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Sample records for western balkans premier

  1. BENCHMARKING WESTERN BALKAN ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Stošić

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyse the relative positions of Western Balkan countries and to determine the differences or similarities in the results based on survey data (of international institutions: EBRD, World Bank, World Economic Forum, Heritage Foundation, and on based on selected key statistical indicators. Using the sample of countries in same region and by applying the method of “multi-country” statistical analysis, it was attempted to establish relation between results obtained in studies of international institutions, and some actual achieved key economic performances by the first measure of correlation (so-called Spearman's coefficient of correlation. The obtained results differ to a smaller or greater extent according to the experiential test we used in the case of this region. Therefore, our findings reveal that overall economic position of selected country cannot be perceived only by relying on one methodology or type of data. Consequently, we point out that multi-criteria are a must and each methodology can be useful, because it emphasizes different aspects of the economic performances and country position.

  2. Improving Security Cooperation in the Western Balkans

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Simonson, Timothy L

    2007-01-01

    ... than it is to allow them to fail. After more than two centuries of ethnic violence and a decade and a half of genocide and civil war, the western Balkans remain at risk of becoming failed states...

  3. Financial system development progress in Western Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emira Kozarević

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Financial system supports economic growth, while its regulatory framework provides stability for investors. Develo-ping countries with bank-oriented financial systems are not attractive to investors, so prolonged status quo leads to economic deterioration. This is particularly the case with some of the most underdeveloped areas in Europe: Western Balkans. It is essential the developing countries in this region consider steps towards financial liberalization, which will help open the borders for capital flows and attract new investments. The main goal of this paper is to review and present the available information related to the banking system development in Western Balkans in terms of ownership structure, capital adequacy, loan and asset performance, return on investment and liquidity. These indicators should provide a clearer picture of the current financial systems in Western Balkans economies and their development progress – useful for comparison with other developing regions and financial transformation and liberalization efforts.

  4. The Western Balkans Geopolitics and Russian Energy Politics

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    Muhidin Mulalic

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Energy politics is today at the center of the Russian and the Western Balkans relations. It is widely known that Russia has been playing significant role in world energy supply. Therefore, Russian energy companies have taken a leading role in the promotion of their businesses in the Western Balkans. The Western Balkans region has become geostrategic partner as a transit route for the integration of Russia into the global energy world market. With regards to the transportation of gas Western Balkans as a transit route is determined to fully realize South Stream project. In contrast to “a buffer zone” role, in the past few decades the Western Balkans gained an attention from Russia and became an important geopolitical bridge towards Western Europe. Such geopolitical and geostrategic planning of Russia is apparent with regards to gas and oil. Due to Russian South Stream gas pipeline project the Western Balkans became an important European energy transforming center. These new geostrategic games over the pipeline have also revived the Russian historical interests in the Balkans. This paper aims to analyze Russian-Western Balkans relations with special emphasis on energy politics and geopolitical and geostrategic interdependence of Russia and the Western Balkans.

  5. Traditional Food in Western Balkan Countries Consumers’ Perceptions and Habits

    OpenAIRE

    Barjolle, Dominique; Brecic, Ruzica; Cerjak, Marija; Giraud, Georges

    2015-01-01

    Te aim of this paper is to explore consumers' perceptions and habits regarding traditional food in the Western Balkan Countries. In each Western Balkan country, two focus groups were carried-out (total twelve focus groups; eight to ten participants per each – total sample of 104 participants). Results of this study show that consumer motives for the choice of traditional products pertain to higher health, safety, sensory and increasingly also sustainability beliefs and expectation. Results of...

  6. 'Western Balkans': Political context and the media usage

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    Svilar Predrag

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available By accessing the content analysis of media archives, available both on the Internet presentations of the most significant and most influential media, press agencies, web search engines, and official public institutions, international government and non-government organizations, we will make an attempt to point to political conditioning, appearances and uses, as well as political etymology of the term Western Balkans. The attention will also be called to the fact that the term has its origin in Anglo-Saxon political and historiographical tradition, through the examples of its use, as well as to the similarities of political relations which bring to its applicability. By analyzing the content of media inscriptions, reports, documents, official announcements, authorial reviews and analyses, it came to a conclusion that Western Balkans occurs as a regional reference in particular historical and political circumstances and that geographical frames it is being used within, could be located outside the time frames and there are specified the particularities of its use. We will demonstrate that through the analysis of the political context and media usage, Western Balkans could be interpreted on more than one level. Western Balkans can at the same time represent both a terminological construction and a regional reference which expresses the indecisiveness of the West on social and cultural properties of the Balkans and the founding of Balkan cultures as immanently European, but at the same time the means of measurement, which is not only the determination of regionalism, but the determination of historical and political moment likewise. Besides, Western Balkans could also be interpreted as a mean of practical methodology and classification of naming the societies on the Balkans, which are the only outside the European Union frames, but also stand for the synchronization of the Balkanistic discourse with current political and historical circumstances and

  7. Tough love : the European Union's relations with the Western Balkans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blockmans, Steven

    2007-01-01

    As part of the international presence in the Western Balkans, the European Union has adopted sanctions, brokered political agreements, launched its first-ever police and military missions and directed economic, legal and administrative reforms to eradicate the root causes of instability. Yet,

  8. Business regulation and economic growth in the Western Balkan countries

    OpenAIRE

    Engjell PERE; Albana HASHORVA

    2013-01-01

    Actually economic policies in many countries aimed to stimulate their economic growth, particularly after negative impact of the global economic crisis. In this regards, fiscal regulation are an important aspect of those policies, that can promote or obstacle the economic growth in general. In this point of view this paper aims to analyze the system of administration rules in different Western Balkans Countries, (which includes Albania, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Croatia, Kosovo, Macedonia (FYROM)...

  9. Is quality of higher educational institutions in Western Balkan real?

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    Živaljević Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a survey conducted in November of 2013 in 120 higher education institutions in the Western Balkans Countries, with purpose to determine which models are used for quality improvement in Western Balkans higher educational institutions, and whether critical conditions for continuous quality improvement have been met by applying those models. Data were obtained by using questionnaire which consisted of 24 questions related to 2 previously defined hypotheses. Gathered data were tested with Student's t test to determine if there is a significant difference between the groups of higher educational institutions which use different quality models, as well as between private and public higher educational institutions. Authors argue that the rules imposed by Governments do not provide sufficient incentive for meeting the critical conditions for the continuous quality improvement. Legal framework and mandatory accreditation conducted by government bodies lead higher educational institutions to fulfil the formal requirements, distancing them from the essence of quality management, i.e. from self-criticism and motivation to consistently deliver better results than the previous ones and giving them the illusion of achieving quality through compliance with formal criteria.

  10. Overview of poverty and social exclusion in the Western Balkans

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    Matković Gordana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last 15 years the entire Western Balkan region has undergone dramatic changes. With the fall of the Berlin wall and the disintegration of the former Yugoslavia, new states were formed and transition started, although in some countries it was quite delayed. Simultaneously, during the nineties, much of the region experienced wars and destruction, waves of refugees, internal displacement of population, devastation of the economy, demolition of institutions and impoverishment of citizens. Absolute poverty, determined through the estimation of household consumption at which families, after paying for essential non-food expenditures just attain minimal nutritional needs, in almost all of the Western Balkans is still relatively high, and is not showing significant tendencies of decreasing. A large concentration of the population and households just above the poverty line additionally demonstrates the challenges faced by the entire region while undergoing the transition process. In some countries extreme poverty, meaning that not even basic food needs can be met, has been registered. On the other hand, relative poverty, defined as the share of those who are excluded from the minimum acceptable way of life in states in which they live, is not particularly high. Due to the relatively high standard of living in the past and high expectations of the population that living standards would increase in a relatively short period of time, the subjective perception of poverty in the entire region is very much present. Groups that stand out as especially vulnerable and excluded are the unemployed, dependents and the less educated. At the level of the household, in some countries households with many children and elderly households are particularly vulnerable. The poorest often live in the rural areas and in the underdeveloped regions. In addition, especially vulnerable groups, who cannot even be completely covered by standard surveys, but are poor and

  11. ASSESSING RUSSIAN IMPACT ON THE WESTERN BALKAN COUNTRIES’ EU ACCESSION: CASES OF CROATIA AND SERBIA

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    Bojana Zoric

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The matter of EU enlargement to the Western Balkans has become overshadowed by pressing issues such as Brexit, the rise of the radical right and international terrorism. Notwithstanding the pressure to address these issues accordingly, increasing tensions and ethnic outbursts across the Western Balkan region are reason enough for the European Union to devote significant attention to accession talks. This article addresses the Western Balkan countries’ Europeanization process with consideration of Russia as an external actor. By assessing the candidate countries’ progress amid EU negotiations, the article suggests that the countries’ bilateral ties with Russia have an impact on the Europeanization process which is particularly visible in Chapter 31 Foreign, security, and defense policy of the acquis communautaire. The broader geopolitical framework that comprises the multifaceted relationship between the EU and Russia is crucial for understanding the dynamics of EU-Western Balkans-Russia triangle.

  12. Understanding the motives for food choice in Western Balkan Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milošević, Jasna; Žeželj, Iris; Gorton, Matthew; Barjolle, Dominique

    2012-02-01

    Substantial empirical evidence exists regarding the importance of different factors underlying food choice in Western Europe. However, research results on eating habits and food choice in the Western Balkan Countries (WBCs) remain scarce. A Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ), an instrument that measures the reported importance of nine factors underlying food choice, was administered to a representative sample of 3085 adult respondents in six WBCs. The most important factors reported are sensory appeal, purchase convenience, and health and natural content; the least important are ethical concern and familiarity. The ranking of food choice motives across WBCs was strikingly similar. Factor analysis revealed eight factors compared to nine in the original FCQ model: health and natural content scales loaded onto one factor as did familiarity and ethical concern; the convenience scale items generated two factors, one related to purchase convenience and the other to preparation convenience. Groups of consumers with similar motivational profiles were identified using cluster analysis. Each cluster has distinct food purchasing behavior and socio-economic characteristics, for which appropriate public health communication messages can be drawn. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. IMPACT ON GLOBALIZATION TREND OF MOVEMENT OF EXTERNAL DEBT IN THE WESTERN BALKANS

    OpenAIRE

    JELENA TOSKOVIC; JOVANA ADZIC; SLOBODAN POPOVIC; JASNA MARKOVIC

    2016-01-01

    Globalization is seen as a process of transformation of regional phenomena into global and represents the interdependence of world society with the operation of the remote locations. It is considered the main vehicle for the implementation of neo-liberal concept of economy that is in the Western Balkans, its implementation began in the early nineties of the XX century. The Western Balkans is its geographical position was the boundaries between cultures, religions, nations and s...

  14. Addressing the military gap in the western Balkans and closing the gap through regional cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    113 of the Trans-Adriatic Pipeline, which will come to the Western Balkans through Turkey, Greece, and Albania will affect energy dependence in the...should be a study of the impact of the Trans-Adriatic Pipeline on the dependence on Russia for energy by the Western Balkans. Trans-Adriatic...Membership Action Plan, Security Environment, European Union, NATO, Joint Enabling Capabilities 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT

  15. Western Balkan States and the European Union Enlargement

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    Gelina Maliqi (Ramolli

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available For half a century, European Union-(EU has pursued ever-deeper integration while taking in new members. It’s marked as an important step in relationship deepening between EU and Western Balkans-(WBs where Albania is part of. In 2003, EU declared that the future of WBs is within EU. Initially it adopted a generous strategy that linked the timetable for accession to the pace of reform in WBs. The declaration contained a conditional promise; EU would consider WBs for membership only if they reached EU standards. The EU was motivated by usual economic considerations connected to enlargement and a desire to increase regional stability. The enlargement process regarding Albania will bring several reforms on different fields. Our country will benefit from a share of multibeneficiary funds for competitiveness, SMEs, energy efficiency and banking sector regulation. This presentation handles out these main issues: EU policy and the enlargement process regarding Albania inspecting the way and progress done up to now by our country, the main features of our national EUcoordination system, concluding in a SWOT Analysis of EU-coordination system in Albania. Eventually, I believe that Albania being part of WBs is at one time an opportunity and a challenge for the future of EU.

  16. Western Balkan States and the European Union Enlargement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelina Maliqi (Ramolli,

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available For half a century, European Union-(EU has pursued ever-deeper integration while takingin new members. It’s marked as an important step in relationship deepening between EU and WesternBalkans-(WBs where Albania is part of. In 2003, EU declared that the future of WBs is within EU.Initially it adopted a generous strategy that linked the timetable for accession to the pace of reform inWBs. The declaration contained a conditional promise; EU would consider WBs for membership onlyif they reached EU standards. The EU was motivated by usual economic considerations connected toenlargement and a desire to increase regional stability. The enlargement process regarding Albaniawill bring several reforms on different fields. Our country will benefit from a share of multibeneficiaryfunds for competitiveness, SMEs, energy efficiency and banking sector regulation. Thispresentation handles out these main issues: EU policy and the enlargement process regarding Albaniainspecting the way and progress done up to now by our country, the main features of our national EU coordinationsystem, concluding in a SWOT Analysis of EU-coordination system in Albania.Eventually, I believe that Albania being part of WBs is at one time an opportunity and a challenge forthe future of EU.

  17. Go West: The Western Balkans towards European integration

    OpenAIRE

    Ninka, Eniel

    2005-01-01

    When we talk about the Balkans we think of war, suffering, ethnic cleansing and hatred. And up to a rather recent point in time this was not a misleading idea. Unfortunately, this has been the reality in the Balkans. If one tries to imagine the map of the European Union in 2007 something would come in front of the eyes. An area in the Balkan Peninsula washed by the Adriatic Sea and circulated by Greece, Bulgaria, Romania, Hungary and Slovenia, all of them EU Member States. The ...

  18. The social, political and economic changes in the Western Balkans: Managing diversity

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    Sela Ylber

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives a retrospective of the events in the Balkans in the last 20 years. Hence, it indicates the problems, the progress and the challenges in terms of respecting and promoting diversity. The Western Balkans has always been a very interesting region with many challenges during different historical periods. If we take into consideration all the differences and diversities in this region, then this shouldn’t strike us as surprising. During history the Balkan region has always been a crossroads of many events, conflicts, changes and destructive occurrences. In order to understand the connection between ethnic and the religious diversity, as well as the future of the Western Balkan countries in terms of Euro-Atlantic integration, we need to provide some information about the political, economic and social changes in these countries during the past, especially in the last two decades.

  19. Prosecutorial councils and guarantees of prosecutors autonomy in Western Balkans states

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    Matić-Bošković Marina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available More than five years ago judicial and prosecutorial councils were established in the Western Balkans countries. Newly established institutions took over jurisdiction related to the election, promotion and dismissal of public prosecutors in line with the international standards of judicial independence. It is necessary to assess whether the prosecutorial councils fulfilled professional public expectations. In the paper author analysed European standards and good practices of prosecutorial councils' regulations, as well as comparative law models in Western Balkans countries and their compliance with standards.

  20. Effects of capital markets development on economic growth of Western Balkan countries

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    MSc. Artor Nuhiu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Through this research paper we have tried to elaborate the issue whether capital market development is an alternative towards economic growth and economic prosperity of developing countries in general, the Western Balkan countries in particular. The focus of the paper is to study the effects of proper functioning of capital markets and their im-pact on increasing the level of savings, capital investments and in locating relevant resources for long-term financing of the economy. The research paper presents positive and negative arguments, linking the establishment and development of a capital market and its impact on economic development of developing countries, particularly Western Balkan countries.

  1. European Enlargement and the Integration of the Western Balkans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-06-01

    4, McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers, 1995 and Pollo , S. and Puto, A., The History of Albania from its Origins to the Present Day, p. 1...160-193, Assidon-Wesley Publishing Company, 1979. 13 Pollo , p. 146 and Jelavich, B, pp 100-103. 14 In 1913 the Conference of Ambassadors in...5). 17 Zickel, pp 28-32. 18 Pollo , p. 227. 8 The frequent invasions of the Balkan Peninsula are largely responsible for the political

  2. Public Regulatory Arrangements for Private Higher Education in the Western Balkans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitriou, Antigoni; Levy, Daniel C.; Stensaker, Bjørn; Kanazir, Sanja

    2017-01-01

    The article presents an analysis of the developments of higher education laws and regulations in the Western Balkans for the period 1990-2015, with the aim of mapping the regulatory arrangements for the private higher education sector and to explore the relationship between public and private higher education in the region. Based on a conceptual…

  3. The "1+1:Life & Love" Simultaneous Exhibition: Cross-Border Collaboration in the Western Balkans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Diana

    2012-01-01

    This article describes and analyzes a cross-border, "simultaneous exhibition" collaborative project in six post-conflict western Balkan countries. Through a process of collaboration, active learning, and audience development, professional and personal trust developed among eleven museums. Previously identified barriers were overcome and…

  4. Agenda-Setting for VET Policy in the Western Balkans: Employability versus Social Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Will; Pagliarello, Marina Cino

    2016-01-01

    For the last decade, the Western Balkan countries have sought to modernise their vocational education and training (VET) systems, adapting them to the needs of their emerging market economies. Within the framework of the EU accession process, the policy agenda for VET policies has been strongly influenced by a range of international and domestic…

  5. Income convergence in the process of the Western Balkan states’ accession to the European Union

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    Nenad Stanisic

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the main expectations in European transition economies is that the processes of building the market economy and European integrations lead to a significant increase in the living standard, as well as to catching up with the level of the income per capita achieved in developed European economies. A quarter century after the beginning of transition, many of the former socialist countries joined the EU and significantly increased their GDP per capita. On the other hand, transition in the countries of the so-called Western Balkans has disappointed in this sense. The paper tests the existence and speed of income convergence in the Western Balkan states and developed EU countries, in comparison with the so-called „New Member States”. The results indicate that, despite the achieved income convergence in the pre-crisis years, the outbreak of the global economic crisis has revealed many structural and reform problems that the countries of the region have been facing for a long time. Catching up with developed EU members’ average GDP per capita stopped in the Western Balkan states after the beginning of the crisis, with a simultaneous increase in the income gap between the Western Balkan states and the new EU member states.

  6. Consumption and perception of processed fruits in the Western Balkan region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsema, S.J.; Zimmermann, K.L.; Cvetkovic, M.; Stojanovic, Z.; Spiroski, I.; Milosevic, J.; Mora, C.; Butigan, R.; Mugosa, B.; Esteve, M.; Pohar, J.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to gain a better understanding of the consumption and perception of processed fruits in Western Balkan countries in order to support consumer-oriented product development. In-depth interviews (n = 183) were used to explore the consumption of processed fruits, the motives to

  7. Competitiveness, Trade with the EU and Labour Markets: Challenges for the Western Balkans

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    Botrić Valerija

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the relationship between exporting and the labour markets of the Western Balkan economies within a macroeconomic and microeconomic framework. Within the macroeconomic framework we investigate the Western Balkan countries’ evolution of the bilateral intra-industry trade share with European Monetary Union members and compare this with the differences in bilateral unit labour cost dynamics. The microeconomic analysis rests on enterprise-level cross section data collected during the crisis period and investigates whether exporters help to create additional jobs in the region in comparison to entrepreneurs oriented towards national market. The results show that trade patterns between Western Balkan economies and EMU trading partners did not exhibit any significant changes in trend. On the other hand, it seems that during the recession period most Western Balkan economies adjusted their unit labour costs, probably in order to boost competitiveness. Microeconomic analysis revealed that, although there are some positive differences between exporters and non-exporters, exporters do not create additional employment.

  8. Mapping the potential for decentralized energy generation based on RES in Western Balkans

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    Schneider Daniel R.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the countries of the Western Balkans are mostly electrified, there are still regions which do not have access to the electricity network or where the network capacity is insufficient. For the most part such areas are under special care of the state (i. e. underdeveloped, devastated by war, depopulated, on islands or in mountainous regions. Since the decentralized energy generation covers a broad range of technologies, including many renewable energy technologies that provide small-scale power at sites close to the users, such concept could be of interest for these locations. This paper identifies the areas in Western Balkans where such systems could be applied. Consideration is given to geographical locations as well as possible applications. Wind, hydro, solar photovoltaic, and biomass conversion systems were taken into consideration. Since the renewable energy sources data for Western Balkans region are rather scarce, the intention was to give a survey of the present situation and an estimate of future potential for decentralized energy generation based on renewable energy sources. The decentralized energy generation based on renewable energy sources in Western Balkans will find its niche easier for the users that will produce electricity for their own needs and for the users located in remote rural areas (off-grid applications.

  9. Knowledge economy readiness, innovativeness and competitiveness of the Western Balkan countries

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    Cvetanović Slobodan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Western Balkan countries have set themselves the goal to join the European Union as soon as possible. Accordingly, they must adjust the key components of their development policies to the Europe 2020 strategy, focusing on key priorities such as smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. This paper explores the relationship among knowledge economy readiness, innovativeness, and competitiveness of six Western Balkan countries (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia, Serbia, Croatia, and Montenegro and the group of six selected neighboring EU countries (Austria, Bulgaria, Greece, Hungary, Romania, and Slovenia. The paper relies on the data obtained from the Knowledge Economy Index of the World Bank Institute, INSEAD's Global Innovation Index and the Global Competitiveness Index of the World Economic Forum for 2013. Obtained data from all three sources indicated significantly lower readiness for the development of economy based on knowledge, innovation and competitiveness in the Western Balkans countries in comparison to the selected EU countries. The analysis of the interdependence of the aforementioned variables points to: a statistically significant correlation between the indicator knowledge economy index and the global innovation index for both groups of countries; b statistically significant linear correlation between innovativeness and innovation efficiency ratio for the Western Balkan countries. Conversely, no respective correlation has been registered for the group of selected EU countries; c no statistically significant correlation between the global innovation index and the global competitiveness index in the Western Balkan countries, while in respect of the group of selected EU countries, the existence of significant linear correlation between these variables has been revealed.

  10. INTANGIBLE CAPITAL, INNOVATION AND EXPORT-LED GROWTH: EMPIRICAL COMPARATIVE STUDY OF SLOVENIA AND THE WESTERN BALKANS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marija Drenkovska; Tjasa Redek

    2015-01-01

    .... In a comparative study we investigate the intellectual capital of a sample of firms from the Western Balkans and Slovenia, and analyse the link between intellectual capital, innovation, and export volume...

  11. IRREGULAR MIGRATION FLOWS AND HUMAN TRAFFICKING IN THE WESTERN BALKAN COUNTRIES: CHALLENGES OF THE CONVERGENCE OF COUNTER-TRAFFICKING RESPONSE

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    Merita H. Mece

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Irregular migration on the Western Balkan route has marked an unprecedented number during the last five years. Evidence indicates that both, non-European nationals and Western Balkan citizens have been involved in this complex migratory flow being exposed to various risks of human trafficking. But Western Balkan countries are source, transit and destination countries of human trafficking while their states are not well organized to implement a comprehensive and well-coordinated regional response to combat it. This paper aims at examining challenges faced by the Western Balkan countries to converge anti-trafficking response while facing increased irregular migratory waves. Using secondary data it illustrates various disparities and differences among them concluding that a well-coordinated, multi-faceted and integrated regional response is needed to combat this humanitarian problem.

  12. DL 5.1 Report on EU Conflict Prevention and Peacebuilding in the Horn of Africa and Western Balkans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodt, Annemarie Peen; Tvilling, Johannes; Zartsdahl, Peter Horne

    2017-01-01

    Deliverable 5.1 is a report on EU conflict prevention and peacebuilding in the Horn of Africa and the Western Balkans. It appraises the EU’s Common Security and Defence Policy missions individually within and comparatively across both regions.......Deliverable 5.1 is a report on EU conflict prevention and peacebuilding in the Horn of Africa and the Western Balkans. It appraises the EU’s Common Security and Defence Policy missions individually within and comparatively across both regions....

  13. Mergers and Acquisitions in the Banking Sector: The Case of Western Balkan Countries / BKT Albania

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    Lulzim Rashiti

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to explain the financial system which is the engine force for the development of a trade economy. This system ensures payment means in economy and has an impact on its real activity, through the implementation of financial intermediation, acquisitions and mergers in the banking industry that have occurred in recent years in the Western Balkan countries, and monetary policy transmission in these countries. In developing countries, among which are also: Serbia, Macedonia, Albania, Montenegro, etc., banking industry is o" en almost the most important area in the financial system. Therefore, this paper will focus on the way the acquisitions and mergers occurred in the banking system, by assuming that many of the conclusions are applicable to the entire financial system in the Western Balkans. This paper will elaborate on this aspect a case study that deals with the acquisition of Banka Kombetare Tregtare (National Commercial Bank in Albania by the Turkish company Calik Holding (Akif Bank.

  14. IMPACT ON GLOBALIZATION TREND OF MOVEMENT OF EXTERNAL DEBT IN THE WESTERN BALKANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JELENA TOSKOVIC

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Globalization is seen as a process of transformation of regional phenomena into global and represents the interdependence of world society with the operation of the remote locations. It is considered the main vehicle for the implementation of neo-liberal concept of economy that is in the Western Balkans, its implementation began in the early nineties of the XX century. The Western Balkans is its geographical position was the boundaries between cultures, religions, nations and states. Throughout history, the political turmoil in this region has been a major conflicts, which affected the economic policies of the countries and the region. In this way, the region lost balance as reflected in the decrease in the volume of trade and increased borrowing mainly from international financial institutions. The growth of debt resulted in the increase in external debt (public and private sectors, which led to an imbalance in economic development and macroeconomic stability in the society. The aim of the paper is to determine to what extent the process of globalization has led to an increase / influence on increasing trend of foreign debt in the countries of the Western Balkans (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, FYR Macedonia, Montenegro and Serbia in the period 2004-2014. years. The work is in addition to the introduction consists of three parts. The first analyzes the problem of growth of external debt, the second analyzes the trend of the external debt of the private and public sector, while the third analyzes the current account balance and economic growth in the Western Balkans. In addition, at the end of the data concluding observations.

  15. Trade regimes, investment promotion and export prospects in the Western Balkans

    OpenAIRE

    Mulaj, Isa

    2009-01-01

    Once regarded as a more prosperous part of socialist world, the region that was within the Yugoslav common market now excludes Slovenia and includes Albania to be renamed as the Western Balkans. After a decade of social unrest and civil wars of mainly ethnic character, it has yet to come up in terms of economic development that is behind some advanced transition economies, namely those in Visegrad countries. With the admission of Bulgaria and Romania in the European Union (EU) since 2007, the...

  16. Labour Market Institutions in the Western Balkan Countries and their Economic Implications: Evidence for Kosova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Anera Alishani

    2013-12-01

    To address this issue, this paper provides a literature review of the notion of flexicurity and then investigates the relevance of flexicurity for the countries of the Western Balkans through its found components (flexible and reliable contractual arrangements, lifelong learning, active employment policies and social security system. Even though flexicurity can be a way out for low performed economies it is considered as highly costly.

  17. Mergers and Acquisitions in the Banking Sector: The Case of Western Balkan Countries / BKT Albania

    OpenAIRE

    Lulzim Rashiti; Vedat Zulfiu

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to explain the financial system which is the engine force for the development of a trade economy. This system ensures payment means in economy and has an impact on its real activity, through the implementation of financial intermediation, acquisitions and mergers in the banking industry that have occurred in recent years in the Western Balkan countries, and monetary policy transmission in these countries. In developing countries, among which are also: Serbia, Macedonia, Albani...

  18. Net capital flows to and the real exchange rate of Western Balkan countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrisch Hubert

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses Granger causality tests to assess the linkages between changes in the real exchange rate and net capital inflows using the example of Western Balkan countries, which have suffered from low competitiveness and external imbalances for many years. The real exchange rate is a measure of a country’s price competitiveness, and the paper uses two concepts: relative unit labour cost and relative inflation differential. The sample consists of six Western Balkan countries for the period 1996-2012, relative to the European Union (EU. The main finding is that changes in the net capital flows precede changes in relative unit labour costs and not vice versa. Also, there is evidence that net capital flows affect the inflation differential of countries, although to a less discernible extent. This suggests that the increasing divergence in the unit labour cost between the EU and Western Balkan countries up to the global financial crisis was at least partly the result of net capital inflows. The paper adds to the ongoing debate on improving cost competitiveness through wage restrictions as the main vehicle to avert the accumulation of current account imbalances. It shows the importance of changes in the exchange rate regime, reform of the interaction between the financial and the real sector, and financial supervision and structural change.

  19. Energy in the western Balkans - the path to reform and reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-06-15

    The Western Balkans - composed of Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia and Kosovo - is a complex region facing significant energy challenges. The conflicts over the break-up of the former Yugoslavia damaged much of the energy infrastructure and compounded the challenge of providing reliable energy supply. Electricity systems in many parts of the region remain fragile and in need of investment. A priority across the region is to put into place the institutions, infrastructure and policies that can support the provision of reliable, affordable and sustainable energy. For the Western Balkans as a whole, a key element of the reform effort is the Energy Community Treaty - a regulatory and market framework to which the entire region has now subscribed. This Treaty aims to create an integrated regional market for electricity and gas compatible with the European Union's internal energy market. This Energy Policy Survey is the first comprehensive review of energy policies and strategies in the Western Balkan region, and also covers important cross-cutting topics such as co-operation and energy trade, oil and gas transportation, and the links between energy and poverty. It identifies and assesses the reforms that are still needed to deliver efficient, modernised energy systems that can assist economic development, address energy poverty and reduce the environmental impacts of energy use.

  20. Learning by Doing: The EU’s Transformative Power and Conflicts in the Western Balkans

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    Bazerkoska Julija Brsakoska

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the European Community/ European Union experience in the Western Balkans in the period from 1990 onwards in different context in order to assess different mechanisms which the European Union has gained with building the Common Foreign and Security Policy and within the Enlargement Policy in the process of conflict prevention and conflict resolution. Additionally, the paper makes an assessment of the EU’s involvement in the conflict prevention and conflict resolution in the Balkans after the Stabilization and Association Process was launched in 1999. The authors argue that in the case of the military conflicts in the former Yugoslavia, when the European Community was confronted with serious and hard security issues at the very beginning of creating its Common Foreign and Security Policy and in a period of time when the region was not part of the enlargement process, the Community and the Union afterwards proved to be extremely ineffective. In the second part, through three case studies, the paper demonstrate that with the combined use of CFSP mechanisms and SAP, positive examples of the EU acting as a provider of peaceful dispute settlement in the Western Balkans have been established.

  1. Orientalism, Balkanism and the Western Viewpoint in the Context of Former Yugoslavia

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    MA. Atdhe Hetemi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This research paper examines the role of the Orientalist and Balkanist discourse in the Former Yugoslavia with a particular focus on Albanians. Here, Western Orientalist and Balkanist stereotypes of the Former Yugoslavia are examined arguing that the Orientalism and Balkanism of people living in the Former Yugoslavia is and was viewed differently from the standard by the West and by the people living in the Former Yugoslavia in the way how they perceive each other. The first part of this research paper treats the Orientalism and Balkanism in the context of people living in the Former Yugoslavia, in general. The second part of this research paper analyzes the case study of the application of the Orientalist and Balkanist theoretical lenses on one of the nations living in the Former Yugoslavia, namely Albanians. Here, some explorations and thoughts are provided on how Albanians define themselves and how they were perceived by the South Slavic majority living in the Former Yugoslavia. There are three authors and, subsequently, three seminal works that shall serve as pillars of this theoretical analysis: concepts of Edward Said’s “Orientalism,” Bakic-Hayden’s theories on Orientalist variations and nesting Orientalism, and Maria Todorova’s ground-breaking analysis of the external practices of Balkans representation. These provide a useful theoretical framework through which to explore the distribution of the Orientalist and Balkanist discourses in Former Yugoslavia.

  2. Physical self-concept of adolescents in Western Balkan countries: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janić, Snežana Radisavljević; Jurak, Gregor; Milanović, Ivana; Lazarević, Dušanka; Kovač, Marjeta; Novak, Dario

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to explore physical self-concept of adolescents of the Western Balkans (Serbia, Slovenia, Croatia, and Bosnia and Herzegovina) according to sex and country. The participants were 2,606 students, ages 13 and 14 years (M = 13.5, SD = 0.9). The Physical Self-Description Questionnaire (PSDQ) was used to assess multidimensional physical self-concept. The results show the interaction of sex and country for three dimensions of physical self-concept (Appearance, Global Physical Self-Concept, and Self-Esteem). It was shown that female and male adolescents' perception of physical appearance, self-esteem, and global physical self-concept is more susceptible to influences of socio-cultural factors in the monitored countries. In all other dimensions of Physical self-concept, sex differences were consistently manifested in favour of male adolescents, except in Flexibility. Regardless of adolescents' sex, under the increasing influence of Western culture in the Western Balkan countries, adolescents more critically evaluate their body and motor abilities.

  3. The Role of the EU as a Peacebuilder in the Western Balkans

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    Gentjan Skara

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available After the Cold War, the Western Balkan countries have become an important laboratory for the EU, able to exert its EU crises management and transformative power. Through restoring stability in the region, overcoming ethno–territorial and inter–ethnic conflicts, improving regional cooperation, consolidating democracy, building democratic institutions and promoting market economy, EU’s goal was to make war unthinkable in this region. Referring to the definition of peacebuilding as ‘action to identify and support structures which tend to strengthen and solidify peace to avoid a relapse into conflicts’, this paper tries to explore whether, how and to what extent, EU has contributed as a peacebuilder in the Western Balkans, using crises management operations and mission and enlargement policy. It argues that both these instruments can be considered equally relevant as, on the one hand they create favourable conditions for lasting peace, security and stability in the region and on the other hand, through enlargement policy they push this region towards political and institutional reform, economic reforms and regional cooperation.

  4. THE EU APPROACH TO THE WESTERN BALKANS: A SECURITY OR POLITICAL ISSUE?

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    Ruth FERERRO-TURRIÓN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper will focus on the policies developed by the European Union towards the Western Balkans, especially those related to human mobility and visa liberalization. The main target of the paper will be to show how the conditionality policies towards these countries have been developed related to security, geopolitical needs and interests, instead of the objective/technical criteria stated in the communitarian official documents. We will see how the last enlargements of the Union have affected considerably the different positions adopted by member states in their approach toward the Balkan countries, especially in relation to chapters 23 and 24 of the negotiation agreements, dealing with issues of Justice and Home Affairs. Since then, the pragmatic approach of the Union has been reinforced, so that the accession of candidates has been delayed in time. However, some things might change, if we take into consideration the current refugee and Ukraine crises, the new relationships that have been developed with Russia (especially by Serbia, and Greece’s approach towards Moscow on the verge of the economic crisis. If the European Union has, until now, followed a stick-and-carrot approach towards the Balkans in order to maintain a security belt on its southeast border, this approach might change within a new geopolitical context. In this paper we will analyse the visa liberalization process and its developments since Thessaloniki 2003, to show how the decisions taken by the Union have been more linked to political matters related to security than to technical reasons related to passport design.

  5. The Process of Institutionalization of the EU’s CFSP in the Western Balkan Countries during the Ukraine Crisis

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    Đukanović Dragan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the Western Balkan countries’ relationship towards the instrument of the Common Foreign and Security Policy of the European Union in the context of the measures undertaken by Brussels against the Russian Federation due to its involvement in the Ukrainian crisis. In this regard, the author first points out to what extent the countries of the Western Balkans over the past few years, that is, after the signing of the Stabilization and Association Agreement, harmonized their foreign policies with the Common Foreign and Security Policy of the European Union. Certainly, the most important foreign policy challenges for the Western Balkan countries in 2014 are imposing sanctions against the Russian Federation. Some Western Balkan countries (above all, Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Macedonia, according to the author’s assessment, are stretched between their intentions to join the EU and thus harmonize their foreign policy with the Common Foreign and Security Policy of the European Union on one hand, and on the other, to avoid disruption of existing relations with the Russian Federation

  6. INTEGRATION IN THE EUROPEAN UNION AS A DOUBLE-EDGED SWORD FOR THE WESTERN BALKANS

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    Elena Makrevska Disoska

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available By analyzing the impact of the economic crisis on the Western Balkan (WB countries, the paper concludes that their export, inflow of remittances and FDI have suffered due to the crisis. Regarding the rapid credit growth in years before the crisis it spurred an increase in imports, which in context of relatively uncompetitive economies, led to increased current account deficits despite significant remittances and FDI inflows. The impact of the crisis in the region can be explained mainly by their degree of European integration. But, the European Union (EU is more uncertain to embrace the economically weaker countries, causing loss of EU credibility. It seems that the EU integration is a double-edged sword for the WB: in good times EU delivers its prosperity, but at a time of crisis, it is creating instability.

  7. The Contribution of the Concept of Human Security to the Western Balkans

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    Gemma Collantes Celador

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available This article evaluates the usefulness that stems from adopting the concept of human security for analysing the situation of the Western Balkan societies affected by the dismemberment of the former Yugoslavia. While accepting that the argument of the lack of consensus on the definition of human security hampers its study, this work sustains that incorporating a perspective influenced by this concept aids in understanding two specific aspects. On the one hand, the form that the international response adopted during the 1990s and early 21st century, and, on the other hand, the complexity of the problems and challenges that continue to hinder progress toward the political and socio-economic stability of this region. At the same time, this work illustrates with examples from police reform in Bosnia that beyond the identifying of problems, it is still difficult to take the concept of human security to the formulation ofpolicies that could resolve the complex situation existing in this region.

  8. Remembrance, Public Narratives, and Obstacles to Justice in the Western Balkans

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    Jelena Subotic

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Twenty years since the onset of the traumatic wars of Yugoslav secession, the countries of the Western Balkans continue to nurture narratives of the past that are mutually exclusive, contradictory, and irreconcilable. The troubling ways in which states in the region remember their pasts provide continuing obstacles in the search for acknowledgment and justice. In this essay, I develop an argument for understanding the relationship between justice and remembrance of the past. To illustrate this relationship, I explore ways in which education and memorialization projects contribute to justice efforts. I critically analyze a few ongoing education and memory projects in the region, and then present alternative ideas on mechanisms of public memory that would be more conducive to building the foundational blocks of justice based on trust, respect, and dignity.

  9. Croatia’s police and security community building in the Western Balkans

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    Sandro KNEZOVIĆ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the eventual existence of a security community within the Western Balkans region by exploring the contribution of police as a profession/epistemic community in Croatia to the security community building process. In order to do so, two theoretical concepts have been applied: first, the one of security community which, according to Deutsch, as well as Adler and Barnett, is something that is leading IR and humanity out of the era of nation-state; secondly, the one of professions as exclusive occupational groups in Abbott’s interpretation (wherein the police is considered to be a profession. Our approach builds on a combination of the aforementioned theories, while the study itself has been based on the developments in the field of policing in Croatia since 1990 and its implications for the creation of a security community in the region.

  10. The contribution of tourism industry on the GDP growth of Western Balkan countries

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    Čerović Slobodan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tourism industry records various economic, social, political and others influences and provides itself important position in the overall economic development of many countries. The analysis of the available data of tourist arrivals and number of tourist overnight stays in observed countries of the Western Balkans (Serbia, Macedonia, Montenegro led us to conduct research in order to determine tourism contribution to the overall economic growth. Based on the modified methodology used by Brida et al. (2008 for calculating real GDP growth rates and tourism contribution to the overall economic growth, the paper indicates that tourism makes a modest direct contribution to the overall economic growth in the examined countries, regardless of the continuous increase in the number of foreign tourist arrivals. The level of tourism contribution to the overall economic growth varies and it is primarily related to diversity and quality of supply (the highest contribution is recorded in Montenegro, while lowest contribution is observed in Macedonia.

  11. Biodiversity of Ticks and Fleas of Dogs in the Western Balkans – Preliminary Examinations

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    Ivan Pavlovic

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Ticks and fleas infestation is the most common ectoparasitic condition of dogs with worldwide distribution. In period 2011-2013 we performed preliminary study on the biodiversity of ticks and flea of dogs, from the Western Balkan area. Parasites were collected from dogs in veterinary practices from several cities in various part of Serbia, Macedonia, Republic Srpska (BiH and Montenegro. During of the study of relative abundance analysis revealed that the species Ixodes ricinus was absolutely dominant, followed by Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Dermacentor marginatus and D. reticulatus. At same examinations three flea species were found at dogs Ctenocephalides felis felis was the most abundant, followed by Ctenocephalides canis and Pulex irritans.

  12. Economic development in the European super-periphery: Evidence from the Western Balkans

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    Bartlett Will

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that the conflicts that afflicted the Western Balkan region in the 1990s pushed the countries into the European 'super-periphery', characterized by deindustrialization and high unemployment, ethnic and regional fragmentation, political turmoil, and instability. Integration into international trade has been disrupted, leading to chronic balance of payments deficits. Low inflows of international capital, due to high country risk, have hindered technological catch-up and weakened international competitiveness. An unattractive environment for productive entrepreneurship has created barriers to the entry of SMEs, and at the same time large informal economies. Several countries have become labour-export economies, with significant outflows of skilled labour. Economic development follows a low-skill growth path. The current global economic crisis is having a further deleterious effect as export revenues, foreign direct investment, and labour remittances all diminish. Furthermore, as transition has proceeded, disparities between capital cities and rural areas have increased, while weak administrative capacities have hindered the implementation of effective local development policies to counteract these effects. Endogenous local development cannot provide an alternative to greater engagement with the global economy. The conclusion is that the countries of the region have been left out of the most beneficial elements of the globalisation process, while simultaneously suffering from its main defects. Without a faster process of accession to the EU, local disparities are likely to widen, and the region may remain within the European super-periphery for the foreseeable future.

  13. Foreign direct investment in the western Balkans: Privatization, institutional change, and banking sector dominance

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    Botrić Valerija

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides analysis of foreign direct investment (FDI dynamics and its determinants for the group of countries lately referred to as Western Balkans (non- EU ex-Yugoslavia countries plus Albania. Due to vulnerable external positions and enhanced funding requirements related to the EU accession and catching-up, FDI is often highly welcomed by government officials in the South East European (SEE countries. The notion that FDI is frequently accompanied by knowledge and know-how transfer makes this source of capital growth even more desirable than simple capital accumulation from frequently inadequate domestic savings. The analysis of the FDI determinants on the overall economy level conducted within the panel data framework aims to provide the answer whether the same factors as in Central and Eastern European countries, now new EU member states, are relevant for the sampled countries. Due to data limitations and the frequent emergence of new countries in the region, the analysis does not extend to the early transition period. Since it entails the beginning of the financial crisis, the comparison of the results obtained with those of previous studies will enable the discussion of internal versus external factors of FDI attraction in the region.

  14. EU Soft Power in the Eastern Neighborhood and the Western Balkans in the Context of Crises

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    Patalakh Artem

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to assess a change in the EU’s soft power in the Western Balkan and Eastern Partnership states in the light of the crises the bloc has undergone in recent years. Generally agreeing with the common argument that the EU’s attractiveness for those countries has decreased, the author challenges the popular wisdom that such a decrease is likely to reverse those states’ pro-EU foreign policy orientations. To prove it, the author applies Joseph Nye’s and Alexander Vuving’s “power currencies” approach to operationalize soft power, considering the bloc’s attraction as a combination of “brilliance” (the actor’s relationship with its work, “benignity” (the actor’s relationship with other actors and “beauty” (the actor’s relationship with values and ideas. Elaborating on the crises’ influence on each of these currencies, the author shows that their lessening, first, has mainly taken place in absolute rather than relative terms, so the EU’s attractiveness remains strong compared to that of its competitors, and second, it has primarily affected the bloc’s soft power potential rather than its actual behavior towards the target countries.

  15. The role of international humanitarian organizations of the western Balkans: Serbia case

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    Stajić Ljubomir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Western Balkans in the period from 1992 to 2000 and later was the site of serious armed conflicts in which there was a significant threat to human life and other human rights of the civilian population. The deployment of international humanitarian organizations in this area was significant and with somewhat different role than the example of the African continent or elsewhere. Period of the ten war years as many post-war years of their engagement was quite enough for methodologically correct examination of their role, problems and attitudes of the 'beneficiaries' of these organizations on the activities of these organizations and their synchronization with the government. Numerous problems were noted from the practice of humanitarian organizations that are potentially useful for improvements in the future. In this paper we present only some parts of the expert group from Serbia extensive research who exactly talking about these problems. Particularly interesting are the data on the abuse of humanitarian aid as well as data that are different from those presented by some official international organizations.

  16. The Impact of Foreign Direct Investment on the Export Performance: Empirical Evidence for Western Balkan Countries

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    Dr.Sc. Nasir Selimi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently there are many authors that have studied and analyzed the impact of foreign direct investments (FDI on the export performance. They have different opinions about the effect of foreign direct investments on the export performance. Some of them in their papers conclude that FDI have positive effect on the export performance and some not. There are also findings that FDI do not have any impact on the export performance. Of course for economic benefit of host country it is not important only the amount of FDI, but also their structure. To measure the effect of FDI on the export performance is not easy. Therefore, the main objective of this paper is to analyze empirically the foreign direct investments and exports performance during the period of 1996-2013 in Western Balkan countries. The paper also investigates for the fixed effects and individual heterogeneity across countries and years. Based on the panel regression techniques and Least Square Dummy Variable (LSDV regression method, FDI positively affect export performance in the sample countries in various model specifications. The results and conclusions of this paper we hope that will help everybody who are interested and studying this matter, especially the policy makers.  The last ones have the obligation to facilitate and promote the export if they award confirm that FDI contribute on developing their economy.

  17. The Quality of Governance and EU Regional Policy as a key determinant in the process of the integration of the Western Balkans into the EU

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    Demush Bajrami

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the quality of governance and financial assistance as key determinants for successful functioning of the process of integration within the European Union (EU. Moreover, the paper develops a comparison of the Western Balkans with current EU members and the forthcoming, on the basis of the selected indicators of governance (rule of law, democracy, corruption, political stability, and effectiveness of state with the experience of the implementation of the reforms of public administration. Various surveys show that the Western Balkans, by all quality of governance indicators, especially in the rule of law, lags behind 28 (twenty eight of the current EU countries (without taking in account the Great Britain. The low level of the functioning of rule of law, combined with inadequate and unreformed public administration is potentially the biggest obstacle in the association agreement of the Western Balkans with EU, but also as challenge in achieving sustainable social and economic development. Whereas in the case of the Western Balkan countries, there is an obvious difference between proclaiming and internal reality, which is further compounded by a difficult political and economic transition, as well as in social domain - where poverty and corruption are the most worrying. The research data obtained from independent bodies - academic and research institutions, civil society and international organizations - confirm this controversial picture of the Western Balkans. Negative attitudes still prevail in Western Balkans political elites and if given the chance to political manipulation, may behave unpredictably. All this makes it obligatory to make a comparative overview, for depicting in particular the quality of governance as sine qua non for the Western Balkans countries‘ integration in EU.

  18. Population structure and genetic differentiation of livestock guard dog breeds from the Western Balkans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceh, E; Dovc, P

    2014-08-01

    Livestock guard dog (LGD) breeds from the Western Balkans are a good example of how complex genetic diversity pattern observed in dog breeds has been shaped by transition in dog breeding practices. Despite their common geographical origin and relatively recent formal recognition as separate breeds, the Karst Shepherd, Sarplaninac and Tornjak show distinct population dynamics, assessed by pedigree, microsatellite and mtDNA data. We genotyped 493 dogs belonging to five dog breeds using a set of 18 microsatellite markers and sequenced mtDNA from 94 dogs from these breeds. Different demographic histories of the Karst Shepherd and Tornjak breeds are reflected in the pedigree data with the former breed having more unbalanced contributions of major ancestors and a realized effective population size of less than 20 animals. The highest allelic richness was found in Sarplaninac (5.94), followed by Tornjak (5.72), whereas Karst Shepherd dogs exhibited the lowest allelic richness (3.33). Similarly, the highest mtDNA haplotype diversity was found in Sarplaninac, followed by Tornjak and Karst Shepherd, where only one haplotype was found. Based on FST differentiation values and high percentages of animals correctly assigned, all breeds can be considered genetically distinct. However, using microsatellite data, common ancestry between the Karst Shepherd and Sarplaninac could not be reconstructed, despite pedigree and mtDNA evidence of their historical admixture. Using neighbour-joining, STRUCTURE or DAPC methods, Sarplaninac and Caucasian Shepherd breeds could not be separated and additionally showed close proximity in the NeighborNet tree. STRUCTURE analysis of the Tornjak breed demonstrated substructuring, which needs further investigation. Altogether, results of this study show that the official separation of these dog breeds strongly affected the resolution of genetic differentiation and thus suggest that the relationships between breeds are not only determined by breed

  19. Facilitators and Constraints of Policy Learning for Administrative Capacity in the Western Balkans

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    Karini Artan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on the policy-transfer literature, where processes such as Europeanization accentuate the role of policy networks as facilitators or constraints in the implementation of acquis, in addition to the familiar mechanism of “conditionality”, the principal objective of this article is to explore the challenges of policy learning toward administrative-capacity building and, more specifically, the role of what I refer to here as “donor-bureaucrat-contractor” networks in the Western Balkans. By employing a qualitative methodology consisting of forty semi-structured interviews and focus groups with policymakers, donor officers, civil-society experts and consultants in the region during the period of January 2011 to December 2016, a critical analysis of aid-supported policy learning via training as a conduit to administrative capacity-building reveals a series of context-specific dimensions, such as the informality of such networks, overreliance on local NGOs as “capacitybuilding” implementation partners and the ability of the context to affect donor behaviour - all ultimately contributing to the (non- occurrence of policy transfer. Th e overarching conclusion this article draws is that potential answers to problems with aid-supported policy learning in the region may probably lie in the invisible workings of the aforementioned networks rather than solely in the official channels of communication between Brussels and regional governments. From a policymaking standpoint, this conclusion in itself may as well be construed as a recommendation to mobilize future research surrounding the impact of such networks on European Union (EU accession processes in the region. Th is may encourage research organizations both in the EU and the region to (re orient future endeavors towards this dimension of administrative capacity-building - a core requirement for EU accession - especially as the EU itself faces its own enlargement dilemmas following

  20. Interdependence between core and peripheries of the European economy: secular stagnation and growth in the Western Balkans

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    Will Bartlett

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available European countries are economically dependent upon each other. This paper therefore embeds the analysis of the Western Balkan countries within a wider perspective of the European economy as a whole. It combines a simple core-periphery model with an under-consumption model to provide an explanation of the emergence of secular stagnation, the dependency relationships between the core and peripheries of the European economy, and the spillover effects of Eurozone crisis to the Western Balkans. Due to tendencies to under-consumption, the core countries have been vulnerable to secular stagnation. In order to overcome this tendency within the Eurozone they are dependent on export revenues from the peripheries to sustain their economic growth. This has led to high trade and current account deficits during the boom and placed the peripheries in a highly vulnerable position during the recession period. Financialisation of the European economy has emerged as a response to the tendency towards secular stagnation, as the provision of consumer credit stimulated demand and temporarily overcame under consumption tendencies. The paper argues that continuing austerity, as a method to create internal devaluation, is unlikely to succeed as a means to extricate the periphery countries from the crisis. Given the dependencies of the European economies upon one another, a possibly better way out of the current period of low growth and stagnation would be a coordinated fiscal expansion to stimulate domestic and Europe-wide demand.

  1. Intangible Capital, Innovation and Export-Led Growth: Empirical Comparative Study of Slovenia and the Western Balkans

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    Marija Drenkovska

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the face of progressing globalisation and liberalisation of the markets, innovation is the minimum necessary requirement for companies and countries to be globally competitive, and knowledge is the key input. In a comparative study we investigate the intellectual capital of a sample of firms from the Western Balkans and Slovenia, and analyse the link between intellectual capital, innovation, and export volume. Using unique survey data sets for these countries, we propose a structural model to examine our hypotheses. The results suggest that possessing intellectual capital does not suffice for firms’ global competitiveness and that higher presence on global markets may offer exposure to more advanced knowledge that firms cannot obtain in their domestic markets.

  2. Regional Conflicts in the Western Balkans and the Caucasus Revisited: Comparison of Kosovo to South Ossetia and Abkhazia

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    Vladimir Đorđević

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the things that the Western Balkans and the Caucasus have in common is an extremely challenging legacy of the past. The dissolution of two multinational states – the Soviet Union and Socialist Yugoslavia in the beginning of 1990s – led to ethno-nationalist conflicts on a large scale. While the Yugoslav crisis ended in 1999 after the FRY was bombed by NATO during its Kosovo campaign, the Caucasus still remains a conflict-ridden region where Russian and Western influences keep colliding. The purpose of this article is to present an analytical comparison of the three respective regional conflicts – Kosovo, Georgia and South Ossetia – by enumerating and analyzing similarities and differences between them, as this proves to be one of current and more intriguing issues of the contemporary international political scene. The article aims at providing answers to two different issues: Did Kosovo’s independence influence the establishment of a specific political pattern applicable to other disputed regions; and to what degree are the cases in question comparable to each other?

  3. The New Environment of EU Enlargement: The Impact of Economic Crisis on the Western Balkans and their EU Accession Prospects

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    Ritsa Panagiotou

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper will explore the impact of the economic crisis on the Western Balkan countries, and how the new, unfavorable international environment is affecting their EU accession prospects. The analysis will be presented in three sections: the first part will examine the effect of the “first wave” of the global economic crisis on the economies of the region, specifically the impact on the region’s macroeconomic indicators, foreign direct investment flows, financial sectors, etc. Part two will analyse the repercussions of the “second wave” of the crisis, namely the Greek sovereign debt crisis, which rapidly spilled over into the entire Eurozone. Part three will build on the issues examined in parts one and two and will discuss the repercussions of both waves of the crisis on the region’s enlargement process and prospects. The paper will also propose that although the EU’s role in Southeast Europe remains crucial (not least as a provider of economic assistance its hitherto undisputable symbolic role as an “anchor” of stability and as a goal to be aspired to may be losing its appeal for some of these countries. This paper will explore the impact of the economic crisis on the Western Balkan countries, and how the new, unfavorable international environment is affecting their EU accession prospects. The analysis will be presented in three sections: the first part will examine the effect of the “first wave” of the global economic crisis on the economies of the region, specifically the impact on the region’s macroeconomic indicators, foreign direct investment flows, financial sectors, etc. Part two will analyse the repercussions of the “second wave” of the crisis, namely the Greek sovereign debt crisis, which rapidly spilled over into the entire Eurozone. Part three will build on the issues examined in parts one and two and will discuss the repercussions of both waves of the crisis on the region’s enlargement process and

  4. The Concept of Romanization and its Role in the Constitution of the Classical Archaeologies of the Western Balkans

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    Marko A. Janković

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The traditional concept of Romanization has heavily influenced the methodology of research of the Roman monuments in Europe. The basic principles of the concept have been laid out by Theodor Mommsen, the German historian and an expert in epigraphy, who was the first to define the relationships between the Roman "civilization" and the local populations in his book The History of Rome. Mommsen presents a process in which two different political, economic and technological communities meet, and the inferior one is inevitably assimilated. Through the adoption of language, script, customs and material culture, the local communities become more Roman, i.e. they are romanized. This paradigm framework has fundamentally changed the way in which the researchers approach the Roman past. This was the first time that the material culture was explained inside archaeology as the discipline associated to history. The introduction of the concept of Romanization enabled the scholars to analyze the material culture in the context of everyday activities, regardless of their artistic value. Although this concept is a largely simplified view of the past, it has marked the Roman archaeology throughout the 20th century. At the moment when Mommsen's ideas are accepted and elaborated in Western Europe, the discipline of archaeology is formed in the Balkans, the first researchers are trained and the first modern archaeological researches are launched. The paper analyses the influence of his ideas upon the formation of Classical archaeology in Croatia and Serbia, two significantly different political contexts.

  5. The right to life and criminal-law protection of the human person in the Western Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etlon Peppo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The basic principle for which a democratic governance stands, are expressed in the “Declaration of Independence of the United States of America with the words of Thomas Jefferson: “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights that among these are Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness. That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed” The government of a democratic state does not exist to recognize the basic human rights, but to respect and guarantee the protection of these rights that any person possesses and benefits due to his existence starting from the most important right: The right to life, which is faced against the duty of the state for the protection of the human person’s life! In this sense this article analyzes the criminal-law protection of life in the Western Balkans.

  6. Hungary and the Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pap Norbert

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As regards the Balkans, Hungary is one of the intermediary regions in Europe. At the same time, the Balkans is the tie-up territory between Turkey, one of the emerging regions today, and Hungary, which aims to cooperate with it. Being a NATO and EU member state it takes part in the geopolitical games that are played between the EU, Russia, the USA and some of the countries of the Islamic world. These dealings fundamentally determine tasks in Hungarian foreign policy, cultural policy, economic policy, security- and defence policy for the forthcoming decades. Hungary acts as a gate between Western Europe and the Balkans. This role used to be more dominant in previous centuries of Hungarian history than it is today, not least because the country's size and strength significantly decreased after the Trianon Treaty. Many of the historical, imperial reflexes have remained, but without any imperial gravity. Today we are just one of the intermediary regions that have relations with the Balkans and form a bridge to Europe. The accelerated alteration in the world order, the BRICS countries and the emergence of some important middle-sized states, such as Turkey, make adaptation inevitable for our country. This is what the policy of 'Eastern opening' is about.

  7. Shining a Light on the Western Balkans: Internal Vulnerabilities and Malign Influence from Russia, Terrorism, and Transnational Organized Crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Balkans Internal Vulnerabilities and Malign Influence from Russia, Terrorism , and Transnational Organized Crime Vera Zakem, Bill Rosenau, and...5b. GRANT NUMBER Terrorism , and Transnational Organized Crime 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 0605154N 6. AUTHOR(S) Vera Zakem, Bill Rosenau, and...from Russia, international terrorism , and transnational organized crime. Using research and semi- structured discussions with subject matter experts in

  8. Des Balkans

    OpenAIRE

    Matvejević, Predrag

    2012-01-01

    Les Balkans témoignent de contradictions géographiques et politiques, perceptibles dans le changement d’appellation des lieux au cours de l’Histoire : de la péninsule illyrienne, grecque, byzantine à la « Turquie d’Europe » plus récente. Il est resté une dénomination venue des Turcs, les « Balkans ». Cette presqu’île n’offre pas de frontières naturelles difficiles à franchir. Les délimitations des géographes et historiens sont relatives et souvent arbitraires, et donc contestées. Sa définitio...

  9. Des Balkans About the Balkans

    OpenAIRE

    Predrag Matvejević

    2012-01-01

    Les Balkans témoignent de contradictions géographiques et politiques, perceptibles dans le changement d’appellation des lieux au cours de l’Histoire : de la péninsule illyrienne, grecque, byzantine à la « Turquie d’Europe » plus récente. Il est resté une dénomination venue des Turcs, les « Balkans ». Cette presqu’île n’offre pas de frontières naturelles difficiles à franchir. Les délimitations des géographes et historiens sont relatives et souvent arbitraires, et donc contestées. Sa définitio...

  10. Des Balkans About the Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predrag Matvejević

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Les Balkans témoignent de contradictions géographiques et politiques, perceptibles dans le changement d’appellation des lieux au cours de l’Histoire : de la péninsule illyrienne, grecque, byzantine à la « Turquie d’Europe » plus récente. Il est resté une dénomination venue des Turcs, les « Balkans ». Cette presqu’île n’offre pas de frontières naturelles difficiles à franchir. Les délimitations des géographes et historiens sont relatives et souvent arbitraires, et donc contestées. Sa définition est difficile, car, étant associée à la progression des troupes ottomanes, cette « zone de turbulences » garde aux yeux de certains un caractère négatif. Marqués par les bouleversements telluriques et historiques, les Balkans témoignent d’une pluralité et d’une variété démographiques, ce qui pose un grand nombre de questions en termes de rapports ethniques, de constructions identitaires et territoriales. Les revendications s’appuient aussi bien sur le mythe que sur l’Histoire. L’apparition de l’État-nation a constitué dans ces régions de multiples fractures à l’image du schisme chrétien de 1054, divisant Églises et croyances, empires et pouvoirs, styles et écritures. L’islam a engendré de nouvelles oppositions ou intolérances. Les puissances étrangères sont intervenues dans ce jeu pour tenter de le stabiliser tout en déterminant leurs sphères d’influence, figeant par le jeu des traités une multitude de questions irrésolues ou conflictuelles, sans apporter de réponse durable. Cet inachevé, dans une histoire faite de partages, suscite des frustrations, et nécessite une réécriture qui tarde à se faire jour, faute d’apaisement entre les différentes sensibilités. La littérature se fait l’écho de ces situations par l’évocation de la cruauté, sous l’occupation ottomane (cf. Ivo Andrić notamment, mais aussi dans l’actualité récente. « Cet espace qui produit

  11. Sedimentology of Hirnantian glaciomarine deposits in the Balkan Terrane, western Bulgaria: Fixing a piece of the north peri-Gondwana jigsaw puzzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatalov, Athanas

    2017-04-01

    Glaciomarine deposits of late Hirnantian age in the western part of the Palaeozoic Balkan Terrane have persistent thickness ( 7 m) and lateral uniformity in rock colour, bedding pattern, lithology, and sedimentary structures. Four lithofacies are distinguished from base to top: lonestone-bearing diamictites, interbedded structureless mudstones, crudely laminated diamictites, and finely laminated mudstones. The diamictites are clast-poor to clast-rich comprising muddy to sandy varieties. Their compositional maturity is evidenced by the very high amount of detrital quartz compared to the paucity of feldspar and unstable lithic grains. Other textural components include extraclasts derived from the local Ordovician basement, mudstone intraclasts, and sediment aggregates. Turbate structures, grain lineations, and soft sediment deformation of the matrix below larger grains are locally observed. Sedimentological analysis reveals that deposition occurred in an ice-intermediate to ice-distal, poorly agitated shelf environment by material supplied from meltwater buoyant plumes and rain-out from ice-rafted debris. Remobilization by mass-flow processes (cohesive debris flows and slumps) was an important mechanism particularly for the formation of massive diamictites. The glaciomarine deposits represent a typical deglaciation sequence reflecting retreat of the ice front (grounded or floating ice sheet), relative sea-level rise and gradually reduced sedimentation rate with increasing contribution from suspension fallout. This sequence was deposited on the non-glaciated shelf of the intracratonic North Gondwana platform along the southern margin of the Rheic Ocean. The Hirnantian strata of the Balkan Terrane can be correlated with similar glaciomarine deposits known from peri-Gondwana terranes elsewhere in Europe showing clear 'Armorican affinity'. Several lines of evidence suggest that the provenance of siliciclastic material was associated mainly with sedimentary recycling of

  12. Analysis of pubescent oak (Quercus pubescens Willd. by means of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA in the western part of the Balkan Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalibor Ballian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the area of the western Balkans, xerothermal broad-leaf forests hold a very special position, the main species being pubescent oak (Quercus pubescens Willd.. The study comprises 36 populations of pubescent oak from Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Kosovo, Albania and Macedonia. Genetic variability and population diversity was analysed on chloroplast DNA in order to determine to which haplotype an individual or studied population belongs, as well as how they are related. For the detection of one haplotype analysed four sequences (AS, TF, DT and CD on the chloroplasts DNA. The results of the analysis suggest that there are six different haplotypes of pubescent oak (2, 4, 5, 17, 31, 33 in the studied populations. Two more sub-haplotypes were found in haplotype 5 (a and b, but only in populations occurring in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. The results suggest the great variability of pubescent oak in the researched area, which is generally characteristic of other species from the area of the Balkan Peninsula. The results obtained by means of cpDNA analysis can help in the formation of seed zones. However, due to the strong selection pressure of unplanned logging, and the possible introduction of herbal material of unknown origin, it is necessary to find a sufficient number of autochthonous entities (i.e., populations of the researched species as well as new suitable markers for their characterization. The results of this paper constitute a scientifically recognised, partial examination of the origin of the starting forest reproductive material from the broader geographic area, thus serving future projects on its regeneration.

  13. SELECTED MACROECONOMIC FACTORS OBSERVATION IMPACT ON THE ECONOMY OF THE REPUBLIC OF SERBIA AND THE WESTERN BALKANS IN THE OBSERVATION PERIOD 2000-2012, SHOWING RESULTS FROM 2008 TO 2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOGDAN LABAN

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The application of the neoliberal concept in the Western Balkans has had effects on the economies of those countries that can say das resulted in unsustainable economic growth and macroeconomic instability. Besides the application of the same given the developments that had features of weakness especially since 2008., from the onset of the global economic crisis. The consequences of the liberalization of international economic developments have enabled the countries of the Western Balkans obtain foreign investment in the form of foreign direct investment, but their economies have done even more dependent on foreign capital, which is increasingly going in economic activities that have a faster way could fertilize the invested capital.

  14. Premier Hospital Historical Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — To provide a historical overview of the participating hospitals, before the first project report, Premier Healthcare Informatics has used data already available for...

  15. European Security in the Balkans: The Case of Macedonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    was divided into Western Roman and Eastern Byzantine entities. Over time, it seems, those differences have become even deeper. The collapse of...the Byzantine Empire in the Balkans created an opportunity for the new emerging small Balkan Medieval states. The clash between the Serbs, Bulgarians...Vatican enhanced anti-Serb feeling in Croatia because the Catholic Church , throughout history, had always aligned Orthodox Serbs with Orthodox (and

  16. Export and Economic Growth in the West Balkan Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Florentina Xhelili Krasniqi; Rahmije Mustafa Topxhiu

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore the effects of exports and other variables (foreign direct investment, remittances, capital formation, and labour force) on economic growth in West Balkan countries (Albania, Kosovo, Macedonia, Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia). This study utilizes a strongly balanced panel data over the 2005-2015 period for Western Balkan countries using the ordinary least squares method (OLS), ie Pooled regression model to evaluate the parameters. The rela...

  17. Traces of DU in samples of environmental bio-monitors (non-flowering plants, fungi) and soil from target sites of the Western Balkan region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zunic, Zora S. [Institute of Nuclear Sciences ' Vinca' , Mike Petrovica Alasa 12-14, P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Mietelski, Jerzy W. [Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, 31-342 Krakow, Radzikowskiego 152 (Poland)], E-mail: jerzy.mietelski@ifj.edu.pl; Blazej, Sylwia; Gaca, Pawel; Tomankiewicz, Ewa [The Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, 31-342 Krakow, Radzikowskiego 152 (Poland); Ujic, Predrag; Celikovic, Igor; Cuknic, Olivera; Demajo, Miroslav [Institute of Nuclear Sciences ' Vinca' , Mike Petrovica Alasa 12-14, P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2008-08-15

    This paper reports results of gamma and alpha spectrometric measurements for mosses, lichens, fungi and soil samples from areas in the Balkans targeted by depleted uranium (DU). Samples were collected in 2002 and 2003 in the vicinity of several villages, principally Han Pijesak (Bosnia and Herzegovina, hit by DU in 1995) and Bratoselce (South Serbia, hit by DU in 1999) and in lesser numbers from Gornja Stubla, Kosovo (which is identified as a high natural radon/thoron area) and Presevo close to the Kosovo border. In the course of gamma spectrometric measurements some results suggested samples with unusual high uranium contents which might be considered to be a signature for the presence of DU, although many samples had very high detection limits. Alpha spectrometric measurements directly proved the presence of DU for five samples, all from directly targeted places. These were samples of mosses, lichens and soil. For some samples homogeneity tests were applied which showed a rather even distribution of DU in these samples. No trace of DU was found in any sample from a dwelling.

  18. SECURING FRAGILE DEMOCRACIES IN THE BALKANS: THE EUROPEAN DIMENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Pridham

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The European Union faces unprecedented difficulties in its integration of the Western Balkans in terms of the requirements for change by countries in that region wishing to join. In order to meet this challenge, the EU’s political conditionality has moved significantly beyond its demands made on the post-Communist entrants of 2004 and 2007. But its effort to bridge the gap between the ability or political will of Balkan countries to adapt to European modernisation and uncertainties about EU commitment created by “enlargement fatigue” among Member States is vulnerable to weak consensus on both sides. Accordingly, the dynamic behind further enlargement is not comparable with the historic drive that impelled the enlargement of 2004. At the same time, there are strong geopolitical arguments on grounds of stabilising the Balkans for going ahead with integrating the Western half of this region.

  19. Balkan Print Forum – Dynamic Balkan Print Media Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossitza Velkova

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Founded in October 2006, the Balkan Print Forum is gradually becoming an important regional institution. Its main targets are to share experiences and know-how,to initiate and intensify contacts and to support joint projects in the Balkan region.Since drupa 2008 there are 11 member countries of the Balkan Print Forum:Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Greece, Hungary, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia and Turkey. Partners of BPF are some companies and universities from Russia and Ukraine.

  20. Middle East: New Balkans of the World?

    OpenAIRE

    Dr.Sc. Georgescu Stefan; Dr.Sc. Munteanu Marilena

    2012-01-01

    Middle East is a region whose geopolitical dynamics has many analogies with the role of the Balkans in the first half of the 19th century and up to the 3rd decade of the 20th century, namely a "Powder keg of Europe", defined in the same period as the "Eastern Issue".Moreover, Middle East is a region located at the junction of three continents: Europe, Asia and the Mediterranean Africa, and along with ancient Egypt is the cradle of Western civilization, providing for it political, economic, re...

  1. The impact of betaplus program on patient treatment satisfaction with interferon beta-1b in multiple sclerosis: Multicentric cross-sectional survey in the western Balkan countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drulovic, Jelena; Cukic, Mirjana; Grgic, Sanja; Dincic, Evica; Raicevic, Ranko; Nadj, Congor; Toncev, Gordana; Vojinovic, Slobodan; Mesaros, Sarlota; Kisic Tepavcevic, Darija; Dujmovic, Irena; Tadic, Daliborka; Miletic-Drakulic, Svetlana; Dackovic, Jelena; Kostic, Smiljana; Erakovic, Jevto; Sakalas, Lorand; Savic, Dejan; Suknjaja, Vesna; Martinovic, Vanja; Maric, Gorica; Pekmezovic, Tatjana

    2017-01-01

    .006) between the group of subjects from Serbia and the combined group of subjects from Montenegro and B&H, in favor of the former cohort. There was statistically significant group difference neither on the Convenience summary score nor on the Overall satisfaction summary score. Results of adjusted logistic regression analysis based on the availability of patient support program (dependent variable) implicate that it had the most significant impact on the Effectiveness summary score (p=0.008). According to the correlation coefficients in the total patient cohort, all TSMQ summary scores except Effectiveness significantly correlated with the decreased adherence (Side effects: p=0.037; Convenience: p=0.016; Overall satisfaction: p=0.046). TS with IFN beta-1b was high in our MS patients. Additionally, these results have demonstrated that patient support program have significant impact on TS with IFN beta-1b in the Balkan cohort of RRMS patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Lost in scales: Balkan folk music research and the ottoman legacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pennanen Risto Pekka

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Balkan folk music researchers have articulated various views on what they have considered Oriental or Turkish musical legacy. The discourses the article analyses are nationalism, Orientalism, Occidentalism and Balkanism. Scholars have handled the awkward Ottoman issue in several manners: They have represented 'Oriental' musical characteristics as domestic, claimed that Ottoman Turks merely imitated Arab and Persian culture, and viewed Indian classical raga scales as sources for Oriental scales in the Balkans. In addition, some scholars have viewed the 'Oriental' characteristics as stemming from ancient Greece. The treatment of the Segâh family of Ottoman makams in theories and analyses reveals several features of folk music research in the Balkans, the most important of which are the use of Western concepts and the exclusive dependence on printed sources. The strategies for handling the Orient within have meandered between Occidentalism and Orientalism, creating an ambiguity which is called Balkanism.

  3. Protestantism in the Balkans and Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todorović Dragan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available After the end of the unity of the Western church at the beginning of the 16th century, the reformation movement of returning to Evangelical ideals of Christian collectiveness arrived inevitably to the area of the Balkans. The spectrum of churches belonging to the reformation heritage with different doctrines, relying upon the agency of the first medieval heretic movements (Waldenses, Bogomils, Hussites, Hutterites, Unitarians, endeavored with varying success to grow in the reformation oriented aristocracy and wider peasantry in the South Slavic countries. The Evangelisation of Slavic population in the Balkans intensified in the middle of the 19th century. Christians and Jews became the focus of missionary activities in the Ottoman Empire, since talking to Muslims was punishable by death. The support of the American consular officers and the sympathy of Turkish authorities toward technologically advanced Western forces on the wave of the first industrial revolution was helpful. The changed social atmosphere for further process of protestantisation among the population loyal to traditional churches and religious communities first led to the end of World Wars and then to the fall of the Berlin Wall and the start of civil wars on the territory of former Yugoslavia at the beginning of the 1990's. Through a meticulous analysis of the collected theological, ethnographic, historical, sociological, and other material, the author here presents the most represented Protestant religious communities in the Balkans, in the ex-republics of the former Socialist Federative Republic of Yugoslavia and contemporary Serbia (Calvinists, Lutherans, Baptists, Methodists, Nazarenes, Adventists, Jehovah's Witnesses, and Pentecostals.

  4. Balkans as a cultural symbol in the Serbian music of the first half of the twentieth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanović Biljana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Focus on the internalization of Western images in the Balkans has special significance in researching Serbian art. The functioning of Balkanism as it overlapped and intersected with Orientalism is indicated in the text by an examination of the cases of Petar Konjović, Miloje Milojević and Josip Slavenski, the three significant composers working in Serbia during the first half of the twentieth century. Their modernistic projects present different metaphors of the Balkans. Nevertheless each of them is marked by desire to change the Balkan image into a 'positive' one and thus stands as a special voice for Serbian and regional placing in European competition for musical spaces.

  5. First forum ''BISE'' for: the intelligent energy in the municipalities and the new member states, of candidate countries and western Balkans; Premier forum ''BISE'' pour: l'energie intelligente dans les minicipalites des nouveaux etats membres, des pays candidats et des Balkans occidentaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The european commission and the european association of municipalities (Energie Cites) established a permanent ''Intelligent Energy Forum of European Municipalities'' (named BISE Forum) as form of periodical information exchange between municipal associations and other potential partners in Europe. In the framework of the reduction of the sustainable energy gap between the Central and Eastern European Countries and the most advanced energy-efficient EU 15 countries, the aim of this forum is to promote the creation of national energy cities networks, to integrate the initiatives and networks at an European scale and to promote the idea of an European Emergency Plan in order to improve energy efficiency in Eastern European Countries as quickly as possible. This document presents the proceedings and a selection of cases studies linked to the first BISE Forum. (A.L.B.)

  6. The Balkans: Between Economic Crisis And European Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei RĂDULESCU

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Balkans region (also known as the „Powder keg of Europe” has always been an European question, a Western question, as underlined by Arnold Toynbee, in 1922. At present, European Union is confronted with the fifth enlargement, also known as the “post-conflict” enlargement – the integration of Balkan states. Bulgaria joined European Union in 2007. Croatia signed the Accession Treaty in 2011 and is expected to become an EU member in 2013. The other countries encounter in different stages of European integration. However, this process presents several challenges and dilemmas, either for European Union, or for the Balkan enclave. The main challenge in the case of this enlargement is to reconcile the nation-state building and the European integration. From the economic point of view, the Balkans region is underdeveloped. Several factors determined this stance of the region: the poor endowment in terms of natural resources, the political situation over the centuries (the military conflicts – impeding the economic development, the cultural factors. At present, the region is confronted with the consequences of the worst economic and financial crisis o global economy since the end of World War II.

  7. 76 FR 38002 - Western Balkans Stabilization Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ... nature of security, warehouse receipts, bills of lading, trust receipts, bills of sale, any other..., declaration, deed, deed of trust, power of attorney, power of appointment, bill of sale, mortgage, receipt... interests in property are blocked pursuant to paragraph (a) of this section; and (2) The receipt of any...

  8. Improving Security Cooperation in the Western Balkans

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Simonson, Timothy L

    2007-01-01

    In the post-9/11 global security environment it is a foregone conclusion that it's much more cost effective, in both blood and treasure, to build and support effective governance in foreign nations...

  9. THE LEGAL PROTECTION OF REFUGEE: WESTERN BALKANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena ANDREEVSKA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available States have been granting protection to individuals and groups fleeing persecution for centuries; however, the modern refugee regime is largely the product of the second half of the twentieth century. Like international human rights law, modern refugee law has its origins in the aftermath of World War II as well as the refugee crises of the interwar years that preceded it. The refugee in international law occupies a large space characterized, on the one hand, by the principle of State sovereignty and, on the other hand, by competing humanitarian principles deriving from general international law and from treaty. The study of refugee protections invites a look not only at States’ obligations with regard to admission and treatment after entry, but also at the potential responsibility in international law of the State whose conduct or omissions cause an outflow. The community of nations is responsible in a general sense for finding solutions and in providing international protection to refugee. This special mandate was entrusted to UNHCR. At the start of the 21st century, protecting refugees means maintaining solidarity with the world’s most threatened, while finding answers to the challenges confronting the international system that was created to do just that. The aim of this article is to describe the foundations and the framework of international refugee law, to define refugees and protection of refugees; as well as to provides a brief analysis of the changing migration and asylum dynamics in the region and outlines some of the main challenges arising in this context..

  10. Export and Economic Growth in the West Balkan Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina Xhelili Krasniqi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to explore the effects of exports and other variables (foreign direct investment, remittances, capital formation, and labour force on economic growth in West Balkan countries (Albania, Kosovo, Macedonia, Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia. This study utilizes a strongly balanced panel data over the 2005-2015 period for Western Balkan countries using the ordinary least squares method (OLS, ie Pooled regression model to evaluate the parameters. The relationship between export and economic growth has turned to be statistically significant and positively related for the countries under the study. Results also indicate the statistically significant positive relationship between economic growth and other variables included in the model such is remittances, capital formation, and labor. The relationship between economic growth and foreign direct investment has turned out to be statistically insignificant and negatively related.

  11. (Reconstructing Balkan Identities through Popular Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Cvitanović

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the reproduction of stereotypes about the Balkans in the popular music of ex-Yugoslavia. During the last two decades, over a hundred songs in the Serbian and Croatian languages have been released, specifically mentioning the term Balkan and using it as a metaphor – to evoke and explain the atmosphere of war, poverty, conflict and passion, beauty, love and pride. Based on the analysis of these texts and the frequency of appearance of the themes and motifs, four distinct discourses can be identified: 1. the Balkans as an area of wars and conflicts, 2. the Balkans as an area of joy, passion and fatalism, 3. the primitive and aggressive “male” Balkans vs. the beautiful, proud and resistant “female” Balkans, and 4. the Balkans as Europe’s “Other”. The results show that, despite the inherent fluidity and the unclearness of the very definition of the Balkans and its spatial coverage (and therefore the possibility of distancing oneself from it, mostly negative stereotypes about the Balkans are being reproduced. They are not questioned in that process, but accepted and affirmed as a part of one’s own identity.

  12. Turkey Entering the European Union Through the Balkan Doors: in the Style of a Great Power?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedrudin Brljavac

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Confronting an increasing EU opposition from a number of influential member states to its membership the AKP government adopted a multilateral approach to its foreign policy making resulting in dynamic economic and diplomatic policies with the countries from Asia, Africa, Latin America, and the Balkans region. In this article we analyzed the effects and consequences of a paradigmatic shift in Turkish foreign policy in the Western Balkans in relation to the country's EU membership prospects. Through its pro-active economic and diplomatic initiatives in the region Turkey has been proving itself as indispensable country for the European Union membership. Thus, if the Turkish government concentrates more on solving its internal problems and continues its pro-active diplomacy in Western Balkans, among other regions, it could become not only a regional but also a global power.

  13. The Neogene lakes on the Balkan land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krstić Nadežda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Palaeogeographic maps of the lacustrine Miocene and Pliocene have been constructed according to all the known geological data. The Lakes of the Balkan Land, depending on the tectonics, migrated due to causes from the deep subsurface. There are several phases of the Miocene lakes: the lowermost Miocene transiting from marine Oligocene, Lower, Middle, Upper Miocene covering, in patches, the main part of the Land. The Pliocene lakes spread mostly to the north of the Balkan Land and covered only its marginal parts. Other lake-like sediments, in fact freshened parts of the Black Sea Kuialnician (Upper Pliocene, stretched along the middle and southern portions of the Balkan Peninsula (to the south of the Balkan Mt.. Subsequently, the Balkan Peninsula was formed.

  14. Middle East: New Balkans of the World?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Georgescu Stefan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Middle East is a region whose geopolitical dynamics has many analogies with the role of the Balkans in the first half of the 19th century and up to the 3rd decade of the 20th century, namely a "Powder keg of Europe", defined in the same period as the "Eastern Issue".Moreover, Middle East is a region located at the junction of three continents: Europe, Asia and the Mediterranean Africa, and along with ancient Egypt is the cradle of Western civilization, providing for it political, economic, religious, scientific, military, intellectual and institutional models.Four millennia of civilization before Christian era did not pass without leaving a trace.Trade, currency, law, diplomacy, technology applied to works in time of war or peace, the profit based economy and the bureaucratized economy, popular and absolutist government, nationalist and universal spirit, tolerance and fanaticism – all these are not inventions of the modern world, but have their origins and methods of implementation, often even sophisticated methods, in this region.

  15. Nationalism and ethnic conflict in southern Balkans

    OpenAIRE

    Pavloudis, Christos

    2002-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The main objective of this thesis is to investigate nationalism as the main source of instability and ethnic conflict in the sub-region of Southern Balkans -Albania, Bulgaria, Greece and Former Yugoslavian Republic of Macedonia (FYROM). It starts with a brief history of the Balkan Peninsula and the birth of nationalism in the region during the 19th century with the Wars for Independence from the Ottoman Empire. Then, it discusses the c...

  16. Mastering Adobe Premiere Pro CS6

    CERN Document Server

    Ekert, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Designed to be practical and engaging, Mastering Adobe Premiere Pro CS6 is a project-based book to help you truly augment your skills and become a film editing hotshot.If you're just starting out or even migrating from existing video editing software, then this book is for you. With rapid progression through practical examples constructed to be both engaging and useful, Mastering Adobe Premiere Pro CS6 is ideal for learning the sometimes complex workflows of this powerful application.

  17. Scottish Premier League Reading Stars Evaluation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Literacy Trust, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Scottish Premier League (SPL) Reading Stars uses the motivational power of football to attract families who need support with literacy into a positive and friendly learning environment. It ran for the first time between March and August 2009 and attracted 225 children and 190 adults to take part in a series of inspirational learning sessions in 23…

  18. Towards Common Balkan Lexical Evidential Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim M. Makartsev

    2012-08-01

    1 As for the grammatical evidential markers in the Balkan languages, there is a tradition of their analysis dating back to the second half of the 19th century for Albanian and Bulgarian. Comparative analysis of evidential forms in the Balkan languages conducted by Victor Friedman [Friedman 1982, 1986, 1999], Grace Fielder [Fielder 1994, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999], and several other linguists, has answered some questions about what is common among Balkan languages and what is unique for each of them in the domain of grammaticalised evidentiality. There is a great deal of literature on grammatical evidentiality in general and it is scarcely possible to cite it all within a single article, but a recent study [Aikhenvald 2004] contains the main bibliography on the issue.

  19. Intercultural and Interreligious Communication in the Balkan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arta Musaraj

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The desire to belong in a individual culture means to possess a clear vision for the world, a road map that guides its followers towards the proper understanding of the planet’s past present and future. An established mythology of apparent national identities in the Balkans is somewhat unnaturally reinforced to justify conflicts between religious and ethnic groups, caused as a result of the national identities intertwined among themselves, an element essentially more influential than existence of national identities. For centuries Christians and Muslims in the Balkans have been living in peace, however a few Balkan Societies continue to use violence, national extremism, xenophobia as well as a contemporary practice to solve their problems. A legitimate question can be raised in relation to how common is religious influence used to cause violent and armed conflicts as compared to violence originating from ethnic cleansing, control over territory, political ideology and regional hegemony?

  20. ROMANIAN BALKANISM OR ABOUT CULTURAL RIFTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petre Gheorghe BÂRLEA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The term “Balkanism” has two meanings, referring to both something objective and strictly geographic, as well as something subjective – a meaning that describes a certain mentality, a certain manner of thinking and behavior embraced in the Balkans. This article sets out to analyse the elements that are considered to define the cultural identity of the communities from the area of the Balkans. Their historical events, their linguistic differences and peculiarities, their art (music, cinematography, etc., their culinary p references and other elements are approached and described from the perspective of the “cultural crevice” theory.

  1. Premier Wen hails sci-tech cooperation with CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Premier Wen Jiabao met CERN's director general Dr Robert Aymar and physicist and Nobel laureate Dr Samuel Chao Chung Ting. Premier Wen emphasied the importance for China to collaborate on fundamental science (0.5 page)

  2. The invasive raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides, gray – an update of its distribution on the Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popova Elitsa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The raccoon dog, which lives especially near water and is rare in areas with low humidity, has been spreading throughout Europe since its introduction to Western Russia in the beginning of the 20th century. Official accounts of its distribution in Europe are often inaccurate due to scarce data. A literature search was conducted to identify records of the raccoon dog in the Balkans. More than 60 records were identified, including ones unlisted by the cited source from central and western Bulgaria, southern Serbia, Macedonia, Bosnia, Herzegovina, and Greece. The raccoon dog can be found on the Balkans either along the Danube (which is a major corridor for its invasion or along its tributaries, which might represent secondary invasion pathways.

  3. THE BALKANS BETWEEN THE EU AND NATO: FOCUSING ON THE FORMER YUGOSLAVIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamoru Sadakata

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The fragmentation of Yugoslavia has wrought extensive political and social changes in the Balkans and Europe more generally. After the collapse of communism and the breakup of Yugoslavia, many Balkan countries have transformed their political system and have begun to forge new foreign and security policy. Some of them have already joined the EU and NATO, and some are about to access these organizations. But the Western Balkan states seem to be farther in the future. In regard to the former Yugoslavia, the United States, European states and international organizations, such as the EU, NATO and UN, have attempted to engage and manage this breakup on an individual and collective basis. They have greatly influenced the process of the post-conflict nation building of this region. From this viewpoint, the paper discusses the political and social transformation of the Balkans after the breakup of the Yugoslav conflict, and the role of the EU and NATO in the process of the democratization and nation building in the former Yugoslavia. Moreover, attention is paid to the features of the involvement of the EU and NATO in the former Yugoslav conflict. In the process of Yugoslav fragmentation one can see the ‘Eastern Question’ revisited and the ‘Powder keg of Europe’ once again rising to its brim.

  4. Deliverable 5.2 Study report on consumer motivations and behaviours for fruits and fruit products in the Balkans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsema, S.J.; Snoek, H.M.

    2010-01-01

    It is unclear whether fruit consumption in Western Balkan countries (WBC) meets recommended levels from a health perspective. A better understanding consumers' perception of health and motives and barriers of fruit is necessary to get insight in the fruit consumption. The aim of WP 5 is therefore to

  5. Medicine in Balkans during the Roman Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baykan, Daniş

    2017-08-04

    The aim of this study is to investigate the archaeological finds to enlighten the medical methods of treatments and operations applied in Balkans during Roman Period. Some independent local and regional find groups, taken from existing publications will be grouped together and a holistic point-of-view will be taken against medicine in Balkan Geography during Roman Period. Due to basic differences it contained, the data before Roman Period are excluded. Most of Greece and Aegean Islands are also excluded since the topic selected is "Medicine of Roman Period." Greece and Aegean Islands should be evaluated in another study in connection with West Anatolia which is closer than the Balkan Geography in terms of social relations. The spread of medical tools in Balkans during Roman Period is concentrated around military garrisons, and in settlements built around military pathways, and in settlements containing an amphitheater associated with gladiators. This spread is verified by the studies on Bulgaria in general. The data is also compatible with the assertion suggesting that the amount of application of pharmaceutical treatment increases when one moves away from the military centres.

  6. "Balkan journal of medical genetics"--facts, editorial policies, practices and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaseska Karanfilska, Dijana; Sukarova Stefanovska, Emilija

    2014-01-01

    The Balkan Journal of Medical Genetics (BJMG) is an international, open access journal that publishes scientific papers covering different aspects of medical genetics. It is published by the Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts twice a year in both printed and electronic versions. BJMG is covered by many abstracting and indexing databases, including PubMed Central and Thomson Reuters. Although there are many journals in the field of medical genetics, only a few come from regions outside Western Europe and North America. Being one of these few journals, BJMG aims to promote genetics and research on this topic in the Balkan countries and beyond. BJMG's ultimate goal is to raise the scientific quality and metrics of the journal and provide a better place for BJMG in the community of scientific journals.

  7. National minorities and interethnic relations on the Balkans

    OpenAIRE

    Raduški Nada M.

    2001-01-01

    Since the earliest times the Balkans is the very complex region where meets, collides and crosses many various civilizations, cultures and religions. Ethnic and confessional pictures of the Balkans is the result of different demographic development (natural increase, migration, changed declaration of nationality) as well as the action of political, historical geographical and other factors. Political changes in the Balkan countries in the last decade of this century, resulted in the formation...

  8. World War I in the Balkans, 1914-1918 – Third Balkan War?

    OpenAIRE

    MIKIETYŃSKI, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    I would like to moot the question of the significance of the World War 1 in the reference to the Balkan Peninsula. I think, that we need to consider, why South-Eastern Europe became again the area of bloody war after only one year of relative peace. The wording “Third Balkan War” (with the question-mark) is the introduction to more serious and much more detailed historical and political debate. The most important battles of World War 1 took place in the northern France and along vast Eastern...

  9. Contrasting evolutionary histories of the legless lizards slow worms (Anguis) shaped by the topography of the Balkan Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonski, Daniel; Jandzik, David; Mikulíček, Peter; Džukić, Georg; Ljubisavljević, Katarina; Tzankov, Nikolay; Jelić, Dušan; Thanou, Evanthia; Moravec, Jiří; Gvoždík, Václav

    2016-05-10

    -Mediterranean refugia in northern parts of the Balkans have colonized vast areas of eastern, central, and western Europe. Besides climatic historical events, the heterogeneous topography of the Balkans has also played an important role in shaping genetic diversity of slow worms.

  10. Preservation of Scientific and Cultural Heritage in Balkan Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonta, Yasar

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The peoples living in the Balkan Peninsula over centuries have created a very rich cultural heritage and the constant political upheavals in the region have affected the development and preservation of their cultures. This paper aims to review the internet infrastructure and networked readiness levels of the Balkan countries, which are…

  11. The Balkans as European Otherness. On Shaping Italian Public Opinion about the War in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Škevin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In Croatia, the political changes involving most of Eastern Europe in the late 1980s and early 1990s included a war fought between 1991 and 1995. This paper aims, by examining the press releases and newspaper articles published in the Italian daily La Stampa in 1995, to show how this influential newspaper worked on shaping Italian public opinion about the war in Croatia, and to examine the extent to which well-rooted stereotypes about the Balkans played a role in the process. The application of the methods of Critical Discourse Analysis on the material has confirmed the occurrence of stereotypes expressed through several types of polarized representations, for example, the one between the good (Italy/Europe/West and the bad (Croatia/the Balkans – associated with “primitive” nationalism and chaos. It has also shown that Italy (as part of Europe, largely saw itself as the “appointed” Western civilized neighbour towards one of its Balkan neighbours, Croatia, and worked on trying, as Todorova would put it, “to normalise” it.

  12. Sociological Variables Influencing the Nigeria Premier League | Ogu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated sociological variable influencing the Nigeria premier League. Three research questions and three hypotheses were raised. The area of the study was Nigeria. The population for the study was 1,118 which comprised of sports administrators, coaches and players in the Nigeria Premier League.

  13. Towards Common Balkan Lexical Evidential Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim M. Makartsev

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A simple listing of lexical evidential markers in Bulgarian, Macedonian and Albanian uncovers unusual problems, because a significant part of the markers are common, both due to genetic relations between the languages (e.g. Bulg. and Maced. spored and to areal factors (e.g. Turk. word güya / gûya was loaned into Bulg. dialectal gyoa, Maced. ǵoa and Alb. gjoja; this marker also exists in Serb.. But these common markers with the same etymology do not necessarily have similar meanings, which is both a theoretical problem for the description of the language data and a practical issue for translation between the languages. As Bulgarian, Macedonian and Albanian have grammatical evidential systems as well, there is a question how the lexical evidential markers interact with evidential forms. Here the distinction between analytic and holistic reading can be quite helpful, as it clarifies the role of each of the components in constructions. In the article it is analysed on the basis of translations between the Balkan languages. The definition of evidentiality I employ in this article is the one stated by A. Aikhenvald: “evidentiality is a linguistic category whose primary meaning is [the] source of information. […] [T]his covers the way in which the information was acquired, without necessarily relating to the degree of [the] speaker’s certainty concerning the statement or whether it is true or not” [Aikhenvald 2004: 3]. It is well known that there is a certain variety of domains for expressing evidentiality; first and foremost there is a distinction between lexical and grammatical markers.1 In the following article I will concentrate on the common lexical evidential markers in Albanian, Bulgarian, and Macedonian, with a short introduction to grammatical evidentiality in these languages. _______________________ 1 As for the grammatical evidential markers in the Balkan languages, there is a tradition of their analysis dating back to the second

  14. Towards Common Balkan Lexical Evidential Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim M. Makartsev

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A simple listing of lexical evidential markers in Bulgarian, Macedonian and Albanian uncovers unusual problems, because a significant part of the markers are common, both due to genetic relations between the languages (e.g. Bulg. and Maced. spored and to areal factors (e.g. Turk. word güya / gûya was loaned into Bulg. dialectal gyoa, Maced. ǵoa and Alb. gjoja; this marker also exists in Serb.. But these common markers with the same etymology do not necessarily have similar meanings, which is both a theoretical problem for the description of the language data and a practical issue for translation between the languages. As Bulgarian, Macedonian and Albanian have grammatical evidential systems as well, there is a question how the lexical evidential markers interact with evidential forms. Here the distinction between analytic and holistic reading can be quite helpful, as it clarifies the role of each of the components in constructions. In the article it is analysed on the basis of translations between the Balkan languages. The definition of evidentiality I employ in this article is the one stated by A. Aikhenvald: “evidentiality is a linguistic category whose primary meaning is [the] source of information. […] [T]his covers the way in which the information was acquired, without necessarily relating to the degree of [the] speaker’s certainty concerning the statement or whether it is true or not” [Aikhenvald 2004: 3]. It is well known that there is a certain variety of domains for expressing evidentiality; first and foremost there is a distinction between lexical and grammatical markers.1 In the following article I will concentrate on the common lexical evidential markers in Albanian, Bulgarian, and Macedonian, with a short introduction to grammatical evidentiality in these languages._______________________1 As for the grammatical evidential markers in the Balkan languages, there is a tradition of their analysis dating back to the second

  15. A third Balkan war: France and the allied attempts at creating a new Balkan alliance 1914-1915

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Vojislav

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The initial phase of the First World War in the Balkans 1914-1915 was a natural continuation of the conflicts opened during the Balkan Wars, but national fervor now encompassed all of the Balkans, from Rijeka and Ljubljana to Athens, Sofia and Bucharest, because the role of the Dual Monarchy had changed from that of an arbiter to that of a participant in the conflict. With the demise of the Ottoman Empire, the further survival of the Habsburg Monarchy was challenged by the Serbian government's Yugoslav project, creating conditions for implementing the nationality principle in all of the Balkans. It seemed that, in support of the alliances that were being created in the Balkans and in Europe as a whole, the time had come for the final fulfillment of the national aspirations of the Balkan peoples. The outcome of this third Balkan war no longer depended solely on the balance of power inside the Balkans, but also on the overall course of the war. After the initial victories in 1914, Serbia suffered a defeat in 1915 and her armies were forced to retreat southward to Albania and Greece, but her Yugoslav project was the foundation of her future policies and the basis for materializing the concept of a common South-Slavic state.

  16. Violence in transition: Reforms and rights in the Western Balkans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Kurian (Rachel); E. Charkiewicz (Ewa)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe 1990s saw the breakdown of the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia which, since World War II, had developed a distinct economic system that included specific market and socialist self-management principles in production, distribution and decision-making processes. At the

  17. Business regulation and economic growth in the Western Balkan countries

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Engjell PERE; Albana HASHORVA

    2013-01-01

    ...). Moreover, a special attention is given investigation of the regulation and administrative facilitation aspects of doing business in the above-mentioned countries, whether this system stimulates...

  18. Cultural Identity and Regional Security in the Western Balkans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-13

    Chess game rules are widely known and easy to follow. Since its invention, chess was very popular strategy game mirroring the state versus state war...national oral traditions, Karadzic made his name as a Serbian language reformer. Ljudevit Gaj was an influential Croatian publicist who strongly supported

  19. Academic Marginalism in Western Balkans: The Case of Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brajkovic, Lucia

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study relies on document analysis and in-depth, open-ended interviews with university leaders and government officials in a post-socialist and a recent European Union entrant country, Croatia. The study seeks to provide a comprehensive overview of the Croatian academic sector, as well as to unpack the top academic officials'…

  20. Echographie devant une metrorragie du premier trimestre de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Echographie devant une metrorragie du premier trimestre de grossesse sur uterus bicorne a issue favorable. Vaginal bleeding in a pregnant woman with a bicornuate uterus, ultrasound finding and favourable outcome.

  1. Board Games Reconsidered: Mancala in the Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Bikić

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Two mancala (one of the oldest games in the world boards, which were found in the Lower Town of the Belgrade Fortress in 2006, present so far unique archaeological proof that this game was played in the region of the Balkan peninsula. Considering the fact that the knowledge regarding mancala is still quite modest, in this paper, we have also examined the different aspects of this game: the question of its origin, which is linked to the beginning of the Neolithic Age on the territories of Africa and the Near East; the link with the methods of geomantic divination; the anthropological knowledge regarding playing mancala in traditional communities; the distribution and the directions of its diffusion, as well as the archaeological finds in the area Mediterranean.

  2. THE MULTIETHNIC COEXISTENCE ON THE BALKANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strasko Stojanovski

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The present perception of dialectic discourse of “conflict” and “permanent peace building” is creating a vision of two opposite, not just as dialectic but and by their content, and it presuppose that they cannot, or they should not exist together in the same time, on the same place. The post conflict stage aim is to erase every aspect of the conflict (the reasons, differences, and the consequences. But does the permanent, sustainable peace building mean to forget, neglect, or suppress the factors of conflict? And further more: Can, or should the concepts of conflict and peace exist together? The case of SFR Yugoslavia had shown that the attempt to create permanent peace, after World War two, through brotherhood and unity (bratstvo i jedinstvo by forgetting and suppressing the conflict reasons, in times of increase political exploitation, like in 1990-ties, the “forgotten” conflict can escalate. From the other side in multicultural communities on the Balkan countries were developed mechanisms of permanent negotiating and conflict solution. The origin of semiinstitutional, or non-institutional collective bodies created on local level1 comes from the multicultural pre-national heritage of this region. The methods of conflict solution don’t mean to forget, but to forgive. So, to have sustainable peace, there is no need to suppress the conflict rather to negotiate and to solve the problematic issues. On the Balkan having permanent conflict creates condition of being aware of differences in existing communities. This awareness helps to make a compromise, to create mutual respect and to create permanent and sustainable peace.

  3. Echographie devant une metrorragie du premier trimestre de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nous rapportons un cas de grossesse dans un utérus bicorne, avec un épisode de saignement vaginal durant le premier trimestre. L'échographie a été capable de trouver un épaississement de l'endomètre de la corne utérine vide qui pourrait expliquer cette métrorragie. Mots clés : Utérus bicorne, métrorragie, premier ...

  4. From Ankara to Bled Marshal Tito’s visit to Greece (june 1954 and the formation of the Balkan alliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sfetas Spyridon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Tito’s visit to Greece contributed to the Balkan Pact’s transformation into a military alliance. Despite the establishment of Soviet-Yugoslav diplomatic relations in 1953, the Soviet Union made no political move towards normalizing bilateral relations. For security reasons Tito visited Athens (June 1954 to promote Yugoslavia’s military cooperation with Greece and Turkey without ruling out Yugoslavia’s accession to NATO. But the Soviet leadership, fearing Yugoslavia’s involvement in western defense mechanisms, sent the message to Belgrade that it was ready to recognize Stalin’s blunders towards Yugoslavia. Thus, Tito applied a policy of equidistance between East and West and refused to link up the Balkan Alliance with NATO.

  5. Greece and the idea of the Balkan Union according to the materials of magazine Les Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Lubotskaya

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El primer tercio del siglo XX fue un punto de inversión en la historia del desarrollo del Estado griego. El reemplazo de la Idea Griega (en general, una idea de conquista, por la idea de paz se reflejó de forma resplandeciente en la política exterior del nuevo gobierno, encabezado por el líder del Partido Liberal, Elefterios Vénselos. En la agenda de su política se encontraba la cuestión del mantenimiento de la posición griega en los Balcanes y el Mediterráneo. La vitalidad política del tema escogido es la importancia del problema de la paz en la región balcánica incluso a día de hoy. Este objeto de estudio tiene además un gran interés científico, puesto que ni en la historiografía rusa ni internacional se ha analizado desde el punto de vista periodístico. El estudio del semanario Les Balkans permitió reproducir en detalle la atmósfera de la vida política y social griega a comienzos de la tercera década del siglo XX y la propia existencia de esta publicación.____________________ABSTRACT:The end of the 20th – begining of the 30th of the XXth centuary was a turning-point in the history of development of the Greek state. Replacement of the Great Idea (in general the idea of the conquest by the idea of peace brightly reflected in the foreign policy of new-formed government, headed by the leader of the Liberal party, Elefterios Venizelos. On the agenda of its policy there was set a question of the maintenance of Greek position in the Balkan and Mediterranean regions. The political vitality of the theme chosen is in the importance of the question of peace in the Balkan region even in time beings. This theme moreover has a scientific vitality – neither in foreign nor in the russian historography it hasn’t been investigated from the journal’s point of view. Study of Les Balkans allowed to reproduce in detail the atmosphere of the greek social and political life at the begining of the 1930th and the history of journal

  6. Neurosteroids, immunosteroids, and the Balkanization of endocrinology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Kim L; Pradhan, Devaleena S; Shah, Amit H; Charlier, Thierry D; Chin, Eunice H; Soma, Kiran K

    2008-07-01

    Traditionally, the production and regulation of steroid hormones has been viewed as a multi-organ process involving the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis for sex steroids and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis for glucocorticoids. However, active steroids can also be synthesized locally in target tissues, either from circulating inactive precursors or de novo from cholesterol. Here, we review recent work demonstrating local steroid synthesis, with an emphasis on steroids synthesized in the brain (neurosteroids) and steroids synthesized in the immune system (immunosteroids). Furthermore, recent evidence suggests that other components of the HPG axis (luteinizing hormone and gonadotropin-releasing hormone) and HPA axis (adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticotropin-releasing hormone) are expressed locally in target tissues, potentially providing a mechanism for local regulation of neurosteroid and immunosteroid synthesis. The balance between systemic and local steroid signals depends critically on life history stage, species adaptations, and the costs of systemic signals. During particular life history stages, there can be a shift from systemic to local steroid signals. We propose that the shift to local synthesis and regulation of steroids within target tissues represents a "Balkanization" of the endocrine system, whereby individual tissues and organs may become capable of autonomously synthesizing and modulating local steroid signals, perhaps independently of the HPG and HPA axes.

  7. Timing Variations in Two Balkan Percussion Performances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Goldberg

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Many songs and dance pieces from the Balkan Peninsula employ aksak meter, in which two categorically different durations, long and short, coexist in the sequence of beats that performers emphasize and listeners move to. This paper analyzes the durations of aksak beats and measures in two recorded percussion performances that use a particular aksak beat sequence, long-short-short. The results suggest that the timing of beats varies in conjunction with factors including melodic grouping and interaction among members of a performing ensemble and audience. Timing variation linked to melodic groups occurs on a solo recording of a Macedonian Romani folk song. The performer, Muzafer Bizlim, taps an ostinato while singing, and the timing of his taps seems to mark some local and large-scale group boundaries. Melodic organization also seems relevant to the timing of beats and measures on a recording of Bulgarian percussionist Mitko Popov playing the tŭpan, a double-headed bass drum, in a small folk music ensemble. In Popov’s performance, however, timing differences might be related to characteristics of the ensemble dynamic, such as the coordination of multiple musical participants. These interpretations generate possibilities for future study of timing variations in relation to rhythm and meter.

  8. Mobile radiography units in Balkan Wars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamantis, Aristidis; Magiorkinis, E

    2016-02-01

    It is known that the first radiological units were widely used during war conflicts, whereas the first application of military radiology took place during the Greco-Turkish War in 1897. However, until recently automobile radiology units were assumed to be used for the first time during World War I. Historical archives and reports were researched, and extensive research in available literature was also conducted. The automobile radiology units were purchased from France and were probably constructed under the guidance of Marie Curie (1867-1934). The figure of Dr. Dimitrios Vasilidis (?-1937), a pioneer in Radiology in Greece and the first president of the Hellenic Radiological Society, is highlighted. This short historical note describes the first use of a mobile radiology unit during the Balkan Wars (1912-1913), predating its previously presumed first use in World War I. It also briefly highlights the contributions of some notable figures in 20th Century Greek scientific development. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  9. Anglophiles in Balkan Christian states (1862-1920

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markovich Slobodan G.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The life stories of five Balkan Anglophiles emerging in the nineteenth century - two Serbs, Vladimir Jovanović (Yovanovich and Čedomilj Mijatović (Chedomille Mijatovich; two Greeks, Ioannes (John Gennadios and Eleutherios Venizelos; and one Bulgarian, Ivan Evstratiev Geshov - reflect, each in its own way, major episodes in relations between Britain and three Balkan Christian states (Serbia, the Hellenic Kingdom and Bulgaria between the 1860s and 1920. Their education, cultural patterns, relations and models inspired by Britain are looked at, showing that they acted as intermediaries between British culture and their own and played a part in the best and worst moments in the history of mutual relations, such as the Serbian-Ottoman crisis of 1862, the Anglo-Hellenic crisis following the Dilessi murders, Bulgarian atrocities and the Eastern Crisis, unification of Bulgaria and the Serbo-Bulgarian War of 1885, the Balkan Wars 1912-13, the National Schism in Greece. Their biographies are therefore essential for understanding Anglo-Balkan relations in the period under study. The roles of two British Balkanophiles (a Bulgarophile, James David Bourchier, and a Hellenophile, Ronald Burrows are looked at as well. In conclusion, a comparison of the Balkan Anglophiles is offered, and their Britain-inspired cultural and institutional legacy to their countries is shown in the form of a table.

  10. Marketing of the Balkans as à tourist destination for cultural tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Stoyan Marinov

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work is to outline possibilities for the marketing of the Balkans as à tourist destination for cultural tourism. It gives à definition of the Balkan region as à tourist destination. The target cultural tourist segments of the region are indicated. The strategic marketing mix is drawn for the positioning of the Balkans on the market of cultural tourism. The possible organizational platform for the marketing of the Balkans as à tourist destination is shown.

  11. Social aspects of the transition to farming in the Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Mihailović

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The Neolithization of the Balkans could be considered as a very complex social phenomenon. In this work we study the causes for the cultural and social integration of hunter-gatherer communities in the Late Glacial and Early Holocene, social networks and contacts in the Iron Gates Mesolithic, and also factors having an impact on the spread of the Neolithic in the Balkans. It has been perceived that the evolution of culture in the Balkans was simultaneously influenced by internal and external factors, and this contributed to the very rapid acceptance of Neolithic values and the Neo- lithic way of life in the period from 6500 to 6200 calBC.

  12. The Aromanian Farsheroti Dialect – Balkan Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Markovik'

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Aromanian Farsheroti Dialect – Balkan Perspective The focus of our interest is the analysis of the Aromanian Farsheroti speech from the Ohrid-Struga region, which has never been a subject of a separate linguistic analysis. This speech is described in comparison to the Macedonian Ohrid-Struga dialects and special emphasis is given to their mutual interferences within the Balkan context. Using such approach, the parallel structures and the differences between these speeches are more clearly pointed out thus presenting a wider picture of the processes typical of the Balkan linguistic community. The efforts for drawing closer to a joint model that enables easier and straightforward communication were the most powerful with the linguistic features and categories that were in a way the most distinct and completely different. Both Aromanian Farsheroti and Macedonian Ohrid speeches adjusted to each other by using all available linguistic means not only from their own languages. For instance, the Aromanian Farsheroti speech has eliminated the case inflections for genitive / dative thus approaching closer to the analytical declination which is the case with the Macedonian language. Even for the complex past tenses from a present point of view can be argued that they outline an almost joint Albanian-Aromanian-Macedonian model. The Aromanian Farsheroti dialect, using its own and the borrowed Albanian linguistic characteristics, has created such model, whereas the Macedonian Ohrid speech, on the other hand, by adopting the constructions with imam (have and sum (be, has filled the blanks in its own verbal tense system. The constructions showing admirative are another typical feature that the Aromanian has borrowed from the Albanian and has incorporated into the Macedonian system. All these instances show that the mutual interference was very strong and emerged deeply in the structure of the two systems. This is another proof of the great need for mutual

  13. Computers for Schools Kenya se classe au premier rang | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cinq ans après avoir remis en service ses premiers ordinateurs recyclés et leur avoir trouvé un nouveau nid, l'organisation non gouvernementale Computers for Schools Kenya (CFSK) s'est mérité un prix convoité à l'échelle de l'Afrique pour son travail.

  14. Library Media Specialists: Premier Information Specialists for the Information Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, Delia

    2011-01-01

    The information age has given library media specialists an unprecedented opportunity to play a leading role in helping teachers, administrators, and especially students access and use information intelligently. As the school's premier information specialist; the library media specialist has a unique role to play in helping everyone in the school…

  15. Trichoberoard gastrique : Premier cas observe en milieu bur kina be ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Le trichobezoard est une concretion de cheveux, de poils ou de fibres de tapis et de debris alimentaire, localisee habituellement dans l'estomac. Le trichobezoard est une pathologie rare qui survient habituellement chez des adolescentes presentant des troubles psychiques. La premiere observation de trichobezoard a ete ...

  16. The Chronicle Of The First World War And Its Impact On The Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erjada Progonati

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The process of the two Balkan Wars (1912-1913 remained incomplete until the First World War started. The aim of this study is to give some informations about The First World War and the role that Balkan region played to this war when the national consciousness of Balkan peoples began to crystallize. After the two Balkan Wars, all the Balkan states continued their efforts to gather their co-nationals into their national states. It’s concluded that the Balkan Wars leaded to the internationalization of this crisis spreading it to an ample area while many other crises at the same region were resolved without a general war in Europe. It appears that the First World War that began in 1914 in the Balkan region was a continuation of the wars that started in 1912-1913 period in the same are.

  17. D Representation of the 19TH Century Balkan Architecture Using Scaled Museum-Maquette and Photogrammetry Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, E.; Karachaliou, E.; Stylianidis, E.

    2017-08-01

    Characteristic example of the Balkan architecture of the 19th century, consists the "Tower house" which is found in the region of Epirus and Western Macedonia, Greece. Nowadays, the only information about these heritage buildings could be abstracted by the architectural designs on hand and the model - Tower that is being displayed in the Folklore Museum of the Municipality of Kozani, Greece, as a maquette. The current work generates a scaled 3D digital model of the "Tower house", by using photogrammetry techniques applied on the model-maquette that is being displayed in the Museum exhibits.

  18. Morpho-anatomical differentiation of the Balkan endemic species Teucrium arduini L. (Lamiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakušić Branislava

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Teucrium arduini L. is an endemic of the Mediteranean to sub-Mediterranean part of the Western Balkans. The ecological plasticity, i.e., inter-population differentiation, of the species Teucrium arduini was analyzed on the basis of morpho-anatomical variability of six populations from different types of vegetation, i.e., of rocky crevices, rocky ground, and a thermophilous forest in the eu-Mediterranean, sub-Mediterranean, and transitional sub-Mediterranean-Central-European climate zones. Univariant statistic analysis included 22 quantitative characters related to leaf and stem anatomy and morphology. In order to establish the variability and significance of morpho-anatomical differentiation, principal component analyses (PCA, multivariant analyses of variances (MANOVA, and discriminant components analysis (DCA were done. The analyses of plants from these spatially separated populations confirmed that the species T. arduini belongs to the category of xerophytes with malacophyllous leaves.

  19. Revisiting the Balkan and Meso-American Linguistic Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Auwera, Johan

    1998-01-01

    A study took features identified by specialists as typical for the Balkan and Meso-American linguistic areas and counted them for each relevant language. The resulting ranking of languages reflects the extent to which each language exemplifies the areal type, which was then plotted on isopleth maps. Both rankings and maps are useful in…

  20. Record Balkan floods of 2014 linked to planetary wave resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadtherr, Lisa; Coumou, Dim; Petoukhov, Vladimir; Petri, Stefan; Rahmstorf, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    In May 2014, the Balkans were hit by a Vb-type cyclone that brought disastrous flooding and severe damage to Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, and Croatia. Vb cyclones migrate from the Mediterranean, where they absorb warm and moist air, to the north, often causing flooding in central/eastern Europe. Extreme rainfall events are increasing on a global scale, and both thermodynamic and dynamical mechanisms play a role. Where thermodynamic aspects are generally well understood, there is large uncertainty associated with current and future changes in dynamics. We study the climatic and meteorological factors that influenced the catastrophic flooding in the Balkans, where we focus on large-scale circulation. We show that the Vb cyclone was unusually stationary, bringing extreme rainfall for several consecutive days, and that this situation was likely linked to a quasi-stationary circumglobal Rossby wave train. We provide evidence that this quasi-stationary wave was amplified by wave resonance. Statistical analysis of daily spring rainfall over the Balkan region reveals significant upward trends over 1950-2014, especially in the high quantiles relevant for flooding events. These changes cannot be explained by simple thermodynamic arguments, and we thus argue that dynamical processes likely played a role in increasing flood risks over the Balkans.

  1. Balkan – Pestens første udbrud?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fledelius, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    Artiklen behandler den religiøst farvede nationalismes udvikling i Jugoslavien efter præsident Titos død i 1980 og dens virkninger på Balkan-landene, samt EU's muligheder for at danne modvægt mod aggressiv nationalistisk-religiøs chauvinisme...

  2. Record Balkan floods of 2014 linked to planetary wave resonance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stadtherr, Lisa; Coumou, Dim; Petoukhov, Vladimir; Petri, Stefan; Rahmstorf, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    In May 2014, the Balkans were hit by a Vb-type cyclone that brought disastrous flooding and severe damage to Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, and Croatia. Vb cyclones migrate from the Mediterranean, where they absorb warm and moist air, to the north, often causing flooding in central/eastern Europe.

  3. Album Devoted to the Balkan War (1912-1913

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.V. Toshev

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This year Bulgaria marks the 100th anniversary of the Balkan wars 1912-1913 - an effort of Bulgarians for national liberation and unification, unfortunately not given the desired result. Presented here luxury book is a collection of 388 rare photographs, postcards and other documents which are a visual image of what have happened 100 years ago.

  4. THE CURRENT STATE OF CLOTHING TRADE IN THE BALKAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TRIPA Simona

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The study presented here is aimed at analysing the current state of clothing trade in the Balkan states. The dynamics of change over a 15‐year period following economic reforms are revealed. The clothing industries play a significant role and continue to contribute to the economic prosperity of countries with an inexpensive labour force. For most Balkan States clothing’s export plays an important role in promoting economic growth and development – for example, exports of garments Albania was in 2015, 16.81% of its exports, Republic of Macedonia 11.75% of its exports, in Turkey10.51% etc. The main factors which influence the level of competitiveness of clothing products from the Balkans are the gross value added per employee and wages. When the producers of the Balkan countries will create products with higher added value in garment industry the competitiveness of these countries will decrease. Also rising wages in this industry, as a result of trade union pressure or government policy, will lead to decreasing competitiveness of these products on the EU market and implicitly to the decrease of exports of garments from these countries. The main challenges that must face the Balkan States are related to restructuring of economic system, changing trade markets and patterns, declining of domestic demand of most merchandise, reduction of competitive ability, narrow export base, and lower economies of scale. The main opportunities that most of these countries can exploit are related to their geographical position, membership of the EU market, infrastructure in garment sector, and highly skilled workforce.

  5. Conflict between transitional consequences and proclaimed European values and main reason of continual destabilization of south-west Balkan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šuvaković Uroš V.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we tried to analyze the consequences of the transitional process in the societies of the South-West Balkan, primarily on the example of Serbia. The indicators that we have found by the research clearly speak in favor of the fact that the transition is the cause of peripheralization of these societies. Citizens who entered the transitional processes with hope - imagining them as the accomplishment of the best European values - soon were convinced that the transition is only another manner to place these countries in the position to be exploited by multinational capital and developed, 'old' member of the EU, as well as to serve for squaring accounts in geopolitical games of the creators of the 'new world order'. In the case of the countries of the Western Balkan, the transition had the characteristic that, among other things, it was performed in conditions of political violence: destruction of the joint state of Yugoslavia, civil and religious war in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina, aggression of NATO to the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, destabilization of Serbia through the attempt of Kosovo secession, etc., therefore, in the conditions that were extremely antihistorical. While the Europe was uniting, the Balkan was disintegrating. At least two out of the three 'ideas that conquered the world' (Mandelbaum have been violated: the peace and the democracy. Free market in the conditions when there was no peace and regarding democratically insufficiently consolidated societies could not bring their progress, but on the contrary, as we established, only regression. That is the reason why the destroyed and collided South-Balkan societies, contrary to the European vow of their political elites, are today de facto much further from the European aspirations than they were quarter of the century ago. With their policy, the countries of the West have contributed to De- Europeanization of the South-West Balkan and strengthening of the

  6. The Balkans and Syria’s Civil War: Realities and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA. Perparim Gutaj

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The prime objective of this research paper is to look at the realities and challenges confronting the Balkan states and societies in light of Syria’s civil war. By examining the mobilization process of Balkan militants who are joining Syria’s rebel cause, especially the Islamic radical groups linked to al-Qaeda, this paper proposes a model that explains why and how Balkan militants are joining the fight in Syria. Drawing upon reliable media reports, personal observations, academic accounts, and other consistent sources, this paper argues that Balkan militants are joining Syria’s rebel cause because foreign Islamic radical groups (that have been operating in the Balkans since the early 1990s have successfully indoctrinated them. This paper challenges the argument that Islam in the Balkans is a threat to the region, and the claim that Balkan Islam and Muslims in the region are becoming an increasing threat to the West. The central findings of this paper exemplify that the future of Balkan militants is bleak and that they will be confronted with a massive modern and democratic resistance that offers them nothing but reintegration into Balkan Islam, their natural “religious nest.” Notwithstanding the trends related to Syria’s civil war, Balkan Muslims belong to the West, culturally and mentally.

  7. Multi-scale atmospheric composition modelling for the Balkan region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganev, Kostadin; Syrakov, Dimiter; Todorova, Angelina; Prodanova, Maria; Atanasov, Emanouil; Gurov, Todor; Karaivanova, Aneta; Miloshev, Nikolai; Gadzhev, Georgi; Jordanov, Georgi

    2010-05-01

    Overview The present work describes the progress in developing of an integrated, multi-scale Balkan region oriented modeling system. The main activities and achievements at this stage of the work are: Creating, enriching and updating the necessary physiographic, emission and meteorological data bases; Installation of the models for GRID application, model tuning and validation; Extensive numerical simulations on regional (Balkan Peninsula) and local (Bulgaria) scales. Objevtives: The present work describes the progress of an application developed by the Environmental VO of the 7FP project SEE-GRID eInfrastructure for regional eScience. The application aims at developing of an integrated, multi-scale Balkan region oriented modelling system, which would be able to: -Study the atmospheric pollution transport and transformation processes (accounting also for heterogeneous chemistry and the importance of aerosols for air quality and climate) from urban to local to regional (Balkan) scales; -Track and characterize the main pathways and processes that lead to atmospheric composition formation in different scales; -Account for the biosphere-atmosphere exchange as a source and receptor of atmospheric chemical species; -Provide high quality scientifically robust assessments of the air quality and its origin, thus facilitating formulation of pollution mitigation strategies at national and Balkan level. The application is based on US EPA Models-3 system. Description of work: The main activities and achievements at this still preparatory stage of the work are: 1.) Creating, enriching and updating the necessary physiographic, emission and meteorological data bases 2.) Installation of the models for GRID application, model tuning and validation, numerical experiments and interpretation of the results: The US EPA Models 3 system is installed; software for emission speciation and for introducing emission temporal profiles is created, a procedure for calculating biogenic VOC

  8. INTERNET ADDICTION IN BALKAN AND SOUTH-EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis PETASAKIS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of Internet has increased dramatically in recent years. Although there is no standardized definition of Internet addiction, there is acknowledgement among researchers that this phenomenon does exist. In this study, we identify various similarities and differences among people in the Balkan and South-Eastern European countries about Internet addiction. There are many factors such as cultural differences, gender differences, psychosocial variables, computer attitudes and time.We present the experience from studies concerning Internet addiction in all over the world. A specific research with the use of Young's 20-scale was also conducted in five Balkan and South-Eastern European countries (Republic of Moldova, Romania, Republic of Bulgaria, Hellenic Republic, Republic of Cyprus.The findings are interesting. Although there is a need for Interest using, there are also cases where the addiction, dependence and abuse is apparent.

  9. LATEST CHALLENGES IN EFFICIENCY CONVERGENCE IN BALKAN AND BALTIC COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihăiță-Cosmin M. POPOVICI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of banks has been widely and extensively studied in the past few decades. Using a sample of Balkan and Baltic countries and by employing a Data Envelopment Analysis model, we want to highlight the main challenges for the highly concentrated banking system. Over the period 2007 - 2011, these countries have coped with the worst financial crisis from the Great Depression, which has severe effects on the banking systems. Our sample includes the least developed countries in the EU and for reference purpose, Luxembourg, with the highest GDP per capita. We expect to find similarities between Balkan countries and Baltic countries and we can draw lessons from Luxembourg`s results.

  10. Endogean and cavernicolous Coleoptera of the Balkans. XVII. A new species of the genus Speluncarius Reitter, 1886 (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Harpalinae, Pterostichini) from Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlaváč, Peter; Lakota, Ján; Čeplík, Dávid

    2016-09-02

    The genus Speluncarius Reitter, 1886 (Harpalinae, Pterostichini) is made up by anophthalmous or almost blind species. The genus is related to Tapinopterus Schaum, 1858, which contains numerous species from the Balkan-Anatolian region and have more or less developed eyes. Speluncarius is distributed in the Western Palaearctic region; 26 species and one subspecies are known from Italy, the Balkan Peninsula and Turkey. The genus is classified in five subgenera, Elasmopterus Kraatz, 1886 (6 spp.); Hypogearius Jeannel, 1953 (3 spp.); Hypogium Tschitscherine, 1900 (1 sp.); Pontotapinus Guéorguiev & Lohaj, 2008 (1 sp.) and Speluncarius (s.str.) Reitter, 1886 (15 spp.) (Sciaky, 1982; Bousquet, 2003; Guéorguiev & Lohaj, 2008; Casale et al., 2013).

  11. Surveillance of wildlife zoonotic diseases in the Balkans Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hukić, Mirsada; Numanović, Fatima; Sisirak, Maida; Moro, Almedina; Dervović, Edina; Jakovec, Sanja; Besić, Irma Salimović

    2010-08-01

    The countries of the Balkan Peninsula have become the region with frequent outbreaks of the emerging and re-emerging diseases during the last decade of the 20th and the first decade of the 21st century. The majority of outbreaks were wildlife zoonotic, and vector-borne diseases, such as brucellosis, leptospirosis, listeriosis, tularemia, Q-fever, Lyme disease, anthrax, rabies, viral hemorrhagic fevers, sandfly fever, tick-borne encephalitis and leishmainiasis. Epidemiological factors determined by ecology of causative agents are often the most useful diagnostic clues. The recognition of evolving problems of emerging and re-emerging diseases emphasizes the need for the development of better laboratory diagnostic methods for the surveillance and tracking of the diseases, and for continued research of factors contributing to the transmission of the organisms. The continuous occurrence of previously unidentified infections requires prospective national strategies for timely recognition of the syndromes, causative agent identification, establishment of criteria and methods for the diagnosis, optimization of the treatment regime, and determination of successful approaches to prevention and control. Wildlife diseases surveillance in the most of the Balkan countries has been coordinated by the WHO since 1992. Although new technology and communication have extremely improved in the last decade, there is a need for optimal communication lines among the Balkan countries, better exploitation of communication technologies like the Internet and other media in the field of emerging diseases.

  12. The Balkan gurbet/pečalbarstvo - past and present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristov Petko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an observation on the various traditional forms of cross-border seasonal labour mobility on the Balkans, both as agricultural works away from the home place, and as large-scale temporary craftsmen’s migrations of builders, bakers, dairy workers, confectioners and so on. In countries like Albania, Bulgaria, Greece, Macedonia and Serbia, traditional cultural models of trans-border labour mobility that encompasses the majority of the male population of entire regions have existed for centuries. These migrant groups created the specific subculture of gurbet, which the men carried with them in the big city, at the same time altering the entire model of traditional culture in their home regions. The annual journeys of men from the various mountain parts of the Balkans “at work” and “for gain” (pečalba in the course of the years developed specific features of the feast-ritual system and folklore in the villages of these regions. At the same time, the traditional Balkan gurbet is an important condition for mutual penetration between various cultures and peoples and for creating new cultural patterns and various multidimentional identities.

  13. Is the balkanization of the ukrainian-russian conflict probable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Petrovich Koshkin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective to determine the possibility and probability of Balkanization of the UkrainianRussian intersocietal relations. Methods the need to study the main factors affecting the state of the modern RussianUkrainian conflict in its ethnopolitical dimension with the predominat focus on intersocietal relations determined the use of the historicalgenetic comparativehistorical and typological methods of investigation integrated with the systemic approach. Results the main parallels are shown that occur when comparing the ethnopolitical situation in the Balkans and above all the SerbianCroatian relations with the current RussianUkrainian conflict mainly at the level of relations of Russians and Ukrainians as ethnic groups. The ethnosocial and ethnopolitical differences of the genesis and current state of both conflicts do not provide a sufficient basis for specific predictions about the inevitable Balkanization of the RussianUkrainian conflict. Scientific novelty the article proves the inconsistency of unambiguous similes of the RussianUkrainian conflict and interethnic SerbianCroatian conflict at intersocietal and associated levels it shows the significant differences of the conflict situations that do not lead to dogmatic conclusions about the development of the RussianUkrainian relations by the Yugoslavia scenario. Practical significance the main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in scientific and pedagogical activity in the study of ethnos and ethnicity in the analysis of ethnopolitical processes in modern Ukraine and consideration of the status and prospects of the development of RussianUkrainian relations. nbsp

  14. Surveillance of wildlife zoonotic diseases in the Balkans Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirsada Hukić

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The countries of the Balkan Peninsula have become the region with frequent outbreaks of the emerging and re-emerging diseases during the last decade of the 20th and the first decade of the 21st century. The majority of outbreaks were wildlife zoonotic, and vector-borne diseases, such as brucellosis, leptospirosis, listeriosis, tularemia, Q-fever, Lyme disease, anthrax, rabies, viralhemorrhagic fevers, sandfly fever, tick-borne encephalitis and leishmainiasis. Epidemiological factors determined by ecology ofcausative agents are often the most useful diagnostic clues. The recognition of evolving problems of emerging and re-emergingdiseases emphasizes the need for the development of better laboratory diagnostic methods for the surveillance and tracking ofthe diseases, and for continued research of factors contributing to the transmission of the organisms. The continuous occurrence of previously unidentified infections requires prospective nationalstrategies for timely recognition of the syndromes, causative agent identification, establishment of criteria and methods for the diagnosis, optimization of the treatment regime, and determinationof successful approaches to prevention and control. Wildlife diseasessurveillance in the most of the Balkan countries has been coordinated by the WHO since 1992. Although new technology and communication have extremely improved in the last decade, there is a need for optimal communication lines among the Balkan countries, better exploitation of communication technologies like the Internet and other media in the field of emerging diseases.

  15. SOME ASPECTS OF THE REGIONAL COOPERATION IN THE BALKANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariya Gospodinova Grozeva

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of the 21st century, the political role of the state borders in the Balkans has changed. Gradually they began to transform from barriers into zones of bilateral and multilateral cooperation. The common European integration includes the creation and development of Euro-regions. Within the context of reorganization of the new European space, geopolitical importance of South-East Europe has significantly upgraded. This fact reflects on the interests of the international community in security and development of this region. Despite that the Balkans constitute an indispensable part of the European continent, their incorporation into the new European architecture has been particularly difficult and problematic. They emerge as the most volatile and least integrated European region. There are significant variations among the countries concerning their territory, number of population, as well as the rate of the economic changes. The main forms of regional cooperation should be concentrated on the domains of transport, energy and communication infrastructure, trade and economic cooperation, environment and security. From this point of view, the economic growth and increase of living standard are the most important problems for all Balkan countries.

  16. Fossil nickel laterite deposits of the Balkan region; Fossile Nickellaterit-Lagerstaetten auf dem Balkan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masurenko, Christian [European Nickel PLC, London (United Kingdom); Radosevic, Branislav [Advanced Systems, Belgrade (RS)

    2008-11-15

    Acid heap leaching is common in the gold and copper industry with the majority of new copper projects being heap leaching (cyanide leaching). Although nickel is worth two to three times more than copper, the process had not been used extensively on nickel ores. The geological formation that led to the Caldag nickel deposit lends itself to heap leaching due to the low clay content of the ore. The nickel is present in the goethitic phase and is soluble in diluted sulphuric acid. The lack of clays in the laterite profile assists the percolation of the solutions through the heaps throughout the heap leach cycle, which in Caldag's case is well over a year. European Nickel has demonstrated the percolation and extraction of nickel at a large scale pilot plant continuously over a three year period, irrigating the heaps with dilute sulphuric acid and producing saleable mixed hydroxide product from the downstream precipitation plant. Compared with pyrometallurgical processes ENickel's process is environment benign and easier to control. The process does not lead to any emissions. The production of sulphuric acid even provides electricity in excess which will be, in the case of Caldag, fed into the local grid. Today, also low grade deposits such as the nickel laterite deposits of the Balkan, often with grades lower than 1.0 % Ni, become more and more interesting. ENickel has recently completed a preliminary economic assessment of the Devolli deposit in Albania. Initial results show a capital investment of approx. 369 Mio. Euro and development of more than 700 direct jobs. The capital investment is therefore five to six times smaller than compared with any pyrometallurgical process (> 2 bn Euro). During the last years ENickel tested different ore types from various deposits all over the world (e.g. Kazakhstan, Philippines, India). One can distinguish two different types of laterites. Recent laterites which occur in the tropical regions of Australia, Indonesia and the

  17. Lessons premier hospitals learned about implementing electronic health records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVore, Susan D; Figlioli, Keith

    2010-04-01

    Implementing health information technology (IT) is a major strategic objective for providers. To pinpoint considerations that tie to success, the Premier health care alliance surveyed hospitals to develop an electronic health record best-practices library. Compiled from diverse health care organizations, the library outlines considerations to support "meaningful use" in the areas of computerized physician order entry, medication management, clinical documentation, reporting of measures, privacy, information exchange, management of populations' health, and personal health records. Best practices also uncovered strategies for securing executive leadership, culture change, communication, and support for clinicians. This paper summarizes lessons from the library, providing recommendations to speed up health IT implementation.

  18. Balkan Türk Ağızlarının Tasnifleri Üzerine Bir Değerlendirme An Assessment On Classification Of Balkan Turkish Dialects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet GÜNŞEN

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Balkan Turkish dialects are the dialects established in varioushistorical, geographical, social and cultural conditions by the Turks,who had been moved from Anatolian and settled in the Balkans fromthe mid 14th century.Balkan Turkish dialects, just like Anatolian dialects, have hadnumber of branches due to the fact that they belonged to differentTurkish tribes and lived within various political, social, cultural andgeographical conditions on the one hand and interacted with differentlanguages and cultures, mainly like Slavic ones, on the other.The ultimate objective of the researches on dialects, which havegained great significance nowadays, is to classify the existing dialects ina certain geography of language upon certain criteria within themselvesand even within the sub-dialects and eventually to form the atlases ofthe dialects. While the Western countries and some Turkish states havetaken great steps in this field, unfortunately it is hard to say the samefor the dialects of Turkey Turkish yet. Although the classificationproblem of the dialects of Turkey Turkish has widely been solved afterquite a long process, it is yet not possible to argue the same for BalkanTurkish dialects. The researches on Balkan Turkish dialects startedwith compilations of I. Kunos and the researches of T. Kowalski andthere have been some classification attempts later by mainly J. Németh,D. Gacanov, G. Hazai, M. Mollava and I. Dryga. However it is too earlyto claim that the last word has been spoken out on this matter yet.There are still a lot to do with Balkan Turkish dialects which are lessresearchescompared to Anatolian dialects.In this paper the researches on Balkan Turkish dialects up thepresent day is going to be introduced, the basic criteria and thecommon and differing criteria used by the researchers who made theclassification is going to be assessed and finally it is going to bediscussed whether some other criteria can be used for the mainstreamdialect

  19. Return of the Balkans: Challenges to European Integration and U.S. Disengagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    web/20090426011014/www.eubusiness.com/news-eu/1229351535.73. 192. Ibid. 193. See Rosa Balfour and Corina Stratulat, “Enlargement to the Balkans: One...Rosa Balfour and Corina Stratulat, “The Democratic Transformation of the Balkans,” Brussels, Belgium: European Policy Center, Issue Paper, No. 66

  20. International Trends in Health Science Librarianship Part 19: The Balkan States (Bulgaria and Croatia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirilova, Savina; Skoric, Lea

    2016-09-01

    This is the 19th in a series of articles exploring international trends in health science librarianship in the 21st century. The focus of the present issue is the Balkan Region (Bulgaria and Croatia). The next regular feature column will investigate two other Balkan states - Serbia and Slovenia. JM. © 2016 Health Libraries Group.

  1. Helianthemum marmoreum (Cistaceae), a new species from the Central Balkans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevanovic, Vladimir; Matevski, Vlado; Tan, Kit

    2009-01-01

    Helianthemum marmoreum is described as a new species from the central part of the Balkan peninsula is described as a new species from the central part of the Balkan peninsula (R. Macedonia). It inhabits rocky marble and limestone slopes and pastures at moderate altitudes of 240-1400 m. The closes...

  2. The Premiere of the Post-Cold War Crisis in Balkans: CIA Documents on the Disintegration of Former Yugoslavia (1989-1992

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    İsmail Köse

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available As the Cold War came to an end, many revisionist powers predicted the disintegration of Yugoslavia, an uneasy alliance of seven nations that had been held together only by Josip Broz Tito’s iron fist. Chief amongst the interested parties was the United States, hegemon of the new unipolar world order. For years, American intelligence agencies warned of the dangers threatening the Bosnian Muslims, a secessionist ethno-religious minority in the centre of the former Yugoslavian borders; and yet, the United States did not act to protect the Bosnian Muslims. Tensions in the region boiled over into civil war, and the world was shocked as the Bosnian Muslims were the target of attempted genocide, most notably at Srebrenica. This paper will focus on the CIA estimate reports written by field officers on the disintegration of Yugoslavia and the US foreign policy towards the probable crisis in the region. The ethnic cleansing efforts targeting Bosnian Muslims, the awareness of US field officers of this process, and whether there were any pre-emptive measures to stop such brutal acts against humanity will also be analysed during this paper.

  3. Tephrostratigraphy and tephrochronology of lakes Ohrid and Prespa, Balkans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulpizio, R.; Zanchetta, G.; D'Orazio, M.; Vogel, H.; Wagner, B.

    2010-10-01

    Four cores from Balkans lakes Ohrid and Prespa were examined for recognition of tephra layers and cryptotephras, and the results presented along with the review of data from other two already published cores from Lake Ohrid. The six cores provide a previously unrealised tephrostratigraphic framework of the two lakes, and provide a new tephrostratigraphic profile (composite) for the Balkans, which spans from the end of the Middle Pleistocene to the AD 472. A total of 12 tephra layers and cryptotephras were recognised in the cores. One is of Middle Pleistocene age (131 ka) and correlated to the marine tephra layer P-11 from Pantelleria Island. Eight volcanic layers are Upper Pleistocene in age, and encompass the period between ca. 107 ka and ca. 31 ka. This interval contains some of the main regional volcanic markers of the central Mediterranean area, including X-6, X-5, Y-5 and Y-3 tephra layers. The other layers of this interval have been related to the marine tephra layers C20, Y-6 and C10, while one was for the first time recognised in distal areas and correlated to the Taurano eruption of probable Vesuvian origin. Three cryptotephras were of Holocene age. Two of which have been correlated to Mercato and AD 472 eruptions of Somma-Vesuvius, while the third has been correlated to the FL eruption from Mount Etna. These recognitions provide a link of the Ohrid and Prespa lacustrine successions to other archives of the central Mediterranean area, like south Adriatic, Ionian, and south Tyrrhenian seas, lakes of southern Italy (Lago Grande di Monticchio, Pantano di San Gregorio Magno and Lago di Pergusa) and Balkans (Lake Shkodra).

  4. Tephrostratigraphy and tephrochronology of lakes Ohrid and Prespa, Balkans

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    R. Sulpizio

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Four cores from Balkans lakes Ohrid and Prespa were examined for recognition of tephra layers and cryptotephras, and the results presented along with the review of data from other two already published cores from Lake Ohrid. The six cores provide a previously unrealised tephrostratigraphic framework of the two lakes, and provide a new tephrostratigraphic profile (composite for the Balkans, which spans from the end of the Middle Pleistocene to the AD 472. A total of 12 tephra layers and cryptotephras were recognised in the cores. One is of Middle Pleistocene age (131 ka and correlated to the marine tephra layer P-11 from Pantelleria Island. Eight volcanic layers are Upper Pleistocene in age, and encompass the period between ca. 107 ka and ca. 31 ka. This interval contains some of the main regional volcanic markers of the central Mediterranean area, including X-6, X-5, Y-5 and Y-3 tephra layers. The other layers of this interval have been related to the marine tephra layers C20, Y-6 and C10, while one was for the first time recognised in distal areas and correlated to the Taurano eruption of probable Vesuvian origin. Three cryptotephras were of Holocene age. Two of which have been correlated to Mercato and AD 472 eruptions of Somma-Vesuvius, while the third has been correlated to the FL eruption from Mount Etna. These recognitions provide a link of the Ohrid and Prespa lacustrine successions to other archives of the central Mediterranean area, like south Adriatic, Ionian, and south Tyrrhenian seas, lakes of southern Italy (Lago Grande di Monticchio, Pantano di San Gregorio Magno and Lago di Pergusa and Balkans (Lake Shkodra.

  5. ON THE ORIGIN OF THE BALKAN PENINSULA SALMONIDS

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    Simo Georgiev

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper puts forward the knowledge of the immigration itineraries of the ancestors of five extant salmonid species on Balkan Peninsula which are the following: Acantholingua ohridana (Steindachner, 1892, Hucho hucho (Linnaeus, 1758, Salmo trutta Linnaeus, 1758, Salmothymus obtusirostris Heckel, 1851 and Thymallus thymallus (Linnaeus, 1758. The thesis for the migration itineraries is based on the anatomical, molecular and zoogeographical facts recently published. These latest facts complement or reject the previous thesis that considered the origin of separate species, which in this paper are analyzed together. A new position on the origin of some S. trutta populations inhabiting the Mediterranean Sea watershed is proposed. The new thesis is that they did not inhabit it from the west, through the Atlantic Ocean and Gibraltar, but from the North, through the branches of the former Sarmatian Sea, using the continental way. A. ohridana and S. obtusirostris, the only endemic Balkanean salmonids, have developed here from the mutual ancestor with the extant Siberian Brachymystax lenok (Pallas, 1773. This ancestor came first, together with the S. trutta lineage known as »marmorata«. Using the same migration way, the T. thymallus population of Soča River, the North.West boundary of Balkan Peninsula remained restricted at that corner of Adriatic Sea watershed. In the Black Sea watershed (the Danube River flow extension on Balkan Peninsula the distribution of T. thymallus coincides with the distribution of H. hucho. The thesis which has been proposed for this, largest contemporary Balkan Peninsula salmonid fish was that it came here last, after the connections between the Mediterranean Sea basin and once existent Sarmatian Sea disappeared. This occurred after the end of the last glaciations. This has been concluded on the basis of the exclusion of the areas of the »marmorata« lineage of S. trutta (Mediterranean Sea watershed and H. hucho (Black Sea

  6. Product mix of recreational tourism in the Balkan scout center

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    Kocevski Miloš

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of research is tourist offer of a camp which would satisfy the needs of tourists who want an active recreation, with changeable and attractive facilities in the Balkan Scout Center (BSC of Jovac. The goal is to define a model for recreational tourism product mix of the Balkan Scout Center, based on the analysis and evaluation of the elements of supply and identifying the demand for a certain program content. The research was conducted from April to August 2012, as a part of activities implemented in BSC events: Easter camp, Summer camp and Volunteer camp. The sample consisted of 100 visitors (respondents; the administered instrument was a specifically designed questionnaire and the methods on which the analysis of the modeling was based were: frequency of occurrence, comparative analysis (Benchmarking, SWOT and PEST. The research results confirm the existence of necessary resources for the implementation of the contents in the field of recreational tourism in the BSC, and the possibility of implementation of the product mix that includes day trips and a variety of outdoor recreational activities.

  7. The continuing medical mystery of Balkan Endemic Nephropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Lynn M.; Tatu, Calin A.; Orem, William H.; Pavlovic MD PhD, Nikola

    2015-01-01

    Balkan Endemic Nephropathy (BEN) is a disease of subtle onset and insidious progression that typically occurs between the 4th and 6th decade in long‐resident individuals in highly specific geographic locations of the Balkan region and affects 1 – 5% of the population. Though it does not follow typical Mendelian genetics, there is a familial pattern of occurrence. Although residents may live only a few kilometers apart, certain locations are highly affected while others close by, even as close as across the road, remain unscathed. Because of this geographic selectivity scientists have searched for an environmental cause. It is thought that exposure to the toxic plant Aristolochia clematitis is to blame. Genotoxic N‐heterocyclic or polycyclic aromatic containing coal water leachates entering cultivated soil and drinking water are also a possible cause due to the proximity and predictive power of endemic foci to coal deposits. Evidence for Ochratoxin A fungal poisoning also exists. High levels of phthalates have been measured in BEN‐endemic drinking water. BEN is a probably a multifactorial disease that may result from exposure through some of above‐mentioned environmental sources, with genetic factors contributing. This review will discuss recent research concerning the etiology, potential therapies for the treatment of nephropathy, and unexplored research directions for this chronic kidney disease.

  8. In search of Balkan meteor impact sites: A beginning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dod, B. D.

    1994-07-01

    At the present time there are no confirmed meteor impact sites on the Balkan Peninsula, although several known sites can be located surrounding it. Arguments supporting the reasons for this observation are primarily based on the facts that the Balkan Peninsula is seismically active and subjected to destructive climatological agents, thus severely limiting the survival time of impact structures. These arguments have not held up in light of the recent identification of many more impact sites around the world, several of which are located in equally unstable environments. Analyses of influx rates, and size frequency calculations indicate that there is a good chance that one or more identifiable meteor impact sites could be located and preserved in this part of Eastern Europe. Recent work done in Bulgaria by the author has led to the possibility of identifying one such site approximately 150 km southeast of Sofia. Bulgarian geoscientists are being made aware of some of the criteria necessary to help them locate previously misidentified structures and impact sites through articles in professional Bulgarian journals and seminars.

  9. The real aims of the USA and the EU in the Balkans

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    Čavoški Kosta S.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the real aims of the so-called international community which is usually understood as the USA, as the only remaining super power and the European Union, particularly France. Great Britain and Germany. The author argues that the real and particularly long-term aims of these powers should be primarily inferred from their real deeds and only subsequently from public statements of their officials. By analyzing a number of examples in the Balkans and in other parts of the world the author comes to unexpected conclusions. While in words big Western powers supported multi-ethnicity and preservation of multi-ethnic states, in deeds they not only instigated nationalism and separatism but also hastened and recognized the dissolution of three European federations into 22 more or less national states. And while in words they apparently supported so-called democratization, in practice they not only supported authoritarian regimes but also identified democracy with occupation in Republika Srpska.

  10. Material Deprivation, Social Class and Life Course in the Balkans, Eastern Europe and Central Asia

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    Alexi Gugushvili

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper employs the factor analysis technique and data from the UNDP/UNICEF Social Inclusion Survey to construct a material deprivation index for fi ve transitional societies in the Balkans (FYR Macedonia and Serbia, Eastern Europe (Moldova and Ukraine and Central Asia (Kazakhstan. The distribution of deprivation between these societies can be largely explained by their level of economic development, but within-county variance is not limited to monetary dimension. Controlling for settlement type, human capital and employment status in multivariate settings, the paper tests the hypothesis of the continuous importance of occupational social class and the emerging role of diff erent life phases in individuals’ welfare outcomes. The results reveal that all specifi ed social classes and most of the defi ned life phases have diverse and statistically signifi cant eff ects on the constructed deprivation index and the likelihood of being under 70 per cent of the median deprivation threshold. Belonging to non-skilled manual, farmers and skilled manual social class as well as being a child or lone parent were revealed to have the highest risk of material deprivation. These fi ndings are in line with the conclusions made for the Western welfare democracies on the complementary nature of social class and life course dimensions in explaining social hardship.

  11. Is Aristolochic Acid Really the Cause of the Balkan Endemic Nephropathy?

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    Peter George Mantle

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, aristolochic acid has been promoted vigorously as the causal agent of the Balkan endemic nephropathy because of similarities to some other nephropathies, association with DNA adducts and a perception of human exposure via bread. Critical evaluation of the literature exposes flaws in these aspects, and there has been consistent failure of experimental toxicology to mimic either the slow silent bilateral atrophy of the Balkan disease or the transitional cell carcinomas in the upper urothelium. It seems yet premature to promote the curious Balkan disease as aristolochic acid nephropathy without the epidemiological rigour necessary in biomedical research.

  12. First findings of the clam shrimps Leptestheria sars, 1896 and Imnadia Hertzog, 1935 (Crustacea, Conchostraca in the western foothills of the Stara planina mountains, Serbia

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    Miličić Dragana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available During 2004 conchostracans Imnadia and Leptestheria were recorded near the Serbian-Bulgarian border, in the foothills of the Western Stara Planina Mountains. Leptestheria occurred in relatively large density and was presented by adults of both sexes. Imnadia was identified only by resting eggs separated from the pond sediment. This is the first report of genus Imnadia in the Balkans, and also a first record of the second genus in the limnological area of the "Eastern Balkans".

  13. Contributing to Balkan public health: a school for Skopje.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levett, Jeffrey

    2002-04-01

    The absence of social well-being and growing vulnerability are alarming for a large portion of people living in the Balkan countries. The Stability Pact is currently targeting the issue of social cohesion, which holds out promise for as yet unrealized development. Both the World Health Organization and the Council of Europe have called attention to the population vulnerability and growing disparity in health status between that region and Europe. Reversal of present trends demands the support of the international community and the strengthening of all public health institutions, human resource training, and population health research. Given the severity of the problem space of population vulnerability, these actions are more than ever indispensable to the health sector of the region. The paper describes an encouraging dialogue for Balkan health conducted by the National School of Public Health in Athens, Greece over the past decade and emphasizes the work of the newly created Public Health in South Eastern Europe (PH-SEE) Network (www.snz.hr/ph-see), which provides new opportunities for engagement in regional public health through Public Health Schools and Institutes. There is a need for public health curricula development and a closer linkage of all Schools with the Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region. A curriculum for peace and public health is already under development in institutions in Athens, Greece; Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina; and Zagreb, Croatia. Soon to be added to the group of regional institutions is the School of Public Health in Skopje. It is a policy response to considerable need in a country showing pre-conflict conditions in the heart of the South Eastern Europe. Within the general framework of public health development, a School of Public Health in Skopje can be of great national benefit. Suggestions are made for its function under an umbrella of interdisciplinarity and autonomy, and the need to steer a path clear of

  14. Tendances et différences démographiques dans les Balkans

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    Parant, Alain

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The Balkans, which had long been characterized by higher fertility and earlier mortality than the more western and northern parts of the European continent, have become demographically modern. They are not for that reason any less diverse. This is witnessed, for example, by the gap that separates Bulgaria, which has long made the demographic transition, and Albania, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, or Kosovo, where the natural population growth exceeds by far the migratory deficit. It is also witnessed by the very large spectrum of degrees of aging. Political and economic changes in the Balkans, the crises that accompanied them, the doubts that they have caused concerning the collective future, have reinforced the general tendencies toward delayed marriage and fertility, as well as toward reduced marriage and fertility rates. This has de facto consolidated the tendency toward demographic aging. Migrations, especially the migrations directly or indirectly related to the conflicts in former Yugoslavia, have also contributed to the modification of the demographic landscape and to the altering of the dynamic of the affected populations. They have also had an effect on the ethnic distribution of these populations. In the Balkans, whose bases have been strongly shaken in the past twenty years, heavy fertility and mortality tendencies limit the spectrum of possible mid-to-long term futures. There are also important consequences on the socioeconomic plan. All this in a political context, internal and external, that is the source of many questions.

    Los Balcanes, que se caracterizaron durante mucho tiempo por una fecundidad más elevada y una mortalidad más precoz que en las partes oeste y norte del continente europeo, están a partir de ahora inscritos en la modernidad demográfica. A pesar de ello son extremadamente diversos. Así lo confirma la distancia que separa, por ejemplo, Bulgaria, tierra de transición demográfica antigua

  15. Probabilistic seismic hazard maps for the North Balkan region

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    R. M. W. Musson

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available A set of seismic hazard maps, expressed as horizontal peak ground acceleration, have been computed for a large area of Central and Eastern Europe covering the North Balkan area (Former Yugoslavia, Hungary, Romania. These are based on: a a compound earthquake catalogue for the region; b a seismic source model of 50 zones compiled on the basis of tectonic divisions and seismicity, and c a probabilistic methodology using stochastic (Monte Carlo modelling. It is found that the highest hazard in the region comes from intermediate focus earthquakes occurring in the Vrancea seismic zone; here the hazard exceeds 0.4 g at return periods of 475 years. Special account has been taken of the directional nature of attenuation from this source.

  16. Preventing Balkan Conflict: The Role of Euroatlantic Institutions. Strategic Forum, Number 226, April 2007

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Simon, Jeffrey

    2007-01-01

    Despite 15 years of international peacekeeping and security assistance, the West Balkans are still beset with major security challenges that will severely test the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO...

  17. Geo-Regional Security and Transformation After the Balkan's Wars and Kosova Independence

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    Dr.Sc. Gjon Boriqi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available During the '90-ies the wars in the former territories of what was called Yugoslavia marked the end of a century plenty of wars and local armed conflicts. More than 140 million people died because of wars in the XX century. The war of Kosova was the last one in that century. The beginning of the XXI century stressed the necessity for a new way of thinking nationally, regionally and globally. The Balkans were often considered as a gun powder territory. All the Balkans states, someone more and someone less, have problems with each other. History was and remained very passionate within the Balkan countries. The case of Kosova is possibly the most sensitive in all this framework. After the proclamation of independence on February 17 2008, the concerns were high within the region and a new question was questioned: would the map of the Balkan peninsula change again to form another "Kosovo"? This article would give some details about the geopolitical situation in the Balkans focusing on Kosova and would try to establish e new way of making politics and diplomacy though deterrence and not offence. We will try to overpass history but without neglecting it, but by learning from its mistakes in order to bring a better Peace-Building aspect for the Balkan region.

  18. Mapping knowledge and experience about sport psychology consulting among Finnish premier football coaches

    OpenAIRE

    Mikola, Noora

    2016-01-01

    Mikola, Noora 2016. "Mapping knowledge and experience about sport psychology consulting among Finnish premier football coaches” Sport and Exercise Psychology master's thesis. The Faculty of Sport and Health Sciences, University of Jyväskylä. 50 p. Background: Perceptions of sport psychology consulting in Finnish premier football have not been studied before. The current study was inspired by two earlier studies made in England by Pain and Hardwood (2004) and in Sweden by Johnso...

  19. New insights into the origin and the genetic status of the Balkan donkey from Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanisic, L J; Aleksic, J M; Dimitrijevic, V; Simeunovic, P; Glavinic, U; Stevanovic, J; Stanimirovic, Z

    2017-10-01

    The Balkan donkey (Equus asinus L.) is commonly regarded as a large-sized, unselected, unstructured and traditionally managed donkey breed. We assessed the current genetic status of the three largest E. asinus populations in the central Balkans (Serbia) by analysing the variability of nuclear microsatellites and the mitochondrial (mtDNA) control region of 77 and 49 individuals respectively. We further analysed our mtDNA dataset along with 209 published mtDNA sequences of ancient and modern individuals from 19 European and African populations to provide new insights into the origin and the history of the Balkan donkey. Serbian donkey populations are highly genetically diverse at both the nuclear and mtDNA levels despite severe population decline. Traditional Balkan donkeys in Serbia are rather heterogeneous; we found two groups of individuals with similar phenotypic features, somewhat distinct nuclear backgrounds and different proportions of mtDNA haplotypes belonging to matrilineal Clades 1 and 2. Another group, characterized by larger body size, different coat colour, distinct nuclear gene pool and predominantly Clade 2 haplotypes, was delineated as the Banat donkey breed. The maternal landscape of the large Balkan donkey population is highly heterogeneous and more complex than previously thought. Given the two independent domestication events in donkeys, multiple waves of introductions into the Balkans from Greece are hypothesized. Clade 2 donkeys probably appeared in Greece prior to those belonging to Clade 1, whereas expansion and diversification of Clade 1 donkeys within the Balkans predated that of Clade 2 donkeys. © 2017 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  20. The Present Situation and the Future Perspectives of Foreign Direct Investment in Balkan Region

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    Arjan Qefalia

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The past decade has witnessed increased globalization of the world economy as result of technological changes, trade liberalization and privatization policies. Balkan countries as developing nations are in the realization process of the globalization changes of the world economy. Being in the process for entry into the EU, many changes are being done to integrate with the global economic trends. The research has shown that after the fall of communism in the 1990s the Balkan Region brought significant political and economic changes. The change in attitude led to a removal of direct blockage for FDI. As a result, continued deregulation and privatization has been widespread. However, history of FDI is relatively short for Balkan Region in comparison with other countries. The economy opened up capital inflows only at the beginning of 1990s, and is still showing low shares in the total of Central and Eastern European flow. Despite Balkans competitive advantage due to its geographical location and its resources, it is still far from other Central European countries in achieving the same level of FDI. This situation came as a result of: political instability, low intraregional trade, the small size of national markets, huge institutional corruption and weak judiciary system. Among the more successful Balkan recipients of FDI has been Bulgaria and Romania, while Greece has been a major source of FDI for the transition economies of the Balkan region. Greek investment is driven in part by the availability of low cost labor in the nearby transition economies. The focus of this article is to analyze and evaluate the current performance of FDI in Balkan Region and how the governments can improve this performance.

  1. Trafficking and Syrian Refugee Smuggling: Evidence from the Balkan Route

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    Danilo Mandic

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available As of March 2016, 4.8 million Syrian refugees were scattered in two dozen countries by the civil war. Refugee smuggling has been a major catalyst of human trafficking in the Middle East and Europe migrant crises. Data on the extent to which smuggling devolved into trafficking in this refugee wave is, however, scarce. This article investigates how Syrian refugees interact with smugglers, shedding light on how human smuggling and human trafficking interrelated on the Balkan Route. I rely on original evidence from in-depth interviews (n = 123 and surveys (n = 100 with Syrian refugees in Jordan, Turkey, Greece, Serbia, and Germany; as well as ethnographic observations in thirty-five refugee camps or other sites in these countries. I argue that most smugglers functioned as guides, informants, and allies in understudied ways—thus refugee perceptions diverge dramatically from government policy assumptions. I conclude with a recommendation for a targeted advice policy that would acknowledge the reality of migrant-smuggler relations, and more effectively curb trafficking instead of endangering refugees.

  2. Geoculture world system, access to Balkan and Albania

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    Ilirjan Çukaj

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available If culture as a term covers a broad range of relations and social behavior, mutually implicated in influential and economic cycles of the global system, then it becomes wordy geoculture. Geoculture system is used as a term by Wallerstein (2004 who had treated it as a concept largely unused and under a theory of geoculture which plays an important role in the present world system. The theses that is presented in this article is that the global trajectory in the Balkan region is increasing from culture and that, it is imperative to establish a strategic culture direction and management, which, in turn, should be formed not only as a principal need, but also as an obligation of social state institutions to find the viable solutions of the global market policy, economy and culture. And in response to the challenging question the culture of integration becomes imperative now facing nationalism. Albania will have to manage perceptions, fears and realities arising from the above mentioned phenomenon, to establish a balance between the “inside” and “outside” views. In this sense main challenge of Albania is the management of cultural globalization to get the most of opportunities despite the risk of losing ground globally

  3. Etiology of Balkan endemic nephropathy and associated urothelial cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefanovic, V.; Toncheva, D.; Atanasova, S.; Polenakovic, M. [Inst. of Nephrology and Hemodialysis, Nish (Serbia Montenegro)

    2006-07-01

    Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) is a familial chronic tubulointerstitial disease with insidious onset and slow progression to terminal renal failure. Evidence has accumulated that BEN is an environmentally induced disease. There are three actual theories attempting to explain the environmental cause of this disease: (1) the aristolochic acid hypothesis, which considers that the disease is produced by chronic intoxication with Aristolochia, (2) the mycotoxin hypothesis, which considers that BEN is produced by ochratoxin A, and (3) the Pliocene lignite hypothesis, which proposes that the disease is caused by long-term exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other toxic organic compounds leaching into the well drinking water from low-rank coals in the vicinity to the endemic settlements. Moreover, it was suggested that BEN risk is influenced by inherited susceptibility. Therefore, it has been expected that molecular biological investigations will discover genetic markers of BEN and associated urothelial cancer, permitting early identification of susceptible individuals who may be at risk of exposure to the environmental agents. Since kidney pathophysiology is complex, gene expression analysis and highly throughput proteomic technology can identify candidate genes, proteins and molecule networks that eventually could play a role in BEN development. Investigation of gene-gene and gene-environment interactions could be the content of further studies determining the precise risk for BEN.

  4. Evidence of a plate-wide tectonic pressure pulse provided by extensometric monitoring in the Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria

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    Briestenský Miloš

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The EU-TecNet monitoring network uses customized three-dimensional extensometers to record transient deformations across individual faults. This paper presents the first results from two newly established monitoring points in the Balkan Mountains in Bulgaria. The data from Saeva Dupka, recorded across an EEN-WWS striking fault, show sinistral strike-slip along the fault and subsidence of the southern block. Much of the subsidence occurred around the time of the distal MW = 5.6 Pernik Earthquake. An important transient deformation event, which began in autumn 2012, was reflected by significant compression and following extension, across the monitored fault. The data from Bacho Kiro, recorded across a NE–SW striking fault, show sinistral strike-slip along the fault and subsidence of the north-western block. The same important deformation event was reflected by changes in the strike-slip, dip-slip, and horizontal opening/closing trends. These results have been compared to data from other monitoring points in the Western Carpathians, External Dinarides, and Tian Shan. Many of the sites show evidence of simultaneous displacement anomalies and this observation is interpreted as a reflection of the plate-wide propagation of a tectonic pressure pulse towards the end of 2012.

  5. A Comparison of Stereotypes of German and Turkish Students towards Balkans

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    Gürcan Ültanır

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective emotional thoughts like attitudes, stereotyped judgments and preconceptions are dependent on both collective and individual experiences. Experiences like reading an article or watching a movie that is based on a context determined by the curriculum might cause individual or collective discrimination towards different ethnic or cultural groups among students in a country. This study aims to explore the difference between two nations which are the Turkish nation that has many cultural and political bonds with Balkans in the history and the German nation, which is a nation that has little or no bonds with the Balkans. The main aim of the study is to figure out if the stereotypes towards Balkans can change according to the country in which an individual has grown up. MANOVA was used to figure out the difference between two capitals with regard to stereotypes towards Balkans. Findings of the study indicated that negative stereotype scores of students significantly changed according to the country in which students grew up, whereas no significant difference was found for positive stereotype scores. Moreover, it was found that Turkish students have more negative stereotypes towards Balkans than German students

  6. BALKAN TARİHİ KARŞISINDA YAHYA KEMAL BEYATLI'NIN ŞİİRİ

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    Ramazan TOPDEMİR

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Poets, writers, artists, music lovers, artists, nation, nation, state, and future carry the state makes. Works of national and moral values of society form. Poets of the founders of the national identity, and spiritual architects. Beyatlı Yahya Kemal, the most important is a cornerstone of our identity. Turks in the Balkans to develop and spread of civilization and culture is based on deep slate. Turks in the Balkans, the struggles, victories, defeats, is treated to a wide range of social relations literature. Beyatlı poets of the birth of Yahya Kemal Balkan cities Skopje and the lyrical poems dealt with the moral and material direction. The poet spent his childhood and youth years in Skopje and the Balkans, sorrows, joys, aspirations takes a sensitive manner. Yahya Kemal, established Turkish architecture, with different perspectives on the history of the Balkan cities in Turkey by telling us yesterday, far from the shaft, and spiritual values, recalling the necessity to determine whether we're having our values gives the message. Yahya Kemal Balkan cities, especially focusing on the poetry of the social, cultural, and lyrical themes literature, Balkans brought the rich archive. Yahya Kemal and the Balkans drawing the attention of new generations, our history, our civilization in poetry in a different way to learn by.

  7. Lessons from EU conflict prevention efforts in the Western Balkans and the Horn of Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodt, Annemarie Peen; Tvilling, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    enterprises such as piracy, terrorism or the recruitment of foreign fighters. The challenges outlined above are interconnected and are exacerbated by insecure borders, which allow criminal networks and activities to operate across national and international boundaries. Border-related disputes have thus become...... takes a regional approach towards the interlocked challenges in that region. Within this Framework, the EU has integrated its policies towards security and development seeking to strengthen institutions, governance and the rule of law to counter problems like piracy and terrorism, both by seeking...... with limited reach and enforcement capabilities such as the Federal Government of Somalia can handle neither terrorism nor piracy without assistance, nor do they have the ability to prosecute or reintegrate apprehended criminals or networks. This too illustrates a sustained difference between the EU...

  8. The Parliamentary Legislative Process in the Accession Countries of the Western Balkans / Zsolt Szabó

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Szabó, Zsolt

    2015-01-01

    Õigusaktide menetlemisest ja vastuvõtmisest Balkani riikide parlamentides. Ka põhiandmed nende riikide parlamentide kohta (parlamendi ingliskeelne ja omakeelne nimetus, liikmete ja komiteede arv jne)

  9. REGARDING THE CULTURE OF MULTI-ETHNICITY AND COHABITATION IN THE WESTERN BALKANS...

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Akova

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The media, an inseparable part of daily life, influences the thoughts, behaviour and attitudes of millions of people through the transmission of cultural images such as music, themes and visuals, has succeeded in reaching the masses with an attractive form of presentation and in a sense, has incorporates - almost immediately in the world of today - universal truths and developments into the lives of individuals with pictures and sounds, reporting on events and people, allowing individuals to internalise the images presented and has become a point of reference in social life. Together with the development of modern technology, media of mass communication and in extension, media channels, have transcended national and cultural boundaries to reach the masses.

  10. Informal Patient Payments and Bought and Brought Goods in the Western Balkans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch Mejsner, Sofie; Eklund Karlsson, Leena

    2017-01-01

    and to determine what actions can be taken to tackle this problem. After conducting a scoping review that involved searching websites and databases and filtering with eligibility criteria and quality assessment tools, 24 relevant studies were revealed. The data were synthesized using a narrative approach...... various patterns and characteristics of these payments. Although these payments have typically been small – particularly to providers in common areas of specialized medicine – evidence regarding bought and brought goods remains limited, indicating that such practices are likely even more common...

  11. Source apportionment of atmospheric PAHs in the Western Balkans by natural abundance radiocarbon analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zdenek Zencak; Jana Klanova; Ivan Holoubek; Oerjan Gustafsson [Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden). Department of Applied Environmental Science

    2007-06-01

    Progress in source apportionment of priority combustion-derived atmospheric pollutants can be made by an inverse approach to inventory emissions, namely, receptor-based compound class-specific radiocarbon analysis (CCSRA) of target pollutants. In the present study, CCSRA of the combustion-derived polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present in the atmosphere of the countries of the former republic of Yugoslavia was performed. The carbon stable isotope composition ({delta}{sup 13}C) of PAHs varied between -27.68 and -27.19{per_thousand}, whereas {Delta}{sup 14}C values ranged from -568{per_thousand} for PAHs sampled in Kosovo to -288{per_thousand} for PAHs sampled in the Sarajevo area. The application of an isotopic mass balance model to these {Delta}{sup 14}C data revealed a significant contribution (35-65%) from the combustion of non-fossil material to the atmospheric PAH pollution, even in urban and industrialized areas. Furthermore, consistency was observed between the isotopic composition of PAHs obtained by high-volume sampling and those collected by passive sampling. This encourages the use of passive samplers for CCSRA applications. This marks the first time that a CCSRA investigation could be executed on a geographically wide scale, providing a quantitative field-based source apportionment, which points out that also non-fossil combustion processes should be targeted for remedial action. 36 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  12. Spatial distribution and seasonal changes of mayflies (Insecta, Ephemeroptera in a Western Balkan peat bog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Vilenica

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Peat bogs are unique wetland ecosystems of high conservation value all over the world, yet data on the macroinvertebrates (including mayfly assemblages in these habitats are still scarce. Over the course of one growing season, mayfly assemblages were sampled each month, along with other macroinvertebrates, in the largest and oldest Croatian peat bog and an adjacent stream. In total, ten mayfly species were recorded: two species in low abundance in the peat bog, and nine species in significantly higher abundance in the stream. Low species richness and abundance in the peat bog were most likely related to the harsh environmental conditions and mayfly habitat preferences. In comparison, due to the more favourable habitat conditions, higher species richness and abundance were observed in the nearby stream. Three of the recorded species, Caenis luctuosa from the peat bog, and Eurylophella karelica and Leptophlebia marginata from the stream are new records for the Croatian mayfly fauna. Typical Central European life cycle patterns were confirmed for several species (e.g. Baetis vernus, Nigrobaetis niger, Electrogena ujhelyii, while for several others (e.g. Habrophlebia fusca, Paraleptophlebia submarginata some discrepancies were observed. Therefore, these results provide new and valuable information on the ecology of mayflies in peat bog habitats.

  13. Spatial distribution and seasonal changes of mayflies (Insecta, Ephemeroptera) in a Western Balkan peat bog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilenica, Marina; Brigić, Andreja; Kerovec, Mladen; Gottstein, Sanja; Ternjej, Ivančica

    2016-01-01

    Peat bogs are unique wetland ecosystems of high conservation value all over the world, yet data on the macroinvertebrates (including mayfly assemblages) in these habitats are still scarce. Over the course of one growing season, mayfly assemblages were sampled each month, along with other macroinvertebrates, in the largest and oldest Croatian peat bog and an adjacent stream. In total, ten mayfly species were recorded: two species in low abundance in the peat bog, and nine species in significantly higher abundance in the stream. Low species richness and abundance in the peat bog were most likely related to the harsh environmental conditions and mayfly habitat preferences. In comparison, due to the more favourable habitat conditions, higher species richness and abundance were observed in the nearby stream. Three of the recorded species, Caenis luctuosa from the peat bog, and Eurylophella karelica and Leptophlebia marginata from the stream are new records for the Croatian mayfly fauna. Typical Central European life cycle patterns were confirmed for several species (e.g. Baetis vernus, Nigrobaetis niger, Electrogena ujhelyii), while for several others (e.g. Habrophlebia fusca, Paraleptophlebia submarginata) some discrepancies were observed. Therefore, these results provide new and valuable information on the ecology of mayflies in peat bog habitats.

  14. PCR verification of microplate phenotypic system identification for LAB from traditional Western Balkan raw milk cheeses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Paveljšek

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Fermentation and ripening specificity of traditional cheeses are predominantly directed by the natural microbial community present in milk selected by the cheese-making environment and technology. Therefore the traditional cheeses are unique products with specific microbiota biodiversity. There are several approaches for the identification of microbial population, however all of them have certain advantages and disadvantages. In this study the eligibility and performance of the Biolog phenotypic identification system (Biolog, Inc. with GEN III microplates was tested. Parallel to this method, polymerase chain reaction with genus- and species-specific primers was performed. One hundred sixty-five isolates from nine types of artisan cheeses were isolated and analysed. Cheeses were produced from raw ewe’s milk in Slovenia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia and Serbia. The Biolog phenotypic identification system identified 90 isolates, but only 55 identifications acquired by the Biolog system were supported by polymerase chain reaction at a genus level and 28 at a species level. The obtained results showed that the reliability of commercial phenotypic identification systems was inadequate when analysing lactic acid bacteria isolates from natural, spontaneous fermentations and needs to be additionally corroborated by genotypic identification methods.

  15. Forensic DNA databases in Western Balkan region: retrospectives, perspectives, and initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjanović, Damir; Konjhodžić, Rijad; Butorac, Sara Sanela; Drobnič, Katja; Merkaš, Siniša; Lauc, Gordan; Primorac, Damir; Anđelinović, Šimun; Milosavljević, Mladen; Karan, Željko; Vidović, Stojko; Stojković, Oliver; Panić, Bojana; Vučetić Dragović, Anđelka; Kovačević, Sandra; Jakovski, Zlatko; Asplen, Chris; Primorac, Dragan

    2011-01-01

    The European Network of Forensic Science Institutes (ENFSI) recommended the establishment of forensic DNA databases and specific implementation and management legislations for all EU/ENFSI members. Therefore, forensic institutions from Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro, and Macedonia launched a wide set of activities to support these recommendations. To assess the current state, a regional expert team completed detailed screening and investigation of the existing forensic DNA data repositories and associated legislation in these countries. The scope also included relevant concurrent projects and a wide spectrum of different activities in relation to forensics DNA use. The state of forensic DNA analysis was also determined in the neighboring Slovenia and Croatia, which already have functional national DNA databases. There is a need for a ‘regional supplement’ to the current documentation and standards pertaining to forensic application of DNA databases, which should include regional-specific preliminary aims and recommendations. PMID:21674821

  16. An Introduction to the Concept of Transitional Justice: Western Balkans and EU Conditionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Kasapas

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo tiene un doble propósito: primero, intenta evaluar los diferentes tipos de justicia transicional (retributiva-restaurativa-distributiva como medios de reconciliación en el contexto de la reconstrucción post-conflicto. A través de la evaluación de cada enfoque, argumento que mientras los juicios, comisiones de verificación y reparaciones proporcional instrumentos útiles para el objetivo de la reconciliación nacional e individual, cada mecanismo tiene sus limitaciones y deficiencias. Además no hay una única formula que pueda garantizar a priori el éxito. Una multitud de variables interconectadas tales como el contexto en el cual la transición tiene lugar y los patrones culturales y religiosos juegan un papel crucial a la hora de determinar qué combinación de mecanismos de justicia para la transición pueden ser ejecutados de la mejor manera para cada caso particular. Segundo, nuestra discusión evalúa la política de la UE frente los crímenes de guerra en los Balcanes Occidentales sosteniendo que esta última, en la medida de que está enfocada sobre cooperación con la ICTY, ha fracasado en gran medida para promover el fin último de toda estrategia de justicia que es a fin de cuentas la reconciliación regional.

  17. An Introduction to the Concept of Transitional Justice: Western Balkans and EU Conditionality

    OpenAIRE

    George Kasapas

    2008-01-01

    Este artículo tiene un doble propósito: primero, intenta evaluar los diferentes tipos de justicia transicional (retributiva-restaurativa-distributiva) como medios de reconciliación en el contexto de la reconstrucción post-conflicto. A través de la evaluación de cada enfoque, argumento que mientras los juicios, comisiones de verificación y reparaciones proporcional instrumentos útiles para el objetivo de la reconciliación nacional e individual, cada mecanismo tiene sus limitaciones y deficienc...

  18. REGARDING THE CULTURE OF MULTI-ETHNICITY AND COHABITATION IN THE WESTERN BALKANS...

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Akova

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The media, an inseparable part of daily life, influences the thoughts, behaviour and attitudes of millions of people through the transmission of cultural images such as music, themes and visuals, has succeeded in reaching the masses with an attractive form of presentation and in a sense, has incorporates - almost immediately in the world of today - universal truths and developments into the lives of individuals with pictures and sounds, reporting on events and people, allowing individuals to internalise the images presented and has become a point of reference in social life. Together with the development of modern technology, media of mass communication and in extension, media channels, have transcended national and cultural boundaries to reach the masses. Developing in the second half of the 20th century, the television, as one of the most effective mass communication media of the modern age, has combined sound and images to create a technical medium where culture is produced, transmitted, circulated and consumed and subsequently recycled to reach the target audiences, while in terms of the transmission of messages, the television has become the flagship of the media economy in comparison with other mass communication media and channels. As the influences of globalisation have been felt upon the creative processes of film and serial instruments and in the adoption and dissemination of strategic objectives, global cultural transmission is more varied, wider in scope and with more intense content than ever before. Furthermore, as a result of the constant development, regeneration and transformation of communication technology, we can postulate that television serial and film scenarios are a new form of marketing communication, as they are deeply intertwined with daily life and culture in the modern world. However, mass communication media gather groups of people with a common language and interest, causing groups to become communities. The role of mass communication media in forming communities with common characteristics and interests has developed in parallel with the development of mass communication media. These communication media have negated geographical boundaries, forming common ground for social relationships, while the importance of communication media has increased as the media reaches more isolated communities, constantly increasing the size of the masses. The experience of the world as cultural cosmopolitanism and the globalisation of the media through the simulation of metaphorical images in relation to the globalisation of communication has led to the internalisation of feelings of globalisation by individuals under the influence of the media, forming the basis for a social and industrial discourse.

  19. International Assistance and Media Democratization in the Western Balkans: A Cross-National Comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Irion, K.; Jusić, T.

    2014-01-01

    International media assistance programs accompanied the democratic media transition in Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, Macedonia and Serbia with varying intensity. In addition, these countries untertook a range of media reforms to conform with accession requirements of the European Union

  20. The National Guard State Partnership Program and Regional Security in the Western Balkans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-12

    real estates as well as mines , factories, and other key infrastructure such as gas stations. This phenomenon is present in other countries of the...Southern European Task Force, concurs that the SPP really works. During a visit to Botswana , he said that while his active-duty soldiers were given a

  1. TOURISM POLICY OF BALKAN COUNTRIES: REVIEW OF NATIONAL TOURISM DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Metodijeski

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A different tourism policy created by various states is one of the primary factors for the existence and development of tourism, along with its natural and anthropogenic resources of specified destinations. The subject of this paper is the tourism policy of the Balkan countries, as seen through the prism of national strategies for the development of tourism and tourism products. The paper provides basic data for the Balkan countries such as: population, territory characteristics, number of international tourists, the existence of a National Tourism Organization and facilities included in the UNESCO list of world cultural heritage. Table showing government bodies responsible for tourism, national tourism development strategies as well as tourism products defined in these strategies shall be presented. An analysis and review of strategies has been made, based on their duration and types of tourism products. The paper concluding remarks are regarding the structuring of the prospects and directions of tourism development in the Balkan countries.

  2. Paul Garde, Les Balkans, héritages et évolutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anaïs Krawczykowska

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Les Balkans, ce territoire montagneux (balkan signifiant « Montagne » en turc aussi appelé « Europe du sud », est plus que jamais au cœur de l'actualité. Or il semblerait que la géographie soit un paramètre bien insuffisant à sa définition. Menaçante pour les uns, prometteuse pour les autres, l'ex-Yougoslavie laisse apparaître de nombreux enjeux stratégiques, aussi bien politiques qu'économiques ou encore historiques. Ces dernières années ont remis les pays des Balkans sur le devant de la sc...

  3. Renal transplantation in patients with Balkan endemic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basic-Jukic, N; Hrsak-Puljic, I; Kes, P; Bubic-Filipi, L; Pasini, J; Hudolin, T; Kastelan, Z; Reiner, Z; Kordic, M; Brunetta, B; Juric, I

    2007-06-01

    Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) is a chronic tubulointerstitial disease prevalent in Croatia, Romania, Bulgaria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Serbia. In addition to renal disease, an increased incidence of upper urothelial carcinomas (UUCs) has been observed in the foci of BEN. Carcinoma may occur alone or in combination with BEN. Immunosuppression is associated with an increased risk for development of different malignancies. There are no data in the literature about the outcome of patients with BEN after transplantation. We performed a retrospective evaluation of the database and review of the charts and pathology reports of 601 renal transplant recipients treated at our institution. From January 1995 to December 2004, kidney transplantations were performed in nine patients with BEN. One-year graft survival was 100%. A man, who was transplanted in 1997 died 2 years after transplantation with a functioning graft due to disseminated cancer from the pelvis of his own kidney. A female patient developed UCC 2 years after transplantation. They were both treated with a bolus of methylprednisolone before transplantation, because of four HLA-mismatches. A male patient developed UCC in the native and transplanted kidneys. He underwent a native nephroureterectomy with partial nephroureterectomy of transplanted kidney. His graft function was preserved with decreased immunosuppression. Three years later a urinary bladder carcinoma was discovered on a regularly performed multislice computed tomography. One patient developed a skin malignancy. Other patients have had uneventful posttransplantation courses with excellent graft function. Thus, 33.3% of patients with BEN developed UUC, compared with a 0.67% prevalence of urinary tract tumors among transplanted patients with other causes of end-stage renal disease. Patients with BEN are at increased risk for the development of UCC after transplantation. Regular screening for early detection of malignancy is mandatory. Longer follow

  4. [Neuroethics and bioethics--implications of Balkanization controversy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagawa, Chiaki

    2009-01-01

    There have been considerable disputes the positioning of neuroethics as a new field since its emergence in 2002. It is the novelty of the neuroethical issues and the necessity for updated moral approaches to them that leading exponents of neuroethics have emphasized; advances in neurosciences have created an entirely new field of moral inquiries that the conventional bioethics had never noticed. Futher, as neuroethics embraces the subdivision of ethics in neuroscience, it should take precedence over bioethics, which depends on the fundamental moral concepts without questioning their bases. Many bioethicists have squarely opposed these insistences and thereby detected the claim of neuroethics exceptionalism: the asserted newness of issues comes mainly from the ignorance of exponents of this new field regarding accumulated bioethical inquiries, so that the overlapping concerns between bioethics and neuroethics are passed on to the future by them. Moreover, bioethicists point out that the recent tendency of Balkanization in the field of bioethics could endanger the integrity of moral investigations. Subfields of bioethics, such as geneethics, neuroethics, nanoethics and so on, originate consecutively, entail wastage of valuable time and money, and increase the risk of fragmentizing moral considerations in an inconsistent way. By reviewing this controversy between neuroethics and bioethics, I argue that the relevant scientific investigations and technologies, which have appeared to promote the proliferation of bioethical sub-disciplines to date, are beginning to converge into 1 complex that demands not the division into subspecialities but the novel integration of bioethical inquiries: it is time to attempt the unification of bioethical applied ethics for moral considerations regarding nano-bio-info-cogno convergent technologies.

  5. Androsace septentrionalis (Primulaceae), a new species for the Balkan flora

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevanovic, V.; Vukojicic, S.; Tan, Kit

    2005-01-01

    Androsace septentrionalis L. (Primulaceae) is recorded as a new species for the Balkan flora on the basis of herbarium material collected several times from Mt. Prokletije, situated near the borders of Serbia (Metochia and Kosovo province), Montenegro and Albania. The locality marks...... the southernmost limit of the species' range in Europe. The existence of A. septentrionalis in the Balkans may be the result of migration of the tundra-steppe flora from central and East Europe towards the mountains of the peninsula during the Ice Age....

  6. Nomadic pastoralism in the Early Bronze Age of the central Balkans evaluation of background knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porčić Marko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to examine background knowledge about the orga­nizational properties of mobile pastoral groups in order to assess the likelihood of the existence of pastoral nomads in the Early Bronze Age in the central Balkans. The patterning found by A. L. Johnson (2002 is taken as a point of departure for the cross-cultural analysis conducted in this study. Johnson’s findings are in the main corroborated. Acquired knowledge about the workings of pastoral societies suggests that highly mobile pastoral groups should not be expected in the Early Bronze Age of the central Balkans.

  7. Returned Migrant Children in Kosovo and Albania : Assessing the Quality of Child-Rearing From a Non-Western Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zevulun, Daniëlle; Kalverboer, Margrite E.; Zijlstra, A. Elianne; Post, Wendy J.; Knorth, Erik J.

    2015-01-01

    This study discusses methodological considerations and cultural sensitivity issues in cross-cultural research. A multi-method approach was adoptedconsisting of a seminar, an expert's opinion, and a focus-group discussion with Western-Balkan professionalsto assess the content validity of the Best

  8. Effectiveness of in-season manager changes in English Premier League Football

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besters, Lucas; van Ours, Jan; van Tuijl, Martin

    We analyze the performance effects of in-season manager changes in English Premier League football during the seasons 2000/2001–2014/2015. We find that some managerial changes are successful, while others are counterproductive. On average, performance does not improve following a managerial

  9. The Management of Digital Records in the Office of the Premier of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study sought to investigate the management of digital records in the Office of the Premier (OTP) in the Eastern Cape Province. The objectives of the study were to determine the compliance to the legal framework, identify the requisite infrastructure for digital records management (DRM), describe the security and ...

  10. The 2014 presidential elections and their impact on the premier-presidential regime in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionela Gavril

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available First, we will demonstrate that, from an institutional perspective, Romania can labeled of premier-presidentialism regime, but the 2004 and 2009 elections have had a strong impact on the type of regime, meaning that several extra-constitutional factors led to the malfunction of the regime. Out of a total of 15 prime-minister nominations made after 1989, 8 can be considered deviations from the premier-presidential regime, their number being larger between 2004-2014 rather than in 1990-2000. The empirical analysis of the 2004-2014 period, highlighted three extra-constitutional factors that that made the premier-presidential regime be, in fact, a malfunctioning one: leadership style, crisis situations and the recent legitimacy of the president versus the parliament. By identifying the factors that influenced the regime type, we can determine some theoretical expectations following the 2014 elections. The success of a premier-presidentialism regime in Romania will be determined by the number of deviations from such a regime registered after the 2014 elections.

  11. Investigating the Impact of the Premier League Reading Stars Programme on Children's Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabion, Clémence

    2014-01-01

    The evaluation of the Premier League Reading Stars (PLRS) programme in 2013 has established that the intervention is having a positive impact on the attainment of participating children in reading and writing: Three out of four children made at least six months' progress in just ten weeks. One child in three made a year's progress or more. The…

  12. Distribution and diversity of Arctic-Alpine species in the Balkans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevanovic, Vladimir; Vukojicic, Snezana; Sinzar-Sekulic, Jasmina

    2009-01-01

    The distributions of 77 Arctic-Alpine species in the Balkans are mapped and the centers of their richness and diversity presented. Within the Dinaric Alps these are Mts Vranica, Durmitor, and Prokletije; in the Scardo-Pindhic mountains, Šarplanina-Rudoka-Korab form a continuous chain; in the Rhod...

  13. Climate Change and Poor Water Resource Management Will Have Serious Security Implications in the Balkan Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-12

    broadly applicable. The same document goes on to state: According to the IPCC, semi - arid and arid areas are particularly exposed to the impacts of... CLIMATE CHANGE AND POOR WATER RESOURCE MANAGEMENT WILL HAVE SERIOUS SECURITY IMPLICATIONS IN THE BALKAN PENINSULA A thesis...

  14. International Trends in Health Science Librarianship Part 20: The Balkan States (Serbia and Slovenia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivkovic, Ana; Rožić, Anamarija; Turk, Nana

    2016-12-01

    This is the 20th in a series of articles exploring international trends in health science librarianship in the 21st century. The focus of the present issue is the Balkan region (Serbia and Slovenia). The next regular feature will look at Russia and the Ukraine. JM. © 2016 Health Libraries Group.

  15. Soviet Policy in the Post-Tito Balkans. Volume 4. Studies in Communist Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Balkan country should make increased efforts to export more cereal , particularly corn, to other so- cialist states." Finally, in August 1962, Khrushchev...for a quick victory of the establishment, leaving Yugoslavia intact, if polit- ically shattered . If, however, outside aid or prolonged resistance ap

  16. Exploring the Role of Humans and Climate over the Balkan Landscape: 500 Years of Vegetational History of Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Charuta; Peteet, Dorothy; Boger, Rebecca; Heusser, Linda

    2016-01-01

    We present the first, well-dated, high-resolution record of vegetation and landscape change from Serbia, which spans the past 500 years. Biological proxies (pollen, spores, and charcoal), geochemical analysis through X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), and a detailed chronology based on AMS C-14 dating from a western Serbian sinkhole core suggest complex woodland-grassland dynamics and strong erosional signals throughout the Little Ice Age (LIA). An open landscape with prominent steppe vegetation (e.g. Poaceae, Chenopodiaceae) and minor woodland exists during 1540-1720 CE (early LIA), while the late LIA (1720-1850 CE) in this record shows higher tree percentages possibly due to increased moisture availability. The post LIA Era (1850-2012 CE) brings a disturbed type of vegetation with the presence of weedy genera and an increase in regional woodland. Anthropogenic indicators for agricultural, pastoral and fire practices in the region together attest to the dominant role of humans in shaping this Balkan landscape throughout the interval. The changing nature of human interference, potentially as a response to underlying climatic transitions, is evident through large-scale soil depletion resulting from grazing and land clearance during the early LIA and stabilization of arable lands during the late and post-LIA eras.

  17. Exploring the role of humans and climate over the Balkan landscape: 500 years of vegetational history of Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Charuta; Peteet, Dorothy; Boger, Rebecca; Heusser, Linda

    2016-07-01

    We present the first, well-dated, high-resolution record of vegetation and landscape change from Serbia, which spans the past 500 years. Biological proxies (pollen, spores, and charcoal), geochemical analysis through X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), and a detailed chronology based on AMS 14C dating from a western Serbian sinkhole core suggest complex woodland-grassland dynamics and strong erosional signals throughout the Little Ice Age (LIA). An open landscape with prominent steppe vegetation (e.g. Poaceae, Chenopodiaceae) and minor woodland exists during 1540-1720 CE (early LIA), while the late LIA (1720-1850 CE) in this record shows higher tree percentages possibly due to increased moisture availability. The post LIA Era (1850-2012 CE) brings a disturbed type of vegetation with the presence of weedy genera and an increase in regional woodland. Anthropogenic indicators for agricultural, pastoral and fire practices in the region together attest to the dominant role of humans in shaping this Balkan landscape throughout the interval. The changing nature of human interference, potentially as a response to underlying climatic transitions, is evident through large-scale soil depletion resulting from grazing and land clearance during the early LIA and stabilization of arable lands during the late and post-LIA eras.

  18. Association of a bitter taste receptor mutation with Balkan Endemic Nephropathy (BEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wooding Stephen P

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Balkan Endemic Nephropathy (BEN is late-onset kidney disease thought to arise from chronic exposure to aristolochic acid, a phytotoxin that contaminates wheat supplies in rural areas of Eastern Europe. It has recently been demonstrated that humans are capable of perceiving aristolochic acid at concentrations below 40 nM as the result of high-affinity interactions with the TAS2R43 bitter taste receptor. Further, TAS2R43 harbors high-frequency loss-of-function mutations resulting in 50-fold variability in perception. This suggests that genetic variation in TAS2R43 might affect susceptibility to BEN, with individuals carrying functional forms of the receptor being protected by an ability to detect tainted foods. Methods To determine whether genetic variation in TAS2R43 predicts BEN susceptibility, we examined genotype-phenotype associations in a case–control study. A cohort of 88 affected and 99 control subjects from western Bulgaria were genotyped with respect to two key missense variants and a polymorphic whole-gene deletion of TAS2R43 (W35S, H212R, and wt/Δ, which are known to affect taste sensitivity to aristolochic acid. Tests for association between haplotypes and BEN status were then performed. Results Three major TAS2R43 haplotypes observed in previous studies (TAS2R43-W35/H212, -S35/R212 and –Δ were present at high frequencies (0.17, 0.36, and 0.47 respectively in our sample, and a significant association between genotype and BEN status was present (P = 0.020; odds ratio 1.18. However, contrary to expectation, BEN was positively associated with TAS2R43-W35/H212, a highly responsive allele previously shown to confer elevated bitter sensitivity to aristolochic acid, which should drive aversion but might also affect absorption, altering toxin activation. Conclusions Our findings are at strong odds with the prediction that carriers of functional alleles of TAS2R43 are protected from BEN by an ability to detect and

  19. Inner Otherness as a Source of Fear: Elements of Horror in Balkan Travelogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Lazarević-Radak

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Travel fiction has created numerous Others, assigning them an ontologically unstable status, while the traditional travelogue spread a fear of the dark interior of Europe, presenting images of daily political strife, assassinations, wars and uprisings. Just like the Gothic novel, which entertained its readers with images of ruins and gloomy structures in Eastern Europe, the travelogue spread a fear of the Balkans through Europe, depicting the Balkans as a place that could pose a threat to the entire continent. While enjoying the mysterious terror of the Gothic novel, Europe also derived a kind of pleasure from the shocking images that were to be found in travelogues from the Balkans. The paper re-examines the elasticity of the boundaries of the travelogue genre, and identifies convenient transformations of certain parts of the travelogue into text aimed at inspiring terror, shocking and appalling its readers. The transformations show that it is impossible to draw a strict boundary between travel fiction and travelogues, and at the same time reveal the hidden discourse used by both genres. The parallel presence of awareness of the geographic identity of the Balkans as European, and of the aspiration to depict them as the strange inner Otherness of Europe, is accompanied by the production of terrifying images. Although these images cannot be viewed solely as a threat of "reverse colonization", the assumption that hybridity is the basis on which the terrifying nature of the Balkans is produced is re-examined. The travelogue chapters, sections and illustrations assume the features of horror, particularly body horror, revealing Europe’s fear of the possibility of the Orient infiltrating the "body of the Occident", or of the possibility of the latter being infected by elements of "alien" i.e. Oriental culture.

  20. Vessels from Late Medieval cemeteries in the Central Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bikić Vesna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Although a rare occurrence in late medieval cemeteries, vessels have been found on almost all major sites of the period, such as Novo Brdo, Trgovište, Reljina Gradina and the churchyard of St Peter’s near Novi Pazar, the churchyard of St Nicholas’ at Kuršumlija, the churchyard of St Stephen’s at Milentija near Brus, Mali Zvečan, Mirijevo, Vinča. Vessels occur in different places, both on top of and in graves. Fragments of pottery and glass vessels are relatively abundant in layers of earth filling burial pits and chambers, and in those immediately overlaying burial pits or gravestones. The available data make it possible to recognize almost all functional types. The most frequently found pottery shapes are larger liquid containers - jugs and pitchers, and apparently there have also been many pots, both hearth cooking and glazed (figs. 1-3; 5-9. Recognizable among the glass vessels are bottles, usually those with long fluted necks and biconical, as well as infrequent icon lamps. The data about the vessels found buried with the deceased is much more detailed. Such finds are recorded at Mačvanska Mitrovica (fig. 10/3, Brestovik (fig. 13/3, Mirijevo (fig. 4/1, Vinča (figs. 4/2; 10/4, Stragari near Kragujevac, Milentija near Brus, round the church of St Peter near Novi Pazar, at the monastery of Končulić (fig. 13/2 and the monastery of Gradac. The relatively plentiful and diverse vessels discovered at the cemeteries of medieval Trgovište are especially illustrative (fig. 10/2, 7. The available descriptions of vessels and archaeological contexts provide a general impression about the types of vessels recorded in the cemeteries of a late medieval and early modern date in the central Balkans. Glass bottles as a rule were laid in graves, while earth-fill layers, apart from bottles, contained plentiful shards of drinking vessels. As for the bottles, two types were registered: biconical and those with long fluted necks (figs. 10; 12/1. Among

  1. Do Health Reforms Impact Cost Consciousness of Health Care Professionals? Results from a Nation-Wide Survey in the Balkans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakovljevic, Mihajlo; Vukovic, Mira; Chen, Chia-Ching; Antunovic, Mirjana; Dragojevic-Simic, Viktorija; Velickovic-Radovanovic, Radmila; Djendji, Mladenovic Siladji; Jankovic, Nikola; Rankovic, Ana; Kovacevic, Aleksandra; Antunovic, Marko; Milovanovic, Olivera; Markovic, Veroljub; Dasari, Babu N S; Yamada, Tetsuji

    2016-01-01

    Serbia, as the largest market of the Western Balkans, has entered socioeconomic transition with substantial delay compared to most of Eastern Europe. Its health system reform efforts were bold during the past 15 years, but their results were inconsistent in various areas. The two waves of global recession that hit Balkan economies ultimately reflected to the financial situation of healthcare. Serious difficulties in providing accessible medical care to the citizens became a reality. A large part of the unbearable expenses actually belongs to the overt prescription of pharmaceuticals and various laboratory and imaging diagnostic procedures requested by physicians. Therefore, a broad national survey was conducted at all levels of the healthcare system hierarchy to distinguish the ability of cost containment strategies to reshape clinician's mindsets and decision-making in practice. Assessment of healthcare professionals' judgment on economic consequences of prescribed medical interventions and evaluation of responsiveness of healthcare professionals to policy measures targeted at increasing cost-consciousness. Cross-sectional study. A nationwide cross-sectional survey was conducted through a hierarchy of medical facilities across diverse geographical regions before and after policy action, from January 2010 to April 2013. In the middle of the observed period, the National Health Insurance Fund (RFZO) adopted severe cost-containment measures. Independently, pharmacoeconomic guidelines targeted at prescribers were disseminated. Administration in large hospitals and community pharmacies was forced to restrict access to high budget-impact medical care. Economic Awareness of Healthcare Professionals Questionnaire-29 (EAHPQ-29), developed in Serbian language, was used in face-to-face interviews. The questionnaire documented clinician's attitudes on: Clinical-Decision-Making-between-Alternative-Interventions (CDMAI), Quality-of-Health-Care (QHC), and Cost

  2. Zooming Albanian factor in the nineteenth century through Western lenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA. Arben Salihu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The developments of the nineteenth century were determining for the history of Balkan region as it shaped the future of many generations to come, resulting in (mainly growing discontents that led to several wars during the last century. It was beginning of the decay of the Ottoman Empire that many longed for, and many nations used every opportunity to take a full advantage of it. The aim of this work is to explore exclusively (only Western sources in an attempt to provide, as much as possible, an objective and neutral picture. Therefore, the idea behind the decision to examine non-Balkan sources is impartiality, in order to bring the reader as close as possible to the reality of the nineteenth century. A number of nineteenth century books, magazines and newspapers of the time, by respective Western authors, are explored and analysed. Reading and examining a large volume of data and information of this period, offers a unique sense of feeling, similar to that of living the nineteenth century world. Albanians, who have historically populated the heart of Balkans, are focal point of this region (in many of the regional and international sources for this particular period, vis-à-vis the Ottoman governance as well as relations with other regional neighbours. Their contribution to the history of nations in the region was unquestionably critical, but their conduct in relations to their own cause has produced an unproductive image, portrayed often with confused and incomprehensible deeds. By using authentic sources of the time, the study intends to develop arguments on many points raised, like population and religion. This work also touches briefly the sensitive issue of education in the region and initial Albanian inputs in the history of Balkan education map. Finally the study concludes that Albanians’ altruism and largely visionless focus, produced a relatively expected detrimental outcome.

  3. High-intensity running in English FA Premier League soccer matches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bradley, Paul S.; Sheldon, William; Wooster, Blake

    2009-01-01

    The aims of this study were to (1) determine the activity profiles of a large sample of English FA Premier League soccer players and (2) examine high-intensity running during elite-standard soccer matches for players in various playing positions. Twenty-eight English FA Premier League games were...... analysed during the 2005-2006 competitive season (n=370), using a multi-camera computerised tracking system. During a typical match, wide midfielders (3138 m, s=565) covered a greater distance in high-intensity running than central midfielders (2825 m, s= 73, P=0.04), full-backs (2605 m, s=387, P ....01), attackers (2341 m, s=575, P running distance was approximately 20% less than in the first 15-min period for wide midfielders (467 m, s=104 vs. 589 m, s=134, P

  4. COMPUTER SCIENCE: Flushing Out Nasty Viruses in the Balkans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, R

    2000-09-15

    Bulgaria created a pioneering center in late 1990 to tackle the threat that its homegrown computer viruses posed to the world; according to experts, it has been a major force in reining in that threat. Now the lab is struggling to stave off obsolescence on a budget of roughly half of what a single Western whiz kid fresh out of college might earn in a year.

  5. Premiers récipiendaires d'une bourse du Fonds Hopper-Bhatia ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    31 janv. 2018 ... Il permet d'appuyer financièrement de jeunes chercheurs en début de carrière, en particulier des femmes, au moyen de bourses et de stages. ... Selon un récent sondage d'opinion mené dans 17 pays latino-américains, les problèmes liés au marché de l'emploi arrivaient au premier rang de 10 enjeux ...

  6. Morbi-mortalite au cours du premier trimestre de la grossesse a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Le but de cette étude était de déterminer la prévalence des complications de la grossesse au premier trimestre, identifier leurs facteurs de risque et évaluer le pronostic immédiat. L\\'étude prospective, descriptive et multicentrique, conduite sur un an, du 1er Janvier 2005 au 31 Décembre 2005 dans les trois principales ...

  7. Respon Pelanggan Pada Situs Tripadvisor.com Sebagai Bentuk Cyber Public Relations the Premiere Hotel Pekanbaru

    OpenAIRE

    Yazid, Tantri Puspita; Afifah, Adilla

    2015-01-01

    Tripadvisor.com is a site that aims to facilitate the tourists to seek information about lodging such as hotels. By using this site everyone is free to provide feedback and reviews based on their experiences, both positive reviews and negative. Many reviews on this site will indirectly affect customers or prospective customers in selecting and deciding hotel. Reviews on these sites influence for customers and prospective customers in selecting place to stay, the PR The Premiere use the site a...

  8. Tomographic retrieval approach for mesoscale gravity wave observations by the PREMIER Infrared Limb-Sounder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ungermann

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available PREMIER is one of three candidates for ESA's 7th Earth Explorer mission that are currently undergoing feasibility studies. The main mission objective of PREMIER is to quantify processes controlling atmospheric composition in the mid/upper troposphere and lower stratosphere, a region of particular importance for climate change. To achieve this objective, PREMIER will employ the first satellite Fourier transform infrared limb-imager with a 2-D detector array combined with a millimetre-wave limb-sounder. The infrared limb-imager can be operated in a high spatial resolution mode ("dynamics mode" for observations of small-scale structures in atmospheric temperatures and trace gas fields with unprecedented 3-D sampling (0.5 km in the vertical direction, 50 km along track, 25 km across track. In this paper, a fast tomographic retrieval scheme is presented, which is designed to fully exploit the high-resolution radiance observations of the dynamics mode. Based on a detailed analysis of the "observational filter", we show that the dynamics mode provides unique information on global distributions of gravity waves (GW. The achievable vertical resolution for GW observations has values between the vertical sampling (0.5 km of the dynamics mode and the vertical field of view (about 0.75 km. The horizontal across track resolution corresponds to the horizontal across track sampling of 25 km. Since the achievable along track horizontal resolution is about 70 km, the dynamics mode will provide GW limb-observations with a horizontal resolution comparable to nadir sounders. Compared to previous observations, PREMIER will therefore considerably extend the range of detectable GWs in terms of horizontal and vertical wavelength.

  9. A Premiere example of the illusion of harm reduction cigarettes in the 1990s

    OpenAIRE

    Pollay, R; Dewhirst, T

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To use the product launch of Player's Premiere as a case study for understanding the new cigarette product development process during the 1990s. We determine the (in)validity of industry claims that: (1) development of the physical product preceded the promotional promise of "less irritation"; (2) "less irritation" was actually realised; (3) advertising informed consumers; and (4) advertising regulations caused the product's failure in the marketplace.

  10. Logistique de transport pour le projet LHC enseignements des premiers secteurs

    CERN Document Server

    Prodon, S

    2003-01-01

    Ce papier dresse un premier bilan de la logistique de transport mise en place pour l'installation du LHC. Les moyens de planification mis en oeuvre seront tout d'abord évoqués avec notamment les réunions avec les groupes utilisateurs, l'élaboration de procédures de transport, la génération de listings d'articles à transporter ou encore l'établissement d'un planning des ressources. Cependant, les premiers travaux d'installation du LHC ont fait apparaître des divergences importantes entre le planning logistique établi et la réalité du terrain. Ces écarts seront analysés, qu'il s'agisse de différences sur le volume de matériel à acheminer, d'opérations non planifiées, de changements de plannings entraînant de longues et délicates traversées de chantiers ou de manque de planification des besoins en personnel dans certaines zones. Tous ces enseignements acquis au cours des premiers travaux devraient permettre de dégager des voies d'amélioration à mettre en place pour les prochains secteur...

  11. 1st International Symposium and 10th Balkan Conference on Operational Research

    CERN Document Server

    Sifaleras, Angelo; Georgiadis, Christos; Papathanasiou, Jason; Stiakakis, Emmanuil

    2013-01-01

    Over the past two decades, the Balkan Conference on Operational Research (BALCOR) has facilitated the exchange of scientific and technical information on the subject of Operations Research and related fields such as Mathematical Programming, Game Theory, Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis, Information Systems, Data Mining, and more, in order to promote international scientific cooperation.  The contributed papers contained in this volume consist of 25 selected research papers based on results presented at the 10th Balkan Conference & 1st International Symposium on Operational Research in Thessalonike, Greece. Subjects include, but do not restrict to, the development of theory and mathematical models for Operations Research, theory and applications of Combinatorial Optimization, Supply Chain Optimization, and Military Operations Research.  These carefully selected papers present important recent developments and modern applications, and will serve as excellent reference for students, researchers, and pr...

  12. History of the Balkan Peace Team. An example of nonviolent international interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Checa Hidalgo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Balkan Peace Team was the result of a project designed to make an international nonviolent intervention in some territories of the former Yugoslavia. This project, which was in operation from 1994-2001, generated processes that wanted to contribute to the peaceful resolution of violent conflicts that had erupted in the region in the early 90's. Its methodology consisted of sending international volunteers to collaborate with local peace groups and human rights organizations who may request their help. The Balkan Peace Team was able to strengthen empowerment processes of local organizations in areas of conflict where it was deployed. It also provided lessons to those organizations part of the project in order to increase awareness of the scope and operation of nonviolent international interventions for conflict transformation.

  13. The Romanian Schools and Churches in Balkan Peninsula. 1864-1948. Archives Documents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina Berciu-Drăghicescu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article on Romanian schools and churches, in the Balkan Peninsula, over the period 1918-1948 is based on the unprecedented documents identified in the funds preserved in the Diplomatic Archives of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and in the Central Historic National Archives in Bucharest. The author has studied and selected the unprecedented documents that had the most important significance for the purpose of presenting the evolution of the school and churche situation of the Romanian communities situated at the south of the Danube, starting from year 1864, when the first school was established in Tarnova, (Macedonia and up to 1948 when the Romanian state abandoned the work unveiled by ruler Al. Ioan Cuza. The article presents this situation, very dramatic, of the Romanian communities from the Balkans based on the documents of Archives.

  14. Groundhog Day: Expectation Management by Examining Warfare in the Early Twentieth Century Balkans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-15

    April 1941, holds the distinction of being an extraordinary failure. The ethic differences were not reconciled. The Second World War made them worse...Croats and Slovenes after World War I. On June 12th, the European Union recognized the new nation and the United States followed on June 15th.12 elt ...17 Carl Cavanagh Hodge, “Botching the Balkans: Germany’s Recognition of Slovenia and Croatia”, Ethics & International Affairs 12 1 (1998): 1, 18

  15. Population and economic growth theme: Longitudinal data for a sample of Balkan countries

    OpenAIRE

    Josheski, Dushko; Nikola, Dimitrov; Koteski, Cane

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we use pooled cross-sectional (longitudinal data) in a sample of 10 Balkan countries. The period we cover is from 1950-2009 data are for population and economic growth. In the theoretical part we present optimal intergenerational model of population growth .The optimal population growth depends on capital in the future period and future consumption. Consumption should be greater than zero, and less than total capital of the cur-rent generation. In the econometric part OLS regres...

  16. Material Deprivation, Social Class and Life Course in the Balkans, Eastern Europe and Central Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Alexi Gugushvili

    2011-01-01

    "This paper employs the factor analysis technique and data from the UNDP/UNICEF Social Inclusion Survey to construct a material deprivation index for fi ve transitional societies in the Balkans (FYR Macedonia and Serbia), Eastern Europe (Moldova and Ukraine) and Central Asia (Kazakhstan). The distribution of deprivation between these societies can be largely explained by their level of economic development, but within-county variance is not limited to monetary dimension. Controlli...

  17. TREND OF BALKAN ENDEMIC NEPHROPATHY PATIENTS ON RENAL REPLACEMENT THERAPY IN BOSNIA FROM 2003 THROUGH 2005

    OpenAIRE

    Imamović, Goran; Zerem, Enver; Omerović, Safet

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate epidemiological status of Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) patients on renal replacement therapy (RRT) in Bosnia from 2003 through 2005. Incidence and prevalence rates of BEN, diabetes mellitus (DM) and RRT population and proportion of BEN RRT population in total RRT population were tracked in renal units covering the entire BEN endemic region in Bosnia. BEN incidence and prevalence rates were 52; 34;48 and 262; 265, 292, respectively. DM incidence and pre...

  18. The model for successful development of NGA infrastructure in the Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matej Požarnik

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Unavailability of fast broadband internet access, primarily due to the lack of commercial interest of telecommunication operators, is the key reason for economic underdevelopment in rural areas in the Balkans. The process of developing broadband access in rural areas is multifaceted, complex and time-consuming. This paper analyses the current state of availability of broadband access in the Balkan countries, and investigates the algorithm with specific project phases and benefits of stakeholders at the national and local level. The purpose of the paper is to develop the model that rationalizes the implementation process of the broadband internet access projects, and to define the method of selecting an investment model for construction of broadband infrastructure. The results show that the Balkan countries have to start with preparatory activities and studies needed for successful implementation of the given model. This research contributes to stopping demographic and socio-economic degradation in less-developed areas, at the same time encouraging their development.

  19. Evidence of Neanderthals in the Balkans: The infant radius from Kozarnika Cave (Bulgaria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillier, Anne-Marie; Sirakov, Nikolay; Guadelli, Aleta; Fernandez, Philippe; Sirakova, Svoboda; Dimitrova, Irena; Ferrier, Catherine; Guérin, Guillaume; Heidari, Maryam; Krumov, Ivailo; Leblanc, Jean-Claude; Miteva, Viviana; Popov, Vasil; Taneva, Stanimira; Guadelli, Jean-Luc

    2017-10-01

    Excavations conducted by a Bulgarian-French team at Kozarnika Cave (Balkans, Bulgaria) during several seasons yielded a long Paleolithic archaeological sequence and led to the discovery of important faunal, lithic, and human samples. This paper aims to describe the unpublished radius shaft of an infant who died approximately before the sixth month postnatal that was recovered from layer 10b, which contained East Balkan Levallois Mousterian with bifacial leaf points. The layer was dated between 130 and 200 ka (large mammals biochronology) and between 128 ± 13 ka and 183 ± 14 ka (OSL), i.e. OIS6. Here we show that, given the scarcity of Middle Pleistocene infant remains in general, and Middle Paleolithic human remains from this part of Eastern Europe in particular, the study of the Kozarnika specimen is of special interest. We discuss its place in the Middle Pleistocene European hominine record and substantiate the hypothesis of early Neanderthal presence in the eastern Balkans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Religious configuration of the “other” in the contemporary Balkan societies (cultural mechanisms and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogomilova Nonka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper argues that the Balkans are not a single-type cultural- political and conflictogenic space where religions are the basic factor, but a heterogeneous zone made up of specific states, in each of which religion or religions have a specific positive cultural status and/or conflict potential (persistently or in certain period. The qualitative changes that have taken place in Christianity as a faith and an institution, both in the West and East (including the Balkans during the second half of the 20th century have shown that Christianity has become more dependent on and responsive to the fundamental cultural specificity of each particular society in which it exists. The thesis is emphasized that in the conflictual configuration of “Other” in the Balkans (of ethnic, nationalist, cultural type religion is not a pro-active factor but functions in interacting with a number of other factors (the Weberian idea of religious “strands”, coming to the fore in certain situations.

  1. The Balkan balneotherapy product – an approach from the destination marketing perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelia-Felicia STĂNCIOIU

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Considering the common features in the resources field, but especially the way in which they have been managed at the level of each individual country, it can be stated that a destination such as the Balkan peninsula represents a culturally homogeneous space, which has been crystallized over centuries of common history and which has imprinted a “common” destiny to the member countries, regarding the economic and cultural development. Regarding natural resources, the main similarity resides in the existence of balneotherapy resources, with particular therapeutic properties, nowadays’ development being pressured by the deterioration of one’s conception about its own health (from the demand perspective, on the one hand, and extending the concept of health (from the supply perspective, on the other hand. In the context of a less-controlled development of certain methods/techniques/procedures by the stakeholders of wellness industry, it is necessary to maintain the authenticity of the balneotherapy product whose essence is the treatment. The purpose of the paper relies in establishing the common elements which could form the essence of the balneotherapy product (sui generis and, in the same time, the differentiation elements which form the developed product of each Balkan country, alongside with the establishment of joint actions, in order to set the coordinates of the regional balneotherapy marketing strategy for the Balkan peninsula.

  2. Secular trends in body height in Balkan populations from 1945 to 1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarajlić, Nermin; Resić, Emina; Gradaščević, Anisa; Salihbegović, Adis; Balažic, Jože; Zupanc, Tomaž

    2014-11-14

    The aim of this study was to look for any secular trend in the stature of Balkan populations from the time of World War II (1939-1945) to the Balkans War (1991-1995). The research was based on the examination of exhumed skeletons of 202 men killed in World War II in the area of the Republic of Slovenia, and 243 men killed in the Bosnian War in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The length measurements of the right and left humerus, femur, tibia and fibula were taken. Since the results revealed no significant differences and the left-sided bones were more complete and recurrent in the sample, the bones of the left side were used in the analysis. Since the increase in height depends mostly on the increase in length of the long bones, with an average absolute change of about 0.28 cm for humerus, 0.55 cm for femur, 0.49 cm for tibia and 0.20 cm for fibula per decade in our case, these results suggest a significant increase of the height of the Balkans population. The difference of the sum of the average femur and tibia length for the study period was 4.13 cm. Recalculated average length increase of the sum length of femur and tibia per decade was 0.88 cm for the left side. Our study revealed that there was a trend towards increased long bone lengths, at least in the male population analyzed.

  3. A Balkan-style French revolution?: The 1804 Serbian Uprising in European perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bataković Dušan T.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The Serbian uprising of 1804-13, initially a peasant rebellion against abuses of power by local janissaries, turned into a national and social revolution from 1806. During its second phase (late 1806 - early 1807, Serbian insurgents openly proclaimed their demand for independence. Encouraged by their military achievements, the insurgent leaders began to seek wider Balkan support for their struggle against Ottoman domination. Although its political claims were a mixture of modern national and romantic historic rights, the uprising gave hope to all Balkan Christians that the Ottoman defeat was an achievable goal. For the Balkan nations it was a French Revolution adapted to local conditions: the principle of popular sovereignty was opposed to the principle of legitimism; a new peasant-dominated society was created in which, due to the lack of the aristocracy and well-established middle classes, agrarian egalitarianism was combined with the rising aspirations of a modern nation. Its long-term effects on the political and social landscape of the whole region justified the assessment of the eminent German historian Leopold von Ranke who described the uprising, by analogy with the French example, as the Serbian Revolution.

  4. Glycemic index and glycemic load are associated with some cardiovascular risk factors among the PREMIER study participants

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Pao-Hwa; Chen, Chuhe; Young, Deborah R.; Mitchell, Diane; Elmer, Patricia; Wang, Yanfang; Batch, Bryan; Champagne, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Background: The clinical significance of glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) is inconclusive. Objective: This study was conducted to examine the association of GI and GL with clinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors including body weight, blood pressure (BP), serum lipids, fasting glucose, insulin and homocysteine over time among the PREMIER participants. Design: PREMIER was an 18-month randomized lifestyle intervention trial, conducted from 2000 to 2002, designed to help par...

  5. Relationship between Game Location and Match Result with the Amount of Aggression: Iranian Premier League Football Teams

    OpenAIRE

    Farhad Alahvisi; Mohammad Maleki; Farid Zand Salimi

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between game location (host advantage), match result (win, lose or tie) and the level of aggression in football teams of the Iranian Premier League. The study population consisted of Premier League Football teams (League XIII), and 60 matches (related to 4 teams) that were available for the researcher, were selected as the sample. The current study can be regarded as applied and descriptive, in terms of purpose and data collection,...

  6. Microevolution of the noble crayfish (Astacus astacus) in the Southern Balkan Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laggis, Anastasia; Baxevanis, Athanasios D; Charalampidou, Alexandra; Maniatsi, Stefania; Triantafyllidis, Alexander; Abatzopoulos, Theodore J

    2017-05-30

    The noble crayfish (Astacus astacus) displays a complex historical and contemporary genetic status in Europe. The species divergence has been shaped by geological events (i.e. Pleistocene glaciations) and humanly induced impacts (i.e. translocations, pollution, etc.) on its populations due to species commercial value and its niche degradation. Until now, limited genetic information has been procured for the Balkan area and especially for the southernmost distribution of this species (i.e. Greece). It is well known that the rich habitat diversity of the Balkan Peninsula offers suitable conditions for genetically diversified populations. Thus, the present manuscript revisits the phylogenetic relationships of the noble crayfish in Europe and identifies the genetic make-up and the biogeographical patterns of the species in its southern range limit. Mitochondrial markers (i.e. COI and 16S) were used in order to elucidate the genetic structure and diversity of the noble crayfish in Europe. Two of the six European haplotypic lineages, were found exclusively in Greece. These two lineages exhibited greater haplotypic richness when compared with the rest four (of "Central European" origin) while they showed high genetic diversity. Divergence time analysis identified that the majority of this divergence was captured through Pleistocene, suggesting a southern glacial refugium (Greece, southern Balkans). Furthermore, six microsatellite markers were used in order to define the factors affecting the genetic structure and demographic history of the species in Greece. The population structure analysis revealed six to nine genetic clusters and eight putative genetic barriers. Evidence of bottleneck effects in the last ~5000 years (due to climatic and geological events and human activities) is also afforded. Findings from several other research fields (e.g. life sciences, geology or even archaeology) have been utilized to perceive the genetic make-up of the noble crayfish. The

  7. Climate change in the Carpathian-Balkan Area. Advancing research and cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel MINDRESCU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Carpathian Mountains are considered to be one of Europe’s last “wilderness” areas, but are nevertheless under heavy pressure from human activities. Examples range from large-scale activities (e.g. metal and coal mining and ecological disasters (e.g. tailing dam failures in the Toroiaga and Baia Mare areas to cross-border pollution (e.g. Chernobyl nuclear accident. The current political thrust for economic development is accelerating the pace of industrial activities, exploitation of natural resources and tourism. Romania has just recently been integrated into the European Union and many community-based projects were initiated to evaluate problems related to climatic and anthropogenic impacts.The diversity of landforms that characterize the Carpathian region encompassing mountain ranges and large spans of adjacent lowlands and the dynamic interplay between North Atlantic, continental, and Mediterranean atmospheric circulation patterns in southeastern Europe, have resulted in extremely fragmented habitats and exceptional biodiversity (Veres and Mindrescu, 2013. However, the Carpathian Mountains remain the least studied mountain environment in Europe, as reflected for example by the low number of well-dated and high-resolution paleorecords (e.g. Buczkó et al. 2009. Rose et al. (2009 published a pollution history study from a lake in the Retezat Mountains at the western extremity of the Southern Carpathians, but no paleoenvironmental studies exist for the rest of the mountain range, despite the abundance of suitable sites (Akinyemi et al., 2013.An interdisciplinary approach to geoscience is particularly important in this vast research field (geosciences, as innovative science is increasingly stimulated by studies that cross disciplinary boundaries and thus benefit from multiple research methods and viewpoints. Grasping this concept has led us to encourage interdisciplinary cooperation by creating “meeting places” where geoscience

  8. Rebuilding Physical Education in the Western Occupation Zones of Germany, 1945-1949

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dichter, Heather L.

    2012-01-01

    After the Second World War, the British, American and French believed education could be used to promote democracy in Germany. The Western powers faced particular difficulties with the field of physical education because of the strong Nazi influence in this area during the Third Reich. The premier pre-war physical education teacher training…

  9. Profil de l'etudiant du premier cycle des etudes medicales de Lome ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectif : Apprécier la perception de l'anatomie par les étudiants du Premier cycle d'études médicales en vue d'améliorer ainsi la qualité de l'enseignement. Méthodes : Il s'est agi d'une enquête effectuée dans les salles de cours de la 1ère et 2ème de la FMMP. Un questionnaire anonyme a été remis aux étudiants.

  10. Medical and Social Aspects of Syphilis in the Balkans from the mid-19th Century to the Interwar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiamis, Costas; Vrioni, Georgia; Poulakou-Rebelakou, Effie; Gennimata, Vasiliki; Murdjeva, Mariana А; Tsakris, Athanasios

    2016-03-01

    The current study presents some aspects of syphilis in the Balkan Peninsula from the 19th century until the Interwar. Ever since the birth of modern Balkan States (Greece, Bulgaria, Turkey and Serbia), urbanization, poverty and the frequent wars have been considered the major factors conducive to the spread of syphilis. The measures against sex work and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) were taken in two aspects, one medical and the other legislative. In this period, numerous hospitals for venereal diseases were established in the Balkan countries. In line with the international diagnostic approach and therapeutic standards, laboratory examinations in these Balkan hospitals included spirochete examination, Wassermann reaction, precipitation reaction and cerebrospinal fluid examination. Despite the strict legislation and the adoption of relevant laws against illegal sex work, public health services were unable to curb the spread of syphilis. Medical and social factors such as poverty, citizen's ignorance of STDs, misguided medical perceptions, lack of sanitary control of prostitution and epidemiological studies, are highlighted in this study. These factors were the major causes that helped syphilis spread in the Balkan countries during the 19th and early 20th century. The value of these aspects as a historic paradigm is diachronic. Failure to comply with the laws and the dysfunction of public services during periods of war or socioeconomic crises are both factors facilitating the spread of STDs.

  11. The Cooperation of Fyrom’s Local Authority Agencies with Local Authorities in the European Union and the Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgos Magoulios

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the modern role of local authorities in the new Balkan and European environment as well as the institutions, means and experiences of cooperation among local authorities agencies of the FYR of Macedonia and those of Balkan and European countries. Based on the results of a primary research survey undertaken in the FYR of Macedonia, this paper examines top priority sectors of such inter-regional cooperation. Countries for cooperation were selected on the basis of factors of importance, such as geography, scale of economic cooperation, intra-Balkan conflicts and the degree of participation of Balkan countries in the European integration process; sectors of cooperation are ranked on the basis of specific local authorities needs in each country. More specifically, in the case of Balkan countries, cooperation between local societies, apart from contributing to local development and strengthening the role of local authorities, it could also contribute towards reinforcing security, stability, peace and friendship among the populations of the region.

  12. Medical and Social Aspects of Syphilis in the Balkans from the mid-19th Century to the Interwar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsiamis Costas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The current study presents some aspects of syphilis in the Balkan Peninsula from the 19th century until the Interwar. Ever since the birth of modern Balkan States (Greece, Bulgaria, Turkey and Serbia, urbanization, poverty and the frequent wars have been considered the major factors conducive to the spread of syphilis. The measures against sex work and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs were taken in two aspects, one medical and the other legislative. In this period, numerous hospitals for venereal diseases were established in the Balkan countries. In line with the international diagnostic approach and therapeutic standards, laboratory examinations in these Balkan hospitals included spirochete examination, Wassermann reaction, precipitation reaction and cerebrospinal fluid examination. Despite the strict legislation and the adoption of relevant laws against illegal sex work, public health services were unable to curb the spread of syphilis. Medical and social factors such as poverty, citizen’s ignorance of STDs, misguided medical perceptions, lack of sanitary control of prostitution and epidemiological studies, are highlighted in this study. These factors were the major causes that helped syphilis spread in the Balkan countries during the 19th and early 20th century. The value of these aspects as a historic paradigm is diachronic. Failure to comply with the laws and the dysfunction of public services during periods of war or socioeconomic crises are both factors facilitating the spread of STDs.

  13. Malondialdehyde and 8-oxo-7.8-dihydro-2'deoxyguanosine in the urine of residents from Balkan endemic nephropathy area in Croatia--a pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domijan, Ana-Marija; Miletić-Medved, Marica; Peraica, Maja

    2013-01-01

    Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) is a human chronic tubulointerstitial renal disease that occurs in rural areas of some Balkan countries. The disease is insidious and fatal, and mostly affects persons in their sixties or seventies. BEN areas have unusually high rates of otherwise rare upper urina...

  14. RANKING THE SPECTATORS’ DIFFICULTIES IN PURCHASING ELECTRONIC TICKETS OF FOOTBALL PREMIER LEAGUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Narimani

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to rank the spectators’ difficulties in buying electronic tickets of football premier league matches at Azadi stadium. The population consisted of all spectators of Esteghlal-Persepolis match in the fifteenth league at Azadi stadium (N= 100000. According to Morgan table and using simple random sampling method, 500 participants were selected as sample. A researcher-made questionnaire was used for collecting the data; its face validity was confirmed by 15 experts and performing a pilot study on 30 subjects, its Cronbach’s alpha was calculated to be 0.86. Using SPSS 22, the descriptive and inferential (including Friedman test statistics was applied for analyzing the data. The findings showed that there was a significant difference between rankings of difficulties in buying electronic tickets of Football premier league matches at Azadi Stadium. The difficulties were ranked as: problem in ticket systems, early selling out of electronic tickets, lack of confidence to electronic ticket sale, lack of skill to work with the internet, low speed of internet, and lack of access to the internet

  15. Self-efficacy as a predictor of weight change and behavior change in the PREMIER trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingo, Brooks C; Desmond, Renee A; Brantley, Phillip; Appel, Lawrence; Svetkey, Laura; Stevens, Victor J; Ard, Jamy D

    2013-01-01

    Determine whether self-efficacy independently predicted weight loss in a behavioral intervention and explore factors that influence the path between self-efficacy and weight change. Secondary analysis of the PREMIER trial, a randomized controlled trial testing effects of lifestyle interventions on blood pressure. Four academic medical centers. PREMIER recruited adults (n = 810) with pre-hypertension/stage 1 hypertension, not currently receiving medication. This analysis excluded participants in the control arm, resulting in n = 537. Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: advice only, established lifestyle recommendations, or established lifestyle recommendations plus Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension dietary pattern. Self-efficacy (dietary self-efficacy [DSE], exercise self-efficacy [ESE]), dietary intake, fitness. Pearson correlations, 1-way analysis of variance, mediation analyses. Despite an overall decrease in DSE/ESE, change in DSE/ESE significantly predicted weight change at 6 (β = -.21, P self-efficacy and adoption of behaviors that influence weight loss. Copyright © 2013 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. ABOUT THE SMART SPORTS DEVELOPMENT. EVIDENCE FROM THE UK PREMIERE LEAGUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad Ionut Dumitrache

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Smart economy implies the development of key factors like global economy growth, competition, economic progress, economic prosperity, innovation. In the European top-level football, like the case of the British Premier League, financial indicators have demonstrated that the factors that define smart economy can be identified. The new rules of the financial fair-play policies and the ever growing revenues for television rights have created a new market in sports economy, one that identifies itself with the criteria identifies in studies regarding smart economy. This paper comparatively examines the determinants of four indicators of the football team quality in the British Premier League, in order to find out whether a common set of potential determinants could be effective in improving all four indicators of quality, without worsening any of them. This allows finding what measures undertaken at the level of football teams could raise the football team quality. Considering the subjective and multidimensional nature of the football team quality, we first propose four indicators that might be appropriate to define this latent summative measure. Then we select a number of four potentially common determinants of the football team quality, and finally discuss the empirical results, based on panel generalized least squares regression models. The television broadcasting rights are found to be the most important determinant of the football team quality.

  17. Football fans and food: a case study of a football club in the English premier league.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Robin; Watkins, Francine

    2010-05-01

    Although there is growing awareness of the impact of diet on health, little attention has been given to the food available in our sports stadia. We used a football club (Citygrene FC) - Citygrene is a fictional name - in the English Premier League as a case study to examine the attitudes of male and female football supporters to the food and drink available at their home stadium (Citygrene Stadium). The research design used five focus groups of male and female fans. The discourse was audiotaped, transcribed, coded and analysed for themes. A football stadium in the English Premier League, England. The participants were season ticket holders drawn from two stands at Citygrene Stadium. The research showed a high level of dissatisfaction with the food and drink supplied. There were key differences in the views of the male and female participants in the focus groups, with the women more concerned about wider issues such as the lack of healthy food. Both men and women were aware of their role as consumers and felt that there was an opportunity for Citygrene to improve their catering profits, if they provided a better selection of food and drink and an improved service. The study shows that there is a demand for healthier food options (and a wider choice of food and drink in general), which may provide an economic opportunity for stadium and catering managers. In addition, a stadium may be considered a potential 'healthy setting', which can serve as a supportive environment for healthier food choices.

  18. The Pannonian plain as a source of Ambrosia pollen in the Balkans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šikoparija, B.; Smith, M.; Skjøth, C. A.; Radišić, P.; Milkovska, S.; Šimić, S.; Brandt, J.

    2009-05-01

    This study aims to find likely sources of Ambrosia pollen recorded during 2007 at five pollen-monitoring sites in central Europe: Novi Sad, Ruma, Negotin and Nis (Serbia) and Skopje (Macedonia). Ambrosia plants start flowering early in the morning and so Ambrosia pollen grains recorded during the day are likely to be from a local source. Conversely, Ambrosia pollen grains recorded at night or very early in the morning may have arrived via long-range transport. Ambrosia pollen counts were analysed in an attempt to find possible sources of the pollen and to identify Ambrosia pollen episodes suitable for further investigation using back-trajectory analysis. Diurnal variations and the magnitude of Ambrosia pollen counts during the 2007 Ambrosia pollen season showed that Novi Sad and Ruma (Pannonian Plain) and to a lesser degree Negotin (Balkans) were located near to sources of Ambrosia pollen. Mean bi-hourly Ambrosia pollen concentrations peaked during the middle of the day, and concentrations at these sites were notably higher than at Nis and Skopje. Three episodes were selected for further analysis using back-trajectory analysis. Back-trajectories showed that air masses brought Ambrosia pollen from the north to Nis and, on one occasion, to Skopje (Balkans) during the night and early morning after passing to the east of Novi Sad and Ruma during the previous day. The results of this study identified the southern part of the Pannonian Plain around Novi Sad and Ruma as being a potential source region for Ambrosia pollen recorded at Nis and Skopje in the Balkans.

  19. Population growth and economic growth: empirical estimation for a sample of Balkan countries

    OpenAIRE

    Josheski, Dushko; Fotov, Risto

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we use pooled cross-sectional (longitudinal data) in a sample of 10 Balkan countries. The period we cover is from 1950-2009 data are for population and economic growth. In the theoreti-cal part we present optimal intergenerational model of population growth .The optimal population growth depends on capital in the future period and future consumption. Consumption should be great-er than zero, and less than total capital of the current generation. In the econometric part OLS regre...

  20. Političnogeografska analiza Balkana = Political-Geographical analysis of the Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jernej Zupančič

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with contemporary political map of the Balkans, founded on morphological,structural and functional analysis. Characteristically, there are frequent changes of politicalborders in common. The most of nation-states are relatively young, small-sized, ethnicheterogeneous. The space is characteristic by large peripheral areas, but the core areas aresmall. The most of nations have two spatial-political units. All these nation-states are weakand vulnerable, and that is why they represent a high latent crisis potential. On the otherhand, the transport, transit and strategic role of this area is increasing, indeed.

  1. Twixt Pragmatism and Idealism: British Approaches to the Balkan Policy Revisited (the late 19th/early 20th Century

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    O I Aganson

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to define how home debates on international issues influence a state's foreign policy. This task was undertaken on the pattern of Britain's policy in the Balkans in the late 19th/early 20th century. The author examines the role played by the radicals (left-wing liberals in formulating Britain's approaches to the Eastern question. It is stated that the interaction between the Foreign Office and the radicals rendered British policy in the Balkans more flexible.

  2. Serbia, the Serbo-Albanian conflict and the First Balkan War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bataković Dušan T.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available After the restoration of Serbia in 1830, the areas of medieval Serbia left out of her borders were dubbed Old Serbia - Kosovo, Metohija, Rascia (the former sanjak of Novi Pazar and the neighbouring areas. Old Serbia (from 1877 onwards the vilayet of Kosovo was dominated by local Albanian pashas, whereas the Christian Orthodox Serbs and their villages were attacked and pillaged by Muslim Albanian brigands. The religious antagonism between Muslims and Christians expanded into national conflict after the 1878 Albanian League had claimed the entire “Old Serbia for Greater Albania”. The position of Christian Orthodox Serbs, who accounted for a half of the population at the end of the nineteenth century, was dramatically aggravated due to Muslim Albanians' tribal anarchy, Austria-Hungary's pro-Albanian agitation and, after 1908, frequent Albanian rebellions. All efforts of Serbia to reach a peaceful agreement with Muslim Albanian leaders in Old Serbia before the First Balkan War had ended in failure. The First Balkan War was the most popular war in Serbia’s history as it was seen as avenging the 1389 Battle of Kosovo which had sealed the Ottoman penetration into the Serbian lands. In October 1912, Serbia liberated most of Old Serbia, while Montenegro took possesion of half of the Rascia area and the whole of Metohija. While the decimated and discriminated Serb population greeted the Serbian and Montenegrin troops as liberators, most Albanians, who had sided with the Ottomans, saw the establishment of Serbian rule as occupation.

  3. Terpene chemodiversity of relict conifers Picea omorika, Pinus heldreichii, and Pinus peuce, endemic to Balkan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolić, Biljana; Ristić, Mihailo; Tešević, Vele; Marin, Petar D; Bojović, Srdjan

    2011-12-01

    Terpenes are often used as ecological and chemotaxonomic markers of plant species, as well as for estimation of geographic variability. Essential oils of relic and Balkan endemic/subendemic conifers, Picea omorika, Pinus heldreichii, and P. peuce, in central part of Balkan Peninsula (Serbia and Montenegro), on the level of terpene classes and common terpene compounds were investigated. In finding terpene combinations, which could show the best diversity between species and their natural populations, several statistical methods were applied. Apart from the content of different terpene classes (P. omorika has the most abundant O-containing monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes; P. heldreichii and P. peuce have the largest abundance of sesquiterpene and monoterpene hydrocarbons, resp.), the species are clearly separated according to terpene profile with 22 common compounds. But, divergences in their populations were established only in combination of several compounds (specific for each species), and they were found to be the results of geomorphologic, climatic, and genetic factors. We found similarities between investigated species and some taxa from literature with respect to terpene composition, possibly due to hybridization and phylogenetic relations. Obtained results are also important regarding to chemotaxonomy, biogeography, phylogeny, and evolution of these taxa. Copyright © 2011 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  4. Oral Health Conditions of Older People: Focus on the Balkan Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatzopoulos Georgios S.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Oral health plays a pivotal role in general health, especially in older people. Oral diseases may affect the development of systemic conditions, such as diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, stroke and hypertension. The most important oral health conditions that have been recorded in dental literature for older population include tooth loss, dental caries, periodontal diseases, xerostomia (dry mouth and oral cancer. Edentulism influences social life, either causing aesthetic problems or affecting functional abilities, such as speaking, chewing and eating. Dental caries in older people is similar to that in people in their thirties. Socio-economic status and living area play a key role in the development of dental caries. In addition, the accumulation of several risk factors, such as plaque or systemic diseases, acts synergistically in the onset of periodontal disease in seniors. Furthermore, older people, mainly due to their medications, exhibit a reduced amount of saliva. Xerostomia causes difficulties in chewing, speaking and swallowing, and it has a substantial impact on older people’s lives. The prevalence of oral cancer is 1-10 per 100,000 patients, and several factors (smoking, alcohol, education, economic status play crucial role. Limited data exists today that evaluates oral health conditions of seniors in the Balkan countries. Aging and socio-economic status of seniors in the Balkans are significantly associated with oral health problems.

  5. Beginning of the metal age in the central Balkans according to the results of the archeometallurgy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović B.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The gradual development of the primary copper metallurgy in Balkans starts with production of small jewelry pieces and ends with the serial production of massive tools and weapons. It is confirmed that this metallurgy depended on the contemporary mining, i.e. the available sources of the raw materials. It is also corroborated by the discovery of two Early Eneolithic copper mines: Rudna Glava in Eastern Serbia and Ai-Bunar in Bulgaria /first half and the middle of the 5th millennium BC/. These mines are also the evidence for the local exploitation of the carbonate copper minerals - malachite and azurite. The technology employed is close to the former flint mining in the Late Neolithic; massive pebbles obtained from the neighboring alluvial deposits were used as mining hammers. Identical technology was employed in the mines dating from the later periods /Rudnik, Central Serbia, Jarmovac, Priboj na Limu/. The Vinča culture of the central Balkan followed all metallurgical phases of introduction of metal and use of the carbonate ores /Gradac I - III phase/. This long process of including the metal in wider use lasted generally from the middle of the 5th millennium BC to the end of the 4th millennium BC, i.e. to the appearance of the Bronze Age.

  6. Anti-vaccinationists and their arguments in the Balkan countries that share the same language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovanović Zoran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective has been an analysis of anti-vaccination situation in the language-related Balkan countries. Mass and organized opposition to vaccination in this part of the world is a relatively recent phenomenon. It has been an offshoot of the respective ideas from the West, associated with New Ageism, postmodernism, and similar worldviews, but particularly beefed up by MMR (measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine fear in the late 1990s. The four key local leaders from four countries have been selected to represent the whole diversity of the Balkan anti-vaccination scene. Each of them exerts his/her influence throughout the region. The result is that vaccination coverage has substantially decreased in many areas. Outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases that have to follow sooner or later would eventually, at least temporarily, bring a blow to the credibility of anti-vaccinationists. We already witnessed such a trend in Bosnia and Herzegovina where vaccines were not readily available during the Bosnian wars in 1990s. As a result, major epidemics of measles, mumps, and rubella recently took place all over the country. A dynamic balance between the influence of anti-vaccination movement and the incidence of diseases, characterized by an inverse relationship (the more damaging impact of vaccine opponents on public health, the more cases of diseases, and vice versa has been a pattern that health services have to deal with.

  7. OTTOMAN BALKAN HERITAGE AND THE CONSTRUCTION OF TURKISH NATIONAL IDENTITY / OSMANLI BALKAN MİRASI VE TÜRK MİLLÎ KİMLİĞİNİN OLUŞUMU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamer BALCI

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study covers the influence of Ottoman Balkan Heritage on the construction of Turkish national identity.In order to shed light on the intricate correlation among the Ottoman heritage, the Balkans and Turkish national identity, thisarticle presents thatwhile the Turkish republicanelite took a negative stance on the Ottoman Empire to create a secular nation-state,Balkanmigrants’ view on Islam as the main component of their identity helped to shape the creation of Turkish national identity. Bu çalışma Osmanlı Balkan mirasının Türk millî kimliğinin oluşturulmasındaki etkilerini incelemektedir. Osmanlı mirası, Balkanlar ve Türk millî kimliği arasındaki münasebeti aydınlatabilmek amacıyla araştırma şu hipotezi sunmaktadır: Her ne kadar cumhuriyetçi Türk eliti laik bir ulus devlet inşa etmek amacıyla Osmanlı Devleti’ne karşı olumsuz bir tavır almışsa da, Balkan göçmenlerinin İslam’ı millî kimliklerinin ana unsuru olarak görmesi Türk millî kimliğinin oluşturulmasında önemli bir etken olmuştur

  8. Une forme urbaine du premier âge touristique: les promenades littorales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franck DEBIÉ

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available Les promenades maritimes caractérisent les stations de bord de mer du premier âge touristique (1850-1930. Elles traduisent dans le paysage un urbanisme spéculatif, à rapprocher de celui qui produit le square et le boulevard, et donnent lieu à une urbanisation du littoral sous forme de vastes appendices linéaires. Les pratiques sociales associées à la promenade rappellent celles du jardin de plaisir, et renvoient au même rêve d’une urbanité idéale, libérée des miasmes, des promiscuités sociales, des contraintes qui pèsent sur les amours et les jeux.

  9. Delivering men's health interventions in English Premier League football clubs: key design characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, A; Zwolinsky, S; McKenna, J; Daly-Smith, A; Robertson, S; White, A

    2013-08-01

    To investigate the key design characteristics of Premier League Health (PLH), a national programme of men's health improvement delivered in/by 16 English Premier League (EPL) football clubs. Health Trainers (HTs) were hired by EPL clubs to deliver PLH. HTs were the focus of investigations aimed at identifying the active design characteristics of male-specific health promotion interventions. Semi-structured interviews led by researchers were performed with 13/16 HTs and identified the key design characteristics influential in (I) reaching and (II) helping participants adopt health improvement interventions delivered in professional football club settings. HTs believed that combining the appeal of football alongside EPL clubs, offered a unique opportunity to reach adult males, including hard-to-engage-men (HTEM). Awareness raising events held on match days aimed to connect with men, but outreach activities were especially important for engaging participants. Following initial reach, familiar settings, such as the club stadia and community venues were also important for ensuring regular involvement in health improvement sessions. Interventions shaped around men's health needs and delivered at times when participants could more easily attend, were factors which helped to engage men. Supportive social environments and a range of exercise modes and delivery options were also seen by HTs as being similarly important. Both the informality and familiarity of EPL clubs were viewed by HTs as having substantial advantages over conventional NHS settings for reaching and engaging men. Importantly, HTs contributed substantial skills to the delivery of PLH. Although, top flight professional football clubs can recruit men, including those regarded as hard-to-engage into health improvement programmes, considerable attention to delivery refinement is needed to support male participants adopting interventions aimed at promoting healthy lifestyles. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Society

  10. The Influence of Ethnicity and Displacement on Quality of Antenatal Care: The Case of Roma, Ashkali, and Balkan Egyptian Communities in Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanovski, Kristefer; Holla, Alaka; Hoxha, Ilir; Howell, Elizabeth; Janevic, Teresa

    2017-12-01

    The conflict in Kosovo created mass displacement and a fractured health system. Roma, Ashkali, and Balkan Egyptian communities are particularly vulnerable to discrimination and exclusion from institutions. We aimed to examine Roma, Ashkali, and Balkan Egyptian disparities in quantity and quality of antenatal care received. We conducted a cross-sectional study in August 2012 with 603 women aged 15 or older who had given birth in the previous two years. We measured quantity of antenatal care using number of visits and quality of care using antenatal checklists. We used linear regression with interaction terms of displacement and type of health institution (for example, Serbian or Kosovar) to assess ethnic disparities in antenatal care. Women from Roma, Ashkali, and Balkan Egyptian communities received poorer quantity and quality of antenatal care compared to Kosovar Albanian and Serbian women. In adjusted models, Roma, Ashkali, and Balkan Egyptian women scored 3.5 points lower [95% CI (-5.2, -1.8)] on the checklists. Roma, Ashkali, and Balkan Egyptian women who were displaced received even poorer quality of care. Ethnic disparities exist in quality of antenatal care. Women from Roma, Ashkali, and Balkan Egyptian communities receive the poorest quality of services. As Kosovo strives to build a multiethnic health care system, a focus on equity is important to ensure the right to health for Roma, Ashkali, and Balkan Egyptian women.

  11. Les Turcs dans les chansons des Rroms des Balkans à l'époque ottomane The Turks in the Rromani songs in the Balkans during the Ottoman period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Courthiade

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available La publication bilingue de 11 chansons rromanies de Bulgarie et une de Roumanie, une étude des noms, locutions, expressions turques utilisées dans les chants Rroms illustre la vision rromanie du personnage du Turc. En raison de l'accès tardif des Rroms à la littérature écrite (après la Seconde Guerre mondiale dans les Balkans, il n'y a que les récits oraux qui puissent apporter du matériel pour illustrer la recherche sur tel ou tel personnage dans leur vision du monde. Après avoir expliqué les différents noms attribués aux Turcs dans les chansons populaires, cette présentation tente de définir les traits principaux de ce personnage tel qu'il se dégage de ces chansons, à savoir, impitoyable, féroce et même sadique quand il s'agit de jouer avec la vie et les souffrances de ses victimes. Des points de vue similaires se retrouvent également dans les chansons rromanies de Roumanie. Une partie de cet article est consacrée aux noms propres turcs utilisés par les Rroms et une autre aux expressions et locutions turques présentes dans les chansons. L'étude englobe l'édition bilingue de onze chansons rromanies de Bulgarie et une de Roumanie, dans lesquelles est dépeint le personnage du Turc.Due to the late access of Rromani to written literature (after WWII in the Balkan, only oral accounts can provide illustrative material for research about such and such character in Rromani cosmovision. This is true among others for the Rroms' views on the Turks' character.  After explaining the various names given to the Turks in Rromani folk songs, the presentation attempts to define the main features of this character, as mirrored in these songs: mercilessness, fierceness, even sadism in playing with their victim's life and sufferings. Similar views are encountered in Rromani folk songs from Rumania as well. A passage of the article is devoted to Turkish proper names used among Rroms and another to Turkish phrases and expressions embodied

  12. Balkan Ülkelerinin Anayasalarında Dil Kullanımı İle İlgili Düzenlemeler The Regulation As For Language Usage In The Constitutions Of Balkan States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilgehan Atsız GÖKDAĞ

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the regions of interest for multiculturalism andmultilingualism is the Balkans in southeastern Europe. Region includesGreece, Bulgaria, Albania, Romania, on the European side of Turkey asindependent states that emerged after the collapse of Yugoslavia,Macedonia, Croatia, Slovenia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Kosovo, Serbia andMontenegro. System ruled by the Communist countries of the regionuntil 1990, except for Greece. The breakup of Yugoslavia and theemergence of new states created new constitutions. The constitution ofcountries which multi-ethnic and multi-lingual include freedom oflanguage use.Status of local languages in countries with ethnic diversity isalways a problem for the standard and established. Nations as a resultof partnerships formed by a long common law without nationalassociations is an important question how to solve this problem.Encountered this situation in many countries of the world, how theBalkan countries were effected. Especially in the Balkan region containsmany ethnic groups and languages. This is the most importantdeterminant of geography, religion, ethnic identity, then, has been thelanguage. The world's most well-known linguistic regions of the BalkanPeninsula. Ethnic diversity in the region from time to time in history,religion, and language differences have been exploited by some statesand using these features to their own interests, these countries incitedthe people of the region. This article examined the constitutions of theBalkan countries respond to the needs of its neighborhoods given instandard language, as well as other languages will be investigated.Some of these population groups, there are now in a minority in theirregions and countries are demanding the right language. However, thelanguage policies vary from country to country. For example, the formerYugoslavia, in time, many languages spoken in the country have legalequality, established new states constitutions created a special place forthe

  13. Understanding Cultural Landmines in the Balkans: How the Land and Its History Have Kept a People at War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-10-01

    political sociology . . . While various elements of the Army are focusing on the development of doctrine, it is not clear that this doctrine is...POLITICAL MANIFESTATIONS OF THE BALKAN CULTURAL PERSONALITIES TomaÓi�’s study in political sociology (1948) advanced the idea that political life in eastern

  14. Quaternary climate change and Heinrich events in the southern Balkans : Lake Prespa diatom palaeolimnology from the last interglacial to present

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cvetkoska, Aleksandra|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413534464; Levkov, Zlatko; Reed, Jane M.; Wagner, Bernd; Panagiotopoulos, Konstantinos; Leng, Melanie J.; Lacey, Jack H.

    Lake Prespa, in the Balkans, contains an important palaeo-archive in a key location for understanding Quaternary climate variability in the transition between Mediterranean and central European climate zones. Previous palaeoenvironmental research on sediment cores indicates that the lake is highly

  15. Petrology, geochemistry and Sm-Nd analyses on the Balkan-Carpathian Ophiolite (BCO - Romania, Serbia, Bulgaria): Remnants of a Devonian back-arc basin in the easternmost part of the Variscan domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plissart, Gaëlle; Monnier, Christophe; Diot, Hervé; Mărunţiu, Marcel; Berger, Julien; Triantafyllou, Antoine

    2017-04-01

    The pre-Alpine basement of the Southern Carpathians/Western Balkans contains four ophiolitic massifs dismembered by Alpine tectonics, which define the ;Balkan-Carpathian Ophiolite; (BCO) for which the tectonic setting and age of formation are still debated (Precambrian or Early Devonian). In this contribution, we demonstrate that, in light of a Pre-Alpine restoration, the four massifs belonged to a unique slice of very complete, obducted oceanic lithosphere and we re-evaluate its tectonic setting. Large chromitite volumes with Al-rich spinel compositions (Cr# = 0.39-0.48), as well as major and trace geochemical results on basalts (slightly enriched N-MORBs with low negative Nb anomaly associated with calk-alkaline BABBs), point to a formation in a back-arc basin. Mantle spinel composition (Cr# = 0.49-0.51) and melting modeling indicate mean melting extents of 8.5-11% favouring intermediate spreading rate. New Sm-Nd dating on lower gabbroic rocks give a whole rock isochron, interpreted as the age of formation of the BCO crust at 409 ± 38 Ma, thus confirming an Early Devonian oceanic crust. The previous ∼563 Ma U-Pb zircon age can be interpreted as casual inheritance indicating the proximity of an old continental lithosphere. Taking into account the lithological evidences and paleocontinental affinities of the two recognized terranes separated by the BC oceanic basin (Balkans and Sredna Gora) and by analogy with other Variscan ophiolites in Western/Central Europe, we suggest that the BC ophiolite belong to the ∼400 Ma ophiolites group obducted between West and East Galatia and belonging to the southern Variscan suture. However, the BC ophiolite is the only one of this group obducted to the north and not involved in the Lower Allochthon/ophiolite/Upper Allochthon thrust pile, likely explaining its exceptional preservation. Finally, we tentatively propose a new unifying tectonic model where different terrane drift rates and highly oblique displacements create two

  16. Disease activity, physical function, and radiographic progression after longterm therapy with adalimumab plus methotrexate: 5-year results of PREMIER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijde, Désirée; Breedveld, Ferdinand C.; Kavanaugh, Arthur; Keystone, Edward C.; Landewé, Robert; Patra, Kaushik; Pangan, Aileen L.

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of initial combination treatment with adalimumab (ADA) and methotrexate (MTX) versus monotherapy with ADA or MTX during an open-label extension of PREMIER. Patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) received blinded ADA plus MTX, ADA alone, or MTX alone for 2

  17. First thermochronological constraints on the Cenozoic extension along the Balkan fold-thrust belt (Central Stara Planina Mountains, Bulgaria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kounov, Alexandre; Gerdjikov, Ianko; Vangelov, Dian; Balkanska, Eleonora; Lazarova, Anna; Georgiev, Stoyan; Blunt, Edward; Stockli, Daniel

    2017-11-01

    The Balkan fold-thrust belt, exposed in Bulgaria and north-east Serbia, is part of the north-east vergent segment of the bi-vergent Eastern Mediterranean Alpine orogen. It was formed during two distinct compressional stages; the first one lasted from the Middle Jurassic to the Early Cretaceous and the second from Late Cretaceous to the Paleogene. Although the compressional tectonic evolution of the Balkan fold-thrust belt since the Middle Jurassic and during most of the Mesozoic is relatively well studied, the final exhumation of the rocks of the belt during the Cenozoic has remained poorly understood. Here, we present the first thermochronological constraints, based on fission-track and [U-Th-(Sm)]/He analysis, showing that along the central part of the belt syn- to post-orogenic extension could have started as early as the middle Eocene. Low-temperature thermochronological analysis of samples collected from three areas reveals at least two phases of increased cooling and exhumation during the Cenozoic. The first exhumation phase took place between 44 and 30 Ma and appears to be related to the syn- to post-orogenic collapse coeval with the earliest Cenozoic extensional stage observed across the southern Balkan Peninsula. A period of relative quiescence (between 30 and 25 Ma) is followed by the next cooling stage, between 25 and 20 Ma, which appears to be related to late Oligocene to early Miocene crustal extension across the Balkan Peninsula. Extension accommodated by the late Miocene to Recent age Sub-Balkan Graben System does not appear to have produced exhumation of rocks from beneath 2-4 km depth, as it was not detected by the low-temperature thermochronological methods applied in this study.

  18. Western Sufism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sedgwick, Mark

    Western Sufism is sometimes dismissed as a relatively recent "new age" phenomenon, but in this book, Mark Sedgwick argues that it actually has very deep roots, both in the Muslim world and in the West. In fact, although the first significant Western Sufi organization was not established until 1915...... to the internet, Mark Sedgwick demonstrates that the phenomenon of Western Sufism not only draws on centuries of intercultural transfers, but is also part of a long-established relationship between Western thought and Islam that can be productive, not confrontational....

  19. Extending knowledge of the public awareness of aphasia in the Balkans: Serbia and Montenegro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuković, Mile; Matić, Dušanka; Kovač, Ana; Vuković, Irena; Code, Chris

    2017-11-01

    Public awareness of aphasia has been surveyed in a number of countries revealing that it is universally low. We report results of surveys in the Balkan countries Serbia and Montenegro and compare results with data from Croatia and Slovenia. Convenience surveys of the general public were conducted in public places like shopping centers/malls and parks in Serbia (N = 400) and Montenegro (N = 500) using an adapted version of the public awareness of aphasia survey questionnaire. Respondents were asked whether they have heard of aphasia and tested with questions about aphasia. Information on gender, age, occupation and education was recorded. Twelve percent (Serbia) and 11% (Montenegro) had heard of aphasia, but just 4% (Serbia) and 3.2% (Montenegro) had a basic knowledge of aphasia. Age, gender and occupation interacted variably with awareness. Between 16% (Slovenia) and 60% (Croatia) said they had heard of aphasia (10.5% overall mean for the four countries) and basic knowledge of aphasia across the four countries ranged between 3.2 and 7%. Levels of awareness of aphasia in the Balkans are low and variably associated with age, gender, socio-economic and educational levels. Respondents with some knowledge of aphasia gained it through personal or professional interaction with aphasia or the media. The data provide a basis for awareness raising in Balkan countries to reduce stigmatization, improve community access and understanding. Implications for rehabilitation Awareness of aphasia is low universally, even among healthcare workers. Low public awareness of a condition, like aphasia, results in under-funded research and service provision. In order to raise public awareness of aphasia we need to know how many members of the general public know about it. Improvements in public awareness could positively affect funding, the quality of services, and the public understanding and acceptance of individuals with aphasia in the community. Improving awareness of aphasia in

  20. Native Dreissena freshwater mussels in the Balkans: in and out of ancient lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Trajanovski

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The Balkans is a biogeographically highly diverse region and a worldwide hotspot of endemic freshwater diversity. A substantial part of this diversity is attributed to well recognized and potential ancient lakes in its southwestern part. However, despite considerable research efforts, faunal relationships among those lakes are not well understood. Therefore, genetic information from native representatives of the mussel genus Dreissena is here used to test the biogeographical zonation of the southwestern Balkans, to relate demographic changes to environmental changes, to assess the degree of eco-insularity, to reconstruct their evolutionary history, and to explore the potential of native taxa for becoming invasive. Phylogeographical and population genetic analyses indicate that most studied populations belong to two native species: D. presbensis (including the distinct genetic subgroup from Lake Ohrid, "D. stankovici" and D. blanci. In addition, the first confirmed record of invasive D. polymorpha in the southwestern Balkan is presented. The distribution of native Dreissena spp. generally coincides with the biogeographical zonations previously suggested based on fish data. However, there is disagreement on the assignment of the ancient lakes in the area to respective biogeographical regions. The data for Lake Ohrid are not conclusive. A closer biogeographical connection to lakes of the Vardar region and possibly the northern Ionian region is, however, suggested for Lake Prespa. The reconstruction of the evolutionary history of Dreissena spp. suggests that populations underwent demographic and spatial expansions in the recent past. Expansions started around 320 000–300 000 years ago in "D. stankovici", 160 000–140 000 years ago in D. blanci, and 110 000–70 000 years ago in D. presbensis. These time frames are discussed within the context of available paleogeological data for lakes Ohrid and Prespa. It is suggested that regional environmental

  1. Building multi-country collaboration on watershed management: lessons on linking environment and public health from the Western Balkans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Community-based watershed resilience programs that bridge public health and environmental outcomes often require cross-boundary, multi-country collaboration. The CRESSIDA project, led by the Regional Environmental Center for Central and Eastern Europe (REC) and supported by the U...

  2. Chemical and Antimicrobial Analyses of Sideritis romana L. subsp. purpurea (Tal. ex Benth.) Heywood, an Endemic of the Western Balkan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadić, Vanja; Oliva, Alessandra; Božović, Mijat; Cipolla, Alessia; De Angelis, Massimiliano; Vullo, Vincenzo; Garzoli, Stefania; Ragno, Rino

    2017-08-23

    A comprehensive study on essential oil and different solvent extracts of Sideritis romana L. subsp. purpurea (Tal. ex Benth.) Heywood (Lamiaceae) from Montenegro is reported. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of the essential oil revealed a total of 43 components with bicyclogermacrene (23.8%), germacrene D (8%), (E)-caryophyllene (7.9%) and spathulenol (5.5%) as the major ones. Sesquiterpenoid group was found to be the most dominant one (64.8%), with 19.9% of the oxygenated forms. In the crude methanol extract of the investigated plant, obtained by Sohhlet exraction, the total phenol content was 14.7 ± 0.4 mg of GA/g, the total flavonoids were 0.29 ± 0.03% expressed as hyperoside percentage, whereas the total tannins content was 0.22 ± 0.04% expressed as pyrogallol percentage. For the antimicrobial activity determination, the following microorganisms have been used: methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA (American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) 29213)) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA (clinical strain)), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), carbapenem-susceptible Klebsiella pneumoniae (clinical strain), carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae (clinical strain) and Candida albicans (ATCC 14053). The essential oil showed high potency against MSSA and MRSA, both at high (~5 × 10⁵ CFU/mL) and low (~5 × 10³ CFU/mL) inoculum. With respect to MSSA, the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) value was 0.307 mg/mL, with bactericidal activity obtained at 0.615 mg/mL, while, in the case of MRSA, the MIC and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) values were 0.076 and 0.153 mg/mL, respectively. Regarding anti-Candida albicans activity, the MIC value was 2.46 mg/mL without reaching fungicidal activity. In addition to the observed essential oil efficacy, different solvent extracts were analyzed for their antimicrobial activity. Similarly to the essential oil, thehighest efficacy was observed against both MSSA and MRSA strains, at high and low inoculums, in the case of the 1,2-dichloroethane and methanol extracts. A potent fungicidal activity has been also found for the n-hexane and 1,2-dichloroethane extracts. It can be concluded that Sideritis romana L. subsp. purpurea (Tal. ex Benth.) Heywood provides a wide range of application in different fields such as phytochemistry, pharmacology, toxicology or pharmacognosy.

  3. Effectiveness of EU Conditionality in the Western Balkans: Minority Rights and the Fight Against Corruption in Croatia and Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gitta Glüpker

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available EU candidate countries must prove their respect for democracy and the rule of law to be eligible for EU membership. The Commission administers their accession processes following the principle of conditionality. This paper examines how domestic conditions and different aspects of the conditionality principle affect policy outcomes. It reviews the arguments made in the literature on EU conditionality and applies them to the policy areas of minority rights and the fight against corruption in Croatia and Macedonia. Both countries have been subjected to the Commission’s conditionality while their democratic achievements differ substantially. Thereby, the two countries offer a fruitful ground to evaluate the lessons drawn from the 2004-07 enlargement. While previous studies have remained quite unclear about the relative importance of domestic and EU-related determinants of effective conditionality, I argue that domestic influences vary strongly across the researched policy areas. In comparison, the political-legal instruments of the Commission show clear impacts on policies in candidate countries. Material incentives offered by the EU are only effective within the early phases of the accession process.

  4. A study of the 2013 Western European issue of aflatoxin contamination of maize from the Balkan area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijk, de T.C.; Egmond, van H.P.; Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.; Herbes, R.; Nijs, de W.C.M.; Samson, R.A.; Slate, A.B.; Spiegel, van der M.

    2015-01-01

    In March 2013 a large shipment of maize, intended for feed was subject of an alert in the Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed of the European Commission (EC) because the aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) level in the load exceeded the EC regulated maximum level of 20 µg/kg. Since the shipment had passed import

  5. Genetic structure and demographic history of brown trout ( Salmo trutta ) populations from the southern Balkans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Apostolidis, A.P.; Madeira, M.J.; Hansen, Michael Møller

    2008-01-01

    1. The present study was designed to characterize the genetic structure of brown trout (Salmo trutta) populations from the southern Balkans and to assess the spread of non-native strains and their introgression into native trout gene pools. We analysed polymorphism at nine microsatellite loci...... in seven supposedly non-admixed and three stocked brown trout populations. 2. The analyses confirmed the absence of immigration and extraordinarily strong genetic differentiation among the seven non-introgressed populations in parallel with low levels of intrapopulation genetic variability. In contrast......, analyses of the stocked populations revealed that the genetic integrity of the local populations had been substantially changed, and the populations must be characterized as hybrid swarms. The pattern of population differentiation observed at microsatellites contrasted to that depicted previously by mt...

  6. Relationship between weathered coal deposits and the etiology of Balkan endemic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feder, G L; Radovanović, Z; Finkelman, R B

    1991-11-01

    Field studies in epidemiology and environmental geochemistry in areas in Yugoslavia containing villages with a high incidence of Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN), indicate a possible relationship between the presence of low-rank coal deposits and the etiology of BEN. Preliminary results from qualitative chemical analyses of drinking water from shallow farm wells indicate the presence of soluble polar aromatic and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. These compounds may be derived from weathering of low-rank coals occurring in the vicinity of the endemic villages. All of the endemic villages are in alluvial valleys of tributaries to the Danube River. All except one of the clusters of endemic villages are located in the vicinity of known Pliocene age coals. Detailed sampling of the drinking waters and the nearby coals are being undertaken to identify a possible etiologic factor.

  7. Influence of climatic changes on pollution levels in the Balkan Peninsula

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zlatev, Z.; Georgiev, K.; Dimov, I.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to study the influence of future climatic changes on some high pollution levels that can cause damages on plants, animals and human beings. The particular area of interest is the Balkan Peninsula. Four important quantities have been selected: (a) annual concentrations, (b......) AOT40C (high AOT40C values can cause damages on plants and, first and foremost, crops), (c) AOT40F (high AOT40F values can cause damages on forest trees), (d) number of "bad days" (large numbers of "bad days" can cause damage to people suffering from asthmatic diseases). Critical levels...... of these scenarios, are carefully studied. The major conclusion is that the increase of the temperature, alone or in combination with some other factors, leads to rather considerable increases of some pollution levels, which might become dangerous for the environment. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  8. Competitiveness of the selected Balkan countries in the period 2006-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedić Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the level of competitiveness of two groups of Balkan countries. The first group consists of neighboring countries of the Republic of Serbia that are not members of the EU (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia, while the second group consists of five member states of the EU (Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece, Hungary and Romania. Research refers to a time period from 2006 to 2015. The level of competitiveness of countries is analyzed through the value of the Global Competitiveness Index of the World Economic Forum. Special focus is on Basic & Efficiency factors based competitiveness, on the one hand, and Innovation & Sophistication factors based competitiveness, on the other. The conclusion is that Serbia and the selected non-EU countries are lagging behind the group of EU countries, by all indicators. However, data for the observed period reveal trend of convergence of these groups' competitiveness.

  9. Study of aquatic macrophytes in the wetlands on the territory of Vrachanski Balkan nature park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valčev Vladimir V.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An overall study of the species composition and abundance of macrophytes in all open water bodies of a large protected territory was made for the first time in Bulgaria. Four high-mountain eutrophic lakes and the upper stretches of three rivers within the boundaries of Vrachanski Balkan Nature Park were investigated. Thirty-nine macrophyte species (higher plants and mosses were identified scattered around, or forming more or less distinct vegetation groups. Three of the lakes are new for the country locations of the species Elatine alsinastrum and Peplis portula. The processes of eutrophication are more advanced in the lakes. The habitats formed around the investigated water bodies have been determined. They are three habitats of European Community interest for Bulgaria. The major threats for the investigated wetlands on the territory of the Park are pointed out.

  10. Sexual size and shape dimorphism in Salamandra salamandra (Amphibia, Caudata, Salamandridae from the central Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labus N.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sexual size dimorphism is one of the key evolutionary features that has been studied in many organisms. On the other hand, sexual shape dimorphism has not been examined as well despite being as important as size dimorphism. Therefore, we analyzed the sexual size and shape dimorphism (SSSD of Salamandra salamandra from the territory of the central Balkans. In addition, we wanted to reconsider if there is some regularity in the geographical distribution of SSSD in the investigated area. Significant differences in size and shape between the sexes were found for the whole sample and among the analyzed groups. Females were larger than males and had bigger heads, interlimb distances and a parotid gland, while males had bigger tails, forelimbs, hindlimbs, and forefoot and hindfoot length. Our results reveal a strong effect of locality on trait variation. This variation from the general pattern of SSSD is not substantial but still has to be considered.

  11. Antibacterial activity of domestic Balkan donkey milk toward Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šarić Ljubiša Ć.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the antibacterial activity of raw milk from Domestic Balkan donkey breed toward Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. Examination of antibacterial activity was performed in artificially contaminated milk samples by monitoring the changes of count of viable cells of tested bacteria during 8 hours of incubation at 38°C. Lysozyme and fatty acids contents were also determined in donkey milk. The obtained results indicated inhibitory effect of donkey milk toward both tested bacteria. The lysozyme content in the analyzed milk samples was ranged from 0.67 to 3.54 g/L. The most abundant fatty acids with known antibacterial activity toward Gram positive bacteria were linoleic, lauric and oleic acid.

  12. Das Problem der sogenannten zusammengesetzten Bezirke auf dem Balkan im 11. Jahrhundert: Zwei fallbeispiele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krsmanović Bojana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available (nemački In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurden Charakteristika der sogenannten zusammengesetzten militärisch-zivilen Bezirke behandelt, die aus zwei oder drei Untereinheiten bestanden. Diese Untereinheiten der zusammengesetzten Bezirke hatten in der Regel feste zivile und militärische Verwaltungsstrukturen, d.h. sie hatten eine gewisse Unabhängigkeit. Ein zusammengesetzter Bezirk konnte in den Quellen als ein 'thema' (im Singular bezeichnet werden oder auch im Plural als 'themata'. An seiner Spitze befand sich ein Dux/katepano oder gelegentlich auch ein Stratege. Der zivilen Verwaltung stand ein Richter/Prätor vor, welcher häufig das Amt eines anagrapheus innehatte. Weiterhin wurde der zusammengesetzte Bezirk Voleron-Strymon-Thessalonike naher untersucht sowie die Probleme, die mit dem Status seiner Unterheiten, insbesondere mit Voleron, zusammenhängen. Es ist möglich, dass aus denjenigen Gebieten des Balkans, die nach dem Jahr 1018 unter byzantinische Herrschaft gefallen waren, ein zusammengesetzter Bezirk gebildet wurde. Die Rede ist von dem Thema Bulgaria-Sirmium-Paradounavon. Es wird vermutet, dass die demographischen Umstände sowie die ethnische Zusammensetzung der Bevölkerung der Region Einfluss auf die Charakteristika des zusammengesetzten Bezirks hatten. Die zivile Verwaltungsstruktur war hier nicht derart beständig wie in den anderen Gebieten des Balkans, die bereits vor dem Krieg von 976-1018 unter byzantinischer Herrschaft standen. Sirmium und Paradounavon scheinen im zivilen Bereich der Verwaltung von Amtsträgern aus Bulgarien geleitet worden zu sein, wahrend die militärische Führung anscheinend unabhängig von Bulgarien war.

  13. Trends in biological activity research of wild-growing aromatic plants from Central Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Džamić, A.M.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Flowering plants consists of more than 300.000 species around the world, out of which a small percentage has been sufficiently investigated from phytochemical and biological activity aspects. Plant diversity of the Balkans is very rich, but still poorly investigated. The aim of this paper is survey of current status and trends in research of wild-growing aromatic plants from Central Balkans. Many aromatic plants are investigated from morphological, physiological, ecological, systematic and phytochemical aspects. However, traditionally used medicinal and aromatic plants can also be considered from applicative aspects, concerning their health effects, and from wide range of usage in cosmetics, and as food, agrochemical and pharmaceutical products. In order to achieve all planned objectives, following methodology has been applied: field research, taxonomic authentication and, comparative biologically assayed phytochemical investigations. The total herbal extracts, postdistillation waste (deodorized extracts, essential oils and individual compounds of some autochthonous plants have been considered as potential source of antibacterial, antifungal, anti-biofilm, antioxidant and cytotoxic agents. In this manuscript, composition of essential oils and extracts were evaluated in a number of species, from the Apiaceae, Lamiaceae, Rosaceae and Asteraceae families. Extracts which were rich in phenols mostly of flavonoids, often showed high antioxidant potential. Also, phenolic compounds identified in essential oils and extracts were mostly responsible for expected antimicrobial activity. Current worldwide demand is to reduce or, if possible, eliminate chemically synthesized food additives. Plant-produced compounds are becoming of interest as a source of more effective and safe substances than synthetically produced antimicrobial agents (as inhibitors, growth reducers or even inactivators that control growth of microorganisms. Many different pathogens have

  14. Greek Death-Cult, Modern and Ancient: A Comparison of a Mediterranean and Balkan Cultural Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.J. Håland

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The article examines emotion and identity in connection with Greek death-cult in an attempt to clarify certain contemporary political phenomena in the Mediterranean and Balkan area. The cult of the dead is a common cultural pattern in the area. Why is this cult so persistent? What is death-cult and how does it manifest itself? The article delves into its lasting importance in the Greek part of the cultural area, where the author has conducted several fieldworks. To illustrate the persistence of this cultural pattern, the characteristic aspects connected with death-cult in Greek tradition are discussed: The comparison is based on festivals, which are dedicated to deceased persons and domestic death-rituals combined with ancient sources. Based on them an analytical survey of the relationship between the death-cult dedicated to deceased mediators in ancient and modern society, as it is manifested through laments, burials and the following memorial rituals is made. The modern domestic rituals people perform for their own dead influence the official ideological rituals, and vice versa, the domestic rituals reflect public performances. A study of modern cult practices reveals many parallels with the official cult of the ancients, and suggests ways in which modern rituals can throw new light upon the ancient rituals and vice versa. The article seeks to demonstrate how new ideologies must adjust to older rituals and beliefs and how public and domestic rituals are connected. The article finally suggests how these similarities might represent a common way of expression within a larger context in which the Mediterranean and Balkan cultural meaning of emotion is central.

  15. Improvement in kidney transplantation in the Balkans after the Istanbul Declaration: where do we stand today?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spasovski, Goce; Busic, Mirela; Delmonico, Francis

    2016-02-01

    Due to the limited access to kidney transplantation (KTx) in developing countries, desperate patients have engaged in the purchase and sale of kidneys. In 2004, the World Health Assembly urged member states to protect the poor and vulnerable from being exploited through practices of illegal organ trafficking that had become widespread throughout the world. In 2008, the international transplant community convened a summit of transplant professionals, legal experts and ethicists to combat organ trafficking, transplant tourism and transplant commercialism that resulted in the Declaration of Istanbul (DOI). The South-Eastern Europe Health Network (SEEHN) represents a nine country multigovernmental collaboration on health systems. The Regional Health Development Centre on Organ Donation and Transplant Medicine (RHDC) was established in 2011 in Croatia to facilitate cooperation among south-eastern European countries to improve organ transplantation within the Balkan region. Since 2011, a collaboration between the RHDC, the Custodian Group of the DOI (DICG) and SEEHN professionals has enhanced strategic planning and definition of country-specific action plan priorities on organ donation and transplantation. Data of kidney transplantation provided in this report show a significant increase in transplantation activities in a 4-year period in Macedonia, Moldova, Bosnia and Hercegovina, Romania and Montenegro. The success of the donation and transplantation programmes was influenced by the engagement of key professionals and the establishment of organizational infrastructure with the implementation of an appropriate funding model. In conclusion, the DOI has provided an ethical framework for engagement of health professionals from south-eastern European countries. The newly established SEEHN RHDC as a technical coordinating body greatly contributed in building institutional capacity and strengthening regional collaboration between health authorities and professionals within

  16. Tracing lexical borrowings in the Balkans Albanian loan-words in the Serbian speech of Prizren

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    Petrović Snežana

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available During the past centuries the city of Prizren has persisted as a unique multiethnic and multicultural environment atypical even for the Balkans, well-known for its ethnic, linguistic, cultural and religious diversity. Various nations used to live and pass through Prizren in the course of more than six centuries – the Serbs Turks, Albanians, Aromanians, Greeks and others – leaving their specific marks, visible on the city itself as well as the life and the mentality of its inhabitants. One of the most vivid testimonies to this long-term coexistence can be seen in vernaculars of the local population. This paper presents some Albanian loan-words from the Serbian speech of Prizren hitherto not registered (or not recognised as such in the respective etymological dictionaries and linguistic studies. The aim of this work is to offer their etymological analysis, through an investigation of the ways and mechanisms of lexical borrowing in the limited area of this town and to observe this phenomenon in a broader Balkan perspective. Analyzed are the following words: bajmak m., adj. indecl. "with bow legs (of man or horse", cub adj. indecl. "short; short-tailed", cub m., adj. indecl. "robber, outlaw", ćul adj. indecl. "soaking wet", điza f. "kind of crumbly cheese", glistra f. "worm", korse, korsem, krsem adv. "perhaps, as if", kulme n., kuljma f. "top of the roof", ljajka f. "lie", ljaper m. "idler", ljočka f. "darling, sweetheart", ljum adj. indecl. "dear", ljunga f. "boil; swelling", putarka f. "salted and dried caviar", ravš adv. "flat", roktar m. "servant, attendant", škret adj. "lonely, deserted, empty", škrum adj. indecl. "dry as ashes".

  17. Descriptive epidemiology of injuries in a Brazilian premier league soccer team

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas Guina Fachina, Rafael Júlio; Andrade, Marília dos Santos; Silva, Fernando Roberto; Waszczuk-Junior, Silas; Montagner, Paulo César; Borin, João Paulo; de Lira, Claudio Andre Barbosa

    2013-01-01

    Soccer, which has a large number of participants, has a high injury incidence that causes both financial and time burdens. Therefore, knowledge about the epidemiology of soccer injuries could allow sports-medicine professionals, such as physicians and physiotherapists, to direct their work in specific preventive programs. Thus, our aim was to conduct an epidemiological survey of injuries sustained by professional soccer players from the same team who participated in the Brazilian championship premier league in 2009. To this end, we evaluated retrospectively player medical records from the team, which included name, date of birth, position, date of injury, mechanism of injury, and type of injury. In the period of study, 95 injuries were recorded: 42 (44.2%) were recorded during matches, and 53 (55.8%) during the training period. Injuries occurred more frequently in midfielders and strikers. All injuries happened in the lower limb, most of the injuries were muscular, and most occurred as the result of collisions with other athletes. In summary, this study demonstrates that there is a need for greater safety awareness in the training environment. PMID:24379722

  18. Daily Distribution of Macronutrient Intakes of Professional Soccer Players From the English Premier League.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Liam; Naughton, Robert J; Close, Graeme L; Di Michele, Rocco; Morgans, Ryland; Drust, Barry; Morton, James P

    2017-06-28

    The daily distribution of macronutrient intake can modulate aspects of training adaptations, performance and recovery. We therefore assessed the daily distribution of macronutrient intake (as assessed using food diaries supported by the remote food photographic method and 24 h recalls) of professional soccer players (n=6) of the English Premier League during a 7-day period consisting of two match days and five training days. On match days, average carbohydrate (CHO) content of the pre-match (0.05) though such intakes were lower than contemporary guidelines considered optimal for pre-match CHO intake and post-match recovery. On training days, we observed a skewed and hierarchical approach (Plunch (0.6 g.kg(-1))>breakfast (0.3 g.kg(-1))>evening snacks (0.1 g.kg(-1)). We conclude players may benefit from consuming greater amounts of CHO in both the pre-match and post-match meals so as to increase CHO availability and maximize rates of muscle glycogen re-synthesis, respectively. Furthermore, attention should also be given to ensuring even daily distribution of protein intake so as to potentially promote components of training adaptation.

  19. The influence of situational variables on ball possession in the English Premier League.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Paul Simon; Lago-Peñas, Carlos; Rey, Ezequiel; Sampaio, Jaime

    2014-12-01

    Abstract The aims of this study were twofold: (1) to examine the influence of situational variables on ball possession in elite soccer and (2) to quantify the variables that discriminate between high or low percentage ball possession teams (HPBPT and LPBPT) across different playing positions. Match performance data were collected from English Premier League matches using a multiple-camera system. Data were examined using linear regression, a 2 × 5 factorial analysis of variance and discriminant analysis. Playing against weak opposition was associated with an increase (P variables (P variables that discriminated performance between HPBPT and LPBPT were different for various playing positions, although the number of successful passes was the most common discriminating variable. The results demonstrate that HPBPT and LPBPT developed different possession strategies during matches and that selected variables such as successful passes were identified to explain these data trends across various playing positions. Combinations of variables could be used to develop a probabilistic model for predicting time spent in possession by teams.

  20. Design science research for decision support systems development: recent publication trends in the premier IS journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah J Miah

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a contemporary literature review of design science research (DSR studies in the domain of decision support systems (DSS development. The latest studies in the DSS design domain claim that DSR methodologies are the most popular design approach, but many details are still yet to be revealed for supporting this claim. In particular, it is important to thoroughly investigate the trends in either the form or deeper insights in use of DSR in this field. The aim of this study is to analyse the existing DSS design science studies to reveal insights into the use of DSR, so that we can outline research agenda for a special issue, based on findings of analysis. We selected articles (from 2005 to 2014 that were published in seven selected premier IS journals (ranked as A* in the ABDC journal ranking. The selected 57 sample articles are representative of DSS design studies that used DSR in theorising, designing, implementing, and evaluating DSS solutions. We discuss the theoretical positions of DSR for DSS development through six categories: DSS artefacts, DSR methods, DSR views, user involvement, DSS design innovations and problem domains. The findings indicate that new studies are needed to fill the knowledge gap in DSS design science, for more solid theoretical basis in near future.

  1. Technical Performance Analysis of Iran Premier League Soccer Players in 2012-2013 Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javani Mohsen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose of study : analysis of IRAN premier league soccer players’ technical performance in season 2012-2013, using a computerized match analysis system (Borhan Mobin Development Management Co, IRAN. Material and methods: in this study, data were obtained from 120 players, who performed in competitions 90 minutes. The players were classified into 3 positional roles: defenders, midfielders and forwards. Technical performance variables analysis included: total passes, total successful passes, pass accuracy, total shots; total shots to target, shot accuracy, ball interception and ball losses. The data were statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U and Tukey post hoc test. Results : The findings of this study showed that players performed about 45 passes per competition. Midfielders and defenders had significantly higher number of passes than forwards. Pass accuracy was about 67% and there were no significant differences between positional roles. Also, the players performed about 0.8 shots per competition, forwards and midfielders had significantly higher number of shots than defenders. Shot accuracy was about 31%; midfielders and forwards had significantly higher shot accuracy than defenders. Forwards showed significantly lower ball interception and higher ball losses than other positions. Conclusion : The result of this study showed that there were significant differences between some technical actions in positional roles. Therefore, coaches can use this information for individualization of training according to playing positions and for optimization of training in the amateur game.

  2. Predicting Football Matches Results using Bayesian Networks for English Premier League (EPL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razali, Nazim; Mustapha, Aida; Yatim, Faiz Ahmad; Aziz, Ruhaya Ab

    2017-08-01

    The issues of modeling asscoiation football prediction model has become increasingly popular in the last few years and many different approaches of prediction models have been proposed with the point of evaluating the attributes that lead a football team to lose, draw or win the match. There are three types of approaches has been considered for predicting football matches results which include statistical approaches, machine learning approaches and Bayesian approaches. Lately, many studies regarding football prediction models has been produced using Bayesian approaches. This paper proposes a Bayesian Networks (BNs) to predict the results of football matches in term of home win (H), away win (A) and draw (D). The English Premier League (EPL) for three seasons of 2010-2011, 2011-2012 and 2012-2013 has been selected and reviewed. K-fold cross validation has been used for testing the accuracy of prediction model. The required information about the football data is sourced from a legitimate site at http://www.football-data.co.uk. BNs achieved predictive accuracy of 75.09% in average across three seasons. It is hoped that the results could be used as the benchmark output for future research in predicting football matches results.

  3. Incidence, Nature, and Pattern of Injuries to Referees in a Premier Football (Soccer) League

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordi, Ramin; Chitsaz, Alireza; Rostami, Mohsen; Mostafavi, Reza; Ghadimi, Mahmoodreza

    2013-01-01

    Background: Despite the crucial role of referees in a soccer match, few researchers have targeted the injury profile of referees in their studies. Understanding the incidence, nature, and pattern of injuries could provide important information for educational and preventative efforts at the international level. Hypothesis: The incidence rate and patterns of acute injuries to official referees of the Iranian Premier Football League during the 2009-2010 season are similar to those reported among referees in short-term international competitions such as FIFA World Cup. Study Design: Prospective cohort study. Methods: Demographic data for 74 referees, including 30 main referees and 44 assistant referees, were collected at the beginning of the season. To record injuries and refereeing time, weekly contact was made by a physician. Results: In total, 102 injuries were reported by referees during the football season. The incidence rates of injuries among referees during training and matches were 4.6 and 19.6 injuries per 1000 hours, respectively. Muscular and tendon injuries were found to be the most common type of injury, and the most common site of injury was the lower leg followed by the hip and groin. Conclusion: The results of this study are consistent with similar prospective studies evaluating injuries to referees over the course of a short-term tournament. Clinical Relevance: These findings provide a base for suggesting possible preventive recommendations in future studies. PMID:24427414

  4. Des Carnets aux « Éléments pour Le Premier Homme », et inversement...

    OpenAIRE

    Spiquel, Agnès

    2017-01-01

    Les Carnets de Camus sont un laboratoire de l’œuvre ; c’est vrai pour Le Premier Homme comme pour les œuvres précédentes. Il ne s’agira pas ici de voir comment les Carnets recueillent de nombreuses traces de la genèse du roman, mais de se demander si les Carnets fournissent un apport spécifique à ce roman autobiographique. À cet égard, on dispose désormais d’un document essentiel, « Éléments pour Le Premier Homme » dossier de travail qui accompagnait le manuscrit inachevé. Il n’avait pas été ...

  5. Measuring the tuning accuracy of thousands singing in unison: an English Premier Football League table of fans' singing tunefulness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, David M

    2004-01-01

    Tunefulness in singing is well understood in the context of solo stage performance, singing in small groups and singing in choirs, with or without accompaniment, and it can be readily measured under laboratory conditions. When thousands of people are singing outside in support of their football team, however, the singing is impromptu; there is no conductor, no starting note, and generally no accompaniment. This paper describes the measurement of the tunefulness of the singing of fans of the twenty clubs in the 2001-2002 English Premier League. The technique adopted is unusual in that it makes direct reference to the formal definition of pitch as a subjective phenomenon. The results are presented in the form of a 2001-2002 English Premier League football fans singing league table.

  6. One century later: the folk botanical knowledge of the last remaining Albanians of the upper Reka Valley, Mount Korab, Western Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Pieroni, Andrea; Rexhepi, Besnik; Nedelcheva, Anely; Hajdari, Avni; Mustafa, Behxhet; Kolosova, Valeria; Cianfaglione, Kevin; Quave, Cassandra L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Ethnobotanical surveys of the Western Balkans are important for the cross-cultural study of local plant knowledge and also for obtaining baseline data, which is crucial for fostering future rural development and eco-tourism initiatives in the region. The current ethnobotanical field study was conducted among the last remaining Albanians inhabiting the upper Reka Valley at the base of Mount Korab in the Mavrovo National Park of the Republic of Macedonia. The aims of the study were t...

  7. 20 years since the establishment of the BANTAO association (Balkan Cities Association of Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation and Artificial Organs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polenakovic, Momir; Nenov, Dimitar; Basci, Ali; Djukanovic, Ljubica; Tsakiris, Dimitris; Nesic, Vida; Schiller, Adalbert; Spasovski, Goce; Klinkmann, Horst; Vienken, Joerg; Falkenhagen, Dieter; Ivanovich, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The Balkan Cities Association of Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation and Artificial Organs (BANTAO) was born in Ohrid on October 9, 1993. The war in former Yugoslavia negatively affected the development of nephrology and also the connections among the nephrologists from the Balkans. However, there was willingness for further mutual collaboration between the nephrologists from the Balkans. The war in Yugoslavia created hate among people, between the newly established countries, and there were problems with the recognition of the names of the new countries, and so, the nephrologists decided to apply the ancient principle of using the names of the cities, instead of the countries, as the founders of the Association. The main goal of BANTAO is to promote scientific and technical cooperation in the fields of renal disease and artificial organs between the regions on the Balkan Peninsula and the world, to give an opportunity for exchange of experience and knowledge among the experts in the area and to engage in collaborative projects in order to demonstrate that cooperation is possible even on the turbulent Balkan Peninsula. The I BANTAO congress was held in Varna from September 22 to 24th, 1995 (President--D. Nenov, Varna). The II congress of BANTAO was held from September 6th to 10th, 1997 in Struga, (President--M. Polenakovic, Skopje). The III BANTAO congress was held in Belgrade from September 18th to 20th, 1998 (President--Lj. Djukanović, Belgrade). The IV congress of BANTAO was held in Izmir from 14th to 16th November 1999 (President--A. Akcicek, Izmir). The V Congress of BANTAO was held in Thessaloniki from September 30th to October 3rd, 2001 (President--P. Stathakis, Athens). The VI Congress of BANTAO was held for the second time in Varna from 6th to 9th October 2003 (President--D. Nenov, Varna). The VII congress of BANTAO was held from September 8th to 11th, 2005 in Ohrid, (President--M. Polenakovic, Skopje). The VIII BANTAO congress was held in Belgrade, 16

  8. Notes on autumn-winter stomach contents of the Stone Marten (Martes foina in the Balkan Mountains, Central Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masumi Hisano

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We studied autumn-winter food (November-February, 1997-2003 of the Stone Marten in the Balkan Mountains, Central Bulgaria. A total of 26 stomachs (18 of males and eight of females were examined, of which contents was expressed as the number of occurrence and relative frequency of occurrence. The result clearly showed that rodents are primary prey for the Stone Marten. Birds and insects were the following categories consumed. The edible dormouse was detected as a prey for the first time in Bulgaria. Besides, wild ungulates and domestic animals were occasionally scavenged, while neither fruits nor artificial materials were detected in the marten stomachs. Thus, our study showed that the Stone Marten in the Balkan Mountains tended to be more carnivorous in winter.

  9. Natural radioactivity level in materials used for medieval vaulting in the territory of the central Balkan region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjelić Igor S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the results of an investigation undertaken to determine the level of natural radioactivity in the traditional building materials used for medieval indoor vaulted constructions in the territory of the central Balkan region. Indoor radiation exposure varies appreciably if it comes from the earth building materials, hence the presence of natural radioisotopes of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K in masonry vaulted constructions was analyzed using gamma ray spectrometry. In addition, the internal health hazard index, the absorbed dose rates and the effective annual doses were calculated. The results were then compared both with the reported data from the previous studies concerning the territory of the Balkan Peninsula, as well as with the worldwide values for the materials of historic buildings. The results obtained from the materials examined in this paper all showed the radioactivity levels below the maximum permitted values. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 171007 i br. 43009

  10. Analisis Kualitas Jasa Kangaroo Premier Shuttle Travel Samarinda Dengan Menggunakan Model Kano Dan Importance Performance Analysis (IPA)

    OpenAIRE

    Sulistyowati, Dewi

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the quality of services on Kangaroo Premier Shuttle Travel Samarinda to evaluate customer satisfaction, as well as to identify those attributes that need priority services to be improved. The technique of collecting data by distributing questionnaires. The total sample of 100 respondents using purposive sampling technique. The data analysis technique used is validity, reliability, Kano Model and Importance Performance Analysis (IPA). The results showed t...

  11. "Initiate-build-operate-transfer"--a strategy for establishing sustainable telemedicine programs in developing countries: initial lessons from the balkans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latifi, Rifat; Merrell, Ronald C; Doarn, Charles R; Hadeed, George J; Bekteshi, Flamur; Lecaj, Ismet; Boucha, Kathe; Hajdari, Fatmir; Hoxha, Astrit; Koshi, Dashurije; de Leonni Stanonik, Mateja; Berisha, Blerim; Novoberdaliu, Kadri; Imeri, Arben; Weinstein, Ronald S

    2009-12-01

    Establishing sustainable telemedicine has become a goal of many developing countries around the world. Yet, despite initiatives from a select few individuals and on occasion from various governments, often these initiatives never mature to become sustainable programs. The introduction of telemedicine and e-learning in Kosova has been a pivotal step in advancing the quality and availability of medical services in a region whose infrastructure and resources have been decimated by wars, neglect, lack of funding, and poor management. The concept and establishment of the International Virtual e-Hospital (IVeH) has significantly impacted telemedicine and e-health services in the Balkans. The success of the IVeH in Kosova has led to the development of similar programs in other Balkan countries and other developing countries in the hope of modernizing and improving their healthcare infrastructure. A comprehensive, four-pronged strategy, "Initiate-Build-Operate-Transfer" (IBOT), may be a useful approach in establishing telemedicine and e-health educational services in developing countries. The development strategy, IBOT, used by the IVeH to establish and develop telemedicine programs, was discussed. IBOT includes assessment of healthcare needs of each country, the development of a curriculum and education program, the establishment of a nationwide telemedicine network, and the integration of the telemedicine program into the healthcare infrastructure. The endpoint is the transfer of a sustainable telehealth program to the nation involved. By applying IBOT, a sustainable telemedicine program of Kosova has been established as an effective prototype for telemedicine in the Balkans. Once fully matured, the program will be transitioned to the national Ministry of Health, which ensures the sustainability and ownership of the program. Similar programs are being established in Albania, Macedonia, and other countries around the world. The IBOT model has been effective in creating

  12. Managing Water Sustainability: Virtual Water Flows and Economic Water Productivity Assessment of the Wine Trade between Italy and the Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pier Paolo Miglietta

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The management of natural resources in economic activities has become a fundamental issue when considering the perspective of sustainable development. It is necessary to rethink every process in order to reach efficiency from different points of view, not only environmentally but also economically. Water scarcity is growing because of economic and population growth, climate change, and the increasing water demand. Currently, agri-food represents the most water consumptive sector, and the increasing importance of international trade in this industry puts freshwater issues in a global context that should be analyzed and regulated by sustainable policies. This analysis is focused on virtual water flows and economic water productivity related to the wine trade, and aims to evaluate water loss/savings achieved through bilateral trade relations. The choice fell on Italy, the first wine producer in the world, and the Balkan countries. The latter are new markets for wine production/consumption, in which Italian wines are strongly positioned for different reasons. The results show that, from a national point of view and considering wine trade, Italy exports water in virtual form to the Balkan countries, more than it imports, so that in effect it partially uses its own water resources for the wine supply of the Balkans. The latter, on the other hand, being a net importer of wine, partially depends on Italian water resources and exerts less pressure on their own water basins in the supporting wine supply. We also observed that the wine trade between Italy and the Balkans implies global water savings.

  13. The Austrian Approach in Promoting Partnership in Balkan Areas: Research Cooperation and Networking between Austria, Kosovo and South Eastern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    SALIH S.

    2009-01-01

    Creating and improving the partnerships in order to strengthen the cooperation between institutions andcontribute towards a sustainable regional scientific collaboration is of major preoccupation for the Austrian Science andBalkan areas. Permanent work in maintaining a diversity of wheat plants and cultivars is a key to survival of plants,which are undergone to the new abiotic and biotic stress (climatic condition, pests and disease) demonstrates to be asuitable issue to ve approached in this...

  14. Identification and geochemical significance of some extractable components from Bosnian brown coal and their possible connection to Balkan endemic nephropathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, C.M.; Anderson, R.R.; Rohar, P.C.; Irdi, G.A.; Veloski, G.A. [Federal Energy Technology Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Audino, M.; Alexander, R. [Centre for Petroleum and Environmental Organic Geochemistry, Curtin Univ. of Technology, Perth (Australia)

    1997-12-31

    Bosnian brown coal was crushed and then extracted with toluene in a Soxhlet extractor. The toluene extract was subjected to analysis by combined GC-MS using a Hewlett/Packard 5988A system and low-voltage high-resolution mass spectrometry (LVHRMS) using a modified Kratos MS-50. Petrographic results indicate that the coal is immature and would be classified as a brown coal. Many biological markers were identified. These findings may have implications related to Balkan Endemic Nephropathy. (orig.)

  15. The Impact of Ethno Marketing Activities on Consumer Buying Behavior in the Balkans: The Case of Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Jusuf Zeqiri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethno marketing defines as marketing segmentation approach that groups consumers on the basis of ethnicity. Ethno marketing starts with recognizing the elements of culture as crucial and essential for driving contemporary marketing strategies. Ethno marketing is slowly gaining traction in marketing in multicultural environments, particularly in countries or regions inhabited by consumers from different ethnic backgrounds. This study aims to find whether such marketing activities based on cultural elements practice has any effect on consumers’ buying behavior in the Balkans.  It focuses on consumers in Kosova with the understanding that this is a preliminary exploratory study whose results will form basis for a large study on the Balkan region. The study used a structured questionnaire with the Likert Scale. One hundred, forty-eight responses were received and analyzed using the SPSS statistical software. The results of the analysis show that Albanian consumers in Kosova agree that ethno marketing is important and company marketing activities such as a company’s advertisement and promotion in the language of the ethnic is considered very important during consumers purchase decisions. Furthermore, results reveal that symbols, cultural elements as well as the information dissemination inside the stores and outside seem to be very important for consumers. On the basis of this study, a larger study that covers the different countries in the Balkan region to determine how consumers in the different countries in the region relate to ethno marketing is strongly recommended.

  16. The wolf (Canis lupus) as an indicator species for the sylvatic Trichinella cycle in the Central Balkans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodorović, Vlado; Vasilev, Dragan; Ćirović, Duško; Marković, Marija; Ćosić, Nada; Djurić, Spomenka; Djurković-Djaković, Olgica

    2014-10-01

    Wildlife is the most important reservoir of Trichinella spp. worldwide. Although the Balkans are a recognized European endemic region for Trichinella infections, data on wildlife are scarce. To monitor the circulation of these zoonotic parasites in the Central Balkan region, the wolf (Canis lupus) was selected because of its abundance (>2,000 individuals) and because it is at the top of the food chain. A total of 116 carcasses of wolves were collected in Serbia and in the neighboring areas of Macedonia and Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H) between 2006 and 2013. Trichinella spp. larvae were found in 54 (46.5%) wolves. The great majority (90.5%) originated from Serbia, where 52 of the 105 examined animals were Trichinella positive (49.5%; 95% confidence interval  =39.9-59.1). One positive animal each was found in B&H and Macedonia. All larvae were identified as Trichinella britovi. The high prevalence of Trichinella infection in wolves suggests that this carnivore can be a good indicator species for the risk assessment of the sylvatic Trichinella cycle in the Central Balkans.

  17. Characterization of several milk proteins in Domestic Balkan donkey breed during lactation, using lab-on-a-chip capillary electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gubić Jasmina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Domestic Balkan donkey (Equus asinus asinus is a native donkey breed, primarily found in the northern and eastern regions of Serbia. The objective of the study was to analyze proteins of Domestic Balkan donkey milk during the lactation period (from the 45th to the 280th day by applying Lab-on-a-Chip electrophoresis. The chip-based separations were performed on the Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer in combination with the Protein 80 Plus Lab Chip kit. The protein content of Domestic Balkan donkey milk during the lactation period of 280 days ranged from 1.40 % to 1.92 % and the content of αs1-casein, αs2-casein, b-casein, α-, β- lactoglobulin, lysozyme, lactoferrin and serum albumin was relatively quantified. Lysozyme (1040-2970 mg/L, α-lactalbumin 12 kDa (1990-2730 mg/L and α-lactalbumin 17.7 kDa (2240-3090 mg/L were found to be the proteins with the highest relative concentrations. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III46012

  18. General Secretary Jiang Zemin and Premier Li Peng on family planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Z; Li, P

    1991-06-01

    Speeches given by General Secretary Jiang Zemin and Premier Li Peng to the forum on Family Planning (FP) Work in April 1991 are summarized. Jiang stated that the highest levels of communist party and governmental officials should be in charge of controlling population growth in China. There is great urgency to do so. The problems to be faced are a hugh population, scarce arable land, a poor economic foundation, and low per capita resources. Human resources are an asset for the socialist construction of China, but a rapid growth rate will retard economic and social development and affect the improvement in living standards and the quality of life. The strategy to place FP within state policy and place strict controls over population growth must be carried out resolutely. The future of socialism and the Chinese nation is at stake. Modernization cannot be accomplished with out controlling population growths. The 8th 5 year Plan and the 10 Year Program requirements will still contribute to 1.3 billion population by 2000 and 1.2 billion by 1995. There is historical responsibility, an urgency to strictly control population growth. Adherence to the 4 cardinal principles of socialism (the people's democratic dictatorship, the Communist Party leadership, and Marxist Leninist and Mao Zedong thought) must coexist with social development and family planning. All must be motivated. The provincial Party Secretary personally must oversee problems. The success or failure of FP should be used to evaluate the achievements of party committees and governments. The education on basic national conditions and the basic state policy on FP needs to be publicized through all organizations. There should be confidence in the masses. People must make FP their own cause voluntarily. Premier Li Peng stressed effective implementation and giving it high priority in order to achieve the 2nd step strategic goal of socialist modernization. Per capita output is low, and grain output will not increase

  19. Corporate social responsibility and mental health: the Premier League football Imagine Your Goals programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Claire; O'Hara, Stefanie; Thornicroft, Graham; Webber, Martin

    2014-08-01

    Football is increasingly used to facilitate recovery in mental health services, often in partnership with football clubs. However, few clubs have made mental health part of their corporate social responsibility programmes until recently. We report the impact on participants of the 'Imagine Your Goals' programme, run by 16 Premier League football clubs in conjunction with England's Time to Change programme to reduce mental health-related stigma and discrimination. Mixed methods evaluation used pre/post measures of well-being, access to social capital, focus groups held early on and towards the end of the two-year programmes, and questionnaires for coaching staff. There were no significant changes to participants' mental well-being scores between baseline and follow-up, nor to the total number of social resources accessible through their networks. However, there was a statistically significant increase at follow-up in the mean score of the personal skills subscale of the Resource Generator-UK. Participants' individual skills were also higher at follow-up. Qualitative data showed programmes had largely met participants' expectations in terms of socializing, providing structure and improving fitness levels, exceeded expectations in relationships with coaching staff and additional activities, but did not always meet them in improving football skills. Participants varied in their knowledge of exit opportunities, depending on which club's programme they attended. A minority of clubs reported difficulties in recruitment and concerns about planning for the future of the projects. Football clubs and the charitable foundations they set up can successfully deliver programmes to people with mental health problems which improve access to personal skills social capital and have other potential benefits.

  20. Seasonal training-load quantification in elite English premier league soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, James J; Di Michele, Rocco; Morgans, Ryland; Burgess, Darren; Morton, James P; Drust, Barry

    2015-05-01

    To quantify the seasonal training load completed by professional soccer players of the English Premier League. Thirty players were sampled (using GPS, heart rate, and rating of perceived exertion [RPE]) during the daily training sessions of the 2011-12 preseason and in-season period. Preseason data were analyzed across 6×1-wk microcycles. In-season data were analyzed across 6×6-wk mesocycle blocks and 3×1-wk microcycles at start, midpoint, and end-time points. Data were also analyzed with respect to number of days before a match. Typical daily training load (ie, total distance, high-speed distance, percent maximal heart rate [%HRmax], RPE load) did not differ during each week of the preseason phase. However, daily total distance covered was 1304 (95% CI 434-2174) m greater in the 1st mesocycle than in the 6th. %HRmax values were also greater (3.3%, 1.3-5.4%) in the 3rd mesocycle than in the first. Furthermore, training load was lower on the day before match (MD-1) than 2 (MD-2) to 5 (MD-5) d before a match, although no difference was apparent between these latter time points. The authors provide the 1st report of seasonal training load in elite soccer players and observed that periodization of training load was typically confined to MD-1 (regardless of mesocycle), whereas no differences were apparent during MD-2 to MD-5. Future studies should evaluate whether this loading and periodization are facilitative of optimal training adaptations and match-day performance.

  1. Évaluation échographique des complications au premier trimestre de grossesse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Lucie; Cargill, Yvonne M; Glanc, Phyllis

    2016-10-01

    RéSULTATS: SOURCES DE DONNéES: Nous avons effectué des recherches dans MEDLINE et un examen de la bibliographie des articles recensés. Le Comité d'imagerie diagnostique de la Société des obstétriciens et gynécologues du Canada a passé en revue les données probantes recueillies. Les recommandations reposent sur les lignes directrices élaborées par le Groupe d'étude canadien sur les soins de santé préventifs (tableau 1). AVANTAGES, DéSAVANTAGES ET COûTS: Les femmes qui présentent des saignements durant le premier trimestre peuvent recevoir un diagnostic incorrect d'avortement manqué. En outre, on risque de ne pas détecter une grossesse ectopique ou de les rassurer à tort sur la viabilité de l'embryon. L'amélioration de la détection des repères échographiques du développement embryonnaire normal et de la connaissance des facteurs de risque liés à l'échec de grossesse sur le plan échographique pourrait donner lieu à l'élaboration de stratégies de prise en charge mieux adaptées à chaque cas. Le diagnostic d'une grossesse ectopique suspectée repose souvent sur l'évaluation de marqueurs hormonaux et de caractéristiques échographiques. Par ailleurs, le diagnostic précoce de grossesse ectopique peut réduire la morbidité et la mortalité maternelles. RECOMMANDATIONS. Copyright © 2016 The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada/La Société des obstétriciens et gynécologues du Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Les premiers guides français imprimés

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    Chantal Liaroutzos

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Au milieu du XVIe siècle, Charles Estienne publie le premier guide routier français, La Guide des chemins de France. S’il ne s’agit pas véritablement d’un guide touristique au sens actuel, Estienne propose déjà, avec une grande économie de moyens, des itinéraires qui renseignent le voyageur sur les curiosités, les monuments, l’hébergement et les particularités des régions parcourues. En un temps où il n’existe pas de représentation cartographique fiable, l’ouvrage construit une vision ordonnée et hiérarchisée du territoire. Les successeurs ou les plagiaires d’Estienne, bien qu’ils s’inscrivent dans la continuité de La Guide, s’efforceront de littéraliser le propos, perdant ainsi, peut-être, ce qui en faisait l’originalité et la modernité.In the middle of the 16th century, Charles Estienne publishes the first French road guide La Guide des chemins de France. Although it is not a tourist guide in the current sense, Estienne proposes routes that inform the traveller about the curiosities, the monuments, the accommodation and the peculiarities of regions travelled through. At a time when there is no reliable cartographic representation, the work offers an orderly and highly hierarchical vision of the territory. Although they write in the continuity of La Guide, the successors or the plagiarists of Estienne will try hard to pursue a more literary purpose, thus losing what made its originality and modernity.

  3. Patterns of fine-scale plant species richness in dry grasslands across the eastern Balkan Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palpurina, Salza; Chytrý, Milan; Tzonev, Rossen; Danihelka, Jiří; Axmanová, Irena; Merunková, Kristina; Duchoň, Mário; Karakiev, Todor

    2015-02-01

    Fine-scale plant species richness varies across habitats, climatic and biogeographic regions, but the large-scale context of this variation is insufficiently explored. The patterns at the borders between biomes harbouring rich but different floras are of special interest. Dry grasslands of the eastern Balkan Peninsula, situated in the Eurasian forest-steppe zone and developed under Mediterranean influence, are a specific case of such biome transition. However, there are no studies assessing the patterns of fine-scale species richness and their underlying factors across the eastern Balkans. To explore these patterns, we sampled dry and semi-dry grasslands (phytosociological class Festuco-Brometea) across Bulgaria and SE Romania. In total, 172 vegetation plots of 10 × 10 m2 were sampled, in which all vascular plant species were recorded, soil depth was measured, and soil samples were collected and analysed in a laboratory for pH and plant-available nutrients. Geographic coordinates were used to extract selected climatic variables. Regression trees and linear regressions were used to quantify the relationships between species richness and environmental variables. Climatic factors were identified as the main drivers of species richness: (1) Species richness was strongly positively correlated with the mean temperature of the coldest month: sub-Mediterranean areas of S and E Bulgaria, characterized by warmer winters, were more species-rich. (2) Outside the sub-Mediterranean areas, species richness strongly increased with annual precipitation, which was primarily controlled by altitude. (3) Bedrock type and soil pH also significantly affected dry grassland richness outside the sub-Mediterranean areas. These results suggest that fine-scale species richness of dry grasslands over large areas is driven by processes at the regional level, especially by the difference in the species pools of large regions, in our case the Continental and Mediterranean biogeographic regions

  4. Folk food and medicinal botanical knowledge among the last remaining Yörüks of the Balkans

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    Anely Nedelcheva

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study examines the current lifestyle of the last remaining Balkan Yörüks, a small and isolated group found within the Republic of Macedonia, and the modern representatives of an important portion of the Balkan nomads. The aim of this study was to document knowledge concerning local wild food plants and wild and cultivated medicinal plants, and to compare the Yörük ethnobotany with that of similar, more or less isolated ethnic groups occurring in the Balkan region (Macedonia, Bulgaria, Albania, and Turkey in order to assess how cultural adaptation processes may have affected Yörük plant folklore. We conducted this study by means of detailed, semi-structured interviews with 48 key informants. Sixty-seven plant taxa were recorded from 55 genera, based on the compilation of more than 150 reports relating to medicinal, food, forage, ornamental, and dye plants, as well as some elements relating to animals and minerals. Our field study data show several major ethnic boundary markers that contribute to the homogeneity of the community and also distinguish it sufficiently from the surrounding society: (i well-isolated locality; (ii local dialect and endogamy; (iii casual clothing worn by women; (iv ceremonial jewelry: a necklace of cloves (Syzygium aromaticum; (v Sempervivum marmoreum as an only ornamental plant which also has a medicinal use; and (vi Mentha spicata as the dominant culinary herb, which has a medicinal use too. Comparison of the collected ethnobotanical data with that of similar, more or less isolated ethnic groups in the Balkan region shows that overlapping taxa include mainly plants whose fresh fruit are used; both nuts as well as edible greens. These plants are simultaneously used for medicinal purposes too, as home remedies, but in very different ways to other ethnic groups. Yörüks represent a remarkable cultural group in the Balkans. This community has nomadic traditions, but nowadays the people have a settled

  5. Bringing Europe and Third countries closer together through renewable Energies (BETTER). D2.1. EU RES cooperation initiatives with third Countries. North Africa, West Balkans and Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uslu, A.; Dalla Longa, F.; Veum, K.C.; Straver, K. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands); Karakosta, C [National Technical University of Athens, Athens (Greece)

    2013-03-15

    One major element of EU's external energy policy is expanding its energy norms and regulations to neighbourhood countries and beyond to achieve its energy policy priorities - safe, secure, affordable and sustainable energy supply. The importance of external energy policy has been acknowledged in the European Union's 2007 'energy package', and Second Strategic Energy Review and the European Commission's Communication on security of energy supply and international cooperation. The EU Renewable Energy Directive provides another element to crossborder cooperation by allowing Member States to fulfil their 2020 renewable energy (RES) targets by implementing joint projects in third countries. Even though the Member States' national renewable energy action plans (NREAPs) to reach their RES targets do not indicate any significant use of this mechanism, the RES Directive acknowledges the importance of renewable energy as part of external energy policy. This report aims at presenting the political framework between the EU and the BETTER project target regions (North Africa, Western Balkans and Turkey) with regards to (renewable) energy and the relevant initiatives and the projects to set the scene for RES joint projects as defined in Article 9 of the RES Directive. The main objectives of this study report are (1) to review energy treaties, agreements, and partnerships to assess their relevance to cooperation mechanism with Third countries; and (2) to analyse the relevance of the recent projects and initiatives to BETTER project and improve and trigger the communication and synergies between BETTER project partners and the relevant projects.

  6. Structural Changes and Convergence in EU and in Adriatic-Balkans Region

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    Lucian-Liviu ALBU

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Coming from standard economic growth theory and empirical evidences, we concentrated on the convergence process as a result of structural changes in economy. We investigate the differences among countries in EU in terms of the share in total economy of main sectors. Then, based on the spatial (empirical distribution of such shares in EU we are proposing a model to estimate a typology of the convergence process in the European area. Taking into account the existing differences among sectors in matter of productivity, there are two versions of the model: considering the share of sectors in total employment and the share of sectors in GDP, respectively. Moreover, we developed several modelling schemes that could be useful to improve the strategies oriented to achieve a real convergence in EU and further in the Adriatic-Balkans Region. In this way, we can obtain simulations from a country or group of countries (European Union, for example on long term and quantifying the impact of structural changes on the convergence process. Indeed, the actual global crisis seems to influence negatively the convergence process in the EU. As a rule, just newly adhered countries have been more affected by the actual crisis. Today all forecasts are suffering from uncertainty. Thus, further efforts must be allocated to evaluate the negative impact of actual crisis on the convergence process.

  7. Limitations and plausibility of the Pliocene lignite hypothesis in explaining the etiology of Balkan endemic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharaj, S V M

    2014-01-01

    Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) is a chronic, tubulointerstitial renal disease often accompanied by urothelial cancer that has a lethality of nearly 100%. One of the many factors that have been proposed to play an etiological role in BEN is exposure to organic compounds from Pliocene lignite coal deposits via the drinking water in endemic areas. The objective of this study was to systematically evaluate the role of the tenets of the Pliocene lignite hypothesis in the etiology of BEN in order to provide an improved understanding of the hypothesis for colleagues and patients alike. A comprehensive compilation of the possible limitations of the hypothesis, with each limitation addressed in turn is presented. The Pliocene lignite hypothesis can best account for, is consistent with, or has the potential to explain the evidence associated with the myriad of factors related to BEN. Residents of endemic areas are exposed to complex mixtures containing hundreds of organic compounds at varying doses and their potentially more toxic (including nephrotoxic) and/or carcinogenic metabolites; however, a multifactorial etiology of BEN appears most likely.

  8. Detection of Leishmania infantum and a Novel Phlebovirus (Balkan Virus) from Sand Flies in Albania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayhan, Nazli; Velo, Enkelejda; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Kota, Majlinda; Kadriaj, Perparim; Ozbel, Yusuf; Charrel, Remi N; Bino, Silvia

    2016-12-01

    To organize entomological campaigns to trap sand flies in selected regions of Albania and to test them for the presence of existing or new phleboviruses and for leishmania DNA. Sand flies were collected in 14 locations from May to October 2014 using three different types of traps. Pools with a maximum of 30 individuals were prepared according to gender, trapping site, and trapping date; they were tested for the presence of (1) phlebovirus RNA with three different PCR systems (2) and Leishmania DNA using two different real-time PCR assays. A total of 972 sand flies (568 females, 404 males) were aliquoted to 55 pools. Three pools (in two different regions) were positive for Leishmania infantum. Two pools (Kruje region) were positive for phlebovirus RNA and a 575-nucleotide (nt) colinearized sequence of a novel virus most closely related to but clearly distinct from Tehran virus (16% and 3% divergence at nt and amino acid levels). Next generation sequencing analysis indicated that this virus might be transmitted by either Phlebotomus neglectus, Phlebotomus tobbi, or both vectors. Visceral leishmaniasis has been clinically recognized in Albania for at least 80 years; however, this is the first time that L. infantum, detected by molecular means, has been reported in sand flies in Albania. At the outset of this study, only Adria virus (Salehabad species) was recognized in Albania. A novel virus, Balkan virus, was identified and genetic analysis revealed that it belongs to the Sandfly fever Naples virus group containing human pathogens.

  9. Geoecological characteristics of plant endemism in the Balkan part of Serbia

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    Gavrilović Bojan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to complex and heterogeneous geographical characteristics, Serbia is represented by a diverse flora with many endemic taxa of vascular plants. Investigation of plant endemics stored in the national herbaria and perusal of extensive literature sources indicate that 46 taxa occur exclusively within the political borders of the Republic of Serbia, while 104 taxa can also be found in adjacent countries of the Balkan Peninsula. These national and subendemics are presented in the form of a list together with their ecological and geographical characteristics. Centres of endemism are located in the southern and eastern regions of Serbia and on the territory of Kosovo and Metohija. The majority of taxa are associated with mountainous regions of Kosovo, Metohija, and Central Serbia, at medium elevations between 500 and 1500 m. Most of the national endemics occur on limestones and dolomites and on soils such as cambisols, lithosols, and rankers. They are mainly under the influence of a modified mountain and moderately continental climate.

  10. Size-segregated concentration of heavy metals in an urban aerosol of the Balkans region (Belgrade

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    Đorđević D.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on the heavy metals contents of the size-segregated urban aerosol of the continental area of Balkans. The distribution of nano/micron heavy metals in the size-segregated urban aerosol of Belgrade center was studied during the summer–autumn of 2008. The particle size distribution in the size ranges Dp ≤ 0.49 μm, 0.49 ≤ Dp ≤ 0.95 μm, 0.95 ≤ Dp ≤ 1.5 μm, 1.5 ≤ Dp ≤ 3.0 μm, 3.0 ≤ Dp ≤ 7.2 μm and Dp ≥ 7.2 μm was measured. The aerosol samples were submitted to gravimetric and chemical analyses. The obtained mean mass concentration of the PM fractions was in accordance with an urban aerosol distribution. The aerosol mass concentrations were determined by gravimetric measurements (mGM and, for heavy metals analyzed by ICP/MS.

  11. Free Radical Scavenging Activity and Anthocyanin Profile of Cabernet Sauvignon Wines from the Balkan Region

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    Blaga Radovanović

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study is focused on anthocyanin derivatives characterizing the antioxidant activity of Cabernet Sauvignon wines produced from different vineyard regions in the Balkans. These bioactive compounds were quantified with a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-diode array detection (DAD method. The antiradical activity was estimated by the ability of the wine to scavenge the stable 2,2`-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical (DPPH·. The results show that the total anthocyanin content varied from 205.88 to 1940.28 mg/L, depending on agroclimatic factors and the enological practices of the corresponding vineyard region. The most prominent antocyanin in all investigated Cabernet Sauvignon wines was malvidin-3-O-monoglucoside, which accounted for 50.57% of total content, followed by its acetyl derivatives, 15.45%, and p-coumaryl derivatives 5.66%. The relationship between the anthocyanin derivatives and free radical scavenging activity is discussed. A high correlation between total anthocyanin content and DPPH· scavenging ability of tested wines was confirmed (r2 = 0.9619. The significant correlations were obtained between antiradical activity and the sum of 3-monoglucoside (r2 = 0.95594, the sum of 3-acetyl-3-glucoside (r2 = 0.9728 and the sum of p-coumaryl-3-glucoside (r2 = 0.8873 of wine samples. It can be concluded that, the anthocyanin composition can be used as biochemical marker for the authenticity of red grape cultivar and their corresponding single-cultivar wine.

  12. Free radical scavenging activity and anthocyanin profile of Cabernet Sauvignon wines from the Balkan region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radovanović, Blaga; Radovanović, Aleksandra

    2010-06-10

    The present study is focused on anthocyanin derivatives characterizing the antioxidant activity of Cabernet Sauvignon wines produced from different vineyard regions in the Balkans. These bioactive compounds were quantified with a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-diode array detection (DAD) method. The antiradical activity was estimated by the ability of the wine to scavenge the stable 2,2;-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical (DPPH(*)). The results show that the total anthocyanin content varied from 205.88 to 1940.28 mg/L, depending on agroclimatic factors and the enological practices of the corresponding vineyard region. The most prominent antocyanin in all investigated Cabernet Sauvignon wines was malvidin-3-O-monoglucoside, which accounted for 50.57% of total content, followed by its acetyl derivatives, 15.45%, and p-coumaryl derivatives 5.66%. The relationship between the anthocyanin derivatives and free radical scavenging activity is discussed. A high correlation between total anthocyanin content and DPPH scavenging ability of tested wines was confirmed (r(2) = 0.9619). The significant correlations were obtained between antiradical activity and the sum of 3-monoglucoside (r(2) = 0.95594), the sum of 3-acetyl-3-glucoside (r(2) = 0.9728) and the sum of p-coumaryl-3-glucoside (r(2) = 0.8873) of wine samples. It can be concluded that, the anthocyanin composition can be used as biochemical marker for the authenticity of red grape cultivar and their corresponding single-cultivar wine.

  13. Fifty years of research in Balkan endemic nephropathy: where are we now?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefanovic, V.; Polenakovic, M. [Faculty of Medicine, Nish (Serbia)

    2009-07-01

    Despite broad investigations into the possible role of genetic factors, environmental agents and immune mechanisms, the etiology of Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) is only partially understood. An increased incidence of upper urothelial cancer in patients with BEN and in populations from endemic settlements has been demonstrated. Genetic studies have landed support for genetic predisposition to BEN. The similarity of the morphological and clinical pattern of BEN and Chinese herbs nephropathy has raised the possibility of a common etiologic agent, aristolochic acid (AA), described in 1969 by Ivic and confirmed by a recent study of AA-DNA adducts. Ochratoxin A (OTA) is studied extensively as the etiologic agent of BEN. Weathering of low-rank coals nearby the endemic villages produces water-soluble polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and aromatic amines, similar to metabolic products of acetaminophen, which has a causal relationship with analgesic nephropathy. AA is confirmed as the etiologic agent of BEN; however, it may not be the sole risk factor. More research is needed on the patterns of BEN over time and between different endemic places. Therefore, it is important to test etiological hypotheses in different endemic foci, preferably as a multicentric research. An international approach to solving the etiology of BEN is needed in the coming years. The geographic correlation and presence of AA-DNA adducts in both BEN and associated urothelial cancer support the hypothesis that these diseases share a common etiology.

  14. Phenolic and mineral profile of Balkan indigenous apple and pear cultivars

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    Živković Jelena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was chemical analysis of phenolic compounds, as well as mineral nutrients in pulp and peel obtained from Balkan indigenous apple and pear cultivars. Phenolic composition assesed by means of HPLC-DAD and spectrophotometric methods varied significantly between the cultivars for both peel and pulp. Among apples Mekica cultivar had the highest total phenolic content while Šećerlija and Zlatna Parmenka had the lowest. In the case of pear samples the principal source of total phenolic content was Crna Takiša while their minimum was recorded for Bela Arapka. In most of the investigated samples chlorogenic acid in apples and arbutin in pears were major detected polyphenolic compounds. With regard to mineral analysis K was the most abundant followed by P, Mg, Ca and S. Iron was the dominant microelement in apple peel and pulp samples, while in pear samples the principal microelement was B. Obtained results provide detailed information on chemical composition of tested apple and pear cultivars and therby could encourage their wider cultivation and consumption. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 46013

  15. Lexical strata and vowel (disharmony: the Turkish transformation of a Balkan hypocoristic

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    Mary Ann Walter

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study I explore the phonological behavior of the hypocoristic suffix /-oʃ/-/iʃ/ in Turkish. Such a suffix is common to many of the Balkan languages. Turkish differs in its introduction of the front vowel variant of the suffix, presumably to satisfy the vowel harmony requirements in Turkish for backness and rounding in high vowels. However, in spite of the potentially alternating suffix allomorphs, collection of naturalistic data as well as of elicited survey data reveals that the majority of nickname outputs are disharmonic. I conclude that the Turkish data provides further evidence for Ito and Mester’s (2009 key insight that different strata of the lexicon may operate according to different rules/constraint rankings. However, the Turkish data is not consistent with their specific faithfulness-based approach. The hypocoristic lexical stratum exhibits a greater number of vowel harmony violations, but not due to more faithfulness to vowel inputs/underlying forms. Rather, the harmony violations in this stratum are gratuitous – I argue, precisely in order to distinguish this stratum from the lexicon at large. An approach such as Pater’s (2010 indexed constraints model better accommodates this type of lexical variation.

  16. The Balkans and the Polish cause. Radosław Kobierski’s “Mitrovica”

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    Dariusz Pawelec

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the interpretation of the poem Mitrovica written by Radosław Kobierski is a quest for the ”peculiarity” and “singularity” of the literature” as it is viewed by Derek Attridge. The way the eponymous word sounds leads to a formulation of the question on what “semantic relations” are established between the title word and the remaining text. The journalistic character of the poem relates to the geography of the Balkan War of the 1990s. But the singularity and uniqueness of the poem Mitrovica stems rather from the tension that arises from its journalistic-style narration, reporting citation and a specific place name and what is metaphorical and symbolic. The Kobierski’s poem, creating its own, unique “singularity” comes also to grips with the media discourse related to the post-Yugoslav crisis. The interpretation shows how important is the application of the rule of myth-making poetical reversal in stripping the poetical discourse of stereotypes and cliches, but not of the relevance to reality.

  17. The Patterns of Non-vitamin K Antagonist Oral Anticoagulants (NOACs) Use in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation in Seven Balkan Countries: a Report from the BALKAN-AF Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potpara, Tatjana S; Trendafilova, Elina; Dan, Gheorghe-Andrei; Goda, Artan; Kusljugic, Zumreta; Manola, Sime; Music, Ljilja; Gjini, Viktor; Pojskic, Belma; Popescu, Mircea Ioakim; Georgescu, Catalina Arsenescu; Dimitrova, Elena S; Kamenova, Delyana; Ekmeciu, Uliks; Mrsic, Denis; Nenezic, Ana; Brusich, Sandro; Milanov, Srdjan; Zeljkovic, Ivan; Lip, Gregory Y H

    2017-08-09

    Data on management of atrial fibrillation (AF) in the Balkan Region are scarce. To capture the patterns in AF management in contemporary clinical practice in the Balkan countries a prospective survey was conducted between December 2014 and February 2015, and we report results pertinent to the use of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs). A 14-week prospective, multicenter survey of consecutive AF patients seen by cardiologists or internal medicine specialists was conducted in Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Montenegro, Romania, and Serbia (a total of about 50 million inhabitants). Of 2712 enrolled patients, 2663 (98.2%) had complete data relevant to oral anticoagulant (OAC) use (mean age 69.1 ± 10.9 years, female 44.6%). Overall, OAC was used in 1960 patients (73.6%) of whom 338 (17.2%) received NOACs. Malignancy [odds ratio (OR), 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.06, 1.20-3.56], rhythm control (OR 1.64, 1.25-2.16), and treatment by cardiologists were independent predictors of NOAC use (OR 2.32, 1.51-3.54) [all p < 0.01)], whilst heart failure and valvular disease were negatively associated with NOAC use (both p < 0.01). Individual stroke and bleeding risk were not significantly associated with NOAC use on multivariate analysis. NOACs are increasingly used in AF patients in the Balkan Region, but NOAC use is predominantly guided by factors other than evidence-based decision-making (e.g., drug availability on the market or reimbursement policy). Efforts are needed to establish an evidence-based approach to OAC selection and to facilitate the optimal use of OAC, thus improving the outcomes in AF patients in this large region.

  18. Paleo-Balkan and Slavic contributions to the genetic pool of Moldavians: insights from the Y chromosome.

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    Alexander Varzari

    Full Text Available Moldova has a rich historical and cultural heritage, which may be reflected in the current genetic makeup of its population. To date, no comprehensive studies exist about the population genetic structure of modern Moldavians. To bridge this gap with respect to paternal lineages, we analyzed 37 binary and 17 multiallelic (STRs polymorphisms on the non-recombining portion of the Y chromosome in 125 Moldavian males. In addition, 53 Ukrainians from eastern Moldova and 54 Romanians from the neighboring eastern Romania were typed using the same set of markers. In Moldavians, 19 Y chromosome haplogroups were identified, the most common being I-M423 (20.8%, R-M17* (17.6%, R-M458 (12.8%, E-v13 (8.8%, R-M269* and R-M412* (both 7.2%. In Romanians, 14 haplogroups were found including I-M423 (40.7%, R-M17* (16.7%, R-M405 (7.4%, E-v13 and R-M412* (both 5.6%. In Ukrainians, 13 haplogroups were identified including R-M17 (34.0%, I-M423 (20.8%, R-M269* (9.4%, N-M178, R-M458 and R-M73 (each 5.7%. Our results show that a significant majority of the Moldavian paternal gene pool belongs to eastern/central European and Balkan/eastern Mediterranean Y lineages. Phylogenetic and AMOVA analyses based on Y-STR loci also revealed that Moldavians are close to both eastern/central European and Balkan-Carpathian populations. The data correlate well with historical accounts and geographical location of the region and thus allow to hypothesize that extant Moldavian paternal genetic lineages arose from extensive recent admixture between genetically autochthonous populations of the Balkan-Carpathian zone and neighboring Slavic groups.

  19. Paleo-Balkan and Slavic Contributions to the Genetic Pool of Moldavians: Insights from the Y Chromosome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varzari, Alexander; Kharkov, Vladimir; Nikitin, Alexey G.; Raicu, Florina; Simonova, Kseniya; Stephan, Wolfgang; Weiss, Elisabeth H.; Stepanov, Vadim

    2013-01-01

    Moldova has a rich historical and cultural heritage, which may be reflected in the current genetic makeup of its population. To date, no comprehensive studies exist about the population genetic structure of modern Moldavians. To bridge this gap with respect to paternal lineages, we analyzed 37 binary and 17 multiallelic (STRs) polymorphisms on the non-recombining portion of the Y chromosome in 125 Moldavian males. In addition, 53 Ukrainians from eastern Moldova and 54 Romanians from the neighboring eastern Romania were typed using the same set of markers. In Moldavians, 19 Y chromosome haplogroups were identified, the most common being I-M423 (20.8%), R-M17* (17.6%), R-M458 (12.8%), E-v13 (8.8%), R-M269* and R-M412* (both 7.2%). In Romanians, 14 haplogroups were found including I-M423 (40.7%), R-M17* (16.7%), R-M405 (7.4%), E-v13 and R-M412* (both 5.6%). In Ukrainians, 13 haplogroups were identified including R-M17 (34.0%), I-M423 (20.8%), R-M269* (9.4%), N-M178, R-M458 and R-M73 (each 5.7%). Our results show that a significant majority of the Moldavian paternal gene pool belongs to eastern/central European and Balkan/eastern Mediterranean Y lineages. Phylogenetic and AMOVA analyses based on Y-STR loci also revealed that Moldavians are close to both eastern/central European and Balkan-Carpathian populations. The data correlate well with historical accounts and geographical location of the region and thus allow to hypothesize that extant Moldavian paternal genetic lineages arose from extensive recent admixture between genetically autochthonous populations of the Balkan-Carpathian zone and neighboring Slavic groups. PMID:23341985

  20. The state of hepatitis B and C in the Mediterranean and Balkan countries: report from a summit conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzakis, A; Van Damme, P; Alcorn, K; Gore, C; Benazzouz, M; Berkane, S; Buti, M; Carballo, M; Cortes Martins, H; Deuffic-Burban, S; Dominguez, A; Donoghoe, M; Elzouki, A-N; Ben-Alaya Bouafif, N; Esmat, G; Esteban, R; Fabri, M; Fenton, K; Goldberg, D; Goulis, I; Hadjichristodoulou, C; Hadjichristodoulou, T; Hatzigeorgiou, T; Hamouda, O; Hasurdjiev, S; Hughes, S; Kautz, A; Malik, M; Manolakopoulos, S; Matičič, M; Papatheodoridis, G; Peck, R; Peterle, A; Potamitis, G; Prati, D; Roudot-Thoraval, F; Reic, T; Sharara, A; Shennak, M; Shiha, G; Shouval, D; Sočan, M; Thomas, H; Thursz, M; Tosti, M; Trépo, C; Vince, A; Vounou, E; Wiessing, L; Manns, M

    2013-08-01

    The burden of disease due to chronic viral hepatitis constitutes a global threat. In many Balkan and Mediterranean countries, the disease burden due to viral hepatitis remains largely unrecognized, including in high-risk groups and migrants, because of a lack of reliable epidemiological data, suggesting the need for better and targeted surveillance for public health gains. In many countries, the burden of chronic liver disease due to hepatitis B and C is increasing due to ageing of unvaccinated populations and migration, and a probable increase in drug injecting. Targeted vaccination strategies for hepatitis B virus (HBV) among risk groups and harm reduction interventions at adequate scale and coverage for injecting drug users are needed. Transmission of HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) in healthcare settings and a higher prevalence of HBV and HCV among recipients of blood and blood products in the Balkan and North African countries highlight the need to implement and monitor universal precautions in these settings and use voluntary, nonremunerated, repeat donors. Progress in drug discovery has improved outcomes of treatment for both HBV and HCV, although access is limited by the high costs of these drugs and resources available for health care. Egypt, with the highest burden of hepatitis C in the world, provides treatment through its National Control Strategy. Addressing the burden of viral hepatitis in the Balkan and Mediterranean regions will require national commitments in the form of strategic plans, financial and human resources, normative guidance and technical support from regional agencies and research. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Dissecting the molecular architecture and origin of Bayash Romani patrilineages: genetic influences from South-Asia and the Balkans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klarić, Irena Martinović; Salihović, Marijana Pericić; Lauc, Lovorka Barać; Zhivotovsky, Lev A; Rootsi, Siiri; Janićijević, Branka

    2009-03-01

    The Bayash are a branch of Romanian speaking Roma living dispersedly in Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe. To better understand the molecular architecture and origin of the Croatian Bayash paternal gene pool, 151 Bayash Y chromosomes were analyzed for 16 SNPs and 17 STRs and compared with European Romani and non-Romani majority populations from Europe, Turkey, and South Asia. Two main layers of Bayash paternal gene pool were identified: ancestral (Indian) and recent (European). The reduced diversity and expansion signals of H1a patrilineages imply descent from closely related paternal ancestors who could have settled in the Indian subcontinent, possibly as early as between the eighth and tenth centuries AD. The recent layer of the Bayash paternal pool is dominated by a specific subset of E1b1b1a lineages that are not found in the Balkan majority populations. At least two private mutational events occurred in the Bayash during their migrations from the southern Balkans toward Romania. Additional admixture, evident in the low frequencies of typical European haplogroups, J2, R1a, I1, R1b1b2, G, and I2a, took place primarily during the early Bayash settlement in the Balkans and the Romani bondage in Romania. Our results indicate two phenomena in the Bayash and analyzed Roma: a significant preservation of ancestral H1a haplotypes as a result of considerable, but variable level of endogamy and isolation and differential distribution of less frequent, but typical European lineages due to different patterns of the early demographic history in Europe marked by differential admixture and genetic drift. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Oncology monoclonal antibodies expenditure trends and reimbursement projections in the emerging Balkan market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihajlo B Jakovljevic

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Monoclonal antibodies applied in clinical oncology present a therapeutic promise for many patients with cancer. Nevertheless these expensive protocols are associated with extremely high acquisition and administration costs. The issue of societal affordability of such treatment options is particularly at stake among middle income European economies. Medicines Agency of Serbia issues regular annual reports on public expenditure on pharmaceuticals since 2004. According to these official data total public expenditure on drugs doubled from 2004-2012 (from € 339,279,304 to € 742,013,976. During the same nine years public expenditure on antineoplastic pharmaceuticals was rising at much faster pace, approximately five times from € 10,297,616 in 2004 to € 51,223,474 in 2012. Absolutely record growth belongs to the value of turnover of monoclonal antibodies indicated in diverse malignancies. These costs became almost twenty times higher in 2012 compared to 2004 (€ 19,687,454 towards € 1,033,313 in the past. National pharmaceutical expenditure trend projections in this country show strong recovery in 2012 after severe blow to the overall health care market imposed by the worldwide crisis. Universal health insurance coverage and sustainable health care financing provision will remain difficult issues for Balkan economies in years to come. Although monoclonal antibodies exhibit undisputed therapeutic efficiency in certain malignant disorders, cost-effectiveness estimates must be taken into consideration by policy makers deciding on reimbursement.http://dx.doi.org/10.7175/fe.v15i1.909

  3. De novo malignancies after renal transplantation--a single-center experience in the Balkans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Z; Ivanovski, O; Kolevski, P; Stankov, O; Petrovski, D; Cakalaroski, K; Ivanovski, N

    2007-10-01

    The occurrence of malignancies is a well-known serious complication after organ transplantation. Despite the fact that many factors may be involved, the pathogenesis is still unclear. The aim of the present study was to examine the incidence and clinical characteristics of de novo malignancies that arise after renal transplantation over a 13-year experience in a single center in the Balkan Peninsula. During this period, 185 renal transplantations (139 living related and 46 cadaveric) were followed in our department. Overall, 19 malignancies (9.78%) were observed in 15 patients (7.8%). The mean age of these patients was 45 years (range, 21-53 years). Ten patients (55%) developed skin cancers: 8 squamous and 2 basal cell. Kaposi's sarcomas were found in 3 patients (16.6%, 1 visceral form). We also detected 1 breast cancer, 1 seminoma, 1 colon cancer, 1 urogenital-transitional cell-like cancer, 1 renal cell carcinoma, 1 plasmacytoma, and 1 retroperitoneal sarcoma after an ABO incompatible transplantation. All cancers were de novo malignancies that presented at a mean time of 21 months (range, 2-52 months) after surgery. In conclusion, the incidence of malignancy in the present series was similar to that reported elsewhere. The predominance of skin cancers was understandable bearing in mind the sunshine. The appearance of skin malignancies in our group of patients was earlier, more severe, and multiple sites. No cases of posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorders were observed. Careful clinical examination and long-term screening protocols are needed for early detection and treatment of this life-threatening complication among the transplant population.

  4. The phenomenon of prehistoric ritual pits: Several examples from the central Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulatović Aleksandar P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the phenomenon of pits with special deposits, i.e. ritual pits, seems to have, once again, attracted attention both in Europe and in the Balkans. In the central Balkans, scientific literature related to this topic is still deficient, hence one of the objectives of this paper is to change the current state and rekindle interest in the study of this form of manifestation of the spiritual culture of prehistoric man. It appears that one of the oldest reasons for sacrificial offerings is primal, instinctive fear. The fear of the transience of life or of death compelled our ancient ancestors to make some sort of “agreement” with the surrounding forces, bestowing particular sacrifices onto them. Sacrifice represents one of the rituals of prehistoric communities which could have been performed in a number of ways and in different circumstances. One of these are offerings placed in pits, in the form of specific objects, food, drink or living beings sacrificed to higher powers and accompanied by certain symbolic actions, for the purpose of gaining their favour or help. When interpreting pits, what should further be considered is that the fundamental difference between a discarded object and an object used for a ritual purpose lies in the fact that the object of ritual character is still meaningful to man, performing a symbolic function, unlike the former, whose role is lost after being disposed of. Aritual object, an item or a living being sacrificed in a pit, is no longer of common, worldly significance (food, drink, tools, etc., but rather possesses a symbolic, sacral meaning, intended for higher powers, to propitiate and appease them, that is to create some form of the oldest religious communication. Not only is it difficult to identify the pits used for ritual purposes in the course of fieldwork, but it is even more challenging to interpret them and practically impossible to accurately reconstruct the actions performed during the

  5. Epidemiological data regarding Balkan endemic nephropathy in relationship with the Pliocene coal etiological hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluhovschi, Gh; Modalca, M; Mărgineanu, F; Velciov, Silvia; Gluhovschi, Cristina; Bob, F; Petrica, Ligia; Bozdog, Gh; Trandafirescu, V; Gădălean, F

    2011-01-01

    Balkan Endemic nephropathy (BEN) is a tubulointerstitial disease of unknown etiology signaled in a limited geographical area. In the neighbourhood of endemic villages are coal deposits from the Pliocene, that contain toxic substances that by mobilizing groundwater can leach in water sources used by the inhabitants. In the present paper the possible impact of the coal from Pliocene on people that worked many years in mines in the endemic County Mehedinti, Romania, and who lived in this area are analysed. The risk of toxicity of coal was theoretically increased in miners because they consumed frequently water from mine springs that came from coal layers, while at home water from wells could have been contaminated by toxic substances from coal. It has been found that only 5 of the 96 patients with BEN were under dialysis program in 2008. Also out of 34 former miners only 3 had GFR family doctors databases. The GFR was lower in the inhabitants from the endemic villages Bistrita and Hinova than in the investigated inhabitants from the non-endemic town Drobeta Turnu Severin (p = 0.008 and p = 0.0004 respectively). Inhabitants from the endemic village Husnicioara (Pliocene coal mine still functioning) had a higher GFR than inhabitants from Drobeta Turnu Severin and higher than inhabitants from the endemic village Livezile (mine closed 10 years ago): p = 0.0055 and p = 0.001 respectively, but a lower than the investigated inhabitants from the non-endemic town Motru (where a non-Pliocene coal mine is functioning): p relationship between exposure to Pliocene coal and the etiology of BEN.

  6. Balkanized Research in Ecological Engineering Revealed by a Bibliometric Analysis of Earthworms and Ecosystem Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blouin, Manuel; Sery, Nicolas; Cluzeau, Daniel; Brun, Jean-Jacques; Bédécarrats, Alain

    2013-08-01

    Energy crisis, climate changes, and biodiversity losses have reinforced the drive for more ecologically-based approaches for environmental management. Such approaches are characterized by the use of organisms rather than energy-consuming technologies. Although earthworms are believed to be potentially useful organisms for managing ecosystem services, there is actually no quantification of such a trend in literature. This bibliometric analysis aimed to measure the evolution of the association of "earthworms" and other terms such as ecosystem services (primary production, nutrient cycling, carbon sequestration, soil structure, and pollution remediation), "ecological engineering" or "biodiversity," to assess their convergence or divergence through time. In this aim, we calculated the similarity index, an indicator of the paradigmatic proximity defined in applied epistemology, for each year between 1900 and 2009. We documented the scientific fields and the geographical origins of the studies, as well as the land uses, and compare these characteristics with a 25 years old review on earthworm management. The association of earthworm related keywords with ecosystem services related keywords was increasing with time, reflecting the growing interest in earthworm use in biodiversity and ecosystem services management. Conversely, no significant increase in the association between earthworms and disciplines such as ecological engineering or restoration ecology was observed. This demonstrated that general ecologically-based approaches have yet to emerge and that there is little exchange of knowledge, methods or concepts among balkanized application realms. Nevertheless, there is a strong need for crossing the frontiers between fields of application and for developing an umbrella discipline to provide a framework for the use of organisms to manage ecosystem services.

  7. Comparison of the protein and fatty acid fraction of Balkan donkey and human milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmina Gubić

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the protein and fatty acid fractions of Balkan donkey and human milk in the early lactation stage (40 and 90 day. This study revealed that donkey milk contains αs1-casein (1.38-1.89 g/L and higher concentration of β-casein (0.1-0.55 g/L in comparison to human milk. The concentration of α-lactalbumin increased during the lactation phases from 40 to 90 days in both types of milk. Donkey milk contained β-lactoglobulin in low concentrations which decreased to 90th day of lactation. Donkey milk was particularly rich in two whey proteins, lactoferrin and lysozyme, which were found to have molecular weight of approximately 76 kDa and 14.9-15.4 kDa, respectively. The content of lysozyme in donkey milk ranged from 2.39 to 2.97 g/L, while human milk contained 30-50 times lower concentrations of lysozyme in comparison to donkey milk. Thus, donkey milk contained also a higher concentration of lactoferrin (0.012-0.25 g/L than it was found in the human milk. Lysozyme and lactoferrin content in donkey milk increased during the period from 40th to 90th day of lactation. The percentage of total SFA, MUFA and PUFA was similar in donkey and human milk. The content of essential fatty acids increased during 40-90 days of lactation and was approximately 2.5 times higher in comparison to human milk.

  8. Sesquiterpene lactones from the extracts of two Balkan endemic Laserpitium species and their cytotoxic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popović, Višnja; Heyerick, Arne; Petrović, Silvana; Van Calenbergh, Serge; Karalić, Izet; Niketić, Marjan; Deforce, Dieter

    2013-03-01

    Chloroform extracts of the underground parts of two Balkan endemic Laserpitium species, Laserpitium zernyi Hayek and Laserpitium ochridanum Micevski, were chemically investigated. Five unknown guaianolides from the class of slovanolides, of which four were additionally 2β-esterified, as well as two lactones, previously identified in other Laserpitium species, were isolated from the L. ochridanum extract. From the L. zernyi extract one slovanolide derivative was isolated for the first time in the genus Laserpitium. In addition, the phenylpropanoid latifolone and six known sesquiterpene lactones, characterised as derivatives of slovanolide and silerolide, were isolated from the extracts of both species. The cytotoxic activities of the total extracts and the isolated compounds were tested using MTT and SRB assays on the two human breast cancer cell lines, MCF 7/6 and MCF 7/AZ. The extracts exerted cytotoxic activities with the IC(50) values ranging 65.21-348.25 μg/mL. The L. ochridanum extract was most potent in the MTT test with IC(50) values of 65.21 and 66.09 μg/mL in the MCF 7/AZ and MCF 7/6 cell lines, respectively. The highest cytotoxic activity exerted 2β,8α-di-angeloyloxy-10β-hydroxy-6αH-guaian-3,(7-11)-dien-12,6-olide, a slovanolide derivative with an additional double bond in lactone ring, on highly invasive MCF 7/6 cell line, with IC(50) value 0.7 μM in both assays tested. Generally, guaianolides with a higher number of ester moieties at the positions 2β, 8α, 10β or 11α exhibited IC(50) values in the micromolar range, while eudesmanolides and guaianolides with a lower number of esters did not induce significant cytotoxicity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Cultural and Natural Heritage in the Western Part of the Republic of Macedonia and Their Impact on the Spatial Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Todorova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The territory of Western Macedonia covers an area of 10473 km², or 40.7% of the total territory of the Republic of Macedonia. The territory includes Polog, Pelagonia and the Southwest Plan Regions. The cultural and the natural heritage in the western part exceeds the country borders, so some of them are important tourist destinations in the Balkans and Europe. The transformation of the area can be observed through the number of visitors, realized overnight stays, participation of the tourism in the national GDP and their impact on the development of linear and institutional infrastructure in this part of the country.

  10. Neogene paleogeography provides context for understanding the origin and spatial distribution of cryptic diversity in a widespread Balkan freshwater amphipod

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Grabowski

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background The Balkans are a major worldwide biodiversity and endemism hotspot. Among the freshwater biota, amphipods are known for their high cryptic diversity. However, little is known about the temporal and paleogeographic aspects of their evolutionary history. We used paleogeography as a framework for understanding the onset of diversification in Gammarus roeselii: (1 we hypothesised that, given the high number of isolated waterbodies in the Balkans, the species is characterised by high level of cryptic diversity, even on a local scale; (2 the long geological history of the region might promote pre-Pleistocene divergence between lineages; (3 given that G. roeselii thrives both in lakes and rivers, its evolutionary history could be linked to the Balkan Neogene paleolake system; (4 we inspected whether the Pleistocene decline of hydrological networks could have any impact on the diversification of G. roeselii. Material and Methods DNA was extracted from 177 individuals collected from 26 sites all over Balkans. All individuals were amplified for ca. 650 bp long fragment of the mtDNA cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI. After defining molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTU based on COI, 50 individuals were amplified for ca. 900 bp long fragment of the nuclear 28S rDNA. Molecular diversity, divergence, differentiation and historical demography based on COI sequences were estimated for each MOTU. The relative frequency, geographic distribution and molecular divergence between COI haplotypes were presented as a median-joining network. COI was used also to reconstruct time-calibrated phylogeny with Bayesian inference. Probabilities of ancestors’ occurrence in riverine or lacustrine habitats, as well their possible geographic locations, were estimated with the Bayesian method. A Neighbour Joining tree was constructed to illustrate the phylogenetic relationships between 28S rDNA haplotypes. Results We revealed that G. roeselii includes at least

  11. Premier League academy soccer players' experiences of competing in a tournament bio-banded for biological maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumming, Sean P; Brown, Daniel J; Mitchell, Siobhan; Bunce, James; Hunt, Dan; Hedges, Chris; Crane, Gregory; Gross, Aleks; Scott, Sam; Franklin, Ed; Breakspear, Dave; Dennison, Luke; White, Paul; Cain, Andrew; Eisenmann, Joey C; Malina, Robert M

    2018-04-01

    Individual differences in the growth and maturation have been shown to impact player performance and development in youth soccer. This study investigated Premier League academy players' experiences of participating in a tournament bio-banded for biological maturation. Players (N = 66) from four professional soccer clubs aged 11 and 14 years and between 85-90% of adult stature participated in a tournament. Players competed in three 11 vs 11 games on a full size pitch with 25-min halves. Sixteen players participated in four 15-min focus groups and were asked to describe their experiences of participating in the bio-banded tournament in comparison to age group competition. All players described their experience as positive and recommended the Premier League integrate bio-banding into the existing games programme. In comparison to age-group competitions, early maturing players described the bio-banded games more physically challenging, and found that they had to adapt their style of play placing a greater emphasis on technique and tactics. Late maturing players considered the games to be less physically challenging, yet appreciated the having more opportunity to use, develop and demonstrate their technical, physical, and psychological competencies. Bio-banding strategies appear to contribute positively towards the holistic development of young soccer players.

  12. The effect of match standard and referee experience on the objective and subjective match workload of English Premier League referees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, M; Bird, S; Helsen, W; Nevill, A; Castagna, C

    2006-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of match standard and referee experience on the objective and subjective workload of referees during English Premier League and Football League soccer matches. We also examined the relationship between heart rate (HR) and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) for assessing match intensity in soccer referees. Heart rate responses were recorded using short-range telemetry and RPE scores were collected using a 10-point scale. Analysis revealed a significant relationship between mean match HR and match RPE scores (r=0.485, pFootball League 81.5+/-2.2%HRmax, pFootball League 6.9+/-0.8, pReferee experience had no effect on match HR and RPE responses to Premier League and Football League matches. The results of the present study demonstrate the validity of using HR and RPE as a measure of global match intensity in soccer referees. Referee experience had no effect on the referees' objective and subjective match workload assessments, whereas match intensity was correlated to competition standard. These findings have implications for fitness preparation and evaluation in soccer referees. When progressing to a higher level of competition, referees should ensure that appropriate levels of fitness are developed in order to enable them to cope with an increase in physical match demands.

  13. Rapsodie first core fabrication. 2. part: manufacture results; Fabrication du premier coeur de rapsodie. Deuxieme partie: resultats de fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masselot, Y.; Bataller, S.; Ganivet, M.; Guillet, H.; Robillard, A.; Stosskopf, F. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Cadarache (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1970-07-01

    This report is the second in a series of three describing the processes, results and peculiar technical problems related to the manufacture of the first core of the fast reactor Rapsodie. It includes a critical study of the results obtained on the pellets, pins and sub-assemblies as compared with their specifications. By the way, the benefit of the linear mass concept as a quality test for a given manufacture is shown. At last performances and balance of the first two production runs are examined. (author) [French] Ce rapport est le second d'une serie de trois qui decrivent les procedes, les resultats et les problemes techniques particuliers de la fabrication du premier coeur de la pile a neutrons rapides RAPSODIE. Il comporte une etude critique des resultats obtenus pour les pastillles, les aiguilles et les assemblages combustibles, compares a leur specifications. A cette occasion, on montre l'interet de la notion de masse lineaire comme critere de qualite d'une fabrication. Les performances et le bilan des deux premieres campagnes de production sont enfin examines. (auteur)

  14. Trablusgarb ve Balkan Savaşları’nın Osmanlı Devleti’nin Ticaret-i Hariciyesi Üzerindeki Etkileri The Impacts Of Tripolitanian And Balkan Wars On The Ottoman Foreign Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiz ÇOLAK

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The last ten years of the Ottoman State witnessed successivewars. These ten years began with the Tripolitanian War, which was aTurkish-Italian war, and ended with the Balkan Wars, World War I andTurkish War of Independence. These wars led to deterioration ofpolitical and economic conditions of the state and eventually to its fall.The Tripoli and Balkan Wars deeply influenced foreign policy andtrade of the Ottoman State. The Tripolitanian War began in 1911 whenItaly invaded Tripolitania and caused tension in the Ottoman-Italianeconomic relations even for a while. The same boycott, previouslyimplemented by the Ottoman State against Austrian goods as a result ofBosnia and Herzegovina invasion of Austria-Hungary in 1908, wasimplemented against Italian goods in 1911. The idea of boycott initiallycame up in the press, because the government was late to declare waragainst Italy. However Babıâli could not prevent Italian goods enteringthe country due to capitulations, therefore resorted to increase thecustoms duties taken from Italian goods. This policy continued until thepeace treaty in 1912.In 1912 the Ottoman State found itself at war with the BalkanLeague, an alliance formed by the Balkan States (Bulgaria, Greece,Montenegro, Serbia led by Bulgaria. Babıâli entered this war withoutany preparation and during the war Babıâli on the one hand tried tomeet army’s needs and on the other hand tried to take precautions byreviewing its economic relations with these countries. As a first step,like in the Tripolitanian War, Babıâli increased the customs dutiesapplied during trade activities with these Balkan countries and laterboycott was implemented against them by the Ottoman State. Thispolicy continued until the peace treaties in 1913 and ended after thepeace.In this study we will try to answer how these wars affected theforeign trade of the Ottoman State. The impact of these wars on theimport and export relations between Italy/Balkan States and

  15. Daily uranium excretion in German peace-keeping personnel serving on the Balkans compared to ICRP model prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oeh, U.; Li, W.B.; Hoellriegl, V.; Schramel, P.; Roth, P.; Paretzke, H.G. [GSF - National Research Center for Environment and Health, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Giussani, A. [GSF - National Research Center for Environment and Health, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Universita degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Fisica, and INFN, Sezione di Milano, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2007-07-01

    An investigation was performed to assess a possible health risk of depleted uranium (DU) for residents and German peace-keeping personnel serving on the Balkans. In order to evaluate a possible DU intake, the urinary uranium excretions of volunteers were collected and analysed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). In total, more than 1300 urine samples from soldiers, civil servants and unexposed controls of different genders and ages were analysed to determine uranium excretion parameters. All participating volunteers, aged 3-92 y, were grouped according to their gender and age for evaluation. The results of the investigation revealed no significant difference between the unexposed controls and the peace-keeping personnel. In addition, the geometric means of the daily urinary excretion in peace-keeping personnel, ranging from 3 to 23 ng d{sup -1} for different age groups, fall toward the lower end of renal uranium excretion values published for unexposed populations in literature. The measured data were compared with the International Commission on Radiological Protection prediction for the intake of natural uranium by unexposed members of the public. The two data sets are in good agreement, indicating that no relevant intake of additional uranium, either natural or DU, has appeared for German peace-keeping personnel serving on the Balkans. (authors)

  16. The International Humanitarian Response to the Refugee Crisis Along the Balkan Route in the View of Strategies of International Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latifi Veton

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Being one of the largest movements of displaced people through European borders since World War Two, the Syrian refugee crisis of 2015 and 2016, tested the coordination of the states and international organizations, and as well as the strategies for response of the latter to such enormous fluxes of displaced people along the Balkan corridor. The quick on-time reaction of the specialized humanitarian international organizations made significant achievements by the international organizations in terms of humanitarian assistance for the refugees and support for the governments of the region. Their approach mainly sought to create a partnership with the governments of the Balkan route in handling the serious humanitarian challenges (with a different strategy compared to other experiences, mainly this time through providing assistance and protection to the refugees throughout the corridor of the refugee crisis, it showed how important is such coordination at the end, with an aim to avoid further human catastrophes along refugee routes, and to avoid major security repercussions for the countries of the region.

  17. Tuberculosis Incidence and Case Notification Rates in Kosovo and the Balkans in 2012: Cross-country Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurhasani, Xhevat; Hafizi, Hasan; Toci, Ervin; Burazeri, Genc

    2014-02-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) continues to be a considerable burden especially for millions of young adults and disadvantaged people worldwide. The TB incidence and notification rates are good indicators of TB situation in a country. Our aim was to compare TB incidence and notification rates in Kosovo and in seven other Balkan countries. Retrospective epidemiologic analysis of published data on TB incidence and notification rates in eight Balkan countries in 2012. Notification rates were expressed per 100,000 inhabitants and were calculated based on the number of TB cases reported divided by the population of each country under analysis. The TB incidence in Kosovo (47/100,000) was considerably higher compared to its four neighboring countries: Albania (16/100,000), Macedonia, Montenegro (18/100,000) and Serbia (23/100,000). The TB notification rates in Kosovo and other countries closely mimicked the incidence rates in these countries. The exceptionally high TB incidence rate in Kosovo could be due to many factors including low health and medical-seeking behaviors of the local population, poverty and low education levels. Effective interventions should be adapted to the local context in order to increase the chances of success.

  18. Ochratoxin A in human blood in relation to Balkan endemic nephropathy and urinary tract tumours in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkova-Bocharova, T; Castegnaro, M

    1991-01-01

    Ochratoxin A is suspected of being one of the etiological agents responsible for Balkan endemic nephropathy and the associated urinary tract tumours. Contamination of cereals by this mycotoxin has been found to be more frequent in areas of endemic nephropathy than in areas where the disease is absent. As ochratoxin A binds to serum albumin, it should be detectable in biological fluids from exposed populations. A survey was thus conducted to determine the occurrence of ochratoxin A in blood from people living in the endemic area who were either affected or unaffected by the two diseases and in blood from people living in control regions where these diseases do not occur. Blood samples were collected in 1984, 1986, 1989 and 1990. Ochratoxin A was found more frequently and at higher levels in blood from patients with Balkan endemic nephropathy and/or urinary tract tumours than in blood from unaffected people from endemic and control areas. These findings suggest further that ochratoxin A is involved in the etiology of the two diseases.

  19. On the possibility for earthquake prediction NETWORK in Balkan- Black Sea region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrodiev, S. Cht

    The impressive development of the Earth sciences on the basis of new precise Crust parameters measurements permits to estimates the probabilities for earthquakes risk. But the prediction the time, epicenter and Magnitude of incoming earthquake is not a solved problem. Many scientists are state that this is not solvable. The local "when" Earthquake prediction is based on the connection between geomagnetic "quakes" and the next incoming minimum or maximum of tidal gravitational potential. The probability time window for the predicted earthquake is +/-1 day for the minimum and +/-2 days for the maximum. The preliminary statistic estimation on the basis of distribution of the time difference between predicted and occurred earthquakes for the period December 2002- September 2003 for Sofia region is given. The solving of earthquake's prediction problem and creating its theory need the efforts of wide interdisciplinary science group. The use of almost real time satellite GIS for data acquisition, visualization, archiving and analysis. The new techniques for solving step by step the nonlinear inverse problems, for testing the adequateness of physical models and the reliability of predictions is requisite. The monitoring should include standard geodetic data, seismic hazard map developments, electromagnetic field monitoring under (electrical signals in VAN method and its Thanassoulas's variant), on (electropotential distribution, geomagnetic variations)and over (VLF and ULF, vertical electropotential distribution) Earth surface, atmosphere effects (earthquake's clouds, electrical charge distribution), the behavior of Earth radiation belts, biological precursors. The statistical estimation for reliability of time, epicenter and magnitude prediction is obligatory. The Balkan- Black Sea region is proposed as polygon for testing the possibilities for creating short time earthquakes prediction NETWORK. The advantage of the proposal is that the geophysical seismic, geomagnetic

  20. Tephrostratigraphic studies on a sediment core from Lake Prespa in the Balkans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damaschke, M.; Sulpizio, R.; Zanchetta, G.; Wagner, B.; Böhm, A.; Nowaczyk, N.; Rethemeyer, J.; Hilgers, A.

    2013-01-01

    A detailed tephrostratigraphic record, which dates back to Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5b (ca. 91 kyr), has been established from a 17.76 m long core (Co1215) from Lake Prespa (Macedonia, Albania and Greece). A total of eleven tephra and cryptotephra layers (PT0915-1 to PT0915-11) were identified, using XRF scanning, magnetic susceptibility measurements, and macro- and microscopic inspection of the sediments. The major element composition of glass shards and/or micro-pumice fragments indicates that the tephras and cryptotephras originate from the explosive volcanism of Italy. Eight tephra and cryptotephra layers were correlated with specific volcanic eruptions: the AD 512 eruption of Somma-Vesuvius (1438 cal yr BP), the Mercato eruption of Somma-Vesuvius (8890 ± 90 cal yr BP), the Tufi Biancastri/LN1-LN2 eruption of the Campi Flegrei (14 749 ± 523 cal yr BP and 15 551 ± 621 cal yr BP), the SMP1-e/Y-3 eruption of the Campi Flegrei (30 000-31 000 cal yr BP), the Campanian Ignimbrite/Y-5 eruption of the Campi Flegrei (39 280 ± 110 cal yr BP), the SMP1-a event of Ischia Island (around 44 000 cal yr BP) and the Green Tuff/Y-6 eruption of Pantelleria Island (around 45 000 cal yr BP). One tephra could be attributed to the volcanic activity of Mount Etna, but probably represents an unknown eruption at ca. 60 000 cal yr BP. Cryptotephras PT0915-6 and PT0915-10 remain unclassified so far, but according to the presented age-depth model these would have been deposited around 35 000 and 48 500 cal yr BP, respectively. Some of the tephras and cryptotephras are recognised for the first time in the Balkan region. The tephrostratigraphic work provides important information about ash dispersal and explosion patterns of source volcanoes and can be used to correlate and date geographically distant paleoenvironmental and archaeological archives in the central Mediterranean region. Moreover, the tephrostratigraphic work in combination with radiocarbon and electron spin resonance (ESR

  1. Tephrostratigraphic studies on a sediment core from Lake Prespa in the Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Damaschke

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A detailed tephrostratigraphic record, which dates back to Marine Isotope Stage (MIS 5b (ca. 91 kyr, has been established from a 17.76 m long core (Co1215 from Lake Prespa (Macedonia, Albania and Greece. A total of eleven tephra and cryptotephra layers (PT0915-1 to PT0915-11 were identified, using XRF scanning, magnetic susceptibility measurements, and macro- and microscopic inspection of the sediments. The major element composition of glass shards and/or micro-pumice fragments indicates that the tephras and cryptotephras originate from the explosive volcanism of Italy. Eight tephra and cryptotephra layers were correlated with specific volcanic eruptions: the AD 512 eruption of Somma-Vesuvius (1438 cal yr BP, the Mercato eruption of Somma-Vesuvius (8890 ± 90 cal yr BP, the Tufi Biancastri/LN1-LN2 eruption of the Campi Flegrei (14 749 ± 523 cal yr BP and 15 551 ± 621 cal yr BP, the SMP1-e/Y-3 eruption of the Campi Flegrei (30 000–31 000 cal yr BP, the Campanian Ignimbrite/Y-5 eruption of the Campi Flegrei (39 280 ± 110 cal yr BP, the SMP1-a event of Ischia Island (around 44 000 cal yr BP and the Green Tuff/Y-6 eruption of Pantelleria Island (around 45 000 cal yr BP. One tephra could be attributed to the volcanic activity of Mount Etna, but probably represents an unknown eruption at ca. 60 000 cal yr BP. Cryptotephras PT0915-6 and PT0915-10 remain unclassified so far, but according to the presented age-depth model these would have been deposited around 35 000 and 48 500 cal yr BP, respectively. Some of the tephras and cryptotephras are recognised for the first time in the Balkan region. The tephrostratigraphic work provides important information about ash dispersal and explosion patterns of source volcanoes and can be used to correlate and date geographically distant paleoenvironmental and archaeological archives in the central Mediterranean region. Moreover, the tephrostratigraphic work in combination with radiocarbon and electron spin

  2. The climate in the Balkans during the Eemian: a multi-method approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyron, Odile; Lezine, Anne-Marie; Goring, Simon; Klotz, Stefan; Kuhl, Norbert; Bordon, Amandine

    2010-05-01

    available in south Europe (Monticchio and Ioannina). Although Brewer et al (2008) show stable temperatures and precipitation for southern Europe throughout the Eemian, our results indicate a gradual decline in temperatures throughout the Eemian at the Lake Orhid site. Thus the Lake Orhid reconstruction fills a gap in South Europe and provides new results for the Balkan Peninsula.

  3. The distribution of the invasive pest, rice water weevil Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is expanding in Europe: First record in the Balkans, confirmed by CO1 DNA barcoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is the first report of the invasive rice pest, rice water weevil (Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel) in the Balkans. Adult specimens were collected in flooded rice fields in the principal rice-growing region of Central Macedonia, Greece during July-August, 2016. Morphological identification was...

  4. Le premier partenariat public-privé pour l’irrigation au Maroc : durable pour tous ?

    OpenAIRE

    Houdret Annabelle; Bonnet Simon

    2016-01-01

    Les partenariats public-privé (PPP) sont un phénomène relativement récent dans le secteur de l’irrigation ; le projet El Guerdane au Maroc est ainsi le premier de son genre. Inauguré en 2008, le projet alimente en eau 10 000 ha de plantations d’agrumes. Les banques internationales de développement le présentent comme un succès, mais l’impact sur le développement local est, au mieux, mitigé. Alors que certains agriculteurs ont bénéficié de cette initiative, d’autres ont été marginalisés, en te...

  5. Energy Intake and Expenditure of Professional Soccer Players of the English Premier League: Evidence of Carbohydrate Periodization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Liam; Orme, Patrick; Naughton, Robert J; Close, Graeme L; Milsom, Jordan; Rydings, David; O'Boyle, Andy; Di Michele, Rocco; Louis, Julien; Hambly, Catherine; Speakman, John Roger; Morgans, Ryland; Drust, Barry; Morton, James P

    2017-06-01

    In an attempt to better identify and inform the energy requirements of elite soccer players, we quantified the energy expenditure (EE) of players from the English Premier League (n = 6) via the doubly labeled water method (DLW) over a 7-day in-season period. Energy intake (EI) was also assessed using food diaries, supported by the remote food photographic method and 24 hr recalls. The 7-day period consisted of 5 training days (TD) and 2 match days (MD). Although mean daily EI (3186 ± 367 kcals) was not different from (p > .05) daily EE (3566 ± 585 kcals), EI was greater (p players readily achieve current guidelines for daily protein and fat intake, data suggest that CHO intake on the day before and in recovery from match play was not in accordance with guidelines to promote muscle glycogen storage.

  6. A DIFFERENT VOICE IN BALKAN DIALECTS BALKAN AĞIZLARINDA FARKLI BİR FİİL ÇATISI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alpay İGCİ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In written language of Turkey Turkish sample “anlat-” is “anlatır-” in Western Rumeli dialects. This different voice is formed with -(I4t- and -(I4r- suffixes. As a result of dialect scans, this type voice is being used in Western Rumeli dialects area. Area of this different voice contains Mitrovica, Vucitrn, Pristina, Mamusa, Prizren, Gnjilane in Kosova; Tetovo, Gostivar, Vrapciste, Skopje, Kumanovo, Konce, Bitola, Resen, Ohrid, Struga in Macedonia; Kostendil in Bulgaria. Türkiye Türkçesi yazı dilinde “anlat-” örneğindeki fiil çatısı Batı Rumeli ağızlarında “anlatır-” şeklindedir. Farklı olan bu fiil çatısı, -(I4t- ekinin yanına katmerli bir kullanım olarak -(I4r- ekinin getirilmesiyle oluşmuştur. Yapılan ağız taramaları sonucunda, Balkanlardaki bazı Türk ağızlarında görülen farklı fiil çatısının Batı Rumeli ağızları bölgesinde toplandığı görülmüştür. Kosova’da Mitroviça, Vıçıtırın, Priştine, Mamuşa, Prizren, Gilan; Makedonya’da Kalkandelen, Gostivar, Vrapçişte, Üsküp, Kumanova, Konçe, Manastır, Resne, Ohri, Struga; Bulgaristan’da Köstendil, bu özelliğin görüldüğü bölge içindedir.

  7. Risks and Opportunities of Urbanization – Structure of Two Populations of the Balkan Wall Lizard Podarcis tauricus (Pallas, 1814 in the City of Plovdiv

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivelin A. Mollov

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The current study analyzes the structure and some features of two urban metapopulations of the Balkan Wall Lizard (Podarcis tauricus (Pallas, 1814 from Nature Monument (NM “Mladezhki halm” and Nature Monument “Halm na osvoboditelite” in the city of Plovdiv (South Bulgaria. In both study sites, the Balkan Wall lizard inhabits exclusively the interior of the hills and prefers mainly open areas with rare grass and shrub vegetation. The recorded dominant plant species are not autochthonous for the hills, but gradually displaced with many decorative species, used widely in the gardening and thecity parks. The population abundance from both hills is relatively low, with higher values in NM “Mladezhki halm” and generally shows a decrease pattern for the two year period. In the hills of Plovdiv, the Balkan Wall lizard shows a bimodal diurnal and seasonal activity. Both metapopulations showed a sex ratio close to 1:1 with a slight superiority of the females (1:1.29, but with no statistically significant deviation. The age structure of both metapopulations is almost identical - the highest percentage takes the adults, followed by the subadults and juveniles, with no significant deviations from the normal ratio. The possible reasons for the contemporary distribution and population structure of the Balkan Wall lizard are discussed. Historic land use change and its effect on the populations are discussed as well. The main risks for this species in the city of Plovdiv are construction and forestation (destruction of open terrains. Nevertheless, the Balkan Wall lizard seems to have successfully overcome the risks of urbanization and its population seem stable and sustainable.

  8. Investigating atmospheric transport of Ambrosia pollen from the Pannonian Plain towards the Balkan region with DEHM-Pollen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambelas Skjoth, C.

    2009-04-01

    The pollen grains of Ambrosia spp. are considered to be important aeroallergens. The threshold value for clinical symptoms for ragweed pollen grains for the majority of sensitised patients is below 20 grains/m3. Ambrosia pollen appears to induce asthma about twice as often as other pollen. Each ragweed plant produces millions of pollen grains that are small (18-22 μm) and suitable for long-range transport when conditions are favourable. In this study we use DEHM-Pollen to investigate if the Pannonian Plain could be the source area for observed episodes of Ambrosia pollen in the Balkans. A possible Ambrosia pollen inventory for various regions in the Pannonian Plain was constructed using detailed land cover data from Serbia, Hungary, Austria, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Slovakia, Romania and Czech Republic in combination with measurements of the annual load of Ambrosia pollen in the source areas. A simple unified pollen release model (SUPREME) was calibrated against daily measurements from Novi Sad in Serbia and implemented in DEHM-Pollen with the Ambrosia pollen inventory. Model simulations was then performed with DEHM-Pollen for the months August and September 2007 and compared with measurements from stations outside the Pannonian Plain. The simulations several times indicate regional scale transport from the Pannonian Plain towards the Balkan region including the 26th - 27th of August and the 1st and 2nd September. During these episode air masses passed over parts of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Southern Serbia, Albania and Macedonia. The verifying measurements at Skopje (Macedonia) show episodes of elevated Ambrosia pollen concentration the 26th -27th of August and for the 1st and 2nd of September. The model experiments with DEHM-Pollen strongly indicate that the Pannonian Plain alone can be a source to significant Ambrosia pollen concentrations in the Balkans. The methods and the model results look promising with respect to future numerical forecasting of Ambrosia

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT, REMOVAL OF ARSENIC IN DRINKING WATER: WATTS PREMIER M-SERIES M-15,000 REVERSE OSMOSIS TREATMENT SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verification testing of the Watts Premier M-Series M-15,000 RO Treatment System was conducted over a 31-day period from April 26, 2004, through May 26, 2004. This test was conducted at the Coachella Valley Water District (CVWD) Well 7802 in Thermal, California. The source water...

  10. REMOVAL OF CHEMICAL AND MICROBIAL CONTAMINANTS IN DRINKING WATER - WATTS PREMIER M-2400 POINT-OF-ENTRY REVERSE OSMOSIS DRINKINGWATER TREATMENT SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Watts Premier M-2400 POE RO Drinking Water Treatment System was tested at the NSF Drinking Water Treatment Systems Laboratory for removal of the viruses fr and MS2, the bacteria Brevundimonas diminuta, and chemicals aldicarb, benzene, cadmium, carbofuran, cesium, chl...

  11. SHORT STORIES IN THE BALKANS AND CONTEMPORARYSHORT STORIES IN THE WORLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Softic - Gasal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparative analysis of selected short stories in the Balkan countries, as well as contemporary short stories of the world, will show us that the key themes of those stories are very similar to the short stories written during the period of transition in Bosnia and Herzegovina (1995-2010. For example, the story of the Soul Operation by an Iranian writer Mohsen Mahmalbafa, The Falcons by a Dutch writer Kader Abdolaha and On the Kitchen Stairs by a Polish writer Witold Gombrowic zinter connect with short stories by authors from Bosnia and Herzegovina, such as The Secret of Raspberry jam by Karim Zaimović or The Devilish work of Zoran Riđanović. A common thread manifests itself in the aforementioned stories, more specifically, a common theme which focuses on the need for eradication of the seeds of submission and compliance with the political system. Most authors focus on their domestic political systems; however, some portray and analyze systems in other countries as they see it, such as a Dutch narrator who focuses on a potential threat of infringement of human freedom. Moreover, Bellow Hubei by an Argentinian writer Anhelika Gorodis her underlines the importance of humanization within a political order. Faruk Šehić examines the political system in Bosnia and Herzegovina from a slightly different perspective. His collection of stories Under Pressure emphases the issue of pressure in the above war model of short stories in Bosnia and Herzegovina. These stories are the product of pressure and anxiety, with intent to latently promote new ways of spiritual survival, directly relating to the concept and the theme of the story The Past Age Man by Christian Karlson Stead. Further analysis of the alienation theme singled out short stories in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Plants are Something Else by Alma Lazarevska and Dialogues by Lamija Begagić, and pointed out their connection with some recent international short stories such as The Last Defence by

  12. Analysis of the effects of application of PST and SC on the performance of the UCPTE system in the Balkans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papazoglou, T.M. [Technological Educational Inst., Iraklio (Greece); Popovic, D.P.; Mijailovic, S. [Nikola Tesla Inst., Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1995-11-01

    Comparison is made of the effectiveness on the steady state load flow control of the Phase Shifter and the Series Compensation. Attention is focused on the ability to reduce unscheduled loop flows and redirect power flows in the system. The Balkan section of UCPTE system resulting after the parallel synchronous interconnection of Bulgaria is used as test system with loading conditions corresponding to the 1995 peak load. The superior properties of PST on power flow control are shown. The positive effects of PST in maintaining a high level of steady state security while realizing relatively large multilateral power exchange programs are demonstrated. A comparison of the power flow control efficiencies and an economic estimate are made for PST and SC. 10 refs, 1 fig, 4 tabs

  13. Sattleria revisited: unexpected cryptic diversity on the Balkan Peninsula and in the south-eastern Alps (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huemer, Peter; Timossi, Giovanni

    2014-03-21

    The taxonomy of Sattleria Povolný from the high mountain systems on the Balkan Peninsula and the adjacent parts of the Alps (south-eastern Alps, Dinaric Alps, Rila Mountains) is revised based on recently collected material and re-examined museum vouchers. Adult morphology and molecular data of the COI barcode region support the existence of six strictly allopatric species in this area, including four new species: Sattleria sophiae Timossi, sp. nov. (Parco Paneveggio-Pale di San Martino, Dolomites, Prov. Trento, Italy), Sattleria dolomitica Huemer, sp. nov. (Eastern Dolomites, Prov. South Tyrol, Italy), Sattleria dinarica Huemer, sp. nov. (Durmitor NP, Dinaric Alps, Montenegro) and Sattleria haemusi Huemer, sp. nov. (Rila Mts., Bulgaria; Šar Planina, Macedonia). 

  14. Morphological differentiation of the common toad Bufo bufo (Linnaeus, 1758 in the central part of the Balkan Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čađenović Natalija

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the degree of morphological differentiation among populations of the common toad Bufo bufo in the central part of the Balkan Peninsula. Variations in a number of morphometric and qualitative characters in 14 population samples were analyzed using univariate and multivariate statistics. We found a high degree of female-biased sexual size dimorphism. Morphological variation among the samples was more expressed in morphometric than in qualitative characters. The significant size differences that exist between northern and southern population groups could be the result of phenotypic plasticity. Our results do not support a clear split between northern and southern populations, contrary to the current taxonomic treatment of these groups as B. b. bufo and B. b. spinosus, respectively. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173043

  15. Particular ceramic forms in the central Balkan and northern shores of the Aegean sea in the late bronze age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulatović Aleksandar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the appearance and development of particular ceramic forms that were prevalent on the wider territory from the lower Danube to the northern shores of the Aegean sea during the middle and Late Bronze Age. These forms relate to globular beakers, pear shaped vessels with everted rims with arch shaped handles, cups with handles with plastic applications on their upper surface, etc. Particular attention is devoted to the phenomenon of globular beakers of the LBA in the valleys of Varder, Mesta and Struma rivers. All information collected primarily through analysis of stylistic-typological characteristics of ceramics of the middle and Late Bronze Age - that took into account ritual burials, layout of settlements, trade routes and climactic conditions during that period - points to population movements from the north to the south already by the LBA, i.e. in 15th century BC. These movements contributed to the creation of particular cultural groups in the LBA in the central Balkans, such as the Brnjica cultural group. However, these movements cannot be clearly linked to the so-called Aegean Migration, and for this reason their character and chronology are subject to debate. Ultimately it can be concluded that beakers of the Zimnicea -Cherkovna-Plovdiv type appeared in the late Bronze Age in the Vlasine depression and the Danube valley through the evolution of beaker forms of cultural groups of earlier periods. Almost contemporaneously, during LBA, a variant of this ceramic form, richly ornamented (mostly with spirals and similar in manner to the cultural group Dubovac-Žuto Brdo-Grla Mare- Krna, appeared in the LBA culture in northern Greece. Clearly this stylistic mannerism, with spirals as characteristic elements, spread relatively quickly through successive migrations in the period of 15th-14th century BC, toward the south of the Balkan Peninsula, thus covering the wider territory from the southern tip of the Carpathian mountains

  16. The transition to farming and the 'revolution' of symbols in the Balkans. From ornament to entoptic and external symbolic storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihael Budja

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In desimplifying the logic of colonisation and transition to farming we discuss huntergatherers' and farmer's symbolic structures in the Balkans and Carpathians. Particular attention is paid to the concepts of 'revolution of symbols', 'external symbolic storage' and 'signs of all time'. Our basic premises are (1 that ceramic technology and the principles of fragmentation and accumulationwere not the exclusive domains of farmers and, (2 that the hunter-gatherers' symbolic structures and the process of transition to farmingwere not exclusive and competitive but rather correlative in maintaining control and power within society and over the frameworks of external interactions and exchange networks., but strong parallels between the Near-Eastern and Greek Neolithic.

  17. Cultural cross-border co-operation among Balkan's countries with the case of Serbia and Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojkov Borislav

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Cultural cross-border cooperation includes all fields of cross-border cooperation and gives base for main connections and interactions. Without strengthening cultural cross-border cooperation, it is impossible to build significant relations between neighbors. Culture, as a foundation, an activator and a purpose of development in cross-border regions, represents a cardinal and conditional factor of cross-border cooperation. Today's situation in the Balkans reveals ethnic diversity of this region and territorial dispersion of ethnic groups. This implies at the same time great cultural diversity as well as dispersal of various national cultures over the Balkan's states. During the 20th century Serbia and Bulgaria have very complex political and intrastate relations. But in the last 10 years there have been significant improvements in the cross-border cooperation between Serbia and Bulgaria. The results of these improvements are established Euro-regions and implemented cross-border projects between these two countries. Existing Euro-regions between Serbia and Bulgaria created links between various local authorities and made excellent basis for cross-border initiatives and joint projects to promote common interests across the border and cooperation for the common good of the border areas populations. The well managed cultural cross-border cooperation between these two countries will provide a clear view of common features and raise common identity for the region, contribute to tolerance and understanding between people in this area and enable them to overcome the peripheral status of the border region in their countries and improve the living conditions of the population.

  18. The role of the migrational zones in the historical processes in Central-Europe and in the Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Csüllog

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available La región de Europa Central y los Balcanes es una de las zonas de flujo más im-portantes de Europa, donde la migración de los pueblos ha estado ocurriendo durante miles de años, las influencias económicas y culturales se han extendido y la política del poder ha tenido vigencia. Sus características históricas y geográ-ficas determinantes son las siguientes: espacio geográfico común; flujos espaciales que unen los espacios; espacios estatales separados por acontecimientos políticos; espacios étnicos tipo mosaico creados por la migración; subdivisión de los espacios de amortiguamiento provoca-dos por los intereses de la política del poder.Palabras clave: Europa Central, Balcanes, Impe-rio Habsburgo, Imperio Otomano, zonas de migración._______________ The Central European region and the Balkans are one of the most important flow zones in Europe where the migration of peoples has been going on for thousands of years, eco-nomic and cultural influences have been spreading and power politics has taken effect. Its determinative historical and geographical features are as follows: common geographical space; spatial flows linking the spaces; state spaces separated by political events; mosaic-like ethnic spaces created by migration; dividing buffer spaces brought about by the interests of power politics.Keywords: Central Europe, Balkans, Habsburg Empire, Ottoman Empire, migrational zones.

  19. Glycemic index and glycemic load are associated with some cardiovascular risk factors among the PREMIER study participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Pao-Hwa; Chen, Chuhe; Young, Deborah R; Mitchell, Diane; Elmer, Patricia; Wang, Yanfang; Batch, Bryan; Champagne, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    The clinical significance of glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) is inconclusive. This study was conducted to examine the association of GI and GL with clinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors including body weight, blood pressure (BP), serum lipids, fasting glucose, insulin and homocysteine over time among the PREMIER participants. PREMIER was an 18-month randomized lifestyle intervention trial, conducted from 2000 to 2002, designed to help participants reduce BP by following the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) dietary pattern, losing weight, reducing sodium and increasing physical activity. GI and GL were estimated from 24 h diet recall data at baseline, 6 and 18 months after intervention. PROC MIXED model was used to examine the association of changes in GI or GL with changes in CVD risk factors. A total of 756 randomized participants, 62% females and 34% African Americans and who averaged 50.0±0.3 years old and 95.3±0.7 kg, were included in this report. Neither GI nor GL changes was associated with changes in any risk factors at 6 months. At 18 months, however, the GI change was significantly and positively associated with total cholesterol (TC) change only (p<0.05, β=23.80±12.11 mg/dL or 0.62±0.31 mmol/L) with a significant age interaction. The GL change was significantly associated with TC (p=0.02, β=0.28±0.15 mg/dL or 0.01±0.00 mmol/L) positively and with low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) changes negatively (p=0.03, β=-0.01±0.00 mg/dL or -0.00±0.00 mmol/L), and significant age interactions were observed for both. GI and GL was associated with TC and LDL-C after controlling for energy, fat and fiber intake and other potential confounders and the associations were modified by age. Further investigation into this relationship is important because of its potential clinical impact.

  20. Glycemic index and glycemic load are associated with some cardiovascular risk factors among the PREMIER study participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pao-Hwa Lin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The clinical significance of glycemic index (GI and glycemic load (GL is inconclusive. Objective : This study was conducted to examine the association of GI and GL with clinical cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors including body weight, blood pressure (BP, serum lipids, fasting glucose, insulin and homocysteine over time among the PREMIER participants. Design: PREMIER was an 18-month randomized lifestyle intervention trial, conducted from 2000 to 2002, designed to help participants reduce BP by following the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH dietary pattern, losing weight, reducing sodium and increasing physical activity. GI and GL were estimated from 24 h diet recall data at baseline, 6 and 18 months after intervention. PROC MIXED model was used to examine the association of changes in GI or GL with changes in CVD risk factors. Results: A total of 756 randomized participants, 62% females and 34% African Americans and who averaged 50.0±0.3 years old and 95.3±0.7 kg, were included in this report. Neither GI nor GL changes was associated with changes in any risk factors at 6 months. At 18 months, however, the GI change was significantly and positively associated with total cholesterol (TC change only (p<0.05, β = 23.80±12.11 mg/dL or 0.62±0.31 mmol/L with a significant age interaction. The GL change was significantly associated with TC (p=0.02, β = 0.28±0.15 mg/dL or 0.01±0.00 mmol/L positively and with low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C changes negatively (p=0.03, β = − 0.01±0.00 mg/dL or −0.00±0.00 mmol/L, and significant age interactions were observed for both. Conclusion: GI and GL was associated with TC and LDL-C after controlling for energy, fat and fiber intake and other potential confounders and the associations were modified by age. Further investigation into this relationship is important because of its potential clinical impact.

  1. Give me refuge : transforming the most contaminated square mile on earth into a premier urban wildlife refuge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, L. [Environmental Protection Agency Region 8, Denver, CO (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA) was a United States chemical weapons manufacturing center located in the Colorado, Denver area. This presentation described the transformation of this highly contaminated site into a premier urban wildlife refuge. It included background information on the RMA and described the manufacturing and disposal history, including munition storage, liquid waste disposal and an overview of groundwater contamination. Soil remedies were summarized with particular reference to the timeline of the reclamation; wildlife-remedy/refuge interaction; innovative technologies such as hex pits and a dioxin study; and nuisance odour projects. The RMA was described as a nationwide clean-up success as it was a winner of the 2007 revitalization award from the Environmental Protection Agency. The RMA was originally about 27 square miles in the greater Denver area, of which 1 square mile was transformed into the wildlife refuge. The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) process was demonstrated in chart format. The presentation concluded with a discussion of lessons learned, such as sharing a mutual goal, and assuming that a mutually acceptable solution is possible. tabs., figs.

  2. An examination of the migratory transition of elite young European soccer players to the English Premier League.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, David; Littlewood, Martin; Nesti, Mark; Benstead, Luke

    2012-01-01

    The migration of soccer players has increased in recent years. In this study, we examined the experiences of elite young soccer players as they engaged in a migratory transition from their home country to an English Premier League (EPL) club. Five young players, who made the migratory transition between the ages of 16 and 24, were interviewed. Data were analysed using the principles of content analysis. Verbatim text was then aligned to the emergent themes. Results indicate that young migratory players face the initial frenzy that is associated with an approach from an EPL club before going through a "decision" phase, followed by a period of "migration" and "acculturation" before establishing (or not) their "home from home". The challenges of leaving home and family while trying to establish themselves as a professional player in an environment that (still) appears to be beset with (traditional) English soccer culture (i.e. high tempo, ruthless, macho, and aggressive) are recounted. While the player's family was a significant source of social support, there is still a need for qualified personnel (e.g. sports psychologists) and/or appropriately trained international recruitment staff and football agents (i.e. in areas of social, psychological, and/or performance lifestyle) to support young players through their migratory transition.

  3. The effect of playing formation on high-intensity running and technical profiles in English FA Premier League soccer matches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bradley, Paul S; Carling, Chris; Archer, Dave

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of playing formation on high-intensity running and technical performance during elite soccer matches. Twenty English FA Premier League games were analysed using a multiple-camera computerized tracking system (n = 153 players). Overall ball possession...... did not differ (P > 0.05) between 4-4-2, 4-3-3 and 4-5-1 formations (50%, s = 7 vs. 49%, s = 8 vs. 44%, s = 6). No differences were observed in high-intensity running between 4-4-2, 4-3-3 and 4-5-1 formations. Compared with 4-4-2 and 4-3-3 formations, players in a 4-5-1 formation performed less very...... high-intensity running when their team was in possession (312 m, s = 196 vs. 433 m, s = 261 vs. 410 m, s = 270; P ...

  4. Anti-hypertensive medicines prescribing for medical outpatients in a premier teaching hospital in Nigeria: a probable shift of paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshiet, Unyime I; Yusuff, Kazeem B

    2014-04-01

    Previous studies of anti-hypertensive medicines utilization pattern in Nigeria showed that Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) were often the least prescribed. However, the appropriate use of ACEIs in the black population achieves good blood pressure control and provides additional long term cardio- and renovascular protection benefits. To assess the current utilization pattern of antihypertensive medicines with specific emphasis on identifying possible shift in the frequency of use of ACEIs. A prospective cross-sectional assessment of the current utilization pattern of anti-hypertensive medicines was conducted among 300 randomly selected cohort at a 900-bed premier Teaching Hospital located in Ibadan, Southwestern Nigeria. The current utilization pattern was compared with the results of a study conducted at the same site and published 10 years ago. Of the 300 random cohorts, a majority (79%) were females (237) with mean age 58.7 years (SD=2.81 years. Stage 2 hypertension was the most frequent diagnosis (54.3%). The utilization of ACEIs and long acting CCB (amlodipine) significantly increased from 8.6% and 21% (Ten years ago) to 29.93% and 36.68% respectively (p Anti-hypertensive medicines utilization has significantly shifted towards the increased use of ACEIs and long acting dihydropyridine CCBs. The use of thiazides and methyldopa has declined significantly. Physicians appeared more cognizant of the long term cardio- and renovascular benefits inherent in using ACEIs in a high cardiovascular risk group such as black hypertensive.

  5. Incidence, nature, and pattern of injuries to referees in a premier football (soccer) league: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordi, Ramin; Chitsaz, Alireza; Rostami, Mohsen; Mostafavi, Reza; Ghadimi, Mahmoodreza

    2013-09-01

    Despite the crucial role of referees in a soccer match, few researchers have targeted the injury profile of referees in their studies. Understanding the incidence, nature, and pattern of injuries could provide important information for educational and preventative efforts at the international level. The incidence rate and patterns of acute injuries to official referees of the Iranian Premier Football League during the 2009-2010 season are similar to those reported among referees in short-term international competitions such as FIFA World Cup. Prospective cohort study. Demographic data for 74 referees, including 30 main referees and 44 assistant referees, were collected at the beginning of the season. To record injuries and refereeing time, weekly contact was made by a physician. In total, 102 injuries were reported by referees during the football season. The incidence rates of injuries among referees during training and matches were 4.6 and 19.6 injuries per 1000 hours, respectively. Muscular and tendon injuries were found to be the most common type of injury, and the most common site of injury was the lower leg followed by the hip and groin. The results of this study are consistent with similar prospective studies evaluating injuries to referees over the course of a short-term tournament. These findings provide a base for suggesting possible preventive recommendations in future studies.

  6. THE PHRASEOLOGY OF “HEAD” IN RELATION WITH BALKAN MENTALITY (CONTRASTIVE ANALYSIS OF THE PHRASEOLOGY OF ALBANIAN, BULGARIAN AND GREEK LANGUAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva ÇËRAVA (KANE

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The common points in the phraseology of Balkan languages are often attributed to some “Balkan cultural heritage”, a term which is usually not defined any further. So, this term can allow us to see how this her itage is represented in phraseology. First of all, the use of a systematic empirical research to describe these phraseological units serves to determine which idioms actually share a relatively identical lexical and semantic structure across the three lang uages and could therefore be called “widespread”. This article presents a contrastive study of the structures and semantics of phraseology units containing the word “head” in Albanian, Bulgarian and Greek languages. This approach can describe similarities and differences of mentality as reflected in phraseology.

  7. Phonologie et morphosyntaxe de l’anglais dans un produit SIC : le premier module de MACAO Phonologie et morphosyntaxe de l’anglais dans un produit SIC : le premier module de MACAO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Vincent-Durroux

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available La préoccupation fréquente, chez les étudiants spécialistes d’autres disciplines que l’anglais, d’améliorer leur compréhension de l’anglais oral a motivé notre démarche de création d’un produit SIC (Systèmes d’Information et de Communication : MACAO (Modules d’Aide à la Compréhension de l’Anglais Oral. Le premier module, "S’entraîner à la reconnaissance", est réalisé et l’outil informatique s’est révélé particulièrement utile pour notre projet. Dans cet article, nous faisons état des difficultés récurrentes en compréhension de l’anglais oral : elles peuvent être dues à des attentes erronées fondées sur la dissymétrie entre la langue écrite et la langue orale, mais aussi à une reconnaissance difficile de certains morphèmes par l’existence de variantes phonologiques en fonction du contexte et par la proximité phonologique de certains morphèmes. Nous présentons également comment le contenu du premier module tente d’apporter des solutions à ces difficultés : en amenant les apprenants à prendre conscience du phénomène de réduction vocalique et d’inaccentuation qui touche certaines syllabes des mots aussi bien que certains éléments monosyllabiques de l’énoncé et en proposant un entraînement à la reconnaissance de ces éléments. Le module est en cours de validation avec une phase d’évaluation.French students who have English as part of their curriculum often express the wish to improve their comprehension of oral English. This led us to envisage the creation of a CALL product: MACAO (Modules to help in the comprehension of oral English. The first module has been created: "Training oneself for recognition". The computer was particularly adequate in this prospect. In this paper we present the most frequent difficulties in the comprehension of oral English: they can be related either to erroneous expectations based on the dissymmetry between the written form and the oral

  8. See you at the match: Motivation for sport consumption and intrinsic psychological reward of premier football league spectators in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Frederick W. Stander; Llewellyn E. Van Zyl

    2016-01-01

    Orientation: Local football contributes significantly to the social- and economic welfare of South Africa through its spectators. Understanding the motives and experiences of football spectators could provide opportunities for capitalising on football as revenue stream feeding the South African economy. Research purpose: To investigate how motives for sport consumption predict intrinsic psychological reward of South African premier league football spectators. Motivation for the study: Sport ...

  9. The Effect of Autonomy-Supportive Behaviors of Coaches on Need Satisfaction and Sport Commitment of Elite Female Players in Handball Premier League

    OpenAIRE

    Sedigheh Hosseinpoor Delavar; Shirin Zardoshtian; Behesht Ahmady; Azadeh Azadi

    2012-01-01

    This study determined the effects of autonomy-supportive behaviors on satisfying the psychological needs and commitment of female handball players in premier league in Iran. Here, we used descriptive research (survey) method. The statistical population of 237 players was selected as our samples. We administered three questionnaires for autonomy-Supportive behaviors, psychological needs and commitment including perceived autonomy-supportive behaviors of coaches in sport (PASSES), satisfaction ...

  10. Occurrence and predictors of acute stent recoil-A comparison between the xience prime cobalt chromium stent and the promus premier platinum chromium stent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bommel, Rutger J; Lemmert, Miguel E; van Mieghem, Nicolas M; van Geuns, Robert-Jan; van Domburg, Ron T; Daemen, Joost

    2017-05-13

    To compare the occurrence of acute stent recoil in two different stent types (platinum chromium and cobalt chromium) and identify the potential predictors of significant acute stent recoil. Acute stent recoil is frequently observed after percutaneous coronary intervention and has been associated with in-stent restenosis and in-stent thrombosis. Different stent designs may result in varying degrees of stent recoil. From a registry of "all-comers" treated with either the Xience Prime Cobalt Chromium or Promus Premier Platinum Chromium stent, a random sample of 100 patients was drawn. Acute stent recoil was defined as the minimal luminal diameter (MLD) of the last inflated balloon minus the MLD after, divided by the MLD of the last inflated balloon. Significant acute stent recoil was defined as recoil ≥10%. A total of 123 lesions (61 Xience Prime vs 62 Promus Premier) in 100 patients were analyzed. Acute stent recoil of 8.6 ± 4.9% was observed in the Xience Prime group versus 8.7 ± 4.2% in the Promus Premier group, P = 0.970. In a multivariate model for significant acute stent recoil, a stent/vessel ratio ≥1 (hazard ratio 4.64 [1.94-11.12], P = 0.001), a balloon/stent ratio >1 (hazard ratio 3.83 [1.12-13.14], P = 0.032) and direct stenting (hazard ratio 0.42 [0.18-0.96], P = 0.039) were identified as predictors. No significant differences were observed in the extent of acute stent recoil between the Xience Prime and the Promus Premier stent. A larger stent/vessel ratio, a larger balloon/stent ratio, and direct stenting were associated with significant acute stent recoil ≥10%. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. THE IMAGE OF TURKS AMONG INDIAN MUSLIMS: THE CASE OF BALKAN WARS / HİNT MÜSLÜMANLARINDA TÜRK İMGESİ: BALKAN SAVAŞLARI ÖRNEĞİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuncay Ercan SEPERCİOĞLU

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available An image consists of a person’s, a community’s and/or a society’s positive and/or negative conceptions and attributions towards an object, an event and/or another community. Factors such as ideological approaches, culture, collective memory, past experiences, and/or geography play an important role in forming these impressions. If a society’s approach towards another society is a matter of question, the image determines political stance and generates one of the reasons for social reactions. This study does not include examples of factionalized society, culture and/or political formulations but examples concerning positive perceptions of a society of another and how these perceptions are reflected on their reactions. In doing so, the study analyses the contributions of Indian Muslims to the Ottoman Empire and Turkish nation during the Balkan Wars with examples and questions the reasons behind these supports. Indian Muslims attempted to mold public opinion in order to bring attention to the Balkan Wars. They aided Ottomans in kind and cash, sent medical teams and played an active role in battle and organized activities for refugees. This study aims to reveal approaches and sensitivities of Indian Muslims to one of the biggest social problems that Turks faced in the early 20th century through data that were obtained from the Ottoman Archive and several newspapers of that period. İmge bir kişi, topluluk ve/veya toplumun bir nesneye, olaya ve/veya diğer bir topluluğa dair olumlu ya da olumsuz (veya her ikisi birden kavram ve nitelemelerinden oluşmaktadır. Bu izlenimlerde ideolojik yaklaşımlar, kültür, toplumsal hafıza, geçmiş deneyimler, coğrafya ve ekonomi gibi etkenler büyük rol oynar. Söz konusu olan bir toplumun diğer bir topluma yönelik yaklaşımıysa eğer, imge siyasal duruşu belirlemekte, toplumsal tepkilerin nedenlerinden birini oluşturmaktadır. Bu çalışma, -benzerleri çok görülen- ötekileştirilen bir

  12. Soccer Match Play as an Important Component of the Power-Training Stimulus in Premier League Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgans, Ryland; Di Michele, Rocco; Drust, Barry

    2018-01-02

    Competitive match play is a dominant component of the physical load completed by soccer players in a training microcycle. Characterizing the temporal disruption in homeostasis that follows exercise may provide some insight on the potential for match play to elicit an adaptive response. Countermovement-jump (CMJ) performance was characterized 3 d postmatch for 15 outfield players from an English Premier League soccer team (age 25.8 ± 4.1 y, stature 1.78 ± 0.08 m, body mass: 71.7 ± 9.1 kg) across a season. These players were classified as either starters (n = 9) or nonstarters (n = 6), according to their average individual playing time (more or less than 60 min/match). Linear mixed models were used to investigate the influence of indicators of match activity (total distance covered [TD] and high-intensity running distance [HI]) on CMJ height and peak power (PP). Starting players covered much greater TD (ES = 1.5) and HI (ES = 1.4) than nonstarters. Furthermore, there was a possible positive effect of HI on CMJ height and PP. This relationship suggests that an additional 0.6 km of HI would increase CMJ height and PP by slightly more than the smallest-worthwhile-change values of 0.6 cm and 1.0 W/kg, respectively. This small yet practically relevant increase in performance may suggest that match play, more specifically the intense activities that are associated with the match, provides a physiological stimulus for neuromuscular adaptation. These data may have implications for the preparation of soccer squads, especially the training requirements of starting and nonstarting players.

  13. Examining the External Training Load of an English Premier League Football Team With Special Reference to Acceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akenhead, Richard; Harley, Jamie A; Tweddle, Simon P

    2016-09-01

    Akenhead, R, Harley, J, and Tweddle, S. Examining the external training load of an English Premier League football team with special reference to acceleration. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2424-2432, 2016-Practitioners and coaches often use external training load variables such as distance run and the number of high-speed running (HSR) activities to quantify football training. However, an important component of the external load may be overlooked when acceleration activities are not considered. The aim of this study was to describe the within-microcycle distribution of external load, including acceleration, during in-season 1-game weeks in an elite football team. Global Positioning System technology was used to collect time-motion data from 12 representative 7-day microcycles across a competitive season (48 training days, 295 data sets). Training time, total distance (TD), high-speed running (HSR) distance (>5.8 m·s), sprint running distance (>6.7 m·s) and acceleration variables were recorded during each training session. Data were analysed for interday and interposition differences using mixed linear modeling. The distribution of external load was characterized by the second training day of the microcycle (5 days prematch) exhibiting the highest values for all variables of training load, with the fourth day (1 day prematch) exhibiting the lowest values. Central midfield players covered ∼8-16% greater TD than other positions excluding wide midfielders (p ≤ 0.03, d = 0.2-0.4) and covered ∼17% greater distance accelerating 1-2 m·s than central defenders (p = 0.03, d = 0.7). When expressed relative to training duration and TD, the magnitude of interday and interposition differences were markedly reduced (p = 0.03, d = 0.2-0.3). When managing the distribution of training load, practitioners should be aware of the intensity of training sessions and consider the density of external load within sessions.

  14. Continuations intra- et interphrastiques du français : premiers résultats expérimentaux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartkova Katarina

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Continuations intra et interphrastiques du français : premiers résultats expérimentaux Cet article rend compte d’un certain nombre d’observations pour l’étude des continuations mineures et majeures en français. Ces observations ont été obtenues dans le cadre d’un projet en cours sur les patrons prosodiques non-conclusifs en français et en anglais. Ici, Nous discutons plus particulièrement les variations de pente concernant deux types de configurations continuatives : (i le segment final d’un SN sujet dans une phrase simple déclarative, suivie ou non d’une autre phrase, (ii le segment final de X dans une suite complexe de type XY où X et Y sont des phrases simples reliées par une relation de discours, marquée ou non par une conjonction. A l’issu d’un protocole expérimental contrastant huit configurations proposées à trente deux sujets, nous avons relevé les valeurs de F0 toutes les 10 ms sur les segments finaux du SN et de X. En calculant le coefficient de la droite de régression correspondant à ce segment, nous avons contrasté les différentes configurations. Les résultats vont dans le sens de l’existence deux types de continuation, conformément à une intuition répandue dans la littérature, mais montrent aussi que leur différence doit se décrire à l’aide paramètres plus complexes que ce qui est généralement proposé.

  15. Le premier partenariat public-privé pour l’irrigation au Maroc : durable pour tous ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houdret Annabelle

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Les partenariats public-privé (PPP sont un phénomène relativement récent dans le secteur de l’irrigation ; le projet El Guerdane au Maroc est ainsi le premier de son genre. Inauguré en 2008, le projet alimente en eau 10 000 ha de plantations d’agrumes. Les banques internationales de développement le présentent comme un succès, mais l’impact sur le développement local est, au mieux, mitigé. Alors que certains agriculteurs ont bénéficié de cette initiative, d’autres ont été marginalisés, en termes d’accès à l’eau, aux terres fertiles et au développement. Fondé sur des recherches de terrain extensives conduites entre 2005 et 2013, l’article révèle trois problèmes cruciaux du projet PPP : des effets souvent négatifs sur les revenus des acteurs et sur le développement ; un partage inégal des coûts, des bénéfices et des risques entre les secteurs public et privé ; un impact environnemental incertain. Sur la base de ces résultats, l’étude situe le projet dans le contexte plus large de l’évolution des rapports de force politico-économiques au Maroc.

  16. The Effect of Promotional Tools on Conveying Brand Identity from Sport Consumers’ Viewpoint in the Country’s Premier League

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Asadollahi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The economic environment and business, advertising in sport is one of the ways that most companies to manage the brand, its products and expanding its market in the country. The aim of the present study investigates the effects of advertising on transfer of brand identity from the perspective of sports consumers in Premier League football. This study on the nature and purpose and in terms of descriptive and correlational in terms of search data, a survey was carried out that way. After face and content validity, reliability test using Cronbach's alpha for the questionnaire, the effect of advertising tools 0.89, questionnaire transfer brand identity was 0.86, respectively. In order to analyze the data, descriptive and inferential statistical methods for the calculation and processing information, and also Spss software packages and LISREL were used. The study findings also confirmed the emergence of structural equation and the findings of other researchers, showed a promotional tool to transfer of brand identity from the perspective of the Sports consumer was significant effect (Chi-Square/df=2/04, RMSEA=0/059, P-Value =0/0001. The effect of each variable prioritize research also showed use of tool television advertising has the greatest impact on consumers transfer of brand identity. According to the results, it can be said that managers, marketers and planners of advertising companies, organizations and clubs and sporting goods service provider using of the effectiveness of each advertising tool and provide an integrated program of tools and to inform, remind and convince consumers can transfer of brand identity or brand and achieve their advertising goals.

  17. A new troglobitic species of the genus Pholeuonopsis (Coleoptera: Leiodidae: Cholevinae: Leptodirini) from western Serbia, with a key to the species from Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ćurčić, Srećko; Vrbica, Maja; Vesović, Nikola; Antić, Dragan; Petković, Matija; Bosco, Fabrizio; Ćurčić, Božidar

    2015-03-25

    A new leptodirine leiodid beetle species, Pholeuonopsis (Pholeuonopsis) sljivovicensis sp. n., from a cave in western Serbia is described and diagnosed. The views of both male and female genitalia and other taxonomically important characters are imaged. The new species is clearly distinct from the closest relatives. It probably belongs to an old phyletic lineage of Mesogeid origin, like other known Pholeuonopsis taxa from the western part of the Balkan Peninsula. The new species is both an endemic and a relict inhabiting solely western Serbia. Morphological comparisons among the Serbian Pholeuonopsis species are provided, together with a key to the species. The genus Serbopholeuonopsis B. Ćurčić & Boškova, 2002 is regarded as a junior synonym of the genus Pholeuonopsis Apfelbeck, 1901.

  18. The Dilaridae of the Balkan Peninsula and of Anatolia (Insecta, Neuropterida, Neuroptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Aspöck

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Basing upon all available information on type material of Dilar turcicus Hagen, 1858, Dilar syriacus Navás, 1909, and Dilar lineolatus Navás, 1909, together with a large number of dilarid specimens, the pleasing lacewings of Anatolia and Southeast Europe are revised. The current taxonomic concept of D. turcicus is confirmed, and a lectotype is designated. Dilar turcicus is widely distributed in the southeast of Europe (being the only representative of Dilaridae in this region, in Anatolia, and, most probably, in the Caucasus region. Dilar syriacus and D. lineolatus remain nomina dubia. Dilar syriacus might occur in Anatolia, while D. lineolatus is a species occurring in western Central Asia. Two new species, Dilar anatolicus sp. n. and Dilar fuscus sp. n. are described from Anatolia. Wings and genital segments of the three species occurring in Anatolia are illustrated, and a map documenting the known distribution of these species is provided.

  19. STEM Curricula. Premiere PD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ryan, Ed.; Ernst, Jeremy, Ed.; Clark, Aaron, Ed.; DeLuca, Bill, Ed.; Kelly, Daniel, Ed.

    2017-01-01

    This professional development activity on STEM Education is designed to keep Technology and Engineering teachers up to date regarding current and important issues in the discipline. This article describes why there is a focus on STEM Education, defines STEM Education, and discusses curriculum integration and its elements.

  20. Best Practices. Premiere PD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ryan; Ernst, Jeremy; Clark, Aaron; DeLuca, Bill; Kelly, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Educators who engage in best practices utilize a variety of instructional delivery methods to assist all learners in achieving success in concept mastery. Best practices help educators set expectations for completing activities/lessons/projects/units, differentiate instruction, integrate curricula, and provide active learning opportunities for…

  1. Paleomagnetism and integrated stratigraphy of the Upper Berriasian hemipelagic succession in the Barlya section Western Balkan, Bulgaria: Implications for lithogenic input and paleoredox variations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grabowski, J.; Lakova, I.; Petrova, S.; Stoykova, K.; Ivanova, D.; Wójcik-Tabol, P.; Sobien, K.; Schnabl, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 461, 1 November (2016), s. 156-177 ISSN 0031-0182 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-09979S Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : biostratigraphy * carbon isotope stratigraphy * climate * magnetic susceptibility * magnetostratigraphy * sea-level changes Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 2.578, year: 2016

  2. Between the Balkans and the Baltic: Phylogeography of a Common Vole Mitochondrial DNA Lineage Limited to Central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojak, Joanna; McDevitt, Allan D; Herman, Jeremy S; Kryštufek, Boris; Uhlíková, Jitka; Purger, Jenő J; Lavrenchenko, Leonid A; Searle, Jeremy B; Wójcik, Jan M

    2016-01-01

    The common vole (Microtus arvalis) has been a model species of small mammal for studying end-glacial colonization history. In the present study we expanded the sampling from central and eastern Europe, analyzing contemporary genetic structure to identify the role of a potential 'northern glacial refugium', i.e. a refugium at a higher latitude than the traditional Mediterranean refugia. Altogether we analyzed 786 cytochrome b (cytb) sequences (representing mitochondrial DNA; mtDNA) from the whole of Europe, adding 177 new sequences from central and eastern Europe, and we conducted analyses on eight microsatellite loci for 499 individuals (representing nuclear DNA) from central and eastern Europe, adding data on 311 new specimens. Our new data fill gaps in the vicinity of the Carpathian Mountains, the potential northern refugium, such that there is now dense sampling from the Balkans to the Baltic Sea. Here we present evidence that the Eastern mtDNA lineage of the common vole was present in the vicinity of this Carpathian refugium during the Last Glacial Maximum and the Younger Dryas. The Eastern lineage expanded from this refugium to the Baltic and shows low cytb nucleotide diversity in those most northerly parts of the distribution. Analyses of microsatellites revealed a similar pattern but also showed little differentiation between all of the populations sampled in central and eastern Europe.

  3. Between the Balkans and the Baltic: Phylogeography of a Common Vole Mitochondrial DNA Lineage Limited to Central Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Stojak

    Full Text Available The common vole (Microtus arvalis has been a model species of small mammal for studying end-glacial colonization history. In the present study we expanded the sampling from central and eastern Europe, analyzing contemporary genetic structure to identify the role of a potential 'northern glacial refugium', i.e. a refugium at a higher latitude than the traditional Mediterranean refugia. Altogether we analyzed 786 cytochrome b (cytb sequences (representing mitochondrial DNA; mtDNA from the whole of Europe, adding 177 new sequences from central and eastern Europe, and we conducted analyses on eight microsatellite loci for 499 individuals (representing nuclear DNA from central and eastern Europe, adding data on 311 new specimens. Our new data fill gaps in the vicinity of the Carpathian Mountains, the potential northern refugium, such that there is now dense sampling from the Balkans to the Baltic Sea. Here we present evidence that the Eastern mtDNA lineage of the common vole was present in the vicinity of this Carpathian refugium during the Last Glacial Maximum and the Younger Dryas. The Eastern lineage expanded from this refugium to the Baltic and shows low cytb nucleotide diversity in those most northerly parts of the distribution. Analyses of microsatellites revealed a similar pattern but also showed little differentiation between all of the populations sampled in central and eastern Europe.

  4. An Englishman in Romania: An Imagological Reading of Mike Ormsby’s Never Mind the Balkans, Here’s Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela-Iuliana COLIPCĂ-CIOBANU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Connecting back with an already well-established tradition of scholarly explorations of images of Romanianness, as emerging from (nonfictional representations of cross-cultural, Anglo-Romanian encounters, the present paper focuses on one of the most recent textual productions foregrounding an English traveller’s gaze on his Romanian hosts, namely Mike Ormsby’s collection of short stories Never Mind the Balkans, Here’s Romania (2008. Applying an imagological grid to it, the paper aims at providing evidence in defence of the idea that, at least after 1989, the English observers’ attitudes towards and, implicitly, textual mirroring of Romania have undergone significant changes. In doing that, it reflects upon the ‘game’ of auto- and hetero-images at the heart of the narrative discourse as meant to point to both an awareness of cultural differences and the need to overcome cultural biases in one’s mind with a view to successful intercultural communication in the context of globalisation-driven societal transformations.

  5. Phenolic profile and free radical-scavenging activity of Cabernet Sauvignon wines of different geographical origins from the Balkan region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radovanović, Blaga C; Radovanović, Aleksandra N; Souquet, Jean-Marc

    2010-11-01

    The phenolic profile, determined by the relative proportions of different phenolic compounds, is characteristic for each grape variety and its corresponding wine. The aim of this study was to determine the phenolic and hydroxycinnamate acid, flavan-3-ol and flavonol contents and free radical-scavenging activity of single-cultivar (Cabernet Sauvignon) wines from selected Balkan vineyard regions by spectrophotometric methods and high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array and fluorescence detection. The contents of phenolic compounds varied depending on the agroclimatic factors and oenological practices of the vineyard region. The antioxidant activity of wine samples was estimated by their ability to scavenge the stable 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical (DPPH). All wines showed high DPPH-scavenging activity (70.03-83.53%, mean 73.76%). Significant correlations between catechin (R(2) = 0.8504) and quercetin (R(2) = 0.8488) concentrations and DPPH-scavenging ability of the wines were found. The concentrations of the main components catechin and quercetin can be used as biochemical markers for the authentication of red grape cultivars and their corresponding single-cultivar wines. 2010 Society of Chemical Industry

  6. Leaf n-alkanes as characters differentiating coastal and continental Juniperus deltoides populations from the Balkan Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajčević, Nemanja; Janaćković, Pedja; Dodoš, Tanja; Tešević, Vele; Bojović, Srdjan; Marin, Petar D

    2014-07-01

    The composition of the cuticular n-alkanes isolated from the leaves of nine populations of Juniperus deltoides R.P.Adams from continental and coastal areas of the Balkan Peninsula was characterized by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. In the leaf waxes, 14 n-alkane homologues with chain-lengths ranging from C22 to C35 were identified. n-Tritriacontane (C33 ) was dominant in the waxes of all populations, but variations between the populations in the contents of all n-alkanes were observed. Several statistical methods (ANOVA, principal component, discriminant, and cluster analyses) were used to investigate the diversity and variability of the cuticular-leaf-n-alkane patterns of the nine J. deltoides populations. This is the first report on the n-alkane composition for this species. The multivariate statistical analyses evidenced a high correlation of the leaf-n-alkane pattern with the geographical distribution of the investigated samples, differentiating the coastal from the continental populations of this taxon. Copyright © 2014 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  7. Climats et premiers peuplements des Alpes du Nord françaises : des derniers chasseurs aux premiers paysans (15 000 à 5 000 ans av. JC. Climate and early settlements of the French Northern Alps: From the last hunters to the first farmers (15 000 to 5 000 BC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Bintz

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Depuis près de 40 ans, dans les massifs montagneux des Alpes françaises du Nord, des programmes de recherche ont renouvelé nos connaissances sur les occupations humaines de la Préhistoire récente. Des gisements ont livré des séquences chrono-culturelles et naturelles de référence. Bien calées chronologiquement, elles autorisent une bonne approche des évolutions culturelles de la fin du Paléolithique supérieur au Néolithique, ainsi que bioclimatiques, du Dryas ancien à l’Atlantique. Pour répondre à des problématiques de circulation et d’occupation des territoires, des prospections thématiques ont été mises en œuvre par des chercheurs d’horizons différents. Dans une première partie sont abordés les questions touchant à la chronologie et au paléoenvironnement révélé notamment par les études sur le monde animal et le milieu végétal. Les épisodes du peuplement préhistorique sont présentés dans une seconde partie. Elle traite notamment des modalités du passage des derniers chasseurs-cueilleurs (magdaléniens, aziliens et mésolithiques aux premiers pasteurs-agriculteurs du Néolithique. Dans une troisième partie est présentée l’évolution des grands courants culturels à l’échelle des Alpes occidentales. Une carte met bien en évidence l’appropriation progressive des Alpes occidentales à partir des régions périphériques.For nearly 40 years, in mountain massifs of the northern French Alps, research programs have renewed our knowledges of human occupations for late prehistory. Some sites have yielded chrono-cultural and natural sequences of reference. Chronologically fit snugly, they allow a good approach of the cultural developments during the late Upper Paleolithic to the Neolithic and of bioclimats of Oldest Dryas at the Atlantic. To answer the problems of circulation and occupation of the territories, thematic surveys were carried out by researchers from different backgrounds.In the first

  8. Anti-hypertensive medicines prescribing for medical outpatients in a premier teaching hospital in Nigeria: a probable shift of paradigm

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    Eshiet UI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous studies of anti-hypertensive medicines utilization pattern in Nigeria showed that Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs were often the least prescribed. However, the appropriate use of ACEIs in the black population achieves good blood pressure control and provides additional long term cardio- and renovascular protection benefits. Objective: To assess the current utilization pattern of anti-hypertensive medicines with specific emphasis on identifying possible shift in the frequency of use of ACEIs. Methods: A prospective cross-sectional assessment of the current utilization pattern of anti-hypertensive medicines was conducted among 300 randomly selected cohort at a 900-bed premier Teaching Hospital located in Ibadan, Southwestern Nigeria. The current utilization pattern was compared with the results of a study conducted at the same site and published 10 years ago. Results: Of the 300 random cohorts, a majority (79% were females (237 with mean age 58.7 years (SD=2.81 years. Stage 2 hypertension was the most frequent diagnosis (54.3%. The utilization of ACEIs and long acting CCB (amlodipine significantly increased from 8.6% and 21% (Ten years ago to 29.93% and 36.68% respectively (p ˂ 0.0001. The use of thiazide diuretic and methyldopa declined significantly from 39.4% and 23.3% (Ten years ago to 16.12% and 9.7% respectively (p ˂ 0.0001. Adverse drug reactions due to ACEIs were documented in 1.5% (3, while laboratory monitoring of serum potassium, urea and creatinine was conducted in only 37% (111 of cohort. Potentially harmful drug-drug interactions were identified in 25% (75 of cohorts, and the most frequent were ACEIs + NSAIDs (53.3%, ACEIs + amiloride / hydrochlorothiazide (22.6%. Conclusions: Anti-hypertensive medicines utilization has significantly shifted towards the increased use of ACEIs and long acting dihydropyridine CCBs. The use of thiazides and methyldopa has declined significantly. Physicians appeared

  9. Le premier examen gynécologique idéal imaginé par les jeunes filles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyens, Anne; Dejeanne, Mélanie; Fabre, Elise; Rouge-Bugat, Marie-Eve; Oustric, Stéphane

    2017-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Explorer les représentations sur l’examen gynécologique (EG) et identifier les critères nécessaires à son bon déroulement chez des adolescentes n’ayant pas encore vécu cet examen. Type d’étude Enquête qualitative par entrevues semi-dirigées. Contexte Midi-Pyrénées (France) et Auvergne (France). Participants Jeunes filles de 15 à 19 ans qui n’ayant pas vécu l’EG. Méthodes Le mode de recrutement de l’échantillon a été double : sélection des jeunes filles par la technique boule-de-neige et sélection par la technique d’échantillonnage ciblé jusqu’à l’obtention de la saturation des données tout en cherchant la variation maximale dans les profils des sujets. Les questions ouvertes portaient sur les sources d’informations, les connaissances, les critères de bon déroulement et l’imaginaire autour de l’EG. Le verbatim a fait l’objet d’une analyse longitudinale immédiate rassemblant le contexte (notes des chercheurs) et les idées principales de l’entretien. Une analyse transversale thématique a été réalisée. Principales constatations Une méconnaissance générale des jeunes filles sur l’EG entretenait l’imaginaire autour de cet examen perçu comme obligatoire. L’EG idéal, selon les jeunes filles interrogées, aurait lieu chez une jeune fille qui se sentirait prête, informée préalablement, pouvant être accompagnée selon son souhait. Cet examen se déroulerait dans un environnement chaleureux et confortable afin de diminuer le sentiment de vulnérabilité. La qualité du lien avec le médecin conditionnerait l’acceptation de cet examen par les jeunes filles. Conclusion Une consultation dédiée à l’information, préalable à la consultation où a lieu l’EG, permettrait de diminuer les appréhensions, d’améliorer les connaissances des jeunes filles et de favoriser le bon déroulement du futur premier EG tant pour le médecin que pour la patiente. PMID:28807971

  10. Percepções do tempo e memória de um franco-argelino: estudo do romance Le Premier Homme (1994), de Albert Camus

    OpenAIRE

    Magalhães, Jéssica Teixeira

    2014-01-01

    No fim da década de cinquenta, quando eclodiu o conflito de independência na Argélia e grande parte dos intelectuais franceses apoiavam a causa nacionalista, Albert Camus encontrava-se em posição marginal no cenário francês e escrevia o manuscrito do que viria a ser o romance Le Premier Homme. A narrativa traça a trajetória de um franco-argelino em busca de rastros sobre seu pai morto na Primeira Guerra Mundial enquanto lutava pela França. O texto que viria a ser publicado em 1994 por sua fil...

  11. Uranium isotopes in the Balkan's environment and foods following the use of depleted uranium in the war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Fernando P; Oliveira, João M

    2010-05-01

    Immediately after the Balkan's war in 1999, there has been widespread international concern about the environmental contamination with depleted uranium (DU) from ammunitions used in the conflict. Exposure of military staff and local populations to uranium metal and to its ionizing radiation were feared as potential causes for leukemia and other diseases in that region. In January 2001 a scientific mission was carried out by Portugal to evaluate those issues. A large number of environmental and food samples collected in Kosovo and Bosnia-Herzegovina, such as soils, water, aerosols, vegetables, bread, and meat were analyzed by radiochemistry and alpha spectrometry. Results of the analyses for total uranium and individual uranium isotopes are presented. Uranium in agriculture soils in Kosovo and Bosnia-Herzegovina averaged 1.8+/-0.8mgkg(-)(1) and 3+/-1mgkg(-)(1), while concentrations in drinking water from public supplies averaged 0.5+/-0.2microgL(-)(1) and 0.4+/-0.3microgL(-)(1), respectively. Results on soils indicated also that environmental contamination by DU was much localized and confined to the areas of ammunition impact. Concentrations of uranium in most of the environmental and food samples were comparable to concentrations of uranium measured in other European regions, such as Portugal and United Kingdom, and uranium isotopic ratios were in general compatible with isotopic ratios typical of natural uranium. However, a few samples displayed modified uranium isotopic ratios and could have been contaminated by DU. Implications of DU in radiation exposure of the population and in environmental contamination are discussed.

  12. Balkan Endemic Nephropathy - Still continuing enigma, risk assessment and underestimated hazard of joint mycotoxin exposure of animals or humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoev, Stoycho D

    2017-01-05

    The spreading of mycotoxic nephropathy in animals/humans was studied. The possible etiological causes provoking this nephropathy were carefully reviewed and analyzed. The natural content of the most frequent nephrotoxic mycotoxins in target feedstuffs/foods were investigated, in addition to their significance for development of renal damages in endemic areas. An estimation of the level of exposure of humans to the nephrotoxic mycotoxin, ochratoxin A (OTA), is made. The possible synergism or additive effects between some target mycotoxins in the development of nephropathy is also covered. The significance of joint mycotoxin interaction and masked mycotoxins, in addition to some newly isolated fungal toxic agents in the complicated etiology of mycotoxic nephropathy ranged in Balkan countries is discussed. The importance of some target fungal species which can induce kidney damages was evaluated. The morphological/ultrastructural, functional and toxicological similarities between human and animal nephropathy are studied. The possible hazard of low content of combinations of some target mycotoxins in food or feedstuff ingested by pigs, chickens or humans under natural conditions is evaluated and a risk assessment was made. Some different but more effective manners of prophylaxis and/or prevention against OTA contamination of feedstuffs/foods are suggested. A survey was made in regard to the best possible ways of veterinary hygiene control of OTA-exposed animals at slaughter time for preventing the entrance of OTA in commercial feedstuffs/food channels with a view to reduce the possible health hazard for humans. The economic efficacy and applicability of such preventive measures is additionally discussed and some practical suggestions are made. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Genetic differentiation of the Western Capercaillie highlights the importance of South-eastern Europe for understanding the species phylogeography.

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    Marko Bajc

    Full Text Available The Western Capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus L. is a grouse species of open boreal or high altitude forests of Eurasia. It is endangered throughout most mountain range habitat areas in Europe. Two major genetically identifiable lineages of Western Capercaillie have been described to date: the southern lineage at the species' southernmost range of distribution in Europe, and the boreal lineage. We address the question of genetic differentiation of capercaillie populations from the Rhodope and Rila Mountains in Bulgaria, across the Dinaric Mountains to the Slovenian Alps. The two lineages' contact zone and resulting conservation strategies in this so-far understudied area of distribution have not been previously determined. The results of analysis of mitochondrial DNA control region sequences of 319 samples from the studied populations show that Alpine populations were composed exclusively of boreal lineage; Dinaric populations of both, but predominantly (96% of boreal lineage; and Rhodope-Rila populations predominantly (>90% of southern lineage individuals. The Bulgarian mountains were identified as the core area of the southern lineage, and the Dinaric Mountains as the western contact zone between both lineages in the Balkans. Bulgarian populations appeared genetically distinct from Alpine and Dinaric populations and exhibited characteristics of a long-term stationary population, suggesting that they should be considered as a glacial relict and probably a distinct subspecies. Although all of the studied populations suffered a decline in the past, the significantly lower level of genetic diversity when compared with the neighbouring Alpine and Bulgarian populations suggests that the isolated Dinaric capercaillie is particularly vulnerable to continuing population decline. The results are discussed in the context of conservation of the species in the Balkans, its principal threats and legal protection status. Potential conservation strategies should

  14. Legal and criminological aspects of the crime of genocide in the Balkans on the Serb population in XX century - Selected Issues

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    Magdalena Ickiewicz-Sawicka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The text under the title Crime of Genocide Serbian population in the Balkans in the twentieth century, consists of threeparts. The first one describes the theoretical concepts idea Genocide, the other contains reflections on war crimes, crimesagainst humanity, etc. - also on the basis of theoretical concepts. The third part of the article was presented to the Croatianconcentration camp was set up to exterminate the Serbian civilian population into the territory of the Independent State ofCroatia. Text close to the conclusions, which are all considerations the conclusion contained in the article.

  15. Timing of K-alkaline magmatism in the Balkan segment of southeast European Variscan edifice: ID-TIMS and LA-ICP-MS study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyulgerov, Momchil; Ovtcharova-Schaltegger, Maria; Ulianov, Alexey; Schaltegger, Urs

    2017-08-01

    The Variscan orogen in southeast Europe is exposed in isolated remnants, affected by a subsequent Alpine tectono-magmatic overprint. Unlike the central European Variscides, in SE Europe the juxtaposition and correlation of the events and products are impeded by the scarcity of Variscan domains with preserved magmatic, metamorphic, sedimentological and structural characteristics. To reveal the particular evolution of the Variscan orogen in Balkan Mts, we present the results of ID-TIMS and LA-ICP-MS dating of three potassic-alkaline intrusions: Svidnya, Buhovo-Seslavtsi and Shipka. The age determinations from the plutons do not permit to establish their unequivocal ages, but they bracket the time interval of emplacements. Based on geochronological, tectonic and stratigraphic evidence the emplacement interval for plutons could be: 317-310 Ma for Svidnya, 330-310 Ma for Buhovo-Seslavtsi and 320-303 Ma for Shipka. These results show that the generation of potassic-alkaline magmas was post-Visean and is contemporaneous with the adjacent numerous calc-alkaline granitoid plutons. Thus, the Variscan orogen in the Balkan Mts is not characterized by a time-dependent geochemical evolution of magma generation. Hence, the observed differences in the rocks' compositions can be interpreted solely by distinction between the magma sources. The available data for both potassic-alkaline and calc-alkaline rocks indicate that the major episodes of crustal stacking and shearing in the Balkan part of the Variscan edifice are pre-Visean ( 330 Ma). The present study reveals that the potassic-alkaline rocks from the Balkan Mts are younger than the central European potassic granitoids (durbachites). It suggests that melting of enriched mantle source took place at different times throughout the Variscan orogen. In spite of the alkaline character of the magmas, the studied zircons show a complex nature, with inherited cores and magmatic overgrowths. The observed heterogeneities in the zircons

  16. Structurations formelle et conceptuelle des articles de dictionnaires : le premier modèle de codification des articles dans l’histoire des dictionnaires Larousse

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    Corbin Pierre

    2014-07-01

    Nous nous proposons d’examiner, dans l’histoire des dictionnaires généraux monolingues Larousse des origines à nos jours, une sélection de jalons de l’articulation entre structure conceptuelle et structure formelle des articles. Au regard de l’ampleur des données à couvrir, il ne pourra bien entendu s’agir que d’un survol, mais celui-ci permettra (1 de présenter le premier des trois modèles majeurs de codification des articles dans l’histoire des dictionnaires Larousse, celui qui trouve son origine dans le Nouveau dictionnaire de la langue française de 1856 ou ses éditions révisées, (2 de prendre en compte les dictionnaires proposés par cet éditeur en un siècle et demi qui ont repris le modèle de 1856 ou sa forme révisée, et (3 de présenter contrastivement au premier les deux autres modèles majeurs, qui trouvent leur ancrage chronologique respectivement dans le Grand dictionnaire universel du XIXe siècle de 1866-1876 et le Dictionnaire du français contemporain de 1966.

  17. Western Australia energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Scaife; Andre Urfer; Phil Brown; Aaron Cottrell; Jason Nunn; Louis Wibberley

    2006-03-15

    The study aims to assess present and future energy supply in Western Australia, and incorporates requests made by Wesfarmers, Griffin Energy, Western Power and the Department of Industry and Resources in October 2003 to include a number of hypothetical energy futures.

  18. The impact of introducing computer-based alternatives to the use of animals in the teaching of physiology and pharmacology at Balkan universities - a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojic, Zvezdana Z; Dewhurst, David G

    2009-11-01

    Balkan universities use a substantial number of small mammals and amphibians in the teaching of physiology and pharmacology. This project investigated whether making computer-based alternatives readily available, and combining this availability with a staff development workshop focusing on methods of integrating such resources into undergraduate curricula, would have any effect on animal use. Teachers from 20 Institutes (from five Balkan countries) participated in the workshop. They presented information about animal use in teaching in their universities, and agreed to introduce at least one computer-based alternative into their teaching in the following year. They were surveyed by questionnaire before, during, and one year after, attending the workshop, in order to estimate any changes in animal use. The results showed a significant (P < 0.01) reduction in animal use and a high level of implementation of the alternatives provided at the workshop. Teachers recognised the potential benefits of using computers to support their teaching. They lacked knowledge about what computer-based alternatives are available and how to find information about them, including published evidence of their educational effectiveness. In this pilot study, a combination of staff development and making alternatives readily available to teachers had a significant impact on animal use in the teaching of physiology and pharmacology. 2009 FRAME.

  19. Natural Radioactivity of Intrusive-Metamorphic and Sedimentary Rocks of the Balkan Mountain Range (Serbia, Stara Planina

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    Sanna Masod Abdulqader

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Stara Planina (also known as the Balkan mountain range is known for numerous occurrences and deposits of uranium and associated radionuclides. It is also famous for its geodiversity. The geologic framework is highly complex. The mountain is situated between the latitudes of 43° and 44° N and the longitudes from 22°16′ to 23°00′ E. Uranium exploration and radioactivity testing on Stara Planina began back in 1948. Uranium has also been mined in the zone of Kalna, within the Janja granite intrusive. The naturally radioactive geologic units of Stara Planina are presented in detail in this paper. The main sources of radioactivity on Stara Planina can be classified as: 1. Granitic endogenous—syngenetic–epigenetic deposits and occurrences; 2. Metamorphogenic—syngenetic; and 3. Sedimentary, including occurrences of uranium deposition and fluctuation caused by water in different types of sedimentary rocks formed in a continental setting, which could be classified under epigenetic types. The area of Stara Planina with increased radioactivity (higher than 200 cps, measured by airborne gamma spectrometry, is about 380 square kilometers. The highest values of measured radioactivity and uranium grade were obtained from a sample taken from the Mezdreja uranium mine tailing dump, where 226Ra measures 2600 ± 100 Bq/kg and the uranium grade is from 76.54 to 77.65 ppm U. The highest uranium (and lead concentration, among all samples, is measured in graphitic schist with high concentrations of organic (graphitic material from the Inovska Series—99.47 ppm U and 107.69 ppm Pb. Thorium related radioactivity is the highest in granite samples from the Janja granite in the vicinity of the Mezdreja granite mine and the Gabrovnica granite mine tailing dump, and it is the same—250 ± 10 Bq/kg for 232Th, while the thorium grade varies from 30.82 to 60.27 ppm Th. In gray siltstones with a small amount of organic material, the highest radioactivity is

  20. Reevaluation of the Premier Clostridium difficile toxin A and B immunoassay with comparison to glutamate dehydrogenase common antigen testing evaluating Bartels cytotoxin and Prodesse ProGastro Cd polymerase chain reaction as confirmatory procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doing, Kirk M; Hintz, Marilyn S; Keefe, Calvin; Horne, Sarah; LeVasseur, Shelby; Kulikowski, Martha L

    2010-02-01

    Enzyme immunoassays are currently the most common tests used in the clinical laboratory for the detection of Clostridium difficile toxins; however, significant problems with their performance have recently been described. We prospectively reevaluated the Meridian Premier C. difficile toxin A/B assay with direct comparison to a 2-step algorithm that screened for C. difficile common antigen and compared cytotoxin and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as confirmatory procedures. The Premier assay lacked sufficient sensitivity, missing 25% of true-positive samples. PCR was the most sensitive method and the only procedure that allowed same day testing and reporting. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Silvics of western redcedar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond J. Boyd

    1959-01-01

    Western redcedar (Thuja plicata) is one of the most important commercial species in the Pacific Northwest, Alaska, and British Columbia. Local common names include giant arborvitae, canoe cedar, shinglewood, Pacific redcedar, giant cedar, arborvitae, and cedar (24).

  2. Technical and tactical training team «Helios» Kharkiv in the first round of 23 Ukrainian football championship in the premier league 2013–2014

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    Rebaz Sleman

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to define the characteristics of the model command of technical and tactical training team participating in the Ukrainian Premier League First League. Material and Methods: the research was conducted using the method of peer review. The experts were involved 5 specialists football. Results: the mean values for the analyzed variables in 10 games. The various technical and tactical actions and their percentage in the overall structure of the game team statistics for 20 games, as well as some indicators of team play "Helios" Kharkov. Conclusions: the obtained quantitative and qualitative indicators (coefficient of marriage as a team on the technical and tactical actions, as well as separately for each technical and tactical reception. The performances allow you to make adjustments to the training process this command to improve sportsmanship.

  3. Le premier élément du patrimoine maritime de Saint-Pierre-et-Miquelon protégé au titre des monuments historiques

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    Herveline Delhumeau

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Ymac a été classé par arrêté du 14 février 2008 au titre des monuments historiques en raison de l’intérêt ethnologique lié à sa fonction de bateau-pilote. (fig. n° 1Figure 1Ymac, ex-Radar III. Photographie après 2003. © Yannick Lafourcade.Construit en 1965 à Mavilette (Nouvelle-Ecosse, Canada par le chantier Alfred Boudreau, ce bateau traditionnel de pêche à coque en bois avait été initialement armé pour la pêche aux poissons plats par Alex Doucet, d’où son premier nom Alex D. Après avoir p...

  4. Le dialogue des « Tableaux » d’August Wilhelm Schlegel et la conception de la peinture dans le premier romantisme

    OpenAIRE

    Behler, Ernst

    2011-01-01

    Les frères Schlegel avaient exprimé leur conscience historique essentiellement dans le domaine de la théorie esthétique (« La meilleure théorie de l’art est son histoire ») et s’étaient principalement concentrés sur la littérature (la littérature ancienne et moderne, classique et romantique). Avec son dialogue « Les tableaux » (1799) A. W. Schlegel réalisait un élargissement considérable de l’intérêt esthétique du premier romantisme qui s’orientait désormais sur l’histoire et la théorie de la...

  5. See you at the match: Motivation for sport consumption and intrinsic psychological reward of premier football league spectators in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick W. Stander

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Local football contributes significantly to the social- and economic welfare of South Africa through its spectators. Understanding the motives and experiences of football spectators could provide opportunities for capitalising on football as revenue stream feeding the South African economy. Research purpose: To investigate how motives for sport consumption predict intrinsic psychological reward of South African premier league football spectators. Motivation for the study: Sport - particularly football - is an untapped resource for stimulating economic development and growth through its consumers. Spectators, who often experience their investment in the sport as deeply rewarding and meaningful, should participate more frequently in purchasing products or services associated with the sport. Through understanding the motives for sport consumption of South African premier league football spectators and the impact of these motives on intrinsic psychological reward experiences, football clubs are able to provide a targeted experience or service to spectators in order to further stimulate economic growth. Research design, approach and method: A census sample of 806 football spectators attending various matches at a football stadium in Soweto was drawn. A cross-sectional research design was implemented. This research was exploratory and descriptive. Structural equation modelling was implemented to assess the factor structures of the constructs, to confirm composite reliability of the measures and to assess the structural paths between the variables. Main findings: A predictive model for intrinsic psychological rewards (life satisfaction and meaning through the motivation for sport consumption (individual – and game related factors was confirmed. It was further established that motivation for sport consumption is significantly positively a related to and b associated with the experience of intrinsic psychological reward by South African

  6. Evaluating the response of Lake Prespa (SW Balkan) to future climate change projections from a high-resolution model

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Schriek, Tim; Varotsos, Konstantinos V.; Giannakopoulos, Christos

    2017-04-01

    The Mediterranean stands out globally due to its sensitivity to (future) climate change. Projections suggest that the Balkans will experience precipitation and runoff decreases of up to 30% by 2100. However, these projections show large regional spatial variability. Mediterranean lake-wetland systems are particularly threatened by projected climate changes that compound increasingly intensive human impacts (e.g. water extraction, drainage, pollution and dam-building). Protecting the remaining systems is extremely important for supporting global biodiversity. This protection should be based on a clear understanding of individual lake-wetland hydrological responses to future climate changes, which requires fine-resolution projections and a good understanding of the impact of hydro-climate variability on individual lakes. Climate change may directly affect lake level (variability), volume and water temperatures. In turn, these variables influence lake-ecology, habitats and water quality. Land-use intensification and water abstraction multiply these climate-driven changes. To date, there are no projections of future water level and -temperature of individual Mediterranean lakes under future climate scenarios. These are, however, of crucial importance to steer preservation strategies on the relevant catchment-scale. Here we present the first projections of water level and -temperature of the Prespa Lakes covering the period 2071-2100. These lakes are of global significance for biodiversity, and of great regional socio-economic importance as a water resource and tourist attraction. Impact projections are assessed by the Regional Climate Model RCA4 of the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI) driven by the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology global climate model MPI-ESM-LR under two RCP future emissions scenarios, the RCP4.5 and the RCP8.5, with the simulations carried out in the framework of EURO-CORDEX. Temperature, evapo(transpi)ration and

  7. The Slavs and Vlachs in the Byzantine system of provincial organization in the Southern Balkans until the XI century: Similarities and differencies

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    Cvetković Miloš

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to establishing the circumstances and manner under which the Slav tribes and Vlachs in the southern Balkans were being integrated into the Byzantine system of provincial administration. Constantinople militarily imposed sovereignty on the settled Slavs, which was the first step towards their integration into the Byzantine state and society. When it comes to Vlachs, there was no use of military force. Special methods were applied to fit their autonomous organization into the frames oh the empire. In this regard, the paper compares the patterns of the integration processes of the two mentioned ethnic groups. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 177032: Tradicija, inovacija i identitet u vizantijskom svetu

  8. Ceramic crustulum with the representation of Nemesis-Diana from Viminatium: A contribution to the cult of goddess nemesis in roman provinces of Central Balkans

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    Gavrilović Nadežda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of iconographic representation from ceramic medallion/cast for cakes (crustulum from Viminatium showed that we are dealing with a very rare type of iconographic representation of goddess Nemesis-Diana. The monuments with syncretistic presentation of goddess Nemesis-Diana are not only very rare, but they imply a very close connection of the goddess with imperial cult and with games and gladiator fights in amphitheatre. Overview and analysis of all so far known cult monuments of goddess Nemesis, opened a question about the correlation of goddess and presumed amphitheatre in Viminatium and also a question about new aspect of honouring Nemesis in the territory of Roman provinces of Central Balkans - as a patroness of agonistic competitions and protectress of gladiatorial games and gladiators. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 177007: Romanization, urbanization and transformation of urban centres of civil, military and residential character in Roman provinces on territory of Serbia

  9. NATO advanced research workshop on implications of climate change and disasters on military activities: building resiliency and mitigating vulnerability in the Balkan Region

    CERN Document Server

    Veeravalli, Swathi

    2017-01-01

    This volume provides preliminary recommendations on ways to educate and develop experience-based expertise among disaster response, security and other professionals from diverse backgrounds, whose current and future interests relate to crisis management. The book takes a multidisciplinary approach to improving regional security cooperation and to addressing the complex issues of climate change and disasters on military activities. The main aims of this proceedings volume are: -to provide an Education and Individual Training Activity Common Core Curriculum, whose main purpose is to support increased awareness of the implications of Climate Change; -to identify broad issues on climate change and disasters, particularly those with the highest importance and relevance to regional security. The Crisis Management and Disaster Response Centre of Excellence (CMDR COE) conducted an Advanced Research Workshop “Climate Change Implications on Military Activities in the Balkans Region” between 05-07 July, 2016. The ev...

  10. Cost-effectiveness of four immunomodulatory therapies for relapsingremitting multiple sclerosis: A Markov model based on data a Balkan country in socioeconomic transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković Slobodan M.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. A cost-effectiveness analyses of immunomodulatory treatments for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS in developed countries have shown that any benefit from these drugs is achieved at very high cost. The aim of our study was to compare the cost-effectiveness of five treatment strategies in patients diagnosed with RRMS (symptom management alone and in combination with subcutaneous glatiramer acetate, intramuscular interferon β-1a, subcutaneous interferon β-1a, or intramuscular interferon β- 1b in a Balkan country in socio-economic transition. Methods. The Markov model was developed based on the literature about effectiveness and on local Serbian cost calculations. The duration of a cycle in the model was set to a month. The baseline time horizon was 480 months (40 years. The societal perspective was used for costs and outcomes, and they were discounted for 3% annually. Monte Carlo micro simulation with 1000 virtual patients was done. Results. Significant gain with immunomodulatory therapy was achieved only in relapse-free years, while the time spent in health states EDSS 0.0-5.5 was longer with symptomatic therapy only, and gains in life years and QALYs were only marginal. One QALY gained costs more than a billion of Serbian dinars (more than 20 million US dollars, making each of the four immunomodulatory therapies costineffective. Conclusion. Our study suggests that immunomodulatory therapy of RRMS in a Balkan country in socioeconomic transition is not cost-effective, regardless of the type of the therapy. Moderate gain in relapse-free years does not translate to gain in QALYs, probably due to adverse effects of immunomodulatory therapy.

  11. Spatial Diversification Of Living Standards In The Former Communist Countries Of Central And Eastern Europe And The Balkans / Analiza Zróżnicowania Przestrzennego Poziomu Życia w Krajach Postkomunistycznych Europy Środkowo- Wschodniej I Na Bałkanach

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grażyna Karmowska; Mirosława Marciniak

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the results of research on the variation in the standard of living and quality of life of the inhabitants of Central and Eastern European and the Balkan countries...

  12. Western blot analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Seishiro

    2012-01-01

    Electrophoresis and the following western blot analysis are indispensable to investigate biochemical changes in cells and tissues exposed to nanoparticles or nanomaterials. Proteins should be extracted from the cells and tissues using a proper method, especially when phosphorylated proteins are to be detected. It is important to select a good blocking agent and an appropriate pair of primary and peroxidase-tagged secondary antibodies to obtain good results in western blot analysis. One thing that may be specific to nanomaterials, and that you should keep in mind, is that some proteins may be adsorbed on the surface of particulate nanomaterials. In this chapter the whole process of western blot analysis, from sample preparation to quantitative measurement of target proteins, is described.

  13. Bizánc és a Balkán: integrációs tényezők, stratégiák, struktúrák - Byzantium and the Balkans: Integrating Factors, Strategies and Structures

    OpenAIRE

    SZÖLLŐSI, János

    2014-01-01

    The author of this paper intends to give an overall picture about the particular relationship of the Eastern Roman Empire with the Balkans. The peoples of the Balkan were very rapidly assimilated into the ‘Byzantine Commonwealth’. This extraordinary term denotes an extraordinary concept of Dimitri Obolensky, a Russian-born historian and Byzantinist. It signifies a supranational structure with religion (liturgy and church organization), culture (language and literacy), recognition of the emper...

  14. Western Indian Ocean

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Western Indian Ocean. II: The sandfish Holothuria scabra (ja'éger, 1833). Richard Rasolofonirina”, Devaraien Vai'tilingon“, Igor Eeckhaut"3 and Michel jangouxm”. IInstitut Halieurique et des Sciences Marines, Universite' de Toliara, BP 141, Toliara 601, Madagascar;. 2Labarrataire de Biologie Marine (CP 160/15), ...

  15. The western blot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western blotting is a technique that involves the separation of proteins by gel electrophoresis, their blotting or transfer to a membrane, and selective immunodetection of an immobilized antigen. This is an important and routine method for protein analysis that depends on the specificity of antibod...

  16. Western USA groundwater drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasechko, S.; Perrone, D.

    2016-12-01

    Groundwater in the western US supplies 40% of the water used for irrigated agriculture, and provides drinking water to individuals living in rural regions distal to perennial rivers. Unfortunately, current groundwater use is not sustainable in a number of key food producing regions. While substantial attention has been devoted to mapping groundwater depletion rates across the western US, the response of groundwater users via well drilling to changing land uses, water demands, pump and drilling technologies, pollution vulnerabilities, and economic conditions remains unknown. Here we analyze millions of recorded groundwater drilling events in the western US that span years 1850 to 2015. We show that groundwater wells are being drilled deeper in some, but not all, regions where groundwater levels are declining. Groundwater wells are generally deeper in arid and mountainous regions characterized by deep water tables (e.g., unconfined alluvial and fractured bedrock aquifers), and in regions that have productive aquifers with high water quality deep under the ground (e.g., confined sedimentary aquifers). Further, we relate water quality and groundwater drilling depths in 40 major aquifer systems across the western US. We show that there is substantial room for improvement to the existing 2-D continental-scale assessments of domestic well water vulnerability to pollution if one considers the depth that the domestic well is screened in addition to pollutant loading, surficial geology, and vertical groundwater flow rates. These new continental-scale maps can be used to (i) better assess economic, water quality, and water balance limitations to groundwater usage, (ii) steer domestic well drilling into productive strata bearing clean and protected groundwater resources, and (iii) assess groundwater management schemes across the western US.

  17. Liminality of the »Balkan« Fast Food and Innovative Strategies of its »Europeization«: Čevapčiči with Truffles or Euro-Kebap?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franc Trček

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper starts with the liminal state of the Balkan fast food in Slovenia and then analyzes innovative attempts of overcoming them by providers. These try to adapt its offer to our local tastes as well as to the change in tastes. In their attempts they are forced to compete with global fast food franchises. In spite of their innovative approaches, they are still in the liminal state that forces them again and again to invent of new flavors.

  18. Western Military Culture and Counterinsurgency:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    francois

    that industrial Western military culture negatively influenced the ability to wage .... revolution occurred when Western troops started to pay attention to local support for ... The fourth principle is the priority of the fight against the insurgents'.

  19. Gujarat, Western India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Extremely high sediment loads are delivered to the Arabian Sea along the coast of Pakistan (upper left) and western India. In the case of the Indus River (far upper left) this sedimentation, containing large quantities of desert sand, combines with wave action to create a large sand-bar like delta. In the arid environment, the delta lacks much vegetation, but contains numerous mangrove-lined channels. This true-color image from May 2001 shows the transition from India's arid northwest to the wetter regions farther south along the coast. The increase in vegetation along the coast is brought about by the moisture trapping effect of the Western Ghats Mountain Range that runs north-south along the coast. Heavy sediment is visible in the Gulf of Kachchh (north) and the Gulf of Khambhat(south), which surround the Gujarat Peninsula.

  20. Management of chronic recurrent osteitis pubis/pubic bone stress in a Premier League footballer: Evaluating the evidence base and application of a nine-point management strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAleer, Stephen S; Gille, Justus; Bark, Stefan; Riepenhof, Helge

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this paper was to use a clinical example to describe a treatment strategy for the management of recurrent chronic groin pain and evaluate the evidence of the interventions. A professional footballer presented with chronic recurrent OP/PBS. The injury was managed successfully with a nine-point programme - 1. Acute pharmacological management. 2. Tone reduction of over-active structures. 3. Improved ROM at hips, pelvis and thorax. 4. Adductor strength. 5. Functional movement assessment. 6. Core stability. 7. Lumbo-pelvic control. 8. Gym-based strengthening. 9. Field-based conditioning/rehabilitation. The evidence for these interventions is reviewed. The player returned to full training and match play within 41 and 50 days, respectively, and experienced no recurrence of his symptoms in follow up at 13 months. This case report displays a nine-point conservative management strategy for OP/PBS, with non-time dependent clinical objective markers as the progression criteria in a Premier League football player. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Aux sources de l’herméneutique occidentale :les premiers commentaires dans les traditions grecque, juive et chrétienne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Rico

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available L’article nuance, à propos de l’Antiquité, la distinction établie par Michel Charles entre rhétorique, entendue au sens de « production littéraire », et commentaire : dans le premier cas une œuvre littéraire constitue un modèle d’écriture que l’on peut imiter et parfaire ; dans le second, elle est transmise comme un monument intouchable que l’on peut citer et commenter, mais non pas imiter.Dans les traditions grecque, juive et chrétienne, le commentaire, en effet, doit plutôt être considéré comme une œuvre littéraire au second degré dans la mesure où il se fonde sur un texte commenté qui l’engendre et le suscite. L’article évoque dans cette perspective l’herméneutique du mot dans l’école d’Alexandrie, l’herméneutique de l’énoncé dans les écoles de philosophie antiques, les commentaires juifs anciens et médiévaux, l’herméneutique chrétienne ancienne, et leurs variations autour du sens littéral et du sens spirituel.

  2. Analysis of physical match performance in English Premier League soccer referees with particular reference to first half and player work rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Matthew; Castagna, Carlo; Impellizzeri, Franco M; Rampinini, Ermanno; Abt, Grant

    2007-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of first half activity, overall match intensity and seasonal variation on the physical match performances of English Premier League football referees. Match analysis data was collected using the Prozone match analysis system from 19 full-time professional referees during a total of 254 matches in the 2004-2005 season. Physical match performances were classified into three separate categories: 1, total distance covered (TD); 2, high-intensity running distance (running speed>5.5m/s, HIR); 3, average distance from infringements (DI). Using these match activity variables the influence of first half TD and HIR distances on second half activities and also the influence of players' match activities upon the referees' physical match performances were examined. The main finding of the present study was that the physical match performances of the referees were partly related to those of the players, in that the referees' HIR correlated with players' HIR (r=0.43, preferees (r=0.47 and r=0.52, respectively, preferee. Further examination is required as to whether reduced physical performances in the second half of matches are a consequence of referee fatigue, tactical strategies on behalf of the referee or reduced player match activities resulting in a slower tempo of match.

  3. Evaluation of the Tosoh G8 Analyzer and Comparison with the Trinity Biotech Premier Hb9210 Analyzer for the Measurement of HbA₁c.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ucar, Fatma; Erden, Gonul; Ozdemir, Seyda; Yildiz, Zeynep; Arzuhal, Abdullah Ercan; Temel, Ismail

    2016-01-01

    The aim of our study was to assess the analytical performance of the Tosoh HLC-723G8 automated analyzer and to compare it with the Trinity Biotech Premier Hb9210 analyzer for the measurement of hemoglobin A₁c (HbA₁c). A total of 101 patients with pre-diabetes or diabetes mellitus were included in the study. HbA₁c, was measured by both an ion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography (IE-HPLC) method and a boronate affinity chromatography method. Statistical analysis was performed using Deming regression. Bland-Altman plots were used to calculate mean difference (bias). The CV% values of IE-HPLC and boronate affinity methods for within run and between days were lower than 2.0%. High correlation was found (y = 1.0045x + 0.2111; r = 0.9941) between the two methods. The method shows no interference from carbamylated hemoglobin. Both systems showed acceptable performance and are suitable for clinical application in the analysis of HbA₁c. However, laboratories should be aware of the limitations of their methods and the availability of more accurate and precise HbA₁c, determination methods.

  4. The “rise and fall” of the corridor: Some reflections on the changes in the Balkans migratory route after the summer of 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Lunaček Brumen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available At the end of the summer of 2015, the status quo of the European migration policy has been thoroughly shaken up. The unprecedented size and strength of the movement of migrants – daily arriving from Turkey to the Greek islands, and from there along the so-called Balkans migratory route – put pressure on Fortress Europe and finally achieved, in September 2015, the opening of a corridor for a (relatively quicker and safer passage from Greece to Austria. This article is an attempt to reflect the events of the last year – the establishment, the characteristics and transformations, as well as the final closure of this corridor. In the first part we propose a conceptual framework for the understanding of the difference between the Balkans migratory route and the corridor and present the timeline of the »rise and fall« of the corridor. In the second part, we try to shed light on the changes which the corridor brought to migration politics and praxis from the perspective of the autonomy of migration, and suggest that the establishment of the corridor should be understood as a victory of the liberatory movement of migrants, and the nature of the corridor as being anchored in an attempt to control the movement of people: when the control cannot be ensured through repression, it needs to be ensured through humanitarianism. In the third part, we reflect on the role of the corridor, and especially of its closure, in the affirmation of the global apartheid and thus attempt to place the corridor in the context of neoliberal capitalism. The global apartheid, reinforced through borders, produces different categories of people with differential access to rights. Through the isolation and the prevention of contact (by physical and discursive means between citizens and those, who have been excluded from citizenship, the corridor and its closure participate in the establishment of a parallel inner apartheid, which endangers solidarity and the recognition of

  5. Perceptions of the Coach–Athlete Relationship Predict the Attainment of Mastery Achievement Goals Six Months Later: A Two-Wave Longitudinal Study among F. A. Premier League Academy Soccer Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Adam R.; Earle, Keith; Earle, Fiona; Madigan, Daniel J.

    2017-01-01

    All football teams that compete within the F. A. Premier League possess an academy, whose objective is to produce more and better home-grown players that are capable of playing professionally. These young players spend a large amount of time with their coach, but little is known about player’s perception of the coach–athlete relationship within F. A. Premier League Academies. The objectives of this study were to examine whether perceptions of the coach–athlete relationship changed over six months and if the coach–athlete relationship predicted self-reported goal achievement among F. A. Premier League academy players. This study included cross-sectional (n = 104) and longitudinal (n = 52) assessments, in which academy soccer players completed a measure of the coach–athlete relationship and goal achievement across either one or two time periods. The cross-sectional data were subjected to bivariate correlations, whereas the longitudinal data were analyzed using multiple regressions. Perceptions of the coach–athlete relationship remained stable over time. The coach–athlete relationship predicted the achievement of mastery goals six months later. Enhancing the quality of the coach–athlete relationship among elite adolescent athletes appears to be a suitable way of maximizing mastery achievement goals, particularly among developmental athletes who participate in team sports. PMID:28572775

  6. Perceptions of the Coach–Athlete Relationship Predict the Attainment of Mastery Achievement Goals Six Months Later: A Two-Wave Longitudinal Study among F. A. Premier League Academy Soccer Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam R. Nicholls

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available All football teams that compete within the F. A. Premier League possess an academy, whose objective is to produce more and better home-grown players that are capable of playing professionally. These young players spend a large amount of time with their coach, but little is known about player’s perception of the coach–athlete relationship within F. A. Premier League Academies. The objectives of this study were to examine whether perceptions of the coach–athlete relationship changed over six months and if the coach–athlete relationship predicted self-reported goal achievement among F. A. Premier League academy players. This study included cross-sectional (n = 104 and longitudinal (n = 52 assessments, in which academy soccer players completed a measure of the coach–athlete relationship and goal achievement across either one or two time periods. The cross-sectional data were subjected to bivariate correlations, whereas the longitudinal data were analyzed using multiple regressions. Perceptions of the coach–athlete relationship remained stable over time. The coach–athlete relationship predicted the achievement of mastery goals six months later. Enhancing the quality of the coach–athlete relationship among elite adolescent athletes appears to be a suitable way of maximizing mastery achievement goals, particularly among developmental athletes who participate in team sports.

  7. Western Blot Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Brianna

    2017-01-01

    The Western blot is an important laboratory technique that allows for specific identification and characterization of proteins. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE)-separated proteins are electophoretically transferred to a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane which is then incubated with specific antibodies, then developed to show the protein of interest. Here, we describe the transfer and detection of Outer surface protein A (OspA), a protein only found on the surface of Borrelia burgdorferi, the bacteria responsible for Lyme disease.

  8. Girassol. A world premiere; Girassol. Une premiere mondiale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnan, J.Ph.; Serceau, A. [TotalFinaElf, La Defense, 92 - Courbevoie (France)

    2002-06-01

    Located at 150 km of the Angola coast, Girassol is the very first oil field integrally developed in deep sea conditions (1400 m). Girassol ensures today 8% of the production operated by TotalFinaElf company. This first step announces two other developments of comparable size on the same bloc (17): Dalia and Rosa-Lirio. This project, carried out with the participation of Angola companies, required 2.8 billions of US$ of investment. It significantly contributes to the development of a particularly rich oil province. This article describes the production equipment of the field: FPSO (floating production storage off-loading), mooring, tower risers, injection and production wells, bundles, flow-lines etc.. and the underwater operations required for the connecting of the bottom and surface equipments. (J.S.)

  9. Distribution and Taxonomic Significance of Secondary Metabolites Occurring in the Methanol Extracts of the Stonecrops (Sedum L., Crassulaceae) from the Central Balkan Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanovic, Gordana S; Jovanović, Snežana C; Zlatković, Bojan K

    2015-06-01

    The present study is engaged in the chemical composition of methanol extracts of Sedum taxa from the central part of the Balkan Peninsula, and representatives from other genera of Crassulaceae (Crassula, Echeveria and Kalanchoe) considered as out-groups. The chemical composition of extracts was determined by HPLC analysis, according to retention time of standards and characteristic absorption spectra of components. Identified components were considered as original variables with possible chemotaxonomic significance. Relationships of examined plant samples were investigated by agglomerative hierarchical cluster analysis (AHC). The obtained results showed how the distribution of methanol extract components (mostly phenolics) affected grouping of the examined samples. The obtained clustering showed satisfactory grouping of the examined samples, among which some representatives of the Sedum series, Rupestria and Magellensia, are the most remote. The out-group samples were not clearly singled out with regard to Sedum samples as expected; this especially applies to samples of Crassula ovata and Echeveria lilacina, while Kalanchoe daigremontiana was more separated from most of the Sedum samples.

  10. Offspring of parents with Balkan Endemic Nephropathy have higher C-reactive protein levels suggestive of inflammatory processes: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsolova Svetla

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the characteristic extensive tubulointerstitial fibrosis, Balkan Endemic Nephropathy (BEN is usually considered a non-inflammatory disease. Methods We examined a marker of inflammation, C-reactive protein (CRP, in the offspring of patients with BEN, a population at risk for BEN, prior to development of established disease to determine if an inflammatory process could be identified in the early stages of the disease. In 2003/04, 102 adult offspring whose parents had BEN and a control group of 99 adult offspring of non-BEN patients were enrolled in this prospective study. This cohort was re-examined yearly for four consecutive years. Levels of serum CRP were measured in years 3 and 4 and compared between groups. The data were analyzed with mixed models. Results Compared to controls, offspring of BEN parents had statistically higher CRP levels in two consecutive years, suggestive of early inflammatory reactivity. Whenever the mother was affected by BEN (both parents, or mother only, serum CRP was significantly increased, but not if only the father had BEN. CRP was inversely related to kidney cortex width but not to markers or renal function. Conclusion Early stages of BEN may involve inflammatory processes. The observation of a maternal involvement supports the concept of fetal programming, which has been implicated in the pathogenesis of other chronic kidney diseases.

  11. The influence of environmental factors on the structure of caddisfly (Trichoptera assemblage in the Nišava River (Central Balkan Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić A.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Monthly samples of caddisfly (Trichoptera larvae were taken from ten localities along a 151 km long section of the Nišava River (eastern Serbia during a one year study, with the aim to assessing the spatial composition of the caddisfly assemblage along the river gradient, to identify key environmental factors influencing its variability, to find out if caddisflies are suitable as biological indicators of water quality in this region, and to asses if the caddisfly assemblage in the river follows the river continuum concept. Twenty-three morphologically distinct taxa belonging to 14 genera were identified. The dominant family was Hydropsychidae with 70.34% of specimens examined, followed by Brachycentridae with 9.74% specimens. The longitudinal variability of the caddisfly assemblage has shown a clear dependence on physical and chemical parameters. The CCA analysis suggests that BOD5and concentration of total phosphorus are the most important factors in structuring the caddisfly assemblage. The species diversity was greatest at localities with the highest oxygen concentration and low nutrient levels. The caddisfly assemblage proved to be useful in identifying differences in environmental conditions in the Central Balkan region.

  12. [The Austrian Red Cross and Austrian bacteriologists in the Balkan wars 1912/13 - Centenary of the first application of the bacteriology in theatres of war].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamm, Heinz

    2012-04-01

    When Austria joined the Geneva Convention the "Patriotischer Hilfsverein" (Patriotic Aid Society) which was founded for the concerns of wounded soldiers, was named "Austrian Society of the Red Cross". It had to stand its first big test in 1912 in the first Balkan war; military surgeons and bacteriologists were deployed to all warring states. The cholera dominated under the infectious diseases among the various forces and the civilian populations. Upon request of the Bulgarian king renowned bacteriologists of the University of Vienna were dispatched. Their work presented the first action of bacteriology for disease control on theatres of war. The great success of the surgical and hygienic measures initiated in 1912 a reform of the Austrian Red Cross. In 1913 Austria made a detailed application to the International Committee of the Red Cross in order to extend the Geneva Convention to war epidemics. The Committee forwarded and recommended this application to all member states, however, the outbreak of the First World War then prevented its resolution.

  13. Impact of Origin and Biological Source on Chemical Composition, Anticholinesterase and Antioxidant Properties of Some St. John’s Wort Species (Hypericum spp., Hypericaceae from the Central Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Božin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The study shows the influence of the origin of plant material and biological source on the in vitro antioxidant (neutralization of DPPH and OH radical, nitric oxide, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation and anticholinesterase activity of chemically characterized and quantified ethanol extracts of ten St. John’s wort samples. The investigated samples were: five Hypericum perforatum species representatives collected at different localities, one commercial sample of Hyperici herba purchased at a local market and four Hypericum species autochtonous to the Balkan Peninsula (H. maculatum subsp. immaculatum, H. olympicum, H. richeri subsp. grisebachii and H. barbatum. All the examined extracts exhibited notable antioxidant potential, but in most of the cases indigenous Hypericum species expressed stronger effects compared to the original source of the drug, H. perforatum. The changes in the content of phenolic compounds, especially flavonoids, hyperforin and hypericin, related to the source of the drug affected the investigated activities. Since all of the investigated species have shown prominent inhibition of acetylcholinesterase in vitro activity, they could be further investigated as potential substances in preventing of Alzheimer’s disease.

  14. On the amphibious food uptake and prey manipulation behavior in the Balkan-Anatolian crested newt (Triturus ivanbureschi, Arntzen and Wielstra, 2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukanov, Simeon; Tzankov, Nikolay; Handschuh, Stephan; Heiss, Egon; Naumov, Borislav; Natchev, Nikolay

    2016-06-01

    Feeding behavior in salamanders undergoing seasonal habitat shifts poses substantial challenges caused by differences in the physical properties of air and water. Adapting to these specific environments, urodelans use suction feeding predominantly under water as opposed to lingual food prehension on land. This study aims to determine the functionality of aquatic and terrestrial feeding behavior in the Balkan-Anatolian crested newt (Triturus ivanbureschi) in its terrestrial stage. During the terrestrial stage, these newts feed frequently in water where they use hydrodynamic mechanisms for prey capture. On land, prey apprehension is accomplished mainly by lingual prehension, while jaw prehension seems to be the exception (16.67%) in all terrestrial prey capture events. In jaw prehension events there was no detectable depression of the hyo-lingual complex. The success of terrestrial prey capture was significantly higher when T. ivanbureschi used lingual prehension. In addition to prey capture, we studied the mechanisms involved in the subduction of prey. In both media, the newts frequently used a shaking behavior to immobilize the captured earthworms. Apparently, prey shaking constitutes a significant element in the feeding behavior of T. ivanbureschi. Prey immobilization was applied more frequently during underwater feeding, which necessitates a discussion of the influence of the feeding media on food manipulation. We also investigated the osteology of the cranio-cervical complex in T. ivanbureschi to compare it to that of the predominantly terrestrial salamandrid Salamandra salamandra. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. BALKANLAR’A UZANAN BİR KÖPRÜ: NAKŞİ DİVAN ŞAİRLERİ / A BRIDGE TO THE BALKANS: NAQSHI DIVAN POETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engin SELÇUK

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Osmanlı’da fetih düşüncesinin bir bütünlük arz etmesi ve bu bütünlük içerisinde kendi dilini, dinini, kültürünü, yaşayışını alternatif bir hayat tarzı olarak hâl diliyle gösteren dervişlerin kurdukları gönül köprüleri Balkanlar’da izleri bugün dahi rahatlıkla görülen uzun soluklu ve kalıcı etkinin sağlanmasında etkili olmuştur. Nakşibendî tarikatının ortaya koyduğu fikir ve usullerden bazı divan şairleri de etkilenmiştir. Bu şairlerden bir kısmı Nakşibendîliği yaymak ve yaşatmak amacıyla dünyanın dört bir tarafına yayılırken -bazı farklılıklar göstermekle birlikte- Orta Asya’dan Anadolu’ya geniş bir coğrafyanın mısralarındaki ortak duyguları tekrarlamış, aynı düşüncelerin Balkanlar’da makes bulmasıyla kurulan bu köprünün manevi mimarları arasındaki yerlerini almışlardır. Nakşi divan şairlerinden kimi, ulvi duygularla hicret ettiği yerde ölene dek kalarak, kimi eğitim-öğretim, ticaret, memuriyet gibi sebeplerle; kimi verdiği eser ve ortaya koyduğu düşüncelerle; kimi de gittikleri yerdeki insanlarla akrabalık tesis etme gibi birçok farklı usulle Balkanlar’a uzanan köprüyü inşa etmişlerdir. Balkanlar’la aramızda kurulan manevi köprünün mimarları arasında yer alan Nakşi divan şairleri ve ortaya koydukları düşünceler hakkında bir fikir verebilmesi açısından kaynaklardan tespit edilebilen bazı Nakşi şairler ve varsa şiirlerinden örnekler çalışmanın son kısmında verilmiştir. That the idea of conquest constitutes integrity in Ottoman and in this integrity, the hearts bridges founded by dervishes to show their language, religion, culture, and way of life as an alternative life style through the state language have been effective in achieving long-term and lasting impact, traces of which can easily be seen even today in the Balkans. Some divan poets were also affected by the ideas and methods the Naqshbandi

  16. An international survey of practice patterns and difficulties in cancer pain management in Southeastern Europe: a Turkish & Balkan Oncology Group common initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atasoy, Ajlan; Bogdanovic, Gordana; Aladashvili, Archil; Cvijetic, Zeljka; Dediu, Mircea; Cicmil-Saric, Nada; Nersesyan, Armen; Athanasiou, Athanasios; Serdar Turhal, Nazim

    2013-01-01

    While pain is highly prevalent in cancer patients and its management is universally challenging, it is more commonly undertreated in the developing world. Southeastern European countries have limited resources and manpower to allocate for delivery of effective care for cancer-related pain. The purpose of this study was to explore the practice methods and the barriers to effective pain management in Southeastern Europe. We conducted a Web-based survey using a specially designed questionnaire among physicians practicing in member countries of the Balkan Union of Oncology (BUON). A representative from each of the member countries of BUON (including Armenia and Georgia) and close to 100 physicians from 8 countries responded. The majority (89%) of respondents were medical oncologists and had been practising for 10 years on average. For pain assessment, only 35.4% of the physicians used a formal pain scale. Of the respondents 34.1% were not able to reach the optimal doses of narcotic medications while managing cancer pain, mostly due to concerns about toxicity, such as constipation and nausea. Most physicians listed their inability to consult sub-specialists to seek assistance for improving pain management cases as one of the major difficulties in day-to- day clinical practice, along with lack of time. The limitations faced by our respondents seem to be related mostly to the shortcomings of the respective health care systems, along with the need for more experience and knowledge about the titration of pain medications and dealing with toxicities.

  17. Changing what it means to 'become a man': participants' reflections on a school-based programme to redefine masculinity in the Balkans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namy, Sophie; Heilman, Brian; Stich, Shawna; Crownover, John; Leka, Besnik; Edmeades, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Calls to engage men and boys in efforts to promote health, prevent violence and advance gender equality have grown in recent years. However, there remains little evidence or reflection on how most effectively to change harmful norms related to masculinity. The study addresses this gap by exploring the perspectives of participants in the Young Men Initiative (YMI), an innovative programme that aimed to promote healthier masculinities among boys attending vocational high schools in several Balkan countries through educational workshops, residential retreats and a social marketing campaign. Qualitative data were collected through 37 in-depth interviews and 11 focus-group discussions with boys, youth facilitators and teachers. Findings from four schools (in Belgrade, Sarajevo, Prishtina and Zagreb) suggest that several elements of the programme resonated strongly with participants and supported their meaningful engagement in project activities. Five themes emerged as most salient in identifying how and why specific aspects of YMI positively influenced participants: personal reflection, experience-based learning, connections with youth facilitators, new peer groups and aspirational messaging. Building on these insights, the study highlights potentially useful strategies for other programmes seeking to reach boys and transform their understanding of masculinity.

  18. Changing what it means to ‘become a man’: participants’ reflections on a school-based programme to redefine masculinity in the Balkans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namy, Sophie; Heilman, Brian; Stich, Shawna; Crownover, John; Leka, Besnik; Edmeades, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Calls to engage men and boys in efforts to promote health, prevent violence and advance gender equality have grown in recent years. However, there remains little evidence or reflection on how most effectively to change harmful norms related to masculinity. The study addresses this gap by exploring the perspectives of participants in the Young Men Initiative (YMI), an innovative programme that aimed to promote healthier masculinities among boys attending vocational high schools in several Balkan countries through educational workshops, residential retreats and a social marketing campaign. Qualitative data were collected through 37 in-depth interviews and 11 focus-group discussions with boys, youth facilitators and teachers. Findings from four schools (in Belgrade, Sarajevo, Prishtina and Zagreb) suggest that several elements of the programme resonated strongly with participants and supported their meaningful engagement in project activities. Five themes emerged as most salient in identifying how and why specific aspects of YMI positively influenced participants: personal reflection, experience-based learning, connections with youth facilitators, new peer groups and aspirational messaging. Building on these insights, the study highlights potentially useful strategies for other programmes seeking to reach boys and transform their understanding of masculinity. PMID:26680537

  19. Quantification of training load during one-, two- and three-game week schedules in professional soccer players from the English Premier League: implications for carbohydrate periodisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Liam; Orme, Patrick; Di Michele, Rocco; Close, Graeme L; Morgans, Ryland; Drust, Barry; Morton, James P

    2016-01-01

    Muscle glycogen is the predominant energy source for soccer match play, though its importance for soccer training (where lower loads are observed) is not well known. In an attempt to better inform carbohydrate (CHO) guidelines, we quantified training load in English Premier League soccer players (n = 12) during a one-, two- and three-game week schedule (weekly training frequency was four, four and two, respectively). In a one-game week, training load was progressively reduced (P training load and periodisation was similar in the one- and two-game weeks, total accumulative distance (inclusive of both match and training load) was higher in a two-game week (32.5 ± 4.1 km) versus one-game week (25.9 ± 2 km). In contrast, daily training total distance was lower in the three-game week (2422 ± 251 m) versus the one- and two-game weeks, though accumulative weekly distance was highest in this week (35.5 ± 2.4 km) and more time (P 14.4 km · h(-1) (14%, 18% and 23% in the one-, two- and three-game weeks, respectively). Considering that high CHO availability improves physical match performance but high CHO availability attenuates molecular pathways regulating training adaptation (especially considering the low daily customary loads reported here, e.g., 3-5 km per day), we suggest daily CHO intake should be periodised according to weekly training and match schedules.

  20. L’Islam des pierres : l’expression de la foi dans les graffiti arabes des premiers siècles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Imbert

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Les graffiti arabes coufiques des premiers siècles de l’islam, en Arabie comme au Proche-Orient, représentent une source d’information inépuisable sur la société musulmane des origines. Toutefois, la datation des textes du ier/viie siècle, antérieurs aux Umayyades, reste problématique et doit se fonder sur des analyses paléographiques rigoureuses. L’étude du contenu des graffiti relatifs à la foi peut aider à dater ces textes du fait qu’ils connurent des phases progressives de développement. Les plus anciens graffiti datés de 23/643 et 24/644 ne contiennent pas de référence au religieux ; les auteurs, comme leurs contemporains, semblèrent plus intéressés de pérenniser leurs noms sur la pierre, s’inscrivant dans la tradition safaïtique. La question des premières professions de foi montre qu’il a existé des formulations archaïques antérieures à la shahâda traditionnelle, reflet d’un monothéisme tribal très matérialiste. Quant aux demandes de pardon récurrentes dans les graffiti, elles relèveraient d’une stratégie d’écriture. Enfin, la constatation de l’absence de citation du prophète Muḥammad dans les graffiti les plus anciens montre, à elle seule, les enjeux historiques et religieux de cette recherche épigraphique.

  1. Public and Private Hospital Care Disparities of Ischemic Stroke in Mexico: Results from the Primer Registro Mexicano de Isquemia Cerebral (PREMIER) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Sandoval, José Luis; Briseño-Godínez, María Eugenia; Chiquete-Anaya, Erwin; Arauz-Góngora, Antonio; Troyo-Sanromán, Rogelio; Parada-Garza, Juan Didier; Ramos-Moreno, Alma; Barinagarrementería, Fernando; Murillo-Bonilla, Luis Manuel; Cantú-Brito, Carlos

    2017-11-02

    Mortality and bad outcome by stroke are higher in developing countries than in industrialized countries. Health-care system efficiency could explain these disparities. Our objective was to identify the impact on short- and middle-term outcomes of patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) among public and private Mexican medical care. We analyzed data from patients with AIS included in the Primer Registro Mexicano de Isquemia Cerebral (PREMIER) study. Transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) and ambulatory patients were excluded. Mortality and good outcome were assessed by the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) and analyzed at 1, 3, and 12 months of follow-up. From 1246 patients with AIS included in the registry, 1123 were hospitalized, either in public (n = 881) or in private (n = 242) hospitals. There were no significant differences regarding age and gender. In private settings, patients had a higher educational level, a major frequency of dyslipidemia, a previous stroke and TIA, less overweight and obesity, a sedentary lifestyle, and diabetes; stroke severity, the rate of systemic complications, the length of stay, and in-hospital mortality were also lower; a major frequency of thrombolysis was observed when compared with public hospitals. Our study showed a better outcome (mRS score ≤2) in private scenarios and a higher mortality in patients treated in public hospitals at short- and middle-term follow-ups. A polarized medical practice was observed in the AIS care in this large multicenter cohort of Mexico. There is evidence of an advantage for private scenarios, possibly related with an optimal infrastructure or with a strong patient's economic status. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Premier Hospital Quality Incentive Demonstration

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — CMS is pursuing a vision to improve the quality of health care by expanding the information available about quality of care and through direct incentives to reward...

  3. Le premier developpement du langage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lezine, Irene

    1974-01-01

    This article emphasizes the importance of studying prelinguistic communication in infants. Motor development and environmental influences are seen to be important aspects of linguistic development. The possible link between sensorimotor activity and the syntactic structure of language development needs further exploration. (MS)

  4. Archeomagnetism in Western Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvin, A.; Lanos, P.

    2001-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a short review of the archeomagnetic research conducted in Europe. Reference curves of the directional variations of the geomagnetic field over the last two thousand years are now available for France, Great Britain, Bulgaria, Hungary, Ukraine and Caucasus. A reference curve, built using historical volcanic rocks was also published for Italy. Less detailed results were obtained in Germany, Greece, Switzerland, Denmark and Belgium. Our knowledge of the secular variation of the field for older periods is more limited, except in Bulgaria. Very recently, data covering the first millennium BC were obtained in France and Germany. Few paleointensity data have been collected in Western Europe in comparison with other archaeomagnetic areas, such as Bulgaria. More knowledge about the variations of the geomagnetic field strength will allow for developing better models of the past geomagnetic field and should also be useful for future archaeomagnetic dating, especially in the case of pottery and for displaced objects such as tiles, where only the paleoinclination and the paleointensity can be determined. For paleointensity determinations, different experimental techniques (methods of Thellier, Shaw, Tanguy) and different materials (tiles, bricks, pottery) were used. The effect of thermoremanent magnetization (TRM) anisotropy upon the paleointensity values was investigated by different teams. The most efficient method of correction for this effect is to determine the TRM anisotropy tensors for each sample. The effect of the cooling rate upon the TRM intensity seems more difficult to correct. An analysis of the paleointensity data available for the last two thousand years, obtained from sites in Western Europe, was performed using a weighting factor which takes into account the number and type of the samples studied as well as the technique used for the paleointensity determination. This analysis clearly shows that some of the existing data

  5. Production of hybrids between western gray wolves and western coyotes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L David Mech

    Full Text Available Using artificial insemination we attempted to produce hybrids between captive, male, western, gray wolves (Canis lupus and female, western coyotes (Canis latrans to determine whether their gametes would be compatible and the coyotes could produce and nurture offspring. The results contribute new information to an ongoing controversy over whether the eastern wolf (Canis lycaon is a valid unique species that could be subject to the U. S. Endangered Species Act. Attempts with transcervically deposited wolf semen into nine coyotes over two breeding seasons yielded three coyote pregnancies. One coyote ate her pups, another produced a resorbed fetus and a dead fetus by C-section, and the third produced seven hybrids, six of which survived. These results show that, although it might be unlikely for male western wolves to successfully produce offspring with female western coyotes under natural conditions, western-gray-wolf sperm are compatible with western-coyote ova and that at least one coyote could produce and nurture hybrid offspring. This finding in turn demonstrates that gamete incompatibility would not have prevented western, gray wolves from inseminating western coyotes and thus producing hybrids with coyote mtDNA, a claim that counters the view that the eastern wolf is a separate species. However, some of the difficulties experienced by the other inseminated coyotes tend to temper that finding and suggest that more experimentation is needed, including determining the behavioral and physical compatibility of western gray wolves copulating with western coyotes. Thus although our study adds new information to the controversy, it does not settle it. Further study is needed to determine whether the putative Canis lycaon is indeed a unique species.

  6. Production of hybrids between western gray wolves and western coyotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L David; Christensen, Bruce W; Asa, Cheryl S; Callahan, Margaret; Young, Julie K

    2014-01-01

    Using artificial insemination we attempted to produce hybrids between captive, male, western, gray wolves (Canis lupus) and female, western coyotes (Canis latrans) to determine whether their gametes would be compatible and the coyotes could produce and nurture offspring. The results contribute new information to an ongoing controversy over whether the eastern wolf (Canis lycaon) is a valid unique species that could be subject to the U. S. Endangered Species Act. Attempts with transcervically deposited wolf semen into nine coyotes over two breeding seasons yielded three coyote pregnancies. One coyote ate her pups, another produced a resorbed fetus and a dead fetus by C-section, and the third produced seven hybrids, six of which survived. These results show that, although it might be unlikely for male western wolves to successfully produce offspring with female western coyotes under natural conditions, western-gray-wolf sperm are compatible with western-coyote ova and that at least one coyote could produce and nurture hybrid offspring. This finding in turn demonstrates that gamete incompatibility would not have prevented western, gray wolves from inseminating western coyotes and thus producing hybrids with coyote mtDNA, a claim that counters the view that the eastern wolf is a separate species. However, some of the difficulties experienced by the other inseminated coyotes tend to temper that finding and suggest that more experimentation is needed, including determining the behavioral and physical compatibility of western gray wolves copulating with western coyotes. Thus although our study adds new information to the controversy, it does not settle it. Further study is needed to determine whether the putative Canis lycaon is indeed a unique species.

  7. A gender-sensitised weight loss and healthy living programme for overweight and obese men delivered by Scottish Premier League football clubs (FFIT): a pragmatic randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Kate; Wyke, Sally; Gray, Cindy M; Anderson, Annie S; Brady, Adrian; Bunn, Christopher; Donnan, Peter T; Fenwick, Elisabeth; Grieve, Eleanor; Leishman, Jim; Miller, Euan; Mutrie, Nanette; Rauchhaus, Petra; White, Alan; Treweek, Shaun

    2014-04-05

    The prevalence of male obesity is increasing but few men take part in weight loss programmes. We assessed the effect of a weight loss and healthy living programme on weight loss in football (soccer) fans. We did a two-group, pragmatic, randomised controlled trial of 747 male football fans aged 35-65 years with a body-mass index (BMI) of 28 kg/m(2) or higher from 13 Scottish professional football clubs. Participants were randomly assigned with SAS (version 9·2, block size 2-9) in a 1:1 ratio, stratified by club, to a weight loss programme delivered by community coaching staff in 12 sessions held every week. The intervention group started a weight loss programme within 3 weeks, and the comparison group were put on a 12 month waiting list. All participants received a weight management booklet. Primary outcome was mean difference in weight loss between groups at 12 months, expressed as absolute weight and a percentage of their baseline weight. Primary outcome assessment was masked. Analyses were based on intention to treat. The trial is registered with Current Controlled Trials, number ISRCTN32677491. 374 men were allocated to the intervention group and 374 to the comparison group. 333 (89%) of the intervention group and 355 (95%) of the comparison group completed 12 month assessments. At 12 months the mean difference in weight loss between groups, adjusted for baseline weight and club, was 4·94 kg (95% CI 3·95-5·94) and percentage weight loss, similarly adjusted, was 4·36% (3·64-5·08), both in favour of the intervention (pFootball Pools funded delivery of the programme through a grant to the Scottish Premier League Trust. The National Institute for Health Research Public Health Research Programme funded the assessment (09/3010/06). Copyright © 2014 Hunt et al. Open Access article distributed under the terms of CC BY-NC-ND. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. From Eastern to Western Arabic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Margaret

    This manual is designed to provide instruction for persons who have learned well a dialect of Eastern Arabic, Levantine, and who desire to use a Western Arabic dialect, Moroccan. Special features of Western Arabic pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary, and social usage are listed. Attention is given to the recognition of correspondences between the…

  9. Western Forests and Air Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    United States Environmental Protection Agency

    1992-01-01

    This book addresses the relationships between air pollution in the western United States and trends in the growth and condition of Western coniferous forests. The West is defined in this case as the eleven conterminous states of California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, Nevada, Arizona, New Mexico, Utah, Colorado, Wyoming, and Montana. Approximately one-third of the West is forested, primarily by coniferous forest types.

  10. Evaluation of the hypothesis that Balkan endemic nephropathy is caused by drinking water exposure to contaminants leaching from Pliocene coal deposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voice, Thomas C; McElmurry, Shawn P; Long, David T; Dimitrov, Plamen; Ganev, Varban S; Peptropoulos, Evangelos A

    2006-11-01

    Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) is a kidney disease that has been reported in only certain rural villages in Serbia, Bulgaria, Romania, Croatia and Bosnia. The cause of BEN remains a mystery, but researchers seem to agree that exposure to one or more environmental agents is at least partially responsible. The Pliocene lignite hypothesis suggests the disease is due to long-term exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) or other toxic organic compounds that have leached into drinking water supplies from low-rank coals. Although this hypothesis has been promoted by some researchers, efforts to substantiate it have been inconclusive due to limitations in sample size and methodology. The present study was designed to further examine this hypothesis by analyzing PAHs, which were implicated in the original hypothesis, in a larger number of water samples from endemic and nonendemic villages in Bulgaria and for other chemical differences between the villages. Results show that levels of all PAHs were low, with none exceeding the drinking water standard for benzo-[a]-pyrene, the most toxic PAH, and the only one for which a maximum contaminant level (MCL) has been set for drinking water. Comparison of additional unidentified chromatographic peaks from high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) technique designed to detect dissolved organic compounds (DOCs) that leach from coal failed to show higher levels in BEN villages. This study finds no basis to connect PAHs or other unknown DOCs to the etiology of BEN, and suggests that the evidence in support of the Pliocene lignite hypothesis is limited to the spatial association originally proposed.

  11. The frequency of genotypes for the SNP Ser/Ser in the studied population of Albanian women is higher in the Balkan region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafer Gashi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In women undergoing natural cycles, just one oocyte is usually selected for ovulation, yet routine clinical techniques to support the development of multiple follicles using additional gonadotrophins result in numerous ovulations. Several parameters have been postulated as predictors of ovarian response (inhibin B, 17-β-estradiol and antiMüllerian hormone. Nevertheless, the FSH level on the day 3 of menstrual cycle remains, the most widely used biomarker due to its low cost, although, the genetic background of individuals seems to determine the response of patients to rFSH stimulation better than the stimulation design. Consequently, the variants of FSHR were explored and they may be involved in the role of FSH receptor in mediated signal transduction and with ovarian response in infertile women submitted to ovarian stimulation. In this study we examined, for the first time, the prevalence of genotype variants Asn680Ser in population Albanian women from Kosovo Dukagjin region who took part in IVF / ICSI program. The frequencies of the Asn680Ser genotype variants were as follows: Asn/Asn 22.1%, Asn/Ser 47.1%, and Ser/Ser 30.8%, respectively (Table 1. bE2 levels between the three genotype variants showed slight but statistically significant difference (p= 0.0308. No difference was also found between the genotype groups either in terms of AFC, amount of the FSH required for ovulation induction, stimulation length days, number of dominant follicles, oocyte retrieval number or endometrial thickness (Table 2. BMI was significantly higher in the Ser/Ser group as compared to those from the Asn/Ser or the Asn/Asn group (p= 0.0010 (Table 2. In the study population of Albanian women Dukagjin region of Kosovo had a higher incidence of Ser / SER genotype compared to Asn / Asn genotype. Our research results in the Albanian population differ from published data for other ethnic groups in the Balkans.

  12. Molecular Markers in Upper Urothelial Carcinoma Associated to Balkan Endemic Nephropathy. Aristolochic Acid as the Major Risk Factor of the Worldwide Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubinka Jankovic Velickovic

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of aristolochic acid in the etiology of Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN and associated upper urothelial carcinoma (UUC was recently confirmed. The aim of this study was to determine the marker(s specific for BEN-associated UUC. A total of 82 patients with UUC (38 from the BEN region and 44 control tumors were included in the study. The Ki-67 index in BEN tumors correlated with the grade and multifocality (p < 0.05, but in regression analysis, only the grade of BEN tumor. The p53 index was significantly higher in BEN than in control tumors (p < 0.05, as well as the alteration of p53 (p < 0.05. BEN low-stage tumors, tumors without limphovascular invasion (LVI, and tumors of the renal pelvis had a higher p53 index than the control tumors (p < 0.05, 0.01, 0.05, respectively. The Ki-67 index was higher in control tumors with high-stage and solid growth than in BEN UUC (p < 0.050, 0.005. The Ki-67 correlated with the grade, growth, stage, LVI, and multifocality of UUC on the best way, but not with the group. In regression analysis, only multifocality of UUC had predictive influence on Ki-67 activity (p < 0.001. P53 correlated with the grade, growth, and group (p < 0.05. This investigation identifies the p53 pathway as the specific cell cycle marker involved in BEN-associated UUC.

  13. Moon - Western Near Side

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    This image of the crescent moon was obtained by the Galileo Solid State imaging system on December 8 at 5 a.m. PST as the Galileo spacecraft neared the Earth. The image was taken through a green filter and shows the western part of the lunar nearside. The smallest features visible are 8 kilometers (5 miles) in size. Major features visible include the dark plains of Mare Imbrium in the upper part of the image, the bright crater Copernicus (100 km, 60 miles in diameter) in the central part, and the heavily cratered lunar highlands in the bottom of the image. The landing sides of the Apollo 12, 14 and 15 missions lie within the central part of the image. Samples returned from these sites will be used to calibrate this and accompanying images taken in different colors, which will extend the knowledge of the spectral and compositional properties of the nearside of the moon, seen from Earth, to the lunar far side.

  14. Moon - Western Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    This image of the western hemisphere of the Moon was taken through a green filter by the Galileo spacecraft at 9:35 a.m. PST Dec. 9 at a range of about 350,000 miles. In the center is the Orientale Basin, 600 miles in diameter, formed about 3.8 billion years ago by the impact of an asteroid-size body. Orientale's dark center is a small mare. To the right is the lunar nearside with the great, dark Oceanus Procellarum above and the small, circular, dark Mare Humorum below. Maria are broad plains formed mostly over 3 billion years ago as vast basaltic lava flows. To the left is the lunar far side with fewer maria but, at lower left, the South-Pole-Aitken basin, about 1200 miles in diameter, which resembles Orientale but is much older and more weathered and battered by cratering. The intervening cratered highlands of both sides, as well as the maria, are dotted with bright, young craters. This image was 'reprojected' so as to center the Orientale Basin, and was filtered to enhance the visibility of small features. The digital image processing was done by DLR, the German Aerospace Research Establishment near Munich, an international collaborator in the Galileo mission.

  15. One century later: the folk botanical knowledge of the last remaining Albanians of the upper Reka Valley, Mount Korab, Western Macedonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieroni, Andrea; Rexhepi, Besnik; Nedelcheva, Anely; Hajdari, Avni; Mustafa, Behxhet; Kolosova, Valeria; Cianfaglione, Kevin; Quave, Cassandra L

    2013-04-11

    Ethnobotanical surveys of the Western Balkans are important for the cross-cultural study of local plant knowledge and also for obtaining baseline data, which is crucial for fostering future rural development and eco-tourism initiatives in the region. The current ethnobotanical field study was conducted among the last remaining Albanians inhabiting the upper Reka Valley at the base of Mount Korab in the Mavrovo National Park of the Republic of Macedonia.The aims of the study were threefold: 1) to document local knowledge pertaining to plants; 2) to compare these findings with those of an ethnographic account written one century ago and focused on the same territory; and 3) to compare these findings with those of similar field studies previously conducted in other areas of the Balkans. Field research was conducted with all inhabitants of the last four inhabited villages of the upper Reka Valley (n=17). Semi-structured and open interviews were conducted regarding the perception and use of the local flora and cultivated plants. The uses of ninety-two plant and fungal taxa were recorded; among the most uncommon uses, the contemporary use of young cooked potato (Solanum tuberosum) leaves and Rumex patientia as a filling for savory pies was documented. Comparison of the data with an ethnographic study conducted one century ago in the same area shows a remarkable resilience of original local plant knowledge, with the only exception of rye, which has today disappeared from the local foodscape. Medicinal plant use reports show important similarities with the ethnobotanical data collected in other Albanian areas, which are largely influenced by South-Slavic cultures.

  16. Archéologie des monastères du premier millénaire dans le Centre-Est de la France. Conditions d’implantation et de diffusion, topographie historique et organisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Bully

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Lorsqu’en 1997 le Conseil national de la recherche archéologique publiait le bilan 1990-1994 de la recherche en France et sa nouvelle programmation, figurait parmi les thèmes prioritaires : « Les origines et les fonctions des premiers bâtiments monastiques : églises et organisation des bâtiments communautaires, relations entre architecture et règle monastique » . Il était alors rappelé que l’on ne savait rien des fondations colombaniennes et très peu des abbayes carolingiennes. Depuis lors, d...

  17. IN WESTERN SIBERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chizhikov Il'ja Aleksandrovich

    2012-10-01

    along the oil transportation route that connected three Salym oil fields in Western Siberia.

  18. Western Civ After the Revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Scott

    1973-01-01

    Author considered Western Civilization in the light of present realities and stated his reasons for believing that the course is not suited to the needs of the greatest number of those students who take it. (Author/RK)

  19. Western Pacific Typhoon Aircraft Fixes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Western Pacific typhoon aircraft reconnaissance data from the years 1946 - 1965 and 1978, excluding 1952, were transcribed from original documents, or copy of...

  20. Conception et réalisation de l'unité de décision du système de déclenchement de premier niveau du détecteur LHCb au LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Laubser, Julien

    2007-01-01

    Le detecteur LHCb est l'une des quatre experiences de physique des particules installees sur la nouvelle chaine d'acceleration LHC (Large Hadron Collider) du CERN a Geneve. Afin de reduire la quantite de donnees destinees au stockage pour les analyses hors ligne, un dispositif de selection en ligne des collisions interessantes selon la physique a etudier est mis en place en parallele de la chaine d'acquisition des donnees. Ce dispositif est compose d'un premier niveau(niveau 0) realise par un systeme electronique complexe et d'un second niveau de selection realise par informatique HLT (High Level Trigger). L'unite de decision de niveau 0 (L0DU) est le systeme central du niveau 0 de declenchement. L0DU prend la decision d'accepter ou de rejeter la collision pour ce premier niveau a partir d'une fraction d'informations issues des sous-detecteurs les plus rapides (432 bits a 80 MHz). L'unite de decision est un circuit imprime 16 couches integrant des composants de haute technologie de type FPGA (Field Programmab...

  1. Study ing the influence and d imensions of Competitive Intelligence of Coaches on performance of current Soccer teams of The Iranian Premier League According to Component Balanced Scorecard (BSC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Abbas BABAKIANPOUR

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available T he aim of this study was to investigate the impact of coaches competitive intelligence on the football teams performance in the Iranian Premier League based on the Balanced Scorecard component (BSC.This prac tical research is a descriptive - correlational study in which population consisted of all head coaches and coaches from 16 Iranian Premier F ootball teams be tween 1392 - 1393. Two individual from each team were selected as coach and head coach and t he sample of 32 students were selected by census method. Questionnaire, 12 balls Fehy (2007 was used to measure competitive intelligence Coaches variables and ¬ 20 items of the questionnaire Neon (2003 was used to measure team performance. The results showed that the competitive intelligence team football coache s could affect performance and internal team performance will significantly increase. Also the team awareness c o ndition, technical knowledge, Opponents situation awareness, and awareness strategy of the coac hes had the greatest impact on team performance. In fact, coach es who having high level of competitive intellige nce will use the environmental threats as opportunities for improvement and uses it to enhance team performance.

  2. Western Hemisphere Knowledge Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, T. F.

    2001-05-01

    , and application of knowledge concerning the nature of -- and interaction among -- matter, living organisms, energy, information, and human behavior. This strategy calls for innovative partnerships among the physical, biological, health, and social sciences, engineering, and the humanities. New kinds of partnership must also be forged among academia, business and industry, governments, and nongovernmental organizations. Geophysicists can play an important role in these partnerships. A focus for these partnerships is to manage the individual economic productivity that drives both human development and global change. As world population approaches stability during the twenty-first century, individual economic productivity will be the critical link between the human and the natural systems on planet Earth. AGU is among a core group of individuals and institutions proposing Western Hemisphere Knowledge Partnerships (WHKP) to test the hypothesis that knowledge, broadly construed, is an important organizing principle in choosing a path into the future. The WHKP agenda includes: (1) life-long learning, (2) the health and resilience of natural ecosystems, (3) eco-efficiency in economic production and consumption, (4) extension of national income accounts, (5) environmentally benign sources of energy, (6) delivery of health care, (7) intellectual property rights, and (8) networks for action by local communities.Collaboratories and distance education technologies will be major tools. A panel of experts will explore this proposal.

  3. Is Western Marxism Western? The Cases of Gramsci and Tosaka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Chino

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to show that two eminent Marxists in the 1930s, the Italian Antonio Gramsci and the Japanese Tosaka Jun, shared three important characteristics of so-called Western Marxism: the methodological development of Marxism, the focus on the superstructure, and the pessimism about the impossibility of immediate revolution. Showing that Gramsci and Tosaka shared these characteristics enables us to revisit the framework of “Western Marxism,” which confusingly consists of both theoretical characteristics and geographical criteria. Looking at Gramsci and Tosaka on the same plane allows us to revisit Marxist thought different from the orthodox Marxism in Soviet Russia, and not strictly as a Western, but as a part of potentially global movement of thought.

  4. L’espace domestique au Bronze final et au premier âge du Fer dans le sud de la Corse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peche-Quilichini, Kewin

    2015-12-01

    organización general como a nivel del espacio interno y de la arquitectura de las viviendas. [fr] L’objectif de cet article est de fournir une approche synthétique sur les formes de l’habitat en Corse au Bronze final (BF et au premier âge du Fer (F1, à l’échelle de la microrégion montagneuse de l’Alta Rocca, située dans le sud de la Corse, au coeur du bassin occidental de la Méditerranée. La problématique d’étude des sites protohistoriques non fortifiés est jeune sur l’île, mais les travaux se sont récemment multipliés et rendent compte de la complexité structurelle et évolutive des espaces habités, permettant ainsi une premiére analyse comparative. Le raisonnement s’appuie essentiellement sur l’apport des fouilles du grand habitat de Cuciurpula, initiées en 2008 et toujours en cours, ainsi que sur l’exploitation des villages de Puzzonu et de Nuciaresa, sondés en 2012. La chronologie des secteurs étudiés permet d’embrasser un arc chronologique complet entre le XIIe et le VIe siécle av. J.-C., et donc d’appréhender les phénoménes évolutifs, tant en termes d’organisation générale qu’au niveau de l’espace interne et de l’architecture des habitations.

  5. Effects of moisture and coal blending on Hardgrove Grindability Index of Western Australian coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vuthaluru, H.B.; Zhang, D.K.; Yan, H.M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Curtin University of Technology, GPO Box 1987, Perth, Western Australia 6845 (Australia); Brooke, R.J. [Wesfarmers Premier Coal Limited, P.O. Box 21, Premier Road, Collie, Western Australia 6225 (Australia)

    2003-04-15

    Investigations into the effects of moisture and coal blending on Hardgrove Grindability Index (HGI) were carried out on Collie coal of Western Australia. Experiments were conducted in a standard Hardgrove apparatus on four individual Premier seam coals (namely P2, P3, P4 and Hebe) and several blends (namely Hebe/P2, Hebe/P3, Hebe/P4, Hebe/P2/P4) prepared at various blending ratios. The experiments comprised of 5 days of air-drying followed by oven drying. Among the coal seams tested, Hebe showed the highest HGI (58) whereas P4 was the lowest (47). HGI was found to correlate well with residual moisture, with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.5 to 0.9 depending on the type of coal seam or blend. In contrast, moisture measurements on the samples loaded into the HGI apparatus (size 0.600 to 1.180 mm), referred to as the 'coarse fraction' showed erratic trends with HGI. The experimental results suggest that no relationship exist between the coarse fraction moisture and HGI. Measured HGI values of binary and ternary blends were found to correspond well with the weighted average values of HGI within {+-}2 HGI units. This effect was confirmed by a further investigation with a range of 11 binary (P3/Hebe) blends of various proportions.

  6. Adult Education in Western Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, Joachim H.; And Others

    Here are abstracts of three books on adult education in Western Germany, where the institutions and methods of continuing education have been nearly unknown. The first, ERWACHSENENBILDUNG IN DER BUNDESREPUBLIK (ADULT EDUCATION IN THE FEDERAL REPUBLIC), 167 pages, justifies regarding adult education today as a complete changeover from its forms in…

  7. Western juniper in eastern Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald R. Gedney; David L. Azuma; Charles L. Bolsinger; Neil. McKay

    1999-01-01

    This report analyzes and summarizes a 1988 inventory of western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis Hook.) in eastern Oregon. This inventory, conducted by the Pacific Northwest Research Station of the USDA Forest Service, was intensified to meet increased need for more information about the juniper resource than was available in previous inventories. A...

  8. ALIENS IN WESTERN STREAM ECOSYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USEPA's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program conducted a five year probability sample of permanent mapped streams in 12 western US states. The study design enables us to determine the extent of selected riparian invasive plants, alien aquatic vertebrates, and some ...

  9. The Western Sahara conflict I

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Politica; Analyst. Munich. The history of the Western Sahara has seen many developments familiar to Africa: • the drawing of artificial boundaries in foreign European capitals at the tum of the century,. • clandestine agreements between colonial and regional powers without proper consultation with the territory's population,.

  10. Social mix in Western countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musterd, S.; Ostendorf, W.; Smith, S.J.; Elsinga, M.; Eng, O.S.; Fox O’Mahony, L.; Wachter, S.

    2012-01-01

    In Western countries, it appears to have become ‘fashionable’ for politicians who are engaged in urban issues to argue for more social mix of the population at the neighbourhood level. It is assumed that a concentration of poverty reproduces a lack of social opportunities. Therefore, a more balanced

  11. Western Transitology and Chinese Reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik

    It is the object of considerable debate in Western scholarship whether an authoritarian political order dominated by a strong communist party can continue to exist in China given the many challenges stemming from internal reform and the impact of globalization. Will China eventually turn democratic...

  12. Practical Applications of the Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI) as a Tool for Very Early Warning of Droughts and Floods in the Balkans Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Brian

    2016-04-01

    Southern Europe is repeatedly identified in IPCC Reports as being particularly vulnerable to water resource impacts with risks being assessed as medium to high with current (low) levels of adaptation. Drought frequency will likely increase by the end of the 21st century under IPCC RCP8.5 (medium confidence) . The Balkans region has encountered some of its most significant ever floods and droughts since 2000, highly symptomatic of intense climate change. Foremost of these are the regional catastrophic floods in Albania (2009-10) (2010-11), Bosnia, Herzegovina and Serbia (2014), and the widespread droughts of 2007-08 and 2013-14. There is an urgent need to improve the awareness and implementation of drought and flood risk management tools in the national Ministries and National Hydrometeorological Services (NHMSs) of s.e. Europe generally. This paper describes the development and application of a practical user-friendly tool to calculate SPI across a range of timescales as recommended by the WMO , using a conventional 'Year Book' format to enter monthly precipitation values, coupled with some automated and relatively simple VBA code. Since the tool is spreadsheet based, it is user-friendly and graphically intuitive. The conditional formatting capability introduces a visualisation element to the SPI which is extremely helpful to NHMSs and other non-expert decision makers in understanding SPI significance. Recent practical application of the tool in relation to significant recent floods and droughts in Albania, Kosovo and Macedonia has demonstrated its value as a Very Early Warning tool. However, there are some implicit dangers in simply tracking the SPI 1, 2, n value per se without taking account of the actual accumulated deficits that may generate agricultural and ultimately hydrological droughts. It is conventionally assumed that the sum of the SPI for all months within a drought event can be termed the drought's "magnitude". In fact this is not the case. In regions

  13. Injury risk factors, screening tests and preventative strategies: a systematic review of the evidence that underpins the perceptions and practices of 44 football (soccer) teams from various premier leagues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Alan; Carling, Chris; Davison, Michael; Nedelec, Mathieu; Le Gall, Franck; Berthoin, Serge; Dupont, Gregory

    2015-05-01

    To systematically review the scientific level of evidence for the 'Top 3' risk factors, screening tests and preventative exercises identified by a previously published survey of 44 premier league football (soccer) teams. Also, to provide an overall scientific level of evidence and graded recommendation based on the current research literature. A systematic literature search (Pubmed [MEDLINE], SportDiscus, PEDRO and Cochrane databases). The quality of the articles was assessed and a level of evidence (1++ to 4) was assigned. Level 1++ corresponded to the highest level of evidence available and 4, the lowest. A graded recommendation (A: strong, B: moderate, C: weak, D: insufficient evidence to assign a specific recommendation) for use in the practical setting was given. Fourteen studies were analysed. The overall level of evidence for the risk factors previous injury, fatigue and muscle imbalance were 2++, 4 and 'inconclusive', respectively. The graded recommendation for functional movement screen, psychological questionnaire and isokinetic muscle testing were all 'D'. Hamstring eccentric had a weak graded 'C' recommendation, and eccentric exercise for other body parts was 'D'. Balance/proprioception exercise to reduce ankle and knee sprain injury was assigned a graded recommendation 'D'. The majority of perceptions and practices of premier league teams have a low level of evidence and low graded recommendation. This does not imply that these perceptions and practices are not important or not valid, as it may simply be that they are yet to be sufficiently validated or refuted by research. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. Injury risk factors, screening tests and preventative strategies: a systematic review of the evidence that underpins the perceptions and practices of 44 football (soccer) teams from various premier leagues

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Alan; Carling, Chris; Davison, Michael; Nedelec, Mathieu; Le Gall, Franck; Berthoin, Serge; Dupont, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To systematically review the scientific level of evidence for the ‘Top 3’ risk factors, screening tests and preventative exercises identified by a previously published survey of 44 premier league football (soccer) teams. Also, to provide an overall scientific level of evidence and graded recommendation based on the current research literature. Methods A systematic literature search (Pubmed [MEDLINE], SportDiscus, PEDRO and Cochrane databases). The quality of the articles was assessed and a level of evidence (1++ to 4) was assigned. Level 1++ corresponded to the highest level of evidence available and 4, the lowest. A graded recommendation (A: strong, B: moderate, C: weak, D: insufficient evidence to assign a specific recommendation) for use in the practical setting was given. Results Fourteen studies were analysed. The overall level of evidence for the risk factors previous injury, fatigue and muscle imbalance were 2++, 4 and ‘inconclusive’, respectively. The graded recommendation for functional movement screen, psychological questionnaire and isokinetic muscle testing were all ‘D’. Hamstring eccentric had a weak graded ‘C’ recommendation, and eccentric exercise for other body parts was ‘D’. Balance/proprioception exercise to reduce ankle and knee sprain injury was assigned a graded recommendation ‘D’. Conclusions The majority of perceptions and practices of premier league teams have a low level of evidence and low graded recommendation. This does not imply that these perceptions and practices are not important or not valid, as it may simply be that they are yet to be sufficiently validated or refuted by research. PMID:25576530

  15. A comparative evaluation of the analytical performances of Capillarys 2 Flex Piercing, Tosoh HLC-723 G8, Premier Hb9210, and Roche Cobas c501 Tina-quant Gen 2 analyzers for HbA1c determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaobin; Chao, Yan; Wan, Zemin; Wang, Yunxiu; Ma, Yan; Ke, Peifeng; Wu, Xinzhong; Xu, Jianhua; Zhuang, Junhua; Huang, Xianzhang

    2016-10-15

    Haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) is widely used in the management of diabetes. Therefore, the reliability and comparability among different analytical methods for its detection have become very important. A comparative evaluation of the analytical performances (precision, linearity, accuracy, method comparison, and interferences including bilirubin, triglyceride, cholesterol, labile HbA1c (LA1c), vitamin C, aspirin, fetal haemoglobin (HbF), and haemoglobin E (Hb E)) were performed on Capillarys 2 Flex Piercing (Capillarys 2FP) (Sebia, France), Tosoh HLC-723 G8 (Tosoh G8) (Tosoh, Japan), Premier Hb9210 (Trinity Biotech, Ireland) and Roche Cobas c501 (Roche c501) (Roche Diagnostics, Germany). A good precision was shown at both low and high HbA1c levels on all four systems, with all individual CVs below 2% (IFCC units) or 1.5% (NGSP units). Linearity analysis for each analyzer had achieved a good correlation coefficient (R2 > 0.99) over the entire range tested. The analytical bias of the four systems against the IFCC targets was less than ± 6% (NGSP units), indicating a good accuracy. Method comparison showed a great correlation and agreement between methods. Very high levels of triglycerides and cholesterol (≥ 15.28 and ≥ 8.72 mmol/L, respectively) led to falsely low HbA1c concentrations on Roche c501. Elevated HbF induced false HbA1c detection on Capillarys 2FP (> 10%), Tosoh G8 (> 30%), Premier Hb9210 (> 15%), and Roche c501 (> 5%). On Tosoh G8, HbE induced an extra peak on chromatogram, and significantly lower results were reported. The four HbA1c methods commonly used with commercial analyzers showed a good reliability and comparability, although some interference may falsely alter the result.

  16. The Perception of Yugoslav-Bulgarian Relations in the Daily “Politika” in the Context of the Pan-Balkan Entente Concept in the First Part of the 1930s.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Michalak

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The Perception of Yugoslav-Bulgarian Relations in the Daily “Politika” in the Context of the Pan-Balkan Entente Concept in the First Part of the 1930s. The Yugoslav-Bulgarian rapprochement, initiated by the king Aleksandar I Karadjordjević in the early 30s of the twentieth century, with an idea of inclusion of Bulgaria to the planned Balkan Pact was one of the biggest reorientation in the Yugoslav policy at the turn of 20s and 30s. Since the end of the Great War, the eastern neighbour of Yugoslavia was treated rather as one of the greatest threats to the postwar order in the Balkans. This reorientation, resulting primarily from the geopolitical situation in Europe required propaganda action of warming the image of Bulgaria in the eyes of the Yugoslav society. This would not be possible without the support of the press, which in the first half of twentieth century, was still the most popular and definitely most accessible medium of information, which could significantly affected on the perception of current political events by the public opinion. The aim of the author was to present changes in the way of presenting the Yugoslav-Bulgarian relations in the daily Politika, the biggest and most read newspaper in the interwar Yugoslavia, in the context of political activities of king Aleksandar I towards the creation of the so-called Balkan Entente.   Postrzeganie stosunków jugosłowiańsko-bułgarskich na łamach dziennika „Politika” w kontekście idei tzw. Ententy Bałkańskiej w pierwszej połowie lat 30. XX wieku Zbliżenie jugosłowiańsko-bułgarskie zainicjowane przez króla Aleksandra I Karađorđevicia w latach 30. XX w. z myślą o włączeniu Bułgarii do planowanego tzw. Paktu Bałkańskiego było jedną z najpoważniejszych reorientacji w jugosłowiańskiej polityce zagranicznej przełomu lat 20. i 30. XX w. Od zakończenia I wojny światowej wschodni sąsiad Jugosławii traktowany był raczej jako jedno z największych zagro

  17. Effects of the "New Climate" warmed in North Africa and Western Mediterranean: the situation of recent meteorological droughts and floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karrouk, Mohammed-Said

    2017-04-01

    "New Climate" subjected to North Africa, Western Mediterranean and geoclimatic midlatitude space atmospheric effects of the new regime characterized by the supremacy of the meridian circulation (MAC: Meridian Atmospheric Circulation), by alternating cool conditions (humidity) heat (drought) along the year, and imposes situation of anxiety and perplexity vis-a-vis their socio-economic activities; shoved agricultural calendar, hesitant policymakers, uncertainty and waiting, ... etc. The recent example of the fall-winter 2015-2016 is indicative of the conditions that have left a deep psychological imprint on economic and social Moroccans. During this period, the summer heat has extended to the end of autumn and even winter. And precipitation contracted by more than 51% of accumulated rainfall autumn, compared with the same period a normal year. A slowdown in economic growth has been felt since last December and was extended until the rains return (and snow!) In mid February 2016. Weather conditions during this period were marked by the succession and persistence of very active planetary peaks, projected to the northern borders of Western Europe (Heat Christmas 2015!), Rejecting the negative waves to the east: Algeria, Tunisia, Italy, the Balkans, Anatolia, and even the Middle East. These conditions are the consequences of the "New Climate" warmed, strengthened by the strong El Niño event in 2015 decennial. The identification of hemispheric and regional climate mechanisms of these atmospheric regime systems based on energy balance and atmospheric circulation will be defined, with links of cause and effect, in view of integrating these characters to extreme events in the New Climate Warmed.

  18. Monsieur Etienne Blanc Premier vice-président de la Région Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes Délégué aux finances, à l'administration générale, aux économies budgétaires et aux politiques transfrontalières

    CERN Multimedia

    Bennett, Sophia Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Monsieur Etienne Blanc Premier vice-président de la Région Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes Délégué aux finances, à l'administration générale, aux économies budgétaires et aux politiques transfrontalières

  19. 21 Octobre 2008 - Le Premier Ministre de la République francaise François Fillon visite le tunnel du LHC au Point 5. Sont également présents V. Pécresse, Ministre de l'éducation supérieure et de la recherche et B. Accoyer, President du Sénat.

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    21 Octobre 2008 - Le Premier Ministre de la République francaise François Fillon visite le tunnel du LHC au Point 5. Sont également présents V. Pécresse, Ministre de l'éducation supérieure et de la recherche et B. Accoyer, President du Sénat.

  20. Gendering Citizenship in Western Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte; Lister, Ruth; Williams, Fiona

    The first part of the book clarifies the ways that the concept of citizenship has developed historically and is understood today in a range of Western European welfare states. It elaborates on the contempory framing of debates and struggles around citizenship. This provides a framework for thee p...... policy studies, looking at migration and multiculturalism, the care of young children, and home-based childcare and transnational dynamics.......The first part of the book clarifies the ways that the concept of citizenship has developed historically and is understood today in a range of Western European welfare states. It elaborates on the contempory framing of debates and struggles around citizenship. This provides a framework for thee...