction. However, their overall level is low, and the

  4. Technical Analysis of In-Valley Drainage Management Strategies for the Western San Joaquin Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presser, Theresa S.; Schwarzbach, Steven E.

    2008-01-01

    The western San Joaquin Valley is one of the most productive farming areas in the United States, but salt-buildup in soils and shallow groundwater aquifers threatens this area?s productivity. Elevated selenium concentrations in soils and groundwater complicate drainage management and salt disposal. In this document, we evaluate constraints on drainage management and implications of various approaches to management considered in: *the San Luis Drainage Feature Re-Evaluation (SLDFRE) Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) (about 5,000 pages of documentation, including supporting technical reports and appendices); *recent conceptual plans put forward by the San Luis Unit (SLU) contractors (i.e., the SLU Plans) (about 6 pages of documentation); *approaches recommended by the San Joaquin Valley Drainage Program (SJVDP) (1990a); and *other U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) models and analysis relevant to the western San Joaquin Valley. The alternatives developed in the SLDFRE EIS and other recently proposed drainage plans (refer to appendix A for details) differ from the strategies proposed by the San Joaquin Valley Drainage Program (1990a). The Bureau of Reclamation (USBR) in March 2007 signed a record of decision for an in-valley disposal option that would retire 194,000 acres of land, build 1,900 acres of evaporation ponds, and develop a treatment system to remove salt and selenium from drainwater. The recently proposed SLU Plans emphasize pumping drainage to the surface, storing approximately 33% in agricultural water re-use areas, treating selenium through biotechnology, enhancing the evaporation of water to concentrate salt, and identifying ultimate storage facilities for the remaining approximately 67% of waste selenium and salt. The treatment sequence of reuse, reverse osmosis, selenium bio-treatment, and enhanced solar evaporation is unprecedented and untested at the scale needed to meet plan requirements. All drainage management strategies that have been proposed

  5. Analysis and comparison of breast density according to age on mammogram between Korean and Western women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Hyung; Kim, Mi Hye; Oh, Ki Keun

    2000-01-01

    To compare changes in breast parenchymal density among diverse age groups in asymptomatic Korean women with those of Western women, and to evaluate the effect of different patterns of breast parenchymal density on the sensitivity of screening mammography in Korean women. We analyzed the distribution of breast parenchymal density among diverse age groups in 823 asymptomatic Korean women aged 30-64 who underwent screening mammography between January and December 1998. On the basis of ACR BI-RADS breast composition, four density patterns were designated: patterns 1 and 2 related to fatty mammograms, and patterns 3 and 4 to dense mammograms. We compared the results with those for western women. In Korean women, the frequency of dense mammogram was 88.1% (30-34 years old), 91.1% (35-39), 78.3% (40-44), 61.1% (45-49), 30.1% (50-54), 21.1% (55-59), and 7.0% (60-64). Korean women in their 40s thus showed a higher frequency of dense mammograms, but this frequency decreased abruptly between the ages of 40 and 54. In Western women, however, there was little difference between 40 and 54-year-olds: the figures were 47.2% (40-44 years), 44.8% (45-49), and 44.4% (50-54). Because the frequency of their dense mammograms shows little change between Western women in their forties and in their fifties, it is clear that between these two age groups, mammographic sensitivity is only slightly different. Because the frequency of dense mammograms is much greater among Korean women in their forties than among Western women of the same age, and among korean women this frequency decreases abruptly, it appears, however, that the mammographic sensitivity of korean women is less among those in their forties than among those in their fifties. It is therefore thought that mammography combined with ultrasonography may increase screening sensitivity among Korean women under 50, who have a relatively higher incidence of breast cancer in the younger age groups than do Western women. (author)

  6. Analysis of differences in fuel safety criteria for WWER and western PWR nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-11-01

    In 2001 the OECD issued a report of the NEA/CSNI (Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations) Task Force on the existing safety criteria for reactor fuel for western LWR nuclear power plants (both for PWRs and BWRs) under new design elements. Likewise in 2001, the IAEA released a report by a Working Group on the existing safety criteria for reactor fuel for WWER nuclear power plants under new design requirements. However, it was found that it was not possible to compare the two sets of criteria on the basis upon which they had been established. Therefore, the IAEA initiated an assessment of the common features and differences in fuel safety criteria between plants of eastern and western design, focusing on western PWRs and eastern WWER reactors. Between October 2000 and November 2001, the IAEA organized several workshops with representatives from eastern and western European countries in which the current fuel safety related criteria for PWR and WWER reactors were reviewed and compared. The workshops brought together expert representatives from the Russian Federation, from the Ukraine and from western countries that operate PWRs. The first workshop focused on a general overview of the fuel safety criteria in order for all representatives to appreciate the various criteria and their respective bases. The second workshop (which involved one western and one eastern expert) concentrated on addressing and explaining the differences observed, and documenting all these results in preparation for a panel discussion. This panel discussion took place during the third workshop, where the previously obtained results were reviewed in detail and final recommendations were made. This report documents the findings of the workshops. It highlights the common features and differences between PWR and WWER fuel, and may serve as a general basis for the safety evaluation of these fuels. Therefore, it will be very beneficial for licensing activities for PWR and WWER plants, as it

  7. An Empirical Analysis of the Determinants of Economic Growth in the Western Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fetai Besnik Taip

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to assess the main determinants and the policies that affect economic growth in the Western Balkan over the period 1994 to 2015. It employs techniques such as pooled OLS, fixed and random effects model, and Hausman-Taylor model with instrumental variables (IV. The study shows evidence of conditional convergence, indicating the need for an upward move in the steady state level. The results show that foreign direct investments, gross savings and domestic credit to the private sector have a positive effect on per capita growth. On the other hand, initial level of per capita growth, corruption, unemployment, and general government final consumption, have a negative relationship with per capita growth. The study also shows a puzzling result, that schooling is not a significant factor for growth in Western Balkans. The study also highlights the relevance of attracting more foreign direct investments and reduction in corruption.

  8. Do GCI indicators predict SME creation? A Western Balkans cross-country comparative analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Fëllënza Lushaku; Alban Elshani; Lekë Pula

    2016-01-01

    In early stages SMEs were seen as insignificant supplement to large business supply, whereas today they have a very important social and economic role, because of their contribution to job creation. These contributions are very valuable in times of crises and rising unemployment. In Kosovo and the Western Balkan countries, including countries such as Albania, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia and Bosnia and Herzegovina, the development of SMEs can contribute in facing many challenges, effects of ...

  9. Dating of retrograde metamorphism in Western Carpathians by K-Ar analysis of muscovites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cambel, B.; Korikovskij, S.P.; Krasivskaya, I.S.; Arakelyants, M.M.

    1986-01-01

    Using the K-Ar isotope dating method of muscovites it was found that many retrogradely metamorphosed rocks are the results of Variscan retrograde metamorphism and are not pre-Cambrian or Alpine metamorphites (diaphthorites). Samples for dating were taken from the Western Carpathian crystalline formation. The content of radiogenic argon was determined by mass spectrometry using the method of isotope dilution. (M.D.)

  10. Investigation of dust storms entering Western Iran using remotely sensed data and synoptic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boloorani, Ali D; Nabavi, Seyed O; Bahrami, Hosain A; Mirzapour, Fardin; Kavosi, Musa; Abasi, Esmail; Azizi, Rasoul

    2014-01-01

    One of the natural phenomena which have had considerable impacts on various regions of the world, including Iran, is "dust storm". In recent years, this phenomenon has taken on new dimensions in Iran and has changed from a local problem to a national issue. This study is an attempt to investigate the formation of the dust storms crossing the Western Iran. To find the sources of the dust storms entering Iran, first we examine three determined dust paths in the region and their temporal activities, using MODIS satellite images. Then, four regions were identified as dust sources through soil, land cover and wind data. Finally, atmospheric analyses are implemented to find synoptic patterns inducing dust storms. Source 1 has covered the region between the eastern banks of Euphrates and western banks of Tigris. Source 2 is in desert area of western and south-western Iraq. Finally source 3 is bounded in eastern and south-eastern deserts of Saudi Arabia called Rub-Al-Khali desert, or Empty Quarter. Moreover, south-eastern part of Iraq (source 4) was also determined as a secondary source which thickens the dust masses originating from the above mentioned sources. The study of synoptic circulations suggests that the dust storms originating from source 1 are formed due to the intense pressure gradient between the low-pressure system of Zagros and a high-pressure cell formed on Mediterranean Sea. The dust events in sources 2 and 3 are outcomes of the atmospheric circulations dominant in the cold period of the year in mid-latitudes.

  11. DETERMINANTS OF HOUSEHOLD FOOD SECURITY: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF EASTERN AND WESTERN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puspi Eko Wiranthi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Indonesian Food Security Council in 2009 issued a Food Security and Vulnerability Atlas (FSVA which stated that there were 100 districts in Indonesia which were most vulnerable to food insecurity and 79% of which were located in eastern region. By using Susenas regular data in 2008, this study aimed to analyze determinants of household food security in eastern compared to western region. The ordered logistic regression model was employed to investigate the determinants of household food security. The result showed that most of households in Indonesia were vulnerable to food insecurity (41.76%. The percentage in eastern region (48.56% was higher than that in western region (41.76%. Increase in expenditure equivalent, age and education level of household head, female household head, small household size, household head’s occupation in non-agriculture and urban household would increase the probability of a household to become food secure in both regions. The difference was in the factor of access to electricity in eastern and access to safe drinking water and loan in western region. Policies which aim to increase education, credit access, and intensive family planning have big roles in improving household food security.

  12. Multiscale seismicity analysis and forecasting: examples from the Western Pacific and Iceland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberhard, A. J.

    2014-01-01

    Seismicity forecasting has three major challenges: (1) the development of models or algorithms to forecast of seismicity, (2) the evaluation and testing of the forecasts and (3) the need for an appropriate software package. The goal of my thesis is to improve seismicity forecasting. I do this by contributing to a solution for all of the three challenges, using data from the West Pacific and from Iceland. The thesis is split into three chapters, each focusing on one of the challenges and each chapter will be (or already is) published in a peer-reviewed scientific journal. This first chapter (chapter 2 in this thesis) is about testing of seismic forecasts. The Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP, www.cseptesting.org; Jordan, 2006) has been conducting an earthquake forecast experiment in the western Pacific. The data and forecasts of this experiment serve as example for this chapter. For the three participating statistical models, I analyze the first four years of this experiment. I use likelihood-based metrics to evaluate the consistency of the forecasts with the observed target earthquakes, and I apply measures based on Student’s t-test and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test to compare the forecasts. I estimate also the uncertainties of the test results resulting from uncertainties in earthquake location and seismic moment. The estimated uncertainties are relatively small and suggest that the evaluation metrics are relatively robust. In chapter 3 I focus on the forecast itself with an Operational Earthquake Forecasting (OEF) experiment–forecasting seismicity in near real-time–for Iceland. The goal is to estimate the feasibility of OEF with the state-of-the-art models. I use the period between 2007 and 2010 and a sparsely processed catalogue as basis for a retrospective forecasting experiment with next-day forecasts. To better understand the effect of updating cycle on the probability gain I also use scheme in which the forecasts are

  13. Multiscale seismicity analysis and forecasting: examples from the Western Pacific and Iceland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberhard, A. J.

    2014-07-01

    Seismicity forecasting has three major challenges: (1) the development of models or algorithms to forecast of seismicity, (2) the evaluation and testing of the forecasts and (3) the need for an appropriate software package. The goal of my thesis is to improve seismicity forecasting. I do this by contributing to a solution for all of the three challenges, using data from the West Pacific and from Iceland. The thesis is split into three chapters, each focusing on one of the challenges and each chapter will be (or already is) published in a peer-reviewed scientific journal. This first chapter (chapter 2 in this thesis) is about testing of seismic forecasts. The Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP, www.cseptesting.org; Jordan, 2006) has been conducting an earthquake forecast experiment in the western Pacific. The data and forecasts of this experiment serve as example for this chapter. For the three participating statistical models, I analyze the first four years of this experiment. I use likelihood-based metrics to evaluate the consistency of the forecasts with the observed target earthquakes, and I apply measures based on Student’s t-test and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test to compare the forecasts. I estimate also the uncertainties of the test results resulting from uncertainties in earthquake location and seismic moment. The estimated uncertainties are relatively small and suggest that the evaluation metrics are relatively robust. In chapter 3 I focus on the forecast itself with an Operational Earthquake Forecasting (OEF) experiment–forecasting seismicity in near real-time–for Iceland. The goal is to estimate the feasibility of OEF with the state-of-the-art models. I use the period between 2007 and 2010 and a sparsely processed catalogue as basis for a retrospective forecasting experiment with next-day forecasts. To better understand the effect of updating cycle on the probability gain I also use scheme in which the forecasts are

  14. Rosette Assay: Highly Customizable Dot-Blot for SH2 Domain Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Khong Y; Machida, Kazuya

    2017-01-01

    With a growing number of high-throughput studies, structural analyses, and availability of protein-protein interaction databases, it is now possible to apply web-based prediction tools to SH2 domain-interactions. However, in silico prediction is not always reliable and requires experimental validation. Rosette assay is a dot blot-based reverse-phase assay developed for the assessment of binding between SH2 domains and their ligands. It is conveniently customizable, allowing for low- to high-throughput analysis of interactions between various numbers of SH2 domains and their ligands, e.g., short peptides, purified proteins, and cell lysates. The binding assay is performed in a 96-well plate (MBA or MWA apparatus) in which a sample spotted membrane is incubated with up to 96 labeled SH2 domains. Bound domains are detected and quantified using a chemiluminescence or near-infrared fluorescence (IR) imaging system. In this chapter, we describe a practical protocol for rosette assay to assess interactions between synthesized tyrosine phosphorylated peptides and a library of GST-tagged SH2 domains. Since the methodology is not confined to assessment of SH2-pTyr interactions, rosette assay can be broadly utilized for ligand and drug screening using different protein interaction domains or antibodies.

  15. Performance of PCR-reverse blot hybridization assay for detection of rifampicin-resistant Mycobacterium leprae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hye-young; Kim, Hyunjung; Kim, Yeun; Bang, Hyeeun; Kim, Jong-Pill; Hwang, Joo Hwan; Cho, Sang-Nae; Kim, Tae Ue; Lee, Hyeyoung

    2015-10-01

    Drug resistance in Mycobacterium leprae is a significant problem in countries where leprosy is endemic. A sensitive, specific, and high-throughput reverse blot hybridization assay (REBA) for the detection of genotypic resistance to rifampicin (RIF) was designed and evaluated. It has been shown that resistance to RIF in M. leprae involves mutations in the rpoB gene encoding the -subunit of the RNA polymerase. The PCR-REBA simultaneously detects both 6 wild-type regions and 5 different mutations (507 AGC, 513 GTG, 516 TAT, 531 ATG, and 531 TTC) including the most prevalent mutations at positions 507 and 531. Thirty-one clinical isolates provided by Korea Institute of Hansen-s Disease were analyzed by PCR-REBA with RIF resistance of rpoB gene. As a result, missense mutations at codons 507 AGC and 531 ATG with 2-nucleotide substitutions were found in one sample, and a missense mutation at codon 516 TAT and ΔWT6 (deletion of 530-534) was found in another sample. These cases were confirmed by DNA sequence analysis. This rapid, simple, and highly sensitive assay provides a practical alternative to sequencing for genotypic evaluation of RIF resistance in M. leprae.

  16. Acarbose Monotherapy and Type 2 Diabetes Prevention in Eastern and Western Prediabetes: An Ethnicity-specific Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ruijie; Li, Yi; Lv, Qingguo; Wu, Taixiang; Tong, Nanwei

    2015-08-01

    Acarbose is effective in delaying or preventing the progression of prediabetes to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The aim of this study was to assess differences in the preventive effects of acarbose in Eastern and Western populations with prediabetes. We performed a systematic search of databases and reference lists of clinical trials conducted through August 2013. Randomized controlled trials of acarbose alone, with a minimum intervention duration of 3 years and which provided data on T2DM incidence, were included for analysis. Analyses were conducted by using Review Manager version 5.1 software. Eight randomized controlled trials with 2628 participants were included. Acarbose decreased the occurrence of T2DM (number needed to treat [NNT], 6.7). Compared with the control (placebo and/or lifestyle intervention), the incidence of T2DM was significantly lower in the Eastern group (NNT, 5.9) than in the Western group (NNT, 11.1) (P Eastern group (NNT, 4.3) than in the Western group (NNT, 25) (P = 0.004, I(2) = 92%). Among those remaining prediabetic, there was no significant difference between the subtotal estimates for the subgroups (P = 0.17, I(2) = 46.5%). There was no positive correlation between preventive effect and dose, and no difference in studies with varying follow-up durations within and across either ethnic group. The preventive effect of acarbose on the development of diabetes seems superior in Eastern populations with prediabetes compared with Western populations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Detection and phylogenetic analysis of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae from Tibetan pigs in western China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Gang; Rui, Yapei; Li, Kun; Huang, Shucheng; Han, Zhaoqing; Wang, Xiaoqiang; Jiang, Wenteng; Luo, Houqiang; Lan, Yanfang; Li, Jiakui

    2017-10-01

    Enzootic pneumonia (EP), often caused by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, occurs in Tibetan pigs between October and December in Western China. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of M. hyopneumoniae in Tibetan pig herds and also the prevalence of infection. M. hyopneumoniae was detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and 16S rRNA sequencing. Twenty-nine inflammatory gross-lesions were observed in 155 lungs of slaughtered pigs. Invasion of focal lymphocytes was confirmed by paraffin sectioning and hematoxylin-eosin staining of lung sections. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from slaughtered Tibetan pigs and nasal swabs from others were assayed using PCR. The prevalence of M. hyopneumoniae in Tibetan pig herds (via ELISA) was 20.48% (93/454) in 3 provinces (Sichuan, Tibet autonomous region, and Qinghai) between October and December of 2014. The difference in prevalence among animals in six different growing stages was statistically significant (P hyopneumoniae antibody was detected in breeding sows (45.83%; 22/48) and piglets (50%; 3/6). PCR and gel electrophoresis of BALF showed that 6.45% (10/155) of pigs were positive for M. hyopneumoniae. The presence of M. hyopneumoniae in serum was higher in piglets and breeding sows than in any other group. In conclusion, the results of this study showed that M. hyopneumoniae is prevalent among Tibetan pigs between October and December in Western China. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first investigation of M. hyopneumoniae prevalence in Tibetan pigs of Western China using serological tests, PCR, and 16S rRNA sequencing.

  18. Western Sufism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sedgwick, Mark

    Western Sufism is sometimes dismissed as a relatively recent "new age" phenomenon, but in this book, Mark Sedgwick argues that it actually has very deep roots, both in the Muslim world and in the West. In fact, although the first significant Western Sufi organization was not established until 1915......, the first Western discussion of Sufism was printed in 1480, and Western interest in some of the ideas that are central to Sufi thought goes back to the thirteenth century. Sedgwick starts with the earliest origins of Western Sufism in late antique Neoplatonism and early Arab philosophy, and traces later......, the year in which the first Western Sufi order based not on the heritage of the European Middle Ages, Renaissance and Enlightenment, but rather on purely Islamic models, was founded. Later developments in this and other orders are also covered. Western Sufism shows the influence of these origins...

  19. Analysis on the Spatial Distribution Characteristics of Maritime traffic profile in Western Taiwan Strait

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jinhai, C; Feng, L; Guojun, P

    2014-01-01

    The mathematical statistics and spatial analyses for merchant vessels navigating in Western Taiwan Strait are used to unravel potential spatial heterogeneity based on ship tracking records derived from China's coastal Automatic Identification System shore-based network from October 2011 to September 2012. Two maritime traffic profile's indices, composition of vessels, weighted frequency of ship transits, are proposed. Based on the two indices, the most risky hotspots or areas in the Strait are detected by comparing spatial distribution of maritime traffic volume of fishing boat, container ship, crude oil tanker and all ships exclude fishing boats

  20. Cradle to grave GHG emissions analysis of shale gas hydraulic fracking in Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bista Sangita

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Western Australia has globally significant onshore gas resources, with over 280 trillion cubic feet of economically recoverable gas located in five shale basins. The Western Australian Government and gas industry have promoted the development of these resources as a “clean energy source” that would “help to reduce global carbon emissions” and provide a “transition fuel” to a low carbon economy. This research examines those claims by reviewing existing literature and published data to estimate the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG pollution that would result from the development of Western Australia’s onshore gas basins using hydraulic fracking. Estimates of carbon pollution from each stage in gas development, processing, transport and end-use are considered in order to establish total life-cycle emissions in tonnes of carbon-dioxide equivalent (CO2e. The emissions estimates draw from published research on emissions from shale gas development in other jurisdictions as well as industry or government reported emissions from current technology for gas processing and end-use as applicable. The current policy and regulatory environment for carbon pollution and likely resulting GHG mitigation measures has also been considered, as well as the potential for the gas to displace or substitute for other energy sources. In areas where there is uncertainty, conservative emissions estimates have been used. Modelling of GHG emissions has been undertaken for two comparison resource development and utilisation scenarios; Australian domestic and 100% export i.e. no domestic use. Each scenario corresponds to a different proportionate allocation of emissions accounted for domestic emissions in Australia and emissions accounted for in other jurisdictions. Emissions estimates for the two scenarios are 245–502 MTCO2e/year respectively over a resource development timeframe of 20 years. This is roughly the same as Australia’s total GHG emissions in 2014

  1. Multiparametric analysis and validation in the western Mediterranean of three global OGCM hindcasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Vidal-Vijande

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We analyse a hierarchy of three 1/4° global numerical simulations (ORCA-025.G70 (G70, ORCA-025.G85 (G85 and GLORYS1V1 (GLORYS by assessing their performance against observational data in the western Mediterranean. When compared with the EN3_v2a temperature and salinity database, the simulations are capable of reproducing surface layer temperature interannual variability but G70 is inaccurate with intermediate and deep-layer trends. This aspect is improved by the increased vertical resolution of G85 and by data assimilation in GLORYS. Salinity is the most problematic parameter because of the imbalance of the freshwater budget derived from inaccuracies in the atmospheric forcing parameters. Surface salinity restoring is needed in order to avoid salinity drift and inaccurate sea-level trends. G70, with a stronger relaxation, has a lower trend closer to altimetric measurements than G85. Mean surface circulation is well reproduced for relatively large-scale signals. We further show that G85 and GLORYS provide evidence of the 2004-2005 and 2005-2006 deep convection events in the Gulf of Lion. Finally, transports through the main straits of the western Mediterranean are correct in order of magnitude, direction and seasonal cycle when compared with observations. This study contributes to the improvement of the ORCA hierarchy of simulations and points out the strengths and weaknesses of these simulations in the Mediterranean Sea.

  2. Molecular analysis of mutant and wild type alcohol dehydrogenase alleles from Drosophila

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batzer, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    Wild type alcohol dehydrogenase polypeptides (ADH) from Drosophila melanogaster transformants were examined using western blots and polyclonal antiserum specific for Drosophila melanogaster ADH. Mutants induced in Drosophila spermatozoa at the alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) locus using X-rays, 1-ethyl-1-nitrosourea (ENU) or ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) were characterized using genetic complementation tests, western blots, Southern blots, northern blots and enzymatic amplification of the Adh locus. Genetic complementation tests showed that 22/30 X-ray-induced mutants, and 3/13 ENU and EMS induced mutants were multi-locus deficiencies. Western blot analysis of the intragenic mutations showed that 4/7 X-ray-induced mutants produced detectable polypeptides, one of which was normal in molecular weight and charge. In contrast 8/10 intragenic ENU and EMS induced mutants produced normal polypeptides. Southern blot analysis showed that 5/7 intragenic X-ray induced mutants and all 10 of the intragenic ENU and EMS induced mutants were normal with respect to the alleles they were derived from

  3. Description and analysis of the geohydrologic system in western Pinal County, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardt, W.F.; Cattany, R.E.

    1965-01-01

    Western Pinal County is between Phoenix and Tucson in the Basin and Range physiographic province of southern Arizona and consists of about 2,000 square miles of valley floor with low relief surrounded by mountains. It is the second largest agricultural area in the State, and about 25 percent of the ground water pumped in the State is from this area. The study area has been divided into four parts. Three of these--the Casa Grande-Florence area, the Eloy area, and the Stanfield-Maricopa area--are in the lower Santa Cruz basin; the fourth--the Gila River area--is a long narrow strip along the Gila River from the Ashurst-Hayden Dam to the confluence of the Gila and Santa Cruz Rivers. The project was undertaken to provide a better understanding of the ground-water supply in relation to the present and potential water use in this area of extensive ground-water development. The arid climate of western Pinal County--combining high temperatures and low humidity--causes most of the precipitation to be returned to the atmosphere by evapotranspiration, which leaves only a very small part for recharge to the ground-water reservoir. The computed potential evapotranspiration--44. 97 inches--is five times greater than the average precipitation. In general, the subsurface materials in western Pinal County are unconsolidated alluvial deposits underlain by consolidated alluvium and crystalline rocks and bounded by mountains consisting of crystalline and minor sedimentary rocks. The crystalline and sedimentary rocks of the mountains are not known to be water bearing in western Pinal County. The impermeable rocks underlying the basin are called the hydrologic bedrock unit in this report. Although the unit may consist of several different rock types, the distinction between them is relatively unimportant in this study because none of them yield appreciable amounts of water. The lower Santa Cruz basin in western Pinal County is divided into two sections by a buried ridge of the

  4. Viability of the ground of Shithatha, western Iraqi plateau, for industrial and commercial uses via hydrochemistry analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qaraghuli, S. A.

    2017-08-01

    Iraqi western plateau is considered as one of the most resourceful areas of the middle east, that is not yet well explored, due to the many political disturbances and security issues. The viability of underground water for the various industrial, municipal, commercial and agricultural uses is examined for Shithatha, Karbala governorates as a representative for the western plateau via chemical and physical analysis of water samples that are taken from 9 wells and 3 springs all-around the study area during the wet and dry periods. Hydro chemical and statistical analysis for the field samples have proved that groundwater of the studied area is classified as slightly-brackish water and water hardness is very high. Also, the results of the analyses of trace elements in the groundwater of the study area have confirmed the contamination of groundwater with some elements such as (Fe, Cd, Pb, Ni) in concentrations that have exceeded the WHO and Iraqi national standards IQS, permissible limits. The application of Hydro-chemical formulae of Kurlouv and Piper, Schoeller, Stiff classifications have demonstrated that most samples of the study area have water type of (Na2SO4) while other samples have ranged between (MgSO4), and (NaCl) water type. The quality of groundwater is unsuitable for drinking and industrial purposes and it is almost suitable for irrigation purposes, but it is suitable for livestock, building and agricultural purposes because the salinity of the water is within the permissible limits when considering the nature of the soil.

  5. Scenario-Based Analysis on Water Resources Implication of Coal Power in Western China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiahai Yuan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently, 58% of coal-fired power generation capacity is located in eastern China, where the demand for electricity is strong. Serious air pollution in China, in eastern regions in particular, has compelled the Chinese government to impose a ban on the new construction of pulverized coal power plants in eastern regions. Meanwhile, rapid economic growth is thirsty for electric power supply. As a response, China planned to build large-scale coal power bases in six western provinces, including Inner Mongolia, Shanxi, Shaanxi, Xinjiang, Ningxia and Gansu. In this paper, the water resource implication of the coal power base planning is addressed. We find that, in a business-as-usual (BAU scenario, water consumption for coal power generation in these six provinces will increase from 1130 million m3 in 2012 to 2085 million m3 in 2020, experiencing nearly a double growth. Such a surge will exert great pressure on water supply and lead to serious water crisis in these already water-starved regions. A strong implication is that the Chinese Government must add water resource constraint as a critical point in its overall sustainable development plan, in addition to energy supply and environment protection. An integrated energy-water resource plan with regionalized environmental carrying capacity as constraints should be developed to settle this puzzle. Several measures are proposed to cope with it, including downsizing coal power in western regions, raising the technical threshold of new coal power plants and implementing retrofitting to the inefficient cooling system, and reengineering the generation process to waterless or recycled means.

  6. Genomic analysis of avian influenza viruses from waterfowl in Western Alaska, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, A.B.; Pearce, J.M.; Ramey, A.M.; Ely, Craig R.; Schmutz, J.A.; Flint, Paul L.; Derksen, D.V.; Ip, Hon S.; Trust, K.A.

    2013-01-01

    The Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta (Y-K Delta) in western Alaska is an immense and important breeding ground for waterfowl. Migratory birds from the Pacific Americas, Central Pacific, and East Asian-Australasian flyways converge in this region, providing opportunities for intermixing of North American- and Eurasian-origin hosts and infectious agents, such as avian influenza virus (AIV). We characterized the genomes of 90 low pathogenic (LP) AIV isolates from 11 species of waterfowl sampled on the Y-K Delta between 2006 and 2009 as part of an interagency surveillance program for the detection of the H5N1 highly pathogenic (HP) strain of AIV. We found evidence for subtype and genetic differences between viruses from swans and geese, dabbling ducks, and sea ducks. At least one gene segment in 39% of all isolates was Eurasian in origin. Target species (those ranked as having a relatively high potential to introduce HP H5N1 AIV to North America) were no more likely than nontarget species to carry viruses with genes of Eurasian origin. These findings provide evidence that the frequency at which viral gene segments of Eurasian origin are detected does not result from a strong species effect, but rather we suspect it is linked to the geographic location of the Y-K Delta in western Alaska where flyways from different continents overlap. This study provides support for retaining the Y-K Delta as a high priority region for the surveillance of Asian avian pathogens such as HP H5N1 AIV.

  7. Childhood hospitalisation for otitis media in Western Australia: A 10-year retrospective analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Liu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of hospitalisation for otitis media across the different risk indicators for Western Australian children (less than 15 years old over a 10-year period. Method This retrospective population-based study used the deidentified detailed data of children under the age of 15 years, hospitalised for otitis media (OM, as determined by principal diagnosis (ICD-10AM and obtained from the Western Australian (WA Hospital Morbidity Dataset for 10 financial years from 1999–2000 to 2008–2009. Various risk indicators, including age, gender, Indigenous status, insurance status, hospital area, hospital type, and length of stay were also analysed. Results Out of 26,294 cases of in-hospital care, Indigenous children comprised 4.7 per cent (n=1,226, while the non-Indigenous children comprised 95.3 per cent (n=25,068. The majority of the children, nearly 98.8 per cent, were admitted for chronic OM. The children were grouped into three age groups, namely, 0–4 years, 5–9 years, and 10–14 years. Nearly two-thirds of all cases were in the 0–4-year age group. Significantly more non-Indigenous (51 per cent than Indigenous children (2 per cent had private health insurance. The hospitalisation rates were directly proportional between the number of Indigenous children living in the area and the increasing remoteness of the area along with greater socioeconomic disadvantage. There were 24 per cent more cases from very remote areas compared to highly accessible areas, and there were 60 per cent more cases from the most disadvantaged socioeconomic category, compared with the least disadvantaged category, for Indigenous children. Conclusion These data depict the variations in prevalence of otitis media hospitalisations within the community, as affected by various risk indicators.

  8. A habitat overlap analysis derived from maxent for tamarisk and the south-western willow flycatcher

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Patricia; Evangelista, Paul; Kumar, Sunil; Graham, James; Flather, Curtis; Stohlgren, Thomas

    2011-06-01

    Biologic control of the introduced and invasive, woody plant tamarisk ( Tamarix spp, saltcedar) in south-western states is controversial because it affects habitat of the federally endangered South-western Willow Flycatcher ( Empidonax traillii extimus). These songbirds sometimes nest in tamarisk where floodplain-level invasion replaces native habitats. Biologic control, with the saltcedar leaf beetle ( Diorhabda elongate), began along the Virgin River, Utah, in 2006, enhancing the need for comprehensive understanding of the tamarisk-flycatcher relationship. We used maximum entropy (Maxent) modeling to separately quantify the current extent of dense tamarisk habitat (>50% cover) and the potential extent of habitat available for E. traillii extimus within the studied watersheds. We used transformations of 2008 Landsat Thematic Mapper images and a digital elevation model as environmental input variables. Maxent models performed well for the flycatcher and tamarisk with Area Under the ROC Curve (AUC) values of 0.960 and 0.982, respectively. Classification of thresholds and comparison of the two Maxent outputs indicated moderate spatial overlap between predicted suitable habitat for E. traillii extimus and predicted locations with dense tamarisk stands, where flycatcher habitat will potentially change flycatcher habitats. Dense tamarisk habitat comprised 500 km2 within the study area, of which 11.4% was also modeled as potential habitat for E. traillii extimus. Potential habitat modeled for the flycatcher constituted 190 km2, of which 30.7% also contained dense tamarisk habitat. Results showed that both native vegetation and dense tamarisk habitats exist in the study area and that most tamarisk infestations do not contain characteristics that satisfy the habitat requirements of E. traillii extimus. Based on this study, effective biologic control of Tamarix spp. may, in the short term, reduce suitable habitat available to E. traillii extimus, but also has the potential

  9. Immuno-Northern Blotting: Detection of RNA Modifications by Using Antibodies against Modified Nucleosides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eikan Mishima

    Full Text Available The biological roles of RNA modifications are still largely not understood. Thus, developing a method for detecting RNA modifications is important for further clarification. We developed a method for detecting RNA modifications called immuno-northern blotting (INB analysis and herein introduce its various capabilities. This method involves the separation of RNAs using either polyacrylamide or agarose gel electrophoresis, followed by transfer onto a nylon membrane and subsequent immunoblotting using antibodies against modified nucleosides for the detection of specific modifications. We confirmed that INB with the antibodies for 1-methyladenosine (m1A, N6-methyladenosine (m6A, pseudouridine, and 5-methylcytidine (m5C showed different modifications in a variety of RNAs from various species and organelles. INB with the anti-m5C antibody revealed that the antibody cross-reacted with another modification on DNA, suggesting the application of this method for characterization of the antibody for modified nucleosides. Additionally, using INB with the antibody for m1A, which is a highly specific modification in eukaryotic tRNA, we detected tRNA-derived fragments known as tiRNAs under the cellular stress response, suggesting the application for tracking target RNA containing specific modifications. INB with the anti-m6A antibody confirmed the demethylation of m6A by the specific demethylases fat mass and obesity-associated protein (FTO and ALKBH5, suggesting its application for quantifying target modifications in separated RNAs. Furthermore, INB demonstrated that the knockdown of FTO and ALKBH5 increased the m6A modification in small RNAs as well as in mRNA. The INB method has high specificity, sensitivity, and quantitative capability, and it can be employed with conventional experimental apparatus. Therefore, this method would be useful for research on RNA modifications and metabolism.

  10. Two-Phase Contiguous Supported Lipid Bilayer Model for Membrane Rafts via Polymer Blotting and Stenciling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Mark J; Daniel, Susan

    2017-02-07

    The supported lipid bilayer has been portrayed as a useful model of the cell membrane compatible with many biophysical tools and techniques that demonstrate its appeal in learning about the basic features of the plasma membrane. However, some of its potential has yet to be realized, particularly in the area of bilayer patterning and phase/composition heterogeneity. In this work, we generate contiguous bilayer patterns as a model system that captures the general features of membrane domains and lipid rafts. Micropatterned polymer templates of two types are investigated for generating patterned bilayer formation: polymer blotting and polymer lift-off stenciling. While these approaches have been used previously to create bilayer arrays by corralling bilayers patches with various types of boundaries impenetrable to bilayer diffusion, unique to the methods presented here, there are no physical barriers to diffusion. In this work, interfaces between contiguous lipid phases define the pattern shapes, with continuity between them allowing transfer of membrane-bound biomolecules between the phases. We examine effectors of membrane domain stability including temperature and cholesterol content to investigate domain dynamics. Contiguous patterning of supported bilayers as a model of lipid rafts expands the application of the SLB to an area with current appeal and brings with it a useful toolset for characterization and analysis. These combined tools should be helpful to researchers investigating lipid raft dynamics and function and biomolecule partitioning studies. Additionally, this patterning technique may be useful for applications such as bioseparations that exploit differences in lipid phase partitioning or creation of membranes that bind species like viruses preferentially at lipid phase boundaries, to name a few.

  11. Immuno-Northern Blotting: Detection of RNA Modifications by Using Antibodies against Modified Nucleosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishima, Eikan; Jinno, Daisuke; Akiyama, Yasutoshi; Itoh, Kunihiko; Nankumo, Shinnosuke; Shima, Hisato; Kikuchi, Koichi; Takeuchi, Yoichi; Elkordy, Alaa; Suzuki, Takehiro; Niizuma, Kuniyasu; Ito, Sadayoshi; Tomioka, Yoshihisa; Abe, Takaaki

    2015-01-01

    The biological roles of RNA modifications are still largely not understood. Thus, developing a method for detecting RNA modifications is important for further clarification. We developed a method for detecting RNA modifications called immuno-northern blotting (INB) analysis and herein introduce its various capabilities. This method involves the separation of RNAs using either polyacrylamide or agarose gel electrophoresis, followed by transfer onto a nylon membrane and subsequent immunoblotting using antibodies against modified nucleosides for the detection of specific modifications. We confirmed that INB with the antibodies for 1-methyladenosine (m1A), N6-methyladenosine (m6A), pseudouridine, and 5-methylcytidine (m5C) showed different modifications in a variety of RNAs from various species and organelles. INB with the anti-m5C antibody revealed that the antibody cross-reacted with another modification on DNA, suggesting the application of this method for characterization of the antibody for modified nucleosides. Additionally, using INB with the antibody for m1A, which is a highly specific modification in eukaryotic tRNA, we detected tRNA-derived fragments known as tiRNAs under the cellular stress response, suggesting the application for tracking target RNA containing specific modifications. INB with the anti-m6A antibody confirmed the demethylation of m6A by the specific demethylases fat mass and obesity-associated protein (FTO) and ALKBH5, suggesting its application for quantifying target modifications in separated RNAs. Furthermore, INB demonstrated that the knockdown of FTO and ALKBH5 increased the m6A modification in small RNAs as well as in mRNA. The INB method has high specificity, sensitivity, and quantitative capability, and it can be employed with conventional experimental apparatus. Therefore, this method would be useful for research on RNA modifications and metabolism.

  12. How has the extent of institutional mental healthcare changed in Western Europe? Analysis of data since 1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Winnie S; Priebe, Stefan

    2016-04-29

    It has been suggested that since 1990, de-institutionalisation of mental healthcare in Western Europe has been reversed into re-institutionalisation with more forensic beds, places in protected housing services and people with mental disorders in prisons. This study aimed to identify changes in the numbers of places in built institutions providing mental healthcare in Western Europe from 1990 to 2012, and to explore the association between changes in psychiatric bed numbers and changes in other institutions. Data were identified from 11 countries on psychiatric hospital beds, forensic beds, protected housing places and prison populations. Fixed effects regression models tested the associations between psychiatric hospital beds with other institutions. The number of psychiatric hospital beds decreased, while forensic beds, places in protected housing and prison populations increased. Overall, the number of reduced beds exceeded additional places in other institutions. There was no evidence for an association of changes in bed numbers with changes in forensic beds and protected housing places. Panel data regression analysis showed that changes in psychiatric bed numbers were negatively associated with rising prison populations, but the significant association disappeared once adjusted for gross domestic product as a potential covariate. Institutional mental healthcare has substantially changed across Western Europe since 1990. There are ongoing overall trends of a decrease in the number of psychiatric hospital beds and an increase in the number of places in other institutions, including prisons. The exact association between these trends and their drivers remains unclear. More reliable data, information on the characteristics of patients in different institutions, long-term pathway analyses and effectiveness studies are required to arrive at evidence-based policies for the provision of institutional mental healthcare. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited

  13. An injury awareness education program on outcomes of juvenile justice offenders in Western Australia: an economic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Kwok M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Injury is a major cause of mortality and morbidity of young people and the cost-effectiveness of many injury prevention programs remains uncertain. This study aimed to analyze the costs and benefits of an injury awareness education program, the P.A.R.T.Y. (Prevent Alcohol and Risk-related Trauma in Youth program, for juvenile justice offenders in Western Australia. Methods Costs and benefits analysis based on effectiveness data from a linked-data cohort study on 225 juvenile justice offenders who were referred to the education program and 3434 who were not referred to the program between 2006 and 2011. Results During the study period, there were 8869 hospitalizations and 113 deaths due to violence or traffic-related injuries among those aged between 14 and 21 in Western Australia. The mean length of hospital stay was 4.6 days, a total of 320 patients (3.6% needed an intensive care admission with an average length of stay of 6 days. The annual cost saved due to serious injury was $3,765 and the annual net cost of running this program was $33,735. The estimated cost per offence prevented, cost per serious injury avoided, and cost per undiscounted and discounted life year gained were $3,124, $42,169, $8,268 and $17,910, respectively. Increasing the frequency of the program from once per month to once per week would increase its cost-effectiveness substantially. Conclusions The P.A.R.T.Y. injury education program involving real-life trauma scenarios was cost-effective in reducing subsequent risk of committing violence or traffic-related offences, injuries, and death for juvenile justice offenders in Western Australia.

  14. Evaluating tourism potential: a SWOT analysis of the Western Negev, Israel

    OpenAIRE

    Collins-Kreiner, Noga; Wall, Geoffrey

    2007-01-01

    SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) analysis is a widely used method of evaluation employed in the business and planning worlds, including tourism planning, but there is little documentation on SWOT analysis in the academic tourism or geography literature. In this study SWOT analysis was applied more systematically in these areas, and rules for using it are suggested. The objective of this research is to show how SWOT analysis can be made more attractive, useful and accur...

  15. Integrating multi-criteria decision analysis for a GIS-based hazardous waste landfill sitting in Kurdistan Province, western Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharifi, Mozafar; Hadidi, Mosslem; Vessali, Elahe; Mosstafakhani, Parasto; Taheri, Kamal; Shahoie, Saber; Khodamoradpour, Mehran

    2009-01-01

    The evaluation of a hazardous waste disposal site is a complicated process because it requires data from diverse social and environmental fields. These data often involve processing of a significant amount of spatial information which can be used by GIS as an important tool for land use suitability analysis. This paper presents a multi-criteria decision analysis alongside with a geospatial analysis for the selection of hazardous waste landfill sites in Kurdistan Province, western Iran. The study employs a two-stage analysis to provide a spatial decision support system for hazardous waste management in a typically under developed region. The purpose of GIS was to perform an initial screening process to eliminate unsuitable land followed by utilization of a multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) to identify the most suitable sites using the information provided by the regional experts with reference to new chosen criteria. Using 21 exclusionary criteria, as input layers, masked maps were prepared. Creating various intermediate or analysis map layers a final overlay map was obtained representing areas for hazardous waste landfill sites. In order to evaluate different landfill sites produced by the overlaying a landfill suitability index system was developed representing cumulative effects of relative importance (weights) and suitability values of 14 non-exclusionary criteria including several criteria resulting from field observation. Using this suitability index 15 different sites were visited and based on the numerical evaluation provided by MCDA most suitable sites were determined.

  16. Shear wave velocities in the upper mantle of the Western Alps: new constraints using array analysis of seismic surface waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Chao; Pedersen, Helle A.; Paul, Anne; Zhao, Liang; Solarino, Stefano

    2017-07-01

    It remains challenging to obtain absolute shear wave velocities of heterogeneities of small lateral extension in the uppermost mantle. This study presents a cross-section of Vs across the strongly heterogeneous 3-D structure of the western European Alps, based on array analysis of data from 92 broad-band seismic stations from the CIFALPS experiment and from permanent networks in France and Italy. Half of the stations were located along a dense sublinear array. Using a combination of these stations and off-profile stations, fundamental-mode Rayleigh wave dispersion curves were calculated using a combined frequency-time beamforming approach. We calculated dispersion curves for seven arrays of approximately 100 km aperture and 14 arrays of approximately 50 km aperture, the latter with the aim of obtaining a 2-D vertical cross-section of Vs beneath the western Alps. The dispersion curves were inverted for Vs(z), with crustal interfaces imposed from a previous receiver function study. The array approach proved feasible, as Vs(z) from independent arrays vary smoothly across the profile length. Results from the seven large arrays show that the shear velocity of the upper mantle beneath the European plate is overall low compared to AK135 with the lowest velocities in the internal part of the western Alps, and higher velocities east of the Alps beneath the Po plain. The 2-D Vs model is coherent with (i) a ∼100 km thick eastward-dipping European lithosphere west of the Alps, (ii) very high velocities beneath the Po plain, coherent with the presence of the Alpine (European) slab and (iii) a narrow low-velocity anomaly beneath the core of the western Alps (from the Briançonnais to the Dora Maira massif), and approximately colocated with a similar anomaly observed in a recent teleseismic P-wave tomography. This intriguing anomaly is also supported by traveltime variations of subvertically propagating body waves from two teleseismic events that are approximately located on

  17. Crustal structure of the rifted volcanic margins and uplifted plateau of Western Yemen from receiver function analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Abdulhakim; Tiberi, Christel; Leroy, Sylvie; Stuart, Graham W.; Keir, Derek; Sholan, Jamal; Khanbari, Khaled; Al-Ganad, Ismael; Basuyau, Clémence

    2013-06-01

    We analyse P-wave receiver functions across the western Gulf of Aden and southern Red Sea continental margins in Western Yemen to constrain crustal thickness, internal crustal structure and the bulk seismic velocity characteristics in order to address the role of magmatism, faulting and mechanical crustal thinning during continental breakup. We analyse teleseismic data from 21 stations forming the temporary Young Conjugate Margins Laboratory (YOCMAL) network together with GFZ and Yemeni permanent stations. Analysis of computed receiver functions shows that (1) the thickness of unextended crust on the Yemen plateau is ˜35 km; (2) this thins to ˜22 km in coastal areas and reaches less than 14 km on the Red Sea coast, where presence of a high-velocity lower crust is evident. The average Vp/Vs ratio for the western Yemen Plateau is 1.79, increasing to ˜1.92 near the Red Sea coast and decreasing to 1.68 for those stations located on or near the granitic rocks. Thinning of the crust, and by inference extension, occurs over a ˜130-km-wide transition zone from the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden coasts to the edges of the Yemen plateau. Thinning of continental crust is particularly localized in a <30-km-wide zone near the coastline, spatially co-incident with addition of magmatic underplate to the lower crust, above which on the surface we observe the presence of seaward dipping reflectors (SDRs) and thickened Oligo-Miocene syn-rift basaltic flows. Our results strongly suggest the presence of high-velocity mafic intrusions in the lower crust, which are likely either synrift magmatic intrusion into continental lower crust or alternatively depleted upper mantle underplated to the base of the crust during the eruption of the SDRs. Our results also point towards a regional breakup history in which the onset of rifting was synchronous along the western Gulf of Aden and southern Red Sea volcanic margins followed by a second phase of extension along the Red Sea margin.

  18. A simple DNA recombination screening method by RT-PCR as an alternative to Southern blot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albers, Eliene; Sbroggiò, Mauro; Martin Gonzalez, Javier

    2017-01-01

    The generation of genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs), including knock-out (KO) and knock-in (KI) models, often requires genomic screening of many mouse ES cell (mESC) clones by Southern blot. The use of large targeting constructs facilitates the recombination of exogenous DNA in a specific...

  19. Geothermic analysis of high temperature hydrothermal activities area in Western plateau of Sichuan province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.

    2016-12-01

    There is a high temperature hydrothermal activity area in the western plateau of Sichuan. More than 200 hot springs points have been found in the region, including 11 hot spring water temperature above local boiling point. Most of these distribute along Jinshajjiang fracture, Dege-Xiangcheng fracture, Ganzi-Litang fracture as well as Xianshuihe fracture, and form three high-temperature hydrothermal activity strips in the NW-SE direction. Using gravity, magnetic, seismic and helium isotope data, this paper analyzed the crust-mantle heat flow structure, crustal heat source distribution and water heating system. The results show that the geothermal activity mainly controlled by the "hot" crust. The ratio of crustal heat flow and surface heat flow is higher than 60%. In the high temperature hydrothermal activities area, there is lower S wave velocity zone with VsGeothermal water mainly reserve in the Triassic strata of the containing water good carbonate rocks, and in the intrusive granite which is along the fault zone. The thermal energy of Surface heat thermal activities mainly comes from the high-temperature hot source which is located in the middle and lower crust. Being in the deep crustal fracture, the groundwater infiltrated to the deep crust and absorbed heat, then, quickly got back to the surface and formed high hot springs.

  20. Gender and health analysis of sexual behaviour in south-western Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegede, A S; Odumosu, O

    2003-04-01

    This paper reports the main results of a series of interviews conducted among the Yoruba of south-western Nigeria. Fifty men and fifty women differing in socio-demographic backgrounds were studied. The study revealed that during their first sexual experience, Yoruba girls are at risk of contacting sexually transmitted diseases and of having unplanned pregnancies because of the traditional control measures and lack of adequate sex education even among those from non-traditional backgrounds. Choice of marriage partner is influenced by the kin, which encourages early marriage and multiple sexual relationships through polygyny. Yoruba men do not like contraceptives and the women suffer more of the consequences of sexual relationships than men. Sexual decision-making in Yoruba culture is characterised by certain specific problems of structural and cultural origins such as separate lifestyle of men and women, seeing the discussion of sexuality as a taboo, male dominance, and the perceived side effects of contraceptives. There is need for expanded sexual and reproductive health education strategies targeted at both males and females in this community especially among the adolescent group.

  1. To be Excellent Society: Comparative Analysis between Western and Muslim Philosophers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humaidi Hum AS

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The western philosophers like Karl Marx believe that society is ontologically understood in terms of physical dimension only while the Muslim philosophers such as al-Fārābī, Nasīr al-Dīn al-Tūsī, Ibn Khaldūn and Murtaḍā Muṭahharī argue that it consists of physical and metaphysical or spiritual aspects. The structure of a society along with its development and orientation can be seen and explained by its physical and metaphysical aspects. Moreover, the perfection of a society is not only based on the fulfilment of its physical needs but also on the establishment of intellectual and spiritual needs. This article aims to discuss society through Islamic philosophy’s perspective with the elaboration of social science, the reality of a society, the structure of an ideal society and its development and orientation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.20414/ujis.v20i1.823

  2. Cluster Analysis of Monthly Precipitation over the Western Maritime Continent under Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh K Singh

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Changes in climate because of global warming during the 20th and 21st centuries have a direct impact on the hydrological cycle as driven by precipitation. However, studying precipitation over the Western Maritime Continent (WMC is a great challenge, as the WMC has a complex topography and weather system. Understanding changes in precipitation patterns and their groupings is an important aspect of planning mitigation measures to minimize flood and drought risk as well as of understanding the redistribution of precipitation arising from climate change. This paper employs Ward’s hierarchical clustering on regional climate model (RCM-simulated monthly precipitation gridded data over 42 approximately evenly distributed grid stations from the years 2030 to 2060. The aim was to investigate spatial and temporal groupings over the four major landmasses in the WMC and to compare these with historical precipitation groupings. The results showed that the four large-scale islands of Java, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia and Borneo would experience a significant spatial redistribution of precipitation over the years 2030 to 2060, as compared to historical patterns from 1980 to 2005. The spatial groups were also compared for two future forcing scenarios, representative concentration pathways (RCPs 4.5 and 8.5, and different groupings over the Borneo region were observed.

  3. Do GCI indicators predict SME creation? A Western Balkans cross-country comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fëllënza Lushaku

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In early stages SMEs were seen as insignificant supplement to large business supply, whereas today they have a very important social and economic role, because of their contribution to job creation. These contributions are very valuable in times of crises and rising unemployment. In Kosovo and the Western Balkan countries, including countries such as Albania, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia and Bosnia and Herzegovina, the development of SMEs can contribute in facing many challenges, effects of inequality, high level of unemployment and demographic challenges. In addition, SME development can contribute to strengthening the competitiveness and productivity, while also promoting the growth of income per capita. Besides the positive perception the creation of small and medium enterprises has, it is also indispensable to consider their extinction rate, being the most affected category of businesses, especially in the initial stages. It is proved that the net SME creation and cross-country differences in the relationship between new businesses and extinct businesses, can serve as a recommendation for policy makers in order to create a favorable climate for small and medium enterprises. GCI indicators that measures global competitiveness are used to determine if the climate of competitiveness predicts the development of SMEs.

  4. Technology adoption analysis of improved maize technology in western hills of Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeevan Lamichhane

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The survey was carried out in two districts namely Palpa and Baglung to determine the current level of adoption of improved maize production practices. This study identifies the technology adoption extent and pattern of improved maize technologies in Western Hills of Nepal. In each of these districts, two village development committees (V.D.Cs were surveyed. Deurali and Khasyouli V.D.C from Palpa and Kudule and Malika V.D.C from Baglung Districts were selected. Structured Questionnaire were administered to 30 randomly selected households in each VDC. Altogether 120 Households were surveyed. The degree of adoption was measured on the seed rate, adoption of improved varieties, application of Nitrogenous, Phosphatic and Potassium fertilizer, Weeding and method of planting. The adoption index was used to determine the adoption level of the respondents. There seems to be a gap between the recommended practice and current level of practice at the farmers level in some of the factors like Nitrogenous, Phosphorus and Potassium fertilizers, method of planting .The study revealed that majority farmers belonged to high adoption category (57% followed by medium adoption category (54% and low adoption category (9%. The Technology Adoption Index (TAI was found 63%. In nutshell there is still large scope for yield improvement of the maize in the study area by adopting improved maize varieties.

  5. A Two-Year Prospective Analysis of Mandibular Fractures in Western Population of Maharashtra, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwinirani Suragimath

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Trauma to the facial region causes injuries to hard and soft tissues of the face. Injuries to the maxillofacial region are increasing in frequency and severity because of the increased number of road traffic accidents (RTAs and increased number of violence. The purpose of this study was to evaluate age, gender distribution, etiology, and pattern of mandibular fractures in Western part of Maharashtra population. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology for a period of two years from June 2013 to June 2015. Clinical examination of all trauma patients was done and diagnosis was made based on signs, clinical features, and confirmed by orthopantomographs. Results: Totally, 193 patients were detected with different types of mandibular fractures. Study group involved 77.2% males and 22.8% females with a male to female ratio of 3.3:1. Majority of patients were in the age group of 21–30 years followed by 31–40 years. Trauma due to RTAs were more common followed by assaults and fall. Parasymphyseal fractures were most common type followed by condylar fracture and fracture of angle of mandible. Conclusion: Males were most commonly affected by trauma than females with a predominant age group of 21–30 years. Majority of trauma were due to RTAs with parasymphyseal as most common type of fracture.

  6. Stability analysis of Western flank of Cumbre Vieja volcano (La Palma) using numerical modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bru, Guadalupe; Gonzalez, Pablo J.; Fernandez-Merodo, Jose A.; Fernandez, Jose

    2016-04-01

    La Palma volcanic island is one of the youngest of the Canary archipelago, being a composite volcano formed by three overlapping volcanic centers. There are clear onshore and offshore evidences of past giant landslides that have occurred during its evolution. Currently, the active Cumbre Vieja volcano is in an early development state (Carracedo et al., 2001). The study of flank instability processes aim to assess, among other hazards, catastrophic collapse and potential tsunami generation. Early studies of the potential instability of Cumbre Vieja volcano western flank have focused on the use of sparse geodetic networks (Moss et al. 1999), surface geological mapping techniques (Day et al. 1999) and offshore bathymetry (Urgeles et al. 1999). Recently, a dense GNSS network and satellite radar interferometry results indicate ground motion consistent with deep-seated creeping processes (Prieto et al. 2009, Gonzalez et al. 2010). In this work, we present a geomechanical advanced numerical model that captures the ongoing deformation processes at Cumbre Vieja. We choose the Finite Elements Method (FEM) which is based in continuum mechanics and is the most used for geotechnical applications. FEM has the ability of using arbitrary geometry, heterogeneities, irregular boundaries and different constitutive models representative of the geotechnical units involved. Our main contribution is the introduction of an inverse approach to constrain the geomechanical parameters using satellite radar interferometry displacements. This is the first application of such approach on a large volcano flank study. We suggest that the use of surface displacements and inverse methods to rigorously constrain the geomechanical model parameter space is a powerful tool to understand volcano flank instability. A particular important result of the studied case is the estimation of displaced rock volume, which is a parameter of critical importance for simulations of Cumbre Vieja tsunamigenic hazard

  7. Is Western Australia's rural surgical workforce going to sustain the future? A quantitative and qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugakumar, Sharanyaa; Playford, Denese; Burkitt, Tessa; Tennant, Marc; Bowles, Tom

    2017-03-01

    Objective Despite public interest in the rural workforce, there are few published data on the geographical distribution of Australia's rural surgeons, their practice skill set, career stage or work-life balance (on-call burden). Similarly, there has not been a peer-reviewed skills audit of rural training opportunities for surgical trainees. The present study undertook this baseline assessment for Western Australia (WA), which has some of the most remote practice areas in Australia. Methods Hospital staff from all WA Country Health Service hospitals with surgical service (20 of 89 rural health services) were contacted by telephone. A total of 18 of 20 provided complete data. The study questionnaire explored hospital and practice locations of practicing rural surgeons, on-call rosters, career stage, practice skill set and the availability of surgical training positions. Data were tabulated in excel and geographic information system geocoded. Descriptive statistics were calculated in Excel. Results Of the seven health regions for rural Western Australia, two (28.6%) were served by resident surgeons at a ratio consistent with Royal Australasian College of Surgeons (RACS) guidelines. General surgery was offered in 16 (89%) hospitals. In total, 16 (89%) hospitals were served by fly-in, fly-out (FIFO) surgical services. Two hospitals with resident surgeons did not use FIFO services, but all hospitals without resident surgeons were served by FIFO surgical specialists. The majority of resident surgeons (62.5%) and FIFO surgeons (43.2%) were perceived to be mid-career by hospital staff members. Three hospitals (16.7%) offered all eight of the identified surgical skill sets, but 16 (89%) offered general surgery. Conclusions Relatively few resident rural surgeons are servicing large areas of WA, assisted by the widespread provision of FIFO surgical services. The present audit demonstrates strength in general surgical skills throughout regional WA, and augers well for the

  8. A risk analysis for gas transport network planning expansion under regulatory uncertainty in Western Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelletier, C.; Wortmann, J.C. [Information System Cluster, Faculty of Economics and Business, Rijksuniversiteit Groningen, Landleven 5, Postbus 800, 9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands)

    2009-02-15

    The natural gas industry in Western Europe went through drastic changes induced by the unbundling of the national companies, followed by the liberalization of gas trade and the regulation of gas transmission. Natural gas transmission is operated through a network of interconnected grids, and is capacity constrained. Each of the grids is locally regulated in terms of price limits on transportation services. Local tariff differences may induce unnatural gas routing within a network, creating congestion in some part of it. This phenomena is referred to as the Jepma effect. Following Jepma (2001. Gaslevering onder druk. Stichting JIN. Available at: www.jiqweb.org (52pp) (in Dutch)) this may lead to misguided investment decisions. In this paper a multi-stage linear program is used to simulate the repartition of the natural gas flow in an interconnected grid system on a succession of contracting periods. By this simulation, the risk linked to infrastructure investment is assessed. The risk measured can be seen as the probability of a negative present net value for the investment. The model is applied on an example of two grids that are on alternative routes serving same destinations. When applied to a specific situation of North-West Europe (Germany and The Netherlands), the model clearly demonstrates that the risks turn out to be too high to invest: there are hardly any scenarios under which an acceptable ROI will be realized. Given the current tariff policy and current publicly available forecasts of demand and supply, it is unlikely that market forces will attract additional investments in transportation capacity. This reluctance to invest can be prohibitive for further growth of supply if the demand would increase significantly. (author)

  9. Testing seasonality of the Late Cretaceous Western Interior Seaway with stable isotope analysis of ammonites (Baculites)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, N.; Tobin, T. S.

    2017-12-01

    Common to the Western Interior Seaway, Baculites is a genus of ammonite with a straight-shelled morphology that serve as index fossils for the Late Cretaceous. Powdered shell samples were generated along growth sequences from several large Baculites fragments (20 - 40 cm) that preserve original aragonite. Stable isotope ratios (δ13C, δ18O) were determined for samples using standard techniques. Sine curves were fit to δ18O and δ13C signals, where the seasonal temperature differential is expressed as the amplitude of the δ18O signal. The periods of the signals represent one annual cycle, from which preliminary Baculites growth rate estimates have been established. Additionally, carbon and oxygen isotope data obtained by Fatheree et al. [1998] were re-analyzed and fit to a sine curve. All of the Baculites that produced usable data and the Fatheree et al. [1998] Baculites produced similar periods (30 - 35 cm), suggesting that Baculites likely utilized an r-type life strategy where they reach maturity rapidly, produce large amounts of offspring, and die within a few years. Understanding their life behaviors is critical to the use of Baculites as a paleoclimate proxy since potential migration, both geographic and in the water column, may influence carbon and oxygen isotope signals. The sinusoidal nature of the isotope signals observed in several Baculites suggests that seasonal inputs are most prevalent. Changes in ammonite activity and/or behavior driven by seasonal progression, seasonally mediated environmental changes, or combinations of these are hypothesized inputs that may result in the observed sinusoidal signals. Amplitudes of δ18O signals suggest seawater temperature variance that is consistent with the paleolatitudes associated with the Baculites specimens sampled. Ammonites from higher paleolatitudes yielded larger amplitude signals indicating greater seasonality at these locations. Further experimentation with Baculites aptychi is ongoing and may yield

  10. A novel household water insecurity scale: Procedures and psychometric analysis among postpartum women in western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boateng, Godfred O; Collins, Shalean M; Mbullo, Patrick; Wekesa, Pauline; Onono, Maricianah; Neilands, Torsten B; Young, Sera L

    2018-01-01

    Our ability to measure household-level food insecurity has revealed its critical role in a range of physical, psychosocial, and health outcomes. Currently, there is no analogous, standardized instrument for quantifying household-level water insecurity, which prevents us from understanding both its prevalence and consequences. Therefore, our objectives were to develop and validate a household water insecurity scale appropriate for use in our cohort in western Kenya. We used a range of qualitative techniques to develop a preliminary set of 29 household water insecurity questions and administered those questions at 15 and 18 months postpartum, concurrent with a suite of other survey modules. These data were complemented by data on quantity of water used and stored, and microbiological quality. Inter-item and item-total correlations were performed to reduce scale items to 20. Exploratory factor and parallel analyses were used to determine the latent factor structure; a unidimensional scale was hypothesized and tested using confirmatory factor and bifactor analyses, along with multiple statistical fit indices. Reliability was assessed using Cronbach's alpha and the coefficient of stability, which produced a coefficient alpha of 0.97 at 15 and 18 months postpartum and a coefficient of stability of 0.62. Predictive, convergent and discriminant validity of the final household water insecurity scale were supported based on relationships with food insecurity, perceived stress, per capita household water use, and time and money spent acquiring water. The resultant scale is a valid and reliable instrument. It can be used in this setting to test a range of hypotheses about the role of household water insecurity in numerous physical and psychosocial health outcomes, to identify the households most vulnerable to water insecurity, and to evaluate the effects of water-related interventions. To extend its applicability, we encourage efforts to develop a cross-culturally valid scale

  11. A risk analysis for gas transport network planning expansion under regulatory uncertainty in Western Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelletier, C.; Wortmann, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    The natural gas industry in Western Europe went through drastic changes induced by the unbundling of the national companies, followed by the liberalization of gas trade and the regulation of gas transmission. Natural gas transmission is operated through a network of interconnected grids, and is capacity constrained. Each of the grids is locally regulated in terms of price limits on transportation services. Local tariff differences may induce unnatural gas routing within a network, creating congestion in some part of it. This phenomena is referred to as the Jepma effect. Following Jepma (2001. Gaslevering onder druk. Stichting JIN. Available at: www.jiqweb.org (52pp) (in Dutch)) this may lead to misguided investment decisions. In this paper a multi-stage linear program is used to simulate the repartition of the natural gas flow in an interconnected grid system on a succession of contracting periods. By this simulation, the risk linked to infrastructure investment is assessed. The risk measured can be seen as the probability of a negative present net value for the investment. The model is applied on an example of two grids that are on alternative routes serving same destinations. When applied to a specific situation of North-West Europe (Germany and The Netherlands), the model clearly demonstrates that the risks turn out to be too high to invest: there are hardly any scenarios under which an acceptable ROI will be realized. Given the current tariff policy and current publicly available forecasts of demand and supply, it is unlikely that market forces will attract additional investments in transportation capacity. This reluctance to invest can be prohibitive for further growth of supply if the demand would increase significantly. (author)

  12. Analysis of Poplar process value chain in Western Azerbaijan province aims to upgrading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    omid hosein zadeh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Due to the size and importance of poplar culturing and its role in the West Azerbaijan province economy, evaluation of the poplar value chain is necessary. With drawing up a comprehensive value chain and identify the lacks, setting the value chain in the province were studied. Finally, due to lacks of the value chain, value chain strategy for development was identified using ANP. The results of the calculation of location quotient in the West Azerbaijan province showed that the LQ is equal to 0.65852. Due to its lower LQ than one, it can be concluded that the poplar costumers in Western Azerbaijan province are less than the country average. The results of the prioritization of criteria affecting poplar value chain development in West Azerbaijan province indicated the most important criterion is the access to wooden raw materials weighing 0.16. After that the stable supply of raw materials, machinery and equipment, manpower, proximity to local markets, expertise and financial resources are with weights, 0.132, 0.123, 0.116, 0.105, 0.102 and 0.07 respectively. The weights of the other criteria have a little importance in the development of the poplar value chain. Final results of alternatives prioritization showed, the maximum weight is related to particleboard with the 0.295. The following options are OSB, MDF and HDF which have a weight of 0.185 and 0.178 respectively. After the composite wood products is turn of chemical products, namely cellulose, pulp and paper weights 0.112, 0.1 and 0.066 respectively.

  13. Geometrical analysis of Palesch family chapel in Kľačno, former Gaidel in Western Slovakia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grúňová Zuzana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Oval and elliptic spaces are one group of central plans, used mainly in sacral architecture and palaces. Paper deals with geometrical analysis of one of the smaller representatives of the neoclassical sacral architecture with oval plan - Palesch family chapel of Virgin Mary in village Kľačno in Western Slovakia. Oval and elliptic forms are not so often used in Slovak historical architecture and they are almost always connected with foreign influence and knowledge brought form Vienna, Paris, Pest, Eger and other education and praxis localities of the builder or architect. This uncommon oval form used in the small chapel is therefore certainly of interest from the point of view of architecture and geometry.

  14. Decision analysis framing study; in-valley drainage management strategies for the western San Joaquin Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presser, Theresa S.; Jenni, Karen E.; Nieman, Timothy; Coleman, James

    2010-01-01

    Constraints on drainage management in the western San Joaquin Valley and implications of proposed approaches to management were recently evaluated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The USGS found that a significant amount of data for relevant technical issues was available and that a structured, analytical decision support tool could help optimize combinations of specific in-valley drainage management strategies, address uncertainties, and document underlying data analysis for future use. To follow-up on USGS's technical analysis and to help define a scientific basis for decisionmaking in implementing in-valley drainage management strategies, this report describes the first step (that is, a framing study) in a Decision Analysis process. In general, a Decision Analysis process includes four steps: (1) problem framing to establish the scope of the decision problem(s) and a set of fundamental objectives to evaluate potential solutions, (2) generation of strategies to address identified decision problem(s), (3) identification of uncertainties and their relationships, and (4) construction of a decision support model. Participation in such a systematic approach can help to promote consensus and to build a record of qualified supporting data for planning and implementation. In December 2008, a Decision Analysis framing study was initiated with a series of meetings designed to obtain preliminary input from key stakeholder groups on the scope of decisions relevant to drainage management that were of interest to them, and on the fundamental objectives each group considered relevant to those decisions. Two key findings of this framing study are: (1) participating stakeholders have many drainage management objectives in common; and (2) understanding the links between drainage management and water management is necessary both for sound science-based decisionmaking and for resolving stakeholder differences about the value of proposed drainage management solutions. Citing

  15. An integrated analysis of dry-wet variability in western China for the last 4-5 centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Weihong; Lin, Xiang

    2009-09-01

    The dry-wet variability in western China and its spatiotemporal structure during the last 4-5 centuries was examined using 24 climate proxies from sediments, ice cores, historical documents, and tree rings. Spatial patterns and temporal evolutions of dryness and wetness were not only extracted from the proxy data using rotated empirical orthogonal function (REOF) analysis for the last 4 centuries, but also for instrumental data in the last 40 years. The leading five REOF modes indicate that 5 dry-wet variation centers exist in western China. Moreover, long-term variability in dryness and wetness is seen on long (centennial) to short (inter-decadal) timescales. An out-of-phase relationship for the inter-decadal variation was observed between the Hetao-upper Yangtze River region and north Xinjiang, indicating influences on dry-wet variations of the East Asian summer monsoon and the westerly winds over the two regions, respectively. A particularly long dry spell was found in the central Tibetan Plateau in the 19th century. A predominance of wet decades in the last 4 centuries was found in the arid and Hetao regions. Three regional dry-wet series with annual resolution in north Xinjiang, the upper Yellow River valley, and the Hetao area were constructed for analyses of the last 500 years. Dry-wet oscillations with periodicities of 16, 50, and 150 years in north Xinjiang, 50 years in the upper Yellow River valley, and 70-80 years in the Hetao region were identified by wavelet analysis. In general, these periods correspond to large-scale oscillations found in the climate system, are mainly related to ocean-atmosphere interaction.

  16. Westerns fra hele verden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Thomas Ærvold

    2014-01-01

    Om den amerikanske western, spaghettiwesterns, kommunistiske westerns og danske westerns - i forbindelse med Kristian Levrings The Salvation (2014).......Om den amerikanske western, spaghettiwesterns, kommunistiske westerns og danske westerns - i forbindelse med Kristian Levrings The Salvation (2014)....

  17. Label-free DNA quantification via a 'pipette, aggregate and blot' (PAB) approach with magnetic silica particles on filter paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingyi; Liu, Qian; Alsamarri, Hussein; Lounsbury, Jenny A; Haversitick, Doris M; Landers, James P

    2013-03-07

    Reliable measurement of DNA concentration is essential for a broad range of applications in biology and molecular biology, and for many of these, quantifying the nucleic acid content is inextricably linked to obtaining optimal results. In its most simplistic form, quantitative analysis of nucleic acids can be accomplished by UV-Vis absorbance and, in more sophisticated format, by fluorimetry. A recently reported new concept, the 'pinwheel assay', involves a label-free approach for quantifying DNA through aggregation of paramagnetic beads in a rotating magnetic field. Here, we describe a simplified version of that assay adapted for execution using only a pipet and filter paper. The 'pipette, aggregate, and blot' (PAB) approach allows DNA to induce bead aggregation in a pipette tip through exposure to a magnetic field, followed by dispensing (blotting) onto filter paper. The filter paper immortalises the extent of aggregation, and digital images of the immortalized bead conformation, acquired with either a document scanner or a cell phone camera, allows for DNA quantification using a noncomplex algorithm. Human genomic DNA samples extracted from blood are quantified with the PAB approach and the results utilized to define the volume of sample used in a PCR reaction that is sensitive to input mass of template DNA. Integrating the PAB assay with paper-based DNA extraction and detection modalities has the potential to yield 'DNA quant-on-paper' devices that may be useful for point-of-care testing.

  18. Multifractal analysis of 2001 Mw 7 . 7 Bhuj earthquake sequence in Gujarat, Western India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Sandeep Kumar; Pastén, Denisse; Khan, Prosanta Kumar

    2017-12-01

    The 2001 Mw 7 . 7 Bhuj mainshock seismic sequence in the Kachchh area, occurring during 2001 to 2012, has been analyzed using mono-fractal and multi-fractal dimension spectrum analysis technique. This region was characterized by frequent moderate shocks of Mw ≥ 5 . 0 for more than a decade since the occurrence of 2001 Bhuj earthquake. The present study is therefore important for precursory analysis using this sequence. The selected long-sequence has been investigated first time for completeness magnitude Mc 3.0 using the maximum curvature method. Multi-fractal Dq spectrum (Dq ∼ q) analysis was carried out using effective window-length of 200 earthquakes with a moving window of 20 events overlapped by 180 events. The robustness of the analysis has been tested by considering the magnitude completeness correction term of 0.2 to Mc 3.0 as Mc 3.2 and we have tested the error in the calculus of Dq for each magnitude threshold. On the other hand, the stability of the analysis has been investigated down to the minimum magnitude of Mw ≥ 2 . 6 in the sequence. The analysis shows the multi-fractal dimension spectrum Dq decreases with increasing of clustering of events with time before a moderate magnitude earthquake in the sequence, which alternatively accounts for non-randomness in the spatial distribution of epicenters and its self-organized criticality. Similar behavior is ubiquitous elsewhere around the globe, and warns for proximity of a damaging seismic event in an area. OS: Please confirm math roman or italics in abs.

  19. Solid-phase assay for the phosphorylation of proteins blotted on nitrocellulose membrane filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valtorta, F.; Schiebler, W.; Jahn, R.; Ceccarelli, B.; Greengard, P.

    1986-01-01

    A new procedure for the phosphorylation and assay of phosphoproteins is described. Proteins are solubilized from tissue samples, separated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, transferred onto nitrocellulose membrane filters, and the blotted polypeptides are phyosphorylated with the catalytic subunit of cyclic AMP (adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate)-dependent protein kinase. The method was developed for the assay of dephosphosynapsin I, but it has also proven suitable for the phosphorylation of other proteins. The patterns of phosphorylation of tissue samples phosphorylated using the new method are similar to those obtained using the conventional test tube assay. Once phosphorylated, the adsorbed proteins can be digested with proteases and subjected to phosphopeptide mapping. The phosphorylated blotted proteins can also be analyzed by overlay techniques for the immunological detection of polypeptides

  20. DISKRIMINASI KELAMIN PADA IKAN TUNA SIRIP KUNING, Yellowfin tuna MENGGUNAKAN ANALISIS DOT BLOT DAN ELISA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusti Ngurah Permana

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Pemahaman tentang penentuan jenis kelamin dalam populasi induk merupakan hal yang sangat penting bagi keberhasilan program pembenihan. Pengukuran reaksi antibodi dan aktivitas hormon testosterone, serta estradiol adalah metode dengan potensi yang secara akurat dapat menentukan jenis kelamin ikan tanpa mematikan ikan. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui akurasi metode dot blot dan ELISA dengan 11-ketotestorsterone (11-KT yang tersedia secara komersial EIA-kit untuk membedakan jenis kelamin ikan tuna sirip kuning. Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa metode dot blot menghasilkan ekspresi vitelogenin tampak jelas pada individu betina dan efek plasma terlihat transparan, jika dibandingkan dengan individu jantan. Interpretasi dari metode ini memerlukan pengalaman dan keahlian dalam akurasi pembacaan hasil. Aktivitas hormon 11-KT dengan sampel klip sirip dan plasma memberikan hasil yang baik dengan aktivitas hormon terlihat jelas.

  1. Growth conditions of 0-group plaice Pleuronectes platessa in the western Wadden Sea as revealed by otolith microstructure analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Joana F. M. F.; Freitas, Vânia; de Paoli, Hélène; Witte, Johannes IJ.; van der Veer, Henk W.

    2016-05-01

    Growth studies based on population-based growth estimates are limited by the fact that they do not take into account differences in age/size structure within the population. To overcome these problems, otolith microstructure analysis is often used to estimate individual growth. Here, we analyse growth of 0-group plaice in the western Wadden Sea in two years: a year preceded by a mild winter (1995) and a year preceded by a severe winter (1996). Growth was analysed by combining information on individual growth based on otolith analysis with predictions of maximum growth (= under optimal food conditions) based on a Dynamic Energy Budget model. Otolith analysis revealed that settlement occurred earlier in 1995 than in 1996. In both years, one main cohort was found, followed by a group of late settlers. No differences in mean length-at-age were found between these groups. DEB modelling suggested that growth was not maximal during the whole growing season: realized growth (the fraction of maximum growth realized by 0-group plaice) declined in the summer, although this decline was relatively small. In addition, late settling individuals exhibited lower realized growth than individuals from the main cohort. This study confirms that growth conditions for 0-group plaice are not optimal and that a growth reduction occurs in summer, as suggested in previous studies.

  2. Analysis of drought impacts on electricity production in the Western and Texas interconnections of the United States.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harto, C. B.; Yan, Y. E.; Demissie, Y. K.; Elcock, D.; Tidwell, V. C.; Hallett, K.; Macknick, J.; Wigmosta, M. S.; Tesfa, T. K. (Environmental Science Division); (Sandia National Laboratory); (National Renewable Energy Laboratory); (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory)

    2012-02-09

    from the market, albeit at higher prices. However, sufficient excess generation and transmission must be available for this strategy to work. Although power purchase was the most commonly discussed drought mitigation strategy, a total of 12 response strategies were identified in the literature, falling into four main categories: electricity supply, electricity demand response, alternative water supplies, and water demand response. Three hydrological drought scenarios were developed based on a literature review and historical data analysis. The literature review helped to identify key drought parameters and data on drought frequency and severity. Historical hydrological drought data were analyzed for the western United States to identify potential drought correlations and estimate drought parameters. The first scenario was a West-wide drought occurring in 1977; it represented a severe drought in five of the eight basins in the study area. A second drought scenario was artificially defined by selecting the conditions from the 10th-percentile drought year for each individual basin; this drought was defined in this way to allow more consistent analysis of risk to electricity generation in each basin. The final scenario was based upon the current low-flow hydro modeling scenario defined by WECC, which uses conditions from the year 2001. These scenarios were then used to quantify the risk to electricity generation in each basin. The risk calculations represent a first-order estimate of the maximum amount of electricity generation that might be lost from both hydroelectric and thermoelectric sources under a worst-case scenario. Even with the conservative methodology used, the majority of basins showed a limited amount of risk under most scenarios. The level of risk in these basins is likely to be amenable to mitigation by known strategies, combined with existing reserve generation and transmission capacity. However, the risks to the Pacific Northwest and Texas Basins require

  3. Gypsum dissolution risk analysis in the Prealpine part of the Vaud County (Western Switzerland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolet, Pierrick; Choffet, Marc; Bohren, Delphine; Derron, Marc-Henri; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Lauraux, Bertrand; Lance, Jean-Marc; Champod, Eric

    2013-04-01

    Subsidence or collapse due to bedrock dissolution is a relatively common phenomenon in Vaud County (Western Switzerland). Indeed, soluble rocks are present in the Jura and Prealpine parts. Solubility is significantly higher in evaporitic rocks (such as gypsum) than in Limestones, resulting in possibly important dissolution during a building's lifetime. In Limestone, subsidence results mainly from cover collapse over existing voids. This study aims at evaluating the cost of this phenomenon for the building portfolio of the region in which gypsum occurs. Currently, 2.5% of the portfolio value is located over gypsum-bearing formations and is therefore potentially affected. Since this phenomenon is not covered by the public building insurance yet, no centralized event record exists. Therefore, a survey has been conducted with the affected communities to estimate the events frequency and damage severity. Some records from the archives of BERTAND LAURAUX SA have been added and allow to compare reparation costs with insured values. From these cases, a frequency and a buildings vulnerability distribution are established. The vulnerability distribution is considered to represent the reality, whereas the frequency is corrected to take into account the different amount of information gathered in the different municipalities and the incompleteness of the inventory, even in the communities with more information. Assuming that the distribution of collapse events occurs with a constant average frequency and is time-independent, insurance financial years are modeled with a number of cases assigned randomly following a Poisson distribution. A Monte Carlo simulation is performed, where the affected buildings value is chosen among the potentially affected portfolio and its corresponding damage rate is assigned following the distribution previously established. The maximum damage for each building is limited to CHF 1,000,000 (EUR 827,000), to ignore unrealistic values. Thus, a cost

  4. Seasonal cycle of desert aerosols in western Africa: analysis of the coastal transition with passive and active sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Senghor

    2017-07-01

     W, 14.74° N provide basic thermodynamic variables which partially give a causal relationship between the layering of the atmospheric circulation over western Africa and their aerosol contents throughout the year. A SSA increase is observed in winter and spring at the transition between the continent and the ocean. The analysis of mean NCEP (National Centers for Environmental Prediction winds at 925 hPa between 2000 and 2012 suggest a significant contribution of coastal sand sources from Mauritania in winter which would increase SSA over the ocean.

  5. Characterization of the structure of the erythropoietin receptor by ligand blotting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkins, H.L.; Broudy, V.C.; Papayannopoulou, T.

    1991-01-01

    Erythropoietin (Epo) regulates the growth and differentiation of erythroid cells by binding to a specific receptor. We characterized the native Epo receptor on erythroleukemia cell lines by ligand blotting. Solubilized cell membrane proteins were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, transferred onto nitrocellulose, and probed with 125I-Epo. Specificity was demonstrated by inhibition of 125I-Epo binding by unlabeled excess Epo but not other peptide growth factors and by the cellular distribution of the Epo binding protein. A single membrane protein of 61 Kd ± 4 Kd was sufficient to bind 125I Epo in both human (OCIM2, K562) and murine (GM979, Rauscher, DA-1) cell lines. This finding is consistent with the predicted size of the Epo receptor from the murine cDNA clone. However, chemical crosslinking of 125I-Epo to its receptor has identified two Epo binding proteins of 105 Kd and 85 Kd. This difference may occur because the receptor is size fractionated before Epo binding in the ligand blot, but after Epo binding in crosslinking studies. Ligand blotting demonstrates that the native Epo receptor is composed of a single 61-Kd Epo binding protein, and suggests the presence of additional proteins of 20 to 25 Kd that associate with the receptor after Epo binding

  6. Analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms of CRYGA and CRYGB genes in control population of western Indian origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapur Suman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Polymorphisms in γ-crystallins ( CRYG can serve as markers for lens differentiation and eye disorders leading to cataract. Several investigators have reported the presence of sequence variations within crystallin genes, with or without apparent effects on the function of the proteins both in mice and humans. Delineation of these polymorphic sites may explain the differences observed in the susceptibility to cataract observed among various ethnic groups. An easier Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP-based method has been used to detect the frequency of four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in CRYGA / CRYGB genes in control subjects of western Indian origin. Materials and Methods: A total of 137 healthy volunteers from western India were studied. Examination was performed to exclude volunteers with any ocular defects. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR-RFLP based method was developed for genotyping of G198A (Intron A, T196C (Exon 3 of CRYGA and T47C (Promoter, G449T (Exon 2 of CRYGB genes. Results: The exonic SNPs in CRYGA and CRYGB were found to have an allele frequency 0.03 and 1.00 for ancestral allele respectively, while frequency of non-coding SNP in CRYGA was 0.72. Allele frequency of T90C of CRYGB varied significantly ( P = 0.02 among different age groups. An in-silico analysis reveals that this sequence variation in CRYGB promoter impacts the binding of two transcription factors, ACE2 (Member of CLB2 cluster and Progesterone Receptor (PR which may impact the expression of CRYGB gene. Conclusions: This study establishes baseline frequency data for four SNPs in CRYGA and CRYGB genes for future case control studies on the role of these SNPs in the genetic basis of cataract.

  7. Retrospective analysis of population-based causes of death and life expectancy in urban Western China from 2003 to 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng Shi-min

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hitherto, a population-based analysis of the cause of death in urban areas of Western China has not been undertaken over an extended period. The aims of this study were to calculate the overall and annual cause-specific mortality rates by age and sex in urban areas of Western China from 2003 to 2012 and to evaluate the quality of the data. Methods We used Excel software, cause-of-death registrations, and International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision, codes to calculate the overall and yearly cause-specific crude mortality rates by age and sex, the Chinese age-standardized mortality rate, and life expectancies. Results In the Jiulongpo District from 2003 to 2012, there was an increase in the number of death case reports in the census-registered population, a decrease in the number of omitted deaths, and rise in the crude mortality rate. Except for 2003, the Chinese age-standardized mortality rate was the lowest in 2012 (330.83/100,000 and highest in 2005 (390.08/100,000. Life expectancy increased from 78.36 years in 2005 to 81.67 years in 2012. Conclusions With the development of its social economy, the Chinese government and public attach greater importance to cause-of-death surveillance. The quality of cause-of-death registrations has gradually increased, crude mortality rates have risen, the Chinese age-standardized mortality rate has fallen, and life expectancies have increased.

  8. EVIDENCE FOR LADINIAN (MIDDLE TRIASSIC PLATFORM PROGRADATION IN THE GYULAKESZI AREA, TAPOLCA BASIN, WESTERN HUNGARY: MICROFACIES ANALYSIS AND BIOSTRATIGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZSOLT RÓBERT NAGY

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A shallowing-upward carbonate sequence was studied from the outcrop at Gyulakeszi, Tapolca Basin (western Hungary, and it is interpreted as a Middle Triassic (Curionii or younger platform progradation. Two lithostratigraphic units are distinguished. Microfacies analysis and micropaleontological investigation conducted on the red nodular, cherty limestone (Vászoly and Buchenstein formations suggest that the lower unit was deposited during the Reitzi and the Secedensis ammonoid zones. The overlying white platform limestone (upper unit is typical of a prograding platform and includes gravity-driven deposits at the base followed by periplatform facies deposited in shallow marine warm waters around the fair-weather wave base. The section at Gyulakeszi was unaffected by fabric-destructive dolomitization, which is uncharacteristic of similar platform facies in the Balaton Highland. Isopachous and radiaxial fibrous calcite cement found in the grainstone and boundstone facies are indicative of early lithification and diagenesis in the marine phreatic zone. “Evinospongiae”-type cement is described for the first time from the Balaton Highland and it is similar to the outer platform cements published previously from the Alps (Italy and Austria. The progradation could have advanced over the pelagic limestones as early as the Curionii zone, which is an undocumented event in the Veszprém Plateau. Similar event, however, is well known from the Western Dolomites, where aggradation was followed by intense progradation during the Gredleri and Archelaus ammonoid zones. The length of this progradation event at Gyulakeszi, however, is ambiguous since proven Ladinian (Longobardian rocks are not exposed in the study area and were not penetrated by boreholes in the Tapolca Basin.

  9. The prevalence of mental disorders among the homeless in western countries: systematic review and meta-regression analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seena Fazel

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There are well over a million homeless people in Western Europe and North America, but reliable estimates of the prevalence of major mental disorders among this population are lacking. We undertook a systematic review of surveys of such disorders in homeless people. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We searched for surveys of the prevalence of psychotic illness, major depression, alcohol and drug dependence, and personality disorder that were based on interviews of samples of unselected homeless people. We searched bibliographic indexes, scanned reference lists, and corresponded with authors. We explored potential sources of any observed heterogeneity in the estimates by meta-regression analysis, including geographical region, sample size, and diagnostic method. Twenty-nine eligible surveys provided estimates obtained from 5,684 homeless individuals from seven countries. Substantial heterogeneity was observed in prevalence estimates for mental disorders among the studies (all Cochran's chi(2 significant at p 85%. The most common mental disorders were alcohol dependence, which ranged from 8.1% to 58.5%, and drug dependence, which ranged from 4.5% to 54.2%. For psychotic illness, the prevalence ranged from 2.8% to 42.3%, with similar findings for major depression. The prevalence of alcohol dependence was found to have increased over recent decades. CONCLUSIONS: Homeless people in Western countries are substantially more likely to have alcohol and drug dependence than the age-matched general population in those countries, and the prevalences of psychotic illnesses and personality disorders are higher. Models of psychiatric and social care that can best meet these mental health needs requires further investigation.

  10. The Prevalence of Mental Disorders among the Homeless in Western Countries: Systematic Review and Meta-Regression Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazel, Seena; Khosla, Vivek; Doll, Helen; Geddes, John

    2008-01-01

    Background There are well over a million homeless people in Western Europe and North America, but reliable estimates of the prevalence of major mental disorders among this population are lacking. We undertook a systematic review of surveys of such disorders in homeless people. Methods and Findings We searched for surveys of the prevalence of psychotic illness, major depression, alcohol and drug dependence, and personality disorder that were based on interviews of samples of unselected homeless people. We searched bibliographic indexes, scanned reference lists, and corresponded with authors. We explored potential sources of any observed heterogeneity in the estimates by meta-regression analysis, including geographical region, sample size, and diagnostic method. Twenty-nine eligible surveys provided estimates obtained from 5,684 homeless individuals from seven countries. Substantial heterogeneity was observed in prevalence estimates for mental disorders among the studies (all Cochran's χ2 significant at p 85%). The most common mental disorders were alcohol dependence, which ranged from 8.1% to 58.5%, and drug dependence, which ranged from 4.5% to 54.2%. For psychotic illness, the prevalence ranged from 2.8% to 42.3%, with similar findings for major depression. The prevalence of alcohol dependence was found to have increased over recent decades. Conclusions Homeless people in Western countries are substantially more likely to have alcohol and drug dependence than the age-matched general population in those countries, and the prevalences of psychotic illnesses and personality disorders are higher. Models of psychiatric and social care that can best meet these mental health needs requires further investigation. PMID:19053169

  11. NPP Siting in Western Part of Java Island Indonesia: Regional Analysis Stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sastratenaya, A.S.; Yuliastuti

    2011-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Considering that Banten and West Java Provinces are dense regions of industry, therefore they require a large amount of electricity. Nuclear power plant is one option to be considered to anticipate the future electricity demand. To support the program, it is needed to look for some potential locations through NPP siting. The siting should meet the requirement of safety, safety aspects of the natural external events, human induced external events, public and environmental safety. Site selection is performed in several stages, where each stage has specific assessment criteria. Siting is commenced with pre-survey activity to obtain several interest areas, the activity covers a wide area but the used data is very limited and only apply general criteria. The following activities after pre survey are site survey consisting of (1) regional analysis, (2) site screening, and (3) comparison and ranking stages. The objective of regional analysis is to obtain potential sites in the study area of 150 km radius from each interest area by using both general and specific criteria. The potential sites then screened to obtain selected candidate sites by using more detailed secondary data as well as survey activities such as geophysical investigation, a few of drilling, etc., within the radius of 50 km from each potential site. All the selected candidate sites are then compared and ranked to obtain preferred candidate site. Site evaluation is the next step to evaluate all site-specific parameter to obtain design basis parameters and as the basis for preparing site permit document. This paper presents the methodology and result of regional analysis stage. The objective of the activity is to obtain potential sites in the north coast of West Java and Banten Provinces by considering fourteen study aspects which could be categorize into safety related aspects, non-safety related aspect and public education. However, this paper only considers the safety

  12. Strategic analysis of a water rights conflict in the south western United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philpot, Simone; Hipel, Keith; Johnson, Peter

    2016-09-15

    A strategic analysis of the ongoing conflict between Nevada and Utah, over groundwater allocation at Snake Valley, is carried out in order to investigate ways on how to resolve this dispute. More specifically, the Graph Model for Conflict Resolution is employed to formally model and analyze this conflict using the decision support system called GMCR+. The conflict analysis findings indicate that the dispute is enduring because of a lack of incentive and opportunity for any party to move beyond the present circumstances. Continued negotiations are not likely to resolve this conflict. A substantial change in the preferences or options of the disputants, or new governance tools will be required to move this conflict forward. This may hold lessons for future groundwater conflicts. It is, however, increasingly likely that the parties will require a third party intervention, such as equal apportionment by the US Supreme Court. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. THE ANALYSIS OF ABSORPTION CAPACITY OF EUROPEAN FUNDING IN THE NORTH WESTERN REGION OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Droj Laurentiu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the Romanian absorption capacity of the funds allocated through the REGIO programme, which is part of ERDF programme. Within the paper are presented the concept of absorption capacity and several opinions regarding its main composing elements. Also the Regio programme, its main axis and its budget is briefly presented. In the last chapter of the analysis a thorough analysis of the implementation of REGIO in the Romanian North-West Region was carried out and several causes for the low absorption of European Founds have been identified.. The process of improving the absorption capacity of European Funds is still at the beginning in Romania and will certainly become an important issue over the following years at all levels of the Romanian society and at the level of the European Funding Authorities as well.

  14. A Critical Discourse Analysis of the Images of Iranians in Western Movies: The Case of Iranium

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Reza Amirian; Ali Rahimi; Gholamreza Sami

    2012-01-01

    The significant role of the media, in general, and the movies, in particular, in disseminating information and creating images of the real life by use of the language as a powerful social tool is totally irrefutable. Although critical analysis of the movie discourse is a fashionable trend among the critical discourse analysts, there is a paucity of research on movie discourse in Iran. Besides, the increasing number of the anti-Iranian movies produced in the last decade and the growing tendenc...

  15. Systematic analysis of phosphotyrosine antibodies recognizing single phosphorylated EPIYA-motifs in CagA of Western-type Helicobacter pylori strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Lind

    Full Text Available The clinical outcome of Helicobacter pylori infections is determined by multiple host-pathogen interactions that may develop to chronic gastritis, and sometimes peptic ulcers or gastric cancer. Highly virulent strains encode a type IV secretion system (T4SS that delivers the effector protein CagA into gastric epithelial cells. Translocated CagA undergoes tyrosine phosphorylation at EPIYA-sequence motifs, called A, B and C in Western-type strains, by members of the oncogenic Src and Abl host kinases. Phosphorylated EPIYA-motifs mediate interactions of CagA with host signaling factors--in particular various SH2-domain containing human proteins--thereby hijacking multiple downstream signaling cascades. Observations of tyrosine-phosphorylated CagA are mainly based on the use of commercial phosphotyrosine antibodies, which originally were selected to detect phosphotyrosines in mammalian proteins. Systematic studies of phosphorylated EPIYA-motif detection by the different antibodies would be very useful, but are not yet available. To address this issue, we synthesized phospho- and non-phosphopeptides representing each predominant Western CagA EPIYA-motif, and determined the recognition patterns of seven different phosphotyrosine antibodies in Western blots, and also performed infection studies with diverse representative Western H. pylori strains. Our results show that a total of 9-11 amino acids containing the phosphorylated EPIYA-motifs are necessary and sufficient for specific detection by these antibodies, but revealed great variability in sequence recognition. Three of the antibodies recognized phosphorylated EPIYA-motifs A, B and C similarly well; whereas preferential binding to phosphorylated motif A and motifs A and C was found with two and one antibodies, respectively, and the seventh anti-phosphotyrosine antibody did not recognize any phosphorylated EPIYA-motif. Controls showed that none of the antibodies recognized the corresponding non

  16. Standardization of Licorice and TCM Formulations Using Eastern Blot Fingerprinting Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Shoyama, Yukihiro

    2013-01-01

    To prepare the antiglycyrrhizin (GC) monoclonal antibody (MAb), GC was treated with NaIO4 resulting in aldehyde which can be combined with carrier protein. An antigen conjugate was performed by a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization TOF mass spectrometry to determine the hapten numbers in the conjugate. Anti-GC MAb was prepared from a hybridoma which was fixed from the spleen cells producing anti-GC MAb and the myeloma cells after immunization. The TCM and licorice extract were develop...

  17. ANALYSIS OF DIRECT AND INDIRECT EFFECTS OF FISCAL DECENTRALIZATION ON REGIONAL DISPARITY (CASE STUDY OF PROVINCES IN EASTERN AND WESTERN OF INDONESIA, 2006-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faishal Fadli

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the direct and indirect effects of fiscal decentralization on regional disparity through economic growth in eastern and western Indonesia. The method used in this study is Path Analysis. The variables used in this study include the General Allocation Fund (DAU/Dana Alokasi Umum, Special Allocation Fund (DAK/Dana Alokasi Khusus, Revenue Sharing Fund (DBH/Dana Bagi Hasil, local revenue (PAD/Pendapatan Asli Daerah, Economic Growth (G, and regional disparity (IW. Comparing the analysis between eastern and western of Indonesia, the results show that there is no direct effect of fiscal decentralization on regional disparity and economic growth through direct fiscal decentralization on regional disparity in both eastern and western of Indonesia. However, using some measures of fiscal decentralization, in the case of eastern of Indonesia, DAU variable has significant effect whereas in the case of western Indonesia, DBH is the only one variable that has significant effect. This is consistent with the fact that composition of the balance funds disbursed by the central government to local governments, where the greatest composition of funds in eastern Indonesia come from the General Allocation Fund which reflects the dependence of local governments to the central government and for the western region of Indonesia, DBH is the greatest reflecting the independence of the local governments. As a result, to create fiscal decentralization working it is required a greater allocation of the fund balance.

  18. Advancing team-based primary health care: a comparative analysis of policies in western Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suter, Esther; Mallinson, Sara; Misfeldt, Renee; Boakye, Omenaa; Nasmith, Louise; Wong, Sabrina T

    2017-07-17

    We analyzed and compared primary health care (PHC) policies in British Columbia, Alberta and Saskatchewan to understand how they inform the design and implementation of team-based primary health care service delivery. The goal was to develop policy imperatives that can advance team-based PHC in Canada. We conducted comparative case studies (n = 3). The policy analysis included: Context review: We reviewed relevant information (2007 to 2014) from databases and websites. Policy review and comparative analysis: We compared and contrasted publically available PHC policies. Key informant interviews: Key informants (n = 30) validated narratives prepared from the comparative analysis by offering contextual information on potential policy imperatives. Advisory group and roundtable: An expert advisory group guided this work and a key stakeholder roundtable event guided prioritization of policy imperatives. The concept of team-based PHC varies widely across and within the three provinces. We noted policy gaps related to team configuration, leadership, scope of practice, role clarity and financing of team-based care; few policies speak explicitly to monitoring and evaluation of team-based PHC. We prioritized four policy imperatives: (1) alignment of goals and policies at different system levels; (2) investment of resources for system change; (3) compensation models for all members of the team; and (4) accountability through collaborative practice metrics. Policies supporting team-based PHC have been slow to emerge, lacking a systematic and coordinated approach. Greater alignment with specific consideration of financing, reimbursement, implementation mechanisms and performance monitoring could accelerate systemic transformation by removing some well-known barriers to team-based care.

  19. Mind and consciousness in yoga - Vedanta: A comparative analysis with western psychological concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, H R Aravinda; Bhat, P S

    2013-01-01

    Study of mind and consciousness through established scientific methods is often difficult due to the observed-observer dichotomy. Cartesian approach of dualism considering the mind and matter as two diverse and unconnected entities has been questioned by oriental schools of Yoga and Vedanta as well as the recent quantum theories of modern physics. Freudian and Neo-freudian schools based on the Cartesian model have been criticized by the humanistic schools which come much closer to the vedantic approach of unitariness. A comparative analysis of the two approaches is discussed.

  20. Mind and consciousness in yoga – Vedanta: A comparative analysis with western psychological concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, H. R. Aravinda; Bhat, P. S.

    2013-01-01

    Study of mind and consciousness through established scientific methods is often difficult due to the observed-observer dichotomy. Cartesian approach of dualism considering the mind and matter as two diverse and unconnected entities has been questioned by oriental schools of Yoga and Vedanta as well as the recent quantum theories of modern physics. Freudian and Neo-freudian schools based on the Cartesian model have been criticized by the humanistic schools which come much closer to the vedantic approach of unitariness. A comparative analysis of the two approaches is discussed. PMID:23858252

  1. Morphometric analysis of sub-watershed in parts of Western Ghats, South India using ASTER DEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelin Ramani Sujatha

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Morphometric analysis is a key to understand the hydrological process and hence is a prerequisite for the assessment of hydrological characteristics of surface water basin. Morphometric analysis to determine the drainage characteristics of Palar sub-watershed, a part of Shanmukha watershed in the Amaravati sub-catchment is done using Advanced Space-borne Thermal Emission and Reflection Global Digital Elevation Model (ASTER GDEM data, and is supplemented with topographical maps in geographical information systems platform. This study uses ASTER GDEM data to extract morphometric features of a mountain stream at micro-watershed level. The sub-watershed is divided into six micro-watersheds. The sub-watershed includes a sixth-order stream. Lower stream orders, in particular first-order streams, dominate the sub-watershed. Development of stream segments is controlled by slope and local relief. Drainage pattern of the sub-watershed and micro-watersheds is dendritic in general. The mean bifurcation ratio of the sub-watershed is 3.69 but its variation between the various stream orders suggests structural control in the development of stream network. The shape factors reveal the elongation of the sub-watershed and micro-watersheds.The relief ratio reveals the high discharge capability of the sub-watershed and meagre groundwater potential. This study is a useful tool for planning strategies in control of soil erosion and soil conservation.

  2. Eastern minds in western cockpits: meta-analysis of human factors in mishaps from three nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Chin; Harris, Don; Chen, Aurora

    2007-04-01

    Aviation accident rates vary in different regions; Asia and Africa have higher rates than Europe and America. There has been a great deal of discussion about the role of culture in aviation mishaps; however, culture is rarely mentioned as a contributory factor in accidents. It is hypothesized that different cultures will show different patterns in the underlying causal factors in aircraft accidents. Using a meta-analysis of previously published results, this research examined statistical differences in the 18 categories of the Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) across accidents in the Republic of China (Taiwan), India, and the United States. Seven HFACS categories exhibited significant differences between these three regions. These were mostly concerned with contributory factors at the higher organizational levels. The differences were related to organizational processes, organizational climate, resource management, inadequate supervision, physical/mental limitations, adverse mental states, and decision errors. Overall, the evidence from this research supports the observation that national cultures have an impact on aviation safety and adds further explanatory power with regards to why this should be so. The majority of the cultural issues identified seem to be associated with the style of management of the organizations rather than the operation of the aircraft per se.

  3. Rapid Erosion Modeling in a Western Kenya Watershed using Visible Near Infrared Reflectance, Classification Tree Analysis and 137Cesium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    deGraffenried, Jeff B; Shepherd, Keith D

    2009-12-15

    Human induced soil erosion has severe economic and environmental impacts throughout the world. It is more severe in the tropics than elsewhere and results in diminished food production and security. Kenya has limited arable land and 30 percent of the country experiences severe to very severe human induced soil degradation. The purpose of this research was to test visible near infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (VNIR) as a tool for rapid assessment and benchmarking of soil condition and erosion severity class. The study was conducted in the Saiwa River watershed in the northern Rift Valley Province of western Kenya, a tropical highland area. Soil 137 Cs concentration was measured to validate spectrally derived erosion classes and establish the background levels for difference land use types. Results indicate VNIR could be used to accurately evaluate a large and diverse soil data set and predict soil erosion characteristics. Soil condition was spectrally assessed and modeled. Analysis of mean raw spectra indicated significant reflectance differences between soil erosion classes. The largest differences occurred between 1,350 and 1,950 nm with the largest separation occurring at 1,920 nm. Classification and Regression Tree (CART) analysis indicated that the spectral model had practical predictive success (72%) with Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) of 0.74. The change in 137 Cs concentrations supported the premise that VNIR is an effective tool for rapid screening of soil erosion condition.

  4. Does objective cluster analysis serve as a useful precursor to seasonal precipitation prediction at local scale? Application to western Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Moges, Semu; Block, Paul

    2018-01-01

    Prediction of seasonal precipitation can provide actionable information to guide management of various sectoral activities. For instance, it is often translated into hydrological forecasts for better water resources management. However, many studies assume homogeneity in precipitation across an entire study region, which may prove ineffective for operational and local-level decisions, particularly for locations with high spatial variability. This study proposes advancing local-level seasonal precipitation predictions by first conditioning on regional-level predictions, as defined through objective cluster analysis, for western Ethiopia. To our knowledge, this is the first study predicting seasonal precipitation at high resolution in this region, where lives and livelihoods are vulnerable to precipitation variability given the high reliance on rain-fed agriculture and limited water resources infrastructure. The combination of objective cluster analysis, spatially high-resolution prediction of seasonal precipitation, and a modeling structure spanning statistical and dynamical approaches makes clear advances in prediction skill and resolution, as compared with previous studies. The statistical model improves versus the non-clustered case or dynamical models for a number of specific clusters in northwestern Ethiopia, with clusters having regional average correlation and ranked probability skill score (RPSS) values of up to 0.5 and 33 %, respectively. The general skill (after bias correction) of the two best-performing dynamical models over the entire study region is superior to that of the statistical models, although the dynamical models issue predictions at a lower resolution and the raw predictions require bias correction to guarantee comparable skills.

  5. Regional analysis of tertiary volcanic Calderas (western U.S.) using Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spatz, David M.; Taranik, James V.

    1989-01-01

    The Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery of the Basin and Range province of southern Nevada was analyzed to identify and map volcanic rock assemblages at three Tertiary calderas. It was found that the longer-wavelength visible and the NIR TM Bands 3, 5, and 7 provide more effective lithologic discrimination than the shorter-wavelength bands, due partly to deeper penetration of the longer-wavelength bands, resulting in more lithologically driven radiances. Shorter-wavelength TM Bands 1 and 2 are affected more by surficial weathering products including desert varnish which may or may not provide an indirect link to lithologic identity. Guidelines for lithologic analysis of volcanic terrains using Landsat TM imagery are outlined.

  6. A critical analysis and discussion of clinical research ethics in the Russian Federation and their implications for Western sponsored trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leintz, Christopher

    2014-06-01

    Globalization, political upheavals, and Western economic struggles have caused a geographical reprioritization in the realm of drug development and human clinical research. Regulatory and cost hurdles as well as a saturation of research sites and subjects in Western countries have forced the pharmaceutical industry to place an unprecedented level of importance on emerging markets, injecting Western corporate initiatives into cultures historically and socially isolated from Western-centric value systems. One of the greatest recipients of this onslaught of Western business and research practices is the Russian Federation. Namely, market forces are dictating a focused research initiative in the traditional emerging markets, but this focus may be at the expense of individual and societal dignity. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Collective Beer Brand Identity: A Semiotic Analysis of the Websites Representing Small and Medium Enterprises in the Brewing Industry of Western PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cincotta, Dominic

    2014-01-01

    This research studies how brand identities, individually and communally, as read through websites are created among small and medium-sized enterprise breweries in western Pennsylvania. Content analysis through the frame of Kress and van Leeuwen was used as the basis for the codebook that reads each brand identity for the researcher. The…

  8. Differentiating sex and species of Western Grebes (Aechmophorus occidentalis) and Clark's Grebes (Aechmophorus clarkii) and their eggs using external morphometrics and discriminant function analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, C. Alex; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Herzog, Mark

    2016-01-01

    In birds where males and females are similar in size and plumage, sex determination by alternative means is necessary. Discriminant function analysis based on external morphometrics was used to distinguish males from females in two closely related species: Western Grebe (Aechmophorus occidentalis) and Clark's Grebe (A. clarkii). Additionally, discriminant function analysis was used to evaluate morphometric divergence between Western and Clark's grebe adults and eggs. Aechmophorus grebe adults (n = 576) and eggs (n = 130) were sampled across 29 lakes and reservoirs throughout California, USA, and adult sex was determined using molecular analysis. Both Western and Clark's grebes exhibited considerable sexual size dimorphism. Males averaged 6–26% larger than females among seven morphological measurements, with the greatest sexual size dimorphism occurring for bill morphometrics. Discriminant functions based on bill length, bill depth, and short tarsus length correctly assigned sex to 98% of Western Grebes, and a function based on bill length and bill depth correctly assigned sex to 99% of Clark's Grebes. Further, a simplified discriminant function based only on bill depth correctly assigned sex to 96% of Western Grebes and 98% of Clark's Grebes. In contrast, external morphometrics were not suitable for differentiating between Western and Clark's grebe adults or their eggs, with correct classification rates of discriminant functions of only 60%, 63%, and 61% for adult males, adult females, and eggs, respectively. Our results indicate little divergence in external morphology between species of Aechmophorus grebes, and instead separation is much greater between males and females.

  9. Variability of the western Galician upwelling system (NW Spain) during an intensively sampled annual cycle. An EOF analysis approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, J. L.; Rosón, G.; Varela, R. A.; Piedracoba, S.

    2008-07-01

    The key features of the western Galician shelf hydrography and dynamics are analyzed on a solid statistical and experimental basis. The results allowed us to gather together information dispersed in previous oceanographic works of the region. Empirical orthogonal functions analysis and a canonical correlation analysis were applied to a high-resolution dataset collected from 47 surveys done on a weekly frequency from May 2001 to May 2002. The main results of these analyses are summarized bellow. Salinity, temperature and the meridional component of the residual current are correlated with the relevant local forcings (the meridional coastal wind component and the continental run-off) and with a remote forcing (the meridional temperature gradient at latitude 37°N). About 80% of the salinity and temperature total variability over the shelf, and 37% of the residual meridional current total variability are explained by two EOFs for each variable. Up to 22% of the temperature total variability and 14% of the residual meridional current total variability is devoted to the set up of cross-shore gradients of the thermohaline properties caused by the wind-induced Ekman transport. Up to 11% and 10%, respectively, is related to the variability of the meridional temperature gradient at the Western Iberian Winter Front. About 30% of the temperature total variability can be explained by the development and erosion of the seasonal thermocline and by the seasonal variability of the thermohaline properties of the central waters. This thermocline presented unexpected low salinity values due to the trapping during spring and summer of the high continental inputs from the River Miño recorded in 2001. The low salinity plumes can be traced on the Galician shelf during almost all the annual cycle; they tend to be extended throughout the entire water column under downwelling conditions and concentrate in the surface layer when upwelling favourable winds blow. Our evidences point to the

  10. Landscape analysis for multi-hazard prevention in Orco and Soana valleys, North-Western Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turconi, L.; Tropeano, D.; Savio, G.; De, S. Kumar; Mason, P. J.

    2015-04-01

    A Civil Protection Plan has been drafted for a 600 km2 mountainous region in NW Italy Consisting of Orco and Soana Valleys. It is a part of the oldest natural park in Italy and attracts several thousand tourists every year. The work is concerned with the analysis of relevant physiographic characteristics of this Alpine landscapehaving extremely variable geomorphology and possess a long history of instability. Thousands of records as well as digital maps (involving overlay and comparison of up to 90 GIS layers) have been analyzed and cross-correlated to find out the details of the events. The study area experienced different types of natural hazards, typical of the whole Alpine environment. Thus, the present area has been selected for such multi-hazard research in which several natural processes have been investigated, concerning their damaging effects over the land. Due to 36 different severe hazardous events at least 250 deaths have been recorded in the area since 18th Century, in the occasion of.

  11. Note sur la présence de lames aménagées par technique de Kostienki dans les couches gravettiennes du Blot (Cerzat,Haute-Loire).

    OpenAIRE

    Klaric , Laurent

    2000-01-01

    International audience; The unprecedented presence of Kostienki-technique prepared blades (also called Kostienki knives) in the Gravettian layers at Le Blot leads to a new analysis of these artefacts. Thorough technological study has pointed to the possible role of these items as cores, in association with or complementary to burin-forms, in particular context of backed-bladelet production. Le Blot is the second French site yielding such artefacts, the other being Corbiac (Dordogne). The aim ...

  12. Effects of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine for the Treatment of Lupus Nephritis: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingli Heng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available After a thorough search through the database as CNKI database, VIP database, Wanfang database, PubMed, and Cochrane Library, the clinical experimental articles have been selected out on the effects of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine on the treatment of lupus nephritis. A meta-analysis was carried out in terms of clinical efficacy criteria and safety criteria by RevMan 5.3 software. Based on the results, we cautiously conclude that Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine used for lupus nephritis could improve the clinical efficacy while at same time lower the 24-hour urine protein, serum creatinine, and adverse drug reactions.

  13. Cluster analysis on a sphere: Application to magnetizations from metasediments of the Jack Hills, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bono, Richard K.; Tarduno, John A.; Dare, Matthew S.; Mitra, Gautam; Cottrell, Rory D.

    2018-02-01

    Metasediments of the Jack Hills contain the oldest known terrestrial minerals in the form of zircons nearly 4.4 billion years old. Paleointensity data from these zircons provide evidence for a Hadean geodynamo as old as 4.2 billion years old. Given the importance of these zircons for constraining the earliest history of the core, it is vital to understand the fidelity of the zircon record. A fundamental aspect providing context for the preservation of primary magnetic signals is the nature of overprints predicted to have been imparted on rocks of the Jack Hills due to Archean to Proterozoic metamorphic events. To be viable magnetic records of a Hadean geodynamo, zircon magnetization directions should differ from these secondary magnetizations. To evaluate these secondary magnetizations, we report paleomagnetic analyses of a comprehensive sampling of 68 quartzite cobble-sized clasts from the Jack Hills metasediments ∼0.5 to 1.0 km from the Discovery Site (which has yielded the oldest zircons and paleofield estimates). While application of standard paleomagnetic tests suggests that the ensemble of cobble directions cannot be distinguished from those drawn from a random distribution, a new cluster analysis of directions on a sphere and non-parametric resampling approaches reveal significant directions amongst subsets of the data. One, isolated at the lowest temperature analyzed [200 to 300 °C, Declination (Dec.) = 316.8°, Inclination (Inc.) = - 51.1 °] appears to be dominated by the present day field. Another, isolated at higher (but still relatively low unblocking temperatures that we call "intermediate", of ∼350-500 °C, Dec. = 243.8°, Inc. = 9.5°) agrees with a magnetic overprint isolated from the secondary Cr-Fe mica fuchsite isolated from the Jack Hills Discovery site, passing a field test at the 80% confidence level. No evidence is found in our data, or in the data of others collected on similar Jack Hills lithologies, for a widespread 1 Ga

  14. Prediction of Maternal Cytomegalovirus Serostatus in Early Pregnancy: A Retrospective Analysis in Western Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenz Kuessel

    Full Text Available Cytomegalovirus (CMV is the most prevalent congenital viral infection and thus places an enormous disease burden on newborn infants. Seroprevalence of maternal antibodies to CMV due to CMV exposure prior to pregnancy is currently the most important protective factor against congenital CMV disease. The aim of this study was to identify potential predictors, and to develop and evaluate a risk-predicting model for the maternal CMV serostatus in early pregnancy.Maternal and paternal background information, as well as maternal CMV serostatus in early pregnancy from 882 pregnant women were analyzed. Women were divided into two groups based on their CMV serostatus, and were compared using univariate analysis. To predict serostatus based on epidemiological baseline characteristics, a multiple logistic regression model was calculated using stepwise model selection. Sensitivity and specificity were analyzed using ROC curves. A nomogram based on the model was developed.646 women were CMV seropositive (73.2%, and 236 were seronegative (26.8%. The groups differed significantly with respect to maternal age (p = 0.006, gravidity (p<0.001, parity (p<0.001, use of assisted reproduction techniques (p = 0.018, maternal and paternal migration background (p<0.001, and maternal and paternal education level (p<0.001. ROC evaluation of the selected prediction model revealed an area under the curve of 0.83 (95%CI: 0.8-0.86, yielding sensitivity and specificity values of 0.69 and 0.86, respectively.We identified predictors of maternal CMV serostatus in early pregnancy and developed a risk-predicting model based on baseline epidemiological characteristics. Our findings provide easy accessible information that can influence the counseling of pregnant woman in terms of their CMV-associated risk.

  15. Bottleneck analysis and strategic planning using Tanahashi model for childhood diarrhea management in Gujarat, Western India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupani, Mihir Prafulbhai; Gaonkar, Narayan T; Bhatt, Gneyaa S

    2016-10-01

    In spite of continued efforts, India is still lagging behind in achieving its MDG goals. The objectives of this study were to identify stake-holders who have a role to play in childhood diarrhea management, to identify gaps in childhood diarrhea management and to propose strategic options for relieving these gaps. Bottleneck analysis exercise was carried out based on the Tanahashi model in six High Priority Districts (HPDs) of Gujarat in period between July-November 2013. The major bottlenecks identified for Childhood Diarrhea management were poor demand generation, unsafe drinking water, poor access to improved sanitation facility and lack of equitable distribution and replenishment mechanisms for Oral Rehydration Solution (ORS) packets and Zinc tablets till the front-line worker level. The main strategic options that were suggested for relieving these bottlenecks were Zinc-ORS roll out in scale-up districts, develop Information Education Communication/Behaviour Change Communication (IEC/BCC) plan for childhood diarrhea management at state/district level, use of Drug Logistics Information Management System (DLIMS) software for supply chain management of Zinc-ORS, strengthening of chlorination activity at household level, monitoring implementation of Nirmal Bharat Abhiyaan (NBA) for constructing improved sanitation facilities at household level and to develop an IEC/BCC plan for hygiene promotion and usage of sanitary latrines. Use of Zinc tablets need to be intensified through an effective scale-up. Adequate demand generation activity is needed. There is need to address safe drinking water and improved sanitation measures at household levels. Multi-sectoral engagements and ownership of Zinc-ORS program is the need of the hour. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Optical analysis of a photovoltaic V-trough system installed in western India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiti, Subarna; Sarmah, Nabin; Bapat, Pratap; Mallick, Tapas K

    2012-12-20

    The low concentrating photovoltaic (PV) system such as a 2× V-trough system can be a promising choice for enhancing the power output from conventional PV panels with the inclusion of thermal management. This system is more attractive when the reflectors are retrofitted to the stationary PV panels installed in a high aspect ratio in the north-south direction and are tracked 12 times a year manually according to preset angles, thus eliminating the need of diurnal expensive tracking. In the present analysis, a V-trough system facing exactly the south direction is considered, where the tilt angle of the PV panels' row is kept constant at 18.34°. The system is installed on the terrace of CSIR-Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute in Bhavnagar, Gujarat, India (21.47 N, 71.15 E). The dimension of the entire PV system is 9.64 m×0.55 m. The V-troughs made of anodized aluminum reflectors (70% specular reflectivity) had the same dimensions. An in-house developed; experimentally validated Monte Carlo ray-trace model was used to study the effect of the angular variation of the reflectors throughout a year for the present assembly. Results of the ray trace for the optimized angles showed the maximum simulated optical efficiency to be 85.9%. The spatial distribution of solar intensity over the 0.55 m dimension of the PV panel due to the V-trough reflectors was also studied for the optimized days in periods that included solstices and equinoxes. The measured solar intensity profiles with and without the V-trough system were used to calculate the actual optical efficiencies for several sunny days in the year, and results were validated with the simulated efficiencies within an average error limit of 10%.

  17. Glycosaminoglycan blotting on nitrocellulose membranes treated with cetylpyridinium chloride after agarose-gel electrophoretic separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccari, Francesca; Volpi, Nicola

    2002-09-01

    We describe a method for blotting and immobilizing several nonsulfated and sulfated complex polysaccharides on membranes made hydrophilic and positively charged by a cationic detergent after their separation by conventional agarose gel electrophoresis. Nitrocellulose membranes were derivatized with the cationic detergent cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) and mixtures of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) were capillary-blotted after their separation in agarose gel electrophoresis in barium acetate/1,2-diaminopropane. Single purified species of variously sulfated polysaccharides were transferred onto the derivatized membranes after electrophoresis with an efficiency of 100% and stained with alcian blue (irreversible staining) and toluidine blue (reversible staining) permitting about 0.1 nug threshold of detection. Nonsulfated polyanions, hyaluronic acid, a fructose-containing polysaccharide with a chondroitin backbone purified from Escherichia coli U1-41, and its defructosylated product, were also electrophoretically separated and transferred onto membranes. The limit of detection for desulfated GAGs was about 0.1-0.5 nug after irreversible or reversible staining. GAG extracts from bovine, lung and aorta, and human aorta and urine were separated by agarose gel electrophoresis and blotted on CPC-treated nitrocellulose membranes. The polysaccharide composition of these extracts was determined. The membrane stained with toluidine blue (reversible staining) was destained and the same lanes used for immunological detection or other applications. Reversible staining was also applied to recover single species of polysaccharides after electrophoretic separation of mixtures of GAGs and their transfer onto membranes. Single bands were released from the membrane with an efficiency of 70-100% for further biochemical characterization.

  18. Density and distribution of Patella ferruginea in a Marine Protected Area (western Sardinia, Italy: Constraint analysis for population conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. COPPA

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The endemic limpet Patella ferruginea is the most endangered invertebrate of the Mediterranean Sea. Our study examined a population of P. ferruginea in the Marine Protected Area of Penisola del Sinis - Isola di Mal di Ventre (western Sardinia, Italy. During the summer 2009, we carried out a systematic census of P. ferruginea along a 8114 m georeferenced perimeter of coast in the no take-no entry zone to assess its density, spatial distribution, and morphometric characteristics. Our aim was to provide a detailed map of the distribution of P. ferruginea and to investigate the effects of accessibility, wave exposure and slope of the coast on its occurrence. Patella ferrugineashowed the lowest mean density ever reported (0.02 ind/m and a unimodal population structure characterised by fewer females and juveniles. Accessibility had a major negative effect on the occurrence of P. ferruginea. Exposure was also an important factor in influencing its density, size composition and specimen position within the mesolittoral, while the slope had little influence. Morphometric analysis showed the dominance of the Rouxi form, while the Lamarcki form was confined to exposed sites. Our results demonstrate a highly endangered population of P. ferruginea and suggest that human pressure represents the main risk factor.

  19. Analysis and Evaluation of Agroforestry as an Environment Management Strategy in the Humid Highlands of Western Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Msinde, E.N

    1999-01-01

    Diverse forms of agroforestry are now practised in many parts of Kenya as sustainable and ecologically sensible farming alternatives to conventional agriculture. The basis for agroforestry promotion is to increase farm profitability, environmental stewardship and improve the quality of life of rural families. To date, goals of many agroforestry programmes remain unrealised. In Western Kenya highlands where this study was undertaken, agroforestry is practised both on large and small farms of diverse end-goals. The objectives were to analyse the physical, biological and socio-ecological attributes of agroforestry as perceived by smallholder farmers. Using data from field surveys and previous studies, major agroforestry practices were identified and comparatively evaluated under an agro-ecological analysis framework. Agroforestry was found to be a valuable practice providing a range of benefits including short-, medium- and long term needs. Its potential as an environmental management design is, however, undermined by technical, environmental and socioeconomic factors. The effectiveness under farmers' management seem to be unsatisfactory apparently because some have received insufficient advice on these technologies. Hence agroforestry has either been misunderstood, underdeveloped or unrecognized. In order to gain its full environmental and economic benefits, proper appraisal, design and implementation methods, farmer involvement in research, improvement of indigenous practices, and use of local species are critical

  20. What makes or mars the facility-based childbirth experience: thematic analysis of women's childbirth experiences in western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afulani, Patience A; Kirumbi, Leah; Lyndon, Audrey

    2017-12-29

    Sub-Saharan Africa accounts for approximately 66% of global maternal deaths. Poor person-centered maternity care, which emphasizes the quality of patient experience, contributes both directly and indirectly to these poor outcomes. Yet, few studies in low resource settings have examined what is important to women during childbirth from their perspective. The aim of this study is to examine women's facility-based childbirth experiences in a rural county in Kenya, to identify aspects of care that contribute to a positive or negative birth experience. Data are from eight focus group discussions conducted in a rural county in western Kenya in October and November 2016, with 58 mothers aged 15 to 49 years who gave birth in the preceding nine weeks. We recorded and transcribed the discussions and used a thematic approach for data analysis. The findings suggest four factors influence women's perceptions of quality of care: responsiveness, supportive care, dignified care, and effective communication. Women had a positive experience when they were received well at the health facility, treated with kindness and respect, and given sufficient information about their care. The reverse led to a negative experience. These experiences were influenced by the behavior of both clinical and support staff and the facility environment. This study extends the literature on person-centered maternity care in low resource settings. To improve person-centered maternity care, interventions need to address the responsiveness of health facilities, ensure women receive supportive and dignified care, and promote effective patient-provider communication.

  1. Does objective cluster analysis serve as a useful precursor to seasonal precipitation prediction at local scale? Application to western Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Prediction of seasonal precipitation can provide actionable information to guide management of various sectoral activities. For instance, it is often translated into hydrological forecasts for better water resources management. However, many studies assume homogeneity in precipitation across an entire study region, which may prove ineffective for operational and local-level decisions, particularly for locations with high spatial variability. This study proposes advancing local-level seasonal precipitation predictions by first conditioning on regional-level predictions, as defined through objective cluster analysis, for western Ethiopia. To our knowledge, this is the first study predicting seasonal precipitation at high resolution in this region, where lives and livelihoods are vulnerable to precipitation variability given the high reliance on rain-fed agriculture and limited water resources infrastructure. The combination of objective cluster analysis, spatially high-resolution prediction of seasonal precipitation, and a modeling structure spanning statistical and dynamical approaches makes clear advances in prediction skill and resolution, as compared with previous studies. The statistical model improves versus the non-clustered case or dynamical models for a number of specific clusters in northwestern Ethiopia, with clusters having regional average correlation and ranked probability skill score (RPSS values of up to 0.5 and 33 %, respectively. The general skill (after bias correction of the two best-performing dynamical models over the entire study region is superior to that of the statistical models, although the dynamical models issue predictions at a lower resolution and the raw predictions require bias correction to guarantee comparable skills.

  2. Recombinant antigen-based immuno-slot blot method for serodiagnosis of syphilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.S. Sato

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Three recombinant antigens of Treponema pallidum Nichols strain were fused with GST, cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli, resulting in high levels of GST-rTp47 and GST-rTp17 expression, and supplementation with arginine tRNA for the AGR codon was needed to obtain GST-rTp15 overexpression. Purified fusion protein yields were 1.9, 1.7 and 5.3 mg/l of cell culture for GST-rTp47, GST-rTp17 and GST-rTp15, respectively. The identities of the antigens obtained were confirmed by automated DNA sequencing using ABI Prism 310 and peptide mapping by Finningan LC/MS. These recombinant antigens were evaluated by immuno-slot blot techniques applied to 137 serum samples from patients with a clinical and laboratory diagnosis of syphilis (61 samples, from healthy blood donors (50 samples, individuals with sexually transmitted disease other than syphilis (3 samples, and from individuals with other spirochetal diseases such as Lyme disease (20 samples and leptospirosis (3 samples. The assay had sensitivity of 95.1% (95% CI, 86.1 to 98.7% and a specificity of 94.7% (95% CI, 87.0 to 98.7%; a stronger reactivity was observed with fraction rTp17. The immunoreactivity results showed that fusion recombinant antigens based-immuno-slot blot techniques are suitable for use in diagnostic assays for syphilis.

  3. Detection of alien genetic introgressions in bread wheat using dot-blot genomic hybridisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, María-Dolores; Prieto, Pilar

    2017-01-01

    Simple, reliable methods for the identification of alien genetic introgressions are required in plant breeding programmes. The use of genomic dot-blot hybridisation allows the detection of small Hordeum chilense genomic introgressions in the descendants of genetic crosses between wheat and H. chilense addition or substitution lines in wheat when molecular markers are difficult to use. Based on genomic in situ hybridisation, DNA samples from wheat lines carrying putatively H. chilense introgressions were immobilised on a membrane, blocked with wheat genomic DNA and hybridised with biotin-labelled H. chilense genomic DNA as a probe. This dot-blot screening reduced the number of plants necessary to be analysed by molecular markers or in situ hybridisation, saving time and money. The technique was sensitive enough to detect a minimum of 5 ng of total genomic DNA immobilised on the membrane or about 1/420 dilution of H. chilense genomic DNA in the wheat background. The robustness of the technique was verified by in situ hybridisation. In addition, the detection of other wheat relative species such as Hordeum vulgare , Secale cereale and Agropyron cristatum in the wheat background was also reported .

  4. Velocity and AVO analysis for the investigation of gas hydrate along a profile in the western continental margin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dewangan, P.; Ramprasad, T.

    The occurrence of gas hydrate has been inferred from the presence of Bottom-Simulating Reflectors (BSRs) along the western continental margin of India. In this paper, we assess the spatial and vertical distribution of gas hydrates by analyzing...

  5. Comparison of the hypoglycemic effect of acarbose monotherapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus consuming an Eastern or Western diet: a systematic meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qibo; Tong, Yuzhen; Wu, Taixiang; Li, Jieqing; Tong, Nanwei

    2013-06-01

    Because of its mechanism of action, the starch content of a diet might alter the hypoglycemic effect of acarbose. We aimed to determine whether differences in this hypoglycemic effect existed between individuals consuming Eastern and Western diets with significantly different starch contents, a systematic meta-analysis of studies comparing acarbose with placebo or other hypoglycemic agents in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) was performed. Records were retrieved from the Cochrane clinical controlled trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Wanfang, Chinese Technical Periodicals, and ongoing trials databases, and full texts and reference lists were screened. Because no study has directly compared patients consuming different types of diet, fixed- and random-effect models were used to indirectly compare the hypoglycemic effect of acarbose monotherapy with that of placebo and/or comparator drugs in patients with T2DM consuming an Eastern (Eastern Asia) or Western (including Europe and North America) diet. A total of 46 studies were included in the meta-analysis. The results revealed that, compared with placebo, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels were reduced to a significantly greater extent (1.02%) in the Eastern diet (mean [SD], 1.54% [2.00%]) than in the Western diet (mean [SD], 0.52% [1.20%]) P Eastern (P = 0.20) and Western (P = 0.10) diet groups was similar to that of sulfonylureas, and HbA1c levels were reduced significantly more (0.39%; P Eastern than in the Western diet group. The ability of acarbose to reduce HbA1c levels was similar to those of metformin and nateglinide/repaglinide, but a comparison of its efficacy with different diets was difficult because of the inclusion of few studies in these categories. Analysis of all included studies revealed that acarbose achieved a greater absolute reduction of HbA1c levels in the Eastern diet (mean [SD], 1.26% [1.20%]) than in the Western diet (mean [SD], 0.62% [1.28%]; P Eastern diet trials may have affected the

  6. Analysis of Critical Permeabilty, Capillary Pressure and Electrical Properties for Mesaverde Tight Gas Sandstones from Western U.S. Basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alan Byrnes; Robert Cluff; John Webb; John Victorine; Ken Stalder; Daniel Osburn; Andrew Knoderer; Owen Metheny; Troy Hommertzheim; Joshua Byrnes; Daniel Krygowski; Stefani Whittaker

    2008-06-30

    Although prediction of future natural gas supply is complicated by uncertainty in such variables as demand, liquefied natural gas supply price and availability, coalbed methane and gas shale development rate, and pipeline availability, all U.S. Energy Information Administration gas supply estimates to date have predicted that Unconventional gas sources will be the dominant source of U.S. natural gas supply for at least the next two decades (Fig. 1.1; the period of estimation). Among the Unconventional gas supply sources, Tight Gas Sandstones (TGS) will represent 50-70% of the Unconventional gas supply in this time period (Fig. 1.2). Rocky Mountain TGS are estimated to be approximately 70% of the total TGS resource base (USEIA, 2005) and the Mesaverde Group (Mesaverde) sandstones represent the principal gas productive sandstone unit in the largest Western U.S. TGS basins including the basins that are the focus of this study (Washakie, Uinta, Piceance, northern Greater Green River, Wind River, Powder River). Industry assessment of the regional gas resource, projection of future gas supply, and exploration programs require an understanding of reservoir properties and accurate tools for formation evaluation. The goal of this study is to provide petrophysical formation evaluation tools related to relative permeability, capillary pressure, electrical properties and algorithms for wireline log analysis. Detailed and accurate moveable gas-in-place resource assessment is most critical in marginal gas plays and there is need for quantitative tools for definition of limits on gas producibility due to technology and rock physics and for defining water saturation. The results of this study address fundamental questions concerning: (1) gas storage; (2) gas flow; (3) capillary pressure; (4) electrical properties; (5) facies and upscaling issues; (6) wireline log interpretation algorithms; and (7) providing a web-accessible database of advanced rock properties. The following text

  7. Analysis of Macronutrients Intake and Body Mass Index in Preschool Children in the Western Region of the Republic of Srpska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djermanović, Mirjana; Miletić, Ivanka; Pavlović, Zoran

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity is currently considered to be one of the most prevailing and challenging public health issues in industrialized countries and some developing countries, including the Republic of Srpska. Our objective was to determine macronutrients intake in collective diet of preschool children and to estimate the rate of obesity in this population. Samples of food intended for preschool children diet were collected in a preschool facility in the western region of the Republic of Srpska. In daily portions, the content of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, water and mineral matter were determined using standard methods. The body mass index was determined on the basis of anthropometric measurements. RESULTS An average daily meal contained 17.5 g of fats, 19.1 g of proteins and 101.5 g of carbohydrates. The energy value was 676 Kcal. The analysis of the data from the menu showed that the number of consumed servings of fruits, vegetables, legumes, milk and dairy products was less than one portion per day. However, the amount of consumed meat and meat products exceeded one portion per day. Out of the total number of children, 10.0% were undernourished, 16.7% were overweight and 13.3% were obese. Daily portions in the preschool facility are not in accordance with the recommended dietary allowance for energy and carbohydrates intake, and the composition of meals is inadequate. Parents and caregivers should be encouraged to expose young children to a wide variety of fruit and vegetables, whole grains, low-fat dairy products, and to balance food intake with the requirements.

  8. Analysis of macronutrients intake and body mass index in preschool children in the western region of the Republic of Srpska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đermanović Mirjana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Childhood obesity is currently considered to be one of the most prevailing and challenging public health issues in industrialized countries and some developing countries, including the Republic of Srpska. Objective. Our objective was to determine macronutrients intake in collective diet of preschool children and to estimate the rate of obesity in this population. Methods. Samples of food intended for preschool children diet were collected in a preschool facility in the western region of the Republic of Srpska. In daily portions, the content of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, water and mineral matter were determined using standard methods. The body mass index was determined on the basis of anthropometric measurements. Results. An average daily meal contained 17.5 g of fats, 19.1 g of proteins and 101.5 g of carbohydrates. The energy value was 676 Kcal. The analysis of the data from the menu showed that the number of consumed servings of fruits, vegetables, legumes, milk and dairy products was less than one portion per day. However, the amount of consumed meat and meat products exceeded one portion per day. Out of the total number of children, 10.0% were undernourished, 16.7% were overweight and 13.3% were obese. Conclusion. Daily portions in the preschool facility are not in accordance with the recommended dietary allowance for energy and carbohydrates intake, and the composition of meals is inadequate. Parents and caregivers should be encouraged to expose young children to a wide variety of fruit and vegetables, whole grains, low-fat dairy products, and to balance food intake with the requirements.

  9. Electrospun nitrocellulose and nylon: Design and fabrication of novel high performance platforms for protein blotting applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bowlin Gary L

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Electrospinning is a non-mechanical processing strategy that can be used to process a variety of native and synthetic polymers into highly porous materials composed of nano-scale to micron-scale diameter fibers. By nature, electrospun materials exhibit an extensive surface area and highly interconnected pore spaces. In this study we adopted a biological engineering approach to ask how the specific unique advantages of the electrospinning process might be exploited to produce a new class of research/diagnostic tools. Methods The electrospinning properties of nitrocellulose, charged nylon and blends of these materials are characterized. Results Nitrocellulose electrospun from a starting concentration of Conclusion The flexibility afforded by electrospinning process makes it possible to tailor blotting membranes to specific applications. Electrospinning has a variety of potential applications in the clinical diagnostic field of use.

  10. The thickness of cover sequences in the Western Desert of Iraq from a power spectrum analysis of gravity and magnetic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousa, Ahmed; Mickus, Kevin; Al-Rahim, Ali

    2017-05-01

    The Western Desert of Iraq is part of the stable shelf region on the Arabian Plate where the subsurface structural makeup is relatively unknown due to the lack of cropping out rocks, deep drill holes and deep seismic refraction and reflection profiles. To remedy this situation, magnetic and gravity data were analyzed to determine the thickness of the Phanerozoic cover sequences. The 2-D power spectrum method was used to estimate the depth to density and magnetic susceptibility interfaces by using 0.5° square windows. Additionally, the gravity data were analyzed using isostatic residual and decompensative methods to isolate gravity anomalies due to upper crustal density sources. The decompensative gravity anomaly and the differentially reduced to the pole magnetic map indicate a series of mainly north-south and northwest-southeast trending maxima and minima anomalies related to Proterozoic basement lithologies and the varying thickness of cover sequences. The magnetic and gravity derived thickness of cover sequences maps indicate that these thicknesses range from 4.5 to 11.5 km. Both maps in general are in agreement but more detail in the cover thicknesses was determined by the gravity analysis. The gravity-based cover thickness maps indicates regions with shallower depths than the magnetic-based cover thickness t map which may be due to density differences between limestone and shale units within the Paleozoic sediments. The final thickness maps indicate that the Western Desert is a complicated region of basins and uplifts that are more complex than have been shown on previous structural maps of the Western Desert. These basins and uplifts may be related to Paleozoic compressional tectonic events and possibly to the opening of the Tethys Ocean. In addition, petroleum exploration could be extended to three basins outlined by our analysis within the relatively unexplored western portions of the Western Desert.

  11. Inverted stream channels in the Western Desert of Egypt: Synergistic remote, field observations and laboratory analysis on Earth with applications to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaki, Abdallah S.; Pain, Colin F.; Edgett, Kenneth S.; Giegengack, Robert

    2018-07-01

    Inverted relief landforms occur in numerous regions on Mars, ranging in age from Noachian to more recent Amazonian periods (channel features on Earth form, and the geologic records they preserve in arid settings, can yield insights into the development of inverted landforms on Mars. Inverted channel landforms in the Western Desert of Egypt are well represented across an area of ∼27,000 km2. We investigated inverted channel features at seven sites using remotely-sensed data, field observations, and lab analysis. Inverted channel features in the Western Desert record fluvial environments of differing scales and ages. They developed mainly via inversion of cemented valley floor sediment, but there is a possibility that inverted fluvial landforms in the Dakhla Depression might have been buried, lithified, and exhumed. A few examples, in the southeastern part of the Western Desert, record, instead, a resistance to erosion caused by surface armouring of uncemented valley floor sediment. We show that the grain-size distribution for investigated and reviewed inverted channels is highly variable, with boulders that are commonly 0.35 - 1 m in size; large particles provide high porosity that influences the cementation mechanism. The studied inverted channel sediments are mainly cemented with ferricrete, calcrete, gypcrete, and silcrete. Inverted channels are valuable for the reconstruction of paleoclimate cycles or episodes on Earth and Mars; observations from the Western Desert, when offered as analogs, add to the growing list of Earth examples that provide suites of observables relevant to reconstruction of paleoenvironmental conditions on Mars.

  12. Evaluación de las pruebas dot blot y aglutinación de látex para el diagnóstico de cisticercosis en Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Miranda-Ulloa

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de evaluar las pruebas dot blot y aglutinación de látex para la detección de cisticercosis humana con antígeno de líquido de cisticerco de Taenia solium, se usaron 125 sueros humanos, de los cuales 60 procedían de personas con cisticercosis confirmada por Western Blot, 45 de personas con otras enfermedades parasitarias y 20 de personas aparentemente sanas. La concentración óptima del antígeno para impregnar las tiras dot blot fue de 0,01 ug/uL, y para impregnar las partículas de látex fue de 0,092 ug/uL. Para la prueba dot blot se encontró una sensibilidad del 100% y especificidad del 87,7%; para la aglutinación de látex una sensibilidad del 93,3% y especificidad del 89,2%. Ambas pruebas podrían ser de utilidad y factibles de implementar como alternativas de diagnóstico serológico en laboratorios de áreas endémicas del Perú

  13. Molecular evidence for the occurrence of beet western yellows virus on chickpea in Morocco.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fortass, M.; Wilk, van der F.; Heuvel, van de J.F.J.M.; Goldbach, R.W.

    1997-01-01

    A luteovirus isolate infecting chickpea in Morocco was experimentally transmitted by Myzus persicae to Physalis floridana, on which it produced mild symptoms. When tested in western blots against antisera to known legume luteoviruses, this isolate reacted strongly to beet western yellows virus

  14. Bearing Dislocation and Progression of Osteoarthritis After Mobile-bearing Unicompartmental Knee Arthroplasty Vary Between Asian and Western Patients: A Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ro, Kyung-Han; Heo, Jae-Won; Lee, Dae-Hee

    2018-05-01

    Implant survivorship is reported to be lower and complications, particularly bearing dislocation, are reported to be more frequent in Asian than in Western patients with medial knee osteoarthritis (OA) undergoing Oxford® Phase III unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA). To date, however, these complications have not been compared between these groups of patients. The purpose of this study was to perform a meta-analysis comparing the standardized incidence rates of (1) all-cause reoperation; (2) reoperation related to bearing dislocation; and (3) reoperation related to progression of lateral compartment arthritis in Asian and Western patients with medial knee OA who underwent Oxford Phase III UKA. We searched MEDLINE® (January 1, 1976, to May 31, 2017), EMBASE® (January 1, 1985, to May 31, 2017), and the Cochrane Library (January 1, 1987, to May 31, 2017) for studies that reported complications of Oxford Phase III UKAs. Studies were included if they reported reoperation rates attributable to bearing dislocation and/or progression of lateral knee OA after surgery with this implant. Twenty-seven studies were included in this systematic review and 16 studies with followups > 5 years were included in the meta-analysis. These rates were converted to standardized incidence rate (that is, reoperations per 100 observed component years) based on mean followup and number of involved knees in each study. After applying prespecified inclusion and exclusion criteria, the studies were categorized into two groups, Asian and Western, based on hospital location. Twenty-five studies, containing 3152 Asian patients and 5455 Western patients, were evaluated. Study quality was assessed by the modified Coleman Methodology score (MCMS). Although all studies were Level IV, their mean MCMS score was 66.92 (SD, 8.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 63.5-70.3), indicating fair quality. Because the heterogeneity of all subgroup meta-analyses was high, a random-effects model was used with

  15. Analysis of amyloid fibrils in the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, Joakim; Ueda, Mitsuharu; Une, Yumi; Sun, Xuguo; Misumi, Shogo; Shoji, Shozo; Ando, Yukio

    2006-06-01

    Recently, a high prevalence of amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis has been documented among captive cheetahs worldwide. Biochemical analysis of amyloid fibrils extracted from the liver of a Japanese captive cheetah unequivocally showed that protein AA was the main fibril constituent. Further characterization of the AA fibril components by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Western blot analysis revealed three main protein AA bands with approximate molecular weights of 8, 10 and 12 kDa. Mass spectrometry analysis of the 12-kDa component observed in SDS-PAGE and Western blotting confirmed the molecular weight of a 12,381-Da peak. Our finding of a 12-kDa protein AA component provides evidence that the cheetah SAA sequence is longer than the previously reported 90 amino acid residues (approximately 10 kDa), and hence SAA is part of the amyloid fibril.

  16. On Cooperation and Competition: A Comparative Analysis of National Policies for Internationalisation of Higher Education in Seven Western European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luijten-Lub, Anneke; Van der Wende, Marijk; Huisman, Jeroen

    2005-01-01

    The focus of this article is on a comparison of the national policies for internationalisation in seven Western European countries (Austria, Germany, Greece, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, and the United Kingdom). In this comparison, it will be shown that the trend suggested in previous research of increasing economical rationales for…

  17. [Analysis of clinical characteristics of traditional Chinese and Western medicine in Professor Jiang Liangduo's theory of "sanjiao meridian stasis"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hai-Yan; Jiang, Liang-Duo; Ma, Qing; Xu, Dong; Tang, Shi-Huan; Luo, Zeng-Gang

    2017-12-01

    In the clinical practice, Professor Jiang Liangduo, a national senior Chinese medicine doctor, has created the theory of "sanjiao meridian stasis" from the theory of meridian dialectics and from the overall state. In this paper, the traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine clinical characteristics of sanjiao meridian stasis theory which is often used by Professor Jiang Liangduo in the treatment of out-patient syndrome differentiation, were first studied and summarized to investigate its inherent regularity. First, the source of data and research methods were introduced, and then the Traditional Chinese Medicine Inheritance Support System was used with the method of data mining to retrospectively analyze the disease characteristics of Chinese and Western medicine in 279 patients with sanjiao meridian stasis diagnosed by Professor Jiang in 2014. Then the following main conclusions were made after research: sanjiao meridian stasis was more common in women as well as young and middle-aged population. Often manifested by prolonged treatment course, red tongue with yellowishfur, with good correlation between modern Western medicine diagnosis and TCM differentiation syndrome. The symptoms of sanjiao meridian stasis syndrome are mostly of heat syndromes, and middle-aged patients are the most common patients with stasis and stasis of sanjiao. Related information of Western medicine diagnosis can help to diagnose the "sanjiao meridian stasis". Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  18. Analysis of long-term forest bird monitoring data from national forests of the western Great Lakes Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald J. Niemi; Robert W. Howe; Brian R. Sturtevant; Linda R. Parker; Alexis R. Grinde; Nicholas P. Danz; Mark D. Nelson; Edmund J. Zlonis; Nicholas G. Walton; Erin E. Gnass Giese; Sue M. Lietz

    2016-01-01

    Breeding bird communities in forests of the western Great Lakes region are among the most diverse in North America, but the forest environment in this region has changed dramatically during the past 150 years. To address concerns about loss of biodiversity due to ongoing forest harvesting and to better inform forest planning, researchers have systematically monitored...

  19. Using phylogenetic analysis to trace HIV-1 migration among western European injecting drug users seroconverting from 1984 to 1997

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Op de Coul, E. L.; Prins, M. [= Maria; Cornelissen, M.; van der Schoot, A.; Boufassa, F.; Brettle, R. P.; Hernández-Aguado, L.; Schiffer, V.; McMenamin, J.; Rezza, G.; Robertson, R.; Zangerle, R.; Goudsmit, J.; Coutinho, R. A.; Lukashov, V. V.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To reconstruct the epidemiological relationships of the HIV epidemics among injecting drug users (IDU) in western Europe. METHODS: HIV env V3 sequences of and epidemiological data were obtained from 145 IDU who seroconverted in three sequential periods: 1984-1988, 1989-1992 and 1993-1997.

  20. Music History Pedagogy: Content Analysis of Six Editions of the "Norton Anthology of Western Music" (1980-2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiff, Jelena Dj. Simonovic

    2012-01-01

    The "Norton Anthology of Western Music" ("NAWM") is a widely used textbook for music history courses at the collegiate level, yet there is virtually no research literature closely related to any aspect of the Anthology. The purpose of this study was to: (1) trace the content transformation of the "NAWM" six editions,…

  1. Direct tissue blot immunoassay for detection of Xylella fastidiosa in olive trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled DJELOUAH

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A direct tissue blot immunoassay (DTBIA technique has been compared with ELISA and PCR for detection of Xylella fastidiosa in olive trees from Apulia (southern Italy. Fresh cross-sections of young twigs and leaf petioles were printed onto nitrocellulose membranes and analyzed in the laboratory. Analyses of a first group of 61 samples gave similar efficiency for the three diagnostic techniques for detection the bacterium (24 positive and 36 negative samples, except for a single sample which was positive only with DTBIA and PCR. Similar results were obtained by separately analyzing suckers and twigs collected from different sectors of tree canopies of a second group of 20 olive trees (ten symptomatic and ten symptomless. In this second test the three diagnostic techniques confirmed the irregular distribution of the bacterium in the tree canopies and erratic detectability of the pathogen in the young suckers. It is therefore necessary to analyse composite samples per tree which should be prepared with twigs collected from different sides of the canopy. The efficiency comparable to ELISA and PCR, combined with the advantages of easier handling, speed and cost, make DTBIA a valid alternative to ELISA in large-scale surveys for occurrence of X. fastidiosa. Moreover, the printing of membranes directly in the field prevents infections spreading to Xylella-free areas, through movement of plant material with pathogen vectors for laboratory testing.

  2. Evaluation of an enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot test for the confirmatory serodiagnosis of human toxocariasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William H Roldán

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available To improve the serodiagnosis of human toxocariasis, a sensitive and specific enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB-IgG test was developed and evaluated using Toxocara canislarvae excretory-secretory antigens for detecting anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies. The EITB-IgG profile of toxocariasis was characterized by comparing 27 sera from patients with toxocariasis, 110 sera from healthy subjects and 186 sera from patients with other helminth diseases (ascariasis, ancylostomiasis, trichuriasis, enterobiasis, strongyloidiasis, hymenolepiasis, diphyllobothriasis, taeniasis, cysticercosis, hydatidosis and fascioliasis. Antigenic bands of 24, 28, 30, 35, 56, 117, 136 and 152 kDa were predominantly recognized in sera from all patients with toxocariasis. However, only bands of 24-35 kDa were highly specific for Toxocara infection (98.3%, whereas other antigenic bands observed displayed cross-reactivity. Additionally, when the results of the EITB-IgG test were compared to those of the ELISA-IgG test, a 100% concordance was observed for positive results in human toxocariasis cases. The concordance for negative results between the two tests for healthy subjects and patients with other helminth diseases were 96.3% and 53.7%, respectively, showing that the EITB-IgG test has a higher specificity than ELISA. In conclusion, the EITB-IgG test is a very useful tool to confirm the serological diagnosis of human toxocariasis.

  3. Use of nitrocellulose blotting for the study of hepatitis B surface antigen electrophoresed in agarose gels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMichael, J C; Greisiger, L M; Millman, I [Institute for Cancer Research, Philadelphia, PA (USA). Fox Chase Cancer Center

    1981-08-28

    Nitrocellulose-protein blotting of serum electrophoresed in agarose gels has been adapted for the study of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). /sup 125/I-labeled anti-HBs was used as the antigen probe, and the electrophoretic migration was monitored by autoradiography. The method required 3 ..mu..l or less of serum and could detect as little as 1 pg of purified HBsAg. Typically, the authors observed two bands of HBsAg; a moving band which migrated about one-third the distance moved by human serum albumin and a non-migratory band which remained at the loading site. Some examples of the use of the method include: (1) empirical methods for correlating HBsAg concentration in serum to film darkness; (2) observations of mobility changes in serial sera from dialysis patients with chronic HBsAg antigenemia; and (3) detection of related antigens such as antigen from the PLC/PRF/5 hepatoma tissue culture line and the cross-reacting woodchuck hepatitis virus surface antigen (WHsAg).

  4. Retrospective study of hemoparasites in cattle in southern Italy by reverse line blot hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceci, Luigi; Iarussi, Fabrizio; Greco, Beatrice; Lacinio, Rosanna; Fornelli, Stefania; Carelli, Grazia

    2014-06-01

    Tick-borne diseases are widespread in tropical and temperate regions and are responsible for important economic losses in those areas. In order to assess the presence and prevalence of various pathogens in southern Italy, we retrospectively analyzed cattle blood samples collected for a previous study in 2000 using reverse line blot (RLB) hybridization. The study had been carried out in three regions of southern Italy on 1,500 randomly selected and apparently healthy adult cattle. RLB showed that 43.7% of the cattle were positive for nine different species of hemoparasites with either a single infection or a mixed infection. Theileria buffeli was the most common species found, being present in 27.3% of the animals, followed by Anaplasma marginale in 18.1%, Anaplasma centrale in 13.8%, Babesia bigemina and Anaplasma bovis in 4.2%, Anaplasma phagocytophilum in 1.7%, Babesia bovis in 1.6%, Babesia major in 0.2% and Babesia divergens in 0.1%. Complete blood counts showed different degrees of anemia in 363 animals (24.2%) and of these, 169 were RLB-positive for at least one pathogen. Among the ticks that were collected from the cattle, the following species were identified: Rhipicephalus bursa, Ixodes ricinus, Hyalomma marginatum, Boophilus annulatus, Dermacentor marginatus and Haemaphysalis (sulcata, parva, inermis and punctata). The results obtained confirmed the spread of endemic tick-borne pathogens in the regions studied.

  5. [Correlation between feeding index and growth development of 6-36 month-old infants in two counties of western China by applying multiple correspondence analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong-da; Hao, Bo; Kang, Xiao-ping; Zhao, Geng-li; Zhou, Min

    2012-06-18

    To explore the correlation between feeding index and growth development status of infants from two counties of western China by applying the method of multiple correspondence analysis. Two sample counties were randomly selected from the ones that satisfied the research conditions in Shaanxi province and Chongqing in western China. In the study, 472 premature/low birth weight infants (PLBW) and 461 normal term infants (NT) of 6-36 months from the two counties were investigated from September 2010 to November 2010. The SPSS 19.0 software was applied to analyze the data using general statistical analysis and multiple correspondence analysis. In the two counties of western China, the proportion of infants with feeding index at the medium level was the highest, which was between 50% and 60%. In the PLBW group and the NT group, the proportion of low level of feeding index among 6-9 month-old infants was the highest, and the proportion was 33.3% for the PLBW group and 29.4% for the NT group. For both the PLBW group and the NT group, the distribution of feeding index among the different age groups showed significant difference (Pgrowth development of the PLBW lay behind that of the NT. We could see a catching-up trend of the PLBW with medium or good level of feeding index, but their growth development index was still at a lower level than that of the NT with the same level of feeding condition. Through multiple correspondence analyses, the outcomes of PLBW corresponded and strongly correlated with low level of feeding index, low level of growth development index, mother's low education degree and low annual family income. And the outcomes of NT corresponded and strongly correlated with medium/good level of feeding index, medium level of growth development status, mother's medium/high education degree and medium/high level of annual family income. There are good correspondence correlations at different hierarchical levels of the infants' group, feeding index, growth

  6. Exhibiting Western Desert Aboriginal painting in Australia’s public galleries: an institutional analysis, 1981-2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Berryman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper documents and analyses the exhibition history of Aboriginal painting in Australia’s public art galleries over a two-decade period. It concentrates on Western Desert acrylics but is not confined to this movement or region alone. Based on a review of catalogues from key exhibitions, it identifies three interpretative frameworks used by curators to validate the presence of Aboriginal painting in the contemporary art realm. These modes of interpretation are called the aesthetic, ethnographic and the ownership discourses. Despite being a problematic art at odds with conventional art-historical classifications, Aboriginal painting was elevated to a position of prominence in Australian art history. Institutionally, Western Desert painting found legitimacy in the dominant aesthetic legacy of modernism. This modernist art historiography overrode the minority interests of cultural pluralism and critical postmodernism.

  7. Exhibiting Western Desert Aboriginal painting in Australia’s public galleries: an institutional analysis, 1981-2002

    OpenAIRE

    Jim Berryman

    2012-01-01

    This paper documents and analyses the exhibition history of Aboriginal painting in Australia’s public art galleries over a two-decade period. It concentrates on Western Desert acrylics but is not confined to this movement or region alone. Based on a review of catalogues from key exhibitions, it identifies three interpretative frameworks used by curators to validate the presence of Aboriginal painting in the contemporary art realm. These modes of interpretation are called the aesthetic, ethnog...

  8. U.S.-China Economic and Security Review Commission: Emerging Factor in Western Pacific Strategic Policy Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Chapman, Bert

    2017-01-01

    Those studying and analyzing Western Pacific strategic trends and develop- ments have access to multiple unclassified analyses of security trends in this region covering these waters and adjacent countries. These information resources are produced by military and government agencies from multiple countries, multinational public policy research institutions, popular and scholarly journals, and Internet resources featuring text, data, webcasts, and imagery. One of these resources is the U.S.–Ch...

  9. Acarbose monotherapy and weight loss in Eastern and Western populations with hyperglycaemia: an ethnicity-specific meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y; Tong, Y; Zhang, Y; Huang, L; Wu, T; Tong, N

    2014-11-01

    To demonstrate if weight loss achieved with acarbose in individuals with hyperglycaemia differs between Eastern and Western populations. Databases and reference lists of clinical trials on acarbose were searched. Eligible studies were randomised controlled trials of acarbose monotherapy in populations with hyperglycaemia of more than 12-week duration that provided data on body weight (BW) or body mass index (BMI). A total of 34 trials (6082 participants) were included. The effect of acarbose on BW was superior to that of placebo [weighted mean difference (WMD) = -0.52, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.78 to -0.25], nateglinide (WMD = -1.33, 95% CI -1.51 to -0.75) and metformin (WMD = -0.67, 95% CI -1.14 to -0.20). Compared with placebo, there was a significantly greater weight loss of 0.92 kg (p Eastern populations (WMD = -1.20, 95% CI -1.51 to -0.75) than that in Western populations (WMD = -0.28, 95% CI -0.59 to 0.03). Across all studies, the acarbose group achieved a significantly larger absolute weight loss of (change from baseline) 1.35 kg (p Eastern populations (WMD = -2.26, 95% CI -2.70 to -1.81) than in Western populations (WMD = -0.91, 95% CI -1.36 to -0.47). Nevertheless, the possible risk of bias in Eastern studies may influence the results. The effect of acarbose on weight loss seems to be more pronounced in Eastern than in Western populations with hyperglycaemia, and is superior to that of placebo, nateglinide and metformin across both ethnicities. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Traditional Chinese and western medicine for the prevention of deep venous thrombosis after lower extremity orthopedic surgery: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shibai; Song, Yi; Chen, Xi; Qian, Wenwei

    2018-04-10

    Chinese herbal medicine has traditionally been considered to promote blood circulation to remove obstruction in the channels and clear pathogenic heat to drain dampness effects. We conducted this meta-analysis to evaluate its benefits for the prevention of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) after lower extremity orthopedic surgery. Relevant, published studies were identified using the following keywords: lower extremity orthopedic surgery, arthroplasty, joint replacement, fracture, traditional Chinese and western medicine, Chinese herbal medicine, deep venous thrombosis (DVT), and Venous thromboembolism (VTE). The following databases were used to identify the literature consisting of RCTs with a date of search of 31 May 2017: PubMed, Cochrane Library, Web of knowledge, the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure Database, the Chongqing VIP Database, the Chinese Biomedical Database, and the Wanfang Database (including three English and four Chinese databases). All relevant data were collected from studies meeting the inclusion criteria. The outcome variables were the incidence rate of DVT, activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT), and D-dimer; subcutaneous hematoma; and other reported outcomes. RevMan5.2. software was adopted for the meta-analysis. A total of 20 published studies (1862 cases) met the inclusion criteria. The experimental group, 910 patients (48.87%), received the Chinese herbal medicine or traditional Chinese and western medicine for prevention of DVT; the control group, 952 patients (51.13%), received the standard western treatment. The meta-analysis showed that traditional Chinese and western medicine therapy reduced the incidence rates of DVT significantly when compared with controls (risk ratio [RR] = 0.40; 95% CI, 0.30 to 0.54; P < 0.00001), and the D-dimer was lower in the experimental group (P = 0.01). Besides, the incidence rate of subcutaneous hematoma was lower in the experimental group (P < 0

  11. Development of a dot blot assay using gene probes for the detection of enteroviruses in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margolin, A.B.

    1986-01-01

    Enteric viruses are viruses which replicate in the intestinal tract of man and animals. One mode of transmission for enteric viruses is the fecal-oral route. Drinking water which has been contaminated with sewage or sewage effluent has been implicated as a means for the spread of enteric viruses. Current methods for the detection of enteric viruses in water requires the use of animal cell culture. This technique has several drawbacks. More rapid techniques, such as fluorescent antibody or radioimmunoassay do not have the needed sensitivity to detect the low levels of virus found in contaminated water. An alternative technique for the detection of viruses in water was sought. Recent advances in recombinant DNA technology now makes it possible to detect viruses without the use of cell culture or antibodies. Gene probes that hybridize to the RNA of poliovirus and hepatitis A virus were tested for their ability to detect different enteric viruses. The probes were labeled with 32 P dCTP and 32 P dATP to a specific activity greater then 1.0 x 10 9 cpm/ug DNA. One infectious unit of poliovirus and hepatitis A virus was detected using labeled cDNA probes. Upon comparison, the dot blot assay was as sensitive as tissue culture for the detection of poliovirus in beef extract, secondary effluent, and tap water. Environmental samples, such as secondary effluent, reclaimed wastewater and unchlorinated drinking water were also assayed for poliovirus and hepatitis A virus with the use of gene probes. The results presented here offer an alternative method for screening water samples for the presence of enteric viruses

  12. Simultaneous Detection of Bovine Theileria and Babesia Species by Reverse Line Blot Hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubbels, J. M.; de Vos, A. P.; van der Weide, M.; Viseras, J.; Schouls, L. M.; de Vries, E.; Jongejan, F.

    1999-01-01

    A reverse line blot (RLB) assay was developed for the identification of cattle carrying different species of Theileria and Babesia simultaneously. We included Theileria annulata, T. parva, T. mutans, T. taurotragi, and T. velifera in the assay, as well as parasites belonging to the T. sergenti-T. buffeli-T. orientalis group. The Babesia species included were Babesia bovis, B. bigemina, and B. divergens. The assay employs one set of primers for specific amplification of the rRNA gene V4 hypervariable regions of all Theileria and Babesia species. PCR products obtained from blood samples were hybridized to a membrane onto which nine species-specific oligonucleotides were covalently linked. Cross-reactions were not observed between any of the tested species. No DNA sequences from Bos taurus or other hemoparasites (Trypanosoma species, Cowdria ruminantium, Anaplasma marginale, and Ehrlichia species) were amplified. The sensitivity of the assay was determined at 0.000001% parasitemia, enabling detection of the carrier state of most parasites. Mixed DNAs from five different parasites were correctly identified. Moreover, blood samples from cattle experimentally infected with two different parasites reacted only with the corresponding species-specific oligonucleotides. Finally, RLB was used to screen blood samples collected from carrier cattle in two regions of Spain. T. annulata, T. orientalis, and B. bigemina were identified in these samples. In conclusion, the RLB is a versatile technique for simultaneous detection of all bovine tick-borne protozoan parasites. We recommend its use for integrated epidemiological monitoring of tick-borne disease, since RLB can also be used for screening ticks and can easily be expanded to include additional hemoparasite species. PMID:10325324

  13. Epidemiology of Babesia, Anaplasma and Trypanosoma species using a new expanded reverse line blot hybridization assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoletta, Martina Soledad; López Arias, Ludmila; de la Fournière, Sofía; Guillemi, Eliana Carolina; Luciani, Carlos; Sarmiento, Néstor Fabián; Mosqueda, Juan; Farber, Marisa Diana; Wilkowsky, Silvina Elizabeth

    2018-02-01

    Vector-borne hemoparasitic infections are a major problem that affects livestock industries worldwide, particularly in tropical and subtropical regions. In this work, a reverse line blot (RLB) hybridization assay was developed for the simultaneous detection and identification of Anaplasma, Babesia and bovine trypanosomes, encompassing in this way the most relevant hemoparasites that affect cattle. A total of 186 bovine blood samples collected from two different ecoepidemiological regions of northeast Argentina, with and without tick control, were analyzed with this new RLB. High diversity of parasites, such as Babesia bovis, B. bigemina, Anaplasma marginale and three different Trypanosoma species, was found. High rates of coinfections were also detected, and significant differences were observed not only in the prevalence of parasites but also in the level of coinfections between the two analyzed areas. Regarding the Trypanosoma genus, we provide molecular evidence of the presence of T. vivax and T. theileri for the first time in Argentina. Besides, since the RLB is a prospective tool, it allowed the identification of a yet unknown bovine trypanosome which could not be assigned to any of the bovine species known so far. In the present study we provide new insights on the prevalence of several pathogens that directly impact on livestock production in Argentina. The RLB assay developed here allows to identify simultaneously numerous pathogenic species which can also be easily expanded to detect other blood borne pathogens. These characteristics make the RLB hybridization assay an essential tool for epidemiological survey of all vector-borne pathogens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Analysis and Prevention of Geo-Environmental Hazards with High-Intensive Coal Mining: A Case Study in China’s Western Eco-Environment Frangible Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Sun

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study seeks to address the problems of major geo-environmental hazards caused by high-intensive coal mining in China’s western eco-environment frangible area including strong mining pressure, surface subsidence, soil and water loss, and land desertification. Using the high-intensive mining at the Xiao-jihan Coal Mine, this paper investigates the compaction characteristics of aeolian sand-based backfilling materials, and then the evolution of water-conducting fractures and surface deformation laws with different backfill material’s compression ratios (BMCRs by using physical simulation and numerical simulation analysis methods. This study presents the technical system of water-preserved and environmental protection with rapid-backfilling methods in China’s western eco-environment frangible area. The backfill coal mining technique and application prospects are assessed and discussed. The results will be helpful for coordinated development of coal resources exploitation and environmental protection in China’s western eco-environment frangible area.

  15. Use of Western Medicine and Traditional Korean Medicine for Joint Disorders: A Retrospective Comparative Analysis Based on Korean Nationwide Insurance Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the usage of Western medicine and traditional Korean medicine for treating joint disorders in Korea. Data of claims from all medical institutions with billing statements filed to HIRA from 2011 to 2014 for the four most frequent joint disorders were used for the analysis. Data from a total of 1,100,018 patients who received medical services from 2011 to 2014 were analyzed. Descriptive statistics are presented as type of care and hospital type. All statistical analyses were performed using IBM SPSS for Windows version 21. Of the 1,100,018 patients with joint disorders, 456,642 (41.5%) were males and 643,376 (58.5%) were females. Per diem costs of hospitalization in Western medicine clinics and traditional Korean medicine clinics were approximately 160,000 KRW and 50,000 KRW, respectively. Among costs associated with Western medicine, physiotherapy cost had the largest proportion (28.78%). Among costs associated with traditional Korean medicine, procedural costs and treatment accounted for more than 70%, followed by doctors' fees (21.54%). There were distinct differences in patterns of medical care use and cost of joint disorders at the national level in Korea. This study is expected to contribute to management decisions for musculoskeletal disease involving joint disorders. PMID:29456569

  16. 'Foreigners', 'ethnic minorities', and 'non-Western allochtoons': an analysis of the development of 'ethnicity' in health policy in the Netherlands from 1970 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helberg-Proctor, Alana; Meershoek, Agnes; Krumeich, Anja; Horstman, Klasien

    2017-01-31

    The Netherlands, because of the sustained and systematic attention it paid to migrant and minority health issues during the last quarter of the twentieth century, has been depicted as being progressive in its approach to healthcare for migrants and minorities. Recently, however, these progressive policies have changed, reflecting a trend towards problematising issues of integration in order to focus on the responsibilities that migrants and ethnic minorities bear in terms of their health. This article explores these shifts and specifically the development of particular categories of ethnicity, and examines the wider consequences that have arisen as a result. The analysis presented here entailed a qualitative content analysis of health policies for migrants and ethnic minorities from 1970 to 2015, and examined various documents and materials produced by the institutions and organisations responsible for implementing these healthcare policies during the period from 1970 to 2015. Four distinct periods of political discourse related to health policy for migrants and ethnic minorities were identified. These periods of political discourse were found to shape the manner in which ethnicity and various categories and representation of foreigners, later ethnic minorities, and at present non-Western allochtoons are constructed in health policy and the implantation practices that follow. At present, in the Netherlands the term allochtoon is used to describe people who are considered of foreign heritage, and its antonym autochtoon is used for those who are considered native to the Netherlands. We discuss the scientific reproduction and even geneticisation of these politically produced categories of autochtoon, Western allochtoon, and non-Western allochtoon-a phenomenon that occurs when politically produced categories are prescribed or taken up by other health sectors. The categories of autochtoon, Western allochtoon, and non-Western allochtoon in the health sciences and the

  17. Product-selective blot: a technique for measuring enzyme activities in large numbers of samples and in native electrophoresis gels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, G.A.; Davies, H.M.; McDonald, N.

    1985-01-01

    A method termed product-selective blotting has been developed for screening large numbers of samples for enzyme activity. The technique is particularly well suited to detection of enzymes in native electrophoresis gels. The principle of the method was demonstrated by blotting samples from glutaminase or glutamate synthase reactions into an agarose gel embedded with ion-exchange resin under conditions favoring binding of product (glutamate) over substrates and other substances in the reaction mixture. After washes to remove these unbound substances, the product was measured using either fluorometric staining or radiometric techniques. Glutaminase activity in native electrophoresis gels was visualized by a related procedure in which substrates and products from reactions run in the electrophoresis gel were blotted directly into a resin-containing image gel. Considering the selective-binding materials available for use in the image gel, along with the possible detection systems, this method has potentially broad application

  18. Multielement instrumental neutron activation analysis of macroalgae Cystoseira used as biomonitor of the Black Sea coastal waters pollution (South-Western Crimea, Sevastopol)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kravtsova, A.V.; Mil'chakova, N.A.; Frontas'eva, M.V.

    2013-01-01

    For the first time for Sevastopol region the peculiarities of 26 (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, Sm, Nd, Ag, Au and U) macro- and microelements accumulation in the thalli of brown algae Cystoseira from the coastal waters of south-western Crimea (the Black Sea) were studied using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The possibility of using brown algae Cystoseira as a biomonitor of coastal waters pollution was shown

  19. Analysis of differences between Western and East-Asian faces based on facial region segmentation and PCA for facial expression recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benitez-Garcia, Gibran; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Kaneko, Masahide

    2017-01-01

    Darwin was the first one to assert that facial expressions are innate and universal, which are recognized across all cultures. However, recent some cross-cultural studies have questioned this assumed universality. Therefore, this paper presents an analysis of the differences between Western and East-Asian faces of the six basic expressions (anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness and surprise) focused on three individual facial regions of eyes-eyebrows, nose and mouth. The analysis is conducted by applying PCA for two feature extraction methods: appearance-based by using the pixel intensities of facial parts, and geometric-based by handling 125 feature points from the face. Both methods are evaluated using 4 standard databases for both racial groups and the results are compared with a cross-cultural human study applied to 20 participants. Our analysis reveals that differences between Westerns and East-Asians exist mainly on the regions of eyes-eyebrows and mouth for expressions of fear and disgust respectively. This work presents important findings for a better design of automatic facial expression recognition systems based on the difference between two racial groups.

  20. Imaging and high-sensitivity quantification of chemiluminescent labeled DNA-blots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorner, G.

    1997-01-01

    The present thesis has for objective the development of both, methods of DNA labeling by chemiluminescence (via the catalytic activity of the enzyme alkaline phosphatase - AP) and an appropriate imaging system. Offering a competitive alternative to the detection of classical radio-labels in molecular-biological experiments of the blotting type, this technique should permit the realization of quantitative studies of gene expression at ultra-high sensitivity necessary in particular for differential-screening experiments. To reach our aim. we separated the project into three different parts. In a first step an imager based on a liquid-nitrogen-cooled CCD coupled to a standard optics (50 mm/fl.2) has been installed and characterized. This system offers a sensitive area of up to 625 cm 2 , a spatial resolution of 0.3-1 mm (depending on the field of view) and a sensitivity sufficient to detect 10 fg/mm 2 labeled DNA. In a second part, the chemiluminescent light-generation process in solution has been investigated to optimize the parameters temperature. pH and concentration of the substrate as well as the enzyme. The substrate offering the highest light yield (CDP-Star in addition with the enhancer EMERALD II) allows quantification of AP down to 10 -15 M within a dynamic range of 10 4 in solution. Finally. preparation, immobilization and detection of AP-labeled DNA probes (via a biotin-streptavidin-biotin-AP bridge) on nylon membranes has been optimized. A linear relation between the light intensities and the amount of DNA was observed in a range of 10 fg/mm 2 - 100 pg/mm 2 . Hybridization of the probes to bacterial cloned target-DNA has been addressed after examination of the best hybridization conditions. Our protocol includes the treatment of a proteinase, which resulted in a significantly lower background on the filter. The results of our investigations suggest that the main conditions for a reliable differential-screening experiment are fulfilled when using

  1. Testing for myositis specific autoantibodies: Comparison between line blot and immunoprecipitation assays in 57 myositis sera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavazzana, Ilaria; Fredi, Micaela; Ceribelli, Angela; Mordenti, Cristina; Ferrari, Fabio; Carabellese, Nice; Tincani, Angela; Satoh, Minoru; Franceschini, Franco

    2016-06-01

    To analyze the performance of a line blot assay for the identification of autoantibodies in sera of patients affected by myositis, compared with immunoprecipitation (IP) as gold standard. 66 sera of patients with myositis (23 polymyositis, 8 anti-synthetase syndromes, 29 dermatomyositis and 6 overlap syndromes) were tested by commercial LB (Euroimmun, Lubeck, Germany); 57 sera were analyzed also by IP of K562 cell extract radiolabeled with (35)S-methionine. Inter-rater agreement was calculated with Cohen's k coefficient. Myositis-specific antibodies (MSA) were detected in 36/57 sera (63%) by IP and in 39/66 sera (59%) by LB. The most frequent MSA found by LB were anti-Jo1 and anti-Mi2 found in 15% (10/66) of sera, followed by anti-NXP2 and anti-SRP detected in 106% (7/66) of sera. Anti-TIF1gamma and anti-MDA5 were found in 6 (9%) and 5 sera (7.6%), respectively. A good agreement between methods was found only for anti-TIF1γ, anti-MDA5 and anti-NXP-2 antibodies, while a moderate agreement was estimated for anti-Mi2 and anti-EJ. By contrast, a high discordance rate for the detection of anti-Jo1 antibodies was evident (k: 0.3). Multiple positivity for MSA were found in 11/66 (17%) by LB and 0/57 by IP (p: 0001). Comparing the clinical features of these 11 sera, we found total discrepancies between assays in 3 sera (27.3%), a relative discrepancy due to the occurrence of one discordant autoantibody (not confirmed by IP) in 5 cases (45.5%) and a total discrepancy between LB and IP results, but with a relative concordance with clinical features were found in other 3 sera (27.3%). The semiquantitative results do not support the interpretation of the data. The use of LB assay allowed the detection of new MSA, such as anti-MDA5, anti-MJ and anti-TIF1gamma antibodies, previously not found with routine methods. However, the high prevalence of multiple positivities and the high discondant rate of anti-Jo1 antibodies could create some misinterpretation of the results from the

  2. The Pasadena Aerosol Characterization Observatory (PACO: chemical and physical analysis of the Western Los Angeles basin aerosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Hersey

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The Pasadena Aerosol Characterization Observatory (PACO represents the first major aerosol characterization experiment centered in the Western/Central Los Angeles Basin. The sampling site, located on the campus of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, was positioned to sample a continuous afternoon influx of transported urban aerosol with a photochemical age of 1–2 h and generally free from major local contributions. Sampling spanned 5 months during the summer of 2009, which were broken into 3 regimes on the basis of distinct meteorological conditions. Regime I was characterized by a series of low pressure systems, resulting in high humidity and rainy periods with clean conditions. Regime II typified early summer meteorology, with significant morning marine layers and warm, sunny afternoons. Regime III was characterized by hot, dry conditions with little marine layer influence. Regardless of regime, organic aerosol (OA is the most significant constituent of nonrefractory submicron Los Angeles aerosol (42, 43, and 55 % of total submicron mass in regimes I, II, and III, respectively. The overall oxidation state remains relatively constant on timescales of days to weeks (O:C = 0.44 ± 0.08, 0.55 ± 0.05, and 0.48 ± 0.08 during regimes I, II, and III, respectively, with no difference in O:C between morning and afternoon periods. Periods characterized by significant morning marine layer influence followed by photochemically favorable afternoons displayed significantly higher aerosol mass and O:C ratio, suggesting that aqueous processes may be important in the generation of secondary aerosol and oxidized organic aerosol (OOA in Los Angeles. Online analysis of water soluble organic carbon (WSOC indicates that water soluble organic mass (WSOM reaches maxima near 14:00–15:00 local time (LT, but the percentage of AMS organic mass contributed by WSOM remains relatively constant throughout the day. Sulfate and nitrate reside predominantly

  3. Antibody Banding Patterns of the Enzyme-Linked Immunoelectrotransfer Blot and Brain Imaging Findings in Patients With Neurocysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, Gianfranco; Rodriguez, Silvia; Lescano, Andres G; Alroy, Karen A; Bustos, Javier A; Santivañez, Saul; Gonzales, Isidro; Saavedra, Herbert; Pretell, E Javier; Gonzalez, Armando E; Gilman, Robert H; Tsang, Victor C W; Garcia, Hector H

    2018-01-06

    The enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) assay is the reference serological test for neurocysticercosis (NCC). A positive result on EITB does not always correlate with the presence of active infections in the central nervous system (CNS), and patients with a single viable brain cyst may be EITB negative. Nonetheless, EITB antibody banding patterns appears to be related with the expression of 3 protein families of Taenia solium, and in turn with the characteristics of NCC in the CNS (type, stage, and burden of viable cysts). We evaluated EITB antibody banding patterns and brain imaging findings of 548 NCC cases. Similar banding patterns were grouped into homogeneous classes using latent class analysis. The association between classes and brain imaging findings was assessed. Four classes were identified. Class 1 (patients negative or only positive to the GP50 band, related to the protein family of the same name) was associated with nonviable or single viable parenchymal cysticerci; class 2 (patients positive to bands GP42-39 and GP24, related to the T24-42 protein family, with or without anti-GP50 antibodies) was associated with intraparenchymal viable and nonviable infections; classes 3 and 4 (positive to GP50, GP42-39, and GP24 but also responding to low molecular weight bands GP21, GP18, GP14, and GP13, related to the 8 kDa protein family) were associated with extraparenchymal and intraparenchymal multiple viable cysticerci. EITB antibody banding patterns correlate with brain imaging findings and complement imaging information for the diagnosis of NCC and for staging NCC patients. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Impact of the zero-markup drug policy on hospitalisation expenditure in western rural China: an interrupted time series analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Caijun; Shen, Qian; Cai, Wenfang; Zhu, Wenwen; Li, Zongjie; Wu, Lina; Fang, Yu

    2017-02-01

    To assess the long-term effects of the introduction of China's zero-markup drug policy on hospitalisation expenditure and hospitalisation expenditures after reimbursement. An interrupted time series was used to evaluate the impact of the zero-markup drug policy on hospitalisation expenditure and hospitalisation expenditure after reimbursement at primary health institutions in Fufeng County of Shaanxi Province, western China. Two regression models were developed. Monthly average hospitalisation expenditure and monthly average hospitalisation expenditure after reimbursement in primary health institutions were analysed covering the period 2009 through to 2013. For the monthly average hospitalisation expenditure, the increasing trend was slowed down after the introduction of the zero-markup drug policy (coefficient = -16.49, P = 0.009). For the monthly average hospitalisation expenditure after reimbursement, the increasing trend was slowed down after the introduction of the zero-markup drug policy (coefficient = -10.84, P = 0.064), and a significant decrease in the intercept was noted after the second intervention of changes in reimbursement schemes of the new rural cooperative medical insurance (coefficient = -220.64, P markup drug policy in western China. However, hospitalisation expenditure and hospitalisation expenditure after reimbursement were still increasing. More effective policies are needed to prevent these costs from continuing to rise. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. An Analysis of Rural Household Livelihood Change and the Regional Effect in a Western Impoverished Mountainous Area of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuansheng Wang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Taking Longnan, in the western Qinling Mountains region of Gansu province, China, as our study area, and using the Sixth National Population Census alongside household survey data, we analyze changes in household livelihoods, and consequent regional effects, following the instigation of the “Grain for Green” program in 1999. Our results show rural livelihood changes with respect to natural assets (e.g., reduction of arable land, planting structure changes, human assets (e.g., labor quality improvement, fluidity of population, financial assets (e.g., income channels widening, income increasing, physical assets (e.g., optimized production tools, and social assets (e.g., information network development, increased outreach opportunities. We suggest that increased household livelihoods play an important role in improving land space utilization efficiency, resource conservation and use, and the ecological environment. However, owing to the natural environment, there are also some problems, such as “hollows” in rural production and living spaces, as well as local environmental degradation. To address these issues, regions such as the western, mountainous, impoverished area of our study should establish a policy of using ecosystems, as well as agriculture, for development in order to improve household livelihoods, build an efficient spatial structure, and providing support for the creation of a resource-saving societal system.

  6. Bootstrapping data envelopment analysis of efficiency and productivity of county public hospitals in Eastern, Central, and Western China after the public hospital reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Man-Li; Fang, Hai-Qing; Tao, Hong-Bing; Cheng, Zhao-Hui; Lin, Xiao-Jun; Cai, Miao; Xu, Chang; Jiang, Shuai

    2017-10-01

    China implemented the public hospital reform in 2012. This study utilized bootstrapping data envelopment analysis (DEA) to evaluate the technical efficiency (TE) and productivity of county public hospitals in Eastern, Central, and Western China after the 2012 public hospital reform. Data from 127 county public hospitals (39, 45, and 43 in Eastern, Central, and Western China, respectively) were collected during 2012-2015. Changes of TE and productivity over time were estimated by bootstrapping DEA and bootstrapping Malmquist. The disparities in TE and productivity among public hospitals in the three regions of China were compared by Kruskal-Wallis H test and Mann-Whitney U test. The average bias-corrected TE values for the four-year period were 0.6442, 0.5785, 0.6099, and 0.6094 in Eastern, Central, and Western China, and the entire country respectively, with average non-technical efficiency, low pure technical efficiency (PTE), and high scale efficiency found. Productivity increased by 8.12%, 0.25%, 12.11%, and 11.58% in China and its three regions during 2012-2015, and such increase in productivity resulted from progressive technological changes by 16.42%, 6.32%, 21.08%, and 21.42%, respectively. The TE and PTE of the county hospitals significantly differed among the three regions of China. Eastern and Western China showed significantly higher TE and PTE than Central China. More than 60% of county public hospitals in China and its three areas operated at decreasing return scales. There was a considerable space for TE improvement in county hospitals in China and its three regions. During 2012-2015, the hospitals experienced progressive productivity; however, the PTE changed adversely. Moreover, Central China continuously achieved a significantly lower efficiency score than Eastern and Western China. Decision makers and administrators in China should identify the causes of the observed inefficiencies and take appropriate measures to increase the efficiency of county

  7. Application of FTA sample collection and DNA purification system on the determination of CTG trinucleotide repeat size by PCR-based Southern blotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, K M; Lin, H M; Pan, H; Li, T C; Chen, S S; Jou, S B; Chiu, Y L; Wu, M F; Lin, C C; Li, S Y

    1999-01-01

    Myotonic dystrophy (DM) is caused by a CTG trinucleotide expansion mutation at exon 15 of the myotonic dystrophy protein kinase gene. The clinical severity of this disease correlates with the length of the CTG trinucleotide repeats. Determination of the CTG repeat length has been primarily relied on by Southern blot analysis of restriction enzyme-digested genomic DNA. The development of PCR-based Southern blotting methodology provides a much more sensitive and simpler protocol for DM diagnosis. However, the quality of the template and the high (G+C) ratio of the amplified region hamper the use of PCR on the diagnosis of DM. A modified PCR protocol to amplify different lengths of CTG repeat region using various concentrations of 7deaza-dGTP has been reported (1). Here we describe a procedure including sample collection, DNA purification, and PCR analysis of CTG repeat length without using 7-deaza-dGTP. This protocol is very sensitive and convenient because only a small number of nucleate cells are needed for detection of CTG expansion. Therefore, it could be very useful in clinical and prenatal diagnosis as well as in prevalence study of DM.

  8. Different domains of Bacillus thuringiensis delta-endotoxins can bind to insect midgut membrane proteins on ligand blots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maagd, de R.A.; Klei, van der H.; Bakker, P.L.; Stiekema, W.J.; Bosch, D.

    1996-01-01

    We investigated the role of the constituent domains of the CryIA(b) and CryIA(c) δ-endotoxins in binding to midgut epithelial cell membrane proteins of Spodoptera exigua and Manduca sexta on ligand blots. A collection of wild- type and CryIC-CryIA hybrid toxins was used for this purpose. As

  9. Testate amoebae analysis in the peat deposits of the swamp Dolgon’koye in the south of Western Siberia and peatland paleohydrology for last 3100 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurina, Irina V.; Blyakharchuk, Tatiana A.

    2018-03-01

    Our research is devoted to paleohydrological reconstruction in the swamp located in the river valley on the piedmont of the Altai Mountains in the south of Western Siberia. The reconstruction was carried out based on rhizopod analysis for the last 3100 cal yr. A large amount of different testate amoebae was found in the peat. Total 64 testate amoebae taxa were recorded in the peat core with the most abundant being: Trinema lineare, Centropyxis aculeata, C. aerophila, Euglypha rotunda, Cryptodifflugia sp. Decrease of surface wetness in the swamp are observed 2280, 2140, 1900–600 cal yr BP and increase – in 2700, 2500–1900, 230–215 cal yr BP. The results of our reconstruction of the swamp paleohydrology agrees well with the paleoclimatic data obtained earlier for the central area of the south of Western Siberia Plain. It indicates a high sensitivity of the swamp to climatic changes in the Holocene. The rhizopod analysis proved to be very effective when used for paleohydrology reconstruction in minerotrophic peat.

  10. Disparities in Mortality Rates of Working-Age Population in Eastern, Central and Western Europe – A Comparative Quantitative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lackó Mária

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Even two decades after the start of transition, mortality rates in Central and Eastern Europe are much higher than in Western Europe. This study presents and quantifies the impact on mortality of factors beyond the usual explanations. These factors are the advantageous and disadvantageous health effects of the geographical location of individual countries, as well as the economic structure, price structure and political priorities of the pre-transition systems in Central and Eastern Europe associated with anomic, self-destructive lifestyles. For adult males, mortality results show significant impact from level of development, health expenditure, latitude of countries, spirit consumption, education and air pollution. The impact of development, health expenditure, latitude, air pollution appear the same for both gender’s mortality.

  11. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of fleshy pored mushrooms: Neoboletus luridiformis and Hortiboletus rubellus from western Himalayan range of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarwar, S.; Khalid, N.; Dentinger, B.M.

    2016-01-01

    Fleshy pored mushrooms is the name given to boletes due to their porous hymenium and fleshy nature. These are ectomycorrhizal basidiomycetes found in all continents except Antarctica. These mushrooms are important economically due to their edibility and medicinal value. This research work highlights the diversity of boletes in Pakistan and their correct identification by using molecular phylogenetic techniques. Western Himalayan range (WHR) of Pakistan is considered as diversity rich area. During present investigation regarding diversity of boletes in these areas, two bolete taxa viz. Hortiboletus rubellus and Neoboletus luridiformis were found under conifers. These mushrooms were collected and analyzed morphologically as well as phylogenetically by using Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) region of nrDNA sequences, and compared with their allies. All description and comparison with related taxa is provided in detail. These boletes are first time analyzed using molecular method from Pakistan. (author)

  12. Analysis of El Niño-Southern Oscillation Phenomena's Effect on the Gross Domestic Product of Western Pacific Nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, M.; Lewis, A.; Mezzafonte, D.

    2014-12-01

    El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is a climatological phenomenon that occurs in the tropical Pacific Ocean which has a direct influence on the climate of western Pacific nations. This study evaluated the meteorological effects of ENSO on the economies of Indonesia and the Philippines. It was hypothesized that decreased precipitation in the western Tropical Pacific region during El Niño events causes decreases in agricultural production in the region resulting in a negative effect on a nation's Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Furthermore, during La Niña events, when precipitation increases, an increase in the nation's agricultural GDP and overall GDP is expected. Annual GDP data were obtained from the World Bank and the Bank of Indonesia for 1960-2012. Sea surface temperatures (SST) data, in the Niño 3.4 region, were obtained from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Climate Data Center. Data of the agricultural and total GDP of Indonesia and the Philippines had inconclusive correlations with ENSO signal data. By examining data between smaller time segments of the overall 1960-2012 timeframe, more conclusive results could not be discerned. Indonesia's quarterly non-oil GDP for 2000-2009 was independently correlated with ENSO providing better insight on the variables' relationship during discrete ENSO phenomena. The results provided strong correlation coefficients of 0.831 and 0.624 in support of the antithesis as well as -0.421 in support of the hypothesis. An economic anomaly known as the East Asian Financial Crisis may have been the cause of the unexpected correlations however more data is needed to be certain. Overall, the results demonstrated weak to moderate correlations between studied variables. However, more data is needed to reach substantial conclusions.

  13. Estimation of hepatitis E virus (HEV) pig seroprevalence using Elisa and Western blot and comparison between human and pig HEV sequences in Belgium.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiry, D.; Mauroy, A.; Saegerman, C.; Thomas, I.; Wautier, M.; Miry, C.; Czaplicki, G.; Berkvens, D.; Praet, N.; Poel, van der W.H.M.; Cariolet, R.; Brochier, B.; Thiry, E.

    2014-01-01

    Zoonotic transmission of hepatitis E virus (HEV) is of special concern, particularly in high income countries were waterborne infections are less frequent than in developing countries. High HEV seroprevalences can be found in European pig populations. The aims of this study were to obtain prevalence

  14. A Western Blot-based Investigation of the Yeast Secretory Pathway Designed for an Intermediate-Level Undergraduate Cell Biology Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood-DeGrenier, Jennifer K.

    2008-01-01

    The movement of newly synthesized proteins through the endomembrane system of eukaryotic cells, often referred to generally as the secretory pathway, is a topic covered in most intermediate-level undergraduate cell biology courses. An article previously published in this journal described a laboratory exercise in which yeast mutants defective in…

  15. A Western-blot assay for the detection of antibodies against pathogenic Leptospira serogroups with recombinant outer membrane protein LipL32

    OpenAIRE

    Hong-yuan DUAN; Zhi-guo LIU; Shao-fu QIU; Bin HE; Hai ZHAO; Li-hua SONG; Hong ZHU; Qing DUAN

    2011-01-01

    Objective To provide a possible antigen for rapid serodiagnosis of leptospirosis,the present study focused on the activity of immune-reaction and cross-reaction between outer membrane protein LipL32 and multi-serogroup anti-pathogenic Leptospira antibodies.Methods Based on the given sequence of LipL32 gene of Leptospira icterohaemorrhagiae strain 56601,the primer pair was designed and the DNA fragment was amplified by PCR.The amplified product was inserted into vector pET-28a-(c) to construct...

  16. GAPDH and β-actin protein decreases with aging, making Stain-Free technology a superior loading control in Western blotting of human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigelsø Hansen, Andreas; Dybboe, Rie; Hansen, Christina Neigaard

    2015-01-01

    SF and RP was measured in relation to ageing, muscle atrophy, and different muscle fiber type composition, respectively. A stronger linearity of SF and β-actin compared with GAPDH and α-tubulin was observed. The methodological variation was relatively low in all four methods (4-11%). Protein level...... [β-actin, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), and α-tubulin], as well as TP loaded measured by Stain-Free technology (SF) as normalization tool were tested. This was done using skeletal muscle samples from men subjected to physiological conditions often investigated in applied...... physiology where the intervention has been suggested to impede normalization (ageing, muscle atrophy, and different muscle fiber type composition). The linearity of signal and the methodological variation coefficient was obtained. Furthermore, the inter- and intraindividual variation in signals obtained from...

  17. nab-Paclitaxel plus gemcitabine for metastatic pancreatic cancer: a subgroup analysis of the Western European cohort of the MPACT trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabernero J

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Josep Tabernero,1 Volker Kunzmann,2 Werner Scheithauer,3 Michele Reni,4 Jack Shiansong Li,5 Stefano Ferrara,6 Kamel Djazouli7 1Medical Oncology Department, Vall d’Hebron University Hospital, Barcelona, Spain; 2Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik II, University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany; 3Medizinische Universität Wien, Wien, Austria; 4San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy; 5Celgene Corporation, Summit, NJ, USA; 6Celgene Corporation, Boudry, Switzerland; 7Celgene Corporation, Paris, France Purpose: The global Phase III MPACT trial demonstrated superior efficacy of nab-paclitaxel plus gemcitabine over gemcitabine alone as first-line treatment for metastatic pancreatic cancer. Region was a randomization stratification factor in the MPACT trial. This subgroup analysis of MPACT examined efficacy and safety of patients treated in Western Europe.Patients and methods: Patients received nab-paclitaxel plus gemcitabine or gemcitabine alone as first-line treatment for metastatic pancreatic cancer as previously described. A total of 76 patients were included in this analysis (n=38 for each arm.Results: Differences between the overall Western European cohort and the intention-to-treat population included lower percentages of male patients (46% and 58%, respectively and patients with biliary stents (8% and 17%, and higher percentages of patients with Karnofsky performance status of 90–100 (78% and 60% and primary tumors in the body of the pancreas (48% and 31%. The median overall survival was 10.7 months with nab-paclitaxel plus gemcitabine vs 6.9 months with gemcitabine alone (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.82 [95% confidence interval (CI: 0.48–1.40]; P=0.471. Median progression-free survival was 5.3 vs 3.7 months, respectively (HR: 0.70 [95% CI: 0.37–1.33]; P=0.277. The independently assessed overall response rate was 18% vs 5% (response rate ratio, 3.50 [95% CI: 0.78–15.78]; P=0.076. The most common grade ≥3 adverse events with nab

  18. Proteomic analysis of pancreas derived from adult cloned pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chae, Jung-Il; Cho, Young Keun; Cho, Seong-Keun; Kim, Jin-Hoi; Han, Yong-Mahn; Koo, Deog-Bon; Lee, Kyung-Kwang

    2008-01-01

    The potential medical applications of animal cloning include xenotransplantation, but the complex molecular cascades that control porcine organ development are not fully understood. Still, it has become apparent that organs derived from cloned pigs may be suitable for transplantation into humans. In this study, we examined the pancreas of an adult cloned pig developed through somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and Western blotting. Proteomic analysis revealed 69 differentially regulated proteins, including such apoptosis-related species as annexins, lamins, and heat shock proteins, which were unanimously upregulated in the SCNT sample. Among the downregulated proteins in SCNT pancreas were peroxiredoxins and catalase. Western blot results indicate that several antioxidant enzymes and the anti-apoptotic protein were downregulated in SCNT pancreas, whereas several caspases were upregulated. Together, these data suggest that the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the pancreas of an adult cloned pig leads to apoptosis

  19. Mitochondrial Analysis of the Most Basal Canid Reveals Deep Divergence between Eastern and Western North American Gray Foxes (Urocyon spp.) and Ancient Roots in Pleistocene California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, Natalie S; Statham, Mark J; Sacks, Benjamin N

    2015-01-01

    Pleistocene aridification in central North America caused many temperate forest-associated vertebrates to split into eastern and western lineages. Such divisions can be cryptic when Holocene expansions have closed the gaps between once-disjunct ranges or when local morphological variation obscures deeper regional divergences. We investigated such cryptic divergence in the gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus), the most basal extant canid in the world. We also investigated the phylogeography of this species and its diminutive relative, the island fox (U. littoralis), in California. The California Floristic Province was a significant source of Pleistocene diversification for a wide range of taxa and, we hypothesized, for the gray fox as well. Alternatively, gray foxes in California potentially reflected a recent Holocene expansion from further south. We sequenced mitochondrial DNA from 169 gray foxes from the southeastern and southwestern United States and 11 island foxes from three of the Channel Islands. We estimated a 1.3% sequence divergence in the cytochrome b gene between eastern and western foxes and used coalescent simulations to date the divergence to approximately 500,000 years before present (YBP), which is comparable to that between recognized sister species within the Canidae. Gray fox samples collected from throughout California exhibited high haplotype diversity, phylogeographic structure, and genetic signatures of a late-Holocene population decline. Bayesian skyline analysis also indicated an earlier population increase dating to the early Wisconsin glaciation (~70,000 YBP) and a root height extending back to the previous interglacial (~100,000 YBP). Together these findings support California's role as a long-term Pleistocene refugium for western Urocyon. Lastly, based both on our results and re-interpretation of those of another study, we conclude that island foxes of the Channel Islands trace their origins to at least 3 distinct female founders from

  20. A laser ablation ICP-MS based method for multiplexed immunoblot analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Bang, Thomas Christian; Petersen, Jørgen; Pedas, Pai Rosager

    2015-01-01

    developed a multiplexed antibody-based assay and analysed selected PSII subunits in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). A selection of antibodies were labelled with specific lanthanides and immunoreacted with thylakoids exposed to Mn deficiency after western blotting. Subsequently, western blot membranes were...... analysed by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), which allowed selective and relative quantitative analysis via the different lanthanides. The method was evaluated against established liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC...... by more than one technique. The developed method enables a higher number of proteins to be multiplexed in comparison to existing immunoassays. Furthermore, multiplexed protein analysis by LA-ICP-MS provides an analytical platform with high throughput appropriate for screening large collections of plants....

  1. Paleoparasitological analysis of the extinct Myotragus balearicus Bate 1909 (Artiodactyla, Caprinae) from Mallorca (Balearic Islands, Western Mediterranean).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borba Nunes, Victor Hugo; Alcover, Josep Antoni; Silva, Valmir Laurentino; Cruz, Paula Borba; Machado-Silva, José Roberto; de Araújo, Adauto José Gonçalves

    2017-04-01

    Myotragus balearicus (Artiodactyla, Caprinae) is an extinct caprine endemic of the Eastern Balearic Islands or Gymnesics (i.e., Mallorca, Menorca and surrounding islets, Western Mediterranean Sea). In spite of its small size, c. 50cm height at the shoulder, it was the largest mammal inhabiting these islands until the human arrival, and it had peculiar short legs and frontal vision. It disappeared between 2830 and 2210calBCE. The coprolites here studied were recovered from Cova Estreta, in Pollença, Mallorca. The samples were subjected to microscopic examination and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) for E. histolytica/E. dispar, Giardia intestinalis and Cryptosporidium parvum. This study provides new paleoparasitological data from an extinct animal species of the Holocene period. The microscopy revealed one sample containing uninucleated-cyst of Entamoeba sp., whereas ELISA detected nine positive samples for Cryptosporidium sp. The finding of these protozoans can help in the discussion of its extinction cause and demonstrates the antiquity and the evolutionary history of host-parasite relationships between protozoa and caprines since the Messinian. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Potential cost to Western Australia of proposed patient co-payments according to healthcare organisational structure: A preliminary analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, J Alasdair; Millar, Robyn C

    2014-01-01

    The Australian federal government has proposed an AUD $7 patient co-payment for a general practitioner (GP) consultation. One effect of the co-payment may be that patients will seek assistance at public hospital emergency departments (EDs), where currently there is no user charge. We studied the possible financial impact of patient diversion on the Western Australia (WA) health budget. We constructed a spreadsheet model of changes in annual cash flows including the co-payment, GP fees for service, and rates of diversion to emergency departments with additional marginal costs for ED attendance. Changes in WA cash flows are the aggregate of marginal ED costs of treating diverted patients and added expenditure in fees paid to rural doctors who also man local emergency centres. The estimated costs to WA are AUD $6.3 million, $35.9 million and $87.4 million at 1, 5, and 10 per cent diversion, respectively. Commonwealth receipts increase and expenditure on Medicare benefits declines. A diversion of patients from GP surgeries to ED in WA caused by the co-payment will result in increased costs to the state, which may be substantial, and will reduce net costs to the Commonwealth.

  3. Mangrove sediment core analysis of foraminiferal assemblages - a study at two sites along the western coast of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Vidya

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Mangroves are an unique habitat and are largely influenced by sea level changes and wave energy. Foraminifera (Protista preserved in mangrove sediments provide an excellent proxy for deducing past conditions. One meter deep mangrove core samples at two sites on the western coast of India were collected. The foraminiferal assemblages at various depths showed significant changes in the abundance and diversity down the cores. A total of 59 species belonging to 32 genera, 24 families and five suborders were identified from the cores of these two sites. The cores showed an abundance of genus Rotalidium particularly the species Rotalidium annectans. Other species identified include Ammonia, Elphidium, Nonion, Spiroloculina, Quinqueloculina, Globigerinoides, etc. The pH, organic matter and CaCO3 also showed variations down the cores. There was a lack of correlation between sediment characteristics and the abundance of foraminifera in the cores. The low diversity and differences in distribution of foraminifera compared to surface intertidal samples may be due to intense post depositional changes or anthropogenic disturbances. The mangrove ecology thus appears disturbed by various factors.

  4. Life cycle analysis of multi-crop lignocellulosic material (perennial grasses) for bioethanol production in western Canada : a review.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathy, A. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Dept. of Agricultural and Bioresource Engineering; Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Saskatoon Research Centre, Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Bioproducts and Bioprocessing; Panigrahi, S. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Dept. of Agricultural and Bioresource Engineering; Mupondwa, E.K. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Saskatoon Research Centre, Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Bioproducts and Bioprocessing

    2009-07-01

    This paper presented a life cycle assessment of multi-crop lignocellulosic biomass to determine the environmental performance of a bioethanol biorefinery in western Canada. The study investigated the economic aspects of the ethanol fuel system such as biorefinery operating costs and possible improvements in biorefinery economics resulting from pretreatment, hydrolysis, and fermentation processes. The eco-efficiency was determined by comparing economic parameters with selected environmental parameters. The study also compared the efficiency of the lignoce lulosic biorefinery with grain-based dry milling ethanol plants that produce ethanol as well as dried grains and solubles used as animal feed. The study showed that the choice of feedstock and location of the biorefinery is very important. The location should be carefully chosen where there is no water shortage. Various low valued lignocellulosic energy crops such as switch grass, alfalfa, and other perennial grasses can grow in marginal or pasture land and can decrease production costs considerably, thus improving the economic viability of biorefineries. The use of co-products can also add value to the process and can decrease the cost of ethanol production. tabs., figs.

  5. Geotechnical analysis of soil samples from test trench at Western New York Nuclear Service Center, West Valley, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fickies, R.H.; Fakundiny, R.H.; Mosley, E.T.

    1979-04-01

    In July 1977, a deep research trench was excavated and soil samples collected at the Western New York Nuclear Services Center, West Valley, NY. The glacial till horizons sampled are considered to be representative of the till serving as a burial medium at the nearby low-level radioactive waste burial ground. A series of laboratory tests were conducted consisting of unit weight, moisture content, Atterberg limits, unconfined compression, dispersion, swell, permeability, and consolidation. These laboratory analyses and field observations indicate that the till exposed in the research trench is a generally dense mixture of silt and clay of low to medium plasticity, with minor amounts of fine to coarse sand and fine gravel. The till has a generally low coefficient of permeability in the range of 10 -7 cm/s horizontal and 10 -8 cm/s vertical. A network of vertical fractures exists in the upper 15 feet of weathered till which may allow some downward percolation of surface runoff. The test data indicates that the maximum depth to which these fractures could possibly penetrate is 50 feet

  6. An Empirical Analysis Of The Motivational Value Of Corporate Social Responsibility Actions In Sugar Production Firms In Western Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Janet N. Manyasi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between CSR activities and employee motivation is still an area that is under- researched. Few studies have tried to compare the motivational value of the different types of CSR actions in the company especially in the manufacturing firms in Kenya. This study therefore investigated the effect of different types of corporate social responsibility activities on the motivation of employees in sugar production firms in western Kenya. The study employed a descriptive survey design to investigate this relationship. Stratified and random sampling techniques were used to obtain a sample of 306 respondents from the research population. A self administered questionnaire was used to collect primary data which was analyzed statistically with the help of the SPSS software 20. To determine the statistical associations between the different types of CSR activities and employee motivation correlation was used. The results from the hypotheses testing indicated that there are significant positive correlations between all the types of CSR activities and employee motivation. These are customers-related the local community-related the business partners-related and employees-related CSR activities. On the whole each type of CSR activities had its own strength and degree to which it could promote or influence employee motivation.

  7. Faith-based aid, globalisation and the humanitarian frontline: an analysis of Western-based Muslim aid organisations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cordier, Bruno

    2009-10-01

    This paper focuses on the emergence and modus operandi of Muslim faith-based aid organisations from the West, particularly those from the United Kingdom. Through case studies of Islamic Relief Worldwide and Muslim Hands, it examines the actual and potential added value generated by these humanitarian players in Muslim-majority contexts at times when aid actors from or associated with the West are being perceived by some as instrumental to the political agendas of Western powers, or are being confronted with the consequences thereof. The study analyses Muslim faith-based aid organisations' transnational networks, their implementing partnerships with local faith-based non-governmental organisations (NGOs), and their security position within and their access to insecure contexts, drawing on field examples and opinion from Central Asia, Iraq and Pakistan. It thereby argues that there is ground for an expansion of the role of Muslim aid actors, because of the existence of social and political realities in the field that cannot be always effectively tackled by the dominant international development approaches.

  8. Analysis of Farmer’s Choices for Climate Change Adaptation Practices in South-Western Uganda, 1980–2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Zizinga

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is a serious threat to the livelihoods of rural communities, particularly in mountainous areas because they are very sensitive to such changes. In this study, we assessed the household determinants to climate change adaptation drawing from a case study of agricultural adaptation in the Mount Rwenzori area of South Western Uganda. The study identified the major adaptation practices that are adopted by farmers to cope with the impacts of climate change and using available on-farm technologies. A total of 143 smallholder farmers were sampled and interviewed using field based questionnaires, field observations, and key informant interviews. Data was cleaned, entered and analysed using SPSS and Stata software for descriptive statistics. Thereafter, a Multinomial logistic regression model was used to assess the drivers of farmers’ choice for adaptation practices, factors influencing the choice of adaptation, and barriers. The major adaptation practices that were identified included; use of different crop varieties, tree planting, soil and water conservation, early and late planting, and furrow irrigation. Discrete choice model results indicated the age of the household head, experience in farming, household size, climate change shocks, land size, use of agricultural inputs, landscape position (location, and crop yield varied significantly (p > 0.05, which influenced farmers’ choice of climate change adaptation practices. The main barriers to adaptation included inadequate information on adaptation methods and financial constraints, leading us to conclude that contextual adaptation practices are more desirable for adoption to farmers. Adapting to climate change needs support from government and other stakeholders, however the implementation is more successful when appropriate and suitable choices are employed.

  9. Morphometry and land cover based multi-criteria analysis for assessing the soil erosion susceptibility of the western Himalayan watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altaf, Sadaff; Meraj, Gowhar; Romshoo, Shakil Ahmad

    2014-12-01

    Complex mountainous environments such as Himalayas are highly susceptibility to natural hazards particular those that are triggered by the action of water such as floods, soil erosion, mass movements and siltation of the hydro-electric power dams. Among all the natural hazards, soil erosion is the most implicit and the devastating hazard affecting the life and property of the millions of people living in these regions. Hence to review and devise strategies to reduce the adverse impacts of soil erosion is of utmost importance to the planners of watershed management programs in these regions. This paper demonstrates the use of satellite based remote sensing data coupled with the observational field data in a multi-criteria analytical (MCA) framework to estimate the soil erosion susceptibility of the sub-watersheds of the Rembiara basin falling in the western Himalaya, using geographical information system (GIS). In this paper, watershed morphometry and land cover are used as an inputs to the MCA framework to prioritize the sub-watersheds of this basin on the basis of their different susceptibilities to soil erosion. Methodology included the derivation of a set of drainage and land cover parameters that act as the indicators of erosion susceptibility. Further the output from the MCA resulted in the categorization of the sub-watersheds into low, medium, high and very high erosion susceptibility classes. A detailed prioritization map for the susceptible sub-watersheds based on the combined role of land cover and morphometry is finally presented. Besides, maps identifying the susceptible sub-watersheds based on morphometry and land cover only are also presented. The results of this study are part of the watershed management program in the study area and are directed to instigate appropriate measures to alleviate the soil erosion in the study area.

  10. [HIS-based analysis of comorbid characteristics and combined treatment of Chinese and western medicine in patients with depressive disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jun-ran; Xie, Yan-ming

    2014-09-01

    To understand the comorbid characteristics and distribution of combined treatment of Chinese and Western medicine in depressive patients. The descriptive statistic method and association rule were used to analyze the data from 19 general hospitals with 3-A level in China. Among the depressive disorder, the most frequent co-morbid physical diseases included hypertension (24.67%), coronary heart disease (16.10%) and cerebral infarction (12.89%), and the proportion of comorbid changes with the increasing age, from 6.51% to 12.55%, 16.33% and 12.47% for hypertension; from 2.79% to 5.69%, 10.17% and 14.22% for coronary heart disease; from 3.72%, 6.27%, 7.70% and 12.25% for cerebral infarction. The use frequency of the antidepressants is 77.18%, and the use frequency of flupentixol & melitracen is 20.95%. The use frequency of Huoxue Huayu Tongluo of traditional Chinese medicine is 59.97%, with that of 27.91% for Ginkgo biloba extract The combined use frequency of Huoxue Huayu Tongluo of TCM and the antidepressants is the highest, especially for the combined use of Shuxuening injection and fluoxetine. The most frequent comorbid diseases of depression include three kinds of diseases, such as hypertension, coronary heart disease and cerebral infarction, and its proportion gradually increased with the growth of age. The single use frequency of flupentixol & melitracen and G. biloba extract is the highest, while the combined use of Shuxuening injection and fluoxetine is the highest.

  11. Osseous dysplasia (cemento-osseous dysplasia) of the jaw bones in western Pennsylvania patients: analysis of 35 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owosho, Adepitan A; Potluri, Anitha; Bilodeau, Elizabeth A

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the demographic, clinical, and radiographic presentations of osseous dysplasia of the jaws in western Pennsylvania patients and its associated complications. The clinical records and radiographs of patients diagnosed with osseous (cement-osseous) dysplasia were retrieved from the electronic health record of the University of Pittsburgh, School of Dental Medicine from 2007 to 2012. All cases were reviewed; the WHO criteria and classification for osseous dysplasia was used. Clinical and demographic data, radiographic findings, and final diagnoses were collected and analyzed. 35 cases of osseous dysplasia were retrieved over the six-year period.The majority (33) were females [94.3%], with ages ranging from 26 to 89 years, with a mean age of 53.9 years +/- standard deviation of 15.6 years, 32 [91.4%] were African Americans and 3 [8.6%] were Caucasians. 17 [48.6%] were florid osseous dysplasia, 13 [37.1%] periapical osseous dysplasia and 5 [14.3%] focal osseous dysplasia. Of the 35 patients only 8 [22.9%] patients were symptomatic. All florid osseous dysplasia patients were African American females, with 7 of the patients being symptomatic and the commonest symptom being pain. Also, all periapical osseous dysplasia patients were African Americans (12 females and 1 male), with 1 of the patients presenting with widening of the diastema. Of the focal osseous dysplasia patients, 3 were Caucasians and 2 African American (4 females and 1 male). The cases occurred mostly in African American females with a peak incidence in the fifth and sixth decades of life; most cases occurred in the mandible. The commonest form of osseous dysplasias was the florid osseous dysplasia which is most likely to present with symptoms.

  12. Analysis and Enlightenments of Western Theories of Educational Management%西方教育管理理论简析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志利

    2014-01-01

    Western theories of educational management appears to be a forest Since 1970s. In Summary, there are six models, such as Formal model and Managerial leadership, Collegial model and Participative leadership , Political model and Transactional leadership, Subjective model and Post-modern leadership, Ambiguity model and Contingency leadership, Cultural model and Moral leadership.To understand and grasp their hypothesis,characteristic, advantages and disadvantages is not only necessary but also critical. It is the base of understanding its values and meanings, but also beneifts our educational reform and development.%自20世纪70年代以来,西方教育管理理论呈现“丛林”态势。概括而言,主要有刻板管理模式与管控型领导、同侪管理模式与参与式领导、政治管理模式与交易型领导、主观管理模式与后现代领导、混沌管理模式与权变型领导以及文化管理模式与道德领导六种主要模式。把握主要理论模式的基本假定、特征、优势及不足不仅是明晰其价值与效用的基础,更是科学、合理借鉴以有效指导我国教育改革与发展的必要前提。

  13. Analysis of suicide deaths in a 15-year period in Eskisehir, western Anatolia, Turkey and the determination of risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbeyaz, Kenan; Akkaya, Harun; Balci, Yasemin

    2013-01-01

    It is estimated that every year 1 million people die all around the world due to suicide. The average rate of suicide in the world is reported as 16/100,000. In this study, we aimed to evaluate and discuss the suicide cases in our city Eskisehir that is located in western Anatolia. This is a retrospective study covering the period 1997-2011. All deaths in Eskisehir caused due to the consumption of forensic medicines in a 15-year period between 1997 and 2011 were evaluated retrospectively. A total of 553 cases were determined to be suicidal following both forensic and criminal investigations, and were included in the study. Furthermore, death examination and autopsy reports were investigated, and judicial investigation records were also taken into account. In this period, the average rate of suicide in our city was determined as 5.1/100,000 of which 71.4% of the cases were male. It was determined that the suicides most commonly occurred between the ages of 19 and 29 (32.4%, n=179). The most commonly encountered suicide method was hanging (60.9%, n=337). It was ascertained that the suicide rate in our city was lower than the average rate in the world, but it was higher than the average rate in Turkey. Unemployment was determined as the most common risk factor in our study. A follow-up should be provided for people with a history of attempting to commit suicide or with a tendency to committing suicide due to a psychological disorder.

  14. QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF VERNALIZATED SEMI-NOBLE GARLIC CULTIVARS IN WESTERN RIO GRANDE DO NORTE STATE, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAFAELLA RAYANE MACEDO DE LUCENA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Garlic is a vegetable that has economic and social relevance in Brazil. Rio Grande do Norte is among the consumer states, however, despite having regions with favorable conditions for growing garlic, it depends on imports of this product to meet its demand. The introduction of cultivars that have high yield and quality, and the adjustments in vernalization technology, which is a key issue for adaptation of new cultivars, are mechanisms that can contribute to garlic revitalization in areas previously producing this vegetable. Therefore, the objective of this work was to assess the quality characteristics of semi-noble garlic cultivars subjected to different bulb-seed pre-planting vernalization periods in two counties of the Western Mesoregion of Rio Grande do Norte State (RN, Brazil. Two experiments were simultaneously conducted in Barauna RN and Governador Dix-sept Rosado RN, from April to November, 2012. A complete randomized block experimental design was used with four replications. The treatments were arranged in split-plot design, with the plots consisted of cultivars (Gigante-do-Nucleo and BRS-Hozan and subplots consisted of bulb-seed pre-planting vernalization (4±1°C periods (0, 10, 20 and 30 days. The evaluations consisted of bulb diameter, pH, titratable acidity, soluble solids, total soluble sugars, reducing sugars, pungency, total solids and industrial index. The use of 10-day bulb-seed pre-planting vernalization increased the semi-noble garlic quality produced in Barauna and Governador Dix-sept Rosado. The cultivars Gigante-do-Nucleo and BRS-Hozan presented good prospects for industrialization, with good characteristics of flavor and aroma.

  15. Zooplankton trophic niches respond to different water types of the western Tasman Sea: A stable isotope analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henschke, Natasha; Everett, Jason D.; Suthers, Iain M.; Smith, James A.; Hunt, Brian P. V.; Doblin, Martina A.; Taylor, Matthew D.

    2015-10-01

    The trophic relationships of 21 species from an oceanic zooplankton community were studied using stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen. Zooplankton and suspended particulate organic matter (POM) were sampled in three different water types in the western Tasman Sea: inner shelf (IS), a cold core eddy (CCE) and a warm core eddy (WCE). δ15N values ranged from 3.9‰ for the parasitic copepod Sapphirina augusta to 10.2‰ for the euphausiid, Euphausia spinifera. δ13C varied from -22.6 to -19.4‰ as a result of the copepod Euchirella curticauda and E. spinifera. The isotopic composition of POM varied significantly among water types; as did the trophic enrichment of zooplankton over POM, with the lowest enrichment in the recently upwelled IS water type (0.5‰) compared to the warm core eddy (1.6‰) and cold core eddy (2.7‰). The WCE was an oligotrophic environment and was associated with an increased trophic level for omnivorous zooplankton (copepods and euphausiids) to a similar level as carnivorous zooplankton (chaetognaths). Therefore carnivory in zooplankton can increase in response to lower abundance and reduced diversity in their phytoplankton and protozoan prey. Trophic niche width comparisons across three zooplankton species: the salp Thalia democratica, the copepod Eucalanus elongatus and the euphausiid Thysanoessa gregaria, indicated that both niche partitioning and competition can occur within the zooplankton community. We have shown that trophic relationships among the zooplankton are dynamic and respond to different water types. The changes to the zooplankton isotopic niche, however, were still highly variable as result of oceanographic variation within water types.

  16. Spatial–Temporal Modeling for Regional Economic Development: A Quantitative Analysis with Panel Data from Western China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingxiao Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to analyze regional economic difference and explore the influencing factors, which would eventually provide an effective foundation to narrow the regional economic differences. In this paper, a new regional economic difference model is established considering the interactions between the spatial weight and human capital and foreign direct investment (FDI. With the panel data from twelve western provinces in China, the empirical research is conducted by adopting feasible generalized least squares (FGLS fixed effects model. The preliminary results show that: (1 the spatial spillover effect of human capital and FDI is significant to the formation of regional economic difference; and (2 the total capital formation, government expenditure, FDI, human capital and patent application authorization are positively correlated with GDP growth per capita, while the number of medical institutions is negatively correlated with GDP growth per capita. In addition, the robust test is carried out for validation by using the filter variable method, spatial lag model and spatial error model. The robustness test results show that the results of the FGLS fixed effects model are validated by the filter variable method. The other two robust test results show that: (1 the total capital formation and the fixed asset investment is of 99.9% significance, which represents that they play a key role in the formation of economic development difference; and (2 the coefficients’ symbols of the other variables are consistent with the FGLS fixed effect model but a little different on the significances, which enhance the effectiveness of the proposed regional economic difference model.

  17. Analysis of Out Door Patients' Prescriptions According to World Health Organization (WHO) Prescribing Indicators Among Private Hospitals in Western India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelat, Prakash R; Kumbar, Shivaprasad Kalakappa

    2015-03-01

    Prescription is document through which doctor, patient and pharmacist are communicated. Many a times if these documents are not properly written or misinterpreted it can affect management of patients. WHO established prescribing indicators to analyse prescription and promoted rational use of drugs and better management of patients. To study the prescription pattern according to WHO prescribing indicators among private hospitals. The observational, prospective study carried out at different private hospitals at metro city in Western India to study the prescription pattern among private hospital. Study was conducted at different private hospitals of metro city. A total of 250 prescriptions of outdoor patients from various departments of private hospitals were collected for a period of three months (August to October) 2012 and evaluated. The study was analysed using Z-test. Patient details like age and gender was not written in all (100%) prescriptions. It was noticed that dose, direction of drug and duration of treatment was not completely written in 90%, 74% and 80% of prescriptions respectively. Abbreviations were used in all (100%) prescriptions. Doctor's medical registration number was mentioned in 0% prescriptions. Total 869 drugs were prescribed in 250 prescriptions. Average number of drug prescribed was 3.38±1.79 (Mean±SD). It was reported that Group II (3 to 4 encoutner) was significantly higher as compared to Group I (less than or equal to 2 encoutner) and Group III( more than four encounter). It was significantly (pprivate hospitals and antibiotics was commonly prescribed in private sector. Therefore, strict policy to good prescribing practice and strict antibiotic policy in outdoor patients are required to promote rational use of drugs.

  18. Detection of mutations related to drug resistance in M. tuberculosis by dot blot hybridization and spoligotyping using specific radiolabelled probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Maghraby, T.K.; Abdelazeim, O.

    2002-01-01

    The present work has been conducted to determine the mutations related to drug resistance in M. tuberculosis in 63 Egyptian isolates using dot blot hybridization and spoligotyping. The PCR was done for amplification rpoB and katG genes in isolates. Dot blot hybridization were done to PCR products by using specific radiolabelled probes. Moreover, spoligotyping was done to know about the different strains found in Egypt. The results revealed that 58% from isolates had drug resistance to one or more of antituberculosis drugs. The results of spoligotyping have revealed that some Egyptian isolates are identical with the international code while the rest has not been identified yet. DNA sequencing was done to identify the mutation that not clear in dot blot hybridization. Early diagnosis of geno typing resistance to antituberculosis drugs is important as well as allow appropriate early patients management with few days of TB diagnosis. Using such strategy for early diagnosis of TB drug resistance allow and fast and potent patient's management

  19. A feasibility analysis of the employment of satellite imagery to monitor and inspect surface mining operations in western Kentucky, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, B. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Surface mining violation estimates were scaled by scores assigned by ten inspectors from western Kentucky to each violation. A sensitivity analysis was made by varying the violation costs; costs were varied by using three different average durations. These durations were: (1) best estimated duration; (2) longest possible duration as restricted by the one year permit renewal and bond release regulations, and (3) shortest possible duration when inspections were made. If a social cost cannot be reduced, then the value of the social cost is irrelevant. Indications from the increased inspection rate of 1975 were that the total amount of fines collected per year remains constant independent of the increased detection rate.

  20. Emulation vs. indigenization in the reception of Western psychology in Republican China: an analysis of the content of Chinese psychology journals (1922-1937).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blowers, Geoffrey; Cheung, Boris Tat; Ru, Han

    2009-01-01

    The present study examines the practice of empirical psychology in China during the Republican period using a content analysis of its journals. By seeking answers to questions of what kinds of psychology from the West first attracted the Chinese; whether they found a way of developing a psychology more in tune to their own cultural assumptions of selfhood; and to what uses they felt the new discipline could be put, it shows the extent to which its journal content adopted a Western or an indigenous orientation. It thus contributes to the recent debate about indigenization of psychology globally and situates the origins of these issues in China much earlier than has been envisaged by contemporary Chinese indigenous psychologists. Throughout this period, indigenous concerns informed the research agenda, the dominant practice being psychometrics. But because of a lack of social support, they remained largely confined to the pages of psychology journals. (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Long-range transport and mixing of aerosol sources during the 2013 North American biomass burning episode: analysis of multiple lidar observations in the western Mediterranean basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ancellet

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Long-range transport of biomass burning (BB aerosols between North America and the Mediterranean region took place in June 2013. A large number of ground-based and airborne lidar measurements were deployed in the western Mediterranean during the Chemistry-AeRosol Mediterranean EXperiment (ChArMEx intensive observation period. A detailed analysis of the potential North American aerosol sources is conducted including the assessment of their transport to Europe using forward simulations of the FLEXPART Lagrangian particle dispersion model initialized using satellite observations by MODIS and CALIOP. The three-dimensional structure of the aerosol distribution in the ChArMEx domain observed by the ground-based lidars (Minorca, Barcelona and Lampedusa, a Falcon-20 aircraft flight and three CALIOP tracks, agrees very well with the model simulation of the three major sources considered in this work: Canadian and Colorado fires, a dust storm from western US and the contribution of Saharan dust streamers advected from the North Atlantic trade wind region into the westerlies region. Four aerosol types were identified using the optical properties of the observed aerosol layers (aerosol depolarization ratio, lidar ratio and the transport model analysis of the contribution of each aerosol source: (i pure BB layer, (ii weakly dusty BB, (iii significant mixture of BB and dust transported from the trade wind region, and (iv the outflow of Saharan dust by the subtropical jet and not mixed with BB aerosol. The contribution of the Canadian fires is the major aerosol source during this episode while mixing of dust and BB is only significant at an altitude above 5 km. The mixing corresponds to a 20–30 % dust contribution in the total aerosol backscatter. The comparison with the MODIS aerosol optical depth horizontal distribution during this episode over the western Mediterranean Sea shows that the Canadian fire contributions were as large as the direct

  2. GHRSST Level 4 ODYSSEA North-Western Europe Regional Foundation Sea Surface Temperature Analysis (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 4 sea surface temperature analysis produced daily on an operational basis at Ifremer/CERSAT...

  3. An analysis of pregnancy-related mortality in the KEMRI/CDC health and demographic surveillance system in western Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghna Desai

    Full Text Available Pregnancy-related (PR deaths are often a result of direct obstetric complications occurring at childbirth.To estimate the burden of and characterize risk factors for PR mortality, we evaluated deaths that occurred between 2003 and 2008 among women of childbearing age (15 to 49 years using Health and Demographic Surveillance System data in rural western Kenya. WHO ICD definition of PR mortality was used: "the death of a woman while pregnant or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, irrespective of the cause of death". In addition, symptoms and events at the time of death were examined using the WHO verbal autopsy methodology. Deaths were categorized as either (i directly PR: main cause of death was ascribed as obstetric, or (ii indirectly PR: main cause of death was non-obstetric. Of 3,223 deaths in women 15 to 49 years, 249 (7.7% were PR. One-third (34% of these were due to direct obstetric causes, predominantly postpartum hemorrhage, abortion complications and puerperal sepsis. Two-thirds were indirect; three-quarters were attributable to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis. Significantly more women who died in lower socio-economic groups sought care from traditional birth attendants (p = 0.034, while less impoverished women were more likely to seek hospital care (p = 0.001. The PR mortality ratio over the six years was 740 (95% CI 651-838 per 100,000 live births, with no evidence of reduction over time (χ(2 linear trend = 1.07; p = 0.3.These data supplement current scanty information on the relationship between infectious diseases and poor maternal outcomes in Africa. They indicate low uptake of maternal health interventions in women dying during pregnancy and postpartum, suggesting improved access to and increased uptake of skilled obstetric care, as well as preventive measures against HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis among all women of childbearing age may help to reduce pregnancy-related mortality.

  4. Antigenicity analysis of Vibrio harveyi TS-628 strain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Yingxue; WANG Jun; WANG Shifeng; YAN Qingpi

    2007-01-01

    Vibrio harveyi,the major causative agent of vibriosis,affects a diverse range of marine cultured organisms over a wide geographical area.However,reports about screening the effective antigen and research on vaccines of V.harveyi are scarce.Flagellin,lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and outer membrane proteins (OMP) are major immunogenic antigens in many Gram-negative bacteria.In this study,the flagellin,OMP and LPS of the V.harveyi TS-628 strain isolated from infected groupers were extracted and Western blot analysis was used to detect the antigenicity of these extractions.Results of the Western blot assay reveal that there are four positive flagellin bands:35 kDa,38 kDa,43 kDa,and 52 kDa,of which the 43 kDa and 52 kDa bands displayed the strongest positive reaction.There are five positive OMP bands about 35 kDa,38 kDa,43 kDa,47 kDa,and 52 kDa,of which the 43 kDa appeared to have the strongest positive reaction although the other four proteins also displayed strong reactions.However,LPS is Western blot-negative.These results indicate that the 43 kDa and 52 kDa flagellin and OMP of size 43 kDa,52 kDa can be candidates for developing vaccines against V.harveyi.

  5. A tsunami wave propagation analysis for the Ulchin Nuclear Power Plant considering the tsunami sources of western part of Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhee, Hyun Me; Kim, Min Kyu; Sheen, Dong Hoon; Choi, In Kil

    2013-01-01

    The accident which was caused by a tsunami and the Great East-Japan earthquake in 2011 occurred at the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) site. It is obvious that the NPP accident could be incurred by the tsunami. Therefore a Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis (PTHA) for an NPP site should be required in Korea. The PTHA methodology is developed on the PSHA (Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis) method which is performed by using various tsunami sources and their weights. In this study, the fault sources of northwestern part of Japan were used to analyze as the tsunami sources. These fault sources were suggested by the Atomic Energy Society of Japan (AESJ). To perform the PTHA, the calculations of maximum and minimum wave elevations from the result of tsunami simulations are required. Thus, in this study, tsunami wave propagation analysis were performed for developing the future study of the PTHA

  6. Stratigraphy, facies analysis and depositional environments of the Upper Unit of Abu Roash "E" member in the Abu Gharadig field, Western Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewaidy, Abdel Galil; Elshahat, O. R.; Kamal, Samy

    2018-03-01

    Abu Roach "E" member is of an important hydrocarbon reservoir-producing horizon in the Abu Gharadig Field (north Western Desert, Egypt). This study is used to build facies analysis and depositional environments model for the Upper Unit of the Abu Roash "E" member in Abu Gharadig Field. This target has been achieved throughout the sedimentological, wire line logs, lithostratigraphic and biostratigraphic analyses of more than 528 feet cores. The high-resolution biostratigraphic analysis provides a calibration for the paleo-bathymetry and depositional environmental interpretations. Biozonation and lithostratigraphic markers are used to constrain stratigraphic correlation. Integration between the core description and petorographic microfacies analysis by microscope examination provide an excellent indication for the rock types and depositional environments. Five depositional facies types are detected including carbonate inner ramp, tidal flats, tidal channels, supra-tidal and tide dominated delta facies. This model helps in the understanding of the Upper Unit of Abu Roash "E" member reservoir distribution as well as lateral and vertical facies changes that contribute to the development strategy for the remaining hydrocarbon reserves for this important oil reservoir.

  7. Humanitarian Interventions: Western Imperialism or a Responsibility to Protect?--An Analysis of the Humanitarian Interventions in Darfur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damboeck, Johanna

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this article is to provide an analysis of the features that have shaped the state's decision-making process in the United Nations, with regard to the humanitarian intervention in Darfur from 2003 onwards. Design/methodology/approach: The methodological approach to the study is a review of political statement papers grounded in…

  8. Technography and Design-Actuality Gap-Analysis of Internet Computer Technologies-Assisted Education: Western Expectations and Global Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhalgh-Spencer, Heather; Jerbi, Moja

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we provide a design-actuality gap-analysis of the internet infrastructure that exists in developing nations and nations in the global South with the deployed internet computer technologies (ICT)-assisted programs that are designed to use internet infrastructure to provide educational opportunities. Programs that specifically…

  9. Higher risk of renal impairment associated with tenofovir use amongst people living with HIV in India: a comparative cohort analysis between Western India and United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujari, Sanjay N; Smith, Colette; Makane, Abhimanyu; Youle, Mike; Johnson, Margaret; Bele, Vivek; Joshi, Kedar; Dabhade, Digamber; Bhagani, Sanjay

    2014-03-29

    Data on the renal safety of Tenofovir (TDF) in Low and Middle Income Countries (LMICs) is scarce. We compared development of various forms of renal impairment with use of TDF-containing antiretroviral therapy (ART) between a cohort from the Institute of Infectious Diseases (IID) Pune, Western India and the Royal Free Hospital (RFH) London, UK. This is a retrospective analysis of change in estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFRs) at 6, 12 and 24 months post TDF initiation using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equation. In people living with Human Immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV) with pre-TDF eGFR > 90 ml/min/1.73 m2 time to development of and factors associated with progression to eGFR  90 ml/min/1.73 m2 PLHIV at IID were more likely to develop an eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 (aHR = 7.6 [95% CI 3.4, 17.4] p < 0.0001) and had a faster rate of progression estimated using Kaplan Meier methods. Risk factors included age (per 10 years older: aHR = 2.21 [1.6, 3.0] p < 0.0001) and receiving concomitant ritonavir boosted Protease Inhibitor (PI/r) (aHR = 2.4 [1.2, 4.8] p = 0.01). There is higher frequency of treatment limiting renal impairment events amongst PLHIV receiving TDF in Western India. As TDF scale up progresses, programs need to develop capacity for monitoring and treatment of renal impairment associated with TDF.

  10. Liuwei Dihuang Pills Enhance the Effect of Western Medicine in Treating Diabetic Nephropathy: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Lin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To assess the effectiveness and adverse effects of adding Liuwei Dihuang Pills (LDP to Western medicine for treating diabetic nephropathy. Methods. Studies were retrieved from seven electronic databases, including PubMed, Embase, The Cochrane Library, CBM, CNKI, Chinese Scientific Journal Database (VIP, and Wanfang Data until November 2015. Study selection, data extraction, quality assessment, and data analyses were conducted according to Cochrane standards. Meta-analysis was performed on the overall therapeutic efficacy of hyperglycemia and renal functions, and the study also analyzed adverse events. Results. A total of 1,275 patients from 18 studies were included. The methodological quality of these included trials was generally low. We found that adding LDP can lower patients’ FBG (MD: −0.36 [−0.46, −0.25], P<0.00001, PBG (MD: −1.10 [−1.35, −0.85], P<0.00001, and HbA1c (MD: −0.14 [−0.49, 0.21], P=0.43. There were also improvements in lowering patients’ BUN (MD: −0.67 [−0.89, −0.45], P<0.00001, SCr (MD: −0.96 [−1.53, −0.39], P<0.00001, 24 h UTP (SMD: −1.26 [−2.38, −0.15], P<0.00001, UAER (MD: −26.18 [−27.51, −24.85], P<0.00001, and UmAlb (SMD: −1.72 [−2.67, −0.77], P<0.00001. Conclusion. There is encouraging evidence that adding LDP to Western medicine might improve treatment outcomes of diabetic nephropathy, including hyperglycemia and renal functions. However, the evidence remains weak. More rigorous high-quality trials are warranted to substantiate or refute the results.

  11. The Shape of a Western

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jakob Isak

    2007-01-01

    The article is written for an issue on the Western genre. By means of a comparative analysis of Winchester '73 (Anthony Mann, 1950) and The Man from Laramie (Anthony Mann, 1955) the article accounts for stylistic, narrative, generic and theoretical implications of the transition from Academy ratio...

  12. On relations between quality management, doing business and life quality (a comparative analysis of Balkans with western European countries)

    OpenAIRE

    CEKO ENRIKO

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of research: Determination of relations between quality management, doing business and life quality and giving some thoughts to improve the situation regarding the quality institutions and quality infrastructure parallel with doing business climate and life quality. Methods: Collection of information, data and facts for quality management, doing business and life quality mainly from primary sources, comparing the information, data and facts gathered, conducting relevant analysis a...

  13. Direct analysis of the secretions of the potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, L; Robertson, W M; Jones, J T

    1999-08-01

    Secretions were induced from second (invasive) stage juveniles (J2s) of the potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis by exposing them to 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyl tryptamine oxalate (DMT). Secretions were collected from J2s in sufficient quantity to allow direct analysis. Gel electrophoresis followed by monochromatic silver staining demonstrated the presence of at least 10 proteins. The presence of several enzymes, including superoxide dismutase and proteases, was demonstrated using Western blots and activity assays. Antisera raised against the secretions recognized bands on Western blots consistent in molecular mass with those identified on silver stained gels. The antisera recognized structures implicated in the production of secretions including the subventral gland cells and surface of J2s.

  14. Hydrogeochemical Characteristics and Evolution of Hot Springs in Eastern Tibetan Plateau Geothermal Belt, Western China: Insight from Multivariate Statistical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheming Shi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The eastern Tibetan Plateau geothermal belt is one of the important medium-high temperature geothermal belts in China. However, less work has been done on the hydrochemical characteristic and its geological origin. Understanding the chemical characteristics and the hydrochemical evolution processes is important in evaluating the geothermal energy potential in this area. In the present study, we discussed the hydrochemical properties and their origins of 39 hot springs located in the eastern Tibetan Plateau geothermal belt (Kangding-Litang-Batang geothermal belt. Cluster analysis and factor analysis are employed to character the hydrochemical properties of hot springs in different fault zones and the possible hydrochemical evolution processes of these hot springs. Our study shows that the hot springs can be divided into three groups based on their locations. The hot springs in the first group mainly originate from the volcanic rock and the springs in the second group originate from the metamorphic rock while the springs in the third group originate from the result of mixture of shallow water. Water-rock interaction, cation exchange, and the water environment are the three dominant factors that control the hydrochemical evolution process in the eastern Tibetan Plateau. These results are also in well agreement with the isotopic and chemical analysis.

  15. Combining molecular-marker and chemical analysis of Capparis deciduas (Capparaceae in the Thar Desert of Western Rajasthan (India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushil Kumar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Thar Desert, a very inhospitable place, accommodates only plant species that survive acute drought, unpredictable precipitation, and those can grow in the limited moisture of sandy soils. Capparis decidua is among one of the few plants able to grow well under these conditions. This species is highly exploited and has been naturally taken, as local people use it for various purposes like food, timber and fuel, although, no management or conservation efforts have been established. The present study was conducted in this arid area of Western Rajasthan (India with the aim to obtain preliminary molecular information about this group of plants. We evaluated diversity among 46 samples of C. decidua using chemical parameters and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD markers. Fourteen chemical parameters and eight minerals (total 22 variables of this species fruits were estimated. A total of 14 RAPD primers produced 235 band positions, of which 81.27% were polymorphic. Jaccard s similarity coefficients for RAPD primers ranged from 0.34 to 0.86 with a mean genetic similarity of 0.50. As per observed coefficient of variation, NDF (Neutral Detergent Fiber content was found to be the most variable trait followed by starch and soluble carbohydrate. The Manhattan dissimilarity coefficient values for chemical parameters ranged between 0.02-0.31 with an average of 0.092. The present study revealed a very low correlation (0.01 between chemical parameters and RAPD-based matrices. The low correlation between chemical- and RAPD-based matrices indicated that the two methods were different and highly variable. The chemical-based diversity will assist in selection of nutritionally rich samples for medicinal purpose, while genetic diversity to face natural challenges and find sustainable ways to promote conservation for future use.El desierto de Thar, un lugar muy inhóspito, alberga sólo a las especies de plantas capaces de resistir a condiciones de sequ

  16. Mere end blot en bid af hverdagen- Måltidet i et leve- og bomiljø

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Karen Marie

    2005-01-01

    . Datamaterialet bygger på deltagerobservationer og interviews. Undersøgelsen viste, at den måde måltiderne var organiseret på gav tid og rum til en hjemlig atmosfære, til et levende fællesskab, til det at være noget og at være sig selv og til at have værdifulde gøremål. Måltiderne var ikke blot en bid – men en...

  17. Detection of Rickettsia in Rhipicephalus sanguineus Ticks and Ctenocephalides felis Fleas from Southeastern Tunisia by Reverse Line Blot Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khrouf, Fatma; M'Ghirbi, Youmna; Znazen, Abir; Ben Jemaa, Mounir; Hammami, Adnene

    2014-01-01

    Ticks (n = 663) and fleas (n = 470) collected from domestic animals from southeastern Tunisia were screened for Rickettsia infection using reverse line blot assay. Evidence of spotted fever group Rickettsia was obtained. We detected Rickettsia felis in fleas, Rickettsia massiliae Bar 29 and the Rickettsia conorii Israeli spotted fever strain in ticks, and Rickettsia conorii subsp. conorii and Rickettsia spp. in both arthropods. The sensitivity of the adopted technique allowed the identification of a new association between fleas and R. conorii subsp. conorii species. The presence of these vector-borne Rickettsia infections should be considered when diagnosing this disease in humans in Tunisia. PMID:24226919

  18. [Analytic study of dot blotting for the detection of anti-Jo-1, anti-M2, anti-ribosomes and anti-LKM].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huguet, S; Sghiri, R; Ballot, E; Johanet, C

    2004-01-01

    The Cyto-Dot 4 HM043 kit commercialised by BMD, has replaced the Cyto-Dot HM010 kit that allowed three auto-antibodies detection (anti-Jo-1, anti-M2 and anti-ribosomal protein). Detection of anti-LKM1 auto-antibody was added. These four auto-antibodies have in common only the intracytoplasmic localisation of their respective antigen. The aim of our study was to evaluate this new kit using 104 sera and to compare our results with reference techniques (indirect immunofluorescence IF for anti-M2, anti-ribosomal protein and anti-LKM1, double immunodiffusion ID for anti-Jo-1 and anti-LKM1, western blotting WB for anti-M2) and with Cyto-Dot HM010. The one hundred and four sera were divided into five groups: Group I (n = 12) with anti-Jo-1 detected by ID; Group II (n = 28) with 26 anti-M2 positive by IF and WB, 2 anti-M2 positive only by WB; Group III (n = 10) with anti-ribosomal protein detected by IF 5 of which precipitated by ID; Group IV (n = 32) with anti-LKM1 by IF and ID divided into 18 AIH2 and 14 HCV; Group V (n = 22) consisting of 14 healthy individuals and 8 patients with hypergammaglobulinemia. Results of this study are similar to those of Cyto-Dot HM010 for the three auto-antibodies already in use. Cyto-Dot 4 is a very good anti-LKM1 confirmation method as it is ID. Copyright John Libbey Eurotext 2003.

  19. Projected sea level rise, gyre circulation and water mass formation in the western North Pacific: CMIP5 inter-model analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terada, Mio; Minobe, Shoshiro

    2018-06-01

    Future changes in the dynamic sea level (DSL), which is defined as sea-level deviation from the global mean sea level, is investigated over the North Pacific, by analyzing data from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5. The analysis provides more comprehensive descriptions of DSL responses to the global warming in this region than available from previous studies, by using surface and subsurface data until the year 2300 under middle and high greenhouse-gas emission scenarios. The DSL changes in the North Pacific are characterized by a DSL rise in the western North Pacific around the Kuroshio Extension (KE), as also reported by previous studies. Subsurface density analysis indicates that DSL rise around the KE is associated with decrease in density of subtropical mode water (STMW) and with northward KE migration, the former (latter) of which is relatively strong between 2000 and 2100 for both RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 (between 2100 and 2300 for RCP8.5). The STMW density decrease is related to large heat uptake to the south and southeast of Japan, while the northward KE migration is associated with the poleward shift of the wind stress field. These features are commonly found in multi-model ensemble means and the relations among representative quantities produced by different climate models.

  20. Assessment of urban sustainability efficiency based on general data envelopment analysis: a case study of two cities in western and eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yan; Shan, Peng; Wang, Chenxing; Quan, Yuan; Wu, Di; Zhao, Chunli; Wu, Gang; Deng, Hongbing

    2017-04-01

    Sustainable urban development focuses on enhancing urban well-being, while also balancing the demands of urban social and economic development, natural resource consumption, and environmental pollution. This work used general data envelopment analysis to assess the urban sustainability efficiency (USE) and sustainability potential (SP) in Lanzhou and Xiamen, two cities that are characteristic of urban areas in western and eastern China. The assessment indicator system included important natural and urban welfare factors as input and output indices, respectively. The results showed that overall urban sustainability efficiency increased in Lanzhou and Xiamen from 1985 to 2010, but that the sustainability of natural resources clearly decreased. The urban sustainability efficiency of Xiamen was higher than that of Lanzhou, and the sustainability potential of Xiamen was lower than that of Lanzhou; this indicates that Xiamen performed better in terms of urban sustainable development. The urban sustainability efficiency in Xiamen has increased with increasing urban population, and the rate and scale of economic development have been higher than in Lanzhou. The assessment and analysis performed in this study show that cities with different natural resources and development characteristics have different forms, patterns, and trajectories of sustainable development.

  1. Composition and in vitro cytotoxic activities of essential oil of Hedychium spicatum from different geographical regions of western Himalaya by principal components analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Tripti; Pal, Mahesh; Meena, Sanjeev; Datta, Dipak; Dixit, Prateek; Kumar, Anil; Meena, Baleshwar; Rana, T S; Upreti, D K

    2016-01-01

    The rhizome of Hedychium spicatum has been widely used in traditional medicines. The present study deals with the evaluation of the cytotoxic potential of rhizome essential oils from four different regions of the Western Himalaya (India) along with comparative correlation analysis to characterise the bioactive cytotoxic component. The essential oils were coded as MHS-1, MHS-2, MHS-3 and MHS-4, and characterised using GC-FID and GC-MS. The main volatile compounds identified were 1,8-cineol, eudesmol, cubenol, spathulenol and α-cadinol. In vitro cytotoxic activities were assessed against human cancer cell lines such as, the lung (A549), colon (DLD-1, SW 620), breast (MCF-7, MDA-MB-231), head and neck (FaDu), and cervix (HeLa). MHS-4 is significantly active in comparison to other samples against all cancer cell lines. Sample MHS-4 has major proportion of monoterpene alcohol mainly 1,8-cineol. Principal components analysis was performed for the experimental results and all four samples were clustered according to their percentage inhibition at different doses.

  2. Spatial data fusion and analysis for soil characterization: a case study in a coastal basin of south-western Sicily (southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donato Sollitto

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Salinization is one of the most serious problems confronting sustainable agriculture in semi-arid and arid regions. Accurate mapping of soil salinization and the associated risk represent a fundamental step in planning agricultural and remediation activities. Geostatistical analysis is very useful for soil quality assessment because it makes it possible to determine the spatial relationships between selected variables and to produce synthetic maps of spatial variation. The main objective of this paper was to map the soil salinization risk in the Delia-Nivolelli alluvial basin (south-western Sicily, southern Italy, using multivariate geostatistical techniques and a set of topographical, physical and soil hydraulic properties. Elevation data were collected from existing topographic maps and analysed preliminarily to improve the estimate precision of sparsely sampled primary variables. For interpolation multi-collocated cokriging was applied to the dataset, including textural and hydraulic properties and electrical conductivity measurements carried out on 128 collected soil samples, using elevation data as auxiliary variable. Spatial dependence among elevation and physical soil properties was explored with factorial kriging analysis (FKA that could isolate and display the sources of variation acting at different spatial scales. FKA isolated significant regionalised factors which give a concise description of the complex soil physical variability at the different selected spatial scales. These factors mapped, allowed the delineation of zones at different salinisation risk to be managed separately to control and prevent salinization risk. The proposed methodology could be a valid support for land use and soil remediation planning at regional scale.

  3. A Citation Analysis of Western Journals Cited in Taiwan's Library and Information Science and History Research Journals: From a Research Evaluation Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Mu-Hsuan; Lin, Chi-Shiou

    2011-01-01

    This article examines citations of Western journals in eight LIS journals and six history journals published in Taiwan. The findings show that both the Western journals' impact factor values and whether they are included in JCR may not necessarily indicate their real use in Taiwan's LIS and history research--especially in history research.…

  4. Analysis of airborne fungi in a hospital in the town of Ariquemes, Rondônia, Western Amazon region, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica Guimarães Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Backgound and Objectives: The hospital internal air environment is strongly associated with nosocomial fungal infections. In order to investigate the presence of hospital airborne fungi in one of the hospitals in the town of Ariquemes, Rondônia, air samples were collected in open Petri dishes between 15 to 30 minutes, containing the universal culture medium for fungi and yeasts: Saboraund agar, in the morning and afternoon, during October 2012 in the Surgical Center, Materials Center, Minor Surgery Room, Nursing Station and Hospital Admission Room. The isolated colonies underwent macroscopic analysis and subsequently the microculture technique to demonstrate the presence of airborne pathogens. Fifty colonies were isolated and 12 fungal genera were identified. All sectors showed the presence of fungi, which emphasizes the need for microbiological monitoring, especially in rooms with infection prophylaxis priority.

  5. Risk Analysis Of Collision Between Passenger Ferry And Chemical Tanker In The Western Zone Of The Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przywarty Marcin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents assumptions and process of the forming of a risk assessment model for collision between a passenger ferry departing from or approaching port of Świnoujście and a chemical tanker carrying a dangerous cargo. In order to assess navigational safety on the basis of data obtained from AIS system, were prepared probabilistic domains of ships, which made it possible to estimate number of navigational incidents as well as their spatial distribution, that consequently allowed to determine potentially dangerous areas. The next phase was formulation of a simulative model intended for the calculating of probability of collision between the ferry and chemical tanker as well as the determining of characteristic scenarios for such collision. This paper presents also an analysis of consequences of the collision with taking into consideration a damage of cargo tanks.

  6. Investigation of the Qadimah Fault in Western Saudi Arabia using Satellite Radar Interferometry and Geomorphology Analysis Techniques

    KAUST Repository

    Smith, Robert

    2012-07-01

    The Qadimah Fault has been mapped as a normal fault running through the middle of a planned $50 billion city. For this reason, there is an urgent need to evaluate the seismic hazard that the fault poses to the new development. Although several geophysical studies have supported the existence of a fault, the driving mechanism remains unclear. While a fault controlled by gravity gliding of the overburden on a mobile salt layer is unlikely to be of concern to the city, one caused by the continued extension of a normal rotational fault due to Red Sea rifting could result in a major earthquake. A number of geomorphology and geodetic techniques were used to better understand the fault. An analysis of topographic data revealed a sharp discontinuity in slope aspect and hanging wall tilting which strongly supports the existence of a normal fault. A GPS survey of an emergent reef platform which revealed a tilted coral surface also indicates that deformation has occurred in the region. An interferometric synthetic aperture radar investigation has also been performed to establish whether active deformation is occurring on the fault. Ground movements that could be consistent with inter-seismic strain accumulation have been observed, although the analysis is restricted by the limited data available. However, a simple fault model suggests that the deformation is unlikely due to continued crustal stretching. This, in addition to the lack of footwall uplift in the topography data, suggests that the fault is more likely controlled by a shallow salt layer. However, more work will need to be done in the future to confirm these findings.

  7. Mobile application-based Seoul National University Prostate Cancer Risk Calculator: development, validation, and comparative analysis with two Western risk calculators in Korean men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Wook Jeong

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: We developed a mobile application-based Seoul National University Prostate Cancer Risk Calculator (SNUPC-RC that predicts the probability of prostate cancer (PC at the initial prostate biopsy in a Korean cohort. Additionally, the application was validated and subjected to head-to-head comparisons with internet-based Western risk calculators in a validation cohort. Here, we describe its development and validation. PATIENTS AND METHODS: As a retrospective study, consecutive men who underwent initial prostate biopsy with more than 12 cores at a tertiary center were included. In the development stage, 3,482 cases from May 2003 through November 2010 were analyzed. Clinical variables were evaluated, and the final prediction model was developed using the logistic regression model. In the validation stage, 1,112 cases from December 2010 through June 2012 were used. SNUPC-RC was compared with the European Randomized Study of Screening for PC Risk Calculator (ERSPC-RC and the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial Risk Calculator (PCPT-RC. The predictive accuracy was assessed using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC. The clinical value was evaluated using decision curve analysis. RESULTS: PC was diagnosed in 1,240 (35.6% and 417 (37.5% men in the development and validation cohorts, respectively. Age, prostate-specific antigen level, prostate size, and abnormality on digital rectal examination or transrectal ultrasonography were significant factors of PC and were included in the final model. The predictive accuracy in the development cohort was 0.786. In the validation cohort, AUC was significantly higher for the SNUPC-RC (0.811 than for ERSPC-RC (0.768, p<0.001 and PCPT-RC (0.704, p<0.001. Decision curve analysis also showed higher net benefits with SNUPC-RC than with the other calculators. CONCLUSIONS: SNUPC-RC has a higher predictive accuracy and clinical benefit than Western risk calculators. Furthermore, it is easy

  8. Numerical analysis of palynological data from Neogene fluvial sediments as evidence for rainforest dynamics in western Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamanca, Sonia; van Manen, Milan; Hoorn, Carina

    2014-05-01

    Deep-time records that give an insight into the composition and dynamics of the ancestral Amazon rain forest are rare. Yet to understand the modern biodiversity patterns it is important to untangle the long-term evolution of this forest. Sampling Neogene strata requires drilling operations or complex fieldwork along the rivers where outcrops generally are small. In the nineties an exceptionally good exposure of fluvial sediments of early Miocene age (17.7-16.1 Ma) was documented near the island of Mariñame (Caquetá River, Colombian Amazonia) (Hoorn, 1994). This 60 m sediment succession consists of quartz-rich sands with a circa 10 m black, sandy clay intercalation. Palynomorphs are well preserved in these organic-rich clays and palynological analysis indicated high pollen diversity and changes in composition following changes in the sedimentary environment and water composition (see van Soelen et al., this session). A numerical analysis in R (2013) of the existing data, using a number of multivariate and other statistical techniques now shows a gradient of change in the composition of the Miocene palynological assemblages. Non-metric-multidimensional scaling using distance matrixes (Oksanen, 2012) and their visualizations in correlograms (Friendly, 2002) indicate that the regional (palm) swamp forests of Mauritiides franciscoi (Mauritia), frequently found together with other palms such as Psilamonocolpites amazonicus (Euterpe?) and Psilamonocolpites rinconii, were affected by a marine incursion. The latter is suggested by the change of composition and the presence of estuarine elements such as Zonocostites ramonae (Rhizophora), foraminifer linings and dinoflagellate cysts, which became common during the marine event. In the older part of the section, and at the top, Rhoipites guianensis (Sterculiaceae/Tiliaceae) is quite abundant, in contrast with the relatively low abundance of M. franciscoi. The numerical analysis allowed us to: a) group the pollen data into 3

  9. Holocene climate variability in the western Mediterranean through a multiproxy analysis from Padul peat bog (Sierra Nevada, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Román, María J.; Jiménez-Moreno, Gonzalo; Camuera, Jon; García-Alix, Antonio; Anderson, R. Scott; Jiménez-Espejo, Francisco J.; Sachse, Dirk

    2017-04-01

    The Iberian Peninsula, located in the Mediterranean area, is an interesting location for paleoclimate studies due to its geographic situation between arid and humid climates. Sediments from peat bogs and lakes from Sierra Nevada, in southeastern Iberian Peninsula, have been very informative in terms of how vegetation and wetland environments were impacted by Holocene climate change. These studies are essential if we want to understand the past climate change in the area, which is the key to identify the possible environmental response of the Sierra Nevada ecosystems to future climate scenarios. Padul basin, located in the southwest of the Sierra Nevada mountain range, contains a ca. 100 m-thick peat bog sedimentary sequence that was deposited during the past 1 Ma making this area interesting for paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic reconstructions. A new 43 m-long sedimentary record has recently been retrieved from the Padul peat bog. In this study we have developed a multiproxy analysis of the Holocene part of the Padul-15-05 core including pollen analysis, XRF-core scanner, magnetic susceptibility and organic geochemistry, supported by an age control based on AMS radiocarbon dates, providing with information about vegetation and climate variability during the past 9.9 cal ka BP. This multiproxy reconstruction of the Padul-15-05 evidences the Mediterranean as a sensitive area with respect to global-scale climate system, showing relevant climate episodes such as the ca. 8, 7.5, 6.5 and 5.5 cal ka BP events during the early and middle Holocene. The trend to aridification to the late Holocene is interrupted by more arid and humid periods as the Iberian Roman Humid Period (from ca. 3 to 1.6 cal ka BP), the Dark Ages (from ca. 1.5 to 1.1 cal ka BP), the Medieval Climate Anomaly (from ca. 1.1 to 1.3 cal ka BP) and the Little Ice Age period (from ca. 500 to 100 cal yr BP).

  10. Nourishing networks: A social-ecological analysis of a network intervention for improving household nutrition in Western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLorme, Autumn L; Gavenus, Erika R; Salmen, Charles R; Benard, Gor Ouma; Mattah, Brian; Bukusi, Elizabeth; Fiorella, Kathryn J

    2018-01-01

    A growing body of research emphasizes the need to engage social networks in maternal and child nutrition interventions. However, an understanding of how interventions functionally engage not only mothers but fathers, grandparents, friends, and other social network members remains limited. This study uses an adaptation of a social-ecological model to analyze the multiple levels at which the Kanyakla Nutrition Program operates to change behavior. This study analyzes focus group data (four groups; n = 35, 7 men and 28 women) following the implementation of the Kanyakla Nutrition Program, a novel nutrition intervention engaging social networks to increase nutrition knowledge, shift perceptions, and promote positive practices for infant and young child feeding and community nutrition in general. Participant perspectives indicate that the Kanyakla Nutrition Program contributed to nutrition knowledge and confidence, changed perceptions, and supported infant and child feeding practices at the individual, interpersonal, and institutional levels. However, many respondents report challenges in transcending barriers at the broader community and systems levels of influence, where environmental and economic constraints continue to affect food access. Analysis of the Kanyakla Nutrition Program suggests that for interventions addressing household level determinants of nutrition, simultaneously engaging the household's network of interpersonal and community relationships can play a role in building momentum and consensus to address persistent structural barriers to improved nutrition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. An economy-ralated equity analysis of health service utilization by women in economically underdeveloped regions of western China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yuyan; Zhou, Zhongliang; Yan, Ju'e; Gao, Jianmin; Wang, Yuping; Yang, Xiaowei; Xu, Yongjian; Li, Yanli

    2017-10-27

    The Chinese government has long been committed to eliminating the inequality in the utilization of health services; however, it still lacks an analysis or measurement of the economy-related inequality in the utilization of women's health services. The economy-related utilization of health services in women aged 15 years and above was assessed by the horizontal inequity index of a two-week outpatient rate and annual inpatient rate from the 5th National Health Service Survey of Shaanxi Province. The concentration index of each factor was decomposed into the contribution of each factor to the economic-related inequality of health service utilization based on the Probit regression model. The horizontal inequity indexes of the two-week outpatient rate was 0.0493, and the horizontal inequity indexes of the annual impatient rate was 0.0869. The contributions of economic status to the two indexes were 190.71% and 115.80%, respectively. Economic status, age, basic medical insurance, educational status, marital status, urban/rural area, and self-rated health were the main impact factors that affected the inequality in women's health services utilization in Shaanxi. Health service utilization was different between women with different social demographic characteristics, and unequal health service utilization is evident among women in Shaanxi.

  12. Impact of electricity prices and volumetric water allocation on energy and groundwater demand management: analysis from Western India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, M.D.

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, power tariff policy has been increasingly advocated as a mean to influence groundwater use and withdrawal decisions of farmers in view of the failure of existing direct and indirect regulations on groundwater withdrawal in India. Many researchers argue that pro rata electricity tariff, with built in positive marginal cost of pumping could bring about efficient use of the resource, though some argue that the levels of tariff in which demand becomes elastic to pricing are too high to be viable from political and socio-economic points of view. The paper presents a theoretical model to analyze farmers' response to changes in power tariff and water allocation regimes vis a vis energy and groundwater use. It validates the model by analyzing water productivity in groundwater irrigation under different electricity pricing structures and water allocation regimes. Water productivity was estimated using primary data of gross crop inputs, cost of all inputs, and volumetric water inputs. The analysis shows that unit pricing of electricity influences groundwater use efficiency and productivity positively. It also shows that the levels of pricing at which demand for electricity and groundwater becomes elastic to tariff are socio-economically viable. Further, water productivity impacts of pricing would be highest when water is volumetrically allocated with rationing. Therefore, an effective power tariff policy followed by enforcement of volumetric water allocation could address the issue of efficiency, sustainability and equity in groundwater use in India

  13. PM10 source apportionment applying PMF and chemical tracer analysis to ship-borne measurements in the Western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bove, M. C.; Brotto, P.; Calzolai, G.; Cassola, F.; Cavalli, F.; Fermo, P.; Hjorth, J.; Massabò, D.; Nava, S.; Piazzalunga, A.; Schembari, C.; Prati, P.

    2016-01-01

    A PM10 sampling campaign was carried out on board the cruise ship Costa Concordia during three weeks in summer 2011. The ship route was Civitavecchia-Savona-Barcelona-Palma de Mallorca-Malta (Valletta)-Palermo-Civitavecchia. The PM10 composition was measured and utilized to identify and characterize the main PM10 sources along the ship route through receptor modelling, making use of the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) algorithm. A particular attention was given to the emissions related to heavy fuel oil combustion by ships, which is known to be also an important source of secondary sulphate aerosol. Five aerosol sources were resolved by the PMF analysis. The primary contribution of ship emissions to PM10 turned out to be (12 ± 4)%, while secondary ammonium sulphate contributed by (35 ± 5)%. Approximately, 60% of the total sulphate was identified as secondary aerosol while about 20% was attributed to heavy oil combustion in ship engines. The measured concentrations of methanesulphonic acid (MSA) indicated a relevant contribution to the observed sulphate loading by biogenic sulphate, formed by the atmospheric oxidation of dimethyl sulphide (DMS) emitted by marine phytoplankton.

  14. Mere end blot pirringer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jantzen, Christian; Østergaard, Per

    2006-01-01

    Med udgangspunkt i en række cases på vellykkede oplevelsesøkonomiske forretningsmodeller argumenterer artiklen for, at oplevelsesprodukter skal bygge på et klart tema, som forbrugeren kan koble sig sanse- og følelsesmæssigt op på. Forbrugeren skal kunne omsætte produktets pirringer til egne erfar...

  15. Ej blot til lyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leroyer, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to reassert the crucial importance of access to data in lexicographic information tools and, expanding on this, to establish the existence of two distinct lexicographic access modes - consultation and navigation. It is explained how the tools can be decalibrated whe...... balance between user, access, and data is disturbed, and how access to data then is jeopardized. Taking online wine guides as a case in point, it is shown how such multifunctional information tools do benefit from a lexicographic design featuring both access modes....

  16. Assessment of diversity among populations of Rauvolfia serpentina Benth. Ex. Kurtz. from Southern Western Ghats of India, based on chemical profiling, horticultural traits and RAPD analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Vadakkemuriyil Divya; Raj, Rajan Pillai Dinesh; Panneerselvam, Rajaram; Gopi, Ragupathi

    2014-01-01

    Genetic, morphological and chemical variations of ten natural populations of Rauvolfia serpentina Benth. Ex. Kurtz. from Southern Western Ghats of India were assessed using RAPD markers reserpine content and morphological traits. An estimate of genetic diversity and differentiation between genotypes of breeding germplasm is of key importance for its improvement. Populations were collected from different geographical regions. Data obtained through three different methods were compared and the correlation among them was estimated. Statistical analysis showed significant differences for all horticultural characteristics among the accessions suggesting that selection for relevant characteristics could be possible. Variation in the content of Reserpine ranges from 0.192 g/100 g (population from Tusharagiri) to 1.312 g/100 g (population from Aryankavu). A high diversity within population and high genetic differentiation among them based on RAPDs were revealed caused both by habitat fragmentation of the low size of most populations and the low level of gene flow among them. The UPGMA dendrogram and PCA analysis based on reserpine content yielded higher separation among populations indicated specific adaptation of populations into clusters each of them including populations closed to their geographical origin. Genetic, chemical and morphological data were correlated based on Mantel test. Given the high differentiation among populations conservation strategies should take into account genetic diversity and chemical variation levels in relation to bioclimatic and geographic location of populations. Our results also indicate that RAPD approach along with horticultural analysis seemed to be best suited for assessing with high accuracy the genetic relationships among distinct R. serpentina accessions. © 2013.

  17. Improved Simplified Methods for Effective Seismic Analysis and Design of Isolated and Damped Bridges in Western and Eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koval, Viacheslav

    The seismic design provisions of the CSA-S6 Canadian Highway Bridge Design Code and the AASHTO LRFD Seismic Bridge Design Specifications have been developed primarily based on historical earthquake events that have occurred along the west coast of North America. For the design of seismic isolation systems, these codes include simplified analysis and design methods. The appropriateness and range of application of these methods are investigated through extensive parametric nonlinear time history analyses in this thesis. It was found that there is a need to adjust existing design guidelines to better capture the expected nonlinear response of isolated bridges. For isolated bridges located in eastern North America, new damping coefficients are proposed. The applicability limits of the code-based simplified methods have been redefined to ensure that the modified method will lead to conservative results and that a wider range of seismically isolated bridges can be covered by this method. The possibility of further improving current simplified code methods was also examined. By transforming the quantity of allocated energy into a displacement contribution, an idealized analytical solution is proposed as a new simplified design method. This method realistically reflects the effects of ground-motion and system design parameters, including the effects of a drifted oscillation center. The proposed method is therefore more appropriate than current existing simplified methods and can be applicable to isolation systems exhibiting a wider range of properties. A multi-level-hazard performance matrix has been adopted by different seismic provisions worldwide and will be incorporated into the new edition of the Canadian CSA-S6-14 Bridge Design code. However, the combined effect and optimal use of isolation and supplemental damping devices in bridges have not been fully exploited yet to achieve enhanced performance under different levels of seismic hazard. A novel Dual-Level Seismic

  18. [Purification of human goose-type lysozyme 2 (HLysG2) from human seminal plasma and analysis of its enzymatic properties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Peng; Yang, Zhifang; Bao, Jianying; Zhang, Ning; Li, Wenshu

    2017-03-01

    Objective To purify human goose-type lysozyme 2 (HLysG2) from human seminal plasma by chromatography and analyze its enzymatic properties. Methods The distribution of HLysG2 in semen was analyzed by Western blot analysis. Seminal plasma was subjected to the separation of target protein using cation-exchange chromatography, chitin affinity chromatography and size-exclusion chromatography. The purified product was identified by Western blot analysis and mass spectrometry (MS).The purity was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Then, the optimum pH, ion concentration and temperature of HLysG2 and its standard activity were determined by the turbidimetric assay. The bactericidal activity of HLysG2 was assessed by the colony-forming assay. Results The existence of HLysG2 in seminal plasma was confirmed by Western blot analysis. A protein of about 21.5 kDa was purified from seminal plasma by the three kinds of chromatography and identified as HLysG2 by Western blot analysis and MS. The final purity of the purified product was above 99.0% and the peak enzymatic activity reached 13 800 U/mg under the condition of pH 6.4, 0.09 mol/L Na + , 30DegreesCelsius. In vitro assay indicated that HLysG2 had a significant killing effect on Micrococcus lysodeikticus, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, but not on Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. Conclusion Native HLysG2 can be obtained from seminal plasma by chromatography. It has in vitro bactericidal activity against Gram-positive bacteria, suggesting that it might play a role in innate immunity of the male reproductive system.

  19. A joint analysis of wave and surge conditions for past and present extrem events in the south-western Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groll, Nikolaus; Gaslikova, Lidia

    2017-04-01

    Extreme marine events in the south-western Baltic Sea like the historic storm in 1872 are rare, but have large impacts on human safety and coastal infrastructure. The aforementioned extreme storm event of 1872 and has cost over 250 human lives, left severely damaged infrastructure and caused land loss due to coastal erosion. Recent extreme events also result in drastic impacts to coastal regions. Using results from numerical wave and hydrodynamic model simulations we will present a joint analysis of wave and water level conditions for selected extreme events. For the historic event the numerical models have been forced by reconstructed wind and pressure fields from pressure readings. Simulated atmospheric conditions from reanalysis have been used for the more recent events. The height of the water level due to the possible previous inflow of water masses in the Baltic Sea basin, as well as possible seiches and swell effects have been incorporated in the simulations. We will discuss similarities and differences between the historic and the more recent marine hazard events.

  20. Probiotic attributes of indigenous Lactobacillus spp. isolated from traditional fermented foods and beverages of north-western Himalayas using in vitro screening and principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Anila; Angmo, Kunzes; Monika; Bhalla, Tek Chand

    2016-05-01

    The present research was designed to explore indigenous probiotic Lactic acid bacteria from traditional fermented foods and beverages of North-western Himalayas for their probiotic potential. It was achieved through a step-by step approach focused on the technological characterization, evaluation of the probiotic traits and adherence ability. Fifty one LAB isolates from traditional fermented foods and beverages were initially screened for their technological properties and among them twenty isolates were selected. These isolates were further characterized and identified using 16S rRNA gene sequencing as Lactobacillus brevis (7 isolates), Lactobacillus casei (5), Lactobacillus paracasei (2), Lactobacillus buchneri (1), Lactobacillus plantarum (1) and Lactobacillus sp. (3). Identified isolates were evaluated by in vitro methods including survival in gastrointestinal tract, antibiotic susceptibility, antimicrobial activity, cell surface characteristics, exopolysacharride production and haemolytic activity. The results of these experiments were used as input data for Principal Component Analysis; thus, to select the most promising probiotic isolates. Three isolates (L. brevis PLA2, L. paracasei PLA8 and L. brevis PLA16) were found to be most technological relevant and promising probiotic candidates in comparison to commercial probiotic strains. L. brevis PLA2 was selected as best isolate with probiotic potential by in vitro adherence to the human intestinal HT-29 cell line.

  1. Basin Analysis and Petroleum System Characterisation of Western Bredasdorp Basin, Southern Offshore of South Africa: Insights from a 3d Crust-Scale Basin Model - (Phase 1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonibare, W. A.; Scheck-Wenderoth, M.; Sippel, J.; Mikeš, D.

    2012-04-01

    In recent years, construction of 3D geological models and their subsequent upscaling for reservoir simulation has become an important tool within the oil industry for managing hydrocarbon reservoirs and increasing recovery rate. Incorporating petroleum system elements (i.e. source, reservoir and trap) into these models is a relatively new concept that seems very promising to play/prospect risk assessment and reservoir characterisation alike. However, yet to be fully integrated into this multi-disciplinary modelling approach are the qualitative and quantitative impacts of crust-scale basin dynamics on the observed basin-fill architecture and geometries. The focus of this study i.e. Western Bredasdorp Basin constitutes the extreme western section of the larger Bredasdorp sub-basin, which is the westernmost depocentre of the four southern Africa offshore sub-basins (others being Pletmos, Gamtoos and Algoa). These basins, which appear to be initiated by volcanically influenced continental rifting and break-up related to passive margin evolution (during the Mid-Late Jurassic to latest Valanginian), remain previously unstudied for crust-scale basin margin evolution, and particularly in terms of relating deep crustal processes to depo-system reconstruction and petroleum system evolution. Seismic interpretation of 42 2D seismic-reflection profiles forms the basis for maps of 6 stratigraphic horizons which record the syn-rift to post-rift (i.e. early drift and late drift to present-day seafloor) successions. In addition to this established seismic markers, high quality seismic profiles have shown evidence for a pre-rift sequence (i.e. older than Late Jurassic >130 Ma). The first goal of this study is the construction of a 3D gravity-constrained, crust-scale basin model from integration of seismics, well data and cores. This basin model is constructed using GMS (in-house GFZ Geo-Modelling Software) while testing its consistency with the gravity field is performed using IGMAS

  2. Ozone climatology over western Mediterranean Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pibiri, G.; Randaccio, P.; Serra, A.; Sollai, A.

    1984-01-01

    A preliminary climatology of atmospheric ozone over Western Mediterranean Sea is given by analysis of the upper observations of O 3 carried out at Cagliari-Elmas station from 1968 to 1976. Some peculiarities are here illustrated and discussed

  3. The use of artificial neural network analysis and multiple regression for trap quality evaluation: a case study of the Northern Kuqa Depression of Tarim Basin in western China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guangren Shi; Xingxi Zhou; Guangya Zhang; Xiaofeng Shi; Honghui Li [Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration and Development, Beijing (China)

    2004-03-01

    Artificial neural network analysis is found to be far superior to multiple regression when applied to the evaluation of trap quality in the Northern Kuqa Depression, a gas-rich depression of Tarim Basin in western China. This is because this technique can correlate the complex and non-linear relationship between trap quality and related geological factors, whereas multiple regression can only describe a linear relationship. However, multiple regression can work as an auxiliary tool, as it is suited to high-speed calculations and can indicate the degree of dependence between the trap quality and its related geological factors which artificial neural network analysis cannot. For illustration, we have investigated 30 traps in the Northern Kuqa Depression. For each of the traps, the values of 14 selected geological factors were all known. While geologists were also able to assign individual trap quality values to 27 traps, they were less certain about the values for the other three traps. Multiple regression and artificial neural network analysis were, therefore, respectively used to ascertain these values. Data for the 27 traps were used as known sample data, while the three traps were used as prediction candidates. Predictions from artificial neural network analysis are found to agree with exploration results: where simulation predicted high trap quality, commercial quality flows were afterwards found, and where low trap quality is indicated, no such discoveries have yet been made. On the other hand, multiple regression results indicate the order of dependence of the trap quality on geological factors, which reconciles with what geologists have commonly recognized. We can conclude, therefore, that the application of artificial neural network analysis with the aid of multiple regression to trap evaluation in the Northern Kuqa Depression has been quite successful. To ensure the precision of the above mentioned geological factors and their related parameters for each

  4. Use of linkage mapping and centrality analysis across habitat gradients to conserve connectivity of gray wolf populations in western North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Carlos; McRae, Brad H; Brookes, Allen

    2012-02-01

    Centrality metrics evaluate paths between all possible pairwise combinations of sites on a landscape to rank the contribution of each site to facilitating ecological flows across the network of sites. Computational advances now allow application of centrality metrics to landscapes represented as continuous gradients of habitat quality. This avoids the binary classification of landscapes into patch and matrix required by patch-based graph analyses of connectivity. It also avoids the focus on delineating paths between individual pairs of core areas characteristic of most corridor- or linkage-mapping methods of connectivity analysis. Conservation of regional habitat connectivity has the potential to facilitate recovery of the gray wolf (Canis lupus), a species currently recolonizing portions of its historic range in the western United States. We applied 3 contrasting linkage-mapping methods (shortest path, current flow, and minimum-cost-maximum-flow) to spatial data representing wolf habitat to analyze connectivity between wolf populations in central Idaho and Yellowstone National Park (Wyoming). We then applied 3 analogous betweenness centrality metrics to analyze connectivity of wolf habitat throughout the northwestern United States and southwestern Canada to determine where it might be possible to facilitate range expansion and interpopulation dispersal. We developed software to facilitate application of centrality metrics. Shortest-path betweenness centrality identified a minimal network of linkages analogous to those identified by least-cost-path corridor mapping. Current flow and minimum-cost-maximum-flow betweenness centrality identified diffuse networks that included alternative linkages, which will allow greater flexibility in planning. Minimum-cost-maximum-flow betweenness centrality, by integrating both land cost and habitat capacity, allows connectivity to be considered within planning processes that seek to maximize species protection at minimum cost

  5. Recurrence quantification analysis of extremes of maximum and minimum temperature patterns for different climate scenarios in the Mesochora catchment in Central-Western Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagoulia, Dionysia; Vlahogianni, Eleni I.

    2018-06-01

    A methodological framework based on nonlinear recurrence analysis is proposed to examine the historical data evolution of extremes of maximum and minimum daily mean areal temperature patterns over time under different climate scenarios. The methodology is based on both historical data and atmospheric General Circulation Model (GCM) produced climate scenarios for the periods 1961-2000 and 2061-2100 which correspond to 1 × CO2 and 2 × CO2 scenarios. Historical data were derived from the actual daily observations coupled with atmospheric circulation patterns (CPs). The dynamics of the temperature was reconstructed in the phase-space from the time series of temperatures. The statistically comparing different temperature patterns were based on some discriminating statistics obtained by the Recurrence Quantification Analysis (RQA). Moreover, the bootstrap method of Schinkel et al. (2009) was adopted to calculate the confidence bounds of RQA parameters based on a structural preserving resampling. The overall methodology was implemented to the mountainous Mesochora catchment in Central-Western Greece. The results reveal substantial similarities between the historical maximum and minimum daily mean areal temperature statistical patterns and their confidence bounds, as well as the maximum and minimum temperature patterns in evolution under the 2 × CO2 scenario. A significant variability and non-stationary behaviour characterizes all climate series analyzed. Fundamental differences are produced from the historical and maximum 1 × CO2 scenarios, the maximum 1 × CO2 and minimum 1 × CO2 scenarios, as well as the confidence bounds for the two CO2 scenarios. The 2 × CO2 scenario reflects the strongest shifts in intensity, duration and frequency in temperature patterns. Such transitions can help the scientists and policy makers to understand the effects of extreme temperature changes on water resources, economic development, and health of ecosystems and hence to proceed to

  6. Full genome analysis of rotavirus G9P[8] strains identified in acute gastroenteritis cases reveals genetic diversity: Pune, western India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatte, Vaishali S; Chaphekar, Deepa; Gopalkrishna, Varanasi

    2017-08-01

    Group A rotaviruses (RVA) are the major enteric etiological agents of severe acute gastroenteritis among children globally. As G9 RVA now represents as one of the major human RVA genotypes, studies on full genome of this particular genotype are being carried out worldwide. So far, no such studies on G9P[8] RVAs have been reported from Pune, western part of India. Keeping in view of this, the study was undertaken to understand the degree of genetic diversity of the commonly circulating G9P[8] RVA strains. Rotavirus surveillance studies carried out earlier during the years 2009-2011 showed increase in the prevalence of G9P[8] RVAs. Representative G9P[8] RVA strains from the years 2009, 2010, and 2011 were selected for the study. In general, all the G9 RVA strains showed clustering in the globally circulating sublineage of the VP7 gene and showed nucleotide/amino acid identities of 96.8-99.7%/96.9-99.8% with global G9 RV strains. Full genome analysis, of all three RVAs in this study indicated Wa-like genotype constellation G9-P[8]-I1-R1-C1-M1-A1-N1-T1-E1-H1. Within the strains nucleotide/amino acid divergence of 0.1-3.4%/0.0-4.1% was noted in all the RVA structural and non-structural genes. In conclusion, the present study highlights intra-genotypic variations throughout the RVA genome. The study further emphasizes the need for surveillance and analysis of the whole genomic constellation of the commonly circulating RVA strains of other regions in the country for understanding to a greater degree of the impact of rotavirus vaccination recently introduced in India. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Murine interleukin 1 receptor. Direct identification by ligand blotting and purification to homogeneity of an interleukin 1-binding glycoprotein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bird, T.A.; Gearing, A.J.; Saklatvala, J.

    1988-01-01

    Functional receptors (IL1-R) for the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin 1 (IL1) were solubilized from plasma membranes of the NOB-1 subclone of murine EL4 6.1 thymoma cells using the zwitterionic detergent 3[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonate (CHAPS). Membrane extracts were subjected to sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, transferred to nitrocellulose membranes, and ligand blotted with 125 I-labeled recombinant human IL1 alpha in order to reveal proteins capable of specifically binding IL1. A single polydisperse polypeptide of Mr approximately equal to 80,000 was identified in this way, which bound IL1 alpha and IL1 beta with the same affinity as the IL1-R on intact NOB-1 cells (approximately equal to 10(-10) M). The IL1-binding polypeptide was only seen in membranes from IL1-R-bearing cells and did not react with interleukin 2, tumor necrosis factor alpha, or interferon. IL1-R was purified to apparent homogeneity from solubilized NOB-1 membranes by affinity chromatography on wheat germ agglutinin-Sepharose and IL1 alpha-Sepharose. Gel electrophoresis and silver staining of purified preparations revealed a single protein of Mr approximately equal to 80,000 which reacted positively in the ligand-blotting procedure and which we identify as the ligand-binding moiety of the murine IL1-R. Purified IL1-R exhibited the same affinity and specificity as the receptor on intact cells. The relationship of this protein to proteins identified by covalent cross-linking studies is discussed

  8. Teaching the Western.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenihan, John H.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the content of a course on the genre of western films that was utilized as a film study and a U.S. cultural history credit. Describes in detail the film, "Winchester '73," and addresses other films utilized in the course. States that the course also focuses on the development of the western genre. (CMK)

  9. Western Slope Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epis, R.C.; Callender, J.F.

    1981-01-01

    A conference on the geology and geologic resources of the Western Slope of western Colorado and eastern Utah is presented. Fourteen papers from the conference have been abstracted and indexed for the Department of Energy's Energy Data Base. These papers covered such topics as uranium resources, oil shale deposits, coal resources, oil and gas resources, and geothermal resources of the area

  10. Otolith shape analysis and mitochondrial DNA markers distinguish three sand smelt species in the Atherina boyeri species complex in western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudinar, A. S.; Chaoui, L.; Quignard, J. P.; Aurelle, D.; Kara, M. H.

    2016-12-01

    Atherina boyeri is a common euryhaline teleost fish in the Mediterranean and adjacent areas, which inhabits coastal and estuarine waters, including coastal lagoons and more rarely inland waters. Several recent studies have pointed the possible existence of three distinct groups or species, one lagoon/freshwater group and two 'punctuated and unpunctuated on the flanks' marine groups, within an A. boyeri species complex. This study is a combined approach using otolith shape and molecular markers to better define the structure of the species in the western Mediterranean. Genetic differentiation and species delimitation among nine Atherina boyeri populations from several marine and lagoon/brakish habitat sites in Algeria, Tunisia and France were investigated using three mitochondrial (control region, Cyt b and 16S) and one nuclear markers (2nd intron of S7). For further phylogenetic and phylogeographic study, we added sequences from Genbank covering more areas (Ionian Sea, Adriatic Sea, Tyrrhenian Sea, Black Sea, Atlantic). Five groups were found. Two of them perfectly corresponded to two species already recognized Atherina presbyter and Atherina hepsetus, both living in marine waters; and three additional, including Atherina boyeri (brackish and freshwater environments) and two independent groups of marine punctated and unpunctated individuals. Those findings are corroborated by the study of the otolith contour shape of 362 individuals of seven populations from different habitats using Fourier analysis. Individuals could be discriminated into five groups based on the first two functions (Wilk's lambda = 0.07, p < 0.001). Samples from Ziama inlet, marine punctuated individuals and unpunctuated marine specimens from Annaba's Gulf formed three well separated groups. Specimens from Mellah and Mauguio lagoons formed another group. The last one includes individuals from Bizerte and Thau lagoons. The divergences between them strongly support the potential species within the

  11. Analysis of aerosol composition data for western United States wildfires between 2005 and 2015: Dust emissions, chloride depletion, and most enhanced aerosol constituents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlosser, Joseph S.; Braun, Rachel A.; Bradley, Trevor; Dadashazar, Hossein; MacDonald, Alexander B.; Aldhaif, Abdulmonam A.; Aghdam, Mojtaba Azadi; Mardi, Ali Hossein; Xian, Peng; Sorooshian, Armin

    2017-08-01

    This study examines major wildfires in the western United States between 2005 and 2015 to determine which species exhibit the highest percent change in mass concentration on day of peak fire influence relative to preceding nonfire days. Forty-one fires were examined using the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) data set. Organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) constituents exhibited the highest percent change increase. The sharpest enhancements were for the volatile (OC1) and semivolatile (OC2) OC fractions, suggestive of secondary organic aerosol formation during plume transport. Of the noncarbonaceous constituents, Cl, P, K, NO3-, and Zn levels exhibited the highest percent change. Dust was significantly enhanced in wildfire plumes, based on significant enhancements in fine soil components (i.e., Si, Ca, Al, Fe, and Ti) and PMcoarse (i.e., PM10-PM2.5). A case study emphasized how transport of wildfire plumes significantly impacted downwind states, with higher levels of fine soil and PMcoarse at the downwind state (Arizona) as compared to the source of the fires (California). A global model (Navy Aerosol Analysis and Prediction System, NAAPS) did not capture the dust influence over California or Arizona during this case event because it is not designed to resolve dust dynamics in fires, which motivates improved treatment of such processes. Significant chloride depletion was observed on the peak EC day for almost a half of the fires examined. Size-resolved measurements during two specific fires at a coastal California site revealed significant chloride reductions for particle aerodynamic diameters between 1 and 10 μm.

  12. Modification of T-cell antigenic properties of tetanus toxoid by SDS-PAGE separation. Implications for T-cell blotting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, C B; Theander, T G

    1997-01-01

    Using Tetanus Toxoid (TT) as a model antigen the T-cell Blotting method was evaluated. Peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cultures were stimulated by blotted nitrocellulose-bound TT or soluble TT. SDS-Poly-Acrylamide-Gel-Electrophoresis separated TT only induced proliferation in 20% of the ......Using Tetanus Toxoid (TT) as a model antigen the T-cell Blotting method was evaluated. Peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cultures were stimulated by blotted nitrocellulose-bound TT or soluble TT. SDS-Poly-Acrylamide-Gel-Electrophoresis separated TT only induced proliferation in 20......% of the PBMC cultures whereas proliferation was induced in 79% of the same cultures offered similar treated TT (except for the PAGE separation). When T-cell blotting was performed with TT separated in a SDS-agarose matrix, proliferation was induced in 80% of donors responding to soluble TT. The results show...... that SDS-PAGE alters the ability of TT to induce T-cell proliferation, possibly due to unpolymerized acrylamide binding to proteins during SDS-PAGE. The use of SDS-PAGE T-cell blotting in the screening for T-cell antigens must therefore be reconsidered. We suggest the use of SDS-Agarose Gel Electrophoresis...

  13. Dot Blot para determinar la identidad antigénica en vacunas conjugadas contra Streptococcus pneumoniae serotipo 19F

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmir Cabrera-Blanco

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Las autoridades regulatorias recomiendan el uso de técnicas de Resonancia Magnética Nuclear o técnicas serológicas para la determinación de la identidad de los antígenos presentes en las vacunas conjugadas. Con la aparición de las vacunas conjugadas multivalentes, se ha hecho necesario recurrir a técnicas inmunoquímicas con la utilización de anticuerpos monoclonales para aumentar la sensibilidad en la determinación de la identidad de los antígenos en dichas vacunas conjugadas. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue establecer las condiciones óptimas de trabajo que permitieran utilizar la técnica del Dot Blot para determinar la identidad de los antígenos en vacunas conjugadas de Streptococcus pneumoniae serotipo 19F. Para ello se estudiaron los tiempos de incubación, la influencia del reactivo en la solución de bloqueo; también las concentraciones óptimas del anticuerpo monoclonal y de los ingredientes farmacéuticos activos, así como los volúmenes de aplicación óptimos para estos y vacunas. Se utilizó un anticuerpo monoclonal contra el polisacárido capsular del serotipo 19F de neumococo. Las muestras empleadas en este trabajo fueron lotes de ingredientes farmacéuticos activos de conjugados de polisacárido capsular 19F y lotes de un candidato vacunal cubano conjugado heptavalente contra neumococos. Los resultados mostraron que para la determinación de la identidad antigénica fueron suficientes 10 µL de muestras de los principios activos a una concentración de 125 µg/mL e igual volumen para las vacunas heptavalentes. Quedó demostrado que una concentración de 1 µg/mL para el anticuerpo monoclonal y tiempos de incubación de 30 min a 37 °C fueron suficientes para la determinación. Estos resultados permiten concluir que quedaron establecidas las condiciones óptimas de trabajo para determinar la identidad antigénica por Dot Blot del polisacárido capsular de S. pneumoniae serotipo 19F presente en las vacunas

  14. Simultaneous and independent detection of C9ORF72 alleles with low and high number of GGGGCC repeats using an optimised protocol of Southern blot hybridisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchman, Vladimir L; Cooper-Knock, Johnathan; Connor-Robson, Natalie; Higginbottom, Adrian; Kirby, Janine; Razinskaya, Olga D; Ninkina, Natalia; Shaw, Pamela J

    2013-04-08

    Sizing of GGGGCC hexanucleotide repeat expansions within the C9ORF72 locus, which account for approximately 10% of all amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) cases, is urgently required to answer fundamental questions about mechanisms of pathogenesis in this important genetic variant. Currently employed PCR protocols are limited to discrimination between the presence and absence of a modified allele with more than 30 copies of the repeat, while Southern hybridisation-based methods are confounded by the somatic heterogeneity commonly present in blood samples, which might cause false-negative or ambiguous results. We describe an optimised Southern hybridisation-based protocol that allows confident detection of the presence of a C9ORF72 repeat expansion alongside independent assessment of its heterogeneity and the number of repeat units. The protocol can be used with either a radiolabeled or non-radiolabeled probe. Using this method we have successfully sized the C9ORF72 repeat expansion in lymphoblastoid cells, peripheral blood, and post-mortem central nervous system (CNS) tissue from ALS patients. It was also possible to confidently demonstrate the presence of repeat expansion, although of different magnitude, in both C9ORF72 alleles of the genome of one patient. The suggested protocol has sufficient advantages to warrant adoption as a standard for Southern blot hybridisation analysis of GGGGCC repeat expansions in the C9ORF72 locus.

  15. Application of the Reverse Line Blot Assay for the Molecular Detection of Theileria and Babesia sp. in Sheep and Goat Blood Samples from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Rasul

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study was designed to detect the presence of tick-borne parasites (Theileria and Babesia spp. in 196 blood samples collected from apparently healthy sheep and goats from two provinces, Punjab and Khyber Pukhtoon Khwa, in Pakistan.Methods: Reverse line blot (RLB assay was applied for the parasitic detection by the amplification of hypervariable V4 region of the 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA gene. A membrane with covalently linked generic and species specific oligonucleotide probes was used for the hybridization of amplified PCR products.Results: Parasites were detected in 16% of the ruminant blood samples under study. Two Theileria species, T. lestoquardi and T. ovis, were identified in samples. 25, of the total 32, infected animals were from Khyber Pukhtoon Khwa.Conclusion: Sheep were more prone to tick borne haemoprotozans as 81% infected samples were sheep as compared to 19% goats (P > 0.001. Risk factor analysis revealed that male (P = 0.03, ani­mals infested by ticks (P = 0.03 and herd composed of sheep only (P = 0.001 were more infected by blood parasites.

  16. Characterization of archaeological ceramics from the north western lowland Maya Area, using the technique of neutron activation analysis; Caracterizacion de ceramicas arqueologicas de las tierras bajas noroccidentales del Area Maya, empleando la tecnica de activacion neutronica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez R, M. C.; Tenorio, D.; Jimenez R, M. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, Ocoyoacac 52750, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Terreros, E. [Museo del Templo Mayor, INAH, Seminario No. 8, Col. Centro, Mexico 06060, D. F. (Mexico); Ochoa, L. [UNAM, Instituto de Investigaciones Antropologicas, Circuito Exterior s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico 04510, D. F. (Mexico)

    2008-07-01

    It is a study on 50 samples of ceramics from various archaeological sites of the north western lowland Maya Area. This study was performed by neutron activation analysis of 19 chemical elements and the treatments relevant statistical data. Significant differences were found among the pieces that led to group them into five major groups, the difference is the site of their manufacture and therefore in the raw materials used for this. (Author)

  17. Violence the Western way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, B E

    1997-10-01

    Despite the quiet revolution in response to changing conceptualizations of gender in psychoanalysis, the Western has remained the domain of aggressive phallic masculinity. The iconic imagery of the Western, when combined with its narrative trajectory, is used to tell stories of violent encounters between men. The acceptance of the genre, and its duplication by other cultures and film makers, indicates that the Westerns' imagery and moral solutions tap into some basic deep structures of anxiety and pleasure in violence between men. As long as societies require subtle sublimations of aggressive and violent drives, it is likely that men will seek imaginary regressive experiences to discharge frustrations.

  18. Quantitative proteomic analysis of post-translational modifications of human histones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Hans Christian; Nielsen, Eva C; Matthiesen, Rune

    2006-01-01

    , and H4 in a site-specific and dose-dependent manner. This unbiased analysis revealed that a relative increase in acetylated peptide from the histone variants H2A, H2B, and H4 was accompanied by a relative decrease of dimethylated Lys(57) from histone H2B. The dose-response results obtained...... by quantitative proteomics of histones from HDACi-treated cells were consistent with Western blot analysis of histone acetylation, cytotoxicity, and dose-dependent expression profiles of p21 and cyclin A2. This demonstrates that mass spectrometry-based quantitative proteomic analysis of post-translational...

  19. New Method for Simultaneous Species-Specific Identification of Equine Strongyles (Nematoda, Strongylida) by Reverse Line Blot Hybridization▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traversa, Donato; Iorio, Raffaella; Klei, Thomas R.; Kharchenko, Vitaliy A.; Gawor, Jakub; Otranto, Domenico; Sparagano, Olivier A. E.

    2007-01-01

    The ability of a reverse line blot (RLB) assay to identify 13 common species of equine small strongyles (cyathostomins) and to discriminate them from three Strongylus spp. (large strongyles) was demonstrated. The assay relied on the specific hybridization of PCR-amplified intergenic spacer DNA fragments of the nuclear ribosomal DNA to membrane-bound species-specific probes. All cyathostomins examined were unequivocally identified and simultaneously discriminated from each other and from three large strongyles (Strongylus edentatus, Strongylus equinus, and Strongylus vulgaris). This assay will enable the accurate and rapid identification of equine cyathostomins irrespective of their life cycle stage, opening important avenues for a better understanding of their biology and epidemiology and of the pathogenesis of cyathostomin-associated disease. In particular, this RLB method promises to be a powerful diagnostic tool to determine the roles of individual species in the pathogenesis of mixed infections and to elucidate some aspects of cyathostominosis. Also, it could represent a basic step toward the development of a rapid and simple molecular test for the early detection of drug-resistant genotypes of horse strongyle species. PMID:17626168

  20. Western Mountain Initiative - Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    unprecendented severity in the western United States, extensive tree mortality from outbreaks of bark beetles climatic stressors (Goals 1.1, 1.3) and identification of critical areas (Goal 1.2). Causal mechanisms

  1. Asian and western Intellectual Capital in encounter

    OpenAIRE

    Boom, van den, Marien; Andriessen, Daan

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to start a dialogue about differences between Western and Eastern cultures in the way they conceptualize knowledge and discuss the implications of these differences for a global intellectual capital (IC) theory and practice. A systematic metaphor analysis of the concept of knowledge and IC is used to identify common Western conceptualizations of knowledge in IC literature. A review of philosophical and religious literature was done to identify knowledge conceptuali...

  2. Computer Simulation Western

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, H.

    1992-01-01

    Computer Simulation Western is a unit within the Department of Applied Mathematics at the University of Western Ontario. Its purpose is the development of computational and mathematical methods for practical problems in industry and engineering and the application and marketing of such methods. We describe the unit and our efforts at obtaining research and development grants. Some representative projects will be presented and future plans discussed. (author)

  3. Parasite communities in two sparid fishes from the western Mediterranean: A comparative analysis based on samples from three localities off the Algerian coast

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Benhamou, F.; Marzoug, D.; Boutiba, Z.; Kostadinova, Aneta; Pérez-del-Olmo, A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 1 (2017), s. 26-35 ISSN 0440-6605 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Algeria * Boops boops * parasite communities * Spicara maena * western Mediterranean Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 0.472, year: 2016

  4. An Analysis of the Geographic Distribution of Recently Graduated Dentists from the University of Western Australia: The World's Most Isolated Dental School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurbuxani, Amit; Kruger, Estie; Tennant, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the geographic distribution of all new dentists who graduated over a period of six years. Perth, the capital city of Western Australia, is one of the world's most isolated cities, with a population of approximately 1.6 million people, situated over 2000km from its nearest next major capital…

  5. Epidemiological analysis of the 2006 bluetongue virus serotype 8 epidemic in north-western Europe, A risk map for epidemic potential in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koeijer, de A.; Hartemink, N.; Boender, G.J.; Elbers, A.R.W.; Hesterbeek, J.A.P.

    2007-01-01

    One of the most important aspects of vector-borne infections is the strong influence of weather and climate on the transmission. In response to the major epidemic of bluetongue in north western Europe between summer and autumn 2006, an interest in BTV control issues developed. In this context, a map

  6. NEW DATA ON COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF NOCTUID MOTHS (LEPIDOPTERA, NOCTUIDAE OF THE ISLANDS TULENEI, CHECHEN AND NORDOVIY OF THE NORTH-WESTERN CASPIAN SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Abdurakhmanov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The work gives the species composition and geographical distribution of the noctuid moths (Lepidoptera,Noctuidae of the islands Tulenei, Chechen and Nordoviy of the north-western Caspian sea. Provides a list of common species of moths for all three of the Islands, as well as the list of rare with small populations of species.

  7. Spatial Analysis of the Effects of the Anomalous Winter of 2014/15 on 157 Ski Resorts Located in Western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahbahani, K. M.; Pidwirny, M. J.

    2017-12-01

    The winter of 2014/2015 was one of the warmest in recent history for many locations in western North America. The cause of this climate irregularity was the development of extremely warm ocean surface waters (The Blob) over much of the eastern North Pacific Ocean. During this winter season, many ski resorts in western Canada and the United States either did not open or were forced to close their ski season early. Here, we examine climate data from 157 ski resorts to develop a picture of where the effected locations were in western North America. Using the climate database software ClimateBC and ClimateNA, high quality downscaled historical data was generated for the winter season (December, January, and February) for the variables mean temperature, snowfall, and rainfall. Values for winter of 2014/15 were statistically compared to the 30-year normal period from 1981-2010. Z-scores were calculated for 2014/15 relative to the selected 30-year normal period. These Z-score values were then mapped using ArcGIS. From the mean winter temperature map, it is apparent that abnormally warm temperatures influenced many ski resorts in California, Nevada, western Oregon, Washington, Arizona, Utah, southern Idaho, and parts of southern British Columbia. The winter snowfall map shows anomalous below normal conditions only at two resorts in south-central British Columbia and a single above normal situation at one site in central Colorado. The winter rainfall map displays that many ski resorts in New Mexico, Arizona, southern Utah, Colorado, Wyoming, Montana, Idaho, western Washington, and southwestern British Columbia experienced exceptional above normal winter season rainfalls. It is highly likely that the next Blob will be forecasted many months in advance of its occurrence. The results of this study have identified which ski resorts could be climatically influenced by such an event. This information may help reduce potential financial losses to ski resorts and their associated

  8. Analysis of Genome-Wide Copy Number Variations in Chinese Indigenous and Western Pig Breeds by 60 K SNP Genotyping Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yaqi; Wang, Hongyang; Wang, Chao; Yu, Shaobo; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Yu; Fan, Bin; Li, Kui; Liu, Bang

    2014-01-01

    Copy number variations (CNVs) represent a substantial source of structural variants in mammals and contribute to both normal phenotypic variability and disease susceptibility. Although low-resolution CNV maps are produced in many domestic animals, and several reports have been published about the CNVs of porcine genome, the differences between Chinese and western pigs still remain to be elucidated. In this study, we used Porcine SNP60 BeadChip and PennCNV algorithm to perform a genome-wide CNV detection in 302 individuals from six Chinese indigenous breeds (Tongcheng, Laiwu, Luchuan, Bama, Wuzhishan and Ningxiang pigs), three western breeds (Yorkshire, Landrace and Duroc) and one hybrid (Tongcheng×Duroc). A total of 348 CNV Regions (CNVRs) across genome were identified, covering 150.49 Mb of the pig genome or 6.14% of the autosomal genome sequence. In these CNVRs, 213 CNVRs were found to exist only in the six Chinese indigenous breeds, and 60 CNVRs only in the three western breeds. The characters of CNVs in four Chinese normal size breeds (Luchuan, Tongcheng and Laiwu pigs) and two minipig breeds (Bama and Wuzhishan pigs) were also analyzed in this study. Functional annotation suggested that these CNVRs possess a great variety of molecular function and may play important roles in phenotypic and production traits between Chinese and western breeds. Our results are important complementary to the CNV map in pig genome, which provide new information about the diversity of Chinese and western pig breeds, and facilitate further research on porcine genome CNVs. PMID:25198154

  9. Detection of Babesia and Theileria species infection in cattle from Portugal using a reverse line blotting method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, M G; Marques, P X; Oliva, A

    2010-12-15

    Babesiosis and Theileriosis are tick-borne diseases widespread in tropical and sub-tropical regions with high economic impact worldwide. In Portugal there are at least 4 tick vectors known to be competent for the transmission of Babesia and Theileria sp. identified: Rhipicephalus bursa, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus, Ixodes ricinus and Haemaphysalis punctata. All these potential Babesia and Theileria tick vectors are widely distributed in Portugal, although they are predominant in the Southern region. In this study, 1104 cattle blood samples were randomly collected from Central and Southern regions of Portugal and analyzed by PCR-reverse line blotting (RLB) for the detection of Babesia and Theileria sp. Testing indicated that 74.7% of the bovines tested were positive for either Babesia and/or Theileria sp. In addition, five different apicomplexan species, namely, Theileria buffeli, Theileria annulata, Babesia divergens, Babesia bovis, and Babesia bigemina were detected by RLB among the bovines tested. T. buffeli was the most frequently found species, being present in 69.9% of the positive samples either as single infections (52.4%), or as mixed infections (17.5%). The Babesia specie most frequently found was B. divergens, detected in 4.2% of the infected bovines. Overall, infected bovines were found in all regions tested; however the highest number of infected bovines was observed in Évora district (96.2%) and in cattle from Limousin breeds (81.7%). The results indicate widespread Babesia and Theileria infections in Portuguese bovines, suggesting the need for improved control of ticks and tick-borne diseases. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Patterns of Limnohabitans Microdiversity across a Large Set of Freshwater Habitats as Revealed by Reverse Line Blot Hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezbera, Jan; Jezberová, Jitka; Kasalický, Vojtěch; Šimek, Karel; Hahn, Martin W.

    2013-01-01

    Among abundant freshwater Betaproteobacteria, only few groups are considered to be of central ecological importance. One of them is the well-studied genus Limnohabitans and mainly its R-BT subcluster, investigated previously mainly by fluorescence in situ hybridization methods. We designed, based on sequences from a large Limnohabitans culture collection, 18 RLBH (Reverse Line Blot Hybridization) probes specific for different groups within the genus Limnohabitans by targeting diagnostic sequences on their 16 S–23 S rRNA ITS regions. The developed probes covered in sum 92% of the available isolates. This set of probes was applied to environmental DNA originating from 161 different European standing freshwater habitats to reveal the microdiversity (intra-genus) patterns of the Limnohabitans genus along a pH gradient. Investigated habitats differed in various physicochemical parameters, and represented a very broad range of standing freshwater habitats. The Limnohabitans microdiversity, assessed as number of RLBH-defined groups detected, increased significantly along the gradient of rising pH of habitats. 14 out of 18 probes returned detection signals that allowed predictions on the distribution of distinct Limnohabitans groups. Most probe-defined Limnohabitans groups showed preferences for alkaline habitats, one for acidic, and some seemed to lack preferences. Complete niche-separation was indicated for some of the probe-targeted groups. Moreover, bimodal distributions observed for some groups of Limnohabitans, suggested further niche separation between genotypes within the same probe-defined group. Statistical analyses suggested that different environmental parameters such as pH, conductivity, oxygen and altitude influenced the distribution of distinct groups. The results of our study do not support the hypothesis that the wide ecological distribution of Limnohabitans bacteria in standing freshwater habitats results from generalist adaptations of these bacteria

  11. Patterns of Limnohabitans microdiversity across a large set of freshwater habitats as revealed by Reverse Line Blot Hybridization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Jezbera

    Full Text Available Among abundant freshwater Betaproteobacteria, only few groups are considered to be of central ecological importance. One of them is the well-studied genus Limnohabitans and mainly its R-BT subcluster, investigated previously mainly by fluorescence in situ hybridization methods. We designed, based on sequences from a large Limnohabitans culture collection, 18 RLBH (Reverse Line Blot Hybridization probes specific for different groups within the genus Limnohabitans by targeting diagnostic sequences on their 16 S-23 S rRNA ITS regions. The developed probes covered in sum 92% of the available isolates. This set of probes was applied to environmental DNA originating from 161 different European standing freshwater habitats to reveal the microdiversity (intra-genus patterns of the Limnohabitans genus along a pH gradient. Investigated habitats differed in various physicochemical parameters, and represented a very broad range of standing freshwater habitats. The Limnohabitans microdiversity, assessed as number of RLBH-defined groups detected, increased significantly along the gradient of rising pH of habitats. 14 out of 18 probes returned detection signals that allowed predictions on the distribution of distinct Limnohabitans groups. Most probe-defined Limnohabitans groups showed preferences for alkaline habitats, one for acidic, and some seemed to lack preferences. Complete niche-separation was indicated for some of the probe-targeted groups. Moreover, bimodal distributions observed for some groups of Limnohabitans, suggested further niche separation between genotypes within the same probe-defined group. Statistical analyses suggested that different environmental parameters such as pH, conductivity, oxygen and altitude influenced the distribution of distinct groups. The results of our study do not support the hypothesis that the wide ecological distribution of Limnohabitans bacteria in standing freshwater habitats results from generalist adaptations of

  12. Evaluation of the radioimmunoassay, indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, and dot blot assay for the identification of Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malin, E; Belden, E L; Roth, D

    1985-09-01

    A radioimmunoassay (RIA), an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and a dot-blot modification of the ELISA were evaluated for detection and identification of Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli (X. c. pv. phaseoli). RIA and the dot blot tests were specific for X. c. pv. phaseoli; however, significant cross reactions occurred in the indirect competitive ELISA when using anti-X. c. pv. phaseoli antiserum against other closely related bacteria. The sensitivity level of all procedures for X. c. pv. phaseoli was approximately l0/sup 5/ colony forming unitsmL. All procedures were unsatisfactory in reliably detecting low levels of X. c. pv. phaseoli directly from extracts of bean seed. However when used in conjunction with ilution plating the dot blot assay and the RIA would be useful in specifically identifying X. c. pv. phaseoli. The relative merits of these tests for identification of X. c. pv. phaseoli are discussed.

  13. Estimation of Leakage Potential of Selected Sites in Interstate and Tri-State Canals Using Geostatistical Analysis of Selected Capacitively Coupled Resistivity Profiles, Western Nebraska, 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrabel, Joseph; Teeple, Andrew; Kress, Wade H.

    2009-01-01

    With increasing demands for reliable water supplies and availability estimates, groundwater flow models often are developed to enhance understanding of surface-water and groundwater systems. Specific hydraulic variables must be known or calibrated for the groundwater-flow model to accurately simulate current or future conditions. Surface geophysical surveys, along with selected test-hole information, can provide an integrated framework for quantifying hydrogeologic conditions within a defined area. In 2004, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the North Platte Natural Resources District, performed a surface geophysical survey using a capacitively coupled resistivity technique to map the lithology within the top 8 meters of the near-surface for 110 kilometers of the Interstate and Tri-State Canals in western Nebraska and eastern Wyoming. Assuming that leakage between the surface-water and groundwater systems is affected primarily by the sediment directly underlying the canal bed, leakage potential was estimated from the simple vertical mean of inverse-model resistivity values for depth levels with geometrically increasing layer thickness with depth which resulted in mean-resistivity values biased towards the surface. This method generally produced reliable results, but an improved analysis method was needed to account for situations where confining units, composed of less permeable material, underlie units with greater permeability. In this report, prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the North Platte Natural Resources District, the authors use geostatistical analysis to develop the minimum-unadjusted method to compute a relative leakage potential based on the minimum resistivity value in a vertical column of the resistivity model. The minimum-unadjusted method considers the effects of homogeneous confining units. The minimum-adjusted method also is developed to incorporate the effect of local lithologic heterogeneity on water

  14. The Analysis of Differences and Similarities of Eastern and Western Women’s Images in Liang Sanbo Yu Zhu Yingtai and Romeo and Juliet Novel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yenny Yenny

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Sanpek Engtay and Romeo Juliet are the two famous classic love novels from Eastern and Western countries. They are liked by many generation of eastern and western readers. Both novels describe the image of women at each decade. Engtay represents the image of women at feudalism era while Juliet represents it Renainsance era. In this article, the writer did research at education, marriage, love, women's personality, and women's position at each decade. Library research was done in this study with the purpose of letting people know the differences and similarities of women's images between those two decades It can be concluded that in both writings, they have some similarities when describing love, mindset, and women's personality. The differences are about education, marriage, and women's position at feudalism and Renainsance decades.

  15. Immunological diagnosis of human hydatid cyst using Western immunoblotting technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahboubeh Hadipour

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Echinococcosis is a parasitic disease with worldwide distribution which is caused by the tapeworms Echinococcus granulosus. Diagnosis of the disease relies on imaging techniques, but the techniques are not able to differentiate the cyst from benign or malignant tumors; hence, appropriate serologic methods are required for the differential diagnosis of the infection. Materials and Methods: In this investigation, different sheep hydatid cyst antigens probed with thirty sera of patients with hydatid cyst and also thirty human normal sera using Western immunoblotting technique. Considering results of surgery as gold standard, sensitivity and specificity of Western blotting was estimated. Results: Sera of 29, 26, and 16 patients with hydatid cyst reacted with specific bands of hydatid cyst fluid (HCF, protoscolex crude antigen, and cyst wall crude antigen, respectively. However, none of the normal human sera reacted with those specific bands. Conclusion: A 20 kDa band of sheep HCF is an appropriate antigen for serodiagnosis of hydatid cyst infection.

  16. Probiotic attributes of indigenous Lactobacillus spp. isolated from traditional fermented foods and beverages of north-western Himalayas using in vitro screening and principal component analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kumari, Anila; Angmo, Kunzes; Monika; Bhalla, Tek Chand

    2016-01-01

    The present research was designed to explore indigenous probiotic Lactic acid bacteria from traditional fermented foods and beverages of North-western Himalayas for their probiotic potential. It was achieved through a step-by step approach focused on the technological characterization, evaluation of the probiotic traits and adherence ability. Fifty one LAB isolates from traditional fermented foods and beverages were initially screened for their technological properties and among them twenty i...

  17. Active and fossil mantle flows in the western Alpine region unravelled by seismic anisotropy analysis and high-resolution P wave tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimbeni, Simone; Malusà, Marco G.; Zhao, Liang; Guillot, Stéphane; Pondrelli, Silvia; Margheriti, Lucia; Paul, Anne; Solarino, Stefano; Aubert, Coralie; Dumont, Thierry; Schwartz, Stéphane; Wang, Qingchen; Xu, Xiaobing; Zheng, Tianyu; Zhu, Rixiang

    2018-04-01

    The anisotropy of seismic velocities in the mantle, when integrated with high-resolution tomographic models and geologic information, can be used to detect active mantle flows in complex plate boundary areas, providing new insights on the impact of mantle processes on the topography of mountain belts. Here we use a densely spaced array of temporary broadband seismic stations to analyze the seismic anisotropy pattern of the western Alpine region, at the boundary between the Alpine and Apenninic slabs. Our results are supportive of a polyphase development of anisotropic mantle fabrics, possibly starting from the Jurassic to present. Geophysical data presented in this work, and geologic evidence taken from the literature, indicate that: (i) fossil fabrics formed during Tethyan rifting may be still preserved within the Alpine and Apenninic slabs; (ii) mantle deformation during Apenninic slab rollback is not compensated by a complete toroidal flow around the northern tip of the retreating slab; (iii) the previously observed continuous trend of anisotropy fast axes near-parallel to the western Alpine arc is confirmed. We observe that this arc-parallel trend of fast axes is located in correspondence to a low velocity anomaly in the European upper mantle, beneath regions of the Western and Ligurian Alps showing the highest uplift rates. We propose that the progressive rollback of the Apenninic slab, in the absence of a counterclockwise toroidal flow at its northern tip, induced a suction effect at the scale of the supraslab mantle. The resulting mantle flow pattern was characterized by an asthenospheric counterflow at the rear of the unbroken Western Alps slab and around its southern tip, and by an asthenospheric upwelling, mirrored by low P wave velocities, that would have favored the topographic uplift of the Alpine belt from the Mont Blanc to the Mediterranean sea.

  18. Western Australian natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harman, Frank

    1994-01-01

    Western Australia has 80% of Australia's natural gas resources. These are currently exploited to supply the Western Australian market and LNG to Japan. Growth in the market is dependent on limited prospects for power generation and mineral resource processing. Future exploitation of gas resources will require new export LNG markets and/or the installations of a transcontinental pipeline to eastern Australia. The transcontinental option should only be considered after other options for energy supply in eastern Australia are eliminated. Competition to meet market growth in North-east Asia will be considerable and Australia lacks the policies to underpin future LNG capacity. (author)

  19. Development of a dot blot assay with antibodies to recombinant “core” 14-3-3 protein: Evaluation of its usefulness in diagnosis of Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarada Subramanian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Definitive diagnosis of Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (CJD requires demonstration of infective prion protein (PrPSc in brain tissues by immunohistochemistry or immunoblot, making antemortem diagnosis of CJD difficult. The World Health Organization (WHO recommends detection of 14-3-3 protein in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF in cases of dementia, with clinical correlation, as a useful diagnostic marker for CJD, obviating the need for brain biopsy.This facility is currently available in only a few specialized centers in the West and no commercial kit is available for clinical diagnostic use in India. Hence the objective of this study was to develop an in-house sensitive assay for quantitation of 14-3-3 protein and to evaluate its diagnostic potential to detect 14-3-3 proteins in CSF as a biomarker in suspected cases of CJD. Materials and Methods: A minigene expressing the “core” 14-3-3 protein was synthesized by overlapping polymerase chain reaction (PCR and the recombinant protein was produced by employing a bacterial expression system. Polyclonal antibodies raised in rabbit against the purified recombinant protein were used for developing a dot blot assay with avidin-biotin technology for signal amplification and quantitation of 14-3-3 protein in CSF. Results: The results in the present study suggest the diagnostic potential of the dot blot method with about 10-fold difference (P< 0.001 in the CSF levels of 14-3-3 protein between the CJD cases (N= 50 and disease controls (N= 70. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis of the results suggested an optimal cutoff value of 2 ng/mL. Conclusions: We have developed an indigenous, economical, and sensitive dot blot method for the quantitation of 14-3-3 protein in CSF.

  20. ANCA-GBM dot-blot : Evaluation of an assay in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutgers, Abraham; Damoiseaux, Jan; Roozendaal, Caroline; Limburg, Pieter C; Stegeman, Coen A; Tervaert, Jan Willem Cohen

    Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (RPGN) is characterized by rapid and progressive loss of renal function and the presence of crescentic glomerulonephritis (CGN). Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment is mandatory to prevent death and/or renal failure. We have evaluated an ANCA-GBM dot-blot

  1. Dot-blot immunoassay of Fasciola gigantica infection using 27 kDa and adult worm regurge antigens in Egyptian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel, Hanan H; Saad, Ghada A; Sarhan, Rania M

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the potential role of the 27-Kilodalton (KDa) antigen versus Fasciola gigantica adult worm regurge antigens in a DOT-Blot assay and to assess this assay as a practical tool for diagnosis fascioliasis in Egyptian patients. Fasciola gigantica antigen of an approximate molecular mass 27-(KDa) was obtained from adult worms by a simple elution SDS-PAGE. A Dot-Blot was developed comparatively to adult worm regurge antigens for the detection of specific antibodies from patients infected with F. gigantica in Egypt. Control sera were obtained from patients with other parasitic infections and healthy volunteers to assess the test and compare between the antigens. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of Dot-Blot using the adult worm regurge were 80%, 90%, 94.1%, and 69.2% respectively, while those using 27-KDa were 100% which confirms the diagnostic potential of this antigen. All patients infected with Fasciola were positive, with cross reactivity reported with Schistosoma mansoni serum samples. This 27-KDa Dot-Blot assay showed to be a promising test which can be used for serodiagnosis of fascioliasis in Egyptian patients especially, those presenting with hepatic disease. It is specific, sensitive and easy to perform method for the rapid diagnosis particularly when more complex laboratory tests are unavailable.

  2. Imams in Western Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    As European Muslims and Muslims in the Middle East diverge, imams in Europe have emerged as major agents of religious authority who shape Islam’s presence in Western societies. This volume examines the theoretical and practical questions concerning the evolving role of imams in Europe. To what...

  3. Multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis to compare coral bank and seafloor seepage area-related characterization along the central Western continental margin of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chakraborty, B.; VishnuVardhan, Y.; Haris, K.; Menezes, A.A.A.; Karisiddaiah, S.M.; Fernandes, W.A.; Kurian, J.

    ], [9]. In the western continental margin off Malpe, Karnataka coast, India, two living coral banks were identified using an EM 1002 multibeam echo sounder (MBES), namely, 1) the Gaveshani bank [10] and 2) an unnamed coral bank [11]. The other important.... MATERIALS AND METHODS The MBES data system for the present study was used to acquire a dataset during a survey (in 2006) onboard coastal research vessel (CRV) Sagar Sukti. The EM 1002 system operates at a frequency of 95 kHz and acquires the bathymetry 1545...

  4. A content analysis of the newspaper advertisements westernization in China%中国报纸广告西方化程度研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李东进; 安圣慧; 杨华

    2007-01-01

    通过研究中国广告的内容及形式,发现在广告内容及形式上的变化情况,判断出中国广告西方化程度,从而对企业采取何种广告传播策略提供参考.如果中国广告中呈现较浓的西方文化特征,可以从侧面说明东西方文化差距减小,标准化广告策略可能是外商企业的一个较好的广告传播策略.否则,就应采用差异化广告策略和组合策略.%The purpose of this study is, by means of studying the changes in Chinese advertisements' contents and forms over a decade, to evaluate the advertising westernization in China and to provide suggestions for Chinese companies in selecting proper advertising strategies. If relatively typical Western cultural characteristics are presented in Chinese advertisements, it indicates that the cultural distance between East and West is reduced, and standardization strategies may be a better choice for foreign enterprises. Otherwise, they should adopt specialization or combined strategies.

  5. Western Military Culture and Counterinsurgency:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    francois

    with a threat both abroad and within their homeland societies. Civilians fulfil a ..... we have now with the use of force and forces is their persistent structuring ... advanced equipment remains the main feature of Western military culture. Western.

  6. Suicide and Western culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pridmore, Saxby; McArthur, Milford

    2009-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the cultural roots and transmission of Western suicide and suicidal behaviour. We explored a period of antiquity (mythical Greece-61 CE) and selected accounts of 10 prominent suicides. The precipitating circumstances were tabulated and an assessment made of the most likely attendant emotions. The same process was followed for a recent period (1994-2008), from which 10 suicides were identified. The precipitating circumstances and the attendant emotions were compared. These circumstances and emotions were then compared to statements commonly encountered in clinical practice from people demonstrating suicidal behaviour. Finally, we looked for evidence that these stories (and the response models) had entered Western culture. Precipitating circumstances, loss of a loved one, actual or imminent execution or imprisonment, other losses and public disgrace, and the negative emotions of shame, guilt, fear, anger, grief and sorrow were common to both historical periods. These circumstances and emotions are similar to those commonly expressed by people who have demonstrated suicidal behaviour. There was a clear record (literature, visual arts) of these stories forming part of our cultural heritage. Models of maladaptive responses to certain adverse circumstances are part of Western culture. Suicide as a response to certain circumstances and negative emotions can be traced back more than 2000 years. Cultural change will be necessary to minimize suicide.

  7. Internal globalization of Western Balkan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukotić Veselin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available What are potential and real effects of the globalization process on the economic connection between Western Balkan countries? What is the crucial change in relations between Western Balkan countries and its economies inexorably brought by globalization? What are the elements of political economy of Western Balkan globalization? What are reflections of the conflict between political and economic areas of Western Balkan? These are some of the issues discuses in this paper.

  8. An analysis of a regional nuclear safeguards organisation: the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM) and the development of nuclear safeguards in Western Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howlett, Darryl.

    1988-08-01

    This thesis argues that the nuclear safeguards system implemented by EURATOM in Western Europe has come to fruition as a result of a complex political process. This process has involved negotiations over the exact limits on safeguards interventions into the nuclear affairs of the European Community. There are two dimensions to these negotiations. On the one hand, they involve EURATOM and its member states over the necessary limits on safeguards intervention in member states' domestic nuclear affairs. On the other, there are negotiations between EURATOM and several actors outside the region, particularly the International Atomic Energy Agency. The thesis concludes by arguing that international safeguards organisations, of which EURATOM is a regional example, have made important contributions to arms control and international security. In the process, certain kinds of precedents and procedures which have potential for broader application have been established. (author)

  9. An early cretaceous phase of accelerated erosion on the south-western margin of Africa: evidence from apatite fission track analysis and the offshore sedimentary record

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.W.; Gleadow, A.J.W.; Rust, D.J.; Summerfield, M.A.; De Wit, M.C.J.

    1990-01-01

    Apatite fission track ages and confined track length distributions have been determined for rock samples from the south-western continental margin of Africa. The apatite ages fall into two groups, one having early Cretaceous ages and mean confined track lengths of ∼ 14 μm with very few short tracks, and the other having older ages with confined track length distributions containing a significant proportion of strongly annealed tracks (<10 μm). In any particular area the older apatite ages only occur above a critical threshold elevation, forming a regional pattern in the data and indicating cooling of the upper few kilometres of the crust during the early cretaceous. This episode of cooling is shown to have been the consequence of an accelerated phase of erosion associated with the early stages of rifting and break-up of Gondwana, and correlates with sedimentation patterns derived from borehole data for the adjacent offshore basin. (author)

  10. An early cretaceous phase of accelerated erosion on the south-western margin of Africa: evidence from apatite fission track analysis and the offshore sedimentary record

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, R.W.; Gleadow, A.J.W. (La Trobe Univ., Bundoora (Australia)); Rust, D.J.; Summerfield, M.A. (Edinburgh Univ. (UK)); De Wit, M.C.J. (De Beers Consolidated Mines Ltd., Kimberley (South Africa))

    1990-01-01

    Apatite fission track ages and confined track length distributions have been determined for rock samples from the south-western continental margin of Africa. The apatite ages fall into two groups, one having early Cretaceous ages and mean confined track lengths of {approx} 14 {mu}m with very few short tracks, and the other having older ages with confined track length distributions containing a significant proportion of strongly annealed tracks (<10 {mu}m). In any particular area the older apatite ages on