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Sample records for western australia decapoda

  1. Shrimps down under: evolutionary relationships of subterranean crustaceans from Western Australia (Decapoda: Atyidae: Stygiocaris.

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    Timothy J Page

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We investigated the large and small scale evolutionary relationships of the endemic Western Australian subterranean shrimp genus Stygiocaris (Atyidae using nuclear and mitochondrial genes. Stygiocaris is part of the unique cave biota of the coastal, anchialine, limestones of the Cape Range and Barrow Island, most of whose nearest evolutionary relations are found in coastal caves of the distant North Atlantic. The dominance of atyids in tropical waters and their food resources suggest they are pivotal in understanding these groundwater ecosystems. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: Our nuclear and mitochondrial analyses all recovered the Mexican cave genus Typhlatya as the sister taxon of Stygiocaris, rather than any of the numerous surface and cave atyids from Australia or the Indo-Pacific region. The two described Stygiocaris species were recovered as monophyletic, and a third, cryptic, species was discovered at a single site, which has very different physiochemical properties from the sites hosting the two described species. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings suggest that Stygiocaris and Typhlatya may descend from a common ancestor that lived in the coastal marine habitat of the ancient Tethys Sea, and were subsequently separated by plate tectonic movements. This vicariant process is commonly thought to explain the many disjunct anchialine faunas, but has rarely been demonstrated using phylogenetic techniques. The Cape Range's geological dynamism, which is probably responsible for the speciation of the various Stygiocaris species, has also led to geographic population structure within species. In particular, Stygiocaris lancifera is split into northern and southern groups, which correspond to population splits within other sympatric subterranean taxa.

  2. Is Western Australia.

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    Shanmugakumar, Sharanyaa; Playford, Denese; Burkitt, Tessa; Tennant, Marc; Bowles, Tom

    2016-03-31

    Objective Despite public interest in the rural workforce, there are few published data on the geographical distribution of Australia's rural surgeons, their practice skill set, career stage or work-life balance (on-call burden). Similarly, there has not been a peer-reviewed skills audit of rural training opportunities for surgical trainees. The present study undertook this baseline assessment for Western Australia (WA), which has some of the most remote practice areas in Australia.Methods Hospital staff from all WA Country Health Service hospitals with surgical service (20 of 89 rural health services) were contacted by telephone. A total of 18 of 20 provided complete data. The study questionnaire explored hospital and practice locations of practicing rural surgeons, on-call rosters, career stage, practice skill set and the availability of surgical training positions. Data were tabulated in excel and geographic information system geocoded. Descriptive statistics were calculated in Excel.Results Of the seven health regions for rural Western Australia, two (28.6%) were served by resident surgeons at a ratio consistent with Royal Australasian College of Surgeons (RACS) guidelines. General surgery was offered in 16 (89%) hospitals. In total, 16 (89%) hospitals were served by fly-in, fly-out (FIFO) surgical services. Two hospitals with resident surgeons did not use FIFO services, but all hospitals without resident surgeons were served by FIFO surgical specialists. The majority of resident surgeons (62.5%) and FIFO surgeons (43.2%) were perceived to be mid-career by hospital staff members. Three hospitals (16.7%) offered all eight of the identified surgical skill sets, but 16 (89%) offered general surgery.Conclusions Relatively few resident rural surgeons are servicing large areas of WA, assisted by the widespread provision of FIFO surgical services. The present audit demonstrates strength in general surgical skills throughout regional WA, and augers well for the training

  3. Experiencias en Western Australia

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    M.A. Pérez Fernández

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Décadas de uso inadecuado de los recursos naturales en Australia han llevado a la extinción de numerosas especies autóctonas. Aprendiendo de sus propios errores, se han inicido recientemente diferentes proyectos de conservación en los que participan diversos agentes interesados. La Región de los Central Ranges, en el Desierto de Gibson, pertenece al pueblo aborigen Ngaanyatjarra. En los años 90 se llevó a cabo una campaña de recolección de organismos, patrocinada por el Museo de Western Australia y el Departamento de Conservación Ambiental (DEC, en la que participaron miembros de la comunidad Ngaanyatjarra, conocedores y cuidadores del territorio. El resultado científico se tradujo en la identificación de dos nuevas especies, así como numerosas nuevas citas de plantas y animales para el territorio. La minería es una de las actividades más impactantes en Australia, pero la concienciación social ha llevado a que las compañías desarrollen importantes campañas de protección de especies. El mulgara (Dasycercus cristicaula ocupaba zonas que hoy en día se dedican a la minería, y de las que prácticamente ha desaparecido. Un programa de investigación financiado por la empresa Resolute Resources y dirigido por el Departamento de Conservación y Manejo del Territorio (CALM ha permitido identificar poblaciones de este marsupial carnívoro y diseñar un programa de manejo cuyo objetivo es evitar actuaciones incompatibles con su actividad biológica. El resultado más relevante en ambas iniciativas ha sido la colaboración entre diferentes agentes implicados, con intercambio de conocimientos y experiencias. Especialmente importante ha sido la posibilidad de diseñar planes de manejo y actuación sobre el territorio, orientados a la preservación de valores naturales y culturales antiguos.

  4. Teaching Near and Far - Broome, Western Australia.

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    Herceg, Christina; Renouf, Tia

    2016-11-09

    Broome is a remote coastal town in Western Australia. As a general practitioner working in Broome, I have been involved in the education of general practice trainee registrars both locally and remotely, as a supervisor with two different training programs.

  5. Coral reproduction in Western Australia

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    James Gilmour

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Larval production and recruitment underpin the maintenance of coral populations, but these early life history stages are vulnerable to extreme variation in physical conditions. Environmental managers aim to minimise human impacts during significant periods of larval production and recruitment on reefs, but doing so requires knowledge of the modes and timing of coral reproduction. Most corals are hermaphroditic or gonochoric, with a brooding or broadcast spawning mode of reproduction. Brooding corals are a significant component of some reefs and produce larvae over consecutive months. Broadcast spawning corals are more common and display considerable variation in their patterns of spawning among reefs. Highly synchronous spawning can occur on reefs around Australia, particularly on the Great Barrier Reef. On Australia’s remote north-west coast there have been fewer studies of coral reproduction. The recent industrial expansion into these regions has facilitated research, but the associated data are often contained within confidential reports. Here we combine information in this grey-literature with that available publicly to update our knowledge of coral reproduction in WA, for tens of thousands of corals and hundreds of species from over a dozen reefs spanning 20° of latitude. We identified broad patterns in coral reproduction, but more detailed insights were hindered by biased sampling; most studies focused on species of Acropora sampled over a few months at several reefs. Within the existing data, there was a latitudinal gradient in spawning activity among seasons, with mass spawning during autumn occurring on all reefs (but the temperate south-west. Participation in a smaller, multi-specific spawning during spring decreased from approximately one quarter of corals on the Kimberley Oceanic reefs to little participation at Ningaloo. Within these seasons, spawning was concentrated in March and/or April, and October and/or November, depending

  6. Rifting Thick Lithosphere - Canning Basin, Western Australia

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    Czarnota, Karol; White, Nicky

    2016-04-01

    The subsidence histories and architecture of most, but not all, rift basins are elegantly explained by extension of ~120 km thick lithosphere followed by thermal re-thickening of the lithospheric mantle to its pre-rift thickness. Although this well-established model underpins most basin analysis, it is unclear whether the model explains the subsidence of rift basins developed over substantially thick lithosphere (as imaged by seismic tomography beneath substantial portions of the continents). The Canning Basin of Western Australia is an example where a rift basin putatively overlies lithosphere ≥180 km thick, imaged using shear wave tomography. Subsidence modelling in this study shows that the entire subsidence history of the Canning Basin is adequately explained by mild Ordovician extension (β≈1.2) of ~120 km thick lithosphere followed by post-rift thermal subsidence. This is consistent with the established model, described above, albeit with perturbations due to transient dynamic topography support which are expressed as basin-wide unconformities. In contrast the Canning Basin reveals an almost continuous period of normal faulting between the Ordovician and Carboniferous (βCanning Basin to rifting of thick lithosphere beneath the eastern part, verified by the presence of ~20 Ma diamond-bearing lamproites intruded into the basin depocentre. In order to account for the observed subsidence, at standard crustal densities, the lithospheric mantle is required to be depleted in density by 50-70 kg m-3, which is in line with estimates derived from modelling rare-earth element concentrations of the ~20 Ma lamproites and global isostatic considerations. Together, these results suggest that thick lithosphere thinned to > 120 km is thermally stable and is not accompanied by post-rift thermal subsidence driven by thermal re-thickening of the lithospheric mantle. Our results show that variations in lithospheric thickness place a fundamental control on basin architecture

  7. Prostitution Legislation Reforms in Western Australia: What Indonesia Can Learn

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    Kartika Sari K.A.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Prostitution is still a complicated problemworldwide including in Western Australia. Itis estimated that there are 1700 sex workersand 38 identified brothels in WesternAustralia1 and prostitution legislation is stillan ongoing debatable issue in the state.There has been a significant change inprostitution laws and enforcement practices,which is due to the rising worldwideproblem of sex trafficking and its relation toprostitution.

  8. Complete mitochondrial genome of Australian spiny lobster, Panulirus cygnus (George, 1962) (Crustacea: Decapoda: Palinuridae) from coast of Australia.

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    Kim, Gyungryul; Yoon, Tae-Ho; Park, Won Gyu; Park, Jung Youn; Kang, Jung-Ha; Park, Hyun; Kim, Hyun Woo

    2016-11-01

    We characterized the total mitochondrial genome of Australian spiny lobster, Panulirus cygnus (George, 1962), which is found along the western coast of Australia. Total mitochondrial genome length of P. cygnus was 15 724 bp, in which 13 proteins, 2 ribosomal RNAs, 22 transfer RNAs, and a putative control region were encoded. Nine and four protein-coding genes are encoded on the H-strand and on the L-strand, respectively. According to the phylogenetic analysis, P. cygnus was most closely related to Panulirus japonicus among the compared six species belonging to Palinuridae. Although overall gene organization was the same, the putative control region (between SrRNA gene and tRNA(Ilel)) is least similar to one another among mitochondrial genomes from the compared six species belonging to Palinuridae.

  9. Assessment and Remediation of Lead Contamination in Esperance, Western Australia

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    McCafferty P. B.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of a lead contamination event that occurred over a period of time in and around Esperance, Western Australia. It also describes the scientific developments necessary to effect the large scale cleanup of lead contamination in the town. This work was possibly the largest environmental cleanup of its kind ever undertaken in Australia. The work undertaken involved characterisation and assessment of the extent of contamination, development of remediation techniques and validation procedures to ensure that that this cleaning had been successful.

  10. The Round House Gaol: Western Australia's first lunatic asylum.

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    Hudson-Rodd, N; Farrell, G A

    1998-12-01

    This paper is an account of the social history of the Round House Gaol in Fremantle, Western Australia and of those lunatics that were gathered together into its closed geographical space. The first permanent structure, perched on the most elevated and prominent site in Fremantle, was a gaol; the design for which was based on Jeremy Bentham's Panopticon or Inspection House, created for the purpose of surveillance and control of inmates. Visible in 1997, the Round House still stands as a dominant, physical marker of the landscape, ranking as a premier historical tourist attraction in Western Australia. But its actual use as a place for the containment of lunatics is only cursorily alluded to. This paper addresses the previously ignored period of 1830-1850.

  11. New Leucettidae de Laubenfels, 1936 (Porifera, Calcarea) from Western Australia.

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    Leocorny, Pedro; Alencar, Aline; Fromont, Jane; Klautau, Michelle

    2016-10-17

    This paper reports four new Leucettidae (Porifera, Calcarea) from Western Australia, with two representatives of Leucetta and two of Pericharax: L. foliata sp. nov., L. purpurea sp. nov., Pericharax crypta sp. nov., and P. vallii sp. nov. This is the first time tripods have been described within Pericharax. In addition, one species (L. foliata sp. nov.) has an external morphology not previously reported for Leucetta, and for the first time tetractines of the inhalant and exhalant canals have been distinguished. Leucettidae now comprises 28 species, eight of them occur in Western Australia, which means this Australian State has the highest species richness for this family in Australia. The WA coastline has been largely unexplored for Calcarea so it is likely that further collecting will yield additional species. Leucetta microraphis is the most widespread species of Leucettidae in Australia, occurring in all States except the Northern Territory and Tasmania. We highlight the importance of a revision of the Leucettidae using molecular and morphological characters to determine which morphological characters have a phylogenetic signal.

  12. First case of Francisella bacteraemia in Western Australia

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    Max Aravena-Román

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Francisella species are Gram-negative, nonmotile, pleomorphic coccobacilli, facultative intracellular fastidious bacteria. We report the isolation of a Francisella-like species from a blood culture collected from a 44-year-old bacteraemic patient in Perth, Western Australia. The organism was identified to species level by 16S rRNA sequencing and by fatty acid methyl esters analysis. The strain genotypically resembled Francisella hispaniensis, a species previously isolated from human blood in Spain.

  13. Development by Design in Western Australia: Overcoming Offset Obstacles

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    James Fitzsimons

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity offsets can be an important tool for maintaining or enhancing environmental values in situations where development is sought despite negative environmental impacts. There are now approximately 45 compensatory mitigation programs for biodiversity impacts worldwide, with another 27 programs in development. While offsets have great potential as a conservation tool, their establishment requires overcoming a number of conceptual and methodological hurdles. In Australia, new policy changes at the national and state (i.e., Western Australia level require that offsets follow a set of general principles: (1 Environmental offsets may not be appropriate for all projects and will only be considered after avoidance and mitigation options have been pursued; (2 Environmental offsets will be based on sound environmental information and knowledge; (3 Establishing goals for offsets requires an estimate of expected direct and indirect impacts; (4 Environmental offsets will be focused on longer term strategic outcomes; (5 Environmental offsets will be cost-effective, as well as relevant and proportionate to the significance of the environmental value being impacted. Here we focus on the challenges of determining and implementing offsets using a real world example from a voluntary offset process undertaken for Barrick Gold’s Kanowna Belle mine site in Western Australia to highlight those challenges and potential solutions.

  14. Studies on the planktonic Decapoda and Stomatopoda (Crustacea) from the western Bay of Bengal

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    Paulinose, V.T.; Nair, V.R.; Goswami, S.C.

    Abundance and distribution of decapods and stomatopods were studied, based on 90 samples collected from the western Bay of Bengal (Lat. 09 degrees 58' and 20 degrees 50'N and long. 80 degrees 00'E) between 24 August and 2 October, 1976. The decapod...

  15. Forensic entomology: application, education and research in Western Australia.

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    Dadour, I R; Cook, D F; Fissioli, J N; Bailey, W J

    2001-08-15

    Forensic entomology as a science and a tool for investigation has had slow beginnings in Australia. A number of small animal decomposition trials have been recorded in the literature but mostly from an ecological rather than a forensic entomology perspective. In the last 20 years, a number of more forensically orientated field trials on small pigs and some fly developmental trials in the laboratory have been conducted but lack any replication. The following article was presented at an international seminar to detail the current research in forensic entomology, the applications of forensic entomology in scene of crime (SOC) and homicide investigations and the education of police and judiciary in the discipline of forensic entomology in Western Australia over the last 10 years.

  16. Mercury in shark in western Australia: a preliminary report

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    Hancock, D.A.; Edmonds, J.S.; Edinger, J.J.

    1977-01-01

    Linear and curvilinear regressions relating mercury concentration and size were used in conjunction with catch data to estimate the average concentration in the three major shark species in the Western Australia fishery industry. The three species were whiskery (Furgaleus ventralis), bronze whaler (Carcharhinus obscurus) and gummy (Emissola antarctica) sharks. The averge mercury concentration for the 3 species was found to be approximately 0.75 ppM. The relevance of this to Public Health regulations was discussed and the need for information on consumption of shark stressed.

  17. Population genetic history of Aristeus antennatus (Crustacea: Decapoda in the Western and Central Mediterranean Sea.

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    Annamaria Marra

    Full Text Available Aristeus antennatus is an ecologically and economically important deep-water species in the Mediterranean Sea. In this study we investigated the genetic variability of A. antennatus sampled from 10 sampling stations in the Western and Central Mediterranean. By comparing our new samples with available data from the Western area, we aim to identify potential genetic stocks of A. antennatus and to reconstruct its historical demography in the Mediterranean. We analyzed two regions of mitochondrial DNA in 319 individuals, namely COI and 16S. We found two main results: i the genetic diversity values consistent with previous data within the Mediterranean and the absence of barriers to gene flow within the Mediterranean Sea; ii a constant long-term effective population size in almost all demes but a strong signature of population expansion in the pooled sample about 50,000 years B.P./ago. We propose two explanation for our results. The first is based on the ecology of A. antennatus. We suggest the existence of a complex meta-population structured into two layers: a deeper-dwelling stock, not affected by fishing, which preserves the pattern of historical demography; and genetically homogeneous demes inhabiting the fishing grounds. The larval dispersal, adult migration and continuous movements of individuals from "virgin" deeper grounds not affected by fishing to upper fishing areas support an effective 'rescue effect' contributing to the recovery of the exploited stocks and explain their genetic homogeneity throughout the Mediterranean Sea. The second is based on the reproduction model of this shrimp: the high variance in offspring production calls for a careful interpretation of the data observed under classical population genetics and Kingman's coalescent. In both cases, management policies for A. antennatus will therefore require careful evaluation of the meta-population dynamics of all stocks in the Mediterranean. In the future, it will be

  18. Dryland salinity in Western Australia: managing a changing water cycle.

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    Taylor, R J; Hoxley, G

    2003-01-01

    Clearing of agricultural land has resulted in significant changes to the surface and groundwater hydrology. Currently about 10% of agricultural land in Western Australia is affected by dryland salinity and between a quarter and a third of the area is predicted to be lost to salinity before a new hydrological equilibrium is reached. This paper develops a general statement describing the changes to the surface and groundwater hydrology of the wheatbelt of Western Australia between preclearing, the year 2000 and into the future. For typical catchments in the wheatbelt it is estimated that average groundwater recharge and surface runoff have increased about tenfold when comparing the current hydrology to that preclearing. Saline groundwater discharge and flood volumes have also increased significantly. Saline groundwater discharge and associated salt load will probably double in the future in line with the predicted increase in the area of dryland salinity. In addition, future increases in the area of dryland salinity/permanent waterlogging will probably double the volumes in flood events and further increase surface runoff in average years. The outcomes of surface and groundwater management trials have been briefly described to estimate how the hydrology would be modified if the trials were implemented at a catchment scale. These results have been used to formulate possible integrated revegetation and drainage management strategies. The future hydrology and impacts with and without integrated management strategies have been compared.

  19. First record of Palaemon macrodactylus Rathbun, 1902 (Decapoda, Palaemonidae in the western Mediterranean

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    A.P. TORRES

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean Sea is one of the world’s hotspots for marine bio-invasions. Most invasions are first documented based on an initial record of occasional adult captures. However, reports of larval stages could indicate that there is an adult population that is reproducing and therefore well established in the area. The spread of the oriental shrimp, Palaemon macrodactylus, from its native estuarine waters of southeast Asia to new regions worldwide is well documented. We report the first record of this species in the Mediterranean based on the presence of its larval stages in plankton samples. Decapod larvae were collected in five offshore plankton surveys performed off the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean, and zoeae III and VI of the oriental shrimp werefound among them. Taking into account the duration of the successive developmental stages, and the hydrodynamic characteristics of the study area, these larvae were most probably spawned by adult populations not yet documented. The larvae were found in marine waters despite the fact that adults usually inhabit brackish waters. Our study is a good example of how plankton studies can help to detect larval stages of invasive species before the adult populations are detected.

  20. Native title contestation in Western Australia's Pilbara region

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    Paul Cleary

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The rights afforded to Indigenous Australians under the Native Title Act 1993 (NTA are very limited and allow for undue coercion by corporate interests, contrary to the claims of many prominent authors in this field. Unlike the Commonwealth’s first land rights law, Aboriginal Lands Rights (Northern Territory Act 1976 (ALRA , the NTA does not offer a right of veto to Aboriginal parties; instead, they have a right to negotiate with developers, which has in practice meant very little leverage in negotiations for native title parties. And unlike ALRA, developers can deal with any Indigenous corporation, rather than land councils. These two factors have encouraged opportunistic conduct by some developers and led to vexatious litigation designed to break the resistance of native title parties, as demonstrated by the experience of Aboriginal corporations in the iron ore-rich Pilbara region of Western Australia.

  1. Upper Devonian microvertebrates from the Canning Basin, Western Australia

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    Roelofs, Brett; Playton, Ted; Barham, Milo; Trinajstic, Kate

    2015-03-01

    A diverse microvertebrate fauna is described from the Virgin Hills and Napier formations, Bugle Gap Limestone Canning Basin, Western Australia. Measured sections at Horse Spring and Casey Falls (Virgin Hills Formation) and South Oscar Range (Napier Formation) comprise proximal to distal slope carbonates ranging in age from the Late Devonian Frasnian to middle Famennian. A total of 18 chondrichthyan taxa are identified based on teeth, including the first record of Thrinacodus tranquillus, Cladoides wildungensis, Protacrodus serra and Lissodus lusavorichi from the Canning Basin. A new species, Diademodus dominicus sp. nov. is also described and provides the first record of this genus outside of Laurussia. In addition, the upper range of Australolepis seddoni has been extended to Late Devonian conodont Zone 11, making it the youngest known occurrence for this species. The Virgin Hills and Napier formations microvertebrate faunas show close affinities to faunas recovered from other areas of Gondwana, including eastern Australia, Iran, Morocco and South China, which is consistent with known conodont and trilobite faunas of the same age.

  2. Renewable Energy Policy and Practice in Western Australia

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    Thomas, Chacko; Harries, David

    2007-10-01

    Renewable energy is commonly seen as an essential strategy for sustainability. Many governments, however, have sustainable energy or sustainability strategies that place little emphasis on renewable energy. One reason is that despite acceptance of the concept of sustainable development as a concept, the reality is that economic growth remains the dominant policy objective of most governments and sustainability and sustainable development are such ill-defined concepts that lack of precise definition often confuses the debate. Climate change, however, is one issue for which the meaning over what is sustainable and what is unstainable has become clearer and the need to balance economic growth with reductions in greenhouse gas emissions has become urgent. The question of by when, by what means, by how much and by whom GHG emissions need to be reduced are now the critical questions. The question of the extent to which renewable energy is essential to the goal of reducing emissions therefore has become more pressing. Some governments continue to see renewable energy as an expensive and unnecessary option and that other, lower cost options for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from the energy sector exist. Western Australia makes an interesting case study as the State is experiencing rapid economic growth supported by rapidly increasing energy use and greenhouse gas emissions. Policies to date have focused on the fact that the state relies heavily on natural gas rather than coal and encourages the efficient use of energy. Western Australia's energy situation and greenhouse gas emissions strategies are reviewed in order to assess the extent to which this greenhouse gas reduction policy that has to date placed a relatively low emphasis on renewable energy is likely to be successful.

  3. appeals among male university students in Western Australia

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    Shahriar Khandaker

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Smoking causes ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, and lung cancer killing 15,000 Australians every year. Despite extensive publicity of the harmful health effects of smoking, one in six Australian aged 15 years and over smoked daily representing 2.7 million active smokers. Objectives. The research aimed to comprehend how active university student smokers respond to different appeals employed in public service antismoking campaigns in Western Australia. Material and methods. The study examined the Quit Victoria 2006–2008 antismoking campaign using qualitative research method involving four in-depth focus group discussions with a total of twenty-four (N = 24 active male university student smokers in Western Australia between the age group of 18 to 24 years. Results . Male university students became active smokers because of the perceived image of ‘coolness,’ ‘macho,’ media influence and experimentation. Impact on sports performances predominantly encouraged respondents in attempting to quit smoking. Sixteen students (67% felt that graphic warning messages on cigarette packs had no effect on them due to desensitizing effects of repeated messages. Twenty-one participants (87.5% felt that health shock appeal was ineffective in making them quit. Emotional appeals like humor, fear, and health shock were most persuasive in advertising messages which would assist in smoking cessation. Therefore, antismoking campaigns with shock health appeals were ineffective in helping smokers to abdicate smoking. Results suggested employing emotional or combination of rational and emotional appeals in maximizing the effectiveness of antismoking advertisements. Conclusions . The study broadens the scope of devising effective antismoking campaigns and provide insightful implications for public health promoters as well as individualized care providers.

  4. Routine detection of Clostridium difficile in Western Australia.

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    Collins, Deirdre A; Riley, Thomas V

    2016-02-01

    Despite increasing infection rates, Clostridium difficile is not currently routinely tested for in all diarrhoeal faecal specimens in Australia. In July 2014, all diarrhoeal specimens submitted to a diagnostic laboratory in Western Australia were surveyed to determine the true prevalence of C. difficile. In total, 1010 diarrhoeal non-duplicate faecal specimens were received during the month. Testing for C. difficile was requested, or the criteria for a C. difficile investigation were met, for 678 specimens which were investigated by PCR for the tcdB gene using the BD MAX platform, followed by toxigenic culture on PCR-positive samples. The remaining 332 specimens, with either no C. difficile test request or the criteria for a C. difficile investigation were not met, were examined by toxigenic culture. All isolates were PCR ribotyped. C. difficile was the most commonly detected diarrhoeal pathogen among all specimens. The overall prevalence of C. difficile in all 1010 specimens was 6.4%; 7.2% in the routinely tested group, and 4.8% in the non-requested group. The proportion of non-requested positive detections among all cases was 24.6%. Community-onset infection was present in 50.8% of all cases. The median age of all CDI cases was 60.0 years and the age range in CDI patients in the routine group was 0.6-96.6 years (median 72.7 years), compared to 0.2-2.3 years (median 0.8 years) in the non-requested group. The most common ribotype (RT) found was RT 014/020 (34.1% in the routine group, 43.8% in the non-requested group), followed by RTs 002, 056, 005 and 018. While the routine testing group and the non-requested group differed markedly in age and patient classification, C. difficile was the most common cause of diarrhoea in hospitals and the community in Western Australia. The significance of finding C. difficile in the community paediatric population requires further study.

  5. Paediatric ocular and adnexal injuries requiring hospitalisation in Western Australia.

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    Yardley, Anne-Marie E; Hoskin, Annette K; Hanman, Kate; Sanfilippo, Paul G; Lam, Geoffrey C; Mackey, David A

    2017-05-01

    The aim was to investigate the characteristics and outcomes of ocular and adnexal injuries requiring hospitalisation in children in Perth, Western Australia. This is a hospital-based retrospective review of children admitted to Princess Margaret Hospital for Children with diagnoses of ocular and/or adnexal trauma from 2002-2013. Hospital charts were reviewed for demographic information, injury and management details, follow-up and visual outcome. Final visual acuity was categorised into three groups: 6/12 or better, from 6/12 to 6/60, worse than 6/60. Ordinal logistic regression was used to compute odds ratios and predicted probabilities for each category of final visual outcome. Over the 12-year time period, 482 children were admitted with ocular or adnexal injuries - an average of 40 admissions per year. The mean age of the cohort was 7.1 years (range 0.09 to 16.47 years) with a male to female ratio of 2.6:1.0. There were 185 closed-globe injuries, 72 open-globe injuries and 293 adnexal injuries. Fourteen per cent of the cohort sustained a combined globe and adnexal injury. Children in the up to five-year age group were most susceptible to injury. Eighty-two per cent of the group had a final visual acuity of 6/12 or better. Factors associated with poor visual outcomes included younger age (p < 0.01), open-globe injury (p < 0.01) and lens injury (p < 0.01). Based on the outcomes of our review, paediatric ocular and adnexal trauma are significant causes for hospital attendance in childhood. Identifying associated risk factors will help develop injury prevention strategies to promote eye safety for children. © 2016 Optometry Australia.

  6. A research and evaluation capacity building model in Western Australia.

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    Lobo, Roanna; Crawford, Gemma; Hallett, Jonathan; Laing, Sue; Mak, Donna B; Jancey, Jonine; Rowell, Sally; McCausland, Kahlia; Bastian, Lisa; Sorenson, Anne; Tilley, P J Matt; Yam, Simon; Comfort, Jude; Brennan, Sean; Doherty, Maryanne

    2016-12-27

    Evaluation of public health programs, services and policies is increasingly required to demonstrate effectiveness. Funding constraints necessitate that existing programs, services and policies be evaluated and their findings disseminated. Evidence-informed practice and policy is also desirable to maximise investments in public health. Partnerships between public health researchers, service providers and policymakers can help address evaluation knowledge and skills gaps. The Western Australian Sexual Health and Blood-borne Virus Applied Research and Evaluation Network (SiREN) aims to build research and evaluation capacity in the sexual health and blood-borne virus sector in Western Australia (WA). Partners' perspectives of the SiREN model after 2 years were explored. Qualitative written responses from service providers, policymakers and researchers about the SiREN model were analysed thematically. Service providers reported that participation in SiREN prompted them to consider evaluation earlier in the planning process and increased their appreciation of the value of evaluation. Policymakers noted benefits of the model in generating local evidence and highlighting local issues of importance for consideration at a national level. Researchers identified challenges communicating the services available through SiREN and the time investment needed to develop effective collaborative partnerships. Stronger engagement between public health researchers, service providers and policymakers through collaborative partnerships has the potential to improve evidence generation and evidence translation. These outcomes require long-term funding and commitment from all partners to develop and maintain partnerships. Ongoing monitoring and evaluation can ensure the partnership remains responsive to the needs of key stakeholders. The findings are applicable to many sectors.

  7. Radioactivity in drinking water supplies in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, M; Wallner, G; Jennings, P

    2014-04-01

    Radiochemical analysis was carried out on 52 drinking water samples taken from public outlets in the southwest of Western Australia. All samples were analysed for Ra-226, Ra-228 and Pb-210. Twenty five of the samples were also analysed for Po-210, and 23 were analysed for U-234 and U-238. Ra-228 was found in 45 samples and the activity ranged from Ra-226 was detected in all 52 samples and the activity ranged from 3.200 to 151.1 mBq L(-1). Po-210 was detected in 24 samples and the activity ranged from 0.000 to 114.2 mBq L(-1). These data were used to compute the annual radiation dose that persons of different age groups and also for pregnant and lactating females would receive from drinking this water. The estimated doses ranged from 0.001 to 2.375 mSv y(-1) with a mean annual dose of 0.167 mSv y(-1). The main contributing radionuclides to the annual dose were Ra-228, Po-210 and Ra-226. Of the 52 drinking water samples tested, 94% complied with the current Australian Drinking Water Guidelines, while 10% complied with the World Health Organization's radiological guidelines which many other countries use. It is likely that these results provide an overestimate of the compliance, due to limitations, in the sampling technique and resource constraints on the analysis. Because of the increasing reliance of the Western Australian community on groundwater for domestic and agricultural purposes, it is likely that the radiological content of the drinking water will increase in the future. Therefore there is a need for further monitoring and analysis in order to identify problem areas.

  8. Variation in Population Vulnerability to Heat Wave in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jianguo; Spicer, Tony; Jian, Le; Yun, Grace Yajuan; Shao, Changying; Nairn, John; Fawcett, Robert J B; Robertson, Andrew; Weeramanthri, Tarun Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Heat waves (HWs) have killed more people in Australia than all other natural hazards combined. Climate change is expected to increase the frequency, duration, and intensity of HWs and leads to a doubling of heat-related deaths over the next 40 years. Despite being a significant public health issue, HWs do not attract the same level of attention from researchers, policy makers, and emergency management agencies compared to other natural hazards. The purpose of the study was to identify risk factors that might lead to population vulnerability to HW in Western Australia (WA). HW vulnerability and resilience among the population of the state of WA were investigated by using time series analysis. The health impacts of HWs were assessed by comparing the associations between hospital emergency department (ED) presentations, hospital admissions and mortality data, and intensities of HW. Risk factors including age, gender, socioeconomic status (SES), remoteness, and geographical locations were examined to determine whether certain population groups were more at risk of adverse health impacts due to extreme heat. We found that hospital admissions due to heat-related conditions and kidney diseases, and overall ED attendances, were sensitive indicators of HW. Children aged 14 years or less and those aged 60 years or over were identified as the most vulnerable populations to HWs as shown in ED attendance data. Females had more ED attendances and hospital admissions due to kidney diseases; while males had more heat-related hospital admissions than females. There were significant dose-response relationships between HW intensity and SES, remoteness, and health service usage. The more disadvantaged and remotely located the population, the higher the health service usage during HWs. Our study also found that some population groups and locations were resilient to extreme heat. We produced a mapping tool, which indicated geographic areas throughout WA with various vulnerability

  9. Cetacean morbillivirus in coastal Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins, Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Nahiid; Duignan, Pádraig J; Wang, Jianning; Bingham, John; Finn, Hugh; Bejder, Lars; Patterson, Anthony P; Holyoake, Carly

    2014-04-01

    Cetacean morbillivirus (CeMV) has caused several epizootics in multiple species of cetaceans globally and is an emerging disease among cetaceans in Australia. We detected CeMV in 2 stranded coastal Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) in Western Australia. Preliminary phylogenetic data suggest that this virus variant is divergent from known strains.

  10. Impacts of Recent Climate change on wheat production systems in Western Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ludwig, F.; Milroy, S.P.; Asseng, S.

    2009-01-01

    The wheatbelt of Western Australia shows a distinct Mediterranean climate with most of the rainfall occurring in the winter months. The main factor limiting plant production in this region is rainfall. Due to clearing of native vegetation, dryland salinity is a major problem in south-west Australia.

  11. Diversity and abundance of photosynthetic sponges in temperate Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brümmer Franz

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Photosynthetic sponges are important components of reef ecosystems around the world, but are poorly understood. It is often assumed that temperate regions have low diversity and abundance of photosynthetic sponges, but to date no studies have investigated this question. The aim of this study was to compare the percentages of photosynthetic sponges in temperate Western Australia (WA with previously published data on tropical regions, and to determine the abundance and diversity of these associations in a range of temperate environments. Results We sampled sponges on 5 m belt transects to determine the percentage of photosynthetic sponges and identified at least one representative of each group of symbionts using 16S rDNA sequencing together with microscopy techniques. Our results demonstrate that photosynthetic sponges are abundant in temperate WA, with an average of 63% of sponge individuals hosting high levels of photosynthetic symbionts and 11% with low to medium levels. These percentages of photosynthetic sponges are comparable to those found on tropical reefs and may have important implications for ecosystem function on temperate reefs in other areas of the world. A diverse range of symbionts sometimes occurred within a small geographic area, including the three "big" cyanobacterial clades, Oscillatoria spongeliae, "Candidatus Synechococcus spongiarum" and Synechocystis species, and it appears that these clades all occur in a wide range of sponges. Additionally, spongin-permeating red algae occurred in at least 7 sponge species. This study provides the first investigation of the molecular phylogeny of rhodophyte symbionts in sponges. Conclusion Photosynthetic sponges are abundant and diverse in temperate WA, with comparable percentages of photosynthetic to non-photosynthetic sponges to tropical zones. It appears that there are three common generalist clades of cyanobacterial symbionts of sponges which occur in a wide

  12. Study of lone working magnetic resonance technologists in Western Australia

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    Tracy Anne Dewland

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: It is recommended that magnetic resonance (MR technologists should not work alone due to potential occupational health risks although lone working is legally acceptable. The objective of this study was to investigate the current situation of lone working MR technologists in Western Australia (WA and any issue against the regulations. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire regarding the issues of occupational health of lone working MR technologists was developed based on relevant literature and distributed to WA MR technologists. Descriptive (percentage of frequency, mean and standard deviation and inferential statistics (Fisher's exact, Chi2 and t tests, and analysis of variance were used to analyze the responses of the yes/no, multiple choice and 5 pt scale questions from the returned questionnaires. Results: The questionnaire response rate was 65.6% (59/90. It was found that about half of the MR technologists (45.8%, 27/59 experienced lone working. The private magnetic resonance imaging (MRI centers were more likely to arrange technologists to work alone (p < 0.05. The respondents expressed positive views on issues of adequacy of training and arrangement, confidence and comfort towards lone working except immediate assistance for emergency (mean: 3. Factors of existence of MRI safety officer (p < 0.05 and nature of lone working (p < 0.001-0.05 affected MR technologists' concerns. Conclusions: Lone working of MR technologists is common in WA especially in private centers. The training and arrangement provided seem to be adequate for meeting the legal requirements. However, several areas should be improved by the workplaces including enhancement on immediate emergency assistance and concern relief.

  13. Conductivity models for the North Perth Basin, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskin, T. E.; Regenauer-Lieb, K.; Jones, A. G.

    2013-12-01

    Exploration for geothermal resources in the North Perth basin, Western Australia, led to acquisition of new, high resolution Magnetotelluric (MT) and Audio-Magnetotelluric (AMT) data, the first of its kind in the area. Electromagnetic (EM) techniques are widely used in geothermal exploration and ground water investigations and they are well suited for application in the Perth basin. Two east-west transects investigating the structure of the onshore basin and its eastern margin, the Darling Fault Zone, are compared with existing geological models and geophysical data. Down-hole temperature data and depth-to-basement models were used to define areas of investigation in the basin, but there are limited geophysical data available. 1D, 2D and 3D modeling of electromagnetic data have been used to produce new conductivity models using existing data to constrain modelling. EM data complement existing gravity and seismic data and support published models in the upper 4-6km. However in deeper parts of the basin, MT data provide additional information allowing for revision of depth-to-basement. In addition to this, we clearly identify a conductivity anomaly associated with the Darling Fault Zone and are able to image this anomaly penetrating into the upper mantle. Fault zone conductors have been imaged on other lithosphere faults around the world, with one explanation being fluids in the enhanced permeability of the damage zone. Evidence to explain the fault zone conductor of the Darling Fault is presented and discussed as it could have significant implications in the identification of new areas, prospective for geothermal resources in the basin.

  14. Bioclimatic Extremes Drive Forest Mortality in Southwest, Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley John Evans

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Extreme and persistent reductions in annual precipitation and an increase in the mean diurnal temperature range have resulted in patch scale forest mortality following the summer of 2010–2011 within the Forest study area near Perth, Western Australia. The impacts of 20 bioclimatic indicators derived from temperature, precipitation and of actual and potential evapotranspiration are quantified. We found that spatially aggregated seasonal climatologies across the study area show 2011 with an annual mean of 17.7 °C (± 5.3 °C was 1.1 °C warmer than the mean over recent decades (1981–2011,- 16.6 °C ± 4.6 °C and the mean has been increasing over the last decade. Compared to the same period, 2010–2011 summer maximum temperatures were 1.4 °C (31.6 °C ± 2.0 °C higher and the annual mean diurnal temperature range (Tmax−Tmin was 1.6 °C higher (14.7 °C ± 0.5 °C. In 2009, the year before the forest mortality began, annual precipitation across the study area was 69% less (301 mm ± 38 mm than the mean of 1981–2010 (907 mm ± 69 mm. Using Système Pour l'Observation de la Terre mission 5 (SPOT-5 satellite imagery captured after the summer of 2010–2011 we map a broad scale forest mortality event across the Forested study area. This satellite-climatology based methodology provides a means of monitoring and mapping similar forest mortality events- a critical contribution to our understanding the dynamical bioclimatic drivers of forest mortality events.

  15. Working Together, Staying Vital. Proceedings of the Joint Conference of the Western Australian District High Schools Administrators' Association and the National Society for the Provision of Education in Rural Australia (20th, Fremantle, Western Australia, June 2004)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boylan, Colin, Ed.; Hemmings, Brian, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    The 20th National Society for the Provision of Education in Rural Australia (SPERA) and Western Australia District High School Administrators' Association (WADHSAA) joint conference proceedings, based on the theme "Working Together, Staying Vital," was held in Fremantle, Perth, Western Australia, in June 2004. The proceedings contain 13…

  16. Summer spawning of Porites lutea from north-western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddart, C. W.; Stoddart, J. A.; Blakeway, D. R.

    2012-09-01

    Most coral species off Australia's west coast spawn in the austral autumn (March-April), with a few species also spawning in the southern spring or early summer (November-December). This is the reverse timing to spawning recorded off Australia's east coast. Porites lutea, a gonochoric broadcast spawner that is common on Australia's west coast, is shown here to spawn in the months of November or December, as it does on Australia's east coast. Spawning occurred between 2 and 5 nights after full moon, with the majority of spawning activity on night 3. Gametes developed over three to four months with rapid development in the last two weeks before spawning. Zooxanthellae were typically observed in mature oocytes, only a week before spawning so their presence may provide a useful indicator of imminent spawning.

  17. The geology of Darwin Crater, western Tasmania, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Kieren T.; Haines, Peter W.

    2007-08-01

    Darwin glass is a siliceous impact glass found in a 400 km 2 strewn field near Mt Darwin, western Tasmania, Australia. It has been dated by Ar-Ar methods at 816 ± 7 ka. A 1.2 km diameter circular depression, named Darwin Crater (42°18.39'S, 145°39.41'E), is the assumed source crater for the glass. Darwin Crater is situated in a remote rain forested valley developed within Siluro-Devonian quartzite and slate (Eldon Group). Earlier geophysical investigations demonstrated that the structure is an almost circular bowl-shaped sediment-filled basin. This paper provides the first detailed description of the geology of Darwin Crater. The centre of the crater has been penetrated by two drill cores, the deeper to a maximum depth of ˜ 230 m. The drill cores intersected fine-grained lacustrine sediments (˜ 60 m thick) overlying poorly sorted coarser crater-fill deposits. The pre-lacustrine crater-fill stratigraphy comprises an uppermost polymict breccia (˜ 40 m thick) of angular quartz and country rock, which contains very rare (≪ 1%) fresh glass fragments (Crater-fill Facies A). Beneath the polymict breccia facies, the drill core intersected monomict sandy breccias of angular quartz (Crater-fill Facies B), and a complicated package of deformed slate clasts (Crater-fill Facies C). Quartz grains in the crater-fill samples contain abundant irregular fractures. In some of the most deformed quartz grains, sub-planar fractures define zones of alternating extinction that superficially resemble twinning. Kinked micas are also present. While the deformation observed in clasts of the crater-fill facies is far greater than in rocks cropping out around the crater, no diagnostic shock indicators, such as planar deformation features (PDF's) in quartz, were observed. If the crater is of impact origin, as seems likely due to the close association with Darwin glass, this is another example of a simple crater where diagnostic shock indicators appear to be absent, preventing

  18. LCT pegmatites from the Wodgina pegmatite district, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Lisa; Dittrich, Thomas; Seifert, Thomas; Schulz, Bernhard

    2014-05-01

    The lithium-cesium-tantalum (LCT) pegmatites from the Mt. Tinstone and Mt. Cassiterite open pits are located within the Wodgina pegmatite district, about 130 km south of Port Hedland, Western Australia. The albite-spodumene and albite-type pegmatites of the Wodgina pegmatite district are currently mined for tin, tantalum and niobium. The pegmatites are hosted within the Archean East-Pilbara Granite-Greenstone Terrane linked to the fertile Numbana monzogranite that forms part of the Yule Granitoid Complex. Granitic melt intruded into metasedimentary rocks (~2.8 Ga) and formed a series of pegmatite sheets, dikes and irregular structures. These pegmatites are characterized by a high melt fractionation that led to the formation of pegmatitic minerals, containing high concentrations of rare elements, such as Ta, Nb, Li, Rb and Cs. The pegmatites from the Mt. Tinstone sheet open pit, which were investigated within this study, comprises four internal zones consisting of six mineral assemblages, dominated by quartz, albite and white mica, with K-feldspar and spodumene as major or minor constituents. Distribution patterns of cassiterite and Ta-Nb-Sn-oxide minerals (ixiolite/wodginite, tantalite/columbite and microlite) can be observed within the four different pegmatite zones. The contact zones are enriched in cassiterite, ixiolite and microlite; border zones reveal high concentrations of cassiterite, ixiolite and tantalite; the intermediate units are characterized by a moderate enrichment of the ore minerals; whereby core zones host almost no significant contents of the minerals mentioned above. Distribution of Ta-Nb-Sn-oxides within the zones and Mn/(Mn+Fe) and Ta/(Ta+Nb) ratios are indicators for melt fractionation, and change from the core zones to the outermost contact zones, as well as from north to south. Electron microprobe analyses on white mica show the existence of fractionation trends from more primitive white mica of the core zones (zinnwaldite) to higher

  19. High prevalence of Trypanosoma vegrandis in bats from Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austen, Jill M; O'Dea, Mark; Jackson, Bethany; Ryan, Una

    2015-12-15

    The present study describes the first report of Trypanosoma vegrandis in bats using morphology and sequence analysis of the 18S rRNA gene. The PCR prevalence of T. vegrandis in bats was 81.8% (18/22). The high prevalence of T. vegrandis in the present study suggests that bats may play an important role in the epidemiology of T. vegrandis in Australia. T. vegrandis appears to be geographically dispersed, has a wide distribution in Australia and low levels of host specificity.

  20. Nutrient transport to the Swan-Canning Estuary, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Norman E.; Donohue, Robert

    2001-09-01

    Catchment nutrient availability in Western Australia is primarily controlled by the disposal of animal waste and the type and rate of fertilizer application, particularly on the relatively narrow (25 km wide), sandy coastal plain. Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentrations and fluxes during the wet season of 15 tributaries, including four urban drains to the Swan-Canning Estuary, were evaluated from 1986 to 1992 and additionally concentrations only were evaluated throughout the year from 1993 to 1996. Concentrations of filtered reactive P (FRP) and total P (TP) were generally low, with the volume-weighted means for all sites being 0·06 mg l-1 and 0·12 mg l-1 respectively. The urban drains had higher TP concentrations (volume-weighted mean of 0·21 mg l-1) than the streams (0·12 mg l-1), with the high concentrations associated with particulate matter. Total inorganic N (TIN, NH4N plus NO3N) and total N (TN), which is of interest to eutrophic status of the N-limited estuary, were likewise low, compared with other developed areas having a similar climate. Both TIN and TN were higher in the urban drains (0·76 mg l-1 and 1·5 mg l-1 respectively) than the streams (0·31 mg l-1 and 1·2 mg l-1 respectively). The Avon River, which drains 98·5% of the 121 000 km2 catchment area, contributes most of the N (0·03 kg ha-1 year-1 or 65%) and a high percentage of the P (<0·01 kg ha-1

  1. Intertidal sediments and benthic animals of Roebuck Bay, Western Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pepping, M.; Piersma, T.; Pearson, G.; Lavaleye, M.

    1999-01-01

    Roebuck Bay near Broome (NW Australia) is with itsextensive tidal flats one of the foremost internationallyimportant sites for shorebirds in the Asia-Pacificflyway system. It is home to 150,000 shorebirds (or‘waders’) in the nonbreeding season, which suggeststhat the intertidal flats of the bay have

  2. Many Bottles for Many Flies: Managing Conflict over Indigenous Peoples’ Cultural Heritage in Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ritter

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This article critically considers the legal regulation of Indigenous people's cultural heritage in Western Australia and its operation within the framework of Australia's federal system of government. The article also sets out the different ways in which Indigenous cultural heritage is conceptualised, including as a public good analogous to property of the crown, an incidental right arising from group native title and as the subject of private contract. The article explores the various notions of 'Indigenous cultural heritage' that exist under Western Australian public law and the significant role of private contractual arrangements. Particular attention is devoted to the uneasy nexus between the laws of native title and heritage in Western Australia.

  3. Bioengineering in the Department of Mechanical Engineering at the University of Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachowiak, G W

    1991-01-01

    Although bioengineering is not formally taught in the Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Western Australia, undergraduate and postgraduate projects in this area are very popular among the students. Meetings of the research staff and students working in this area and in tribology in general are organized once a week where the research progress is reported and problems encountered are discussed. Very good collaboration has been established with the Royal Perth Hospital and the Departments of Anatomy and Pathology, University of Western Australia. The Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Western Australia, has been most helpful over the years in meeting financial needs. The Department has also received over the years some support from the West Australian Arthritic Research Foundation.

  4. Too little, too late: mental health nursing education in Western Australia, 1958-1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Anthony R; Martyr, Philippa

    2013-06-01

    Mental health nursing education in Australia has undergone a significant transition in the last 50 years, influenced by national inquiries, national decisions, and international trends in nursing education. But mental health nursing education had also accumulated decades of history in each state, including sometimes unequal relations with general nursing. Complex inter- and intra-professional relationships at state level influenced this educational transition in each state, and Western Australia provides an example of this influence. Using a range of published and unpublished sources, including oral histories, this paper describes the revision of the mental health nursing curriculum in Western Australia from 1958, responses to the call for transition to the tertiary sector between 1976 and 1984, and the final transition of mental health nursing education to university level in Western Australia in 1994. Mental health nursing's educational standards improved only gradually in Western Australia from 1958 onwards, compared with professional advances in general nursing in the same period. Factors which may have held back these improvements include mental health nursing's professional conservatism, which was outpaced by general nursing's growing radicalization at the national level. A lack of professional confidence and cohesion left mental health nursing unable to respond effectively to rapid external changes in the 1960s and 1970s, and vulnerable to absorption and dominance by general nursing education programs.

  5. Gastroptychus Cavimurus sp. nov., a new Chirostylid (Crustacea, Decapoda, Anomura) from off the western coast of South America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baba, K.

    1977-01-01

    During the second cruise of the Japanese Research Vessel "Kaiyo Maru" to the western coast of South America in 1968-69, Dr. Osame Tabeta of the Shimonoseki University of Fisheries, then on the staff of the Kyushu University, collected a number of galatheids off the northern Peruvian coast. All of th

  6. Uroptychus atlanticus, a new species of squat lobster (Crustacea: Decapoda: Anomura: Chirostylidae) from the western Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Keiji; Wicksten, Mary K

    2017-02-02

    A new species of squat lobster, Uroptychus atlanticus, is described on the basis of a female specimen taken at a depth of 713-841 m in the southeastern Gulf of Mexico. The new species is readily distinguished from all known species of the genus from the western Atlantic by the very spinose carapace and pereopods, and a transverse row of spines on each of the abdominal tergites 1 and 2.

  7. MIGRATORY DEPARTURES OF WADERS FROM NORTH-WESTERN AUSTRALIA - BEHAVIOR, TIMING AND POSSIBLE MIGRATION ROUTES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tulp, Ingrid; MCCHESNEY, S; DEGOEIJ, P

    1994-01-01

    Migratory activity of waders departing from north-western Australia in March-April 1991 was recorded by field observations and radar tracking. Field observations showed that the species concerned were mainly Bar-tailed Godwit Limosa lapponica, Grey Plover Pluvialis squatarola and Great Knot Calidris

  8. Thalassemia in Western Australia: 11 novel deletions characterized by Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phylipsen, M.; Prior, J.F.; Lim, E.; Lingam, N.; Vogelaar, I.P.; Giordano, P.C.; Finlayson, J.; Harteveld, C.L.

    2010-01-01

    The number of immigrants in Western Australia from many different areas where hemoglobinopathies are endemic has increased dramatically since the 1970s. Therefore, many different thalassemia mutations have been introduced in the country, which add a technological diagnostic problem to the serious bu

  9. Evaluation of vegetation indices for rangeland biomass estimation in the Kimberley area of Western Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mundava, C.; Helmholtz, P.; Schut, A.G.T.; Corner, R.; McAtee, B.; Lamb, D.W.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to test the relationships between Above Ground Biomass (AGB) and remotely sensed vegetation indices for AGB assessments in the Kimberley area in Western Australia. For 19 different sites, vegetation indices were derived from eight Landsat ETM+ scenes over a period of t

  10. Thalassemia in Western Australia: 11 novel deletions characterized by Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phylipsen, M.; Prior, J.F.; Lim, E.; Lingam, N.; Vogelaar, I.P.; Giordano, P.C.; Finlayson, J.; Harteveld, C.L.

    2010-01-01

    The number of immigrants in Western Australia from many different areas where hemoglobinopathies are endemic has increased dramatically since the 1970s. Therefore, many different thalassemia mutations have been introduced in the country, which add a technological diagnostic problem to the serious

  11. Indigenous Mothers' Aspirations for Their Children in Perth, Western Australia: The Value of Education and Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lette, Helen; D'Espaignet, Edouard Tursan; Slack-Smith, Linda; Hunt, Kerry; Nannup, Janine

    2009-01-01

    This project involved the collection of stories about the aspirations, goals and strategies from a sample of mothers of Indigenous children living in Perth, Western Australia. Analysis of the semi-structured interviews indicated that the education of their children was important for many of the mothers. Whilst some of the mothers preferred their…

  12. Evaluation of the Mandatory Construction Induction Training Program in Western Australia: Unanticipated Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahn, Susanne; Barratt-Pugh, Llandis

    2012-01-01

    Since January 1, 2007, Government legislation in Western Australia required all workers in construction to complete mandatory safety awareness training before they began work on site. During the implementation of this new legislation there was considerable resistance from the construction sector due to the mandatory nature of the training. The…

  13. Botanical bibliography of the Araceae of Malesia, Australia, and the tropical western Pacific region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hay, A.; Hetterscheid, W.L.A.; Murata, J.; Boyce, P.C.; Bogner, J.; Jacobsen, N.

    1995-01-01

    To complement the ‘Checklist of the Araceae of Malesia, Australia and the Tropical Western Pacific region’, a bibliography has been prepared as a basis for further work on the aroids of these areas. It is based on, but much extended from, an unpublished bibliography of Malesian Araceae assembled by

  14. Western Australia facing critical losses in its midwifery workforce: a survey of midwives' intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Judith D; Twigg, Diane E; Martin, Tracy L; Rai, Tapan

    2013-05-01

    the ongoing attrition of the midwifery workforce frustrates future workforce planning and the provision of maternity services in Western Australia. This project determined factors contributing to the intention of the midwives to move jobs and/or leave the profession. a cross-sectional survey approach was taken for this descriptive research utilising a self-administered questionnaire developed by the Nursing and Midwifery Office, Department of Health, Western Australia. public and private health sectors in Western Australia, April-May 2010. 1,600 midwives employed in the public and private health sectors throughout Western Australia were invited to participate: 712 responded (44.5%), one-fifth of the state's registered midwives. most midwives worked part-time in a clinical role in public hospitals. Almost half intended moving jobs within 5 years and/or leaving midwifery. Excluding midwives of retirement age, the most common reasons for intending to move jobs were family commitments, working conditions and role dissatisfaction. Those intending to leave midwifery cited work-life balance, career change and family commitments. Midwives thought addressing the following issues would improve midwifery retention: flexible work arrangements, remuneration, staffing and caseload, workplace culture, professional development and models of care. retaining the midwifery workforce requires attention to workforce practices particularly flexible work arrangements and workloads; models of care to strengthen midwives' relationships with clients and colleagues; and accessible professional development. a review of workplace practices at unit and institution levels is urgently required in Western Australia so that midwives can achieve work-life balance and practice to the full extent of their professional role. These changes are necessary to forestall premature retirement of skilled and experienced midwives from the profession and workforce churn. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by

  15. Occurence of the Asian shrimp Palaemon macrodactylus in the Southern bight of the North Sea, with a key to the Palaemonidae of North-western Europe (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    d'Udekem d'Azoc, C.; Faasse, M.; Dumoulin, E.; Blauwe, de H.

    2005-01-01

    Het voorkomen van de rugstreepsteurgarnaal Palaemon macrodactylus in de zuidelijke bocht van de Noordzee, met een determinatiesleutel tot de Palaemonidae van Noordwest-Europa (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea) In 1999 werd de rugstreepsteurgarnaal Palaemon macrodactylus Rathbun, 1902, een soort

  16. Breastfeeding Duration and Residential Isolation amid Aboriginal Children in Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen R. Zubrick

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To examine factors that impact on breastfeeding duration among Western Australian Aboriginal children. We hypothesised that Aboriginal children living in remote locations in Western Australia were breastfed for longer than those living in metropolitan locations. Methods: A population-based cross-sectional survey was conducted from 2000 to 2002 in urban, rural and remote settings across Western Australia. Cross-tabulations and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed, using survey weights to produce unbiased estimates for the population of Aboriginal children. Data on demographic, maternal and infant characteristics were collected from 3932 Aboriginal birth mothers about their children aged 0–17 years (representing 22,100 Aboriginal children in Western Australia. Results: 71% of Aboriginal children were breastfed for three months or more. Accounting for other factors, there was a strong gradient for breastfeeding duration by remoteness, with Aboriginal children living in areas of moderate isolation being 3.2 times more likely to be breastfed for three months or more (p < 0.001 compared to children in metropolitan Perth. Those in areas of extreme isolation were 8.6 times more likely to be breastfed for three months or longer (p < 0.001. Conclusions: Greater residential isolation a protective factor linked to longer breastfeeding duration for Aboriginal children in our West Australian cohort.

  17. The Discovery and History of the Dalgaranga Meteorite Crater, Western Australia

    CERN Document Server

    Hamacher, Duane W

    2013-01-01

    The Dalgaranga meteorite crater, 100 km northeast of Yalgoo, Western Australia, was one of the first impact structures identified in Australia, the smallest isolated crater found in Australia, and the only confirmed crater in the world associated with a mesosiderite projectile. 17 years passed before the Dalgaranga meteorites were described in the scientific literature and nearly 40 years passed before a survey of the structure was published. The reasons for the time-gap were never explained and a number of factual errors about the discovery and early history remain uncorrected in the scientific literature. Using historical and archival documents, and discussions with people involved in Dalgaranga research, the reasons for this time gap are explained by a series of minor misidentifications and coincidences. The age of the crater has yet to be determined, but using published data, we estimate the projectile mass to be 500-1000 kg.

  18. Environmental correlates of mental health measures for women in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearnley, Emily Jane; Magalhães, Ricardo Jorge Soares; Speldewinde, Peter; Weinstein, Philip; Dobson, Annette

    2014-12-01

    A recent study in Western Australia identified area level associations between soil salinisation and hospital admissions for depression. Our study assessed the quantitative relationship between mental health measures at the individual level and location specific environmental measurements on salinity, as well as two other indicators of environmental degradation and change: land surface temperature and normalised difference vegetation index, a proxy for rainfall. Location-specific environmental measurements were linked to individual mental health scores of women in three age cohorts from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health using a geographic information system. Bayesian geostatistical linear regression models were developed to assess associations between environmental exposures and mental health scores of women. In contrast to previous studies using area level measures, our study found no associations between individual level measurements of mental health scores for women in south-west Western Australia and salinity, LST or NDVI.

  19. A Review of On-Site Wastewater Treatment Systems in Western Australia from 1997 to 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gunady

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available On-site wastewater treatment systems (OWTS are widely used in Western Australia (WA to treat and dispose of household wastewater in areas where centralized sewerage systems are unavailable. Septic tanks, aerobic treatment units (ATUs, and composting toilets with greywater systems are among the most well established and commonly used OWTS. However, there are concerns that some OWTS installed in WA are either performing below expected standards or failing. Poorly performing OWTS are often attributed to inadequate installation, inadequate maintenance, poor public awareness, insufficient local authority resources, ongoing wastewater management issues, or inadequate adoption of standards, procedures, and guidelines. This paper is to review the installations and failures of OWTS in WA. Recommendations to the Department of Health Western Australia (DOHWA and Local Government (LG in regard to management strategies and institutional arrangements of OWTS are also highlighted.

  20. A review of on-site wastewater treatment systems in Western Australia from 1997 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunady, Maria; Shishkina, Natalia; Tan, Henry; Rodriguez, Clemencia

    2015-01-01

    On-site wastewater treatment systems (OWTS) are widely used in Western Australia (WA) to treat and dispose of household wastewater in areas where centralized sewerage systems are unavailable. Septic tanks, aerobic treatment units (ATUs), and composting toilets with greywater systems are among the most well established and commonly used OWTS. However, there are concerns that some OWTS installed in WA are either performing below expected standards or failing. Poorly performing OWTS are often attributed to inadequate installation, inadequate maintenance, poor public awareness, insufficient local authority resources, ongoing wastewater management issues, or inadequate adoption of standards, procedures, and guidelines. This paper is to review the installations and failures of OWTS in WA. Recommendations to the Department of Health Western Australia (DOHWA) and Local Government (LG) in regard to management strategies and institutional arrangements of OWTS are also highlighted.

  1. Compositional changes of Australia-grown Western Schley pecans [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] during maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singanusong, Riantong; Mason, Richard L; D'Arcy, Bruce R; Nottingham, Stephen M

    2003-01-15

    Changes in composition during the maturation of Western Schley pecans [Carya illinoinensis(Wangenh.) K. Koch] grown in Australia were investigated. Pecans of different maturity levels were collected at monthly intervals between March and June in 1999 and 2000 and analyzed for the concentrations of moisture, total lipid, sucrose, raffinose, protein, and the minerals aluminum, boron, calcium, copper, iron, potassium, magnesium, manganese, sodium, phosphorus, sulfur, and zinc. Moisture, total lipid, and calcium contents changed significantly (p < 0.05) with harvest time and maturity, whereas the other components did not. Western Schley pecans grown in Australia should be harvested after the shuck has opened and it is either green or brown in color to maximize total lipid content and quality. This occurred after May 11 in 1999 and after May 17 in 2000.

  2. A NEW GENUS OF AMYCTERINI FROM THE PILBARA REGION OF WESTERN AUSTRALIA (COLEOPTERA: CURCULIONIDAE: CYCLOMINAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Peterson

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Xenommamycterus gen. nov. is described/diagnosed, and Talaurinus capito Pascoe, 1874 is designated its type-species. This genus is considered monospecific at present. Its distribution appears to be restricted to the tropical rock desert of the western Pilbara region of Western Australia, based on available specimens. Evidence suggests that F.H. DuBoulay collected the holotype of T. capito, and that its type-locality of “Champion Bay” is in error for Nickol Bay. Limited observations on its imaginal food-plants, behaviour, habitat preferences and relationships are provided, as well as possible reasons for the evolution of its unusual eye structure.

  3. Holocene palaeoclimate and sea level fluctuation recorded from the coastal Barker Swamp, Rottnest Island, south-western Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouramanis, C.; Dodson, J.; Wilkins, D.; De Deckker, P.; Chase, B. M.

    2012-10-01

    The Holocene palaeoclimatic history of south-western Western Australia (SWWA) has received little attention compared to south-eastern Australia, and this has resulted in conflicting views over the impact of climate variability in the region. We present here a well-dated, high-resolution record from two overlapping sediment cores obtained from the centre of Barker Swamp, Rottnest Island, offshore Perth. The records span the last 8.7 ka, with the main lacustrine phase occurring after 7.4 ka. This site preserves both pollen and several ostracod taxa. The pollen record suggests a long-term shift from the early-mid Holocene to the late Holocene to drier conditions with less shrubland and more low-ground cover and less fire activity. A salinity transfer function was developed from ostracod faunal assemblage data and trace metal ratios (Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca and Na/Ca) and stable isotopes (δ18O and δ13C) analysed on selected ostracod valves. These provide a detailed history of evaporation/precipitation (E/P) differences that clearly shows that the SWWA region was subjected to significant climatic shifts over the last 7.4 ka, with a broad shift towards increased aridity after 5 ka. The swamp ranged from fresh to saline as recorded in the ostracod valve chemistry and the independently-derived salinity transfer function. The ostracod record also indicates that a sea-level highstand occurred between ca. 4.5 and 4.3 ka, with probable step-wise increases at 6.75, 6.2, and 5.6 ka, with the last vestiges of salt water intrusion at ca. 1 ka. After about 2.3 ka, the fresh, groundwater lens that underlies the western portion of the island intersected the swamp depression, influencing the hydrology of the swamp. The broad climatic changes recorded in Barker Swamp are also compared with data from southern South Africa, and it is suggested that the Southern Annular Mode appears to have been the dominant driver in the climate of these regions and that the Indian Ocean Dipole is of little

  4. Primary oral health service provision in Aboriginal Medical Services-based dental clinics in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Estie; Perera, Irosha; Tennant, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Australians living in rural and remote areas have poorer access to dental care. This situation is attributed to workforce shortages, limited facilities and large distances to care centres. Against this backdrop, rural and remote Indigenous (Aboriginal) communities in Western Australia seem to be more disadvantaged because evidence suggests they have poorer oral health than non-Indigenous people. Hence, provision of dental care for Aboriginal populations in culturally appropriate settings in rural and remote Western Australia is an important public health issue. The aim of this research was to compare services between the Aboriginal Medical Services (AMS)-based clinics and a typical rural community clinic. A retrospective analysis of patient demographics and clinical treatment data was undertaken among patients who attended the dental clinics over a period of 6 years from 1999 to 2004. The majority of patients who received dental care at AMS dental clinics were Aboriginal (95.3%), compared with 8% at the non-AMS clinic. The rate of emergency at the non-AMS clinic was 33.5%, compared with 79.2% at the AMS clinics. The present study confirmed that more Indigenous patients were treated in AMS dental clinics and the mix of dental care provided was dominated by emergency care and oral surgery. This indicated a higher burden of oral disease and late utilisation of dental care services (more focus on tooth extraction) among rural and remote Indigenous people in Western Australia.

  5. Urban Growth Dynamics in Perth, Western Australia: Using Applied Remote Sensing for Sustainable Future Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew MacLachlan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Earth observation data can provide valuable assessments for monitoring the spatial extent of (unsustainable urban growth of the world’s cities to better inform planning policy in reducing associated economic, social and environmental costs. Western Australia has witnessed rapid economic expansion since the turn of the century founded upon extensive natural resource extraction. Thus, Perth, the state capital of Western Australia, has encountered significant population and urban growth in response to the booming state economy. However, the recent economic slowdown resulted in the largest decrease in natural resource values that Western Australia has ever experienced. Here, we present multi-temporal urban expansion statistics from 1990 to 2015 for Perth, derived from Landsat imagery. Current urban estimates used for future development plans and progress monitoring of infill and density targets are based upon aggregated census data and metrics unrepresentative of actual land cover change, underestimating overall urban area. Earth observation provides a temporally consistent methodology, identifying areal urban area at higher spatial and temporal resolution than current estimates. Our results indicate that the spatial extent of the Perth Metropolitan Region has increased 45% between 1990 and 2015, over 320 km2. We highlight the applicability of earth observation data in accurately quantifying urban area for sustainable targeted planning practices.

  6. Modelling the effects of climate and land cover change on groundwater recharge in south-west Western Australia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dawes, W; Ali, R; Varma, S; Emelyanova, I; Hodgson, G; McFarlane, D

    2012-01-01

      The groundwater resource contained within the sandy aquifers of the Swan Coastal Plain, south-west Western Australia, provides approximately 60 percent of the drinking water for the metropolitan population of Perth...

  7. The practice and regulatory requirements of naturopathy and western herbal medicine in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Lin

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Vivian Lin1, Pauline McCabe1, Alan Bensoussan3,4, Stephen Myers5, Marc Cohen6, et al1School of Public Health; 2Cochrane Consumers and Communication Review Group, Australian Institute for Primary Care, La Trobe University, Bundoora, Victoria, Australia; 3National Institute for Complementary Medicine; 4University of Western Sydney, Bankstown, New South Wales, Australia; 5NatMed-Research, Department of Natural and Complementary Medicine, Southern Cross University, Lismore, New South Wales, Australia; 6Department of Complementary Medicine, RMIT University, Bundoora West, Victoria, Australia; La Trobe University, Bundoora, Victoria, AustraliaAbstract: Australian health workforce regulation is premised on the need to protect public health and safety. Specific criteria are set out by governments to ascertain the degree of risk and the need for government intervention. A study was undertaken to understand the current state of usage and the practice of naturopathy and western herbal medicine, and to ascertain whether statutory regulation was warranted. We found increased use of these complementary therapies in the community, with risks arising from both the specific practices as well as consumers negotiating a parallel primary health care system. We also found highly variable standards of training, a myriad of professional associations, and a general failure of current systems of self-regulation to protect public health and safety. Statutory regulation was the preferred policy response for consumers, insurers, general practitioners, and most of the complementary therapists. While we found a case for statutory registration, we also argue that a minimalist regulatory response needs to be accompanied by other measures to educate the public, to improve the standards of practice, and to enhance our understanding of the interaction between complementary and mainstream health care.Keywords: health workforce regulation, complementary health care, protection of

  8. Concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in residential dust samples from Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasinska, Ania; Reid, Alison; Hinwood, Andrea; Stevenson, Gavin; Callan, Anna; Odland, Jon Øyvind; Heyworth, Jane

    2013-04-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are one of the most common types of brominated flame retardants applied to foams, plastics and textiles to prevent fires. These flame retardants are now regulated and are either banned or being voluntarily phased. However, as these chemicals are persistent humans continue to be exposed. Dust has been identified as an important source of exposure and hence residential concentrations are of interest. The aim of this paper was to determine the concentrations of PBDEs in samples of residential dust from the homes of pregnant women in Western Australia. Thirty residential dust samples were analysed for concentrations of 32 PBDE congeners. Samples were collected from urban and rural areas. PBDEs were detected in all residential dust samples with the sum of the most common PBDEs (Σ(7) of BDEs 47, 99, 100, 153, 154, 183 and 209) ranging from 60.4 to 82400 ng g(-1) (median 571 ng g(-1)). DecaBDE makes up the highest proportion of PBDEs in residential dust, on average 66% of Σ(32)PBDEs. We did not find a relationship between housing characteristics nor the presence of appliances and PBDE concentrations. Dust from urban areas had significantly higher concentrations of BDE-209 and Σ(32)PBDEs than dust from rural areas of Western Australia (p values 0.01 and 0.03 respectively). PBDEs were present in residential dust in Western Australia at concentrations higher than reported previously in Australia. Further investigation of sources with a larger sample size is required to determine associations between PBDE concentrations and potential exposure sources and geographical regions.

  9. Cool-water carbonates in an Eocene palaeoestuary, Norseman Formation, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Jonathan D. A.; Bone, Yvonne; James, Noel P.

    1996-02-01

    Numerous palaeovalleys formed extensive drowned estuaries during Eocene transgressions along the southwestern part of the southern margin of Australia. The Tertiary sediments of the Cowan palaeovalley have been extensively drilled, revealing deposition of the Norseman Formation during the Middle Eocene Tortachilla transgression. Initial deposition occurred during transgression of the valley to form a drowned estuary. Sediments consisted of coarse-grained muddy, lithic, iron and glauconite-rich sands and gravels of mixed carbonate and quartz. Pure carbonates accumulated during the highstand, produced by a typical shallow temperate water assemblage of bryozoans, coralline algae, echinoids and molluscs and were swept into shoals by strong tidal currents. Minor "tropical" components in the form of large benthic foraminifers and dasycladacean algae are present. Coarse bryozoan and trough cross-bedded carbonate sands accumulated in the margins of the estuary and fine bryozoan sands in the deeper parts. Rhodoliths accumulated to form shoals in sheltered localities. The Spencer Gulf and Gulf St. Vincent of South Australia provide close modern analogues to the Cowan palaeovalley and the Norseman Formation. Modern carbonate sediments off Esperance on the south coast of Western Australia contain "tropical" faunal elements within an otherwise temperate skeletal assemblage and also provide a modern analogue. The Norseman Formation thus provides an excellent example of cool-water carbonate deposition in near-shore, tide-dominated environments. This study complements and contrasts existing cool-water shelf facies models based on Tertiary carbonates deposited on deep shelves elsewhere in southern Australia.

  10. Analysis of Arbovirus Isolates from Australia Identifies Novel Bunyaviruses Including a Mapputta Group Virus from Western Australia That Links Gan Gan and Maprik Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briese, Thomas; Williams, David T; Kapoor, Vishal; Diviney, Sinead M; Certoma, Andrea; Wang, Jianning; Johansen, Cheryl A; Chowdhary, Rashmi; Mackenzie, John S; Lipkin, W Ian

    2016-01-01

    The Mapputta group comprises antigenically related viruses indigenous to Australia and Papua New Guinea that are included in the family Bunyaviridae but not currently assigned to a specific genus. We determined and analyzed the genome sequences of five Australian viruses isolated from mosquitoes collected during routine arbovirus surveillance in Western Australia (K10441, SW27571, K13190, and K42904) and New South Wales (12005). Based on matching sequences of all three genome segments to prototype MRM3630 of Trubanaman virus (TRUV), NB6057 of Gan Gan virus (GGV), and MK7532 of Maprik virus (MPKV), isolates K13190 and SW27571 were identified as TRUV, 12005 as GGV, and K42904 as a Mapputta group virus from Western Australia linking GGV and MPKV. The results confirmed serum neutralization data that had linked SW27571 to TRUV. The fifth virus, K10441 from Willare, was most closely related to Batai orthobunyavirus, presumably representing an Australian variant of the virus. Phylogenetic analysis also confirmed the close relationship of our TRUV and GGV isolates to two other recently described Australian viruses, Murrumbidgee virus and Salt Ash virus, respectively. Our findings indicate that TRUV has a wide circulation throughout the Australian continent, demonstrating for the first time its presence in Western Australia. Similarly, the presence of a virus related to GGV, which had been linked to human disease and previously known only from the Australian southeast, was demonstrated in Western Australia. Finally, a Batai virus isolate was identified in Western Australia. The expanding availability of genomic sequence for novel Australian bunyavirus variants supports the identification of suitably conserved or diverse primer-binding target regions to establish group-wide as well as virus-specific nucleic acid tests in support of specific diagnostic and surveillance efforts throughout Australasia.

  11. A new species of death adder (Acanthophis: Serpentes: Elapidae) from north-western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddock, Simon T; Ellis, Ryan J; Doughty, Paul; Smith, Lawrence A; Wüster, Wolfgang

    2015-08-28

    Australian death adders (genus Acanthophis) are highly venomous snakes with conservative morphology and sit-and-wait predatory habits, with only moderate taxonomic diversity that nevertheless remains incompletely understood. Analyses of mitochondrial and nuclear gene sequences and morphological characteristics of death adders in northern Australia reveal the existence of a new species from the Kimberley region of Western Australia and the Northern Territory, which we describe as Acanthophis cryptamydros sp. nov. Although populations from the Kimberley were previously considered conspecific with Northern Territory death adders of the A. rugosus complex, our mtDNA analysis indicates that its closest relatives are desert death adders, A. pyrrhus. We found that A. cryptamydros sp. nov. is distinct in both mtDNA and nDNA analysis, and possesses multiple morphological characteristics that allow it to be distinguished from all other Acanthophis species. This study further supports the Kimberley region as an area with high endemic biodiversity.

  12. Four new Mouse Spider species (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Actinopodidae, Missulena from Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Miglio

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Four new species of the Mouse Spider genus Missulena Walckenaer, 1805 (family Actinopodidae are described from Western Australia based on morphological features of adult males. Missulena leniae sp. n. (from the Carnarvon and Yalgoo biogeographic regions, Missulena mainae sp. n. (Carnarvon, Missulena melissae sp. n. (Pilbara and Missulena pinguipes sp. n. (Mallee represent a broad spectrum of morphological diversity found in this genus and differ from other congeners by details of the male copulatory bulb, colour patterns, eye sizes, leg morphology and leg spination. Two of the species, M. pinguipes sp. n. and M. mainae sp. n., are characterised by swollen metatarsi of the fourth legs in males, a feature not previously recorded in the family. A key to males of all named Missulena species from Australia is presented and allows their identification based on external morphology.

  13. Leptospira Species in Feral Cats and Black Rats from Western Australia and Christmas Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dybing, Narelle A; Jacobson, Caroline; Irwin, Peter; Algar, David; Adams, Peter J

    2017-05-01

    Leptospirosis is a neglected, re-emerging bacterial disease with both zoonotic and conservation implications. Rats and livestock are considered the usual sources of human infection, but all mammalian species are capable of carrying Leptospira spp. and transmitting pathogenic leptospires in their urine, and uncertainty remains about the ecology and transmission dynamics of Leptospira in different regions. In light of a recent case of human leptospirosis on tropical Christmas Island, this study aimed to investigate the role of introduced animals (feral cats and black rats) as carriers of pathogenic Leptospira spp. on Christmas Island and to compare this with two different climatic regions of Western Australia (one island and one mainland). Kidney samples were collected from black rats (n = 68) and feral cats (n = 59) from Christmas Island, as well as feral cats from Dirk Hartog Island (n = 23) and southwest Western Australia (n = 59). Molecular (PCR) screening detected pathogenic leptospires in 42.4% (95% confidence interval 29.6-55.9) of cats and 2.9% (0.4-10.2) of rats from Christmas Island. Sequencing of cat- and rat-positive samples from Christmas Island showed 100% similarity for Leptospira interrogans. Pathogenic leptospires were not detected in cats from Dirk Hartog Island or southwest Western Australia. These findings were consistent with previous reports of higher Leptospira spp. prevalence in tropical regions compared with arid and temperate regions. Despite the abundance of black rats on Christmas Island, feral cats appear to be the more important reservoir species for the persistence of pathogenic L. interrogans on the island. This research highlights the importance of disease surveillance and feral animal management to effectively control potential disease transmission.

  14. A Gunflint-type microbiota from the Duck Creek dolomite, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, A. H.; Barghoorn, E. S.

    1976-01-01

    Two-billion-year-old black chert lenses from the Duck Creek formation, northwestern Western Australia, contain abundant organically preserved microorganisms which are morphologically similar to fossils of approximately the same age from the Gunflint formation, Ontario. Entities include a relatively small (5-15 micron) coccoid taxon morphologically comparable to Huroniospora Barghoorn, a larger coccoid form comparable to an apparently planktonic alga from the Gunflint, Gunflintia Barghoorn, and Eoastrion Barghoorn (Metallogenium Perfil'ev). Gunflint-type assemblages had a wide geographic distribution in middle Precambrian times, and these assemblages may eventually prove useful as biostratigraphic indices.

  15. A novel approach to limit the development of phosphine resistance in Western Australia

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Escalating development of resistance to phosphine is of concern to grain storage operators world wide. In Western Australia 85% of grain produced is exported with a guarantee through legislation that it is free of all grain insects. Phosphine plays a vital part in shore-based fumigations to achieve this insectfree status but it is also available for unrestricted use by growers for grain stored on farms. For more than 20 years a campaign has been in place to encourage better use of phosphine. ...

  16. Acidophilic Halophilic Microorganisms in Fluid Inclusions in Halite from Lake Magic, Western Australia

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Lake Magic is one of the most extreme of hundreds of ephemeral acid-saline lakes in southern Western Australia. It has pH as low as 1.7, salinity as high as 32% total dissolved solids, temperatures ranging from 0°C to 50°C, and an unusually complex aqueous composition. Optical petrography, UV-vis petrography, and laser Raman spectrometry were used to detect microorganisms and organic compounds within primary fluid inclusions in modern bedded halite from Lake Magic. Rare prokaryotes appear as ...

  17. Non-song vocalizations of pygmy blue whales in Geographe Bay, Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recalde-Salas, A; Salgado Kent, C P; Parsons, M J G; Marley, S A; McCauley, R D

    2014-05-01

    Non-song vocalizations of migrating pygmy blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus brevicauda) in Western Australia are described. Simultaneous land-based visual observations and underwater acoustic recordings detected 27 groups in Geographe Bay, WA over 2011 to 2012. Six different vocalizations were recorded that were not repeated in a pattern or in association with song, and thus were identified as non-song vocalizations. Five of these were not previously described for this population. Their acoustic characteristics and context are presented. Given that 56% of groups vocalized, 86% of which produced non-song vocalizations and 14% song units, the inclusion of non-song vocalizations in passive-acoustic monitoring is proposed.

  18. Resurrection of Rhynchoplax Stimpson, 1858, with the description of two new species from Japan and Australia (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura: Hymenosomatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komai, Tomoyuki; Poore, Gary C B

    2016-03-24

    Rhynchoplax Stimpson, 1858, is resurrected from synonymy with Halicarcinus White, 1846. Rhynchoplax hondai Takeda & Miyake, 1971, a species based on an immature female, is rediagnosed and two new species, R. magnetica n. sp. from northeastern Australia and R. minutula n. sp. from the Ryukyu Islands, Japan, are described. They differ from R. hondai in the shape of the rostrum, form of the subhepatic region and the armature of the pereopodal meri. All differ from the type species R. messor Stimpson, 1858, in having a longer and simple rostrum without supraocular pseudorostral spines and the absence of a postocular spine.

  19. Destruction of corals and other reef animals by coral spawn slicks on Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, C. J.; Cary, J. L.; Masini, R. J.

    1993-11-01

    In March 1989, most of the corals near Coral Bay, off the north-western coastline of Australia, spawned several nights earlier than usual. Flood, rather than ebb, tides at the time of spawning combined with light north-west winds and low swell conditions to restrict the dispersal of coral propagules and, as a result, large amounts of coral spawn were trapped in the bay, forming extensive slicks. Fish and other animals began to die almost immediately, and over the next few days, over 1 million fish, representing at least 80 species, were washed ashore. A survey of the benthic communities revealed extensive mortality of corals and other reef animals over an area of about 3 km2. Live coral cover in this area decreased from 42.9% to 9.4% and several large coral colonies up to 10 m in diameter were killed. The observed mortality was presumably the result of hypoxia (oxygen depletion) created initially by the respiratory demand of the coral spawn and maintained by the biological oxygen demand of the decomposing spawn slicks and dead animals. Anecdotal reports of corals and other reef animals dying in the vicinity of coral spawn slicks on other reefs in Western Australia suggest that this phenomenon may be a relatively common event on shallow coral reefs where coral mass spawning occurs. These records and observations document, for the first time, a new source of natural disturbance that has a significant influence on the community structure of some coral reefs.

  20. Social inclusion and the City of Swan public libraries in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockyer-Benzie, Maureena

    2004-09-01

    The focus of this paper is on an understanding of social exclusion/inclusion: the concept and how a specific public library service, namely the City of Swan Public Library service, has responded to this social issue. The terms social inclusion/exclusion are explored and clarified from an international, Western Australian State Government, and public library perspective. This is followed by a brief overview of Western Australia as an Australian state, and how public libraries operate based on a partnership with the State Library of Western Australia and Local Government. The City of Swan Public Libraries are described in some depth and also portrayed in their local setting namely the City of Swan, a city of extensive growth that offers a unique environment of both rural and urban areas. The concept of social inclusion is then applied to the City of Swan Public Library service and how the library service addresses social inclusion within its physical environment, policies, operations, future planning, programmes and services. This includes the results of a Library Non-user Survey that was conducted in 2001. The aims of this survey were to: ascertain why non-users within the City of Swan do not make use of the library facilities; explore why past members were not using the library services; examine the effectiveness of library promotions; and investigate the access to and usage of the Internet. The paper concludes with a list of the potential social conditions of which public libraries need to be aware in their strategic planning activities so that community members are not excluded from participating and accessing the public library service.

  1. Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-03-01

    The smallest continent and one of the largest countries, Australia is a country of diverse geographical conditions and differing cultures of people unified by one predominant language and political system. Mountains, desert and rivers are some of the varying landscape features of Australia, although the climate and condition for most of the country is tropical. Original Australians, a hunting-gathering people called Aborigines, came to Australia over 38,000 years ago. Today the Aborigines compose about 1% of the population and live in traditional tribal areas as well as cities. The 1st European settlement came in 1788 from Great Britain. After World War II, the population doubled. Although the population is primarily composed of British and Irish immigrants, immigrants from other European countries such as Italy and Greece as well as refugees from Indochina, Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos are a significant factor to the growing Australian population. Australian and Aboriginal culture has took hold and took notice in the areas of opera, art, literature and film. The Australian Commonwealth is based on a constitution similar to that of the United States government. The National Parliament is bicameral with both the Senate and the House of Representatives having a select number of elected officials from each state and territory. The Australian economy is predominantly reliant on the sale of mineral and agricultural exports. History, economic changes, defense, international relations and notes to the traveler are also discussed in this overview of Australia.

  2. Effect of the Building Act 2011 on compliance costs in Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Bazen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available  The Building Act 2011 commenced in Western Australia on 2 April 2012. It introduced private certification for design and construction compliance, and reduced fees and timeframes for local governments to issue permits. This research project assessed the effect of the Act on the time and cost of building approvals in WA, using an internet-based, self-completion survey to obtain feedback from people on their experience of the new building approvals process.   This research compared the cost of approval for 16 building projects under the new and old approvals processes. The research concluded that the new approvals process appears to be cost-neutral for the building industry as a whole. However, the cost of approval for the 11 building projects studied valued up to $1 million, particularly alterations to existing buildings, is an average of 4.0 times greater under the new approvals process.

  3. Patterns of marine debris distribution on the beaches of Rottnest Island, Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephen D A; Gillies, Chris L; Shortland-Jones, Helen

    2014-11-15

    Rottnest Island, Western Australia, receives >500,000 visitors y(-1), who are mainly attracted by the Island's natural values. Marine debris is a threat to both these natural values and to Island wildlife, and is consequently an important issue for managers. Engaging with volunteers, we quantified marine debris at 16 beach sites around the Island. The highest loads occurred on the SW coast and primarily comprised items originating from fishing activities. Sites on the NE coast, where >95% of the Island's accommodation is located, supported the highest abundance of items deposited in situ (e.g. bottles and cigarette butts). We conclude that marine debris management may require a range of strategies to address the different primary sources. Raising awareness through education and intervention may be highly effective at popular beaches on the NE coast, but broader liaison with commercial and recreational fishers will be necessary to address the issue at the Island scale.

  4. Climate change impacts on water yields and demands in south-western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlane, Don; Stone, Roy; Martens, Sasha; Thomas, Jonathan; Silberstein, Richard; Ali, Riasat; Hodgson, Geoff

    2012-12-01

    SummaryA climate shift in the mid 1970s reduced rainfalls in south-western Australia by 10-15% and inflows into reservoirs that supply the city of Perth (population 1.8 m) by more than half. The region has a Mediterranean climate, similar to other areas in the world experiencing reductions in rainfall and rises in temperatures. Rainfall-runoff modelling has indicated that streamflows may reduce by a further quarter by 2030 or by half if a dry future climate is experienced. Groundwater levels on the coastal plain in south-western Australia have fallen since the mid 1970s where unconfined aquifers are covered with perennial vegetation, including under the main water supply aquifer for Perth. Modelled projections are that groundwater levels in most areas will continue to fall through to 2030 under most future climate scenarios. Projected streamflows and groundwater levels indicate reduced water availability but these need to be converted to projected water yields, i.e. the amount of water that can be diverted for consumptive use. This paper reports how projections of future streamflow and groundwater levels were used to estimate 2030 divertible water yields for a 62,500 km2 area in south-western Australia. These yields were then compared with estimates of water demands in 2030 to identify areas of water surplus and deficit under clearly defined assumptions. The methods used to define future yields are based on sets of rules that could be varied by water managers if desired. Surface water yields are estimated to decrease by about 24% (possible range of -4% to -49%) which is similar to the projected reduction in runoff (-25% with a range of -7% to -42%). Groundwater yields are projected to fall by only about 2% (range of +2% to -7%) because of reductions in evapotranspiration and drainage losses as watertables fall where groundwater levels are close to the surface. In addition, recharge remains relatively high under cleared areas used for non-irrigated agriculture. In

  5. Novel Eimeria sp. isolated from a King's skink (Egernia kingii) in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rongchang; Brice, Belinda; Bennett, Mark D; Eliott, Aileen; Ryan, Una

    2013-02-01

    A novel Eimeria sp. was identified in faeces collected from a King's skink (Egernia kingii) housed at the Kanyana Wildlife Rehabilitation Centre in Western Australia. Oocysts measure 17.0×15.0 μm with a length/width ratio (L/W) of 1.13. Phylogenetic analysis of 18S rRNA sequences indicated that the novel Eimeria sp. shared the highest genetic similarity to Eimeria antrozoi and Eimeria rioarribaensis from vespertilionid bats from North America (≥98.9%). At the COI locus, bat-derived sequences were not available and phylogenetic analysis placed the novel Eimeria sp. in a clade by itself and shared 98.8% similarity with the rodent-derived species E. falciformis and E. vermiformis. This suggests that the isolate from the King's skink's faeces was probably derived from a mammal, possibly a rodent or a bat.

  6. Humpback Dolphins of Western Australia: A Review of Current Knowledge and Recommendations for Future Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanf, Daniella M; Hunt, Tim; Parra, Guido J

    2016-01-01

    Among the many cetacean species that occupy Australian coastal waters, Australian humpback dolphins, Sousa sahulensis, are one of the most vulnerable to extirpation due to human activities. This review summarises the existing knowledge, presently occurring and planned research projects, and current conservation measures for humpback dolphins in Western Australia (WA). Rapid and wide-scale coastal development along the northern WA coastline has occurred despite a lack of baseline data for inshore dolphins and, therefore, without a precautionary approach to their conservation. The distribution, abundance, habitat use, and population structure of humpback dolphins remain poorly understood. Less than 1% of their inferred distribution has so far been studied to understand local population demography. The sparse data available suggest that WA humpback dolphins occur as localised populations in low numbers within a range of inshore habitats, including both clear and turbid coastal waters. Marine protected areas cover a third of their inferred distribution in WA, but the efficacy of these reserves in protecting local cetacean populations is unknown. There is a pressing need for coordination and collaboration among scientists, government agencies, industry bodies, Traditional Owners, and local community groups to fill in the gaps of information on humpback dolphins in WA. The recently developed strategies and sampling guidelines developed by state and federal governments should serve as a best practise standard for collection of data aimed at assessing the conservation status of humpback dolphins in WA and Australia.

  7. Carbonate sediment dynamics and compartmentalisation of a highly modified coast: Geraldton, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tecchiato, Sira; Collins, Lindsay; Stevens, Alexandra; Soldati, Michela; Pevzner, Roman

    2016-02-01

    The coastal zone off Geraldton in temperate Midwestern Australia was investigated to identify sediment dynamics and sediment budget components of two main embayments. An integrated analysis of hydrodynamics, geomorphology, sediments and habitat data was required to overcome a lack of previous examinations of sediment dynamics in the region. The seaward extent of the nearshore transport system was assessed. An improved understanding of coastal sediment dynamics and its relationship to coastal stability and assets was also achieved. The system is complex, with biogenic sediment input, as well as carbonate dune and river-derived sediments. Coastal erosion at Geraldton is mitigated by nourishment activities which require sand bypassing. Natural and artificial sediment sinks were identified, and are mainly located in the northern embayment where beach erosion is more significant. A dredged shipping channel needed to provide access to port facilities modifies the local sediment dynamics. This study provides new information for managing the Geraldton coast, which may be applicable to similar regions of Western Australia and carbonate coasts elsewhere.

  8. Household responses to pandemic (H1N1) 2009-related school closures, Perth, Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effler, Paul V; Carcione, Dale; Giele, Carolien; Dowse, Gary K; Goggin, Leigh; Mak, Donna B

    2010-02-01

    School closure is often purported to reduce influenza transmission, but little is known about its effect on families. We surveyed families affected by pandemic (H1N1) 2009-related school closures in Perth, Western Australia, Australia. Surveys were returned for 233 (58%) of 402 students. School closure was deemed appropriate by 110 parents (47%); however, 91 (45%) parents of 202 asymptomatic students reported taking >or=1 day off work to care for their child, and 71 (35%) had to make childcare arrangements because of the class closures. During the week, 172 (74%) students participated in activities outside the home on >or=1 occasion, resulting in an average of 3.7 out-of-home activities for each student. In our survey, activities outside the home were commonly reported by students affected by school closure, the effect on families was substantial, and parental opinion regarding school closures as a means to mitigate the outbreak of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 was divided.

  9. Experimental assessment of wind erosion after soil stabilization treatments at Eneabba, Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, D T; Carter, D J; Hetherington, R E

    1986-12-01

    Wind tunnel experiments on rehabilitation surfaces at Eneabba, Western Australia evaluated the techniques used by Associated Minerals Consolidated Ltd. (AMC) and Allied Eneabba Ltd. (AEL) to stabilize regions being revegetated following heavy mineral sand mining.Newly landscaped areas proved to be the most erodible, beginning to erode at 9 m sec(-1) and producing a soil flux of 10 kg m(-1) min(-1) at 18 m sec(-1) wind speeds. Sandier, more organically-rich, surfaces in the rehabilitation areas were somewhat less erodible with losses of only 2 kg m(-1) min(-1) at wind speeds of 18 m sec(-1).The mining companies use various nurse crops and top dressing mulch for surface stabilization. Rows of oats, sparse plantings of the grass cultivar "SUDAX" (Dekalb ST6) supplied by Westfarmers Ltd. and applications of Terolas, a cold, bituminous surface binding material supplied by Shell Co. of Australia Ltd., all proved successful in reducing wind erosion in this semi-arid region where more than 25% of summer days experience winds greater than 8 m sec(-1).

  10. 1992 WAMET/EUROMET Joint Expedition to Search for Meteorites in the Nullarbor Region, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevan, A.

    1992-07-01

    The Nullarbor Region is a limestone desert in the south of Australia. It forms part of the larger Eucla Basin, which straddles the border between South Australia and Western Australia. The portion of the Eucla Basin lying in Westem Australia covers an area of about 104,000 km^2 (Bevan and Binns, 1989) and meteorites have been recovered from this region since 1971, new material being deposited at the Western Australia Museum. Between 21/3/92 and 6/4/92 a joint expedition between the Western Australia Museum and EUROMET recovered approximately 440 specimens of meteorites (total mass 13206 g) and 297 tektites. The expedition, whose members were Claude Perron (Paris), Christian Koeberl (Vienna), Georg Delisle (BGR Hannover), Gian- Paolo Sighinolfi (Modena), and Andrew Morse (OU) for Euromet, together with Wayne Smith (Australian Army) and Tom Smith (Perth Astronomical Observatory), was led by Dr Alex Bevan of the Western Australia Museum. Searching was carried out on foot with the participants spread out in a line with a 10-m spacing, walking along a compass bearing for approximately 10 km and back each day. Eight collecting regions were used, with a stop of about 2 days at each camp. Half of the searching was done near known strewn fields in order that the team become practised. Thus the expedition collected material at the following known sites. Camel Donga, Eucrite: The initial recovery was made in 1984 (Cleverly et al., 1986). The strewn field is about 8 km by 2-3 km at coordinates 30 degrees 19'S, 126 degrees 37'E. This expedition recovered 65 stones weighing a total of 2456 g, plus one stone of 4.8 g that was clearly chondritic in hand specimen. Mulga (north), H6: The initial recovery was made in 1964 (McCall, 1968). The strewn field is 8 km by 2 km at coordinates 30 degrees 11'S, 126 degrees 22'E and on this expedition 5 stones were recovered with a weight of 548 g. Also 110 stones (total mass 1535 g) that are certainly not H6 were found within a 100-m radius of

  11. Vascular trauma in Western Australia: a comparison of two study periods over 15 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Jikol; Rao, Sudhakar; Sieunarine, Kishore; Woodroof, Paul

    2016-03-01

    Royal Perth Hospital (RPH) has become Western Australia's only designated adult major trauma facility since a previous study of vascular trauma was conducted in 2001 at the same facility. The aim of this study is to identify changes in vascular trauma patterns over the two study periods and compare these changes with international literature. All individuals presenting to RPH between January 2000 and December 2010 with vascular injury were identified from a prospective trauma database for this descriptive study. Injuries were classified using the Abbreviated Injury Score (AIS). The incidence of vascular trauma as a percentage of total trauma increased over the two study periods. The current 10-year study included 45 164 patients on the trauma database, of which 1205 patients (2.6%) sustained 1335 vascular injuries, an increase from 1% in the previous 5-year study at the same facility. Males aged 20-29 years were more frequently injured. Blunt trauma occurred more frequently than penetrating. The extremities, particularly the upper limbs were most commonly injured. The most common causes of injury for each region were as follows; motorbike crash (MBC), motor vehicle crash (MVC) and stabbing (neck, thorax and abdomen), MBC and MVC (lower limb) and piercing injuries (upper limb). Injury Severity Score (ISS) and mortality 43% (32 of 75) were highest for thoracic injuries, particularly thoracic aorta injury. Mortality rate has decreased. Vascular injuries in Western Australia are increasing. MVC are the most common cause of life threatening injury. Road safety interventions targeting young males are likely to reduce trauma. © 2013 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  12. Molecular characterisation of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in cats (Felis catus) in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rongchang; Ying, Joyce Lau Jie; Monis, Paul; Ryan, Una

    2015-08-01

    Little is known of the prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in domestic cats in Western Australia and their potential role as zoonotic reservoirs for human infection. In the present study, a total of 345 faecal samples from four different sources were screened for the presence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia by PCR and genotyped by sequence analysis. Oocyst numbers and cyst numbers for Cryptosporidium and Giardia respectively were also determined using quantitative PCR assays. Cryptosporidium and Giardia were detected in 9.9% (95% CI 6.7-13.0) and 10.1% (95% CI 7.0-13.3) of cats in Western Australia respectively. Sequence analysis at the 18S rRNA locus identified five Cryptosporidium species/genotypes; C. felis (n = 8), C. muris (n = 1), C. ryanae (n = 1), Cryptosporidium rat genotype III (n = 5) and a novel genotype most closely related to Cryptosporidium rat genotype III in one isolate. This is the first report of C. ryanae and Cryptosporidium rat genotype III in cats. For Giardia, assemblage F the most commonly identified species, while only 1 assemblage sequence was detected. Since most human cases of cryptosporidiosis are caused by C. parvum and C. hominis and human cases of giardiasis are caused by G. duodenalis assemblage A and B, the domestic cats in the present study are likely to be of low zoonotic risk to pet owners in Perth. Risk analyses identified that elderly cats (more than 6 years) were more prone to Cryptosporidium and Giardia infections than kittens (less than 6 months) (P = 0.009). Clinical symptoms were not associated with the prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia infections in cats.

  13. Perceptions of the ankle brachial index amongst podiatrists registered in Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Pamela Y

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ankle brachial index (ABI is an objective diagnostic tool that is widely used for the diagnosis of peripheral arterial disease. Despite its usefulness, it is evident within the literature that many practitioners forgo using this screening tool due to limiting factors such as time. There is also no recommended technique for ABI measurement. The purpose of this study is to investigate the perceptions of the use of ABI clinically among Western Australian podiatrists. Methods This study was a cross sectional survey which evaluated the perceptions of the ABI amongst registered podiatrists in Western Australia. The study sample was obtained from the register of podiatrists listed with the Podiatrists Registration Board of Western Australia. Podiatrists were contacted by telephone and invited to participate in a telephone questionnaire. Chi-square tests were performed to determine if there was a statistically significant relationship between use of the ABI and podiatrists’ profile which included: sector of employment; geographical location; and length of time in practice. Results There is a statistically significant relationship (p=0.004 between podiatrists’ profile and the use of ABI, with higher usage in the tertiary hospital setting than in private practice. Length of time spent in practice had no significant impact on ABI usage (p=0.098. Time constraints and lack of equipment were key limiting factors to performing the ABI, and no preferred technique was indicated. Conclusion Western Australian podiatrists agree that the ABI is a useful tool for lower limb vascular assessment, however, various factors influence uptake in the clinical setting. This study suggests that a podiatrists’ profile has a significant influence on the use of the ABI, which may be attributed to different patient types across the various settings. The influence of time spent in practice on ABI usage may be attributed to differences in clinical

  14. The Cannabis Infringement Notice scheme in Western Australia: a review of policy, police and judicial perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Adam; Hawks, David

    2005-07-01

    Western Australia (WA) became the fourth Australian jurisdiction to adopt a 'prohibition with civil penalties scheme' for minor cannabis offences when its Cannabis Infringement Notice (CIN) scheme became law on 22 March 2004. This study examined the attitudes and practices of policy makers, members of the law enforcement and magistracy and other judicial sectors involved in enforcing the new scheme, and their views as to its likely impact on the drug market. As part of the pre--post evaluation of the legislative reforms a sample of 30 police, other criminal justice personnel and policy makers have been qualitatively interviewed. Data were collected both at the pre-implementation stage (March and June 2003) and shortly after the Act became operational (mid-June 2004). The Western Australia Police Service's implementation of the CIN scheme has been extremely professional. However, these early results suggest that while the CIN scheme has been designed to take into account problems with similar schemes elsewhere in Australia, possible problems include: some operational police being unsure about the operation of the scheme; expected savings in police resources will probably be reduced by procedures which require offenders to be taken back to the station rather than issue notices on the spot as intended by the scheme's architects; probable net widening; problems with exercise of police discretion to issue a CIN; and public misunderstanding of the scheme. In the early months of the scheme understanding of the new laws among both police and members of the public was far from perfect. For the system to achieve the outcomes intended by legislators, it is essential that levels of understanding improve. Media and other campaigns to inform the public that cannabis cultivation and use remain illegal, and to warn about risks associated with cannabis use, should be extended. As it will be at least 18 months before the scheme is operationally settled in, the media and others

  15. Educating for the Internet in an Academic Library: The Scholars' Centre at the University of Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Toby

    1995-01-01

    Describes services offered by the University of Western Australia's Scholars' Centre to academic staff and postgraduate students in the arts and social sciences. Highlights include study facilities; collection development; interlibrary loan and document delivery services; access to electronic resources, including CD-ROMs and the Internet; Internet…

  16. Organisational Communication and Its Relationships with Job Satisfaction and Organisational Commitment of Primary School Staff in Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nobile, John

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between aspects of organisational communication and dimensions of job satisfaction and general organisational commitment. Participants were 358 staff members from 35 government primary schools in the state of Western Australia, who completed a survey comprising the Organisational…

  17. The Crustacea Decapoda of Cyprus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lewinsohn, Ch.; Holthuis, L.B.

    1986-01-01

    An account of the species of Crustacea Decapoda so far known from Cyprus, based on (1) material collected during the 1967-1970 Hebrew University - Smithsonian Institution Joint Program "Biota of the Red Sea and the Eastern Mediterranean", (2) Cyprus material from other sources, and (3) published rec

  18. Acidophilic Halophilic Microorganisms in Fluid Inclusions in Halite from Lake Magic, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Amber J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Lake Magic is one of the most extreme of hundreds of ephemeral acid-saline lakes in southern Western Australia. It has pH as low as 1.7, salinity as high as 32% total dissolved solids, temperatures ranging from 0°C to 50°C, and an unusually complex aqueous composition. Optical petrography, UV-vis petrography, and laser Raman spectrometry were used to detect microorganisms and organic compounds within primary fluid inclusions in modern bedded halite from Lake Magic. Rare prokaryotes appear as 1–3 μm, bright cocci that fluoresce green with UV-vis illumination. Dimpled, 5–7 μm yellow spherules that fluoresce blue with UV-vis illumination are interpreted as Dunaliella algae. Yellow-orange beta-carotene crystals, globules, and coatings are characterized by orange-red fluorescence and three distinct Raman peaks. Because acid saline lakes are good Mars analogues, the documentation of prokaryotes, eukaryotes, and organic compounds preserved in the halite here has implications for the search for life on Mars. Missions to Mars should incorporate such in situ optical and chemical examination of martian evaporites for possible microorganisms and/or organic compounds in fluid inclusions. Key Words: Acid—Extremophiles—Western Australia—Fluid inclusions—Lake Magic—Dunaliella. Astrobiology 13, 850–860. PMID:23971647

  19. A Mineralogical study of nickel mattes from the kalgoorlie nickel smelter, kalgoorlie, western australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Michael L.

    1982-06-01

    The mineralogy of mattes from Western Mining Corporation Limited’s new nickel flash furnace at Kalgoorlie, Western Australia, are dominated by pentlandite, heazlewoodite and awaruite (Ni-Fe alloy). Magnetite, bornite solid-solution, chromite, and fayalite constitute the minor and trace phases. The optical and scanning electron microscopes, electron microprobe, and the X-ray diffractometer were used to examine the matte samples. Pentlandite and awaruite form subhedral to skeletal crystals and are commonly surrounded by complex intergrowths, some showing exsolution textures, of pentlandite, heazlewoodite, and sometimes bornite. In comparison to products from the old flash furnace, which had separate slag cleaning electric furnaces, these new mattes contain much larger quantities of alloy. The large alloy content results from the incorporation of the slag-cleaning electrodes and the addition of coke to the flash furnace, which produce the strong reducing conditions necessary for significant alloy growth. Matte chemistry not only controls which phases are present, but to some extent also influences the composition of these phases. Even though pentlandite-heazlewooditeawaruite-bornite is the equilibrium assemblage in the Ni-Fe-Cu-S system at temperatures below 550 °C, the variation in mineral composition suggests that disequilibrium was present during crystallization of the samples.

  20. Students and teachers' preferences for undergraduate dementia education in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Christopher; Watson, Natasha; Caputo, Lisa; Hird, Kathryn; Flicker, Leon

    2011-01-01

    Medical graduates require positive attitudes toward older people with cognitive impairment, in addition to knowledge and skills in the diagnosis and management of dementia. The Student Training Project in Dementia (STriDE) project was conducted to ensure that these needs are met through curricula in Western Australian medical schools. Two medical schools in Perth, Western Australia, participated. Mixed methods were utilized comprising a) focus groups and interviews and b) a survey of teachers and students. Participants recommended clearer structure and standardization in the curriculum to ensure that all students receive similar educational experiences regardless of hospital placement. Both teachers, and to a lesser extent students, held positive attitudes toward older people. Teachers tended to be more dissatisfied with current curricula than students. Teachers and learners endorsed a broad range of teaching and learning methods, assessments, and skills/competencies. The results of this study present major challenges for professional entry dementia education given the breadth, flexibility, and depth of dementia education recommended by teachers and learners.

  1. Catch composition of the spiny lobster Panulirus gracilis (Decapoda: Palinuridae off the western coast of Mexico Composición de la captura de la langosta espinosa Panulirus gracilis (Decapoda: Palinuridae en la costa oeste de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Pérez-González

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The lobster fishery in the Gulf of California and the south-central region of the western coast of Mexico consists of small-scale artisanal activity supported by Panulirus gracilis and P. inflatus, with an annual average catch of 132 ton. The present study analyzes the landing composition of this fishery and the population structure of P. gracilis. Carapace lengths (CL for this species ranged from 35 to 125 mm, and the most frequent sizes were between 60 and 85 mm. The size distribution was approximately normal. This implies that the fishery is composed of several size classes, with annual recruitment to the fishing areas. For the 1989-1990 and 1990-1991 fishing seasons, the mean monthly sizes of males were between 70.18 ± 11.74 and 81.11 ± 6.76 mm CL, whereas females averaged from 73.60 ± 8.95 to 80.28 ± 7.53 mm CL. Power-law relationships between carapace length (CL in mm and total weight (TW in g were determined, resulting in the following equations: PT = 0.0021 CL27689 for males and PT = 0.0009 CL³ 0038 for females. During certain periods of the year, males dominated the catch; however, the overall annual male:female ratio was near 1:1.La pesquería de langosta en el golfo de California y en el centro-sur de la costa occidental de México es una actividad artesanal a pequeña escala y es sostenida por Panulirus gracilis y P. inflatus, con una captura promedio anual de 132 ton. En este estudio se analiza la composición de los desembarques de esta pesquería y la estructura de la población de P. gracilis. El intervalo de talla de esta especie fue de 35 a 125 mm de longitud del cefalotórax (LC y el más frecuente se encontró entre 60 y 85 mm. La distribución de tallas fue aproximadamente normal. Esto implica que la pesquería está compuesta por varias clases de tallas, con un reclutamiento anual a las áreas de pesca. La talla media mensual de machos fue entre 70,18 ± 11,74 y 81,11 ± 6,76 mm LC y en hembras de 73,60 ± 8,95 a 80

  2. A monsoon-like Southwest Australian circulation and its relation with rainfall in Southwest Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Juan; Li, Jianping; Li, Yun

    2010-05-01

    Using the NCEP/NCAR, ERA-40 reanalysis, and precipitation data from CMAP and Australian Bureau of Meteorology, the variability and circulation features influencing the southwest Western Australia (SWWA) winter rainfall are investigated. It is found that the climate of southwest Australia bears a strong seasonality in the annual cycle and exhibits a monsoon-like atmospheric circulation, which is termed as the southwest Australian circulation (SWAC) for its several distinct features characterizing a monsoonal circulation: the seasonal reversal of winds, alternate wet and dry seasons, and an evident land-sea thermal contrast. The seasonal march of the SWAC in extended winter (May to October) is demonstrated by pentad data. An index based on the dynamics normalized seasonality was introduced to describe the behavior and variation of the winter SWAC. It is found that the winter rainfall over SWWA has a significant positive correlation with the SWAC index in both early (May to July) and late (August to October) winter. In weaker winter SWAC years there is an anti-cyclonic anomaly over southern Indian Ocean resulting in weaker westerlies and northerlies which are not favorable for more rainfall over SWWA, and the opposite combination is true in the stronger winter SWAC years. The SWAC explains not only a large portion of the interannual variability of SWWA rainfall in both early and late winter, but also the long term drying trend over SWWA in early winter. The well-coupled SWAC-SWWA rainfall relationship seems to be largely independent of the well-known effects of large-scale atmospheric circulations such as the Southern Hemisphere Annular Mode (SAM), El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) and ENSO Modoki (EM). The result offers qualified support for the argument that the monsoon-like circulation may contribute to the rainfall decline in early winter over SWWA.

  3. Marine Biodiversity in Temperate Western Australia: Multi-Taxon Surveys of Minden and Roe Reefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoe Richards

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of evidence indicates that temperate marine ecosystems are being tropicalised due to the poleward extension of tropical species. Such climate mediated changes in species distribution patterns have the potential to profoundly alter temperate communities, as this advance can serve to push temperate taxa, many of which are southern Australian endemics, southward. These changes can lead to cascading effects for the biodiversity and function of coastal ecosystems, including contraction of ranges/habitats of sensitive cool water species. Hence there is growing concern for the future of Australia’s temperate marine biodiversity. Here we examine the diversity and abundance of marine flora and fauna at two reefs near Perth’s metropolitan area—Minden Reef and Roe Reef. We report the presence of 427 species of marine flora and fauna from eight taxon groups occurring in the Perth metropolitan area; at least three species of which appear to be new to science. Our data also extends the known range of 15 species, and in numerous instances, thousands of kilometres south from the Kimberley or Pilbara and verifies that tropicalisation of reef communities in the Perth metropolitan area is occurring. We report the presence of 24 species endemic to south-west Australia that may be at risk of range contractions with continued ocean warming. The results of these surveys add to our knowledge of local nearshore marine environments in the Perth metropolitan area and support the growing body of evidence that indicates a diverse and regionally significant marine fauna occurs in temperate Western Australia. Regular, repeated survey work across seasons is important in order to thoroughly document the status of marine biodiversity in this significant transition zone.

  4. Awareness and impact of the 'Bubblewrap' advertising campaign among Aboriginal smokers in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Terry; Shepherd, Carrington C J; Pearson, Glenn; Monteiro, Heather; McAullay, Daniel; Economo, Kristina; Stewart, Susan

    2010-02-01

    Antismoking mass media campaigns have been shown to reduce smoking prevalence in the mainstream community, however there is little published research on their effect on Aboriginal Australian smokers. To evaluate the awareness and impact of a mainstream mass media advertising campaign (the 'Bubblewrap' campaign) on Aboriginal smokers in the state of Western Australia. A personal intercept survey was conducted in July 2008 across three sites (the Perth metropolitan area and the non-metropolitan towns of Kalgoorlie and Broome). An opportunity or convenience sampling strategy was used to recruit Aboriginal participants, and face-to-face interviews were conducted with 198 Aboriginal smokers to ascertain awareness of the campaign advertisements, whether they were seen as believable and relevant, and the impact the advertisements had on smoking behaviour. The majority of the participants interviewed had seen and/or heard the 'Bubblewrap' campaign advertisements, although there was considerably greater awareness of the television advertisement than the radio advertisements. Both forms of advertising were considered to be believable and relevant by the majority of Aboriginal smokers. Most of the smokers interviewed thought about cutting down and/or quitting after seeing or hearing the advertisements. Our findings suggest that mainstream antismoking mass media campaigns can positively influence the thoughts and behaviours that Aboriginal smokers have, and exhibit, towards quitting smoking. Notwithstanding this, advertisers should continue to look for better ways to incorporate Aboriginal themes in campaign messages. Future mainstream antismoking campaigns should source sufficient funds to ensure that advertising messages reach the large Aboriginal populations in regional and remote Australia.

  5. Classification scheme for acid rock drainage detection - the Hamersley Basin, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzypek, Grzegorz; Dogramaci, Shawan; McLean, Laura

    2017-04-01

    In arid environment where precipitation and surface water are very limited, groundwater is the most important freshwater resource. For this reasons it is intensively exploited and needs to be managed wisely and protected from pollutants. Acid rock drainage often constitutes a serious risk to groundwater quality, particularly in catchments that are subject to mining, large scale groundwater injection or abstraction. However, assessment of the potential acid rock drainage risk can be challenging, especially in carbonate rich environment, where the decreasing pH that usually accompanies pyrite oxidation, can be masked by the high pH-neutralisation capacity of carbonate minerals. In this study, we analysed 73 surface and groundwater samples from different water bodies and aquifers located in the Hamersley Basin, Western Australia. Although the majority of samples had a neutral pH, there was a large spatial variability in the dissolved sulphate concentrations that ranged from 1 mg/L to 15,000 mg/L. Waters with high dissolved sulphate concentration were found in areas with a high percentage of sulphide minerals (e.g. pyrite) located within the aquifer matrix and were characterised by low δ34SSO4 values (+1.2‰ to +4.6) consistent with signatures of aquifer matrix pyritic rock samples (+1.9‰ to +4.4). It was also found that the SO4 concentrations and acidity levels were not only dependent on δ34SSO4 values and existence of pyrite but also on the presence of carbonate minerals in the aquifer matrix. Based on the results from this study, a classification scheme has been developed for identification of waters impacted by acid rock drainage that also encompasses numerous concomitant geochemical processes that often occur in aqueous systems. The classification uses five proxies: SO4, SO4/Cl, SI of calcite, δ34SSO4 and δ18OSO4 to improve assessment of the contribution that oxidation of sulphide minerals has to overall sulphate ion concentrations, regardless of acidity

  6. Vocalisations of Killer Whales (Orcinus orca in the Bremer Canyon, Western Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Wellard

    Full Text Available To date, there has been no dedicated study in Australian waters on the acoustics of killer whales. Hence no information has been published on the sounds produced by killer whales from this region. Here we present the first acoustical analysis of recordings collected off the Western Australian coast. Underwater sounds produced by Australian killer whales were recorded during the months of February and March 2014 and 2015 in the Bremer Canyon in Western Australia. Vocalisations recorded included echolocation clicks, burst-pulse sounds and whistles. A total of 28 hours and 29 minutes were recorded and analysed, with 2376 killer whale calls (whistles and burst-pulse sounds detected. Recordings of poor quality or signal-to-noise ratio were excluded from analysis, resulting in 142 whistles and burst-pulse vocalisations suitable for analysis and categorisation. These were grouped based on their spectrographic features into nine Bremer Canyon (BC "call types". The frequency of the fundamental contours of all call types ranged from 600 Hz to 29 kHz. Calls ranged from 0.05 to 11.3 seconds in duration. Biosonar clicks were also recorded, but not studied further. Surface behaviours noted during acoustic recordings were categorised as either travelling or social behaviour. A detailed description of the acoustic characteristics is necessary for species acoustic identification and for the development of passive acoustic tools for population monitoring, including assessments of population status, habitat usage, migration patterns, behaviour and acoustic ecology. This study provides the first quantitative assessment and report on the acoustic features of killer whales vocalisations in Australian waters, and presents an opportunity to further investigate this little-known population.

  7. Vocalisations of Killer Whales (Orcinus orca) in the Bremer Canyon, Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellard, Rebecca; Erbe, Christine; Fouda, Leila; Blewitt, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    To date, there has been no dedicated study in Australian waters on the acoustics of killer whales. Hence no information has been published on the sounds produced by killer whales from this region. Here we present the first acoustical analysis of recordings collected off the Western Australian coast. Underwater sounds produced by Australian killer whales were recorded during the months of February and March 2014 and 2015 in the Bremer Canyon in Western Australia. Vocalisations recorded included echolocation clicks, burst-pulse sounds and whistles. A total of 28 hours and 29 minutes were recorded and analysed, with 2376 killer whale calls (whistles and burst-pulse sounds) detected. Recordings of poor quality or signal-to-noise ratio were excluded from analysis, resulting in 142 whistles and burst-pulse vocalisations suitable for analysis and categorisation. These were grouped based on their spectrographic features into nine Bremer Canyon (BC) "call types". The frequency of the fundamental contours of all call types ranged from 600 Hz to 29 kHz. Calls ranged from 0.05 to 11.3 seconds in duration. Biosonar clicks were also recorded, but not studied further. Surface behaviours noted during acoustic recordings were categorised as either travelling or social behaviour. A detailed description of the acoustic characteristics is necessary for species acoustic identification and for the development of passive acoustic tools for population monitoring, including assessments of population status, habitat usage, migration patterns, behaviour and acoustic ecology. This study provides the first quantitative assessment and report on the acoustic features of killer whales vocalisations in Australian waters, and presents an opportunity to further investigate this little-known population.

  8. Unusual Rebuilding Method of Historic St Mary's Cathedral in the Capital of Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysokowski, Adam

    2016-06-01

    St Mary's Cathedral is the Archbishop church of the Archdiocese in Perth in Western Australia. The presented sacral building was built in neo-Gothic style during the years 1863-1865. Cathedral was officially dedicated and opened for the service on 29th January, 1865. In 1973 was proclaimed the Marian Sanctuary and now represents one of the largest religious facilities in Perth. In 2005, the city authorities, together with the Archdiocese took a collective decision on the necessity of a comprehensive renovation of this sacred object. The renovation was due to the technical condition and the lack of usability of the object. The author of the paper had the opportunity to experience these problems by visiting this place several times, first time in 1989 and next years. Thus, the renovation of the present Cathedral was in its assumption not only to perform maintenance of the building and its specific architectural elements but also to increase its functional features - usable for the faithful and tourists. Reconstruction of St Mary's Cathedral in Perth can be a good example increasing the wider functionality of such facilities while keeping their antique and historical qualities. In this paper the above-mentioned issues will be more widely developed by the author.

  9. Varicella-Zoster Virus in Perth, Western Australia: Seasonality and Reactivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor A Korostil

    Full Text Available Identification of the factors affecting reactivation of varicella-zoster virus (VZV largely remains an open question. Exposure to solar ultra violet (UV radiation is speculated to facilitate reactivation. Should the role of UV in reactivation be significant, VZV reactivation patterns would generally be expected to be synchronous with seasonal UV profiles in temperate climates.We analysed age and gender specific VZV notification time series data from Perth, Western Australia (WA. This city has more daily sunshine hours than any other major Australian city. Using the cosinor and generalized linear models, we tested these data for seasonality and correlation with UV and temperature.We established significant seasonality of varicella notifications and showed that while herpes-zoster (HZ was not seasonal it had a more stable seasonal component in males over 60 than in any other subpopulation tested. We also detected significant association between HZ notifications and UV for the entire Perth population as well as for females and males separately. In most cases, temperature proved to be a significant factor as well.Our findings suggest that UV radiation may be important for VZV reactivation, under the assumption that notification data represent an acceptably accurate qualitative measure of true VZV incidence.

  10. Education in naturopathy and western herbal medicine in Australia: results of a survey of education providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Pauline

    2008-08-01

    Questions about the risks and regulatory requirements of naturopathy and western herbal medicine (WHM) in Australia prompted research by the Department of Human Services Victoria. This article offers findings from a survey of education providers, which was one of several studies carried out for the report. (The full report can be found at http://www.health.vic.gov.au/pracreg/naturopathy.htm.) Questionnaires were sent to 43 Australian providers of naturopathy and WHM education. Unsustainable variation was found in award types, contact hours, clinical education, length of courses, and course content. Naturopaths and WHM practitioners are primary contact health professionals but educational standards vary widely, with some practitioners not likely to be adequately prepared. The degree of risk in their practice, and the need for better integration of complementary care with mainstream healthcare, require education at least to the level of a bachelor degree. Courses should be subject to independent external accreditation. However, attempts to determine appropriate minimum educational standards are unlikely to succeed without the support of a regulatory system that can mandate those minimum requirements.

  11. Tube structures of probable microbial origin in the Neoarchean Carawine Dolomite, Hamersley Basin, Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, M A; Sumner, D Y

    2008-01-01

    The approximately 2.63 Ga Carawine Dolomite, Hamersley Basin, Western Australia, preserves tube structures of probable microbial origin that formed in a low energy environment. The tubes are 0.4-1.8 cm in diameter and at least 10-16 cm long in outcrop. The tubes are defined by dark, 45-microm-thick dolomicritic walls, whereas the tube fill and host rock are composed of 30 microm, cloudy dolomite crystals and rare 170- to 425-microm-wide, dark well-sorted clasts. Closely spaced, rarely discontinuous laminae coat the insides of tubes; less closely spaced, peaked, discontinuous laminae coat the outsides of tubes. The laminae on the outsides of tubes are often intercalated with mammilate structures. The presence of probable microbial coatings on both the insides and the outsides of the tube walls requires that the tubes formed above the sediment-water interface. These tube structures probably formed during gas-charged fluid escape, similar to tubes observed in ancient and modern hydrocarbon seeps and cylindrical water transfer structures in sandstones. The laminae that coat the tubes have very similar geometries to modern biofilms that form in both turbulent and laminar flow, and their geometries probably reflect flow conditions during the fluid escape. The identification of these structures suggests that the preserved interaction between fluid escape and microbial growth in carbonates may be more common than previously thought.

  12. Distribution and diagenesis of microfossils from the lower Proterozoic Duck Creek Dolomite, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, A. H.; Strother, P. K.; Rossi, S.

    1988-01-01

    Two distinct generations of microfossils occur in silicified carbonates from a previously undescribed locality of the Lower Proterozoic Duck Creek Dolomite, Western Australia. The earlier generation occurs in discrete organic-rich clasts and clots characterized by microquartz anhedra; it contains a variety of filamentous and coccoidal fossils in varying states of preservation. Second generation microfossils consist almost exclusively of well-preserved Gunflintia minuta filaments that drape clasts or appear to float in clear chalcedony. These filaments appear to represent an ecologically distinct assemblage that colonized a substrate containing the partially degraded remains of the first generation community. The two assemblages differ significantly in taxonomic frequency distribution from previously described Duck Creek florules. Taken together, Duck Creek microfossils exhibit a range of assemblage variability comparable to that found in other Lower Proterozoic iron formations and ferruginous carbonates. With increasing severity of post-mortem alteration, Duck Creek microfossils appear to converge morphologically on assemblages of simple microstructures described from early Archean cherts. Two new species are described: Oscillatoriopsis majuscula and O. cuboides; the former is among the largest septate filamentous fossils described from any Proterozoic formation.

  13. Dynamics of hourly sea level at Hillarys Boat Harbour, Western Australia: a chaos theory perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatibi, Rahman; Ghorbani, Mohammad Ali; Aalami, Mohammad Taghi; Kocak, Kasim; Makarynskyy, Oleg; Makarynska, Dina; Aalinezhad, Mahdi

    2011-11-01

    Water level forecasting using recorded time series can provide a local modelling capability to facilitate local proactive management practices. To this end, hourly sea water level time series are investigated. The records collected at the Hillarys Boat Harbour, Western Australia, are investigated over the period of 2000 and 2002. Two modelling techniques are employed: low-dimensional dynamic model, known as the deterministic chaos theory, and genetic programming, GP. The phase space, which describes the evolution of the behaviour of a nonlinear system in time, was reconstructed using the delay-embedding theorem suggested by Takens. The presence of chaotic signals in the data was identified by the phase space reconstruction and correlation dimension methods, and also the predictability into the future was calculated by the largest Lyapunov exponent to be 437 h or 18 days into the future. The intercomparison of results of the local prediction and GP models shows that for this site-specific dataset, the local prediction model has a slight edge over GP. However, rather than recommending one technique over another, the paper promotes a pluralistic modelling culture, whereby different techniques should be tested to gain a specific insight from each of the models. This would enable a consensus to be drawn from a set of results rather than ignoring the individual insights provided by each model.

  14. Delineating The Subsurface Structures Using Electrical Resistivity Sounding In Some Part Of Willeton Perth Western Australia

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    Okan Evans Onojasun

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Geophysical survey using electrical resistivity methods has been carried out within the industrial area of Willeton Perth Western Australia with the view to delineate the geoelectric characteristics of the basement complex and evaluate the groundwater potential in the area. Vertical electrical sounding with ABEM SAS 3000 Terrameter and Schlumberger electrode configuration were employed for data acquisition. Apparent resistivity values obtained from the field measurements were plotted against half current electrodes spacing on a log-log graph while a model was suggested to fit the resistivity distribution presented in the sounding. The results from the modelling were finally iterated to the lowest Root Mean Square RMS percentage error using computer software A 7 point filter derived by Guptasarma to calculate a forward model. Analysis of the results showed that the study area has fairly homogenous subsurface stratification with four distinct subsurface layers above the depth of 37m. The four subsurface layers comprises top soil mainly of unconsolidated and sand containing organic matter unsaturated sand layer with consolidated and highly resistive water saturated sand layer with highly water saturated soil and the sub-stratum layer consisting of clay material. The aquifer performance is best at about 32m hence it is suggested that boreholes for sustainable water supply in this area should be drilled to about 32 m to hit prolific aquifer.

  15. Extremophile microbiomes in acidic and hypersaline river sediments of Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shipeng; Peiffer, Stefan; Lazar, Cassandre Sara; Oldham, Carolyn; Neu, Thomas R; Ciobota, Valerian; Näb, Olga; Lillicrap, Adam; Rösch, Petra; Popp, Jürgen; Küsel, Kirsten

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the microbial community compositions in two sediment samples from the acidic (pH ∼3) and hypersaline (>4.5% NaCl) surface waters, which are widespread in Western Australia. In West Dalyup River, large amounts of NaCl, Fe(II) and sulfate are brought by the groundwater into the surface run-off. The presence of K-jarosite and schwertmannite minerals in the river sediments suggested the occurrence of microbial Fe(II) oxidation because chemical oxidation is greatly reduced at low pH. 16S rRNA gene diversity analyses revealed that sequences affiliated with an uncultured archaeal lineage named Aplasma, which has the genomic potential for Fe(II) oxidation, were dominant in both sediment samples. The acidophilic heterotrophs Acidiphilium and Acidocella were identified as the dominant bacterial groups. Acidiphilium strain AusYE3-1 obtained from the river sediment tolerated up to 6% NaCl at pH 3 under oxic conditions and cells of strain AusYE3-1 reduced the effects of high salt content by forming filamentous structure clumping as aggregates. Neither growth nor Fe(III) reduction by strain AusYE3-1 was observed in anoxic salt-containing medium. The detection of Aplasma group as potential Fe(II) oxidizers and the inhibited Fe(III)-reducing capacity of Acidiphilium contributes to our understanding of the microbial ecology of acidic hypersaline environments.

  16. The Geohydrology of MVT-Ore Genesis in the Canning Basin, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garven, G.; Wallace, M. M.

    2009-05-01

    In the Lennard Shelf, Western Australia, epigenetic MVT-type Pb-Zn mineralization occurs in Middle Devonian evaporitic dolomites which were part of a barrier reef system (Hurley & Lohmann, 1989). Ore mineralization exhibits a strong structural control at the basin scale and normal faults probably controlled pathways for brine and petroleum migration that affected ore deposition (Wallace et al., 1999). For the Canning basin, finite element simulations show that compaction was the most important process for creating overpressures and driving basinal fluids in this thick extensional basin. Basinal fluids are shown to have been driven across the Fitzroy Trough through permeable and deeply buried Silurian-Ordovician aquifer units. The fluids then migrated upwards at rates of m/yr up during periods of episodic extension (Braun, 1992) where fluid flow was channeled by major normal fault zones like the Cadjebut and Pinnacles Faults. Reactive flow simulations test a petroleum-reservoir model for mineralization whereby metal-bearing brines mix with accumulated hydrocarbons (Anderson & Garven, 1987). The results show that compaction-driven flow, as proposed by Beales & Jackson (1966) and Jackson & Beales (1967), works rather well in this ore district--other mechanisms such as sealevel tidal pumping (Cathles, 1988) or topographic drive (Solomon & Groves, 1994) are more tenuous and really unnecessary from a mass transport or geohydrologic basis.

  17. Nutrient concentrations and fluxes in tributaries to the Swan-Canning estuary, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, N.E.; Donohue, R.

    1999-01-01

    In Western Australia, catchment nutrient availability on an areal basis is primarily controlled by the disposal of animal waste and the type and rate of fertilizer application, particularly in coastal areas. The coastal areas receive notably higher rainfall and have more intense horticulture and animal production than inland areas, and are undergoing rapid urbanization, particularly adjacent to the estuary. Also, the surficial aquifers on the coastal plain are generally sandy having a low nutrient retention capacity and rapidly transmit soluble and colloidal material through the subsurface. In the Swan-Canning basin, high air and soil temperatures and seasonally arid conditions cause rapid mineralization of nitrogen and phosphorus. The nutrients are subsequently available for transport during the onset of seasonal wet weather, which typically begins during the period from late April to June. In addition to the rapid mobility of nutrients in streamwater from agricultural areas during the wet season, drains in urban areas, which typically have high nutrient concentrations, also are an important source of nutrients as the drains flow directly to the estuary throughout the year.

  18. Coordination of diabetic retinopathy screening in the Kimberley region of Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynihan, Verity; Turner, Angus

    2017-04-01

    To determine the coverage provided by the Kimberley Diabetic Retinopathy Screening Program and evaluate the impact of the Kimberley diabetic eye health coordinator (KDEHC) position using an evidence-based approach. Retrospective audit. Primary care services in the Kimberley region of Western Australia. Individuals with diabetes mellitus who underwent screening for diabetic retinopathy (DR) from 1 March 2010 to 28 February 2014. A KDEHC was engaged from February 2012 to provide coordination and support for the DR screening program. Coverage provided by the program for Indigenous Australians with diabetes, as measured against annual projected needs for diabetic eye examinations. Data were collected for 1247 screening episodes for 947 Indigenous Australian patients. Coverage provided by the program increased from 9.44% in 2010-2011 to 29.8% in 2013-2014 (P region. This may be explained by examinations provided by other services in the Kimberley region, namely visiting optometry services, but also highlights a large proportion of the population not undergoing screening. © 2016 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  19. Groundwater cooling of a supercomputer in Perth, Western Australia: hydrogeological simulations and thermal sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Heather A.; Schaubs, Peter M.; Rachakonda, Praveen K.; Trefry, Michael G.; Reid, Lynn B.; Lester, Daniel R.; Metcalfe, Guy; Poulet, Thomas; Regenauer-Lieb, Klaus

    2015-12-01

    Groundwater cooling (GWC) is a sustainable alternative to conventional cooling technologies for supercomputers. A GWC system has been implemented for the Pawsey Supercomputing Centre in Perth, Western Australia. Groundwater is extracted from the Mullaloo Aquifer at 20.8 °C and passes through a heat exchanger before returning to the same aquifer. Hydrogeological simulations of the GWC system were used to assess its performance and sustainability. Simulations were run with cooling capacities of 0.5 or 2.5 Mega Watts thermal (MWth), with scenarios representing various combinations of pumping rate, injection temperature and hydrogeological parameter values. The simulated system generates a thermal plume in the Mullaloo Aquifer and overlying Superficial Aquifer. Thermal breakthrough (transfer of heat from injection to production wells) occurred in 2.7-4.3 years for a 2.5 MWth system. Shielding (reinjection of cool groundwater between the injection and production wells) resulted in earlier thermal breakthrough but reduced the rate of temperature increase after breakthrough, such that shielding was beneficial after approximately 5 years pumping. Increasing injection temperature was preferable to increasing flow rate for maintaining cooling capacity after thermal breakthrough. Thermal impacts on existing wells were small, with up to 10 wells experiencing a temperature increase ≥ 0.1 °C (largest increase 6 °C).

  20. Hydrothermal models of the Perth metropolitan area, Western Australia: implications for geothermal energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Oliver; Sheldon, Heather A.; Reid, Lynn B.; Corbel, Soazig

    2013-05-01

    Hydrothermal simulations are used to provide insight into the subsurface thermal regime of the Perth metropolitan area (PMA) in Western Australia. High average permeabilities and estimated fluid flow rates in shallow aquifers of the PMA suggest that advection and convection may occur in these aquifers. These processes are simulated, using a new geological model of the PMA to constrain the geometry of aquifers, aquitards and faults. The results show that advection has a strong influence on subsurface temperature, especially in the north of the PMA, where aquifer recharge creates an area of anomalously low temperature. Convection may be important, depending on the permeability of the Yarragadee Aquifer. If convection occurs, it creates thermal highs and lows with a spacing of approximately 5 km. Some of these thermal anomalies migrate over geological time due to coupling between advection and convection, but they are stationary on human timescales. Fault permeability influences the pattern of convection. Advection and convection cause variations in the geothermal gradient which cannot be predicted by conductive models; therefore, these processes should be considered in any model that is used for assessment of geothermal resources in the PMA.

  1. Field and synthetic experiments for virtual source crosswell tomography in vertical wells: Perth Basin, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almalki, Majed; Harris, Brett; Dupuis, J. Christian

    2013-11-01

    It is common for at least one monitoring well to be located proximally to a production well. This presents the possibility of applying crosswell technologies to resolve a range of earth properties between the wells. We present both field and synthetic examples of dual well walk-away vertical seismic profiling in vertical wells and show how the direct arrivals from a virtual source may be used to create velocity images between the wells. The synthetic experiments highlight the potential of virtual source crosswell tomography where large numbers of closely spaced receivers can be deployed in multiple wells. The field experiment is completed in two monitoring wells at an aquifer storage and recovery site near Perth, Western Australia. For this site, the crosswell velocity distribution recovered from inversion of travel times between in-hole virtual sources and receivers is highly consistent with what is expected from sonic logging and detailed zero-offset vertical seismic profiling. When compared to conventional walkaway vertical seismic profiling, the only additional effort required to complete dual-well walkaway vertical seismic profiling is the deployment of seismic sensors in the second well. The significant advantage of virtual source crosswell tomography is realised where strong near surface heterogeneity results in large travel time statics.

  2. Acidophilic halophilic microorganisms in fluid inclusions in halite from Lake Magic, Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Amber J; Benison, Kathleen C

    2013-09-01

    Lake Magic is one of the most extreme of hundreds of ephemeral acid-saline lakes in southern Western Australia. It has pH as low as 1.7, salinity as high as 32% total dissolved solids, temperatures ranging from 0°C to 50°C, and an unusually complex aqueous composition. Optical petrography, UV-vis petrography, and laser Raman spectrometry were used to detect microorganisms and organic compounds within primary fluid inclusions in modern bedded halite from Lake Magic. Rare prokaryotes appear as 1-3 μm, bright cocci that fluoresce green with UV-vis illumination. Dimpled, 5-7 μm yellow spherules that fluoresce blue with UV-vis illumination are interpreted as Dunaliella algae. Yellow-orange beta-carotene crystals, globules, and coatings are characterized by orange-red fluorescence and three distinct Raman peaks. Because acid saline lakes are good Mars analogues, the documentation of prokaryotes, eukaryotes, and organic compounds preserved in the halite here has implications for the search for life on Mars. Missions to Mars should incorporate such in situ optical and chemical examination of martian evaporites for possible microorganisms and/or organic compounds in fluid inclusions.

  3. Diversity of cyanobacterial biomarker genes from the stromatolites of Shark Bay, Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garby, Tamsyn J; Walter, Malcolm R; Larkum, Anthony W D; Neilan, Brett A

    2013-05-01

    Families of closely related chemical compounds, which are relatively resistant to degradation, are often used as biomarkers to help trace the evolutionary history of early groups of organisms and the environments in which they lived. Biomarkers derived from hopanoid variations are particularly useful in determining bacterial community compositions. 2-Methylhopananoids have been thought to be diagnostic for cyanobacteria, and 2-methylhopanes in the geological record are taken as evidence for the presence of cyanobacteria-containing communities at the time of sediment deposition. Recently, however, doubt has been cast on the validity of 2-methylhopanes as cyanobacterial biomarkers, since non-cyanobacterial species have been shown to produce significant amounts of 2-methylhopanoids. This study examines the diversity of hpnP, the hopanoid biosynthesis gene coding for the enzyme that methylates hopanoids at the C2 position. Genomic DNA isolated from stromatolite-associated pustular and smooth microbial mat samples from Shark Bay, Western Australia, was analysed for bacterial diversity, and used to construct an hpnP clone library. A total of 117 partial hpnP clones were sequenced, representing 12 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Phylogenetic analysis showed that 11 of these OTUs, representing 115 sequences, cluster within the cyanobacterial clade. We conclude that the dominant types of microorganisms with the detected capability of producing 2-methylhopanoids within pustular and smooth microbial mats in Shark Bay are cyanobacteria.

  4. Unusual Rebuilding Method of Historic St Mary’s Cathedral in the Capital of Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wysokowski Adam

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available St Mary’s Cathedral is the Archbishop church of the Archdiocese in Perth in Western Australia. The presented sacral building was built in neo-Gothic style during the years 1863-1865. Cathedral was officially dedicated and opened for the service on 29th January, 1865. In 1973 was proclaimed the Marian Sanctuary and now represents one of the largest religious facilities in Perth. In 2005, the city authorities, together with the Archdiocese took a collective decision on the necessity of a comprehensive renovation of this sacred object. The renovation was due to the technical condition and the lack of usability of the object. The author of the paper had the opportunity to experience these problems by visiting this place several times, first time in 1989 and next years. Thus, the renovation of the present Cathedral was in its assumption not only to perform maintenance of the building and its specific architectural elements but also to increase its functional features - usable for the faithful and tourists.

  5. Distribution of 13 virulence genes among clinical and environmental Aeromonas spp. in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravena-Román, M; Inglis, T J J; Riley, T V; Chang, B J

    2014-11-01

    We evaluated the pathogenic potential of 98 clinical and 31 environmental Aeromonas isolates by detecting the presence of 13 virulence genes using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method. The majority (96 %) of the strains contained at least one of the virulence genes. The overall distribution was aerA/haem (77 %), alt (53 %), lafA (51 %), ast (39 %), flaA (32 %), aspA (29 %), vasH (26 %), ascV (16 %) and aexT (13 %). No amplification products were detected for the genes encoding a bundle-forming pilus (BfpA and BfpG) or a Shiga-like toxin (stx-1 and stx-2). Five or more virulence genes were detected in 42 % of environmental and 24 % of clinical isolates. Among the major species, 48 % of A. hydrophila and 42 % of A. dhakensis isolates harboured five or more virulence genes compared with 19 % in A. veronii bv. sobria and none in A. caviae isolates. Our results suggest that, in Western Australia, strains of A. dhakensis and A. hydrophila are potentially more virulent than those of A. veronii bv. sobria and A. caviae, although the pathogenic potential of Aeromonas spp. is probably strain- rather than species-dependent.

  6. New multi-scale perspectives on the stromatolites of Shark Bay, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suosaari, E. P.; Reid, R. P.; Playford, P. E.; Foster, J. S.; Stolz, J. F.; Casaburi, G.; Hagan, P. D.; Chirayath, V.; MacIntyre, I. G.; Planavsky, N. J.; Eberli, G. P.

    2016-02-01

    A recent field-intensive program in Shark Bay, Western Australia provides new multi-scale perspectives on the world’s most extensive modern stromatolite system. Mapping revealed a unique geographic distribution of morphologically distinct stromatolite structures, many of them previously undocumented. These distinctive structures combined with characteristic shelf physiography define eight ‘Stromatolite Provinces’. Morphological and molecular studies of microbial mat composition resulted in a revised growth model where coccoid cyanobacteria predominate in mat communities forming lithified discrete stromatolite buildups. This contradicts traditional views that stromatolites with the best lamination in Hamelin Pool are formed by filamentous cyanobacterial mats. Finally, analysis of internal fabrics of stromatolites revealed pervasive precipitation of microcrystalline carbonate (i.e. micrite) in microbial mats forming framework and cement that may be analogous to the micritic microstructures typical of Precambrian stromatolites. These discoveries represent fundamental advances in our knowledge of the Shark Bay microbial system, laying a foundation for detailed studies of stromatolite morphogenesis that will advance our understanding of benthic ecosystems on the early Earth.

  7. Dental anomalies in children with cleft lip and palate in Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this paper was to describe the prevalence and type of dental anomalies in the primary and permanent dentition in children with a cleft condition at Princess Margaret Hospital in Perth, Western Australia. Materials and Methods: The details of 162 current dental patients extracted from the main dental database through their year of birth for the period 1998–2001 were selected consecutively. Dental records and X-rays were examined by one examiner (WN) and verified by a second examiner (RB) to determine dental development. The mean age of the subjects was 10.8 years with equal numbers of males and females. Subjects were further divided into cleft type; unilateral cleft lip (UCL) and palate, bilateral cleft lip (BCL) and palate, UCL, BCL, and cleft palate. Results: One hundred sixty-two subjects were grouped into 21 categories of anomaly or abnormality. Prevalence rates for the categories were calculated for the overall group and for gender and cleft type. Conclusion: Overall, 94% of patients were found to have at least one dental anomaly, with fifty-six (34%) patients having more than one anomaly or abnormality. PMID:27095907

  8. Off-Label Use of Ondansetron in Pregnancy in Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyn Colvin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy is the most common medical condition in pregnancy. There is an increasing trend to prescribe ondansetron although its safety for use in pregnancy has not been established. Methods. Exposed pregnancies were all births in Western Australia, 2002–2005, where the mother was dispensed ondansetron under the Australian Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme, compared with all other births during the same period. Outcomes investigated include maternal and child characteristics, birth defects, pregnancy, and delivery characteristics. Results. There were 96,968 births from 2002 to 2005. Ondansetron was dispensed to 251 pregnant women during this period. The women dispensed ondansetron were more likely to be privately insured (OR: 5.8; 95% CI: 4.3–7.9, to be Caucasian (3.3; 1.9–5.7, not to smoke during their pregnancy (2.9; 1.8–4.7, to have a multiple birth (2.7; 1.5–5.0, and to have used fertility treatment (1.8; 1.0–3.4. There was a small but not significantly increased risk of a major birth defect with first trimester exposure (1.2; 0.6–2.2. Conclusions. Our study did not detect any adverse outcomes from the use of ondansetron in pregnancy but could not conclude that ondansetron is safe to use in pregnancy.

  9. A Numerical Study of Wind- and Thermal-Forcing Effects on the Ocean Circulation off Western Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Batteen, Mary L.; Rutherford, Martin J.; Bayler, Eric J.

    1992-01-01

    A high-resolution, multilevel, primitive equation model is initialized with climatological data to investigate the combined effects of wind and thermal forcing on the ocean circulation off Western Australia during the austral fall and winter, corresponding to the period of strongest flow for the anomalous Leeuwin Current. This process-oriented study builds on previous modeling studies, which have elucidated the role of thermal forcing in the generation of the Leeuwin Current and e...

  10. Killer Whale (Orcinus orca) Predation on Beaked Whales (Mesoplodon spp.) in the Bremer Sub-Basin, Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellard, Rebecca; Lightbody, Keith; Fouda, Leila; Blewitt, Michelle; Riggs, David; Erbe, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Observations of killer whales (Orcinus orca) feeding on the remains of beaked whales have been previously documented; however, to date, there has been no published account of killer whales actively preying upon beaked whales. This article describes the first field observations of killer whales interacting with, hunting and preying upon beaked whales (Mesoplodon spp.) on four separate occasions during 2014, 2015 and 2016 in the Bremer Sub-Basin, off the south coast of Western Australia.

  11. Supratidal beach deposits in Giralia Bay (Exmouth Gulf, Western Australia) - a record for past tropical cyclones?

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Simon Matthias; Gelhausen, Henrik; Brill, Dominik; Callow, Nik; Engel, Max; Scheffers, Anja; Joannes-Boyau, Renaud; Leopold, Matthias; Opitz, Stephan; Brückner, Helmut

    2016-04-01

    Past coastal flooding events related to tropical cyclones (TCs) and tsunamis may be inferred from geomorphic and sedimentary archives, i.e. in the form of particular landforms (beach ridges, washover fans), deposits (washover sediments in lagoons) or erosional features. In Giralia Bay, southern Exmouth Gulf (Western Australia), sandy ridge sequences in supratidal elevations form the landward margin of extensive mudflats. The formation of these ridges, as in other mudflats of NW Australia, is assumed to be mainly driven by TCs, although their relation to depositional processes and inundation levels during spring tide conditions, exceptional precipitation and discharge events, and storm surges needs to be clarified. Based on a simple process monitoring setup using a time-lapse camera and pressure gauges, geomorphological mapping by means of unmanned aerial vehicle survey and structure-from-motion techniques, as well as sedimentological and geochronological investigations, this study aims at (i) establishing the chronostratigraphy and reconstructing the formation of the supratidal beach deposits; (ii) identifying the most important driving processes involved in their formation; and (iii) understanding their significance for recording past TC activity. Sediment trenches cross the youngest, most seaward part of the ridge sequence. At the base of the sedimentary succession, sandy units are interbedded with mud layers, reflecting depositional conditions similar to the present distal mudflat. In the upper part of the ridges, mud intercalations recede, and sand layers of varying grain size distribution and mineralogical content dominate. Younger sediment layers clearly attach to older ones documenting the stepwise accretion of the ridges onto the mudflat. Muddy intercalations in the upper part of the succession are interpreted to represent deposition in locally restricted swales. Monitoring covered the time period between August 2013 and 2015 and capture an exceptional

  12. Volcanic margin formation and Mesozoic rift propagators in the Cuvier Abyssal Plain off Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihut, Dona; Müller, R. Dietmar

    1998-11-01

    The western margin of Australia is characterized by synrift and postrift magmatism which is not well understood. A joint interpretation of magnetic anomaly, satellite gravity anomaly and seismic data from the Cuvier Abyssal Plain and margin shows that the breakup between India and Australia started circa 136 Ma (M14) and was followed by two rift propagation events which transferred portions of the Indian Plate to the Australian Plate. Post breakup magmatism continued with the emplacement of the Wallaby and Zenith plateaus (˜17-18 km thick at their centers) along a transform margin. Two narrow magmatic edifices adjacent to the Wallaby Plateau (Sonne and Sonja ridges) represent an extinct ridge and a pseudofault, respectively. They formed by excess volcanism, probably by lateral migration of buoyant melt along upside-down crustal drainage channels from the melt source underneath the Wallaby Plateau. In a mantle plume scenario a small plume (˜400 km diameter) located underneath the rift could have locally uplifted the Bernier Platform and Exmouth Sub-basin in the Early Cretaceous and left a track consistent with the azimuth of the Wallaby and Zenith plateaus. In this case, ridge-plume interaction would have caused two consecutive ridge propagation events towards the plume while the ridge moved away from the hotspot. The abrupt end of the hotspot track west of the Zenith Plateau would be a consequence of the accelerating south-eastward motion of the spreading ridge relative to the mantle after 120 Ma, leaving the mantle plume underneath the Indian Plate. An alternative nonmantle-plume scenario is based on the observation that between breakup and chron M0 (˜120 Ma) the ocean crust in the southern Cuvier Abyssal Plain was formed while the spreading ridge abutted Indian continental crust. Small-scale convection may have been initiated during rifting in the Early Cretaceous and maintained until the Wallaby-Zenith ridge-transform intersection passed by the eastern edge

  13. Modelling Infragravity Waves and Currents across a Fringing Reef: Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dongeren, A. R.; Duong Minh, T.; Lowe, R.; Roelvink, J.; Ranasinghe, R.; Symonds, G.

    2010-12-01

    The majority of the world’s coastlines contain submerged reef structures of various types, i.e. tropical coral reefs, relic temperate limestone platforms, and other submerged rock formations. Relatively little research has been conducted to study nearshore hydrodynamic processes that occur in reef environments. A good understanding of these processes is important because waves and wave-induced currents drive sediment transport, nutrient dynamics, and dispersal of larval coral and fish. Through the development of improved hydrodynamic models, the impact of environmental changes and human impacts on reefs may be accurately assessed. However, predictive models have historically been developed and tested using sandy coast environments. There are some important differences with reefs: wave breaking over the reef results in onshore flows with a higher bed friction coefficient, as well as set-up. Recent field studies (e.g., Lowe et al. JPO, 2009a) have shown the transformation of swell energy on reefs, and numerical model studies (Symonds and Black, JCR 2001, Ranasinghe et al., Coastal Eng. 2006, Lowe et al. J. Geoph. Res. 2009b) have shown that the spatial pattern of mean wave heights and mean currents can be qualitatively reproduced. However, the bulk of the measured variability is often in the infragravity frequency band (Pequignet et al. Geoph. Res. Lett., 2009 and Lowe et al., in prep.). The recently developed open-source model XBeach (Roelvink et al, Coastal Eng. 2009) is specifically designed to model these wave motions and associated sediment transport and has been successfully applied to sandy coasts (McCall et al., Coastal Eng. 2010). The objective of this paper is to apply XBeach to simulate infragravity forcing at Ningaloo Reef, a large fringing coral reef located along the northwest coastline of Western Australia. A field experiment at Ningaloo Reef (Western Australia) conducted in June 2009 by Lowe et al (in prep.) specifically aimed at measuring

  14. Determining the Biogenicity of Microfossils in the Apex Chert, Western Australia, Using Transmission Electron Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGregorio, B. T.; Sharp, T. G.

    2003-01-01

    For over a decade, the oldest evidence for life on this planet has been microfossils in the 3.5 Ga Apex Chert in Western Australia. Recently, the biogenicity of these carbon-rich structures has been called into question through reanalysis of the local geology and reinterpretation of the original thin sections. Although initially described as a stratiform, bedded chert of siliceous clasts, the unit is now thought to be a brecciated hydrothermal vein chert. The high temperatures of a hydrothermal environment would probably have detrimental effects to early non-hyperthermophilic life, compared to that of a shallow sea. Conversely, a hydrothermal origin would suggest that if the microfossils were valid, they might have been hyperthermophilic. Apex Chert controversy. The Apex Chert microfossils were originally described as septate filaments composed of kerogen similar in morphology to Proterozoic and modern cyanobacteria. However new thin section analysis shows that these carbonaceous structures are not simple filaments. Many of the original microfossils are branched and have variable thickness when the plane of focus is changed. Hydrothermal alteration of organic remains has also been suggested for the creation of these strange morphologies. Another point of contention lies with the nature of the carbon material in these proposed microfossils. Kerogen is structurally amorphous, but transforms into well-ordered graphite under high pressures and temperatures. Raman spectrometry of the carbonaceous material in the proposed microfossils has been interpreted both as partially graphitized kerogen and amorphous graphite. However, these results are inconclusive, since Raman spectrometry cannot adequately discriminate between kerogen and disordered graphite. There are also opposing views for the origin of the carbon in the Apex Chert. The carbon would be biogenic if the proposed microfossils are indeed the remains of former living organisms. However, an inorganic Fischer

  15. Coral colonisation of an artificial reef in a turbid nearshore environment, Dampier Harbour, western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakeway, David; Byers, Michael; Stoddart, James; Rossendell, Jason

    2013-01-01

    A 0.6 hectare artificial reef of local rock and recycled concrete sleepers was constructed in December 2006 at Parker Point in the industrial port of Dampier, western Australia, with the aim of providing an environmental offset for a nearshore coral community lost to land reclamation. Corals successfully colonised the artificial reef, despite the relatively harsh environmental conditions at the site (annual water temperature range 18-32°C, intermittent high turbidity, frequent cyclones, frequent nearby ship movements). Coral settlement to the artificial reef was examined by terracotta tile deployments, and later stages of coral community development were examined by in-situ visual surveys within fixed 25 x 25 cm quadrats on the rock and concrete substrates. Mean coral density on the tiles varied from 113 ± 17 SE to 909 ± 85 SE per m(2) over five deployments, whereas mean coral density in the quadrats was only 6.0 ± 1.0 SE per m(2) at eight months post construction, increasing to 24.0 ± 2.1 SE per m(2) at 62 months post construction. Coral taxa colonising the artificial reef were a subset of those on the surrounding natural reef, but occurred in different proportions--Pseudosiderastrea tayami, Mycedium elephantotus and Leptastrea purpurea being disproportionately abundant on the artificial reef. Coral cover increased rapidly in the later stages of the study, reaching 2.3 ± 0.7 SE % at 62 months post construction. This study indicates that simple materials of opportunity can provide a suitable substrate for coral recruitment in Dampier Harbour, and that natural colonisation at the study site remains sufficient to initiate a coral community on artificial substrate despite ongoing natural and anthropogenic perturbations.

  16. Predicting Cereal Root Disease in Western Australia Using Soil DNA and Environmental Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Grant J; Harries, Martin; Hüberli, D; Miyan, S; MacLeod, W J; Lawes, Roger; McKay, A

    2015-08-01

    Root diseases have long been prevalent in Australian grain-growing regions, and most management decisions to reduce the risk of yield loss need to be implemented before the crop is sown. The levels of pathogens that cause the major root diseases can be measured using DNA-based services such as PreDicta B. Although these pathogens are often studied individually, in the field they often occur as mixed populations and their combined effect on crop production is likely to vary across diverse cropping environments. A 3-year survey was conducted covering most cropping regions in Western Australia, utilizing PreDicta B to determine soilborne pathogen levels and visual assessments to score root health and incidence of individual crop root diseases caused by the major root pathogens, including Rhizoctonia solani (anastomosis group [AG]-8), Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici (take-all), Fusarium pseudograminearum, and Pratylenchus spp. (root-lesion nematodes) on wheat roots for 115, 50, and 94 fields during 2010, 2011, and 2012, respectively. A predictive model was developed for root health utilizing autumn and summer rainfall and soil temperature parameters. The model showed that pathogen DNA explained 16, 5, and 2% of the variation in root health whereas environmental parameters explained 22, 11, and 1% of the variation in 2010, 2011, and 2012, respectively. Results showed that R. solani AG-8 soil pathogen DNA, environmental soil temperature, and rainfall parameters explained most of the variation in the root health. This research shows that interactions between environment and pathogen levels before seeding can be utilized in predictive models to improve assessment of risk from root diseases to assist growers to plan more profitable cropping programs.

  17. Prioritising weed management activities in a data deficient environment: the Pilbara islands, Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohr, Cheryl; Passeretto, Kellie; Lohr, Michael; Keighery, Greg

    2015-12-01

    Along the Pilbara coast of Western Australia (WA) there are approximately 598 islands with a total area of around 500 km(2). Budget limitations and logistical complexities mean the management of these islands tends to be opportunistic. Until now there has been no review of the establishment and impacts of weeds on Pilbara islands or any attempt to prioritise island weed management. In many instances only weed occurrence has been documented, creating a data deficient environment for management decision making. The purpose of this research was to develop a database of weed occurrences on WA islands and to create a prioritisation process that will generate a ranked list of island-weed combinations using currently available data. Here, we describe a model using the pairwise comparison formulae in the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), four metrics describing the logistical difficulty of working on each island (island size, ruggedness, travel time, and tenure), and two well established measures of conservation value of an island (maximum representation and effective maximum rarity of eight features). We present the sensitivity of the island-weed rankings to changes in weights applied to each decision criteria using Kendall's tau statistics. We also present the top 20 ranked island-weed combinations for four modelling scenarios. Many conservation prioritisation tools exist. However, many of these tools require extrapolation to fill data gaps and require specific management objectives and dedicated budgets. To our knowledge, this study is one of a few attempts to prioritise conservation actions using data that are currently available in an environment where management may be opportunistic and spasmodic due to budgetary restrictions.

  18. Underreporting of influenza outbreaks in aged care facilities in South Western Sydney, Australia, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leng Boonwaat

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In 2014, influenza activity was high in New South Wales (NSW, Australia, and 21 443 people were hospitalized with a diagnosis of influenza-associated pneumonia. This translates to a rate of 252.4 cases per 100 000 population. More than 18 000 cases of laboratory-confirmed influenza were reported in NSW. The majority were influenza A, dominated by A/H3N2 subtype. There were also 111 influenza outbreaks in aged care facilities (ACFs reported in NSW in 2014, the highest number on record. Elderly residents in ACFs experience high rates of morbidity and mortality during influenza outbreaks. They are at increased risk of developing complications due to underlying diseases. These residents also have an increased risk of infection because of the institutional environment they share with many other residents and staff. Furthermore, impaired oral intake, limited dexterity and altered consciousness may limit treatment options when they are infected. The Australian Government’s Department of Health and Ageing (DHA has issued specific guidelines for prevention and control of influenza outbreaks in residential care facilities. While ACFs have primary responsibility for managing outbreaks, Public Health Units (PHUs are required to promote ACF compliance with these guidelines and facilitate delivery and administration of antivirals. However, effective influenza prophylaxis and other timely interventions can only occur if PHUs are notified in a timely manner. DHA guidelines indicate influenza outbreaks in ACFs are to be reported to PHUs. However, under NSW public health legislation, reporting of outbreaks in ACFs is not mandatory. In this report we investigated whether there were outbreaks that were not reported to the South Western Sydney Local Health Districts PHU during the 2014 influenza season.

  19. Water and electrolyte homeostasis and kidney function of desert-dwelling marsupial wallabies in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, S D; Morris, K D; Bradshaw, F J

    2001-02-01

    Prolonged drought, necessitating conservation of water, is one of the major environmental challenges faced by many Australian marsupials. Radioactive isotopes of water and sodium were used to assess the ability of two species of marsupial wallabies to maintain water and electrolyte balance during periods of extreme water deprivation in the arid Pilbara region of Western Australia. The spectacled hare-wallaby, Lagorchestes conspicillatus, has the lowest mass-specific rate of water turnover at 27.5 ml.kg(-0.82).day(-1) yet reported for any mammal and was two to three orders of magnitude lower than that of the Rothschild's rock-wallaby, Petrogale rothschildi. Studies of renal function show that the hare-wallaby conserves water by producing a highly concentrated urine under the influence of lysine vasopressin (LVP), the anti-diuretic hormone (ADH) in macropodid marsupials. In contrast, rock-wallabies show unusual renal responses to water deprivation, with no change in LVP levels and a limited response to water deprivation involving a reduction in renal plasma flow and glomerular filtration rate, with no significant change in tubular function. Both species are able to maintain water and electrolyte homeostasis during periods of drought, highlighting the efficacy of their differing adaptive solutions to the problem of water scarcity, although the hare-wallaby is superior to the rock-wallaby in this respect. Rock-wallabies appear to rely primarily on behavioural rather than physiological responses for their survival in the Pilbara and appear to be more vulnerable to extinction in the event of significant habitat modification. The secure nature of their rock habitat, however, means that they have suffered less than hare-wallabies in the recent past.

  20. Habitat associations of juvenile fish at Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia: the importance of coral and algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Shaun K; Depczynski, Martial; Fisher, Rebecca; Holmes, Thomas H; O'Leary, Rebecca A; Tinkler, Paul

    2010-12-07

    Habitat specificity plays a pivotal role in forming community patterns in coral reef fishes, yet considerable uncertainty remains as to the extent of this selectivity, particularly among newly settled recruits. Here we quantified habitat specificity of juvenile coral reef fish at three ecological levels; algal meadows vs. coral reefs, live vs. dead coral and among different coral morphologies. In total, 6979 individuals from 11 families and 56 species were censused along Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia. Juvenile fishes exhibited divergence in habitat use and specialization among species and at all study scales. Despite the close proximity of coral reef and algal meadows (10's of metres) 25 species were unique to coral reef habitats, and seven to algal meadows. Of the seven unique to algal meadows, several species are known to occupy coral reef habitat as adults, suggesting possible ontogenetic shifts in habitat use. Selectivity between live and dead coral was found to be species-specific. In particular, juvenile scarids were found predominantly on the skeletons of dead coral whereas many damsel and butterfly fishes were closely associated with live coral habitat. Among the coral dependent species, coral morphology played a key role in juvenile distribution. Corymbose corals supported a disproportionate number of coral species and individuals relative to their availability, whereas less complex shapes (i.e. massive & encrusting) were rarely used by juvenile fish. Habitat specialisation by juvenile species of ecological and fisheries importance, for a variety of habitat types, argues strongly for the careful conservation and management of multiple habitat types within marine parks, and indicates that the current emphasis on planning conservation using representative habitat areas is warranted. Furthermore, the close association of many juvenile fish with corals susceptible to climate change related disturbances suggests that identifying and protecting reefs

  1. Impact of a prescribed fire on soil water repellency in a Banksia woodland (Western Australia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; Miller, Ben; Tangney, Ryan; Miller, Russell; González-Pérez, José A.; Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio T.; Zavala, Lorena M.; Jordán, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    INTRODUCTION The Swan Coastal plain of Western Australia is dominated by fire-prone banksia woodland (Burrows and McCaw, 1990). In these areas, prescription burning is often used to reduce the risk of wildfires, by reducing available fuels (Boer et al., 2009). Little research has been conducted on the effects of prescription burning on Banksia woodlands, and, in particular, information on the impacts on soil properties and soil water repellency (SWR) is scarce. Here, we have studied the impact of fire on SWR in a Banksia woodland and monitored its evolution in the medium-term. It is expected that results are useful for management and restoration of fire-affected Banksia woodlands. METHODS An experimental fire was conducted on May 7th 2015 in Kings Park, Perth, Western Australia. The fire affected an area of 6 ha of mixed Banksia/Allocasuarina woodland under moderate fire intensity. At the time of ignition, the wind speed below the canopy was 1.2 km/h. During the prescribed burning, air temperatures were on average 20 ± 1 °C and relative humidity ranged between 45 and 55% (measured using a Kestrel portable weather station). Fuel moisture averaged 11.8% (measured using Wiltronics moisture meter) and soil moisture at 1 cm deep ranged from 0.1% to 8.6% (measured with a PR2 soil profile probe attached to a HH2 data logger). Temperatures greater than 120 °C were measured 1 cm below the soil surface using iButton temperature sensors. SWR was measured under lab conditions in oven-dry samples (48 h, 105 °C) with the water drop penetration time (WDPT) test. Soil microbial activity was determined with the 1-day CO2 test that is based on the measurement of the CO2 burst produced after moistening dry soil (Muñoz-Rojas et al., 2016). PRELIMINARY RESULTS AND DISCUSSION SWR was severe in the control (mean WDPT = 2608 s) and pre-burned areas (2722 s). One week after the prescribed fire, persistence of soil water repellency remained stable in the burned area (2402 s). In

  2. Famennian mud-mounds in the proximal fore-reef slope, Canning Basin, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Gregory E.

    2001-12-01

    Famennian (Late Devonian) carbonate buildups and, in particular, mud-mounds, are poorly known, in general, and few have been documented in detail. Relatively small Famennian mud-mounds occur in proximal fore-reef slope settings in the Canning Basin, Western Australia. The Famennian platform margin facies passes from typical shoaling carbonate facies in the back reef, through massive, calcimicrobial, cement-rich reef-margin facies, to relatively steeply dipping (20-30°), well-bedded fore-reef slope facies containing shelf-derived, winnowed grainy sediments and extremely coarse reef-block debris. Isolated or coalescing mounds occur in the proximal slope, immediately adjacent to and, in some cases, possibly grading into the margin facies. Mounds are elongate perpendicular to the margin and some had synoptic relief greater than 2 m. Mounds are lithologically variable and consist of varying proportions of micrite, multiple generations of marine cement, abundant Rothpletzella, Renalcis, poorly preserved sparry microbial crusts and sporadically distributed laminar stromatoporoids. Surrounding grainy slope facies abut and slope off of mound flanks. Mound facies are very similar to nearby reef-margin facies, with the exceptions that stromatoporoids have not been observed in margin facies and solenoporoid algae, which occur in the margin, have not been observed in the mounds. Stromatolites are conspicuously absent from both facies. Mound facies appear to be more closely related to Frasnian and Famennian calcimicrobe cement-dominated reef-margin facies than to Famennian deep-water stromatolite-sponge-mound facies, such as those that occur elsewhere in the Canning Basin. The observed Canning Famennian reef and mound frameworks were constructed by communities that appear to be very similar to earlier Frasnian communities, despite the Frasnian-Famennian extinction event, and provide good examples of microbial reef framework construction in a high energy setting.

  3. Paleomagnetic Study of the Devonian Reef Complexes of the Canning Basin, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, M.; Tohver, E.; Cawood, P. A.; Kirschvink, J.; Peek, S.; Playton, T.; Hocking, R.; Haines, P.; Montgomery, P.

    2008-12-01

    The reef systems in the Canning Basin, Western Australia perhaps are the best exposed and least deformed examples of ancient reef systems known in the world. The recently commenced multi-disciplinary research project in the Devonian reef complex of the Canning Basin is a broad investigation of the depositional history of a carbonate platform using paleomagnetic, stable isotope geochemistry (inorganic and organic), sedimentology, and biostratigraphy. By focusing on the world-class exposures in the Canning Basin, this project seeks to provide a global stratigraphic reference frame for key intervals in life history such as the Frasnian-Fammenian mass extinction event, as well as providing a useful analogue for resource models of other carbonate reef systems elsewhere in the world. This reference frame will consist of a high resolution magnetostratigraphic profile to supplement the presently-sparse Global Polarity Timescale (GPTS) for the Devonian, as well as a chemostratigraphic profile (chiefly carbon isotopes) to identify possible shifts in the global carbon budget associated with biotic crises and/or climate change. Additional goals include identification of the conditions leading up to, and possible causes of the mass extinction event, and testing for a possible mid-Paleozoic episode of True Polar Wander. We report here on a paleomagnetic study of two magnetostratigraphic sections in the Canning Basin to address the goals mentioned above. Paleomagnetic samples have been drilled on the Late Frasnian limestones in the north of the Windjana Gorge National Park, with a total number of 400 core samples. So far preliminary paleomagnetic analysis on pilot samples reveals two characteristic remanent components. One component has a blocking temperatures less than 400 degree Celsius, probably a component of secondary overprint; another component has a blocking temperature around 580 and around 680 degree Celsius, indicating the presence of magnetite and hematite

  4. Eimeria spp. infecting quenda (Isoodon obesulus) in the greater Perth region, Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Alison E; Yang, Rongchang; Lymbery, Alan J; Thompson, R C Andrew

    2016-11-01

    Parasites of wildlife inhabiting urbanised and peri-urban environments are of interest regarding wildlife population health, and also veterinary public health in the case of parasites that can also infect humans and domestic animals. This study aimed to: identify, and estimate the prevalence of, species of Eimeria parasitic in quenda (Isoodon obesulus) in the greater Perth region, Western Australia; 2) morphologically describe and genetically characterise a novel observed species of Eimeria as E. angustus; and 3) genetically characterise E. kanyana. Eimeria spp. prevalence was 76.1% (95% CI 64.9-84.5%), and four putative species of Eimeria were identified. Eimeria kanyana was identified infecting quenda for the first time, with a prevalence of 54.9% (43.4-66.0%). Eimeria quenda was less prevalent, at 7.0% (3.1-15.5%). The novel species E. angustus was present in 45.1% of sampled quenda (34.0-56.6%). A second novel morphotype of Eimeria was present in 2.8% of sampled quenda (0.9-9.7%). Mixed Eimeria spp. infections were present in 21/71 quenda (29.6%, 95% CI 20.2-41.1%). Molecular phylogenetic analyses of E. kanyana and E. angustus were conducted at the 18S rRNA and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase loci. At both loci, two isolates identified as E. kanyana grouped in a phylogenetic clade with E. trichosuri. Five isolates identified as the novel E. angustus were most closely related to E. tropidura at the 18S locus. At the COI locus, no sequence data were available for E. tropidura; isolates of E. angustus grouped with E. sciurorum.

  5. Prioritising weed management activities in a data deficient environment: the Pilbara islands, Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl Lohr

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Along the Pilbara coast of Western Australia (WA there are approximately 598 islands with a total area of around 500 km2. Budget limitations and logistical complexities mean the management of these islands tends to be opportunistic. Until now there has been no review of the establishment and impacts of weeds on Pilbara islands or any attempt to prioritise island weed management. In many instances only weed occurrence has been documented, creating a data deficient environment for management decision making. The purpose of this research was to develop a database of weed occurrences on WA islands and to create a prioritisation process that will generate a ranked list of island-weed combinations using currently available data. Here, we describe a model using the pairwise comparison formulae in the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP, four metrics describing the logistical difficulty of working on each island (island size, ruggedness, travel time, and tenure, and two well established measures of conservation value of an island (maximum representation and effective maximum rarity of eight features. We present the sensitivity of the island-weed rankings to changes in weights applied to each decision criteria using Kendall's tau statistics. We also present the top 20 ranked island-weed combinations for four modelling scenarios. Many conservation prioritisation tools exist. However, many of these tools require extrapolation to fill data gaps and require specific management objectives and dedicated budgets. To our knowledge, this study is one of a few attempts to prioritise conservation actions using data that are currently available in an environment where management may be opportunistic and spasmodic due to budgetary restrictions.

  6. Perennial growth of hermatypic corals at Rottnest Island, Western Australia (32°S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire L. Ross

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available To assess the viability of high latitude environments as coral refugia, we report measurements of seasonal changes in seawater parameters (temperature, light, and carbonate chemistry together with calcification rates for two coral species, Acropora yongei and Pocillopora damicornis from the southernmost geographical limit of these species at Salmon Bay, Rottnest Island (32°S in Western Australia. Changes in buoyant weight were normalised to colony surface areas as determined from both X-ray computed tomography and geometric estimation. Extension rates for A. yongei averaged 51 ± 4 mm y−1 and were comparable to rates reported for Acroporid coral at other tropical and high latitude locations. Mean rates of calcification for both A. yongei and P. damicornis in winter were comparable to both the preceding and following summers despite a mean seasonal temperature range of ∼6 °C (18.2°–24.3 °C and more than two-fold changes in the intensity of downwelling light. Seasonal calcification rates for A. yongei (1.31–2.02 mg CaCO3 cm−2 d−1 and P. damicornis (0.34–0.90 mg CaCO3 cm−2 d−1 at Salmon Bay, Rottnest Island were comparable to rates from similar taxa in more tropical environments; however, they appeared to decline sharply once summer temperatures exceeded 23 °C. A coral bleaching event observed in December 2013 provided further evidence of how coral at Rottnest Island are still vulnerable to the deleterious effects of episodic warming despite its high latitude location. Thus, while corals at Rottnest Island can sustain robust year-round rates of coral growth, even over cool winter temperatures of 18°–19 °C, there may be limits on the extent that such environments can provide refuge against the longer term impacts of anthropogenic climate change.

  7. Nutrient Discharge Beneath Urban Lawns To A Sandy Coastal Aquifer, Perth, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, M. L.; Herne, D. E.; Byrne, J. D.; Kin, P. G.

    1996-01-01

    Excess nitrogen and phosphorus leaching beneath urban lawns on sandy soils in metropolitan Perth, Western Australia, may pose a serious threat not only to the quality of the underlying groundwater but also to many surface-water bodies. In this study, suction-driven lysimeters were developed and used to quantify water and nutrient fluxes below the root zone at four urban lawn sites in Perth. The four sites received similar fertiliser treatment but differed in irrigation regimes. Over a period of 12 months, up to 51 percent of incident water passed below the root zone. Annual flow-weighted concentrations of NO3-N in the leachate ranged from 0.8-5.4 mg/L, whereas PO4-P concentrations ranged from 0.003-0.034 mg/L. At most sites, NO3-N concentrations periodically equalled or exceeded the World Health Organization (WHO) drinking-water limit of 10 mg/L; high concentration were maintained for longer periods at two sites with coarser sands and high irrigation regimes. Evidence exists that concentrations of N and P in urban groundwater are reduced through dilution and possibly through chemical transformation and adsorption. It is unlikely that NO3-N concentrations in groundwater will exceed the WHO drinking limit except for relatively short periods of time. However, nutrients (especially N) from fertilised lawns are a threat to wetlands and waterways into which nutrient-rich groundwater is discharged. Modified management practices for urban lawns, or alternative-style home gardens may need to be developed in order to minimise nutrient enrichment of groundwater and water bodies. Some suggestions for these are presented.

  8. Radiocarbon dating and wood density chronologies of mangrove trees in arid Western Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia S Santini

    Full Text Available Mangrove trees tend to be larger and mangrove communities more diverse in tropical latitudes, particularly where there is high rainfall. Variation in the structure, growth and productivity of mangrove forests over climatic gradients suggests they are sensitive to variations in climate, but evidence of changes in the structure and growth of mangrove trees in response to climatic variation is scarce. Bomb-pulse radiocarbon dating provides accurate dates of recent wood formation and tree age of tropical and subtropical tree species. Here, we used radiocarbon techniques combined with X-ray densitometry to develop a wood density chronology for the mangrove Avicennia marina in the Exmouth Gulf, Western Australia (WA. We tested whether wood density chronologies of A. marina were sensitive to variation in the Pacific Decadal Oscillation Index, which reflects temperature fluctuations in the Pacific Ocean and is linked to the instrumental rainfall record in north WA. We also determined growth rates in mangrove trees from the Exmouth Gulf, WA. We found that seaward fringing A. marina trees (~10 cm diameter were 48 ± 1 to 89 ± 23 years old (mean ± 1 σ and that their growth rates ranged from 4.08 ± 2.36 to 5.30 ± 3.33 mm/yr (mean ± 1 σ. The wood density of our studied mangrove trees decreased with increases in the Pacific Decadal Oscillation Index. Future predicted drying of the region will likely lead to further reductions in wood density and their associated growth rates in mangrove forests in the region.

  9. Radiocarbon dating and wood density chronologies of mangrove trees in arid Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santini, Nadia S; Hua, Quan; Schmitz, Nele; Lovelock, Catherine E

    2013-01-01

    Mangrove trees tend to be larger and mangrove communities more diverse in tropical latitudes, particularly where there is high rainfall. Variation in the structure, growth and productivity of mangrove forests over climatic gradients suggests they are sensitive to variations in climate, but evidence of changes in the structure and growth of mangrove trees in response to climatic variation is scarce. Bomb-pulse radiocarbon dating provides accurate dates of recent wood formation and tree age of tropical and subtropical tree species. Here, we used radiocarbon techniques combined with X-ray densitometry to develop a wood density chronology for the mangrove Avicennia marina in the Exmouth Gulf, Western Australia (WA). We tested whether wood density chronologies of A. marina were sensitive to variation in the Pacific Decadal Oscillation Index, which reflects temperature fluctuations in the Pacific Ocean and is linked to the instrumental rainfall record in north WA. We also determined growth rates in mangrove trees from the Exmouth Gulf, WA. We found that seaward fringing A. marina trees (~10 cm diameter) were 48 ± 1 to 89 ± 23 years old (mean ± 1 σ) and that their growth rates ranged from 4.08 ± 2.36 to 5.30 ± 3.33 mm/yr (mean ± 1 σ). The wood density of our studied mangrove trees decreased with increases in the Pacific Decadal Oscillation Index. Future predicted drying of the region will likely lead to further reductions in wood density and their associated growth rates in mangrove forests in the region.

  10. A survey of occupational exposure to blood and body fluids in physiotherapists in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Guttenberg, Yvonne; Spickett, Jeff

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this pilot project was to investigate the occurrence of occupational exposure to blood and body fluids in registered physiotherapists in Western Australia. Surveys were sent to physiotherapists with questions regarding personal background, exposure characteristics, and contributing factors included. Descriptive statistical methods were used to identify the area of practice posing the highest risk of exposure to physiotherapists. The authors found that 56.1% of surveyed physiotherapists recorded one or more exposures within the past 5 years. Work in hospitals was found to carry the highest rate of exposure for the physiotherapy profession. Other areas of practice, including community work, private practice, nursing homes/hostels, and work at sporting events carry comparable but lower risks of exposure. In private practice, 50% of exposures were associated with acupuncture. In nursing homes, 60% of exposures were brought on by exposure to contaminated materials, whereas in the community setting most exposures (64%) were attributed to unpredictable/uncontrollable situations. At sporting events, 90% of all exposures were associated with already existing sources of blood and body fluids (wounds). Within the hospital setting, the 3 dominant immediate causes reported were unpredictable situations (33.3%), existing sources (28.4%), and procedural causes (22.2%). The use of personal protective equipment for prevention of exposure is investigated and discussed. Data collected for this survey were not enough to draw conclusive assumptions regarding hazard management. A repeat of this study on a larger scale may provide physiotherapists with the tools and knowledge to minimize the likelihood of exposure and harm arising from exposure.

  11. Hydrodynamics of Shark Bay, Western Australia: Implications for Population Dynamics of Snapper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahas, E. L.; Jackson, G.; Pattiaratchi, C. B.; Ivey, G. N.

    2001-12-01

    Field data and hydrodynamic modeling were used to examine the dynamics of Shark Bay, a large inverse estuary in Western Australia. Work was focused on the hydrodynamic factors influencing snapper - a fish important to both commercial and recreational fisheries in the region. Shark Bay is a large coastal embayment, with inverse estuarine features, shallow waters, and the relatively warm Leeuwin current running along its seaward boundary. Other important physical influences include highly seasonal winds, with snapper spawning occurring in winter months when winds are low in magnitude and variable in direction. Density contours from fieldwork showed a vertically mixed system, implying a dominance of horizontal diffusive transport and therefore low volume or exchange fluxes in the Bay. T-S diagrams showed unique water signatures throughout; consistent with the concept of limited mixing. Hydrodynamic modeling, using typical tidal, current and meteorological data for winter, supported the limited mixing scheme, with low residual velocities in most areas. The model also showed the ubiquitous presence of topographically generated eddies, which operate as effective retention mechanisms, preventing large-scale mixing. Finally, biological field data on snapper spawning locations were used to seed the model. Particles released in the model were consistently located in or advected into cyclonic eddy structures, and therefore experienced little advection through the system. However, the process is seasonal, with retention mechanisms only in place in wintertime when winds are low and the system is tidally driven. These results verify the hypothesis that young snapper - eggs and larvae - do not mix throughout the bay, and are therefore isolated within specific spawning areas.

  12. Impact of water allocation strategies to manage groundwater resources in Western Australia: Equity and efficiency considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iftekhar, Md Sayed; Fogarty, James

    2017-05-01

    In many parts of the world groundwater is being depleting at an alarming rate. Where groundwater extraction is licenced, regulators often respond to resource depletion by reducing all individual licences by a fixed proportion. This approach can be effective in achieving a reduction in the volume of water extracted, but the approach is not efficient. In water resource management the issue of the equity-efficiency trade-off has been explored in a number of contexts, but not in the context of allocation from a groundwater system. To contribute to this knowledge gap we conduct an empirical case study for Western Australia's most important groundwater system: the Gnangara Groundwater System (GGS). Resource depletion is a serious issue for the GGS, and substantial reductions in groundwater extraction are required to stabilise the system. Using an individual-based farm optimization model we study both the overall impact and the distributional impact of a fixed percentage water allocation cut to horticulture sector licence holders. The model is parameterised using water licence specific data on farm area and water allocation. The modelling shows that much of the impact of water allocation reductions can be mitigated through changing the cropping mix and the irrigation technology used. The modelling also shows that the scope for gains through the aggregation of holdings into larger farms is much greater than the potential losses due to water allocation reductions. The impact of water allocation cuts is also shown to impact large farms more than small farms. For example, the expected loss in net revenue per ha for a 10-ha farm is around three times the expected loss per ha for a 1-ha farm; and the expected loss per ha for a 25-ha farm is around five times the expected loss per ha for a 1-ha farm.

  13. Magnetotelluric characterization of the northern margin of the Yilgarn Craton (Western Australia)

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    Piña-Varas, Perla; Dentith, Michael

    2017-04-01

    The northern margin of the Yilgarn Craton (Western Australia) was deformed during the convergence and collision with the Pilbara Craton and the intervening Glenburgh Terrain that created the Capricorn Orogen. The Yilgarn Craton is one of the most intensively mineralised areas of continental crust with world class deposits of gold and nickel. However, the region to its north has surprisingly few deposits. Cratonic margins are considered to be key indicators of prospectivity at a regional scale. The northern limit of the Yilgarn Craton within the Capricorn Orogen is not well resolved at date because of overlying Proterozoic sedimentary basins. We present here some of the results of an extensive magnetotelluric (MT) study that is being performed in the area. This study is a component of large multi-disciplinary geoscience project on the 'Distal Footprints of Giant Ore Systems' in the Capricorn Orogen. The MT dataset consists of a total of 240 broadband magnetotelluric stations (BBMT) and 84 long period stations (LMT). Analysis of the dataset reveals a clear 3-D geoelectrical behaviour and extreme complexity for most of the sites, including an extremely high number of sites with phases out-of-quadrant at long periods. 3-D inverse modelling of the MT data shows high resistivity Archean units and low resistivity Paleoproterozoic basins, including very low resistivity structures at depth. These strong resistivity contrasts allow us to successfully map northern margin of the Yilgarn Craton beneath basin cover, as well as identifying major lateral conductivity changes in the deep crust suggestive of different tectonic blocks. Upper crustal conductive zones can be correlated with faults on seismic reflection data. Our results suggest MT surveys are a useful tool for regional-scale exploration in the study area and in area of thick cover in general.

  14. Coral colonisation of an artificial reef in a turbid nearshore environment, Dampier Harbour, western Australia.

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    David Blakeway

    Full Text Available A 0.6 hectare artificial reef of local rock and recycled concrete sleepers was constructed in December 2006 at Parker Point in the industrial port of Dampier, western Australia, with the aim of providing an environmental offset for a nearshore coral community lost to land reclamation. Corals successfully colonised the artificial reef, despite the relatively harsh environmental conditions at the site (annual water temperature range 18-32°C, intermittent high turbidity, frequent cyclones, frequent nearby ship movements. Coral settlement to the artificial reef was examined by terracotta tile deployments, and later stages of coral community development were examined by in-situ visual surveys within fixed 25 x 25 cm quadrats on the rock and concrete substrates. Mean coral density on the tiles varied from 113 ± 17 SE to 909 ± 85 SE per m(2 over five deployments, whereas mean coral density in the quadrats was only 6.0 ± 1.0 SE per m(2 at eight months post construction, increasing to 24.0 ± 2.1 SE per m(2 at 62 months post construction. Coral taxa colonising the artificial reef were a subset of those on the surrounding natural reef, but occurred in different proportions--Pseudosiderastrea tayami, Mycedium elephantotus and Leptastrea purpurea being disproportionately abundant on the artificial reef. Coral cover increased rapidly in the later stages of the study, reaching 2.3 ± 0.7 SE % at 62 months post construction. This study indicates that simple materials of opportunity can provide a suitable substrate for coral recruitment in Dampier Harbour, and that natural colonisation at the study site remains sufficient to initiate a coral community on artificial substrate despite ongoing natural and anthropogenic perturbations.

  15. Habitat associations of juvenile fish at Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia: the importance of coral and algae.

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    Shaun K Wilson

    Full Text Available Habitat specificity plays a pivotal role in forming community patterns in coral reef fishes, yet considerable uncertainty remains as to the extent of this selectivity, particularly among newly settled recruits. Here we quantified habitat specificity of juvenile coral reef fish at three ecological levels; algal meadows vs. coral reefs, live vs. dead coral and among different coral morphologies. In total, 6979 individuals from 11 families and 56 species were censused along Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia. Juvenile fishes exhibited divergence in habitat use and specialization among species and at all study scales. Despite the close proximity of coral reef and algal meadows (10's of metres 25 species were unique to coral reef habitats, and seven to algal meadows. Of the seven unique to algal meadows, several species are known to occupy coral reef habitat as adults, suggesting possible ontogenetic shifts in habitat use. Selectivity between live and dead coral was found to be species-specific. In particular, juvenile scarids were found predominantly on the skeletons of dead coral whereas many damsel and butterfly fishes were closely associated with live coral habitat. Among the coral dependent species, coral morphology played a key role in juvenile distribution. Corymbose corals supported a disproportionate number of coral species and individuals relative to their availability, whereas less complex shapes (i.e. massive & encrusting were rarely used by juvenile fish. Habitat specialisation by juvenile species of ecological and fisheries importance, for a variety of habitat types, argues strongly for the careful conservation and management of multiple habitat types within marine parks, and indicates that the current emphasis on planning conservation using representative habitat areas is warranted. Furthermore, the close association of many juvenile fish with corals susceptible to climate change related disturbances suggests that identifying and

  16. Impact of the introduction of drug eluting stents on clinical outcomes in patients undergoing percutaneous and surgical coronary artery revascularisation procedures in Western Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Sanfilippo, Frank M; Rankin, Jamie M.; Hobbs, Michael ST; Nguyen, Michael; Knuiman, Matthew W; Berg, Patricia; Whitford, Eric G; Hendriks, Randall; Hockings, Bernard E; Muhlmann, Michael; Newman, Mark; Larbalestier, Robert; Gilfillan, Ian; Briffa, Thomas G

    2013-01-01

    Background Increasing rates of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and decreasing rates of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery followed the introduction of drug eluting stents in Western Australia in 2002. We assessed the impact of these changes on one-year outcomes for the total population of patients undergoing coronary artery revascularisation procedures (CARP) in Western Australia between 2000-2004. Methods Clinical and linked administrative data (inpatient admissions and dea...

  17. Towards an Accurate and Precise Chronology for the Colonization of Australia: The Example of Riwi, Kimberley, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balme, Jane; O’Connor, Sue; Whitau, Rose

    2016-01-01

    An extensive series of 44 radiocarbon (14C) and 37 optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages have been obtained from the site of Riwi, south central Kimberley (NW Australia). As one of the earliest known Pleistocene sites in Australia, with archaeologically sterile sediment beneath deposits containing occupation, the chronology of the site is important in renewed debates surrounding the colonization of Sahul. Charcoal is preserved throughout the sequence and within multiple discrete hearth features. Prior to 14C dating, charcoal has been pretreated with both acid-base-acid (ABA) and acid base oxidation-stepped combustion (ABOx-SC) methods at multiple laboratories. Ages are consistent between laboratories and also between the two pretreatment methods, suggesting that contamination is easily removed from charcoal at Riwi and the Pleistocene ages are likely to be accurate. Whilst some charcoal samples recovered from outside hearth features are identified as outliers within a Bayesian model, all ages on charcoal within hearth features are consistent with stratigraphy. OSL dating has been undertaken using single quartz grains from the sandy matrix. The majority of samples show De distributions that are well-bleached but that also include evidence for mixing as a result of post-depositional bioturbation of the sediment. The results of the two techniques are compared and evaluated within a Bayesian model. Consistency between the two methods is good, and we demonstrate human occupation at this site from 46.4–44.6 cal kBP (95.4% probability range). Importantly, the lowest archaeological horizon at Riwi is underlain by sterile sediments which have been dated by OSL making it possible to demonstrate the absence of human occupation for between 0.9–5.2 ka (68.2% probability range) prior to occupation. PMID:27655174

  18. Seasonal dynamics of soil CO2 efflux in biodiverse semi-arid ecosystems of Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; Lewandrowski, Wolfgang; Martini, Dylan; Erickson, Todd; Merritt, David; Dixon, Kingsley

    2015-04-01

    Introduction In recent years, soil respiration (Rs) has been a major research focus given the increase in atmospheric CO2 emissions and the large contribution of CO2 fluxes from soils. Rs is the second largest carbon flux in terrestrial ecosystems and globally accounts for 98±12 CO2-C yr-1 or ten times that produced by fossil fuel combustion. In addition to its importance in the global carbon cycle, Rs is a key indicator of ecosystem state and functioning. Despite the global importance of this process, there is still limited knowledge of its and responses to abiotic and biotic processes, particularly in arid and semi-arid areas. In this research we investigated the seasonal variations and controlling factors of Rs for different vegetation types in biodiverse ecosystems of the Pilbara region (Western Australia). This region, with a semi-arid climate and two main seasons (wet-summer and dry-winter), is an ancient landscape with diverse geology and high levels of regional endemism. Methods This research was conducted in seven study sites across the Pilbara region with similar native soils and analogous ecosystems representative of the area. A permanent plot was defined at each site which included three of the most representative and dominant vegetation cover types of the Pilbara ecosystems: trees (Corymbia spp.), shrubs (Acacia spp.), grasses (Triodia spp.), and bare soil. Soil sampling and field measurements were carried out in February 2014 (wet-summer season) and July 2014 (dry-winter season). Rs was measured with a portable soil CO2 flux chamber attached to a Li-Cor 6400 and, simultaneously, both temperature and soil moisture were determined. Results Soil CO2 efflux ranged from 0.57 µmol m-2 s-1 to 1.96 µmol m-2 s-1 in the dry-winter season and from 1.57 µmol m-2 s-1 to 3.91 µmol m-2 s-1 in the wet-summer season. Higher Rs rates were found in the wet-summer season in all vegetation types and below Corymbia spp. in both periods. Rs differed significantly

  19. Hydrological challenges to groundwater trading: Lessons from south-west Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skurray, James H.; Roberts, E. J.; Pannell, David J.

    2012-01-01

    SummaryPerth, Western Australia (pop. 1.6 m) derives 60% of its public water supply from the Gnangara groundwater system (GGS). Horticulture, domestic self-supply, and municipal parks are other major consumers of GGS groundwater. The system supports important wetlands and groundwater-dependent ecosystems. Underlying approximately 2200 km 2 of the Swan Coastal Plain, the GGS comprises several aquifer levels with partial interconnectivity. Supplies of GGS groundwater are under unprecedented stress, due to reduced recharge and increases in extraction. Stored reserves in the superficial aquifer fell by 700 GL between 1979 and 2008. Over a similar period, annual extraction for public supply increased by more than 350% from the system overall. Some management areas are over-allocated by as much as 69%. One potential policy response is a trading scheme for groundwater use. There has been only limited trading between GGS irrigators. Design and implementation of a robust groundwater trading scheme faces hydrological and/or hydro-economic challenges, among others. Groundwater trading involves transfers of the right to extract water. The resulting potential for spatial (and temporal) redistribution of the impacts of extraction requires management. Impacts at the respective selling and buying locations may differ in scale and nature. Negative externalities from groundwater trading may be uncertain as well as not monetarily compensable. An ideal groundwater trading scheme would ensure that marginal costs from trades do not exceed marginal benefits, incorporating future effects and impacts on third-parties. If this condition could be met, all transactions would result in constant or improved overall welfare. This paper examines issues that could reduce public welfare if groundwater trading is not subject to well-designed governance arrangements that are appropriate to meeting the above condition. It also outlines some opportunities to address key risks within the design of a

  20. Multifractal spatial organisation in hydrothermal gold systems of the Archaean Yilgarn craton, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Mark; Ord, Alison; Hobbs, Bruce

    2015-04-01

    A range of factors controls the location of hydrothermal alteration and gold mineralisation in the Earth's crust. These include the broad-scale lithospheric architecture, availability of fluid sources, fluid composition and pH, pressure-temperature conditions, microscopic to macroscopic structural development, the distribution of primary lithologies, and the extent of fluid-rock interactions. Consequently, the spatial distribution of alteration and mineralization in hydrothermal systems is complex and often considered highly irregular. However, despite this, do they organize themselves in a configuration that can be documented and quantified? Wavelets, mathematical functions representing wave-like oscillations, are commonly used in digital signals analysis. Wavelet-based multifractal analysis involves incrementally scanning a wavelet across the dataset multiple times (varying its scale) and recording its degree of fit to the signal at each interval. This approach (the wavelet transform modulus maxima method) highlights patterns of self-similarity present in the dataset and addresses the range of scales over which these patterns replicate themselves (expressed by their range in 'fractal dimension'). Focusing on seven gold ore bodies in the Archaean Yilgarn craton of Western Australia, this study investigates whether different aspects of hydrothermal gold systems evolve to organize themselves spatially as multifractals. Four ore bodies were selected from the Sunrise Dam deposit (situated in the Laverton tectonic zone of the Kurnalpi terrane) in addition to the Imperial, Majestic and Salt Creek gold prospects, situated in the Yindarlgooda dome of the Mount Monger goldfield (approximately 40km due east of Kalgoorlie). The Vogue, GQ, Cosmo East and Astro ore bodies at Sunrise Dam were chosen because they exhibit different structural geometries and relationships between gold and associated host-rock alteration styles. Wavelet-based analysis was conducted on 0.5m and 1m

  1. Morphological Characteristics of Detrital Zircon Grains from Source to Sink (Western Australia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markwitz, V.; Kirkland, C.

    2015-12-01

    Detrital zircon studies have become the tool of choice to address a wide range of geological questions including basin evolution, geodynamic setting, paleogeographic reconstructions, and determining source-sink relationships. However, grain destruction during transportation may be critical in understanding the detrital zircon record, yet it has not been explored in detail. In the magmatic crystallization environment zircon crystal shape is effectively a function of the magma chemistry and temperature. We address to what extent the zircon population represents an artefact of preservation, or a meaningful record of the magmatic events within the source terrain. We use image analysis of previously SIMS U-Pb dated zircon crystals to quantify how zircon grain shapes relate to the chemical composition of magmatic and detrital zircon crystals. We achieve this by testing the correlation between shape factors and the uranium, thorium content, apparent alpha dose, and isotopic signature of individual zircons with statistical methods. We focus our investigation on two different areas of Western Australia: (1) the Archean of the Yilgarn Craton and (2) the Proterozoic of the Musgrave Province, and their associated Proterozoic basin sediments: (1) The Yilgarn craton represents a Neoarchean amalgamation of c. 3.8 Ga and 2.6 Ga granite-greenstone belts including a variety of gneisses, metasedimentary and metavolcanic rock formations, and granites. Along the northern edge of the craton a series of four Proterozoic basins, with variable tectonic and metamorphic overprinting overlay this basement. (2) The West Musgrave Province consists of an east-west trending Meso- to Neoproterozoic belt dominated by granites and volcanics deformed by several major orogenic events between c. 1.35 Ga and 350 Ma. Based on age and Hf isotopic relationships the bedrock of the Musgrave Province is the source for the Neoproterozoic to Early Carboniferous Amadeus Basin to its north. Using rigorous

  2. Assisted vaginal deliveries in mothers admitted as public or private patients in Western Australia.

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    Kristjana Einarsdóttir

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mothers delivering as private patients in Australia have a high rate of assisted deliveries, which could lead to adverse infant outcomes in this group of patients. We investigated whether the risk of adverse infant outcomes after assisted deliveries was different for mothers admitted as public or private patients for delivery, when compared with unassisted deliveries. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We included 158,241 vaginal, singleton, term birth admissions in our study where the infant was live born and without birth defects. The study population was identified from statutory birth and hospital data collections held by the Western Australian (WA Department of Health. We estimated odds ratios and confidence intervals using logistic regression models adjusted for a range of maternal demographic, pregnancy and birth characteristics. Interaction was assessed by including interaction terms in the models. Outcomes included low Apgar scores at five minutes (< 7, neonatal resuscitation and special care admission. Mothers delivering as private patients had an increased risk of assisted vaginal delivery compared with public patients (adjusted OR 1.74, 95% CI  =  1.68-1.80. Compared with unassisted vaginal deliveries, assisted deliveries were associated with increased risk of Apgar scores at five minutes below 7 (OR 1.25, 1.08-1.45, neonatal resuscitation (OR  =  1.69, 1.42-2.00 and admission to special care nursery (OR  =  1.64, 1.53-1.76. The increased risk of neonatal resuscitation was higher for mothers admitted as private patients for delivery (OR  =  2.13 than public patients (OR  = 1 .55, p(interaction  =  0.03. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggested that the high risk of neonatal resuscitation following assisted vaginal deliveries compared to unassisted is higher in private patients than public patients. Whether this phenomenon is due to the twofold higher rate of assisted vaginal deliveries in this group of patients or a

  3. Mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of the Archaean LCT pegmatite deposit Cattlin Creek, Ravensthorpe, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Matthias; Dittrich, Thomas; Seifert, Thomas; Schulz, Bernhard

    2014-05-01

    The LCT (lithium-cesium-tantalum) pegmatite Cattlin Creek is located about 550 km ESE of Perth, Western Australia. The complex-type, rare-element pegmatite is hosted in metamorphic rocks of the Archaean Ravensthorpe greenstone belt, which constitutes of the southern edge of the Southern Cross Terranes of the Yilgarn Craton. The deposit is currently mined for both lithium and tantalum by Galaxy Resources Limited since 2010. The pegmatitic melt intruded in a weak structural zone of crossing thrust faults and formed several pegmatite sills, of which the surface nearest mineralized pegmatite body is up to 21 m thick. The Cattlin Creek pegmatite is characterized by an extreme fractionation that resulted in the enrichment of rare elements like Li, Cs, Rb, Sn and Ta, as well as the formation of a vertical zonation expressed by distinct mineral assemblages. The border zone comprises a fine-grained mineral assemblage consisting of albite, quartz, muscovite that merges into a medium-grained wall zone and pegmatitic-textured intermediate zones. Those zones are manifested by the occurrence of megacrystic spodumene crystals with grain sizes ranging from a couple of centimeters up to several metres. The core zone represents the most fractionated part of the pegmatite and consists of lepidolite, cleavelandite, and quartz. It also exhibits the highest concentrations of Cs (0.5 wt.%), Li (0.4 wt.%), Rb (3 wt.%), Ta (0.3 wt.%) and F (4 wt.%). This zone was probably formed in the very last crystallization stage of the pegmatite and its minerals replaced earlier crystallized mineral assemblages. Moreover, the core zone hosts subordinate extremely Cs-enriched (up to 13 wt.% Cs2O) mineral species of beryl. The chemical composition of this beryl resamples that of the extreme rare beryl-variety pezzotaite. Other observed subordinate, minor and accessory minerals comprise tourmaline, garnet, cassiterite, apatite, (mangano-) columbite, tantalite, microlite (Bi-bearing), gahnite, fluorite

  4. Wide variation in virulence and genetic diversity of binucleate Rhizoctonia isolates associated with root rot of strawberry in Western Australia.

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    Xiangling Fang

    Full Text Available Strawberry (Fragaria×ananassa is one of the most important berry crops in the world. Root rot of strawberry caused by Rhizoctonia spp. is a serious threat to commercial strawberry production worldwide. However, there is no information on the genetic diversity and phylogenetic status of Rhizoctonia spp. associated with root rot of strawberry in Australia. To address this, a total of 96 Rhizoctonia spp. isolates recovered from diseased strawberry plants in Western Australia were characterized for their nuclear condition, virulence, genetic diversity and phylogenetic status. All the isolates were found to be binucleate Rhizoctonia (BNR. Sixty-five of the 96 BNR isolates were pathogenic on strawberry, but with wide variation in virulence, with 25 isolates having high virulence. Sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacers of the ribosomal DNA separated the 65 pathogenic BNR isolates into six distinct clades. The sequence analysis also separated reference BNR isolates from strawberry or other crops across the world into clades that correspond to their respective anastomosis group (AG. Some of the pathogenic BNR isolates from this study were embedded in the clades for AG-A, AG-K and AG-I, while other isolates formed clades that were sister to the clades specific for AG-G, AG-B, AG-I and AG-C. There was no significant association between genetic diversity and virulence of these BNR isolates. This study demonstrates that pathogenic BNR isolates associated with root rot of strawberry in Western Australia have wide genetic diversity, and highlights new genetic groups not previously found to be associated with root rot of strawberry in the world (e.g., AG-B or in Australia (e.g., AG-G. The wide variation in virulence and genetic diversity identified in this study will be of high value for strawberry breeding programs in selecting, developing and deploying new cultivars with resistance to these multi-genetic groups of BNR.

  5. Wide variation in virulence and genetic diversity of binucleate Rhizoctonia isolates associated with root rot of strawberry in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiangling; Finnegan, Patrick M; Barbetti, Martin J

    2013-01-01

    Strawberry (Fragaria×ananassa) is one of the most important berry crops in the world. Root rot of strawberry caused by Rhizoctonia spp. is a serious threat to commercial strawberry production worldwide. However, there is no information on the genetic diversity and phylogenetic status of Rhizoctonia spp. associated with root rot of strawberry in Australia. To address this, a total of 96 Rhizoctonia spp. isolates recovered from diseased strawberry plants in Western Australia were characterized for their nuclear condition, virulence, genetic diversity and phylogenetic status. All the isolates were found to be binucleate Rhizoctonia (BNR). Sixty-five of the 96 BNR isolates were pathogenic on strawberry, but with wide variation in virulence, with 25 isolates having high virulence. Sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacers of the ribosomal DNA separated the 65 pathogenic BNR isolates into six distinct clades. The sequence analysis also separated reference BNR isolates from strawberry or other crops across the world into clades that correspond to their respective anastomosis group (AG). Some of the pathogenic BNR isolates from this study were embedded in the clades for AG-A, AG-K and AG-I, while other isolates formed clades that were sister to the clades specific for AG-G, AG-B, AG-I and AG-C. There was no significant association between genetic diversity and virulence of these BNR isolates. This study demonstrates that pathogenic BNR isolates associated with root rot of strawberry in Western Australia have wide genetic diversity, and highlights new genetic groups not previously found to be associated with root rot of strawberry in the world (e.g., AG-B) or in Australia (e.g., AG-G). The wide variation in virulence and genetic diversity identified in this study will be of high value for strawberry breeding programs in selecting, developing and deploying new cultivars with resistance to these multi-genetic groups of BNR.

  6. Rainfall and sentinel chicken seroconversions predict human cases of Murray Valley encephalitis in the north of Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvey, Linda A; Johansen, Cheryl A; Broom, Annette K; Antão, Catarina; Lindsay, Michael D; Mackenzie, John S; Smith, David W

    2014-12-10

    Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV) is a flavivirus that occurs in Australia and New Guinea. While clinical cases are uncommon, MVEV can cause severe encephalitis with high mortality. Sentinel chicken surveillance is used at many sites around Australia to provide an early warning system for risk of human infection in areas that have low population density and geographical remoteness. MVEV in Western Australia occurs in areas of low population density and geographical remoteness, resulting in logistical challenges with surveillance systems and few human cases. While epidemiological data has suggested an association between rainfall and MVEV activity in outbreak years, it has not been quantified, and the association between rainfall and sporadic cases is less clear. In this study we analysed 22 years of sentinel chicken and human case data from Western Australia in order to evaluate the effectiveness of sentinel chicken surveillance for MVEV and assess the association between rainfall and MVEV activity. Sentinel chicken seroconversion, human case and rainfall data from the Kimberley and Pilbara regions of Western Australia from 1990 to 2011 were analysed using negative binomial regression. Sentinel chicken seroconversion and human cases were used as dependent variables in the model. The model was then tested against sentinel chicken and rainfall data from 2012 and 2013. Sentinel chicken seroconversion preceded all human cases except two in March 1993. Rainfall in the prior three months was significantly associated with both sentinel chicken seroconversion and human cases across the regions of interest. Sentinel chicken seroconversion was also predictive of human cases in the models. The model predicted sentinel chicken seroconversion in the Kimberley but not in the Pilbara, where seroconversions early in 2012 were not predicted. The latter may be due to localised MVEV activity in isolated foci at dams, which do not reflect broader virus activity in the region

  7. Geochemical indicators and characterization of soil water repellence in three dominant ecosystems of Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio T.; Jordan, Antonio; Zavala, Lorena M.; Stevens, Jason; González-Pérez, Jose Antonio

    2016-04-01

    Introduction Soil water repellency (SWR) has critical implications for restoration of vegetation in degraded areas as it is responsible of poor plant establishment and a high incidence of erosion processes. Different organic substances are capable of inducing SWR but polar molecules such as certain fatty acids, and waxes i.e. esters and salts of fatty acids, appear to be the main constituents of hydrophobic coatings on soil mineral particles (Doerr et al., 2005). Plant species most commonly associated with SWR are evergreen trees with a considerable amount of resins, waxes or aromatic oils such as eucalypts and pines. Most of these substances are abundant in ecosystems and are released to soil by plants as root exudates or decaying organic debris, and by soil fauna, fungi and other microorganisms, but a thorough knowledge of substances capable of inducing hydrophobicity in soils is still not complete (Jordan et al., 2013). Although SWR has been reported in most continents of the world for different soil types, climate conditions and land uses, there are still many research gaps in this area, particularly in semi-arid areas largely affected by this phenomenon. Materials and methods This research was conducted in three dominant ecosystems of Western Australia (WA), e.g. semi-arid grassland in the Pilbara region (North WA), Banksia woodland, and a coastal dune (both located in South WA). These environments have different climate characteristics and soil types but similar vegetation communities. Soil samples were collected under the canopy of a broad range of plant species that compose the dominant vegetation communities of these ecosystems, and SWR was measured under lab conditions in oven-dry samples (48 h, 105 °C). Soil microbial activity was measured with the 1-day CO2 test, a cost-effective and rapid method to determine soil microbial respiration rate based on the measurement of the CO2 burst produced after moistening dry soil (Muñoz-Rojas et al., 2016). Soil p

  8. Hyperspectral imaging spectroscopy of a Mars analogue environment at the North Pole Dome, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Adrian J; Cudahy, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    A visible and near infrared (VNIR) to shortwave infrared (SWIR) hyperspectral dataset of the Early Archaean North Pole Dome, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia, has been analysed for indications of hydrothermal alteration. Occurrence maps of hydrothermal alteration minerals were produced. It was found that using a spatial resolution on the ground of approximately 5 m and spectral coverage from 0.4 to 2.5 mm was sufficient to delineate several hydrothermal alteration zones and associated veins, including phyllic, serpentinitic and chloritic alteration. These results suggest this level of spectral and spatial resolution would be ideal for localising shallow epithermal activity, should such activity have existed, on the surface of Mars.

  9. Process-oriented modeling studies of the 5500-km-long boundary flow off western and southern Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Batteen, Mary L.; Miller, Henry A.

    2009-01-01

    The article of record as published may be found at http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.csr.2008.11.011 While the unique character of the coastal current system off the western and southern coasts of Australia has been recognized, this vast 5500-km-long boundary flow has been studied far less than other current systems of the world. Recent observational studies from satellite altimetry and climatology are consistent with a continuous current extending from its origin at the North West Cape to the ...

  10. Land-sea correlations in the Australian region: post-glacial onset of the monsoon in northwestern Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Deckker, Patrick; Barrows, Timothy T.; Rogers, John

    2014-12-01

    Deep-sea core Fr10/95-GC17, collected offshore North West Cape at the western tip of Western Australia, is located beneath the path of the Leeuwin Current. This shallow, warm and low salinity current is an offshoot of the Indonesian Throughflow that transfers water and heat from the West Pacific Ocean into the Indian Ocean. The location is at the edge of the Indo Pacific Warm Pool, the source of large-scale transfer of moisture and heat from the ocean to the atmosphere. For this core, we combine previously published data with new research and use a revised chronology to re-examine the timing of climate change during the last 34,000 years in the tropics of northern Australia. The age model for the core is based on 15 radiocarbon dates complemented by luminescence ages and an oxygen isotope record. This study draws on an extensive range of analyses that have been performed on the core, including micropalaeontology of planktic and benthic foraminifera and coccoliths, stable isotopes analysis of foraminifera and their faunal composition, clay content, sediment composition and pollen analyses. Sea-surface and land temperatures are estimated from the foraminifer faunal analyses and from pollen spectra, respectively. The clay fraction and sediment composition and radiogenic isotopes of that fraction helped identify changes both on land and at sea: changes such as rainfall as shown by river discharge, and oceanic current tracing by neodymium, strontium and lead isotopes obtained from sediments. The most significant finding is that a major threshold was crossed at 13 ka BP. Prior to that time, rainfall over NW Western Australia was low as was sea-surface temperature (SST); river discharge to the ocean was also low as a result of the lack of monsoonal activity and finally, ocean alkalinity would have been lower than at present due to the uptake of atmospheric CO2. By 13 ka BP, the entire system moved away from glacial period conditions. The Indo-Australian monsoon commenced

  11. Composition of pecan cultivars Wichita and Western Schley [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.)K. Koch] grown in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakeling, L T; Mason, R L; D'Arcy, B R; Caffin, N A

    2001-03-01

    Pecans from the cultivars Wichita and Western Schley [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] collected over three years were analyzed for the following constituents: total lipid content; fatty acid profiles; sucrose content; protein; total dietary fiber; the minerals magnesium, calcium, potassium, sulfur, phosphorus, boron, copper, iron, manganese, sodium, zinc, and aluminum; vitamin C; and lipase and lipoxygenase activities. Year of harvest and cultivar had little effect on the composition of the pecans. Overall, protein content was the only constituent that differed between pecans grown in Australia and those grown in the United States. This difference is probably related to differences in growing location and horticultural practices between the two countries.

  12. Speciation in fractured rock landforms: towards understanding the diversity of subterranean cockroaches (Dictyoptera: Nocticolidae: Nocticola) in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotter, Andrew J; McRAE, Jane M; Main, Dean C; Finston, Terrie L

    2017-04-04

    Three new species of subterranean cockroach of the genus Nocticola from the Pilbara region of Western Australia are described on morphological characters of males. Nocticola quartermainei n. sp., Nocticola cockingi n. sp. and Nocticola currani n. sp. occur in fractured rock landforms and have varying degrees of troglomorphies. Sequence divergence of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COXI) clearly demonstrated populations are reproductively isolated over very short distances for the highly troglomorphic Nocticola cockingi n. sp. and Nocticola currani n. sp. and conversely, there is less isolation within the same landforms for the less troglomorphic Nocticola quartermainei n. sp.

  13. How different is mining from mineral processing? A general equilibrium analysis of new resources projects in Western Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Qiang, Ye

    1999-01-01

    Western Australia has experienced an investment surge in the minerals sector of the economy in recent years. Unlike previous surges, this one involves a large proportion of mineral‐processing projects. In this study, the differential effects on the WA economy of 25 mining and 10 mineral‐processing projects are analysed using an economy‐wide model of WA. The results indicate that: (i) both the mining and mineral‐processing projects will have substantial flow‐on benefits to the WA economy as a ...

  14. Recovery of marine Conus (Mollusca: Caenogastropoda) from imposex at Rottnest Island, Western Australia, over a quarter of a century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Fred E; Keesing, John K; Brearley, Anne

    2017-09-04

    Imposex is a reproductive abnormality in which female snails begin to transform to males, but do not become functional. It was caused by tributyltin (TBT) used as an antifoulant in boat paints. Imposex was first recorded marine snails (Conus) (Mollusca: Caenogastropoda) at Rottnest Island, Western Australia, in January 1991, where 88% of individuals at the west end were affected. Most were at moderate Stages 3 and 4 on a scale of 0 (no affect) to 6 (death). TBT was banned on boats 25m in September 2013. In February 2017 only 4% of Conus had imposex, at Stage 1. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Five new species of freshwater crabs of the genera Ghatiana Pati & Sharma, 2014, and Gubernatoriana Bott, 1970 (Crustacea, Decapoda, Brachyura: Gecarcinucidae Rathbun, 1904) from the Western Ghats, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pati, S K; Thackeray, T; Khaire, A

    2016-02-23

    Five new species of gecarcinucid freshwater crabs, Ghatiana atropurpurea n. sp., Ghatiana splendida n. sp., Gubernatoriana alcocki Pati n. sp., Gubernatoriana thackerayi Pati n. sp., and Gubernatoriana waghi Pati n. sp. are described from the Western Ghats in Maharashtra and Goa states of India. Ghatiana atropurpurea n. sp. can be differentiated from other species of Ghatiana Pati & Sharma, 2014 by the shape and colour of its carapace, and the sigmoid-shaped male first pleopod (G1). Ghatiana splendida n. sp. is separated from its congeners mainly by its long anterolateral margin of the carapace and short terminal article of the G1. Besides, the colour pattern (deep pink carapace and chelipeds, orange ambulatory legs) of G. splendida n. sp. is exceptional among its congeners. Gubernatoriana alcocki n. sp. is unique among species of Gubernatoriana Bott, 1970 due to its inwardly curved tip of the terminal article of the G1. The stout and cone-shaped terminal article of the G1 of G. thackerayi n. sp. is characteristic among its congeners. In addition, G. thackerayi n. sp. has a unique colouration amongst congeners (violet-red carapace and ambulatory legs, orange-red chelipeds). Gubernatoriana waghi n. sp. can be distinguished from its congeners by the quadrate-shaped carapace, narrow frontal margin, pointed tips of the cheliped fingers, short terminal article of the G1 and very short or vestigial terminal article of the male second pleopod (G2). The body colour (burnt orange carapace and ivory coloured chelipeds and ambulatory legs) of G. waghi n. sp. is also important to distinguish live crabs of the genus. Key to the species of Ghatiana and Gubernatoriana is provided.

  16. When morphology and molecular markers conflict: a case history of subterranean amphipods from the Pilbara, Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finston, T. L.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Fifteen species of groundwater amphipods in the genus Chydaekata have been described from the Pilbara, Western Australia, each restricted to a single bore. Dewatering at a local mine site was halted while a second survey was undertaken. Newly collected samples were identified using the existing key, and allozyme analysis was used to test species boundaries. Allozymic diversity was not associated with single bores, and only two distinctgenetic groups (one of which was very rare, were identified. Based on these results, and the finding that species were found to be more widespread, the Western Australian Environmental Protection Authority recommended that dewatering continue with caution at the site. This study provides an example of the problems associated with incongruent data sets, and the difficulties inherent in working with rare species, namely, interpreting the results of studies based on small samples or incomplete collections.

  17. The Ilgarijiri Project: A collaboration between Aboriginal communities and radio astronomers in the Murchison Region of Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, John

    2014-07-01

    The international radio astronomy initiative known as the Square Kilometre Array is a cutting-edge science project, aimed atdramatically expanding our vision and understanding of the Universe. The $2billion+ international project is being shared between Southern Africa and Australia. The Australian component, centred in the Murchison region of Western Australia, is based upon collaboration with Aboriginal communities. A collaborative project called "Ilgarijiri- Things Belonging to the Sky" shared scientific and Aboriginal knowledge of the night sky. Through a series of collaborative meetings and knowledge sharing, the Ilgarijiri project developed and showcased Aboriginal knowledge of the night sky, via an international touring Aboriginal art exhibition, in Australia, South Africa, the USA and Europe. The Aboriginal art exhibition presents Aboriginal stories relating to the night sky, which prominently feature the 'Seven Sisters' and the 'Emu', as well as the collaborative experience with radio astronomers. The success of the Ilgarijiri collaborative project is based upon several principles, which can help to inform and guide future cultural collaborative projects.

  18. Transcurrent reactivation of Australia's western passive margin: An example of intraplate deformation from the central Indo-Australian plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengesh, J. V.; Whitney, B. B.

    2016-05-01

    Australia's northwestern passive margin intersects the eastern termination of the Java trench segment of the Sunda arc subduction zone and the western termination of Timor trough along the Banda arc tectonic collision zone. Differential relative motion between the Sunda arc subduction zone and the Banda arc collision zone has reactivated the former rifted margin of northwestern Australia evidenced by Pliocene to Quaternary age deformation along a 1400 km long offshore fault system. The fault system has higher rates of seismicity than the adjacent nonextended crustal terranes, has produced the largest historical earthquake in Australia (1941 ML 7.3 Meeberrie event), and is dominated by focal mechanism solutions consistent with dextral motion along northeast trending fault planes. The faults crosscut late Miocene unconformities that are eroded across middle Miocene inversion structures suggesting multiple phases of Neogene and younger fault reactivation. Onset of deformation is consistent with the timing of the collision of the Scott Plateau part of the passive continental margin with the former Banda trench between 3.0 Ma and present. The range of estimated maximum horizontal slip rates across the zone is ~1.4 to 2.6 mm yr-1, at the threshold of geodetically detectable motion, yet significant with respect to an intraplate tectonic setting. The folding and faulting along this part of the continental margin provides an example of intraplate deformation resulting from kinematic transitions along a distant plate boundary and demonstrates the presence of a youthful evolving intraplate fault system within the Indo-Australian plate.

  19. Mineral chemistry of Rare Earth Element (REE) mineralization, Browns Ranges, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Nigel J.; Ciobanu, Cristiana L.; O'Rielly, Daniel; Wilson, Robin; Das, Kevin; Wade, Benjamin

    2013-07-01

    ‘Green energy futures’ are driving unprecedented demand for Rare Earth Elements (REE), underpinning significant exploration activity worldwide. Understanding how economic REE concentrations form is critical for development of exploration models. REE mineralisation in the Browns Ranges, Gordon Downs Region, Western Australia, comprises xenotime-dominant mineralisation hosted within Archaean to Palaeoproterozoic metasedimentary units (Browns Range Metamorphics). Mineralogical, petrographic and mineral-chemical investigation, including trace element analysis by Laser-Ablation Inductively-Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy, gives insights into the mineralogical distribution and partitioning of REE, and also provides evidence for the genetic evolution of the Browns Range REE mineralisation via a succession of hydrothermal processes. Two main REE-bearing minerals are identified: xenotime [(Y,REE)PO4], which is HREE selective; and subordinate florencite [(REEAl3(PO4)2(OH)6] which is LREE selective. Two morphological generations of xenotime are recognised; compositions are however consistent. Xenotime contains Dy (up to 6.5 wt.%), Er (up to 4.35 wt.%), Gd (up to 7.56 wt.%), Yb (up to 4.65 wt.%) and Y (up to 43.3 wt.%). Laser Ablation ICP-MS element mapping revealed a subtle compositional zoning in some xenotime grains. LREE appear concentrated in the grain cores or closest to the initial point of growth whereas HREE, particularly Tm, Yb and Lu, are highest at the outer margins of the grains. The HREE enrichment at the outer margins is mimicked by As, Sc, V, Sr, U, Th and radiogenic Pb. Florencite is commonly zoned and contains Ce (up to 11.54 wt.%), Nd (up to 10.05 wt.%) and La (up to 5.40 wt.%) and is also notably enriched in Sr (up to 11.63 wt.%) and Ca. Zircon (which is not a significant contributor of REEs overall due to its low abundance in the rocks) is also enriched in REE (up to 13 wt.% ΣREE) and is the principal host of Sc (up to 0.8 wt.%). Early, coarse

  20. Salt Lakes of Western Australia - Emissions of natural volatile organic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattler, Tobias; Krause, Torsten; Schöler, Heinfried; Kamilli, Katharina; Held, Andreas; Zetzsch, Cornelius; Ofner, Johannes; Junkermann, Wolfgang; Atlas, Elliot

    2013-04-01

    Western Australia is a semi-/arid region that is heavily influenced by global climate change and agricultural land use. The area is known for its many saline lakes with a wide range of hydrogeochemical parameters. This area has been repeatedly investigated since 2006 and consists of ephemeral saline and saline groundwater sourced lakes with a pH reaching from 2.5 to 7.1. The semi-/arid region was originally covered by natural eucalyptus forests, but land-use has changed considerably after large scale deforestation from 1950 to 1970. Today the region is mostly used for growing wheat and live stock. The deforestation led to a rising groundwater table, bringing dissolved salts and minerals to the surface. In the last decades, a concurrent alteration of rain periods has been observed. A reason could be the regional formation of ultra-fine particles that were measured with car-based and airborne instruments around the salt lakes in several campaigns between 2006 and 2011. These ultra-fine particles emitted from the lakes and acting as cloud condensation nuclei can modify cloud microphysics and thus suppress rain events [1]. New data from a campaign in 2012 accentuates the importance of these hyper saline environments for the local climate. Ground-based particle measurements around the salt lakes in 2012 were accompanied by novel chamber experiments directly on the lakes. The 1.5 m³ cubic chamber was constructed from transparent PTFE foil permitting photochemistry within while preventing dilution of the air due to lateral wind transport. This experimental setup allows linking the measured data directly to the chemistry of and above the salt lakes. Another advantage of the PTFE chamber is the enrichment of volatile organic compounds (VOC) that are emitted from salt lakes as possible precursors for the ultra-fine particles. Chamber air was sampled using stainless steel canisters. Sediment, crust and water samples were taken for investigation of potential VOC emissions in

  1. Sulfide Mineralization In The Marble Bar Greenstone Belt Around Mount Edger Batholith, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitazono, S.; Nedachi, M.; Taguchi, S.

    2004-12-01

    Pilbara Craton is one of the most important regions in the world to understand the evolution of early Earth, because the geological history is well preserved through the metamorphism of low grade. Pilbara Craton, Western Australia, consists of two different tectonic components formed 3.6 and 2.8 Ga; an older Archean granite occupying the east Pilbara and greenstone belt. In the east Pilbara, the most conspicuous structures are broad domal granitoid complex separated by narrow synformal greenstone belts, and a model of continuous lithostratigraphy in the greenstones in which the dominant structures were produced by multi-stage granitoid diapirism. The Marble Bar greenstone belt is distributed around the Mount Edgar of granitoid pluton, and numerous hydrothermal gold veins are distributed in the greenstone near the boundary of pluton. Also base-metal veins and volcanogenic sedimentary type deposits are located in the same area. In this study, we examined the hydrothermal mineralization observed in the core samples of the Marble Bar greenstone belt, drilled at the Salgash area by the Archean Biosphere Drilling Project (ABDP). The Salgash drill hole is composed of tuff breccias with numerous fragments of black shale of 100 m in thickness, alternation of sandstone and shale of 40 m in thickness, basaltic lava and tuff of 30 m in thickness, and shale and sandstone of 110m in thickness with some sills of basalt and ultramafic rock. The rocks had been metamorphosed, and the grade is near the boundary between green schist and amphibolite facies. Low REE content (43 to 88 ppm), low La/Yb ratio (6.3 to 14.3), and high Eu/Eu* ratio (0.9 to 1.3) of the volcanic rocks are ordinal as the basaltic rock in Archean greenstone belts. On the other hand, these rocks show extremely high values of Cr (1500ppm), Ni (700ppm), Co (70 ppm), and Zn (600 ppm). The C isotopic ratios of carbonate in the volcanic rocks are around -3.8 permil. The clastic sediment sandstone and black shale show

  2. Crowdsourcing modern and historical data identifies sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus habitat offshore of south-western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Michael Johnson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The distribution and use of pelagic habitat by sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus is poorly understood in the south-eastern Indian Ocean off Western Australia. However, a variety of data are available via online portals where records of historical expeditions, commercial whaling operations, and modern scientific research voyages can now be accessed. Crowdsourcing these online data allows collation of presence-only information of animals and provides a valuable tool to help augment areas of low research effort. Four data sources were examined, the primary one being the Voyage of the Odyssey expedition, a five-year global study of sperm whales and ocean pollution. From December 2001-May 2002, acoustic surveys were conducted along 5,200 nautical miles of transects off Western Australia including the Perth Canyon and historical whaling grounds off Albany; 60 tissue biopsy samples were also collected. To augment areas not surveyed by the RV Odyssey, historical Yankee whaling data (1712-1920, commercial whaling data (1904-1999, and citizen science reports of sperm whale sightings (1990-2003 were used. Using Maxent, a species distribution modeling tool, we found that the submarine canyons off Albany and Perth provide important habitat for sperm whales. Current technology, along with current understanding of sperm whale bioacoustics and habitat preferences, provides strong motivation for undertaking long-term passive acoustic studies that can monitor the sperm whale population within Australia’s EEZ waters (Perth and Albany canyons as a way of informing future marine management and policy decisions.

  3. Accounting for the increase of children in care in western Australia: What can a client information system tell us?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilson, Andy; Cant, Rosemary L; Harries, Maria; Thorpe, David H

    2017-08-30

    This paper analyses a fourteen-year period of Western Australian data from the client information system of the Department for Child Protection and Family Support. Western Australia saw a large increase in the number of children in state care similar to trends across Australia as a whole. The study shows the following trends: changes in response to 'referrals' with particular increases in the number of findings of neglect and increasing proportions of these followed swiftly by entry to care; changes in patterns of entry to care with more children under one-year-old entering; increased length of stay of children in care; and, the high incidence of Aboriginal children entering and remaining in care. The data demonstrate unequivocally that increased 'referrals' are not associated with increased substantiations of harm or 'acts of commission with dangerous intent', but that neglect assessed early in the lives of children was the major precipitant for entry to care and particularly so for Aboriginal infants. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Modeling of a lot scale rainwater tank system in XP-SWMM: a case study in Western Sydney, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Sterren, Marlène; Rahman, Ataur; Ryan, Garry

    2014-08-01

    Lot scale rainwater tank system modeling is often used in sustainable urban storm water management, particularly to estimate the reduction in the storm water run-off and pollutant wash-off at the lot scale. These rainwater tank models often cannot be adequately calibrated and validated due to limited availability of observed rainwater tank quantity and quality data. This paper presents calibration and validation of a lot scale rainwater tank system model using XP-SWMM utilizing data collected from two rainwater tank systems located in Western Sydney, Australia. The modeling considers run-off peak and volume in and out of the rainwater tank system and also a number of water quality parameters (Total Phosphorus (TP), Total Nitrogen (TN) and Total Solids (TS)). It has been found that XP-SWMM can be used successfully to develop a lot scale rainwater system model within an acceptable error margin. It has been shown that TP and TS can be predicted more accurately than TN using the developed model. In addition, it was found that a significant reduction in storm water run-off discharge can be achieved as a result of the rainwater tank up to about one year average recurrence interval rainfall event. The model parameter set assembled in this study can be used for developing lot scale rainwater tank system models at other locations in the Western Sydney region and in other parts of Australia with necessary adjustments for the local site characteristics.

  5. Novel Molecular Type of Clostridium difficile in Neonatal Pigs, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squire, Michele M.; Carter, Glen P.; Mackin, Kate E.; Chakravorty, Anjana; Norén, Torbjörn; Elliott, Briony; Lyras, Dena

    2013-01-01

    Clostridium difficile causes neonatal enteritis in piglets; strains of PCR ribotype 078 are most commonly identified. We investigated C. difficile prevalence in piglets in Australia and isolated a novel strain with a unique pathogenicity locus. In a mouse infection model, this strain produced more weight loss than did a ribotype 078 strain. PMID:23697508

  6. Climate change impacts on wheat production in a Mediterranean environment in Western Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ludwig, F.; Asseng, S.

    2006-01-01

    The environment in which crops will be grown in the future will change. CO2 concentrations [CO2] and temperatures (T) will probably increase and a decline of winter rainfall is predicted for south-west Australia. To be able to adapt crop systems to a changing climate it is important to know how diff

  7. Recurring Challenges from a Necrotrophic Fungal Plant Pathogen: a Case Study with Leptosphaeria maculans (Causal Agent of Blackleg Disease in Brassicas) in Western Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Sivasithamparam, Krishnapillai; BARBETTI, MARTIN J.; Li, Hua

    2005-01-01

    • Background Blackleg disease of Brassica napus, caused by the necrotrophic fungus Leptosphaeria maculans, causes severe yield losses in Australia, Europe and Canada. In Western Australia, it nearly destroyed the oilseed rape industry in 1972 when host genotypes and conducive environmental conditions favoured severe epidemics. The introduction of cultivars with polygenic resistance and the adoption of sound cultural practices two decades later helped to manage the disease. These were abandone...

  8. Characterisation of the hydrogeology of the Augustus River catchment, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, Shane M.; Clement, T. Prabhakar; Otto, Claus J.

    Understanding the hydrogeology of weathered rock catchments is integral for the management of various problems related to increased salinity within the many towns of Western Australia. This paper presents the results of site characterisation investigations aimed at improving the overall understanding of the hydrogeology of the southern portion of the Augustus River catchment, an example of a weathered rock catchment. Site data have highlighted the presence of both porous media aquifers within the weathered profile and fractured rock aquifers within the basement rocks. Geophysical airborne surveys and other drilling data have identified a large number of dolerite dykes which crosscut the site. Fractured quartz veins have been found along the margins of these dolerite dykes. Detailed groundwater-level measurements and barometric efficiency estimates indicate that these dolerite dykes and fractured quartz veins are affecting groundwater flow directions, promoting a strong hydraulic connection between all aquifers, and also influencing recharge mechanisms. The hydrogeological significance of the dolerite dykes and fractured quartz veins has been assessed using a combination of high-frequency groundwater-level measurements (30-min sampling interval), rainfall measurements (5-min sampling interval) and barometric pressure fluctuations (30-min sampling interval). A conceptual model was developed for describing various hydrogeological features of the study area. The model indicates that fractured quartz veins along the margins of dolerite dykes are an important component of the hydrogeology of the weathered rock catchments. Comprendre l'hydrogéologie des bassins en roches altérées est essentiel pour la gestion de différents problèmes liés à l'augmentation de la salinité dans de nombreuses villes d'Australie occidentale. Cet article présente les résultats d'études de caractérisation de sites conduites pour améliorer la compréhension de l'hydrogéologie de la

  9. Neogene uplift of south Western Australia as constrained by river profiles

    CERN Document Server

    Barnett-Moore, Nicholas; Flament, Nicolas; Butterworth, Nathaniel; Müller, R Dietmar

    2013-01-01

    The relative tectonic quiescence of the Australian continent during the Cenozoicmakes it an excellent natural laboratory to study recent large-scale variations insurface topography and the processes influencing these changes. A part of this landscape is a fluvial network that is sensitive to variations in landscape horizontaland vertical motions. The notion that a river acts as a "tape recorder" for vertical perturbations (Pritchard et al., 2009) suggests that one can deduce changes in spatial and temporal characteristics of uplift via the analysis of river "channel-parallel", or longitudinal, profiles. Here we analysed 21 longitudinal river profiles, around the Australian continent. Steady-state concave upward profiles in northeast Australia indicate an absence of recent uplift. In contrast, pronounced convex upward undulations and major knickpoints within longitudinal profiles of rivers in southwest Australia suggest recent landscape uplift. This requires an explanation given the lackof recent, large-scale ...

  10. Submerged oceanic shoals of north Western Australia are a major reservoir of marine biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Cordelia; Cappo, Mike; Radford, Ben; Heyward, Andrew

    2017-09-01

    This paper provides a first assessment of fish communities associated with the submerged oceanic banks and shoals in north-west Australia. Until recently, little was known about these deeper and more inaccessible reefs. The mesophotic coral-reef habitats (20-80 m) were a major reservoir of marine biodiversity, with unique and exceptionally high fish diversity and abundance. Species richness in the study region was 1.4 times, and abundance almost twice, that recorded for similar mesophotic habitats on the Great Barrier Reef in north-east Australia. A review of the published literature revealed that Australia's NW oceanic shoals support the highest fish species richness reported for mesophotic reefs to date. We made regional comparisons of fish community structure (species composition, richness and abundance) and assessed the influence of depth, substrate and location. The presence of consolidated calcareous reef, depth and aspect (a surrogate for exposure) had the greatest influence on species richness. In contrast, aspect and the presence of benthic biota had the greatest influence on fish abundance. Sites most exposed to the prevailing currents (facing north-east) had lowest fish abundance, while highest abundances were recorded on moderately exposed sites (along the north-west and south-east edges). The most abundant species were small ( Pomacentrus coelestis) and large ( Naso hexacanthus) planktivorous fish. Currently, 29.3% of NE Australia mesophotic reefs are within no-take management zones of the Great Barrier Reef. In contrast, just 1.3% of the NW oceanic shoals are designated as no-take areas. The location and extent of mesophotic reefs remain poorly quantified globally. Because these habitats support significant biodiversity and have the potential to act as important refugia, understanding their extent is critical to maintaining coral-reef biodiversity and resilience and supporting sustainable management.

  11. Seven new species of the Botryosphaeriaceae from baobab and other native trees in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlic, Draginja; Wingfield, Michael J; Barber, Paul; Slippers, Bernard; Hardy, Giles E St J; Burgess, Treena I

    2008-01-01

    In this study seven new species of the Botryosphaeriaceae are described from baobab (Adansonia gibbosa) and surrounding endemic tree species growing in the Kimberley region of northwestern Australia. Members of the Botryosphaeriaceae were predominantly endophytes isolated from apparently healthy sapwood and bark of endemic trees; others were isolated from dying branches. Phylogenetic analyses of ITS and EF1-alpha sequence data revealed seven new species: Dothiorella longicollis, Fusicoccum ramosum, Lasiodiplodia margaritacea, Neoscytalidium novaehollandiae, Pseudofusicoccum adansoniae, P. ardesiacum and P. kimberleyense.

  12. Fatty acid profiles of phyllosoma larvae of western rock lobster (Panulirus cygnus) in cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies of the Leeuwin Current off Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, M.; O'Rorke, R.; Waite, A. M.; Beckley, L. E.; Thompson, P.; Jeffs, A. G.

    2014-03-01

    The recent dramatic decline in settlement in the population of the spiny lobster, Panulirus cygnus, may be due to changes in the oceanographic processes that operate offshore of Western Australia. It has been suggested that this decline could be related to poor nutritional condition of the post-larvae, especially lipid which is accumulated in large quantities during the preceding extensive pelagic larval stage. The current study focused on investigations into the lipid content and fatty acid (FA) profiles of lobster phyllosoma larvae from three mid to late stages of larval development (stages VI, VII, VIII) sampled from two cyclonic and two anticyclonic eddies of the Leeuwin Current off Western Australia. The results showed significant accumulation of lipid and energy storage FAs with larval development regardless of location of capture, however, larvae from cyclonic eddies had more lipid and FAs associated with energy storage than larvae from anticyclonic eddies. FA food chain markers from the larvae indicated significant differences in the food webs operating in the two types of eddy, with a higher level of FA markers for production from flagellates and a lower level from copepod grazing in cyclonic versus anticyclonic eddies. The results indicate that the microbial food web operating in cyclonic eddies provides better feeding conditions for lobster larvae despite anticyclonic eddies being generally more productive and containing greater abundances of zooplankton as potential prey for lobster larvae. Gelatinous zooplankton, such as siphonophores, may play an important role in cyclonic eddies by accumulating dispersed microbial nutrients and making them available as larger prey for phyllosoma. The markedly superior nutritional condition of lobster larvae feeding in the microbial food web found in cyclonic eddies, could greatly influence their subsequent settlement and recruitment to the coastal fishery.

  13. Modelling the effects of climate and land cover change on groundwater recharge in south-west Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawes, W.; Ali, R.; Varma, S.; Emelyanova, I.; Hodgson, G.; McFarlane, D.

    2012-05-01

    The groundwater resource contained within the sandy aquifers of the Swan Coastal Plain, south west Western Australia, provides approximately 60% of the drinking water for the metropolitan population of Perth. Rainfall decline over the past three decades coupled with increasing water demand from a growing population has resulted in falling dam storage and groundwater levels. Projected future changes in climate across south-west Western Australia consistently show a decline in annual rainfall of between 5 and 15%. There is expected to be a continuing reduction of diffuse recharge across the Swan Coastal Plain. This study aims to quantify the change in groundwater recharge in response to a range of future climate and land cover patterns across south-west Western Australia. Modelling the impact on the groundwater resource of potential climate change was achieved with a dynamically linked unsaturated/saturated groundwater model. A Vertical Flux Manager was used in the unsaturated zone to estimate groundwater recharge using a variety of simple and complex models based on land cover type (e.g. native trees, plantation, cropping, urban, wetland), soil type, and taking into account the groundwater depth. These recharge estimates were accumulated on a daily basis for both observed and projected climate scenarios and used in a MODFLOW simulation with monthly stress periods. In the area centred on the city of Perth, Western Australia, the patterns of recharge change and groundwater level change are not consistent spatially, or consistently downward. In the Dandaragan Plateau to the north-east of Perth there has been groundwater level rise since the 1970s associated with land clearing, and with rainfall projected to reduce the least in this area the groundwater levels are estimated to continue to rise. Along the coastal zone north of Perth there is an interaction between projected rainfall decline and legislated removal to pine forests. This results in areas of increasing

  14. Modelling the effects of climate and land cover change on groundwater recharge in south-west Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Dawes

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The groundwater resource contained within the sandy aquifers of the Swan Coastal Plain, south west Western Australia, provides approximately 60% of the drinking water for the metropolitan population of Perth. Rainfall decline over the past three decades coupled with increasing water demand from a growing population has resulted in falling dam storage and groundwater levels. Projected future changes in climate across south-west Western Australia consistently show a decline in annual rainfall of between 5 and 15%. There is expected to be a continuing reduction of diffuse recharge across the Swan Coastal Plain. This study aims to quantify the change in groundwater recharge in response to a range of future climate and land cover patterns across south-west Western Australia.

    Modelling the impact on the groundwater resource of potential climate change was achieved with a dynamically linked unsaturated/saturated groundwater model. A Vertical Flux Manager was used in the unsaturated zone to estimate groundwater recharge using a variety of simple and complex models based on land cover type (e.g. native trees, plantation, cropping, urban, wetland, soil type, and taking into account the groundwater depth. These recharge estimates were accumulated on a daily basis for both observed and projected climate scenarios and used in a MODFLOW simulation with monthly stress periods.

    In the area centred on the city of Perth, Western Australia, the patterns of recharge change and groundwater level change are not consistent spatially, or consistently downward. In the Dandaragan Plateau to the north-east of Perth there has been groundwater level rise since the 1970s associated with land clearing, and with rainfall projected to reduce the least in this area the groundwater levels are estimated to continue to rise. Along the coastal zone north of Perth there is an interaction between projected rainfall decline and legislated removal to pine forests. This

  15. Fish assemblages associated with oil industry structures on the continental shelf of north-western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradella, N; Fowler, A M; Booth, D J; Macreadie, P I

    2014-01-01

    This study provides the first assessment of fish associations with oil and gas structures located in deep water (85-175 m) on Australia's north-west continental shelf, using rare oil industry video footage obtained from remotely operated vehicles. A diverse range of taxa were observed associating with the structures, including reef-dependent species and transient pelagic species. Ten commercially fished species were observed, the most abundant of which was Lutjanus argentimaculatus, with an estimated biomass for the two deepest structures (Goodwyn and Echo) of 109 kg.

  16. The Late Devonian Gogo Formation Lägerstatte of Western Australia: Exceptional Early Vertebrate Preservation and Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, John A.; Trinajstic, Kate

    2010-05-01

    The Gogo Formation of Western Australia preserves a unique Late Devonian (Frasnian) reef fauna. The exceptional three-dimensional preservation of macrofossils combined with unprecedented soft-tissue preservation (including muscle bundles, nerve cells, and umbilical structures) has yielded a particularly rich assemblage with almost 50 species of fishes described. The most significant discoveries have contributed to resolving placoderm phylogeny and elucidating their reproductive physiology. Specifically, these discoveries have produced data on the oldest known vertebrate embryos; the anatomy of the primitive actinopterygian neurocranium and phylogeny of the earliest actinopterygians; the histology, radiation, and plasticity of dipnoan (lungfish) dental and cranial structures; the anatomy and functional morphology of the extinct onychodonts; and the anatomy of the primitive tetrapodomorph head and pectoral fin.

  17. The environmental response of Middle Ordovician large organic walled microfossils from the Goldwyer and Nita Formations, Canning Basin, Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winchester-Seeto, T; Foster, C; O'Leary, T

    2000-12-01

    Middle Ordovician large organic walled microfossils (chitinozoans, scolecodonts, hydrozoans and foraminiferal linings) were recovered from the upper Goldwyer and lower Nita formations, Canning Basin, Western Australia, from three cores (WMC Santalum 1A, Kunzea 1 and Acacia 2). Petrophysical logs of these cores reveal an overall upward shallowing supersequence, overprinted by numerous transgression/regression couplets that can be correlated over 100km.Analysis of the abundance of the microfossils with respect to the gamma log signatures reveals that both chitinozoan abundance and diversity decrease as water depth shallows; however, the opposite is not always true and other factors probably intervene. Scolecodonts show an increase in abundance in transgressions, while hydrozoans and foraminiferal linings show no consistent response to trangressive or regressive phases. Cyathochitina hunderumensis tends to dominate chitinozoan assemblages where there is a transgression, while species of Belonechitina replace Cy. hunderumensis in regressive phases.

  18. Potential impacts on the incidence of fatal heroin-related overdose in Western Australia: a time-series analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, Kim; Lenton, Simon; Phillips, Mike; Swensen, Greg

    2002-12-01

    In response to the rising concerns about the rate of heroin-related fatalities, overdose prevention campaigns, run by both users' organizations and government agencies, have been implemented in a number of states across Australia. In Western Australia (WA) in mid-1997, various overdose prevention initiatives were implemented. These included the implementation of a protocol limiting police presence at overdose events; the commencement of naloxone administration by ambulance staff; and the establishment of the Opiate Overdose Prevention Strategy (OOPS) which provided follow-up for individuals treated for overdose in emergency departments. This paper reports the results of a multiple linear regression analysis of 60 months of time-series data, both prior to and following the implementation of these interventions, to determine their impact on the number of fatal heroin overdoses inWA. The model employed in the analysis controlled for changes over time in proxy indicators of use and community concerns about heroin, as well as market indicators. The results suggest that, although the interventions implemented have managed to reduce the expected number of fatalities, they have become less successful in doing so as time passes. This has implications for both existing and potential interventions to reduce fatal heroin-related overdose.

  19. DNA barcoding for conservation, seed banking and ecological restoration of Acacia in the Midwest of Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevill, Paul G; Wallace, Mark J; Miller, Joseph T; Krauss, Siegfried L

    2013-11-01

    We used DNA barcoding to address an important conservation issue in the Midwest of Western Australia, working on Australia's largest genus of flowering plant. We tested whether or not currently recommended plant DNA barcoding regions (matK and rbcL) were able to discriminate Acacia taxa of varying phylogenetic distances, and ultimately identify an ambiguously labelled seed collection from a mine-site restoration project. Although matK successfully identified the unknown seed as the rare and conservation priority listed A. karina, and was able to resolve six of the eleven study species, this region was difficult to amplify and sequence. In contrast, rbcL was straightforward to recover and align, but could not determine the origin of the seed and only resolved 3 of the 11 species. Other chloroplast regions (rpl32-trnL, psbA-trnH, trnL-F and trnK) had mixed success resolving the studied taxa. In general, species were better resolved in multilocus data sets compared to single-locus data sets. We recommend using the formal barcoding regions supplemented with data from other plastid regions, particularly rpl32-trnL, for barcoding in Acacia. Our study demonstrates the novel use of DNA barcoding for seed identification and illustrates the practical potential of DNA barcoding for the growing discipline of restoration ecology.

  20. On the Bennelongia nimala and B. triangulata lineages (Crustacea, Ostracoda in Western Australia, with the description of six new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koen Martens

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The ostracod genus Bennelongia De Deckker & McKenzie, 1981 occurs in Australia and New Zealand. We redescribe B. nimala from the Northern Territory and describe six new species from Western Australia belonging to the B. nimala (five species and B. triangulata sp. nov. (one species lineages: B. tirigie sp. nov., B. koendersae sp. nov., B. pinderi sp. nov., B. muggon sp. nov., B. shieli sp. nov. and B. triangulata sp. nov. For six of these seven species, we could construct molecular phylogenies and parsimonious networks based on COI sequences. We tested for specific status and for potential cryptic diversity of clades with Birky’s 4 theta rule. The analyses support the existence of these six species and the absence of cryptic species in these lineages. Bennelongia triangulata sp. nov. is a common species in the turbid claypans of the Murchison/ Gascoyne region. Bennelongia nimala itself is thus far known only from the Northern Territory. Bennelongia tirigie sp. nov., B. pinderi sp. nov. and B. muggon sp. nov. occur in the Murchison/ Gascoyne region, whereas B. koendersae sp. nov. and B. shieli sp. nov. are described from the Pilbara. With the six new species described here, the genus Bennelongia now comprises 31 nominal species.

  1. The Ethics of Traditional Chinese and Western Herbal Medicine Research: Views of Researchers and Human Ethics Committees in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline A. Smith

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the growth of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM and western herbal medicine (WHM research in Australia, little is known about how ethics committees (HRECs assess the ethics of TCM or WHM research. The objectives of this study were to examine the experiences of TCM and WHM researchers and HRECs with the evaluation of ethics applications. Two cross-sectional surveys were undertaken of HRECs and TCM and WHM researchers in Australia. Anonymous self-completion questionnaires were administered to 224 HRECs and 117 researchers. A response confirming involvement in TCM or WHM research applications was received from 20 HRECs and 42 researchers. The most frequent ethical issues identified by HRECs related to herbal products including information gaps relating to mode of action of herbal medicines and safety when combining herbal ingredients. Researchers concurred that they were frequently requested to provide additional information on multiple aspects including safety relating to the side effects of herbs and herb-drug interactions. Overall adherence with the principles of ethical conduct was high among TCM and WHM researchers although our study did identify the need for additional information regarding assessment of risk and risk management.

  2. Statistics for Community Governance: The Yawuru Indigenous Population Survey, Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Taylor

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a case study of an exercise in Aboriginal community governance in Australia. It sets out the background events that led the Yawuru Native Title Holders Aboriginal Corporation in the town of Broome on Australia’s northwest coast to secure information for its own needs as an act of self-determination and essential governance, and it presents some of the key findings from that exercise. As the Indigenous rights agenda shifts from the pursuit of restitution to the management and implementation of benefits, those with proprietary rights are finding it increasingly necessary to build internal capacity for post-native title governance and community planning, including in the area of information retrieval and application. As an incorporated land-holding group, the Yawuru people of Broome are amongst the first in Australia to move in this area of information gathering, certainly in terms of the degree of local control, participation, and conceptual thinking around the logistics and rationale for such an exercise. An innovative addition has been the incorporation of survey output data into a Geographic Information System to provide for spatial analysis and a decision support mechanism for local community planning. In launching and administering the "Knowing our Community" household survey in Broome, the Yawuru have set a precedent in the acquisition and application of demographic information for internal planning and community development in the post-native title determination era.

  3. Preliminary December-January inflow and streamflow reconstructions from tree rings for western Tasmania, southeastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, K. J.; Nichols, S. C.; Evans, R.; Cook, E. R.; Allie, S.; Carson, G.; Ling, F.; Baker, P. J.

    2015-07-01

    Projected decreases and changes in the seasonal distribution of precipitation will have profound impacts on southeastern Australia, including its ability to generate renewable hydroelectricity. Recent decreases in precipitation over the region may be significant in the context of instrumental records, but the question of whether these decreases are within long-term natural variability remains. To help address this issue, we present December-January streamflow and dam inflow reconstructions for southeastern Australia. These reconstructions for the Tasmanian west coast are based solely on local tree ring chronologies and span up to 1600 years. Nonparametric estimates, however, indicate good model skill for the last 458 years (streamflow) and 478 years (dam inflow). The reconstructions indicate that twentieth century conditions were well within the range of historical variability, and were in fact relatively wet. The period from approximately 1600 to 1750 CE was one of the enhanced variability and a high proportion of low and high flow events occurred in the seventeenth century. There are significant relationships between streamflow and inflow reconstructions and large-scale ocean-atmosphere processes such as ENSO and the Southern Annular Mode. Critically, our two reconstructions rely heavily on new tree ring chronologies based on properties such as tracheid radial diameter, cell wall thickness, and density, underscoring the importance of these different types of chronologies in reconstructions.

  4. Reproductive phenology of Calophyllum inophyllum in Yeppoon Australia and Meegoda Western Province, Sri Lanka

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Subhash Hathurusingha; Nanjappa Ashwath; Kolitha Wijesekara; David Midmore

    2011-01-01

    Reproductive phenology of multiple use native plant Calophyllum inophyllum L.was studied in Yeppoon (23°7'60″ S,150°43′60″E),northern Australia (southern hemisphere) and in Meegoda (6°18′51″N,80°31′3″E),Sri Lanka (northern hemisphere).C.inophyllum trees in Yeppoon,Australia had relatively shorter flowering periods,shorter floral life spans,longer fruit life spans,smaller flowers and larger fruits compared to those in Meegoda,Sri Lanka.Although the number of flower buds/ inflorescence was comparatively higher in Meegoda,C.inophyllum trees in both locations had similar mean number of mature fruits/cluster due to the higher floral abscission in C.inophyllum trees at Meegoda.Despite having a comparatively lower fruit yield (664 000 fruts·ha-1·a-1),C.inophyllum trees in Yeppoon had higher kernel weights (2988.0±853.2 kg·ha-1·a-1) and oil yields (1 332.6±380.5 kg·ha-1·a-1)compared to those in Meegoda.

  5. The Politics of Gaming in Schools: A Sociocultural Perspective from Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bate, Frank; MacNish, Jean; Males, Steven

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses gaming in a Western Australian school for boys. The overriding ethos of the school is supportive of the potential of ICT to better engage students and deliver enhanced educational outcomes. The school sees game-based design as at the vanguard of innovation, but also accepts its important duty of care responsibilities. Tensions…

  6. Checklist of the Araceae of Malesia, Australia, and the tropical western Pacific region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hay, A.; Boyce, P.C.; Hetterscheid, W.L.A.; Jacobsen, N.; Murata, J.; Bogner, J.

    1995-01-01

    A checklist of Malesian, Australian and Tropical Western Pacific Araceae is provided, giving generic names, specific and infraspecific binomials and trinomials (generally not below the level of variety), basionyms, synonyms at generic and lower levels, protologues at specific and lower levels, type

  7. An Analysis of the Geographic Distribution of Recently Graduated Dentists from the University of Western Australia: The World's Most Isolated Dental School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurbuxani, Amit; Kruger, Estie; Tennant, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the geographic distribution of all new dentists who graduated over a period of six years. Perth, the capital city of Western Australia, is one of the world's most isolated cities, with a population of approximately 1.6 million people, situated over 2000km from its nearest next major…

  8. Population differentiation and hybridisation of Australian snubfin (Orcaella heinsohni) and Indo-Pacific humpback (Sousa chinensis) dolphins in North-Western Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, Alexander M.; Kopps, Anna M.; Allen, Simon J.; Bejder, Lars; Littleford-Colquhoun, Bethan; Parra, Guido J.; Cagnazzi, Daniele; Thiele, Deborah; Palmer, Carol; Frere, Celine H.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the Australian snubfin (Orcaella heinsohni) and Indo-Pacific humpback (Sousa chinensis) dolphins (‘snubfin’ and ‘humpback dolphins’, hereafter) of north-western Australia. While both species are listed as ‘near threatened’ by the IUCN, data deficiencies are impeding rigorous as

  9. A Qualitative Study of the Teaching of Modern Greek in Western Australia under the "Seconded Teachers from Greece Scheme": Implications for Other Similar Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelinou-Yiannakis, Angela; O'Donoghue, Tom

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study reported in this paper was to develop an understanding of how the key stakeholders in Western Australia (WA) "dealt with" the teaching of Modern Greek (Greek) as a second language under the "Seconded Teachers from Greece Scheme" (STGS). It addressed a deficit in research in the field not only in relation to WA, but…

  10. An Analysis of the Geographic Distribution of Recently Graduated Dentists from the University of Western Australia: The World's Most Isolated Dental School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurbuxani, Amit; Kruger, Estie; Tennant, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the geographic distribution of all new dentists who graduated over a period of six years. Perth, the capital city of Western Australia, is one of the world's most isolated cities, with a population of approximately 1.6 million people, situated over 2000km from its nearest next major capital…

  11. A Q fever cluster among workers at an abattoir in south-western Sydney, Australia, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Lord

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: In September 2015, the Public Health Unit of the South Western Sydney Local Health District was notified of two possible Q fever cases. Case investigation identified that both cases were employed at an abattoir, and both cases advised that co-workers had experienced similar symptoms. Public Health Unit staff also recalled interviewing in late 2014 at least one other Q fever case who worked at the same abattoir. This prompted an outbreak investigation. Methods: The investigation incorporated active case finding, microbiological analysis, field investigation and a risk factor survey. Included cases were laboratory definitive or suspected cases occurring from October 2014 to October 2015, residing or working in south-western Sydney. A suspected case had clinically compatible illness, high-risk exposure and was epidemiologically linked to another confirmed case. A confirmed case included laboratory detection of C. burnetii. Results: Eight cases met the case definition with seven confirmed (including a deceased case and one suspected. The eight cases were all males who had been employed at an abattoir in south-western Sydney during their incubation period; symptom onset dates ranged from November 2014 to September 2015. Field investigation identified multiple potential risk factors at the abattoir, and the majority (75% of employees were not vaccinated against Q fever despite this high-risk setting. Conclusion: This cluster of Q fever in a single abattoir confirms the significance of this zoonotic disease as an occupational hazard among persons working in high-risk environments. Implementation of Q fever vaccination programmes should eliminate Q fever in high-risk occupational settings.

  12. Sixteen years of severe Tiger snake (Notechis) envenoming in Perth, Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scop, J; Little, M; Jelinek, G A; Daly, F F S

    2009-07-01

    We aimed to describe the characteristics, clinical course, management and outcome of patients presenting to Perth teaching hospitals after envenoming by Tiger snakes. We undertook a chart review from six Perth teaching hospitals over a 16 year period from 1990 to 2005. Data were collected by a trained investigator using a preformatted data abstraction tool. We included patients bitten in the appropriate geographical area, with defibrination coagulopathy and positive Venom Detection Kit result for Tiger snake or response to specific antivenom. Of 381 charts reviewed, 23 patients were envenomed by a Tiger snake. The mean age was 36 years, 83% were male and all were bitten on a limb. First aid was applied poorly and all patients were symptomatic on presentation. Six patients developed rhabdomyolysis, one renal failure, four clinical bleeding, three neurotoxicity, one non-fatal respiratory arrest and one fatal cardiac arrest. All patients received antivenom, 13 received adrenaline premedication, with two mild allergic reactions developing in non-premedicated patients. The average dose of antivenom was four ampoules. Mean hospital stay was 2.6 days. This is the largest series of Tiger snake envenoming reported in Australia. Only one patient of 23 (4%) died, despite all patients being significantly envenomed. With rapid antivenom treatment and modem emergency and intensive care management, most patients envenomed by Tiger snakes survive.

  13. A Survey of Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices in Relation to Mosquitoes and Mosquito-Borne Disease in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Abbey; Jardine, Andrew; Neville, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    On average, more than 1,000 individuals will acquire a mosquito-borne disease in Western Australia (WA) each year. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) in relation to mosquitoes and mosquito-borne disease have not yet been investigated within Australia. A randomized telephone survey of 2,500 households across 12 regions in WA was undertaken between February and May 2014. The aim of the survey was to obtain baseline KAP data surrounding mosquitoes and mosquito-borne diseases in different regions of WA, across a range of age groups and between males and females. The results of this survey indicate that the majority of respondents are aware of the potential for mosquitoes in WA to transmit Ross River virus, while awareness of other endemic mosquito-borne diseases remains limited. Common misconceptions exist in relation to exotic mosquito-borne diseases, with respondents incorrectly identifying malaria and dengue as endemic diseases in WA. The survey also highlighted a range of important issues, such as limited awareness of the potential for backyard breeding in domestic containers, occupational exposure to mosquitoes in regions with a large employment base in the mining and resources sector, increased exposure to mosquitoes as a result of participation in outdoor recreational activities in the north of the State, and reduced awareness of mosquito-borne disease in individuals aged 18-34 years. The results of this study will be used to inform the development of a new communication strategy by the Department of Health, to further raise awareness of mosquito-borne disease in WA. The data will then provide a baseline against which to compare future survey results, facilitating the rigorous evaluation of new communication efforts.

  14. Epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infection in two tertiary-care hospitals in Perth, Western Australia: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.F. Foster

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI has changed over time and between countries. It is therefore essential to monitor the characteristics of patients at risk of infection and the circulating strains to recognize local and global trends, and improve patient management. From December 2011 to May 2012 we conducted a prospective, observational epidemiological study of patients with laboratory-confirmed CDI at two tertiary teaching hospitals in Perth, Western Australia to determine CDI incidence and risk factors in an Australian setting. The incidence of CDI varied from 5.2 to 8.1 cases/10 000 occupied bed days (OBDs at one hospital and from 3.9 to 16.3/10 000 OBDs at the second hospital. In total, 80 patients with laboratory-confirmed CDI met eligibility criteria and consented to be in the study. More than half (53.8% had hospital-onset disease, 28.8% had community-onset and healthcare facility-associated disease and 7.5% were community-associated infections according to the definitions used. Severe CDI was observed in 40.0% of these cases but the 30-day mortality rate for all cases was only 2.5%. Besides a shorter length of stay among cases of community-onset CDI, no characteristics were identified that were significantly associated with community-onset or severe CDI. From 70 isolates, 34 different ribotypes were identified. The predominant ribotypes were 014 (24.3%, 020 (5.7%, 056 (5.7% and 070 (5.7%. Whereas this study suggests that the characteristics of CDI cases in Australia are not markedly different from those in other developed countries, the increase in CDI rate observed emphasizes the importance of surveillance.

  15. Epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infection in two tertiary-care hospitals in Perth, Western Australia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, N F; Collins, D A; Ditchburn, S L; Duncan, C N; van Schalkwyk, J W; Golledge, C L; Keed, A B R; Riley, T V

    2014-05-01

    The epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has changed over time and between countries. It is therefore essential to monitor the characteristics of patients at risk of infection and the circulating strains to recognize local and global trends, and improve patient management. From December 2011 to May 2012 we conducted a prospective, observational epidemiological study of patients with laboratory-confirmed CDI at two tertiary teaching hospitals in Perth, Western Australia to determine CDI incidence and risk factors in an Australian setting. The incidence of CDI varied from 5.2 to 8.1 cases/10 000 occupied bed days (OBDs) at one hospital and from 3.9 to 16.3/10 000 OBDs at the second hospital. In total, 80 patients with laboratory-confirmed CDI met eligibility criteria and consented to be in the study. More than half (53.8%) had hospital-onset disease, 28.8% had community-onset and healthcare facility-associated disease and 7.5% were community-associated infections according to the definitions used. Severe CDI was observed in 40.0% of these cases but the 30-day mortality rate for all cases was only 2.5%. Besides a shorter length of stay among cases of community-onset CDI, no characteristics were identified that were significantly associated with community-onset or severe CDI. From 70 isolates, 34 different ribotypes were identified. The predominant ribotypes were 014 (24.3%), 020 (5.7%), 056 (5.7%) and 070 (5.7%). Whereas this study suggests that the characteristics of CDI cases in Australia are not markedly different from those in other developed countries, the increase in CDI rate observed emphasizes the importance of surveillance.

  16. On the Bennelongia barangaroo lineage (Crustacea, Ostracoda in Western Australia, with the description of seven new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koen Martens

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The ostracod genus Bennelongia De Deckker & McKenzie, 1981 is endemic to Australia and New Zealand. Extensive sampling in Western Australia (WA revealed a high specific and largely undescribed diversity. Here, we describe seven new species belonging to the B. barangaroo lineage: B. timmsi sp. nov., B. gnamma sp. nov., B. hirsuta sp. nov., B. ivanae sp. nov., B. mcraeae sp. nov., B. scanloni sp. nov. and B. calei sp. nov., and confirm the presence of an additional species, B. dedeckkeri, in WA. For five of these eight species, we could construct molecular phylogenies and parsimonious networks based on COI sequences. We also tested for cryptic diversity and specific status of clusters with a statistical method based on the evolutionary genetic species concept, namely Birky’s 4 theta rule. The analyses support the existence of these five species and a further three cryptic species in the WA B. barangaroo lineage. The molecular evidence was particularly relevant because most species described herein have very similar morphologies and can be distinguished from each other only by the shape, size and position of the antero-ventral lapel on the right valve, and, in sexual populations, by the small differences in shape of the hemipenes and the prehensile palps in males. Four species of the WA B. barangaroo lineage occur in small temporary rock pools (gnammas on rocky outcrops. The other four species are mainly found in soft bottomed seasonal water bodies. One of the latter species, B. scanloni sp. nov., occurs in both claypans and deeper rock pools (pit gnammas. All species, except for B. dedeckkeri, originally described from Queensland, have quite clearly delimited distributions in WA. With the seven new species described here, the genus Bennelongia now comprises 25 nominal species but several more await formal description.

  17. Fish Distribution in Far Western Queensland, Australia: The Importance of Habitat, Connectivity and Natural Flows

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    Adam Kerezsy

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The endorheic Lake Eyre Basin drains 1.2 million square kilometres of arid central Australia, yet provides habitat for only 30 species of freshwater fish due to the scarcity of water and extreme climate. The majority are hardy riverine species that are adapted to the unpredictable flow regimes, and capable of massive population booms following heavy rainfall and the restoration of connectivity between isolated waterholes. The remainder are endemic specialists from isolated springs with very restricted ranges, and many are listed under relevant state and national endangered species legislation and also by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN. For these spring communities, which are sustained by water from the Great Artesian Basin, survival is contingent on suitable habitat persisting alongside extractive mining, agriculture and the imposition of alien species. For the riverine species, which frequently undertake long migrations into ephemeral systems, preservation of the natural flow regime is paramount, as this reinstates riverine connectivity. In this study, fish were sampled from the Bulloo River in the east to the Mulligan River in the west, along a temporal timeframe and using a standard set of sampling gears. Fish presence was influenced by factors such as natural catchment divides, sampling time, ephemerality and the occurrence of connection flows and flooding. Despite the comparatively low diversity of species, the aquatic systems of this isolated region remain in good ecological condition, and as such they offer excellent opportunities to investigate the ecology of arid water systems. However, the presence of both endangered species (in the springs and invasive and translocated species more widely indicates that active protection and management of this unique area is essential to maintain biodiversity and ecosystem integrity.

  18. Dads make a difference: an exploratory study of paternal support for breastfeeding in Perth, Western Australia

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    Howat Peter

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability to breastfeed and continue the practice requires dedication, commitment, persistence and support. Mothers often need to overcome many obstacles to successfully breastfeed their babies and maintain their balance of home, family and work commitments. Evidence suggests that fathers want to be involved and be part of the parenthood process, including infant feeding. The role transition from couple to family poses challenges to both parents. Sharing the experience of childbirth and supporting each other in the subsequent infant feeding practices is one of those challenges. Methods A qualitative exploratory design was chosen to identify parents' perceptions of what constitutes support for breastfeeding, particularly focusing upon paternal support. Focus groups were conducted with mothers and a focus group, interviews and an online survey were developed for fathers. Thematic analysis was used to identify the main themes. Results From a total of 76 participants, the major theme emerging from mothers' data identified that "Dads do make a difference". Three sub-themes included: Anticipating needs and getting the job done; Encouragement to do your best; and Paternal determination and commitment, associated with effective partner support. "Wanting to be involved" was identified from fathers' data as the major theme around their needs. Three sub-themes included: Wanting more information; Learning the role; and Being an advocate. Conclusion Sharing the experience of childbirth and supporting each other in the subsequent infant feeding practices was perceived as the best outcome for the majority of new mothers and fathers. Paternal emotional, practical and physical supports were identified as important factors to promote successful breastfeeding and to enrich the experience for the mother and subsequently the father. Trail Regristration Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12609000667213.

  19. Soil water repellency as a vegetation-driven strategy for soil moisture sequestration in Banksia woodlands (Western Australia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio T.; González-Pérez, José A.; Zavala, Lorena M.; Stevens, Jason; Jordán, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    Water repellency is a property of some soils that inhibits or delays the rainwater infiltration. When a surface or subsurface soil horizon is water repellent, water is retained for periods of time that vary according to the severity of hydrophobicity, soil moisture and other parameters. Water repellency is caused by hydrophobic organic substances released by plant residues, roots or soil microorganisms. Certain abiotic agents, like fire, can increase the severity of soil water repellency in certain cases. Under water-repellent conditions, water can infiltrate only when the pressure of the water column is high enough or when macropores allow it. These macropores may be formed by galleries excavated by animals, dead roots or gaps between aggregate or rock fragments. Banksia plants have a dimorphic root morphology. Proteoid roots are formed by clusters of densely compacted short lateral rootlets that radiate from the parent root. These clusters spread just some centimeters below the soil surface constituting a thick dense sheet of roots and are known to secrete large amounts of organic acids and phenolics to increase the uptake of P and other minerals. In contrast, the parent root penetrates soil deeply, reaching the water table. Sandy soils below banksia woodlands from Western Australia coastal dunes show a characteristic vertical distribution of water repellency. We observed that the first soil layer (just some millimeters of depth) was formed by a wettable sand particles transported by wind, covering a wettable or subcritically water-repellent subsurface layer (0-20 cm). A second soil layer (20-40 cm) was formed by a severely water-repellent layer with aggregates bulked by dominant banksia proteoid roots. Below this layer, soil water repellency decreased with depth until soil material rendered wettable at depths between 40 and 80 cm under field conditions. It is hypothesized that banksia roots are capable of inducing soil water repellency, causing the occurrence of

  20. Phytoplankton community structure and nitrogen nutrition in Leeuwin Current and coastal waters off the Gascoyne region of Western Australia

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    Hanson, Christine E.; Waite, Anya M.; Thompson, Peter A.; Pattiaratchi, Charitha B.

    2007-04-01

    Within the coastal waters of the eastern Indian Ocean adjacent to Western Australia, we tested the hypothesis that regenerated production (and, by inference, the microbial food web) would predominate in oligotrophic Leeuwin Current (LC) and offshore (OS) surface waters. Conversely, we expected that new production would be more important within the ˜5 times more productive shelf countercurrents (Ningaloo and Capes Currents; NC&CC) and the LC&OS deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM). Phytoplankton species composition and abundance were assessed using both light microscopy and chemotaxonomic methods, and isotopic nitrogen uptake experiments ( 15NO 3-, 15NH 4+) were performed at trace (0.05 μM) and saturating (5.0 μM) levels. Phytoplankton community structure was statistically distinct between LC&OS and countercurrent regions. Picoplankton (unicellular cyanobacteria and prochlorophytes) accounted for a mean of 55-65% of pigment biomass in LC&OS waters, with haptophytes as the other primary contributor (21-32%). Conversely, within countercurrent and shelf regions, diatoms (up to 22%) and haptophytes (up to 57%) were more abundant, although cyanobacteria still played an important role (up to 40% of pigment biomass). Absolute NO 3- uptake rates for all samples ranged between 0.5 and 7.1 nmol L -1 h -1, and in countercurrent waters were not significantly different at the surface (3.0±2.1 nmol L -1 h -1; mean±SD) compared to the DCM (2.7±2.3 nmol L -1 h -1). However, in LC&OS waters, rates were significantly lower at the surface (1.2±0.7 nmol L -1 h -1) than the DCM (3.9±2.5 nmol L -1 h -1; p=0.05). These values represent conservative estimates for the region due to methodological difficulties encountered with nitrogen uptake experiments in these oligotrophic waters. In contrast with the distinct community composition between different water types, mean estimates of the f-ratio were similar across sampling depths and water types: 0.17±0.07 at the surface and 0.16±0.06 at

  1. Investigation of keratinophilic fungi from soils in western Australia a preliminary survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAleer, R

    1980-11-28

    In order to determine which species of geophilic dermatophytes were present in Western Australian soils 299 samples were investigated. These samples were collected from a range of locations, 208 towns throughout the state and 91 samples from the Perth Metropolitan area. Most samples were collected from areas frequented by people and animals, such as home gardens, parks and animal yards. Of the total 299 soils, 271 (90.6%) yielded keratinophilic fungi. A total of 181 dermatophytes were isolated, and there were 205 isolations of other keratinophilic fungi. Microsporum gypseum (30.7%) was the most prevalent dermatophyte recovered from soil followed by Microsporum cookei (21.7%) and then Trichophyton ajelloi (8.0%). No other dermatophytes were recovered. Chrysosporium indicum was the most common of all the keratinophilic fungi and was isolated from 50.1% of the samples. Mixed growth was obtained from 33.5% of the soil samples.

  2. Dating the Late Cenozoic glacial sequence, Pieman River basin, western Tasmania, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustinus, Paul C.

    1999-10-01

    The Pieman River basin, western Tasmania, displays one of the most complete Middle to Early Pleistocene glacial sequences from a Southern Hemisphere mid-latitude site. Most of the glacial deposits exceed the 14C limit, although mapping of the depositional units using morphostratigraphic, post-depositional weathering criteria and magnetostratigraphy, shows that the sediments of the Boco and Bobadil glaciation were deposited during the Brunhes normal chron (ferricretes and peat developed within and upon the sediment bodies whereby the deposits of the Boco and Bobadil glaciation are shown to be broadly correlative with Oxygen Isotope Stages 6 and 8, respectively. An older mid-Pleistocene glacial event (Animal Creek Glaciation) has also been recognised and dated to >275 kyr. Late Last (Margaret) Glaciation advances in the Pieman basin are much more restricted in extent and display evidence for multiple stillstand-readvance phases during the decay of the system, with most of the ice having disappeared by ˜14 kyr BP.

  3. Childhood hospitalisation for otitis media in Western Australia: A 10-year retrospective analysis

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    Nicholas Liu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of hospitalisation for otitis media across the different risk indicators for Western Australian children (less than 15 years old over a 10-year period. Method This retrospective population-based study used the deidentified detailed data of children under the age of 15 years, hospitalised for otitis media (OM, as determined by principal diagnosis (ICD-10AM and obtained from the Western Australian (WA Hospital Morbidity Dataset for 10 financial years from 1999–2000 to 2008–2009. Various risk indicators, including age, gender, Indigenous status, insurance status, hospital area, hospital type, and length of stay were also analysed. Results Out of 26,294 cases of in-hospital care, Indigenous children comprised 4.7 per cent (n=1,226, while the non-Indigenous children comprised 95.3 per cent (n=25,068. The majority of the children, nearly 98.8 per cent, were admitted for chronic OM. The children were grouped into three age groups, namely, 0–4 years, 5–9 years, and 10–14 years. Nearly two-thirds of all cases were in the 0–4-year age group. Significantly more non-Indigenous (51 per cent than Indigenous children (2 per cent had private health insurance. The hospitalisation rates were directly proportional between the number of Indigenous children living in the area and the increasing remoteness of the area along with greater socioeconomic disadvantage. There were 24 per cent more cases from very remote areas compared to highly accessible areas, and there were 60 per cent more cases from the most disadvantaged socioeconomic category, compared with the least disadvantaged category, for Indigenous children. Conclusion These data depict the variations in prevalence of otitis media hospitalisations within the community, as affected by various risk indicators.

  4. Efficacy of infant simulator programmes to prevent teenage pregnancy: a school-based cluster randomised controlled trial in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkman, Sally A; Johnson, Sarah E; Codde, James P; Hart, Michael B; Straton, Judith A; Mittinty, Murthy N; Silburn, Sven R

    2016-11-05

    Infant simulator-based programmes, which aim to prevent teenage pregnancy, are used in high-income as well as low-income and middle-income countries but, despite growing popularity, no published evidence exists of their long-term effect. The aim of this trial was to investigate the effect of such a programme, the Virtual Infant Parenting (VIP) programme, on pregnancy outcomes of birth and induced abortion in Australia. In this school-based pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial, eligible schools in Perth, Western Australia, were enrolled and randomised 1:1 to the intervention and control groups. Randomisation using a table of random numbers without blocking, stratification, or matching was done by a researcher who was masked to the identity of the schools. Between 2003 and 2006, the VIP programme was administered to girls aged 13-15 years in the intervention schools, while girls of the same age in the control schools received the standard health education curriculum. Participants were followed until they reached 20 years of age via data linkage to hospital medical and abortion clinic records. The primary endpoint was the occurrence of pregnancy during the teenage years. Binomial and Cox proportional hazards regression was used to test for differences in pregnancy rates between study groups. This study is registered as an international randomised controlled trial, number ISRCTN24952438. 57 (86%) of 66 eligible schools were enrolled into the trial and randomly assigned 1:1 to the intervention (28 schools) or the control group (29 schools). Then, between Feb 1, 2003, and May 31, 2006, 1267 girls in the intervention schools received the VIP programme while 1567 girls in the control schools received the standard health education curriculum. Compared with girls in the control group, a higher proportion of girls in the intervention group recorded at least one birth (97 [8%] of 1267 in the intervention group vs 67 [4%] of 1567 in the control group) or at least one

  5. A Probabilistic Tsunami Assessment for Western Australia and the South coast of Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burbidge, D. R.; Cummins, P. R.; Thio, H. K.

    2006-12-01

    Prior to July 2006, the only known, large megathrust earthquake known to have occurred (Mw=7.6, on 2 June, 1994) south of Java could be argued to be an anomaly in what is essentially aseismic subduction in this part of the Sunda Arc. The occurrence of a second such event (Mw=7.8) on 17 July, however, has demonstrated that they can occur anywhere along the Sunda Arc. These events produced large tsunamis along the coast of Java that killed hundreds (222 and 663, respectively). On the one hand, these earthquakes are much smaller than the Mw=9+ earthquakes known to occur off Sumatra, and the mortality associated with them is much smaller than the staggering human toll of the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami (IOT), which killed 167,000 on the Sumatran coast. On the other hand, the density of population along the south Java coast is much higher than that along the Sumatran coast, and we do not know how large or how frequent tsunamigenic earthquakes off Java may be. The possibility exists that tsunami risk, as measured in human lives, may be higher for Java than for Sumatra. Furthermore, future events off Sumatra can be expected off its central and perhaps its southern coast, where most of the teletsunami energy will be directed into the open Indian Ocean. Events off Java, however, will direct much more teletsunami energy towards the northwest coast of Australia. Both the 1994 and the 2006 tsunamis originating off south Java caused significant tsunamis at specific locations along the West Australian coast. Here we present a new probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment for the offshore wave height expected along the south coast of Java and the West Australian coast from earthquakes along the Sunda Arc subduction zone. This assessment is based on a new estimate of the rate of megathrust earthquake occurrence along the Sunda Arc subduction zone based on the global rate of occurrence of giant subduction zone earthquakes, the length of the subduction zone and its rate of convergence

  6. The practice and regulatory requirements of naturopathy and western herbal medicine in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Vivian; McCabe, Pauline; Bensoussan, Alan; Myers, Stephen; Cohen, Marc; Hill, Sophie; Howse, Genevieve

    2009-01-01

    Australian health workforce regulation is premised on the need to protect public health and safety. Specific criteria are set out by governments to ascertain the degree of risk and the need for government intervention. A study was undertaken to understand the current state of usage and the practice of naturopathy and western herbal medicine, and to ascertain whether statutory regulation was warranted. We found increased use of these complementary therapies in the community, with risks arising from both the specific practices as well as consumers negotiating a parallel primary health care system. We also found highly variable standards of training, a myriad of professional associations, and a general failure of current systems of self-regulation to protect public health and safety. Statutory regulation was the preferred policy response for consumers, insurers, general practitioners, and most of the complementary therapists. While we found a case for statutory registration, we also argue that a minimalist regulatory response needs to be accompanied by other measures to educate the public, to improve the standards of practice, and to enhance our understanding of the interaction between complementary and mainstream health care. PMID:22312205

  7. A Salmonella Typhimurium outbreak linked to Vietnamese bread rolls in South Western Sydney, Australia, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Meena; Lord, Heidi; Fletcher-Lartey, Stephanie; Alexander, Kate; Egana, Nilva; Conaty, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    In September 2015, the South Western Sydney (SWS) Public Health Unit was notified of a cluster of Salmonella Typhimurium (STm) cases with a common multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeats analysis (MLVA) pattern. An investigation was conducted to identify a source and contain the outbreak. The cluster was initially identified through routine geographic information system cluster scanning applied to the New South Wales Notifiable Conditions Management System. Additional cases were identified through a complaint to local council about a bakery. The bakery was inspected and 48 environmental and food swabs were collected for analysis. A total of 26 suspected cases were identified, of which 14 were interviewed. STm MLVA type 3-16-9-11-523 was identified in 19 of 26 case stool specimens. Most cases (12/14) consumed bread rolls containing pork or chicken with chicken liver pâté and raw egg mayonnaise filling. Five cases identified a common bakery exposure. Environmental and food samples from the bakery isolated STm with an identical MLVA pattern. An STm cluster in SWS was investigated and found to be linked to Vietnamese bread rolls containing pork or chicken with chicken liver pâté and raw egg mayonnaise filling. Confirmation of a distinct MLVA pattern among STm isolates from clinical, food and environmental samples provided evidence to establish an epidemiological link between the cases and the implicated premises and informed public health action to contain the outbreak.

  8. A Salmonella Typhimurium outbreak linked to Vietnamese bread rolls in South Western Sydney, Australia, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meena Chandra

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In September 2015, the South Western Sydney (SWS Public Health Unit was notified of a cluster of Salmonella Typhimurium (STm cases with a common multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeats analysis (MLVA pattern. An investigation was conducted to identify a source and contain the outbreak. Methods: The cluster was initially identified through routine geographic information system cluster scanning applied to the New South Wales Notifiable Conditions Management System. Additional cases were identified through a complaint to local council about a bakery. The bakery was inspected and 48 environmental and food swabs were collected for analysis. Results: A total of 26 suspected cases were identified, of which 14 were interviewed. STm MLVA type 3-16-9-11-523 was identified in 19 of 26 case stool specimens. Most cases (12/14 consumed bread rolls containing pork or chicken with chicken liver pâté and raw egg mayonnaise filling. Five cases identified a common bakery exposure. Environmental and food samples from the bakery isolated STm with an identical MLVA pattern. Discussion: An STm cluster in SWS was investigated and found to be linked to Vietnamese bread rolls containing pork or chicken with chicken liver pâté and raw egg mayonnaise filling. Confirmation of a distinct MLVA pattern among STm isolates from clinical, food and environmental samples provided evidence to establish an epidemiological link between the cases and the implicated premises and informed public health action to contain the outbreak.

  9. Parasites, politics and public science: the promotion of biological control in Western Australia, 1900-1910.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deveson, Edward

    2016-06-01

    Biological control of arthropods emerged as a scientific enterprise in the late nineteenth century and the orchard industry of California was an early centre of expertise. In 1900, as the Australian colonies prepared for federation, each had a government entomologist attached to its agriculture department. The hiring of George Compere from California by the Western Australian Department of Agriculture began a controversial chapter in the early history of biological control that was linked to a late, local popularization of acclimatization. Compere became known as the 'travelling entomologist' and for a decade brought 'parasites' of pest insects from overseas and released them in Perth. His antagonistic disciplinary rhetoric and inflated claims for the 'parasite theory' created conflict with his counterparts in the eastern states. The resulting inter-state entomological controversy was played out in the press, revealing the political use of science for institutional and even state identity. It is a story of transnational exchanges, chance discoveries and popular public science: popular because of the promise of a simple, natural solution to agricultural insect pests and because of the public nature of the disputes it generated between the experts. This microcosm contributes to the global historiography of acclimatization, biological control, scientific exposition and the professionalization of agricultural science.

  10. Advanced life support (ALS) instructors experience of ALS education in Western Australia: a qualitative exploratory research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taplin, John; McConigley, Ruth

    2015-04-01

    When cardiac arrest occurs, timely competent advanced life support (ALS) interventions by nursing staff can influence patient outcomes. Ongoing ALS education influences maintenance of competency and avoids skill decay. To explore the methods of ALS education delivery for nurses in the workplace; describe the issues relating to maintaining ALS competency; explore ALS competency decay for nurses and develop recommendations for the provision of continuing ALS education. A qualitative exploratory design was used to study ALS education provision in the workplace. Data were collected from ALS nurse experts in Western Australia by face-to-face and phone interviews. Semi-structured interviews were conducted and organised around a set of predetermined questions. Two major themes were identified; the first theme Demand and Supply describes the increasing demand for ALS education for nurses and the challenges with providing timely cost effective traditional face-to-face ALS education. The second theme, Choosing The Best Education Options describes new ways to provide ALS education using emerging technologies. The study suggested that using e-learning methods would assist with educating the maximum amount of nurses in a timely manner and e-learning and teleconferencing offer opportunities to reach nurses in distant locations. Delivering ALS education more frequently than annually would increase skills maintenance and lessen skill decay. Further research is required to explore which blended e-learning model is best suited to ALS education. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Multi-Year Impacts of Ecotourism on Whale Shark (Rhincodon typus) Visitation at Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanzogni, R L; Meekan, M G; Meeuwig, J J

    2015-01-01

    In-water viewing of sharks by tourists has become a popular and lucrative industry. There is some concern that interactions with tourists with ecotourism operations might harm sharks through disruption of behaviours. Here, we analysed five years of whale shark (Rhincodon typus) encounter data by an ecotourism industry at Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia, to assess the impact of ecotourism interactions on shark visitation, within the context of the biological and physical oceanography of the region. Our data base consisted of 2823 encounter records for 951 individual whale sharks collected by ecotourism operators between 2007 and 2011. We found that total encounters per whale shark and encounters per boat trip increased through time. On average, whale sharks re-encountered in subsequent years were encountered earlier, stayed longer and tended to be encountered more often within a season than sharks that were only encountered in a single year. Sequential comparisons between years did not show any patterns consistent with disturbance and the rate of departure of whale sharks from the aggregation was negatively correlated to the number of operator trips. Overall, our analysis of this multi-year data base found no evidence that interactions with tourists affected the likelihood of whale shark re-encounters and that instead, physical and biological environmental factors had a far greater influence on whale shark visitation rates. Our approach provides a template for assessing the effects of ecotourism interactions and environmental factors on the visitation patterns of marine megafauna over multiple years.

  12. Is emergency management an integrated element of business continuity management? A case study with security professionals in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frohde, Kenny; Brooks, David J

    2014-01-01

    Emergency management (EM) and business continuity management (BCM) frameworks incorporate various strategic and operational measures. Defined within a number of national and international standards and guidelines, such concepts may be integrated within one another to provide increased resilience to disruptive events. Nevertheless, there is a degree of dispute regarding concept integration among security and EM professionals and bodies of knowledge. In line with cognitive psychology exemplar-based concepts, such disputes may be associated with a lack of precision in communality in the approach to EM and BCM. This paper presents a two-stage study, where stage 1 critiqued national and international literature and stage 2 applied semi-structured interviews with security managers in Western Australia. Findings indicate the existence of contradictory views on EM and its integration within BCM. As such, this study concludes that EM is considered a vital component of BCM by the majority of security managers. However, there is broader dispute regarding its degree of integration. Understanding the underpinnings of such disputes will aid in raising the standards and application of professionalism within security, EM and BCM domains, supporting clarification and definition of professional boundaries.

  13. Study of Radiologic Technologists' Perceptions of Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) Competence and Educational Issues in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Daniel M; Trepp, Errol R; Ipaki, Maryam; Ng, Curtise K C

    2015-06-01

    Although the implementation of picture archiving and communication system (PACS) could increase productivity of radiology departments, this depends on factors such as the PACS competence of radiologic technologists (RTs). The purpose of this study was to investigate the RTs' perceptions of PACS competence and educational issues in Western Australia (WA). A hardcopy questionnaire was distributed to WA RTs for obtaining their perceptions of PACS competence and educational issues. Descriptive (percentage of frequency, mean and standard deviation) and inferential statistics (t test and analysis of variance) were used to analyze the responses of the multiple choice and five-point scale questions from the returned questionnaires. The questionnaire response rate was 57.7% (173 out of 300). The mean values of all PACS competence questions except questions 2e-g are in the range of 3.9-4.9, i.e., around competent to very competent. Participants indicated they received adequate PACS training (mean 3.8). Statistically significant variables influencing RTs' perceptions of their PACS competence and educational issues including the age (p education received (p education programs should be tailored to different RTs' groups. For example, multiple training modules might be necessary to support the PACS competence development of older RTs and those with lower general computer literacy.

  14. Multi-Year Impacts of Ecotourism on Whale Shark (Rhincodon typus Visitation at Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R L Sanzogni

    Full Text Available In-water viewing of sharks by tourists has become a popular and lucrative industry. There is some concern that interactions with tourists with ecotourism operations might harm sharks through disruption of behaviours. Here, we analysed five years of whale shark (Rhincodon typus encounter data by an ecotourism industry at Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia, to assess the impact of ecotourism interactions on shark visitation, within the context of the biological and physical oceanography of the region. Our data base consisted of 2823 encounter records for 951 individual whale sharks collected by ecotourism operators between 2007 and 2011. We found that total encounters per whale shark and encounters per boat trip increased through time. On average, whale sharks re-encountered in subsequent years were encountered earlier, stayed longer and tended to be encountered more often within a season than sharks that were only encountered in a single year. Sequential comparisons between years did not show any patterns consistent with disturbance and the rate of departure of whale sharks from the aggregation was negatively correlated to the number of operator trips. Overall, our analysis of this multi-year data base found no evidence that interactions with tourists affected the likelihood of whale shark re-encounters and that instead, physical and biological environmental factors had a far greater influence on whale shark visitation rates. Our approach provides a template for assessing the effects of ecotourism interactions and environmental factors on the visitation patterns of marine megafauna over multiple years.

  15. Potential cost to Western Australia of proposed patient co-payments according to healthcare organisational structure: A preliminary analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, J Alasdair; Millar, Robyn C

    2014-01-01

    The Australian federal government has proposed an AUD $7 patient co-payment for a general practitioner (GP) consultation. One effect of the co-payment may be that patients will seek assistance at public hospital emergency departments (EDs), where currently there is no user charge. We studied the possible financial impact of patient diversion on the Western Australia (WA) health budget. We constructed a spreadsheet model of changes in annual cash flows including the co-payment, GP fees for service, and rates of diversion to emergency departments with additional marginal costs for ED attendance. Changes in WA cash flows are the aggregate of marginal ED costs of treating diverted patients and added expenditure in fees paid to rural doctors who also man local emergency centres. The estimated costs to WA are AUD $6.3 million, $35.9 million and $87.4 million at 1, 5, and 10 per cent diversion, respectively. Commonwealth receipts increase and expenditure on Medicare benefits declines. A diversion of patients from GP surgeries to ED in WA caused by the co-payment will result in increased costs to the state, which may be substantial, and will reduce net costs to the Commonwealth.

  16. DSC modelling for predicting resilient modulus of crushed rock base as a road base material for Western Australia roads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KHOBKLANG Pakdee; VIMONSATIT Vanissorn; JITSANGIAM Peerapong; NIKRAZ Hamid

    2013-01-01

    In order to increase the applied efficiency of crushed rock base (CRB) in pavement structure design for Western Australia roads,the material modelling based on the experimental results was investigated,and the disturbed state concept (DSC) was used to predict the resilient modulus of CRB because of its simplicity and strong ability in capturing the elastic and inelastic responses of materials to loads.The actual deformation of DSC,at any loading state,was determined from its assumed relative intact (RI) state.The DSC equation of CRB was constructed by using a set of experimental results of resilient modulus tests,and an idealized material model,namely the linear elastic model,of relative intact (RI) part was considered.Analysis results reveal that the resilient modulus-applied stress relationships back-predicted by using the DSC modelling are consistent with the experimental results,so,the DSC equation is suited for predicting the resilient modulus of CRB specimen.However,the model and the equation coming from the test results are conducted in accordance with the Austroads standard,so further investigation and validation with respect to the field behaviours of pavement structure should be performed.7 figs,11 refs.

  17. An extended baseline examination of indoor VOCs in a city of low ambient pollution: Perth, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisey, S. J.; Saunders, S. M.; West, N.; Franklin, P. J.

    2013-12-01

    This study of indoor air quality reports VOC concentrations in 386 suburban homes located in Perth Western Australia, a city of low ambient pollution and temperate climate. Details of indoor VOC concentrations, temperature, relative humidity, and information on house characteristics and occupant activities were collected during the sampling periods. The concentration of VOCs observed in typical homes was low and individual compounds rarely exceeded 5 μg m-3. Median individual VOC concentrations ranged from 0.06 μg m-3 for 1,1,1 trichloroethane and butyl ether to 26.6 μg m-3 for cis/trans 2-butene. Recently renovated homes had higher concentrations of VOCs than non renovated homes, including ∑VOCs (p = 0.026), ∑BTEX (p = 0.03), ∑xylene (p = 0.013), toluene (p = 0.05), cyclohexane (p = 0.039), and propyl benzene (p = 0.039). Statistical analyses showed house age and attached garages were not significant factors for any of the VOCs tested. The concentrations of indoor VOCs in Perth were lower than overseas observations and those reported in recent Australian studies, with inferences made to differences in the climate and the occupant behaviour. The results are a baseline profile of indoor VOCs over the period 2006-2011, in an Australian city of low population density and of generally low ambient pollution.

  18. Low level off-road vehicle (ORV) traffic negatively impacts macroinvertebrate assemblages at sandy beaches in south-western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Rebecca; Speldewinde, Peter C; Stewart, Barbara A

    2016-04-28

    Off-road vehicle use is arguably one of the most environmentally damaging human activities undertaken on sandy beaches worldwide. Existing studies focused on areas of high traffic volumes have demonstrated significantly lower abundance, diversity and species richness of fauna in zones where traffic is concentrated. The impact of lower traffic volumes is unknown. This study aimed to investigate the impacts of relatively low-level vehicle traffic on sandy beach fauna by sampling invertebrate communities at eight beaches located in south-western Australia. We found that even low-level vehicle traffic negatively impacts the physical beach environment, and consequently, the ability of many species to survive in this habitat in the face of this disturbance. Compaction, rutting and displacement of the sand matrix were observed over a large area, resulting in significant decreases in species diversity and density, and measurable shifts in community structure on beaches that experienced off-road vehicle traffic. Communities at impact sites did not display seasonal recovery as traffic was not significantly different between seasons. Given a choice between either reducing traffic volumes, or excluding ORV traffic from beaches, our results suggest that the latter would be more appropriate when the retention of ecological integrity is the objective.

  19. Gender differences in recurrent mental health contact after a hospitalization for interpersonal violence: Western Australia, 1997 to 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meuleners, Lynn B; Fraser, Michelle L

    2015-01-01

    Interpersonal violence and mental illness are significant public health issues. This study aimed to determine gender differences in risk factors for recurrent mental health contacts after a hospitalization for interpersonal violence in Western Australia between 1997 and 2008. This population-based retrospective cohort study used linked hospital morbidity data and mental health records to identify individuals who were hospitalized due to interpersonal violence and had recurrent mental health contacts following hospitalization. A total of 1,969 individuals had a first-ever mental health contact after their index hospitalization for violence. The most common reasons for a mental health contact after interpersonal violence hospitalization were anxiety and/or depression (n = 396, 20.1%), neurotic disorders (n=338, 11.8%), schizophrenia (n=232, 11.8%), and psychoactive substance use (n = 206, 10.5%). Different risk factors for recurrent contact with mental health services emerged for males and females. For males, factors significantly associated with increased risk of recurrent mental health contacts included advancing age and not being married. However, for females, type of violence, Indigenous status, age, and living in rural or remote areas affected the risk of recurrent mental health contacts, whereas marital status did not. These findings have implications for the targeting of mental health prevention programs tailored specifically for males and females affected by violence.

  20. Analysis of subsurface mound spring connectivity in shale of the western margin of the Great Artesian Basin, South Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halihan, Todd; Love, Andrew; Keppel, Mark; Berens, Volmer

    2013-11-01

    Mound springs provide the primary discharge mechanism for waters of the western margin of the Great Artesian Basin (GAB), Australia. Though these springs are an important resource in an arid environment, their hydraulics as they discharge from shale are poorly defined. The springs can include extensive spring tails (groundwater-dependent wetlands) and hundreds of springs in a given spring complex. Electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) was used to evaluate spring subsurface hydraulic-connectivity characteristics at three spring complexes discharging through the Bulldog Shale. The results demonstrate that fresher GAB water appears as resistors in the subsurface at these sites, which are characterized by high-salinity conditions in the shallow subsurface. Using an empirical method developed for this work, the ERI data indicate that the spring complexes have multiple subsurface connections that are not always easily observed at the surface. The connections are focused along structural deformation in the shale allowing fluids to migrate through the confining unit. The ERI data suggest the carbonate deposits that the springs generate are deposited on top of the confining unit, not precipitated in the conduit. The data also suggest that spring-tail ecosystems are not the result of a single discharge point, but include secondary discharge points along the tail.

  1. Assessment of Breast Milk Iodine Concentrations in Lactating Women in Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Jorgensen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Breast-fed infants may depend solely on an adequate supply of iodine in breast milk for the synthesis of thyroid hormones which are essential for optimal growth and cognitive development. This is the first study to measure breast milk iodine concentration (BMIC among lactating women in Western Australian (n = 55. Breast milk samples were collected between 2014 and 2015 at a mean (±SD of 38.5 (±5.5 days post-partum. The samples were analysed to determine median BMIC and the percentage of samples with a BMIC < 100 µg/L, a level considered adequate for breast-fed infants. The influence of (a iodine-containing supplements and iodised salt use and (b consumption of key iodine-containing foods on BMIC was also examined. The median (p25, p75 BMIC was 167 (99, 248 µg/L and 26% of samples had a BMIC < 100 µg/L. Overall, BMIC tended to be higher with iodine-containing supplement usage (ratio 1.33, 95% confidence interval (CI (1.04, 1.70, p = 0.030, cow’s milk consumption (ratio 1.66, 95% CI (1.23, 2.23, p = 0.002 and lower for Caucasians (ratio 0.61, 95% CI (0.45, 0.83, p = 0.002, and those with secondary school only education (ratio 0.66, 95% CI (0.46, 0.96, p = 0.030. For most women, BMIC was adequate to meet the iodine requirements of their breast-fed infants. However, some women may require the use of iodine-containing supplements or iodised salt to increase BMIC to adequate levels for optimal infant nutrition.

  2. Evaluation of the first pharmacist-administered vaccinations in Western Australia: a mixed-methods study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattingh, H Laetitia; Sim, T Fei; Parsons, R; Czarniak, P; Vickery, A; Ayadurai, S

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study evaluated the uptake of Western Australian (WA) pharmacist vaccination services, the profiles of consumers being vaccinated and the facilitators and challenges experienced by pharmacy staff in the preparation, implementation and delivery of services. Design Mixed-methods methodology with both quantitative and qualitative data through surveys, pharmacy computer records and immuniser pharmacist interviews. Setting Community pharmacies in WA that provided pharmacist vaccination services between March and October 2015. Participants Immuniser pharmacists from 86 pharmacies completed baseline surveys and 78 completed exit surveys; computer records from 57 pharmacies; 25 immuniser pharmacists were interviewed. Main outcome measures Pharmacy and immuniser pharmacist profiles; pharmacist vaccination services provided and consumer profiles who accessed services. Results 15 621 influenza vaccinations were administered by immuniser pharmacists at 76 WA community pharmacies between March and October 2015. There were no major adverse events, and managed. Between 12% and 17% of consumers were eligible to receive free influenza vaccinations under the National Immunisation Program but chose to have it at a pharmacy. A high percentage of vaccinations was delivered in rural and regional areas indicating that provision of pharmacist vaccination services facilitated access for rural and remote consumers. Immuniser pharmacists reported feeling confident in providing vaccination services and were of the opinion that services should be expanded to other vaccinations. Pharmacists also reported significant professional satisfaction in providing the service. All participating pharmacies intended to continue providing influenza vaccinations in 2016. Conclusions This initial evaluation of WA pharmacist vaccination services showed that vaccine delivery was safe. Convenience and accessibility were important aspects in usage of services. There is scope to expand pharmacist

  3. Provenance of Holocene calcareous beach-dune sediments, Western Eyre Peninsula, Great Australian Bight, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Noel P.; Bone, Yvonne

    2017-07-01

    Much of western Eyre Peninsula adjacent to the Great Australian Bight is veneered with siliceous and calcareous Quaternary aeolian dunes. The lengthy coastline adjacent to this cool-water carbonate factory is a series of Precambrian crystalline bedrock-Pleistocene aeolianite headlands that separate many long, sweeping, Holocene carbonate sand beaches and their backbeach dunes. Incessant SW waves, rolling swells, and onshore winds have resulted in > 350 km of semi-continuous calcareous strandline aeolian sands. The sediment is composed of quartz grains, Cenozoic limestone clasts, and relict particles (extraclasts) but the deposits are overwhelmingly dominated by contemporaneous biofragments from offshore. These skeletal grains are, in order of relative abundance, molluscs > benthic foraminifers > coralline algae > bryozoans, and echinoids. Benthic foraminifers are mostly small (especially rotaliids and miliolids) but the large relict symbiont-bearing protistMarginopora vertebralis, which grew in the latter stages of MIS 2, is present locally. There are no significant onshore-offshore trends within individual beach-dune complexes. There is, however, a prominent spatial partitioning, with extraclast-rich sediments in the north and biofragment-rich deposits in the south. This areal trend is interpreted to result from more active seafloor carbonate production in the south, an area of conspicuous seasonal nutrient upwelling and profound nektic and benthic biological productivity. The overall system is strikingly similar to Holocene and Pleistocene aeolianites along the inboard margin of the Lacepede Shelf and Bonney Coast some 500 km to the southeast, implying a potential universality to the nature of cool-water carbonate aeolianite deposition. The composition of these cool-water aeolianites is more multifaceted than those formed on warm-water, shallow flat-topped platforms, largely because of the comparatively deep, temperate shelf, the high-energy wave and swell

  4. Collection of population-based cancer staging information in Western Australia – a feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katris Paul

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Routine data from cancer registries often lack information on stage of cancer, limiting their use. This study aimed to determine whether or not it is feasible to add cancer staging data to the routine data collections of a population-based Western Australian Cancer Registry (WACR. Methods For each of the five most common cancer types (prostate, colorectal, melanoma, breast and lung cancers, 60 cases were selected for staging. For the 15 next most common cancer types, 20 cases were selected. Four sources for collecting staging data were used in the following order: the WACR, the hospital based cancer registries (HBCRs, hospital medical records, and letters to treating doctors. If the case was unable to be fully staged, due to lack of information on regional lymph node invasion or distant metastases, we made the following assumptions. Cases which had data available for tumour (T and regional lymph nodes (N, but no assessment of distant metastasis (MX were assumed to have no distant metastases (M0. Cases which had data for T and M, but no assessment of regional nodal involvement (NX were assumed to have no regional nodal involvement (N0. Results The main focus of this project was the process of collecting staging data, and not the outcomes. For ovary, cervix and uterus cancers the existence of a HBCR increased the stageable proportion of cases so that staging data for these cancers could be incorporated into the WACR immediately. Breast and colorectal cancer could also be staged with adequate completeness if it were assumed that MX = M0. Similarly, melanoma and prostate cancer could be staged adequately if it were assumed that NX = N0 and MX = M0. Some cases of stomach, lung, pancreas, thyroid, testis and kidney cancers could be staged, but additional clinical input – on pathology request forms, for example – would be required to achieve useable levels of completeness. For the remaining cancer types either staging is widely

  5. Office-Based Physical Activity and Nutrition Intervention: Barriers, Enablers, and Preferred Strategies for Workplace Obesity Prevention, Perth, Western Australia, 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Blackford, Krysten; Jancey, Jonine; Howat, Peter; Ledger, Melissa; Andy H. Lee

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Workplace health promotion programs to prevent overweight and obesity in office-based employees should be evidence-based and comprehensive and should consider behavioral, social, organizational, and environmental factors. The objective of this study was to identify barriers to and enablers of physical activity and nutrition as well as intervention strategies for health promotion in office-based workplaces in the Perth, Western Australia, metropolitan area in 2012. Methods We cond...

  6. Isospora serinuse n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from a domestic canary (Serinus canaria forma domestica) (Passeriformes: Fringillidae) in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rongchang; Brice, Belinda; Elliot, Aileen; Ryan, Una

    2015-12-01

    A new species, Isospora serinuse n. sp., (Apicomplexa:Eimeriidae) is described from a single domestic canary (Serinus canaria forma domestica) (subspecies S. c. domestica) in Western Australia. Sporulated oocysts of Isospora serinuse n. sp. are spherical or subspherical, 25.5 (24.4-27.0) × 23.5 (22.0-24.8) μm, with a shape index (length/width) of 1.09; and a smooth bilayered oocyst wall, 1.2 μm thick (outer layer 0.9 μm, inner 0.3 μm). A polar granule is present, but a micropyle and oocyst residuum are absent. The sporocysts are lemon-shaped, 18.9 (17.8-20.2) × 11.8 (10.6-13.0) μm, with a shape index of 1.6. Stieda and substieda bodies are present, the Stieda body being a small crescent shape and the substieda being indistinct. Each sporocyst with four vermiform sporozoites arranged head to tail. A sporocyst residuum is present and composed of numerous granules of different sizes that are scattered among the sporozoites. Morphologically, the oocysts of Isospora serinuse n. sp. were different from those of all known valid Isospora spp. Molecular analysis was conducted at 3 loci: the 18S and 28S ribosomal RNA and two separate regions of subunit I of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase (COI) gene (designated COIa and COIb). At the 18S locus, Isospora serinuse n. sp. exhibited 97.5% similarity to Isospora sp. Tokyo from a domestic pigeon (Columba livia domestica) in Japan. At the 28S locus, I. serinuse n. sp. exhibited 94.9% similarity to Isospora anthochaerae n. sp. from a red wattlebird (Anthochaera carunculata) in Australia. At the COIa locus, I. serinuse n. sp. exhibited 95.7% similarity to Isospora sospora sp. ex Apodemus flavicollis from a yellow-necked mouse and Isospora gryphoni from an American goldfinch (Carduelis tristis) respectively. At the COIb locus, I. serinuse n. sp. exhibited 96.7% similarity to an Isospora (iSAT4) from a European pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca). Based on morphological and molecular data, this isolate is a new

  7. Island groundwater resources, impacts of abstraction and a drying climate: Rottnest Island, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Eliza; Meredith, Karina T.; Baker, Andy; Post, Vincent E. A.; Andersen, Martin S.

    2016-11-01

    Coastal aquifers provide a source of water for more than one billion people, with island freshwater lenses being some of the most vulnerable coastal groundwater systems due to their susceptibility to saltwater intrusion. Basic hydrogeological and hydrochemical knowledge regarding the recharge and salinisation processes of freshwater lenses is important to ensure sustainable utilisation, especially considering possible climate change effects. This paper makes an assessment of the fate of a freshwater lens in a drying climate through a comparison of current and historic hydrochemical data, which to the author's knowledge is unique to this study. Fresh groundwater stable isotope signatures (δ18O, δ2H) reflect local amount weighted rainfall signatures (δ18O: -3.8‰; δ2H: -15.1‰), and confirm rainfall as the origin of fresh groundwater (δ18O: -4.47 to -3.82‰; δ2H: -20.0 to -16.6‰). Mixing with seawater was identified through enriched groundwater δ18O and δ2H signatures (maximum values of -0.36‰ and -1.4‰ respectively) compared to local rainfall and higher salinity (maximum 29,267 mg/L Total Dissolved Solids (TDS)) in a number of monitoring wells around the freshwater lens. Enhanced seawater intrusion detected in the northern section of the lens area was identified through significantly increased TDS values over the last 20-40 years, with increases of up to 3000% observed between 1990 and 2014. A reduction in the extent of freshwater by approximately 1 km2 was identified since 1977, which was found to be primarily caused by a reduction in recharge to the freshwater lens due to a ∼20% decline in winter rainfall in the south-west Western Australian region since the mid 1960s. Groundwater abstraction was found to equate to between 5% and 9% of the estimated recharge for the island, and is not a significant factor in the reduction of the lens extent compared to the observed decline in rainfall recharge. Interestingly, seawater intrusion into the fresh

  8. Are we developing walkable suburbs through urban planning policy? Identifying the mix of design requirements to optimise walking outcomes from the 'Liveable Neighbourhoods' planning policy in Perth, Western Australia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hooper, Paula; Knuiman, Matthew; Bull, Fiona; Jones, Evan; Giles-Corti, Billie

    2015-01-01

    ...) planning policy in Perth, Western Australia that were optimally supportive of walking. K-means cluster analysis identified groups of developments with homogeneous LN features from its community design (CD), movement network (MN), lot layout (LL...

  9. High-Resolution Mapping Using a Sub-Audio Magnetic Survey at the Comet Gold Mine, Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyaphong Chenrai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Comet Gold Mine in the Murchison mineral field lies within the Yilgarn Craton of Western Australia. Gold mineralization in this area is associated with a series of north-northeasterly trending structures, and has a long exploration history with some previous geophysical information. Other exploration information, such as geology and drill hole data, are integrated with the geophysical results to study the geophysical responses and generate a geophysical interpretation map. The response from the sub-audio magnetic (SAM survey was investigated over an area of 13 sq km. The SAM survey was completed using a transmitter current of 5 - 8 Amp with a 50 o/o duty cycle at 4 Hz frequency, which was considered a good instrumental setting for the Comet area. SAM anomalies were compared to results obtained from other geophysical methods and then integrated with geological data to generate a geophysical interpretation map at a 1 : 5000 scale. The new interpretation of geological units and structures at the Comet area should provide a better understanding of the geological and structural setting for mineralization in the Comet area. Our results show that the Comet Fault represents a faulted limb of the Comet fold structure that has both limbs dipping to the southeast and a plunge to the northeast. Magnetic anomalies associated with sedimentary iron formation (SIF are considered to be well correlated with some gold bearing horizons and the location of the Comet Fault, which has become more siliceous and has been altered by sulphide minerals and magnetite minerals.

  10. Detecting Trend and Seasonal Changes in Bathymetry Derived from HICO Imagery: A Case Study of Shark Bay, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Rodrigo A.; Fearns, Peter R. C. S.; Mckinna, Lachlan I. W.

    2014-01-01

    The Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO) aboard the International Space Station has offered for the first time a dedicated space-borne hyperspectral sensor specifically designed for remote sensing of the coastal environment. However, several processing steps are required to convert calibrated top-of-atmosphere radiances to the desired geophysical parameter(s). These steps add various amounts of uncertainty that can cumulatively render the geophysical parameter imprecise and potentially unusable if the objective is to analyze trends and/or seasonal variability. This research presented here has focused on: (1) atmospheric correction of HICO imagery; (2) retrieval of bathymetry using an improved implementation of a shallow water inversion algorithm; (3) propagation of uncertainty due to environmental noise through the bathymetry retrieval process; (4) issues relating to consistent geo-location of HICO imagery necessary for time series analysis, and; (5) tide height corrections of the retrieved bathymetric dataset. The underlying question of whether a temporal change in depth is detectable above uncertainty is also addressed. To this end, nine HICO images spanning November 2011 to August 2012, over the Shark Bay World Heritage Area, Western Australia, were examined. The results presented indicate that precision of the bathymetric retrievals is dependent on the shallow water inversion algorithm used. Within this study, an average of 70% of pixels for the entire HICO-derived bathymetry dataset achieved a relative uncertainty of less than +/-20%. A per-pixel t-test analysis between derived bathymetry images at successive timestamps revealed observable changes in depth to as low as 0.4 m. However, the present geolocation accuracy of HICO is relatively poor and needs further improvements before extensive time series analysis can be performed.

  11. Detecting Trend and Seasonal Changes in Bathymetry Derived from HICO Imagery: A Case Study of Shark Bay, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Rodrigo A.; Fearns, Peter R. C. S.; Mckinna, Lachlan I. W.

    2014-01-01

    The Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO) aboard the International Space Station has offered for the first time a dedicated space-borne hyperspectral sensor specifically designed for remote sensing of the coastal environment. However, several processing steps are required to convert calibrated top-of-atmosphere radiances to the desired geophysical parameter(s). These steps add various amounts of uncertainty that can cumulatively render the geophysical parameter imprecise and potentially unusable if the objective is to analyze trends and/or seasonal variability. This research presented here has focused on: (1) atmospheric correction of HICO imagery; (2) retrieval of bathymetry using an improved implementation of a shallow water inversion algorithm; (3) propagation of uncertainty due to environmental noise through the bathymetry retrieval process; (4) issues relating to consistent geo-location of HICO imagery necessary for time series analysis, and; (5) tide height corrections of the retrieved bathymetric dataset. The underlying question of whether a temporal change in depth is detectable above uncertainty is also addressed. To this end, nine HICO images spanning November 2011 to August 2012, over the Shark Bay World Heritage Area, Western Australia, were examined. The results presented indicate that precision of the bathymetric retrievals is dependent on the shallow water inversion algorithm used. Within this study, an average of 70% of pixels for the entire HICO-derived bathymetry dataset achieved a relative uncertainty of less than +/-20%. A per-pixel t-test analysis between derived bathymetry images at successive timestamps revealed observable changes in depth to as low as 0.4 m. However, the present geolocation accuracy of HICO is relatively poor and needs further improvements before extensive time series analysis can be performed.

  12. Applying cusum-based methods for the detection of outbreaks of Ross River virus disease in Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wright Graeme

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The automated monitoring of routinely collected disease surveillance data has the potential to ensure that important changes in disease incidence are promptly recognised. However, few studies have established whether the signals produced by automated monitoring methods correspond with events considered by epidemiologists to be of public health importance. This study investigates the correspondence between retrospective epidemiological evaluation of notifications of Ross River virus (RRv disease in Western Australia, and the signals produced by two cumulative sum (cusum-based automated monitoring methods. Methods RRv disease case notification data between 1991 and 2004 were assessed retrospectively by two experienced epidemiologists, and the timing of identified outbreaks was compared with signals generated from two different types of cusum-based automated monitoring algorithms; the three Early Aberration Reporting System (EARS cusum algorithms (C1, C2 and C3, and a negative binomial cusum. Results We found the negative binomial cusum to have a significantly greater area under the receiver operator characteristic curve when compared with the EARS algorithms, suggesting that the negative binomial cusum has a greater level of agreement with epidemiological opinion than the EARS algorithms with respect to the existence of outbreaks of RRv disease, particularly at low false alarm rates. However, the performance of individual EARS and negative binomial cusum algorithms were not significantly different when timeliness was also incorporated into the area under the curve analyses. Conclusion Our retrospective analysis of historical data suggests that, compared with the EARS algorithms, the negative binomial cusum provides greater sensitivity for the detection of outbreaks of RRv disease at low false alarm levels, and decreased timeliness early in the outbreak period. Prospective studies are required to investigate the potential

  13. Quality or quantity? Exploring the relationship between Public Open Space attributes and mental health in Perth, Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Jacinta; Wood, Lisa J; Knuiman, Matthew; Giles-Corti, Billie

    2012-05-01

    Mental health is a public health priority globally. Public Open Space (POS) may enhance mental health by facilitating contact with nature and the development of supportive relationships. Despite growing interest in the influence of the built environment on mental health, associations between POS attributes and mental health remain relatively unexplored. In particular, few studies have examined the relative effects of the quantity and quality of POS within a neighbourhood on mental health. Guided by a social-ecological framework, this study investigated the relationship between POS attributes (i.e., quantity and quality) and better mental health (i.e., low risk of psychological distress) in residents of new housing developments in the Perth metropolitan area, Western Australia. The extent to which relationships between POS attributes and mental health were confounded by psychosocial factors (e.g., social support, sense of community) and frequent use of POS was also explored. Data were obtained from a cross-sectional survey (n = 911), a POS audit, and Geographical Information Systems, and was analysed using logistic regression. Approximately 80% of survey participants were at low risk of psychological distress. Residents of neighbourhoods with high quality POS had higher odds of low psychosocial distress than residents of neighbourhoods with low quality POS. This appeared to be irrespective of whether or not they used POS. However, the quantity of neighbourhood POS was not associated with low psychological distress. From a mental health perspective, POS quality within a neighbourhood appears to be more important than POS quantity. This finding has policy implications and warrants further investigation.

  14. Estimating the role of three mesopredatory fishes in coral reef food webs at Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thillainath, Emma C.; McIlwain, Jennifer L.; Wilson, Shaun K.; Depczynski, Martial

    2016-03-01

    Within the complex food webs that occur on coral reefs, mesopredatory fish consume small-bodied prey and transfer accumulated biomass to other trophic levels. We estimated biomass, growth and mortality rates of three common mesopredators from Ningaloo Reef in Western Australia to calculate their annual turnover rates and potential contribution to local trophic dynamics. Biomass estimates of the serranid Epinephelus rivulatus (4.46 ± 0.76 g m-2) were an order of magnitude greater than two smaller-bodied mesopredatory fishes, Pseudochromis fuscus (0.10 ± 0.03 g m-2) and Parapercis clathrata (0.23 ± 0.31 g m-2). Growth parameters generated from a von Bertalanffy growth function fitted to size-at-age data, however, indicated that mortality rates for the three mesopredators were similar and that 32-55 % of fish survived each year. Consequently, interspecific differences in annual turnover rates among E. rivulatus (1.9 g m-2 yr-1), Pa. clathrata (0.10 g m-2 yr-1) and Ps. fuscus (0.07 g m-2 yr-1) were an artefact of differences in local biomass estimates. The rapid turnover estimates for E. rivulatus suggest this species is an important conduit of energy within the isolated patch reef habitat where it is typically found, while Ps. fuscus and Pa. clathrata channel smaller amounts of energy from specific habitats in the Ningaloo lagoon. Apparent differences in habitat, diet and turnover rates of the three species examined provide an insight into the different roles these species play in coral reef food webs and suggest that life-history traits allow for variability in the local and spatial contribution of these species at Ningaloo Reef. Moreover, calculating turnover rates of a broader suite of fish species from a range of trophic groups will help better define the role of fishes in coral reef trophic dynamics.

  15. Isolation of the anaerobic intestinal spirochaete Brachyspira pilosicoli from long-term residents and Indonesian visitors to Perth, Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margawani, K Rini; Robertson, Ian D; Hampson, David J

    2009-02-01

    Brachyspira pilosicoli is an anaerobic spirochaete that colonizes the large intestine of humans and various species of animals and birds. The spirochaete is an important enteric pathogen of pigs and poultry, but its pathogenic potential in humans is less clear. In the current study, the occurrence of B. pilosicoli in faecal samples from 766 individuals in two different population groups in Perth, Western Australia, was investigated by selective anaerobic culture. Of 586 individuals who were long-term residents of Perth, including children, elderly patients in care and in hospital and individuals with gastrointestinal disease, only one was culture positive. This person had a history of diverticulitis. In comparison, faeces from 17 of 180 (9.4 %) Indonesians who were short- or medium-term visitors to Perth were positive for B. pilosicoli. The culture-positive individuals had been in the city for between 10 days and 4.5 years (median 5 months). Resampling of subsets of the Indonesians indicated that all negative people remained negative and that some positive individuals remained positive after 5 months. Two individuals had pairs of isolates recovered after 4 and 5 months that had the same PFGE types, whilst another individual had isolates with two different PFGE types that were identified 2 months apart. Individuals who were culture-positive were likely to have been either colonized in Indonesia before arriving in Perth or infected in Perth following contact with other culture-positive Indonesians with whom they socialized. Colonization with B. pilosicoli was not significantly associated with clinical signs at the time the individuals were tested, although faeces with wet-clay consistency were 1.5 times more likely (confidence interval 0.55-4.6) than normal faeces to contain B. pilosicoli.

  16. Trends in pre-existing mental health disorders among parents of infants born in Western Australia from 1990 to 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Melissa; Anderson, Denise; Morgan, Vera A; Nassar, Natasha; Leonard, Helen M; Stanley, Fiona J

    2013-05-20

    To determine the prevalence of prior and current mental health disorders in parents, including trends over time. retrospective population cohort study using de-identified linked health data. Population of Western Australia. All parents of infants born in WA between 1990 and 2005. Prevalence of prior mental health disorders in parents by birth 2013 and by parent and child characteristics, including Aboriginality, maternal age, socioeconomic status and diagnostic groups. From 1990 to 2005, there was an increase in prevalence of prior mental health disorders in mothers, from 76 per 1000 births in 1990 to 131 per 1000 births in 2005 (3.7% increase per 2013 in the odds of children being born to mothers with a prior mental health disorder). There was also a 4.7% increase in odds per 2013 in the prevalence of mental health contacts that had taken place in the 12 months before the birth 2013 in mothers. In addition, there was an increase in prevalence of prior mental health disorders in fathers, from 56 per 1000 births in 1990 to 88 per 1000 births in 2005 (3.1% increase in odds per 2013). The diagnostic group with the highest prevalence in both mothers and fathers was substance-related disorders. From 1990 to 2005, there was an increase in prevalence of parents with a prior history of mental health disorders in WA. General practitioners and mental health workers can play an important role in identifying mental illness and in working with families to offer early intervention, referral and support.

  17. Sub-surface paleochannel detection in DeGrussa area, Western Australia, using thermal infrared remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Sanchari; Chudasama, Bijal; Porwal, Alok; González-Álvarez, Ignacio

    2016-05-01

    Thermal Infrared (TIR) remote sensing measures emitted radiation of Earth in the thermal region of electromagnetic spectrum. This information can be useful in studying sub-surface features such as buried palaeochannels, which are ancient river systems that have dried up over time and are now buried under soil cover or overlying sediments in the present landscape. Therefore they have little or no expression on the surface topography. Study of these paleo channels has wide applications in the fields of uranium exploration and ground water hydrology. Identifying paleo channels using remote sensing technique is a cost-effective means of narrowing down search areas and thereby aids in ground exploration. The difference in thermal properties between the paleo channel-fill sediments and the surrounding bed-rock is the key to demarcate these channels. This study uses five TIR bands of day-time Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) L1A data for delineation of paleo-systems in the DeGrussa area of the Capricorn Orogen in Western Australia. The temperature-emissivity separation algorithm is applied to obtain kinetic temperature and emissivity images. Sharp contrasts in kinetic temperature and emissivity values are used to demarcate the channel boundaries. Profiles of topographic elevation, temperature and emissivity values are plotted for different sections of the interpreted channels and compared to distinguish the surface channels from sub-surface channels, and also to interpret the thickness and nature of the paleo channel-fill sediments. The results are validated using core-drilling litho logs and field exploration data.

  18. Unprecedented mass bleaching and loss of coral across 12° of latitude in Western Australia in 2010-11.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A Y Moore

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Globally, coral bleaching has been responsible for a significant decline in both coral cover and diversity over the past two decades. During the summer of 2010-11, anomalous large-scale ocean warming induced unprecedented levels of coral bleaching accompanied by substantial storminess across more than 12° of latitude and 1200 kilometers of coastline in Western Australia (WA. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Extreme La-Niña conditions caused extensive warming of waters and drove considerable storminess and cyclonic activity across WA from October 2010 to May 2011. Satellite-derived sea surface temperature measurements recorded anomalies of up to 5°C above long-term averages. Benthic surveys quantified the extent of bleaching at 10 locations across four regions from tropical to temperate waters. Bleaching was recorded in all locations across regions and ranged between 17% (±5.5 in the temperate Perth region, to 95% (±3.5 in the Exmouth Gulf of the tropical Ningaloo region. Coincident with high levels of bleaching, three cyclones passed in close proximity to study locations around the time of peak temperatures. Follow-up surveys revealed spatial heterogeneity in coral cover change with four of ten locations recording significant loss of coral cover. Relative decreases ranged between 22%-83.9% of total coral cover, with the greatest losses in the Exmouth Gulf. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The anomalous thermal stress of 2010-11 induced mass bleaching of corals along central and southern WA coral reefs. Significant coral bleaching was observed at multiple locations across the tropical-temperate divide spanning more than 1200 km of coastline. Resultant spatially patchy loss of coral cover under widespread and high levels of bleaching and cyclonic activity, suggests a degree of resilience for WA coral communities. However, the spatial extent of bleaching casts some doubt over hypotheses suggesting that future impacts to coral reefs under

  19. The carbon budget of Pinus radiata plantations in south-western Australia under four climate change scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simioni, Guillaume; Ritson, Peter; Kirschbaum, Miko U F; McGrath, John; Dumbrell, Ian; Copeland, Beth

    2009-09-01

    We conducted a comprehensive modelling study to estimate future stem wood production and net ecosystem production (NEP) of Pinus radiata D. Don plantations in south-western Australia, a region that is predicted to undergo severe rainfall reduction in future decades. The process-based model CenW was applied to four locations where it had previously been tested. Climate change scenarios under four emission scenarios for the period from 2005 to 2066 were considered, in addition to simulations under the current climate. Results showed that stem wood production and NEP were little affected by moderate climate change. However, under the most pessimistic climate change scenario (Special Report on Emission Scenarios A2), stem wood production and NEP decreased strongly. These results could be explained by the trade-off between the positive effect of rising atmospheric CO(2) on plant water use efficiency and the negative effects of decreasing rainfall and increasing temperatures. Because changes in heterotrophic respiration (R(H)) lagged behind changes in plant growth, and because R(H) rates were increased by higher temperatures, NEP was more negatively affected than stem wood production. Stem wood production and NEP also strongly interacted with location, with the site currently having the wettest climate being least affected by climatic change. These results suggest that realistic predictions of forest production and carbon sequestration potential in the context of climate change require (1) the use of modelling tools that describe the important feedbacks between environmental variables, plant physiology and soil organic matter decomposition, (2) consideration of a range of climate change scenarios and (3) simulations that account for a gradual climate change to capture transient effects.

  20. Hydrocarbons preserved in a ~2.7 Ga outcrop sample from the Fortescue Group, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshino, Y; Flannery, D T; Walter, M R; George, S C

    2015-03-01

    The hydrocarbons preserved in an Archean rock were extracted, and their composition and distribution in consecutive slices from the outside to the inside of the rock were examined. The 2.7 Ga rock was collected from the Fortescue Group in the Pilbara region, Western Australia. The bitumen I (solvent-extracted rock) and bitumen II (solvent-extracted hydrochloric acid-treated rock) fractions have different hydrocarbon compositions. Bitumen I contains only trace amounts of aliphatic hydrocarbons and virtually no aromatic hydrocarbons. In contrast, bitumen II contains abundant aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. The difference seems to reflect the weathering history and preservational environment of the investigated rock. Aliphatic hydrocarbons in bitumen I are considered to be mainly from later hydrocarbon inputs, after initial deposition and burial, and are therefore not indigenous. The lack of aromatic hydrocarbons in bitumen I suggests a severe weathering environment since uplift and exposure of the rock at the Earth's surface in the Cenozoic. On the other hand, the high abundance of aromatic hydrocarbons in bitumen II suggests that bitumen II hydrocarbons have been physically isolated from removal by their encapsulation within carbonate minerals. The richness of aromatic hydrocarbons and the relative scarcity of aliphatic hydrocarbons may reflect the original compositions of organic materials biosynthesised in ancient organisms in the Archean era, or the high thermal maturity of the rock. Cyanobacterial biomarkers were observed in the surficial slices of the rock, which may indicate that endolithic cyanobacteria inhabited the surface outcrop. The distribution of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons implies a high thermal maturity, which is consistent with the lack of any specific biomarkers, such as hopanes and steranes, and the prehnite-pumpellyite facies metamorphic grade.

  1. The impact of therapeutic procedure innovation on hospital patient longevity: evidence from Western Australia, 2000-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenberg, Frank R

    2013-01-01

    Assessing the benefits of medical innovation--its impact on health outcomes--is as important as assessing the costs-its impact on health expenditure. Most formal studies have focused on the expenditure impacts of medical technology, partly because costs are more easily identified and quantified than are benefits. Moreover, most quantitative research relating to the impact of broad categories of technology on health outcomes has focused on pharmaceuticals. This is the first study that investigates the benefits and costs of another broad category of medical innovation--inpatient therapeutic procedure innovation-using data on over one million hospital discharges. We investigate the effect of therapeutic procedure innovation in general on the longevity of Western Australia (WA) hospital patients with a variety of medical conditions. We can measure survival for a period as long as 8 years after admission. We know the date each procedure was added to the Medicare Benefits Schedule (MBS). First, we perform an analysis using cross-sectional patient-level data, controlling for the patient's age, sex, Diagnosis Related Group (DRG, over 600 categories), Aboriginal status, marital status, insurance coverage (whether or not the patient had private insurance), postcode (over 400 postcodes), year of hospital admission, and number of procedures performed. The estimates indicate that therapeutic procedure innovation increased the life expectancy of WA hospital patients (whose mean life expectancy was about 10 years) by almost 3 months between 2000 and 2007. Estimates based on longitudinal DRG-level data also indicate that therapeutic procedure innovation increased the life expectancy of WA hospital patients, but the implied increase may be smaller-about 2 months. In either case, therapeutic procedure innovation in WA hospitals appears to have been remarkably cost-effective, because it increased the cost of medical procedures by a negligible amount. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd

  2. Spatial and temporal patterns of nature-based tourism interactions with whale sharks (Rhincodon typus) at Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Douglas J.; Kobryn, Halina T.; Norman, Brad M.; Bejder, Lars; Tyne, Julian A.; Loneragan, Neil R.

    2014-07-01

    As with other nature-based tourism ventures, whale shark tourism is expanding rapidly worldwide, which highlights the need to understand more about the nature of these activities. Records of interactions between tour operators and whale sharks at Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia (22.5°S, 113.5°E) were obtained from the Western Australian Department of Parks and Wildlife from 2006 to 2010 and evaluated to determine the scale of the tourism operations and the spatial and temporal distribution of interactions. The number of whale shark tours at Ningaloo increased by approx. 70% (520-886 tours per year) and the number of interactions with whale sharks by 370% between 2006 (694) and 2010 (3254). The locations of whale shark interactions recorded in logbooks (2006-2009) and electronic monitoring systems (2009 and 2010) were used to plot the smoothed densities of tour operator interactions with whale sharks. Generalised linear models were used to investigate how the presence/absence and number of whale shark interactions at North and South Ningaloo were influenced by the distance to the reef crest, the distance to passages and their interaction terms for the aggregated five-year data set. Over the five years, distance to the reef crest was the best predictor of the presence/absence of whale shark interactions at both North (interactions concentrated within 3 km of the reef crest) and South Ningaloo (interactions within 6 km of the reef crest) followed by distance to passages. The reef passages are very significant areas for tourism interactions with whale sharks at Ningaloo. The distribution of interactions at North and South Ningaloo varied from year to year, particularly in the strong La Niña year of 2010, when average sea surface temperatures remained above 24 °C and whale sharks were observed much later in the year than previously (late August). This study demonstrates the value of the data collected by the tour operators at Ningaloo Reef and managed by a

  3. High-Resolution Metatranscriptomics Reveals the Ecological Dynamics of Mosquito-Associated RNA Viruses in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Mang; Neville, Peter; Nicholson, Jay; Eden, John-Sebastian; Imrie, Allison; Holmes, Edward C

    2017-09-01

    metatranscriptomic approach to determine key aspects of the ecology of mosquito viruses in Western Australia. Our results show that RNA viruses are some of the most important components of the mosquito transcriptome, and we identified 19 new virus species from a diverse set of virus families. A key result was that host genetic background plays a more important role in shaping virus diversity than sampling location, with Culex species harboring more viruses at higher abundance than those from Aedes mosquitoes. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  4. Nine new species of Bennelongia De Deckker & McKenzie, 1981 (Crustacea, Ostracoda from Western Australia, with the description of a new subfamily

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    Koen Martens

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The genus Bennelongia De Deckker & McKenzie, 1981 is most likely endemic to Australia and New Zealand and, up to now, only two described species in this genus had been reported from Western Australia. Extensive sampling in Western Australia revealed a much higher specific diversity. Here, we describe nine new species in three lineages, within the genus Bennelongia: B. cygnus sp. nov. and B. frumenta sp. nov. in the B. cygnus lineage, B. gwelupensis sp. nov., B. coondinerensis sp. nov., B. cuensis sp. nov., B. lata sp. nov. and B. bidgelangensis sp. nov. in the B. australis lineage, and B. strellyensis sp. nov. and B. kimberleyensis sp. nov. (from the Pilbara and Kimberley regions respectively in the B. pinpi-lineage. For six of the nine species, we were also able to construct molecular phylogenies and to test for cryptic diversity with two different methods based on the evolutionary genetic species concept, namely Birky’s 4 x rule and the GYMC model. These analyses support the specific nature of at least four of the five new species in the B. australis lineage and of the two new species in the B. pinpi lineage. We also describe Bennelongiinae n.subfam. to accommodate the genus. With the nine new species described here, the genus Bennelongia now comprises 15 species, but several more await formal description.

  5. An inclusive approach to raising standards in general practice: working with a 'community of practice' in Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilcox Helen

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this study we explored the challenges to establishing a community of practice (CoP to address standards in general practice. We focused on the issue of improving referral letters which are the main form of communication between general practitioners (GPs and specialists. There is evidence to suggest that the information relayed to specialists at the time of referral could be improved. Methods We aimed to develop a community of practice consisting of GPs in Western Australia to improve the quality of referral letters to six specialty clinics. Three phases included: establishing the CoP, monitoring the progress of the CoP and sustaining and managing the CoP. The CoP's activity centred on referral letters to each of six selected specialties. A local measure for the quality of the referral letters was developed from a survey of participants about specific items of history and weighted for their perceived importance in the referral letter. Referral letters by participants written before and after the benchmarking exercise were scored for quality based on the standards set by the CoP. Feedback to participants regarding the 'quality' of their individual referrals was provided by a nominated member of the CoP, including a comparison of before and after scores. Results 15 GPs were recruited. Only five GPs submitted referral letters both before and after benchmarking. The five GPs that participated in both study phases submitted a total of 102 referral letters (53 before and 49 after. There was a 26 point (95% CI 11–41 improvement in the average scores of the second set of letters after taking clustering by speciality into account, indicating the quality of referral letters improved substantially after feedback. Conclusion There are many challenges to forming a CoP to focus on improving a specific issue in general practice. However we were able to demonstrate that those practitioners who participated in all aspects of the project

  6. Implications of 3.2 Ga deep seawater from sulfur isotopic analysis of barite crystals in Pilbara, Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miki, T.; Kiyokawa, S.; Takahata, N.; Ishida, A.; Ito, T.; Ikehara, M.; Sano, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Sulfur isotopic (δ34S) analysis is used as one of the methods of Precambrian environmental reconstruction. It has been pointed out that δ34S fluctuations of sulfate and sulfide have close relationship with rise of oxygen level and increase in biological activity of sulfate reducing bacteria. For example, the difference of δ34S between sulfate and sulfide is small in Archean while it gets larger after evolution of oxygen level and biological activity (e.g. Canfield and Farquhar, 2009).  However, evidence of δ34S difference between sulfate and sulfide in Archean is scarce. In this study, we focused on barite and pyrite occurred at the layer in the 3.2 Ga Dixon Island Formation in coastal Pilbara terrane, Western Australia.  We found pyrites in from the bottom of the Black Chert Member to the Varicolored Chert Member of the Dixon Island Formation. Particularly, we can see pyrite layers of a few millimeters thick which make an alternate layers with black chert layers in the Varicolored Chert Member. The bulk δ34S values of these layers are -10.1~+26.8‰ (Sakamoto, 2010MS) and micro-meter scale heterogeneity of δ34S can be seen in minute spherical shell pyrite which was formed at early stage of diagenesis (Miki, 2015MS).  On the other hand, barite layers are remained in the lower part of the Black Chert Member in the Dixon Island Formation. In these layers, columnar quartz crystals were representative which are considered to be a pseudomorph of barite. Such equigranular occurrences of barite are typical character in submarine hydrothermal system (Kiyokawa et al., 2006). There exist small crystals of barite (less than 200 um in diameter) which are expected to be remnants of original barite. We performed microscale sulfur isotope analyses using a NanoSIMS.  As a preliminary result, we obtained δ34S value of +3.4~+9.1‰ (n=11). These values are similar to the reported values of barite which are considered to be a hydrothermal origin in 3.47 Ga North Pole

  7. Estimation of water requirement per unit carbon fixed by Eucalyptus camaldulensis in semi-arid land of Western Australia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T. Kojima; Y. Tanaka; S. Katoh; K. Tahara; N. Takahashi; K, Yamada

    2002-01-01

    Afforestation in arid land is a promising method for carbon fixation, but the effective utili-zation of water is highly important and required. Thus, the evaluation of the amount of water perunit carbon fixed with the tree growth is required to minimize the amount of water supplied to theplants. In this research, a tree is regarded as a carbon fixation reactor with inflows of water andnutrients from roots, and CO2 as the carbon source from leaves with outflow of water vapor fromleaves and accumulation in the tree itself. In the process of photosynthesis and respiration nutri-tional elements are dissolved in water flow in trees. They do not flow out by these reactions, butare accumulated in trees. Thus, we have treated the behaviour of nutrients as a marker to evaluatethe water/carbon ratio. Assuming that nutrient concentration is constant in sap, and the differences in the ratios ofnutrient to carbon in living trees and dead (i.e. litter fall, etc.) are negiected, the ratio of the usedwater to fixed carbon is given as the ratio of nutrient to carbon in the tree body divided by the ratioof nutrient to water in sap. However, some nutrients are translocated and concentrated within thetree and some may be discarded through litter fall. Thus it is important to examine which nutrientelement is the most suitable as the tracer. In this paper, the results of the above method applied to Eucalyptus camaldulensis in semi-arid land of Western Australia are shown. The value of water requirement per unit carbon fixationdetermined from potassium balance is between 421 kg-H2O/kg-C for mature trees and 285kg-H2O/k9-C for young trees, while the values from calcium balance are much larger than these.The cause of the discrepancy between these values is discussed based on the measured elementconcentrations in sap and trees and the plant physiology. Finally, the actual average value throughthe life of a tree is suggested to fall between the two values.

  8. Late Devonian carbonate magnetostratigraphy from the Oscar and Horse Spring Ranges, Lennard Shelf, Canning Basin, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansma, Jeroen; Tohver, Eric; Yan, Maodu; Trinajstic, Kate; Roelofs, Brett; Peek, Sarah; Slotznick, Sarah P.; Kirschvink, Joseph; Playton, Ted; Haines, Peter; Hocking, Roger

    2015-01-01

    The Late Devonian was a time of major evolutionary change encompassing the fifth largest mass extinction, the Frasnian-Famennian event. In order to establish a chronological framework for global correlation before, during, and following the Frasnian-Famennian mass extinction, we carried out a coupled magnetostratigraphic and biostratigraphic study of two stratigraphic sections in the Upper Devonian carbonate reef complexes of the Lennard Shelf, in the Canning Basin, Western Australia. Magnetostratigraphy from these rocks provides the first high-resolution definition of the Late Devonian magnetic polarity timescale. A 581-m-reference section and an 82-m overlapping section through the marginal slope facies (Napier Formation) of the Oscar Range as well as a 117-m section at Horse Spring (Virgin Hills Formation) were sampled at decimeter to meter scale for magnetostratigraphy. Conodont biostratigraphy was used to correlate both sections, and link magnetostratigraphic polarity zones to a globally established biostratigraphy. A stable, Characteristic Remanent Magnetization (ChRM) with dual polarities (NE, shallowly upward and SW, shallowly downward) is recovered from ∼ 60% of all samples, with magnetite inferred to be the chief magnetic carrier from thermal demagnetization characteristics. These directions define a geomagnetic pole at 49.5°S/285.8°E and α95 = 2.4 (n = 501), placing the Canning Basin at 9.9°S during the Late Devonian, consistent with carbonate reef development at this time. A conservative interpretation of the magnetostratigraphy shows the recovery of multiple reversals from both sections, not including possible cryptochrons and short duration magnetozones. Field tests for primary remanence include positive reversal tests and matching magnetozones from an overlapping section in the Oscar Range. A strong correlation was found between magnetic polarity stratigraphies of the Oscar Range and Horse Spring sections, and we correlate 12

  9. Proximity to mosquito breeding habitat and Ross River virus risk in the Peel region of Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardine, Andrew; Neville, Peter J; Lindsay, Michael D A

    2015-02-01

    It is intuitive that vector-borne disease exposure risk is related to proximity to sources of vector breeding, but this aspect rarely receives empirical testing. The population of Western Australia (WA) is increasing rapidly, with many new residential developments proposed in close proximity to mosquito breeding habitat. However, potential mosquito-borne disease risks for future residents are given little consideration by planning authorities. The Peel region is one of the fastest growing regions in WA and regularly experiences a large number of cases of the mosquito-borne Ross River virus (RRV) disease with epidemics occuring in the region every few years. A spatial analysis of RRV disease data in the Peel region was undertaken to determine the risk associated with proximity to a mosquito breeding habitat. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) software was used to create buffers between 1 and 6 km from the breeding habitat. The number of cases per 1000 dwellings in each buffer was calculated between 2002/03 to 2011/12 for years with >100 cases across all buffers (n=5) in addition to the cumulative rate over the entire period in each buffer. Residents living within 1 km of a mosquito breeding habitat had a significantly higher rate of RRV disease compared to the background rate across the Peel region in all individual years investigated. The cumulative data over the 10-year study period showed that residents in the 1- and 2-km buffers had a significantly higher rate, whereas those living between 3 and 6 km away did not. This study demonstrates an increased mosquito-borne disease risk associated with living in close proximity to a mosquito breeding habitat in a rapidly expanding region of WA and highlights the importance of considering mosquito-borne disease risks when planning authorities assess new residential development applications. Known mosquito breeding wetlands should be incorporated into land use planning scheme maps to ensure that they are accurately

  10. Hydrochemical and stable isotope indicators of pyrite oxidation in carbonate-rich environment; the Hamersley Basin, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogramaci, Shawan; McLean, Laura; Skrzypek, Grzegorz

    2017-02-01

    Sulphur (S) is a commonly occurring element in most aquifers, primarily in oxidised (sulphates) and reduced (sulphides) forms. Sulphides often constitute a risk to groundwater quality due to acid rock drainage, especially in catchments that are subject to mining excavations or groundwater injection. However, in semi-arid regions detection of the acid rock drainage risk can be challenging and traditional methods based on observations of increasing SO4 concentrations or SO4/Cl ratios in surface and groundwater, are not necessarily applicable. In addition, decreasing pH, usually accompanying pyrite oxidation, can be masked by the high pH-neutralisation capacity of carbonate and silicate minerals. Analysis of 73 surface and groundwater samples from different water bodies and aquifers located in the Hamersley Basin, Western Australia found that most of the samples are characterised by neutral pH but there was also a large spatial variability in the dissolved sulphate (SO4) concentrations that ranged from 1 mg/L to 15,000 mg/L. Not surprisingly, groundwater in aquifers that contained pyrite had high sulphate concentrations (>1000 mg/L). This was associated with low δ34SSO4 values (+1.2‰ to +4.6‰) and was consistent with the values obtained from aquifer matrix pyritic rock samples (-1.9‰ to +4.4‰). It was also found that the SO4 concentrations and acidity levels were not only dependent on δ34SSO4 values and existence of pyrite but also on the presence of carbonate minerals in the aquifer matrix. The groundwater in aquifers containing both pyrite and carbonate minerals had a neutral pH and was also saturated with respect to gypsum and had high magnesium concentrations of up to 2200 mg/L suggesting de-dolomitisation as the process buffering the acidity generated by pyrite oxidation. Based on the findings from this study, a classification scheme has been developed for identification of the acid rock drainage contribution to groundwater that encompasses a myriad of

  11. Fire history of the Peron Peninsula, Shark Bay, Western Australia based on remote sensing, dendrochronology, and anecdotal evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beller, Benjamin J.

    Remote sensing data, dendrochronology, Geographical Information Systems (GIS), and anecdotal information were used to describe the fire regime of the 180,000 ha Peron Peninsula of Western Australia. Fire scars present in 1944 aerial photos were still visible in 2009, both in imagery and on the ground. Tree-ring dates from specimens sampled within these burned areas indicated the occurrence of at least three separate fires before 1944. The oldest fire occurred ca. 1911 and burned at least 5,880 ha. Subsequent fires ca. 1922 and 1936 burned across 8,240 ha and 9,400 ha respectively. The fire dates determined from tree-ring counts were consistent with precipitation data which showed conditions particularly favorable for fire before or during the estimated year of each fire. Plant communities most often burned before 1944 were the Acacia ramulosa var. linophylla Scrub and the Acacia - Lamarchea hakefolia Thicket with, respectively, 73% and 75% of these plant community types at the study area found to have been burned at some time. Remote sensing imagery from 1944-2009 identified only 300 additional hectares burned, a 25 ha fire in 1991 in the combined Acacia ramulosa var. linophylla Scrub and A.ligulata and A. rostellifora Thicket, ten prescribed burns in 1995 totaling 274 ha in various habitats, and two late 1990's scars from prescribed burns designed to create fire buffers, one 4.6 km and the other 7.4 km long. Combined data for all years assessed showed 59,000 ha (66%) of the total study area to have been burned or reburned since ca. 1911, most prior to 1944, with a total of nearly 24,000 ha (27%) of the study area unburned for more than 110 years. Birridas, which cannot burn, accounted for the remaining 6,000 ha (7%) of the study area. These results show fire occurred more frequently 100 years ago (fires every 10-15 years) than at present (> 65 years between fires) suggesting that more frequent prescribed burning than occurs at present on the Peron Peninsula would

  12. Evolution of foredune barriers at Admiral Bay, Western Australia - Implications for Holocene relative sea levels and extreme wave events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Max; May, Simon Matthias; Scheffers, Anja; Squire, Peter; Pint, Anna; Kelletat, Dieter; Brückner, Helmut

    2014-05-01

    Only few geomorphological studies on the Canning Coast of Western Australia exist to date, most probably reflecting its remoteness and low population density. However, WA's annual gross state product (GSP) growth of ~5 % during the past decade and the highest GSP per capita nationwide resulting from a mining boom increase public attention as well as the demand for precise information on landscape inventory and evolution. In this paper, new data from a sequence of vegetated foredune barriers, gradually being eroded by a migrating estuary inside the macrotidal Admiral Bay (also known as McKelson Creek, Whistle Creek or Panganunganyjal), 110 km southwest of Broome, are presented. Based on sediment cores, DGPS-based elevation transects, and stratigraphical analyses on outcrops of the relict foredunes, we aim at (i) reconstructing lateral coastal changes during the Holocene, (ii) drawing inferences on relative sea-level (RSL) change, and (iii) identifying and dating imprints of extreme-wave events. Sedimentary analyses comprise documentation of bedding structures, foraminiferal content and macrofaunal remains (including shell taphonomy), grain size, and organic matter. Chronological contexts are established using 26 14C-AMS datings. Marine flooding of the pre-Holocene base landward of the 2.5 km-wide foredunes can be pinpointed to 7400-7200 cal BP. A mangrove ecosystem established and was quickly replaced by intertidal coarse sands after only 200-400 years. The high-energy intertidal environment prevailed until c. 4000 cal BP before turning into the present supralittoral mudflat environment. At that time, coastal regression led to beach progradation and isochronic formation of foredune barriers. Drivers of progradation were a stable RSL or gradual RSL fall after the mid-Holocene highstand and a positive sand budget provided by high sublittoral productivity of calcareous shells in combination with erosion at the adjacent sandstone capes and longshore drift. The foredunes

  13. Isospora streperae n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from a grey currawong (Strepera versicolour plumbea) (Passeriformes: Artamidae) in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rongchang; Brice, Belinda; Habsi, Khalid Al; Elliot, Aileen; Ryan, Una

    2015-01-01

    A new species, Isospora streperae n. sp., (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) is described from a single grey currawong bird (Strepera versicolour) (subspecies S. v. plumbea) in Western Australia. Sporulated oocysts (n = 32) are spherical to subspherical, with smooth colourless bilayered oocyst wall, 1.0 µm thick (outer layer 0⋅8 µm, inner 0.2 µm thick). Oocyst with a polar granule, an oocyst residuum and two spheroidal to subspheroidal sporocysts. Oocyst length, 23.8 (20.4-25.0) µm; oocyst width, 22.5 (20.0-24.6) µm; a shape index of 1.06, with Stieda, substieda bodies. Micropyle is absent. Sporocysts with compressed sporocyst residuum and four sporozoites. Sporocyst length, 14.4 (12.5-15.2) µm; sporocyst width, 11.2 (10.6-14.0) µm, sporocyst L/W ratio, 1.29. Necropsy of the bird identified haemorrhaging along the ileum and jejunum, which is where Isospora oocysts were also mostly detected. Molecular analysis was conducted at three loci; the 18S, 28S ribosomal RNA and the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase (COI) gene. At the 18S locus, I. streperae n. sp. exhibited 99.5% and 99.4% similarity respectively to an Isospora sp. (MS-2003) from a Southern cape sparrow (Passer melanurus melanurus) and Isospora dovati from a domestic pigeon (Columba livia domestica). At the 28S locus, I. streperae n. sp. exhibited 96.9% similarity to an Isospora sp. (MS-2003) from a grosbeak starling (Scissirostrum dubium) and 95.8% similarity with the Isospora sp. (MS-2003) from a Southern cape sparrow. At the COI locus, I. streperae n. sp. exhibited 95.0% similarity to Isospora sp. from a yellow-necked mouse (Apodemus flavicollis) from the Czech Republic. Based on morphological and molecular data, this isolate is a new species of Isospora, which is named Isospora streperae n. sp. after its host, the grey currawong (Strepera versicolour plumbea). Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Long-term use of secondary prevention medications for heart failure in Western Australia: a protocol for a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xiwen; Teng, Tiew-Hwa Katherine; Hung, Joseph; Briffa, Tom; Sanfilippo, Frank M

    2016-11-01

    Heart failure (HF) is a chronic, debilitating and progressive disease associated with high morbidity and mortality. Evidence-based medications (EBMs) are the cornerstone of management of patients with HF. In Australia, these EBMs are subsidised by the Commonwealth Government under the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme. Suboptimal dispensing and non-adherence to these EBMs have been observed in patients with HF. Our study will investigate trends in dispensing patterns, as well as adherence and persistence of EBMs for HF. We will also identify factors influencing these patterns and their impact on long-term clinical outcomes. This whole population-based cohort study will use longitudinal data for people aged 65-84 years who were hospitalised for HF in Western Australia between 2003 and 2008. Linked state-wide and national data will provide patient-level information on medication dispensing, medical visits, hospitalisations and death. Drug dispensing trends will be described, drug adherence and persistence estimated and the association with all-cause/cardiovascular death and hospitalisations reported. This project has received approvals from the Western Australian Department of Health Human Research Ethics Committee and the Western Australian Aboriginal Health Ethics Committee. Results will be published in relevant cardiology journals and presented at national and international conferences. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  15. Population differentiation and hybridisation of Australian snubfin (Orcaella heinsohni) and Indo-Pacific humpback (Sousa chinensis) dolphins in north-western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Alexander M; Kopps, Anna M; Allen, Simon J; Bejder, Lars; Littleford-Colquhoun, Bethan; Parra, Guido J; Cagnazzi, Daniele; Thiele, Deborah; Palmer, Carol; Frère, Celine H

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the Australian snubfin (Orcaella heinsohni) and Indo-Pacific humpback (Sousa chinensis) dolphins ('snubfin' and 'humpback dolphins', hereafter) of north-western Australia. While both species are listed as 'near threatened' by the IUCN, data deficiencies are impeding rigorous assessment of their conservation status across Australia. Understanding the genetic structure of populations, including levels of gene flow among populations, is important for the assessment of conservation status and the effective management of a species. Using nuclear and mitochondrial DNA markers, we assessed population genetic diversity and differentiation between snubfin dolphins from Cygnet (n = 32) and Roebuck Bays (n = 25), and humpback dolphins from the Dampier Archipelago (n = 19) and the North West Cape (n = 18). All sampling locations were separated by geographic distances >200 km. For each species, we found significant genetic differentiation between sampling locations based on 12 (for snubfin dolphins) and 13 (for humpback dolphins) microsatellite loci (FST = 0.05-0.09; Pdolphins in Western Australia, providing valuable information towards the assessment of their conservation status in this rapidly developing region. Our results suggest that north-western Australian snubfin and humpback dolphins may exist as metapopulations of small, largely isolated population fragments, and should be managed accordingly. Management plans should seek to maintain effective population size and gene flow. Additionally, while interactions of a socio-sexual nature between these two species have been observed previously, here we provide strong evidence for the first documented case of hybridisation between a female snubfin dolphin and a male humpback dolphin.

  16. Neoarchean metamorphism recorded in high-precision Sm-Nd isotope systematics of garnets from the Jack Hills (Western Australia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eccles, K. A.; Baxter, E. F.; Mojzsis, S. J.; Marschall, H.; Williams, M. L.; Jercinovic, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    Studies of metasedimentary rocks from the Jack Hills, which host Earth's oldest known detrital minerals, have focused on zircon and occasionally monazite or xenotime, but no attention has been directed toward one of the most common mineral markers of metamorphism: garnet. Garnet can provide a record of the post-depositional, prograde metamorphic history of Archean metasedimentary rocks. Additionally, the use of a newly developed detrital garnet dating technique [1,2] may reveal information about pre-depositional metamorphism that could address lingering questions about the nature and timing of Earth's earliest tectonometamorphic events. Here we investigate garnet from the Jack Hills metasedimentary rocks to test whether they record in situ metamorphism or are a detrital relict of even older metamorphic events. We identified garnet in two bulk quartz-pebble conglomerate samples collected from the 'discovery' outcrop at Eranondoo Hill in the Jack Hills of Western Australia. Electron microprobe analyses of polished grains and SEM measurements of unpolished grain surfaces are consistent, revealing garnet composition indicative of a single generation/population of predominantly almandine-spessartine solid solution (~10-35% mole fraction spessartine). Compositional maps of garnet grains reveal little zoning and no discontinuities, most consistent with a single growth event. Dating Jack Hills' garnet via the Sm-Nd system is possible due to continued development of small sample analysis techniques, including running NdO+ TIMS analyses with Ta2O5 activator [3] permitting nondestructive chemical prescreening technique (tabletop SEM) allows for grouping of multiple grains based on chemical similarity. Final Nd loads in the 450-750pg range routinely yield dates with precisions <×10Ma for two point isochrons between clean garnet (Sm/Nd ≥ 1.0) and their leached inclusion populations [2]. Four grouped garnet grain separates from one sample yield preliminary dates of 2703.6×6

  17. Distribution of calcretes and gypcretes in southwestern United States and their uranium favorability, based on a study of deposits in Western Australia and South West Africa (Namibia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlisle, D.; Merifield, P.M.; Orme, A.R.; Kohl, M.S.; Kolker, O.; Lunt, O.R.

    1978-01-06

    Calcrete, dolocrete, and gypcrete carnotite are abundant in western Australia and Namib Desert, although only a few are of ore grade. The geology of these deposits are described. A genetic classification of calcretes emphasizing uranium favorability was developed, based on the distinction between pedogenic and nonpedogenic processes. Similarities between western Australia and South West Africa give support for the conclusions that lateral transport of U in groundwater is essential to ore deposition and that bedrock barriers or constrictions which narrow the channel of subsurface flow or force the water close to the land surface, greatly favor the formation of uraniferous calcretes. Criteria for uranium favorability deduced from the Australian and South West African studies were applied in a preliminary way to the southern Basin and Range Province of U.S. The procedure is to search for areas in which nonpedogenic calcrete or gypcrete may have developed. A caliche distribution map was compiled from soil survey and field data. Many areas were visited and some of the more interesting are described briefly, including parts of Clark County, Nevada, with occurrences of carnotite in calcrete. (DLC)

  18. Advances in Large-Scale Mudflat Surveying: The Roebuck Bay and Eighty Mile Beach, Western Australia Examples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hickey, R.J.; Pearson, G.B.; Piersma, T.

    2015-01-01

    The shores of Roebuck Bay and Eighty Mile Beach in northwestern Australia are amongst the richest known intertidal mudflats worldwide. They are both listed as Wetlands of International Importance under the Ramsar Convention, primarily because of the high numbers of shorebirds that migrate to and

  19. Advances in large-scale mudflat surveying : The Roebuck Bay and Eighty Mile Beach, Western Australia examples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hickey, Robert J.; Pearson, Grant B.; Piersma, Theunis; Finkl, Charles W.; Makowski, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    The shores of Roebuck Bay and Eighty Mile Beach in northwestern Australia are amongst the richest known intertidal mudflats worldwide. They are both listed as Wetlands of International Importance under the Ramsar Convention, primarily because of the high numbers of shorebirds that migrate to and

  20. "If you don't believe it, it won't help you": use of bush medicine in treating cancer among Aboriginal people in Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bessarab Dawn

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the use of bush medicine and traditional healing among Aboriginal Australians for their treatment of cancer and the meanings attached to it. A qualitative study that explored Aboriginal Australians' perspectives and experiences of cancer and cancer services in Western Australia provided an opportunity to analyse the contemporary meanings attached and use of bush medicine by Aboriginal people with cancer in Western Australia Methods Data collection occurred in Perth, both rural and remote areas and included individual in-depth interviews, observations and field notes. Of the thirty-seven interviews with Aboriginal cancer patients, family members of people who died from cancer and some Aboriginal health care providers, 11 participants whose responses included substantial mention on the issue of bush medicine and traditional healing were selected for the analysis for this paper. Results The study findings have shown that as part of their healing some Aboriginal Australians use traditional medicine for treating their cancer. Such healing processes and medicines were preferred by some because it helped reconnect them with their heritage, land, culture and the spirits of their ancestors, bringing peace of mind during their illness. Spiritual beliefs and holistic health approaches and practices play an important role in the treatment choices for some patients. Conclusions Service providers need to acknowledge and understand the existence of Aboriginal knowledge (epistemology and accept that traditional healing can be an important addition to an Aboriginal person's healing complementing Western medical treatment regimes. Allowing and supporting traditional approaches to treatment reflects a commitment by modern medical services to adopting an Aboriginal-friendly approach that is not only culturally appropriate but assists with the cultural security of the service.

  1. A Synthesis of Local, Teleseismic, and Ambient Noise Data for High-Resolution Models of Seismic Structure in Western and Southeast Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, M. K.; Tkalcic, H.; Rawlinson, N.; Arroucau, P.; Reading, A. M.

    2010-12-01

    Group and phase velocity maps of the Tasmanian and Western Australian lithosphere are obtained through the cross-correlation of seismic ambient noise recorded by temporary array deployments. Group velocities of fundamental mode Rayleigh waves are calculated through an automated frequency-time (FTAN) procedure. Phase-matched filters are applied to the negative time derivative of the symmetric component of the cross-correlation of ambient noise between two stations. Phase velocity maps are derived from the far-field representation of the Green's functions, and the phase ambiguity is resolved through analysis of the observed phase move-out. Group and phase velocities are mapped using an iterative non-linear inversion technique, which smoothly interpolates velocities between a grid of nodes using cubic B-splines. 3-D shear wave velocity can be readily obtained from the phase velocity maps. Additional constraints from receiver functions have the potential to improve depth resolution. The southeast Australia dataset comes from the WOMBAT rolling seismic array project in Tasmania, which in the last decade has seen over 500 stations deployed. Here, we use the 40 station SETA array, which was deployed in southeast Tasmania during 2006 and 2007 and has a station spacing of just 20km. Group and phase velocity maps for this area reinforce results from previous wide-angle tomography studies and clearly discriminate between regions of hard rock and sediment. One of the prominent features of the maps is a pronounced low velocity lineation that coincides with the Tasman conductivity anomaly, a region of elevated conductivity and heat flow, which may reflect the presence of a lithospheric boundary. These methods were also applied to the 20 CAPRAL stations in western Australia. While station spacing is sparser in this case, the greater interstation distances enable longer period dispersion maps to be resolved. The final shear velocity crust models obtained through the joint

  2. Regional climate modeling of heat stress, frost, and water stress events in the agricultural region of Southwest Western Australia under the current climate and future climate scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kala, Jatin; Lyons, Tom J.; Abbs, Deborah J.; Foster, Ian J.

    2010-05-01

    Heat stress, frost, and water stress events have significant impacts on grain quality and production within the agricultural region (wheat-belt) of Southwest Western Australia (SWWA) (Cramb, 2000) and understanding how the frequency and intensity of these events will change in the future is crucial for management purposes. Hence, the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (Pielke et al, 1992) (RAMS Version 6.0) is used to simulate the past 10 years of the climate of SWWA at a 20 km grid resolution by down-scaling the 6-hourly 1.0 by 1.0 degree National Center for Environmental Prediction Final Analyses from December 1999 to Present. Daily minimum and maximum temperatures, as well as daily rainfall are validated against observations. Simulations of future climate are carried out by down-scaling the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO) Mark 3.5 General Circulation Model (Gordon et al, 2002) for 10 years (2046-2055) under the SRES A2 scenario using the Cubic Conformal Atmospheric Model (CCAM) (McGregor and Dix, 2008). The 6-hourly CCAM output is then downscaled to a 20 km resolution using RAMS. Changes in extreme events are discussed within the context of the continued viability of agriculture in SWWA. Cramb, J. (2000) Climate in relation to agriculture in south-western Australia. In: The Wheat Book (Eds W. K. Anderson and J. R. Garlinge). Bulletin 4443. Department of Agriculture, Western Australia. Gordon, H. B., Rotstayn, L. D., McGregor, J. L., Dix, M. R., Kowalczyk, E. A., O'Farrell, S. P., Waterman, L. J., Hirst, A. C., Wilson, S. G., Collier, M. A., Watterson, I. G., and Elliott, T. I. (2002). The CSIRO Mk3 Climate System Model [Electronic publication]. Aspendale: CSIRO Atmospheric Research. (CSIRO Atmospheric Research technical paper; no. 60). 130 p McGregor, J. L., and Dix, M. R., (2008) An updated description of the conformal-cubic atmospheric model. High Resolution Simulation of the Atmosphere and Ocean, Hamilton, K. and Ohfuchi

  3. Population differentiation and hybridisation of Australian snubfin (Orcaella heinsohni and Indo-Pacific humpback (Sousa chinensis dolphins in north-western Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander M Brown

    Full Text Available Little is known about the Australian snubfin (Orcaella heinsohni and Indo-Pacific humpback (Sousa chinensis dolphins ('snubfin' and 'humpback dolphins', hereafter of north-western Australia. While both species are listed as 'near threatened' by the IUCN, data deficiencies are impeding rigorous assessment of their conservation status across Australia. Understanding the genetic structure of populations, including levels of gene flow among populations, is important for the assessment of conservation status and the effective management of a species. Using nuclear and mitochondrial DNA markers, we assessed population genetic diversity and differentiation between snubfin dolphins from Cygnet (n = 32 and Roebuck Bays (n = 25, and humpback dolphins from the Dampier Archipelago (n = 19 and the North West Cape (n = 18. All sampling locations were separated by geographic distances >200 km. For each species, we found significant genetic differentiation between sampling locations based on 12 (for snubfin dolphins and 13 (for humpback dolphins microsatellite loci (FST = 0.05-0.09; P<0.001 and a 422 bp sequence of the mitochondrial control region (FST = 0.50-0.70; P<0.001. The estimated proportion of migrants in a population ranged from 0.01 (95% CI 0.00-0.06 to 0.13 (0.03-0.24. These are the first estimates of genetic diversity and differentiation for snubfin and humpback dolphins in Western Australia, providing valuable information towards the assessment of their conservation status in this rapidly developing region. Our results suggest that north-western Australian snubfin and humpback dolphins may exist as metapopulations of small, largely isolated population fragments, and should be managed accordingly. Management plans should seek to maintain effective population size and gene flow. Additionally, while interactions of a socio-sexual nature between these two species have been observed previously, here we provide strong evidence for

  4. The effect of weathering on U-Th-Pb and oxygen isotope systems of ancient zircons from the Jack Hills, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pidgeon, R. T.; Nemchin, A. A.; Whitehouse, M. J.

    2017-01-01

    We report the result of a SIMS U-Th-Pb and O-OH study of 44 ancient zircons from the Jack Hills in Western Australia with ages ranging from 4.3 Ga to 3.3 Ga. We have investigated the behaviour of oxygen isotopes and water in the grains by determining δ18O and OH values at a number of locations on the polished surfaces of each grain. We have divided the zircons into five groups on the basis of their U-Th-Pb and OH-oxygen isotopic behaviour. The first group has concordant U-Th-Pb ages, minimal common Pb, δ18O values consistent with zircons derived from mantle source rocks and no detectable OH content. U-Th-Pb systems in zircons from Groups 2, 3 and 4 vary from concordant to extremely discordant where influenced by cracks. Discordia intercepts with concordia at approximately zero Ma age are interpreted as disturbance of the zircon U-Th-Pb systems by weathering solutions during the extensive, deep weathering that has affected the Archean Yilgarn Craton of Western Australia since at least the Permian. Weathering solutions entering cracks have resulted in an influx of Th and U. δ18O values of Group 2 grains fall approximately within the "mantle" range and OH is within background levels or slightly elevated. δ18O values of Group 3 grains are characterised by an initial trend of decreasing δ18O with increasing OH content. With further increase in OH this trend reverses and δ18O becomes heavier with increasing OH. Group 4 grains have a distinct trend of increasing δ18O with increasing OH. These trends are explained in terms of the reaction of percolating water with the metamict zircon structure and appear to be independent of analytical overlap with cracks. Group five zircons are characterised by U-Pb systems that appear to consist of more than one age but show only minor U-Pb discordance. Nevertheless trends in δ18O versus OH in this group of grains resemble trends seen in the other groups. The observed trends of δ18O with OH in the Jack Hills zircons are similar

  5. Macrocrustáceos (Peracarida, Decapoda de fondos carbonatados del sector occidental del banco de Campeche en el sur del golfo de México Macrocrustacea (Peracarida, Decapoda from carbonated habitats in the western sector of the Campeche Bank in the Southern Gulf of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elva Escobar-Briones

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio reconoce el número de familias, abundancia, diversidad biológica y distribución de las comunidades de macrocrustáceos asociadas a fondos carbonatados del sector occidental del banco de Campeche. Las muestras analizadas de fondos carbonatados provinieron de colectas realizadas a bordo del B/O Pelican de la Universidad de Louisiana con arrastres efectuados en un intervalo de 20 a 182 m de profundidad. Se identificaron 64 familias. El número de familias, la abundancia y diversidad biológica disminuyó con la profundidad. La distancia a los bancos y arrecifes determinan la variación en la riqueza de familias y la distribución de la asociación de macrocrustáceos. El banco de Campeche puede considerarse un hotspot de diversidad biológica marina para los macrocrustáceos asociados a fondos carbonatados.This study contributes with information on the number of families, abundance, biodiversity and geographical distribution of the crustacean assemblage associated to carbonated habitats in the western sector of the Campeche Bank. The samples studied were collected onboard the R/V Pelican of the University of Louisiana from dredge materials obtained at a range of 20 to 182 m depth. The specimens were grouped into 64 families. The number of families, the abundance and diversity values decreased with increasing depth. The distance to the banks and reef islands determined the variability recorded in the richness of families and the distribution patterns of the macrocrustacean assemblage. The Campeche Bank is suggested to be a "hotspot" of biological diversity for the macrocrustaceans associated to the carbonated bottoms.

  6. La cooperación al servicio de la recuperación de la diversidad: experiencias en Western Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Fernández, María Ángeles

    2008-01-01

    Décadas de uso inadecuado de los recursos naturales en Australia han llevado a la extinción de numerosas especies autóctonas. Aprendiendo de sus propios errores, se han inicido recientemente diferentes proyectos de conservación en los que participan diversos agentes interesados. La Región de los Central Ranges, en el Desierto de Gibson, pertenece al pueblo aborigen Ngaanyatjarra. En los años 90 se llevó a cabo una campaña de recolección de organismos, patrocinada por el Museo de W...

  7. Emergence of a new lineage of dengue virus type 2 identified in travelers entering Western Australia from Indonesia, 2010-2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo Ernst

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue virus (DENV transmission is ubiquitous throughout the tropics. More than 70% of the current global dengue disease burden is borne by people who live in the Asia-Pacific region. We sequenced the E gene of DENV isolated from travellers entering Western Australia between 2010-2012, most of whom visited Indonesia, and identified a diverse array of DENV1-4, including multiple co-circulating viral lineages. Most viruses were closely related to lineages known to have circulated in Indonesia for some time, indicating that this geographic region serves as a major hub for dengue genetic diversity. Most notably, we identified a new lineage of DENV-2 (Cosmopolitan genotype that emerged in Bali in 2011-2012. The spread of this lineage should clearly be monitored. Surveillance of symptomatic returned travellers provides important and timely information on circulating DENV serotypes and genotypes, and can reveal the herald wave of dengue and other emerging infectious diseases.

  8. Association between early bacterial carriage and otitis media in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children in a semi-arid area of Western Australia: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Wenxing

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Streptococcus pneumoniae (Pnc, nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi and Moraxella catarrhalis (Mcat are the most important bacterial pathogens associated with otitis media (OM. Previous studies have suggested that early upper respiratory tract (URT bacterial carriage may increase risk of subsequent OM. We investigated associations between early onset of URT bacterial carriage and subsequent diagnosis of OM in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children living in the Kalgoorlie-Boulder region located in a semi-arid zone of Western Australia. Methods Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children who had nasopharyngeal aspirates collected at age 1-  Results Carriage rates of Pnc, NTHi and Mcat at age 1-  Conclusion Early NTHi carriage in Aboriginal children and Mcat in non-Aboriginal children is associated with increased risk of OM independent of environmental factors. In addition to addressing environmental risk factors for carriage such as overcrowding and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, early administration of pneumococcal-Haemophilus influenzae D protein conjugate vaccine to reduce bacterial carriage in infants, may be beneficial for Aboriginal children; such an approach is currently being evaluated in Australia.

  9. A retrospective survey of the safety of trivalent influenza vaccine among adults working in healthcare settings in south metropolitan Perth, Western Australia, in 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvoy, Suzanne P

    2012-04-05

    In Australia, annual vaccination with trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) is recommended for healthcare providers. Each year, an influenza vaccination program is run in south metropolitan area hospitals in Perth, Western Australia. In 2010, a survey to examine side effects following vaccination and subsequent significant respiratory illnesses during the influenza season was undertaken. A total of 2245 individuals vaccinated in the area-wide hospital vaccination program responded, representing 50% of consenting recipients. Data linkage was performed to ascertain additional information such as brand details. Side effects within 48 h of receipt of the influenza vaccine were reported by 387 (17.2%). Only 30 respondents (1.3%) had to seek health advice following a side effect temporally related to influenza vaccination and 10 (0.4%) required treatment. Recipients who received Fluvax®(364, 18.0%; CSL Biotherapies) were more likely to report side effects than those who received another brand (23, 10.2%; OR 1.94, 95% CI 1.24-3.03, P=0.004). The difference in the side effect profiles was largely confined to systemic effects. Most respondents (1621, 72.2%) did not require time off work for a respiratory illness during the subsequent influenza season. Overall, the influenza vaccine was demonstrated to be safe among this large sample of predominantly healthcare workers. A higher rate of adverse events, albeit primarily mild, was reported among recipients of Fluvax® in 2010.

  10. Drivers for change: Western Australia Patient Blood Management Program (WA PBMP), World Health Assembly (WHA) and Advisory Committee on Blood Safety and Availability (ACBSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Shannon L; Towler, Simon C; Leahy, Michael F; Hofmann, Axel

    2013-03-01

    Patient blood management is now high on national and international health-system agendas. Serious supply challenges as a result of changing population dynamics, escalating cost of blood, ongoing safety challenges and questions about transfusion efficacy and outcomes are necessitating change in transfusion practice. Numerous initiatives are underway to bring about change, including the institution of comprehensive patient blood management programmes. In 2008, the Western Australia Department of Health initiated a 5-year project to implement a comprehensive health-system-wide Patient Blood Management Program with the aim of improving patient outcomes while reducing costs. Clinically, the Program was structured on the three pillars of patient blood management, namely (1) optimising the patient's own red cell mass, (2) minimising blood loss and (3) harnessing and optimising the patient-specific anaemia reserve. It employs multiple strategies to bring about a cultural change from a blood-product focus to a patient focus. This Program was undertaken in a State that already had one of the lowest red blood cell issuance rates per 1000 population in the developed world (30.47 red blood cell units per 1000 population). The Program identified reasons and drivers for practice change. From financial years 2008-09 to 2011-12, issuance has progressively decreased in Western Australia to 27.54 units per 1000. During the same years, despite increasing activity, total issuance of red blood cells to the entire State decreased from 70,103 units to 65,742. Nationally and internationally, other initiatives are underway to bring about change and implement patient blood management. The World Health Assembly in May 2010 adopted resolution WHA63.12 endorsing patient blood management and its three-pillar application. The United States Advisory Committee on Blood Safety and Availability met in 2011 to consider the implications of this resolution and its implementation. Copyright © 2012

  11. Under-ascertainment of Aboriginality in records of cardiovascular disease in hospital morbidity and mortality data in Western Australia: a record linkage study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katzenellenbogen Judy M

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Measuring the real burden of cardiovascular disease in Australian Aboriginals is complicated by under-identification of Aboriginality in administrative health data collections. Accurate data is essential to measure Australia's progress in its efforts to intervene to improve health outcomes of Australian Aboriginals. We estimated the under-ascertainment of Aboriginal status in linked morbidity and mortality databases in patients hospitalised with cardiovascular disease. Methods Persons with public hospital admissions for cardiovascular disease in Western Australia during 2000-2005 (and their 20-year admission history or who subsequently died were identified from linkage data. The Aboriginal status flag in all records for a given individual was variously used to determine their ethnicity (index positive, and in all records both majority positive or ever positive and stratified by region, age and gender. The index admission was the baseline comparator. Results Index cases comprised 62,692 individuals who shared a total of 778,714 hospital admissions over 20 years, of which 19,809 subsequently died. There were 3,060 (4.9% persons identified as Aboriginal on index admission. An additional 83 (2.7% Aboriginal cases were identified through death records, increasing to 3.7% when cases with a positive Aboriginal identifier in the majority (≥50% of previous hospital admissions over twenty years were added and by 20.8% when those with a positive flag in any record over 20 years were incorporated. These results equated to underestimating Aboriginal status in unlinked index admission by 2.6%, 3.5% and 17.2%, respectively. Deaths classified as Aboriginal in official records would underestimate total Aboriginal deaths by 26.8% (95% Confidence Interval 24.1 to 29.6%. Conclusions Combining Aboriginal determinations in morbidity and official death records increases ascertainment of unlinked cardiovascular morbidity in Western Australian

  12. Common features of the tectonosphere deep structure in the Western Pacific Margins (Northeast Asia Region and Australia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrishchevsky, A. M.

    2016-11-01

    This paper analyses the spatial distributions of gravity sources and density contrast of geological media between the centers of mass of density heterogeneities and surfaces of some layers, which is reflected by the values of parameter μz, in the Northeast Asia Region and Australia. Statistical images of complex distributions of density heterogeneities are generally consistent with the shallowest tectonic structures, wave velocity, and electric anomalies. The correlation of μz minimums with high heat flow suggests melted magmas beneath the crust base and in the asthenosphere. In the lower crust layer, large μz maximums correlate with major continental megaelements, which are divided by extended linear μz minimums, high conductivity anomalies, and Vp/ Vs maximums marking zones of lower viscosity. Deep boundaries and a thickness of lithospheric plates and asthenosphere lenses have been defined in the Northeast Asia Region. In Australia, two roughly NS-striking low-viscosity zones crossing the continent reflect the deep setting of the Lasseter (in the west) and the Tasman (in the east) lines. These zones are displayed in a wide depth range (15-120 km) and are confined to the Archean-Proterozoic and Proterozoic-Phanerozoic boundaries in the Australian lithosphere. Statistical gravity models derived without external (relatively to gravity) geological and geophysical information prove the multilayered tectonosphere structure of both continents and the similar deep structure features of their margins.

  13. D/H of late Miocene meteoric waters in Western Australia: Paleoenvironmental conditions inferred from the δD of (U-Th)/He-dated CID goethite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yapp, Crayton J.; Shuster, David L.

    2017-09-01

    Nineteen (U-Th)/He ages were determined for eight samples from a core drilled in an ore-grade channel iron deposit (CID) of the Robe Pisolite (Robe Formation) of Mesa J in Western Australia. With one exception, uncorrected ages of the analyzed aliquots range from 6.7(±0.4) Ma to 30.2(±3.1) Ma, while molar ratios of Th/U range from 0.42 to 5.06. The exception is an aliquot with an apparent age of 2.7 Ma and Th/U of 5.70. A three-component mixing model involving one generation of goethite and two generations of hematite suggests that the age of crystallization of the oolitic goethites is ∼7(±1) Ma. If so, the goethites have effectively been closed systems for ∼7 million years and should preserve a stable hydrogen isotope record of late Miocene rainfall in the vicinity of Mesa J. Cenozoic movement of the Australian continent had placed Mesa J and environs in the subtropics at a paleolatitude of about 29 °S during the late Miocene. Al-adjusted δD values of oolitic goethite in the eight CID samples range from -153‰ to -146‰ and imply that the δD of the late Miocene meteoric waters ranged from -61‰ to -53‰, with an average of -56‰. These relatively negative δD values might indicate that near-coastal, late Miocene rain was derived primarily from summer-season tropical cyclones with storm tracks that extended into the subtropics of western Australia. The postulated late Miocene tropical cyclones would have occurred more often and/or exhibited greater intensity at a paleolatitude of 29 °S than is the case for modern sites at approximately 30 °S on the west coast of Australia (e.g., Perth). Higher fluxes of meteoric water in the Miocene summers would have facilitated dissolution and removal of BIF-sourced silica with concomitant enrichment in oxidized Fe. Moreover, wetter late Miocene summers could have promoted multiple cycles of microbially mediated dissolution and recrystallization of Fe(III) oxides in the aerobic systems. The oolitic textures may

  14. Orff-Schulwerk as a Pedagogical Tool for the Effective Teaching of Italian to Upper Primary Students in Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolino, Annamaria; Lummis, Geoffrey W.

    2014-01-01

    The use of songs and music in the Languages classroom is common practice. Research literature contains positive statements about music as a cognitive, linguistic and affective enhancer. Music and Languages risk becoming marginalised in the Western Australian curriculum due to curriculum pressures. Reduction of time in these learning areas could…

  15. Aeromagnetic Survey by Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle with Magneto-Resistant Magnetometer at the northern Kalgoorlie area, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funaki, M.; Group, A.; Milligan, P.

    2006-12-01

    We have developed the technology of small drones (unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV)) and an onboard magnetometer focussed on the aeromagnetic surveys under the Ant-Plane project. We succeeded long distant flight to 500km with agnetometer by Ant-Plene4 drone collaborated with Geoscience, Australia, in March 2006. The survey was carried out in the area 10kmx10km around Mt. Vetters Station, Kalgoorlie, West Australian. The magnetic data are obtained from 41 courses (250m in interval) of EW dierction. The altitude of the flight was 900m from sea level and 500m from the runway. The Ant-Plane #4 consists of 2.6m span and 2.0m length with 2-cycles and 2-cylinder 85cc gasoline engine, GPS navigation system by microcomputer and radio telemeter system. The total weight is 25kg including 12.4 litter fuels and the coursing speed is 130. The magnetometer system consists of a 3-component magneto- resistant magnetometer (MR) sensor (Honeywell HMR2300), GPS and data logger. Three components of magnetic field, latitude, longitude, altitude, the number of satellite and time can be recorded in every second during 6 hours. The sensitivity of the magnetometer is 7 nT and we use a total magnetic field intensity for magnetic analysis due to unknown direction of heading of the plane. MR-magnetometer sensor was installed at the tip of a FRP pipe of 1m length, and the pipe was fixed to the head of the plane in order to reduce the plane magnetization. After 4 hours 14 minutes from the takeoff, the 500km flight was accomplished and the magnetic data were obtained from the data logger. The straight flight course was almost consistent with the way point course, but the course was drastically disturbed when the plane was turning. The magnetic noise level during the flight increased to 30nT, when the plane was flight in the tail wind. However, it is much higher when the plane flew in the head wind. The anomaly pattern obtained from Ant-Plane 4 was compared with the magnetic anomaly map published by

  16. Water scarcity and institutional change: lessons in adaptive governance from the drought experience of Perth, Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettini, Y; Brown, R; de Haan, F J

    2013-01-01

    Urban water systems will be increasingly challenged under future climates and global pressures. Meeting challenges by reconfiguring water systems to integrate supplies and deliver multifunctional uses is technically well described. Adjusting the institutions that frame the management of these systems is not well operationalized in practice or conceptualized in theory. This study seeks to address this gap through an institutional analysis of Perth, Australia, a city where drought crisis has put under pressure both management practices and the institutional setting that underlies them. The study found that while trusted practices moderated water scarcity, the stability of the institutional setting may not facilitate a shift toward adaptable institutional configurations suited to future conditions. The results identified three key ingredients for a flexible institutional setting: (i) feedbacks in the system through better information management, (ii) reflexive dialogue and strategic use of projects to generate greater learning opportunities, and (iii) policy level support for sector-wide collaboration through progressive agendas, incentives for innovation and capacity building in stakeholder and community engagement. Further, the results suggest that a deeper understanding of institutional dynamics is needed to enable adaptive governance. The paper provides an analytical framework for diagnosing how greater adaptive capacity might be mobilized through influencing these dynamics.

  17. Migrant Sexual Health Help-Seeking and Experiences of Stigmatization and Discrimination in Perth, Western Australia: Exploring Barriers and Enablers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agu, Josephine; Lobo, Roanna; Crawford, Gemma; Chigwada, Bethwyn

    2016-05-11

    Increasing HIV notifications amongst migrant and mobile populations to Australia is a significant public health issue. Generalizations about migrant health needs and delayed or deterred help-seeking behaviors can result from disregarding the variation between and within cultures including factors, such as drivers for migration and country of birth. This study explored barriers and enablers to accessing sexual health services, including experiences of stigma and discrimination, within a purposive sample of sub-Saharan African, Southeast Asian, and East Asian migrants. A qualitative design was employed using key informant interviews and focus group discussions. A total of 45 people with ages ranging from 18 to 50 years, participated in focus group discussions. Common barriers and enablers to help seeking behaviors were sociocultural and religious influence, financial constraints, and knowledge dissemination to reduce stigma. Additionally, common experiences of stigma and discrimination were related to employment and the social and self-isolation of people living with HIV. Overcoming barriers to accessing sexual health services, imparting sexual health knowledge, recognizing variations within cultures, and a reduction in stigma and discrimination will simultaneously accelerate help-seeking and result in better sexual health outcomes in migrant populations.

  18. Horticultural Loss Generated by Wholesalers: A Case Study of the Canning Vale Fruit and Vegetable Markets in Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purabi R. Ghosh

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In today’s economic climate, businesses need to efficiently manage their finite resources to maintain long-term sustainable growth, productivity, and profits. However, food loss produces large unacceptable economic losses, environmental degradation, and impacts on humanity globally. Its cost in Australia is estimated to be around AUS$8 billion each year, but knowledge of its extent within the food value chain from farm to fork is very limited. The present study examines food loss by wholesalers. A survey questionnaire was prepared and distributed; 35 wholesalers and processors replied and their responses to 10 targeted questions on produce volumes, amounts handled, reasons for food loss, and innovations applied or being considered to reduce and utilize food loss were analyzed. Reported food loss was estimated to be 180 kg per week per primary wholesaler and 30 kg per secondary wholesaler, or around 286 tonnes per year. Participants ranked “over supply” and “no market demand” as the main causes for food loss. The study found that improving grading guidelines has the potential to significantly reduce food loss levels and improve profit margins.

  19. AIRSAR Data for Geological and Geomorphological Mapping in the Great Sandy Desert and Pilbara Regions of Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapley, Ian J.

    1996-01-01

    Enhancements of AIRSAR data have demonstrated the benefits of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) for revealing an additional and mich higher level of information about the composition of the terrain than enhancements f either SPOT-PAN or Landsat TM data. With appropriate image processing techniques, surface and near surface geological structures, hydrological systems (both current and ancient) and landform features, have been evidenced in a diverse range of landscapes. In the Great Sandy Desert region where spectral variability is minimal, radar's sensitivity to the micromorphology of sparse exposures of subcrop and lag gravels has provided a new insight into the region's geological framework, its landforms, and their evolution. In the Pilbara region, advanced processing of AIRSAR data to unmix the backscatter between and within the three frequencies of data has highlighted subsurface extensions of greenstone lithologies below sand cover and morphological evidence of past flow conditions under former climate regimes. On the basis of these observations, it is recommend that radar remote sensing technology involving the use of high resolution, polarimetric data be seriously considered as a viable tool for exploration in erosional and depositional environments located within Australia's mineral and oil-prospective provinces.

  20. Diagnosing cancer in the bush: a mixed-methods study of symptom appraisal and help-seeking behaviour in people with cancer from rural Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Jon D; Walter, Fiona M; Gray, Vicky; Sinclair, Craig; Howting, Denise; Bulsara, Max; Bulsara, Caroline; Webster, Andrew; Auret, Kirsten; Saunders, Christobel; Nowak, Anna; Holman, C D'Arcy

    2013-06-01

    Previous studies have focused on the treatment received by rural cancer patients and have not examined their diagnostic pathways as reasons for poorer outcomes in rural Australia. To compare and explore symptom appraisal and help-seeking behaviour in patients with breast, lung, prostate or colorectal cancer from rural Western Australia (WA). A mixed-methods study of people recently diagnosed with breast, lung, prostate or colorectal cancer from rural WA. The time from first symptom to diagnosis (i.e. total diagnostic interval, TDI) was calculated from interviews and medical records. Sixty-six participants were recruited (24 breast, 20 colorectal, 14 prostate and 8 lung cancer patients). There was a highly significant difference in time from symptom onset to seeking help between cancers (P = 0.006). Geometric mean symptom appraisal for colorectal cancer was significantly longer than that for breast and lung cancers [geometric mean differences: 2.58 (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.64-4.53), P = 0.01; 3.97 (1.63-6.30), P = 0.001, respectively]. There was a significant overall difference in arithmetic mean TDI (P = 0.046); breast cancer TDI was significantly shorter than colorectal or prostate cancer TDI [mean difference : 266.3 days (95% CI: 45.9-486.8), P = 0.019; 277.0 days, (32.1-521.9), P = 0.027, respectively]. These differences were explained by the nature and personal interpretation of symptoms, perceived as well as real problems of access to health care, optimism, stoicism, machismo, fear, embarrassment and competing demands. Longer symptom appraisal was observed for colorectal cancer. Participants defined core characteristics of rural Australians as optimism, stoicism and machismo. These features, as well as access to health care, contribute to later presentation of cancer.

  1. Nature conservation on agricultural land: a case study of the endangered Carnaby’s Cockatoo Calyptorhynchus latirostris breeding at Koobabbie in the northern wheatbelt of Western Australia

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    Denis Saunders

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nature conservation and agricultural production may be considered as conflicting objectives, but for a wheat and sheep property in Western Australia they have been pivotal management objectives for the last 48 years. Koobabbie, a 7,173 ha property, has retained 41.5% of the original native vegetation, and is a designated Important Bird Area by BirdLife Australia, while still being an economically profitable agricultural enterprise. Since 1987 the owners of Koobabbie have kept detailed records of the avifauna of the property, and encouraged staff from government, non-government and academic organisations to conduct research and monitoring of the endangered Carnaby’s Cockatoo Calyptorhynchus latirostris breeding on their property. In addition, they have instituted control programs for two over-abundant cockatoo species which compete with Carnaby’s Cockatoo for nest sites, and for Feral Cats that are predators of nesting female Carnaby’s Cockatoo and their offspring. This paper presents the results of research and monitoring from 2003-2013, during which seven artificial nesting hollows were erected, and former active nest hollows that had become derelict were repaired. By 2008, the number of breeding pairs on the property was at least 27, but two mass deaths of breeding females in 2009 and 2012 reduced the number of breeding pairs by 80%. This study illustrates the importance of monitoring conservation on private property, and raises a number of issues in relation to management of endangered species dependent on large hollow-bearing trees on private property.

  2. Hospital Utilisation in Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Infants under 12 Months of Age in Western Australia, Prospective Population Based Data Linkage Study.

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    Kimberley McAuley

    Full Text Available Indigenous infants (infants aged under 12 months have the highest hospital admission and emergency department presentation risks in Australia. However, there have been no recent reports comparing hospital utilisation between Indigenous and non-Indigenous infants.Our primary objective was to use a large prospective population-based linked dataset to assess the risk of all-cause hospital admission and emergency department presentation in Indigenous compared to non-Indigenous infants in Western Australia (WA. Secondary objectives were to assess the effect of socio-economic status (Index of Relative Socio-Economic Disadvantage [IRSD] on hospital utilisation and to understand the causes of hospital utilisation.There were 3,382 (5.4% Indigenous and 59,583 (94.6% non-Indigenous live births in WA from 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2011. Indigenous infants had a greater risk of hospital admission (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.90, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.77-2.04, p = <0.001 and emergency department presentation (aOR 2.15, 95% CI 1.98-2.33, p = <0.001 compared to non-Indigenous infants. Fifty nine percent (59.0% of admissions in Indigenous children were classified as preventable compared to 31.2% of admissions in non-Indigenous infants (aOR 2.12, 95% CI 1.88-2.39. The risk of hospital admission in the most disadvantaged (IRSD 1 infants in the total cohort (35.7% was similar to the risk in the least disadvantaged (IRSD 5 infants (30.6% (aOR 1.04, 95% CI 0.96-1.13, p = 0.356.WA Indigenous infants have much higher hospital utilisation than non Indigenous infants. WA health services should prioritise Indigenous infants regardless of their socio economic status or where they live.

  3. Growth, Age Validation, Mortality, and other Population Characteristics of the Red Emperor Snapper, Lutjanus sebae (Cuvier, 1828), off the Kimberley Coast of North-Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, S. J.; Dunk, I. J.

    2002-07-01

    Red emperor, Lutjanus sebae, were examined from commercial catches in the Northern Demersal Scalefish Fishery (NDSF) of north-western Australia from 1997 to 1999. Specimens ranged from 183 to 728 mm fork length (FL); males had a mean FL of 509 mm, and were significantly larger than females that had a mean FL of 451 mm. Ages were estimated from thin sections of sagittal otoliths. Marginal increment analysis of sagittal otoliths showed a single annual minimum during September and October and indicated that one annulus is formed each year. Male L. sebae (n=977; 211-728 mm FL) ranged from age 2 to 30 years and females (n=1384; 183-584 mm FL) ranged from age 1 to 34 years. Sagittal otolith weight and height were significantly correlated with age for each sex. There was significant differential growth between sexes. The relationship of observed fork length at age was described by the von Bertalanffy growth equation for males, Lt=627·8 {1-exp [-0·151 (t+0·595)]} and females, Lt=482·6 {1-exp [-0·271 (t-0·065)]}. The slow growth, long life span and large size and age at maturity of L. sebae indicate that this species has a low production potential and hence spatial area closures are vulnerable to over-exploitation. The instantaneous rate of natural mortality (M) ranged from 0·104 to 0·122. The optimum rate of fishing mortality was estimated to be 0·052-0·061. The instantaneous rate of total mortality (Z) estimated from catch at age data for fully recruited ages, was 0·374 in 1997/98 and 0·242 in 1998/99. Hence, the NDSF population of L. sebae is exploited above optimum levels. Given their low production potential, populations of L. sebae in north-western Australia and elsewhere in the Indo-Pacific region require prudent management. Furthermore, fishery managers need to consider as part of any harvest strategy for these fish to preserve significant levels of the spawning stock.

  4. Platform margins, reef facies, and microbial carbonates; a comparison of Devonian reef complexes in the Canning Basin, Western Australia, and the Guilin region, South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jian-Wei; Webb, Gregory E.; Jell, John S.

    2008-05-01

    Devonian reef complexes were well developed in Western Australia and South China, but no detailed direct comparison has been made between reef building in the two regions. The regions differ in several respects, including tectonic, stratigraphic and palaeoceanographic-palaeogeographic settings, and the reef building styles reflect minor differences in reef builders and reef facies. Similarities and differences between the two reef complexes provide insights into the characteristics of platform margins, reef facies and microbial carbonates of both regions. Here we present a comparison of platform margin types from different stratigraphic positions in the Late Devonian reef complex of the Canning Basin, Western Australia and Middle and Late Devonian margin to marginal slope successions in Guilin, South China. Comparisons are integrated into a review of the reefal stratigraphy of both regions. Reef facies, reef complex architecture, temporal reef builder associations, 2nd order stratigraphy and platform cyclicity in the two regions were generally similar where the successions overlap temporally. However, carbonate deposition began earlier in South China. Carbonate complexes were also more widespread in South China and represent a thicker succession overall. Platforms in the Canning Basin grew directly on Precambrian crystalline basement or early Palaeozoic sedimentary rocks, but in South China, carbonate complexes developed conformably on older Devonian siliciclastic strata. Pre-Frasnian reef facies in South China had more abundant skeletal frameworks than in Canning Basin reefs of equivalent age, and Famennian shoaling margins containing various microbial reefs may have been more common and probably more diverse in South China. However, Late Devonian platform margin types have been documented more completely in the Canning Basin. Deep intra-platform troughs (deep depressions containing non-carbonate pelagic sediments — Nandan-type successions) that developed along

  5. Negative stereotyping of older nurses despite contact and mere exposure: the case of nursing recruiters in Western australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gringart, Eyal; Jones, Bronwyn; Helmes, Edward; Jansz, Janis; Monterosso, Leanne; Edwards, Mary

    2012-01-01

    Ageist attitudes have been identified across different industries. The nursing profession has a high proportion of older workers. As this facilitates regular contact with, as well as exposure to, older nurses, it may be expected to show less ageism. This study investigated 163 Western Australian nursing recruiters' attitudes toward older nurses. Results showed clear evidence of both negative and positive stereotyping of older nurses. Nursing recruiters indicated that they would be more than likely to hire older nurses and that age was less relevant in making hiring decisions. These findings suggest that enhancing the employability of older workers does not necessarily change ageist attitudes. This is relevant to policy formulation, attitude change interventions, and the well-being of older workers.

  6. Is tissue an issue? Current practice and opinion in Western Australia for routine histopathology on products of conception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Shui-Jean; Watts, Jared C; Faithfull, Tiffany J; Wong, Sabrina Z; Wylde, Kate L; McGurgan, Paul M

    2014-10-01

    An anonymous questionnaire-based survey was used to determine current practices and opinions of senior health professionals working in Western Australian (WA) hospitals performing gynaecological procedures, regarding the routine use of histopathology for products of conception (POC) obtained either from the surgical management of miscarriage or termination of pregnancy. Sixty-one senior health professionals completed the survey. Tissue histopathology on POC was routinely requested for miscarriage and termination of pregnancy (TOP) by 87 and 59% of respondents, respectively. Respondents listed the main reasons for requesting routine histopathology as avoidance of misdiagnosis, medico-legal and quality assurance. There were inconsistent practices among WA health professionals regarding sending POC for histopathology; 63% of gynaecology head of departments recommend the introduction of state or national guidelines for the use of histopathology in the surgical management of miscarriages or terminations of pregnancy.

  7. Immigrant maternal depression and social networks. A multilevel Bayesian spatial logistic regression in South Western Sydney, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, John G; Jalaludin, Bin B; Kemp, Lynn A; Phung, Hai N; Barnett, Bryanne E W

    2013-09-01

    The purpose is to explore the multilevel spatial distribution of depressive symptoms among migrant mothers in South Western Sydney and to identify any group level associations that could inform subsequent theory building and local public health interventions. Migrant mothers (n=7256) delivering in 2002 and 2003 were assessed at 2-3 weeks after delivery for risk factors for depressive symptoms. The binary outcome variables were Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale scores (EPDS) of >9 and >12. Individual level variables included were: financial income, self-reported maternal health, social support network, emotional support, practical support, baby trouble sleeping, baby demanding and baby not content. The group level variable reported here is aggregated social support networks. We used Bayesian hierarchical multilevel spatial modelling with conditional autoregression. Migrant mothers were at higher risk of having depressive symptoms if they lived in a community with predominantly Australian-born mothers and strong social capital as measured by aggregated social networks. These findings suggest that migrant mothers are socially isolated and current home visiting services should be strengthened for migrant mothers living in communities where they may have poor social networks.

  8. The Role of Thaumarchaeota in N2O generation in an unconfined basalt-sandstone aquifer system, Western Victoria (Australia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, J. W.; Hepburn, E.

    2015-12-01

    The mechanisms by which nitrous oxide is produced and transformed in groundwater are poorly understood. Here we used GC-MS and nitrogen and oxygen isotope analyses to quantify nitrate, ammonia and nitrous oxide levels in nitrate-contaminated aquifers in the Newer Volcanics province of Western Victoria. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR), and phylogenetic analyses of functional nitrogen-cycling and 16S rRNA genes, of whole community microbial DNA from groundwater samples obtained from different depths within different aquifers with low-flow pumping revealed nitrate, ammonia and nitrous oxide levels of up to ~40 mg/L, up to ~0.85 mg/L, and up to ~770 nM, respectively in several groundwater samples. Delta 15N and delta 18O values ranged from -2.68‰ to 68.19‰ and -3.37‰ to 26.83‰, respectively. Nitrate and nitrous oxide concentrations decreased with depth in the unconfined aquifer, while TOC generally increased. Higher ammonia levels were observed in more heavily ferruginized sandstones. Increaased nitrate and nitrous oxide levels were found within the principal basaltic aquifers. Q-PCR results showed variable concentrations of nir, nar, nos and amo genes associated with different redox transformations along the nitrification and denitrification pathways, indicating potential nitrous oxide formation via both pathways within different depths in the aquifer. 16S rRNA gene analyses implicated an important role for the Thaumarchaeota in groundwater nitrogen cycling.

  9. The use of science in environmental policy: a case study of the Regional Forest Agreement process in Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Horwitz

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the notion of pluralism as it relates to the involvement of science in processes of environmental policy formulation. In particular, it focuses attention on the dominance of normal science within the Australian debate on commercial forest use, management, and conservation. It presents case study information from the Western Australian Regional Forest Agreement (RFA process, a policy initiative designed to end a long-running conflict over public forestland. It then analyzes the use of science within this political process, along with the respective impacts of different voices within science on the RFA outcomes. The case study data highlight the vulnerability of reductionist science within complex political debates and support arguments for a widening of the scientific basis of policy processes to include alternative ways of understanding nature-society relations. The paper contends that such a broadening will make science not only more robust, but also more valuable as a problem-solving tool in future decision-making processes on land use, conservation, and broader sustainability questions. It also considers the obstacles facing pluralism.

  10. Melting of a subduction-modified mantle source: A case study from the Archean Marda Volcanic Complex, central Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, P. A.; Kirkland, C. L.

    2014-03-01

    Subduction processes on early earth are controversial, with some suggestions that tectonics did not operate until the earth cooled to a sufficient point around the Archean-Proterozoic boundary. One way of addressing this issue is to examine well-preserved successions of Archean supracrustal rocks. Here we discuss petrography, whole-rock chemical and isotopic data combined with zircon Hf isotopes from andesites, high-magnesium andesites (HMA), dacites, high-magnesium dacites (HMD), rhyolites and coeval felsic intrusive rocks of the c. 2730 Ma Marda Volcanic Complex (MVC) in the central Yilgarn Craton of Western Australia. We demonstrate that these rocks result from melting of a metasomatized mantle source, followed by fractional crystallization in a crustal magma chamber. Contamination of komatiite by Archean crust, to produce the Marda Volcanic Complex andesites, is not feasible, as most of these crustal sources are too radiogenic to act as viable contaminants. The ɛNd(2730) of MVC andesites can be produced by mixing 10% Narryer semi-pelite with komatiite, consistent with modelling using Hf isotopes, but to achieve the required trace element concentrations, the mixture needs to be melted by about 25%. The most likely scenario is the modification of a mantle wedge above a subducting plate, coeval with partial melting, producing volcanic rocks with subduction signatures and variable Mg, Cr and Ni contents. Subsequent fractionation of cognate phases can account for the chemistry of dacites and rhyolites.

  11. Post-marketing surveillance of adverse events following immunization with inactivated quadrivalent and trivalent influenza vaccine in health care providers in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Annette K; Tracey, Lauren; Gibbs, Robyn

    2015-11-17

    In 2015, inactivated quadrivalent influenza vaccine (QIV) was first introduced into the Australian market. A routine vaccine safety surveillance system in Western Australia was used to conduct post-licensure surveillance of adverse events following immunization with inactivated QIV and trivalent influenza vaccines (TIV) in a sample of 1685 healthcare providers (HCPs). A similar percentage of HCPs who received QIV reported having any reaction seven days post-vaccination as HCPs who received TIV (13.6 vs. 12.8%, respectively; p=0.66). However, a slightly higher percentage of HCPs who received QIV reported pain or swelling at the injection site as compared to HCPs who received TIV (6.9% vs. 4.2%, respectively; p=0.02). No serious vaccine-associated adverse events were detected during follow-up of either vaccine. Acknowledging the study limitations, the results of this post-marketing surveillance support the safety of QIV, suggesting there is little difference in the reactogenicity of QIV as compared to TIV.

  12. Eclipse Impact on a Remote Sensing Data Set: PAL NDVI 10-Day Composite from February 11 to 20 in 1999 for Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chai K. Lim

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Pathfinder Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI derived from Channel 1 (Red and Channel 2 (near-infrared of Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR onboard NOAA 14 became abnormally high for the 10-day composite from February 11 to 20 in 1999 for Western Australia. There was a solar eclipse in the satellite path on February 16 about the same time when NOAA 14 was above the eclipse location, causing the Channel 1 value to be 0 in many cells. The NDVI composite updating rule was to capture the greenest condition of each composite period. There seems to have been a possible lack of quality control during the NDVI composite generation, which could have caused the abnormally high NDVI values. However, there were some cells within the affected area that had values close to normal for NDVI as well as Channel 1 and Channel 2. The abnormal NDVI data values could have been avoided by not using the data obtained during the eclipse in the generation of the composite. Further investigation on those cells which were not affected by the eclipse is suggested for a better quality control of remote sensing data obtained during eclipse occurrences.

  13. Ground Truth Location of Earthquakes by Use of Ambient Seismic Noise From a Sparse Seismic Network: A Case Study in Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiangfang; Xie, Jun; Ni, Sidao

    2015-06-01

    The estimated Green's function (EGF) extracted from the ambient seismic noise cross-correlation function (NCF) enables valuable calibration of surface wave propagation along the path connecting seismic stations. Such calibration is adopted in a new method for ground truth location of earthquakes, achieved from the location relative to a seismic station. The surface wave group travel times were obtained from the NCFs between a station near the earthquake and remote stations. The differential travel times from the NCFs and the surface wave of the earthquake were used in a relative location procedure. When this method was applied to earthquake location with only six seismic stations in western Australia, the location of the Mw 4.1 Kalannie (September 21, 2005) earthquake was found to be accurate to within 2 km compared with the ground truth location with InSAR for which azimuth coverage of seismic stations is preferable. Synthetic tests suggest that the group travel time is slightly affected by focal mechanism and focal depth, thus unknown earthquake source parameters did not introduce substantial bias to earthquake location with the group travel time method.

  14. A Semi-Analytic Model for Estimating Total Suspended Sediment Concentration in Turbid Coastal Waters of Northern Western Australia Using MODIS-Aqua 250 m Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Passang Dorji

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the concentration of total suspended sediment (TSS in coastal waters is of significance to marine environmental monitoring agencies to determine the turbidity of water that serve as a proxy to estimate the availability of light at depth for benthic habitats. TSS models applicable to data collected by satellite sensors can be used to determine TSS with reasonable accuracy and of adequate spatial and temporal resolution to be of use for coastal water quality monitoring. Thus, a study is presented here where we develop a semi-analytic sediment model (SASM applicable to any sensor with red and near infrared (NIR bands. The calibration and validation of the SASM using bootstrap and cross-validation methods showed that the SASM applied to Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS-Aqua band 1 data retrieved TSS with a root mean square error (RMSE and mean averaged relative error (MARE of 5.75 mg/L and 33.33% respectively. The application of the SASM over our study region using MODIS-Aqua band 1 data showed that the SASM can be used to monitor the on-going, post and pre-dredging activities and identify daily TSS anomalies that are caused by natural and anthropogenic processes in coastal waters of northern Western Australia.

  15. A Re-Examination of the Bedout High, Offshore Canning Basin, Western Australia - Possible Impact Site for the Permian-Triassic Mass Extinction Event?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, L.; Nicholson, C.; Poreda, R. J.

    2002-12-01

    The Bedout High, located offshore Canning basin in Western Australia, is an unusual structure and its origin remains problematic. K-Ar dating of volcanic samples encountered at total depth in the Lagrange-1 exploration well indicated an age of about 253+/-5 Ma consistent with the Permian-Triassic boundary event. Gorter (PESA News, pp. 33-34, 1996) speculates that the Bedout High is the uplifted core (30 km) of a circular feature, some 220 km across, formed by the impact of a large bolide (cometary or asteroidal) with the Earth near the end-Permian. Accepting a possible impact origin for the Bedout structure, with the indicated dimensions, would have had profound effects on global climate as well as significant changes in lithotratigraphic, biostratigraphic and chemostratigraphic indicators as seen in several Permian-Triassic boundary locations worldwide. In this work, we re-examine some of the structural data previously presented by Gorter (1996) using some additional seismic lines. We have also evaluated several impact tracers including iridium, shocked quartz, productivity collapse, helium-3, chromium-53 and fullerenes with trapped noble gases from some Permian-Triassic boundary sites in the Tethys and Circum-Pacific regions. Our findings suggest that the Bedout structure is a good candidate for an oceanic impact at the end Permian, triggering the most severe mass extinction in the history of life on Earth.

  16. Office-based physical activity and nutrition intervention: barriers, enablers, and preferred strategies for workplace obesity prevention, Perth, Western Australia, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackford, Krysten; Jancey, Jonine; Howat, Peter; Ledger, Melissa; Lee, Andy H

    2013-09-12

    Workplace health promotion programs to prevent overweight and obesity in office-based employees should be evidence-based and comprehensive and should consider behavioral, social, organizational, and environmental factors. The objective of this study was to identify barriers to and enablers of physical activity and nutrition as well as intervention strategies for health promotion in office-based workplaces in the Perth, Western Australia, metropolitan area in 2012. We conducted an online survey of 111 employees from 55 organizations. The online survey investigated demographics, individual and workplace characteristics, barriers and enablers, intervention-strategy preferences, and physical activity and nutrition behaviors. We used χ(2) and Mann-Whitney U statistics to test for differences between age and sex groups for barriers and enablers, intervention-strategy preferences, and physical activity and nutrition behaviors. Stepwise multiple regression analysis determined factors that affect physical activity and nutrition behaviors. We identified several factors that affected physical activity and nutrition behaviors, including the most common barriers ("too tired" and "access to unhealthy food") and enablers ("enjoy physical activity" and "nutrition knowledge"). Intervention-strategy preferences demonstrated employee support for health promotion in the workplace. The findings provide useful insights into employees' preferences for interventions; they can be used to develop comprehensive programs for evidence-based workplace health promotion that consider environmental and policy influences as well as the individual.

  17. Strategic information for hospital service planning: a linked data study to inform an urban Aboriginal Health Liaison Officer program in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzenellenbogen, Judith M; Miller, Laura J; Somerford, Peter; McEvoy, Suzanne; Bessarab, Dawn

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to provide descriptive planning data for a hospital-based Aboriginal Health Liaison Officer (AHLO) program, specifically quantifying episodes of care and outcomes within 28 days after discharge. A follow-up study of Aboriginal in-patient hospital episodes was undertaken using person-based linked administrative data from four South Metropolitan hospitals in Perth, Western Australia (2006-11). Outcomes included 28-day deaths, emergency department (ED) presentations and in-patient re-admissions. There were 8041 eligible index admissions among 5113 individuals, with episode volumes increasing by 31% over the study period. Among patients 25 years and older, the highest ranking comorbidities included injury (47%), drug and alcohol disorders (41%), heart disease (40%), infection (40%), mental illness (31%) and diabetes (31%). Most events (96%) ended in a regular discharge. Within 28 days, 24% of events resulted in ED presentations and 20% resulted in hospital readmissions. Emergency readmissions (13%) were twice as likely as booked re-admissions (7%). Stratified analyses showed poorer outcomes for older people, and for emergency and tertiary hospital admissions. Future planning must address the greater service volumes anticipated. The high prevalence of comorbidities requires intensive case management to address case complexity. These data will inform the refinement of the AHLO program to improve in-patient experiences and outcomes.

  18. Investigating variations in background response in measurements of downhole natural gamma in a banded iron formation in the Pilbara, Western Australia

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    Murphy, Richard J.; Silversides, Katherine L.

    2017-02-01

    Measurements of downhole natural gamma radiation (NGR) provide important information about the location of shale or clay bands within stratigraphical sequences (e.g. in Banded Iron Formations; BIF). An ability to link NGR with other kinds of measurements that are acquired at greater spatial and stratigraphic resolution, such as those acquired by hyperspectral sensing, would open up possibilities for improving the resolution of boundary models. To do this, measurements made by NGR and hyperspectral sensing must be highly correlated and any inconsistencies between these data must be understood. Observations made from the literature and from NGR measurements made in a BIF formation of the Hamersley Group, Pilbara, Western Australia, suggest that NGR measurements in some sections of ore or BIF are elevated compared with other sections; laboratory assays of drill chips do not however suggest the presence of shale or clay. These apparent inconsistencies were investigated using hyperspectral measurements and chemical assays of rock cores in the laboratory and NGR measurements made in the field. We show that the patterns of elevated NGR were a consistent feature of the stratigraphy for this region. Comparison of NGR and Al2O3 made by laboratory assay and from hyperspectral sensing show that elevated NGR measurements were caused by Uranium which was not associated with the presence of shale. Neither Thorium nor Potassium contributed to the elevated gamma signal in the ore. Thorium was strongly correlated with Al2O3 and was found to provide the best indicator of the presence of shale in the stratigraphy.

  19. Potential for Recycling Nutrients from Biosolids Amended with Clay and Lime in Coarse-Textured Water Repellence, Acidic Soils of Western Australia

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    Sanjutha Shanmugam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Application of biosolids in soils is an efficient method of recycling nutrients from biosolids and it is considered even safer when it is modified after mixing and diluting with other suitable soil organic amendments. A variety of soil organic amendments, such as green manures and composts, are used for modifying and co-composting with biosolids. However, these may not be considered as appropriate biosolids disposal and remedial measures for soils with unique problems such as low soil pH, water repellence nature, and poor water and nutrient retention capacities due to soil textural issues. Historically, soil amendments such as lime, clay, and recently biochar are being applied for such problematic soils at Western Australia and these researches focused mostly on improvement in soil physical and chemical properties. However, studies with potential for applying modified biosolids with these amendments are not complete yet. This review focused on identifying such gaps in these studies from over 170 peer-reviewed key research and review articles published over decades to latest in these areas.

  20. Supporting mothers to breastfeed: the development and process evaluation of a father inclusive perinatal education support program in Perth, Western Australia.

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    Tohotoa, Jenny; Maycock, Bruce; Hauck, Yvonne; Howat, Peter; Burns, Sharyn; Binns, Colin

    2011-09-01

    Entry into fatherhood is a challenging period with new responsibilities and changes in family dynamics. Hegemonic imagery of men portray them as capable, confident and able which can disadvantage expectant fathers who often struggle to make sense of the changes occurring around and within their own parenting journey. Although fathers historically have not been included in breastfeeding classes, antenatal education programs can be an opportunity to inform and support them in their new role. Forty-five antenatal sessions for fathers (n = 342) of 1h duration were conducted by five male educators between May 2008 and June 2009 in Perth, Western Australia. A theoretical framework from health promotion literature was used as a guide in the program's development. Fathers in the intervention group gained information about their role, the importance of communication and the benefits of breastfeeding to both mother and baby. An evaluation was obtained from fathers immediately after the session and again at 6 week post-birth, whilst mothers reported on the perception of their partners' support for breastfeeding in the 6 week survey. The aim of this paper is to describe the development and process evaluation of a perinatal education and support program for fathers to assist their partners to breastfeed.

  1. Investigation of the First Case of Dengue Virus Infection Acquired in Western Australia in Seven Decades: Evidence of Importation of Infected Mosquitoes?

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    Michael D A Lindsay

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In October 2013, a locally-acquired case of dengue virus (DENV infection was reported in Western Australia (WA where local dengue transmission has not occurred for over 70 years. Laboratory testing confirmed recent DENV infection and the case demonstrated a clinically compatible illness. The infection was most likely acquired in the Pilbara region in the northwest of WA. Follow up investigations did not detect any other locally-acquired dengue cases or any known dengue vector species in the local region, despite intensive adult and larval mosquito surveillance, both immediately after the case was notified in October 2013 and after the start of the wet season in January 2014. The mechanism of infection with DENV in this case cannot be confirmed. However, it most likely followed a bite from a single infected mosquito vector that was transiently introduced into the Pilbara region but failed to establish a local breeding population. This case highlights the public health importance of maintaining surveillance efforts to ensure that any incursions of dengue vectors into WA are promptly identified and do not become established, particularly given the large numbers of viraemic dengue fever cases imported into WA by travellers returning from dengue-endemic regions.

  2. Two new hemiurine species (Digenea: Hemiuridae) from Spratelloides robustus Ogilby (Clupeiformes: Clupeidae) off south-western Australia and records of Parahemiurus merus (Linton, 1910) from Australian and New Caledonian waters.

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    Bray, Rodney A; Cribb, Thomas H

    2005-03-01

    Two new species of hemiurine hemiurid are described from Spratelloides robustus off Woodman Point in southern Western Australia. Hemiurus lignator n. sp. differs from its congeners by a combination of similar-sized suckers, long sinus-sac, tandem testes, relatively elongate shape and unthickened seminal vesicle wall. Parahemiurus xylokopos n. sp. differs from its congeners in a combination of its squat form, its distinctly lobed vitellarium and the proximity of the gonads to the ventral sucker. P. merus (Linton, 1910) is reported from Acanthopagrus australis, Pomatomus saltatrix and Trachinotus coppingeri off northern New South Wales, Caranx sexfasciatus, Scorpis lineolata, Siganus nebulosus, Thunnus tonggol and T. coppingeri off southern Queensland, Cephalopholis boenak and Euthynnus affinis off Heron Island, southern Great Barrier Reef, P. saltatrix off southern Western Australia and Priacanthus hamrur off New Caledonia.

  3. Exploration of the beliefs and experiences of Aboriginal people with cancer in Western Australia: a methodology to acknowledge cultural difference and build understanding

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    Howat Peter

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aboriginal Australians experience poorer outcomes, and are 2.5 times more likely to die from cancer than non-Aboriginal people, even after adjustment for stage of diagnosis, cancer treatment and comorbidities. They are also less likely to present early as a result of symptoms and to access treatment. Psycho-social factors affect Aboriginal people's willingness and ability to participate in cancer-related screening and treatment services, but little exploration of this has occurred within Australia to date. The current research adopted a phenomenological qualitative approach to understand and explore the lived experiences of Aboriginal Australians with cancer and their beliefs and understanding around this disease in Western Australia (WA. This paper details considerations in the design and process of conducting the research. Methods/Design The National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC guidelines for ethical conduct of Aboriginal research were followed. Researchers acknowledged the past negative experiences of Aboriginal people with research and were keen to build trust and relationships prior to conducting research with them. Thirty in-depth interviews with Aboriginal people affected by cancer and twenty with health service providers were carried out in urban, rural and remote areas of WA. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and coded independently by two researchers. NVivo7 software was used to assist data management and analysis. Participants' narratives were divided into broad categories to allow identification of key themes and discussed by the research team. Discussion and conclusion Key issues specific to Aboriginal research include the need for the research process to be relationship-based, respectful, culturally appropriate and inclusive of Aboriginal people. Researchers are accountable to both participants and the wider community for reporting their findings and for research translation so

  4. Using a Markov simulation model to assess the impact of changing trends in coronary heart disease incidence on requirements for coronary artery revascularization procedures in Western Australia

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    Knuiman Matthew

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The population incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD has been declining in Australia and many other countries. This decline has been due to reduced population levels of risk factors for CHD and improved medical care for those at higher risk of CHD. However, there are signs that there may be a slowing down or even reversal in the decline of CHD incidence due to the 'obesity epidemic' and other factors and this will have implications for the requirements for surgical treatments for those with CHD. Methods Using a validated Markov simulation model applied to the population of Western Australia, different CHD incidence trend scenarios were developed to explore the effect of changing CHD incidence on requirements for coronary artery bypass graft (CABG and percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI, together known as coronary artery revascularization procedures (CARPs. Results The most dominant component of CHD incidence is the risk of CHD hospital admission for those with no history of CHD and if this risk leveled off and the trends in all other risks continued unchanged, then the projected numbers of CABGs and PCIs are only minimally changed. Further, the changes in the projected numbers remained small even when this risk was increased by 20 percent (although it is an unlikely scenario. However, when the other CHD incidence components that had also been declining, namely, the risk of CABG and that of CHD death for those with no history of CHD, were also projected to level off as these were declining in 1998-2000 and the risk of PCI for those with no history of CHD (which was already increasing was projected to further increase by 5 percent, it had a substantial effect on the projected numbers of CARPs. Conclusion There needs to be dramatic changes to several CHD incidence components before it has a substantial impact on the projected requirements for CARPs. Continued monitoring of CHD incidence and also the mix of initial

  5. A Rare Glimpse of Paleoarchean Life: Geobiology of an Exceptionally Preserved Microbial Mat Facies from the 3.4 Ga Strelley Pool Formation, Western Australia.

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    Duda, Jan-Peter; Van Kranendonk, Martin J; Thiel, Volker; Ionescu, Danny; Strauss, Harald; Schäfer, Nadine; Reitner, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Paleoarchean rocks from the Pilbara Craton of Western Australia provide a variety of clues to the existence of early life on Earth, such as stromatolites, putative microfossils and geochemical signatures of microbial activity. However, some of these features have also been explained by non-biological processes. Further lines of evidence are therefore required to convincingly argue for the presence of microbial life. Here we describe a new type of microbial mat facies from the 3.4 Ga Strelley Pool Formation, which directly overlies well known stromatolitic carbonates from the same formation. This microbial mat facies consists of laminated, very fine-grained black cherts with discontinuous white quartz layers and lenses, and contains small domical stromatolites and wind-blown crescentic ripples. Light- and cathodoluminescence microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and time of flight-secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) reveal a spatial association of carbonates, organic material, and highly abundant framboidal pyrite within the black cherts. Nano secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) confirmed the presence of distinct spheroidal carbonate bodies up to several tens of μm that are surrounded by organic material and pyrite. These aggregates are interpreted as biogenic. Comparison with Phanerozoic analogues indicates that the facies represents microbial mats formed in a shallow marine environment. Carbonate precipitation and silicification by hydrothermal fluids occurred during sedimentation and earliest diagenesis. The deciphered environment, as well as the δ13C signature of bulk organic matter (-35.3‰), are in accord with the presence of photoautotrophs. At the same time, highly abundant framboidal pyrite exhibits a sulfur isotopic signature (δ34S = +3.05‰; Δ33S = 0.268‰; and Δ36S = -0.282‰) that is consistent with microbial sulfate reduction. Taken together, our results strongly support a microbial mat origin of the black chert facies, thus providing

  6. A Rare Glimpse of Paleoarchean Life: Geobiology of an Exceptionally Preserved Microbial Mat Facies from the 3.4 Ga Strelley Pool Formation, Western Australia.

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    Jan-Peter Duda

    Full Text Available Paleoarchean rocks from the Pilbara Craton of Western Australia provide a variety of clues to the existence of early life on Earth, such as stromatolites, putative microfossils and geochemical signatures of microbial activity. However, some of these features have also been explained by non-biological processes. Further lines of evidence are therefore required to convincingly argue for the presence of microbial life. Here we describe a new type of microbial mat facies from the 3.4 Ga Strelley Pool Formation, which directly overlies well known stromatolitic carbonates from the same formation. This microbial mat facies consists of laminated, very fine-grained black cherts with discontinuous white quartz layers and lenses, and contains small domical stromatolites and wind-blown crescentic ripples. Light- and cathodoluminescence microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and time of flight-secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS reveal a spatial association of carbonates, organic material, and highly abundant framboidal pyrite within the black cherts. Nano secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS confirmed the presence of distinct spheroidal carbonate bodies up to several tens of μm that are surrounded by organic material and pyrite. These aggregates are interpreted as biogenic. Comparison with Phanerozoic analogues indicates that the facies represents microbial mats formed in a shallow marine environment. Carbonate precipitation and silicification by hydrothermal fluids occurred during sedimentation and earliest diagenesis. The deciphered environment, as well as the δ13C signature of bulk organic matter (-35.3‰, are in accord with the presence of photoautotrophs. At the same time, highly abundant framboidal pyrite exhibits a sulfur isotopic signature (δ34S = +3.05‰; Δ33S = 0.268‰; and Δ36S = -0.282‰ that is consistent with microbial sulfate reduction. Taken together, our results strongly support a microbial mat origin of the black chert facies

  7. A multidisciplinary approach to digital mapping of dinosaurian tracksites in the Lower Cretaceous (Valanginian–Barremian) Broome Sandstone of the Dampier Peninsula, Western Australia

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    Hacker, Jorg M.; Zlot, Robert; Poropat, George; Bosse, Michael; Salisbury, Steven W.

    2017-01-01

    The abundant dinosaurian tracksites of the Lower Cretaceous (Valanginian–Barremian) Broome Sandstone of the Dampier Peninsula, Western Australia, form an important part of the West Kimberley National Heritage Place. Previous attempts to document these tracksites using traditional mapping techniques (e.g., surface overlays, transects and gridlines combined with conventional photography) have been hindered by the non-trivial challenges associated with working in this area, including, but not limited to: (1) the remoteness of many of the tracksites; (2) the occurrence of the majority of the tracksites in the intertidal zone; (3) the size and complexity of many of the tracksites, with some extending over several square kilometres. Using the historically significant and well-known dinosaurian tracksites at Minyirr (Gantheaume Point), we show how these issues can be overcome through the use of an integrated array of remote sensing tools. A combination of high-resolution aerial photography with both manned and unmanned aircraft, airborne and handheld high-resolution lidar imaging and handheld photography enabled the collection of large amounts of digital data from which 3D models of the tracksites at varying resolutions were constructed. The acquired data encompasses a very broad scale, from the sub-millimetre level that details individual tracks, to the multiple-kilometre level, which encompasses discontinuous tracksite exposures and large swathes of coastline. The former are useful for detailed ichnological work, while the latter are being employed to better understand the stratigraphic and temporal relationship between tracksites in a broader geological and palaeoecological context. These approaches and the data they can generate now provide a means through which digital conservation and temporal monitoring of the Dampier Peninsula’s dinosaurian tracksites can occur. As plans for the on-going management of the tracks in this area progress, analysis of the 3D data

  8. Millimeter-scale variations of stable isotope abundances in carbonates from banded iron-formations in the Hamersley Group of Western Australia

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    Baur, M. E.; Hayes, J. M.; Studley, S. A.; Walter, M. R.

    1985-01-01

    Several diamond drill cores from formations within the Hamersley Group of Western Australia have been studied for evidence of short-range variations in the isotopic compositions of the carbonates. For a set of 32 adjacent microbands analyzed in a specimen from the Marra Mamba Iron Formation, carbon isotope compositions of individual microbands ranged from -2.8 to -19.8 per mil compared to PDB and oxygen isotope compositions ranged from 10.2 to 20.8 per mil compared to SMOW. A pattern of alternating abundances was present, with the average isotopic contrasts between adjacent microbands being 3.0 per mil for carbon and 3.1 per mil for oxygen. Similar results were obtained for a suite of 34 microbands (in four groups) from the Bruno's Band unit of the Mount Sylvia Formation. Difficulties were experienced in preparing samples of single microbands from the Dales Gorge Member of the Brockman Iron Formation, but overall isotopic compositions were in good agreement with values reported by previous authors. Chemical analyses showed that isotopically light carbon and oxygen were correlated with increased concentrations of iron. The preservation of these millimeter-scale variations in isotopic abundances is interpreted as inconsistent with a metamorphic origin for the isotopically light carbon in the BIF carbonates. A biological origin is favored for the correlated variations in 13C and Fe, and it is suggested that the 13C-depleted carbonates may derive either from fermentative metabolism or from anaerobic respiration. A model is presented in which these processes occur near the sediment-water interface and are coupled with an initial oxidative precipitation of the iron.

  9. First shark from the Late Devonian (Frasnian Gogo Formation, Western Australia sheds new light on the development of tessellated calcified cartilage.

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    John A Long

    Full Text Available Living gnathostomes (jawed vertebrates comprise two divisions, Chondrichthyes (cartilaginous fishes, including euchondrichthyans with prismatic calcified cartilage, and extinct stem chondrichthyans and Osteichthyes (bony fishes including tetrapods. Most of the early chondrichthyan ('shark' record is based upon isolated teeth, spines, and scales, with the oldest articulated sharks that exhibit major diagnostic characters of the group--prismatic calcified cartilage and pelvic claspers in males--being from the latest Devonian, c. 360 Mya. This paucity of information about early chondrichthyan anatomy is mainly due to their lack of endoskeletal bone and consequent low preservation potential.Here we present new data from the first well-preserved chondrichthyan fossil from the early Late Devonian (ca. 380-384 Mya Gogo Formation Lägerstatte of Western Australia. The specimen is the first Devonian shark body fossil to be acid-prepared, revealing the endoskeletal elements as three-dimensional undistorted units: Meckel's cartilages, nasal, ceratohyal, basibranchial and possible epibranchial cartilages, plus left and right scapulocoracoids, as well as teeth and scales. This unique specimen is assigned to Gogoselachus lynnbeazleyae n. gen. n. sp.The Meckel's cartilages show a jaw articulation surface dominated by an expansive cotylus, and a small mandibular knob, an unusual condition for chondrichthyans. The scapulocoracoid of the new specimen shows evidence of two pectoral fin basal articulation facets, differing from the standard condition for early gnathostomes which have either one or three articulations. The tooth structure is intermediate between the 'primitive' ctenacanthiform and symmoriiform condition, and more derived forms with a euselachian-type base. Of special interest is the highly distinctive type of calcified cartilage forming the endoskeleton, comprising multiple layers of nonprismatic subpolygonal tesserae separated by a cellular matrix

  10. The inverse microconglomerate test: Definition and application to the preservation of Paleoarchean to Hadean magnetizations in metasediments of the Jack Hills, Western Australia

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    Cottrell, Rory; Tarduno, John; Bono, Richard; Dare, Matthew

    2016-04-01

    We introduce a new paleomagnetic field test, the inverse microconglomerate test. In contrast with traditional conglomerate tests, which target specimens that might preserve primary magnetizations, the inverse microconglomerate test focuses on magnetic carriers having unblocking temperatures less than peak metamorphic temperatures. These mineral carriers are expected to carry a consistent direction of remagnetization. Hence, the inverse microconglomerate test evaluates whether coherent magnetizations are retained on a grain/mineral scale in a given sedimentary rock sample. By defining the remagnetization direction, it also serves as a benchmark for comparison of magnetizations from other grains/minerals having unblocking temperatures higher than peak metamorphic conditions (i.e., potential primary magnetizations). We apply this new test to sediments of the Jack Hills (JH), Yilgarn craton, Western Australia. For the JH sediments we focus on fuchsite, a secondary Cr-mica that contains relict Cr-Fe spinels capable of recording remanent magnetizations. We find that JH fuchsite grains retain consistent magnetic directions at unblocking temperatures between ˜270 and 340 oC, which defines a positive test. This direction does not reproduce a nominal 1078-1070 Ma remagnetization reported by Weiss et al. (EPSL, 2015) that we interpret as an artifact of inappropriate use of averaging and statistics. The thermochemical remanent magnetization recorded by the fuchsite was most likely imparted during peak JH metamorphic conditions at ˜2650 Ma. Our inverse microconglomerate test complements a positive microconglomerate test and large scale positive conglomerate test conducted on JH cobbles (Tarduno and Cottrell, EPSL, 2013), further supporting evidence that JH zircons record Paleoarchean to Hadean primary magnetizations at high (greater than 550 oC) unblocking temperatures (Tarduno et al., Science, 2015). More generally, the new inverse microconglomerate test may aid in

  11. Orthorhombic fault fracture patterns and non-plane strain in a synthetic transfer zone during rifting: Lennard shelf, Canning basin, Western Australia

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    Miller, John McL.; Nelson, E. P.; Hitzman, M.; Muccilli, P.; Hall, W. D. M.

    2007-06-01

    A complex series of faults occur within transfer zones normal to the WNW-trending rifted northern margin of the Canning basin (Western Australia). These zones controlled basinal fluid flow and the formation of some carbonate-hosted Mississippi Valley-type Zn-Pb deposits along the basin margin during Devonian to Carboniferous rifting. The study area has a regional fault geometry similar to a synthetic overlapping transfer zone. Surface and underground mapping in this transfer zone, combined with 3D modelling, indicate the faults and related extension fractures have an orthorhombic geometry. The orthorhombic fault-fracture mesh developed in response to three-dimensional non-plane strain in which the intermediate finite extension magnitude was non-zero. Pre-mineralisation marine calcite fill in the fault-fracture mesh indicates that it formed early in the deformation history. Later deformation that overprints the Zn-Pb mineralisation and fault-fracture mesh, was associated with a different maximum extension direction and this modified and reactivated the faults with both dip-slip and oblique-slip movement and tilting of earlier structures. The orthorhombic geometry is not observed at a regional scale (>10 × 10 km), indicating probable scale-dependant behaviour. This study indicates that this transfer zone developed either by (1) strain partitioning with synchronous strike-slip structures and adjacent zones of non-plane extension, or (2) by a component of non-plane extension sub-parallel to the basin margin followed by subsequent transtensional overprint of the system (preferred model). Synthetic overlapping transfer zones are inferred to be key regions where orthorhombic fault geometries may develop.

  12. Regional climate projections of mean and extreme climate for the southwest of Western Australia (1970-1999 compared to 2030-2059)

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    Andrys, Julia; Kala, Jatin; Lyons, Thomas J.

    2016-05-01

    Projections of future climate change (1970-1999 compared to 2030-2059) for southwest Western Australia (SWWA) are analysed for a regional climate model (RCM) ensemble using the Weather Research and Forecasting Model with boundary conditions from three CMIP3 general circulation models (GCMs); CCSM3, CSIROmk3.5 and ECHAM5. We show that the RCM adds value to the GCM and we suggest that this is through improved representation of regional scale topography and enhanced land-atmosphere interactions. Our results show that the mean daytime temperature increase is larger than the nighttime increase, attributed to reduced soil moisture and hence increased surface sensible heat flux in the model, and there is statistically significant evidence that the variance of minimum temperatures will increase. Changes in summer rainfall are uncertain, with some models showing rainfall increases and others projecting reductions. All models show very large fluctuations in summer rainfall intensity which has important implications because of the increased risk of flash flooding and erosion of arable land. There is model consensus indicating a decline in winter rainfall and the spatial distribution of this rainfall decline is influenced by regional scale topography in two of the three simulations. Winter rainfall reduction is consistent with the historical trend of declining rainfall in SWWA, which has been attributed in previous research to a reduction in the number of fronts passing over the region. The continuation of this trend is evident in all models by an increase in winter mean sea level pressure in SWWA, and a reduced number of winter front days. Winter rainfall does not show any marked variations in daily intensity.

  13. Early Triassic stromatolites in a siliciclastic nearshore setting in northern Perth Basin, Western Australia: Geobiologic features and implications for post-extinction microbial proliferation

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    Chen, Zhong-Qiang; Wang, Yongbiao; Kershaw, Stephen; Luo, Mao; Yang, Hao; Zhao, Laishi; Feng, Yuheng; Chen, Jianbo; Yang, Li; Zhang, Lei

    2014-10-01

    An Early Triassic stromatolite deposit in Gondwana is documented from the Smithian succession of the Lower Triassic Kockatea Shale Formation in the Northampton area, northern Geraldton, Western Australia. Abundant tube-like sheaths of filaments and tiny circular microspherule balls are well preserved in laminae of the Northampton stromatolites, which are characterized by finely laminated domes and digitate high-relief columns. These filament sheaths are superficially analogous to their counterparts of modern stromatolites, and thus are interpreted as putative fossilized filamentous cyanobacteria. Elemental mapping of EDS analysis shows very high contents of both Fe and Si elements as well as common presence of both S and Al elements along the laminae of the stromatolites, suggesting that the stromatolites may have been ferritized or silicified. Both ferritization and silicification may have played a crucial role in the exceptional preservation of the micro-structures in the Northampton stromatolites. The high content of Al along the laminae indicates that the stromatolites may have been influenced by terrigenous fine-grained clastics during their growth. The Northampton stromatolites show several growth modes, initiating on either pebbles/conglomerates or sandy seafloor and building laminar domes and digitate, high-relief columns during an initial transgression period. Steady increase in sea level facilitated the growth of stromatolites. The Early Triassic stromatolites ceased growth due to either rapid rise in sea level or increased clay influx probably sourced from increased weathering on land at that time, or both. The occurrence of the Northampton stromatolites in the siliciclastic succession, in comparison with published records of Early Triassic microbialites, reveals that post-extinction microbialites were widespread in the Smithian. Stromatolites show a broad geographic distribution from low-latitude to southern high-latitude regions of Gondwana and

  14. A Retrospective Exploration of the Impact of the 'Angelina Jolie Effect' on the Single State-Wide Familial Cancer Program in Perth, Western Australia.

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    Freedman, Rebecca; Mountain, Helen; Karina, Dian; Schofield, Lyn

    2017-02-01

    Global media has the power to influence the ways the public engage with health services. On May 14th 2013, Angelina Jolie published an article in the New York Times magazine, outlining her decision to undergo BRCA mutation testing due to a family history of cancer; then proceed with a mastectomy. The article evoked significant interest from the media and the public. During the months that followed, the Familial Cancer Program (FCP) at Genetic Services of Western Australia (GSWA) experienced a significant increase in referrals and enquiries. Resources were overstretched and it became clear we needed to adjust work practices to manage the escalating numbers. New strategies were devised to cope with the influx of enquiries, albeit without the benefit of additional resources. We conducted an audit of referrals to the FCP made between January 2012 and December 2014. This included a comparison of the months prior to and following the New York Times article. The aim of the audit was to quantify the impact of the "Angelina Jolie effect" on referrals to the FCP. Whilst the increased awareness of the role of genetic services in risk assessment and testing for familial breast and ovarian cancer was considered positive, pre-referral risk assessment at the primary health level to evaluate the appropriateness of their patients for referral could have been helpful. Potentially, many inappropriate referrals to FCP may have been avoided with primary health evaluation thus lessening the burden on our service and preventing unnecessary worry in well women who possessed minimal family history or risk factors. It is important to understand the factors driving the uptake of risk reduction activities, particularly if engagement with a genetics service is considered part of that pathway. Continued education about cancer risk due to family history, individual features and awareness surrounding genetic testing criteria, costs and availability is required for both the public and health

  15. Very high concentrations of DDE and toxaphene residues in crocodiles from the Ord River, Western Australia: an investigation into possible endocrine disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikane, Mitsuha; Kay, Winston R; Shibata, Yasuyuki; Inoue, Maki; Yanai, Tokuma; Kamata, Ryo; Edmonds, John S; Morita, Masatoshi

    2006-06-01

    Organochlorine pesticide concentrations, particularly those of the DDT family and of toxaphene, were measured by gas chromatography in samples of liver and body fat taken from Australian freshwater crocodiles Crocodylus johnstoni at three locations along the Ord River in Western Australia. The three sampling sites were the irrigation area, downstream of the irrigation area, and well upstream of the irrigation area; the last site serving as the control. DDT and toxaphene were applied in large and known quantities to cotton grown in the Ord Irrigation Area from 1964 to 1974. Thus the residues in the crocodile tissues are representative of the situation almost thirty years after the use of DDT and toxaphene ceased in the area. Very high concentrations of p,p'-DDE and toxaphene were found in the lipid-rich tissues that were examined. Livers and body fat from estuarine crocodiles Crocodylus porosus from the downstream site were also analysed. As p,p'-DDE and toxaphene are both known to be disruptive of endocrine systems, a range of blood parameters, including estradiol and testesterone concentrations, were also measured for all the animals studied. The ovaries and testes of the freshwater crocodiles were also examined histologically. There were no obvious effects on blood chemistry or gonad histology of the large burden of pesticides and their metabolites carried by exposed animals, although the limited number of samples and the variability of the breeding state of the animals examined may have masked possible effects. The isolation of the area, the accurately known applications of DDT and toxaphene, and the simplicity of the drainage system make the lower Ord River a unique natural laboratory for studying the long term breakdown and effects of pesticides applied in a tropical environment.

  16. Impact of the spatial resolution of satellite remote sensing sensors in the quantification of total suspended sediment concentration: A case study in turbid waters of Northern Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearns, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The impact of anthropogenic activities on coastal waters is a cause of concern because such activities add to the total suspended sediment (TSS) budget of the coastal waters, which have negative impacts on the coastal ecosystem. Satellite remote sensing provides a powerful tool in monitoring TSS concentration at high spatiotemporal resolution, but coastal managers should be mindful that the satellite-derived TSS concentrations are dependent on the satellite sensor’s radiometric properties, atmospheric correction approaches, the spatial resolution and the limitations of specific TSS algorithms. In this study, we investigated the impact of different spatial resolutions of satellite sensor on the quantification of TSS concentration in coastal waters of northern Western Australia. We quantified the TSS product derived from MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-Aqua, Landsat-8 Operational Land Image (OLI), and WorldView-2 (WV2) at native spatial resolutions of 250 m, 30 m and 2 m respectively and coarser spatial resolution (resampled up to 5 km) to quantify the impact of spatial resolution on the derived TSS product in different turbidity conditions. The results from the study show that in the waters of high turbidity and high spatial variability, the high spatial resolution WV2 sensor reported TSS concentration as high as 160 mg L-1 while the low spatial resolution MODIS-Aqua reported a maximum TSS concentration of 23.6 mg L-1. Degrading the spatial resolution of each satellite sensor for highly spatially variable turbid waters led to variability in the TSS concentrations of 114.46%, 304.68% and 38.2% for WV2, Landsat-8 OLI and MODIS-Aqua respectively. The implications of this work are particularly relevant in the situation of compliance monitoring where operations may be required to restrict TSS concentrations to a pre-defined limit. PMID:28380059

  17. Floristic patterns and disturbance history in karri ( Eucalyptus diversicolor: Myrtaceae) forest, south-western Australia: 2. Origin, growth form and fire response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardell-Johnson, Grant W.; Williams, M. R.; Mellican, A. E.; Annells, A.

    2007-03-01

    We examined the influence of disturbance history on the floristic composition of a single community type in karri forest, south-western Australia. Cover-abundance of 224 plant species and six disturbance and site-based environmental variables were recorded in 91, 20 m × 20 m quadrats. Numerical taxonomic and correlation approaches were used to relate these and 10 plant species-group variables based on origin, growth form and fire response. Ordination revealed no discernable pattern of sites based on floristic composition. However, all 10 species-group variables were significantly correlated with the ordination axes. Species richness within these groups varied with category and with respect to many of the disturbance and site variables. We encountered low diversity of vascular plants at the community level and limited diversity of growth forms. Thus most species were herbs (62.1%) or shrubs (30.3%), and there were no epiphytes and few species of trees or climbers. Although many introduced species were recorded (18.3% of all taxa), virtually all (83%) were herbs that demonstrated little persistence in the community, and there was limited evidence of transformer species. Time-since-fire (and other disturbance) influenced species richness more than the number of recent past fires because of a high proportion of ephemerals associated with the immediate post-fire period. Long-lived shrubs with soil stored seed dominate numerically, and in understorey biomass in comparison with neighboring vegetation types because of their greater flexibility of response following irregular, but intense disturbance events. However, interactions between nutrient status, regeneration mechanisms and community composition may be worthy of further investigation.

  18. Early Archean (approximately 3.4 Ga) prokaryotic filaments from cherts of the apex basalt, Western Australia: The oldest cellularly preserved microfossils now known

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schopf, J. W.

    1991-01-01

    In comparison with that known from later geologic time, the Archean fossil record is miniscule: although literally hundreds of Proterozoic formations, containing more that 2800 occurrences of bona fide microfossils are now known, fewer than 30 units containing some 43 categories of putative microfossils (the vast majority of which are of questionable authenticity) have been reported from the Archean. Among the oldest known fossils are Early Archean filaments reported from cherts of the Towers Formation and the Apex Basalt of the 3.3-3.6 Ga-old Warrawoona Group of Western Australia. The paleobiologic significance of the Towers Formation microstructures is open to question: thin aggregated filaments are properly regarded as dubiomicrofossils (perhaps biogenic, but perhaps not); therefore, they cannot be regarded as firm evidence of Archean life. Although authentic, filamentous microfossiles were reported from a second Towers Formation locality, because the precise layer containing the fossiliferous cherts was not relocated, this discovery can neither be reconfirmed by the original collector nor confirmed independently by other investigators. Discovery of microfossils in bedded cherts of the Apex Basalt, the stratigraphic unit immediately overlying the Towers Formation, obviates the difficulties stored above. The cellularly preserved filaments of the Apex Basalt meet all of the criteria required of a bona fide Archean microfossils. Recent studies indicate that the Apex assemblage includes at least six morphotypes of uniseriate filaments, composed of barrel-shaped, discoidal, or quadrate cells and exhibiting rounded or conical terminal cells and medial bifurcated and paired half-cells that reflect the occurrence of prokaryotic binary cell division. Interestingly, the majority of these morphotypes are morphologically more similar to extant cyanobacteria than to modern filamentous bacteria. Prokaryotes seem clearly to have been hypobradytelic, and the evidence suggests

  19. The pharmacology of Malo maxima jellyfish venom extract in isolated cardiovascular tissues: A probable cause of the Irukandji syndrome in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ran; Wright, Christine E; Winkel, Kenneth D; Gershwin, Lisa-Ann; Angus, James A

    2011-03-25

    The in vitro cardiac and vascular pharmacology of Malo maxima, a newly described jellyfish suspected of causing Irukandji syndrome in the Broome region of Western Australia, was investigated in rat tissues. In left atria, M. maxima crude venom extract (CVE; 1-100μg/mL) caused concentration-dependent inotropic responses which were unaffected by atropine (1μM), but significantly attenuated by tetrodotoxin (TTX; 0.1μM), propranolol (1μM), Mg(2+) (6mM) or calcitonin gene-related peptide antagonist (CGRP(8-37); 1μM). CVE caused no change in right atrial rate until 100μg/mL, which elicited bradycardia. This was unaffected by atropine, TTX, propranolol or CGRP(8-37). In the presence of Mg(2+), CVE 30-100μg/mL caused tachycardia. In small mesenteric arteries CVE caused concentration-dependent contractions (pEC(50) 1.03±0.07μg/mL) that were unaffected by prazosin (0.3μM), ω-conotoxin GVIA (0.1μM) or Mg(2+) (6mM). There was a 2-fold increase in sensitivity in the presence of CGRP(8-37) (3μM). TTX (0.1μM), box jellyfish Chironex fleckeri antivenom (92.6U/mL) and benextramine (3μM) decreased sensitivity by 2.6, 1.9 and 2.1-fold, respectively. CVE-induced maximum contractions were attenuated by C. fleckeri antivenom (-22%) or benextramine (-49%). M. maxima CVE appears to activate the sympathetic, but not parasympathetic, nervous system and to stimulate sensory nerve CGRP release in left atria and resistance arteries. These effects are consistent with the catecholamine excess thought to cause Irukandji syndrome, with additional actions of CGRP release.

  20. Transfers to metropolitan hospitals and coronary angiography for rural Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal patients with acute ischaemic heart disease in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Derrick; Katzenellenbogen, Judith M; Sanfilippo, Frank M; Woods, John A; Hobbs, Michael S T; Knuiman, Matthew W; Briffa, Tom G; Thompson, Peter L; Thompson, Sandra C

    2014-05-01

    Aboriginal people have a disproportionately higher incidence rate of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) than non-Aboriginal people. The findings on Aboriginal disparity in receiving coronary artery procedures are inconclusive. We describe the profile and transfers of IHD patients admitted to rural hospitals as emergency admissions and investigate determinants of transfers and coronary angiography. Person-linked hospital and mortality records were used to identify 28-day survivors of IHD events commencing at rural hospitals in Western Australia. Outcome measures were receipt of coronary angiography, transfer to a metropolitan hospital, and coronary angiography if transferred to a metropolitan hospital. Compared to non-Aboriginal patients, Aboriginal patients with IHD were more likely to be younger, have more co-morbidities, reside remotely, but less likely to have private insurance. After adjusting for demographic characteristics, Aboriginal people with MI were less likely to be transferred to a metropolitan hospital, and if transferred were less likely to receive coronary angiography. These disparities were not significant after adjusting for comorbidities and private insurance. In the full multivariate model age, comorbidities and private insurance were adversely associated with transfer to a metropolitan hospital and coronary angiography. Disparity in receiving coronary angiography following emergency admission for IHD to rural hospitals is mediated through the lower likelihood of being transferred to metropolitan hospitals where this procedure is performed. The likelihood of a transfer is increased if the patient has private insurance, however, rural Aboriginal people have a lower rate of private insurance than their non-Aboriginal counterparts. Health practitioners and policy makers can continue to claim that they treat Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people alike based upon clinical indications, as private insurance is acting as a filter to reduce rural residents

  1. Transfers to metropolitan hospitals and coronary angiography for rural Aboriginal and non‐Aboriginal patients with acute ischaemic heart disease in Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Aboriginal people have a disproportionately higher incidence rate of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) than non-Aboriginal people. The findings on Aboriginal disparity in receiving coronary artery procedures are inconclusive. We describe the profile and transfers of IHD patients admitted to rural hospitals as emergency admissions and investigate determinants of transfers and coronary angiography. Methods Person-linked hospital and mortality records were used to identify 28-day survivors of IHD events commencing at rural hospitals in Western Australia. Outcome measures were receipt of coronary angiography, transfer to a metropolitan hospital, and coronary angiography if transferred to a metropolitan hospital. Results Compared to non-Aboriginal patients, Aboriginal patients with IHD were more likely to be younger, have more co-morbidities, reside remotely, but less likely to have private insurance. After adjusting for demographic characteristics, Aboriginal people with MI were less likely to be transferred to a metropolitan hospital, and if transferred were less likely to receive coronary angiography. These disparities were not significant after adjusting for comorbidities and private insurance. In the full multivariate model age, comorbidities and private insurance were adversely associated with transfer to a metropolitan hospital and coronary angiography. Conclusion Disparity in receiving coronary angiography following emergency admission for IHD to rural hospitals is mediated through the lower likelihood of being transferred to metropolitan hospitals where this procedure is performed. The likelihood of a transfer is increased if the patient has private insurance, however, rural Aboriginal people have a lower rate of private insurance than their non-Aboriginal counterparts. Health practitioners and policy makers can continue to claim that they treat Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people alike based upon clinical indications, as private insurance is acting as

  2. Intensive care unit occupancy after introduction of the emergency department 4-hour discharge rule at a tertiary referral hospital in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Heerden, Peter V; Blott, John A; Pinder, Mary; Cameron, Peter D; Roberts, Brigit L; Brinkworth, Anne; Stav, Ilana; Sviri, Sigal

    2013-12-01

    The 4-hour rule has been introduced in Western Australia, requiring that emergency department (ED) patients be admitted to hospital or discharged from the ED within 4 hours of presentation. We hypothesised that this rule might have been associated with changes in medical emergency team (MET) calls and intensive care unit exit bed block. Hospital databases were examined to determine compliance with the 4-hour rule, the effect on ICU exit bed block, and the number of MET calls, in 2008 (before introduction of the 4-hour rule) and 2011 (after introduction of the 4-hour rule). We also measured background ICU and hospital activity in 2008 and 2011. Monthly compliance with the 4-hour rule ranged from 35%-46% in 2008 to 64%-75% in 2011 (P bed block days for patients in the ICU between 2008 (before introduction of the 4-hour rule) and 2011 (after introduction of the 4-hour rule) (P = 0.05). The increase in ICU bed block-days could not be explained by a difference in ICU occupancy, as there was a reduction in ICU bed-days between 2008 and 2011 (P = 0.014). There was a reduction in hospital mortality rate between 2008 and 2011 (P < 0.001). There was no significant increase in the number of MET calls from 2008 to 2011 (P = 0.221). Hospital activity (separations) increased from 2008 to 2011 (P < 0.0001). The introduction of the 4-hour rule was associated with increased exit block from the ICU, but not with increased MET calls to attend to unstable or deteriorating ward patients. Introduction of the 4-hour rule was associated with a small reduction in hospital mortality.

  3. Regional climate projections of mean and extreme climate for the southwest of Western Australia (1970-1999 compared to 2030-2059)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrys, Julia; Kala, Jatin; Lyons, Thomas J.

    2017-03-01

    Projections of future climate change (1970-1999 compared to 2030-2059) for southwest Western Australia (SWWA) are analysed for a regional climate model (RCM) ensemble using the Weather Research and Forecasting Model with boundary conditions from three CMIP3 general circulation models (GCMs); CCSM3, CSIROmk3.5 and ECHAM5. We show that the RCM adds value to the GCM and we suggest that this is through improved representation of regional scale topography and enhanced land-atmosphere interactions. Our results show that the mean daytime temperature increase is larger than the nighttime increase, attributed to reduced soil moisture and hence increased surface sensible heat flux in the model, and there is statistically significant evidence that the variance of minimum temperatures will increase. Changes in summer rainfall are uncertain, with some models showing rainfall increases and others projecting reductions. All models show very large fluctuations in summer rainfall intensity which has important implications because of the increased risk of flash flooding and erosion of arable land. There is model consensus indicating a decline in winter rainfall and the spatial distribution of this rainfall decline is influenced by regional scale topography in two of the three simulations. Winter rainfall reduction is consistent with the historical trend of declining rainfall in SWWA, which has been attributed in previous research to a reduction in the number of fronts passing over the region. The continuation of this trend is evident in all models by an increase in winter mean sea level pressure in SWWA, and a reduced number of winter front days. Winter rainfall does not show any marked variations in daily intensity.

  4. The effects of socioeconomic status, accessibility to services and patient type on hospital use in Western Australia: a retrospective cohort study of patients with homogenous health status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holman C D'Arcy J

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to investigate groups of patients with a relatively homogenous health status to evaluate the degree to which use of the Australian hospital system is affected by socio-economic status, locational accessibility to services and patient payment classification. Method Records of all deaths occurring in Western Australia from 1997 to 2000 inclusive were extracted from the WA mortality register and linked to records from the hospital morbidity data system (HMDS via the WA Data Linkage System. Adjusted incidence rate ratios of hospitalisation in the last, second and third years prior to death were modelled separately for five underlying causes of death. Results The independent effects of socioeconomic status on hospital utilisation differed markedly across cause of death. Locational accessibility was generally not an independent predictor of utilisation except in those dying from ischaemic heart disease and lung cancer. Private patient status did not globally affect utilisation across all causes of death, but was associated with significantly decreased utilisation three years prior to death for those who died of colorectal, lung or breast cancer, and increased utilisation in the last year of life in those who died of colorectal cancer or cerebrovascular disease. Conclusion It appears that the Australian hospital system may not be equitable since equal need did not equate to equal utilisation. Further it would appear that horizontal equity, as measured by equal utilisation for equal need, varies by disease. This implies that a 'one-size-fits-all' approach to further improvements in equity may be over simplistic. Thus initiatives beyond Medicare should be devised and evaluated in relation to specific areas of service provision.

  5. Educational, developmental and psychological outcomes of resettled refugee children in Western Australia: a review of School of Special Educational Needs: Medical and Mental Health input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, Ariel Olivia; Mulheron, Shani; Jones, Caleb; Cherian, Sarah

    2014-12-01

    There are limited data regarding the educational backgrounds and associated psychological and developmental outcomes of refugee children resettling in Western Australia (WA). The WA paediatric Refugee Health Service (RHS) revised its first consult questionnaire (August 2011) to increase educational and psychosocial documentation, concurrent with engagement of a School of Special Educational Needs: Medical and Mental Health (SSEN: MMH) liaison teacher. This study aims to utilise these data to increase understanding of this cohort's educational, developmental and psychological needs and to describe SSEN: MMH's role within the RHS. Retrospective audit and analyses were performed on all initial standardised questionnaires for school-aged refugee children (4-18 years) and SSEN: MMH referrals between August 2011 and December 2012. Demographic data from 332 refugees are described (mean age 9.58 ± standard deviation 3.43 years). Detailed educational information was available for 205 children. Prior education was limited (median 2 years), 64.9% experienced likely schooling interruption and 55.8% received education in their primary language. Language development concerns were significantly associated with previous education in a second language (odds ratio (OR) 4.55, P education. In contrast, several migration factors, including family separation and mandatory detention, were significantly associated with psychological comorbidities such as post-traumatic stress disorder (OR 5.60, P educational, developmental and psychological concerns. Refugee children have varied migration, trauma and educational backgrounds, impacting on health and psychological outcomes. In-depth multidisciplinary history including prior education and psychosocial issues is recommended. Partnering with education services appears to play an effective, multifaceted role in aiding resettlement; however, longitudinal studies are required. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2014

  6. Hydrologic impact of climate change on Murray Hotham catchment of Western Australia: a projection of rainfall-runoff for future water resources planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Islam

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Reduction of rainfall and runoff in recent years across South West Western Australia (SWWA has drawn attention about climate change impact on water resources and its availability in this region. In this paper, hydrologic impact of climate change on Murray Hotham catchment in SWWA is investigated using multi-model ensemble approach. The Land Use Change Incorporated Catchment (LUCICAT model was used for hydrologic modelling. Model calibration was performed using (5 km grid rainfall data from Australian Water Availability Project (AWAP. Downscaled and bias corrected rainfall data from 11 General Circulation Models (GCMs for Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC emission scenarios A2 and B1 was used in LUCICAT model to derive rainfall and runoff scenarios for 2046–2065 (mid this century and 2081–2100 (late this century. The results of climate scenarios were compared with observed past (1961–1980 climate. The mean annual rainfall averaged over the catchment during recent time (1981–2000 was reduced by 2.3% with respect to observed past (1961–1980 and resulting runoff reduction was found 14%. Compared to the past, the mean annual rainfall reductions, averaged over 11 ensembles and over the period for the catchment for A2 scenario are 13.6 and 23.6% for mid and late this century respectively while the corresponding runoff reductions are 36 and 74%. For B1 scenario, the rainfall reductions were 11.9 and 11.6% for mid and late this century and corresponding runoff reductions were 31 and 38%. Spatial distribution of rainfall and runoff changes showed that the rate of changes were higher in high rainfall part compared to the low rainfall part. Temporal distribution of rainfall and runoff indicate that high rainfall in the catchment reduced significantly and further reductions are projected resulting significant runoff reductions. A catchment scenario map has been developed through plotting decadal runoff reduction against corresponding

  7. Management of root diseases of annual pasture legumes in Mediterranean ecosystems - a case study of subterranean clover root diseases in the south-west of Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Barbetti

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum is an important component of Mediterranean dryland pasture ecosystems, such as in the south-west of Western Australia, where it is utilised as a winter annual pasture that provides nitrogen as well as disease breaks for rotational crops. Necrotrophic soil-borne fungal pathogens dominate Mediterranean ecosystems because of the ease of survival of these pathogens on infested residues over the dry summer period, and because of low levels of microbial competition in the impoverished and nutrient-defi cient soils characteristic of these regions that predisposes plants to root diseases. In addition to herbage and seed yield losses from soil-borne fungal and nematode pathogens, changes in botanical composition, in the number of regenerating plants, their persistence, and factors affecting feed quality are signifi cantly affected. Further, where the causal organisms of the diseases on subterranean clover are also common on other rotational crops, the impact of these soilborne pathogens appears far wider in Mediterranean ecosystems than previously considered. Under these conditions, soil-borne pathogens pose a serious threat to the productivity of this self-seeding pasture legume, to the extent that reseeding may become necessary. Pathogens such as Phytophthora clandestina, various Pythium species particularly Pythium irregulare, Aphanomyces sp., Rhizoctonia solani, one or more Fusarium species, Phoma medicaginis and Cylindrocarpon didymium are of concern, as are the nematode parasites from the genera Meloidogyne, Heterodera, Pratylenchus, Trichodorus and Radopholus. In this ecosystem, root pathogens operate together as disease complexes and the challenge therefore has been to source host genotypes with resistance to multiple pathogens. In addition to plant nutrition, environmental factors, in particular rainfall (soil moisture and soil temperature, have a marked effect on both the disease severity caused by

  8. Verification of a prognostic meteorological and air pollution model for year-long predictions in the Kwinana industrial region of Western Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurley, P.J. [CSIRO Atmospheric Research, Aspendale, Vic (Australia); Blockley, A.; Rayner, K. [Department of Environmental Protection, Perth, WA (Australia)

    2001-04-01

    A prognostic air pollution model (TAPM) has been used to predict meteorology and sulphur dioxide concentration in the Kwinana industrial region of Western Australia for 1997, with a view to verifying TAPM for use in environmental impact assessments and associated air pollution studies. The regulatory plume model, DISPMOD, developed for the Kwinana region has also been run using both an observationally based meteorological file (denoted DISPMOD-O) and using a TAPM-based meteorological file (denoted DISPMOD-T). TAPM predictions of the meteorology for 1997 compare well with the observed values at each of the five monitoring sites. Root mean square error and index of agreement values for temperature and winds indicate that TAPM performs well at predicting the meteorology, compared to the performance of similar models from other studies. The yearly average, 99.9 percentile, maximum and mean of the top 10 ground-level sulphur dioxide concentrations for 1997 were predicted well by all of the model runs, although DISPMOD-O and DISPMOD-T tended to overpredict extreme statistics at sites furthest from the sources. Overall, TAPM performed better than DISPMOD-O, which in turn performed better than DISPMOD-T, for all statistics considered, but we consider that all three sets of results are sufficiently accurate for regulatory applications. The mean of the top ten concentrations is generally considered to be a robust performance statistic for air pollution applications, and we show that compared to the site-averaged observed value of 95{mu}gm{sup -3}, TAPM predicted 94{mu}gm{sup -3}, DISPMOD-O predicted 111{mu}gm{sup -3} and DISPMOD-T predicted 125{mu}gm{sup -3}. The results indicate that the prognostic meteorological and air pollution approach to regulatory modelling used by TAPM, gives comparable or better results than the current regulatory approach used in the Kwinana region (DISPMOD), and also indicates that the approach of using a currently accepted regulatory model with a

  9. An integrated petrological, geochemical and Re-Os isotope study of peridotite xenoliths from the Argyle lamproite, Western Australia and implications for cratonic diamond occurrences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luguet, A.; Jaques, A. L.; Pearson, D. G.; Smith, C. B.; Bulanova, G. P.; Roffey, S. L.; Rayner, M. J.; Lorand, J.-P.

    2009-11-01

    An integrated study of the petrology and Re-Os geochemistry of a suite of peridotite xenoliths, some carrying abundant diamonds, from the richly diamondiferous Argyle AK1 lamproite pipe provides definitive evidence for a depleted lithospheric root of Neoarchean age (T RD eruption ˜ 2.2-3.1 Ga) beneath the Proterozoic Halls Creek Orogen at the margin of the Kimberley Craton, Western Australia. The microdiamonds from the peridotitic xenoliths are similar in their properties to the minor population of small, commercial sized, peridotitic diamonds from Argyle, both formed in the Archean from isotopically mantle-like carbon. The major element bulk chemistry and mineral chemistry of the Argyle peridotites are slightly less depleted than Archean cratonic peridotites as a whole but similar to those reported from Neoarchean-Paleoproterozoic cratonic provinces. The Argyle peridotite xenoliths were derived from within the diamond stability field (1050-1300 °C and 4.9-5.9 GPa) near the base of the lithosphere (typically 160-200 km depth) with a geothermal gradient of 41.5 mW/m 2. This thick diamondiferous lithosphere, estimated at up to 225 km thick from present day seismic S-wave tomography, appears to have persisted since the time of eruption of the Argyle lamproite (˜ 1180 Ma). The existence of late Archean age lithosphere beneath the Argyle diamond pipe, in a region where no crustal rocks of Archean age are known, suggests a decoupling of the crust and mantle in the region of the Halls Creek Orogen, perhaps as a consequence of Paleoproterozoic (˜ 1.85 Ga) reworking and/or subduction at the margin of the Kimberley Craton. The confirmation of an Archean lithospheric root beneath the Argyle pipe at the margin of the Kimberley Craton seemingly conforms with "Clifford's Rule", regarding the restriction of economic diamond deposits to those underlain by Archean cratons. However, Argyle owes its rich diamond grades not to its Neoarchean mantle roots but to the presence of

  10. Lithostratigraphic analysis of a new stromatolite-thrombolite reef from across the rise of atmospheric oxygen in the Paleoproterozoic Turee Creek Group, Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, E; Van Kranendonk, M J; Yamaguchi, K E; Ikehara, M; Lepland, A

    2016-07-01

    This study describes a previously undocumented dolomitic stromatolite-thrombolite reef complex deposited within the upper part (Kazput Formation) of the c. 2.4-2.3 Ga Turee Creek Group, Western Australia, across the rise of atmospheric oxygen. Confused by some as representing a faulted slice of the younger c. 1.8 Ga Duck Creek Dolomite, this study describes the setting and lithostratigraphy of the 350-m-thick complex and shows how it differs from its near neighbour. The Kazput reef complex is preserved along 15 km of continuous exposure on the east limb of a faulted, north-west-plunging syncline and consists of 5 recognisable facies associations (A-E), which form two part regressions and one transgression. The oldest facies association (A) is characterised by thinly bedded dololutite-dolarenite, with local domical stromatolites. Association B consists of interbedded columnar and stratiform stromatolites deposited under relatively shallow-water conditions. Association C comprises tightly packed columnar and club-shaped stromatolites deposited under continuously deepening conditions. Clotted (thrombolite-like) microbialite, in units up to 40 m thick, dominates Association D, whereas Association E contains bedded dololutite and dolarenite, and some thinly bedded ironstone, shale and black chert units. Carbon and oxygen isotope stratigraphy reveals a narrow range in both δ(13) Ccarb values, from -0.22 to 0.97‰ (VPDB: average = 0.68‰), and δ(18) O values, from -14.8 to -10.3‰ (VPDB), within the range of elevated fluid temperatures, likely reflecting some isotopic exchange. The Kazput Formation stromatolite-thrombolite reef complex contains features of younger Paleoproterozoic carbonate reefs, yet is 300-500 Ma older than previously described Proterozoic examples worldwide. Significantly, the microbial fabrics are clearly distinct from Archean stromatolitic marine carbonate reefs by way of containing the first appearance of clotted microbialite and large

  11. Rare earth element geochemistry of Late Devonian reefal carbonates, Canning Basin, Western Australia: confirmation of a seawater REE proxy in ancient limestones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nothdurft, Luke D.; Webb, Gregory E.; Kamber, Balz S.

    2004-01-01

    Rare earth element and yttrium (REE+Y) concentrations were determined in 49 Late Devonian reefal carbonates from the Lennard Shelf, Canning Basin, Western Australia. Shale-normalized (SN) REE+Y patterns of the Late Devonian samples display features consistent with the geochemistry of well-oxygenated, shallow seawater. A variety of different ancient limestone components, including microbialites, some skeletal carbonates (stromatoporoids), and cements, record seawater-like REE+Y signatures. Contamination associated with phosphate, Fe-oxides and shale was tested quantitatively, and can be discounted as the source of the REE+Y patterns. Co-occurring carbonate components that presumably precipitated from the same seawater have different relative REE concentrations, but consistent REE+Y patterns. Clean Devonian early marine cements ( n = 3) display REE+Y signatures most like that of modern open ocean seawater and the highest Y/Ho ratios (e.g., 59) and greatest light REE (LREE) depletion (average Nd SN/Yb SN = 0.413, SD = 0.076). However, synsedimentary cements have the lowest REE concentrations (e.g., 405 ppb). Non-contaminated Devonian microbialite samples containing a mixture of the calcimicrobe Renalcis and micritic thrombolite aggregates in early marine cement ( n = 11) have the highest relative REE concentrations of tested carbonates (average total REE = 11.3 ppm). Stromatoporoid skeletons, unlike modern corals, algae and molluscs, also contain well-developed, seawater-like REE patterns. Samples from an estuarine fringing reef have very different REE+Y patterns with LREE enrichment (Nd SN/Yb SN > 1), possibly reflecting inclusion of estuarine colloidal material that contained preferentially scavenged LREE from a nearby riverine input source. Hence, Devonian limestones provide a proxy for marine REE geochemistry and allow the differentiation of co-occurring water masses on the ancient Lennard Shelf. Although appropriate partition coefficients for quantification of

  12. Water use and physiology of the riparian tree species Eucalyptus victrix in the semi-arid Pilbara region of Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfautsch, S.; Keitel, C.; Adams, M. A.; Turnbull, T.

    2009-04-01

    We examined the water use and physiology of trees growing in a riparian community within the seasonally arid Pilbara region of north-western Australia. This region is arid during the winter months, but monsoonal during summer (November to April). Maximum monthly mean temperatures in summer exceed 40 °C and are c. 25 °C during the winter months. The Millstream study site is located on a section of the Fortescue River system along the base of the Chichester Range c. 100km south of Karratha. This system creates a unique landscape in the Pilbara as it forms several large permanent pools. These pools are maintained by springs from an aquifer beneath the alluvial plain. The groundwater from this aquifer is used as a public water supply for towns in the west Pilbara but industrial development and a growing population will place greater demand on this aquifer. Changes to the local hydrology may have dramatic effects on the local plant community, dominated variously by stands of Eucalyptus victrix (Coolibah) and Eucalyptus camaldulensis (River red gum). This study seeks to understand the dependence of the Millstream riparian ecosystem on the height of the aquifer and to characterise the water use and physiology of Eucalyptus victrix. We used a number of techniques to determine the hydraulic and photosynthetic status of the tree canopy, including isotope, sap flow, water-potential and gas exchange measurements. Initial results from this study show: a) Soil water d18O and d2H is strongly enriched towards the surface, which coincides with a strong increase in salinity. The water source accessed by these trees has been identified by d18O and d2H analysis of xylem water. d18O and d2H were additionally analysed in atmospheric and leaf water pools. b) Sap flow in Coolibah trees shows a unique pattern of sharp early morning rise to a plateau maintained throughout the hottest part of the day, followed by a sharp decline in flow late in the afternoon. c) Leaf water potential

  13. Iron and carbon isotope evidence for ecosystem and environmental diversity in the ˜ 2.7 to 2.5 Ga Hamersley Province, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaja, Andrew D.; Johnson, Clark M.; Beard, Brian L.; Eigenbrode, Jennifer L.; Freeman, Katherine H.; Yamaguchi, Kosei E.

    2010-03-01

    The largest excursion in kerogen δ13C and bulk/mineral δ56Fe values yet measured in the ancient rock record occurs in rocks of ˜ 2.7 to 2.5 Ga age. New Fe isotope data integrated with previously collected C isotope data on the same samples document the metabolic diversity of microbial communities in the Neoarchean Hamersley Province of the Pilbara Craton in Western Australia. Samples of shales, carbonates, and mixed carbonate/shale lithologies were collected from three drill cores; two cores from the depocenter of the province and one from the margin. Shallow-water clastic/carbonate rocks deposited in the center of the province (Tumbiana Formation) record kerogen δ13C values that indicate C cycling by various anaerobic or aerobic methane pathways, but the restricted range in δ56Fe values indicates little or no Fe redox cycling. Deep-water sediments deposited contemporaneously in both parts of the Hamersley Province (Jeerinah Formation) record slightly positive δ56Fe values in the relatively shallower and suboxic margin, but strongly negative δ56Fe values in the deeper euxinic depocenter of the province, a pattern consistent with Fe cycling via a basin Fe shuttle, driven by bacterial dissimilatory iron reduction (DIR). Kerogen δ13C values from these units indicate coupling of microbial Fe cycling to aerobic methanotrophy or anaerobic oxidation of methane. Younger black shales, intercalated with iron formation (Marra Mamba Iron Formation) in the depocenter, record a shift to near-zero δ56Fe values reflecting an Fe budget dominated by hydrothermal and clastic sources. However, time-equivalent, Fe-rich carbonate/shale lithologies deposited on the margin of the province (Carawine Dolomite) have δ56Fe values that steadily decrease from near zero to strongly negative values. These relatively Fe-rich carbonates may reflect a carbonate trap of a DIR-driven Fe shuttle, similar to the sulfidic trap in the euxinic portion of the Jeerinah Formation. In contrast

  14. Temporal Changes in BEXSERO® Antigen Sequence Type Associated with Genetic Lineages of Neisseria meningitidis over a 15-Year Period in Western Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakeel Mowlaboccus

    Full Text Available Neisseria meningitidis is the causative agent of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD. The BEXSERO® vaccine which is used to prevent serogroup B disease is composed of four sub-capsular protein antigens supplemented with an outer membrane vesicle. Since the sub-capsular protein antigens are variably expressed and antigenically variable amongst meningococcal isolates, vaccine coverage can be estimated by the meningococcal antigen typing system (MATS which measures the propensity of the strain to be killed by vaccinated sera. Whole genome sequencing (WGS which identifies the alleles of the antigens that may be recognised by the antibody response could represent, in future, an alternative estimate of coverage. In this study, WGS of 278 meningococcal isolates responsible for 62% of IMD in Western Australia from 2000-2014 were analysed for association of genetic lineage (sequence type [ST], clonal complex [cc] with BEXSERO® antigen sequence type (BAST and MATS to predict the annual vaccine coverage. A hyper-endemic period of IMD between 2000-05 was caused by cc41/44 with the major sequence type of ST-146 which was not predicted by MATS or BAST to be covered by the vaccine. An increase in serogroup diversity was observed between 2010-14 with the emergence of cc11 serogroup W in the adolescent population and cc23 serogroup Y in the elderly. BASTs were statistically associated with clonal complex although individual antigens underwent antigenic drift from the major type. BAST and MATS predicted an annual range of 44-91% vaccine coverage. Periods of low vaccine coverage in years post-2005 were not a result of the resurgence of cc41/44:ST-146 but were characterised by increased diversity of clonal complexes expressing BASTs which were not predicted by MATS to be covered by the vaccine. The driving force behind the diversity of the clonal complex and BAST during these periods of low vaccine coverage is unknown, but could be due to immune selection and

  15. Iron isotope compositions and origins of pyrites from the Turee Creek Group, Western Australia: the contribution of high-resolution femtosecond Laser Ablation -MC-ICP-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Abzac, F.; Beard, B. L.; Williford, K. H.; Valley, J. W.; Van Kranendonk, M. J.; Johnson, C.

    2013-12-01

    The Paleoproterozoic Great Oxidation Event (GOE) records a transition from an anoxic environment to a O2-bearing atmosphere, but its timing and duration remain unclear. High-spatial-resolution S isotope analyses by SIMS have shown that pyrite grains in the ~2.4Gy diamictites of the Meteorite Bore Member (MBM; Turee Creek Group, Western Australia), deposited during the GOE, contain evidence for a complex depositional and paragenetic history, including microbial sulfate reduction under low atmospheric O2 yet high seawater sulfate concentrations. The pyrites show various morphologies: euhedral, subhedral, anhedral, rounded, and zoned, where low- δ34S rounded cores may have high-δ34S euhedral/subhedral overgrowths [1]. New in-situ Fe isotope data by femtosecond laser ablation (fs-LA) analysis using Multi Collector ICP-MS on 118 pyrite grains within five rock samples previously analyzed for S isotopes documents δ56Fe values between -2.3‰ and +2.3‰. Transitional cherts at the base of the MBM record the highest δ56Fe values, >0.7‰. Within the upper mudstones/sandstones deposits, anhedral, rounded grains and zoned pyrite cores have a wide range of δ56Fe from -2.3‰ to +1.1‰ whereas euhedral grains and grains overgrowths have mainly positive δ56Fe values, up to +1.34‰, spread over narrower ranges in each sample (100°C [5, 6], in agreement with [1]. The δ34S gradient of highly negative to positive values from zoned pyrites cores to rims is well correlated with our observations of low-δ56Fe cores to positive δ56Fe rims, within the same set of grains, which supports the paragenesis described in [1]. This study demonstrates the importance of high resolution in-situ isotopic analysis for samples of complex histories and multiple isotopic components, and in the case of the GOE transition, document that a large variety of Fe pathways were active during the transition. 1. Williford, K.H., et al., Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 2011. 75(19): p. 5686-5705. 2

  16. Neoarchean orogenic, magmatic and hydrothermal events in the Kalgoorlie-Kambalda area, Western Australia: constraints on gold mineralization in the Boulder Lefroy-Golden Mile fault system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Andreas G.; Hagemann, Steffen G.; McNaughton, Neal J.

    2016-08-01

    The Boulder Lefroy-Golden Mile (BLF-GMF) fault system is the most intensely mineralized structure (>2150 t Au to 2015) in the Archean Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia. The fault system links the Kalgoorlie and Kambalda mining districts in the Eastern Goldfields Province, a continental-margin orogen subdivided into the western Kalgoorlie ensialic rift and the eastern Kurnalpi volcanic arc. After rifting, the 2.73-2.66 Ga greenstone-greywacke succession in the Kalgoorlie-Kambalda area underwent five phases of orogenic deformation, predominantly during ENE-WSW shortening: D1 upright folding at ca. 2680 Ma, D2 sinistral strike-slip faulting at 2678-2663 Ma, D3 folding of late conglomerate-turbidite successions at 2665-2655 Ma, D4 dextral strike-slip faulting at 2655-2640 Ma and D5 east-northeast-striking normal faulting. Regional prehnite-pumpellyite to greenschist facies burial metamorphism took place during D1 and D3 crustal thickening, and amphibolite facies aureoles formed around granite batholiths during and after D3 at 400 ± 100 MPa pressure. The D2 BLF offsets D1 folds by 12 km SW-side south and contains a porphyry dyke (2676 ± 7 Ma) boudinaged by transtensional oblique-slip along a line pitching 21° southeast. The BLF is linked by transverse D2 thrusts to other sinistral faults recording strike-slip until 2663 ± 7 Ma. Late D2 strike-slip movement alternated with early D3 shortening. D3 thrusts accommodated strain in fault blocks of rigid mafic-ultramafic volcanic rocks consolidated during D1, while the sedimentary rocks in D3 synclines were foliated at high strain. Biotite-sericite alteration and gold-pyrite mineralization in the BLF-GMF system took place at 11 ± 4 km burial depth in faults active during D2 and D3. The Golden Mile (1708 t Au) and other deposits are associated with stocks and dykes of high-Mg monzodiorite-tonalite porphyry, part of a late-orogenic (2665-2645 Ma) mantle-derived suite of adakitic affinity. Hornblende and apatite compositions

  17. Seven new species of Paleanotus (Annelida: Chrysopetalidae) described from Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, and coral reefs of northern Australia and the Indo-Pacific: two cryptic species pairs revealed between western Pacific Ocean and the eastern Indian Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Charlotte

    2015-09-18

    Morphological investigation into the paleate genus Paleanotus Schmarda 1861 of the family Chrysopetalidae from northern Australian coral reefs, primarily Lizard Island and outlying reefs, included a complex of very small, slender individuals (length Great Barrier Reef to the Philippines, western Pacific Ocean. Cryptic morphology and potential genetic diversity is discussed in Paleanotus inornatus n. sp. and P. adornatus n. sp. that possess overlapping widespread distribution patterns across northern Australia and Indo-Pacific reefs. The smallest bodied taxon, Paleanotus chrysos n. sp. is the only species with a Coral Sea range encompassing Lizard Island, Heron Island and New Caledonia.

  18. Origins of hematite and redox-sensitive elements in a 3.46 Ga jasper-basalt sequence in ABDP #1 core from Pilbara, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmoto, H.; Bevacqua, D. C.; Watanabe, Y.

    2010-12-01

    Previous researchers suggested that the abundant hematite crystals in surface outcrops of 3.46 Ga jasper and submarine basalt in the Marble Bar area, Western Australia were modern oxidation products of siderite and pyrite. Drilling at ABDP #1 site (260 m long at ~50° angle) was carried out to obtain modern oxidation-free samples of the jasper and submarine basalt and to conduct research aimed at constraining the redox state of the Archean oceans and atmosphere. The deep drill core samples were found to contain hematite crystals as abundantly as those in surface outcrops, suggesting that the hematite crystals are not modern oxidation products. We have conducted petrological, mineralogical, and geochemical investigations on more than 100 samples of chert/jasper and basalt. Based partly on the textural relationships among minerals in SEM and TEM images, we (Hoashi et al., Nature Geosciences, 2009) have concluded that the hematite crystals in the jasper beds formed at >60°C on and/or near the deep (>200 m) ocean floor by the mixing of ferrous iron-rich hydrothermal fluids and oxygen-rich deep ocean water. Hematite crystals in basalts, which occur at below, inter bedded with, and above the jasper beds, were most likely formed by the same processes. Hematite-rich jaspers and basalts in ABDP #1 core show significant enrichments of many redox-sensitive elements (e.g., Fe3+, Mn, U, Mo, REEs), as well as some non-redox sensitive elements (e.g., Li, Ba, Sr). Negative Ce anomalies are commonly found in these samples. These characteristics are essentially identical to those in jaspers and basalts in many modern submarine hydrothermal systems. These data suggest that since at least ~3.46 Ga ago: (1) the geochemistry and mineralogy of submarine hydrothermal deposits and associated basalts have been dictated by reducing (Fe- and Mn rich) hydrothermal fluids and oxidizing deep ocean water; (2) the concentrations of many redox-senstive (and other) elements in the oceans have been

  19. Achelia shepherdi n. sp. and other Pycnogonida from Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stock, Jan H.

    1973-01-01

    Records of 10 species of shallow water Pycnogonida from Western Australia, Victoria, Tasmania, and New South Wales, including Achelia shepherdi n. sp., Parapallene avida Stock, 1973 (♀ new to science), and Anoplodactylus pulcher Carpenter, 1907 (new to Australia).

  20. Achelia shepherdi n. sp. and other Pycnogonida from Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stock, Jan H.

    1973-01-01

    Records of 10 species of shallow water Pycnogonida from Western Australia, Victoria, Tasmania, and New South Wales, including Achelia shepherdi n. sp., Parapallene avida Stock, 1973 (♀ new to science), and Anoplodactylus pulcher Carpenter, 1907 (new to Australia).

  1. Using a Markov simulation model to assess the impact of changing trends in coronary heart disease incidence on requirements for coronary artery revascularization procedures in Western Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Knuiman Matthew; Mannan Haider R; Hobbs Michael

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The population incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD) has been declining in Australia and many other countries. This decline has been due to reduced population levels of risk factors for CHD and improved medical care for those at higher risk of CHD. However, there are signs that there may be a slowing down or even reversal in the decline of CHD incidence due to the 'obesity epidemic' and other factors and this will have implications for the requirements for surgical tre...

  2. Descrição de um Novo Decapoda (Natantia, Malacostraca, Crustacea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Aparecida Fernandes dos Reis

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available A “lobster” fossil from the Riachuelo Formation, Sergipe Sub-basin, is here described and placed in the Decapoda, Infraorder Palinura, based on the flattened carapace and the well-developed abdomen. The specimen is characterized by a dorsal median keel and a keel in each margin of the carapace and abdomen. Field data and petrographic studies suggest that the environment in which the Decapoda lived was probably a place with waves and moderate currents, located behind a sand barrier or in within a lagoon. Apparently, the carbonization process was responsible for specimen preservation.

  3. Studies on planktonic decapoda and stomatopoda (Crustacea) from the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Paulinose, V.T.; Goswami, S.C.; Nair, V.R.

    An account of a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the planktonic decapoda and stomatopoda collected during R.V Gaveshani Cruises 10, 12, 13 in the Arabian Sea is given. Area surveyed lies between latitudes 07 degrees 00' and 20 degrees 00'N...

  4. Optics and phylogeny: is there an insight? The evolution of superposition eyes in the Decapoda (Crustacea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaten, Edward

    1998-01-01

    This paper addresses the use of eye structure and optics in the construction of crustacean phylogenies and presents an hypothesis for the evolution of superposition eyes in the Decapoda, based on the distribution of eye types in extant decapod families. It is suggested that reflecting superposition

  5. 与西澳州西南部冬季降水相联系的大气环流特征分析%The Characteristics of Atmospheric Circulation Associated with Austral Winter Rainfall in Southwest Western Australia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建平; 李艳杰; 冯娟

    2011-01-01

    西澳大利亚州西南部(SWWA)是西澳大利亚州首府Perth的所在地,也是西澳州政治、经济、文化、教育和旅游的中心.自20世纪中期以来,SWWA地区雨季降水持续减少.本文利用近60年的观测及再分析数据,分析了已知的影响澳大利亚降水的热带海洋模态:厄尔尼诺—南方涛动(ENSO)、印度洋偶极子(IOD)和ENSOModoki (EM)对SWWA地区降水的影响,发现它们均不能解释SWWA地区前冬(5~7月)(全文季节均指南半球)和后冬(8~10月)降水的长期变化趋势.特别地澄清了南半球环状模(SAM)对SWWA地区冬季降水的影响,揭示了前人所指出的两者之间的显著关系是由于极端事件造成的.这表明,已知的影响澳大利亚降水的气候模态并不能解释SWWA地区冬季降水的长期变化趋势.通过对SWWA地区降水、大尺度大气环流的动力、热力结构和季节循环特征的分析,发现其表现出类似季风环流的特征,也即干湿季节的交替出现、风向的季节性反转和明显的海陆热力差异.基于此提出了SWWA地区类季风环流(SWAC)的概念,并分析了其与SWWA地区冬季降水之间的关系,指出SWAC环流的减弱是SWWA地区降水减少的可能原因.%Southwest Western Australia (SWWA) locates in the southwest corner of Western Australia. Its capital, Perth, is not only the political, economic, cultural, educational, and tourism center of Western Australia, but also the wine region and wheat belt of Western Australia. The observed rainy season precipitation over SWWA has significantly declined since the 1950s. The reduction in austral winter rainfall resulted in an even sharper fall in the stream flow in southwestern Australia and heavily impacted the water resources in the state. Based on the observation data and reanalysis datasets in recent 6 decades, the variability and circulation features influencing the SWWAaustral winter rainfall (SWR) are investigated The impacts of the

  6. A New Orbivirus Isolated from Mosquitoes in North-Western Australia Shows Antigenic and Genetic Similarity to Corriparta Virus but Does Not Replicate in Vertebrate Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica J. Harrison

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The discovery and characterisation of new mosquito-borne viruses provides valuable information on the biodiversity of vector-borne viruses and important insights into their evolution. In this study, a broad-spectrum virus screening system, based on the detection of long double-stranded RNA in inoculated cell cultures, was used to investigate the presence of novel viruses in mosquito populations of northern Australia. We detected and isolated a new virus (tentatively named Parry’s Lagoon virus, PLV from Culex annulirostris, Culex pullus, Mansonia uniformis and Aedes normanensis mosquitoes that shares genomic sequence similarities to Corriparta virus (CORV, a member of the Orbivirus genus of the family Reoviridae. Despite moderate to high (72.2% to 92.2% amino acid identity across all proteins when compared to CORV, and demonstration of antigenic relatedness, PLV did not replicate in several vertebrate cell lines that were permissive to CORV. This striking phenotypic difference suggests that PLV has evolved to have a very restricted host range, indicative of a mosquito-only life cycle.

  7. Effective surveillance strategies following a potential classical Swine Fever incursion in a remote wild pig population in North-Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, E; Cowled, B; Graeme Garner, M; Toribio, J-A L M L; Ward, M P

    2014-10-01

    Early disease detection and efficient methods of proving disease freedom can substantially improve the response to incursions of important transboundary animal diseases in previously free regions. We used a spatially explicit, stochastic disease spread model to simulate the spread of classical swine fever in wild pigs in a remote region of northern Australia and to assess the performance of disease surveillance strategies to detect infection at different time points and to delineate the size of the resulting outbreak. Although disease would likely be detected, simple random sampling was suboptimal. Radial and leapfrog sampling improved the effectiveness of surveillance at various stages of the simulated disease incursion. This work indicates that at earlier stages, radial sampling can reduce epidemic length and achieve faster outbreak delineation and control, but at later stages leapfrog sampling will outperform radial sampling in relation to supporting faster disease control with a less-extensive outbreak area. Due to the complexity of wildlife population dynamics and group behaviour, a targeted approach to surveillance needs to be implemented for the efficient use of resources and time. Using a more situation-based surveillance approach and accounting for disease distribution and the time period over which an epidemic has occurred is the best way to approach the selection of an appropriate surveillance strategy.

  8. Removal and Burial of Weed Seeds by Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) From the Soil Surface of a Cropped Area in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkey, D M; Spafford, H

    2016-10-01

    Although granivorous ants are known to collect weed seeds from cropping areas in Australia, the fate of these seeds has not been adequately investigated. Seeds of annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum Gaud.) and wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum L.) were placed around the nests of five native ant species (Iridomyrmex greensladei Shattuck, Rhytidoponera metallica Smith, Melophorus turneri Forel, Monomorium rothsteini Forel, and Pheidole hartmeyeri Forel) and tracked continuously over a 24-h period. Removal rates and seed preference of the ant species were evaluated. Ant nests were then excavated to determine the placement of seeds that were taken into each nest. Seed preference, seed removal efficiencies, activity, and seed storage all varied between the ant species. Annual ryegrass seed was collected by three species of ants and was removed from the soil surface more efficiently than wild radish seed. Most ant species stored seed below ground at a depth that is inhibitory to emergence, thereby potentially removing that portion of seed from the seed bank, but some seed was placed at germinable depths. Pheidole hartmeyeri was identified as a likely biological control agent for annual ryegrass seeds and wild radish, while Me. turneri and Mo. rothsteini have potential as biocontrol agents for annual ryegrass, but further research is needed. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Zirconolite, zircon and monazite-(Ce) U-Th-Pb age constraints on the emplacement, deformation and alteration history of the Cummins Range Carbonatite Complex, Halls Creek Orogen, Kimberley region, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downes, Peter J.; Dunkley, Daniel J.; Fletcher, Ian R.; McNaughton, Neal J.; Rasmussen, Birger; Jaques, A. Lynton; Verrall, Michael; Sweetapple, Marcus T.

    2016-04-01

    In situ SHRIMP U-Pb dating of zirconolite in clinopyroxenite from the Cummins Range Carbonatite Complex, situated in the southern Halls Creek Orogen, Kimberley region, Western Australia, has provided a reliable 207Pb/206Pb age of emplacement of 1009 ± 16 Ma. Variably metamict and recrystallised zircons from co-magmatic carbonatites, including a megacryst ~1.5 cm long, gave a range of ages from ~1043-998 Ma, reflecting partial isotopic resetting during post-emplacement deformation and alteration. Monazite-(Ce) in a strongly foliated dolomite carbonatite produced U-Th-Pb dates ranging from ~900-590 Ma. Although the monazite-(Ce) data cannot give any definitive ages, they clearly reflect a long history of hydrothermal alteration/recrystallisation, over at least 300 million years. This is consistent with the apparent resetting of the Rb-Sr and K-Ar isotopic systems by a post-emplacement thermal event at ~900 Ma during the intracratonic Yampi Orogeny. The emplacement of the Cummins Range Carbonatite Complex probably resulted from the reactivation of a deep crustal structure within the Halls Creek Orogen during the amalgamation of Proterozoic Australia with Rodinia over the period ~1000-950 Ma. This may have allowed an alkaline carbonated silicate magma that was parental to the Cummins Range carbonatites, and generated by redox and/or decompression partial melting of the asthenospheric mantle, to ascend from the base of the continental lithosphere along the lithospheric discontinuity constituted by the southern edge of the Halls Creek Orogen. There is no evidence of a link between the emplacement of the Cummins Range Carbonatite Complex and mafic large igneous province magmatism indicative of mantle plume activity. Rather, patterns of Proterozoic alkaline magmatism in the Kimberley Craton may have been controlled by changing plate motions during the Nuna-Rodinia supercontinent cycles (~1200-800 Ma).

  10. Using 14C and 3H to delineate a recharge 'window' into the Perth Basin aquifers, North Gnangara groundwater system, Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Karina; Cendón, Dioni I; Pigois, Jon-Philippe; Hollins, Suzanne; Jacobsen, Geraldine

    2012-01-01

    The Gnangara Mound and the underlying Perth Basin aquifers are the largest source of groundwater for the southwest of Australia, supplying between 35 and 50% of Perth's potable water (2009-2010). However, declining health of wetlands on the Mound coupled with the reduction in groundwater levels from increased irrigation demands and drier climatic conditions means this resource is experiencing increased pressures. The northern Gnangara is an area where the Yarragadee aquifer occurs at shallow depths (~50 m) and is in direct contact with the superficial aquifer, suggesting the possibility of direct recharge into a generally confined aquifer. Environmental isotopes ((14)C and (3)H) and hydrochemical modelling were used to assess the presence of a recharge 'window' as well as understand the groundwater residence time within different aquifers. Forty-nine groundwater samples were collected from depths ranging from 11 to 311 m below ground surface. The isotopic variation observed in the superficial aquifer was found to be controlled by the different lithologies present, i.e. quartz-rich Bassendean Sand and carbonate-rich sediments of the Ascot Formation. Rainfall recharge into the Bassendean Sand inherits its dissolved inorganic carbon from the soil CO(2). Organic matter throughout the soil profile is degraded by oxidation leading to anoxic/acidic groundwater, which if in contact with the Ascot Formation leads to enhanced dissolution of carbonates. Hydrochemical mass balance modelling showed that carbonate dissolution could contribute 1-2 mmol kg(-1) of carbon to groundwaters recharged through the Ascot Formation. The corrected groundwater residence times of the Yarragadee aquifer in the northern part of the study area ranged from 23 to 35 ka, while waters in the southeastern corner ranged from sub-modern to 2 ka. Groundwater ages increase with distance radiating from the recharge 'window'. This study delineates a recharge 'window' into the commonly presumed confined

  11. Physical properties and processes in the Perth Canyon, Western Australia: Links to water column production and seasonal pygmy blue whale abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennie, S.; Hanson, C. E.; McCauley, R. D.; Pattiaratchi, C.; Burton, C.; Bannister, J.; Jenner, C.; Jenner, M.-N.

    2009-04-01

    The oceanography of the Perth Canyon, off southwestern Australia, was examined through two major field excursions in austral spring/summer 2003/2004 combined with previous results from field analysis and numerical simulations. Water properties were used to identify water masses and vertical displacement. The field cruises and numerical simulation indicated unique circulation features of the Leeuwin Current and Undercurrent within the canyon associated with the topographic features. The input of nutrients to the euphotic zone occurred sporadically as the Leeuwin Current generally suppressed upwelling, although the Perth Canyon had increased nutrient concentrations within its rims. The distribution of chlorophyll in the surface layers indicated high spatial variability, with a prevalent deep chlorophyll (and phytoplankton biomass) maximum at ~ 80 m. Depth-integrated primary production within the study region ranged from 360 to 760 mg C m - 2 d - 1 , which was on average 2.5 times higher than rates measured in continental shelf and offshore waters north of the canyon. Aggregations of krill and other acoustic backscatter targets were concentrated near the head of the canyon at a range of depths, which may have been promoted by the circulation. The findings here are consistent with seasonal variations in wind and insolation, along with variations in the Leeuwin Current, influencing the seasonal changes and mesoscale features within the region, while the canyon promotes localised upwelling, and enhances both pelagic production and physical aggregation of plankton to attract the whales. Canyon processes must be combined with outside factors to allow upwelled nutrients to reach the photic zone. It is concluded that a combination of factors, rather than one factor alone, contributes favourably to the appearance of feeding blue whales in the Perth Canyon during the summer.

  12. The combined effect of transient wind-driven upwelling and eddies on vertical nutrient fluxes and phytoplankton dynamics along Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenlin; Lowe, Ryan; Ivey, Greg; Xu, Jiangtao; Falter, James

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the influence of wind stresses, stratification, and coastal mesoscale eddies on upwelling intensity, vertical nutrient fluxes, and phytoplankton biomass on the continental shelf off Ningaloo Reef in northwestern Australia during an austral spring-summer period. A three-dimensional (3-D) hydrodynamic model, ROMS (Regional Ocean Modeling System), was coupled with a four-component nitrogen-based biogeochemical NPZD model (Nitrogen Phytoplankton Zooplankton Detritus) to resolve the shelf circulation as well as the coupled nutrient and phytoplankton dynamics within a broad shelf region surrounding Ningaloo Reef. The simulated currents, temperatures, and chlorophyll a concentrations generally agreed well with both the remotely sensed satellite images and observational data collected during a field experiment from September to November 2010. Scenario tests for an individual wind-driven upwelling event under a variety of hypothetical physical forcing conditions showed that shelf currents and biogeochemical variables were largely a function of wind stress and stratification. However, the functional relationships derived from this single wind event could not be extrapolated to other periods of the upwelling season, due to the additional influence of 3-D mesoscale processes on the shelf. The presence, intensification, and propagation of a coastal anticyclonic eddy during the study period strongly influenced the spatial and temporal variations in nutrient profiles, which in turn caused fluctuations in vertical nutrient fluxes that were largely independent of wind stress. These results emphasize that it is necessary to fully capture the 3-D details of the mesoscale and submesoscale coastal dynamics to properly predict upwelling-induced coastal phytoplankton dynamics in eddy-intensive shelf regions such as Ningaloo Reef.

  13. Unsettling Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars

    This book is a critical intervention into debates on Australia's cultural history. The book demonstrates the interconnectedness of themes commonly seen as separate discursive formations, and shows the fruitfulness of bringing a combined cultural studies and postcolonial approach to bear on a number...

  14. Neighborhood adversity, ethnic diversity, and weak social cohesion and social networks predict high rates of maternal depressive symptoms: a critical realist ecological study in South Western Sydney, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, John Graeme; Kemp, Lynn Ann; Jalaludin, Bin Badrudin; Phung, Hai Ngoc

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study reported here is to explore ecological covariate and latent variable associations with perinatal depressive symptoms in South Western Sydney for the purpose of informing subsequent theory generation of perinatal context, depression, and the developmental origins of health and disease. Mothers (n = 15,389) delivering in 2002 and 2003 were assessed at two to three weeks after delivery for risk factors for depressive symptoms. The binary outcome variables were Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS)> 9 and > 12. Aggregated EPDS > 9 was analyzed for 101 suburbs. Suburb-level variables were drawn from the 2001 Australian Census, New South Wales Crime Statistics, and aggregated individual-level risk factors. Analysis included exploratory factor analysis, univariate and multivariate likelihood, and Bayesian linear regression with conditional autoregressive components. The exploratory factor analysis identified six factors: neighborhood adversity, social cohesion, health behaviors, housing quality, social services, and support networks. Variables associated with neighborhood adversity, social cohesion, social networks, and ethnic diversity were consistently associated with aggregated depressive symptoms. The findings support the theoretical proposition that neighborhood adversity causes maternal psychological distress and depression within the context of social buffers including social networks, social cohesion, and social services.

  15. Benzotriazole and 5-methylbenzotriazole in recycled water, surface water and dishwashing detergents from Perth, Western Australia: analytical method development and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alotaibi, M D; Patterson, B M; McKinley, A J; Reeder, A Y; Furness, A J

    2015-02-01

    A simplified and sensitive liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method without requiring sample pre-concentration was successfully developed for detecting the occurrence of ultra-low (ng L(-1)) concentrations of benzotriazole (BTri), and its derivative 5-methyl benzotriazole (5-MeBT) in various Western Australian environmental water samples. The method detection limit was 2 ng L(-1), providing similar detection limits to other more process intensive methods where pre-concentration using solid phase extraction (SPE) was employed. The method was used to assess the occurrence of BTri and 5-MeBT in wastewater and surface water samples. Over a period of 12 months, BTri and 5-MeBT concentrations in secondary treated wastewater were measured, with the highest BTri and 5-MeBT concentrations observed during winter months at 78 ng L(-1) and 21 ng L(-1), respectively. The method was also used to assess the removal efficiency of BTri and 5-MeBT through an advanced water recycling plant (AWRP). While BTri was more persistent than 5-MeBT, both compounds were removed from the AWRP to <10 ng L(-1) (BTri) and <2 ng L(-1) (5-MeBT), with reverse osmosis (RO) providing the most effective treatment process for their removal.

  16. Satellite-derived estimates of forest leaf area index in southwest Western Australia are not tightly coupled to interannual variations in rainfall: implications for groundwater decline in a drying climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smettem, Keith R J; Waring, Richard H; Callow, John N; Wilson, Melissa; Mu, Qiaozhen

    2013-08-01

    There is increasing concern that widespread forest decline could occur in regions of the world where droughts are predicted to increase in frequency and severity as a result of climate change. The average annual leaf area index (LAI) is an indicator of canopy cover and the difference between the annual maximum and minimum LAI is an indicator of annual leaf turnover. In this study, we analyzed satellite-derived estimates of monthly LAI across forested coastal catchments of southwest Western Australia over a 12 year period (2000-2011) that included the driest year on record for the last 60 years. We observed that over the 12 year study period, the spatial pattern of average annual satellite-derived LAI values was linearly related to mean annual rainfall. However, interannual changes to LAI in response to changes in annual rainfall were far less than expected from the long-term LAI-rainfall trend. This buffered response was investigated using a physiological growth model and attributed to availability of deep soil moisture and/or groundwater storage. The maintenance of high LAIs may be linked to a long-term decline in areal average underground water storage and diminished summer flows, with an emerging trend toward more ephemeral flow regimes.

  17. Phylogeography of western Pacific Leucetta 'chagosensis' (Porifera: Calcarea) from ribosomal DNA sequences: implications for population history and conservation of the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area (Australia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wörheide, Gert; Hooper, John N A; Degnan, Bernard M

    2002-09-01

    Leucetta 'chagosensis' is a widespread calcareous sponge, occurring in shaded habitats of Indo-Pacific coral reefs. In this study we explore relationships among 19 ribosomal DNA sequence types (the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region plus flanking gene sequences) found among 54 individuals from 28 locations throughout the western Pacific, with focus on the Great Barrier Reef (GBR). Maximum parsimony analysis revealed phylogeographical structuring into four major clades (although not highly supported by bootstrap analysis) corresponding to the northern/central GBR with Guam and Taiwan, the southern GBR and subtropical regions south to Brisbane, Vanuatu and Indonesia. Subsequent nested clade analysis (NCA) confirmed this structure with a probability of > 95%. After NCA of geographical distances, a pattern of range expansion from the internal Indonesian clade was inferred at the total cladogram level, as the Indonesian clade was found to be the internal and therefore oldest clade. Two distinct clades were found on the GBR, which narrowly overlap geographically in a line approximately from the Whitsunday Islands to the northern Swain Reefs. At various clade levels, NCA inferred that the northern GBR clade was influenced by past fragmentation and contiguous range expansion events, presumably during/after sea level low stands in the Pleistocene, after which the northern GBR might have been recolonized from the Queensland Plateau in the Coral Sea. The southern GBR clade is most closely related to subtropical L. 'chagosensis', and we infer that the southern GBR probably was recolonized from there after sea level low stands, based on our NCA results and supported by oceanographic data. Our results have important implications for conservation and management of the GBR, as they highlight the importance of marginal transition zones in the generation and maintenance of species rich zones, such as the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area.

  18. BIODIVERSITY AND BIOGEOGRAPHY OF FRESHWATER CRUSTACEANS (DECAPODA: NATANTIA FROM VANUATU, A COMPARISON WITH FIJI AND NEW CALEDONIA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARQUET G.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This is the first comprehensive study of freshwater decapoda crustaceans from Vanuatu. Of the nineteen species collected during this study, eighteen appear to be new records for the archipelago. However none of these species is endemic to Vanuatu, nine having a Pacific distribution and ten an Indo-Pacific distribution. Half of the species recorded were widely distributed in Vanuatu, whereas the others were more restricted. A comparison is made with the freshwater decapoda fauna of the two neighbouring archipelagoes namely, those of Fiji and New Caledonia, which have already been thoroughly surveyed.

  19. The Importance of Geochemical Parameters and Shale Composition on Rock Mechanical Properties of Gas Shale Reservoirs: a Case Study From the Kockatea Shale and Carynginia Formation From the Perth Basin, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labani, Mohammad Mahdi; Rezaee, Reza

    2015-05-01

    Evaluation of the gas shale mechanical properties is very important screening criteria for determining the potential intervals for hydraulic fracturing and as a result in gas shale sweet spot mapping. Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio are two controlling mechanical properties that dictate the brittleness of the gas shale layers. These parameters can be determined in the laboratory by testing the rock sample under different conditions (static method) or can be calculated using the well-logging data including sonic and density log data (dynamic method). This study investigates the importance of the shale composition and geochemical parameters on the Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio using log data. The data set of this study is coming from five different wells targeting the Kockatea Shale and Carynginia formation, two potential gas shale formations in the Perth Basin, Western Australia. The results show that converse to the common idea the effect of organic matter quantity and maturity on the rock mechanical properties of the gas shale reservoirs is not so much prominent, while the composition of the rock has an important effect on these properties. Considering the weight percentage of shale composition and organic matter quantity it could be concluded that effect of these parameters on rock mechanical properties is dependent on their weight contribution on the shale matrix. As well as effect of thermal maturity on the shale matrix and consequently on the rock mechanical properties of the shales is dependent on the organic matter content itself; therefore, obviously with a low organic matter content thermal maturity has no prominent effect on the brittleness as well.

  20. Review of Australia's polio surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Beverley J; Durrheim, David N

    2013-06-30

    With eradication almost within reach, the importance of detecting every poliomyelitis case has taken on additional significance. The selected surveillance strategy must be effective and efficient. A review of polio surveillance in Australia was conducted to consider whether current strategies were optimal. Document review and semi-structured key informant interviews were used to conduct the review. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and thematically analysed. The review was an iterative process with feedback on the findings sought from interviewees. Since Western Pacific Regional polio-elimination status was certified, one imported adult case was detected in 2007 in Australia, with no evidence of further transmission, and no Australian paediatric cases identified. Respondents reported that: it was not possible to prevent importations; paediatric cases were more likely to be identified than adult cases; and there may be a low level of suspicion among clinicians. Case detection and outbreak mitigation were considered key reasons to undertake polio surveillance. While Australia has not achieved one of the key World Health Organization (WHO) surveillance targets, this did not compromise Australias polio-free status. Identified issues with polio surveillance were the potential for an importation with high attendant investigation and containment costs, low stool sample collection rates, and the opportunity to improve safeguards around the importation and laboratory storage of biological samples containing poliovirus. The review found strong support for ongoing polio surveillance, particularly to detect imported cases and to demonstrate commitment to maintaining a polio-free region. Existing polio surveillance strategies were considered appropriate for Australia.

  1. en Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Bell

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El argumento de que los mercados financieros globales imponen una “camisa de fuerza dorada” consistente en políticas macroeconómicas restrictivas es probada con relación a la política monetaria australiana. En contraste con los argumentos comunes de los teóricos de la globalización y las restricciones de política se argumenta que las autoridades monetarias en Australia han sido capaces de forjar un enfoque de política relativamente distintivo que ha empujado al crecimiento. Se argumenta así, por lo menos en este caso, que los argumentos restrictivos de la política neoliberal no deberían retraer innovaciones en la elección de política interna.

  2. Marine Fouling at HMAS STIRLING, Western Australia,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    sp. Molluscs Anomia trigonopsis Myti.Zus edulis Mytilus edulis %1k Bryozoans Rhamphostomella? sp. Watersipora subovoidea Cryptosula pallasiana Bugula...USA/CAN/NZ ABCA Armies Standardisation Representative (4 copies) Director, Defence Research Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Exchange Section, British

  3. Typtonomenaeusformosanus gen. et sp. nov., a new sponge-associated pontoniine shrimp (Crustacea: Decapoda: Palaemonidae: Pontoniinae) from northern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Ivan; Chan, Tin-Yam

    2013-01-01

    A new genus and species of sponge-associated pontoniine shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda: Palaemonidae: Pontoniinae) is described from northern part of Formosa Island (Taiwan). The new species can be clearly recognized by convex robust nail-like apices on dactyli of both pereiopods II--a unique morphological structure among pontoniine shrimps. Morphological differences from all known sponge-associated pontoniine genera are discussed.

  4. The application of dual frequency IP method to the exploration of mineral resources in Western Australia%双频激电法在西澳矿产勘查中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宏宇; 李涛

    2016-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the principle and characteristics of the dual frequency induced polarization method on the basis of the application in typical overburden area ( savanna area coverage) of Western Australia, and discusses such aspects as to how to solve the problems met in work plan design, array selection, selection of working frequency, and conductivity improvement, and how to overcome inductively coupled problems under the special geological landscape condition. What is more, the authors give the solutions of these problems and make a summary of some work principles of universal value. In conclusion, the dual frequency induced polarization method has good application effect in the special environment of a gold mine in Australia, the delineation of the IP anomalies is consist⁃ent with the expectation of geologists, and engineering verification is necessary for further work. It is held that the dual⁃frequency IP method in the process of design and field construction in overseas mineral exploration work should be based on the comprehensive analy⁃sis of the influencing factors in various aspects as well as scientific decision⁃making, and effective measures should be adopted to elimi⁃nate the possible factors affecting the accuracy of the measurement data. Only in this way can we enjoy the full play of the technical ad⁃vantages of the dua⁃frequency IP method and obtain satisfactory results.%结合双频激电法在西澳大利亚典型覆盖区(热带稀树草原覆盖区)的应用实践,讨论了在特殊地质景观条件下,双频激电法在工作设计中装置选择、工作频率选择、接地电阻改善、电磁耦合克服等方面遇到的问题以及解决这些问题所提出的技术方法,总结整理了一些具有代表性的工作准则和野外工作经验。结论表明:双频激电法在澳洲某金矿的特殊地理环境下的应用效果良好,圈定的激电异常符合地质预期,有进行工程验

  5. Are we developing walkable suburbs through urban planning policy? Identifying the mix of design requirements to optimise walking outcomes from the 'Liveable Neighbourhoods' planning policy in Perth, Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Paula; Knuiman, Matthew; Bull, Fiona; Jones, Evan; Giles-Corti, Billie

    2015-05-16

    Planning policy makers and practitioners are requesting clearer guidance on the 'essential' ingredients as assessed by public health researchers to ensure suburban neighbourhood environments are designed to promote active living behaviours such as walking. To identify the combination of design requirements from the 'Liveable Neighbourhoods' (LN) planning policy in Perth, Western Australia that were optimally supportive of walking. K-means cluster analysis identified groups of developments with homogeneous LN features from its community design (CD), movement network (MN), lot layout (LL) and public parkland (PP) elements. Walking behaviours measured using the Neighbourhood Physical Activity Questionnaire were compared between participants resident in the different clusters, adjusting for demographic characteristics, self-selection factors, stage of construction and scale of development. Compared with participants living in the referent cluster of 'poor CD and PP developments' those living in: 'MN and LL developments' had higher odds of doing any (OR = 1.74; 95 % CI = 1.22, 2.48) and ≥60 min walking for recreation (WR) (OR = 2.05; 1.46, 2.88); 'PP developments' had increased odds of doing any WR (OR = 3.53; 2.02, 6.17), ≥60 min WR (OR = 3.37; 1.98, 5.74) and any total walking (TW) (OR = 2.35; 1.36, 4.09); 'CD-MN developments' had increased odds of doing any walking for transport (WT) (OR = 2.64; 1.38, 5.06), ≥60 min WT (OR = 1.98; 1.09, 3.61), any TW (OR = 1.71; 1.44, 2.03), ≥60 min TW (OR = 1.77; 1.14, 2.76) and ≥150 min TW (OR = 1.47; 1.15, 1.86). This study is the first to have empirically identified a mix of specific and distinguishing planning policy neighbourhood design requirements to optimise walking outcomes. These findings will assist in the assessment of urban plans for greenfield suburban developments designed to promote walking and physical activity.

  6. Surveillance of Space in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsam, G.

    operating in stations at Yarragadee, Western Australia and Mt Stromlo, Australian Capital Territory. Recently, however, Australia has also agreed to host a node of AFRL's Extended HANDS telescope network in Learmonth, Western Australia, and discussions are underway with researchers in Australian academia about also participating in this research program. In the RF regime, however, DSTO has substantial HF and microwave radar programs, elements of which could be readily adapted to surveillance of space. Proposals have already been developed internally within both programs for various forms of space surveillance systems including both broad area surveillance and imaging along with some very initial technology concept demonstrator systems. Recently proposals have also been floated to substantially increase Australia's civilian space surveillance programs including the Ionospheric Prediction Service's longstanding program to monitor the ionosphere and space weather, meteor radars and other systems. Finally Australia's bid to host the international Square Kilometre Array radio telescope has already generated concrete commitments to establish several very substantial RF arrays in Western Australia that may also provide instruments of unprecedented sensitivity and resolution for surveillance of space. The paper will survey these technology development programs and associated progress on integrating them into some sort of national program for space situational awareness.

  7. Constraints on mantle evolution from 187Os/ 188Os isotopic compositions of Archean ultramafic rocks from southern West Greenland (3.8 Ga) and Western Australia (3.46 Ga)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Victoria C.; Nutman, Allen P.; Esat, Tezer M.

    2002-07-01

    Initial 187Os/ 188Os isotopic compositions for geochronologically and geologically well -constrained 3.8-Ga spinel peridotites from the Itsaq Gneiss Complex of southern West Greenland and chromite separates from 3.46-Ga komatiites from the Pilbara region of Western Australia have been determined to investigate the osmium isotopic evolution of the early terrestrial mantle. The measured compositions of 187Os/ 188Os(0) = 0.10262 ± 2, from an olivine separate, and 0.10329 ± 3, for a spinel separate from ˜3.8-Ga peridotite G93/42, are the lowest yet reported from any terrestrial sample. The corrections for in situ decay over 3.8 Ga for these low Re/Os phases are minimal and change the isotopic compositions by only 0.5 and 2.2% for the spinel and the olivine, respectively, resulting in 187Os/ 188Os (3.8 Ga) = 0.1021 ± 0.0002 and 0.1009 ± 0.0002, respectively. These data extend direct measurement of Os isotopic compositions to much earlier periods of Earth history than previously documented and provide the best constraints on the Os isotopic composition of the early Archean terrestrial mantle. Analyses of Pilbara chromites yield 3.46-Ga mantle compositions of 0.1042 ± 0.0002 and 0.1051 ± 0.0002. These new data, combined with published initial Os isotopic compositions from late Archean and early Proterozoic samples, are compatible with the mantle, or at least portions of it, evolving from a solar system initially defined by meteorites to a modern composition of 187Os/ 188Os(0) = 0.1296 ± 0.0008 as previously suggested from peridotite xenolith data ( Meisel et al., 2001); the associated 187Re/ 188Os(0) = 0.435 ± 0.005. Thus, chondritic 187Os/ 188Os compositions were a feature of the upper mantle for at least 3.8 billion years, requiring chondritic Re/Os ratios to have been a characteristic of the very early terrestrial mantle. In contrast, nonchondritic initial compositions of some Archean komatiites demonstrate that Os isotopic heterogeneity is an ancient feature

  8. Western Australia Kalgoorlie Gold Field Ore-forming Geological Characteristics%西澳大利亚卡尔古丽金矿区成矿地质特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李华; 杨恺

    2013-01-01

    卡尔古丽金矿区(Kalgoorlie Gold Filed)是西澳大利亚最大的金矿产区,在大地构造上属于西澳伊尔岗(Yil-garn)克拉通东部卡尔古丽绿岩带内。矿区主要出露太古代地层,包括镁铁质-超镁铁质熔岩序列、长英质火山碎屑岩序列,以及一系列侵入的基性-超基性岩脉。区域内的主构造为北北西向,包括一对结构不对称的水平褶皱--卡尔古丽背斜和向斜,以及与向斜西翼平行的Golden Mile断层,主构造被后期走滑断层影响形成的破碎剪切带,是赋存金矿的主要构造。根据控矿构造、矿质来源和沉积时间,可以将金矿脉分为三种类型,分别是Fimiston型、Oroya型和Charlotte型。研究认为,在该地区找矿主要应从围岩、构造、地球物理、地球化学几个方面着手。通过对本区成矿地质特征的分析和研究,新发现了Eureka小型金矿,希望能对中国企业在该地区的勘探投资有所帮助。%The Kalgoorlie gold field is the largest gold production area in Western Australia, tectonically the area is within the Yilgarn craton east part Kalgoorlie greenstone belt. Mainly Archean strata outcropped in the mine area, including mafic-ultramafic lava se-quence, felsic pyroclastic rock sequence and a series of intrusive basic-ultrabasic veins. Main structure in the area is NNW structurally asymmetrical horizontal fold pair-Kalgoorlie anticline and syncline, and syncline west limb parallel Golden Mile fault;the main struc-ture fractured shear zone formed by subsequent strike-slip fault impacting is the main structure hosted the gold ore. Based on ore-con-trolling structure, material source and deposit time, can divide gold vein into three styles:Fimiston, Oroy and Charlotte respectively. The study reckoned that the prospecting in the area should start with wall rock, structure, geophysical, geochemical aspects. Through the analysis and study of the ore-forming geological

  9. Early precambrian asteroid impact-triggered tsunami: excavated seabed, debris flows, exotic boulders, and turbulence features associated with 3.47-2.47 Ga-old asteroid impact fallout units, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glikson, Andrew Y

    2004-01-01

    Pioneering studies of Precambrian impact fallout units and associated tsunami deposits in the Hamersley Basin, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia, by B.M. Simonson and S.W. Hassler, document a range of tsunami deposits associated with impact fallout units whose impact connection is identified by associated microtektites and microkrystites (condensation spherules). The impact connection of these particles is demonstrated by iridium anomalies, unique platinum group elements patterns, and Ni-rich mineral phases. Densely packed tsunami-transported fragments and boulders overlie microkrystite units of the >2629 +/- 5 Ma top Jeerinah Impact Layer (JIL). Tsunami events closely follow spherule settling associated with the 2561 +/- 8 Ma Spherule Marker Bed SMB-1 and SMB-2 impact events, Bee Gorge Member, Wittenoom Formation. The two impact cycles are separated by a stratigraphically consistent silicified black siltstone, representing a "Quiet Interval." The SMB turbidites display turbulence eddies, climbing ripples, conglomerate pockets, slumps, and waterlogged sediment deformation features. Consequences of tsunami in the probably contemporaneous Carawine Dolomite (Pb-Pb carbonate ages of approximately 2.56-2.54 Ga), eastern Hamersley Basin, include sub-autochthonous below-wave base excavation and megabrecciation of sea floor substrata, resulting in a unique 10-30-m-thick spherule-bearing megabreccia marker mapped over a nearly 100-km north-south strike distance in the east Hamersley Basin. The field relations suggest a pretsunami settling of the bulk of the spherules. Tsunami wave effects include: (1). dispersal of the spherule-rich soft upper sea floor sediments as a subaqueous mud cloud and (2). excavation of consolidated substrata below the soft sediment zone. Excavation and megabrecciation included injection of liquefied spherule-bearing microbreccia into dilated fractures in the disrupted underlying carbonates. Near-perfect preservation of the spherules within the

  10. On some species of the genus Nephrops (Crustacea Decapoda)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holthuis, L.B.

    1964-01-01

    The present note is based in the first place on the Nephropsid material collected by the Australian Fisheries Steamer "Endeavour" in the waters of South and East Australia, while also the West Indian Nephrops specimens in the collections of the U.S. National Museum, Washington, D.C., and the Rijksmu

  11. Molecular phylogenetics and comparative anatomy of Kimberleytrachia Köhler, 2011 - a genus of land snail endemic to the coastal Kimberley, Western Australia with description of new taxa (Gastropoda, Camaenidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Criscione, F.; Köhler, F.

    2014-01-01

    Kimberleytrachia Köhler, 2011 is a genus of camaenid land snail endemic to the Western Australian Kimberley region. It comprises twelve previously recognised species, all of which occur within the high precipitation zone along the north-western coast between the Admiralty Gulf and King Sound and wit

  12. First record of Puerulus mesodontus Chan, Ma & Chu, 2013 (Crustacea, Decapoda, Achelata, Palinuridae) from south of Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardiatno, Yusli; Hakim, Agus Alim; Mashar, Ali; Butet, Nurlisa Alias; Adrianto, Luky; Farajallah, Achmad

    2016-01-01

    Three specimens of Puerulus mesodontus Chan, Ma & Chu, 2013 (Crustacea, Decapoda, Achelata, Palinuridae) were collected from Palabuhanratu Bay, southern Java, Indonesia. There is no previous record on the presence of the species in Indonesia. This finding represents the first record of this species in Java, Indonesia, and confirms that the species is present in the Indian Ocean. The morphological characters of the species are described. This paper contains a new distribution record of a lobster species from Indonesian waters.

  13. First stage larva of the mud shrimp Nihonotrypaea makarovi Marin, 2013 (Decapoda: Axiidea: Callianassidae) obtained in the laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korn, Olga M; Kornienko, Elena S; Golubinskaya, Darya D

    2016-02-19

    First stage larva of a new mud shrimp Nihonotrypaea makarovi Marin, 2013 (Decapoda: Axiidea: Callianassidae) obtained from the ovigerous female is described and illustrated for the first time. The first zoea of N. makarovi is well distinguished from the first larvae of N. japonica and N. petalura, sympatric callianassid species inhabiting Russian waters of the Sea of Japan, only by the greater size and by the presence of two terminal setae on the antennal endopod.

  14. Millipedes from Australia, 1: Antichiropodini from South Australia (Diplopoda, Polydesmida, Paradoxosomatidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeekel, C.A.W.

    1982-01-01

    Descriptions of two new species: Antichiropus mammillifer n.sp., the first species of the genus recorded from outside Western Australia, related to A. minimus Attems and A. sulcatus Attems, and Tridactylogonus obscurus n.g., n.sp., a small species, taxonomically rather isolated, and perhaps related

  15. Financing of terrorism : risks for Australia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    SMITH, Russell G; McCusker, Rob; Walters, Julie

    2010-01-01

    ... activities - financing of terrorism within Australia - regulatory framework in Australia - evidence of financing of terrorism in Australia - conclusion that Australia is at some risk of terrorist...

  16. Tick-borne infectious diseases in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Stephen R; Stenos, John

    2017-04-17

    Tick bites in Australia can lead to a variety of illnesses in patients. These include infection, allergies, paralysis, autoimmune disease, post-infection fatigue and Australian multisystem disorder. Rickettsial (Rickettsia spp.) infections (Queensland tick typhus, Flinders Island spotted fever and Australian spotted fever) and Q fever (Coxiella burnetii) are the only systemic bacterial infections that are known to be transmitted by tick bites in Australia. Three species of local ticks transmit bacterial infection following a tick bite: the paralysis tick (Ixodes holocyclus) is endemic on the east coast of Australia and causes Queensland tick typhus due to R. australis and Q fever due to C. burnetii; the ornate kangaroo tick (Amblyomma triguttatum) occurs throughout much of northern, central and western Australia and causes Q fever; and the southern reptile tick (Bothriocroton hydrosauri) is found mainly in south-eastern Australia and causes Flinders Island spotted fever due to R. honei. Much about Australian ticks and the medical outcomes following tick bites remains unknown. Further research is required to increase understanding of these areas.

  17. Wine Tourism in Australia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾真

    2015-01-01

    1.Introduction Wine tourism is now recognised as a growing subset of special interest tourism all over the world.It is an increasingly important tourism component for many wine producing regions(M.A.O’Neill&Palmer;,2004).Australia has recently become a large wine producing country.Therefore,wine tourism has emerged as a strong and growing area in Australia.The

  18. Cymonomid crabs of the MAINBAZA Expedition (Decapoda: Brachyura).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahyong, Shane T

    2014-06-23

    Cymonomid crabs collected from the Mozambique Channel off Madagascar by the 2011 MAINBAZA Expedition are reported. Two species of Cymonomus A. Milne Edwards, 1880, are represented, of which one is new to science and the other, C. valdiviae Lankester, 1903, is rediscovered, being previously known only from the holotype. Three species of Cymonomidae are now known from the western Indian Ocean, including C. trifurcus Stebbing, 1920, from South Africa. 

  19. 澳大利亚、欧美国家应对网络欺凌的策略及启示%Strategies for Coping with Cyberbullying in Australia and Western Countries and the Enlightenments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜海清

    2013-01-01

      计算机和网络信息技术的发展,使得传统的校园欺凌问题向虚拟空间发展,未成年人网络欺凌已成为世界性的“公害”问题。近年来,澳大利亚、欧洲国家和美国结合本国实际情况,针对网络欺凌开展相关研究,探索、采取了一系列预防和干预措施。澳大利亚着重于为学校开发各类网络安全教育课程,从源头防范网络欺凌的发生;欧洲国家在开展网络欺凌研究上采取的态度是通力合作、共同防范,在预防教育上下大力气;而美国则主要是通过制定一系列相关法律来遏制日益蔓延的网络欺凌现象,用立法来保护未成年人的网络安全。%The development of computer and network technology has made the traditional school bullying problem expand to virtual space. Minor cyber-bullying has become the problem of global public nuisance. In recent years, based on various researches about cyber-bullying, Australia, European countries and United States have taken a series of precautions and interventions according to their own actual situation. Australia took focus on developing any kind of network security education courses to prevent cyber-bullying from the source;the European countries conduct their studies on cyber-bullying with the attitude of united strength and common defense, taking more focus on preventive education;and America keeps down the increasing spreading phenomenon of cyber-bullying mainly through making laws to protect the network security of minors.

  20. Systematics of small Gehyra (Squamata: Gekkonidae) of the southern Kimberley, Western Australia: redescription of G. kimberleyi Börner & Schüttler, 1983 and description of a new restricted range species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Paul M; Bourke, Gayleen; Pratt, Renae C; Doughty, Paul; Moritz, Craig

    2016-04-29

    Ongoing fieldwork and molecular research continues to reveal that the monsoonal tropics of northern Australia contain more vertebrate species than currently recognised. Here we focus on two morphologically distinctive, yet unrecognised forms in the genus Gehyra from the southern Kimberley region and surrounding deserts. We base our descriptions on a combination of unpublished genetic data and a morphological examination of voucher specimens. We recognise and redescribe G. kimberleyi, a species with a broad distribution extending over most of the south-west Kimberley, across the Great Sandy Desert and into the far northern Pilbara. This species has been previously assigned to G. pilbara owing to its frequent occurrence on termite mounds and short snout, but can be distinguished from G. pilbara and other regionally sympatric Gehyra by its moderate body size, moderate number of pre-cloacal pores in males (12-17) and aspects of dorsal colouration. We also describe G. girloorloo sp. nov., a small rock-dwelling species with a short snout, low number of pre-cloacal pores in males (8-11) and pinkish-grey dorsal colouration with alternating series of indistinct pale spots and irregular transversely-aligned dark blotches. The new species appears to be restricted to a relatively small region of exposed limestone karst in the south-west Kimberley and is entirely circumscribed by morphologically similar congeners.

  1. Zooplankton composition and diversity in western Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, S.R.S.; Nair, V.R.; Achuthankutty, C.T.; Madhupratap, M.

    higher standing stock. Copepoda formed the dominant group followed by Decapoda and Chaetognatha. Species composition of various groups and their distribution is discussed. A general inverse relationship between biomass and species diversity was the trend...

  2. From Extraction to Knowledge Reproduction: The Impact of Australia's Development Awards on Uganda and Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amazan, Rose C.; Negin, Joel; Howie, Leanne; Wood, Julian

    2016-01-01

    With the renewed emphasis on higher education as an agent for development and economic growth, Australia has joined other Western countries in contributing to increasing the intellectual workforce of Africa[1]. While Australia has provided scholarships to Africans for more than three decades, since 2005, the Australian Government has dramatically…

  3. Tamworth, Australia's "Country Music Capital": Place Marketing, Rurality, and Resident Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Chris; Davidson, Deborah

    2004-01-01

    Since the 1970s, Tamworth has become well known as Australia's "country music capital". Its annual Country and Western Music Festival has become the leading event of its type in Australia, attracting over 60,000 visitors every year. The festival, and country music more generally, have become central to the town's identity and tourism…

  4. Evolution and phylogeny of the mud shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda revealed from complete mitochondrial genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Feng-Jiau

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The evolutionary history and relationships of the mud shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda: Gebiidea and Axiidea are contentious, with previous attempts revealing mixed results. The mud shrimps were once classified in the infraorder Thalassinidea. Recent molecular phylogenetic analyses, however, suggest separation of the group into two individual infraorders, Gebiidea and Axiidea. Mitochondrial (mt genome sequence and structure can be especially powerful in resolving higher systematic relationships that may offer new insights into the phylogeny of the mud shrimps and the other decapod infraorders, and test the hypothesis of dividing the mud shrimps into two infraorders. Results We present the complete mitochondrial genome sequences of five mud shrimps, Austinogebia edulis, Upogebia major, Thalassina kelanang (Gebiidea, Nihonotrypaea thermophilus and Neaxius glyptocercus (Axiidea. All five genomes encode a standard set of 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and a putative control region. Except for T. kelanang, mud shrimp mitochondrial genomes exhibited rearrangements and novel patterns compared to the pancrustacean ground pattern. Each of the two Gebiidea species (A. edulis and U. major and two Axiidea species (N. glyptocercus and N. thermophiles share unique gene order specific to their infraorders and analyses further suggest these two derived gene orders have evolved independently. Phylogenetic analyses based on the concatenated nucleotide and amino acid sequences of 13 protein-coding genes indicate the possible polyphyly of mud shrimps, supporting the division of the group into two infraorders. However, the infraordinal relationships among the Gebiidea and Axiidea, and other reptants are poorly resolved. The inclusion of mt genome from more taxa, in particular the reptant infraorders Polychelida and Glypheidea is required in further analysis. Conclusions Phylogenetic analyses on the mt genome

  5. Water Recycling in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Young

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Australia is the driest inhabited continent on earth and, more importantly, experiences the most variable rainfall of all the continents on our planet. The vast majority of Australians live in large cities on the coast. Because wastewater treatments plants were all located near the coast, it was thought that large scale recycling would be problematic given the cost of infrastructure and pumping required to establish recycled water schemes. This all changed when Australia experienced a decade of record low rainfall and water utilities were given aggressive targets to increase the volume of water recycled. This resulted in recycled water being accepted as a legitimate source of water for non-drinking purposes in a diversified portfolio of water sources to mitigate climate risk. To ensure community support for recycled water, Australia lead the world in developing national guidelines for the various uses of recycled water to ensure the protection of public health and the environment. Australia now provides a great case study of the developments in maximizing water recycling opportunities from policy, regulatory and technological perspectives. This paper explores the evolution in thinking and how approaches to wastewater reuse has changed over the past 40 years from an effluent disposal issue to one of recognizing wastewater as a legitimate and valuable resource. Despite recycled water being a popular choice and being broadly embraced, the concept of indirect potable reuse schemes have lacked community and political support across Australia to date.

  6. Western Sufism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sedgwick, Mark

    Western Sufism is sometimes dismissed as a relatively recent "new age" phenomenon, but in this book, Mark Sedgwick argues that it actually has very deep roots, both in the Muslim world and in the West. In fact, although the first significant Western Sufi organization was not established until 1915......, the first Western discussion of Sufism was printed in 1480, and Western interest in some of the ideas that are central to Sufi thought goes back to the thirteenth century. Sedgwick starts with the earliest origins of Western Sufism in late antique Neoplatonism and early Arab philosophy, and traces later...

  7. Testing Potential New Sites for Optical Telescopes in Australia

    CERN Document Server

    Hotan, Claire E; Glazebrook, Karl

    2012-01-01

    In coming years, Australia may find the need to build new optical telescopes to continue local programmes, contribute to global survey projects, and form a local multi-wavelength connection for the new radio telescopes being built. In this study, we refine possible locations for a new optical telescope by studying remotely sensed meteorological infrared data to ascertain expected cloud coverage rates across Australia, and combine these data with a Digital Elevation Model using a Geographic Information System. We find that the best sites within Australia for building optical telescopes are likely to be on the highest mountains in the Hamersley Range in Northwest Western Australia, while the MacDonnell Ranges in the Northern Territory may also be appropriate. We believe that similar seeing values to Siding Spring should be obtainable and with significantly more observing time at the identified sites. We expect to find twice as many clear nights as at current telescope sites. These sites are thus prime locations...

  8. Impact of specific Beers Criteria medications on associations between drug exposure and unplanned hospitalisation in elderly patients taking high-risk drugs: a case-time-control study in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Sylvie D; Holman, C D'Arcy J; Sanfilippo, Frank M; Emery, Jon D

    2014-04-01

    Certain broad medication classes have previously been associated with high rates of hospitalisation due to related adverse events in elderly Western Australians, based on clinical coding recorded on inpatient summaries. Similarly, some medications from the Beers Criteria, considered potentially inappropriate in older people, have been linked with an increased risk of unplanned hospitalisation in this population. Our objective was to determine whether risk estimates of drug-related hospitalisations are altered in elderly patients taking 'high-risk drugs' (HRDs) when specific Beers potentially inappropriate medications (PIMS) are taken into consideration. Using the pharmaceutical claims of 251,305 Western Australians aged ≥65 years (1993-2005) linked with other health data, we applied a case-time-control design to estimate odds ratios (ORs) for unplanned hospitalisations associated with anticoagulants, antirheumatics, opioids, corticosteroids and four major cardiovascular drug groups, from which attributable fractions (AFs), number and proportion of drug-related admissions were derived. The analysis was repeated, taking into account exposure to eight specific PIMs, and results were compared. A total of 1,899,699 index hospitalisations were involved. Of index subjects, 12-57 % were exposed to each HRD at the time of admission, although the proportions taking both an HRD and one of the selected PIMs were much lower (generally ≤2 %, but as high as 8 % for combinations involving temazepam and for most PIMs combined with hypertension drugs). Included PIMs (indomethacin, naproxen, temazepam, oxazepam, diazepam, digoxin, amiodarone and ferrous sulphate) all tended to increase ORs, AFs and drug-related hospitalisation estimates in HRD combinations, although this was less evident for opioids and corticosteroids. Indomethacin had the greatest overall impact on HRD ORs/AFs. Indomethacin (OR 1.40; 95 % confidence interval [CI] 1.27-1.54) and naproxen (OR 1.22; 1

  9. Australia's polio risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Nicolee; Paterson, Beverley J; Durrheim, David N

    2014-06-30

    Australia, like all polio-free countries and regions, remains at risk of a wild poliovirus importation until polio is eradicated globally. The most probable route of importation will be through a traveller arriving in Australia either by air or sea from a polio-endemic or re-infected country. While the overall risk of an imported wild poliovirus infection leading to transmission within Australia is assessed as being low, some areas of the country have been identified as at increased risk. Local areas with relatively high arrivals from polio endemic countries, areas of low vaccination coverage and the potential for transmission to occur when these 2 factors are combined, were identified by this review as Australia's main polio risk. The risk of an importation event leading to locally acquired cases is mitigated by generally high polio vaccination coverage in Australia. This high coverage extends to residents of the Torres Strait Islands who are in close proximity to Papua New Guinea, a country identified as at high risk of poliovirus transmission should an importation occur. In 2012, all states and territories had vaccination coverage of greater than 90% at 1 year of age and all exceeded 93% at 2 years of age. Population immunity to wild poliovirus type 1, which remains the major cause of paralysis globally, has been estimated at 82%. This is sufficient to prevent outbreaks of this type in Australia. Of the 211 eligible non-polio acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) cases classified between 2008 and 2011, 91% (193) were vaccinated against polio at least once. High quality surveillance for AFP, which is supplemented by sentinel enterovirus and environmental surveillance activities, gives confidence that an imported case would be detected and appropriate public health action would ensue.

  10. Healthcare in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton-Brown, Sally

    2016-07-01

    No single issue has dominated health practitioners' ethical debates in 2014 in Australia, but a controversial decision on gene patenting and the media focus on "Dr. Death," euthanasia campaigner Dr. Philip Nitschke, have given new life to these two familiar (and global) debates. Currently a dying with dignity bill, drafted by the Australian Green Party, is under examination. The Senate inquiry into the bill received more than 663 submissions, with 57% opposed and 43% in support of the bill, which has now been referred to a Senate committee. Will this be another of Australia's failed attempts to legalize euthanasia? The trial of Dr. Nitschke begins on November 10, 2014.

  11. Why Study in Australia?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁丽丽

    2014-01-01

    Going overseas to pursue further studies is even more generalized in recent years. Students are open to a variety of op-tions to decide which country to go and which university to choose. Why wouldn’t you want to study with some of the best minds in the world? Australia is a leading global education power, with world’s best educators and facilities. It also provides both local and international students with a variety of quality study options. This essay presents some of the important reasons why in-ternational students should study in Australia in regard to education quality, affordable fees, government support, multiple cultures and immigration policies.

  12. Australia in the Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Kerry; Welch, Ian

    1988-01-01

    Discusses Australia's growth since European settlement and its development into a major world trader in industrial and high technology raw materials. Examines the country's expanding relations with New Zealand and other Pacific states which is the outgrowth of the realization that all will gain from greater international cooperation. (GEA)

  13. Australia's Regional Youth Exodus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, M.

    2002-01-01

    Examines media coverage of youth outmigration from Tasmania in the context of Australia's regional crisis. Focuses on how young people are constructed by others and positioned in others' visions of their rural home towns. Discusses two recurring narratives: strategies to keep youth at home, and preoccupation with the "best and brightest"…

  14. Immigrant Teachers in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jock Collins

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the features of contemporary society is the increasing global mobility of professionals. While the education industry is a key site of the demand for contemporary global professional migration, little attention has been given to the global circulation of education professionals. Over past decades, immigrant teachers have been an important component of skilled and professional immigration into Australia, there is no comprehensive contemporary national study of the experiences of immigrant teachers in Australia. This article aims to fill this gap and to answer questions about their decision to move to Australia, their experience with Australian Education Departments in getting appointed to a school, their experiences as teachers in the classroom and in their new Australian community. It draws on primary data sources - in the form of a survey of 269 immigrant teachers in schools in NSW, SA and WA conducted in 2008-9 - and secondary sources - in the form of the 2006 national census and Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants in Australia – to provide insights into immigrant teachers in Australian schools, adding also to our understanding of Australia’s contemporary immigration experience.

  15. Creating White Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLisky, Claire Louise; Carey, Jane

    Vedtagelsen af White Australien som regeringens politik i 1901 viser, at hvidheden var afgørende for den måde, hvorpå den nye nation i Australien blev konstitueret. Og alligevel har historikere i vid udstrækning overset hvidhed i deres studier af Australiens race fortid. 'Creating White Australia...

  16. Psychiatry in Australia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    articles. 45. Volume 10 No. 2 July 2004 - SAJP. Robert M Kaplan, MB ChB, FRANZCP, MA. The Liaison ... World War II, psychoanalysis was brought to Australia by ... (PBS) in which prescribed drugs are subsidised to keep them to the cost of a ...

  17. Classification in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinlay, John

    Despite some inroads by the Library of Congress Classification and short-lived experimentation with Universal Decimal Classification and Bliss Classification, Dewey Decimal Classification, with its ability in recent editions to be hospitable to local needs, remains the most widely used classification system in Australia. Although supplemented at…

  18. Revision of the genus Hydroides (Annelida: Serpulidae) from Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yanan; Wong, Eunice; ten Hove, Harry A; Hutchings, Pat A; Williamson, Jane E; Kupriyanova, Elena K

    2015-09-01

    Hydroides Gunnerus, 1768 is the largest and one of the economically most important genera of calcareous tubeworms (Serpulidae, Annelida) that includes a number of notorious fouling and bioinvading species. Although the representatives of the genus are typically found in shallow waters of tropical and subtropical areas worldwide, the species composition of the genus in Australia has never been revised. We conducted the first detailed regional taxonomic revision of Hydroides species based both on the historical collections from Australian museums (Australian Museum, Museum Victoria, South Australian Museum, Western Australian Museum, Queensland Museum, and Museum and Art Gallery of Northern Territory) and newly collected material from New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, Northern Territory, and Western Australia. In total, 25 species are currently considered valid in Australia, including three new species: H. amri n. sp. from NSW, SA, and Vic (previously referred to as H. cf. brachyacantha), as well as H. glasbyi n. sp. and H. qiui n. sp., both from NT, and two new records of H. furcifera and H. multispinosa for Australia. We have synonymised H. spiratubus with H. albiceps, and H. spiculitubus with H. tambalagamensis in this study. The status of the taxon H. cf. recta remains undecided. An identification key and diagnoses accompanied by original high-quality photographs for all species recorded in Australia are provided. Application of molecular genetics is needed to resolve the status of some problematic species.

  19. Pioneering developments of marine renewable energy in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Manasseh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The history of ocean renewable energy developments in Australia is reviewed. A layperson’s description of the physical operating principle is given for the main classes of technology that have been tested in Australian waters. The Australian marine domain possesses among the world’s most energetic wave-energy resources, driven by powerful mid-latitude westerly winds. The northern coast of Western Australia has tidal ranges significant on a global scale, and some geographical features around the continent have local tidal resonances. The East Australian Current, one of the world’s major western boundary currents, runs along the eastern Australian seaboard, offering potential for ocean-current energy. Sea-water temperatures in the tropical north-east of Australia may permit ocean thermal energy conversion. While this abundance of resources makes Australia an ideal location for technology development, the population is highly concentrated in a few large cities, and transmission infrastructure has developed over a century to supply cities from traditional power plants. Several wave-power developments have resulted in demonstration of deployments in Australian waters, three of which have been grid connected. Trials of tidal devices have also occurred, while other classes of ocean renewable energy have not yet been trialled. The prospects for marine renewable energy in Australia are discussed including non-traditional applications such as coastal protection and energy export.

  20. Health workforce policy and industrial relations in Australia: ministerial insights into challenges and opportunities for reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgrò, Silvana

    2014-09-01

    Since the Productivity Commission released its research report Australia's Health Workforce in 2005, there has been a significant increase in government funding and policy capacity aimed at health workforce reform and innovation in Australia. This research paper presents the results of semistructured interviews with three key stakeholders in health policy formation in Australia: (1) The Honourable Lindsay Tanner, former Federal Minister for Finance and therefore 100% shareholder of Medibank Private on behalf of the Commonwealth; (2) The Honourable Daniel Andrews, former Victorian Minister for Health and current Victorian Opposition Leader; and (3) The Honourable Jim McGinty, former Minister for Health and Attorney General of Western Australia and current inaugural Chair of Health Workforce Australia. The paper examines key issues they identified in relation to health workforce policy in Australia, particularly where it intersects with industrial relations, and conducts a comparative analysis between their responses and theoretical methodologies of policy formation as a means of informing a reform process.

  1. Nucleopolyhedrovirus Introduction in Australia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Patrick Buerger; Caroline Hauxwell; David Murray

    2007-01-01

    Nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV) has become an integral part of integrated pest management (IPM) in many Australian agricultural and horticultural crops. This is the culmination of years of work conducted by researchers at the Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries (QDPI&F) and Ag Biotech Australia Pty Ltd. In the early 1970's researchers at QDPI&F identified and isolated a virus in Helicoverpa armigera populations in the field. This NPV was extensively studied and shown to be highly specific to Helicoverpa and Heliothis species. Further work showed that when used appropriately the virus could be used effectively to manage these insects in crops such as sorghum, cotton, chickpea and sweet corn. A similar virus was first commercially produced in the USA in the 1970's. This product, Elcar(R), was introduced into Australia in the late 1970's by Shell Chemicals with limited success. A major factor contributing to the poor adoption of Elcar was the concurrent enormous success of the synthetic pyrethroids. The importance of integrated pest management was probably also not widely accepted at that time. Gradual development of insect resistance to synthetic pyrethroids and other synthetic insecticides in Australia and the increased awareness of the importance of IPM meant that researchers once again turned their attentions to environmentally friendly pest management tools such NPV and beneficial insects. In the 1990's a company called Rhone-Poulenc registered an NPV for use in Australian sorghum, chickpea and cotton. This product, Gemstar(R), was imported from the USA. In 2000 Ag Biotech Australia established an in-vivo production facility in Australia to produce commercial volumes of a product similar to the imported product. This product was branded, ViVUS(R), and was first registered and sold commercially in Australia in 2003. The initial production of ViVUS used a virus identical to the American product but replicating it in an Australian Helicoverpa

  2. Population options for Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruddock, P

    1999-01-01

    In an address to the Australian Population Association Biennial Conference during October 1998, the Immigration and Multicultural Affairs Minister Philip Ruddock argued that neither the zero net overseas migration policy nor the massive boost in immigration are in the national interest of Australia. Environmental groups generally view that Australia should adopt a policy of zero net overseas migration. On the other hand, business and industry bodies consider that a substantial increase in the migration intake is needed in order to increase economic growth and to reduce the impact of an aging population. Moreover, some are concerned about population targets reaching up to 50 million in 50 years time. Thus, management of immigration policy is a difficult balancing act between competing objectives. The Minister concluded that their immigration program must operate on a totally global and nondiscriminatory basis regarding matters such as race, religion, color, and ethnic origin.

  3. Pleistocene Paleoart of Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G. Bednarik

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Pleistocene rock art is abundant in Australia, but has so far received only limited attention. Instead there has been a trend, begun over a century ago, to search for presumed depictions of extinct megafauna and the tracks of such species. All these notions have been discredited, however, and the current evidence suggests that figurative depiction was introduced only during the Holocene, never reaching Tasmania. Nevertheless, some Australian rock art has been attributed to the Pleistocene by direct dating methods, and its nature implies that a significant portion of the surviving corpus of rock art may also be of such age. In particular much of Australian cave art is of the Ice Age, or appears to be so, and any heavily weathered or patinated petroglyphs on particularly hard rocks are good candidates for Pleistocene antiquity. On the other hand, there is very limited evidence of mobiliary paleoart of such age in Australia.

  4. Year book Australia 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castles, I. (comp.)

    1986-01-01

    The Year Book is the principal reference work produced by the Central Office of the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS). It provides a comprehensive and detailed statistical review of all asepcts of the economy and social conditions of Australia. In addition, it contains descriptive matter dealing with Australia's history, geography, physiography, climate and meteorology, government, defence, international relations, culture and environment. The first Official Year Book was published early in 1908. This is the seventieth Year Book issued under the authority of the Commonwealth Government and follows a similar pattern to previous editions. However chapters have been revised and new material has been added. Most of the statistics contained in this volume relate to the years ended June or December 1984 to 1985. More detailed, and in most cases more recent, statistics are available in other ABS publications.

  5. Tissue banking in australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Lynette; McKelvie, Helen

    2003-01-01

    The legal structure for the regulation of tissue banking has existed for many years. In Australia, the donation of human tissue is regulated by legislation in each of the eight States and Territories. These substantially uniform Acts were passed in the late 1970's and early 1980's, based on model legislation and underpinned by the concept of consensual giving. However, it was not until the early 1990's that tissue banking came under the notice of regulatory authorities. Since then the Australian Government has moved quickly to oversee the tissue banking sector in Australia. Banked human tissue has been deemed to be a therapeutic good under the Therapeutic Goods Act 1989, and tissue banks are required to be licensed by the Therapeutic Goods Administration and are audited for compliance with the Code of Good Manufacturing Practice- Human Blood and Tissues. In addition, tissue banks must comply with a myriad of other standards, guidelines and recommendations.

  6. American Outlaws in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    An aspect of the diffusion of American popular culture is examined in this research drawing upon national survey data. Measuring Australians¡¯ knowledge of American and Australian outlaws, we found that Jesse James and Billy the Kid are better known in Australia than any of the local outlaws, or bushrangers, with the exception of Ned Kelly. While a relatively large proportion of Australians identified Ned Kelly, Ben Hall, Jesse James and Billy the Kid as outlaws, few identified other Australi...

  7. Melville Island, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Melville Island, just off the coast of Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia (11.5S, 131.0E) is a sparsely inhabited tropical island with heavy woodland concentrations. The widespread and prominant smoke plumes were most likely set to renew pasture under open canopy woodland. Soil erosion is almost non- existant as can be seen by the clear and clean river flow. The offshore sediments are coastal current borne deposits from King Sound to the west.

  8. The regolith in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollier, C. D.

    1988-12-01

    Australian regolith materials are described, many of which are complex. Much Australian regolith dates back to the Tertiary, Mesozoic or earlier. There is a progressive change in the nature of alluvium through the Tertiary. Aridity, revealed through sand dunes and evaporites, is confined to the Quaternary. Ferricretes and silcretes are formed on lower slopes, often followed by inversion of relief. Tectonic isolation of Australia as well as climatic change is responsible for the change in the nature of terrestrial sediments since the Cretaceous.

  9. Teachers' Perspectives of the New Western Australian Earth and Environmental Science Course: Lessons for the Australian Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Vaille; Moore, Leah

    2011-01-01

    In 2007, a new upper secondary course, Earth and Environmental Science (EES) was introduced in Western Australia. The development and implementation of the course was supported by Earth Science Western Australia (ESWA), a consortium of universities, the CSIRO and other organisations. The role of ESWA is to support the teaching of earth science in…

  10. Teachers' Perspectives of the New Western Australian Earth and Environmental Science Course: Lessons for the Australian Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Vaille; Moore, Leah

    2011-01-01

    In 2007, a new upper secondary course, Earth and Environmental Science (EES) was introduced in Western Australia. The development and implementation of the course was supported by Earth Science Western Australia (ESWA), a consortium of universities, the CSIRO and other organisations. The role of ESWA is to support the teaching of earth science in…

  11. New distribution ranges and records of caridean shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea from the west coast of Mexico Nuevos intervalos de distribución y registros de camarones carideos (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea de la costa oeste de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel E. Hendrickx

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Geographic records are presented for 24 species of Caridea (Crustacea: Decapoda along Pacific coast of Mexico, in the East Pacific. New records are presented for Psathyrocaris fragilis Wood-Mason, 1893 (from Peru to Mexico, Periclimenes infraspinis (Rathbun, 1902, Pontonia margarita Smith, 1869, Alpheus cristulifrons Rathbun, 1900, Alpheus umbo Kim & Abele, 1988, Automate rugosa Coutière, 1900, and Lysmata californica (Stimpson, 1866 (within the Gulf of California, and Typton hephaestus Holthuis, 1951 (from the Gulf of California to the Gulf of Tehuantepec, Mexico. Aditional records are given that establish the presence of species at intermediate localities within the Gulf of California and along the southwestern coast of Mexico.Se recolectaron especímenes de 24 especies de Caridea (Crustacea: Decapoda en la costa del Pacífico de México, en el Pacífico Este. Nuevos registros geográficos son señalados para Psathyrocaris fragilis Wood-Mason, 1893 (desde Perú hasta México, Periclimenes infraspinis (Rathbun, 1902, Pontonia margarita Smith, 1869, Alpheus cristulifrons Rathbun, 1900, Alpheus umbo Kim & Abele, 1988, Automate rugosa Coutière, 1900 y Lysmata californica (Stimpson, 1866 (en el Golfo de California y para Typton hephaestus Holthuis, 1951 (del Golfo de California hasta el Golfo de Tehuantepec, México. Se proporciona información adicional acerca de la presencia de algunas especies en localidades intermedias en el Golfo de California y a lo largo de la costa suroeste de México.

  12. East-west genetic differentiation in Musk Ducks (Biziura lobata) of Australia suggests late Pleistocene divergence at the Nullarbor Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guay, P.-J.; Chesser, R.T.; Mulder, R.A.; Afton, A.D.; Paton, D.C.; McCracken, K.G.

    2010-01-01

    Musk Ducks (Biziura lobata) are endemic to Australia and occur as two geographically isolated populations separated by the Nullarbor Plain, a vast arid region in southern Australia. We studied genetic variation in Musk Duck populations at coarse (eastern versus western Australia) and fine scales (four sites within eastern Australia). We found significant genetic structure between eastern and western Australia in the mtDNA control region (??ST = 0. 747), one nuclear intron (??ST = 0.193) and eight microsatellite loci (FST = 0.035). In contrast, there was little genetic structure between Kangaroo Island and adjacent mainland regions within eastern Australia. One small population of Musk Ducks in Victoria (Lake Wendouree) differed from both Kangaroo Island and the remainder of mainland eastern Australia, possibly due to genetic drift exacerbated by inbreeding and small population size. The observed low pairwise distance between the eastern and western mtDNA lineages (0.36%) suggests that they diverged near the end of the Pleistocene, a period characterised by frequent shifts between wet and arid conditions in central Australia. Our genetic results corroborate the display call divergence and Mathews' (Austral Avian Record 2:83-107, 1914) subspecies classification, and confirm that eastern and western populations of Musk Duck are currently isolated from each other. ?? 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  13. Hospitalisations for removal of impacted teeth in Australia: a national geographic modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Roslind; Tennant, Marc; Kruger, Estie

    2012-10-01

    The aim of the study was to project hospitalisation rates for the surgical removal of impacted teeth across Australia, based on Western Australian statistics. Population data were obtained from the Australian Bureau of Statistics and were divided across Australia by statistical local area and related to a validated socioeconomic index. Every episode of discharge from all hospitals in Western Australia for the financial years 1999/2000 to 2008/2009 indicating an impacted/embedded tooth removal as the principle oral condition, as classified by the International Classification of Disease (ICD-10AM), was included in the study. Hospitalisation data were obtained from the Western Australian Hospital Morbidity Data System. Variables of age, place of residence and health insurance status were utilised for projecting the Western Australian rates across Australia. The results of the study showed a definite rural-urban divide and the estimated age-adjusted rates were almost three times greater in the higher socioeconomic areas when compared to their poorer counterparts. The costs of the procedure were estimated to be approximately $60 million per annum across Australia. The findings of this study can be used to inform health policy to guide proper allocation of resources and target services for the benefit of the community especially those residing in rural and remote areas in a vast country like Australia.

  14. The complete mitogenome of the hydrothermal vent crab Xenograpsus testudinatus (Decapoda, Brachyura) and comparison with brachyuran crabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ki, Jang-Seu; Dahms, Hans-Uwe; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2009-12-01

    In this study, we analyzed the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of a hydrothermal vent crab Xenograpsus testudinatus (Decapoda: Brachyura) obtained from the hydrothermal vents off Kueishantao Island, Taiwan, which extend from the deep sea Okinawa Trench. The mitogenome of X. testudinatus was 15,796 bp in length and contained the same 37 genes (e.g. 2 rRNAs, 22 tRNAs, and 13 PCGs) found in other metazoan mitogenomes. Analysis of the structural mt gene order in X. testudinatus revealed that the 13 PCGs, excluding a translocation of ND6-Cyt b cluster, were similarly ordered when compared to the pancrustacean ground pattern; however the tRNAs were severely rearranged. Phylogenetic analysis of decapod mitogenomes showed that the molecular taxonomy of the vent crab was in accordance with its morphological systematics. Together, these findings suggest that the vent crab studied here has little mitochondrial genetic variation when compared with morphologically defined conspecifics from other marine habitats.

  15. Distribuição e ecologia dos decapoda numa área estuarina de Ubatuba (SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge de Abreu

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available Benthic macro fauna (Decapoda was sampled by beam trawl at 6 stations in Bay of Fortaleza and adjacents Escuro e Claro rivers (São Paulo, Ubatuba, Brasil. Samples were taken monthly during 1973-1974. Diversity was high in muddy sand sites of Bay of Fortaleza and low at very shallow stations located in the rivers, where the effects of extreme fluctuations of salinity were evident. The changes in species composition appeared to correspond most clearly to differences in salinity. The total number of species of decapods collected in the areas was 27 (14 species of Natantia and 13 of Reptantia. Juveniles of Penaeus brasiiiensis and Penaeus paulensis reach the rivers. Callinectes danae live in the Bay and in the rivers. Xiphopeneus kroyeri is a specie who inhabit the Bay of Fortaleza in high populational density.

  16. Life history of the ghost shrimp, Callianassa japonica ortmann (Decapoda: Thalassinidea), on an intertidal sandflat in western Kyushu, Japan

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tamaki, A.; Ingole, B.S.; Ikebe, K.; Muramatsu, K.; Taka, M.; Tanaka, M.

    , occurring in July-August (1st cohort) and September-November (2nd cohort). The higher growth rate of individuals after recruitment in the 1st cohort enhanced the separation of the two cohorts. Between sexes, the subsequent life history patterns...

  17. Migratory Movements of Pygmy Blue Whales (Balaenoptera musculus brevicauda) between Australia and Indonesia as Revealed by Satellite Telemetry

    OpenAIRE

    Double, Michael C.; Virginia Andrews-Goff; Jenner, K. Curt S.; Micheline-Nicole Jenner; Laverick, Sarah M.; Branch, Trevor A; Nicholas J. Gales

    2014-01-01

    In Australian waters during the austral summer, pygmy blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus brevicauda) occur predictably in two distinct feeding areas off western and southern Australia. As with other blue whale subspecies, outside the austral summer their distribution and movements are poorly understood. In order to describe the migratory movements of these whales, we present the satellite telemetry derived movements of eleven individuals tagged off western Australia over two years. Whales wer...

  18. Fresh Ideas for Australia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    With Kevin Rudd at the helm,Australia seems poised to embrace major changesAustralia’s prime minister-elect Kevin Rudd has caught the atten- tion of the Chinese with his modest appearance,fluent Mandarin and personal bonds with China. Rudd,50,graduated from the Australian National University in Canberra, where he majored in Chinese language and history.He is the first Mandarin-speaking leader from an English-speaking country and is known in China by the elegant name Lu Kewen.As a diplomat,he worked in the Australian Embassy in Beijing in the 1980s.

  19. Electromagnetic induction in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilley, F. E. M.

    Electromagnetic induction at the terrestrial surface is a general and ubiquitous process. This note, which covers research on the subject in Australia, reflects the writer's own interest and refers particularly to induction by natural source fields in the period range of 1 minute to 1 day.Such source fields arise external to Earth, in the ionosphere and beyond, in the magnetosphere. The process of electromagnetic induction by these fields involves the flow through Earth of tens of thousands of amperes, over scale lengths of thousands of kilometers.

  20. Pleistocene glaciation of the King Valley, Western Tasmania, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimons, Sean J.; Colhoun, Eric A.

    1991-09-01

    Analysis of the geomorphology, geology, and palynology of deposits in the King Valley permits the identification of four glaciations and two interglaciations and has led to a revision of the Pleistocene stratigraphy of the West Coast Range. The oldest late-Cenozoic deposits in the valley appear to predate glaciation, contain extinct pollen types, and are probably of late-Tertiary age. Overlying deposits of the Linda Glaciation show intense chemical weathering and have a reversed detrital remanent magnetization indicating deposition before 730,000 yr B.P. The highly weathered tills are conformably overlain by organic deposits of the Regency Interglaciation which show a transition from montane scrub rainforest to lowland temperate rainforest. Deposits formed during the later Moore Glaciation record advances of the King Glacier and glaciers from the West Coast Range. A pollen-bearing fluvial deposit records an interstade during this glaciation. On the basis of weathering rinds, amino acid dating, and palaeomagnetism the deposits are estimated to have formed between 730,000 and 390,000 yr B.P. The Moore Glaciation deposits are overlain by sediments of the Henty Glaciation which are believed to predate 130,000 yr B.P. These deposits record multiple advances of the King Glacier and the development of a large lake during an interstade. Deposits of the subsequent Pieman Interglaciation consist of organic fine sands and silts that record a lowland scrub rainforest. Deposits of the last (Margaret) glaciation are restricted to small areas in the northern part of the valley. Although the most recent ice advance culminated after 19,000 yr B.P., evidence of older deposits of the Margaret Glaciation suggests that an early last-glaciation ice advance may have occurred. When combined with earlier studies, the recent work in the King Valley has provided one of the more complete records of Pleistocene glaciation in the Southern Hemisphere. Comparison of the deposits with the record of glaciation in southern South America and Westland, New Zealand, suggests some similarities exist between pre-last-glaciation events and indicates that glacial events in Southern Hemisphere middle latitude areas were synchronous during the last glaciation.

  1. Focal and optional ergative marking in Warrwa (Kimberley, Western Australia)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGregor, William

    2006-01-01

    accords prominence to an Agent (i.e. transitive subject), singling it out asboth unexpected and highly agentive; accordingly it can be considered to be a focal ergative marker.By contrast, -na is an ordinary ergative marker, with no pragmatic components to its meaning; the situation for -ma is uncertain....... The story is complicated further by the fact that ergative markers are occasionally omitted from Agent NPs. This ‘"optional'' ergative marking is not random: it defocusses the Agent, indicating that it is both expected and low in agentivity. Much of the paper is taken up by presentation of evidence for...

  2. Causes and consequences of injuries in children in Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angalakuditi MV

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Mallik V Angalakuditi1, Nupur Angalakuditi21Georgia State University, Atlanta, Georgia, 2New York Medical College, Valhalla, New York, USAObjective: To identify the common causes and consequences of pediatric injury-related admission to an Australian children's hospital.Methods: A retrospective study was conducted at a pediatric teaching hospital. Patients , 18 years of age hospitalized between March 1, 2007 and April 30, 2007 were included. Patient medical records were reviewed if an admission diagnosis was injury related. Data collected included date of birth, gender, date of admission, date of discharge, diagnosis, procedure, and causes and outcomes of the injury.Results: A total of 184 patients were admitted as a result of injury during the study period. Of these, one neonate, six infants, 38 toddlers, 111 children, and 28 teenagers were included in this study. The most common cause of injury-related hospital admission was a fall (n = 109, 59%. Other causes of injury included crushing (8%, n = 15, the spilling of fluids (5.4%, n = 10, and bites (4.3%, n = 8. The most common consequence of an injury for children (43/111, 38.7% and teenagers (12/28, 43% was bone fracture. However, head injuries were the most common injury in toddlers (11/38, 29%, infants (5/6, 83.3%, and neonates (1/1, 100%. The radius and/ or ulna (36/63, 57% were the most common bones fractured. The majority (32/37, 86.5% of patients who suffered head injuries were diagnosed as having a minor injury.Conclusion: The main cause of injury-related admission to the hospital for children was a fall, with the most common consequences being fractures and head injuries.Keywords: injury, falls, head injuries, fractures

  3. The Population Origins and Expansion of Feral Cats in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Peter B S; Yurchenko, Andrey A; David, Victor A; Scott, Rachael; Koepfli, Klaus-Peter; Driscoll, Carlos; O'Brien, Stephen J; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn

    2016-03-01

    The historical literature suggests that in Australia, the domestic cat (Felis catus) had a European origin [~200 years before present (ybp)], but it is unclear if cats arrived from across the Asian land bridge contemporaneously with the dingo (4000 ybp), or perhaps immigrated ~40000 ybp in association with Aboriginal settlement from Asia. The origin of cats in Australia is important because the continent has a complex and ancient faunal assemblage that is dominated by endemic rodents and marsupials and lacks the large placental carnivores found on other large continents. Cats are now ubiquitous across the entire Australian continent and have been implicit in the range contraction or extinction of its small to medium sized (cats using 15 short tandem repeat (STR) genomic markers. Their origin appears to come exclusively from European founders. Feral cats in continental Australia exhibit high genetic diversity in comparison with the low diversity found in populations of feral cats living on islands. The genetic structure is consistent with a rapid westerly expansion from eastern Australia and a limited expansion in coastal Western Australia. Australian cats show modest if any population structure and a close genetic alignment with European feral cats as compared to cats from Asia, the Christmas and Cocos (Keeling) Islands (Indian Ocean), and European wildcats (F. silvestris silvestris).

  4. Nature: a colour comparison between Northern South Africa and Northern Australia

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Baumbach, J

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available : Darwin (coastal town) and Katherine (approximately 250 km from the nearest coast) • Western Australia: Derby (coastal town) and Tom Price (approximately 300 km from the nearest coast). Figure 1: Vegetation Map of Australia, indicating... Mountains & plateau 29 Darwin 1847 Eucalyptus Plateau & planes 32 Katherine 984 Eucalyptus Plateau & planes 34 Derby 673 Eucalyptus Low plateau & planes 35 Tom Price 406 Acacia Ridges & planes 31 Table 2: Rainfall, Vegetation, Geology...

  5. 航空γ能谱测量数据在西澳伊尔岗地区钙结岩型铀矿勘查中的应用%Application of Airborne Spectrometry Data to the Exploration of Calcrete hosted Uranium Deposit in Yilgarn Area Western Australia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    车永飞; 张云龙; 赵英俊; 林子瑜

    2015-01-01

    The calcrete distribution in Yilgarn area of western Australia was studied by analyzing the re-gional uranium ore prediction factors,multi parameter combination and supervised classification was used to process and analyze the airborne spectroscopy data and to predict the calcrete hosted uranium metallization.According to the geochemical characteristics differences between airborne uranium, thorium and potassium spectrum data,space modeling tool in ERDAS software was used to calculate the ancient uranium enrichment factors and identify the area of uranium enrichment source.Bayesian decision criterion and supervised classification technology of feature space domain were used to extract multi level aero radiometric anomaly in the study area,and comprehensive analysis methods was used to select calcrete hosted uranium mineralization prospects.%以西澳伊尔岗钙结岩分布区为例,在分析区域铀矿预测要素的基础上,利用多参数组合和监督分类2种方法对航空γ能谱测量数据进行处理和分析,开展钙结岩型铀矿的成矿预测研究。根据航空γ能谱数据铀、钍、钾元素之间的地球化学特征差异,利用 ERDAS软件空间建模工具计算古铀量、铀富集系数,识别铀源区和铀后生富集区。利用特征空间域的贝叶斯决策准则监督分类技术,提取研究区多级航放示矿信息,经过综合分析,最终圈定7片钙结岩型铀成矿远景区。

  6. Australia's marine virtual laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Roger; Gillibrand, Philip; Oke, Peter; Rosebrock, Uwe

    2014-05-01

    In all modelling studies of realistic scenarios, a researcher has to go through a number of steps to set up a model in order to produce a model simulation of value. The steps are generally the same, independent of the modelling system chosen. These steps include determining the time and space scales and processes of the required simulation; obtaining data for the initial set up and for input during the simulation time; obtaining observation data for validation or data assimilation; implementing scripts to run the simulation(s); and running utilities or custom-built software to extract results. These steps are time consuming and resource hungry, and have to be done every time irrespective of the simulation - the more complex the processes, the more effort is required to set up the simulation. The Australian Marine Virtual Laboratory (MARVL) is a new development in modelling frameworks for researchers in Australia. MARVL uses the TRIKE framework, a java-based control system developed by CSIRO that allows a non-specialist user configure and run a model, to automate many of the modelling preparation steps needed to bring the researcher faster to the stage of simulation and analysis. The tool is seen as enhancing the efficiency of researchers and marine managers, and is being considered as an educational aid in teaching. In MARVL we are developing a web-based open source application which provides a number of model choices and provides search and recovery of relevant observations, allowing researchers to: a) efficiently configure a range of different community ocean and wave models for any region, for any historical time period, with model specifications of their choice, through a user-friendly web application, b) access data sets to force a model and nest a model into, c) discover and assemble ocean observations from the Australian Ocean Data Network (AODN, http://portal.aodn.org.au/webportal/) in a format that is suitable for model evaluation or data assimilation, and

  7. Australia: historical earthquake studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. McCue

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Historical studies of earthquakes in Australia using information dating back to 1788 have been comprehensive, if not exhaustive. Newspapers have been the main source of historical earthquake studies. A brief review is given here with an introduction to the pre-European aboriginal dreamtime information. Some of the anecdotal information of the last two centuries has been compiled as isoseismal maps. Relationships between isoseismal radii and magnitude have been established using post-instrumental data allowing magnitudes to be assigned to the pre-instrumental data, which can then be incorporated into the national earthquake database. The studies have contributed to hazard analyses for the building codes and stimulated research into microzonation and paleo-seismology.

  8. On-site wastewater technologies in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, G; Dallas, S; Anda, M; Mathew, K

    2001-01-01

    Domestic wastewater reuse is currently not permitted anywhere in Australia but is widely supported by the community, promoted by researchers, and improvised by up to 20% of householders. Its widespread implementation will make an enormous contribution to the sustainability of water resources. Integrated with other strategies in the outdoor living environment of settlements in arid lands, great benefit will be derived. This paper describes six options for wastewater reuse under research by the Remote Area Developments Group (RADG) at Murdoch University and case studies are given where productive use is being made for revegetation and food production strategies at household and community scales. Pollution control techniques, public health precautions and maintenance requirements are described. The special case of remote Aboriginal communities is explained where prototype systems have been installed by RADG to generate windbreaks and orchards. New Australian design standards and draft guidelines for domestic greywater reuse produced by the Western Australian State government agencies for mainstream communities are evaluated. It is recommended that dry composting toilets be coupled with domestic greywater reuse and the various types available in Australia are described. For situations where only the flushing toilet will suffice the unique 'wet composting' system can be used and this also is described. A vision for household and community-scale on-site application is presented.

  9. Moderation in Australia-policy and achievements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockley, Creina

    2004-01-01

    Alcohol has been consumed in Australia since European settlement in 1788. In 1998, approximately 60% of Australians consumed an alcoholic beverage at least once per week. The effects of alcohol on the human body are dose dependent, where the harmful effects of alcohol are generally observed only when alcohol consumption exceeds moderate consumption levels of 30 to 40 g of alcohol per day. The discovery that a J-shaped curve described the relationship between level of alcohol consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease was, however, only made in 1990-cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the western world. Thus prior to 1990, Australian public health policy focused primarily on the harmful effects of alcohol consumption and the health benefits of a moderate level of alcohol consumption have only recently been recognized in public policy. This paper chronicles changes in Australian Federal government policy on alcohol since the initial draft National health policy on alcohol in Australia was presented to the Ministerial Council on Drug Strategy in 1987 to the National Drug Strategic plan for action 2001 to 2003-2004 which was launched in July last year.

  10. Desenvolvimento e morfologia funcional dos estÃmagos de larvas e pÃs-larvas dos crustÃceos Decapoda

    OpenAIRE

    Marlon Aguiar Melo

    2005-01-01

    O conhecimento sobre o correto regime alimentar das larvas e pÃslarvas dos crustÃceos Decapoda à considerado essencial para o sucesso no cultivo larval. InformaÃÃes sobre o desenvolvimento e morfologia dos apÃndices bucais e estÃmago destes crustÃceos tÃm auxiliado na identificaÃÃo de alimentos e condiÃÃes de cultivo satisfatÃrias para o aumento da sobrevivÃncia e do crescimento durante o desenvolvimento larval. O desenvolvimento da estrutura do estÃmago e da funÃÃo digestiva f...

  11. Efectos del rizocéfalo Loxothylacus armatus (Cirripedia: Rhizocephala en el cangrejo Paraxanthus barbiger (Decapoda: Brachyura en Chile Effects of the rhizocephalan Loxothylacus armatus (Cirripedia: Rhizocephala on the crab Paraxanthus barbiger (Decapoda: Brachyura in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIO GEORGE-NASCIMENTO

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Diversas asociaciones biológicas de amplia distribución y alta especificidad en el ambiente marino han pasado casi desapercibidas para los estudiosos en Chile. Aquí se describe cuantitativamente la infección por Loxothylacus armatus Boschma 1949 (Cirripedia: Rhizocephala en el cangrejo Paraxanthus barbiger (Poeppig 1836 (Decapoda: Brachyura y se evalúa si el parásito produce efectos semejantes a los descritos para asociaciones similares. Para ello, 513 ejemplares del cangrejo fueron recolectados manualmente desde el submareal somero, entre septiembre y octubre de 2003, en Lenga, Octava Región de Chile. La prevalencia de rizocéfalos alcanzó valores máximos cercanos al 60 % en hospedadores de pequeño tamaño corporal, provocando castración, inhibiendo el desarrollo gonadal de las hembras y modificando el tamaño de los caracteres sexuales secundarios en ambos sexos, lo que sugiere que impone una gran demanda sobre su hospedador. Estos resultados muestran una gran similitud con otros estudios que involucran a rizocéfalos, y podrían, al incorporar a las simbiosis en el estudio de las comunidades bentónicas en Chile, conducir a que se reinterprete, por ejemplo, la abundancia y patrones de reproducción de P. barbiger, una especie de depredador prominente de esas comunidades bentónicasIn the marine realm, several biological associations are distributed worldwide and are highly specific, but remain poorly studied in Chile. Here, we describe quantitatively the infection by the barnacle Loxothylacus armatus Boschma 1949 (Cirripedia: Rhizocephala in the crab Paraxanthus barbiger (Poeppig 1836 (Decapoda: Brachyura, and assess if the parasite effects are similar to rhizocephalan-decapod associations elsewhere. To do this, 513 crabs were collected by hand while scuba diving between September and October, 2003 in the shallow subtidal zone of Lenga (37° S, Chile. Maximum prevalence reached ca. 60 % in small body size hosts, producing total

  12. Migration from India to Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, S P; Chandra, A

    1994-01-01

    "The article examines the contemporary trends and future prospects of migration from India to Australia. The focus is on Indian Settlers and Temporary Entrants admitted to Australia for employment and Indian students admitted to Australia for higher studies. The volume of emigration for permanent residence during the early 1990s has made India one of the leading source countries of migration to Australia. A majority of Indians admitted as Settlers every year join the labor force. Recent data indicate that, among Indian Settlers, there is a preponderance of unsponsored Independent Skilled Migrants. Given the anticipated growth in the number of Indian students, the coming years are likely to witness a spurt in Skilled Temporary Workers from India." excerpt

  13. Australia's Next Top Fraction Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Peter Gould suggests Australia's next top fraction model should be a linear model rather than an area model. He provides a convincing argument and gives examples of ways to introduce a linear model in primary classrooms.

  14. Sustainability: Australia at the crossroads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodirsky, Benjamin L.; Popp, Alexander

    2015-11-01

    A modelling study argues that comprehensive policy change could limit Australia's environmental pollution while maintaining a materials-intensive path to economic growth. But other paths are worth considering. See Article p.49

  15. On some Aphyllophorales from Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jülich, W.

    1978-01-01

    A collection of Aphyllophorales from Australia and Tasmania has been studied. Fifteen species have been identified and the following new taxa are described: Amaurohydnum flavidum gen. et spec. nov., Amauromyces pallidus gen. et spec. nov., Hyphoderma cinnamomeum, Lindtneria pellicularis, Resinicium

  16. Acupuncture in Australia: regulation, education, practice, and research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Zheng

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Acupuncture was introduced to Australia as early as in the 1880s, and is a form of complementary and alternative medicine in this country. In the past 2 decades since the 1990s, acupuncture has experienced a rapid growth. Today, nearly 4000 acupuncturists are registered with the Chinese Medicine Board of Australia. “Acupuncturist,” “Oriental medicine practitioner,” and “Chinese medicine practitioners” are protected titles for registered acupuncturists. A bachelor's degree of 4 years in related fields is the minimal requirement for registration in Australia. Three public universities and three major private colleges offer nine undergraduate and three postgraduate programs that are approved by the Chinese Medicine Board of Australia. Those three universities also offer Master-degree and Doctor of Philosophy programs. Acupuncture is well accepted by the Australians, with 10% having received this treatment and 80% general medical practitioners referring their patients to acupuncture service. All private health insurance schemes provide rebates to patients receiving acupuncture treatment, and third-party payment is also available in six of eight Australian states and territories. Research output in acupuncture has increased greatly since 2000. A majority of research focuses on acupuncture and Tai Chi as treatment modalities, and mainly investigates their mechanism of action, associated pain, and gynecological and respiratory conditions. The future direction of acupuncture in Australia is to introduce this medicine in hospitals and gain access to the medical benefit scheme so that acupuncture can be accessed by a wider community, in particular those who come from a disadvantaged background. In conclusion, improved education, regulation, and research of acupuncture in Australia put this country in a leading position among Western countries with respect to acupuncture services.

  17. Neutron scattering in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knott, R.B. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Menai (Australia)

    1994-12-31

    Neutron scattering techniques have been part of the Australian scientific research community for the past three decades. The High Flux Australian Reactor (HIFAR) is a multi-use facility of modest performance that provides the only neutron source in the country suitable for neutron scattering. The limitations of HIFAR have been recognized and recently a Government initiated inquiry sought to evaluate the future needs of a neutron source. In essence, the inquiry suggested that a delay of several years would enable a number of key issues to be resolved, and therefore a more appropriate decision made. In the meantime, use of the present source is being optimized, and where necessary research is being undertaken at major overseas neutron facilities either on a formal or informal basis. Australia has, at present, a formal agreement with the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (UK) for access to the spallation source ISIS. Various aspects of neutron scattering have been implemented on HIFAR, including investigations of the structure of biological relevant molecules. One aspect of these investigations will be presented. Preliminary results from a study of the interaction of the immunosuppressant drug, cyclosporin-A, with reconstituted membranes suggest that the hydrophobic drug interdigitated with lipid chains.

  18. Indigenous actinorhizal plants of Australia

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nishath K Ganguli; Ivan R Kennedy

    2013-11-01

    Indigenous species of actinorhizal plants of Casuarinaceae, Elaeagnaceae and Rhamnaceae are found in specific regions of Australia. Most of these plants belong to Casuarinaceae, the dominant actinorhizal family in Australia. Many of them have significant environmental and economical value. The other two families with their indigenous actinorhizal plants have only a minor presence in Australia. Most Australian actinorhizal plants have their native range only in Australia, whereas two of these plants are also found indigenously elsewhere. The nitrogen-fixing ability of these plants varies between species. This ability needs to be investigated in some of these plants. Casuarinas form a distinctive but declining part of the Australian landscape. Their potential has rarely been applied in forestry in Australia despite their well-known uses, which are being judiciously exploited elsewhere. To remedy this oversight, a programme has been proposed for increasing and improving casuarinas that would aid in greening more regions of Australia, increasing the soil fertility and the area of wild life habitat (including endangered species). Whether these improved clones would be productive with local strains of Frankia or they need an external inoculum of Frankia should be determined and the influence of mycorrhizal fungi on these clones also should be investigated.

  19. Crustacea Decapoda captured through a passive collection in a stretch of Rio dos Mangues (Porto Seguro – Bahia – Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Ribeiro Teixeira

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to carry out, through passive collection, a survey of Crustacea Decapoda species present in a stretch of Rio dos Mangues (Porto Seguro – Bahia – Brazil, during spring season of 2009. The collections were carried out in five sites, distributed over the final 10km of the river, using traps containing biological bait left underwater for 15h. To assess the abiotic variables, temperature, pH, and conductivity values were measured. A total of 135 individuals was registered, belonging to three species: the shrimps Macrobrachium acanthurus (Wiegmann, 1836 and M. olfersi (Wiegman, 1836, besides the crab Trichodactylus fluviatilis Latreille, 1828. In addition to these, two other crab species were collected: Goniopsis cruentata (Latreille, 1803 and Panopeus lacustris Desbonne, 1867. The highest values were registered in P4 (34.07% of individuals, P1 (23.70%, and P3 (22.96%. Temperature and pH presented a small variation throughout the analyses (respectively, 5.1-5.8 and 25.7-29.1°C. In turn, conductivity differed the estuary point (P5 from the other ones (respectively, 886mS and 41-48mS. No individual was registered in P2. The distribution of species was related to the type of microhabitat and the habit of each of them.

  20. Two novel mastreviruses from chickpea (Cicer arietinum) in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J E; Parry, J N; Schwinghamer, M W; Dann, E K

    2010-11-01

    Two novel mastreviruses (genus Mastrevirus; family Geminiviridae), with proposed names chickpea chlorosis virus (CpCV) and chickpea redleaf virus, are described from chickpea (Cicer arietinum) from eastern Australia. The viruses have genomes of 2,582 and 2,605 nucleotides, respectively, and share similar features and organisation with typical dicot-infecting mastreviruses. Two distinct strains of CpCV were suggested by phylogenetic analysis. Additionally, a partial mastrevirus Rep sequence from turnip weed (Rapistrum rugosum) indicated the presence of a distinct strain of Tobacco yellow dwarf virus (TYDV). In phylogenetic analyses, isolates of Bean yellow dwarf virus, Chickpea chlorotic dwarf Pakistan virus and Chickpea chlorotic dwarf Sudan virus from southern and northern Africa and south-central and western Asia clustered separately from these three viruses from Australia. An Australian, eastern Asian, or south-eastern Asian origin for the novel mastreviruses and TYDV is discussed.

  1. Foreign-born aged care workers in Australia: A growing trend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negin, Joel; Coffman, Jenna; Connell, John; Short, Stephanie

    2016-12-01

    To address Australian aged care workforce challenges, a deeper understanding of the current care workforce is needed especially given estimated increases in demand. We provide a national picture of the aged care workforce in Australia focusing on country of birth. Data from the 2006 and 2011 Australian censuses. The majority of care workers are Australia-born followed by those born in the United Kingdom, South-East Asia and South Asia. While the number of carers from all regions has grown, the increase from 2006 to 2011 has been highest for carers from South Asia (333% increase) and sub-Saharan Africa (145%). The state with the largest decrease in the proportion of Australian-born care workers is Western Australia where Australian-born workers dropped from 62% in 2006 to 49% in 2011. Understanding the migration patterns of the aged care workforce in Australia is critical to health workforce planning given increasing demand. © 2016 AJA Inc.

  2. Mercury content of shark from south-western Australian waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caputi, N.; Edmonds, J.S.; Heald, D.I.

    1979-11-01

    Muscle samples from four species of commercially sought sharks off the Western Australia coast were analyzed for total mercury. While substantial amounts of mercury were accumulated by sharks, as by other marine fish, the lack of polluting industry on the coast indicates that such mercury levels probably are natural. Mercury concentrations generally increased with fish size. (4 graphs, 1 map, 8 references, 2 tables)

  3. Western Science and Islamic Learners: When Disciplines and Culture Intersect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robottom, Ian; Norhaidah, Sharifah

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on two research projects (one in Malaysia and one in Australia) that studied the experiences of Islamic background learners studying western science. Conceptually, this research program is conducted within a socially constructivist discourse and employs both quantitative and qualitative forms of data collection. The article…

  4. International Students in Western Developed Countries: History, Challenges, and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akanwa, Emmanuel E.

    2015-01-01

    Many scholars have described the various challenges international students face in Western developed countries including the United States, the United Kingdom, and Australia. Some of the challenges include differences in culture, language barriers, adjustment problems, medical concerns, pedagogical challenges, housing issues, lack of support…

  5. "I Can Feel It Making My Brain Bigger": Thinking Science Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dullard, Heath; Oliver, Mary

    2012-01-01

    "I can feel it making my brain bigger": from a Year 8 student at Pinjarra Senior High School (SHS) halfway through the two-year Thinking Science Program. Pinjarra was a pilot school for the program in 2009/10 and a growing number of schools in Western Australia (WA) are implementing this program in Years Seven to Nine as part of the…

  6. New Directions in Rural Education: A National Conference on Rural Education (Perth, Australia, 1979). Conference Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angus, M.; And Others

    The National Conference on Rural Education, a major event in the 1979 calendar of the Education Department of Western Australia, was held under the auspices of the Centre for Educational Research and Innovation (CERI) of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Educationalists, government, and community representatives…

  7. Relationships and Sexuality Education Topics Taught in Western Australian Secondary Schools during 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Erin; Vlazny, Carl; Cumming, Steven

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports on findings from the first Western Australian Survey of Educators of Sexuality Education, which aimed to assess the state of relationships and sexuality education (RSE) in the state of Western Australia. Key findings show that secondary school teachers provided more hours of RSE instruction than the national average. However,…

  8. Remembering the Battle for Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Rechniewski

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available For the last two years, Australia has commemorated, on the first Wednesday in September, the ‘Battle for Australia Day’, to mark the role of Australian forces fighting the Japanese in the Pacific in WWII. The aim of this article is to identify the agents involved in the campaign for the gazetting of this day and the justifications advanced; to trace the conflicting narratives and political and historical controversies surrounding the notion of a ‘Battle for Australia’; and to outline the shifts in domestic and international politics and generational change that provide the context for the inauguration of this day.

  9. Descripción y distribución geográfica de una nueva especie para el archipiélago Juan Fernández: Platymera gaudichaudii (H. Milne-Edwards, 1837 (Decapoda, Calappidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A Retamal

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Se identifica una nueva especie en aguas del archipiélago Juan Fernández: Platymera gaudichaudii (Decapoda, Calappidae, ampliándose su distribución geográfica conocida en el hemisferio sur. Se entrega una diagnosis de la especie y se actualiza el status taxonómico de otras tres especies de decápodos en este archipiélago.

  10. Indigenous families' use of a tertiary children's hospital in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munns, Ailsa; Shields, Linda

    2013-09-01

    There has been little research into Australian Indigenous families' use of a tertiary paediatric hospital in Western Australia. Scrutiny of existing scientific literature and the reports of government and non-governmental organisations from 1995 onwards did not identify clear referral pathways, health-seeking behaviours or preferences of Indigenous families for a culturally safe hospital model. Family-centred care requires an understanding of how Indigenous children and families arrive at a health service, and the cultural and practical implications of large distances and of leaving other family members behind.

  11. Eight new species of Macvicaria Gibson and Bray, 1982 (Digenea: Opecoelidae from temperate marine fishes of Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thelma Aken’Ova

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Nine morphologically distinct species of Macvicaria Gibson & Bray, 1982 were recovered from six families, ten genera and twelve species of marine fishes in the waters off the coast of Queensland, Western Australia and South Australia: M. shotteri n. sp. in Apogon fasciatus (type-host, Sillaginodes punctatus and Sillago bassensis from Moreton Bay (type-locality, off southern Western Australia and off Kangaroo Island, South Australia; M. mekistomorphe n. sp. in Sillago maculata from Moreton Bay; M. mutovitellina n. sp. in Dactylophora nigricans from off southern Western Australia; M. flexuomeatus n. sp. in Goniistius gibbosus (type-host and Cheilodactylus rubrolabiatus from southern Western Australia; M. vitellocopiosa n. sp. in Sillaginodes punctatus from off Kangaroo Island, South Australia; M. dextrocaula n. sp. in Notolabrus parilus (type-host and N. fucicola (Richardson (Labridae from off southern Western Australia (type-locality and Kangaroo Island, South Australia; M. heronensis Bray & Cribb, 1989 in Trachinotus coppingeri off Stradbroke Island, Queensland; M. adomeae n. sp. in Sillaginodes punctatus off Kangaroo Island, South Australia; M. kingscotensis n. sp. in Neoodax balteatus (type-host and Haletta semifasciata off Kangaroo Island, South Australia. We have used the following characters to distinguish between the species of Macvicaria: general body form; length/width ratio; size of cirrussac; length of forebody; post-testicular extent of caeca; egg size; and the position of the genital pore. Most of the species of Macvicaria showed interspecific differences in all of the characters enumerated, the most dramatic being in the position of the genital pore in one species. All 11 specimens recovered from 2 species of Notolabrus were found to have a dextral genital pore. This is the second report of amphitypy in the Opecoelidae. All of the host species, apart from Apogon fasciatus, are endemic to Australian or Australian and New Zealand

  12. Contextualising Multilingualism in Australia Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Robyn

    2015-01-01

    This paper will begin by looking at globalisation, education and transnationalism in the context of Australia's post-war immigration history leading to a brief examination of the international literature surrounding second and third generation immigration. A brief review of international educational trends in English language teaching in recent…

  13. Serious Incident Management in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Ike; Thorley-Smith, Sara

    2007-01-01

    As part of its efforts to ensure school safety, the government of New South Wales, Australia, has developed simulation exercises to better prepare principals to manage serious incidents, in collaboration with police. This article describes two initiatives implemented across NSW. The exercises provide principals in both secondary and primary…

  14. Rural Adult Education in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Hew

    Adult education in rural areas in Australia provides a contrast both in its general mood and intentions and in its organization with that in the United States. Particularly in rural areas, there seems to be less of the compulsion to organize groups (there are usually no school boards, no chambers of commerce, no women's clubs, no youth centers)…

  15. Afrikaans Language Maintenance in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatoss, Aniko; Starks, Donna; van Rensburg, Henriette Janse

    2011-01-01

    Changes in the political climate in the home country have resulted in the emigration of South Africans to English speaking countries such as Britain, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. Despite the scale of movement of the South African population, language maintenance in these diasporic contexts has received little consideration. This paper…