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Sample records for western area power administration

  1. Western Area Power Administration. Combined power system financial statements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-26

    This report presents the results of the independent certified public accountants` audit of the Western Area Power Administration`s combined power system statements of assets, Federal investment and liabilities, and the related combined statements of revenues, expenses and accumulated net revenues, and cash flows. The auditors` report on Westerns internal control structure disclosed three new reportable conditions concerning the lack of: (1) a reconciliation of stores inventory from subsidiary ledgers to summary financial information, (2) communication of interest during construction and related adjustments to interest on Federal investment, and (3) a system to prevent and detect power billing errors. None of the conditions were considered to be material weaknesses. Western provided concurrence and corrective action plans. The auditors` report on Western`s compliance with laws and regulations also disclosed two new instances of noncompliance. Western failed to calculate nonreimbursable expenses in accordance with the Grand Canyon Protection Act and had an unexplained difference in gross Federal investment balances used to calculate interest on Federal investment. Western provided concurrence and corrective action plans for the instances.

  2. 2012 Annual Report [WESTERN AREA POWER ADMINISTRATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-01-01

    Fiscal Year 2012 brought some tumultuous and uncertain times to Western. The utility industry and technology continued to evolve, and the demand for constant flow of power and transmission system reliability continued to increase. Western kept pace by continuing to deliver reliable, cost-based hydropower while reviewing and updating business practices that took into account how the energy industry is evolving. During this time of exponential change, Western tackled many challenges, including: Reviewing the Transmission Infrastructure Program processes and procedures; Responding to Secretary of Energy Steven Chu’s memorandum to create a modern, efficient and reliable transmission grid; Weathering record-breaking natural disasters in our service territory; Completing our role in TIP’s flagship project—the Montana Alberta Tie Ltd. transmission line; Incorporating new, far-reaching regulations and industry trends.

  3. 78 FR 65641 - Recommendation From the Western Area Power Administration To Pursue Regional Transmission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    ... Transmission Organization Membership AGENCY: Western Area Power Administration, DOE. ACTION: Notice of Western Area Power Administration Recommendation to Pursue Regional Transmission Organization Membership... formal negotiations with the Southwest Power Pool (SPP), a Regional Transmission Organization...

  4. Western Area Power Administration combined power system financial statements, 30 September 1995 and 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The attached report presents the results of the independent certified public accountant`s audit of the Department of Energy`s Western Area Power Administration`s (Western) combined financial statements as of September 30, 1995. The auditors have expressed an unqualified opinion on Western`s 1995 statements. Their reports on Western`s internal control structure and on compliance with laws and regulations are also provided.

  5. 75 FR 17913 - Maintenance and Vegetation Management Along Existing Western Area Power Administration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    ... Area Power Administration DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Maintenance and Vegetation Management Along Existing Western Area Power Administration Transmission Line Rights of Way on National... Administration, DOE; Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of Intent to Prepare an Environmental Impact...

  6. Impacts on irrigated agriculture of changes in electricity costs resulting from Western Area Power Administration`s power marketing alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, B.K.; Flaim, S.J.; Howitt, R.E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Palmer, S.C. [Western Area Power Administration, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Irrigation is a major factor in the growth of US agricultural productivity, especially in western states, which account for more than 85% of the nation`s irrigated acreage. In some of these states, almost all cropland is irrigated, and nearly 50% of the irrigation is done with electrically powered pumps. Therefore, even small increases in the cost of electricity could have a disproportionate impact on irrigated agriculture. This technical memorandum examines the impacts that could result from proposed changes in the power marketing programs of the Western Area Power Administration`s Salt Lake City Area Office. The changes could increase the cost of power to all Western customers, including rural municipalities and irrigation districts that rely on inexpensive federal power to pump water. The impacts are assessed by translating changes in Western`s wholesale power rate into changes in the cost of pumping water as an input for agricultural production. Farmers can adapt to higher electricity prices in many ways, such as (1) using different pumping fuels, (2) adding workers and increasing management to irrigate more efficiently, and (3) growing more drought-tolerant crops. This study projects several responses, including using less groundwater and planting fewer waterintensive crops. The study finds that when dependence on Western`s power is high, the cost of power can have a major effect on energy use, agricultural practices, and the distribution of planted acreage. The biggest percentage changes in farm income would occur (1) in Nevada and Utah (however, all projected changes are less than 2% of the baseline) and (2) under the marketing alternatives that represent the lowest capacity and energy offer considered in Western`s Electric Power Marketing Environmental Impact Statement. The aggregate impact on farm incomes and the value of total farm production would be much smaller than that suggested by the changes in water use and planted acreage.

  7. 77 FR 65546 - Western Area Power Administration; Notice of Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-29

    ... for the Western Rate Schedules database, to be effective July 14, 2011. Any person desiring to intervene or to protest this filing must file in accordance with Rules 211 and 214 of the Commission's Rules of Practice and Procedure (18 CFR 385.211, 385.214). Protests will be considered by the Commission...

  8. Regional economic impacts of changes in electricity rates resulting from Western Area Power Administration`s power marketing alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, T.; Griffes, P.; Edwards, B.K.

    1995-03-01

    This technical memorandum describes an analysis of regional economic impacts resulting from changes in retail electricity rates due to six power marketing programs proposed by Western Area Power Administration (Western). Regional economic impacts of changes in rates are estimated in terms of five key regional economic variables: population, gross regional product, disposable income, employment, and household income. The REMI (Regional Impact Models, Inc.) and IMPLAN (Impact Analysis for Planning) models simulate economic impacts in nine subregions in the area in which Western power is sold for the years 1993, 2000, and 2008. Estimates show that impacts on aggregate economic activity in any of the subregions or years would be minimal for three reasons. First, the utilities that buy power from Western sell only a relatively small proportion of the total electricity sold in any of the subregions. Second, reliance of Western customers on Western power is fairly low in each subregion. Finally, electricity is not a significant input cost for any industry or for households in any subregion.

  9. Western Area Power Administration combined power system financial statements September 30, 1994 and 1993 and management overview and performance measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marwick, P.

    1994-12-31

    The attached report presents the results of the independent certified public accountant`s audit of the Department of Energy`s Western Area Power Administration`s (Western) combined financial statements as of September 30, 1994. The auditors have expressed an unqualified opinion on Western`s 1994 statements. Their reports on Western`s internal control structure and on compliance with laws and regulations are also provided. Western was established in December 1977, and has the responsibility for the Federal electric power marketing and transmission functions in 15 central and western states. Western markets power, as required by existing law, at the lowest possible rates consistent with sound business principles to recover the costs of operation and capital invested in power facilities.

  10. 77 FR 55829 - Western Area Power Administration; Grapevine Canyon Wind Project Record of Decision (DOE/EIS-0427)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    ... Area Power Administration; Grapevine Canyon Wind Project Record of Decision (DOE/EIS-0427) AGENCY: Western Area Power Administration, DOE. ACTION: Record of Decision. SUMMARY: Western Area Power... proposed wind park would be built in one or more phases, dependent on one or more power sale contracts. The...

  11. Impacts of Western Area Power Administration`s power marketing alternatives on retail electricity rates and utility financial viability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodmer, E.; Fisher, R.E.; Hemphill, R.C.

    1995-03-01

    Changes in power contract terms for customers of Western`s Salt Lake City Area Office affect electricity rates for consumers of electric power in Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming. The impacts of electricity rate changes on consumers are studied by measuring impacts on the rates charged by individual utility systems, determining the average rates in regional areas, and conducting a detailed rate analysis of representative utility systems. The primary focus is an evaluation of the way retail electricity rates for Western`s preference customers vary with alternative pricing and power quantity commitment terms under Western`s long-term contracts to sell power (marketing programs). Retail rate impacts are emphasized because changes in the price of electricity are the most direct economic effect on businesses and residences arising from different Western contractual and operational policies. Retail rates are the mechanism by which changes in cost associated with Western`s contract terms are imposed on ultimate consumers, and rate changes determine the dollar level of payments for electric power incurred by the affected consumers. 41 figs., 9 tabs.

  12. Western Area Power Administration annual site environmental report for calendar year 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2005-12-31

    This document outlines the accomplishments and status of the environmental program of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) for calendar year 2005. In 2005, Western submitted 190 reports to state and local emergency response personnel and had 60 California Hazardous Materials Business Plans in place as required under the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act. These reports identify the hazardous substances contained at these sites. At sites where potential oil spills could harm surrounding ecosystems and waterways, Western prepares Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) plans. These plans identify measures to prevent spills from harming the environment, such as identifying the need for secondary containment at facilities. Western currently has SPCC plans for 154 facilities in 13 states. In 2005, Western updated 19 SPCC plans and prepared one new plan. Western operated under 107 environmental permits in 2005. Western evaluates the impact of its planned actions on the environment by preparing National Environmental Policy Act documentation. In 2005, Western completed or was working on 60 categorical exclusions, 18 environmental assessments and eight environmental impact statements, issued six Findings of No Significant Impact, and prepared four Mitigation Action Plans. Western held several public workshops/meetings and consulted with 70 American Indian Tribes for various projects. In 2005, Western was working on or had completed 11 Section 7 consultations under the Endangered Species Act. In 2005, Western recycled more than 3,600 metric tons of electrical equipment, mineral oil dielectric fluid, asphalt, fluorescent and metal halide light bulbs, wood poles and crossarms, and other items as well as office waste. Western made $437,816 worth of purchases containing recovered content materials. Western met the requirement of Executive Order 13148, Greening the Government through Leadership in Environmental Management to have its

  13. Proposed framework for the Western Area Power Administration Environmental Risk Management Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glantz, C.S.; DiMassa, F.V.; Pelto, P.J.; Brothers, A.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Roybal, A.L. [Western Area Power Administration, Golden, CO (United States)

    1994-12-01

    The Western Area Power Administration (Western) views environmental protection and compliance as a top priority as it manages the construction, operation, and maintenance of its vast network of transmission lines, substations, and other facilities. A recent Department of Energy audit of Western`s environmental management activities recommends that Western adopt a formal environmental risk program. To accomplish this goal, Western, in conjunction with Pacific Northwest Laboratory, is in the process of developing a centrally coordinated environmental risk program. This report presents the results of this design effort, and indicates the direction in which Western`s environmental risk program is heading. Western`s environmental risk program will consist of three main components: risk communication, risk assessment, and risk management/decision making. Risk communication is defined as an exchange of information on the potential for threats to human health, public safety, or the environment. This information exchange provides a mechanism for public involvement, and also for the participation in the risk assessment and management process by diverse groups or offices within Western. The objective of risk assessment is to evaluate and rank the relative magnitude of risks associated with specific environmental issues that are facing Western. The evaluation and ranking is based on the best available scientific information and judgment and serves as input to the risk management process. Risk management takes risk information and combines it with relevant non-risk factors (e.g., legal mandates, public opinion, costs) to generate risk management options. A risk management tool, such as decision analysis, can be used to help make risk management choices.

  14. Western Area Power Administration combined power system financial statements, September 30, 1996 and 1995 (with independent auditors` report thereon)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    This report presents the results of the independent certified public accountants` audit of the Department of Energy`s Western Area Power Administration`s (Western) combined financial statements as of September 30, 1996. The auditors have expressed an unqualified opinion on the 1996 statements. The auditors` report on Western`s internal control structure disclosed two new reportable conditions and discussed the status of an unresolved condition from prior years. The new conditions involved the write-off of aging accounts receivable and the understatement of interest expense for inactive construction work orders. These reportable conditions are not considered to be material weaknesses. Western concurred with the audit recommendations and is responsible for necessary corrective actions. The auditors also considered the overview and performance measure data for completeness and material consistency with the basic financial statements as noted in the internal control report. The report also disclosed an additional reportable condition directed to the Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) which is not considered to be a material weakness. Reclamation concurred with the audit recommendation and is responsible for necessary corrective action. The auditors` report on Western`s compliance with laws and regulations disclosed two new instances of noncompliance involving interest charges on all construction costs funded with Federal appropriations and other capitalized costs. The report also discussed the status of one instance of noncompliance from prior years. Western provided concurrence and corrective action plans for all of these instances of noncompliance.

  15. Impacts of Western Area Power Administration`s power marketing alternatives on utility demand-side management and conservation and renewable energy programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavallo, J.D.; Germer, M.F.; Tompkins, M.M.

    1995-03-01

    The Western Area Power Administration (Western) requires all of its long-term firm power customers to implement programs that promote the conservation of electric energy or facilitate the use of renewable energy resources. Western has also proposed that all customers develop integrated resource plans that include cost-effective demand-side management programs. As part of the preparation of Western`s Electric Power Marketing Environmental Impact Statement, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) developed estimates of the reductions in energy demand resulting from Western`s conservation and renewable energy activities in its Salt Lake City Area Office. ANL has also estimated the energy-demand reductions from cost-effective, demand-side management programs that could be included in the integrated resource plans of the customers served by Western`s Salt Lake City Area Office. The results of this study have been used to adjust the expected hourly demand for Western`s major systems in the Salt Lake City Area. The expected hourly demand served as the basis for capacity expansion plans develops with ANL`s Production and Capacity Expansion (PACE) model.

  16. Office of Inspector General report on audit of the Western Area Power Administration`s contract with Basin Electric Power Cooperative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-25

    At the request of the Western Area Power Administration (Western), an audit of 17 areas was conducted with respect to possible overcharges on a power contract between Western and Basin Electric Power Cooperative (Basin), Contract No. DE-MP65-82WP-19001. The contract for Western`s purchase of electric power from Basin was entered into on April 15, 1982, and was in effect from January 1, 1986, through October 31, 1990. During this 58-month period, Basin billed Western approximately $197.6 million. Overall, it was found that Basin overcharged Western approximately $23.8 million. These overcharges occurred because Basin: (1) did not recognize or amortize as gain its overestimate of completion and correction costs for Antelope Valley Station (AVS) Unit 2; (2) did not amortize the gain on the sale/leaseback of AVS Unit 2 as an offset to lease costs; (3) billed Western prematurely for lease and interest costs; (4) overcharged for the cost of coal by including administrative and general expenses and profit, as well as incorrectly calculating discounts, royalty payments, and imputed interest costs; (5) made faulty calculations of amortization rates for deferred costs; (6) used a shorter depreciation period for AVS common facilities than it had used for other power plants; (7) retained tax benefit transfers; and (8) charged Western for interest and depreciation that had been paid by others. In addition to the $23.8 million in overcharges, interest accrued on the overcharges through December 31, 1996 was estimated to be approximately $22.1 million, resulting in a total of $45.9 million due Western.

  17. Income distribution impacts of changes in Western Area Power Administration electricity prices. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, A.; Frias, O. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Mineral Economics

    1993-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to present the methodology and results of an analysis of income distribution impacts associated with changes in the Western Area Power Administration (WAPA) marketing program. The focus will be on the distribution of personal income across eleven brackets in each of nine sub-regions of the WAPA market area. Moreover, these results will be translated into an assessment of the number of people who stand to gain or lose as a result of the policies and the size of these income changes. Most economic impact analyses are performed at an aggregate level. The results are typically presented in terms of net benefits, or a listing of changes in employment, output, income, or prices. What is neglected is the distribution of impacts across the affected population. These distributional impacts are important for several reasons. First, there is the normative judgmental issue of distributional justice, or equity. This addresses concerns about income disparities in general, or whether the poor, or any other group, are shouldering a disproportionate share of any burden or are failing to share significantly in any gain.

  18. Class 1 overview of cultural resources for the Western Area Power Administration Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects electric power marketing environmental impact statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, K.L.; Malinowski, L.M.; Hoffecker, J.F.; Walitschek, D.A.; Shogren, L.; Mathews, J.E.; Verhaaren, B.T.

    1993-11-01

    Argonne National Laboratory conducted an inventory of known archaeological and historic sites in areas that could be affected by the hydropower operation alternatives under analysis in the power marketing environmental impact statement for the Western Area Power Administration`s Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects. The study areas included portions of the Green River (Flaming Gorge Dam to Cub Creek) in Utah and Colorado and the Gunnison River (Blue Mesa Reservoir to Crystal Dam) in Colorado. All previous archaeological surveys and previously recorded prehistoric and historic sites, structures, and features were inventoried and plotted on maps (only survey area maps are included in this report). The surveys were classified by their level of intensity, and the sites were classified according to their age, type, and contents. These data (presented here in tabular form) permit a general assessment of the character and distribution of archaeological remains in the study areas, as well as an indication of the sampling basis for such an assessment. To provide an adequate context for the descriptions of the archaeological and historic sites, this report also presents overviews of the environmental setting and the regional prehistory, history, and ethnography for each study area.

  19. 76 FR 59682 - Desert Southwest Customer Service Region-Western Area Lower Colorado Balancing Authority-Rate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-27

    ... Area Power Administration Desert Southwest Customer Service Region--Western Area Lower Colorado... the Western Area Power Administration's (Western) Desert Southwest Customer Service Region (DSWR... Murray, Rates Manager, Desert Southwest Customer Service Region, Western Area Power Administration, P.O...

  20. 2011 Annual Report [WESTERN AREA POWER ADMINISTRATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-01-01

    Western’s achievements for 2011 are reported and include: Experienced a banner water year – meaning more hydropower delivered; Changed energy scheduling— to better support intermittent renewable resources; Maintained reliability— ensuring maximum use of the grid by reducing the frequency and duration of planned and unplanned outages; Connected communities— providing customers energy products and related services at cost-based rates; Managed transmission projects.

  1. Environmental audit, Bonneville Power Administration, lower Columbia area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-01

    This report documents the results of the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Environmental Audit conducted by the DOE Headquarters Office of Environmental Audit within the Bonneville Power Administration's (BPA's) Lower Columbia Area. The BPA facilities included in the Audit are the Ross Complex in Vancouver, Washington; the substations of North Bonneville, North Bonneville Annex, Camas, and Longview within the state of Washington; and the Acton and Troutdale Substations within the state of Oregon. The independent Audit was conducted by a team of professionals from DOE and contractors. The purpose of the Audit is to provide the Secretary of Energy, Admiral James D. Watkins, Ret., with the status of environmental programs within BPA's Lower Columbia Area. The Environmental Audit team identified 25 findings dealing with the lack of conformance with federal and state laws and regulations and DOE Orders, and 7 findings in which BMPs were not attained. Although all findings require corrective action, none required cessation of operations or reflect situations that present an immediate risk to public health or the environment. The Audit team noted inadequacies in PCB management included storage, labeling, reporting, and spill control. The most significant causal factors for the findings include lack of policy implementation throughout the Lower Columbia Area, inadequate training of personnel charged with environmental protection, lack of standard operating procedures for many programs, lack of reviews and appraisals, and an inaccurate perception of low risk for environmental concerns.

  2. The Administrative Power Grab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorenson, Richard D.

    2007-01-01

    Administrative power for some school teachers can be an aphrodisiac that can be applied negatively, especially when a leader has devastating instinct for the weaknesses of others. A leader's intellect and heart closes shop and ceases to function when drunk on power. In this article, the author describes how the use of administrative power can be…

  3. Mercury species in seawater and sediment of Xiamen western sea area adjacent to a coal-fired power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ying; Liu, Xiyao; Yuan, Dongxing; Gong, Zhebin; Zhang, Zhen

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the concentrations and spatial distributions of mercury (Hg) species in seawater (including dissolved, particle, and total Hg) and sediment (including total and methyl Hg) of the Xiamen western sea area adjacent to a coal-fired power plant. The influence of the wastewater discharged from the seawater desulphurization (De-SO2) system of the power plant is discussed. Concentration of the three species of mercury in seawater from 18 sampling sites varied: dissolved ranged from 0.70 to 4.65 ng/L (mean 1.47 ng/L; median 1.12 ng/L); particulate ranged from not detected to 90.52 ng/L (mean 10.47 ng/L; median 1.26 ng/L); and total was 1.51 to 92.88 ng/L (mean 11.94 ng/L; median 2.84 ng/L). High concentrations of total Hg and particulate Hg, more than 70 ng/L, were observed in the area adjacent to the outfalls of the power plant. The Hg from the waste seawater of the power plant might be re-emitted to the atmosphere because it exists in seawater mainly in particulate attached form. The sediment total Hg concentrations ranged from 0.055 to 0.201 microg/g, with a mean of 0.126 microg/g and a median of 0.125 microg/g. Low methyl Hg concentrations in the sediment were observed in the study area, ranging from 0.017 to 0.256 ng/g as Hg, with a mean of 0.087 ng/g and a median of 0.081 ng/g. The ratios of methyl Hg to total Hg in the sediment were low, with a mean and median of 0.069%. Both total and methyl Hg were significantly linked to the sediment organic carbon (SOC).

  4. 76 FR 64085 - Post-2014 Resource Pool-Loveland Area Projects, Final Power Allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    ... requirements of subpart C-Power Marketing Initiative of the Energy Planning and Management Program (Program... Area Power Administration (Western), a Federal power marketing agency of the Department of Energy (DOE... phase of the process. Firm electric service contracts negotiated between Western and allottees...

  5. High coverage of mass drug administration for lymphatic filariasis in rural and non-rural settings in the Western Area, Sierra Leone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonnie Mustapha

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lymphatic filariasis elimination programs are based upon preventative chemotherapy annually in populations with prevalence more than or equal to 1%. The goal is to treat 80% of the eligible, at risk population yearly, for at least 5 years, in order to interrupt transmission and prevent children from becoming infected. This level of coverage has been a challenge in urban settings. Assessing the coverage in a rapidly growing urban/non-rural setting with inadequate population data is also problematic. In Sierra Leone, a 5-day preventative chemotherapy campaign was carried out in the Western Area including the capital: Freetown. An intensive, social mobilization strategy combined traditional and modern communication channels. To aid dissemination of appropriate information Frequently Asked Questions were developed and widely circulated. The population of the Western Area has grown faster than projected by the 2004 National Census due to the post-war settlement of internally displaced persons. As a reliable denominator was not available, independent monitoring was adapted and performed "in process" to aid program performance and "end process" to assess final coverage. Results In 5 days 1,104,407 eligible persons were treated. Using the projected population from the 2004 census this figure represented coverage of 116% in the Urban Western Area and 129% in the Rural Western Area. Independent monitors interviewed a total of 9,253 persons during the 2 End Process days representing 1% of the projected population. Of these, 85.8% recalled taking both ivermectin and albendazole (Urban: 85.2%, Rural: 87.1%. No serious adverse drug reactions were reported. Conclusion The paper presents the key elements of success of the social mobilization and implementation strategy and describes the independent monitoring used to estimate final coverage in this urban/non-rural setting where the current population size is uncertain. This implementation

  6. Wide-Area Energy Storage and Management System to Balance Intermittent Resources in the Bonneville Power Administration and California ISO Control Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makarov, Yuri V.; Yang, Bo; DeSteese, John G.

    2009-01-01

    (CAISO) areas. The proposed wide area energy management system (WAEMS) addresses these additional balancing requirements through energy exchange between the participat-ing control areas and through the use of energy storage and other generation resources. For the BPA and CAISO control areas, the new...... energy storage technologies for the pro-posed application include flywheel energy storage devices (ESD), pumped or conventional hydro power plants, and so-dium sulfur or nickel cadmium batteries. A preferred WAEMS architecture was selected as an aggregation of a flywheel ESD and a pumped storage (or...

  7. Bonneville, Power Administration Timing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Kenneth E.

    1996-01-01

    Time is an integral part of the Bonneville Power Administration's (BPA) operational systems. Generation and power transfers are planned in advance. Utilities coordinate with each other by making these adjustments on a timed schedule. Price varies with demand, so billing is based on time. Outages for maintenance are scheduled to assure they do not interrupt reliable power delivery. Disturbance records are aligned with recorded timetags for analysis and comparison with related information. Advanced applications like traveling wave fault location and real-time phase measurement require continuous timing with high precision. Most of BPA is served by a Central Time System (CTS) at the Dittmer Control Center near Portland, OR. This system keeps time locally and supplies time to both the control center systems and field locations via a microwave signal. It is kept synchronized to national standard time and coordinated with interconnected utilities. It is the official BPA time. Powwer system control and operation is described, followed by a description of BPA timing systems including CTS, the Fault Location Acquisition Reporter, time dissemination, and phasor measurements. References are provided for further reading.

  8. Rest Areas in the Western United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Rest areas in the western United States. Data was collected from various data sources including georeferenced locations obtained from other agencies, digitizied...

  9. Bonneville Power Administration 1997 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1998-01-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration`s 60th anniversary year exceeded expectations. Net revenues were the best since 1991, which demonstrates that earlier decisions to transform BPA into a smaller, cost-conscious, customer-focused organization were the correct decisions. The region`s evaluation of the agency`s role in the Northwest was as gratifying as the positive financial position. Through the Comprehensive Review of the Northwest Energy System, the region concluded that BPA has been and must continue to be an important economic and environmental benefit to the Northwest. BPA occupies a unique position in the region that is crystallized in the agency`s new purpose statement: to meet their public responsibilities through commercially successful businesses. The agency must be commercially successful to provide funding for public responsibilities such as its fish and wildlife program, conservation, and reliable power and transmission systems. But the heart and soul of the agency is providing benefits that reflect the public service orientation that inspired the agency`s creation 60 years ago. BPA will provide the region with power at cost, provide preference to the region because the river on which the hydro system is based is a regional resource, and continue to see that its power flows to the little guys. It is just as important that BPA deliver power to the region`s residential and rural consumers now as it was when the agency brought electricity to rural areas for the first time.

  10. Southeastern Power Administration 2007 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2007-12-28

    Dear Secretary Chu: I am proud to submit Southeastern Power Administration’s (Southeastern’s) fiscal year (FY) 2007 Annual Report for your review. The information included in this report reflects Southeastern’s programs, accomplishments, and financial activities for the 12-month period beginning October 1, 2006 and ending September 30, 2007. Southeastern marketed more than 5 billion kilowatt-hours of energy to 492 wholesale Federal power customers in an 11-state marketing area in FY 2007. Revenues from the sale of this power totaled approximately $219 million. Drought conditions continued to plague the southeast region of the United States during 2007 placing strains on our natural and financial resources. Southeastern purchased more than $40 million in replacement power to meet customer contract requirements to ensure the continued reliability of our nation’s power grid. With the financial assistance and support of our Federal power customers, continued funding for capitalized equipment replacements at various Corps of Engineers’ (Corps) hydroelectric projects provided much needed repairs and maintenance for aging facilities. Southeastern’s cyber and physical security program continued to be reviewed and updated to meet Department of Energy (DOE), Homeland Security, and North American Electric Reliability Corporation standards and requirements. Plans for the upcoming year include communication and cooperation with DOE, Federal power customers, and the Corps to maximize the benefits of our nation’s water resources. Competition for the use of water and the prolonged drought conditions will present another challenging year for our agency. The employees at Southeastern will be proactive in meeting these challenges and providing reliable hydroelectric power to the people in the southeast. Sincerely, Kenneth E. Legg Administrator

  11. Southeastern Power Administration 2012 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-01-01

    Dear Secretary Moniz: I am pleased to submit Southeastern Power Administration’s (Southeastern) fiscal year (FY) 2012 Annual Report for your review. This report reflects our agency’s programs, accomplishments, operational, and financial activities for the 12-month period beginning October 1, 2011, and ending September 30, 2012. This past year, Southeastern marketed approximately 5.4 billion kilowatt-hours of energy to 487 wholesale customers in 10 southeastern states. Revenues from the sale of this power totaled about $263 million. With the financial assistance and support of Southeastern’s customers, funding for capitalized equipment purchases and replacements at hydroelectric facilities operated by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) continued in FY 2012. Currently, there are more than 214 customers participating in funding infrastructure renewal efforts of powerplants feeding the Georgia-Alabama-South Carolina, Kerr-Philpott, and Cumberland Systems. This funding, which totaled more than $71 million, provided much needed repairs and maintenance for aging projects in Southeastern’s marketing area. Drought conditions continued in the southeastern region of the United States this past year, particularly in the Savannah River Basin. Lack of rainfall strained our natural and financial resources. Power purchases for FY 2012 in the Georgia-Alabama-South Carolina System totaled approximately $29 million. About $8 million of this amount was for replacement power, which is purchased only during adverse water conditions in order to meet Southeastern’s customer contract requirements. Southeastern’s goal is to maximize the benefits of our region’s water resources. Competing uses of these resources will present another challenging year for Southeastern’s employees. With the cooperation and communication among the Department of Energy (DOE), preference customers, and Corps, I am certain Southeastern is positioned to meet these challenges in the future. We

  12. Bonneville Power Administration 1998 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1998-01-01

    This is the 1998 annual report to the President by the Administrator and Chief Executive Officer of the Bonneville Power Administration. The topics of the report include financial highlights, letter to the President, review of 1998, financial data, management`s discussion and analysis, performance measures, financial statements, BPA executives, BPA offices, BPA profile.

  13. Proposal to market Provo River Project power, Salt Lake City area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-01

    This report is an environmental assessment of the Western Area Power Administrations`s proposal to change the way in which the power produced by the Provo River Project (PRP) is marketed. The topics of the report include the alternatives to the proposed action that have been considered, a description of the environmental consequences of the proposed action and the alternatives that were considered, and other environmental considerations.

  14. Power Subscription Strategy: Administrator`s Record of Decision.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration

    1998-12-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has decided to adopt a Power Subscription Strategy for entering into new power sales contracts with its Pacific Northwest customers. The Strategy equitably distributes the electric power generated by the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) within the framework of existing law. The Power Subscription Strategy addresses the availability of power; describes power products; lays out strategies for pricing, including risk management; and discusses contract elements. In proceeding with this Subscription Strategy, BPA is guided by and committed to the Fish and Wildlife funding Principles for the BPA announced by the Vice President of the US in September 1998. This Record of Decision (ROD) addresses the issues raised by commenters who responded to BPA`s Power Subscription Strategy Proposal during and after the comment period that began with the release of the Proposal on September 18, 1998. The ROD is organized in approximately the same way as the Proposal and the Power Subscription Strategy that BPA developed based on the comments received. Abbreviations of party names used in citations appear in the section just preceding this introduction; a list of all the commenters follows the text of the ROD.

  15. Nurse Administrators’ Perceptions of Power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    others. For some, power has a negative connotation and is immediately linked to unionization or collective bargaining. Heineken (1985) contended that...Times, 69(Suppl.), 89-92. Heineken , J. (1985). Power: Conflicting views. Journalof Nursing Administration, 1(11), 36-39. Hersey, P., Blanchard, K

  16. SANCTIONING DUPLICATION IN ADMINISTRATIVE AND PENAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Cabrera Delgado

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a first approach from the point of view of jurisprudence, to the recurring problem of concurrency sanctions in cases where further intervention of the courts has become necessary for administrative action. In this regard, the main judgments of both the Constitutional Court and the Supreme Court is, that have shaped the decisions that must be applied from the administrative level, in particular by educational inspectors, when it is foreseeable that it can produce a duplication of disciplinary procedures in the two areas, penal and administrative.

  17. Environmental Assessment for power marketing policy for Southwestern Power Administration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-01

    Southwestern Power Administration (Southwestern) needs to renew expiring power sales contracts with new term (10 year) sales contracts. The existing contracts have been in place for several years and many will expire over the next ten years. Southwestern completed an Environmental Assessment on the existing power allocation in June, 1979 (a copy of the EA is attached), and there are no proposed additions of any major new generation resources, service to discrete major new loads, or major changes in operating parameters, beyond those included in the existing power allocation. Impacts from a no action plan, proposed alternative, and market power for less than 10 years are described.

  18. 77 FR 35671 - Conformed Power Marketing Criteria or Regulations for the Boulder Canyon Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-14

    ... Area Power Administration Conformed Power Marketing Criteria or Regulations for the Boulder Canyon Project AGENCY: Western Area Power Administration, DOE. ACTION: Conformance of power marketing criteria in... (Western), a Federal power marketing agency of the Department of Energy (DOE), is modifying Part C of...

  19. Bonneville Power Administration 1991 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-01-01

    Congress enacted the Bonneville Project Act in 1937, creating the Bonneville Power Administration to market and transmit the power produced by Bonneville Dam on the Columbia River. Since then, Congress has directed BPA to sell at wholesale the power produced at a total of 30 Federal dams in the Pacific Northwest, and to acquire conservation and generating resources sufficient to meet the needs of BPA`s customer utilities. The dams and the electrical system are known as the Federal Columbia River Power System. Bonneville sells wholesale power to public and private utilities, rural cooperatives, large industries, and Federal agencies. BPA also sells or exchanges power with utilities in California. BPA uses revenues from the sale of power and transmission services to recover its own expenses, to repay the Federal investment in the power system, and to pay for the resources it has acquired. BPA pays for operation and maintenance expenses at the Federal dams and at non-Federal power plants. It also pays for irrigation benefits of Federal projects allocated to power to repay, and for fish and wildlife projects which offset damage to these resources by the Federal hydropower system. This document is the 1991 statement of budget, financial statement, cash flows, capitalization, expenses, and projects. An organization chart is included.

  20. Approach to valuing visual pollution from Western Electricity Production. [For Western Systems Coordinating Council area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, L.E.

    1977-02-01

    This paper outlines an approach to valuing visual pollution from electric power plants. The differences between public-good pollution externalities, such as these aesthetic damages, and other market failures are discussed. Approaches generally used to value externalities are briefly described. The approach used relies heavily on an earlier application of bidding games to estimate people's willingness to pay for abatement of emissions from the Four Corners fossil-fuel power plant in northwestern New Mexico. The results of these surveys were used here to estimate the value of visual pollution from electric power plants for residents of and visitors to the Four Corners Air Quality Control Region, as a function of power plant emissions in that region. The approach presented here for the Four Corners region is structured so that replication for other air quality control regions is relatively easy. Preliminary results of this procedure for all of the air quality control regions in the Western Systems Coordinating Council area are presented. Visual pollution damages from electric power plants to residents of and recreational visitors to these western regions are estimated to total more than $100 million annually by 1985. These damages are expected to occur unless additional pollution controls are implemented, even if these subject populations do not increase.

  1. Southwestern Power Administration Annual Report 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-04-01

    Dear Secretary Chu: I am pleased to present the financial statements and operating data for Southwestern Power Administration (Southwestern) for Fiscal Year (FY) 2011. In FY 2011, Southwestern delivered over 4.1 billion kilowatt-hours of energy to its wholesale customers in Arkansas, Kansas, Louisiana, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Texas, generating $167 million in revenue. In fulfilling its mission to market and reliably deliver renewable Federal hydroelectric power, Southwestern maintains 1,380 miles of high-voltage transmission lines, substations, and communications sites, contributing to the reliability of the regional and National electric grid. Southwestern also actively partners with the Department of Energy, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Southwestern’s customers, and other Federal power stakeholders to most effectively balance their diverse interests with Southwestern’s mission while continuing to maximize Federal assets to repay the Federal investment in the 24 hydropower facilities within Southwestern’s marketing region. Southwestern is proud of its past successes, and we look forward to continuing to serve the Nation’s energy needs in the future. Sincerely, Christopher M. Turner Administrator

  2. Southwestern Power Administration Annual Report 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-09-01

    Dear Secretary Moniz: I am pleased to present the financial statements and operating data for Southwestern Power Administration (Southwestern) for Fiscal Year (FY) 2012. In FY 2012, Southwestern delivered over 4.1 billion kilowatt-hours of energy to its wholesale customers in Arkansas, Kansas, Louisiana, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Texas, generating $195 million in revenue. In fulfilling its mission to market and reliably deliver renewable Federal hydroelectric power, Southwestern maintains 1,380 miles of high-voltage transmission lines, substations, and communications sites, contributing to the reliability of the regional and National electric grid. Southwestern also actively partners with the Department of Energy, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Southwestern’s customers, and other Federal power stakeholders to most effectively balance their diverse interests with Southwestern’s mission while continuing to maximize Federal assets to repay the Federal investment in the 24 hydropower facilities within Southwestern’s marketing region. Southwestern is proud of its past successes, and we look forward to continuing to serve the Nation’s energy needs in the future. Sincerely, Christopher M. Turner Administrator

  3. Southwestern Power Administration Annual Report 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-09-01

    Dear Secretary Chu: I am pleased to present the financial statements and operating data for Southwestern Power Administration (Southwestern) for Fiscal Year (FY) 2010. In FY 2010, Southwestern delivered nearly 7.6 billion kilowatt-hours of energy to its wholesale customers in Arkansas, Kansas, Louisiana, Missouri, Texas, and Oklahoma, generating $189 million in revenue. In fulfilling its mission to market and reliably deliver renewable Federal hydroelectric power, Southwestern maintains 1,380 miles of high-voltage transmission lines, substations, and communications sites, contributing to the reliability of the regional and National electric grid. Southwestern also actively partners with the Department of Energy, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Southwestern’s customers, and other Federal power stakeholders to most effectively balance their diverse interests with Southwestern’s mission while continuing to maximize Federal assets to repay the Federal investment in the 24 hydropower facilities within Southwestern’s marketing region. Southwestern is proud of its past successes, and we look forward to continuing to serve the Nation’s energy needs in the future. Sincerely, Christopher M. Turner Administrator

  4. Southeastern Power Administration 2008 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-12-29

    Dear Secretary Chu: I am pleased to submit Southeastern Power Administration’s (Southeastern’s) fiscal year (FY) 2008 Annual Report for your review. The information included in this document reflects our agency’s programs, accomplishments, operational and financial activities for the 12-month period beginning October 1, 2007 and ending September 30, 2008. Southeastern marketed more than 4.5 billion kilowatt-hours of energy to 491 wholesale customers in ten southeastern states this past year. Revenues from the sale of this power totaled approximately $263 million. Drought conditions persisted in the southeastern region of the United States during FY 2008 placing strains on our natural and financial resources. Power purchases for FY 2008 totaled $91 million. Approximately $44 million of this amount was for replacement power which is paid only during adverse water conditions in order to meet our customers’ contract requirements. With the continued financial assistance and support of our Federal power customers, funding for capitalized equipment purchases and replacements at U.S. Army Corps of Engineers’ (Corps) hydroelectric projects provided much needed repairs and maintenance for these aging facilities. Southeastern’s cyber and physical security programs continued to be reviewed and updated to meet Department of Energy (DOE), Homeland Security, and North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) standards and requirements. In the coming year, Southeastern will continue open communication and cooperation with DOE, the Federal power customers, and the Corps to maximize the benefits of our region’s water resources. Although competing uses of water and the prolonged drought conditions will present another challenging year for our agency, Southeastern’s employees will meet these challenges and continue to provide reliable hydroelectric power to the people in the southeast. Sincerely, Kenneth E.Legg Administrator

  5. 75 FR 19966 - Boulder Canyon Project-Post-2017 Application of the Energy Planning and Management Program Power...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    ... comment period regarding the application of the Energy Planning and Management Program (Program) Power... Western Area Power Administration Boulder Canyon Project--Post-2017 Application of the Energy Planning and Management Program Power Marketing Initiative AGENCY: Western Area Power Administration, DOE. ACTION: Notice...

  6. Southwestern Power Administration Annual Report 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-12-01

    Dear Secretary Chu, I am pleased to present the financial statements and operating data for Southwestern Power Administration (Southwestern) for Fiscal Year (FY) 2008. In FY 2008, Southwestern delivered over 7.3 billion kilowatt-hours of energy to its wholesale customers – nearly 31% more than average due to numerous record rainfall amounts in the southwest region. These record amounts produced revenues which exceeded the average annual revenue requirement by nearly $20 million and resulted in over $200 million in economic benefits to the region. Yet even as Southwestern exceeded its goals of marketing and delivering Federal hydroelectric power to our customers, we stayed focused on safety, security, and reliability. For example, we maintained our nearly 1,400 miles of high-voltage transmission lines, substations, and communications sites while achieving a Recordable Accident Frequency Rate of 0.0, a record that reflects Southwestern’s safety achievement of no recordable injuries for every 200,000 hours worked. We kept our rights-of-way secure from vegetation and other obstacles, work that not only supports our mission but also promotes reliability of the regional and National grid. We exceeded all North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) Control Performance Standards (CPS- 1 and CPS-2), and maintained regulation and reserve obligations and reactive reserve margins to ensure the reliability of the bulk electric system, even during extended periods of restricted hydro operations due to unusually high project inflows. Finally, we continued our partnerships with the Department of Energy, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, our customers, and other Federal power stakeholders, partnerships that are vital to our continued success in marketing and delivering carbon-free, renewable, and domestically produced energy to our customers and to the Nation. Sincerely, Jon Worthington Administrator

  7. Supplement analysis, Southpoint power project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-16

    The Calpine Corporation applied to interconnect its proposed power plant with the Western Area Power Administration`s (Western) Parker-Davis project in western Arizona. Western, as a major electric transmission system owner is required by existing policies and regulations, to provide access to its transmission system, when requested by an eligible organization. The proposed interconnection would integrate a major source of new generation into the Parker-Davis system which would allow Calpine to supply its power to the electric wholesale market. Based on this application, Western`s proposed action is to enter into an interconnection agreement with Calpine.

  8. Southwestern Power Administration Annual Report 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-01-01

    “Renewable energy” isn’t just a catchphrase at Southwestern Power Administration (Southwestern). It describes the hydroelectric energy we market, and the energy that Southwestern’s employees bring to work every day, constantly challenging themselves to become more eff ective and effi cient in providing aff ordable, environmentally clean power to the American people. As Southwestern’s new Administrator, I have had the opportunity to view our operations from a fresh perspective, and I’m proud to share with you how a focus on continual improvement has been evident in accomplishments throughout the agency during fi scal year (FY) 2007. When the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) implemented new reliability standards, we met applicable implementation dates and exceeded NERC’s control performance standards throughout the year. When tasked with reducing the agency’s carbon footprint, we found ways to achieve an 8.7% reduction in energy intensity from last year without impacting our operational capabilities. And when faced with record-breaking infl ows into the reservoir projects from which we market power, we capitalized on the opportunity to provide customers with signifi cant quantities of supplemental energy. Our supplemental sales this year not only saved customers over $122 million, but increased Southwestern’s revenues -- a huge win-win for Southwestern’s ratepayers and the Nation’s taxpayers alike. Southwestern is proud of its role in protecting National and economic security by contributing to the diverse supply of domestically produced energy, operating and maintaining a safe and reliable transmission system, and ensuring good stewardship of our Nation’s water resources and environment. In FY 2007, Southwestern continued to repay all power costs to the American taxpayers by marketing and delivering approximately 5.6 billion kilowatthours of hydropower at cost-based rates to customers in our six-state region. This energy

  9. Southeastern Power Administration 2011 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-12-31

    Dear Secretary Chu: I am pleased to submit Southeastern Power Administration’s (Southeastern) fiscal year (FY) 2011 Annual Report for your review. This report reflects our agency’s programs, accomplishments, operational, and financial activities for the 12-month period beginning October 1, 2010, and ending September 31, 2011. This past year, Southeastern marketed approximately 6.2 billion kilowatt-hours of energy to 489 wholesale customers in 10 southeastern states. Revenues from the sale of this power totaled more than $264 million. With the financial assistance and support of Southeastern’s customers, funding for capitalized equipment purchases and replacements at hydroelectric facilities operated by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) continued in FY 2011. This funding, which totaled more than $45 million, provided much needed repairs and maintenance for aging projects in Southeastern’s marketing area. Currently, there are more than 214 customers participating in the funding efforts in the Georgia-Alabama-South Carolina, Kerr-Philpott, and Cumberland Systems of projects. Drought conditions continued in the southeastern region of the United States this past year, particularly in the Savannah River Basin. Lack of rain placed strains on our natural and financial resources. Power purchases for FY 2011 totaled approximately $38 million. About $9 million of this amount was for replacement power, which is purchased only during adverse water conditions in order to meet Southeastern’s customer contract requirements. Southeastern’s goal is to maximize the benefits of our region’s water resources. Competing uses of these resources will present another challenging year for Southeastern’s employees. With the cooperation and communication among the Department of Energy (DOE), preference customers, and Corps, I am certain Southeastern is positioned to meet these challenges in the future. We are committed to providing reliable hydroelectric power to

  10. Harnessing water power in the larger Hannover area. Study commissioned by the local administration union larger Hannover area; Nutzung der Wasserkraft im Grossraum Hannover. Eine Studie im Auftrag des Zweckverbandes Grossraum Hannover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahling, U. [comp.

    1992-12-31

    Within the framework of an inventory of possible sites for hydroelectric power plants in the larger Hannover area, 60 sites in the rural district of Hannover were more closely investigated. 57 of these were former water mills and 3 were hydraulic structures that have nothing to do with former water mills. 29 water mills are to be considered as dismantled in hydraulic engineering terms, 8 are in operation, and 20 are decommissioned. Furthermore, 2 weirs and 1 barrage were included in the investigation.- In the area of the city of Hannover, there are four more sites of hydroelectric power plants, of which one is dismantled, two are decommissioned and one is in operation.- In order to complement the inventory, object expertises of different depths were prepared for eight selected sites. They permit a qualified assessment of the chances of reactivation of each site, taking the respective specific conditions into account. At the same time, they represent a first step towards detailed advice for a prospective operator (orig.). [Deutsch] Im Rahmen der Studie zur Bestandserhebung von moeglichen Standorten fuer Wasserkraftanlagen im Grossraum Hannover wurden 60 Standorte im Landkreis Hannover naeher untersucht. Es handelt sich um 57 ehemalige Wassermuehlen und 3 wasserbauliche Anlagen, die nichts mit ehemaligen Wassermuehlen zu tun haben. 29 Wassermuehlen sind im wasserbaulichen Sinn als beseitigt anzusehen, 8 sind in Betrieb, 20 liegen still. Darueberhinaus wurden 2 Wehre und 1 Stauanlage in die Untersuchungen einbezogen. Im Gebiet der Stadt Hannover befinden sich 4 weitere Wassrkraftstandorte, von denen einer als beseitigt anzusehen ist, zwei stilliegen und einer in Betrieb ist. Ergaenzend zu der Bestandserhebung wurden fuer acht ausgewaehlte Standorte Objektgutachten unterschiedlicher Bearbeitungstiefe erstellt. Sie ermoeglichen eine qualifizierte Beurteilung der Reaktivierungschancen unter Beruecksichtigung der jeweiligen standortspezifischen Besonderheiten

  11. Using Ensemble Streamflows for Power Marketing at Bonneville Power Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, S. B.; Koski, P.

    2014-12-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is a federal non-profit agency within the Pacific Northwest responsible for marketing the power generated from 31 federal hydro projects throughout the Columbia River Basin. The basin encompasses parts of five states and portions of British Columbia, Canada. BPA works with provincial entities, federal and state agencies, and tribal members to manage the water resources for a variety of purposes including flood risk management, power generation, fisheries, irrigation, recreation, and navigation. This basin is subject to significant hydrologic variability in terms of seasonal volume and runoff shape from year to year which presents new water management challenges each year. The power generation planning group at BPA includes a team of meteorologists and hydrologists responsible for preparing both short-term (up to three weeks) and mid-term (up to 18 months) weather and streamflow forecasts including ensemble streamflow data. Analysts within the mid-term planning group are responsible for running several different hydrologic models used for planning studies. These models rely on these streamflow ensembles as a primary input. The planning studies are run bi-weekly to help determine the amount of energy available, or energy inventory, for forward marketing (selling or purchasing energy up to a year in advance). These studies are run with the objective of meeting the numerous multi-purpose objectives of the basin under the various streamflow conditions within the ensemble set. In addition to ensemble streamflows, an ensemble of seasonal volume forecasts is also provided for the various water conditions in order to set numerous constraints on the system. After meeting all the various requirements of the system, a probabilistic energy inventory is calculated and used for marketing purposes.

  12. 43 CFR 4.1121 - Powers of administrative law judges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Powers of administrative law judges. 4... Evidentiary Hearings § 4.1121 Powers of administrative law judges. (a) Under the regulations of this part, an administrative law judge may— (1) Administer oaths and affirmations; (2) Issue subpoenas; (3) Issue...

  13. Climate Prediction Center (CPC)Area-averaged 850-hPa Western Pacific Trade Wind Anomalies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is one of the CPC?s Monthly Atmospheric and SST Indices. It is the 850-hPa trade wind anomalies averaged over the area 5oN ? 5oS, 135oE-180o (western equatorial...

  14. 29 CFR 417.6 - Powers of Administrative Law Judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Powers of Administrative Law Judge. 417.6 Section 417.6... Administrative Law Judge. The designated Administrative Law Judge shall have authority: (a) To give notice... other actions authorized by the regulations in this part. The Administrative Law Judge's authority...

  15. Legal aspects of transferring some state powers to municipal administration

    OpenAIRE

    Kuznetsov, S.

    2011-01-01

    The article analyzes legal aspects of transferring some state powers to municipal administration; reveals problems arising during this process in some regions; draws conclusions on the topic concerned.

  16. Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects Electric Power Marketing. Draft environmental impact statement: Volume 4, Appendixes B-D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    The Salt Lake City Area Office of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) markets electricity produced at hydroelectric facilities operated by the Bureau of Reclamation. The facilities are known collectively as the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) and include dams equipped for power generation on the Green, Gunnison, Rio Grande, and Colorado rivers and on Deer and Plateau creeks in the states of Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. Of these facilities, only the Glen Canyon Unit, the Flaming Gorge Unit, and the Aspinall Unit (which includes Blue Mesa, Morrow Point, and Crystal dams;) are influenced by Western power scheduling and transmission decisions. The EIS alternatives, called commitment-level alternatives, reflect combinations of capacity and energy that would feasibly and reasonably fulfill Westerns firm power marketing responsibilities, needs, and statutory obligations. The viability of these alternatives relates directly to the combination of generation capability of the SLCA/IP with energy purchases and interchange. The economic and natural resource assessments in this environmental impact statement (EIS) include an analysis of commitment-level alternatives. Impacts of the no-action alternative are also assessed. Supply options, which include combinations of electrical power purchases and hydropower operational scenarios reflecting different operations of the dams, are also assessed. The EIS evaluates the impacts of these scenarios relative to socioeconomics, air resources, water resources, ecological resources, cultural resources, land use, recreation, and visual resources.

  17. Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects Electric Power Marketing. Draft environmental impact statement: Volume 2, Sections 1-16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    The Salt Lake City Area Office of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) markets electricity produced at hydroelectric facilities operated by the Bureau of Reclamation. The facilities are known collectively as the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) and include dams equipped for power generation on the Green, Gunnison, Rio Grande, and Colorado rivers and on Deer and Plateau creeks in the states of Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. Of these facilities, only the Glen Canyon Unit, the Flaming Gorge Unit, and the Aspinall Unit (which includes Blue Mesa, Morrow Point, and Crystal dams;) are influenced by Western power scheduling and transmission decisions. The EIS alternatives, called commitment-level alternatives, reflect combinations of capacity and energy that would feasibly and reasonably fulfill Westerns firm power marketing responsibilities, needs, and statutory obligations. The viability of these alternatives relates directly to the combination of generation capability of the SLCA/IP with energy purchases and interchange. The economic and natural resource assessments in this environmental impact statement (EIS) include an analysis of commitment-level alternatives. Impacts of the no-action alternative are also assessed. Supply options, which include combinations of electrical power purchases and hydropower operational scenarios reflecting different operations of the dams, are also assessed. The EIS evaluates the impacts of these scenarios relative to socioeconomics, air resources, water resources, ecological resources, cultural resources, land use, recreation, and visual resources.

  18. Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects Electric Power Marketing. Draft environmental impact statement: Volume 3, Appendix A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    The Salt Lake City Area Office of the Western Area Power Administration (Western) markets electricity produced at hydroelectric facilities operated by the Bureau of Reclamation. The facilities are known collectively as the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) and include dams equipped for power generation on the Green, Gunnison, Rio Grande, and Colorado rivers and on Deer and Plateau creeks in the states of Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. Of these facilities, only the Glen Canyon Unit, the Flaming Gorge Unit, and the Aspinall Unit (which includes Blue Mesa, Morrow Point, and Crystal dams;) are influenced by Western power scheduling and transmission decisions. The EIS alternatives, called commitment-level alternatives, reflect combinations of capacity and energy that would feasibly and reasonably fulfill Westerns firm power marketing responsibilities, needs, and statutory obligations. The viability of these alternatives relates directly to the combination of generation capability of the SLCA/IP with energy purchases and interchange. The economic and natural resource assessments in this environmental impact statement (EIS) include an analysis of commitment-level alternatives. Impacts of the no-action alternative are also assessed. Supply options, which include combinations of electrical power purchases and hydropower operational scenarios reflecting different operations of the dams, are also assessed. The EIS evaluates the impacts of these scenarios relative to socioeconomics, air resources, water resources, ecological resources, cultural resources, land use, recreation, and visual resources.

  19. Total system hazards analysis for the western area demilitarization facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pape, R.; Mniszewski, K.; Swider, E.

    1984-08-01

    The results of a hazards analysis of the Western Area Demilitarization facility (WADF) at Hawthorne, Nevada are summarized. An overview of the WADF systems, the hazards analysis methodology that was applied, a general discussion of the fault tree analysis results, and a compilation of the conclusions and recommendations for each area of the facility are given.

  20. Sea Power and American Interests in the Western Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    could claim and exercise the prerogatives of power: bullying its neighbors; “resolving” disputes on its terms unilaterally; dictating foreign...of Chinese pressures. This is clear from U.S. diplomatic opposition to Chinese attempts to bully states bordering the South China Sea and from U.S...Sea Power in the Western Pacific In geo-economic terms, East Asia is a sprawling archipelago that extends from Japan to Malaysia to New Zealand and

  1. INTRAPRENEURIAL PROFILE AND ACTIONS OF ACCOUNTING COURSE ADMINISTRATORS IN THE WESTERN REGION OF PARANA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maria José Carvalho de Souza Domingues; Daniela Torres da Rocha; Márcia Andréia Schneider; Silvana Anita Walter; Gérson Tontini

    2012-01-01

    This article aims to identify and analyze the intrapreneurial actions, profile, and characteristics of the administrators for undergraduate courses of Accounting Sciences in the western region of Paraná...

  2. Pressurization test results: Bonneville Power Administration Energy Conservation Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krinkel, D.L.; Dickeroff, D.J.; Casey, J.; Grimsrud, D.T.

    1980-12-01

    Results are presented of air leakage measurements in 18 single-family detached houses at the Midway substation, Hanford, Washington, performed as part of the Bonneville Power Administration's Energy Conservation Study. The change in energy consumption following various retrofit strategies is compared. Air leakage was measured in each house with the fan pressurization technique, before and after the retrofits were installed. No significant change was found in infiltration rates in those houses receiving either no retrofits or insulation only; and average reduction of 17% in leakage area was found in the houses retrofitted with storm doors and windows. There appears to be great potential for further savings in energy use from reduced infiltration, and the study is being extended to investigate this.

  3. Southwestern Power Administration Update, October- December 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2004-12-01

    On October 29, 2004, Southwestern and Southwest Power Pool, Inc. (SPP) reached agreement on interim arrangements to be implemented after the October 31, 2004, expiration of the membership agreement between the two parties. According to Jim McDonald, Director of Southwestern’s Division of Customer Service, the interim agreement forged between Southwestern and SPP seeks to minimize impacts to SPP as well as to Southwestern and its customers while Southwestern and SPP work on a seams/coordination agreement to succeed the expired membership agreement.

  4. The energy behind the power. Southwestern Power Administration 1994 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This is the Southwestern Power Administration 1994 annual report. The topics of the report include a letter to the secretary; an overview including the mission statement, a description of the Southwestern Federal Power System, financial statement, performance measurements, national performance review; year in review, summary of results, financial and statistical data and the Southwestern Power Administration Organization.

  5. Inter-area oscillations in power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Messina, Arturo R

    2009-01-01

    Deals with the application of fresh techniques based on time-frequency system representations and statistical approaches to the study, characterization, and control of nonlinear and non-stationary inter-area oscillations in power systems.

  6. Inspection of surveillance activities and administrative leave policy at Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    The authors conducted an inspection of surveillance activities and administrative leave policy at the Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, Oregon. The purpose of their inspection was to determine if a covert video surveillance operation conducted at Bonneville Power Administration was consistent with Department of Energy policies and procedures and other applicable regulations and procedures, and to determine if administrative leave policies and procedures used at Bonneville Power Administration in a specific instance were consistent with Department of Energy requirements and the Code of Federal Regulations. This inspection focused on a specific incident that occurred in 1989 on the 5th floor of the BPA Headquarters Building located in Portland, Oregon. The incident involved the soiling of an employee`s personal property with what appeared to be urine.

  7. 76 FR 30147 - Application of the Energy Planning and Management Program Power Marketing Initiative to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Western Area Power Administration Application of the Energy Planning and Management Program Power Marketing...-2017 remarketing efforts, the Energy Management and Planning Program (Program), and the Conformed...

  8. 75 FR 43915 - Basin Electric Power Cooperative: Deer Creek Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-27

    ... purchasing power on the volatile open electric market. The Action Alternative at White Site 1 would be... Rural Utilities Service Basin Electric Power Cooperative: Deer Creek Station AGENCY: Rural Utilities... CFR Part 1794), and the Western Area Power Administration's (Western) NEPA implementing regulations...

  9. Demand of Rural Public Goods in Western Ethnic Minority Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    In the context of Development of the West Regions and the construction of new countryside,on the basis of defining the concept of public goods,this article analyzes the status quo and layers of demand of rural public goods in western ethnic minority areas:the demand of rural public goods in ethnic minority areas shows "pyramid" structure,that is,the most basic layer is production-based rural public goods,followed by life-based rural public goods and democratic-management-based rural public goods.Finally the countermeasures for achieving effective demand of rural public goods are put forward as follows:adhere to customers(farmers)-oriented principle;innovate upon the rural residents’ demand expression mechanism of public goods in ethnic minority areas;achieve diversification of supply subject of rural public goods in ethnic minority areas.

  10. The Communication in Public Administration in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorina Ţicu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to underline the role of communication in the public institutions byidentifying the characteristics and peculiarities of the process of public administration, starting from thecharacteristics of administrative process and from those of organizational behavior in urban areas identifiableat the level of each public institution. The study of the dimensions such as the actors and the stakeholdersinvolved in the administrative process, the goals and the objectives of the administrative evaluation, thecriteria and the techniques of communication and all interpersonal hierarchies established, all of these can beconsidered variables that can offer distinction to the communication process in public administration, whetherwe speak about inter-institutional communication or intra-institution alone or about that one from the publicadministration to citizens. This article aims to underlie the characteristics of the communication process inpublic administration based on a quantitative study which appeals to the variables previously set and that canbecome models or labels for subsequent specialized studies.

  11. Autochthonous strongyloidiasis, Bordeaux area, South-Western France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glize, Bertrand; Malvy, Denis

    2014-01-01

    Strongyloidiasis is a ubiquitous parasitic infection mostly endemic in tropical and subtropical regions, although sporadic autochthonous cases or sparse pockets have been reported in some areas of temperate regions. We report here the first, to our knowledge, autochthonous case diagnosed in the Arcachon basin in the coastal Aquitaine region of South-Western France. We failed to identify any recognized risk factor for transmission in this case of autochthonous infection occurring in a wealthy major tourist destination. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Wide Area Measurement Based Security Assessment & Monitoring of Modern Power System: A Danish Power System Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rather, Zakir Hussain; Chen, Zhe; Thøgersen, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Power System security has become a major concern across the global power system community. This paper presents wide area measurement system (WAMS) based security assessment and monitoring of modern power system. A new three dimensional security index (TDSI) has been proposed for online security...... monitoring of modern power system with large scale renewable energy penetration. Phasor measurement unit (PMU) based WAMS has been implemented in western Danish Power System to realize online security monitoring and assessment in power system control center. The proposed security monitoring system has been...

  13. 26 CFR 1.675-1 - Administrative powers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... consideration in money or money's worth. Whether the existence of the power itself will constitute the holder an... trust and the circumstances surrounding its creation and administration. (c) Authority of trustee. The... property or income for less than an adequate and full consideration in money or money's worth, or is...

  14. Administration and Supervision of Area Vocational-Technical Schools in Tennessee. Topics of Interest: Volume I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketts, Samuel Clifton, Ed.

    This document includes seven papers aimed at administrators of postsecondary schools, especially in Tennessee. Topics which are addressed are the problems and concerns of supervision; informal power structure in vocational education; program articulation; effective use of advisory councils in area vocational-technical schools; occupational…

  15. Future tools for area administration and public participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arleth, Mette

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a mapping of the online facilities concerning planning and geographic information that is currently offered for public participation at the Danish municipal and regional websites respectively. The Danish physical planning system has for the last 35 years consisted of three...... hierarchical levels: National, regional and municipal. The regional level has handled larger environmental issues and everything concerning planning and administration of non-urban areas; costal areas, nature preservation and restauration, agriculture, natural ressources, water quality etc. The Danish...... government has recently decided to eliminate the regional administration level and transfer the planning tasks to the municipalities, who has up till now almost entirely dealt with planning of urban areas. The problems and complexities that has to be handled in the open area planning differ from those...

  16. SOLUTIONS FOR INTEGRATED ADMINISTRATION OF URBAN GREEN AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADINA CLAUDIA NEAMTU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to provide an administrative model for green spaces in any geographical area, especially in urban areas. The organizational proposed model also concerns the possibilities to develop new areas with green spaces for both recreation and leisure. Current structures leave much to be desired and, unfortunately, they do not seek to manage the green spaces on types of activities and these activities are not integrated into a unit structure to ensure coordination of operations for maintenance and expansion of these spaces. In the study, for the administrative plan are proposed those necessary changes to create organizational structures needed to implement a coherent strategy and policy to support the development of green space. Given the necessity of an integrated management for urban space, the model proposes solutions to eliminate functional overlaps of the various decision-making bodies by creating a unit of action, together with arrangements for its effective support. Developing effective solutions to managing green spaces for recreation and leisure becomes an obligation for the next period under conditions of increasing green areas arranged as parks and other types of green spaces and hence an increase for the cost of their administration. On the other hand, the paper addresses the issue of integrated management for both, green areas and recreational and leisure facilities existing within the urban areas, by giving more importance and impact for these spaces within communities. In this framework of integrated administration, it is possible to ensure modern leisure amenities in these urban green areas, and on the other hand it is possible to provide a very important prospect of additional revenues for the general budget of the community and also for future budget of planning for new green areas.

  17. Imperial power,gentry power and clan power: Western and Chinese cultural traditions in a comparative perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Bing; Wang Dan

    2006-01-01

    The differences between China and Western countries in human and physical environment has brought about two distinctive models of state.In the Chinese-style state of quasi-consanguinity,in which family and state have a similar structure,imperial power,gentry power,and clan power are the product of common ownership of consanguineous groups.The similarity in the structures of these three kinds of power derives from the fact that they are all restricted by the power of lineage generated from the self-sufficient small farmer economy,and must obey the conventions of ancestors which hold the benefits of the group as supreme.The relationship between these three kinds of power,is definitely not the one that is based on the division of power that is founded on individual private ownership in Western countries.where'public power'and'individual private ownership'are antithetic.but are three aspects of the patriarchal dictatorship that complement each other.Therefore,village rule in China and autonomy in the West are two totally different concepts,and gentry power is also not the'authorized power'from the state.

  18. How Western Does Business: An Explanation of Western's Products and Services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-10-01

    The mission of the Western Area Power Administration is to market and deliver reliable, renewable, cost-based hydroelectric power and related services. This guide provides an overview of Western’s history and how Western carries out that mission and provides electrical, transmission and ancillary services. It also discusses how we develop plans for marketing our most valuable resources—long-term firm capacity and energy.

  19. Network wind power over the Pacific Northwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hewson, E W; Baker, R W; Barber, D A; Peterson, B

    1978-09-01

    Since 1975 the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has been sponsoring wind power research at Oregon State University. A feasibility study that initially concentrated on the wind power potential in the Columbia River Gorge has expanded to the BPA service area which covers Washington, Oregon, Idaho, western Montana and northern Nevada. Previous BPA reports have documented the progress of this research.

  20. Southwestern Power Administration annual site environmental report CY 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    This report provides a synopsis of Southwestern Power Administration`s (Southwestern`s) effectiveness in managing its operations in an environmentally responsible manner. In CY 1997, the Office of Environmental, Safety, and Health was reorganized and incorporated into the Division of Acquisition and Property. The Division of Acquisition, Property, and Environmental Management maintains responsibility for development, oversight, and implementation of environmental programs. Senior Management at Southwestern has taken actions to increase environmental awareness throughout the organization. During CY 1997, (Southwestern) was not involved in any known programs or activities that had adverse impacts on the environment. The 1997 Environmental Appraisal, a portion of Southwestern`s Self-Assessment and Appraisal Program, indicated approximately 90% compliance with Southwestern`s written environmental programs. Southwestern continued to function throughout CY 1997 in an operations and maintenance posture with minor substation projects.

  1. Seven Global Goals. 2013 annual report, Southwestern Power Administration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-09-01

    For over 70 years, Southwestern has marketed and delivered reliable, renewable, and affordable hydropower, partnering with Federal power stakeholders and others in the industry to make sure the lights stay on. This kind of effective, efficient, and cost conscious operation is made possible only by hard work and dedication. Southwestern employees work individually and as a team to meet seven comprehensive agency goals that touch on all aspects of the agency’s operations. Dubbed the “Seven Global Goals” by Administrator Chris Turner, these objectives identify specific, measurable targets that support Southwestern’s mission and reinforce its responsibilities toward its customers and the Nation.

  2. Influence of Urbanization on Growth of Rural Residents’ Consumption in Western Ethnic Minority Areas of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaofang; ZOU

    2015-01-01

    To make clear the relation between urbanization and growth of rural resident consumption in western ethnic minority areas of China,this paper selected cross-sectional area of 12 provinces( cities) in western ethnic minority areas in 2005- 2013 and made an empirical analysis through building panel data of influence of urbanization on rural resident consumption. Results indicate that there is positive correlation between urbanization and rural resident consumption growth in western ethnic minority areas. Urbanization increases income level of rural residents,strengthens demonstration effect of urban residents on rural resident consumption,and accordingly promotes rural resident consumption growth in western ethnic minority areas. Therefore,it is required to accelerate urbanization development,expand channels of increasing farmers’ income,improve resident consumption environment,and bring into play promotion function of counties,to drive rural resident consumption growth in western ethnic minority areas.

  3. Bonneville Power Administration Wildlife Mitigation Program : Draft Environmental Impact Statement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1996-08-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is responsible for mitigating the loss of wildlife habitat caused by the development of the Federal Columbia River Power System. BPA accomplishes this mitigation by funding projects consistent with those recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council). The projects are submitted to the Council from Indian Tribes, state agencies, property owners, private conservation groups, and other Federal agencies. Future wildlife mitigation actions with potential environmental impacts are expected to include land acquisition and management, water rights acquisition and management, habitat restoration and enhancement, installation of watering devices, riparian fencing, and similar wildlife conservation actions. BPA needs to ensure that individual wildlife mitigation projects are planned and managed with appropriate consistency across projects, jurisdictions, and ecosystems, as well as across time. BPA proposes to standardize the planning and implementation of individual wildlife mitigation projects funded by BPA. Alternative 1 is the No Action alternative. Five standardizing alternatives are identified to represent the range of possible strategies, goals, and procedural requirements reasonably applicable to BPA-funded projects under a standardized approach to project planning and implementation. All action alternatives are based on a single project planning process designed to resolve site-specific issues in an ecosystem context and to adapt to changing conditions and information.

  4. Estimated changes in wind speed and wind power density over the western High Plains, 1971-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, J. Scott; Chatelain, Matthew; Morrissey, Mark; Stadler, Steve

    2012-08-01

    This manuscript presents the results of research on the temporal patterns in wind speed and wind power density from 1971 to 2000. The study area is across the western High Plains states east of the Rocky Mountains in an area which has a proven wind power resource. Policies and economic analyses involving the rapidly expanding wind power industry have often assumed a constant in the wind resource; however, any temporal pattern or trend in wind speeds can have a meaningful impact on the reliability of wind power as an energy resource. Using data provided by the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP) to analyze decadal and seasonal trends of wind data, this study shows that from 1971 to 2000 there were some notable changes in the NARCCAP simulated wind velocities over the study region. Wind speed trends across the central High Plains of the USA were most notable across the western portion of the study area along the higher terrain near the front range of the Rocky Mountains. The most significant changes occurred during winter and spring when a large portion of the study area experienced the most substantial decrease in wind speed, with a 20% reduction in wind power density during spring across the western portion of the study area. During summer and fall, the trends are less noticeable, with only very small changes in the summer. Fall was the only season that saw widespread increased values of wind power density from the 1970s to 1990s, with increases of nearly 10% in some southern areas of the study area. Based upon the analysis of the data and previous literature, it is theorized that these changes could be the result of changing synoptic patterns across the study region.

  5. REGIONAL FEATURES OF LONG-TERM SST VARIATION IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC WARM POOL AREA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张启龙; 翁学传; 程明华

    2001-01-01

    The main features of SST interarmual and long-term variations in the Western Pacific Warm Pool area were studied by using regression analysis, running t-test and spectral analysis methods based on monthly mean SST data in the Pacific during 1950 - 1998. The results showed that the SST inter-annual and long-term variations in the Western Pacific Warm Pool area had evident regional features.There were significant differences in variation range, phase, period, occurrence time of abrupt variation between SST in the eastern area (east of 100°E) and SST in the western area (west of 100°E).

  6. 2014 annual site environmental report, Southwestern Power Administration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-12-31

    Southwestern Power Administration’s Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) serves as the chief reporting mechanism for site environmental performance information within the Department of Energy and as a valuable resource for shared and collaborative environmental protection and performance information to Agency stakeholders and members of the public living near Southwestern Power Administration’s (Southwestern) facilities and transmission line rights-of-ways. This ASER meets the requirements of Department of Energy (DOE) Order 231.B. Southwestern’s key environmental involvement includes an emphasis on the protection of ecological resources which is effectively accomplished through environmental program elements such as protecting water resources, generation of clean hydropower energy, oil spill prevention practices, elimination of green-house gas emissions, and comprehensive project reviews to ensure the protection of living organisms, migratory birds, Federally threatened or endangered species, and historic or cultural resources. Southwestern continues to actively minimize effects to natural resources and strive for continual improvement in the area of environmental compliance and sustainability while achieving the agency mission to market and deliver Federal hydroelectric power.

  7. Power System Aggregate Load Area Modelling by Particle Swarm Optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Lin Wei; Ji-Hong Wang; Q.H.Wu; Nan Lu

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach for deriving a power system aggregate load area model (ALAM). In this approach, an equivalent area load model is derived to represent the load characters for a particular area load of a power system network. The Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) method is employed to identify the unknown parameters of the generalised system, ALAM, based on the system measurement directly using a one-step scheme. Simulation studies are carried out for an IEEE 14-Bus power system and an IEEE 57-Bus power system. Simulation results show that the ALAM can represent the area load characters accurately under different operational conditions and at different power system states.

  8. Southwestern Power Administration Combined Financial Statements, 2006-2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-09-01

    We have audited the accompanying combined balance sheets of the Southwestern Federal Power System (SWFPS), as of September 30, 2009, 2008, 2007, and 2006, and the related combined statements of revenues and expenses, changes in capitalization, and cash flows for the years then ended. As described in note 1(a), the combined financial statement presentation includes the hydroelectric generation functions of another Federal agency (hereinafter referred to as the generating agency), for which Southwestern Power Administration (Southwestern) markets and transmits power. These combined financial statements are the responsibility of the management of Southwestern and the generating agency. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on these combined financial statements based on our audits. We conducted our audits in accordance with auditing standards generally accepted in the United States of America. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audits to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the combined financial statements are free of material misstatement. An audit includes consideration of internal control over financial reporting as a basis for designing audit procedures that are appropriate in the circumstances, but not for the purpose of expressing an opinion on the effectiveness of Southwestern and the generating agency’s internal control over financial reporting. Accordingly, we express no such opinion. An audit also includes examining, on a test basis, evidence supporting the amounts and disclosures in the combined financial statements, assessing the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall combined financial statement presentation. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion. In our opinion, the combined financial statements referred to above present fairly, in all material respects, the respective financial position of the Southwestern Federal Power

  9. Southwestern Power Administration Annual Report 2004-2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2006-01-01

    Confidence Commitment Cooperation These are words that spring to mind regarding Southwestern Power Administration’s performance during fiscal years (FY) 2004-2006 By offering innovative, customer-oriented service, working to improve system reliability and efficiency, and partnering with customers and other Federal power stakeholders, Southwestern has certainly exhibited all three of these qualities during these challenging yet productive years In fact, our cooperative working relationships were critical to our success during the severe and widespread drought conditions which prevailed throughout Southwestern’s marketing area for much of 2005-2006 When we proposed a temporary energy deferral program, our customers came on board by voluntarily taking less Federal hydropower than they were entitled to, enabling us to preserve system storage and fulfill our contract obligations during the crucial summer months of 2006 The U S Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) also helped improve our drought situation by allowing Southwestern more operational flexibility on a regional level Despite the challenges this critical drought period presented, Southwestern remained committed to fulfilling our mission and strategic goals From FY 2004 through FY 2006, we marketed and delivered all available Federal hydropower while meeting and even exceeding the reliability standards of the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) Our Power Operations Training Center in Springfield, Missouri, was cited as an “Example of Excellence” during a NERC readiness audit in October 2006; and as we have every year since NERC began measuring, Southwestern far exceeded the accepted NERC compliance ratings for power system operations reliability Our commitment to excellence and accountability has kept our repayment goals on target as well Revenues were sufficient to repay all annual expenses and the required principal investment in the Federal hydropower facilities Furthermore, the original

  10. Reading Our Lips: The History of Lipstick Regulation in Western Seats of Power

    OpenAIRE

    Schaffer, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    This paper traces the history of lipstick’s social and legal regulation in Western seats of power, from Ur circa 3,500 B.C. to the present-day United States. Sliced in this manner, lipstick’s history emerges as heavily cyclical across the Egyptian, Grecian, Roman, Western European, English, and American reigns of power. Examination of both the informal social and formal legal regulation of lipstick throughout these eras reveals that lipstick’s fluctuating signification concerning ...

  11. On Financial Support System for Compulsory Education in China's Western Minority Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinyu, Qi

    2008-01-01

    China's Western Development is a policy adopted to boost its less developed Western regions, that is, a systematic project and a longterm and arduous task. The development of compulsory education in China's minority areas is the key to it. This paper attempts to use the beneficial experience of developing compulsory education support system of…

  12. Renewable energy policy in remote rural areas of Western China. Implementation and socio-economic benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shyu, Chian-Woei

    2010-05-19

    Electricity is essential for rural development. In 2005, 1.6 billion people, around a quarter of the world's population, living mostly in rural areas of developing countries, had no access to electricity. In general, remote rural areas in developing countries have little prospect of having access to grid-based electricity, which usually only extends to densely populated urban areas, where a large customer base justifies heavy expenditure for electricity infrastructure. One option for electrification in remote rural areas is to decentralize electricity systems based on renewable energy sources. However, such an option is not universally agreed upon. This dissertation examines a renewable energy-based rural electrification program, the 'Township Electrification Program', launched by the Chinese government in 2002. The Program was implemented in 1013 non-electrified townships in remote rural areas of 11 western provinces, providing electricity for 300,000 households and 1.3 million people. And at the time of research, the Program was known as the world's largest renewable energy-based rural electrification program in terms of investment volume ever carried out by a country. Two townships, Saierlong Township in Qinghai Province and Namcuo Township in Tibet Autonomous Region, were selected as cases for an in-depth examination of rural electrification practices in remote rural areas of western China. Both qualitative (interviews, observations, mapping, and transition walk) and quantitative (household survey) methods were applied in the field to collect data. The main findings of the study are summarized as follows: First, political leaders' concern over the unequal economic development of eastern and western China, as well as rural and urban areas, was the main factor triggering inclusion of the policy issue, electricity access in remote rural areas of western China, in the government's policy agenda. Second, like other energy policies, the

  13. The Certificate Program in Western European Area and in Latin American Area Studies as Incentives to Study French and Spanish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deblauwe, Claude

    The University of San Francisco developed a certificate program in Western European area studies covering French-speaking countries, and subsequently a Latin American area studies program for Spanish-speaking countries, in response to uneven language enrollments and as a means of increasing intermediate-level enrollment. The French program begins…

  14. 5 CFR 2423.24 - Powers and duties of the Administrative Law Judge during prehearing proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Powers and duties of the Administrative Law Judge during prehearing proceedings. 2423.24 Section 2423.24 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL... Administrative Law Judge shall regulate the course and scheduling of prehearing matters, including...

  15. Oil spills prediction in the Bonifacio strait area, western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cucco

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available An innovative forecasting system of the coastal marine circulation has been implemented in the Bonifacio Strait area, between Corsica and Sardinia, using a numerical approach to facilitate the rapid planning and coordination of remedial actions to oil spill emergencies at sea by local authorities. Downscaling and nesting techniques from regional to coastal scale and a 3-D hydrodynamic numerical model, coupled with a wind wave model, are the core of the integrated Bonifacio Strait system. Such a system is capable to predict the sea state and the dispersion of hydrocarbon spills in the area, providing the forecasts on oil spills through an easy-to-use graphical user interface. Scenarios and risk maps have been created to identify the most risky areas to oil pollution in relation to vessels traffic. The backward investigation technique has been exploited to trace the most probable area from which pollution was generated. The system has been operationally verified in January 2011 when an oil spill occurred in the area. Finally output data are daily released providing forecasting services to end-users through the web.

  16. Oil spills prediction in the Bonifacio strait area, western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucco, A.; Ribotti, A.; Olita, A.; Fazioli, L.; Sorgente, B.; Sinerchia, M.; Satta, A.; Perilli, A.; Borghini, M.; Schroeder, K.; Sorgente, R.

    2012-02-01

    An innovative forecasting system of the coastal marine circulation has been implemented in the Bonifacio Strait area, between Corsica and Sardinia, using a numerical approach to facilitate the rapid planning and coordination of remedial actions to oil spill emergencies at sea by local authorities. Downscaling and nesting techniques from regional to coastal scale and a 3-D hydrodynamic numerical model, coupled with a wind wave model, are the core of the integrated Bonifacio Strait system. Such a system is capable to predict the sea state and the dispersion of hydrocarbon spills in the area, providing the forecasts on oil spills through an easy-to-use graphical user interface. Scenarios and risk maps have been created to identify the most risky areas to oil pollution in relation to vessels traffic. The backward investigation technique has been exploited to trace the most probable area from which pollution was generated. The system has been operationally verified in January 2011 when an oil spill occurred in the area. Finally output data are daily released providing forecasting services to end-users through the web.

  17. High power/large area PV systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Joseph; Baraona, Cosmo

    1987-01-01

    The major photovoltaic power system technology drivers for a wide variety of mission types were ranked. Each technology driver was ranked on a scale of high, medium, or low in terms of importance to each particular mission type. The rankings were then compiled to determine the overall importance of each driver over the entire range of space missions. In each case cost was ranked the highest.

  18. INTRAPRENEURIAL PROFILE AND ACTIONS OF ACCOUNTING COURSE ADMINISTRATORS IN THE WESTERN REGION OF PARANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Carvalho de Souza Domingues

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to identify and analyze the intrapreneurial actions, profile, and characteristics of the administrators for undergraduate courses of Accounting Sciences in the western region of Paraná. Thus, the research question was formulated: What are the intrapreneurial characteristics and the main actions of the Accounting course adminis trators in the western region of Paraná?The method used was descriptive research in the form of a survey and, for data collection, a questionnaire, from Mastella (2005 and Dornelas (2003, adapted by Walter et al. (2007. Among the main results, it was found that the managers are men, mostly over 50 years of age, with the title of specialist or master, and whose principal tie is to the institution in which they operate. It was noted that most of the actions undertaken by the managers have demonstrated an internal bent, a fact that should be the object of reflection, once those actions considered of the greatest import by managers are often the least carried out. Therefore, little time dedicated to management, discrepancies between desired actions and those which are effectively carried out, and too much internal focus behind their actions are aspects which should be improved by the managers who were surveyed. All the respondents show intrapreneurial characteristics. There is a perceptible need for greater clarity in the dialogue between managers and their superiors for a greater alignment relative to the current performance of managers. It is also noted that issues such as reconciliation of teaching / management hours still requires improvement.

  19. Wed. May 13, Hayward, Calif. -- EPA Administrator McCarthy joins San Francisco Bay Area agencies to celebrate nations largest solar energy partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    SAN FRANCISCO - On Wednesday, May 13, U.S. EPA Administrator Gina McCarthy will join Bay Area agencies to celebrate the nation's largest local government collaborative for solar power and launch the nation's first federal solar partnership. Administ

  20. Administration of the adrenaline auto-injector at the nursery/kindergarten/school in Western Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujitaka, Michiko; Ogata, Mika; Zaitsu, Masafumi; Motomura, Chikako; Kuzume, Kazuyo; Toku, Yuchiro; Ikeda, Masanori; Odajima, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    Background In view of the increasing prevalence of food allergies, there has been an associated increase in frequency of situations requiring an emergency response for anaphylaxis at the home, childcare facilities and educational institutions. Objective To clarify the situation of adrenaline auto-injector administration in nursery/kindergarten/school, we carried out a questionnaire survey on pediatric physicians in Western Japan. Methods In 2015, self-reported questionnaires were mailed to 421 physicians who are members of the West Japan Research Society Pediatric Clinical Allergy and Shikoku Research Society Pediatric Clinical Allergy. Results The response rate was 44% (185 physicians) where 160 physicians had a prescription registration for the adrenaline auto-injector. In the past year, 1,330 patients were prescribed the adrenaline auto-injector where 83 patients (6% of the prescribed patients) actually administered the adrenaline auto-injector, of which 14 patients (17% of the administered patients) self-administered the adrenaline auto-injector. “Guardians” at the nursery/kindergarten and elementary school were found to have administered the adrenaline auto-injector the most. Among 117 adrenaline auto-injector prescription-registered physicians, 79% had experienced nonadministration of adrenaline auto-injector at nursery/kindergarten/school when anaphylaxis has occurred. The most frequent reason cited for not administering the adrenaline auto-injector was “hesitation about the timing of administration.” Conclusion If the adrenaline auto-injector was administered after the guardian arrived at the nursery/kindergarten/school, it may lead to delayed treatment of anaphylaxis in which symptoms develop in minutes. Education and cooperation among physicians and nursery/kindergarten/school staff will reduce the number of children suffering unfortunate outcomes due to anaphylaxis. PMID:28154804

  1. Administration of the adrenaline auto-injector at the nursery/kindergarten/school in Western Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korematsu, Seigo; Fujitaka, Michiko; Ogata, Mika; Zaitsu, Masafumi; Motomura, Chikako; Kuzume, Kazuyo; Toku, Yuchiro; Ikeda, Masanori; Odajima, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    In view of the increasing prevalence of food allergies, there has been an associated increase in frequency of situations requiring an emergency response for anaphylaxis at the home, childcare facilities and educational institutions. To clarify the situation of adrenaline auto-injector administration in nursery/kindergarten/school, we carried out a questionnaire survey on pediatric physicians in Western Japan. In 2015, self-reported questionnaires were mailed to 421 physicians who are members of the West Japan Research Society Pediatric Clinical Allergy and Shikoku Research Society Pediatric Clinical Allergy. The response rate was 44% (185 physicians) where 160 physicians had a prescription registration for the adrenaline auto-injector. In the past year, 1,330 patients were prescribed the adrenaline auto-injector where 83 patients (6% of the prescribed patients) actually administered the adrenaline auto-injector, of which 14 patients (17% of the administered patients) self-administered the adrenaline auto-injector. "Guardians" at the nursery/kindergarten and elementary school were found to have administered the adrenaline auto-injector the most. Among 117 adrenaline auto-injector prescription-registered physicians, 79% had experienced nonadministration of adrenaline auto-injector at nursery/kindergarten/school when anaphylaxis has occurred. The most frequent reason cited for not administering the adrenaline auto-injector was "hesitation about the timing of administration." If the adrenaline auto-injector was administered after the guardian arrived at the nursery/kindergarten/school, it may lead to delayed treatment of anaphylaxis in which symptoms develop in minutes. Education and cooperation among physicians and nursery/kindergarten/school staff will reduce the number of children suffering unfortunate outcomes due to anaphylaxis.

  2. Energy Systems Test Area (ESTA). Power Systems Test Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Situ, Cindy H.

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides a detailed description of the Johnson Space Center's Power Systems Facility located in the Energy Systems Test Area (ESTA). Facilities and the resources used to support power and battery systems testing are also shown. The contents include: 1) Power Testing; 2) Power Test Equipment Capabilities Summary; 3) Source/Load; 4) Battery Facilities; 5) Battery Test Equipment Capabilities Summary; 6) Battery Testing; 7) Performance Test Equipment; 8) Battery Test Environments; 9) Battery Abuse Chambers; 10) Battery Abuse Capabilities; and 11) Battery Test Area Resources.

  3. Teacher Views on School Administrators' Organizational Power Sources and Their Change Management Behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argon, Türkan; Dilekçi, Ümit

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine school administrators' organizational power sources and change management behaviours based on Bolu central district primary and secondary school teachers' views. The study conducted with relational screening model reached 286 teachers. School Administrators' Organizational Power Sources Scale and Change Management…

  4. Alpha and beta EEG power reflects L-dopa acute administration in parkinsonian patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Marc eMelgari

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate the effect of an acute L-dopa administration on eye-closed resting state electroencephalographic (EEG activity of cognitively preserved Parkinsonian patients. Methods. We examined 24 right-handed patients diagnosed as uncomplicated probable Parkinson’s disease (PD. Each patient underwent UPDRS-part-III evaluation before and 60 minutes after an oral load of L-dopa-methyl-ester/carbidopa 250/25 mg. Resting condition eyes-closed EEG data were recorded both pre- and post L-dopa load. Absolute EEG power values were calculated at each scalp derivation for Delta, Theta, Alpha and Beta frequency bands. UPDRS scores (both global and subscale scores and EEG data (power values of different frequency bands for each scalp derivation were submitted to a statistical analysis to compare Pre e Post L-Dopa conditions. Finally, a correlation analysis was carried out between EEG spectral content and UPDRS scores. Results. Considering EEG power spectral analysis, no statistically significant differences arose on Delta and Theta bands after L-dopa intake. Conversely, Alpha and Beta rhythms significantly increased on centro-parietal scalp derivations, as a function of L-dopa administration. Correlation analysis indicated a significant negative correlation between Beta power increase on centro-parietal areas and UPDRS subscores (Rigidity of arms and Bradykinesia. A minor significant negative correlation was also found between Alpha band increase and resting tremor. Conclusions. Assuming that a significant change in EEG power spectrum after L-dopa intake may be related to dopaminergic mechanisms, our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that dopaminergic defective networks are implicated in cortical oscillatory abnormalities at rest in non-demented PD patients.

  5. Identification of seismically susceptible areas in western Himalaya using pattern recognition

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mridula; Amita Sinvhal; Hans Raj Wason

    2016-06-01

    Seismicity in the western Himalayas is highly variable. Several historical and instrumentally recordeddevastating earthquakes originated in the western Himalayas which are part of the Alpine–Himalayanbelt. Earthquakes cause tremendous loss of life and to the built environment. The amount of loss interms of life and infrastructure has been rising continuously due to significant increase in population andinfrastructure. This study is an attempt to identify seismically susceptible areas in western Himalaya,using pattern recognition technique. An area between latitude 29◦–36◦N and longitude 73◦–80◦E wasconsidered for this study. Pattern recognition starts with identification, selection and extraction of featuresfrom seismotectonic data. These features are then subjected to discriminant analysis and the studyarea was classified into three categories, viz., Area A: most susceptible area, Area B: moderately susceptiblearea, and Area C: least susceptible area. Results show that almost the entire states of HimachalPradesh and Uttarakhand and a portion of Jammu & Kashmir are classified as Area A, while most ofJammu & Kashmir is classified as Area B and the Indo-Gangetic plains are classified as Area C.

  6. Robustness Area Technique Developing Guidelines for Power System Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Murinelli Pesoti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel energy based technique called the Robustness Area (RA technique that measures power system robustness levels, as a helper for planning Power System Restorations (PSRs. The motivation is on account of the latest blackouts in Brazil, where the local Independent System Operator (ISO encountered difficulties related to circuit disconnections during the restoration. The technique identifies vulnerable and robust buses, pointing out system areas that should be firstly reinforced during PSR, in order to enhance system stability. A Brazilian power system restoration area is used to compare the guidelines adopted by the ISO with a more suitable new plan indicated by the RA tool. Active power and reactive power load margin and standing phase angle show the method efficiency as a result of a well balanced system configuration, enhancing the restoration performance. Time domain simulations for loop closures and severe events also show the positive impact that the proposed tool brings to PSRs.

  7. 77 FR 40380 - Outer Continental Shelf, Gulf of Mexico, Oil and Gas Lease Sales, Western Planning Area Lease...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-09

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Outer Continental Shelf, Gulf of Mexico, Oil and Gas Lease Sales, Western Planning Area Lease Sale 233 and Central Planning Area Lease Sale 231 AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean... proposed Western Planning Area (WPA) Lease Sale 233 and Central Planning Area (CPA) Lease Sale 231...

  8. Area, Delay and Power Comparison of Adder Topologies

    OpenAIRE

    R.Uma; Vidya Vijayan; M. Mohanapriya; Sharon Paul

    2012-01-01

    Adders form an almost obligatory component of every contemporary integrated circuit. The prerequisite of the adder is that it is primarily fast and secondarily efficient in terms of power consumption and chip area. This paper presents the pertinent choice for selecting the adder topology with the tradeoff between delay, power consumption and area. The adder topology used in this work are ripple carry adder, carry lookahead adder, carry skip adder, carry select adder, carry increment adder, ca...

  9. Area, Delay and Power Comparison of Adder Topologies

    OpenAIRE

    R.UMA,Vidya Vijayan; M. Mohanapriya; Sharon Paul

    2012-01-01

    Adders form an almost obligatory component of every contemporary integrated circuit. The prerequisite of the adder is that it is primarily fast and secondarily efficient in terms of power consumption and chip area. This paper presents the pertinent choice for selecting the adder topology with the trade off between delay, power consumption and area. The adder topology used in this work are ripple carry adder, carry look ahead adder, carry skip adder, carry select adder, carry increment adder, ...

  10. 78 FR 64494 - FFP Qualified Hydro 14, LLC, Western Minnesota Municipal Power Agency; Notice Announcing Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission FFP Qualified Hydro 14, LLC, Western Minnesota Municipal Power Agency... drawing, the order of priority is as follows: 1. FFP Qualified Hydro 14, LLC--Project No. 13579-002...

  11. 77 FR 26275 - Bonneville Power Administration; Montana-to-Washington Transmission System Upgrade Project EIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-03

    ... Bonneville Power Administration; Montana-to-Washington Transmission System Upgrade Project EIS AGENCY...``''sts for long-term transmission service. During the NOS process, utilities and power generators (including wind generators and power marketers) requested the use of BPA's transmission system to...

  12. Wind power in areas with limited export capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matevosyan, Julija

    2004-03-01

    During the last two decades, increase in electricity demand and environmental concern resulted in fast growth of power production from renewable sources. Wind power is one of the most efficient alternatives. Due to rapid development of wind turbine technology and increasing size of wind farms, wind power plays a significant part in the power production mix of Germany, Spain, Denmark and some other countries. Wind power has to be build in areas with good wind potential. The best conditions for installation of wind power are, thus, in remote areas free of obstacles, and consequently with low population density. The transmission system in such areas might not be dimensioned to accommodate additional large-scale power plants. Insufficient transmission capacity problem, however, would emerge for any type of new generation, planned in similar conditions, although wind power has some special features that should be considered solving this problem. In this thesis the four possibilities are considered. One possibility is to revise the methods for calculation of available transmission capacity. Another solution for large-scale integration of wind power in such areas is to reinforce the network. This alternative however may be expensive and time consuming. Since wind power production depends on the wind speed, the wind farm utilization time is only 2,000-4,000 hours a year, and power production peaks not necessarily occur during periods with insufficient transmission capacity. Therefore wind energy curtailment may be considered as an alternative for large-scale wind power integration. It is also possible to store excess wind energy during the periods with insufficient transmission capacity. Conventional power plants with possibilities of fast production control (e.g. hydropower plants or gas power plants) may also be employed for this purpose. There is a lot of research regarding first two measures, therefore, this thesis provides a review and summarized conclusions from the

  13. Acceptance of Provider Initiated HIV Testing and Counseling among Tuberculosis Patients in East Wollega Administrative Zone, Oromia Regional State, Western Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wakjira Kebede

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV is a powerful risk factor for the development of tuberculosis. This study assessed the acceptance and associated factors that can affect provider initiated HIV testing and counseling (PITC among tuberculosis patients at the East Wollega administrative zone, Oromia regional state, western Ethiopia, from January to August, 2010. A single population proportion formula is used to calculate the total sample size of 406 and the cluster sampling technique was used to select 13 health centers that provide PITC services. The sample size was proportionally allocated to each health center. The study participants were selected using a simple random sampling technique using the lottery method. Structured questionnaire was used for collection of sociodemographic data. From the total of study subjects, 399 (98.2% TB patients were initiated for HIV test and 369 (92.5% patients accepted the initiation. Of those, 353 (95.5% patients had taken HIV test and received their results. According to the reviewed documents, the prevalence of HIV among tuberculosis (TB patients in the study area was 137 (33.7%. The logistic regression result showed the PITC was significantly associated with their knowledge about HIV (AOR = 3.22, 95% CI: 1.3–7.97, self-perceived risk (AOR = 2.93, 95% CI: 1.12–7.66, educational status (AOR = 3.51, 95% CI: 1.13–10.91, and knowledge on transmission of HIV/AIDS (AOR = 7.56, 95% CI: 1.14–40.35 which were significantly associated with the acceptance of PITC among TB patients. Therefore, this study’s results showed, the prevalence of HIV among TB patient was high; to enhance the acceptance of PITC among TB patients, health extension workers must provide health education during home-to-home visiting. TB treatment supervisors also provide counseling intensively for all forms of TB patients during their first clinical encounter.

  14. 47 CFR 54.805 - Zone and study area above benchmark revenues calculated by the Administrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Zone and study area above benchmark revenues... Mechanism § 54.805 Zone and study area above benchmark revenues calculated by the Administrator. (a) The following steps shall be performed by the Administrator to determine Zone Above Benchmark Revenues for...

  15. Pulsed Power Science and Technology: A Strategic Outlook for the National Nuclear Security Administration (Summary)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinars, Daniel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Scott, Kimberly Carole [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Edwards, M. John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Olson, Russell Teall [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-10-17

    Major advances in pulsed power technology and applications over the last twenty years have expanded the mission areas for pulsed power and created compelling new opportunities for the Stockpile Stewardship Program (SSP). This summary document is a forward look at the development of pulsed power science and technology (PPS&T) capabilities in support of the next 20 years of the SSP. This outlook was developed during a three-month-long tri-lab study on the future of PPS&T research and capabilities in support of applications to: (1) Dynamic Materials, (2) Thermonuclear Burn Physics and Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF), and (3) Radiation Effects and Nuclear Survivability. It also considers necessary associated developments in next-generation codes and pulsed power technology as well as opportunities for academic, industry, and international engagement. The document identifies both imperatives and opportunities to address future SSP mission needs. This study was commissioned by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). A copy of the memo request is contained in the Appendix. NNSA guidance received during this study explicitly directed that it not be constrained by resource limitations and not attempt to prioritize its findings against plans and priorities in other areas of the national weapons program. That prioritization, including the relative balance amongst the three focus areas themselves, must of course occur before any action is taken on the observations presented herein. This unclassified summary document presents the principal imperatives and opportunities identified in each mission and supporting area during this study. Preceding this area-specific outlook, we discuss a cross-cutting opportunity to increase the shot capacity on the Z pulsed power facility as a near-term, cost-effective way to broadly impact PPS&T for SSP as well as advancing the science and technology to inform future SSMP milestones over the next 5-10 years. The final page of the

  16. Pulsed Power Science and Technology: A Strategic Outlook for the National Nuclear Security Administration (Summary)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinars, Daniel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Scott, Kimberly Carole [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Edwards, M. John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Olson, Russell Teall [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-10-17

    Major advances in pulsed power technology and applications over the last twenty years have expanded the mission areas for pulsed power and created compelling new opportunities for the Stockpile Stewardship Program (SSP). This summary document is a forward look at the development of pulsed power science and technology (PPS&T) capabilities in support of the next 20 years of the SSP. This outlook was developed during a three month long tri-lab study on the future of PPS&T research and capabilities in support of applications to: (1) Dynamic Materials, (2) Thermonuclear Burn Physics and Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF), and (3) Radiation Effects and Nuclear Survivability. It also considers necessary associated developments in next-generation codes and pulsed power technology as well as opportunities for academic, industry, and international engagement. The document identifies both imperatives and opportunities to address future SSP mission needs. This study was commissioned by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). A copy of the memo request is contained in the Appendix. NNSA guidance received during this study explicitly directed that it not be constrained by resource limitations and not attempt to prioritize its findings against plans and priorities in other areas of the national weapons program. That prioritization, including the relative balance amongst the three focus areas themselves, must of course occur before any action is taken on the observations presented herein. This unclassified summary document presents the principal imperatives and opportunities identified in each mission and supporting area during this study. Proceeding this area-specific outlook, we discuss a cross-cutting opportunity to increase the shot capacity on the Z pulsed power facility as a near term, cost effective way to broadly impact PPS&T for SSP as well as advancing the science and technology to inform future SSMP milestones over the next 5-10 years. The final page of the

  17. Geochemical study of urban soils in public areas of an industrialized town (Ajka, western Hungary)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacháry, D.; Jordán, Gy.; Szabó, Cs.

    2012-04-01

    Soil is one of the most essential parts of urban ecosystem contributing to the biogeochemical cycles along the rock-soil-plant-animal and human pathway. Soil plays a fundamental role in plant nutrient uptake and groundwater filtration, too. Urban soils differ from non-urban soils in many aspects, including their origin, and they may also concentrate contaminants in large quantities due to intensive human activities. The pollution sources are industry, traffic, fertilizer, tailing and waste. In addition to the increasing rate of urban areas, urban soils are under growing interest and their pollution have received significant attention in the past few decades. This work focuses on the toxic element (As, Hg, Pb, Cu, Zn, Cd, Ni) content of soils and their spatial distribution in order to find a link between contamination sources and the receiving urban soils at sensitive receptor locations such as children's playgrounds and parks. Ajka town is located in western Hungary. It has an old-established industrial history with multiple contamination sources of heavy alumina industry and coal-based power plants supplied by the nearby bauxite and coal mines. At 44 locations 46 soil samples have been collected at a depth of 0-10 cm along a 1x1 km grid. The whole grid covers an area of 48 km2. In each grid cell a sampling site was selected at public areas. Sample preparation included drying at 40 C°, thorough homogenization and sieving to 2 mm fine earth before chemical analysis. Grain size distribution and soil pH were also determined. Samples were analyzed with ICP-OES and SEM methods. The As, Hg, Pb, Cu, Zn, Cd and Ni concentrations range from 2.07 ppm to 9.48 ppm, 0.02 ppm to 2.84 ppm, 5.08 ppm to 35.74 ppm, 2.55 ppm to 47.78 ppm, 17.00 ppm to 91.00 ppm, 0.07 ppm to 0.61 ppm and 5.57 ppm to 32.09 ppm, respectively. The results revealed the contaminated areas associated with past industrial sites. This study also identified locations with considerable contamination at

  18. “Population Invasion” versus Urban Exclusion in the Tibetan Areas of Western China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Fischer (Andrew Martín)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis article examines the confluence of local population transitions (demographic transition and urbanization) with non-local in-migration in the Tibetan areas of western China. The objective is to assess the validity of Tibetan perceptions of "population invasion" by Han Chinese and Chi

  19. Evaluation of vegetation indices for rangeland biomass estimation in the Kimberley area of Western Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mundava, C.; Helmholtz, P.; Schut, A.G.T.; Corner, R.; McAtee, B.; Lamb, D.W.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to test the relationships between Above Ground Biomass (AGB) and remotely sensed vegetation indices for AGB assessments in the Kimberley area in Western Australia. For 19 different sites, vegetation indices were derived from eight Landsat ETM+ scenes over a period of t

  20. Assessing malaria transmission in a low endemicity area of north-western Peru

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosas-Aguirre, Angel; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro; Speybroeck, Niko

    2013-01-01

    Where malaria endemicity is low, control programmes need increasingly sensitive tools for monitoring malaria transmission intensity (MTI) and to better define health priorities. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a low endemicity area of the Peruvian north-western coast to assess the MTI u...

  1. Petrological outline of an area near Sparone (Orco Valley, Western Italian Alps)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minnigh, L.D.

    1978-01-01

    Several rocktypes and their metamorphic mineral growth are described from an area on the western border of the Sesia-Lanzo Zone in the Orco Valley (NW Italy). It is argued that in some rocks (garnet-rich gneisses and micaceous gneisses) pre-Alpine metamorphic minerals are present, in other rocks (ca

  2. 78 FR 48861 - Western Pacific Fisheries; Approval of a Marine Conservation Plan for Pacific Insular Areas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-12

    ... sustainable fisheries management of pelagic fisheries in the PRIA. Objective 3. Promote regional cooperation... technologies and methods to achieve the most effective level of monitoring, control, and surveillance, and to... Marine Conservation Plan for Pacific Insular Areas; Western Pacific Sustainable Fisheries Fund AGENCY...

  3. Climate Change Impacts on the Electric Power System in the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veselka, T. D.; Botterud, A.; Conzelmann, G.; Koritarov, V.; Poch, L. A.; Wang, J.

    2007-12-01

    Future climate change is projected to vary substantially across regions. Changes in regional temperature and precipitation patterns may have significant implications on our existing and future power system infrastructure. In this paper, we use results from regional climate models to examine the impacts of projected changes in temperature and precipitation on the development and operations of the power system in the Western United States. We study three scenarios to evaluate potential effects of climate change on the electricity demand as well as on the power supply side. Impacts are measured in terms of changes in investment requirements, fuel and generation mix, emissions of greenhouse gases and criteria pollutants, and thermal power water withdrawals and consumption. We also identify potential issues regarding the western transmission grid. Our methodology includes a long-term investment algorithm that takes into account interdependencies between hydroelectric, thermal power, and non-dispatchable resources, such as wind turbines. We also include temporal aspects associated with hydropower energy constraints, wind variability, thermal power plant availability, and hourly load profiles. Thermal power plant availability and resulting generation and fuel consumption are based on maintenance outage schedules and a probabilistic dispatch algorithm that accounts for random forced outages. We conclude with some observations regarding the vulnerability of our electricity infrastructure to projected regional climate changes.

  4. “Population Invasion” versus Urban Exclusion in the Tibetan Areas of Western China

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Andrew Martín

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis article examines the confluence of local population transitions (demographic transition and urbanization) with non-local in-migration in the Tibetan areas of western China. The objective is to assess the validity of Tibetan perceptions of "population invasion" by Han Chinese and Chinese Muslims. The article argues that migration to Tibet from other regions in China has been concentrated in urban areas and has been counterbalanced by more rapid rates of natural increase in the...

  5. 77 FR 51568 - Outer Continental Shelf, Gulf of Mexico, Oil and Gas Lease Sales, Western Planning Area Lease...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-24

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Outer Continental Shelf, Gulf of Mexico, Oil and Gas Lease Sales, Western Planning Area Lease Sale 233 and Central Planning Area Lease Sale 231 AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean... announced its intent to prepare a Supplemental EIS for proposed Western Planning Area (WPA) Lease Sale...

  6. Conceptual study of superconducting urban area power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noe, Mathias; Bach, Robert; Prusseit, Werner; Willén, Dag; Gold-acker, Wilfried; Poelchau, Juri; Linke, Christian

    2010-06-01

    Efficient transmission, distribution and usage of electricity are fundamental requirements for providing citizens, societies and economies with essential energy resources. It will be a major future challenge to integrate more sustainable generation resources, to meet growing electricity demand and to renew electricity networks. Research and development on superconducting equipment and components have an important role to play in addressing these challenges. Up to now, most studies on superconducting applications in power systems have been concentrated on the application of specific devices like for example cables and current limiters. In contrast to this, the main focus of our study is to show the consequence of a large scale integration of superconducting power equipment in distribution level urban power systems. Specific objectives are to summarize the state-of-the-art of superconducting power equipment including cooling systems and to compare the superconducting power system with respect to energy and economic efficiency with conventional solutions. Several scenarios were considered starting from the replacement of an existing distribution level sub-grid up to a full superconducting urban area distribution level power system. One major result is that a full superconducting urban area distribution level power system could be cost competitive with existing solutions in the future. In addition to that, superconducting power systems offer higher energy efficiency as well as a number of technical advantages like lower voltage drops and improved stability.

  7. Urban Power Line Corridors as Novel Habitats for Grassland and Alien Plant Species in South-Western Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampinen, Jussi; Ruokolainen, Kalle; Huhta, Ari-Pekka

    2015-01-01

    Regularly managed electric power line corridors may provide habitats for both early-successional grassland plant species and disturbance-dependent alien plant species. These habitats are especially important in urban areas, where they can help conserve native grassland species and communities in urban greenspace. However, they can also provide further footholds for potentially invasive alien species that already characterize urban areas. In order to implement power line corridors into urban conservation, it is important to understand which environmental conditions in the corridors favor grassland species and which alien species. Likewise it is important to know whether similar environmental factors in the corridors control the species composition of the two groups. We conducted a vegetation study in a 43 kilometer long urban power line corridor network in south-western Finland, and used generalized linear models and distance-based redundancy analysis to determine which environmental factors best predict the occurrence and composition of grassland and alien plant species in the corridors. The results imply that old corridors on dry soils and steep slopes characterized by a history as open areas and pastures are especially suitable for grassland species. Corridors suitable for alien species, in turn, are characterized by productive soils and abundant light and are surrounded by a dense urban fabric. Factors controlling species composition in the two groups are somewhat correlated, with the most important factors including light abundance, soil moisture, soil calcium concentration and soil productivity. The results have implications for grassland conservation and invasive alien species control in urban areas.

  8. Exploring Paradoxes of Power in Small College Writing Administration Composition Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Libby Falk

    2004-01-01

    Drawing on concepts and practices from the fields of communication, conflict management, leadership, and feminist theory, as well as on her experience as a teacher-administrator, the author explores perceptions, sources, and consequences of power. She argues that effective small college writing administrators must understand the availability of…

  9. Wide-Area Emergency Control in Power Transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Andreas Søndergaard

    This thesis concerns the development of new emergency control algorithms for electric power transmission systems. Diminishing global resources and climate concerns forces operators to change production away from fossil fuels and towards distributed renewable energy sources. Along with the change...... on production side measures must be taken on the demand side to maintain power balance. Due to these changes, the operating point of the power system will be less predictable. Traditionally, emergency controls are designed off-line by extensive simulations. The future power system is expected to fluctuate more......, thus making the behaviour less predictable, suggesting the need for new intelligent wide-area emergency control algorithms. The fluctuating nature of the future power system calls for new methods of calculating remedial actions that are able to adapt to changing conditions. As part of this thesis...

  10. Wide-area monitoring of interconnected power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Messina, Arturo Román

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a compact yet comprehensive treatment of advanced data-driven signal processing techniques for the analysis and characterization of both ambient power system data and transient oscillations resulting from major disturbances. Inspired by recent developments in multi-sensor data fusion, multi-temporal data assimilation techniques for power system monitoring are proposed and tested in the context of modern wide-area monitoring system architectures. Recent advances in understanding and modeling nonlinear, time-varying power system processes are reviewed and factors affecting the

  11. Native species indicated for degraded area recovery in Western Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darlene Gris

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Colonization in the State of Paraná has culminated in the devastation of large forest areas in the entire State. Degraded area recovery programs have emphasized the utilization of native species, but often the species indicated for local reforestation areas are unknown, as those areas are little known floristically. This study aimed to survey native species indicated for reforestation of areas in the Western region of the State of Paraná, classify those species as pioneer, secondary, or climactic, and indicate places of occurrence of matrices where seeds of those species could be collected. Bibliographic surveys in the specialized literature and research in the Herbarium Museu Botânico Municipal de Curitiba (MBM and Herbarium of Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná (UNOP were conducted to identify potential species for degraded area recovery in the study of Western region of Paraná. In all, 115 species were selected, of which 22 are pioneer, 73 are secondary, and 20 are climactic. The bibliographic surveys suggests that pioneer species are the most indicated for the initial processes in the degraded areas recovery, while secondary and climactic species play a major role in area enrichment.

  12. Western Sicily (Italy), a key area for understanding geothermal system within carbonate reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanari, D.; Bertini, G.; Botteghi, S.; Catalano, R.; Contino, A.; Doveri, M.; Gennaro, C.; Gianelli, G.; Gola, G.; Manzella, A.; Minissale, A.; Montegrossi, G.; Monteleone, S.; Trumpy, E.

    2012-12-01

    Oil exploration in western Sicily started in the late 1950s when several exploration wells were drilled, and continued with the acquisition of many seismic reflection profiles and the drilling of new wells in the1980s. The geological interpretation of these data mainly provided new insights for the definition of geometric relationships between tectonic units and structural reconstruction at depth. Although it has not produced completely satisfactory results for oil industry, this hydrocarbon exploration provided a great amount of data, resulting very suitable for geothermal resource assessment. From a geothermal point of view western Sicily is, indeed, a very promising area, with the manifestation at surface of several thermal springs, localized areas of high heat flux and thick carbonates units uninterruptedly developing from surface up top great depths. These available data were often collected with the modalities and purposes typical of oil exploration, not always the finest for geothermal exploration as in the case of temperature measurements. The multidisciplinary and integrated review of these data, specifically corrected for geothermal purposes, and the integration with new data acquired in particular key areas such as the Mazara Del Vallo site in the southern part of western Sicily, allowed us to better understand this medium-enthalpy geothermal system, to reconstruct the modalities and peculiarities of fluids circulation, and to evaluate the geothermal potentialities of western Sicily. We suggest that western Sicily can be taken as a reference for the understanding of geothermal systems developed at a regional scale within carbonate rocks. This study was performed within the framework of the VIGOR project (http://www.vigor-geotermia.it).

  13. The evolution of the western rift area of the Fimbul Ice Shelf, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Humbert

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the evolution of a zone in the Fimbul Ice Shelf that is characterised by large crevasses and rifts west of Jutulstraumen, an outlet glacier flowing into Fimbulisen. High-resolution radar imagery and radio echo sounding data were used to study the surface and internal structure of this rift area and to define zones of similar characteristics. The western rift area is dominated by two factors: a small ice rumple that leads to basal crevasses and disturbs the homogeneity of the ice, and a zone with fibre-like blocks. Downstream of the rumple we found down-welling of internal layers and local thinning, which we explain as a result of basal crevasses due to the basal drag at the ice rumple. North of Ahlmannryggen the ice loses its lateral constraint and forms individual blocks, which are deformed like fibres under shear, where the ice stream merges with slower moving ice masses of the western side. There, the ice loses its integrity, which initiates the western rift system. The velocity difference between the slow moving western part and the fast moving extension of Jutulstraumen produces shear stress that causes the rifts to form tails and expand them to the major rifts of up to 30 km length.

  14. Intraperitoneal Bilirubin Administration Decreases Infarct Area in a Rat Coronary Ischemia/Reperfusion Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron eBen-Amotz

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Bilirubin was previously considered a toxin byproduct of heme catabolism. However, a mounting body of evidence suggests that at physiological doses, bilirubin is a powerful antioxidant and anti-atherosclerotic agent. Recent clinical studies have shown that human beings with genetically-induced hyperbilirubinemia (Gilbert Syndrome are protected against coronary heart disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether administration of exogenous bilirubin to normal rats would convey similar protective effects in an experimental model of coronary ischemia. We hypothesized that intraperitoneal bilirubin administration 1 hour before injury would decrease infarct area and preserve left ventricular (LV systolic function when compared to non-treated rats. Coronary ischemia was induced by temporary (30 min ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery in control or bilirubin treated rats, followed by a 1-hour period of reperfusion. LV function was estimated by measurements of fractional shortening and fractional area shortening using echocardiography. LV function decreased in both experimental groups after ischemia and reperfusion, although in bilirubin-treated rats fractional shortening was less depressed during the period of ischemia (18.8 vs 25.8%, p = 0.034. Infarct size was significantly reduced in the bilirubin treated group compared to the non-treated group (13.34% vs 25.5%, p = 0.0067. Based on the results of this study, bilirubin supplementation appears to provide significant decrease in infarct size although protective effects on LV function were noted only during the period of ischemia. This result also suggests that lipid soluble antioxidant bilirubin prevents the oxidation of cardiolipin and decreases the infarct size in the heart during ischemia.

  15. Ultra low power transceiver for wireless body area networks

    CERN Document Server

    Masuch, Jens

    2013-01-01

    This book describes the design of ultra low power transceivers for body area networks.  Since these applications have very limited energy resources, typically powered only by tiny batteries or through energy harvesting techniques, this book describes an architecture for a Bluetooth low energy transceiver to overcome these limitations. Coverage includes not only the main concepts for achieving low power consumption, but also the details of the circuit design and its implementation in a standard CMOS technology.     ·         Guides readers through the design of ultra low power transceivers for body area networks, from architecture to circuit-level implementation; ·         Describes 4 key strategies for ultra-low power transceiver design and specific, innovative techniques for circuit-level design; ·         Enables readers to design transceivers for body area networks that are 27% more energy efficient than those currently available; ·         Includes a review of the st...

  16. Scenario-Based Analysis on Water Resources Implication of Coal Power in Western China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiahai Yuan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently, 58% of coal-fired power generation capacity is located in eastern China, where the demand for electricity is strong. Serious air pollution in China, in eastern regions in particular, has compelled the Chinese government to impose a ban on the new construction of pulverized coal power plants in eastern regions. Meanwhile, rapid economic growth is thirsty for electric power supply. As a response, China planned to build large-scale coal power bases in six western provinces, including Inner Mongolia, Shanxi, Shaanxi, Xinjiang, Ningxia and Gansu. In this paper, the water resource implication of the coal power base planning is addressed. We find that, in a business-as-usual (BAU scenario, water consumption for coal power generation in these six provinces will increase from 1130 million m3 in 2012 to 2085 million m3 in 2020, experiencing nearly a double growth. Such a surge will exert great pressure on water supply and lead to serious water crisis in these already water-starved regions. A strong implication is that the Chinese Government must add water resource constraint as a critical point in its overall sustainable development plan, in addition to energy supply and environment protection. An integrated energy-water resource plan with regionalized environmental carrying capacity as constraints should be developed to settle this puzzle. Several measures are proposed to cope with it, including downsizing coal power in western regions, raising the technical threshold of new coal power plants and implementing retrofitting to the inefficient cooling system, and reengineering the generation process to waterless or recycled means.

  17. Biology of Herbivorous Fish in the Coastal Areas of Western Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Yamaguchi, Atsuko; Furumitsu, Keisuke; Yagishita, Naoki; KUME, Gen

    2010-01-01

    Seaweed beds in Japanese coastal waters have significantly declined in recent years and feeding by herbivorous fish has been identified as one of the potential causes of this decline. In the western coastal areas of Kyushu, seaweed consumption by fish species such as the mottled spinefoot (Siganus fuscescens), sea chubs (Kyphosus spp.), and the Japanese parrotfish (Calotomus japonicus) has become a matter of concern. Our research group has been investigating the biology of herbivorous fish in...

  18. Working Together, Staying Vital. Proceedings of the Joint Conference of the Western Australian District High Schools Administrators' Association and the National Society for the Provision of Education in Rural Australia (20th, Fremantle, Western Australia, June 2004)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boylan, Colin, Ed.; Hemmings, Brian, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    The 20th National Society for the Provision of Education in Rural Australia (SPERA) and Western Australia District High School Administrators' Association (WADHSAA) joint conference proceedings, based on the theme "Working Together, Staying Vital," was held in Fremantle, Perth, Western Australia, in June 2004. The proceedings contain 13…

  19. Biomass enables the transition to a carbon-negative power system across western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Daniel L.; Nelson, James H.; Johnston, Josiah; Mileva, Ana; Kammen, Daniel M.

    2015-03-01

    Sustainable biomass can play a transformative role in the transition to a decarbonized economy, with potential applications in electricity, heat, chemicals and transportation fuels. Deploying bioenergy with carbon capture and sequestration (BECCS) results in a net reduction in atmospheric carbon. BECCS may be one of the few cost-effective carbon-negative opportunities available should anthropogenic climate change be worse than anticipated or emissions reductions in other sectors prove particularly difficult. Previous work, primarily using integrated assessment models, has identified the critical role of BECCS in long-term (pre- or post-2100 time frames) climate change mitigation, but has not investigated the role of BECCS in power systems in detail, or in aggressive time frames, even though commercial-scale facilities are starting to be deployed in the transportation sector. Here, we explore the economic and deployment implications for BECCS in the electricity system of western North America under aggressive (pre-2050) time frames and carbon emissions limitations, with rich technology representation and physical constraints. We show that BECCS, combined with aggressive renewable deployment and fossil-fuel emission reductions, can enable a carbon-negative power system in western North America by 2050 with up to 145% emissions reduction from 1990 levels. In most scenarios, the offsets produced by BECCS are found to be more valuable to the power system than the electricity it provides. Advanced biomass power generation employs similar system design to advanced coal technology, enabling a transition strategy to low-carbon energy.

  20. 76 FR 81487 - Application of the Energy Planning and Management Program Power Marketing Initiative to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Western Area Power Administration Application of the Energy Planning and Management Program Power Marketing...-2017 marketing efforts, the Energy Management and Planning Program (Program), and the Conformed General...

  1. The Western Australian Police Headquarters Building: Surveillance, Power and the Authoritarian State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Stratton

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available There has been little cultural studies work concerned with Perth’s built environment. This contribution examines a building that has been a focus in the distribution of governmental power across Perth and Western Australia more generally. The building that until recently housed the Western Australian Police Headquarters was opened in 1975. It stands at Perth’s eastern gateway looking outwards across the River Swan and the Causeway which crosses it. The use of the Police Headquarters building spanned the time during which Western Australia’s economy became increasingly dependent on mining and other resource-related extraction industries. During this same time Western Australia’s government became increasingly authoritarian. This essay argues that the Police Headquarters building can be understood as expressing this authoritarian shift. One element of this can be found in the building’s use of the International Style. At the same time, and consonant with this transformation, the positioning and form of the building enabled a structure of surveillance which has been a key aspect of modern government.

  2. Into the Labyrinth of Knowledge and Power: The library as a gendered space in the western imaginary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koevoets, S.

    2013-01-01

    The Library functions as a powerful figuration of power and knowledge in the western cultural imaginary, and the stories that circulate about libraries are gendered stories that link power and knowledge to masculinity and femininity in particular ways. Through an analysis of literary and film narrat

  3. Into the Labyrinth of Knowledge and Power: The library as a gendered space in the western imaginary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koevoets, S.

    2013-01-01

    The Library functions as a powerful figuration of power and knowledge in the western cultural imaginary, and the stories that circulate about libraries are gendered stories that link power and knowledge to masculinity and femininity in particular ways. Through an analysis of literary and film narrat

  4. Into the Labyrinth of Knowledge and Power: The library as a gendered space in the western imaginary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koevoets, S.

    2013-01-01

    The Library functions as a powerful figuration of power and knowledge in the western cultural imaginary, and the stories that circulate about libraries are gendered stories that link power and knowledge to masculinity and femininity in particular ways. Through an analysis of literary and film

  5. Study on security and protection of original ecotourism resources in the mountain areas of western Guangxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Lianglin; Zhou Yongzhang; Chen Zhishen; Ding Jian; Yan Xiaoping

    2008-01-01

    Original ecotourism resources mainly refer to natural and human original ecotourism resources,and it's of fragility,rarity and irreversibility.As a valuable historic heritage and important tourism resources,it plays a significunt role in developing tourism and economy in such areas as the underdeveloped areas,the mountain areas and minority areas.The tourism resources in the western mountain areas of Guangxi owe superiorities and characteristics to their original ecology.Yet,western Guangxi is an ethnic region with fragile karst eco-environment,so it is special to exploit the tourism resources.The paper defines original ecotourism and analyses the specialties and advantages of the original ecotourism resources as well as the frailty of the ecotourism re.sources of the region.The ways of thinking are put forward ]or safe preservation and sustainable development of the original ecotourism resources,i.e carrying out measures for the multi-grade protection of heritage resources,setting up a ethnic eco-museum/ethnicculture eco-park and a gene pool of ethnic cultures,etc.

  6. 75 FR 22423 - Pick-Sloan Missouri Basin Program, Eastern and Western Division Proposed Project Use Power Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Pick-Sloan Missouri Basin Program, Eastern and Western Division Proposed Project... of the Pick-Sloan Missouri Basin Program, Eastern and Western Divisions, Proposed Project Use Power Rate Adjustment. ] SUMMARY: The Bureau of Reclamation is reopening the comment period for the...

  7. Educational Specifications for Administrative and Support Areas in School Buildings: Considerations in Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Ronald E.

    1986-01-01

    Educational specifications should contain the following factors for each activity space: objectives, activities, persons to be accommodated, space requirements, spatial relationships, equipment, and special environmental treatments. A list of specifics for administrative areas and food service areas are representative of decisions that must be…

  8. GT power generation stations in noise sensitive areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gambino, V.; Richarz, W. [Aercoustics Engineering Ltd., Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Noise impact must be quantified during the initial planning phase of a power plant because it may play a part in potential land acquisitions and system configuration. Noise control measures are required at gas turbine power generating stations located in noise sensitive areas. This study used graphs to illustrate that assigning noise control priorities may be complicated. Noise ranking with respect to the contribution of sound power was plotted against the ranking with respect to the contribution of sound pressure levels. Noise impact estimates based on a simplistic source model tend to over-predict the actual sound levels. More detailed emission models are needed during the initial planning phase to help assess the cost of any noise controls. The methodology described in this paper was developed to help the developer during the planning phases to determine the relative contribution of various components to the overall sound and to mitigate excessive noise. 4 tabs., 7 figs.

  9. Results of seismological observations in the western Kaliningrad region and in the Baltic Sea water area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovachev, S. A.

    2008-09-01

    In 2006 2007, researchers of the IO RAS conducted seismological observations in the Baltic Sea and western Kaliningrad region with the use of ocean-bottom and land-based autonomous seismic stations. According to maps of general seismic zoning of the territory of Russia, the Kaliningrad region is aseismic. However, a series of seismic phenomena with magnitudes of about 5 and sources located near the Bay of Gdansk coast occurred here in September 2004. The total duration of the IO RAS seismological observations in five areas of the region under investigation was more than 200 days. The analysis of seismic records of the IO RAS network located sources of two local weak earthquakes with magnitudes M L = 3.4 3.5, which indicates that the seismic process in the western part of the Kaliningrad region continues and the region is far from being seismically stable.

  10. Measurement of radioactivity in an elevated radiation background area of Western Ghats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manigandan P.K.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As part of monitoring the exposure of the general public to natural radioactivity, the activity concentration of naturally occurring radionuclides in soil samples in an elevated radiation background area of Western Ghats was determined using gamma-ray spectrometry. Average values of the activity concentration of radionuclides, outdoor terrestrial gamma dose rate, annual effective dose equivalent and radiation hazard indices from soil activity were estimated. The activity concentrations of 232Th and average outdoor terrestrial gamma dose rate were found to be higher than the world average, possibly affecting the Western Ghats environment in general. Therefore, radiological risks to the general population from ionizing radiation from the naturally occurring radionuclides in the soil are considered to be significant. How- ever, other radiological hazard indices were found to be within permissible limits.

  11. Area and power efficient DCT architecture for image compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhandapani, Vaithiyanathan; Ramachandran, Seshasayanan

    2014-12-01

    The discrete cosine transform (DCT) is one of the major components in image and video compression systems. The final output of these systems is interpreted by the human visual system (HVS), which is not perfect. The limited perception of human visualization allows the algorithm to be numerically approximate rather than exact. In this paper, we propose a new matrix for discrete cosine transform. The proposed 8 × 8 transformation matrix contains only zeros and ones which requires only adders, thus avoiding the need for multiplication and shift operations. The new class of transform requires only 12 additions, which highly reduces the computational complexity and achieves a performance in image compression that is comparable to that of the existing approximated DCT. Another important aspect of the proposed transform is that it provides an efficient area and power optimization while implementing in hardware. To ensure the versatility of the proposal and to further evaluate the performance and correctness of the structure in terms of speed, area, and power consumption, the model is implemented on Xilinx Virtex 7 field programmable gate array (FPGA) device and synthesized with Cadence® RTL Compiler® using UMC 90 nm standard cell library. The analysis obtained from the implementation indicates that the proposed structure is superior to the existing approximation techniques with a 30% reduction in power and 12% reduction in area.

  12. Coupling interaction between biodiversity and aquatic habitat area in Western Route Project vicinity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi-min TIAN; Zhao-yin WANG; Xiang-jun LIU; Shi-kui LIANG

    2010-01-01

    The Western Route of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project will divert water from the upper Yangtze River and its tributaries,the Dadu River and Yalong River,to the upper Yellow River.The project may ease the water shortage in the Yellow River Basin.However,it may also have some effects on the ecosystem in the upper Yangtze River Basin.Benthic invertebrates play an important role in the river ecosystem,particularly in the circulation of materials and nutrition.Benthic invertebrates are widely used to quickly assess river ecosystems because of their rapid response to changes in the water environment.The diversity of benthic invertebrates is closely associated with the aquatic habitat area.This study examined this interaction by sampling the benthic invertebrates in an expanding area.The conclusions are that the diversity of benthic invertebrates begins to decrease when the aquatic habitat area is reduced to 45% of the original area,and decreases dramatically when the aquatic habitat area is reduced to 10% of the original area.The aquatic habitat area should be kept at more than 45% of the original area in order to maintain the significant diversity of benthic invertebrates.

  13. Study of hybrid power system potential to power agricultural water pump in mountain area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syuhada, Ahmad, E-mail: syuhada-mech@yahoo.com; Mubarak, Amir Zaki, E-mail: amir-zaki-mubarak@yahoo.com; Maulana, M. Ilham, E-mail: mil2ana@yahoo.com [Mechanical Engineering Department, Engineering Faculty, Syiah Kuala University Jl. Syech Abdul Rauf No.7 Darussalam Banda Aceh 23111 (Indonesia)

    2016-03-29

    As industry and Indonesian economy grow fast, there are a lot of agricultural land has changed into housing and industrial land. This causes the agricultural land moves to mountain area. In mountainous agricultural area, farmers use the water resources of small rivers in the groove of the mountain to irrigate the farmland. Farmers use their power to lift up water from the river to their land which causes inefectivity in the work of the farmers. Farmers who have capital utilize pump to raise water to their land. The only way to use pump in mountain area is by using fuel energy as there is no electricity, and the fuel price in mountain area is very expensive. Based on those reasons it is wise to consider the exploration of renewable energy available in the area such as solar energy, wind energy and hybrid energy. This study analyses the potential of the application of hybrid power plant, which is the combination of solar and wind energy, to power agricultural pump. In this research, the data of wind speed and solar radiation are collected from the measurement of BMKG SMPK Plus Sare. Related to the solar energy, the photovoltaic output power calculation is 193 W with duration of irradiation of 5 hours/day. While for the wind energy, the output power of the wind turbine is 459.84 W with blade diameter of 3 m and blow duration of 7 hours/day. The power of the pump is 558 W with 8 hours of usage, and the water capacity is 2.520 liters/hour for farmland with the area of 15 ha. Based on the analysis result, the designed system will generate electricity of 3.210 kW/year with initial investment of US$ 14,938.

  14. Study of hybrid power system potential to power agricultural water pump in mountain area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syuhada, Ahmad; Mubarak, Amir Zaki; Maulana, M. Ilham

    2016-03-01

    As industry and Indonesian economy grow fast, there are a lot of agricultural land has changed into housing and industrial land. This causes the agricultural land moves to mountain area. In mountainous agricultural area, farmers use the water resources of small rivers in the groove of the mountain to irrigate the farmland. Farmers use their power to lift up water from the river to their land which causes inefectivity in the work of the farmers. Farmers who have capital utilize pump to raise water to their land. The only way to use pump in mountain area is by using fuel energy as there is no electricity, and the fuel price in mountain area is very expensive. Based on those reasons it is wise to consider the exploration of renewable energy available in the area such as solar energy, wind energy and hybrid energy. This study analyses the potential of the application of hybrid power plant, which is the combination of solar and wind energy, to power agricultural pump. In this research, the data of wind speed and solar radiation are collected from the measurement of BMKG SMPK Plus Sare. Related to the solar energy, the photovoltaic output power calculation is 193 W with duration of irradiation of 5 hours/day. While for the wind energy, the output power of the wind turbine is 459.84 W with blade diameter of 3 m and blow duration of 7 hours/day. The power of the pump is 558 W with 8 hours of usage, and the water capacity is 2.520 liters/hour for farmland with the area of 15 ha. Based on the analysis result, the designed system will generate electricity of 3.210 kW/year with initial investment of US 14,938.

  15. Assessing Climate Change Impacts on Electric Power Generation in the Western Interconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartos, M. D.; Chester, M.

    2014-12-01

    In recent years, concerns have grown over the potential impacts of climate change on electricity generation. Water resources are integral to the production of thermoelectric and hydroelectric power, and droughts are expected to become more frequent, severe, and longer-lasting over the course of the twenty-first century. Many generation technologies—including gas turbines and solar cells—are also vulnerable to changes in local climatic conditions like ambient air temperature. As extreme weather becomes more common, methods are needed to assess the impacts of climate change on regional power systems. However, these methods must also account for (1) heterogeneity in generation technologies, and (2) local variation in climatic conditions. This study uses a physically-based modeling system to assess the vulnerability of electric power infrastructure in the Western Interconnection. Climatic and hydrologic parameters relevant to power generation are identified for six generation technologies. Downscaled climate forcings are then used as inputs to a physically-based modeling system, consisting of the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrological model and the RBM one-dimensional stream temperature model. Impacts to generating capacity are estimated directly from changes in modeled climatic and hydrologic parameters, using functional relationships unique to each generating technology. A preliminary analysis of 1,302 power stations in the Western Interconnection reveals decreases in summertime generating capacity of 8-22%, with the largest impacts occurring at thermoelectric and hydroelectric facilities in the Pacific Northwest and California. Impacts to base-load thermoelectric plants are mitigated by recirculating cooling systems, which reduce the performance penalty of low flows and high water temperatures. Climate impacts on solar and wind capacity are relatively small, indicating that these energy sources may play a more prominent role as conventional generation

  16. The Reform of School Administrator Preparation: The Western Kentucky University Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, H. D.; And Others

    The myriad of educational reforms directed toward increased quality will drastically change the responsibilities of school principals. To make a consequential contribution to improving the effectiveness of public school education in Kentucky by preparing more effective leaders for administrative positions, a new principal preparation program at…

  17. Optimizing the power of transformer substations in electric supply to the oil fields of Western Siberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nissenbaum, I.A.; Kudryashov, R.A.; Novoselov, Yu.B.; Sud, I.N.

    1983-01-01

    The problems which come up in designing substations for electricity supply grids for the oil fields in Western Siberia in determining their capacity are examined. A technique is proposed for technical and economic selection of the capacity of substations with consideration of the specifications for design documentation. The issues of rating loads on transformer substations and their prediction are examined. A technique for considering the overloading capability of transformers and their wear at the design load is presented. An example of power drop of an oil field, 35/6 kilovolt voltage substation is cited.

  18. Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogen handler om den praksis, vi kalder administration. Vi er i den offentlige sektor i Danmark hos kontorfolkene med deres sagsmapper, computere, telefoner,, lovsamlinger,, retningslinier og regneark. I bogen udfoldes en mangfoldighed af konkrete historier om det administrative arbejde fra...... forskellige områder i den offentlige sektor. Hensigten er at forstå den praksis og faglighed der knytter sig til det administrative arbejde...

  19. On Administrative Prosecutorial Power%论行政检察权

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小东

    2014-01-01

    目前,我国学术界对行政检察权的界定大多停留在检察机关对行政诉讼所实施的监督方面,缺少了对行政行为的监督的界定。既然检察机关是宪法所规定的法定的法律监督机关,那么行政检察权就应当包含对行政诉讼和行政行为的监督,对行政行为的监督主要体现为提起行政诉讼。这一方面是履行检察机关的法律监督职能,另一方面能够更好的保护行政相对人的合法权益,有利于加强对行政行为的检察监督,也有利于增强行政执法的公信力。%At present,the academic definitions of administrative prosecutorial power mostly stay in the prosecutorial supervision over the implementation of the administrative proceedings,without the consideration of the definition of administrative action supervision. Since prosecutors are statutory legal supervisory authority by the Constitution, then the administrative supervision of prosecutorial power should contain administrative proceedings and administra-tive acts,supervision of administrative acts mainly as administrative proceedings. This aspect is to perform legal su-pervision prosecution,as well as to better protect the legitimate rights and interests administrative counterpart. It is conducive to strengthen the prosecutorial supervision of administrative acts,and to enhance the credibility of law enforcement.

  20. Low-power secure body area network for vital sensors toward IEEE802.15.6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Masahiro; Qiu, Shuye; Tochikubo, Osamu

    2009-01-01

    Many healthcare/medical services have started using personal area networks, such as Bluetooth and ZigBee; these networks consist of various types of vital sensors. These works focus on generalized functions for sensor networks that expect enough battery capacity and low-power CPU/RF (Radio Frequency) modules, but less attention to easy-to-use privacy protection. In this paper, we propose a commercially-deployable secure body area network (S-BAN) with reduced computational burden on a real sensor that has limited RAM/ROM sizes and CPU/RF power consumption under a light-weight battery. Our proposed S-BAN provides vital data ordering among sensors that are involved in an S-BAN and also provides low-power networking with zero-administration security by automatic private key generation. We design and implement the power-efficient media access control (MAC) with resource-constraint security in sensors. Then, we evaluate the power efficiency of the S-BAN consisting of small sensors, such as an accessory type ECG and ring-type SpO2. The evaluation of power efficiency of the S-BAN using real sensors convinces us in deploying S-BAN and will also help us in providing feedbacks to the IEEE802.15.6 MAC, which will be the standard for BANs.

  1. Analysis on Variations of the Temperature and Precipitation in North Slope Area of the Western Tianshan in Recent 50 Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective]The research aimed to analyze variation characteristics of the temperature and precipitation in north slope area of the Western Tianshan in recent 50 years.[Method] According to temperature and rainfall data from 1961 to 2010 at three meteorological stations in north slope area of the Western Tianshan,climate change in the zone in recent 50 years was analyzed by using linear trend analysis method and 5-year sliding average method.[Result] The temperature in north slope area of the Western Tiansha...

  2. Butterflies (Lepidoptera of the Kameng Protected Area Complex, western Arunachal Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Sondhi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The butterflies of the Kameng Protected Area Complex in western Arunachal Pradesh, India, covering the protected areas of Eaglenest Wildlife Sanctuary, Pakke Tiger Reserve and Sessa Orchid Wildlife Sanctuary were surveyed over a 5-year period (2009–2014.  A total of 421 butterfly species were recorded during the survey, including two species new to India (Gonepteryx amintha thibetana and Bhutanitis ludlowi and several species rediscoveries and range extensions in the Eastern Himalaya, most notably Arhopala belphoebe, Sovia separata magna, Aulocera saraswati vishnu, Calinaga aborica, Callerebia annada annada, and Callerebria scanda opima.  Here we provide an annotated checklist of butterflies of the Kameng Protected Area Complex, including historical records, distributions, abundance, habitats and other notes on these 421 species. An additional 42 species recorded in older literature or by other authors in recent times are also listed, taking the total number of species recorded in the landscape to 463.  

  3. Large area solar power heliostat array for OSETI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covault, Corbin E.

    2001-08-01

    Current OSETI programs make use of optical telescopes with light collection areas on the order of 10 square meters or less. The small collection area limits the ultimate sensitivity achievable to low-intensity signals. However, solar power facilities such as the National Solar Thermal Test Facility (NSTTF) provide the potential for a much larger collecting area. The NSTTF is operated at by the Department of Energy at Sandia National Laboratories for research in solar power development and testing. The NSTTF site includes over 200 fully steerable mirrors (called heliostats) each providing 37 square meters of collecting area. This facility is currently being used at night for gamma-ray astronomy. The STACEE experiment makes use of 64 heliostats to detect nanosecond flashes of optical Cherenkov light associated with gamma-ray air showers from the top of the atmosphere. The STACEE experiment has been in operation since 1998 and has already detected gamma-rays from the Crab Nebula. In principle, the STACEE experiment can be operated with minor modifications to detect OSETI signals on the ground at a photon density of less than two optical photons per square meter per pulse. We summarize performance results from the STACEE experiment, and we discuss the sensitivity of a hypothetical future STACEE-OSETI experiment with particular attention to potential sources of background.

  4. Site insolation and wind power characteristics: technical report western region (north section)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-08-01

    This phase of the Site Insolation and Wind Power Characteristics Study was performed to provide statistical information on the expected future availability of solar and wind power at various sites in the Western Region (North Section) of the US Historic data (SOLMET), at 21 National Weather Service stations with hourly solar insolation and collateral meteorological information, were interrogated to provide an estimate of future trends. Solar data are global radiation incident on a horizontal surface, and wind data represent wind power normal to the air flow. Selected insolation and wind power conditions were investigated for their occurrence and persistence, for defined periods of time, on a monthly basis. Global horizontal insolation is related to inclined surfaces at each site. Ratios are provided, monthly, for multiplying global insolation to obtain insolation estimates on south-facing surfaces inclined at different angles with respect to the horizontal. Also, joint probability distribution tables are constructed showing the number of occurrences, out of a finite sample size, of daily average solar and wind power within selected intervals, by month. Information of this nature is intended as an aid to preliminary planning activities for the design and operation of solar and wind energy utilization and conversion systems.

  5. Site insolation and wind power characteristics: technical report western region (south section)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-08-01

    This phase of the Site Insolation and Wind Power Characteristics Study was performed to provide statistical information on the expected future availability of solar and wind power at various sites in the Western Region (South Section) of the US Historic data (SOLMET), at 22 National Weather Service stations with hourly solar insolation and collateral meteorological information, were interrogated to provide an estimate of future trends. Solar data are global radiation incident on a horizontal surface, and wind data represent wind power normal to the air flow. Selected insolation and wind power conditions were investigated for their occurrence and persistence, for defined periods of time, on a monthly basis. Global horizontal insolation is related to inclined surfaces at each site. Ratios are provided, monthly, for multiplying global insolation to obtain insolation estimates on south-facing surfaces inclined at different angles with respect to the horizontal. Also, joint probability distribution tables are constructed showing the number of occurrences, out of a finite sample size, of daily average solar and wind power within selected intervals, by month. Information of this nature is intended as an aid to preliminary planning activities for the design and operation of solar and wind energy utilization and conversion systems.

  6. Educational Administrative Guidelines in the Schools under the Secondary Education Service Area 20

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanruethai Nammala

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This research has objective to (1 study the current situation of the educational administration in the schools (2 study the problem of educational administration (3 compare the current situation and the problem of educational administration and (4 propose the guidelines to develop the educational administration in the schools. The examples in this research are the 111 administrators and 342 teachers. These samples are selected by the Stratified Random Sampling Methods. For key informants, there are 3 administrators by direct selection and 3 of the educational affairs. The research methods including ; one questionnaire survey of educational administration in the school by using rating scale to evaluate, which has reliability 0.96 and one interview questionnaire of educational administration in the school. The statistics to analyst the information is in the form of percentage, average, deviation and use one way- ANOVA test. The research found that 1. The situation of educational administration in the school under the secondary school service area 20, in general and each domain, is high practical level, appraisal evaluation, compare and transfer education results domain is in high practical level ; following by learning development domains ; curriculum development domain ; media development domain ; innovation and educational technology domain ; educational supervision domain and leaning center development domain. 2. The problem of educational administration in the school under the secondary school service area 20, in general and each domain, is in less level including ; curriculum domain has most problems, following by leaning process development domain, appraisal, evaluation, compare and transfer education results domain, media development domain ; innovation and educational technology domain and educational supervision domain. 3. The schools, under the secondary school service area 20, have different size, situation and problems of educational

  7. A Study on Snowstorm Weather in Coastal Area of Western Antarctic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Yaorong; Xue Zhenhe; Xu Cong

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, based on the observational data of 1995 in the Chinese Antarctic Great Wall Station the snowstorm is studied synoptically. It is found that there are two kinds of snowstorms with different physical characteristics and that the happening of snowstorm is always accompanied by a near-ground level inversion layer. The function of the inversion layer is analyzed, too. It is indicated that the strong ESE-wind type snowstorm is mainly caused by katabatic wind and gradient wind together. This idea is new and different from the general concept that there is no katabatic wind in the western Antarctic area.

  8. Integration of Vehicle-to-Grid in Western Danish Power System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2011-01-01

    capabilities of large power plants in the future, demands for new balancing solutions like Vehicle-to-Grid systems. In this article, aggregated electric vehicle based battery storage representing a Vehicle-to-Grid system is modelled for the use in long term dynamic power system simulations. Further...... Transmission) control areas are significantly minimized by the faster up and down regulation characteristics of the electric vehicle battery storage....

  9. Remote Area Power Supply (RAPS) load and resource profiles.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giles, Lauren (Energetics, Inc., Washington, DC); Skolnik, Edward G. (Energetics, Inc., Washington, DC); Marchionini, Brian (Energetics, Inc., Washington, DC); Fall, Ndeye K. (Energetics, Inc., Washington, DC)

    2007-07-01

    In 1997, an international team interested in the development of Remote Area Power Supply (RAPS) systems for rural electrification projects around the world was organized by the International Lead Zinc Research Organization (ILZRO) with the support of Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The team focused on defining load and resource profiles for RAPS systems. They identified single family homes, small communities, and villages as candidates for RAPS applications, and defined several different size/power requirements for each. Based on renewable energy and resource data, the team devised a ''strawman'' series of load profiles. A RAPS system typically consists of a renewable and/or conventional generator, power conversion equipment, and a battery. The purpose of this report is to present data and information on insolation levels and load requirements for ''typical'' homes, small communities, and larger villages around the world in order to facilitate the development of robust design practices for RAPS systems, and especially for the storage battery component. These systems could have significant impact on areas of the world that would otherwise not be served by conventional electrical grids.

  10. 78 FR 9936 - Federal Housing Administration (FHA): PowerSaver Home Energy Retrofit Loan Pilot Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-12

    ..., 2011, HUD published a notice at 76 FR 17936 that announced HUD's FHA Home Energy Retrofit Loan Pilot... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Federal Housing Administration (FHA): PowerSaver Home Energy Retrofit Loan Pilot Program: Extension of Pilot Program AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Housing--Federal...

  11. Relationship between School Administrators' Organizational Power Sources and Teachers' Organizational Citizenship Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altinkurt, Yahya; Yilmaz, Kursad

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of the research was to determine correlation between school administrators' organizational power sources and teachers' organizational citizenship behaviors in primary schools. The research was a correlational survey model study. 275 participants were randomly chosen for the research. The data were collected by…

  12. The Prediction Power of Servant and Ethical Leadership Behaviours of Administrators on Teachers' Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güngör, Semra Kiranli

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify servant leadership and ethical leadership behaviors of administrators and the prediction power of these behaviors on teachers' job satisfaction according to the views of schoolteachers. This research, figured in accordance with the quantitative research processes. The target population of the research has…

  13. Enhancing synchronization stability in a multi-area power grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bing; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2016-05-01

    Maintaining a synchronous state of generators is of central importance to the normal operation of power grids, in which many networks are generally interconnected. In order to understand the condition under which the stability can be optimized, it is important to relate network stability with feedback control strategies as well as network structure. Here, we present a stability analysis on a multi-area power grid by relating it with several control strategies and topological design of network structure. We clarify the minimal feedback gain in the self-feedback control, and build the optimal communication network for the local and global control strategies. Finally, we consider relationship between the interconnection pattern and the synchronization stability; by optimizing the network interlinks, the obtained network shows better synchronization stability than the original network does, in particular, at a high power demand. Our analysis shows that interlinks between spatially distant nodes will improve the synchronization stability. The results seem unfeasible to be implemented in real systems but provide a potential guide for the design of stable power systems.

  14. SOLAR TO AC POWER SOURCE FOR REMOTE AREAS USING SEIG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MEHMET AKBABA

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic generators (PVG are increasingly used to provide electricity in remote areas. However, in many applications the DC generated electricity by a PVG need to be converted to AC. Traditionally DC to AC inverters have been widely used for this purpose. In this paper, a different system is proposed in which a self excited induction generator (SEIG driven by a permanent magnet DC motor (DCM and powered from a PVG through a maximum power point tracker (MPPT are used. A step-up chopper is utilized as an MPPT unit. The proposed system is modelled in time domain, and a detailed transient and steady-state analysis are presented. The main reason behind analyzing the system in the time domain is because of the fact that for unknown speeds, the methods developed for steady-state analysis of SEIGs can not be applied. The presented work shows that the full available power of the PVG can be harnessed by selecting suitable values for the duty cycle and the frequency of the step up chopper and the excitation capacitor of the SEIG. It is also shown that with such a combination power utilization efficiency of more than 83% can be achieved.

  15. Operation of Concentrating Solar Power Plants in the Western Wind and Solar Integration Phase 2 Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, P.; Brinkman, G.; Lew, D.; Hummon, M.

    2014-05-01

    The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS) explores various aspects of the challenges and impacts of integrating large amounts of wind and solar energy into the electric power system of the West. The phase 2 study (WWSIS-2) is one of the first to include dispatchable concentrating solar power (CSP) with thermal energy storage (TES) in multiple scenarios of renewable penetration and mix. As a result, it provides unique insights into CSP plant operation, grid benefits, and how CSP operation and configuration may need to change under scenarios of increased renewable penetration. Examination of the WWSIS-2 results indicates that in all scenarios, CSP plants with TES provides firm system capacity, reducing the net demand and the need for conventional thermal capacity. The plants also reduced demand during periods of short-duration, high ramping requirements that often require use of lower efficiency peaking units. Changes in CSP operation are driven largely by the presence of other solar generation, particularly PV. Use of storage by the CSP plants increases in the higher solar scenarios, with operation of the plant often shifted to later in the day. CSP operation also becomes more variable, including more frequent starts. Finally, CSP output is often very low during the day in scenarios with significant PV, which helps decrease overall renewable curtailment (over-generation). However, the configuration studied is likely not optimal for High Solar Scenario implying further analysis of CSP plant configuration is needed to understand its role in enabling high renewable scenarios in the Western United States.

  16. The Greenland analogue project. Geomodel version 1 of the Kangerlussuaq area on Western Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engstroem, J.; Paananen, M. [GTK Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Klint, K.E. [GEUS Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2012-02-15

    During the 2nd annual Greenland Analogue Project modelling workshop in Toronto, November 2010, the hydrological modellers requested an updated geological map and structural model of the field area around Kangerlussuaq, Western Greenland. This report presents an updated GAP Geomodel which utilizes all available information in order to improve the accuracy of the model, especially beneath the ice-sheet. The modelling area was divided into two scales: The regional scale area and the site scale area. The site scale refers to the area were surface mapping has been performed, and where two drillholes (DH-GAP01 and DH-GAP03) were drilled during 2009. Geological and topographical maps from GEUS (sub-model 1) and data extracted from the Geophysical map, GEUS, (sub-model 2) were used in the process to develop GAP Geomodel version 1. These two interpretations were independent from each other and in the final stage these sub-models were integrated and developed into GAP Geological model version 1. The integration resulted in a total of 158 lineaments. These lineaments are referred in the final model as deformation zones and faults, where deformation zones are larger features and faults are single fractures indicating some sense of movement. Four different sets of deformation zones and faults were identified in the regional area. The most prominent feature is the ductile/brittle roughly ENE-WSW trending zones crosscutting the whole area; referred as Type 1. Type 2 and Type 3 zones are in general smaller scale than Type 1 and mostly dominated by brittle deformation. The Type 2 system generally trends NW-SE, while the Type 3 system generally trends NE-SW. The Type 4 features are a brittle and roughly N-S orientated younger system, thus crosscutting all other types. Confirmation and validation of the regional model is based on detailed surface-based examination of fractures within the site area, although the scale is different the same orientations were also identified in the

  17. The Greenland Analogue Project. Geomodel version 1 of the Kangerlussuaq area on Western Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engstroem, Jon; Paananen, Markku (Geological Survey of Finland (Finland)); Klint, Knud Erik (The National Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (Denmark))

    2012-02-15

    During the 2nd annual Greenland Analogue Project modelling workshop in Toronto, November 2010, the hydrological modellers requested an updated geological map and structural model of the field area around Kangerlussuaq, Western Greenland. This report presents an updated GAP geomodel which utilizes all available information in order to improve the accuracy of the model, especially beneath the ice sheet. The modelling area was divided into two scales: The regional scale area and the site scale area. The site scale refers to the area were surface mapping has been performed, and where two boreholes (DH-GAP01 and DH-GAP03) were drilled during 2009. Geological and topographical maps from GEUS (sub-model 1) and data extracted from the geophysical map, GEUS, (sub-model 2) were used in the process to develop GAP geomodel version 1. These two interpretations were independent from each other and in the final stage these sub-models were integrated and developed into GAP geological model version 1. The integration resulted in a total of 158 lineaments. These lineaments are referred in the final model as deformation zones and faults, where deformation zones are larger features and faults are single fractures indicating some sense of movement. Four different sets of deformation zones and faults were identified in the regional area. The most prominent feature is the ductile/brittle roughly ENE-WSW trending zones crosscutting the whole area, referred as Type 1. Type 2 and Type 3 zones are in general smaller scale than Type 1 and mostly dominated by brittle deformation. The Type 2 system generally trends NW-SE, while the Type 3 system generally trends NE-SW. The Type 4 features are a brittle and roughly N-S orientated younger system, thus crosscutting all other types. Confirmation and validation of the regional model is based on detailed surface-based examination of fractures within the site area, although the scale is different the same orientations were also identified in the

  18. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS ON THE POSSIBILITIES OF VEGETABLE GROWING IN THE AREA OF WESTERN CARPATHIAN MOUNTAINS FROM ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Al. Silviu APAHIDEAN; Maria APAHIDEAN; Florin PACURAR

    2004-01-01

    In the area of Western Carpathian Mountains, the vegetable growing is less extended and the assortment of vegetables is limited to few species with smaller necessities regarding the pedoclimatic conditions. This research presents the results obtained after testing a number of 25 species and varieties of vegetables in the specific conditions of the area of Glacier - Western Carpathian Mountains, at an altitude of 1150 m. From these, the following vegetables reacted very well: onion, winter oni...

  19. USGS mineral-resource assessment of Sagebrush Focal Areas in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, David G.; Frost, Thomas P.; Day, Warren C.; ,

    2016-10-04

    U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists have completed an assessment of the mineral-resource potential of nearly 10 million acres of Federal and adjacent lands in Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming. The assessment of these lands, identified as Sagebrush Focal Areas, was done at the request of the Bureau of Land Management. The assessment results will be used in the decision-making process that the Department of the Interior is pursuing toward the protection of large areas of contiguous sagebrush habitat for the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in the Western United States. The detailed results of this ambitious study are published in the five volumes of USGS Scientific Investigations Report 2016–5089 and seven accompanying data releases.

  20. 75 FR 1408 - Pick-Sloan Missouri Basin Program, Eastern and Western Division Proposed Project Use Power Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-11

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Pick-Sloan Missouri Basin Program, Eastern and Western Division Proposed Project Use Power Rate AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Proposed Pick-Sloan Missouri... Reclamation (Reclamation) is proposing a rate adjustment (proposed rate) for Project Use Power for the...

  1. Paleogene palaeogeography and basin evolution of the Western Carpathians, Northern Pannonian domain and adjoining areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kováč, Michal; Plašienka, Dušan; Soták, Ján; Vojtko, Rastislav; Oszczypko, Nestor; Less, György; Ćosović, Vlasta; Fügenschuh, Bernhard; Králiková, Silvia

    2016-05-01

    The data about the Paleogene basin evolution, palaeogeography, and geodynamics of the Western Carpathian and Northern Pannonian domains are summarized, re-evaluated, supplemented, and newly interpreted. The presented concept is illustrated by a series of palinspastic and palaeotopographic maps. The Paleogene development of external Carpathian zones reflects gradual subduction of several oceanic realms (Vahic, Iňačovce-Kričevo, Szolnok, Magura, and Silesian-Krosno) and growth of the orogenic accretionary wedge (Pieniny Klippen Belt, Iňačovce-Kričevo Unit, Szolnok Belt, and Outer Carpathian Flysch Belt). Evolution of the Central Western Carpathians is characterized by the Paleocene-Early Eocene opening of several wedge-top basins at the accretionary wedge tip, controlled by changing compressional, strike-slip, and extensional tectonic regimes. During the Lutetian, the diverging translations of the northward moving Eastern Alpine and north-east to eastward shifted Western Carpathian segment generated crustal stretching at the Alpine-Carpathian junction with foundation of relatively deep basins. These basins enabled a marine connection between the Magura oceanic realm and the Northern Pannonian domain, and later also with the Dinaridic foredeep. Afterwards, the Late Eocene compression brought about uplift and exhumation of the basement complexes at the Alpine-Carpathian junction. Simultaneously, the eastern margin of the stretched Central Western Carpathians underwent disintegration, followed by opening of a fore-arc basin - the Central Carpathian Paleogene Basin. In the Northern Hungarian Paleogene retro-arc basin, turbidites covered a carbonate platform in the same time. During the Early Oligocene, the rock uplift of the Alpine-Carpathian junction area continued and the Mesozoic sequences of the Danube Basin basement were removed, along with a large part of the Eocene Hungarian Paleogene Basin fill, while the retro-arc basin depocentres migrated toward the east

  2. EPA Administrator and San Francisco Bay Area government agencies celebrate nations largest solar energy partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    SAN FRANCISCO - Today, U.S. EPA Administrator Gina McCarthy joined Bay Area agencies to celebrate the Regional Renewable Energy Procurement Project (R-REP), the nation's largest solar energy government collaboration and the launch of the Federal Agg

  3. Socioeconomic area disparities in tobacco retail outlet density: a Western Australian analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Lisa J; Pereira, Gavin; Middleton, Nick; Foster, Sarah

    2013-05-20

    To examine the association between tobacco outlet density and area socioeconomic status (SES) in Western Australia. Ecological cross-sectional study investigating the relationship between the area SES of, and the density of tobacco retail outlets in, WA suburbs and towns for the Perth metropolitan area, and at the regional and state level. SES was determined using the 2006 Australian Bureau of Statistics Index of Relative Socioeconomic Advantage and Disadvantage (IRSAD) and classified into quartiles (very low, low, high and very high); tobacco outlet data were sourced from the WA Department of Health register of retailers licensed to sell tobacco at May 2011. Tobacco outlet density rate (per 10 000 residents). In WA overall, suburbs and towns with a very low IRSAD had more than four times the number of tobacco outlets compared with those with a very high IRSAD (P> number of tobacco outlets than those with a very high IRSAD (P> first Australian evidence of a strong relationship between area SES and tobacco outlet density. Findings are consistent with a number of United States studies that report higher tobacco outlet densities in lower SES or minority neighbourhoods. The results underscore the importance of policy approaches to limit the number of tobacco retail licences granted, and to reduce the geographic density of outlets in more disadvantaged suburbs and towns.

  4. Urban floods: a case study in the Savigliano area (North-Western Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Audisio

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Flood processes and effects are examined, concerning two rivers in an urbanized area in North-Western Italy (Piedmont – Cuneo Plain. In May 2008, some areas in Northern Italy were struck by intense and persistent rainfall. In the Cuneo province (Southern Piedmont, floodplain with some urban areas was inundated over ca. ten square kilometres, and the city of Savigliano (about 21 000 inhabitants was particularly hit by flood. A purposely-made historical research has evidenced approximately fifty flood events as having occurred since 1350 in the Savigliano area. Based upon historical data, both documents and maps, GIS (Geographical Information System technique and field surveys were used to quantitatively assess the growing urbanization of the city and to describe flood processes and effects over years. This work aims to describe the dynamic behaviour of the 2008 flood, also comparing it to past events, in particular those that occurred in 1896. It is emphasized how the knowledge of past events can be helpful in reducing urban flooding.

  5. Measurement-Based Investigation of Inter- and Intra-Area Effects of Wind Power Plant Integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, Alicia J.; Singh, Mohit; Muljadi, Eduard; Santoso, Surya

    2016-12-01

    This paper has a two pronged objective: the first objective is to analyze the general effects of wind power plant (WPP) integration and the resulting displacement of conventional power plant (CPP) inertia on power system stability and the second is to demonstrate the efficacy of PMU data in power system stability analyses, specifically when knowledge of the network is incomplete. Traditionally modal analysis applies small signal stability analysis based on Eigenvalues and the assumption of complete knowledge of the network and all of its components. The analysis presented here differs because it is a measurement-based investigation and employs simulated measurement data. Even if knowledge of the network were incomplete, this methodology would allow for monitoring and analysis of modes. This allows non-utility entities and study of power system stability. To generate inter- and intra-area modes, Kundur's well-known two-area four-generator system is modeled in PSCAD/EMTDC. A doubly-fed induction generator based WPP model, based on the Western Electricity Coordination Council (WECC) standard model, is included to analyze the effects of wind power on system modes. The two-area system and WPP are connected in various configurations with respect to WPP placement, CPP inertia and WPP penetration level. Analysis is performed on the data generated by the simulations. For each simulation run, a different configuration is chosen and a large disturbance is applied. The sampling frequency is set to resemble the sampling frequency at which data is available from phasor measurement units (PMUs). The estimate of power spectral density of these signals is made using the Yule-Walker algorithm. The resulting analysis shows that the presence of a WPP does not, of itself, lead to the introduction of new modes. The analysis also shows however that displacement of inertia may lead to introduction of new modes. The effects of location of inertia displacement (i.e. the effects on

  6. Wide-area situation awareness in electric power grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greitzer, Frank L.

    2010-04-28

    Two primary elements of the US energy policy are demand management and efficiency and renewable sources. Major objectives are clean energy transmission and integration, reliable energy transmission, and grid cyber security. Development of the Smart Grid seeks to achieve these goals by lowering energy costs for consumers, achieving energy independence and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The Smart Grid is expected to enable real time wide-area situation awareness (SA) for operators. Requirements for wide-area SA have been identified among interoperability standards proposed by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission and the National Institute of Standards and Technology to ensure smart-grid functionality. Wide-area SA and enhanced decision support and visualization tools are key elements in the transformation to the Smart Grid. This paper discusses human factors research to promote SA in the electric power grid and the Smart Grid. Topics that will be discussed include the role of human factors in meeting US energy policy goals, the impact and challenges for Smart Grid development, and cyber security challenges.

  7. 78 FR 79444 - Loveland Area Projects-2025 Power Marketing Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-30

    ..., with amendments to key marketing plan principles. Western's proposed 2025 PMI was published in the... customers the opportunity to review current marketing plan principles and provide informal input to Western for consideration in the 2025 PMI proposal. Key marketing plan principles discussed with FES...

  8. Application of Rare Earth Phosphate Fertilizer in Western Area of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Rare earth phosphate fertilizer (REPF) as base fertilizer (750 kg per hm2) was applied in the western area of China during the "Tenth Five-Year Plan", and the results show as follows: compared with calcium superphosphate (CK), REPF increases crops yields for maize by 17.0%, for rice by 10.5%, for wheat by 24.2%, for potato by 18.5%, for cabbage by 16.3%, for Chinese cabbage by 16.4%, for beet by 6.5%; decreases the diseased plant rate for common smut of maize by 1.0%, for maize stalk rot by 1.2%, for wheat take-all disease by 7.8%, for wheat root rot by 3.2%, for potato blackleg disease by 1.4%, for potato late blight by 6.6%; increases the sugar content of beet by 0.9°S.

  9. An Analysis of the Development of Renewable Energy Sources in the Western Minority Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deng Yanfei; Liu Mingyang

    2016-01-01

    The biggest challenge for China’s energy is sustainability of the environment. Espe-cially in recent years, global warming, frequent natural disasters, and the serious reduction of the natural resources and energy are gravely affecting normal production and mankind’s existence. Burn-ing large amounts of fossil fuel produces green-house gases and polluted soot. The development and utilization of renewable energy is extremely ur-gent. In other words, renewable energy sources must grow briskly. Under the guidance of the na-tional policy of the“13 th Five Year Plan”, the de-velopment and utilization of renewable energy sources in the Western Minority Areas must be strengthened based on local conditions, by paying attention to relevant personnel training, and en-couraging innovation and entrepreneurship so that the development of local renewable energy sources can reach a new level.

  10. Alaska Power Administration combined financial statements, schedules and supplemental reports, September 30, 1995 and 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    This report presents the results of the independent certified public accountant`s audit of the Department of Energy`s Alaska Power Administration`s (Alaska) financial statements as of September 30, 1995. The auditors have expressed an unqualified opinion on the 1995 statements. Their reports on Alaska`s internal control structure and on compliance with laws and regulations are also provided. The Alaska Power Administration operates and maintains two hydroelectric projects that include five generator units, three power tunnels and penstocks, and over 88 miles of transmission line. Additional information about Alaska Power Administration is provided in the notes to the financial statements. The 1995 financial statement audit was made under the provisions of the Inspector General Act (5 U.S.C. App.), as amended, the Chief Financial Officers (CFO) Act (31 U.S.C. 1500), and Office of Management and Budget implementing guidance to the CFO Act. The auditor`s work was conducted in accordance with generally accepted government auditing standards. To fulfill the audit responsibilities, the authors contracted with the independent public accounting firm of KPMG Peat Marwick (KPMG) to conduct the audit for us, subject to review. The auditor`s report on Alaska`s internal control structure disclosed no reportable conditions that could have a material effect on the financial statements. The auditor also considered the overview and performance measure data for completeness and material consistency with the basic financial statements, as noted in the internal control report. The auditor`s report on compliance with laws and regulations disclosed no instances of noncompliance by Alaska.

  11. Building Sustainable Industrial Areas: Experience and Perspectives from the Mediterranean and Western Balkan Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Preka

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available An EU research project (Mediterranean Eco-Industrial Development, (MEID whichinvolves different actors from Mediterranean and Western Balkans region, is currently inprogress. Its general objective is to provide innovative management figures and a decisionsupport tool (model to plan, build and manage more competitive Sustainable IndustrialAreas (SIA in the involved region.In order to correspond to a coherent solution, an accurate research has been performed.The methodology implemented to detect the main issues under survey has been a SWOTanalysis of several target IAs.Following its results, there have been defined the most relevant aspects aiming atsustainability of IAs in the area. The model introduces or encourages the continuousimprovement of environmental performances of the Mediterranean industrial areas in thefollowing fields: integrating production and dismissal of solid wastes, energy saving anduse of renewable energies, reducing water consumption, better viability and avoid thedeposit of dangerous material. Thanks to this “green approach”, SMEs will be the finalbeneficiaries, fostered to eco-innovation, competitiveness and transnational cooperation.This paper presents the general context and results of the MEID project.

  12. Determining the groundwater potential recharge zone and karst springs catchment area: Saldoran region, western Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, Gholam Hossein; Bagheri, Rahim; Rahimi, Fahimeh

    2016-12-01

    Assessing the groundwater recharge potential zone and differentiation of the spring catchment area are extremely important to effective management of groundwater systems and protection of water quality. The study area is located in the Saldoran karstic region, western Iran. It is characterized by a high rate of precipitation and recharge via highly permeable fractured karstic formations. Pire-Ghar, Sarabe-Babaheydar and Baghe-rostam are three major karstic springs which drain the Saldoran anticline. The mean discharge rate and electrical conductivity values for these springs were 3, 1.9 and 0.98 m3/s, and 475, 438 and 347 μS/cm, respectively. Geology, hydrogeology and geographical information system (GIS) methods were used to define the catchment areas of the major karstic springs and to map recharge zones in the Saldoran anticline. Seven major influencing factors on groundwater recharge rates (lithology, slope value and aspect, drainage, precipitation, fracture density and karstic domains) were integrated using GIS. Geology maps and field verification were used to determine the weights of factors. The final map was produced to reveal major zones of recharge potential. More than 80 % of the study area is terrain that has a recharge rate of 55-70 % (average 63 %). Evaluating the water budget of Saldoran Mountain showed that the total volume of karst water emerging from the Saldoran karst springs is equal to the total annual recharge on the anticline. Therefore, based on the geological and hydrogeological investigations, the catchment area of the mentioned karst springs includes the whole Saldoran anticline.

  13. Determining the groundwater potential recharge zone and karst springs catchment area: Saldoran region, western Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, Gholam Hossein; Bagheri, Rahim; Rahimi, Fahimeh

    2016-08-01

    Assessing the groundwater recharge potential zone and differentiation of the spring catchment area are extremely important to effective management of groundwater systems and protection of water quality. The study area is located in the Saldoran karstic region, western Iran. It is characterized by a high rate of precipitation and recharge via highly permeable fractured karstic formations. Pire-Ghar, Sarabe-Babaheydar and Baghe-rostam are three major karstic springs which drain the Saldoran anticline. The mean discharge rate and electrical conductivity values for these springs were 3, 1.9 and 0.98 m3/s, and 475, 438 and 347 μS/cm, respectively. Geology, hydrogeology and geographical information system (GIS) methods were used to define the catchment areas of the major karstic springs and to map recharge zones in the Saldoran anticline. Seven major influencing factors on groundwater recharge rates (lithology, slope value and aspect, drainage, precipitation, fracture density and karstic domains) were integrated using GIS. Geology maps and field verification were used to determine the weights of factors. The final map was produced to reveal major zones of recharge potential. More than 80 % of the study area is terrain that has a recharge rate of 55-70 % (average 63 %). Evaluating the water budget of Saldoran Mountain showed that the total volume of karst water emerging from the Saldoran karst springs is equal to the total annual recharge on the anticline. Therefore, based on the geological and hydrogeological investigations, the catchment area of the mentioned karst springs includes the whole Saldoran anticline.

  14. The English Education in Primary Schools in Minor Ethnic Areas in Western China--Taking Leshan City as an Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bing, Wang

    2016-01-01

    As we all know, China is a country with many ethnic minorities mainly living in the northeastern and southwestern China. The English education in the primary schools in these areas is an important issue. The article analyzes the status quo of English education in primary schools in minor ethnic areas, taking the Leshan city, a western one as an…

  15. 77 FR 40081 - Gulf of Mexico, Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Western Planning Area (WPA) and Central Planning...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Gulf of Mexico, Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Western Planning Area (WPA) and Central Planning Area (CPA), Oil and Gas Lease Sales for 2012-2017 AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean...

  16. How School Choice Is Framed by Parental Preferences and Family Characteristics: A Study of Western Area, Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Pauline; Humble, Steve

    2017-01-01

    This research set out to investigate how, in a post-conflict area, parental preferences and household characteristics affect school choice for their children. A multinomial logit is used to model the relationship between education preferences and the selection of schools for 954 households in Freetown and neighboring districts, Western Area,…

  17. 76 FR 47228 - Redelegation of Authority to Office of Native American Program (ONAP) Area Office Administrators...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    ... Development Act, as amended, provides authority to the Secretary to delegate functions, powers, and duties as... Secretary for Public and Indian Housing delegates authority, through the General Deputy Assistant Secretary... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Redelegation of Authority to Office of Native American Program (ONAP) Area Office...

  18. Hydrogeology of the western part of the Salt River Valley area, Maricopa County, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James G.; Pool, D.R.

    1989-01-01

    The Salt River Valley is a major population and agricultural center of more than 3,000 mi2 in central Arizona (fig. 1). The western part of the Salt River Valley area (area of this report) covers about 1,500 mi2. The Phoenix metropolitan area with a population of more than 1.6 million in 1985 (Valley National Bank, 1987) is located within the valley. The watersheds of the Salt, Verde, and Agua Fria Rivers provide the valley with a reliable but limited surface-water supply that must be augmented with ground water even in years of plentiful rainfall. Large-scale ground-water withdrawals began in the Salt River Valley in the early part of the 20th century; between 1915 and 1983, the total estimated ground-water pumpage was 81 million acre-ft (U.S. Geological Survey, 1984). Because of the low average annual rainfall and high potential evapotranspiration, the principal sources of ground-water recharge are urban runoff, excess irrigation, canal seepage and surface-water flows during years of higher-than-normal rainfall. Withdrawals greatly exceed recharge and, in some area, ground-water levels have declines as much as 350 ft (Laney and other, 1978; Ross, 1978). In the study area, ground-water declines of more than 300 ft have occurred in Deer Valley and from Luke Air Force Base north to Beardsley. As a result, a large depression of the water table has developed west of Luke Air Force Base (fig. 2). Ground-water use has decreased in recent years because precipitation and surface-water supplies have been greater than normal. Increased precipitation also caused large quantities of runoff to be released into the normally dry Salt and Gila River channels. From February 1978 to June 1980, streamflow losses of at least 90,000 acre-ft occurred between Jointhead Dam near the east boundary of the study area and Gillespie Dam several miles southwest of the west edge of the study area (Mann and Rhone, 1983). Consequently, ground-water declines in a large part of the basin have

  19. Valuation of selected environmental impacts associated with Bonneville Power Administration Resource Program alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Englin, J E; Gygi, K F

    1992-03-01

    This report documents work undertaken by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and its contractors to assist the Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) in assessing the potential environmental consequences of new power resources. A major purpose of this effort is to describe and evaluate the techniques available for economic valuation of environmental costs. Another is to provide estimates of the environmental costs associated with specific power resources called for under Bonneville's Resource Programs. Bonneville's efforts to extend valuation techniques to as many impacts as can be reliably assessed represents a substantial advance in the application of state-of-the-art economic techniques to environmental assessments. This economic analysis evaluates effects on human health, wildlife, crops, and visibility impacts associated with air pollution. This report also discusses river recreation (primarily fishing) which may be affected by fluctuations in water levels. 70 refs.

  20. Innovation on Energy Power Technology (15)Great Advances in Power System Stabilizing Technology triggered by the Wide-area Outage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egawa, Masanao

    On July 23, 1987, a very hot day, the largest wide-area power outage occurred in Kanto-Area, Japan. The cause was a voltage collapse on the bulk power network of Tokyo Electric Power Company, due to the abnormal rate of demand rising following resume after lunch break. Aggressive studies on voltage collapse throughout industry and university have led to great advances in power system stability. This essay describes the detail record of the outage, the applied countermeasures, and the inside story when the multiple voltage solutions of power flow on actual power system were found out for the first time.

  1. Towards a network of locally managed marine areas (LMMAs in the Western Indian Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Rocliffe

    Full Text Available In the Western Indian Ocean (WIO, local communities are increasingly assuming responsibility for inshore marine resources either on their own or through collaborative management arrangements with governments or non-state actors. In this paper, we trace the evolution and expansion of community management in the WIO and present the first ever inventory and assessment of the region's locally managed marine areas (LMMAs. We compare the key attributes of these areas to those under government stewardship and assess their relative contributions to progress towards the Convention on Biodiversity (CBD target of 10% of marine and coastal ecological regions to be effectively conserved by 2020. We also explore the legal frameworks that underpin locally managed marine initiatives in Kenya, Madagascar, Mozambique and Tanzania to assess the potential for future expansion. A principal finding is that whilst LMMAs protect more than 11,000 square kilometres of marine resource in the WIO, they are hampered by underdeveloped local and national legal structures and enforcement mechanisms. In our recommendations to improve local management, we suggest establishing a network of LMMA practitioners in the WIO region to share experiences and best practice.

  2. Symptoms of depression among adults in rural areas of western Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Łojko

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available [b]Objective[/b]. To measure the intensity of depressive symptoms in the populations residing in rural areas of western Poland, and to delineate the putative association between the intensity of depression and selected socio-demographic and clinical factors. [b]Materials and method.[/b] The study covered 445 adults recruited from one family physician practice in the rural area of Wielkopolska region. The following tools were applied: Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, the WHO WHOQoL-Bref quality of life assessment scale, and a socio-demographic and clinical questionnaire elaborated by the authors. [b]Results.[/b] Depressive symptoms were observed in approx. 30% of the patients. The intensity of symptoms correlated with age, female gender, and inversely correlated with the quality of life. There was no association between depressive symptoms and level of education (counted as years of education, number of somatic illnesses, and family burden of psychiatric disorders. [b]Conclusion[/b]. Symptoms of depression were noted in approx. 30% of patients who consulted their family physician. The Beck questionnaire is a simple tool whose application could decidedly improve the recognition of depression. It is worth taking note of factors that may be connected with the intensity of depressive symptoms – gender, the number of diagnosed somatic illnesses, and the quantity of drugs administered.

  3. Hydrothermal models of the Perth metropolitan area, Western Australia: implications for geothermal energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Oliver; Sheldon, Heather A.; Reid, Lynn B.; Corbel, Soazig

    2013-05-01

    Hydrothermal simulations are used to provide insight into the subsurface thermal regime of the Perth metropolitan area (PMA) in Western Australia. High average permeabilities and estimated fluid flow rates in shallow aquifers of the PMA suggest that advection and convection may occur in these aquifers. These processes are simulated, using a new geological model of the PMA to constrain the geometry of aquifers, aquitards and faults. The results show that advection has a strong influence on subsurface temperature, especially in the north of the PMA, where aquifer recharge creates an area of anomalously low temperature. Convection may be important, depending on the permeability of the Yarragadee Aquifer. If convection occurs, it creates thermal highs and lows with a spacing of approximately 5 km. Some of these thermal anomalies migrate over geological time due to coupling between advection and convection, but they are stationary on human timescales. Fault permeability influences the pattern of convection. Advection and convection cause variations in the geothermal gradient which cannot be predicted by conductive models; therefore, these processes should be considered in any model that is used for assessment of geothermal resources in the PMA.

  4. Eskers and bedrock gorges (tunnel valleys in the Pakasaivo area, western Finnish Lapland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Johansson

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies of the deglaciation of the last Scandinavian Ice Sheet, including the behavior of the ice sheet and meltwater activity, were conducted in the vicinity of the Pakasaivo canyon lake, located in western Finnish Lapland. Pakasaivo itself, a circular basin up to 100 m deep, was formed in the broken bedrock by glacial erosion and meltwater streams. It was originally related to a former subglacial meltwater system, including the deep Keinokursu gorge. Both this gorge and the Pakasaivo canyon lake were formed subglacially duringan early stage of deglaciation. It was characterized by intense meltwater erosion, which in Pakasaivo also seems to have generated a strong whirl. Steep-crested esker ridges were subsequently deposited; subaerial meltwater activity then followed. Finally the meltwaterwas discharged from the ice-dammed lake north of the area and passed through the Pakasaivo canyon to the ice-free areas. This caused additional intense erosion of the canyon floor and walls, and the deep circular basin is highly similar to a plunge pool formed at the base of a cataract.

  5. Countermeasures on Elevating Self-development Ability of Western Rural Areas on the Basis of Visual Threshold of Human Capital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The thesis underscores the significant role of human capital in elevating rural self-development ability.The investment of human capital is making great contribution to western rural economic growth,and it plays an irreplaceable role in promoting the socio-economic development prominently.The characteristics of human resources development in western rural areas for the moment are analyzed as follows:the employment structure is simple;the structure of human resources is irrational;the shortage of human resources aggregate is accompanied by the critical phenomenon of idling;the human resources drain badly;there is low input and low output of talents.The thesis also propounds the fundamental approaches in order to elevating self-development ability of western rural areas:we should practise and implement National Medium and Long-term Planning of Talents Development and lay down as soon as possible the detailed matching policies and measures based on the reality of western rural areas;we should develop the education in western rural areas vigorously,and formulate the developmental strategies of bridging "knowledge gap";we should establish sound rural human resources development system,and reinforce the degree of training returning-home migrant workers;we should adjust the structure of human investment timely as needed,and strengthen the degree of human capital investment conspicuously.

  6. Late Quaternary faulting and historic seismicity in the western Lake Mead area, Nevada, Arizona and California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, L.W.; O' Connel, D.R. (Bureau of Reclamation, Denver, CO (United States))

    1993-04-01

    As part of a regional seismic hazard study for Reclamation dams on the northern lower Colorado River, the age and distribution of known and suspected late Quaternary faults were investigated and historic seismicity was analyzed for the western Lake Mead area. Late Quaternary faults in the area consist of the Mead Slope, Black Hills, Frenchman Mountain, and California Wash faults. Geologic mapping and scarp profiles indicate that of these late Quaternary faults, the Black Hills fault displays evidence for the youngest (probably mid-Holocene) surface faulting. No information about the ages of older events was obtained for any of the faults; however, the ages of the most recent surface-rupturing events for individual faults suggest recurrence intervals of tens of thousands of years for specific faults and regional recurrence rates of several thousand years for M[sub 3] [>=] 6 1/2 events. Since 1936 when Hoover Dam was completed and the initial filling of Lake Mead began, the Boulder Basin area, the largest and deepest part of Lake Mead, has experienced abundant seismic activity that includes some of the largest historic earthquakes in southern Nevada (at least 21 M 4 events and one M 5). Based on earthquake locations from early networks (1937--1950) and those from temporary networks operating in 1975--1976 and 1988, earthquakes are clearly associated with the northeast-striking Mead Slope and Black Hills faults; one of the few associations of seismicity with late Quaternary faults in the Basin and Range. However, earthquakes also appear to be associated with the Fortification fault, a north-striking fault with no evidence of Quaternary surface faulting. Focal mechanisms for some of the 1975--1976 and 1988 events (all events M [<=] 3) suggest active strike-slip/oblique-slip motion on north-striking faults and normal/oblique-slip motion on northeast-striking structures.

  7. Astronomical Site Survey for Mountain Wumingshan Area in Western Sichuan Based on GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, N.; Liu, Y.; Zhao, H. M.

    2016-11-01

    In the Western-China Astronomical Site Survey project, we utilize the Geographic Information System (GIS) for the collection of long-term data, in order to investigate and study the Wumingshan (WMS) mountain and its surrounding areas for their geography, geology, climate, meteorology, social and demographic trends. Data analysis results show that the WMS mountain is located in the eastern fold belt of the Tibet Plateau--the typical region of the Hengduan Mountains, which leads to its large elevation, gently trended ridge, and stable geological structure. The highest altitude above the sea level at the WMS is more than 5000 m, but there are population settlements nearby with the low altitude of only 2000-3000 m, which are important for realizing low-level cost logistics conditions for the future headquarter or logistic base. Earthquake landslides and other geological disasters were rarely recorded. The other facts are such as the dry and clean atmosphere, the sparse vegetation, the semi-dry-state land, the perennial prevailing southwest wind, the rain-less winter, and the relatively short rainy-season summer, the location in the heartland of the large Shangri-La, no records of dust storms and the other inclement weather, low cloud coverage, the stability of wind direction, the small wind speed, the high possibility of clear sky, the far distance away from the developed areas in Sichuan and Yunnan provinces, and Tibet Autonomous Region, the sparsely populated people, the slowly developed economy, the peaceful and stable social environment, etc. Specially, in recent years, with the development of the local tourist resources, the traffic conditions in Daocheng have been significantly improved. With high quality highway maintenance and daily air transport capacity, the transportation of land and aviation is rarely interrupted due to snowing, which often happens in high plateau regions. Therefore, the WMS area possesses the potential conditions to establish the future

  8. Hydrodynamic and hydrochemicalcharacterization of groundwater in agricultural area (case of Agafay farm-Western Haouz) Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sefiani, Salma; El mandour, Abdennabi; Laftouhi, Nour-Eddine; Khalil, Nourdine; Chehbouni, Abdelghani; Jarlan, Lionel; Hanich, Lahoucine; Khabba, Said; Hamaoui, Addi; Kamal, Safia

    2016-04-01

    Water resources play an important role in the socio-economic development of the Haouz plain. The agriculture and tourism are two essential components of this development. They represent more than 85% of the water consumption of the Tensift catchment. Under a semi-arid climate, according to hydric stress water used for irrigation essential for most crops, comes from pumping in groundwater from the unconfined aquifer of the Haouz. The use of groundwater for irrigation causes problems of soil degradation by the intensification of salinization processes, sodisation or alkalizing at several degrees. These situations are closely related to the natural characteristics of the environment (soil and climate) and the modalities of water management dedicated for irrigation highly affected by water quality. It is in this sense that the study was conducted in an irrigated citrus orchard drip, located in the western part of Haouz at 35 km of Marrakesh. The aim of this study is to characterize the area on hydrogeological and hydrochemical point of view, on the basis of a measurement and sampling campaign of thirty wells corresponding to June 2014. The piezometric map shows parallel flow lines oriented northwest. The aquifer recharge is ensured by lateral flow from the High Atlas and by the infiltration from surface water from Chichaoua, Assif El Mal and N'fis rivers. The low amount of flow rate recorded and measured in the vicinity of the study area at the sensing points are relative to the rise of Paleozoic substratum which reduces the recharge of the aquifer. On the hydrochemical level, groundwater quality is generally good (86% of cases). The strong mineralization is concentrated mainly in irrigated areas downstream along the flow direction of the aquifer and at the Guemassa substratum.

  9. Precipitation over urban areas in the western Maritime Continent using a convection-permitting model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argüeso, Daniel; Di Luca, Alejandro; Evans, Jason P.

    2016-08-01

    This study investigates the effects of urban areas on precipitation in the western Maritime Continent using a convection-permitting regional atmospheric model. The Weather Research and Forecasting model was used to simulate the atmosphere at a range of spatial resolutions using a multiple nesting approach. Two experiments (with and without urban areas) were completed over a 5-year period (2008-2012) each to estimate the contribution of cities to changes in local circulation. At first, the model is evaluated against two satellite-derived precipitation products and the benefit of using a very high-resolution model (2-km grid spacing) over a region where rainfall is dominated by convective processes is demonstrated, particularly in terms of its diurnal cycle phase and amplitude. The influence of cities on precipitation characteristics is quantified for two major urban nuclei in the region (Jakarta and Kuala Lumpur) and results indicate that their presence locally enhances precipitation by over 30 %. This increase is mainly due to an intensification of the diurnal cycle. We analyse the impact on temperature, humidity and wind to put forward physical mechanisms that explain such changes. Cities increase near surface temperature, generating instability. They also make land-sea temperature contrasts stronger, which enhances sea breeze circulations. Together, they increase near-surface moisture flux convergence and favour convective processes leading to an overall increase of precipitation over urban areas. The diurnal cycle of these effects is reflected in the atmospheric footprint of cities on variables such as humidity and cloud mixing ratio and accompanies changes in precipitation.

  10. The Contribution of Information Acquisition and Management Capacity to Administrators' Decision-Making Effectiveness in Tertiary Institutions in South-Western Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabunmi, Martins; Erwat, Eseza Akiror

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated through empirical methods the extent to which information acquisition and information management capacity of administrators in tertiary institutions in South-Western Nigeria contributed to their decision-making effectiveness. It adopted the ex post facto survey research design, using the random sampling technique to select…

  11. Sabotaging Our Sisters: Perceptions of Female Relational Aggression in Higher Education among Female Faculty and Administrators at Three Western U.S. Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyborg, Deborah G.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore and understand relational workplace aggression among female faculty and administrators at three western U.S. universities. This study was designed to address the gap in empirical knowledge of the phenomenon by elucidating how workplace relational aggression affects the lives of female university faculty and…

  12. Radiocesium in the western subarctic area of the North Pacific Ocean, Bering Sea, and Arctic Ocean in 2013 and 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumamoto, Yuichiro; Aoyama, Michio; Hamajima, Yasunori; Nishino, Shigeto; Murata, Akihiko; Kikuchi, Takashi

    2017-08-01

    We measured radiocesium ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) in seawater from the western subarctic area of the North Pacific Ocean, Bering Sea, and Arctic Ocean in 2013 and 2014. Fukushima-derived (134)Cs in surface seawater was observed in the western subarctic area and Bering Sea but not in the Arctic Ocean. Vertical profile of (134)Cs in the Canada Basin of the Arctic Ocean implies that Fukushima-derived (134)Cs intruded into the basin from the Bering Sea through subsurface (150m depth) in 2014. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Governmental control of public expenditure in the constitutional State: thoughts regarding General Comptroller sanctioning powers approval on functional administrative responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika García Cobián Castro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Constitutional doctrine has little addressed on the General Comptroller of the Republic and its controlling function of public resources execution and management. Efforts have been made to explain this situation in other realities, regarding high budgetary, accounting and auditing content needed to carry out auditing activities constitutionally assigned to this kind of entities. Nevertheless, identifying competences of the General Comptroller of the Republic and its nature of autonomous constitutional body shapes an important expression of Constitutional State and the principle of powers division. This entity controls State’s Public Budget execution contributing to constitutional property protection, legality of budget implementation and the appropriate management of public resources, also the «efficiency» of social needs, proper functioning of public administration and prevention of corruption, among others duties. This article analyzes the constitutional mission of the General Comptroller in a Constitutional State promoting the process of given a constitutional status to the legal system in its area of influence, also optimizing constitutional properties protected. For such purpose, the 29622 recent law («Law that modifies the 27785 Organic Law of National Control System and the General Comptroller of the Republic extending powers in order to sanction in accordance of functional administrative responsibility» shall be used as object of constitutional analysis.

  14. Climate and wildfire area burned in western U.S. ecoprovinces, 1916-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littell, Jeremy S; McKenzie, Donald; Peterson, David L; Westerling, Anthony L

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to quantify climatic controls on the area burned by fire in different vegetation types in the western United States. We demonstrate that wildfire area burned (WFAB) in the American West was controlled by climate during the 20th century (1916-2003). Persistent ecosystem-specific correlations between climate and WFAB are grouped by vegetation type (ecoprovinces). Most mountainous ecoprovinces exhibit strong year-of-fire relationships with low precipitation, low Palmer drought severity index (PDSI), and high temperature. Grass- and shrub-dominated ecoprovinces had positive relationships with antecedent precipitation or PDSI. For 1977-2003, a few climate variables explain 33-87% (mean = 64%) of WFAB, indicating strong linkages between climate and area burned. For 1916-2003, the relationships are weaker, but climate explained 25-57% (mean = 39%) of the variability. The variance in WFAB is proportional to the mean squared for different data sets at different spatial scales. The importance of antecedent climate (summer drought in forested ecosystems and antecedent winter precipitation in shrub and grassland ecosystems) indicates that the mechanism behind the observed fire-climate relationships is climatic preconditioning of large areas of low fuel moisture via drying of existing fuels or fuel production and drying. The impacts of climate change on fire regimes will therefore vary with the relative energy or water limitations of ecosystems. Ecoprovinces proved a useful compromise between ecologically imprecise state-level and localized gridded fire data. The differences in climate-fire relationships among the ecoprovinces underscore the need to consider ecological context (vegetation, fuels, and seasonal climate) to identify specific climate drivers of WFAB. Despite the possible influence of fire suppression, exclusion, and fuel treatment, WFAB is still substantially controlled by climate. The implications for planning and management are that

  15. Alaska Power Administration combined financial statements, schedules and supplemental reports, September 30, 1996 and 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    This report presents the results of the independent certified public accountants` audit of the Department of Energy`s Alaska Power Administration`s (Alaska) financial statements as of September 30, 1996. The auditors have expressed an unqualified opinion on the 1996 combined statements of assets, Federal investment and liabilities, and the related combined statements of revenues, expenses and accumulated net revenues, and cash flows. The auditors` report on Alaska`s internal control structure disclosed no reportable conditions that could have a material effect on the financial statements. The auditors also considered the overview and performance measure data for completeness and material consistency with the basic financial statements, as noted in the internal control report. The auditor`s report on compliance with laws and regulations disclosed no instances of noncompliance by Alaska.

  16. Evaluation of the Super Efficient Refrigerator Program (SERP) in the Bonneville Power Administration service territory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, A.D.; Conger, R.L.

    1996-06-01

    The Super Efficient Refrigerator Program (SERP) is a collaborative utility program intended to transform the market for energy-efficient and environmentally friendly refrigerators. it is one of the first examples of large-scale {open_quotes}market transformation{close_quotes} energy efficiency program. This report documents the evaluation of SERP ({open_quotes}the Program{close_quotes}) in the Bonneville Power Administration`s (Bonneville`s) service territory. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted this evaluation for Bonneville. This study includes the process evaluation, preliminary impact evaluation, and market transformation assessment. It is based on site visits and interviews with refrigerator dealers and manufacturers, industry data, and Bonneville information. Results from this study are compared with those from a parallel study that examines the Program across the 24 participating utilities.

  17. Inferring the subsurface basement depth and the structural trends as deduced from aeromagnetic data at West Beni Suef area, Western Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Ahmed; Abdel Hafeez, Tharwat H.; Saleh, Hassan S.; Mohamed, Waheed H.

    2016-12-01

    The present work aimed to delineate the subsurface structures and to estimate the magnetic source depth at the selected area lying in West Beni Suef area, Western Desert, Egypt, following different geomagnetic techniques. The analysis of aeromagnetic data demonstrates five significant tectonic faults trending to NW-SE, ENE-WSW, NE-SW, E-W and NNW-SSE directions constructed using Euler deconvolution techniques. The execution of this study is initiated by transformation of the total intensity aeromagnetic data to the reduced to pole (RTP) magnetic intensity. This is followed by applying several transformation techniques and various filtering processes through qualitative and quantitative analyses on magnetic data. The reduced to the northern magnetic pole (RTP) data are separated spectrally into regional and residual magnetic components using the computed power spectrum of the magnetic data. The estimated mean depths of both regional and residual sources are found to be 5.27 km and 2.78 km respectively. Also, depth estimations have been conducted by application of the Euler deconvolution and 2-D modeling techniques. The results indicate that the eastern and northern parts of the study area discriminate deeper basement relief and the depth of basement surface reaches to 5095 m. While the southern and western parts of the study area discriminate shallower basement relief and the depth of basement surface reaches to 227 m. This study has given a clear picture of the geologic structures beneath the study area.

  18. Evaluation of Residue Based Power Oscillation Damping Control of Inter-area Oscillations for Static Power Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamczyk, Andrzej Grzegorz; Teodorescu, Remus; Iov, Florin;

    2012-01-01

    Low frequency inter-area oscillations are known stability issue of large interconnected electrical grids. It was demonstrated that additional control loop can be applied for static power sources, like FACTS, HVDC or modern Wind Power Plants, to modulate their power output and successfully attenuate...

  19. Tibetan Buddhism, Wetland Transformation, and Environmentalism in Tibetan Pastoral Areas of Western China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabzung Gaerrang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Alpine wetlands occupy a considerable area of the Tibetan Plateau, a region that is characterised by diverse but fragile ecosystems, including alpine wetlands, which are reported to have shrunk by 29% over the last several decades. This article explores the contradictory practices of Tibetan pastoralists regarding these alpine wetlands and examines how Tibetan pastoralists conceptualise and understand wetlands as well as how state policies, market forces, and religious norms work together to produce Tibetan herders' practices vis-à -vis their livestock and the wetlands. The analysis will first challenge the common notion that Tibetan Buddhism plays a decisive and consistent role in conservation and environmental protection, an idea that has been proposed by academic scholars and promoted by many non-governmental organisation practitioners. As an alternative to the attempt to measure indigenous people and their culture against the criteria set out by western conservation, I argue through this case study that Tibetan pastoralists' relationship with wetlands informs their negotiation with competing forces including state policies, market logics, global environment movements, religious resurgence, and traditional nomadic practices.

  20. Human-Wildlife Conflicts in Arid Areas of Western India: Strategies for Mutual Co-Existence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darshana Patel

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The study has been carried out in the North Gujarat region of Gujarat state, Western India which represents unique habitats from arid regions to dry deciduous forests with annual rainfall ranging from 25-125 cms. Human-wildlife conflicts are intensifying owing to increase in human population and destruction of wildlife habitats. In the present study we characterized and classified the conflicts, identified zones with acute conflicts and evaluated the economic loss to the local villagers due to such humanwildlife conflicts. Sampling methods mainly included village surveys for interviewing locals who are affected by wildlife damage. The information was overlaid on the existing digital land use data to identify landscape characteristics associated with wildlife occupancy in the region. The result depicts that 80% of total damage in seasonal crop is caused by wild ungulates. Wild animals like Blue bull, Wild boar and Porcupine are reported as a chief crop raider. The Leopard is the only big cat occurring in the region reported to cause human injury and livestock predation. Sloth bear attacks on human are very common in some part of the study area. Conflicts are more severe around unprotected forests while high intensity of conflicts was recorded on the fringes of the forests

  1. Micro-spectroscopic investigation of selenium-bearing minerals from the Western US Phosphate Resource Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunter Mickey E

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Mining activities in the US Western Phosphate Resource Area (WPRA have released Se into the environment. Selenium has several different oxidation states and species, each having varying degrees of solubility, reactivity, and bioavailability. In this study we are investigating the speciation of Se in mine-waste rocks. Selenium speciation was determined using bulk and micro-x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS, as well as micro-x-ray fluorescence mapping. Rocks used for bulk-XAS were ground into fine powders. Shale used for micro-XAS was broken along depositional planes to expose unweathered surfaces. The near edge region of the XAS spectra (XANES for the bulk rock samples revealed multiple oxidation states, with peaks indicative of Se(-II, Se(IV, and Se(+VI species. Micro-XANES analysis of the shale indicated that three unique Se-bearing species were present. Using the XANES data together with ab initio fitting of the extended x-ray absorption fine structure region of the micro-XAS data (micro-EXAFS the three Se-bearing species were identified as dzharkenite, a di-selenide carbon compound, and Se-substituted pyrite. Results from this research will allow for a better understanding of the biogeochemical cycling of Se in the WPRA.

  2. Experimental Research of Reinforced Concrete Buildings Struck by Debris Flow in Mountain Areas of Western China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yu; WEI Fangqiang; WANG Qing

    2007-01-01

    It's very important to simulate impact load of debris flow effectively and to investigate dynamic response of architectures under dynamic impact of debris flow, which are necessary to design disaster mitigation construction. Firstly, reinforced concrete domestic architectures in mountain areas of western China had been chosen as main architecture style. The bearing load style and the destructed shape of reinforced framed construction impacted by discontinuous viscous debris flow were studied systematically. Secondly, Jiangjia Ravine debris flow valley in Yunnan Province, China had been chosen as research region. Utilizing based data from fieldwork and practical survey, the authors simulated and calculated theoretically impact force of discontinuous viscous debris flow. Thirdly, an impact data collecting system (IMHE IDCS) was designed and developed to fulfill designed simulation experiments. Finally, a series of impact test of researched structure models had been fulfilled. During experiment, the destructed shape and course of models were observed and the dynamic displacement data and main natural frequency data of models were collected and analyzed.

  3. Motor development in children living within resource poor areas of the Western Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jelsma

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In 1986, Irwin-Carruthers tested 681 BlackAfrican babies from the Western Cape and concluded that the South African sample was in advance of the Denver sample both in fine and gross motor behaviour. This study was to determine whether the motor development of isiXhosa speaking children from the same area was still advanced compared to their North American counterparts.Method: The Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II were administered to 86 children attending well baby clinics, between the ages of 1-36 months.Results: The mean motor developmental quotient was 92 (SD=15. Twenty eight percent of the sample was either significantly or mildly delayed. No socio-economic or maternal characteristics were associated with this score.Conclusion: The reasons for the decrease in performance are not clear. The socio-economic situation of the mothers was poor and there were a large number of single mothers whose sole source of income was government child support grants.  It is likely that the cause of the decrease is multi-factorial. The mothers are clearly in need of emotional and financial support. It is suggested that the introduction of stimulation programmes might be useful inreducing the long term impact of this delayed development.

  4. Potential Flooding area for local Tsunami in Nayarit Region (Western Coast of Mexico).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trejo-Gomez, E.; Ortiz, M.; Nuñez-Cornu, F. J.

    2016-12-01

    The western coast of Mexico in the region of Jalisco and Nayarit states has a complex tectonics and a high seismic activity. In the last century, four big tsunamis occurred in this area, (three of them in 1932 and one in 1995, that hit the coast of Colima, Jalisco and Nayarit. Three of these tsunamis were generated by earthquakes and one more (22 June 1932) by an underwater landslide. Currently, there is a seismic Gap on the north coast of Jalisco and southern Nayarit. Recent published papers (Urías-Espinosa et al, 2016) and the first results of TsuJal Project (Núñez- Cornú et al, 2016) suggest that subduction regime to the north of Cabo Corrientes changes and the Rivera plate subducts with a very low angle and this structure remains until Maria Madre Island at north of the Marias Islands. The hypothesis of this work is the estimation of the tsunami run up and the flooding zone after a great magnitude earthquake generated by the rupture of the hypothetical subduction structure north of Cabo Corrientes. The possible effects on the coasts of Nayarit, Islas Marias and Banderas Bay (Puerto Vallarta) are proposed in this study.

  5. Feasibility study: Application of RCM techniques for substation maintenance at the Bonneville Power Administration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purucker, S.L.; Tonn, B.E.; Goeltz, R.T.; James, R.D.; Kercel, S.; Rizy, D.T.; Simpson, M.L.; Van Dyke, J.W.

    1992-05-28

    This feasibility study examines reliability centered maintenance (RCM) as it applies to Bonneville Power Administrations (BPA) substation maintenance program. Reliability techniques are examined in evaluated. Existing BPA equipment maintenance procedures are documented. Equipment failure history is considered. Economic impacts are estimated. Various equipment instrumentation methods are reviewed. Based on this analysis a prototype system is proposed. The prototype will be implemented in two phases. Phase 1 is to be completed in 1992, it includes instrumenting one power transformer and one oil circuit breaker. Software development will focus on displaying data. Phase 2 is to be completed the following year. The remaining transformers and breakers will be instrumented during the second phase. Software development will focus on predictive maintenance techniques and maintenance decision support.

  6. Childhood malnutrition and growth in a rural area of Western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semproli, Samantha; Gualdi-Russo, Emanuela

    2007-03-01

    An anthropometric survey was carried out on 1,383 school students aged 5-17 years in Suba district (a rural area of western Kenya). Body size and proportion were computed from height, weight, sitting height, arm circumference, and skinfolds. The aim of the study was to evaluate patterns of growth and nutritional status of the Luo population by assessment of the prevalence and trends of malnutrition among children and adolescents. Very few age-groups show significant sex differences for height, body weight, and arm muscle area. However, there are several differences in skinfold thicknesses and arm circumference, always with higher mean values in girls. Analysis of the nutritional status (weight-for-age, height-for-age, and BMI-for-age) shows significant differences among the age-groups in both sexes. Boys present lower Z-scores than girls and there are higher percentages of malnourished subjects (stunted and underweight) among the males. The Luo data were compared with those of other African populations. Their body dimensions, nutritional status, and growth are similar to those of the other sub-Saharan samples. In conclusion, the Luo children are generally undernourished at the older ages: adolescents (11-16 years of age) show the most severe undernutrition and the highest percentages of undernourished subjects. In addition to the higher risk of undernutrition in teenagers, an emerging problem of over-nutrition is evident among the younger age-groups, with a higher prevalence in females. These findings are discussed in light of sexual dimorphism in sensitivity to adverse environmental conditions.

  7. The influence of lifestyle on airborne particle surface area doses received by different Western populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacitto, A; Stabile, L; Moreno, T; Kumar, P; Wierzbicka, A; Morawska, L; Buonanno, G

    2017-09-14

    In the present study, the daily dose in terms of particle surface area received by citizens living in five cities in Western countries, characterized by different lifestyle, culture, climate and built-up environment, was evaluated and compared. For this purpose, the exposure to sub-micron particle concentration levels of the population living in Barcelona (Spain), Cassino (Italy), Guilford (United Kingdom), Lund (Sweden), and Brisbane (Australia) was measured through a direct exposure assessment approach. In particular, measurements of the exposure at a personal scale were performed by volunteers (15 per each population) that used a personal particle counter for different days in order to obtain exposure data in microenvironments/activities they resided/performed. Non-smoking volunteers performing non-industrial jobs were considered in the study. Particle concentration data allowed obtaining the exposure of the population living in each city. Such data were combined in a Monte Carlo method with the time activity pattern data characteristics of each population and inhalation rate to obtain the most probable daily dose in term of particle surface area as a function of the population gender, age, and nationality. The highest daily dose was estimated for citizens living in Cassino and Guilford (>1000 mm(2)), whereas the lowest value was recognized for Lund citizens (around 100 mm(2)). Indoor air quality, and in particular cooking and eating activities, was recognized as the main influencing factor in terms of exposure (and thus dose) of the population: then confirming that lifestyle (e.g. time spent in cooking activities) strongly affect the daily dose of the population. On the contrary, a minor or negligible contribution of the outdoor microenvironments was documented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Implementing the Western Gulf of Maine Area Closure: The Role and Perception of Fishers' Ecological Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateja Nenadovic

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The debate about the quality of fishers' ecological knowledge (FEK and its value to fisheries management has long been present in the literature. This study sought to understand the role of FEK in a particular fisheries management decision in the U.S. and to evaluate the extent that different stakeholder groups recognized and used FEK in fisheries policy creation. The 1998 implementation of the Western Gulf of Maine Area Closure (WGoMAC was a management response to the rapid decline in the Gulf of Maine cod (Gadus morhua stock. Using structured surveys and semistructured interviews, we collected information from major stakeholder groups that were active during the creation of the area closure: New England Fishery Management Council (NEFMC members, Groundfish Advisory Panel members, Groundfish Plan Development Team members, and Maine groundfishers. Results indicated that 95% of respondents believed that fishers possess ecological knowledge that could be useful in the fishery management process. In the case of the WGoMAC creation, 62% of respondents indicated that FEK played a role in the decision, even though 85% recognized obstacles to the use of FEK in the management process. Interviews demonstrated that FEK was able to improve upon the spatial resolution of scientific data by identifying seasonal migration patterns of prespawning cod and behavioral differences between juvenile and adult cod. This information was a product of a peer-reviewed process among groundfishers and it was used to fine-tune the exact location of the closure. These findings suggest that there are ways to incorporate FEK into fishery management for the purposes of stock and habitat conservation. Additionally, the benefit of having ecological information that spans different spatial scales for fishery management was observed in this study. By combining the knowledge systems of fishers and fisheries scientists, managers were able to capture ecological information at a finer

  9. Acute oral administration of low doses of methylphenidate targets calretinin neurons in the rat septal area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro eGarcía-Aviles

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Methylphenidate (MPD is a commonly administered drug to treat children suffering from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Alterations in septal driven hippocampal theta rhythm may underlie attention deficits observed in these patients. Amongst others, the septo-hippocampal connections have long been acknowledged to be important in preserving hippocampal function. Thus, we wanted to ascertain if methylphenidate administration, which improves attention in patients, could affect septal areas connecting with hippocampus. We used low and orally administered methylphenidate doses (1.3; 2.7 and 5mg/Kg to rats what mimics the dosage range in humans. In our model, we observed no effect when using 1.3mg/Kg methylphenidate; whereas 2.7 and 5 mg/Kg induced a significant increase in c-fos expression specifically in the medial septum, an area intimately connected to the hippocampus. We analyzed dopaminergic areas such as nucleus accumbens and striatum, and found that only 5mg/Kg induced c-fos levels increase. In these areas tyrosine hydroxylase correlated well with c-fos staining, whereas in the medial septum the sparse tyrosine hydroxylase fibres did not overlap with c-fos positive neurons. Double immunofluorescence of c-fos with neuronal markers in the septal area revealed that co-localization with choline acethyl transferase, parvalbumin, and calbindin with c-fos did not change with MPD treatment; whereas, calretinin and c-fos double labeled neurons increased after MPD administration. Altogether, these results suggest that low and acute doses of methylphenidate primary target specific populations of caltretinin medial septal neurons.

  10. On the Integration Theory of Academic Power and Administrative Power%学术权力与行政权力整合论析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高宏

    2011-01-01

    大学内部存在科层组织和学术组织两个组织体系,相应地产生了行政权力和学术权力。教育与文化的冲突、大学规模的不断扩大,加大了行政权力和学术权力之间的冲突。加强行政权力与学术权力的规范性建设,实施行政权力与学术权力适度交叉,拓宽民主决策、管理和监督渠道,充分发挥校长在两大权力系统中的枢纽作用,这些都是解决学术权力与行政权力矛盾与冲突问题的可行性措施,也是建立现代大学制度的关键。%There exist two organizational systems of bureaucratic organization and academic organization in the university itself. Correspondingly, it results in university's administrative power and academic power. The conflict of education and culture, the continuous expansion of university, increase the conflict of administrative power and academic power. Strengthening the normative construction of administrative power and academic power, properly playing the role of academic power, implementing the moderate cross of administrative power and academic power, broadening the democratic decision-making, management and supervision channels, giving full play to the pivotal role of principal in two power systems, they are the feasible measures to solve the contradiction and conflict of academic power and administrative power, but also the key to establishing a modern university system.

  11. 78 FR 45557 - Gulf of Mexico, Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Western Planning Area (WPA) Oil and Gas Lease Sale...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ... making its decision, BOEM considered alternatives to the proposed action and the potential impacts as... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Gulf of Mexico, Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Western Planning Area...: Notice of Availability of a Record of Decision. SUMMARY: BOEM has prepared a Record of Decision (ROD) for...

  12. Faults in parts of north-central and western Houston metropolitan area, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeek, Earl R.; Ratzlaff, Karl W.; Clanton, Uel S.

    1979-01-01

    Hundreds of residential, commercial, and industrial structures in the Houston metropolitan area have sustained moderate to severe damage owing to their locations on or near active faults. Paved roads have been offset by faults at hundreds of locations, butted pipelines have been distorted by fault movements, and fault-induced gradient changes in drainage lines have raised concern among flood control engineers. Over 150 faults, many of them moving at rates of 0.5 to 2 cm/yr, have been mapped in the Houston area; the number of faults probably far exceeds this figure.This report includes a map of eight faults, in north-central and western Houston, at a scale useful for land-use planning. Seven of the faults, are known, to be active and have caused considerable damage to structures built on or near them. If the eighth fault is active, it may be of concern to new developments on the west side of Houston. A ninth feature shown on the map is regarded only as a possible fault, as an origin by faulting has not been firmly established.Seismic and drill-hold data for some 40 faults, studied in detail by various investigators have verified connections between scarps at the land surface and growth faults in the shallow subsurface. Some scarps, then, are known to be the surface manifestations of faults that have geologically long histories of movement. The degree to which natural geologic processes contribute to current fault movement, however, is unclear, for some of man’s activities may play a role in faulting as well.Evidence that current rates of fault movement far exceed average prehistoric rates and that most offset of the land surface in the Houston area has occurred only within the last 50 years indirectly suggest that fluid withdrawal may be accelerating or reinitiating movement on pre-existing faults. This conclusion, however, is based only on a coincidence in time between increased fault activity and increased rates of withdrawal of water, oil, and gas from

  13. Response of Rocky Reef Top Predators (Serranidae: Epinephelinae) in and Around Marine Protected Areas in the Western Mediterranean Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Werner Hackradt; José Antonio García-Charton; Mireille Harmelin-Vivien; Ángel Pérez-Ruzafa; Laurence Le Diréach; Just Bayle-Sempere; Eric Charbonnel; Denis Ody; Olga Reñones; Pablo Sanchez-Jerez; Carlos Valle

    2014-01-01

    Groupers species are extremely vulnerable to overfishing and many species are threatened worldwide. In recent decades, Mediterranean groupers experienced dramatic population declines. Marine protected areas (MPAs) can protect populations inside their boundaries and provide individuals to adjacent fishing areas through the process of spillover and larval export. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of six marine reserves in the Western Mediterranean Sea to protect the populations of t...

  14. Indicators of "avoidable" mortality in health administrative areas in Sweden 1974-1985.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerling, R

    1993-09-01

    When comparing health administrative areas in Sweden the variation in death rates for 13 suggested indicators of avoidable mortality was analysed for the time periods 1974-79 and 1980-85. For most indicators the variation was significant. The level of systematic (nonrandom) variance differed between the sexes for certain conditions. According to the theory of mass-significance it would be appropriate to use a sharpened significance test of high SMRs. For certain health policy indicators it was possible to detect areas accounting for nearly all the deviation above the national standard using a sharpened test (p positive warning signals. Epidemiological surveillance of indicators of avoidable mortality should be the starting point for in-depth studies.

  15. Scabies among primary schoolchildren in Egypt: sociomedical environmental study in Kafr El-Sheikh administrative area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hegab DS

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Doaa Salah Hegab,1 Abdullah Mahfouz Kato,1 Ibrahim Ali Kabbash,2 Ghada Maged Dabish3 1Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Faculty of Medicine, 2Department of Public Health and Community, Faculty of Medicine, 3Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt Background/objectives: Scabies is a major global public health issue that might affect people from all socioeconomic levels. The primary contributing factors in contracting scabies seem to be poverty and overcrowded living conditions. Scabies often spreads among schoolchildren quite rapidly, owing to their close contact and overcrowding within the schools. However, limited information is available about its risk factors and the socioeconomic correlates among schoolchildren in Egypt. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of scabies and its risk factors among primary schoolchildren in Kafr El-Sheikh administrative area, Egypt. Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study was performed on primary schoolchildren in urban and rural areas of Kafr El-Sheikh administrative area. A predesigned questionnaire was used for data collection from the randomly selected 2,104 children, and clinical dermatological examination was done for them. Results: Out of 2,104 children studied, there were 92 cases of scabies with a prevalence of 4.4%. The prevalence of scabies infestation in male students was 3.9%, while it was 4.8% in females, with no statistical significance. The results showed significant variations in the risk of scabies infestation by factors such as residence, paternal education and occupation, maternal education, sleeping with others, having animals at home, dealing with animals outside the house, type of building for living, family history of itchy rash, and sharing clothes with others. Conclusion: In our community, scabies is still an important health problem affecting schoolchildren, especially in rural areas. It is characterized by a complex web of causation, particularly poor

  16. 西部高校留学生规范化管理研究%Study of Standardized Administration of International Students in Universities in Western China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国锦; 褚童

    2012-01-01

    International education in western China started late in a low point,so it needs a great developing. Focusing on the international student's administration problems in the universities in western China,this essay raises some solutions to changing empirical administration into scientific,standardized and systematic administration, which can effectively remedy the regional weakness and play a positive role in increasing the number of international students and improving the quality of international student administration in the u-niversities in western China.%西部高校留学生教育工作起步晚、起点低、教育发展水平还有待提高.发现西部高校留学生管理中存在的问题,使留学生管理从一贯的经验化到科学化转换,使其规范化、系统化,使其能有效弥补西部地区的弱势,为增加西部高校留学生数量和提高留学生管理质量起到积极的促进作用.

  17. Uppermost Permian to Lower Triassic Conodont Zonation from Enshi area, western Hubei Province, South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Z.; Zhao, L.; Chen, Z. Q.; Ma, D.; Yan, P.; Zhan, P.

    2015-12-01

    The Permian-Triassic transition witnessed the largest biotic turnover of Earth life during the Phanerozoic history. Ecosystems in sea and on land have also experienced the most protected restoration following the end-Permian mass extinction. These biocrises were also associated with climatic and environmental extremes through the latest Permian to Middle Triassic. In order to uncover the links among these extreme events, we need to establish high-resolution biochronostratigraphy, which offers precise timescales for reconstructing event sequences and probing the possible causes. Of these, conodont biostratigraphy is an operational tool in enhancing stratigraphic resolution. Although their ancestors and phylogeny remain unclear, conodonts are a rapid evolutionary lineage and extremely abundant in the Triassic marine carbonate successions. Here, we present recent study results of the Lower Triassic conodont zonation from the Ganxi and Jianshi areas, western Hubei Province, South China, which were situated on a carbonate ramp at the southern northern margin of the Upper Yangtze Platform. Therein, the uppermost Permian to Lower Triassic successions are well exposed and yield abundant conodonts. A total of nine conodont zones was established: (1) Clarkina yini-Clarkina zhangi Zone, (2) Hindeodus changxingensis Zone, (3) Hindeodus parvus Zone, (4) Isarcicella staeschei Zone, (5) Clarkina planata Zone, (6) Neoclarkina discrete Zone, (7) Neospathodus dieneri Zone, (8) Novispathodus waageni Zone, and (9) Triassospathodus homeri Zone. The Ns. dieneri M1, Ns. dieneri M2 and Ns. dieneri M3 subzones have also been distinguished from the Ns. dieneri Zone. Both Nv. waageni eowaageni subzones and Nv. waageni waageni subzones are also recognizable from the Nv. waageni Zone. The first occurrence of H. parvus marks the Permian-Triassic boundary(PTB), while the first occurrence of Nv. waageni eowaageni defines the Induan-Olenekian boundary. These conodont zones correlate well with

  18. Hydrochemistry of rivers in an acid sulphate soil hotspot area in western Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. ROOS

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available During heavy rains and snow melting, acid sulphate (AS soils on the coastal plains of Finland are flushed resulting in discharge of acidic and metal-rich waters that strongly affect small streams. In this study, the impact of AS soils occurrence and hydrological changes on water quality were determined for 21 rivers (catchment sizes between 96–4122 km2 running through an AS soil hotspot area in western central Finland. Water samples, collected at the outlet, during eight selected events, were analysed for pH, dissolved organic carbon, electrical conductivity (EC and 32 chemical elements. Based on the correlation with percentage arable land in the catchments (a rough estimate of AS soil occurrences, as up to 50% of the arable land is underlain with these soils, it was possible to categorize variables into those that are enriched in runoff from such land, depleted in runoff from such land (only one element, and not affected by land-use type in the catchments. Of the variables enriched in runoff from arable land, some were leached from AS soils during high-water flows, in particular (aluminium, boron, beryllium, cadmium, cobalt, copper, lithium, manganese, nickel, sulphur, silicon, thorium, thallium, uranium, and zinc and others occurred in highest concentrations during lower flows (calcium, EC, potassium, magnesium, sodium, rubidium and strontium. Molybdenum and phosphorus were not leached from AS soils in larger amounts than from other soils and thus related to other factors connected to the arable land. Based on the concentrations of potentially toxic metals derived from AS soils, the 21 rivers were ranked from the least (Lestijoki River, Lapväärtinjoki River and Perhonjoki River to the most (Sulvanjoki River, Vöyrinjoki River and Maalahdenjoki River heavily AS soil impacted. It has been decided that Vöyrinjoki is to be dredged along a ca. 20 km distance. This is quite alarming considering the high metal concentrations in the river.;

  19. "Fast pedogenesis" on proglacial areas: examples from the north-western Italian Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amico, Michele; Freppaz, Michele; Zanini, Ermanno

    2013-04-01

    Climate changes have huge impacts on alpine ecosystems. One of the most visible effects is glacial retreat since the end of the Little Ice Age (LIA: 190-190 years ago), which caused the exposure of previously glaciated surfaces. These surfaces are open-air laboratories, verifying theories regarding ecosystem and soil development. In order to increase our knowledge on the effect of time and vegetation primary succession on soil development in proglacial areas, we sampled soils and surveyed plant communities on stable points on the proglacial areas of the Lys and Verra Grande glaciers, in the Italian north-western Alps (Valle d'Aosta). Sampling sites were located on dated sites (6-260 years), on the basis of literature or historical photographs). Glacial till is attacked by weathering processes immediately after deposition and stabilization, such as loss of soluble compounds, acidification, primary mineral weathering. The speed of these processes are largely increased after the establishment of a continuous vegetation cover, thanks to surface stabilization, organic matter accumulation caused by litter input and root decomposition below the soil surface. On sialic glacial tills (Lys forefield), below timberline and under a larch - Rhododendron forest, a fast and steady decrease in pH values, increase in organic matter content and horizon differentiation were observed. In particular, genetic eluvial horizons formed in just 60 years, while diagnostic albic horizons were developed after ca. 90 years, evidencing an early start of the podzolization processes. Cheluviation of Fe and, secondarily, Al were analytically verified. However, illuviation of Fe, Al and organic matter in incipient B horizons was not sufficient to obtain diagnostic spodic horizons on LIA materials. Under grazed grassland below timberline and alpine prairie above timberline, acidification and weathering were slightly slower, and no redistribution with depth of Fe and Al oxi-hydroxides was observed. A

  20. TUESDAY: EPA Administrator to Discuss Historic Clean Power Plan to Cut U.S. Carbon Pollution and Protect Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    WASHINGTON - On Tuesday, August 11, EPA Administrator Gina McCarthy will be discussing the Clean Power Plan at the Resources for the Future (RFF) Leadership Forum. The Clean Power Plan will protect public health, spur clean energy investments and st

  1. A Low power and area efficient CLA adder design using Full swing GDI technique

    OpenAIRE

    Matcha Hemanth Kumar; Prof. Dr.S.M.VALI

    2015-01-01

    The low power VLSI design has an important role in designing of many electronic systems. While designing any combinational or sequential circuits, the important parameters like power consumption, implementation area, voltage leakage and performance of the circuit are to be considered. Design of area, high speed and powerefficient data path logic systems forms the largest areas of research in VLSI system design. This paper presents a low power Carry look ahead adder design using Full swing Gat...

  2. Butterfly Species Diversity of Bir-Billing Area of Dhauladhar Range of Western Himalayas in Northern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeeta Chandel

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study of butterfly species diversity was carried out in the Bir-Biling area of Dhauladhar Range of the Western Himalayas in Northern India. The study was done since April 2012 to March 2013, throughout the year during the routine field visits to Bir-Billing. A total of 50 butterfly species were recorded from the study areas which belonge to five families i.e. Nymphalidae, Pieridae, Papilionidae, Lycaenidae and Hesperiidae and 39 genera. The Nymphalidae family was the most dominant family in the study area having 32 species and followed by Lycaenidae family with 7 species.

  3. Road kills of amphibians in different land use areas from Sharavathi river basin, central Western Ghats, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.S. Seshadri

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A survey of amphibian mortality on roads was carried out in the Sharavathi river basin in the central Western Ghats. Road kills in three different land use areas: agricultural fields, water bodies and forests were recorded for four days along three 100m stretches in each type of area. One-hundred-and-forty-four individuals belonging to two orders, eight families, 11 genera and 13 species were recorded in the survey. Kills/km observed were: in forest 55, agricultural fields 38 and water bodies 27, for an overall average of 40 kills/km. Kill species compositions varied significantly between land use areas, but not overall kill rates.

  4. Photovoltaic power supply for telecommunication network components in remote areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinhueser, A.; Schulz, W.; Schmidt, H.; Roth, W. [Fraunhofer Inst. for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Freiburg (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    In general, telecommunication facilities do not allow much flexibility in the choice of location; the main criterion is that the facility must work with 100% availability and reliability. Corresponding to the wide spectrum of locations, the applied power supply technologies are very diverse: grid connection, diesel generators, photovoltaics (PV), fuel cells, thermoelectric converters and wind generators. The first three types of technology have been used by the telecommunications industry for decades. The other options are at developmental stages between laboratory samples and limited series production. The traditional approach to supply power remote from the grid is by using diesel generators and storage batteries. This means high power ratings, but also high prices and a high maintenance demand. The convergence of telecommunications networks, i.e. overlap of the cabled network and radio cellular networks, with its enormous demand for installation sites, introduces new demands on power supplies: they must be reliable, maintenance-free, inexpensive, flexibly adaptable to widely divergent technologies. At two examples, a PV-hybrid system for a repeater station for cellular phones and a PV powered intelligent information system, the advantages that offer PV off-grid solutions in the system design are shown. (orig.)

  5. 论行政调查权的授予%On Empowerment of Administrative Investigation Power

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤俪瑾

    2012-01-01

      When regulating the empowerment of administrative investigation power the reality of China’s rule of administrative law and categorization should be taken into consideration as basis to distinguish discretionary investigation from mandatory investigation in order to mainly solve the problems of the application of the legal reservation principle and relation between general empowerment and specific empowerment. With regard to the legal reservation principle, mandatory empowerment should be applied to strictly but discretionary investigation not. With regard to general empowerment and specific empowerment, the former should be based on both the general empowerment by organic laws of administrative bodies and the specific empowerment by administrative behavior laws, while the later can be carried out under only the cooperation of the counterpart so long as administrative bodies are generally empowered in organic laws.%  规范行政调查权的授予,应当考虑我国的行政法治现实,以类型化为基础,区别任意性调查与强制性调查,主要解决法律保留原则的适用问题和概括授权与具体授权问题。关于法律保留原则,强制性调查必须严格适用;任意性调查无须苛责。关于概括授权与具体授权,强制性调查应当以行政机关组织法的概括授权为基础,再加上行政行为法的具体授权;任意性调查只要行政机关具有组织法上的概括职权,就可以在取得相对人配合的情况下实施。

  6. How to play the game as the bridge between two European power markets—the case of Western Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Ole Jess; Amundsen, Eirik S.; Donslund, Bjarne

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we set out to investigate the price and quantity fluctuations in Western Denmark, which took place during the winter season 2002–2003. It was a period, which exhibited critical supply conditions in the Nordic area due to a shortage of hydropower. On average, the market in Western...... Denmark helped to ease the situation by large net exports. However, a more detailed investigation reveals anomalies in market behaviour that do not fit well into this overall positive description of the situation. Several explanations of the anomalies are offered. These may work separately or act...

  7. 20 CFR 669.555 - Do the WIA administrative cost limits for States and local areas apply to NFJP grants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Do the WIA administrative cost limits for... WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT Performance Accountability, Planning and Waiver Provision § 669.555 Do the WIA administrative cost limits for States and local areas apply to NFJP grants? No, under 20 CFR 667.210(b),...

  8. Inorganic nitrogenous air pollutants, atmospheric nitrogen deposition and their potential ecological impacts in remote areas of western North America (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bytnerowicz, A.; Fenn, M. E.; Fraczek, W.; Johnson, R.; Allen, E. B.

    2013-12-01

    Dry deposition of gaseous inorganic nitrogenous (N) air pollutants plays an important role in total atmospheric N deposition and its ecological effects in the arid and semi-arid ecosystems. Passive samplers and denuder/ filter pack systems have been used for determining ambient concentrations of ammonia (NH3), nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and nitric acid vapor (HNO3) in the topographically complex remote areas of the western United States and Canada. Concentrations of the measured pollutants varied significantly between the monitoring areas. Highest NH3, NO2 and HNO3 levels occurred in southern California areas downwind of the Los Angeles Basin and in the western Sierra Nevada impacted by emissions from the California Central Valley and the San Francisco Bay area. Strong spatial gradients of N pollutants were also present in southeastern Alaska due to cruise ship emissions and in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region in Canada affected by oil exploitation. Distribution of these pollutants has been depicted by maps generated by several geostatistical methodologies within the ArcGIS Geostatistical Analyst (ESRI, USA). Such maps help to understand spatial and temporal changes of air pollutants caused by various anthropogenic activities and locally-generated vs. long range-transported air pollutants. Pollution distribution maps for individual N species and gaseous inorganic reactive nitrogen (Nr) have been developed for the southern portion of the Sierra Nevada, Lake Tahoe Basin, San Bernardino Mountains, Joshua Tree National Park and the Athabasca Oil Sands Region. The N air pollution data have been utilized for estimates of dry and total N deposition by a GIS-based inferential method specifically developed for understanding potential ecological impacts in arid and semi-arid areas. The method is based on spatial and temporal distribution of concentrations of major drivers of N dry deposition, their surface deposition velocities and stomatal conductance values

  9. The potential for western Canada to become a leader in electrically powered land transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perl, A.; Gilbert, R. [Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, BC (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Canada's western provinces are among the most oil-intensive jurisdictions in the world. Per capita consumption in 2007 was 70 percent higher than that of eastern Canada. While western Canada will be buffered as a producer of oil, predicted swings in oil prices may disrupt the fiscal capacity of producer provinces. The price of crude oil in western Canada is the same price established in world markets. This paper examined some of the opportunities available for western Canada to move away from oil consumption by becoming a leader in electric traction. Methods of replacing oil-based transportation with the use of electric vehicles were discussed. Western Canada's capacity to produce electricity from renewable resources was evaluated. Economic opportunities related to the electrification of land transport were also examined. The report concluded by stating that a clear vision and policy framework for supporting new technologies for surface transport across western Canada are needed. 72 refs., 4 figs.

  10. An Empirical Study on Telecommunication Development in the Rural Areas of China's 12 Western Provinces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Hong

    2005-01-01

    This paper studied rural telecom markets in China's 12 western provinces with Seemingly Unrelated Regression (SUR) models. Using two regress analysis of telecom business income and rural telephone permeation rate in 12 western provinces, we got some new conclusions such as, the installation and usage of telephones among farmers are affected by several variables, and income is only one of them. According to our data analysis, variables influencing the installation and usage of telephones are not the same. Different variables exert different degrees of influence in the provinces.

  11. Bonneville Power Administration, Office of Engineering 10-Year Plan, 1992-2001 : Draft.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration. Office of Engineering.

    1992-05-01

    For over 50 years, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has evolved to supply electric power to more than 170 customer utilities and direct service industries across 14,800 miles of high voltage transmission lines. BPA`s Office of Engineering provides the planning, development, and engineering for the required expansion, upgrade, and replacement of the transmission system. The purpose of this 10-Year Plan is to present strategies to maintain a reliable energy delivery system within changing public, business, technological, and environmental climates. The issues and trends discussed in this document and our strategies for addressing them provide the background for the Office of Engineering programs and projects. With a budget in the hundreds of millions annually and increasing public concern, we welcome the opportunity to communicate with our customers. In addition to the factors, trends and issues described in this document are two appendices containing project costs and program and staffing levels. These figures are preliminary with estimates current as of May 13, 1992.

  12. Bonneville Power Administration, Office of Engineering 10-Year Plan, 1992-2001 : Draft.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration. Office of Engineering.

    1992-05-01

    For over 50 years, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has evolved to supply electric power to more than 170 customer utilities and direct service industries across 14,800 miles of high voltage transmission lines. BPA's Office of Engineering provides the planning, development, and engineering for the required expansion, upgrade, and replacement of the transmission system. The purpose of this 10-Year Plan is to present strategies to maintain a reliable energy delivery system within changing public, business, technological, and environmental climates. The issues and trends discussed in this document and our strategies for addressing them provide the background for the Office of Engineering programs and projects. With a budget in the hundreds of millions annually and increasing public concern, we welcome the opportunity to communicate with our customers. In addition to the factors, trends and issues described in this document are two appendices containing project costs and program and staffing levels. These figures are preliminary with estimates current as of May 13, 1992.

  13. Early histone modifications in the ventromedial hypothalamus and preoptic area following oestradiol administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnidze, K; Weil, Z M; Faustino, L C; Schaafsma, S M; Pfaff, D W

    2013-10-01

    Expression of the primary female sex behaviour, lordosis, in laboratory animals depends on oestrogen-induced expression of progesterone receptor (PgR) within a defined cell group in the ventrolateral portion of the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH). The minimal latency from oestradiol administration to lordosis is 18 h. During that time, ligand-bound oestrogen receptors (ER), members of a nuclear receptor superfamily, recruit transcriptional coregulators, which induce covalent modifications of histone proteins, thus leading to transcriptional activation or repression of target genes. The present study aimed to investigate the early molecular epigenetic events underlying oestrogen-regulated transcriptional activation of the Pgr gene in the VMH of female mice. Oestradiol (E₂) administration induced rapid and transient global histone modifications in the VMH of ovariectomised female mice. Histone H3 N-terminus phosphorylation (H3S10phK14Ac), acetylation (H3Ac) and methylation (H3K4me3) exhibited distinct temporal patterns facilitative to the induction of transcription. A transcriptional repressive (H3K9me3) modification showed a different temporal pattern. Collectively, this should create a permissive environment for the transcriptional activity necessary for lordosis, within 3-6 h after E₂ treatment. In the VMH, changes in the H3Ac and H3K4me3 levels of histone H3 were also detected at the promoter region of the Pgr gene within the same time window, although they were delayed in the preoptic area. Moreover, examination of histone modifications associated with the promoter of another ER-target gene, oxytocin receptor (Oxtr), revealed gene- and brain-region specific effects of E₂ treatment. In the VMH of female mice, E₂ treatment resulted in the recruitment of ERα to the oestrogen-response-elements-containing putative enhancer site of Pgr gene, approximately 200 kb upstream of the transcription start site, although it failed to increase ER

  14. 3D numerical modeling of an anthropogenic sinkhole in the Marsala area of western Sicily

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonamini, Marco; Di Maggio, Cipriano; Lollino, Piernicola; Madonia, Giuliana; Parise, Mario; Vattano, Marco

    2013-04-01

    The Marsala area (western Sicily) is characterized by the presence of a Lower Pleistocene (Calabrian) calcarenite succession (Marsala Calcarenite Fm). It can be divided into three lithofacies that show the regressive evolution of the depositional system: a) coarse to fine yellow bio- and lithoclastic calcarenites, b) sands, and c) gray sandy clays. At least 80 m-thick, this succession gently dips (5-10°) towards the south and the south-west. Locally, the Marsala Calcarenite may be covered by Middle and Upper Pleistocene marine terraced deposits. The town of Marsala presents several historical quarries for the extraction of this building material. Many of them were excavated underground, at depth ranging from a few meters to about 25 m, and are arranged in one or two levels, following the galleries and pillars excavation technique. With time, the underground quarries have been progressively abandoned due to the high costs of extraction, as well as to the dangers and difficulties encountered in working underground. Since the 1960's the quarries, as a matter of fact, have been affected by several instability processes for the decay of the physical and mechanical properties of the calcarenite rock mass and the interaction with the groundwater. Such instability processes are represented by collapses and deformations of vaults and pillars. These phenomena often propagate upward reaching the topographic surface and forming sinkholes which may likely affect and severely damage the built-up areas above. In particular, two case studies of sinkholes related to different underground quarries have been already described by the Authors in a previous contribution at EGU 2012, also integrated by a two-dimensional numerical study. The aim of the present work is to develop a three-dimensional numerical analysis aimed at describing the most significant processes and factors responsible of the instability processes, as well as to investigate the three-dimensional features of the same

  15. Output power levels from mobile phones in different geographical areas; implications for exposure assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Lonn, S; Forssen, U; P. Vecchia; Ahlbom, A; Feychting, M

    2004-01-01

    Background: The power level used by the mobile phone is one of the most important factors determining the intensity of the radiofrequency exposure during a call. Mobile phone calls made in areas where base stations are densely situated (normally urban areas) should theoretically on average use lower output power levels than mobile phone calls made in areas with larger distances between base stations (rural areas).

  16. Agricultural land purchases for alternative uses - evidence from two farming areas in the Western Cape Province, South Africa - AEASA Conference

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Reed, L

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Reed_2009.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 6559 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Reed_2009.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Agricultural land purchases for alternative... District Municipality Minimal crops, extensive farming related to natural grazing LAND USE IN INTENSIVE AND EXTENSIVE AREAS: WESTERN CAPE METHOD (cont.) Survey: • Questionnaire ranking importance of specific characteristics in purchase decision...

  17. Density and distribution of Patella ferruginea in a Marine Protected Area (western Sardinia, Italy): Constraint analysis for population conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Coppa, S.; G. A. de Lucia; Massaro, G.; Magni, P

    2012-01-01

    The endemic limpet Patella ferruginea is the most endangered invertebrate of the Mediterranean Sea. Our study examined a population of P. ferruginea in the Marine Protected Area of Penisola del Sinis - Isola di Mal di Ventre (western Sardinia, Italy). During the summer 2009, we carried out a systematic census of P. ferruginea along a 8114 m georeferenced perimeter of coast in the no take-no entry zone to assess its density, spatial distribution, and morphometric characteristics. Our aim was t...

  18. Concept Interpretation of Administrative Legislation Power%“行政立法权”的概念释义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑继汤

    2015-01-01

    We study administrative legislation on the premise that definition of the administrative legislation power is accurate and scientific .We should introduce administrative legislation ,understand the connotation and the af f iliated feature of administrative legislation power ,and find the difference between delegated legislative power and reference legislation power .On this basis ,We can determine what kind of administrative legislation system we need in contemporary China and allocate legislative power scientifically to improve the quality of legislation and prevent legislation for department interests and local protectionism ,and thus advance Rule of Law.%对“行政立法权”给出相对准确、科学的定义是研究行政立法的前提。梳理行政立法权产生的背景,厘清行政立法权的内涵和“隶从性”特点,适当区分行政立法权设定的不同方式,以此为前提,才能相对准确地判断当代中国需要什么样的行政立法体制,进而科学地配置立法权,提高立法质量,防止行政立法部门利益和地方保护主义的法律化,全面推进依法治国。

  19. Foreshowing of the Western Pacific tropical cyclone track to PM10 air pollution episode in the Beijing area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG XiQuan; WANG ZiFa; YU Tong; GONG YanBang

    2009-01-01

    By utilizing the air quality monitoring data and the NCEP reanalysis data, the relationship between the PM10 air pollution episode and synoptic situation is analyzed in the Beijing area. It is interesting to find that PM10 air pollution episode in and around the Beijing area is correlated with the Western Pacific tropical cyclone track to some extent, namely when a tropical cyclone lands southward to the Chang-jiang River, PM10 air pollution episode is not easy to take place generally in the Beijing area; but when a tropical cyclone moves northward and finally lands at the Korea Peninsula or the Japanese mainland, and under this condition the Beijing area is generally controlled by weak high or weak low for several days, PM10 air pollution episode often takes place in one day or several days. Above findings indicate that predicting the Western Pacific tropical cyclone track can foretell whether or not PM10 air pollution episode takes place in the Beijing area, which can offer a technique for urban air quality prediction and air pollution source management in the Beijing area.

  20. Western Wind and Solar Integration Study: Hydropower Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acker, T.; Pete, C.

    2012-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) study of 20% Wind Energy by 2030 was conducted to consider the benefits, challenges, and costs associated with sourcing 20% of U.S. energy consumption from wind power by 2030. This study found that with proactive measures, no insurmountable barriers were identified to meet the 20% goal. Following this study, DOE and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducted two more studies: the Eastern Wind Integration and Transmission Study (EWITS) covering the eastern portion of the U.S., and the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS) covering the western portion of the United States. The WWSIS was conducted by NREL and research partner General Electric (GE) in order to provide insight into the costs, technical or physical barriers, and operational impacts caused by the variability and uncertainty of wind, photovoltaic, and concentrated solar power when employed to serve up to 35% of the load energy in the WestConnect region (Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and Wyoming). WestConnect is composed of several utility companies working collaboratively to assess stakeholder and market needs to and develop cost-effective improvements to the western wholesale electricity market. Participants include the Arizona Public Service, El Paso Electric Company, NV Energy, Public Service of New Mexico, Salt River Project, Tri-State Generation and Transmission Cooperative, Tucson Electric Power, Xcel Energy and the Western Area Power Administration.

  1. Investigation of administrative obstacles to family physician program in urban areas of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Javan noughabi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Health is regarded as one of the basic rights of each person in society; so governments are obligated to provide it equally for everyone. The best way to achieve this goal is the establishment of health insurance with the orientation of family physician and the strategic referral system. Yet, such programs will not be successful without encouraging people to participate and changing social behaviors. The aim of the present study was to investigate the administrative obstacles and problems to family physician program in urban areas of Iran. This study was a qualitative research conducted. A purposive sampling method was employed and the data were gathered via semi-structured interview with open-ended questions and document examination. All the interviews were recorded digitally and immediately transcribed verbatim. They were finally analyzed based on framework analysis. The participants' detailed descriptions showed that systemic, environmental, and human related factors were the main obstacles to the implementation of family physician plan. Since the success and performance of each program effectively cannot be obtained without people’s acceptance and collaboration, the necessity of training and giving information rapidly and timely to the residents in urban areas is felt more than ever. Also, making authorities aware of the obstacles expressed by people can be helpful in harmonizing the program with people’s requests; and can result in overcoming the challenges and obstacles facing the program.

  2. 76 FR 19028 - Western Pacific Pelagic Fisheries; Purse Seine Prohibited Areas Around American Samoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-06

    ...://www.regulations.gov , or the Council, 1164 Bishop St., Suite 1400, Honolulu, HI 96813, tel 808-522....gov ; or Mail: Mail written comments to Michael D. Tosatto, Regional Administrator, NMFS,...

  3. Investigating the Correlation Between Wind and Solar Power Forecast Errors in the Western Interconnection: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, J.; Hodge, B. M.; Florita, A.

    2013-05-01

    Wind and solar power generations differ from conventional energy generation because of the variable and uncertain nature of their power output. This variability and uncertainty can have significant impacts on grid operations. Thus, short-term forecasting of wind and solar generation is uniquely helpful for power system operations to balance supply and demand in an electricity system. This paper investigates the correlation between wind and solar power forecasting errors.

  4. Artificial Neural Network Application for Power Transfer Capability and Voltage Calculations in Multi-Area Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palukuru NAGENDRA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the use of artificial neural network (ANN based model, multi-layer perceptron (MLP network, to compute the transfer capabilities in a multi-area power system was explored. The input for the ANN is load status and the outputs are the transfer capability among the system areas, voltage magnitudes and voltage angles at concerned buses of the areas under consideration. The repeated power flow (RPF method is used in this paper for calculating the power transfer capability, voltage magnitudes and voltage angles necessary for the generation of input-output patterns for training the proposed MLP neural network. Preliminary investigations on a three area 30-bus system reveal that the proposed model is computationally faster than the conventional method.

  5. A novel photovoltaic power system which uses a large area concentrator mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrison, Anne; Fatemi, Navid

    1987-01-01

    A preliminary analysis has been made of a novel photovoltaic power system concept. The system is composed of a small area, dense photovoltaic array, a large area solar concentrator, and a battery system for energy storage. The feasibility of such a system is assessed for space power applications. The orbital efficiency, specific power, mass, and area of the system are calculated under various conditions and compared with those for the organic Rankine cycle solar dynamic system proposed for Space Station. Near term and advanced large area concentrator photovoltaic systems not only compare favorably to solar dynamic systems in terms of performance but offer other benefits as well.

  6. Technical/ administrative options for managing tritium MCL exceedances in P-area groundwater and Steel Creek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-04-01

    This white paper was requested by the Core Team (United States Department of Energy [USDOE], United States Environmental Protection Agency [USEPA], and South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control [SCDHEC]) at the P-Area Groundwater (PAGW) Operable Unit (OU) Scoping Meeting held in January 2017 to discuss recent data and potential alternatives in support of a focused Corrective Measures Study/Feasibility Study (CMS/FS). This white paper presents an overview of the problem, and a range of technical and administrative options for addressing the tritium contamination in groundwater and Steel Creek. As tritium cannot be treated practicably, alternatives are limited to media transfer, containment and natural attenuation principally relying on radioactive decay. Using other groundwater OU decisions involving tritium as precedent, Savannah River Nuclear Solutions (SRNS) recommends that final tritium alternatives be evaluated in a CMS/FS, understanding that the likely preferred remedy will include natural attenuation with land use controls (LUCs). This is based on the inability to significantly reduce tritium impact to Steel Creek using an engineered solution as compared to natural attenuation. The timing of this evaluation could be conducted concurrently with the final remedy evaluation for volatile organic compounds (VOCs).

  7. Inter-Area Power Systems Stability Improvement by Static Synchronous Series Compensator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prechanon Kumkratug

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The inter-area power systems have special characteristic of the stability behavior. The improvement of inter-area power system is one of the important aspects in power system. Approach: This study applies the Static Synchronous Series Compensator (SSSC to improve stability of inter-area systems. The SSSC is modeled and then is applied to be incorporated into the power system model for investigating stability improvement. The SSSC is modeled as the variable susceptance and is controlled during dynamic state. This presented SSSC model can be incorporated into susceptance matrix of power system model. The presented method is tested on sample inter-area power system with 3 phase fault distubrances. Results: The swing curve of inter-area power system without a SSSC gets increases monotonically and thus the system can be considered as unstable whereas the swing curves of system with a SSSC can be considered as stable. Conclusion: From the simulation results, the SSSC can enhance stability of inter-area power systems.

  8. Human Sentinel Surveillance of Influenza and Other Respiratory Viral Pathogens in Border Areas of Western Cambodia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ans Timmermans

    Full Text Available Little is known about circulation of influenza and other respiratory viruses in remote populations along the Thai-Cambodia border in western Cambodia. We screened 586 outpatients (median age 5, range 1-77 presenting with influenza-like-illness (ILI at 4 sentinel sites in western Cambodia between May 2010 and December 2012. Real-time reverse transcriptase (rRT PCR for influenza was performed on combined nasal and throat specimens followed by viral culture, antigenic analysis, antiviral susceptibility testing and full genome sequencing for phylogenetic analysis. ILI-specimens negative for influenza were cultured, followed by rRT-PCR for enterovirus and rhinovirus (EV/RV and EV71. Influenza was found in 168 cases (29% and occurred almost exclusively in the rainy season from June to November. Isolated influenza strains had close antigenic and phylogenetic relationships, matching vaccine and circulating strains found elsewhere in Cambodia. Influenza vaccination coverage was low (<20%. Western Cambodian H1N1(2009 isolate genomes were more closely related to 10 earlier Cambodia isolates (94.4% genome conservation than to 13 Thai isolates (75.9% genome conservation, despite sharing the majority of the amino acid changes with the Thai references. Most genes showed signatures of purifying selection. Viral culture detected only adenovirus (5.7% and parainfluenza virus (3.8%, while non-polio enteroviruses (10.3% were detected among 164 culture-negative samples including coxsackievirus A4, A6, A8, A9, A12, B3, B4 and echovirus E6 and E9 using nested RT-PCR methods. A single specimen of EV71 was found. Despite proximity to Thailand, influenza epidemiology of these western Cambodian isolates followed patterns observed elsewhere in Cambodia, continuing to support current vaccine and treatment recommendations from the Cambodian National Influenza Center. Amino acid mutations at non-epitope sites, particularly hemagglutinin genes, require further investigation in

  9. 77 FR 23654 - Western Pacific Pelagic Fisheries; Modification of American Samoa Large Vessel Prohibited Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-20

    ...-Rulemaking Portal www.regulations.gov ; or Mail: Michael D. Tosatto, Regional Administrator, NMFS, Pacific... or the Council, 1164 Bishop St., Suite 1400, Honolulu, HI 96813, tel 808-522-8220, fax 808-522-8226... Swain's Island and one around Tutuila, the Manua Islands, and Rose Atoll (67 FR 4369, January 30,...

  10. Area Based Approach for Three Phase Power Quality Assessment in Clarke Plane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. CHATTOPADHYAY

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an area-based approach for electric power quality analysis. Some specific reference signals have been defined and areas formed by the real power system data with the reference signal have been calculated wherefrom contributions of fundamental waveform and harmonic components have been assessed separately. Active power, reactive power and total harmonic distortion factors have been measured. Clarke transformation technique has been used for analysis in three-phase system, which has reduced the computational effort to a great extent. Distortion factors of individual phase of a three-phase system have also been assessed.

  11. Fast restoration of large area breakdown for power distribution systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jian; XU Jing-qiu; CHENG Hong-li

    2006-01-01

    An adjacent table-based simplified model of distribution networks containing medium voltage buses of a substation is established.Identification of bus outage and the condition to start fast restoration procedure are discussed.A complex load shading parameter is set up to describe various load shading schemes.The imaginary part of the load shading parameter describes the states of switches of load shading schemes while the real part is the corresponding amount of shaded load.A new concept of independent tripping operation is also put forward.The procedure to search the operation with the least amount of shaded load for a feeder and a connected domain are detailed.The procedure for fast restoration of a large area breakdown of the whole distribution network under emergency states is dealt with using a typical grid distribution network as an example.Results of analysis show that the direct load shading scheme under the most balanced topology is not always the optimal scheme.The proposed method can obtain the optimal operating mode with the least amount of shaded load thus showing its feasibility.

  12. Alaska Power Administration combined financial statements, schedules, and supplemental reports, September 30, 1997 and 1996 with independent auditors` report thereon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    The Alaska Power Administration (APA) will continue to encourage economic and industrial development in Alaska through implementing the sale of APA assets in a manner consistent with the authorizing legislation while balancing all the stakeholders` interests. Alaska Power Administration will provide their employees opportunities for successful career transitions and conduct an efficient transfer of assets and closeout of APA, while continuing to provide customers reliable, low-cost hydroelectric energy during the transition. The attached report presents the results of the independent certified public accounts` audit of the Alaska Power Administration`s (APA) combined power system statements of assets; Federal investment and liabilities; and the related combined statements of revenues, expenses and accumulated net revenues, and cash flows. The auditors` reports on APA`s internal control structure and compliance with laws and regulations disclosed no reportable conditions or instances of noncompliance. Based on the unqualified opinion of the independent public accounting firm of KPMG Peak Marwick LLP and review of their audit work, the authors believe the financial statements fairly present the financial condition and results of the operations of APA for the period under audit.

  13. Conceptions of Power among Senior Women Administrators at Liberal Arts Colleges in the Upper Midwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enke, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    Women are underrepresented in senior-level leadership positions in higher education institutions, and their experiences are underrepresented in research about leadership and power in higher education. This qualitative study engaged women senior administrators at liberal arts colleges in the Upper Midwestern United States to better understand how…

  14. Administrators' Power Usage Styles and Their Impact on the Organizational Culture in Colleges of Education: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcan, Kenan; Karatas, Ibrahim Hakan; Caglar, Çaglar; Polat, Murat

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to determine how power usage styles of administrators of faculties of education influence the organizational culture in their respective faculties in Turkey. Using the phenomenological method, a qualitative research method, researchers studied a group comprised of 20 academics from 7 different colleges of…

  15. Idaho Model Watershed Project : Annual Report to the Bonneville Power Administration January 1, 1997 - December 31, 1997.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradbury, Allen; Slavin, Katie

    1998-10-28

    The Model Watershed Project was initiated in the fall of 1992 with a grant from Bonneville Power Administration. The objective of this project is to protect, enhance and restore anadromous and resident fish habitat and achieve and maintain a balance between resource protection and resource use on a holistic watershed basis.

  16. Hydrostratigraphy and hydrogeology of the western part of Maira area, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan: A case study by using electrical resistivity

    KAUST Repository

    Farid, Asam M.

    2012-06-27

    Hydrostratigraphy and hydrogeology of the Maira vicinity is important for the characterization of aquifer system and developing numerical groundwater flow models to predict the future availability of the water resource. Conventionally, the aquifer parameters are obtained by the analysis of pumping tests data which provide limited spatial information and turn out to be costly and time consuming. Vertical electrical soundings and pump testing of boreholes were conducted to delineate the aquifer system at the western part of the Maira area, Khyber Pakhtun Khwa, Pakistan. Aquifer lithology in the eastern part of the study area is dominated by coarse sand and gravel whereas the western part is characterized by fine sand. An attempt has been made to estimate the hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer system by establishing a relationship between the pumping test results and vertical electrical soundings by using regression technique. The relationship is applied to the area along the resistivity profiles where boreholes are not drilled. Our findings show a good match between pumped hydraulic conductivity and estimated hydraulic conductivity. In case of sparse borehole data, regression technique is useful in estimating hydraulic properties for aquifers with varying lithology. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  17. Development of a Hydrogasification Process for Co-Production of Substitute Natural Gas (SNG) and Electric Power from Western Coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Xiaolei; Rink, Nancy

    2011-04-30

    This report presents the results of the research and development conducted on an Advanced Hydrogasification Process (AHP) conceived and developed by Arizona Public Service Company (APS) under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) contract: DE-FC26-06NT42759 for Substitute Natural Gas (SNG) production from western coal. A double-wall (i.e., a hydrogasification contained within a pressure shell) down-flow hydrogasification reactor was designed, engineered, constructed, commissioned and operated by APS, Phoenix, AZ. The reactor is ASME-certified under Section VIII with a rating of 1150 pounds per square inch gage (psig) maximum allowable working pressure at 1950 degrees Fahrenheit ({degrees}F). The reaction zone had a 1.75 inch inner diameter and 13 feet length. The initial testing of a sub-bituminous coal demonstrated ~ 50% carbon conversion and ~10% methane yield in the product gas under 1625{degrees}F, 1000 psig pressure, with a 11 seconds (s) residence time, and 0.4 hydrogen-to-coal mass ratio. Liquid by-products mainly contained Benzene, Toluene, Xylene (BTX) and tar. Char collected from the bottom of the reactor had 9000-British thermal units per pound (Btu/lb) heating value. A three-dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamic model simulation of the hydrodynamics around the reactor head was utilized to design the nozzles for injecting the hydrogen into the gasifier to optimize gas-solid mixing to achieve improved carbon conversion. The report also presents the evaluation of using algae for carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) management and biofuel production. Nannochloropsis, Selenastrum and Scenedesmus were determined to be the best algae strains for the project purpose and were studied in an outdoor system which included a 6-meter (6M) radius cultivator with a total surface area of 113 square meters (m{sup 2}) and a total culture volume between 10,000 to 15,000 liters (L); a CO{sub 2} on-demand feeding system; an on-line data collection system for temperature, p

  18. Groundwater resources exploration in the Zug area (Tiris, Western Sahara); Prospeccion de recursos hidricos subterraneos en el area de Zug (Tiris, Sahara Occidental)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, B.; Villarroya, F.; Rebollo, L. F.; Olaiz, A.; Lopez, J.

    2015-07-01

    The area of Zug is located in the southwestern corner of the Tiris dorsal, in the Western Sahara. The area is characterized by outcrops of materials, mainly gneisses of archaic age and fractured granitic rocks, which in the southern sector are covered by aeolian sand sheets. A hydrogeological survey of the territory has been carried out, and boreholes and dug wells have been located and analyzed and this information integrated with the sparse outcrops. Based on this study, two hydrogeological domains have been established: Zug and Azzefal. From the analysis of satellite images, field work, geophysical profiles, a well inventory and chemical analysis, three priority areas for the location of future water supply wells have been identified: 1) alluvial fans, preferably located on the slopes of the dikes that cross the Tiris dorsal; 2) sabkhas (salt flats) as places of con- centration of ephemeral runoff and subsurface infiltration of accumulated water; 3) highly fractured granitic areas. Some of these three cases coincide with existing wells in this area. Electrical tomography shows how, in specific locations, low resistivity values reach 50 metres, opening up the possibility of finding sufficient water to meet the aforementioned needs. The water quality is not suitable for human supply directly from the well without chemical treatment. The area is still full of opportunities for future research, but only when a more stable political situation exists. (Author)

  19. Identification of extreme sedimentary event deposits in Yilan coastal area, Taiwan, and the western coast of Myanmar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Y. L.; Shyu, J. B. H.; Sawai, Y.; Kunz, A.

    2016-12-01

    The Yilan Plain in northeastern Taiwan is located west of the Ryukyu Trench. In AD 1771, a M7.4 earthquake occurred near the Ryukyu Trench, and generated a tsunami (the Meiwa Tsunami) with run-up height of more than 30 m on the Ishigaki Island, only 250 km away from the Yilan Plain. Therefore, we suggest that tsunami poses potential threats to the Yilan Plain. Offshore western Myanmar, a M8.5 earthquake occurred in 1762 on the nearby Sunda Trench. The 2004 Sumatra Tsunami also reached approximately 3 m high along the western coast of Myanmar according to local residents. These observations also point out the potential for a future tsunami hazard along the rapidly developing western Myanmar coast. Therefore, we attempted to search for geological record of previous extreme sedimentary events in these two areas in this study. Many previous studies have pointed out that paleo-tsunami deposits are most likely present in inter-ridge lowlands, and have distinctive characteristics such as a coarse sand layer covering soil layers (or other terrestrial facies sediment layers) with a very sharp boundary. Thus we excavated several trenches in our two study areas to observe and record the deposits, collect samples, and use C-14 dating, Cs-137 analyses and diatom analyses to help us understand the age and sedimentary environment of the deposits. In one trench in northern Yilan Plain, we found a 25 cm thick sand layer covering a mud layer with a sharp and horizontal boundary. We infer that this sand layer deposited during a fluvial flooding event. In southern Yilan Plain, we found another sand layer covering a black mud layer with a sharp and irregular boundary. This clearly indicates a high-energy depositional event, but the source of such an event remains unknown. In trenches excavated along the western coast of Myanmar, we found a gray sand layer covering an organic mud layer that has abundant plant debris with a sharp boundary. Thus we infer that the gray sand is also an

  20. A new control scheme for PID load frequency controller of single-area and multi-area power systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padhan, Dola Gobinda; Majhi, Somanath

    2013-03-01

    A new control structure with a tuning method to design a PID load frequency controller for power systems is presented. Initially, the controller is designed for single area power system, then it is extended to multi-area case. The controller parameters are obtained by expanding controller transfer function using Laurent series. Relay based identification technique is adopted to estimate power system dynamics. Robustness studies on stability and performance are provided, with respect to uncertainties in the plant parameters. The proposed scheme ensures that overall system remains asymptotically stable for all bounded uncertainties and for system oscillations. Simulation results show the feasibility of the approach and the proposed method improves the load disturbance rejection performance significantly even in the presence of the uncertainties in plant parameters.

  1. Geology of the Arabian Peninsula; shield area of western Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Glen F.; Schmidt, Dwight L.; Huffman, A. Curtis

    1989-01-01

    Western Arabia lies within the low-latitude desert of north Africa and the Middle East, the core being the Arabian segment of the African Shield. The core of complex basement rocks accounts for about 670,000 km2, or one-third of the Arabian Peninsula. Reconnaissance mapping of these crystalline rocks, together with bordering sedimentary rocks and volcanic flows, begun in 1950, resulted during the next 13 years in a series of geologic and geographic maps without extensive texts. The maps served as general guides for development of natural resources, including water supplies, ore deposits, and building materials. An intensive exploration program that began in 1963 and involved numerous geologists has vastly increased geologic information.

  2. Predicting Potential Risk Areas of Human Plague for the Western Usambara Mountains, Lushoto District, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neerinckx, Simon; Peterson, A. Townsend; Gulinck, Hubert; Deckers, Jozef; Kimaro, Didas; Leirs, Herwig

    2010-01-01

    A natural focus of plague exists in the Western Usambara Mountains of Tanzania. Despite intense research, questions remain as to why and how plague emerges repeatedly in the same suite of villages. We used human plague incidence data for 1986–2003 in an ecological-niche modeling framework to explore the geographic distribution and ecology of human plague. Our analyses indicate that plague occurrence is related directly to landscape-scale environmental features, yielding a predictive understanding of one set of environmental factors affecting plague transmission in East Africa. Although many environmental variables contribute significantly to these models, the most important are elevation and Enhanced Vegetation Index derivatives. Projections of these models across broader regions predict only 15.5% (under a majority-rule threshold) or 31,997 km2 of East Africa as suitable for plague transmission, but they successfully anticipate most known foci in the region, making possible the development of a risk map of plague. PMID:20207880

  3. Predicting Potential Risk Areas of Human Plague for the Western Usambara Mountains, Lushoto District, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neerinckx, Simon; Peterson, A Townsend; Gulinck, Hubert

    2010-01-01

    A natural focus of plague exists in the Western Usambara Mountains of Tanzania. Despite intense research, questions remain as to why and how plague emerges repeatedly in the same suite of villages. We used human plague incidence data for 1986-2003 in an ecological-niche modeling framework...... to explore the geographic distribution and ecology of human plague. Our analyses indicate that plague occurrence is related directly to landscape-scale environmental features, yielding a predictive understanding of one set of environmental factors affecting plague transmission in East Africa. Although many...... environmental variables contribute significantly to these models, the most important are elevation and Enhanced Vegetation Index derivatives. Projections of these models across broader regions predict only 15.5% (under a majority-rule threshold) or 31,997 km2 of East Africa as suitable for plague transmission...

  4. Hydrodynamic characteristics of the western Doñana Region (area of El Abalario), Huelva, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trick, Thomas; Custodio, Emilio

    The Doñana region, in southwestern Spain, comprises a large and important nature reserve, the wetlands of which are affected by human activity. Planting of an extensive eucalyptus forest in the 1950s and, more recently, the use of aquifers for irrigation and water supply for some coastal tourist resorts, have altered the natural groundwater-flow system. The area of the study is the western sector of the region, called El Abalario, which is a gentle topographic elevation between the Atlantic coast and La Rocina Creek (Arroyo de la Rocina). Underneath a variable layer of eolian sands with high dunes near the coast, thick Plio-Quaternary detritic strata, mostly fine silica sands, overlie marls. Near the base there is a variable, deltaic-origin layer of coarse sands and gravels. The dome-shaped water table, inside the sands, is close to the surface everywhere except beneath the dune belt, and small, temporary, shallow lagoons are numerous. The coarse sand and gravel layer conditions groundwater flow and behaves as a semiconfined layer between sands. A cross section through the area was simulated with a model to check the validity of the conceptual groundwater-flow pattern and its sensitivity to the hydraulic parameters. The model was calibrated using parameter values obtained by pumping tests and multilevel piezometric data, and checked against the estimated groundwater discharge into La Rocina Creek. Groundwater flows peripherally to the sea coast, to La Rocina Creek, or directly east and southeastward into the Doñana marshlands, in the Guadalquivir River delta. The average net aquifer recharge rate was calculated to be between 100 and 200 mm year-1 for the area covered by brush, but is remarkably lower in the areas of eucalyptus trees. The transient-state model shows that recharge varies spatially and is not clearly proportional to annual precipitation. Phreatic evapotranspiration plays an important role in decreasing the net value of aquifer recharge to

  5. Hydrothermal fluids circulation and travertine deposition in an active tectonic setting: Insights from the Kamara geothermal area (western Anatolia, Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogi, Andrea; Alçiçek, M. Cihat; Yalçıner, Cahit Çağlar; Capezzuoli, Enrico; Liotta, Domenico; Meccheri, Marco; Rimondi, Valentina; Ruggieri, Giovanni; Gandin, Anna; Boschi, Chiara; Büyüksaraç, Aydin; Alçiçek, Hülya; Bülbül, Ali; Baykara, Mehmet Oruç; Shen, Chuan-Chou

    2016-06-01

    Coexistence of thermal springs, travertine deposits and tectonic activity is a recurring feature for most geothermal areas. Although such a certainty, their relationships are debated mainly addressing on the role of the tectonic activity in triggering and controlling fluids flow and travertine deposition. In this paper, we present the results of an integrated study carried out in a geothermal area located in western Anatolia (Turkey), nearby the well-known Pamukkale area (Denizli Basin). Our study focused on the relationships among hydrothermal fluids circulation, travertine deposition and tectonic activity, with particular emphasis on the role of faults in controlling fluids upwelling, thermal springs location and deposition of travertine masses. New field mapping and structural/kinematics analyses allowed us to recognize two main faults systems (NW- and NE-trending), framed in the Neogene-Quaternary extensional tectonic evolution of western Anatolia. A geo-radar (GPR) prospection was also provided in a key-area, permitting us to reconstruct a buried fault zone and its relationships with the development of a fissure-ridge travertine deposit (Kamara fissure-ridge). The integration among structural and geophysical studies, fluids inclusion, geochemical, isotopic data and 230 Th/238 U radiometric age determination on travertine deposits, depict the characteristics of the geothermal fluids and their pathway, up to the surface. Hydrological and seismological data have been also taken in account to investigate the relation between local seismicity and fluid upwelling. As a main conclusion we found strict relationships among tectonic activity, earthquakes occurrence, and variation of the physical/chemical features of the hydrothermal fluids, presently exploited at depth, or flowing out in thermal springs. In the same way, we underline the tectonic role in controlling the travertine deposition, making travertine (mainly banded travertine) a useful proxy to reconstruct the

  6. Solar battery power supply: A reliable power supply system for nursing clinic in Australia`s remote areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahedi, A. [Monash Univ., Caulfield (Australia). Div. of Electrical and Computer Systems Engineering

    1997-12-31

    Design and performance investigation of a new solar-battery system to power health clinics in Australia`s remote and isolated areas is a research project being conducted in the Department. The objective of this paper is to present the solar-battery system and to discuss the design factors of the system.

  7. A low power, area efficient fpga based beamforming technique for 1-D CMUT arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Bastin; Joseph, Jose; Vanjari, Siva Rama Krishna

    2015-08-01

    A low power area efficient digital beamformer targeting low frequency (2MHz) 1-D linear Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducer (CMUT) array is developed. While designing the beamforming logic, the symmetry of the CMUT array is well exploited to reduce the area and power consumption. The proposed method is verified in Matlab by clocking an Arbitrary Waveform Generator(AWG). The architecture is successfully implemented in Xilinx Spartan 3E FPGA kit to check its functionality. The beamforming logic is implemented for 8, 16, 32, and 64 element CMUTs targeting Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) platform at Vdd 1.62V for UMC 90nm technology. It is observed that the proposed architecture consumes significantly lesser power and area (1.2895 mW power and 47134.4 μm(2) area for a 64 element digital beamforming circuit) compared to the conventional square root based algorithm.

  8. PMGA and its application in area and power optimization for ternary FPRM circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pengjun, Wang; Kangping, Li; Huihong, Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Based on the research of population migration algorithms (PMAs), a population migration genetic algorithm (PMGA) is proposed, combining a PMA with a genetic algorithm. A scheme of area and power optimization for a ternary FPRM circuit is proposed by using the PMGA. Firstly, according to the ternary FPRM logic function expression, area and power estimation models are established. Secondly, the PMGA is used to search for the best area and power polarity. Finally, 10 MCNC Benchmark circuits are used to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method. The results show that the ternary FPRM circuits optimized by the PMGA saved 13.33% area and 20.00% power on average than the corresponding FPRM circuits optimized by a whole annealing genetic algorithm. Project supported by the Natural Science Foundation of Zhejiang Province (No. LY13F040003), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61234002, 61306041), and the K. C. Wong Magna Fund in Ningbo University.

  9. Diversity, distribution pattern and seasonal variation in moth assemblages along altitudinal gradient in Gangotri landscape area, Western Himalaya, Uttarakhand, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K. Sanyal

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Field survey was conducted at different altitudes and land-use areas in the two protected areas, viz., Gangotri National Park and Govind National Park of Uttarkashi District, Uttarakhand, India. A total of 475 specimens of moth representing 436 morphospecies were collected using light trap method during the survey conducted between September 2008-May 2010. Preliminary findings show a decreasing diversity with increasing altitude. Subalpine areas were least diverse and subtropical areas had the highest diversity of moths. The greatest number of specimens were collected during the summer and post-monsoon period. The lunar phase had a significant effect on catch success with new moon days resulting in the largest catches and full moon days resulting in the least number of species as well as individuals. Of the thirty two species mentioned in Appendix 1, nine species are first time record from the state Uttarakhand. Four species are new record from Western Himalaya within Indian Territory, and also first time recorded from entire Himalayan landscape. As there was no previous comprehensive study on the moth diversity of Gangotri landscape area, all the 32 species described could be regarded as new record from these two protected areas.

  10. Simulation of land use impacts on sediment and nutrient transfer in coastal areas of Western Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gebel Micha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A major challenge for water resource management in Western Cape, South Africa, is the reduction of the growing sediment and nutrient loads in coastal areas, which belong to the areas most affected by land use change. We used the WebGIS based software STOFFBILANZ to simulate runoff, soil loss, sediment, phosphorus, and nitrogen input in the surface water and groundwater of study area (ca. 6,450 km². The simulated runoff shows a large regional variability caused by the heterogeneous distribution of rainfall. For the reference catchment Klein River simulated total daily runoff fit the observed values of the reference year 2012. The calculation of potential input of sediment, phosphorus, and nitrogen into waters is based on aggregated or generalized information on climate data, land use types, crop and fruit types, yields, mineral fertilizers, farm manure, nitrogen fixing by leguminous plants, atmospheric nitrogen deposition, and soil denitrification. Critical source areas for potential sediment input, particulate P input and diffuse N input are mainly agricultural areas. Additionally, point sources of high relevance for N and P are found in urban areas. Based on the potential input of sediment and nutrients the impacts of current land use change on water resources were estimated. We used the web-based information system WebLand for the simulation aiming at the provision of stakeholders with information for decision making in water resource management.

  11. Reconnaissance of major redhead duck production areas in six western states

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — On May 20, 1979 I flew commercial from the Twin Cities, Minnesota to Salt Lake City, Utah to begin a whirlwind tour of major redhead production areas in Utah,...

  12. Differential trend of leprosy in rural and urban area of western Maharashtra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohite, R V; Mohite, V R; Durgawale, P M

    2013-01-01

    Leprosy, major public health problem in Satara District with prevalence rate of 61/10000 population in 1990. With a view to eliminate Leprosy, Government of India launched National Leprosy Eradication Programme (NLEP) in Satara district during July 1990 to overcome the burden of Leprosy with Multi-Drug Treatment and subsequently Modified Leprosy Elimination Campaign and Block Leprosy Awareness Campaign. The objective of the study is to assess the differential trend of Leprosy in rural and urban area of Satara district. Record based retrospective time series study was conducted in Urban Leprosy Control Units and Primary Health Centers of Satara district on NLEP evaluation indicators; prevalence rate, new case detection rate, percentage of cases released from treatment, proportion of female cases among new cases, proportion of multi bacillary cases among new cases, proportion of grade-II disability among new cases and proportion of child cases among new cases. Leprosy elimination was achieved in rural area i.e. prevalence rate trend was recorded in urban area from 0.1/10000 population to 1.1/10000 population since March 2006-07 and trend was statistically significant (chi2 trend = 37.26, p trend was observed in urban area from 39.6% to 52.8% with significant difference (chi2 trend = 5.42, p = 0.01*). Proportion of multi bacillary cases among new cases showed little fluctuation in rural area from 57% to 55.2% but proportion was decreased in urban area from 59.1% to 44.4% and trend was statistically significant (chi2 trend = 29.82, p trend was observed in urban area from 7% to 22.2% since March 2005-06 and proportion was significant (chi2 trend = 15.90, p = 0.0001*). More than 90% cases were released from treatment in rural area but proportion was low in urban area and trend was statistically significant (chi2 trend = 19.38, p < 0.001*). The National Leprosy Eradication Programme showed favorable impact in rural area as compared to urban area in Satara District of

  13. Modified 16-b Square-root Low Power Area Efficient Carry Select Adder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.P. Meenaakshi Sundhari

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to acceptance of the portable system with fast growth of power density in the integrated circuits, the power dissipation and the performance is considered while the system is designed. The main goal of the VLSI design is to design the adders in more efficient way. By that way the Carry Select Adder (CSLA is an adder designed, which computes n+1 bit sum of two n bit numbers. In this study Modified 16-b SQRT with Modified Area efficient CSLA is proposed. From the design of Modified Area Efficient CSLA it is experiential that there is an option of reducing the area more and consumes low power when compared with Regular CSLA. Modified Area Efficient CSLA (MA-CSLA utilizes BEC which reduces the area more and the total gate count is also gets condensed. The proposed study makes use of a simple and well-organized gate-level alteration to considerably reduce the area and power of the CSLA. By the support of alteration 8-, 16-, 32- and 64-b, respectively Square-Root CSLA (SQRT CSLA model have been evolved and evaluated with the regular SQRT CSLA model. This study estimates the performance of the proposed designs in terms of delay, area and power. The results analysis shows that the proposed Modified Area Efficient CSLA structure is better than the regular SQRT CSLA.

  14. Genotoxicity detected in wild mice living in a highly polluted wetland area in south western Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mateos, Santiago; Daza, Paula; Dominguez, Inmaculada; Cardenas, Jose Antonio [University of Seville, Department of Cell Biology, Faculty of Biology, Avenida de la Reina Mercedes no 6, E-41012 Seville (Spain); Cortes, Felipe [University of Seville, Department of Cell Biology, Faculty of Biology, Avenida de la Reina Mercedes no 6, E-41012 Seville (Spain)], E-mail: cortes@us.es

    2008-06-15

    A field study was carried out in the south of the Iberian Peninsula in an industrial area in the neighbourhood of Huelva city, SW Spain, and in a natural area (Donana National Park) for comparison, to estimate the genetic risk induced by environmental pollution in wild mice. Genotoxic effects in a sentinel organism, the Algerian mice (Mus spretus) free living in the industrial area were compared with animals of the same species living in the natural protected area. The single cell gel electrophoresis, or Comet assay, was performed as a genotoxicity test in peripheral blood of mice. Our results clearly show that mice free living in the contaminated area bear a high burden of genetic damage as compared with control individuals. The results suggest that the assessing of genotoxicity levels by the Comet assay in wild mice can be used as a valuable test in pollution monitoring and environmental conservation. - We have found an increased genotoxic damage in wild mice in a highly polluted area from industry, mining and agriculture in SW Spain, as assessed by the Comet assay.

  15. Power-law tail probabilities of drainage areas in river basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veitzer, S.A.; Troutman, B.M.; Gupta, V.K.

    2003-01-01

    The significance of power-law tail probabilities of drainage areas in river basins was discussed. The convergence to a power law was not observed for all underlying distributions, but for a large class of statistical distributions with specific limiting properties. The article also discussed about the scaling properties of topologic and geometric network properties in river basins.

  16. High power picosecond vortex laser based on a large-mode-area fiber amplifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yuichi; Okida, Masahito; Miyamoto, Katsuhiko; Omatsu, Takashige

    2009-08-03

    We present the production of picosecond vortex pulses from a stressed large-mode-area fiber amplifier for the first time. 8.5 W picosecond output with a peak power of approximately 12.5 kW was obtained at a pump power of 29 W. 2009 Optical Society of America.

  17. Performance, power and condom use: reconceptualised masculinities amongst Western male sex tourists to Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Simon; Limmer, Mark

    2017-07-10

    Each year large numbers of Western men travel to Thailand for sex tourism. Although many will use condoms during their sexual encounters, others will not, potentially exposing themselves to the risk of acquiring sexually transmitted infections, including HIV. Although sex tourism in Thailand has been well documented, the social drivers underpinning voluntary sexual risk-taking through the avoidance of condoms remain poorly understood. Engaging with R.W. Connell's concept of hegemonic masculinity and drawing on data collected from 1237 online discussion board posts and 14 face-to-face interviews, this study considers the ways in which understandings and performances of masculinities may inform the sexual risk-taking behaviours of Western male sex tourists. It argues that for some of these men, unprotected sex is viewed not as a reckless behaviour but, instead, as a safe and appropriate masculine practice, supported by relationships that are often framed as romantic and within a setting where HIV is still largely considered a homosexual disease. With sex workers often disempowered to request safer sexual practices, and some men's attitudes towards unprotected sex resistant to external health promotion advice, the paper concludes by considering what this might mean for policy and practice.

  18. ASSESSMENT OF THE PRESENCE OF Toxocara EGGS IN SOILS OF AN ARID AREA IN CENTRAL-WESTERN ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Viviana Bojanich

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available With the aim of studying the contamination of soils with eggs of Toxocara spp. in an arid area in the central-western region of Argentina, 76 soil samples were collected from 18 towns belonging to six provinces of central-western Argentina. They were processed by the centrifugal flotation method. No eggs of Toxocara spp. were found. It can be concluded that the negative results are directly related to the characteristics of the environment and climate present in the studied area. The finding of eggs in soils depends on several factors: the presence of canine or feline feces, the hygienic behavior of pet owners, the presence of stray animals without veterinary supervision, the weather and environmental conditions, and laboratory techniques used; and all these circumstances must be considered when comparing the results found in different geographical regions. In order to accurately define the importance of public spaces in the transmission of infection to humans, it is important to consider the role of backyards or green spaces around housing in small towns, where the population is not used to walking pets in public spaces, and in such cases a significant fraction of the population may acquire the infection within households.

  19. ASSESSMENT OF THE PRESENCE OF Toxocara EGGS IN SOILS OF AN ARID AREA IN CENTRAL-WESTERN ARGENTINA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojanich, María Viviana; Alonso, José Mario; Caraballo, Nadina Ayelén; Schöller, Mercedes Itatí; López, María de los Ángeles; García, Leandro Martín; Basualdo, Juan Ángel

    2015-01-01

    With the aim of studying the contamination of soils with eggs of Toxocara spp. in an arid area in the central-western region of Argentina, 76 soil samples were collected from 18 towns belonging to six provinces of central-western Argentina. They were processed by the centrifugal flotation method. No eggs of Toxocara spp. were found. It can be concluded that the negative results are directly related to the characteristics of the environment and climate present in the studied area. The finding of eggs in soils depends on several factors: the presence of canine or feline feces, the hygienic behavior of pet owners, the presence of stray animals without veterinary supervision, the weather and environmental conditions, and laboratory techniques used; and all these circumstances must be considered when comparing the results found in different geographical regions. In order to accurately define the importance of public spaces in the transmission of infection to humans, it is important to consider the role of backyards or green spaces around housing in small towns, where the population is not used to walking pets in public spaces, and in such cases a significant fraction of the population may acquire the infection within households. PMID:25651329

  20. Delegated affairs of state administration in the area of environmental protection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Loncar, Zoran

    2014-01-01

    In legal system of the Republic of Serbia there are numerous affairs of the state administration in the field of environmental protection which are, as delegated affairs, performed by the authorities...

  1. Radon measurements by nuclear track detectors in dwellings in Oke-Ogun area, South-Western, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obed, R I; Ademola, A K; Ogundare, F O

    2012-03-01

    An indoor radon survey of a total of 77 dwellings randomly selected in 10 districts in Oke-Ogun area of Oyo state, South-western Nigeria was carried out using CR-39 detectors. The CR-39 detectors were placed in the bedrooms and living rooms and exposed for 6 months and then etched in NaOH 6.25 N solution at 90 °C for 3 h. Mean concentrations amount to 255 ± 47 and 259 ± 67 Bq m(-3) in the living rooms and bedrooms, respectively. The lowest radon concentration (77 ± 29 Bq m(-3)) was found in Igbeti, whereas the highest was found in Okeho (627 ± 125 Bq m(-3)). The annual exposure of dwellers was estimated to fall radon level in this part of the country may be attributed to its geographic location. The data presented here will serve as a baseline survey for radon concentration in dwellings in the area.

  2. Geochemical features of texture –forming ground ice in diamondiferous areas of western Yakutia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. P. Alekseeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The unique research results of macro-components, trace elements and rare earth elements (REEs in the structure-forming ground ice in sedimentary and igneous rocks of the diamond-bearing regions of Western Yakutia are presented. It has been found that deep freezing of sedimentary cover in the Yakutian diamond-bearing province gave rise to formation of ice-cement and intrusive ice in the sedimentary strata and kimberlites. Water-rock interaction before the glacial epoch and perennial cryogenesis in the Late Cenozoic resulted in current hydrogeochemical zonality in the diamond-bearing regions and stipulated formation of hydrocarbonate, sulfate-hydrocarbonate, chloride-hydrocarbonate, hydrocarbonate-chloride and chloride types of structure-forming ground ice. Ground ice is enriched in Li, B, Si, S, Br, Sr and is depleted in Sc, Ge, Y, Nb, Th. Concentration of the REE in ground ice is 2–4 orders of magnitude less than in kimberlites and sedimentary rocks, 1–2 orders of magnitude exceed the REE content in the ocean water and approximately equal to the REE content in the river waters. The profiles of REE distribution in the ground ice is characterized by the similar of Ʌ-shape, strongly marked Eu anomaly and approximately equal content of light and heavy REE.

  3. Possibilities for the development of ecotourism in protected areas of Western Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miljković Olgica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable tourism is an important element of modern tourism, which are strictly controlled by the impact of tourism on the environment. Balanced ecological, economic and sociocultural components of tourism are therefore more frequently mentioned in the programs and strategies of tourism development. Sustainable tourism is particularly applicable to the development of tourism in the category of protected natural areas. These natural systems (national parks, nature parks, nature reserves and natural monuments are all interesting areas for various segments of the tourist. Typically, this is ecotourism - a modern form of tourism in which through education, volunteering, learning about nature, we help protect and preserve nature. Tourism development in protected natural areas is particularly sensitive, and as such it involves the determination of carrying capacity, limits of acceptable changes, environmental impact assessment, tourism zoning and designing codes of ethics that would help tourists to coordinate their activities with the values of the environment. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 176008

  4. Assessing the Relative Ecological Importance and Deforestation Risks of Unprotected Areas in Western Brazil Using Landsat, CBERS and Quantum GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A.; Sevilla, C.; Lanclos, A.; Carson, C.; Larson, J.; Sankaran, M.; Saad, M.

    2012-12-01

    In addition to understanding Brazilian policies and currently utilized methodologies, the measurement of the impacts of deforestation is essential for enhancing techniques to reduce deforestation in the future. Adverse impacts of deforestation include biodiversity loss, increased carbon dioxide emissions, and a reduced rate of evapotranspiration, all of which contribute directly or indirectly to global warming. With the continual growth in population in developing countries such as Brazil, increased demands are placed on infrastructural development and food production. As a result, forested areas are cleared for agricultural production. Recently, exploration for hydrocarbons in Western Brazil has also intensified as a means to stimulate the economy, as abundant oil and gas is believed to be found in these regions. Unfortunately, hydrocarbon-rich regions of Western Brazil are also home to thousands of species. Many of these regions are as of yet untapped but are at risk of ecological disruption as a result of impending human activity. This project utilized Landsat 5 TM to monitor deforestation in a subsection of the Brazilian states of Rondônia and Amazonas. A risk map identifying areas susceptible to future deforestation, based on factors such as proximity to roads, bodies of water, cities, and proposed hydrocarbon activities such as pipeline construction, was created. Areas at higher risk of clearance were recommended to be a target for enhanced monitoring and law enforcement. In addition, an importance map was created based on biodiversity and location of endangered species. This map was used to identify potential areas for future protection. A Chinese-Brazilian satellite, CBERS 2B CCD was also utilized for comparison. The NDVI model was additionally replicated in Quantum GIS, an open source software, so that local communities and policymakers could benefit without having to pay for expensive ArcGIS software. The capabilities of VIIRS were also investigated to

  5. Landscape Mapping and Tree Diversity Assessment of Pangi Valley: A Remote Tribal Area of Himachal Pradesh in Western Himalaya, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit KUMAR

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Pangi valley in Chamba district of Himachal Pradesh is one of the remote tribal areas in Indian western Himalaya. The plant resources in its landscapes are flourishing under least anthropogenic conditions. For social upliftment of the tribals in this area, a number of developmental activities are being implemented by the government. A study was conducted for mapping of its landuse/landcover using satellite remote sensing to identify major forested landscapes in the region. It was followed by a detailed random stratified sampling of the forested landscapes for phytosociological estimation of its tree species. The 21.97 % of study area was estimated under forests followed by Scrublands and Grassy meadows (18.24 %. Majority of area (54.05 % was Snow and Scree slopes. Among the forests, maximum area was occupied by Mixed Broad Leaved Forest LSE type (36.08% followed by Cedrus deodara (26.94% and Betula utilis (18.07% forest LSE types. These species, owing to immense medicinal properties and value for their economic utilization, feature in threatened and endangered category list of plants. It is, therefore, recommended that the developmental activities may be implemented in scientific way, which may not pose threat to bioresources in this region.

  6. Power in the pasture: Energy and the history of ranching in western South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Jenika

    Transitions in the use of energy transformed the landscape, labor, and domestic life of cattle ranching in western South Dakota from the late-nineteenth to the middle of the twentieth centuries. The introduction of new energy sources to the Black Hills spurred the expansion of European Americans into the region, while helping to displace native peoples like the Lakotas. Changing energy use also intensified ranch labor in the pastures and in the household, drawing individual ranches into new connections with their surroundings. Examining cattle ranching through the lens of energy provides new insights into the momentum of energetic systems in societies, affording historians a way to understand past energy use as they consider present and future environmental concerns.

  7. Environmental pollutant isotope measurements and natural radioactivity assessment for North Tushki area, south western desert, Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sroor, A. E-mail: amanysroor@hotmail.com; Afifi, S.Y.; Abdel-Haleem, A.S.; Salman, A.B.; Abdel-Sammad, M

    2002-09-01

    Natural radioactive materials under certain conditions can reach hazardous radiological levels. The natural radionuclide ({sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th, {sup 40}K) contents of rock samples at various locations in the North Tushki area were investigated using gamma-spectrometric analysis. Estimates of the measured radionuclide content have been made for the absorbed dose rate of gamma radiation. The equivalent radium (R{sub eq}) and the external hazard index (H{sub ex}) which resulted from the natural radionuclides in soil are also calculated and tabulated. The studied samples have been collected from various rock exposures in the North Tushki area. The distribution of major oxides, U and Th were studied. It is found that the enrichment and depletion of the major oxides are mainly due to the effect of hydrothermal alteration, which caused mobility of some major oxides, which increases some elements and decreases others. It is important to mention that the study area is far from the development region of the Tushki project and is only a local hazard. Therefore, additional regional studies of the Tushki Project area should be under taken to explore any unexpected environmental hazard due to the high concentration of the radioactive elements, which have been observed at its north boundary.

  8. Application of electrical resistivity method for groundwater exploration at the Moghra area, Western Desert, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I.I. Mohamaden

    2016-09-01

    Structurally, the study area is influenced by three faults two of them are geological/geoelectrical faults forming a graben structure at the central part; the third fault is a geoelectrical fault and is located to the west of the graben structure forming a horest structure.

  9. Dynamic Security Assessment of Western Danish Power System Based on Ensemble Decision Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Leo; Bak, Claus Leth; Chen, Zhe

    2014-01-01

    With the increasing penetration of renewable energy resources and other forms of dispersed generation, more and more uncertainties will be brought to the dynamic security assessment (DSA) of power systems. This paper proposes an approach that uses ensemble decision trees (EDT) for online DSA. Fed...

  10. Progress of environmental studies in coal mining areas of western Pennsylvania and central West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eychaner, James H.

    1999-01-01

    Two studies related to the regional environmental effects of coal mining in the Appalachian Plateau were conducted in 1998 as part of the National Water‐Quality Assessment program of the U.S. Geological Survey. The study area of about 20,000 square miles included parts of the Allegheny and Monongahela River basins in the north and the Kanawha River basin in the south. Water in domestic wells downgradient from fully reclaimed surface coal mines was compared to water in similar wells at unmined sites. As expected, pH was lower and the concentration of sulfate was greater at mined sites in both areas, although the pH difference was greater in the southern area. Median concentrations of iron and manganese exceeded federal drinking‐water standards at mined sites in both areas and at unmined sites in the southern area. Median concentrations of radon near reclaimed mines were about half those at unmined sites. Surface water was sampled during summer base flow at about 180 sites that drain between 5 and 80 square miles; the sites also were sampled during 1979‐81. Median pH in 1998 was 7.9 in the north and 7.4 in the south, about 0.5 unit higher than in 1980 in both areas. Median concentrations of sulfate increased from 38 mg/L to 56 mg/L in the north and from 46 mg/L to 77 mg/L in the south, in apparent contradiction to the generally lower sulfur content of geologic units in the southern area. Among 52 basins where mining occurred both before and after 1980, the sulfate concentration more than doubled in 13 (25 percent), including greater than five‐fold increases in 5 (10 percent). For 16 mined basins where no mining has occurred since 1980, the median decrease in sulfate concentration was 18 percent, from which the half‐time for oxidation of mining‐related pyrite is estimated to be about 65 years.

  11. 76 FR 6820 - Contract for Hydroelectric Power Development at the C-Drop, a Feature of the Klamath Project...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-08

    ... Power Administration's (Western) purchasing and/or marketing the power, contact Ms. Sonja Anderson... would have the first opportunity to purchase and/or market the power that would be generated under any lease of power privilege. Under this process, Western would both purchase and market the power...

  12. Root biomass and productivity in dominant plantation populations in the mountainous area in western Sichuan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xingliang; MA Qinyan; YANG Dongsheng; SHI Zuoming; SU Yiming; ZHOU Shiqiang; LIU Shirong; YANG Yupo

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated root biomass and productivity in dominant populations in western Sichuan,China.A total of 4 plots (Picea balfouriana plantation for 22 age in Maerkang,9 trees,mean DBH of population for 10.4 cm and height for 10.5 m;Larix maxteriana plantation for 22 age in Wolong,9 trees,mean DBH of population for 17.0 cm and height for 13.8 m;Abiesfabri plantation for 35 age in Ebian,18 trees,mean DBH of population for 14.1 cm and height for 11.9 m;Larix kaempferi plantation for 23 age in Miyaluo,8 trees,mean DBH of population for 17.4 cm and height for 14.5 m;a 20 m×25 m plot located on each of the 4 types in western Sichuan,China) were randomly selected and excavated to a depth of 60 cm for each of the 4 plantation types.To estimate the root biomass of an individual tree using DEH,an exponential model was selected with the highest coefficient ranging from 0.94 to 0.99.The total root biomass per hm2 varied among plantation population types following the order:L.kaempferi (37.832 t/hm2)>A.fabri (24.907 t/hm2)> L.maxteriana (18.320 t/hm2)>P.balfouriana (15.982 t/hm2).The biomas's fractions of a given root size class compared to the total root biomass differed among plantation population types.For all 4 studied plantation types,the majority of the roots were distributed in the top 40 cm of soil,e.g.,97.88% for P.balfourianapopulation,96.78% for L.maxteriana,95.65% for A.fabri,and 99.72 for L.kaempferi population.The root biomass fractions distributed in the top 20 cm of soil were 77.13% for P.balfouriana,77.13% for L.maxteriana,65.02% for A.fabri and 80.66% for L.kaempferi,respectively.The root allocation in the 0-20,20-40,and 40-60 cm soil layers gave ratios of 34:12:1 for P.balfouriana,24:6:1 for L.maxteriana,15:7:1 for A.fabri,and 64:4:1 for L.kaempferi populations.The root biomass density of dominant plantation population t/(hm2.year) for A.fabri and 1.64 t/(hm2.year) for L.kaempferi population,respectively.

  13. Population exposure to trace elements in the Kilembe copper mine area, Western Uganda: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwesigye, Abraham R; Young, Scott D; Bailey, Elizabeth H; Tumwebaze, Susan B

    2016-12-15

    The mining and processing of copper in Kilembe, Western Uganda, from 1956 to 1982 left over 15 Mt. of tailings containing cupriferous and cobaltiferous pyrite dumped within a mountain river valley. This pilot study was conducted to assess the nature and extent of risk to local populations from metal contamination arising from those mining activities. We determined trace element concentrations in mine tailings, soils, locally cultivated foods, house dust, drinking water and human biomarkers (toenails) using ICP-MS analysis of acid digested samples. The results showed that tailings, containing higher concentrations of Co, Cu, Ni and As compared with world average crust values had eroded and contaminated local soils. Pollution load indices revealed that 51% of agricultural soils sampled were contaminated with trace elements. Local water supplies were contaminated, with Co concentrations that exceeded Wisconsin (US) thresholds in 25% of domestic water supplies and 40% of Nyamwamba river water samples. Zinc exceeded WHO/FAO thresholds of 99.4mgkg(-1) in 36% of Amaranthus vegetable samples, Cu exceeded EC thresholds of 20mgkg(-1) in 19% of Amaranthus while Pb exceeded WHO thresholds of 0.3mgkg(-1) in 47% of Amaranthus vegetables. In bananas, 20% of samples contained Pb concentrations that exceeded the WHO/FAO recommended threshold of 0.3mgkg(-1). However, risk assessment of local foods and water, based on hazard quotients (HQ values) revealed no potential health effects. The high external contamination of volunteers' toenails with some elements (even after a washing process) calls into question their use as a biomarker for metal exposure in human populations where feet are frequently exposed to soil dust. Any mitigation of Kilembe mine impacts should be aimed at remediation of agricultural soils, regulating the discharge of underground contaminated water but also containment of tailing erosion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Structural evolution of the Abu Gharadig field area, Northern Western Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Gazzar, A. M.; Moustafa, A. R.; Bentham, P.

    2016-12-01

    Discovered in 1969, the Abu Gharadig (AG) Field was the first large hydrocarbon discovery in the Abu Gharadig Basin of the Western Desert of Egypt. Oil production began in 1973, with gas brought into production in 1975. The field produces mainly from upper Cretaceous clastic reservoirs. The AG Basin is an E-W trending intracratonic rift basin, about 330 km long and 50-75 km wide. It was initially formed as a large half graben basin during the Jurassic time in response to Tethyan rifting and continued to subside throughout the Cretaceous time. The half graben was subsequently inverted during the Late Cretaceous as part of the Syrian Arc deformation which affected northern Egypt. The Mid-Basin Arch, the AG Anticline, and the Mubarak High are three NE-SW oriented main inversion anticlines located within the AG Basin and are controlled by inversion of pre-existing Jurassic rift faults. The AG Anticline has an overall NE-SW orientation with a gentle plunge towards the NE and SW. It is locally bounded by two NE-SW-trending inverted faults on the southwest and northeast, accounting for the asymmetry of the anticline. Reverse offset of Cretaceous horizons is obvious at these inverted faults. Fault propagation folding is developed above the tips of the inverted faults at the Late Cretaceous Abu Roash and Khoman Formations. Based on thickness changes and stratigraphic relationships, inversion started during the Santonian time and continued into the Campanian-Maastrichtian. Inversion continued during deposition of the Paleocene-Middle Eocene Apollonia Formation and the Late Eocene-Oligocene Dabaa Formation.

  15. AGC of a multi-area power system under deregulated environment using redox flow batteries and interline power flow controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulasichandra Sekhar Gorripotu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, Proportional Integral Derivative with Filter (PIDF is proposed for Automatic Generation Control (AGC of a multi-area power system in deregulated environment. Initially, a two area four units thermal system without any physical constraints is considered and the gains of the PIDF controller are optimized employing Differential Evolution (DE algorithm using ITAE criterion. The superiority of proposed DE optimized PIDF controller over Fuzzy Logic controller is demonstrated. Then, to further improve the system performance, an Interline Power Flow Controller (IPFC is placed in the tie-line and Redox Flow Batteries (RFB is considered in the first area and the controller parameters are tuned. Additionally, to get an accurate insight of the AGC problem, important physical constraints such as Time Delay (TD and Generation Rate Constraints (GRC are considered and the controller parameters are retuned. The performance of proposed controller is evaluated under different operating conditions that take place in a deregulated power market. Further, the proposed approach is extended to a two area six units hydro thermal system. Finally, sensitivity analysis is performed by varying the system parameters and operating load conditions from their nominal values.

  16. Benthic invertebrates of benchmark streams in agricultural areas of eastern Wisconsin, Western Lake Michigan Drainages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheaume, S.J.; Lenz, B.N.; Scudder, B.C.

    1996-01-01

    This study describes the benthic invertebrate communities of 20 benchmark streams in agricultural areas of eastern Wisconsin. Streams with minimal adverse effects from human activity were selected from four agricultural areas with differing surficial deposits and bedrock types (relatively homogeneous units, or RHU's). Most aquatic invertebrate orders were well represented in the 20 benchmark stream samples; 217 species and 151 genera within 56 families were identified. Diptera was the best represented order (96 species), followed by Trichoptera (42 species) and Ephemeroptera (26 species). Diptera were the most abundant organisms in terms of numbers of individuals in the sample (28 percent of the total) followed by Trichoptera (25 percent) and Ephemeroptera (13 percent). Nine species of freshwater mussels were found, but only in 5 of the 20 benchmark streams.

  17. Overview of electromagnetic methods applied in active volcanic areas of western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skokan, Catherine K.

    1993-06-01

    A better understanding of active volcanic areas in the United States through electromagnetic geophysical studies received foundation from the many surveys done for geothermal exploration in the 1970's. Investigations by governmental, industrial, and academic agencies include (but are not limited to) mapping of the Cascades. Long Valley/Mono area, the Jemez volcanic field, Yellowstone Park, and an area in Colorado. For one example — Mt. Konocti in the Mayacamas Mountains, California — gravity, magnetic, and seismic, as well as electromagnetic methods have all been used in an attempt to gain a better understanding of the subsurface structure. In each of these volcanic regions, anomalous zones were mapped. When conductive, these anomalies were interpreted to be correlated with hydrothermal activity and not to represent a magma chamber. Electrical and electromagnetic geophysical methods can offer valuable information in the understanding of volcanoes by being the method which is most sensitive to change in temperature and, therefore, can best map heat budget and hydrological character to aid in prediction of eruptions.

  18. The application of ANN technique to automatic generation control for multi-area power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeynelgil, H.L.; Demiroren, A.; Sengor, N.S. [Istanbul Technical Univ., Maslak (Turkey). Electrical and Electronic Faculty

    2002-06-01

    This paper presents an application of layered artificial neural network controller (ANN) to study automatic generation control (AGC) problem in a four-area interconnected power system that three areas include steam turbines and the other area includes a hydro turbine. Each area of steam turbine in the system contains the reheat effect non-linearity of the steam turbine and the area of hydro turbine contains upper and lower constraints for generation rate. Only one ANN controller, which controls the inputs of each area in the power system together, is considered. In the study, back propagation-through-time algorithm is used as ANN learning rule. By comparing the results for both cases, the performance of ANN controller is better than conventional controllers. (author)

  19. GA application to optimization of AGC in three-area power system after deregulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demiroren, A.; Zeynelgil, H.L. [Istanbul Technical University, Electric and Electronics Faculty, Maslak, 34469 Istanbul (Turkey)

    2007-03-15

    In this paper, genetic algorithm (GA), which is used for optimization of integral gains and bias factors, is applied to automatic generation control (AGC) in three-area power system after deregulation. The conventional three-area AGC system is modified to take into account the effect of bilateral contracts on the dynamics. In the considered power system, each area contains two GENCOs; GENCOs at the first and the second areas include steam turbines and GENCOs at the third area include hydro turbines as generating units. After deregulation, to describe bilateral contract for three-area AGC, DISCO participation matrix is used. The performance of the system is studied for different operating cases, in terms of the conventional controller gains and bias factors optimized using real coded GA. (author)

  20. Net-Infiltration map of the Navajo Sandstone outcrop area in western Washington County, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilweil, Victor M.; McKinney, Tim S.

    2007-01-01

    As populations grow in the arid southwestern United States and desert bedrock aquifers are increasingly targeted for future development, understanding and quantifying the spatial variability of net infiltration and recharge becomes critically important for inventorying groundwater resources and mapping contamination vulnerability. A Geographic Information System (GIS)-based model utilizing readily available soils, topographic, precipitation, and outcrop data has been developed for predicting net infiltration to exposed and soil-covered areas of the Navajo Sandstone outcrop of southwestern Utah. The Navajo Sandstone is an important regional bedrock aquifer. The GIS model determines the net-infiltration percentage of precipitation by using an empirical equation. This relation is derived from least squares linear regression between three surficial parameters (soil coarseness, topographic slope, and downgradient distance from outcrop) and the percentage of estimated net infiltration based on environmental tracer data from excavations and boreholes at Sand Hollow Reservoir in the southeastern part of the study area.Processed GIS raster layers are applied as parameters in the empirical equation for determining net infiltration for soil-covered areas as a percentage of precipitation. This net-infiltration percentage is multiplied by average annual Parameter-elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM) precipitation data to obtain an infiltration rate for each model cell. Additionally, net infiltration on exposed outcrop areas is set to 10 percent of precipitation on the basis of borehole net-infiltration estimates. Soils and outcrop net-infiltration rates are merged to form a final map.Areas of low, medium, and high potential for ground-water recharge have been identified, and estimates of net infiltration range from 0.1 to 66 millimeters per year (mm/yr). Estimated net-infiltration rates of less than 10 mm/yr are considered low, rates of 10 to 50 mm/yr are

  1. Effect of full converter wind turbines on inter-area oscillation of power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askari, Hanieh Hajizadeh; Hashemi Toghroljerdi, Seyedmostafa; Eriksson, Robert

    2015-01-01

    turbines (FRC-WTs) on the inter-area oscillations of power system is examined. In order to have a comprehensive evaluation of the effects of FRC-WT on the inter-area oscillations, different scenarios associated with the wind power penetration levels, wind farm locations, strength of interconnection line......, and different operating conditions of synchronous generators are investigated. The synchronous generators, exciter systems and power system stabilizers (PSSs) as well as the FRC-WT grid-side converter and its related controllers are modelled in detail in Matlab in order to evaluate the effects of FRC......-WTs on the inter-area mode oscillations precisely. The results show that FRC-WTs can affect the inter-area oscillations considerably in some simulation scenarios...

  2. Carbonate Platform Margin Slope Characteristics of Cambrian Chefu Age in Baojing-Fenghuang and Adjacent Areas, Western Hunan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The Cambrian paleogeography in south China can be divided into Yangtze platform, platform margin slope (including upper slope and lower slope) and basin. The carbonate gravity deposits are well developed there, particularly in the Yangtze platform adjacent areas. This paper mainly deals with declivity fan characters of the Chefu age in Fenghuang adjacent areas, western Hunan Province. According to their distribution and thickness, three main declivity fans have been divided in the study areas,namely, Dama ( ∈ c-dsf), Machong ( ∈ c-msf) and Huangheyuan ( ∈ c-hsf) declivity fans. Each fan's characters are described in detail in this paper. Based on their distribution range, scale and fossiliferous layers, two peak periods (fair developmental period) are distinguished: (1) Linguagnostus reconditus Zone (time), and (2) Glyptagnostus reticulatus Zone (time). They were characterized by huge thick limestone breccia layers (single layer 3-4 rn thick) and closely spaced spread. Besides, there are also two developmental periods: (1) Lejopyge laevigata- Proagnostus bulbus Zone (time), and (2) Agnostus inexpectans-Proceratopyge protracta Zone (time) to Erixanium Zone (time) to Corynexochus plumula-Sinoproceratopyge cf. kiangshanensis Zone (time), while Glyptagnostus stolidotus Zone (time) was an interstitial period (without or rare limestone breccias). All these features may verify the relative movement of the earth crust and paleoclimate variety of the Chefu age in the study areas.

  3. Seismic Hazard Analysis along Koyna Dam Area, Western Maharashtra, India: A Contribution of Remote Sensing and GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Theilen-Willige

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Koyna-Warna area in Maharashtra, Western India, is one of the world’s best examples of reservoir-induced seismicity. The occurrence of earthquakes in the vicinity of Koyna Dam (Shivaji Sagar Lake started since 1962, soon after the initiation of water impoundment. To understand the tectonics and seismicity of the region, recent Landsat 8 images and Sentinel radar data were evaluated in GIS, as well as SRTM and ASTER Digital Elevation Model data (DEM and the DEM-derived morphometric maps. Geophysical and climate data were also included in the GIS database. The analysis of satellite data contributed towards understanding the tectonic framework of the Koyna reservoir area by visual lineament analysis. Thus, Landsat 8 and Sentinel radar data brought out the structural pattern and made visible larger fault zones. The detailed lineament analysis detected areas, presumed to have rocks of relatively higher permeability, supporting intrusion and infiltration of surface water. The resulting maps of weighted overlay procedures derived from causal morphometric factors that influence the susceptibility to ground motion revealed areas with higher, medium and lower susceptibility to soil amplification.

  4. Permafrost coverage, watershed area and season control of dissolved carbon and major elements in western Siberian rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokrovsky, O. S.; Manasypov, R. M.; Loiko, S.; Shirokova, L. S.; Krivtzov, I. A.; Pokrovsky, B. G.; Kolesnichenko, L. G.; Kopysov, S. G.; Zemtzov, V. A.; Kulizhsky, S. P.; Vorobiev, S. N.; Kirpotin, S. N.

    2015-07-01

    Analysis of dissolved organic and inorganic carbon (DOC and DIC, respectively), pH, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cl, SO4 and Si in ~ 100 large and small rivers ( 10 000 km2. This suggested that in addition to groundwater feeding of the river, there was a significant role of surface and shallow subsurface flow linked to plant litter degradation and peat leaching. Environmental factors are ranked by their increasing effect on DOC, DIC, δ13CDIC, and major elements in western Siberian rivers as the following: watershed area water flow path (deep vs. surface) but has to be considered in the context of different climate, plant biomass productivity, unfrozen peat thickness and peat chemical composition. It can be anticipated that, under climate warming in western Siberia, the maximal change will occur in small (ionic composition, and this change will be mostly pronounced in summer and autumn. The wintertime concentrations and spring flood fluxes and concentrations are unlikely to be appreciably affected by the change of the active layer depth and terrestrial biomass productivity. Assuming a conservative precipitation scenario and rising temperature over next few centuries, the annual fluxes of DOC and K in the discontinuous permafrost zone may see a maximum increase by a factor of 2, whereas for DIC and Mg, this increase may achieve a factor of 3. The fluxes of Ca and TDSc may increase by a factor of 5. At the same time, Si fluxes will either remain constant or decrease two-fold in the permafrost-bearing zone relative to the permafrost-free zone of western Siberia.

  5. Western Alaska ESI: SOCECON (Socioeconomic Resource Points and Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains human-use resource data for airports, mining sites, area boundaries, and scenic rivers in Western Alaska. Vector points and lines in this...

  6. Western Regional Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement: Rulemaking for Small Power Production and Cogeneration Facilities - Exemptions for Geothermal Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinemann, Jack M.; Nalder, Nan; Berger, Glen

    1981-02-01

    Section 643 of the Energy Security Act of 1980 directed the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission to develop rules to further encourage geothermal development by Small Power Production Facilities. This rule amends rules previously established in Dockets No. RM79-54 and 55 under Section 201 and 210 of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 (PURPA). The analysis shows that the rules are expected to stimulate the development of up to 1,200 MW of capacity for electrical generation from geothermal facilities by 1995--1,110 MW more than predicted in the original PURPA EIS. This Final Supplemental EIS to the DEIS, issued by FERC in June 1980, forecasts likely near term development and analyzes environmental effects anticipated to occur due to development of geothermal resources in the Western United States as a result of this additional rulemaking.

  7. Serotonin-3 Receptors in the Posterior Ventral Tegmental Area Regulate Ethanol Self-Administration of Alcohol-Preferring (P) Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodd, Zachary A.; Bell, Richard L.; Oster, Scott M.; Toalston, Jamie E.; Pommer, Tylene J.; McBride, William J.; Murphy, James M.

    2015-01-01

    Several studies indicated the involvement of serotonin-3 (5-HT3) receptors in regulating alcohol-drinking behavior. The objective of this study was to determine the involvement of 5-HT3 receptors within the ventral tegmental area (VTA) in regulating ethanol self-administration by alcohol-preferring (P) rats. Standard two-lever operant chambers were used to examine the effects of 7 consecutive bilateral micro-infusions of ICS205-930 (ICS), a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, directly into the posterior VTA on the acquisition and maintenance of 15% (v/v) ethanol self-administration. P rats readily acquired ethanol self-administration by the 4th session. The three highest doses (0.125, 0.25 and 1.25 ug) of ICS prevented acquisition of ethanol self-administration. During the acquisition post-injection period, all rats treated with ICS demonstrated higher responding on the ethanol lever, with the highest dose producing the greatest effect. In contrast, during the maintenance phase, the 3 highest doses (0.75, 1.0 and 1.25 ug) of ICS significantly increased responding on the ethanol lever; following the 7-day dosing regimen, responding on the ethanol lever returned to control levels. Micro-infusion of ICS into the posterior VTA did not alter the low responding on the water lever, and did not alter saccharin (0.0125% w/v) self-administration.. Micro-infusion of ICS into the anterior VTA did not alter ethanol self-administration. Overall, the results of this study suggest that 5-HT3 receptors in the posterior VTA of the P rat may be involved in regulating ethanol self-administration. In addition, chronic operant ethanol self-administration, and/or repeated treatments with a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist may alter neuronal circuitry within the posterior VTA. PMID:20682192

  8. Coarse grain deposit feature of Guantao formation in western depression Shuyi area of Liaohe basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Jian-hua; LIU Chen-sheng; ZHU Mei-heng

    2005-01-01

    The extensive distribution of coarse-grained clastic rock of Guantao formation in Shuyi area of Liaohe basin was considered as a result of fluvial deposit. According to the comprehensive analysis of seism data, well log, core observation and experimental data, this kind of clastic rock is composed of pebblestone-cobblestone, microconglomerate, sand conglomerate, medium-coarse grained sandstone and fine-sandstone. According to the clast composition, sedimentary texture, structure and rock type, 3 kinds of sediment facies can be recognized ie the mixed accumulation-conglomerate dominated debris flow, pebblestone-cobblestone dominated gradient flow and sandstone dominated braided stream. Vertically, the bottom gradient current deposit and top braided stream deposit form fining-upward sediment sequence, and the debris flow deposit distributes in them at random. The sedimentary feature of coarse grain clastic of Guantao formation in Shuyi area is accordant with proximal wet alluvial fan deposited in wet climate at foreland and this kind of alluvial fan is different from the traditional one.

  9. Assessment and selection of geomorphosites and trails in the Miage Glacier area (Western Italian alps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollati, Irene; Smiraglia, Claudio; Pelfini, Manuela

    2013-04-01

    Glacial environments are considered geomorphosites because they exhibit all of the features that characterise sites of geomorphological interest. The Miage Glacier, in particular, is the most important debris-covered glacier of the Italian Alps, and it has been extensively studied since the 18th century because of its scientific features. In this area, the geomorphological and geological attributes are evaluated at 11 sites that have been individuated along the three main touristic trails, which allow an exploration of the surroundings of the glacial tongue and its two main lobes. Using a methodology previously tested in a fluvial environment, single sites and trails are quantitatively assessed to determine the most suitable trail for educational purposes. Hazards that could potentially affect the trails are considered in terms of both risk education and final selection of the most suitable trails for the various possible user groups. The richness of scientific data in this area should increase its importance as a geomorphosite by increasing the educational value of the Miage Glacier and the Veny Valley.

  10. In-Containment Signal Conditioning and Transmission via Power Lines within High Dose Rate Areas of Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Steffen; Weigel, Robert; Koelpin, Alexander [Institute for Electronics Engineering, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Cauerstr. 9, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Dennerlein, Juergen; Janke, Iryna; Weber, Johannes [AREVA GmbH, Paul-Gossen-Str. 100, 91052 Erlangen (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Signal conditioning and transmission for sensor systems and networks within the containment of nuclear power plants (NPPs) still poses a challenge to engineers, particularly in the case of equipment upgrades for existing plants, temporary measurements, decommissioning of plants, but also for new builds. This paper presents an innovative method for efficient and cost-effective instrumentation within high dose rate areas inside the containment. A transmitter-receiver topology is proposed that allows simultaneous, unidirectional point-to-point transmission of multiple sensor signals by superimposing them on existing AC or DC power supply cables using power line communication (PLC) technology. Thereby the need for costly installation of additional cables and containment penetrations is eliminated. Based on commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) electronic parts, a radiation hard transmitter is designed to operate in harsh environment within the containment during full plant operation. Hardware modularity of the transmitter allows application specific tradeoffs between redundancy and channel bandwidth. At receiver side in non-radiated areas, signals are extracted from the power line, demodulated, and provided either in analog or digital output format. Laboratory qualification tests and field test results within a boiling water reactor (BWR) are validating the proof of concept of the proposed system. (authors)

  11. Optimal AGC with redox flow batteries in multi-area restructured power systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogendra Arya

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to investigate the effect of Redox flow batteries (RFB in Automatic Generation Control (AGC of multi-area restructured power systems. Initially, a two-area restructured thermal power system is investigated. For the analysis, optimal AGC regulators (OARs are designed employing performance index minimization criterion. The advantages of the OARs are shown by comparing the results with Genetic Algorithm (GA based integral controllers for the same restructured system. MATLAB simulation results further demonstrate significant improvements in the dynamic performance of the system with RFB. System stability enhancement with OARs/RFB is outlined by conducting the system modes study. The study is additionally extended to a more realistic two-area multi-source thermal–hydro–gas restructured system with/without RFB. To add nonlinearities, appropriate generation rate constraints (GRCs are considered for the thermal, hydro and gas plants. Results verify that OARs are able to satisfy the AGC requirement under varied power transactions taking place in an open power market. The robustness of OARs is demonstrated by sensitivity analysis, which is carried out with wide variation in initial loading, system parameters and magnitude/position of the uncontracted power demands. Finally, the study is extended to a two-area multi-source thermal–hydro power system with/without considering RFB.

  12. Changes in the fish community structure after the implementation of Marine Protected Areas in the south western coast of Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeu J. Pereira

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Marine Protected Areas (MPAs are increasingly being recommended as management tools for biodiversity conservation and fisheries. With the purpose of protecting the region’s biodiversity and prevent the over exploitation of marine resources, in February 2011 the MPAs of Ilha do Pessegueiro and Cabo Sardão were implemented in the “Parque Natural do Sudoeste Alentejano e Costa Vicentina “(PNSACV Natural Park, south western coast of Portugal. In these areas, commercial and recreational fishing became prohibited. In order to evaluate the effects of these MPAs, the structure of its fish communities and of adjacent control areas without fishing restrictions were studied in 2011/12 (immediately after implementation and 2013 (two years after implementation. A total of 4 sampling campaigns were conducted (summer 2011, winter 2012, summer 2013 and winter 2013 using bottom trawl and gillnets. Faunal communities from the MPAs (treatment were compared with adjacent areas (controls and changes evaluated with time. Results revealed significant changes on abundance, having this parameter a slight increase after the implementation of the MPAs. Also, significant differences were observed on the structure of the protected areas communities when compared with neighbouring areas where fishing was still allowed, even though the small amount of time elapsed. In addition, specimens of larger size occurred more frequently within Ilha do Pessegueiro MPA in the last year of the study. Despite the young age of these MPAs, changes on their fish communities’ structure are already visible after only 3 years of protection, showing that these management measures may promote sustainable exploitation of fishing resources as well as protect species with conservation interest, thus leading to a global biodiversity increase.

  13. SHANXI POWER TRANSMISSION CHANNEL SCHEME OF THE WESTERN%山西电网西部输电通道方案研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马涛

    2011-01-01

    Based on the operation of existing transmission channel and the analysis of Shanxi power grid structure, identify the western transmission channel program. By electrical simulation, the construction of the western transmission channel impact on Shanxi power grid, point the necessity and feasibility of the western Shanxi Power Grid Transmission Channel.%在分析山西电网结构基础上,研究现有输电通道的运行情况,确定西部输电通道方案。通过电气仿真计算,分析西部输电通道建设对山西电网产生的影响,提出山西电网西部输电通道建设的必要性和可行性。

  14. Chronic complications in newly diagnosed patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in rural area of western Uttar Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Results: There were 174 males and 132 females. Majority were less than 60 years of age. 20.26% of patients had neuropathy 15.36%, retinopathy and 5.56%, nephropathy. Risk factors of macro-vascular complication such as hypertension, obesity, and dyslipidemia were observed in 38.9, 55.9%, and 54.6% of patients respectively. Coronary artery disease was noticed in 9.15%. Conclusions: Present study shows that high prevalence of micro vascular complications was present at diagnosis along with cardiovascular risk factors among T2DM patient from rural area of western Uttar Pradesh, India. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(6.000: 2292-2296

  15. A Study on Forest Species Diversity and Its Ecological Service Function in the Plateau Area of Western Sichuan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deng Yu-lin; Wang Yu-kuan; Peng Pei-hao

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a study on species diversity and its ecological service function in the plateau area in western Sichuan. The results show that species diversity in the plantations on the cutover land has a tendency to increase and that its ecological service function is to be improved with stand age growing. The species diversity in forest communities is also gradually increased on different succession stage till reaching a climax level. But the species diversity in the climax community is slightly decreased before it reaches a relatively constant status. Ecological service function of diversity is gradually strengthened with the progress of succession. In addition, species diversity in a stand in a similar site and at a same age differs among forest types. Species diversity index within a coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest is larger than that within a coniferous forest. Meanwhile, species diversity enriches as the tree density increases.

  16. A review of the evidence to support influenza vaccine introduction in countries and areas of WHO's Western Pacific Region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Samaan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Immunization against influenza is considered an essential public health intervention to control both seasonal epidemics and pandemic influenza. According to the World Health Organization (WHO, there are five key policy and three key programmatic issues that decision-makers should consider before introducing a vaccine. These are (a public health priority, (b disease burden, (c efficacy, quality and safety of the vaccine, (d other inventions, (e economic and financial issues, (f vaccine presentation, (g supply availability and (h programmatic strength. We analyzed the body of evidence currently available on these eight issues in the WHO Western Pacific Region. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Studies indexed in PubMed and published in English between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2010 from the 37 countries and areas of the Western Pacific Region were screened for keywords pertaining to the five policy and three programmatic issues. Studies were grouped according to country income level and vaccine target group. There were 133 articles that met the selection criteria, with most (90% coming from high-income countries. Disease burden (n = 34, vaccine efficacy, quality and safety (n = 27 and public health priority (n = 27 were most frequently addressed by studies conducted in the Region. Many studies assessed influenza vaccine policy and programmatic issues in the general population (42%, in the elderly (24% and in children (17%. Few studies (2% addressed the eight issues relating to pregnant women. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The evidence for vaccine introduction in countries and areas in this Region remains limited, particularly in low- and middle-income countries that do not currently have influenza vaccination programmes. Surveillance activities and specialized studies can be used to assess the eight issues including disease burden among vaccine target groups and the cost-effectiveness of influenza vaccine. Multi-country studies should

  17. Mangrove Forest Cover Extraction of the Coastal Areas of Negros Occidental, Western Visayas, Philippines Using LIDAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pada, A. V.; Silapan, J.; Cabanlit, M. A.; Campomanes, F.; Garcia, J. J.

    2016-06-01

    Mangroves have a lot of economic and ecological advantages which include coastal protection, habitat for wildlife, fisheries and forestry products. Determination of the extent of mangrove patches in the coastal areas of the Philippines is therefore important especially in resource conservation, protection and management. This starts with a well-defined and accurate map. LiDARwas used in the mangrove extraction in the different coastal areas of Negros Occidental in Western Visayas, Philippines. Total coastal study area is 1,082.55 km² for the 14 municipalities/ cities processed. Derivatives that were used in the extraction include, DSM, DTM, Hillshade, Intensity, Number of Returns and PCA. The RGB bands of the Orthographic photographs taken at the same time with the LiDAR data were also used as one of the layers during the processing. NDVI, GRVI and Hillshade using Canny Edge Layer were derived as well to produce an enhanced segmentation. Training and Validation points were collected through field validation and visual inspection using Stratified Random Sampling. The points were then used to feed the Support Vector Machine (SVM) based on tall structures. Only four classes were used, namely, Built-up, Mangroves, Other Trees and Sugarcane. Buffering and contextual editing were incorporated to reclassify the extracted mangroves. Overall accuracy assessment is at 98.73% (KIA of 98.24%) while overall accuracy assessment for Mangroves only is at 98.00%. Using this workflow, mangroves can already be extracted in a large-scale level with acceptable overall accuracy assessments.

  18. Climate change and the eco-hydrology of fire: Will area burned increase in a warming western USA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Donald; Littell, Jeremy S

    2017-01-01

    Wildfire area is predicted to increase with global warming. Empirical statistical models and process-based simulations agree almost universally. The key relationship for this unanimity, observed at multiple spatial and temporal scales, is between drought and fire. Predictive models often focus on ecosystems in which this relationship appears to be particularly strong, such as mesic and arid forests and shrublands with substantial biomass such as chaparral. We examine the drought-fire relationship, specifically the correlations between water-balance deficit and annual area burned, across the full gradient of deficit in the western USA, from temperate rainforest to desert. In the middle of this gradient, conditional on vegetation (fuels), correlations are strong, but outside this range the equivalence hotter and drier equals more fire either breaks down or is contingent on other factors such as previous-year climate. This suggests that the regional drought-fire dynamic will not be stationary in future climate, nor will other more complex contingencies associated with the variation in fire extent. Predictions of future wildfire area therefore need to consider not only vegetation changes, as some dynamic vegetation models now do, but also potential changes in the drought-fire dynamic that will ensue in a warming climate.

  19. Holocene vegetation cover in Qin'an area of western Chinese Loess Plateau revealed by n-alkane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG YanXia; CHEN FaHu; AN ChengBang; XIE ShuCheng; HUANG XianYu

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies have found that wetlands prevailed in western Chinese Loess Plateau and pine pollen could reach up to 80% in Qin'an area of the plateau during middle Holocene.It was then deduced that forest vegetation covered Qin'an area in a warm and wet climate during middle Holocene.The proxies of molecule biomarkers from two Holocene sections,a swamp-alluvial loess section and a typical loess-paleosol section are used to reconstruct regional vegetation history.It is found that the heavy-molecular-weight(HMW)homologues of the n-alkanes in all samples exhibit a pronounced odd-over-even predominance,maximizing at C31 and the abundance of the nC27-alkanes is the lowest in nC27,nC29,nC31,i.e.C27<C29<C31,a typical grass n-alkanes model.The results are the same as those of model surface soil samples under grass cover but different from both forest cover and modern pine leaves,which yield preferentially nC29-alkanes peak.It could be jnferred that the area was dominated by grass cover but not forest cover during whole Holocene epoch.The study shows that combining both molecule biomarkers and pollen analysis can avoid the disadvantage of pollen analysis in reconstruction of regional vegetation cover.

  20. Climate change and the eco-hydrology of fire: Will area burned increase in a warming western USA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Donald; Littell, Jeremy

    2017-01-01

    Wildfire area is predicted to increase with global warming. Empirical statistical models and process-based simulations agree almost universally. The key relationship for this unanimity, observed at multiple spatial and temporal scales, is between drought and fire. Predictive models often focus on ecosystems in which this relationship appears to be particularly strong, such as mesic and arid forests and shrublands with substantial biomass such as chaparral. We examine the drought–fire relationship, specifically the correlations between water-balance deficit and annual area burned, across the full gradient of deficit in the western USA, from temperate rainforest to desert. In the middle of this gradient, conditional on vegetation (fuels), correlations are strong, but outside this range the equivalence hotter and drier equals more fire either breaks down or is contingent on other factors such as previous-year climate. This suggests that the regional drought–fire dynamic will not be stationary in future climate, nor will other more complex contingencies associated with the variation in fire extent. Predictions of future wildfire area therefore need to consider not only vegetation changes, as some dynamic vegetation models now do, but also potential changes in the drought–fire dynamic that will ensue in a warming climate.

  1. Response of rocky reef top predators (Serranidae: Epinephelinae in and around marine protected areas in the Western Mediterranean Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Werner Hackradt

    Full Text Available Groupers species are extremely vulnerable to overfishing and many species are threatened worldwide. In recent decades, Mediterranean groupers experienced dramatic population declines. Marine protected areas (MPAs can protect populations inside their boundaries and provide individuals to adjacent fishing areas through the process of spillover and larval export. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of six marine reserves in the Western Mediterranean Sea to protect the populations of three species of grouper, Epinephelus marginatus, Epinephelus costae and Mycteroperca rubra, and to understand in which circumstances MPAs are able to export biomass to neighbouring areas. All the studied MPAs, except one where no grouper was observed, were able to maintain high abundance, biomass and mean weight of groupers. Size classes were more evenly distributed inside than outside MPAs. In two reserves, biomass gradients could be detected through the boundaries of the reserve as an indication of spillover. In some cases, habitat structure appeared to exert a great influence on grouper abundance, biomass and mean individual weight, influencing the gradient shape. Because groupers are generally sedentary animals with a small home range, we suggest that biomass gradients could only occur where groupers attain sufficient abundance inside MPA limits, indicating a strongly density-dependent process.

  2. Analysis of the changes of vegetation coverage of western Beijing mountainous areas using remote sensing and GIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liangyun; Jing, Xia; Wang, Jihua; Zhao, Chunjiang

    2009-06-01

    Mentougou District acts as a crucial component in the ecological buffer in western Beijing mountainous areas, Beijing, China. Using two Landsat MSS/TM images acquired on July 14, 1979 and July 23, 2005, the vegetation coverage of Mentougou District was calculated based on normalized difference vegetation index and spectral mixture analysis (NDVI-SMA) model. Its temporal and spatial changes were analyzed according to digital elevation model (DEM) image, social and economic data. The results showed that the vegetation coverage decreased from 76.4% in 1979 to 72.7% in 2005. Vegetation degradation was probably the result of human disturbance, such as outspreading of resident areas, and coal and stone mining activities, while vegetation restoration might be contributed by the combined effects of both natural processes and ecological construction effort. Vegetation changes were closely related to topographical characteristics. Plants at high altitude were more stable and less degraded than the plants at low altitude, while the plants on steep slope or northwest aspect were more vulnerable to degradation. During the period of 26 years, landscape appeared to become more fragmental, and ecological quality of the land seemed deteriorated sharply in that highly-covered vegetation area has been decreased by 24%.

  3. Developing a PQ monitoring system for assessing power quality and critical areas detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Romero

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines the development of a power quality monitoring system. The system is aimed at assessing power quality and detecting critical areas throughout at distribution system. Such system integrates a hardware system and a software processing tool developed in four main stages. Power quality disturbances are registered by PQ meters and the data is transmitted through a 3G wireless network. This data is processed and filtered in an open source database. Some interesting statistical indices related to voltage sags, swells, flicker and voltage unbalance are obtained. The last stage displays the indices geo-referenced on power quality maps, allowing the identification of critical areas according to different criteria. The results can be analyzed using clustering tools to identify differentiated quality groups in a city. The proposed system is an open source tool useful to electricity utilities to analyze and manage large amount of data.

  4. An ECG Compressed Sensing Method of Low Power Body Area Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jizhong Liu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Aimed at low power problem in body area network, an ECG compressed sensing method of low power body area network based on the compressed sensing theory was proposed. Random binary matrices were used as the sensing matrix to measure ECG signals on the sensor nodes. After measured value is transmitted to remote monitoring center, ECG signal sparse representation under the discrete cosine transform and block sparse Bayesian learning reconstruction algorithm is used to reconstruct the ECG signals. The simulation results show that the 30% of overall signal can get reconstruction signal which’s SNR is more than 60dB, each numbers in each rank of sensing matrix can be controlled below 5, which reduces the power of sensor node sampling, calculation and transmission. The method has the advantages of low power, high accuracy of signal reconstruction and easy to hardware implementation.  

  5. Black carbon aerosol characterization in a remote area of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, western China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiyuan; Schwarz, J P; Cao, Junji; Gao, Rushan; Fahey, D W; Hu, Tafeng; Huang, R-J; Han, Yongming; Shen, Zhenxing

    2014-05-01

    The concentrations, size distributions, and mixing states of refractory black carbon (rBC) aerosols were measured with a ground-based Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2), and aerosol absorption was measured with an Aethalometer at Qinghai Lake (QHL), a rural area in the Northeastern Tibetan Plateau of China in October 2011. The area was not pristine, with an average rBC mass concentration of 0.36 μg STP-m(-3) during the two-week campaign period. The rBC concentration peaked at night and reached the minimal in the afternoon. This diurnal cycle of concentration is negatively correlated with the mixed layer depth and ventilation. When air masses from the west of QHL were sampled in late afternoon to early evening, the average rBC concentration of 0.21 μg STP-m(-3) was observed, representing the rBC level in a larger Tibetan Plateau region because of the highest mixed layer depth. A lognormal primary mode with mass median diameter (MMD) of ~175 nm, and a small secondary lognormal mode with MMD of 470-500 nm of rBC were observed. Relative reduction in the secondary mode during a snow event supports recent work that suggested size dependent removal of rBC by precipitation. About 50% of the observed rBC cores were identified as thickly coated by non-BC material. A comparison of the Aethalometer and SP2 measurements suggests that non-BC species significantly affect the Aethalometer measurements in this region. A scaling factor for the Aethalometer data at a wavelength of 880 nm is therefore calculated based on the measurements, which may be used to correct other Aethalometer datasets collected in this region for a more accurate estimate of the rBC loading. The results present here significantly improve our understanding of the characteristics of rBC aerosol in the less studied Tibetan Plateau region and further highlight the size dependent removal of BC via precipitation.

  6. The Importance of the Gray Literature in the Internet for the Accounting and Business Administration Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Côrtes,Pedro Luiz

    2007-01-01

    This work analyzes the characteristics of gray literature, evaluating the use of this useful information source for teachers, students and researches of business administration and accounting.  Moreover, it studies new kinds of diffusion of the scientific knowledge with the use of open archives, preprints and open-access bases. Although we found restrictions of some academics communities, the use of this kind of reference have been growing, justifying its importance.  In many cases, it is the...

  7. Epidemiological and ecological aspects related to malaria in the area of influence of the lake at Porto Primavera dam, in western São Paulo State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Almério de C; Paula, Marcia B de; Duarte, Ana Maria R de C; Lima, Maura A; Malafronte, Rosely dos S; Mucci, Luis F; Gotlieb, Sabina Lea D; Natal, Delsio

    2008-01-01

    A study was carried out in the area of influence of the Porto Primavera Hydroelectric Power Station, in western São Paulo State, to investigate ecological and epidemiological aspects of malaria in the area and monitor the profile of the anopheline populations following the environmental changes brought about by the construction of the lake. Mosquitoes captured were analyzed by standardized indicator species analysis (ISA) before and during different flooding phases (253 m and 257 m elevations). The local human population was studied by means of parasitological (thin/thick blood smears), molecular (PCR) and serological tests. Serological tests consisted of Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) with synthetic peptides of the circumsporozoite protein (CSP) from classic Plasmodium vivax, P. vivax variants (VK247 and "vivax-like"), P. malariae and P. falciparum and Indirect Immunofluorescence Assay (IFA) with asexual forms of P. vivax, P. malariae and P. falciparum. The results of the entomological survey indicated that, although the Anopheles darlingi population increased after the flooding, the population density remained very low. No malaria, parasite infection or DNA was detected in the inhabitants of the study area. However, there was a low frequency of antibodies against asexual forms and a significant prevalence of antibodies against P. vivax, P. vivax variants, P. falciparum and P. malariae; the presence of these antibodies may result from recent or less recent contact with human or simian Plasmodium (a parallel study in the same area revealed the existence of a sylvatic cycle). Nevertheless, these results suggest that, as in other places where malaria is present and potential vectors circulate, the local epidemiological conditions observed could potentially support the transmission of malaria in Porto Primavera Lake if infected individuals are introduced in sufficient numbers. Further studies are required to elucidate the phenomena described in this paper.

  8. Survey of otomycosis in north- western area of Iran(1447- 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kazemi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose : Otomycosis(Otitis externa is an acute, subacte or chronic fungal infection that has exogenous or endogenous origin. The present study was carried out to investigate the etiologic agents and determine risk factore and epidemiological aspects of otomycosis in north- West area of Iran.Materials and methods : Clinical samples of suspected patients were studied in direct microscopy and cultured in specific medium for determining the causative fungi.Results : 89 patients; 64 male and 25 female were recruited and studies. The disease were more prevalent in 20- 40 years in both sexes.Identified etiologic agents with direct examination and culture of samples in numerous series were: Aspergillus niger(51 cases, A. terreus(9 cases, A. flavus(7 cases, A Fuminagatus(6 cases, Eurotium( prefect stage of A. glaucus(2 cases, penicillium Sp.(2 cases, Candida albicans(8 cases, Epicoccum Sp.(1 case, Mucor Sp. (1 case, Rhizopus Sp.(1 case and Microsporum canis(1 case.Conclusion : Saprophytic moulds were the main etiologic agent of Otomycosis and Aspergillus niger was the prime causaltive agent. Infection in 20 –40 year age group was the most prevalent and Otomycosis among females was determined more than male. This report has provided useful information on the prevalence, causative agents and health implications of Otomycosis, as an infection grossly neglected in enviroment.

  9. Systems for Hazards Identification in High Mountain Areas:An Example from the Kullu District,Western Himalaya

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    James S. Gardner; Eric Saczuk

    2004-01-01

    Methods and techniques for the identification, monitoring and management of natural hazards in high mountain areas are enumerated and described. A case study from the western Himalayan Kullu District in Himachal Pradesh, India is used to illustrate some of the methods. Research on the general topic has been conducted over three decades and that in the Kullu District has been carried out since 1994. Early methods of hazards identification in high mountain areas involved intensive and lengthy fieldwork and mapping with primary reliance on interpretation of landforms, sediments and vegetation thought to be indicative of slope failures, rock falls,debris flows, floods and accelerated soil surface erosion. Augmented by the use of airphotos and ad hoc observations of specific events over time, these methods resulted in the gradual accumulation of information on hazardous sites and the beginnings of a chronology of occurrences in an area. The use of historical methods applied to written and photographic material, often held in archives and libraries, further improved the resolution of hazards information. In the past two decades, both the need for, and the ability to, accurately identify potential hazards have increased. The need for accurate information and monitoring comes about as a result of rapid growth in population, settlements,transportation infrastructure and intensified land uses and, therefore, risk and vulnerability in mountain areas. Ability has improved as the traditional methods of gathering and manipulating data have been supplemented by the use of remote sensing, automated terrain modeling, global positioning systems and geographical information systems. This paper focuses on the development and application of the latter methods and techniques to characterize and monitor hazards in high mountain areas.

  10. Wind power resource in the south-western region of Algeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Himri, Y. [Electricity and Gas National Enterprise (SONELGAZ), Bechar (Algeria); University of Sciences and Technology of Oran, Department of Electronic, Oran (Algeria); Himri, S. [University of Bechar, Department of fundamental Sciences, Bechar (Algeria); Laboratory Signal IMage Parole (SIMPA), Department of Computing Science, Oran (Algeria); Stambouli, A. Boudghene [University of Sciences and Technology of Oran, Department of Electronic, Oran (Algeria)

    2010-01-15

    In this study, we present a statistical analysis of wind speeds at Tindouf in Algeria using Risoe National Laboratory's Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program (WAsP). It requires information related to the sheltering obstacles, surface roughness changes and terrain height variations in order to calculate their effects on the wind. Wind data, consisting of hourly wind speed records over a 5-year period, 2002-2006, were obtained from SONELGAZ R and D Office; the average wind speed at a height of 17 m above ground level was found to range from 7.19 to 7.95 m/s. The Weibull distributions parameters (c and k) were found to vary between 8.0 and 8.9 m/s and 2.54-3.23, respectively, with average power density ranging from 318 to 458 W/m{sup 2}. The dominant wind directions and the frequency distributions were also determined. (author)

  11. Internet-based Wide Area Measurement Applications in Deregulated Power Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Khatib, Abdel Rahman Amin

    2002-01-01

    Internet-Based Wide Area Measurement Applications in Deregulated Power Systems Abdel-Rahman Amin Khatib Abstract Since the deregulation of power systems was started in 1989 in the UK, many countries have been motivated to undergo deregulation. The United State started deregulation in the energy sector in California back in 1996. Since that time many other states have also started the deregulation procedures in different utilities. Most of the deregulation market in the United St...

  12. Urban Fault Lines in Shangri-La: Population and economic foundations of interethnic conflict in the Tibetan areas of Western China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Fischer (Andrew Martín)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThis paper argues that contemporary experiences of social exclusion and interethnic conflict in the Tibetan areas of Western China are interrelated and revolve around three processes – population, growth and employment – all of which centre on the urban areas. In this setting, the critic

  13. Ecological risks of Aluminum production and contaminated area by red mud in Western Hungary (Ajka)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasulov, Oqil; Horváth, Adrienn; Bidló, András; Winkler, Dániel

    2016-04-01

    In October 2010, Hungary experienced one of the most severe environmental disasters: the dam wall of a red mud depository of an alumina plant in collapsed and more than 1 million m3 of toxic sludge flooded the surrounding area. Red mud is a strongly alkaline (pH of 9-12.5) by-product due to the high NaOH content. Apart from residual minerals and oxides, its components also include heavy metals such as Cu, Zn, Cd, Hg, Pb, Ni, Co. As it has already been assessed, red mud had considerable effect on soil properties and thus on soil biodiversity. The aim of our study was to determine the aftereffects of red mud pollution on the soil mesofauna (Collembola). Study plots were selected in the area affected by the toxic flood, in agricultural and grassland habitats, at different distances (0.3 to 12.5 km) from the contamination source. Control plots of each habitat types were selected for comparative analyses. Soil samples were taken during the summer of 2015, five years after the red mud disaster. From each of the selected plots, 5 soil cores of 100 cm3 volume (3.6 cm in diameter and 10 cm in depth) were sampled from which springtails were extracted within 14 days using a modified Tullgren apparatus. Simultaneously with the Collembola sampling, we collected soil samples on each plots in order to determine soil properties (pH, CaCO3, particle size distribution) and the degree of heavy metal pollution. 25 heavy metals were measured (including total Hg) following the method of total (cc. HNO3 + H2O2-soluble) and bioavailable (NH4-acetate + EDTA-soluble) element content using ICP-OES and AMA 254. The studied habitats presented neutral to moderately alkaline soils (pH 7.2-8.1). Total metal content was higher in the plots formerly affected by red mud flood. The Hg concentration ranged from 0.023 to 1.167 mg.kg-1, exceeding the threshold concentration (0.5 mg.kg-1) defined by Hungarian legislation for toxic trace metals in soil. The collected 1442 Collembola specimens belong to 32

  14. Occupational risk of HIV infection among western health care professionals posted in AIDS endemic areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, R; Houweling, H; van Zessen, G

    1998-08-01

    In this study on occupational risks of HIV infection among 99 Dutch medics working in AIDS endemic areas, 61% reported percutaneous exposures during an average stay of 21 months. The mean number of injuries was lower among physicians (2.0 versus 3.9 per year) and higher among nurses (1.9 versus 1.2) than in previous research conducted in 1987-1990 among Dutch medics returning from Africa. But the reduction of exposures among physicians might be explained by the fact that the number of procedures they carried out was less in the later study. Also among nurses a shift of tasks was seen. On the basis of an estimated HIV prevalence in the patient population of 19%, a chance of transmission per accident of 0.3%, and 1.9 percutaneous exposures per year, the mean occupational risk of HIV infection per year can be estimated at 0.11% per person. Besides length of stay and number of activities, characteristics of the work setting were associated with the frequency of different kinds of injuries. From the analysis of 109 extensive descriptions of recent accidents, it appeared that the majority of the injuries occurred during routine activities and were self-inflicted. Injuries with hollow needles usually occurred after the actual medical act (e.g. during recapping). Carelessness (e.g. due to fatigue) or being in a hurry (e.g. because of an emergency) were also often the cause of percutaneous injuries, as were the poor quality of the equipment, lack of professional skills, or a combination of these factors. Prevention activities are still important to reduce the frequency of occupational exposures. But they will not eliminate them totally; from the descriptions of recent exposures it was clear that some of the injuries occurred in spite of precautions.

  15. Precise Time Dissemination and Applications Development on the Bonneville Power Administration System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    the foreseeable future. Time Domain Fault Location BPA has pioneered a unique system for locating powcr line faults (short circuits ) using precise...large power circoit breakers , optimally must kc able to detect fault distance withi11 1000 rrleters to function correctly. Stability control a.nd...develop and verify the necessary strategies, hardware, and software. HVDC Modulation HVDC systems are powerful tools for improving the transient and

  16. IN SEARCH OF ALLIES. THE USSR AND THE WESTERN POWERS ON THE EVE OF THE SECOND WORLD WAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. IVANOV

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the problems which emerged on the eve of the Second World War: the European crisis of 1939, Anglo-French guarantees to countries of Eastern Europe, talks between the USSR, Great Britain and France and the Soviet-German non-aggression Pact. In conditions of the acutest crisis a question of general security acquired a key meaning. To stop the aggressor and to prevent global catastrophe was only possible by collective efforts of the great powers and their allies. Great Britain and France guaranteed independence of several countries of Eastern Europe, but they could not compensate the absence of a grand anti-German alliance. The USSR was striving to erect a system of collective security, but its possibilities were limited. More than that Great Britain and France did not refuse the idea of appeasing Germany at the expense of Poland, and this actually excluded their participation in anti-German coalition. The unwillingness of the Western powers to cooperate with the USSR closely showed itself at the AngloFrench-Soviet talks in spring and summer 1939. As a result of this the USSR, having no alternative, agreed to sign the non-aggression Pact with Germany.

  17. Automatic Generation Control in Multi Area Interconnected Power System by using HVDC Links

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogendra Arya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effects of HVDC link in parallel with HVAC link on automatic generation control (AGC problem for a multi-area power system taking into consideration system parameter variations. A fuzzy logic controller is proposed for four area power system interconnected via parallel HVAC/HVDC transmission link which is also referred as asynchronous tie-lines. The linear model of HVAC/HVDC link is developed and the system responses to sudden load change are studied. The simulation studies are carried out for a four area interconnected thermal power system. Suitable solution for automatic generation control problem of four area electrical power system is obtained by means of improving the dynamic performance of power system under study. Robustness of controller is also checked by varying parameters. Simulation results indicate that the scheme works well. The dynamic analyses have been done with and without HVDC link using fuzzy logic controller in Matlab-Simulink. Further a comparison between the two is presented and it has been shown that the performance of the proposed scheme is superior in terms of overshoot and settling time.

  18. 5 CFR 2423.31 - Powers and duties of the Administrative Law Judge at the hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... review will cause undue harm to a party or the public. (2) If the motion is granted, the Judge or... Law Judge at the hearing. 2423.31 Section 2423.31 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY, GENERAL COUNSEL OF THE FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY AND FEDERAL SERVICE IMPASSES PANEL...

  19. Low Power, Area- Efficient and High Speed Fast Adder for Processing Element

    OpenAIRE

    J.Ponmalar; T.R.Sureshkumar; T.Kowsalya

    2015-01-01

    In electronics, adder is a digital circuit that performs addition of numbers. To perform fast arithmetic operations, carry select adder (CSLA) is one of the fastest adders used in many data- processing processors. The structure of CSLA is such that there is further scope of reducing the area, delay and power consumption. Simple and efficient gate – level modification is used in order to reduce the area, delay and power of CSLA. Based on the modifications, 8-bit, 16-bit, 32-bit and 64-bi...

  20. Accessibility of tertiary hospitals in Finland: A comparison of administrative and normative catchment areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huotari, Tiina; Antikainen, Harri; Keistinen, Timo; Rusanen, Jarmo

    2017-06-01

    The determination of an appropriate catchment area for a hospital providing highly specialized (i.e. tertiary) health care is typically a trade-off between ensuring adequate client volumes and maintaining reasonable accessibility for all potential clients. This may pose considerable challenges, especially in sparsely inhabited regions. In Finland, tertiary health care is concentrated in five university hospitals, which provide services in their dedicated catchment areas. This study utilizes Geographic Information Systems (GIS), together with grid-based population data and travel-time estimates, to assess the spatial accessibility of these hospitals. The current geographical configuration of the hospitals is compared to a normative assignment, with and without capacity constraints. The aim is to define optimal catchment areas for tertiary hospitals so that their spatial accessibility is as equal as possible. The results indicate that relatively modest improvements can be achieved in accessibility by using normative assignment to determine catchment areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. 36 CFR 223.111 - Administration of contracts in designated disaster areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-sharing arrangement in paragraph (a) of this section, he may allow cancellation of the contract... disaster, (2) The sale of such timber will assist in sustaining the economy of such area, or (3) The...

  2. 权力滥用的行政伦理制约%The restriction of power abuse with administrative ethics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈娅

    2015-01-01

    The power is a double-edged sword,on the one hand,it can bring benefits to the people;on the other hand,once power anomie, it will heart the rights and interests of citizens.Therefore,we must pay attention to the restriction on power.Past we mentioned abuse generally refers to the power corruption,such generalization are enabeled us to ignore the abuse of power and will not be able to pay the supervision and restriction on the power.So the author will reinterpret the concept of power abuse,clarify the abuse of a variety of forms and to solve the problem of abuse of power,effective way is administrative ethics.%权力是把双刃剑,一方面可以造福于民;另一方面权力一旦失范,伤害的也是公民的权益。因此,对权力的制约一直是人们关注的焦点。以往人们提到权力滥用一般都是指权力腐败,这样一概而论往往放过了其他容易被忽略的权力滥用情况,就无法真正有效地对权力进行全面有效的监督制约。因此将重新诠释权力滥用的概念,理清权力滥用的多种形式,并针对权力滥用的情况提出对权力进行制约的又一个有效方式———行政伦理。

  3. Monitoring Landslides in Western Mountainous Areas of China Using Advanced Multi-Temporal InSAR Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jie; Liao, Mingsheng; Zhang, Lu; Gong, Jianya

    2016-08-01

    Disasters, caused by landslide, rock fall, debris flow, ground fissure, etc., are one of the significant natural catastrophes, threatening and influencing the socio-economic conditions around the world. China is one of the countries that suffer heavily from such geo-hazards. And most landslides take place in the mountainous valley areas of western China. With its wide coverage and sub-centimeter accuracy, radar remote sensing has already proven its potential for remotely measuring unstable slopes. Differential InSAR (D-InSAR) is used to recognize known landslides and find potential unstable slopes in a region scale. Then, for a specific landslide, advanced multi-temporal InSAR method is exploited to characterize its surface deformation by obtaining time-series displacement on coherent targets. Among them, the PSI technique exploits only PSs exhibiting high phase stability in a stack of interferograms, which generally exist in urban areas. But, in the case of rural environment characterized by vegetated or low reflectivity homogeneous regions, few PSs could be identified. As a complement of persistent scatterers, distributed scatterers widely existing in rural areas can be exploited. DSs decorrelate slowly and can be found from homogeneous ground, scattered outcrops, debris flows, non-cultivated lands and desert areas. In this poster, a distributed scatterers-based InSAR technique, making use of PSs and DSs, is proposed. At first, we will use D-InSAR technique to detect landslides. Then, both PSI and DS-InSAR will be implemented to monitor interested landslides. And a comparison study of these two methods are conducted.

  4. Faunal associations, paleoecology and paleoenvironment of marine Jurassic rocks in the Mae Sot, Phop Phra, and Umphang areas, western Thailand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MEESOOK; Assanee; YAMEE; Chotima; SAENGSRICHAN; Wirote

    2009-01-01

    We here report a paleoecological analysis and depositional history of the marine Jurassic (Toarcian–early Bajocian) strata cropping out in the western part of Thailand, based on bivalve assemblages with additional data from ammonites, brachiopods, and microfossils. Generally, the benthic bivalve facies in most outcrops is rich in infaunal, semi-infaunal and epifaunal suspension-feeders. Of these, infaunal forms dominate. The diversity of this benthic assemblage was influenced by energy level, substrate, sedimentation rate, and salinity. Low to intermediate energy levels and rather soft fine-grained siliciclastic substrate are proposed as factors governing faunal distribution and explaining the greater abundance and diversity of infaunal than epifaunal suspension-feeders. There were paleoenvironmental changes both in space and time, i.e., from south to north (Umphang to Mae Sot) and from Early Bajocian to Toarcian. In the Toarcian, most outcrops in Umphang are dominated by benthic bivalve facies (infaunal, semi-infaunal, and epifaunal associations). This implies warm, shallow water (inner neritic, 50―100 m) and oxygenated conditions except for the Mae Sot area where a deeper setting (outer neritic to possibly upper continental slope, 50―200 m) with restricted basinal anoxic conditions is favored as indicated by the presence of Bositra. After higher energy conditions in the Toarcian, lower energy conditions with low sediment supplies prevail in the Alenian, and the Mae Sot area was still a restricted basin. As a result of higher sea levels, the oxygen content in the basin is increased, resulting in the presence of the ammonites. By the end of the Alenian-early Bajocian, an ammonite-bivalve association (mixed facies A) and the presence of corals and microfauna (mixed facies B) are dominant but pass upwards to near-shore higher energy conditions in most areas except for restricted basin in Mae Sot. By the middle Bajocian the environment in all areas had changed

  5. A study on the interaction and evolution of the spatial expansion and administrative division adjustment in Beijing metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongfu; Dang, Anrong

    2008-10-01

    Since 1990s and especially since 2000, the city space of Beijing has grown rapidly. There's no doubt that the urban construction land area is expanding to the suburban areas, which is the result of rapid social and economic growth in the city and also closely related to the reform of "turning county into district". In other words, the adjustment of administrative division in Beijing interacts with the expansion of urban construction land space. Beijing turns counties into districts and introduces regional offices are two distinct evidence. As for the interaction, there're both advantages and disadvantages and the focus of the article is to explore how to exploit the favorable conditions and avoid unfavorable ones. The article takes the town administrative region as the minimum space unit so as to better explore the anisotropism and regional differences of city space expansion as well as the impact caused by the adjustment of administrative divisions. With initial analysis, we find that: firstly, on the contrary to the sharp reduction of farming land, the city construction land are for residential communities, factories and mines increases the fastest; secondly, the big central cluster expansion has great regional difference and the three directions of northwest, north and south grows the fastest, which is mainly caused by the positive guidance of trunk roads including highway construction; thirdly, the land area in central cluster used for new construction projects is mainly located in suburban area, but exurb districts of Daxing and Changping also take up a considerable proportion; fourthly, as for the key exurb towns including Changping, Shunyi, and Fangshan, the built-up area also grows rapidly.

  6. Accumulation process and model for the Ordovician buried hill reservoir in the western Lunnan area, the Tarim Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Ordovician buried hill reservoir in the western Lunnan area, a type of dissolved fracture and cavernous reservoir, is mainly composed of heavy oil. The oil is the mixture sourcing from the Middle-Lower Cambrian and Middle-Lower Ordovician, with three stages of pool forming process: (1) the destruction and parallel migration/accumulation during the late Caledonian to early Hercynian; (2) the oil and gas accumulation during the late Hercynian characterized by adjustment upward along faults and parallel migration/accumulation; (3) the formation of heavy oil during the latest Hercynian. The Ordovician buried hill reservoir is affected by the diffusion of light oil and gas but had no hydrocarbon charging during the late Yanshan period to Himalayan period, but in this period, formed the association of heavy oil and dissolved gas cracked from crude oil with dry coefficient of 0.91-0.96. The study on accumulation process of the Ordovician buried hill reservoir has important implications for the exploration potential of early oil and gas accumulation in the cratonic area of the Tarim Basin.

  7. [Lead uptake by plant in soil-plant system at lead-zinc deposit area of western Hunan province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong-Hua; Yang, Lin-Sheng; Ji, Yan-Fang; Sun, Hong-Fei; Li, Hai-Rong; Wang, Wu-Yi

    2008-01-01

    Contents of lead in several crops as well as its uptake and distribution by paddy in typical lead-zinc deposit area of western Hunan province were studied based on field systematic sampling and laboratory analysis. The average concentration of lead in rice, maize and soy bean in the deposit was 2.4, 1.2 and 3.3 times higher than that in control area, respectively, suggesting that crops in the deposit were heavily contaminated by the element. Significant difference of the lead concentrations in crops was found among different crop species and different organs of the same crops. The average concentration of lead followed the trend: soy bean > rice > maize (among crop species), and root > haulm > seed (among organs). Paddy root exhibited strong binding and tolerant capacity to lead. Correlation analysis indicated that soil lead was main retention in paddy root, whereas the gaseous lead might be the main source for lead in the aerial part of crop. Heavy metals such as Hg, Cd as well as Pb co-enriched in crops, therefore the mechanism and health risk of the combined pollution of heavy metals in the deposit crops should be paid attention to.

  8. Local and regional effects of large scale atmospheric circulation patterns on winter wind power output in Western Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubiate, Laura; McDermott, Frank; Sweeney, Conor; O'Malley, Mark

    2014-05-01

    Recent studies (Brayshaw, 2009, Garcia-Bustamante, 2010, Garcia-Bustamante, 2013) have drawn attention to the sensitivity of wind speed distributions and likely wind energy power output in Western Europe to changes in low-frequency, large scale atmospheric circulation patterns such as the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Wind speed variations and directional shifts as a function of the NAO state can be larger or smaller depending on the North Atlantic region that is considered. Wind speeds in Ireland and the UK for example are approximately 20 % higher during NAO + phases, and up to 30 % lower during NAO - phases relative to the long-term (30 year) climatological means. By contrast, in southern Europe, wind speeds are 15 % lower than average during NAO + phases and 15 % higher than average during NAO - phases. Crucially however, some regions such as Brittany in N.W. France have been identified in which there is negligible variability in wind speeds as a function of the NAO phase, as observed in the ERA-Interim 0.5 degree gridded reanalysis database. However, the magnitude of these effects on wind conditions is temporally and spatially non-stationary. As described by Comas-Bru and McDermott (2013) for temperature and precipitation, such non-stationarity is caused by the influence of two other patterns, the East Atlantic pattern, (EA), and the Scandinavian pattern, (SCA), which modulate the position of the NAO dipole. This phenomenon has also implications for wind speeds and directions, which has been assessed using the ERA-Interim reanalysis dataset and the indices obtained from the PC analysis of sea level pressure over the Atlantic region. In order to study the implications for power production, the interaction of the NAO and the other teleconnection patterns with local topography was also analysed, as well as how these interactions ultimately translate into wind power output. The objective is to have a better defined relationship between wind speed and power

  9. VMware vSphere PowerCLI Reference Automating vSphere Administration

    CERN Document Server

    Dekens, Luc; Sizemore, Glenn; van Lieshout, Arnim; Medd, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Your One-Stop Reference for VMware vSphere Automation If you manage vSphere in a Windows environment, automating routine tasks can save you time and increase efficiency. VMware vSphere PowerCLI is a set of pre-built commands based on Windows PowerShell that is designed to help you automate vSphere processes involving virtual machines, datacenters, storage, networks, and more. This detailed guide-using a practical, task-based approach and real-world examples-shows you how to get the most out of PowerCLI's handy cmdlets. Learn how to: Automate vCenter Server and ESX/ESX(i) Server deployment and

  10. Frequency Monitoring and Control during Power System Restoration Based on Wide Area Measurement System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saber Nourizadeh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Frequency control during power system restoration has not been strongly addressed. Operators are often concerned with the offline sizing of load and generation steps, but, nowadays, the introduction of Wide Area Measurement System (WAMS makes it possible to monitor the stability of power system online. The constraints of WAMS operation result in some changes in power system frequency control. This paper proposes a novel methodology for frequency control and monitoring during the early steps of power system restoration based on WAMS. Detailed load modeling is achieved based on the static load modeling approach. Power generators' modeling is also accomplished utilizing the single machine equivalent of the power system based on PMU measurements. Simulation results of the presented methodology on the 39 bus New England power system clearly show the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed method. The simulation results show that the presented approach has a completely acceptable precision and an outstanding speed with less than 0.05% error. The outstanding speed of the presented approach along with the result precision will result in a great promotion in power system restoration methodologies.

  11. EVIDENCE FOR LADINIAN (MIDDLE TRIASSIC PLATFORM PROGRADATION IN THE GYULAKESZI AREA, TAPOLCA BASIN, WESTERN HUNGARY: MICROFACIES ANALYSIS AND BIOSTRATIGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZSOLT RÓBERT NAGY

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A shallowing-upward carbonate sequence was studied from the outcrop at Gyulakeszi, Tapolca Basin (western Hungary, and it is interpreted as a Middle Triassic (Curionii or younger platform progradation. Two lithostratigraphic units are distinguished. Microfacies analysis and micropaleontological investigation conducted on the red nodular, cherty limestone (Vászoly and Buchenstein formations suggest that the lower unit was deposited during the Reitzi and the Secedensis ammonoid zones. The overlying white platform limestone (upper unit is typical of a prograding platform and includes gravity-driven deposits at the base followed by periplatform facies deposited in shallow marine warm waters around the fair-weather wave base. The section at Gyulakeszi was unaffected by fabric-destructive dolomitization, which is uncharacteristic of similar platform facies in the Balaton Highland. Isopachous and radiaxial fibrous calcite cement found in the grainstone and boundstone facies are indicative of early lithification and diagenesis in the marine phreatic zone. “Evinospongiae”-type cement is described for the first time from the Balaton Highland and it is similar to the outer platform cements published previously from the Alps (Italy and Austria. The progradation could have advanced over the pelagic limestones as early as the Curionii zone, which is an undocumented event in the Veszprém Plateau. Similar event, however, is well known from the Western Dolomites, where aggradation was followed by intense progradation during the Gredleri and Archelaus ammonoid zones. The length of this progradation event at Gyulakeszi, however, is ambiguous since proven Ladinian (Longobardian rocks are not exposed in the study area and were not penetrated by boreholes in the Tapolca Basin.

  12. Extracting features for power system vulnerability assessment from wide-area measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamwa, I. [Hydro-Quebec, Varennes, PQ (Canada). IREQ; Pradhan, A.; Joos, G. [McGill Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Many power systems now operate close to their stability limits as a result of deregulation. Some utilities have chosen to install phason measurement units (PMUs) to monitor power system dynamics. The synchronized phasors of different areas of power systems available through a wide-area measurement system (WAMS) are expected to provide an effective security assessment tool as well as a stabilizing control action for inter-area oscillations and a system protection scheme (SPS) to evade possible blackouts. This paper presented tool extracting features for vulnerability assessment from WAMS-data. A Fourier-transform based technique was proposed for monitoring inter-area oscillations. FFT, wavelet transform and curve fitting approaches were investigated to analyze oscillatory signals. A dynamic voltage stability prediction algorithm was proposed for control action. An integrated framework was then proposed to assess a power system through extracted features from WAMS-data on first swing stability, voltage stability and inter-area oscillations. The centre of inertia (COI) concept was applied to the angle of voltage phasor. Prony analysis was applied to filtered signals to extract the damping coefficients. The minimum post-fault voltage of an area was considered for voltage stability, and an algorithm was used to monitor voltage stability issues. A data clustering technique was applied to classify the features in a group for improved system visualization. The overall performance of the technique was examined using a 67-bus system with 38 PMUs. The method used to extract features from both frequency and time domain analysis was provided. The test power system was described. The results of 4 case studies indicated that adoption of the method will be beneficial for system operators. 13 refs., 2 tabs., 13 figs.

  13. [Legal principles and discretionary power regarding official autopsy order (administratively determined dissection)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettmeyer, R; Schmidt, P; Madea, B

    2000-01-01

    In Germany, autopsies can be ordered by the representatives of the board of health according the Epidemics Law as so called administrative autopsy. If the autopsy is not absolutely necessary, it is mandatory to take into consideration the rights of the deceased persons as well as the rights of the relatives. The decisions of the legislature concerning clinical autopsies must also be considered. The juridical aspects and different types of organising the interrogation of the relatives are explained.

  14. Studies in Business Administration in the European Higher Education Area: A Comparative Analysis in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavero Rubio, José Antonio; Mullor, Javier Reig; Martín, Agustín Pérez

    2015-01-01

    On signing the Bologna declaration in 1999, European countries committed themselves to addressing the reforms necessary for adapting their university education to the European Higher Education Area. This modification process culminated in 2010, and this research aims to analyse the degree of divergence that currently exists in each course subject…

  15. A Low power and area efficient CLA adder design using Full swing GDI technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matcha Hemanth Kumar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The low power VLSI design has an important role in designing of many electronic systems. While designing any combinational or sequential circuits, the important parameters like power consumption, implementation area, voltage leakage and performance of the circuit are to be considered. Design of area, high speed and powerefficient data path logic systems forms the largest areas of research in VLSI system design. This paper presents a low power Carry look ahead adder design using Full swing Gate diffusion (FS-GDI technique. The proposed CLA implementation utilizes improved full-swing GDI F1 and F2 gates, which are the counterparts of standard CMOS NAND and NOR gates. The basic Gate Diffusion Input (GDI logic style suffers from some practical limitations like swing degradation, fabrication complexity in standard CMOS process and bulk connections. These limitations can be overcome by Full swing GDI technique. The proposed technique utilizes a single swing restoration (SR transistor to improve the output swing of F1 and F2 GDI gates. A 16-bit CLA is designed and Simulations are performed by Mentor graphics 130nm CMOS technology ELDO simulator. Simulation results have shown a greater reduction in delay, power dissipation and area.

  16. Tomography of the 2011 Iwaki earthquake (M 7.0 and Fukushima nuclear power plant area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Tong

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available High-resolution tomographic images of the crust and upper mantle in and around the area of the 2011 Iwaki earthquake (M 7.0 and the Fukushima nuclear power plant are determined by inverting a large number of high-quality arrival times with both the finite-frequency and ray tomography methods. The Iwaki earthquake and its aftershocks mainly occurred in a boundary zone with strong variations in seismic velocity and Poisson's ratio. Prominent low-velocity and high Poisson's ratio zones are revealed under the Iwaki source area and the Fukushima nuclear power plant, which may reflect fluids released from the dehydration of the subducting Pacific slab under Northeast Japan. The 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake (Mw 9.0 caused static stress transfer in the overriding Okhotsk plate, resulting in the seismicity in the Iwaki source area that significantly increased immediately following the Tohoku-oki mainshock. Our results suggest that the Iwaki earthquake was triggered by the ascending fluids from the Pacific slab dehydration and the stress variation induced by the Tohoku-oki mainshock. The similar structures under the Iwaki source area and the Fukushima nuclear power plant suggest that the security of the nuclear power plant site should be strengthened to withstand potential large earthquakes in the future.

  17. A New Design for Array Multiplier with Trade off in Power and Area

    CERN Document Server

    Ravi, Nirlakalla; Prasad, T Jayachandra; Rao, T Subba

    2011-01-01

    In this paper a low power and low area array multiplier with carry save adder is proposed. The proposed adder eliminates the final addition stage of the multiplier than the conventional parallel array multiplier. The conventional and proposed multiplier both are synthesized with 16-T full adder. Among Transmission Gate, Transmission Function Adder, 14-T, 16-T full adder shows energy efficiency. In the proposed 4x4 multiplier to add carry bits with out using Ripple Carry Adder (RCA) in the final stage, the carries given to the input of the next left column input. Due to this the proposed multiplier shows 56 less transistor count, then cause trade off in power and area. The proposed multiplier has shown 13.91% less power, 34.09% more speed and 59.91% less energy consumption for TSMC 0.18nm technology at a supply voltage 2.0V than the conventional multiplier.

  18. MANGROVE FOREST COVER EXTRACTION OF THE COASTAL AREAS OF NEGROS OCCIDENTAL, WESTERN VISAYAS, PHILIPPINES USING LIDAR DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Pada

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mangroves have a lot of economic and ecological advantages which include coastal protection, habitat for wildlife, fisheries and forestry products. Determination of the extent of mangrove patches in the coastal areas of the Philippines is therefore important especially in resource conservation, protection and management. This starts with a well-defined and accurate map. LiDARwas used in the mangrove extraction in the different coastal areas of Negros Occidental in Western Visayas, Philippines. Total coastal study area is 1,082.55 km² for the 14 municipalities/ cities processed. Derivatives that were used in the extraction include, DSM, DTM, Hillshade, Intensity, Number of Returns and PCA. The RGB bands of the Orthographic photographs taken at the same time with the LiDAR data were also used as one of the layers during the processing. NDVI, GRVI and Hillshade using Canny Edge Layer were derived as well to produce an enhanced segmentation. Training and Validation points were collected through field validation and visual inspection using Stratified Random Sampling. The points were then used to feed the Support Vector Machine (SVM based on tall structures. Only four classes were used, namely, Built-up, Mangroves, Other Trees and Sugarcane. Buffering and contextual editing were incorporated to reclassify the extracted mangroves. Overall accuracy assessment is at 98.73% (KIA of 98.24% while overall accuracy assessment for Mangroves only is at 98.00%. Using this workflow, mangroves can already be extracted in a large-scale level with acceptable overall accuracy assessments.

  19. Bovine trypanosomosis and its fly vectors in three selected settlement areas of Hawa-Gelan district, western Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumela Lelisa

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study aimed at investigating the species diversity of fly vectors and estimating the prevalence of bovine trypanosomosis was carried out from October 2009 to May 2010 in selected settlement areas of the Hawa-Gelan district in the western Wollega zone of Ethiopia. Standard methods of sampling and identification were employed for both entomological and parasitological examination. Three species of the genus Glossina (Glossina pallidipes, Glossina morsitans submorsitans and Glossina fuscipes and two genera of biting flies (Stomoxys and Tabanus were caught and identified. The overall apparent density of Glossina species caught was 10.5 flies per trap per day, with a higher proportion of female flies (57.2%. Out of a total 389 cattle examined, 42 (10.8%; 95% CI: 7.89% – 14.3% were found infected with trypanosomes. Three trypanosome species were detected in the study area, namely Trypanosoma congolense (54.8%, Trypanosoma brucei (23.8% and Trypanosoma vivax (21.4%. The prevalence of trypanosomosis was found to be significantly (p < 0.05 higher in cattle with poor body condition. There was an association between mean packed cell volume (PCV and the occurrence of parasitaemia (χ2 = 49.5, p < 0.05. About 95.2% of cattle that were positive for trypanosomes had a PCV less than the lower limit for cattle. Considering the current result, bovine trypanosomosis seems to be a serious constraint for agricultural activities in the settlement areas of the Hawa-Gelan district and seems to be associated with the presence of Glossina species. Therefore, application of control methods through community involvement to reduce the Glossina species infestation level is likely to increase animal productivity.

  20. Spatial Distributions of HIV Infection in an Endemic Area of Western Kenya: Guiding Information for Localized HIV Control and Prevention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomonori Hoshi

    Full Text Available HIV is still a major health problem in developing countries. Even though high HIV-risk-taking behaviors have been reported in African fishing villages, local distribution patterns of HIV infection in the communities surrounding these villages have not been thoroughly analyzed. The objective of this study was to investigate the geographical distribution patterns of HIV infection in communities surrounding African fishing villages. In 2011, we applied age- and sex-stratified random sampling to collect 1,957 blood samples from 42,617 individuals registered in the Health and Demographic Surveillance System in Mbita, which is located on the shore of Lake Victoria in western Kenya. We used these samples to evaluate existing antibody detection assays for several infectious diseases, including HIV antibody titers. Based on the results of the assays, we evaluated the prevalence of HIV infection according to sex, age, and altitude of participating households. We also used Kulldorff's spatial scan statistic to test for HIV clustering in the study area. The prevalence of HIV at our study site was 25.3%. Compared with the younger age group (15-19 years, adults aged 30-34 years were 6.71 times more likely to be HIV-positive, and the estimated HIV-positive population among women was 1.43 times larger than among men. Kulldorff's spatial scan statistic detected one marginally significant (P = 0.055 HIV-positive and one significant HIV-negative cluster (P = 0.047 in the study area. These results suggest a homogeneous HIV distribution in the communities surrounding fishing villages. In addition to individual behavior, more complex and diverse factors related to the social and cultural environment can contribute to a homogeneous distribution pattern of HIV infection outside of African fishing villages. To reduce rates of transmission in HIV-endemic areas, HIV prevention and control programs optimized for the local environment need to be developed.

  1. Wind Powering America Anemometer Loan Program: A Retrospective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, T.

    2013-05-01

    This white paper details the history, mechanics, status, and impact of the Native American Anemometer Loan Program (ALP) conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Powering America (WPA) initiative. Originally conceived in 2000 and terminated (as a WPA activity) at the end of FY 2011, the ALP has resulted in the installation of anemometers at 90 locations. In addition, the ALP provided support for the installation of anemometers at 38 additional locations under a related ALP administered by the Western Area Power Administration.

  2. Damage costs produced by electric power plants: an externality valuation in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macías, P; Islas, J

    2010-09-15

    This paper presents an estimate of the externalities produced in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) through the impacts on health caused by secondary pollutants attributed to seven electric power plants located outside this area. An original method was developed to make possible a simplified application of the impact pathway approach to estimate the damage costs in the specified area. Our estimate shows that the annual costs attributed to secondary pollutants total 71 million USD (min/max 20/258 million USD). Finally, this paper discusses basic ideas on the implications for energy policy arising from this exercise in externality valuation.

  3. RSSI/LQI-based transmission power control for body area networks in healthcare environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seungku; Kim, Seokhwan; Eom, Doo-Seop

    2013-05-01

    This paper presents a novel transmission power control protocol for body area networks. Conventional transmission power control protocols adjust the transmission power on the basis of the received signal strength indication (RSSI). However, in case of the presence of interference, the RSSI is not a correct indicator to determine the link state. We first present the empirical evidence for this and then propose a practical protocol to discriminate between the signal attenuation and interference using the RSSI and link quality indication (LQI). This protocol controls the transmission power and avoids interference based on the link state. Finally, we discuss the implementation of the proposed protocol on Tmote Sky and evaluate the performance in the presence and absence of interference. The experimental results showed that the proposed protocol has high energy-efficiency and reliability, even in the presence of interference.

  4. House design modifications reduce indoor resting malaria vector densities in rice irrigation scheme area in western Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Githeko Andrew

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Simple modifications of typical rural house design can be an effective and relatively inexpensive method of reducing indoor mosquito vector densities and consequently decreasing malaria transmission. Public health scientists have shown the potential for house design to protect people against malaria, yet this type of intervention remains virtually ignored. A randomized-controlled study was, therefore, undertaken to determine the effects of this method of vector control on the density of indoor resting malaria vectors in a rice irrigation scheme area in lowlands of western Kenya. Methods Ten treatment houses were modified with ceilings of papyrus mats and insecticide-treated netting (ITN and tested against ten control houses without papyrus ceilings. To determine densities of mosquitoes resting in homes, the pyrethrum spray method was used to simultaneously collect indoor resting malaria vectors in intervention and control houses. Each house was sampled a total of eight times over a period of four months, resulting in a total of 80 sampling efforts for each treatment. Community response to such intervention was investigated by discussions with residents. Results Papyrus mats ceiling modification reduced house entry by Anopheles gambiae s.l and Anopheles funestus densities by between 78–80% and 86% respectively compared to unmodified houses. Geometric mean density of Anopheles gambiae s.l. and Anopheles funestus in modified houses were significantly lower (t18 = 7.174, P 18 = 2.52, P = 0.02, respectively compared to controls. Unmodified houses were associated with relatively higher densities of malaria vectors. There was a 84% (OR 0.16, 95% CI 0.07–0.39, P Anopheles gambiae s.l. and Anopheles funestus presence in modified houses, respectively, compared with unmodified houses. Residents responded favourably to this mode of vector control. Conclusion House modifications involving insect screen ceilings made from locally

  5. Permafrost coverage, watershed area and season control of dissolved carbon and major elements in western Siberian rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Pokrovsky

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of dissolved organic and inorganic carbon (DOC and DIC, respectively, pH, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cl, SO4 and Si in ~ 100 large and small rivers (2 of western Siberia sampled in winter, spring, summer and autumn over a more than 1500 km latitudinal gradient allowed for establishing the main environmental factors controlling the transport of dissolved river components in this environmentally important region, comprising continuous, discontinuous, sporadic and permafrost-free zones. There was significant latitudinal trend consisting in general decrease of DOC, DIC, SO4, and major cation (Ca, Mg, Na, K concentrations northward, reflecting the interplay between groundwater feeding (detectable mostly in the permafrost-free zone, south of 60° N and surface flux (in the permafrost-bearing zone. The trend of inorganic components was mostly pronounced in winter and less visible in spring, whereas for DOC, the trend of concentration decrease with latitude was absent in winter, and less pronounced in the spring flood than in the summer baseflow. The latitudinal trends persisted over all river watershed sizes, from 10 000 km2. This suggested that in addition to groundwater feeding of the river, there was a significant role of surface and shallow subsurface flow linked to plant litter degradation and peat leaching. Environmental factors are ranked by their increasing effect on DOC, DIC, δ13CDIC, and major elements in western Siberian rivers as the following: watershed area −2 yr−1 until 61° N, decreased two-fold in the discontinuous permafrost zone (62–66° N, and increased again to 3 t km−2 yr−1 in the continuous permafrost zone (67° N. The DIC, Mg, K and Ca followed this pattern. The total dissolved cation flux (TDS_c ranged from 1.5 to 5.5 t km−2 yr−1, similar to that in central Siberian rivers of the continuous permafrost region. While Si concentration was almost unaffected by the latitude over all seasons, the Si flux systematically

  6. Self-administration of ethanol, cocaine, or nicotine does not decrease the soma size of ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle S Mazei-Robison

    Full Text Available Our previous observations show that chronic opiate administration, including self-administration, decrease the soma size of dopamine (DA neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA of rodents and humans, a morphological change correlated with increased firing rate and reward tolerance. Given that a general hallmark of drugs of abuse is to increase activity of the mesolimbic DA circuit, we sought to determine whether additional drug classes produced a similar morphological change. Sections containing VTA were obtained from rats that self-administered cocaine or ethanol and from mice that consumed nicotine. In contrast to opiates, we found no change in VTA DA soma size induced by any of these other drugs. These data suggest that VTA morphological changes are induced in a drug-specific manner and reinforce recent findings that some changes in mesolimbic signaling and neuroplasticity are drug-class dependent.

  7. Antibacterial quality of some antibiotics available in five administrative areas along the national borders of Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mwambete KD

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Kennedy D Mwambete Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania Introduction: In developing countries like Tanzania, bacterial infections are becoming increasingly difficult to treat with available antibiotics. Poor quality antibiotics jeopardize the management of bacterial infections and contribute to the development of antibiotic resistance. Poor storage and harsh tropical climatic conditions accelerate deterioration of antibiotics. Hence, this study investigated the antibacterial effect of antibiotics available in five administrative regions along the national borders of Tanzania. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study involved the purchase of antibiotics from the Mwanza, Arusha, Kilimanjaro, Mbeya, and Kagera administrative regions. The Kirby–Bauer disk diffusion method was employed to assess antibacterial effects of the antibiotics against Salmonella typhi, Klebsiella spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli. Inhibition zones (IZ were determined as previously described. Analysis of variance was used to examine the IZ measured using test antibiotics to their respective control antibiotics; differences were considered significant at P<0.05. Results: Seventy-six antibiotic samples from 22 manufacturers were tested. Six antibiotic samples were from anonymous manufacturers and 29 antibiotic samples had no manufacturing or expiration dates. Different samples of the same antibiotics produced variable results. IZ measured using different samples of ampicillin (AMP and ciprofloxacin and their control antibiotics revealed significant differences when tested against S. typhi (P<0.05. Samples of tetracycline and chloramphenicol resulted in IZ comparable to their controls against S. typhi. All samples of AMP yielded comparable IZ on Klebsiella spp., whereas samples of chloramphenicol and tetracycline exerted IZ against P. aeruginosa that

  8. Feasibility study: Application of RCM techniques for substation maintenance at the Bonneville Power Administration. [Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purucker, S.L.; Tonn, B.E.; Goeltz, R.T.; James, R.D.; Kercel, S.; Rizy, D.T.; Simpson, M.L.; Van Dyke, J.W.

    1992-05-28

    This feasibility study examines reliability centered maintenance (RCM) as it applies to Bonneville Power Administrations (BPA) substation maintenance program. Reliability techniques are examined in evaluated. Existing BPA equipment maintenance procedures are documented. Equipment failure history is considered. Economic impacts are estimated. Various equipment instrumentation methods are reviewed. Based on this analysis a prototype system is proposed. The prototype will be implemented in two phases. Phase 1 is to be completed in 1992, it includes instrumenting one power transformer and one oil circuit breaker. Software development will focus on displaying data. Phase 2 is to be completed the following year. The remaining transformers and breakers will be instrumented during the second phase. Software development will focus on predictive maintenance techniques and maintenance decision support.

  9. Demonstration Assessment of Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Retrofit Lamps at the Lobby of the Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, OR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Naomi

    2011-07-01

    This report describes the process and results of a demonstration of solid-state lighting (SSL) technology in the lobby of the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) headquarters building in Portland, Oregon. The project involved a simple retrofit of 32 track lights used to illuminate historical black-and-white photos and printed color posters from the 1930s and 1940s. BPA is a federal power marketing agency in the Northwestern United States, and selected this prominent location to demonstrate energy efficient light-emitting diode (LED) retrofit options that not only can reduce the electric bill for their customers but also provide attractive alternatives to conventional products, in this case accent lighting for BPA's historical artwork.

  10. Hydrogeological aspects and environmental concerns of the New Valley Project, Western Desert, Egypt, with special emphasis on the southern area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assaad, Fakhry A.

    1988-12-01

    The New Valley Project has been given much attention in the past 20 years especially from the hydrogeological point of view concerning groundwater utilization for the reclamation of a large area of the Western Desert. Lithological, petrophysical, and petrographical studies were conducted on four wells south of Beris Oasis, namely Beris 20, Beris 15, Beris 14, and Beris 13, and are defined by latitudes 24°25'E and 24°35'E and longitudes 30°30'N and 30°46'N. The Nubian sedimentation is of Posttectonic deposition that took place over the uplifted Precambrian granitic basement and is Lower Cretaceous, whereas the upper most variegated shales of the cap rock are Upper Cretaceous. The Nubian sandstones in the area south of Beris Oasis contain hematitic stains and/or fine granular authigenic hematite, thin laminae of brown ferruginous quartzite is also recorded denoting oxidizing conditions in the basin of deposition. Thin streaks of carbonaceous shales are met with in different depths to the south of Beris area, may be taken to denote oscillations in the sea level and accordingly its depths, and are responsible for the change in the oxidation-reduction potential during the deposition of the corresponding beds. Lithologic logs were interpreted together with the electric and micro-logs for adjustment of the shale breaks and showed that there are five water-bearing zones, named from bottom to top: A, B, C, D, and E, and are mainly unfossiliferous orthoquartzites, separated from each other by impervious beds of siltstones, shales, and clays of varying thicknesses. This zoning had been found valid in other parts of the Kharga Oases and could be applied locally in the Kharga Oases area. Mechanical analysis was performed mainly on 39 samples, of which 18 were core samples and 21 were cuttings, that were raised from four wells dug in the area south of Beris Oasis, Kharga Oases. Porosity and permeability tests were carried out on the 18 core samples only. The implication of

  11. Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) point cloud ground filtering for area of an active landslide (Doren, Western Austria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodić, Nenad; Cvijetinović, Željko; Milenković, Milutin; Dorninger, Peter; Mitrović, Momir

    2014-05-01

    Ground filtering of point cloud is the primary step required for Digital Terrain Model (DTM) generation. The procedure is especially interesting for forested areas, since LiDAR systems can measure terrain elevation under vegetation cover with a high level of penetration. This work analyzes the potential of ALS data ground filtering for area of an active landslide. The results of ALS filtering, for example, may improve geomorphological and motion-detection studies. ALS data was collected during flight campaign 2011 under leaf-off conditions for Doren region, Vorarlberg, Western Austria. In this area, non-ground objects are mostly low vegetation such as shrubs, small trees etc. The vegetation is more dense in lower part of the landslide where erosion is smaller. Vegetation points can be removed based on the hypothesis that these are significantly higher than their neighboring points. However, in case of steep terrain, ground points may have the same heights as vegetation points, and thus, local slope should be considered. Also, if terrain roughness increases, the classification may become even more complex. Software system OPALS (Orientation and Processing of Airborne Laser Scanning data, Vienna University of Technology) was used for processing the ALS data. Labeling ground points has been made using physical and geometrical attributes (parameters) of ALS points. Also additional attributes were calculated in order to improve extraction. Since bare ground surface is usually smooth and continuous unlike vegetation, standard deviation of local elevations was used as roughness measure to differentiate these surfaces. EchoRatio (ER) was adopted as a measure of surface penetrability, while number of echoes and differentiation between echoes (EchoNumber) were also deployed in filtering. Since the ground points are measurements from bare-earth that are usually the lowest surface features in a local area, normalized height was defined as a rank of neighboring points

  12. Direct observation of 134Cs and 137Cs in surface seawater in the western and central North Pacific after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kaeriyama

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The horizontal distribution of radioactive cesium (Cs derived from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (FNPP in the North Pacific is still unclear due to the limitation of direct measurement of the seawater in the open ocean. We present the result of direct observation of radioactive Cs in surface seawater collected from a broad area in the western and central North Pacific in July 2011, October 2011 and July 2012. We also conducted a simple particle tracking experiment to estimate the qualitative spatial distribution of radioactive Cs in the North Pacific. 134Cs was detected at 94 stations out of 123 stations, and 137Cs was detected at all stations. High 134Cs and 137Cs concentrations more than 10 m Bq kg−1 were observed in the area of the northern part of Kuroshio Extension at 144° E and 155° E in July 2011, in the area 147–175° E around 40° N in October 2011, and the northern part of Kuroshio Extension at 155° E and 175°30´ E in July 2012. Combining the result of direct observations and particle tracking experiment, the radioactive Cs derived from the FNPP had been dispersed eastward to the central North Pacific during 2011. It was considered from the horizontal distribution that radioactive Cs was dispersed not only eastward but also north- and southward in the central North Pacific. Pronounced dilution process of radioactive Cs from the FNPP during study period is suggested from temporal change in the activity ratio of 134Cs / 137Cs, which was decay-corrected on 6 April 2011, and relationships between radioactive Cs and temperature.

  13. Direct observation of 134Cs and 137Cs in surface seawater in the western and central North Pacific after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nakatsuka

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The horizontal distribution of radioactive cesium (Cs derived from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP in the North Pacific is still unclear due to the limitation of direct measurement of the seawater in the open ocean. We present the result of direct observation of radioactive Cs in surface seawater collected from broad area in the western and central North Pacific in July, October 2011 and July 2012. We also conducted a simple particle tracking experiment to estimate the qualitative spatial distribution of radioactive Cs in the North Pacific. 134Cs were detected at 94 stations out of 123 stations and 137Cs was detected at all stations. The high 134Cs and 137Cs concentrations more than 10 mBq kg−1 were observed in the area where the northern part of Kuroshio extension at 144° E and 155° E in July 2011, in the area 147° E–175° E around 40° N in October 2011, and the northern part of Kuroshio extension at 155° E and 175° 30´ E in July 2012. Combining the result of direct observations and particle tracking experiment, the radioactive Cs derived from FNPP had been dispersed eastward to the central North Pacific during 2011. It was considered from the horizontal distribution that radioactive Cs was dispersed not only eastward but also north- and southward in the central North Pacific. Pronounced dilution process of radioactive Cs from FNPP during study period is suggested from temporal change in the activity ratio of 134Cs/137Cs which was decay corrected at 6 April 2011, and relationships between radioactive Cs and temperature.

  14. An Overview on the Studies of Organizational Culture in Journals Indexed in the Business Administration Area (2008-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrieli Diniz Vizzoto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The literature, especially in the areas of Administration, Psychology and Sociology, has paid attention to the values as guides of human and organizational behavior in private and public companies. This study has aimed to present how the organizational culture has been studied through a review of scientific journals that have published articles on the subject, comprising the years from 2008 to 2013 and making a comparison between the reality of Brazilian and international publications. Seeking to provide some perspective on the current scenario in the theme, this work is characterized as a bibliometric study. A research for some specific words was conducted. The Brazilian and international articles found were analyzed separately to keep the keywords as chosen by the authors, not losing anything for translations and also as a way to compare Brazilian publications with international ones. Some authors notice the need for studies comprising the understanding of how organizational culture is perceived by the literature and how are being held the studies in this area. Through some studies, it becomes apparent that there is still room to develop further research to understand the publications in the area of organizational culture. 522 articles were found in international databases and 31 in Brazilian journals that were in accordance with the limits of this research. The study shows some differences between Brazilian and international publishings and how there is still room for more studies linking organizational culture and other subjects in the field of Administration.

  15. Estimating Lifetime Costs of Social Care: A Bayesian Approach Using Linked Administrative Datasets from Three Geographical Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steventon, Adam; Roberts, Adam

    2015-12-01

    We estimated lifetime costs of publicly funded social care, covering services such as residential and nursing care homes, domiciliary care and meals. Like previous studies, we constructed microsimulation models. However, our transition probabilities were estimated from longitudinal, linked administrative health and social care datasets, rather than from survey data. Administrative data were obtained from three geographical areas of England, and we estimated transition probabilities in each of these sites flexibly using Bayesian methods. This allowed us to quantify regional variation as well as the impact of structural and parameter uncertainty regarding the transition probabilities. Expected lifetime costs at age 65 were £20,200-27,000 for men and £38,700-49,000 for women, depending on which of the three areas was used to calibrate the model. Thus, patterns of social care spending differed markedly between areas, with mean costs varying by almost £10,000 (25%) across the lifetime for people of the same age and gender. Allowing for structural and parameter uncertainty had little impact on expected lifetime costs, but slightly increased the risk of very high costs, which will have implications for insurance products for social care through increasing requirements for capital reserves.

  16. An Overview on the Studies of Organizational Culture in Journals Indexed in the Business Administration Area (2008-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrieli Diniz Vizzoto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The literature, especially in the areas of Administration, Psychology and Sociology, has paid attention to the values as guides of human and organizational behavior in private and public companies. This study has aimed to present how the organizational culture has been studied through a review of scientific journals that have published articles on the subject, comprising the years from 2008 to 2013 and making a comparison between the reality of Brazilian and international publications. Seeking to provide some perspective on the current scenario in the theme, this work is characterized as a bibliometric study. A research for some specific words was conducted. The Brazilian and international articles found were analyzed separately to keep the keywords as chosen by the authors, not losing anything for translations and also as a way to compare Brazilian publications with international ones. Some authors notice the need for studies comprising the understanding of how organizational culture is perceived by the literature and how are being held the studies in this area. Through some studies, it becomes apparent that there is still room to develop further research to understand the publications in the area of organizational culture. 522 articles were found in international databases and 31 in Brazilian journals that were in accordance with the limits of this research. The study shows some differences between Brazilian and international publishings and how there is still room for more studies linking organizational culture and other subjects in the field of Administration.

  17. Air quality analysis and related risk assessment for the Bonneville Power Administration's Resource Program Environmental Impact Statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glantz, C S; Burk, K W; Driver, C J; Liljegren, J C; Neitzel, D A; Schwartz, M N; Dana, M T; Laws, G L; Mahoney, L A; Rhoads, K

    1992-04-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is considering 12 different alternatives for acquiring energy resources over the next 20 years. Each of the alternatives utilizes a full range of energy resources (e.g., coal, cogeneration, conservation, and nuclear); however, individual alternatives place greater emphases on different types of power-producing resources and employ different timetables for implementing these resources. The environmental impacts that would result from the implementation of each alternative and the economic valuations of these impacts, will be an important consideration in the alternative selection process. In this report we discuss the methods used to estimate environmental impacts from the resource alternatives. We focus on pollutant emissions rates, ground-level air concentrations of basic criteria pollutants, the acidity of rain, particulate deposition, ozone concentrations, visibility attenuation, global warming, human health effects, agricultural and forest impacts, and wildlife impacts. For this study, pollutant emission rates are computed by processing BPA data on power production and associated pollutant emissions. The assessment of human health effects from ozone indicated little variation between the resource alternatives. Impacts on plants, crops, and wildlife populations from power plant emissions are projected to be minimal for all resource alternatives.

  18. Intra- and inter-unit variation in fly ash petrography and mercury adsorption: Examples from a western Kentucky power station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hower, J.C.; Finkelman, R.B.; Rathbone, R.F.; Goodman, J.

    2000-01-01

    Fly ash was collected from eight mechanical and 10 baghouse hoppers at each of the twin 150-MW wall-fired units in a western Kentucky power station. The fuel burned at that time was a blend of many low-sulfur, high-volatile bituminous Central Appalachian coals. The baghouse ash showed less variation between units than the mechanical hoppers. The mechanical fly ash, coarser than the baghouse ash, showed significant differences in the amount of total carbon and in the ratio of isotropic coke to both total carbon and total coke - the latter excluding inertinite and other unburned, uncoked coal. There was no significant variation in proportions of inorganic fly ash constituents. The inter-unit differences in the amount and forms of mechanical fly ash carbon appear to be related to differences in pulverizer efficiency, leading to greater amounts of coarse coal, therefore unburned carbon, in one of the units. Mercury capture is a function of both the total carbon content and the gas temperature at the point of fly ash separation, mercury content increasing with an increase in carbon for a specific collection system. Mercury adsorption on fly ash carbon increases at lower flue-gas temperatures. Baghouse fly ash, collected at a lower temperature than the higher-carbon mechanically separated fly ash, contains a significantly greater amount of Hg.

  19. More Power, Less Sympathy. The Response of IGOs in Western Europe to Unwanted Migration during Economic Crises Compared

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irial Glynn

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This article chronicles the influence of intergovernmental organisations (IGOs over unwanted migration in Western Europe since the 1930s. It pays particular attention to what occurred during times of economic crisis, especially the Great Depression in the 1930s, the recession-hit 1970s and early 1980s, and the current global financial difficulties. The IGOs under consideration are the League of Nations during the 1930s and the European Commission from the 1970s onwards. The European Commission’s ability to influence West European states’ policies on unwanted migration has grown considerably since the League of Nations’ unsuccessful attempts in the 1930s, especially in the lead-up to the current economic crisis. This increase in power has been offset, however, by a decrease in the European Commission’s sympathy as Brussels increasingly regards unwanted migration as a security and justice issue rather than as a social and cultural one in a move that bears close resemblance to the stance of West European states.

  20. Impact of power lines on bird mortality in a subalpine area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bevanger, K.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Four sections of power lines, amounting to 4,000 km, in a subalpine area of southern Norway were patrolled from April 1989 to June 1995 to record birds killed when colliding with the overhead wires. A total of 399 dead birds and bird remains were identified as collision victims. At least 24 species were identified among the victims, the majority only represented by a few individuals. Ptarmigan (Lagopus spp., particularly Willow ptarmigan (Lagopus lagopus, made up 80% of the victims. Season, power-line section and ptarmigan abundance affected the collision rate of this species. The highest rate was found in winter, marginally higher than in spring. Few collided with the power lines in autumn, and none were identified as victims in summer. On average, the annual minimum ptarmigan collision rate was found to be 5.3 birds/km power line. The only parameter with a predictable effect on the probability of ptarmigan collisions was the height of the trees, as collision spots tended to be in places with low trees. Mortality due to power lines was, on average at least 2.4 times higher than the annual ptarmigan hunting bag in the area during this 6-year study.

  1. Area-Efficient Low Power CMOS Image Sensor Readout Circuit with Fixed Pattern Noise Cancellation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Shibin; YAO Suying; NIE Kaiming; XU Jiangtao

    2010-01-01

    A low cost of die area and power consumption CMOS image sensor readout circuit with fixed pattern noise(FPN)cancellation is proposed.By using only one coupling capacitor and switch in the double FPN cancelling correlative double sampling(CDS),pixel FPN is cancelled and column FPN is stored and eliminated by the sample-and-hold operation of digitally programmable gain amplifier(DPGA).The bandwidth balance technology based on operational amplifier(op-amp)sharing is also introduced to decrease the power dissipation of traditional multi-stage switched capacitor DPGA.The circuit is designed and simulated using 1P6M 0.18 μm 1.8 V/3.3 V process.Simulation results indicate that the proposed CDS scheme can achieve an FPN of less than 1 mV.The total sampling capacitor per column is 0.9 pF and no column-wise power is dissipated.The die area and FPN value are cut by 70% and 41% respectively compared with amplifier-based CDS.The op-amp sharing gain stage can achieve a 12-bit precision and also implement an 8-bit gain controlling within a gain range of 24 dB.Its power consumption is 1.4 mW,which is reduced by 57% compared with traditional schemes.The proposed readout circuit is suitable for the application of low power cost-sensitive imaging systems.

  2. Effects of Power Lines on Area Use and Behaviour of Semi-Domestic Reindeer in Enclosures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Flydal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We conducted large-scale, replicated experiments to test the effects of two parallel power lines on area use, behaviour, and activity of semidomestic reindeer in enclosures. Yearling female reindeer were released into four 50×400 m enclosures; two treatment enclosures with power lines and two control enclosures. Reindeer from two herds, one from Kautokeino (domestic tame and one from Vågå, (domestic wild were tested separately and compared. Individual location within the enclosures was not affected by the power lines. Effects on restless behaviour were ambiguous, with slightly more restless behaviour in the treatment enclosures for the domestic tame reindeer, while the domestic wild reindeer maintained a stable level in the treatment enclosures, increasing with time in the control enclosures. Activity changes were slightly more common among animals within treatment enclosures for both herds, with no indication of habituation during the experiment. The domestic wild reindeer had more than three times the amount of restless behaviour than the domestic tame reindeer. Our study indicates that for reindeer in enclosures, the disturbance from a power line construction is negligible. This suggests that power lines are a minor disturbing factor compared to human handling when using fenced in areas like grazing gardens in reindeer husbandry.

  3. In-Containment Signal Acquisition and Data Transmission via Power Lines within High Dose Areas of Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller Steffen; Wibbing Sascha; Weigel Robert; Koelpin Alexander [Institute for Electronics Engineering, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg (Germany); Dennerlein, Juergen; Janke, Iryna; Weber, Johannes [AREVA GmbH, Paul-Gossen-Str. 100, 91052 Erlangen (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Signal acquisition and data transmission for innovative sensor systems and networks inside the containment of nuclear power plants (NPPs) is still a challenge with respect to safety, performance, reliability, availability, and costs. This especially applies to equipment upgrades for existing plants, special measurements, but also for new builds. This paper presents a novel method for efficient and cost-effective sensor signal acquisition and data transmission via power lines, in order to cope with the disadvantages of common system architectures that often suffer from poor signal integrity due to raw data transmissions via long cables, huge efforts and costs for installation, and low flexibility with respect to maintenance and upgrades. A transmitter-receiver architecture is proposed that allows multiplexing of multiple sensor inputs for unidirectional point-to-point transmission by superimposing information signals on existing AC or DC supply lines, but also on active and inactive sensor wires, or spare cables, using power line communication (PLC) technology. Based on commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) electronic parts, a radiation hard transmitter hardware is designed to operate in harsh environment within the containment during full plant operation. The system's modular approach allows application specific trade-offs between redundancy and throughput regarding data transmission, as well as various sensor input front-ends which are compatible with state of the art systems. PLC technology eliminates the need for costly installation of additional cables and wall penetrations, while providing a complementary and diverse communication technology for upgrades of existing systems. At the receiver side in low dose areas, signals are extracted from the power line, demodulated, and de-multiplexed, in order to regain the original sensor signal information and provide it either in analog or digital output format. Successful laboratory qualification tests, field trails

  4. Process evaluation of the Bonneville Power Administration Residential Weatherization Pilot Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lerman, D.I.; Bronfman, B.H.; Tonn, B.

    1983-10-01

    An evaluation of the BPA Residential Weatherization Pilot Program is described. Data for this report were gathered at the eleven public utilities participating in the program, at the BPA area and district offices serving these utilities, and at BPA headquarters. This process evaluation of the Pilot Program documents the history of the program, outlines the implementation strategies adopted by the Pilot utilities, describes the role of the BPA area and district offices in the program, and indicates what was learned by BPA and the utilities in the period the program operated.

  5. Diachronic analysis of the occupation of the steppe area of the department of Sidi Bel Abbes (Western Algeria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellal, B.; Ayache, A.; Ayad, N.; Hellal, T.

    2016-06-01

    Modes of occupation of the soil of the steppe area of the department of Sidi Bel Abbes (Western Algeria) know lots of mutations during the period 1987/2013; compromising the future of pastoral activity. This dissection based on supervised classification TSAVI values (Transformed Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index) using images of remote sensing of average spatial resolution of type Landsat-TM 5 and 8. The determination of the state of occupation of the ground and validation of remote sensing map shows that the status of the halophytic/psammophytic steppes and the Matorrals are detected in 38.38 % and 55,71 % of cases, respectively. On the other hand, the steppes chamaephytic mark -9,81 % regression only, agricultural land -24,51 %, and -46,24 % dense vegetation are correctly mapped. The sensing medium resolution is therefore, in the light of these figures, a management tool of the steppe field relevant and effective, which, in addition, allows enriching the field for a proper plan for the fight against desertification.

  6. Density and distribution of Patella ferruginea in a Marine Protected Area (western Sardinia, Italy: Constraint analysis for population conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. COPPA

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The endemic limpet Patella ferruginea is the most endangered invertebrate of the Mediterranean Sea. Our study examined a population of P. ferruginea in the Marine Protected Area of Penisola del Sinis - Isola di Mal di Ventre (western Sardinia, Italy. During the summer 2009, we carried out a systematic census of P. ferruginea along a 8114 m georeferenced perimeter of coast in the no take-no entry zone to assess its density, spatial distribution, and morphometric characteristics. Our aim was to provide a detailed map of the distribution of P. ferruginea and to investigate the effects of accessibility, wave exposure and slope of the coast on its occurrence. Patella ferrugineashowed the lowest mean density ever reported (0.02 ind/m and a unimodal population structure characterised by fewer females and juveniles. Accessibility had a major negative effect on the occurrence of P. ferruginea. Exposure was also an important factor in influencing its density, size composition and specimen position within the mesolittoral, while the slope had little influence. Morphometric analysis showed the dominance of the Rouxi form, while the Lamarcki form was confined to exposed sites. Our results demonstrate a highly endangered population of P. ferruginea and suggest that human pressure represents the main risk factor.

  7. Monitoring intensity and patterns of off-highway vehicle (OHV) use in remote areas of the western USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouren, Douglas S.; Coffin, Alisa W.

    2013-01-01

    The continued growth of off-highway vehicle (OHV) activities – demonstrated by the dramatic increase in OHV sales, number of users, and areas experiencing OHV use – has elevated concerns about their ecological effects, the impacts on wildlife, and the sustainability of OHV use on secondary and tertiary road networks. Conflicts between visitors and wildlife are raising concerns about system resiliency and sustainable management. In order to quantify the spatial and temporal impacts of OHV use it is imperative to know about the timing and patterns of vehicle use. This study tested and used multiple vehicle-counter types to study vehicular OHV use patterns and volume throughout a mountainous road network in western Colorado. OHV counts were analyzed by time of day, day of week, season, and year. While daily use peaked within a two to three hour range for all sites, the overall volume of use varied among sites on an annual basis. The data also showed that there are at least two distinct patterns of OHV use: one dominated by a majority of use on weekends, and the other with continuous use throughout the week. This project provided important, but rarely captured, metrics about patterns of OHV use in a remote, mountainous region of Colorado. The techniques described here can provide land managers with a quantitative evaluation of OHV use across the landscape, an essential foundation for travel management planning. They also provide researchers with robust tools to further investigate the impacts of OHV use.

  8. The incidence of S. aureus bacteraemia in acute hospitals of the Mid-Western Area, Ireland, 2002-2004.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Whyte, D

    2005-05-01

    Concerns about healthcare-associated infections and the global crisis in antimicrobial resistance has combined to accentuate the fears around so-called "superbugs". In Ireland there is no single agreed indicator regarded as a true measure of the level of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in hospitals. The objective of this study was to compare two crude measures of MRSA--the percentage of bacteraemia caused by MRSA and the incidence rate (per 1000 bed days used) of MRSA bacteraemia in six acute hospitals. We examined all blood cultures positive for S. aureus (methicillin sensitive and resistant) from 2002 to 2004 in the Health Service Executive (HSE) Mid-Western Area of Ireland. Hospital In-Patient Enquiry (HIPE) data was used to determine monthly in-patient bed days used. Of 245 patient episodes of bacteraemia, 119 were MRSA. The trends in the percentage of isolates that were MRSA and the incidence rate calculated were compared. The incidence rate appears to be a more reliable and robust indicator of MRSA in hospitals than the percentage. Despite many difficulties in interpreting indicators of MRSA they should not preclude the regular publication of data at least at regional level in Ireland.

  9. Density and distribution of Patella ferruginea in a Marine Protected Area (western Sardinia, Italy: Constraint analysis for population conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. COPPA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The endemic limpet Patella ferruginea is the most endangered invertebrate of the Mediterranean Sea. Our study examined a population of P. ferruginea in the Marine Protected Area of Penisola del Sinis - Isola di Mal di Ventre (western Sardinia, Italy. During the summer 2009, we carried out a systematic census of P. ferruginea along a 8114 m georeferenced perimeter of coast in the no take-no entry zone to assess its density, spatial distribution, and morphometric characteristics. Our aim was to provide a detailed map of the distribution of P. ferruginea and to investigate the effects of accessibility, wave exposure and slope of the coast on its occurrence. Patella ferrugineashowed the lowest mean density ever reported (0.02 ind/m and a unimodal population structure characterised by fewer females and juveniles. Accessibility had a major negative effect on the occurrence of P. ferruginea. Exposure was also an important factor in influencing its density, size composition and specimen position within the mesolittoral, while the slope had little influence. Morphometric analysis showed the dominance of the Rouxi form, while the Lamarcki form was confined to exposed sites. Our results demonstrate a highly endangered population of P. ferruginea and suggest that human pressure represents the main risk factor.

  10. Stochastic decadal climate simulations for the Berg and Breede Water Management Areas, Western Cape province, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Arthur M.; Hellmuth, Molly; Lumsden, Trevor

    2012-06-01

    A method is described for the generation of multivariate stochastic climate sequences for the Berg and Breede Water Management Areas in the Western Cape province of South Africa. The sequences, based on joint modeling of precipitation and minimum and maximum daily temperatures, are conditioned on annualized data, the aim being to simulate realistic variability on annual to decadal time scales. A vector autoregressive (VAR) model is utilized for this purpose and reproduces well those statistical attributes, including intervariable correlation and serial autocorrelation in individual variables, most relevant for the regional climate in this setting. The sequences incorporate nonlinear climate change trends, inferred using an ensemble of global climate models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). Subannual variability is simulated using a block resampling scheme based on the k-nearest-neighbor approach, preserving both temporal patterns and spatial correlations. Downscaling to a network of quinary-level catchments enables distributed runoff, streamflow, and crop simulations and the assessment and integration of impacts. Final output takes the form of daily sequences, structured for driving the ACRU agrohydrological model of the University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

  11. Noble gas constraints on hydrocarbon accumulation and groundwater flow in the central area of Western Sichuan Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊然学

    2001-01-01

    The noble gas concentrations and isotope ratios of seven natural gas samples from the central area of the Western Sichuan Basin were measured. The samples all have 40Ar/36Ar ratios greater than the atmospheric values, and the 3He/4He ratios (R/Ra) are entirely consistent with the crustal radiogenic He values. The vertical variation of the calculated CH4/36Ar ratios with depth clearly indicates that the CH4and 36Ar are intimately associated, indicating a common reservoir intermediate to the sampled reservoirs, where they are well mixed and stored together prior to entrapment into gas reservoirs. Meanwhile, the calculated CH4/36Ar ratios range between 8×106 and 64×106 very much greater than the CH4/36Ar values for pure water and 5 mol/L NaCI brine at low temperature and hydrostatic conditions, reflecting the presence of "excess" thermogenic CH4 over that supplied by a CH4-saturated groundwater at low temperature, and the excess CH4 saturation and dissolution to be at depth greater than the sampled reserv

  12. Biogeochemistry of a low-activity cold seep in the Larsen B area, western Weddell Sea, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gutt

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available First videographic indication of an Antarctic cold seep ecosystem was recently obtained from the collapsed Larsen B ice shelf, western Weddell Sea (Domack et al., 2005. Within the framework of the R/V Polarstern expedition ANTXXIII-8, we revisited this area for geochemical, microbiological and further videographical examinations. During two dives with ROV Cherokee (MARUM, Bremen, several bivalve shell agglomerations of the seep-associated, chemosynthetic clam Calyptogena sp. were found in the trough of the Crane and Evans glacier. The absence of living clam specimens indicates that the flux of sulphide and hence the seepage activity is diminished at present. This impression was further substantiated by our geochemical observations. Concentrations of thermogenic methane were moderately elevated with 2 μM in surface sediments of a clam patch, increasing up to 9 μM at a sediment depth of about 1 m in the bottom sections of the sediment cores. This correlated with a moderate decrease in sulphate from about 28 mM at the surface down to 23.4 mM, an increase in sulphide to up to 1.43 mM and elevated rates of the anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM of up to 600 pmol cm−3 d−1 at about 1 m below the seafloor. Molecular analyses indicate that methanotrophic archaea related to ANME-3 are the most likely candidates mediating AOM in sediments of the Larsen B seep.

  13. Methylphenidate administration to juvenile rats alters brain areas involved in cognition, motivated behaviors, appetite, and stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Jason D; Punsoni, Michael; Tabori, Nora E; Melton, Jay T; Fanslow, Victoria; Ward, Mary J; Zupan, Bojana; Menzer, David; Rice, Jackson; Drake, Carrie T; Romeo, Russell D; Brake, Wayne G; Torres-Reveron, Annelyn; Milner, Teresa A

    2007-07-04

    Thousands of children receive methylphenidate (MPH; Ritalin) for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), yet the long-term neurochemical consequences of MPH treatment are unknown. To mimic clinical Ritalin treatment in children, male rats were injected with MPH (5 mg/kg) or vehicle twice daily from postnatal day 7 (PND7)-PND35. At the end of administration (PND35) or in adulthood (PND135), brain sections from littermate pairs were immunocytochemically labeled for neurotransmitters and cytological markers in 16 regions implicated in MPH effects and/or ADHD etiology. At PND35, the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of rats given MPH showed 55% greater immunoreactivity (-ir) for the catecholamine marker tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), 60% more Nissl-stained cells, and 40% less norepinephrine transporter (NET)-ir density. In hippocampal dentate gyrus, MPH-receiving rats showed a 51% decrease in NET-ir density and a 61% expanded distribution of the new-cell marker PSA-NCAM (polysialylated form of neural cell adhesion molecule). In medial striatum, TH-ir decreased by 21%, and in hypothalamus neuropeptide Y-ir increased by 10% in MPH-exposed rats. At PND135, MPH-exposed rats exhibited decreased anxiety in the elevated plus-maze and a trend for decreased TH-ir in the mPFC. Neither PND35 nor PND135 rats showed major structural differences with MPH exposure. These findings suggest that developmental exposure to high therapeutic doses of MPH has short-term effects on select neurotransmitters in brain regions involved in motivated behaviors, cognition, appetite, and stress. Although the observed neuroanatomical changes largely resolve with time, chronic modulation of young brains with MPH may exert effects on brain neurochemistry that modify some behaviors even in adulthood.

  14. Childhood illnesses and malnutrition in under five children in drought affected desert area of western Rajasthan, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Madhu B; Lakshminarayana, J; Fotedar, R; Anand, P K

    2006-03-01

    The study was undertaken to asses the impact of drought on childhood illnesses and nutrition in under five children of rural population using three stage sampling design. The study has been carried out in 24 villages belonging to 6 tehsils of Jodhpur district which was a drought affected desert district of Western Rajasthan in 2003. A total of 914 under five children (0-5 years) could be examined for their childhood illnesses, malnutrition, dietary intake and clinical signs of nutritional deficiency. Childhood illnesses observed at the time of drought were respiratory (7.5 %), gastroentrological (7.5%), and 5.6% fever (viral, malaria and jaundice), higher in males than females. Children suffered from recent and long term malnutrition were 39% and 26% respectively as per National Centre for Health Statistics (NCHS) standards. The extent of malnutrition was significantly higher in females than in males (pmalnutrition (PEM) was observed in 44.4%. Overall mean calorie and protein intake deficit was observed to be very high (76.0 & 54.0 %). The comparison of present drought results with earlier studies in normal and drought conditions showed higher prevalence of PEM and deficiencies of calories & proteins in their diet. Respiratory, gastroentrological and fever were main childhood illnesses observed and were higher in males at the time of drought. PEM, vitamin A & B- complex deficiencies, anemia along with deficit in calories and proteins in their diet was observed higher in present study as compared to non desert areas, which may be due to the harsh environmental conditions in desert areas and paucity in the consumption of daily food intake. Due to inadequate consumption of daily food, the children were suffering from PEM resulting in several childhood illnesses. Effective measures making availability of adequate calories and proteins to all age groups especially to under five children through the ongoing nutrition programs needs to be ensured.

  15. Sub-surface paleochannel detection in DeGrussa area, Western Australia, using thermal infrared remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Sanchari; Chudasama, Bijal; Porwal, Alok; González-Álvarez, Ignacio

    2016-05-01

    Thermal Infrared (TIR) remote sensing measures emitted radiation of Earth in the thermal region of electromagnetic spectrum. This information can be useful in studying sub-surface features such as buried palaeochannels, which are ancient river systems that have dried up over time and are now buried under soil cover or overlying sediments in the present landscape. Therefore they have little or no expression on the surface topography. Study of these paleo channels has wide applications in the fields of uranium exploration and ground water hydrology. Identifying paleo channels using remote sensing technique is a cost-effective means of narrowing down search areas and thereby aids in ground exploration. The difference in thermal properties between the paleo channel-fill sediments and the surrounding bed-rock is the key to demarcate these channels. This study uses five TIR bands of day-time Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) L1A data for delineation of paleo-systems in the DeGrussa area of the Capricorn Orogen in Western Australia. The temperature-emissivity separation algorithm is applied to obtain kinetic temperature and emissivity images. Sharp contrasts in kinetic temperature and emissivity values are used to demarcate the channel boundaries. Profiles of topographic elevation, temperature and emissivity values are plotted for different sections of the interpreted channels and compared to distinguish the surface channels from sub-surface channels, and also to interpret the thickness and nature of the paleo channel-fill sediments. The results are validated using core-drilling litho logs and field exploration data.

  16. Indoor inhalation dose estimates due to radon and thoron in some areas of South-Western Punjab, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sanjeev; Singh, Surinder; Bajwa, Bikramjit Singh; Singh, Bhupinder; Sabharwal, Arvind D; Eappen, K P

    2012-08-01

    LR-115 (type II)-based radon-thoron discriminating twin-chamber dosemeters have been used for estimating radon ((222)Rn) and thoron ((220)Rn) concentrations in dwellings of south-western Punjab, India. The present study region has shown pronounced cases of cancer incidents in the public [Thakur, Rao, Rajwanshi, Parwana and Kumar (Epidemiological study of high cancer among rural agricultural community of Punjab in Northern India. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2008; 5(5):399-407) and Kumar et al. (Risk assessment for natural uranium in subsurface water of Punjab state, India. Hum Ecol Risk Assess 2011;17:381-93)]. Radon being a carcinogen has been monitored in some dwellings selected randomly in the study area. Results show that the values of radon ((222)Rn)  varied from 21 to 79 Bq m(-3), with a geometric mean of 45 Bq m(-3) [geometric standard deviation (GSD 1.39)], and those of thoron ((220)Rn)  from minimum detection level to 58 Bq m(-3) with a geometric mean of 19 Bq m(-3) (GSD 1.88). Bare card data are used for computing the progeny concentration by deriving the equilibrium factor (F) using a root finding method [Mayya, Eappen and Nambi (Methodology for mixed field inhalation dosimetry in monazite areas using a twin-cup dosemeter with three track detectors. Radiat Prot Dosim 1998;77(3):177-84)]. Inhalation doses have been calculated and compared using UNSCEAR equilibrium factors and by using the calculated F-values. The results show satisfactory comparison between the values.

  17. Management, administrative and operational causes of the accident: Chernobyl nuclear power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anastas, G. [California State Univ., Sacramento, CA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The Chernobyl accident, which occurred in April 1986, was the result of management, administrative, operational, technical and design flaws. The accident released millions of curies of mixed fission products including 70-100 PBq of {sup 137}Cs. At the time of the accident, science, engineering and safety in the former Soviet Union were dominated by an atmosphere of politics, group think and `dingoes tending the sheep`. This corrupted safety culture exacerbated the poor design of the reactor. The results of this study strongly suggest that the cultural, political, managerial and operational attributes of the Soviet `system` performed in a synergistic manner to significantly contribute to the initiation of the accident. (authors). 16 refs.

  18. Identification methods of coal-bearing source rocks for Yacheng Formation in the western deepwater area of South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Jinfeng; ZHANG Yingzhao; WANG Hua; WANG Yahui; GAN Huajun; HE Weijun; SUN Ming; SONG Guangzeng

    2015-01-01

    would be sufficient organic matters to form abundant source rocks. The results show that the integrated methods can significantly improve prediction accuracy of coal-bearing source rocks, which is suitable for early exploration of western deepwater area of South China Sea.

  19. Power Scaling and Seasonal Changes of Floe Areas in the Arctic East Siberian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geise, Gregory R.; Barton, Christopher C.; Tebbens, Sarah F.

    2017-01-01

    The cumulative number versus floe area distribution of seasonal sea floes from six satellite images of the Arctic Ocean during the summer breakup and melting is fit by two scale-invariant power law scaling regimes for floe areas ranging from 30 to 28,400,000 m2. Scaling exponents, β, for larger floe areas range from -0.6 to -1.0 with an average of -0.8. Scaling exponents, β, for smaller floe areas range from -0.3 to -0.6 with an average of -0.5. The inflection point between the two scaling regimes ranges from 283 × 102 to 4850 × 102 m2 and generally moves from larger to smaller floe areas through the summer melting season. The stability of the power scaling results is demonstrated for two of the images by dividing each in half and analyzing each half separately, with the result that the scaling exponents and the size of the inflection points are nearly the same for each half as for the whole image. We propose that the two scaling regimes and the inflection between them are established during the initial breakup of sea ice solely by the process of fracture. The distributions of floe size regimes retain their scaling exponents as the floe pack evolves from larger to smaller floe areas from the initial breakup through the summer season, due to grinding, crushing, fracture, and melting. The scaling exponents for floe area distribution are in the same range as those reported in previous studies of Arctic floes and for the single scaling exponents found for crushed and ground geologic materials including streambed gravel, lunar debris, and artificially crushed quartz. The single scaling exponent found for fault gouge falls below the range for floes possibly because the fracturing and grinding process in fault gouge takes place under high confining pressure. A probabilistic model of fragmentation is proposed that generates a single power law scaling distribution of fragment size.

  20. Area-Efficient Low Power CMOS Image Sensor Readout Circuit with Fixed Pattern Noise Cancellation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵士彬; 姚素英; 聂凯明; 徐江涛

    2010-01-01

    A low cost of die area and power consumption CMOS image sensor readout circuit with fixed pattern noise(FPN) cancellation is proposed.By using only one coupling capacitor and switch in the double FPN cancelling correlative double sampling(CDS),pixel FPN is cancelled and column FPN is stored and eliminated by the sampleand-hold operation of digitally programmable gain amplifier(DPGA).The bandwidth balance technology based on operational amplifier(op-amp) sharing is also introduced to decrease the power dissi...

  1. Second-Life Batteries on a Gas Turbine Power Plant to Provide Area Regulation Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lluc Canals Casals

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Batteries are used in the electricity grid to provide ancillary services. Area regulation seems to provide substantial revenues and profit, but Li-ion batteries are still too expensive to enter widely into this market. On the other hand, electric vehicle (EV batteries are considered inappropriate for traction purposes when they reach a state of health (SoH of 80%. The reuse of these batteries offers affordable batteries for second-life stationary applications. This study analyzes two possible scenarios where batteries may give power and energy support to a gas turbine cogeneration power plant, and how long these batteries may last under different loads.

  2. Investigation of a novel common subexpression elimination method for low power and area efficient DCT architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, M F; Reza, A W; Kanesan, J; Ramiah, H

    2014-01-01

    A wide interest has been observed to find a low power and area efficient hardware design of discrete cosine transform (DCT) algorithm. This research work proposed a novel Common Subexpression Elimination (CSE) based pipelined architecture for DCT, aimed at reproducing the cost metrics of power and area while maintaining high speed and accuracy in DCT applications. The proposed design combines the techniques of Canonical Signed Digit (CSD) representation and CSE to implement the multiplier-less method for fixed constant multiplication of DCT coefficients. Furthermore, symmetry in the DCT coefficient matrix is used with CSE to further decrease the number of arithmetic operations. This architecture needs a single-port memory to feed the inputs instead of multiport memory, which leads to reduction of the hardware cost and area. From the analysis of experimental results and performance comparisons, it is observed that the proposed scheme uses minimum logic utilizing mere 340 slices and 22 adders. Moreover, this design meets the real time constraints of different video/image coders and peak-signal-to-noise-ratio (PSNR) requirements. Furthermore, the proposed technique has significant advantages over recent well-known methods along with accuracy in terms of power reduction, silicon area usage, and maximum operating frequency by 41%, 15%, and 15%, respectively.

  3. Supporting Renewables’ Penetration in Remote Areas through the Transformation of Non-Powered Dams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Patsialis

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Supplying power to remote areas may be a challenge, even for those communities already connected to the main grid. Power is often transmitted from long distances, under adverse weather conditions, and with aged equipment. As a rule, modernizing grid infrastructure in such areas to make it more resilient faces certain financial limitations. Local distribution may face stability issues and disruptions through the year and—equally important—it cannot absorb significant amounts of locally-produced power. The European policy has underlined the importance of energy production in local level towards meeting energy security and climate targets. However, the current status of these areas makes the utilization of the local potential prohibitive. This study builds on the observation that in the vicinity of such mountainous areas, irrigation dams often cover different non energy-related needs (e.g., irrigation, drinking water. Transforming these dams to small-scale hydropower (SHP facilities can have a twofold effect: it can enhance the local energy portfolio with a renewable energy source that can be regulated and managed. Moreover, hydropower can provide additional flexibility to the local system and through reservoir operation to allow the connection of additional solar photovoltaic capacities. The developed methodological approach was tested in remote communities of mountainous Greece, where an earth-fill dam provides irrigation water. The results show a significant increase of renewables’ penetration and enhanced communities’ electricity autarky.

  4. Investigation of a Novel Common Subexpression Elimination Method for Low Power and Area Efficient DCT Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Siddiqui

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A wide interest has been observed to find a low power and area efficient hardware design of discrete cosine transform (DCT algorithm. This research work proposed a novel Common Subexpression Elimination (CSE based pipelined architecture for DCT, aimed at reproducing the cost metrics of power and area while maintaining high speed and accuracy in DCT applications. The proposed design combines the techniques of Canonical Signed Digit (CSD representation and CSE to implement the multiplier-less method for fixed constant multiplication of DCT coefficients. Furthermore, symmetry in the DCT coefficient matrix is used with CSE to further decrease the number of arithmetic operations. This architecture needs a single-port memory to feed the inputs instead of multiport memory, which leads to reduction of the hardware cost and area. From the analysis of experimental results and performance comparisons, it is observed that the proposed scheme uses minimum logic utilizing mere 340 slices and 22 adders. Moreover, this design meets the real time constraints of different video/image coders and peak-signal-to-noise-ratio (PSNR requirements. Furthermore, the proposed technique has significant advantages over recent well-known methods along with accuracy in terms of power reduction, silicon area usage, and maximum operating frequency by 41%, 15%, and 15%, respectively.

  5. Comparison of self-report and interview administration methods based on the Brazilian versions of the Western Ontario Rotator Cuff Index and Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Questionnaire in patients with rotator cuff disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Diniz Lopes

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present study was to compare self-report and interview administration methods using the Western Ontario Rotator Cuff Index (WORC and Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Questionnaire (DASH in patients with rotator cuff disorders. METHODS: Thirty male and female patients over 18 years of age with rotator cuff disorders (tendinopathy or rotator cuff tear and Brazilian Portuguese as their primary language were recruited for assessment via administration of the Western Ontario Rotator Cuff Index and and Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Questionnaire. A randomization method was used to determine whether the questionnaires would be self-reported (n=15 or administered by an interviewer (n=15. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to evaluate the correlation between the Western Ontario Rotator Cuff Index and and Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Questionnaire in each group. The t-test was used to determine whether the difference in mean questionnaire scores and administration time was statistically significant. For statistical analysis, the level of significance was set at 5%. RESULTS: The mean subject age was 55.07 years, ranging from 27 to 74 years. Most patients had a diagnosis of tendinopathy (n=21. With regard to level of schooling, the majority (n=26 of subjects had completed a college degree or higher. The mean questionnaire scores and administration times did not significantly differ between the two groups (p>0.05. There were statistically significant correlations (p<0.05 between Western Ontario Rotator Cuff Index and and Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Questionnaire, and strong correlations were found between the questionnaires in both groups. CONCLUSION: There are no differences between the Western Ontario Rotator Cuff Index and Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Questionnaire administration methods with regard to administration time or correlations between the

  6. Optimizing Wind Power Generation while Minimizing Wildlife Impacts in an Urban Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohrer, Gil; Zhu, Kunpeng; Jones, Robert L.; Curtis, Peter S.

    2013-01-01

    The location of a wind turbine is critical to its power output, which is strongly affected by the local wind field. Turbine operators typically seek locations with the best wind at the lowest level above ground since turbine height affects installation costs. In many urban applications, such as small-scale turbines owned by local communities or organizations, turbine placement is challenging because of limited available space and because the turbine often must be added without removing existing infrastructure, including buildings and trees. The need to minimize turbine hazard to wildlife compounds the challenge. We used an exclusion zone approach for turbine-placement optimization that incorporates spatially detailed maps of wind distribution and wildlife densities with power output predictions for the Ohio State University campus. We processed public GIS records and airborne lidar point-cloud data to develop a 3D map of all campus buildings and trees. High resolution large-eddy simulations and long-term wind climatology were combined to provide land-surface-affected 3D wind fields and the corresponding wind-power generation potential. This power prediction map was then combined with bird survey data. Our assessment predicts that exclusion of areas where bird numbers are highest will have modest effects on the availability of locations for power generation. The exclusion zone approach allows the incorporation of wildlife hazard in wind turbine siting and power output considerations in complex urban environments even when the quantitative interaction between wildlife behavior and turbine activity is unknown. PMID:23409117

  7. Optimizing wind power generation while minimizing wildlife impacts in an urban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohrer, Gil; Zhu, Kunpeng; Jones, Robert L; Curtis, Peter S

    2013-01-01

    The location of a wind turbine is critical to its power output, which is strongly affected by the local wind field. Turbine operators typically seek locations with the best wind at the lowest level above ground since turbine height affects installation costs. In many urban applications, such as small-scale turbines owned by local communities or organizations, turbine placement is challenging because of limited available space and because the turbine often must be added without removing existing infrastructure, including buildings and trees. The need to minimize turbine hazard to wildlife compounds the challenge. We used an exclusion zone approach for turbine-placement optimization that incorporates spatially detailed maps of wind distribution and wildlife densities with power output predictions for the Ohio State University campus. We processed public GIS records and airborne lidar point-cloud data to develop a 3D map of all campus buildings and trees. High resolution large-eddy simulations and long-term wind climatology were combined to provide land-surface-affected 3D wind fields and the corresponding wind-power generation potential. This power prediction map was then combined with bird survey data. Our assessment predicts that exclusion of areas where bird numbers are highest will have modest effects on the availability of locations for power generation. The exclusion zone approach allows the incorporation of wildlife hazard in wind turbine siting and power output considerations in complex urban environments even when the quantitative interaction between wildlife behavior and turbine activity is unknown.

  8. Optimizing wind power generation while minimizing wildlife impacts in an urban area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil Bohrer

    Full Text Available The location of a wind turbine is critical to its power output, which is strongly affected by the local wind field. Turbine operators typically seek locations with the best wind at the lowest level above ground since turbine height affects installation costs. In many urban applications, such as small-scale turbines owned by local communities or organizations, turbine placement is challenging because of limited available space and because the turbine often must be added without removing existing infrastructure, including buildings and trees. The need to minimize turbine hazard to wildlife compounds the challenge. We used an exclusion zone approach for turbine-placement optimization that incorporates spatially detailed maps of wind distribution and wildlife densities with power output predictions for the Ohio State University campus. We processed public GIS records and airborne lidar point-cloud data to develop a 3D map of all campus buildings and trees. High resolution large-eddy simulations and long-term wind climatology were combined to provide land-surface-affected 3D wind fields and the corresponding wind-power generation potential. This power prediction map was then combined with bird survey data. Our assessment predicts that exclusion of areas where bird numbers are highest will have modest effects on the availability of locations for power generation. The exclusion zone approach allows the incorporation of wildlife hazard in wind turbine siting and power output considerations in complex urban environments even when the quantitative interaction between wildlife behavior and turbine activity is unknown.

  9. The Study on Privilege in Administrative Contract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于韬文

    2016-01-01

    With the continuous development of management methods, as the implementation means of administrative policy and social management ideal, the administrative contract has been widely accepted. Administrative areas contract to become the focus of people's attention. Administrative priority in administrative contract is to distinguish between private rights contract with the most critical characteristics of administrative contracts. But there are many problems of administrative priority in practice. In this paper, writer begins from the content of administrative priority and put forward myself proposals for the improvement of power supervision.

  10. MID TERM ASSESSMENT OF MASS DRUG ADMINISTRATION IN LYMPHATIC FILARIASIS ENDEMIC AREA OF DAMOH AND SAGAR DISTRICT OF MADHYA PRADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lymphatic filariasis caused by Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi is an important public health problem in India. Filariasis is a major social and the fourth most common cause of disability all over the globe. Filariasis is endemic in 17 States and six Union Territories, with about 553 million people at risk of infection. It has been a major public health problem in India. The Global Programme for Elimination of Lymphatic filariasis was launched by the WHO in 2000 with the goal of eliminating Lymphatic filariasis as a public health problem by the year 2020. For the effective control of filariasis >65% population of endemic areas should be covered by single dose of Diethylcarbamazine 6mg/kg (DEC. OBJECTIVES: To assess the coverage and compliance of mass drug administration in the selected District and to make independent assessment with respect to process and out - come indicators. MATERIAL AND METHODS : A community based cross sectional study through house to house survey method in selected clusters was adopted. An independent evaluation was done and the outcome was assessed as the coverage and compliance of mass drug administration. RESULTS: In both Damoh and Sagar Districts of Madhya Pradesh, the coverage level for DEC was > 80% in all the Blocks. CONCL USION: The mass drug administration was aimed only to distribute the drug and the issues related to compliance, proper health education and side effects management were not given enough attention. These issues are important to make programme effective.

  11. Characteristics of change of the SST in the tropical western Pacific and the tropical Indian Ocean and its response to the change of the Antarctic ice area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, by using ocean surface temperature data (COADS), the study is made of the characteristics of the monthly and annual changes of the SST in the tropical western Pacific and Indian Oceans, which have important influences on the climate change of the whole globe and the relation between ENSO(E1 Nino-Southern Oscillation) and the Antarctic ice area is also discussed. The result indicates that in the tropical western Pacific and the Indian Oceans the change of Sea Surface Temperture (SST) is conspicuous both monthly and armaully, and shows different change tendency between them. This result may be due to different relation in the vibration period of SST between the two Oceans. The better corresponding relationship is obvious in the annual change of SST in the tropical Indian Ocean with the occurrence El Nino and LaNlra. The change of the SST in the tropical western Pacific and the tropical Indian Oceans has a close relation to the Antarctic ice area, especially to the ice areas in the eastern-south Pole and Ross Sea, and its notable correlative relationship appears in 16 months when the SST of the tropical western Pacific and the Indian Oceans lag back the Antarctic ice area.

  12. RELATIVE ABUNDANCE AND SPECIES COMPOSITION OF MOSQUITO POPULATIONS (DIPTERA:CULICIDAE) IN A LA CROSSE VIRUS- ENDEMIC AREA IN WESTERN NORTH CAROLINA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Container surveys were conducted in 5 communities on the Cherokee Indian Reservation, an area of western North Carolina endemic for transmission of La Crosse (LAC) virus, to determine the potential for peridomestic mosquito breeding, the relative abundance of mosquito species, an...

  13. RELATIVE ABUNDANCE AND SPECIES COMPOSITION OF MOSQUITO POPULATIONS (DIPTERA:CULICIDAE) IN A LA CROSSE VIRUS- ENDEMIC AREA IN WESTERN NORTH CAROLINA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Container surveys were conducted in 5 communities on the Cherokee Indian Reservation, an area of western North Carolina endemic for transmission of La Crosse (LAC) virus, to determine the potential for peridomestic mosquito breeding, the relative abundance of mosquito species, an...

  14. Population pharmacokinetics of the 5-hydroxymethyl metabolite of tolterodine after administration of fesoterodine sustained release tablet in Western and East Asian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Masayo; Tomono, Yoshiro; Yamagami, Hidetomi; Malhotra, Bimal

    2014-08-01

    This analysis was conducted to investigate factors that affect 5-hydroxymethyl tolterodine (5-HMT) pharmacokinetics after administration of fesoterodine sustained release tablets to Westerners and East Asians. Ten pharmacokinetic studies and three efficacy/safety studies in overactive bladder (OAB) patients were pooled for the population pharmacokinetic analysis. The plasma 5-HMT concentration data were described by a 1-compartment model with first order absorption and a lag time. Creatinine clearance (CLCR), hepatic impairment, CYP2D6 genotype, and concomitant medication with CYP3A inhibitor/inducer were identified as influential covariates. It was estimated that decreasing of CLCR from 80 to 15 mL/min resulted in a 39.5% reduction in 5-HMT apparent oral clearance (CL/F). Hepatic impairment, CYP2D6 poor metabolizer, and CYP3A inhibitor were estimated to reduce CL/F by about 60%, 40%, and 50%, respectively. CYP3A inducer resulted in about fourfold increase in CL/F. Although sex and Japanese ethnicity were selected as covariates on CL/F, each resulted in only about 10% decrease and increase of CL/F, respectively. Of the influential covariates of 5-HMT CL/F, CLCR, hepatic impairment, CYP2D6 genotype, and concomitant medication with CYP3A inhibitor/inducer were of significance, whereas sex and Japanese ethnicity covariates were considered not to have clinically significant impact on exposures of 5-HMT. © 2014, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  15. Structural analysis and metamorphism of Palaeoproterozoic metapelites in the Seinäjoki-Ilmajoki area, western Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mäkitie, H.

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The Palaeoproterozoic Svecofennian bedrock of the Seinäjoki-Ilmajoki area, western Finland, is largely composed of porphyroblastic metapelites. In the area, the regional metamorphic grade increases towards the southwest. Over a distance of 15 km, andalusite mica schists gradually grade into migmatitic garnet cordierite-sillimanite mica gneisses with a facies-series of the andalusite-sillimanite type. Five regional metamorphic zones are present: andalusite, sillimanite-muscovite, sillimanite-K-feldspar, cordierite-K-feldspar and garnet-cordierite-K-feldspar. The primary layering (S0 of the mica schists is deformed by an isoclinal fold phase (F2, which is synchronous with the main metamorphic phase and the growth of micas. S1 is very weak and subject to interpretation. The S2 schistosity is deformed by intense late-metamorphic F3 and F3b folds, which have formed under slightly different metamorphic conditions: practically no metamorphic micas have grown parallel to axial planes while within F3b folds there are a few granitic veins parallel to these planes. The F3 and F3b folds probably belong to one phase. S2 dominates in the mica schists while S3 and S3b dominate in the mica gneisses. The metapelites are also deformed by younger minor fold phases (F4 and F5. A composite schistosity (S0±S1±S2±S3, or S3b commonly occurs in the metapelites. The peak of regional metamorphism has been associated with the intrusion of 1.89-1.88 Ga old tonalite plutons. Geothermometric estimates for regional metamorphism are c. 730 °C at an assumed pressure of 5 kbar. Neosomes in the high-grade mica gneisses occur as patches rather than as elongated, narrow veins. Garnet coexists with cordierite, but the minerals are rarely in equilibrium. Muscovitization and the formation of retrogressive andalusite did not occur in the high-grade mica gneisses, but there is minor kyanite indicating that the crust probably underwent near-isobaric cooling. The area of highest

  16. A Low Cost Shading Analyzer and Site Evaluator Design to Determine Solar Power System Installation Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selami Kesler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Shading analyzer systems are necessary for selecting the most suitable installation site to sustain enough solar power. Afterwards, changes in solar data throughout the year must be evaluated along with the identification of obstructions surrounding the installation site in order to analyze shading effects on productivity of the solar power system. In this study, the shading analysis tools are introduced briefly, and a new and different device is developed and explained to analyze shading effect of the environmental obstruction on the site on which the solar power system will be established. Thus, exposure duration of the PV panels to the sunlight can be measured effectively. The device is explained with an application on the installation area selected as a pilot site, Denizli, in Turkey.

  17. Optimal Solution of the EPED Problem Considering Space Areas of HSABC on the Power System Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.N. Afandi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the emission problem and economic dispatch (EPED becomes crucial aspects in the power system operation. These aspects are measured technically using financial payments as the total operating cost based on pollutant productions and fuel consumptions throughout individual costs of generating units based on a committed power output to meet a load demand. This paper introduces the newest artificial intelligent computation, harvest season artificial bee colony (HSABC algorithm, for determining the optimal solution of the EPED based on the operating cost function using IEEE-62 bus system with various operational constraints. Results obtained show that HSABC has short time computations and fast convergences while space areas give different implications on performances. The optimal solution produces various individual power outputs, pollutants, and costs.

  18. Area-Power Efficient VLSI Implementation of Multichannel DWT for Data Compression in Implantable Neuroprosthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamboh, A M; Raetz, M; Oweiss, K G; Mason, A

    2007-06-01

    Time-frequency domain signal processing of neural recordings, from high-density microelectrode arrays implanted in the cortex, is highly desired to ease the bandwidth bottleneck associated with data transfer to extra-cranial processing units. Because of its energy compactness features, discrete wavelet transform (DWT) has been shown to provide efficient data compression for neural records without compromising the information content. This paper describes an area-power minimized hardware implementation of the lifting scheme for multilevel, multichannel DWT with quantized filter coefficients and integer computation. Performance tradeoffs and key design decisions for implantable neuroprosthetics are presented. A 32-channel 4-level version of the circuit has been custom designed in 0.18-mum CMOS and occupies only 0.22 mm(2) area and consumes 76 muW of power, making it highly suitable for implantable neural interface applications requiring wireless data transfer.

  19. Data analysis from monitoring of radionuclides in the nuclear power plant Temelin ecosystem area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thinova, Lenka [Czech Technical University, Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Department of Dosimetry, Brehova 7, 110 00 Prague (Czech Republic)], E-mail: thinova@fjfi.cvut.cz; Trojek, Tomas [Czech Technical University, Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Department of Dosimetry, Brehova 7, 110 00 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2009-07-15

    Changes in the ecosystem occur naturally, however, can also be due to man's activity. The unique ecosystem monitoring based on studying contamination of the bioindicators by man-made radionuclides has been providing data from the area of nuclear power plant (NPP) Temelin (CR) using laboratory gamma spectrometry for past 8 years. The increase in radioactivity in the NPP ecosystem area resulting from its operation is evaluated through comparison with a zero level of {sup 137}Cs mass activities and by obtained data trend analysis.

  20. Data analysis from monitoring of radionuclides in the nuclear power plant Temelin ecosystem area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thinova, Lenka; Trojek, Tomas

    2009-01-01

    Changes in the ecosystem occur naturally, however, can also be due to man's activity. The unique ecosystem monitoring based on studying contamination of the bioindicators by man-made radionuclides has been providing data from the area of nuclear power plant (NPP) Temelin (CR) using laboratory gamma spectrometry for past 8 years. The increase in radioactivity in the NPP ecosystem area resulting from its operation is evaluated through comparison with a zero level of (137)Cs mass activities and by obtained data trend analysis.

  1. Coordinated Multi-Objective Control of Regulating Resources in Multi-Area Power Systems with Large Penetration of Wind Power Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyeng, Preben; Yang, Bo; Ma, Jian

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a control algorithm for a Wide Area Energy Storage and Management System (WAEMS). The WAEMS is designed to meet the demand for fast, accurate and reliable regulation services in multi-area power systems with a significant share of wind power and other intermittent generation....... The means are utilization of flywheel energy storage units, hydro power generation, and energy exchange among the participating control areas. The objective of the control algorithm is to respond to the control signals from the different system operators, whilst optimizing the hydro power plant operation...... by reducing the tear and wear on the mechanical parts and improving the energy efficiency of the plant. The performance of the WAEMS is simulated using a mathematical model, including hydro power plant and flywheel energy storage models. ACE measurements from the California ISO and Bonneville Power...

  2. Review of self-focusing of high power lasers in large-mode-area optical fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Chujun; Li Ying; Lei Dajun; Yang Hua; Wen Shuangchun; Fan Dianyuan; Wen Jianguo, E-mail: scwen@vip.sina.com [Key Laboratory for Micro/Nano Optoelectronic Devices of Ministry of Education, School of Computer and Communication, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China)

    2011-02-01

    The main progress about the self-focusing of high power lasers in large-mode-area optical fiber has been reviewed. The theoretical models including the self-focusing effects have been discussed. Some different views on the whole beam self focusing and small scale self-focusing effects in optical fiber have been introduced. Moreover, the possible methods exceeding the bulk-media self-focusing threshold have been discussed and explored.

  3. Nondestructive characterization of RBSOA of high-power bipolar transistors. [Reverse-bias safe operating area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanovic, M. M.; Lee, F. C.; Chen, D. Y.

    1986-01-01

    Reverse-bias safe operating area (RBSOA) of high-power Darlington transistors is characterized using a 120 A/1000 V nondestructive reverse-bias second breakdown tester designed and fabricated at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. Elaborate RBSOA characteristics are generated with different forward/reverse base drives and collector current levels. The effects of elevated case temperature and second-base drive on RBSOA of four-terminal Darlington devices are also discussed.

  4. Characterization and Mitigation of Resistive Losses in a Large Area Laser Power Converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-27

    production such as screen printing, laser ablation , and electroplating led research away from buried contacts [15] [13]. In addition to improving heat...benefits of trenching the grid metal . After fabricating baseline LPCs, the next step will be to test them under actual laser illumination. Previous...CHARACTERIZATION AND MITIGATION OF RESISTIVE LOSSES IN A LARGE AREA LASER POWER CONVERTER THESIS Eli A. Garduño, Second Lieutenant, USAF AFIT-ENP-14

  5. Time efficient way to calculate oxygen transfer areas and power input in cylindrical disposable shaken bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klöckner, Wolf; Lattermann, Clemens; Pursche, Franz; Büchs, Jochen; Werner, Sören; Eibl, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    Disposable orbitally shaken bioreactors are a promising alternative to stirred or wave agitated systems for mammalian and plant cell cultivation, because they provide a homogeneous and well-defined liquid distribution together with a simple and cost-efficient design. Cultivation conditions in the surface-aerated bioreactors are mainly affected by the size of the volumetric oxygen transfer area (a) and the volumetric power input (P∕VL ) that both result from the liquid distribution during shaking. Since Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)-commonly applied to simulate the liquid distribution in such bioreactors-needs high computing power, this technique is poorly suited to investigate the influence of many different operating conditions in various scales. Thus, the aim of this paper is to introduce a new mathematical model for calculating the values of a and P∕VL for liquids with water-like viscosities. The model equations were derived from the balance of centrifugal and gravitational forces exerted during shaking. A good agreement was found among calculated values for a and P∕VL , CFD simulation values and empirical results. The newly proposed model enables a time efficient way to calculate the oxygen transfer areas and power input for various shaking frequencies, filling volumes and shaking and reactor diameters. All these parameters can be calculated fast and with little computing power.

  6. The future of GPS-based electric power system measurements, operation and control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizy, D.T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Wilson, R.E. [Western Area Power Administration, Golden, CO (United States); Martin, K.E.; Litzenberger, W.H. [Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, OR (United States); Hauer, J.F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Overholt, P.N. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Sobajic, D.J. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1998-11-01

    Much of modern society is powered by inexpensive and reliable electricity delivered by a complex and elaborate electric power network. Electrical utilities are currently using the Global Positioning System-NAVSTAR (GPS) timekeeping to improve the network`s reliability. Currently, GPS synchronizes the clocks on dynamic recorders and aids in post-mortem analysis of network disturbances. Two major projects have demonstrated the use of GPS-synchronized power system measurements. In 1992, the Electric Power Research Institute`s (EPRI) sponsored Phase Measurements Project used a commercially available Phasor Measurements Unit (PMU) to collect GPS-synchronized measurements for analyzing power system problems. In 1995, Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and Western Area Power Administration (WAPA) under DOE`s and EPRI`s sponsorship launched the Wide Area Measurements (WAMS) project. WAMS demonstrated GPS-synchronized measurements over a large area of their power networks and demonstrated the networking of GPS-based measurement systems in BPA and WAPA. The phasor measurement technology has also been used to conduct dynamic power system tests. During these tests, a large dynamic resistor was inserted to simulate a small power system disturbance.

  7. An area and power-efficient analog li-ion battery charger circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do Valle, Bruno; Wentz, Christian T; Sarpeshkar, Rahul

    2011-04-01

    The demand for greater battery life in low-power consumer electronics and implantable medical devices presents a need for improved energy efficiency in the management of small rechargeable cells. This paper describes an ultra-compact analog lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery charger with high energy efficiency. The charger presented here utilizes the tanh basis function of a subthreshold operational transconductance amplifier to smoothly transition between constant-current and constant-voltage charging regimes without the need for additional area- and power-consuming control circuitry. Current-domain circuitry for end-of-charge detection negates the need for precision-sense resistors in either the charging path or control loop. We show theoretically and experimentally that the low-frequency pole-zero nature of most battery impedances leads to inherent stability of the analog control loop. The circuit was fabricated in an AMI 0.5-μm complementary metal-oxide semiconductor process, and achieves 89.7% average power efficiency and an end voltage accuracy of 99.9% relative to the desired target 4.2 V, while consuming 0.16 mm(2) of chip area. To date and to the best of our knowledge, this design represents the most area-efficient and most energy-efficient battery charger circuit reported in the literature.

  8. Area and Power Modeling for Networks-on-Chip with Layout Awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Meloni

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Networks-on-Chip (NoCs are emerging as scalable interconnection architectures, designed to support the increasing amount of cores that are integrated onto a silicon die. Compared to traditional interconnects, however, NoCs still lack well established CAD deployment tools to tackle the large amount of available degrees of freedom, starting from the choice of a network topology. “Silicon-aware” optimization tools are now emerging in literature; they select an NoC topology taking into account the tradeoff between performance and hardware cost, that is, area and power consumption. A key requirement for the effectiveness of these tools, however, is the availability of accurate analytical models for power and area. Such models are unfortunately not as available and well understood as those for traditional communication fabrics. Further, simplistic models may turn out to be totally inaccurate when applied to wire dominated architectures; this observation demands at least for a model validation step against placed and routed devices. In this work, given an NoC reference architecture, we present a flow to devise analytical models of area occupation and power consumption of NoC switches, and propose strategies for coefficient characterization which have different tradeoffs in terms of accuracy and of modeling activity effort. The models are parameterized on several architectural, synthesis-related, and traffic variables, resulting in maximum flexibility. We finally assess the accuracy of the models, checking whether they can also be applied to placed and routed NoC blocks.

  9. Molecular assessment of artemisinin resistance markers, polymorphisms in the k13 propeller, and a multidrug-resistance gene in the eastern and western border areas of Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyunt, Myat Htut; Hlaing, Thaung; Oo, Htet Wai; Tin-Oo, Lu-Lu Kyaw; Phway, Hnin Phyu; Wang, Bo; Zaw, Ni Ni; Han, Soe Soe; Tun, Thurein; San, Kyaw Kyaw; Kyaw, Myat Phone; Han, Eun-Taek

    2015-04-15

    As K13 propeller mutations have been recently reported to serve as molecular markers, assessment of K13 propeller polymorphisms in multidrug-resistant gene in isolates from Myanmar, especially the eastern and western border areas, is crucial if we are to understand the spread of artemisinin resistance. A 3-day surveillance study was conducted in the eastern and western border areas in Myanmar, and K13 propeller and Plasmodium falciparum multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (pfmrp1) mutations were analyzed. Among the 1761 suspected malaria cases screened, a total of 42 uncomplicated falciparum cases from the eastern border and 49 from the western border were subjected to 3 days of surveillance after artemether-lumefantrine treatment. No parasitemic case showing positivity on day 3 was noted from the western border, but 26.2% (11/42) of cases were positive in the eastern border. Although we found no marked difference in the prevalence of the pfmrp1 mutation in the eastern and western borders (36% vs 31%, respectively), K13 mutations were more frequent in the eastern border area (where the 3-day persistent cases were detected; 48% vs 14%). C580Y, M476I, A481V, N458Y, R539T, and R516Y accounted for 68.9% of all K13 mutations significantly associated with day 3 parasitaemia. The K13 mutations were significantly associated with day 3 parasitaemia, emphasizing the importance of K13 surveillance. The low prevalence of K13 mutations and the absence of day 3 parasitaemic cases indicate that artemisinin resistance may not have spread to the western Myanmar border region. Although analysis of multiple K13 mutations is challenging, it should be done at various sentinel sites in Myanmar. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Extraction, Identification and Quantitative HPLC Analysis of Flavonoids From Fruit Extracts of Arbutus unedo L from Tiaret Area (Western Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadidja Bouzid

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to evaluate the total phenolic, flavonoid content and to investigate the antioxidant capacities of the fruit extracts of Arbutus unedo L. that grows in Tiaret area (Western Algeria. First we have extracted the fruit by some non-polar solvent (chloroform, ethyl acetate, 1-butanol. Total phenolic content and total flavonoid content were evaluated according to the Folin-Ciocalteu procedure, and a colorimetric method, respectively. Extracts content was determined by using a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-UV method. The total phenolic contents of A.unedo L. varied between 12.75±0.06 to 34.17±1.36 mg gallic acid equivalent/g of dry weight of extract. The total flavonoid varied from 2.18±0.10 to 6.54±1.14 mg catechin equivalent/g. The antioxidant potential of all extracts was evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging activity, the IC50 of acetate ethyl was the best by 0,009 mg/ml may due to the phenolic compound, in the second was the chloroform extract by IC50=0,015mg/ml, in the third was butanol extract by IC50= 0,022 mg/ml and in the last was water extract by IC50= 0,048mg/ml. the antioxidant activity of all extracts was better than ascorbic acid. The extract obtained under optimum conditions was analyzed by HPLC and five flavonoid compounds were identified; they are catechin, apiginin, silybin, fisetine and naringin.

  11. Contamination of rural surface and ground water by endosulfan in farming areas of the Western Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    London Leslie

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In South Africa there is little data on environmental pollution of rural water sources by agrochemicals. Methods This study investigated pesticide contamination of ground and surface water in three intensive agricultural areas in the Western Cape: the Hex River Valley, Grabouw and Piketberg. Monitoring for endosulfan and chlorpyrifos at low levels was conducted as well as screening for other pesticides. Results The quantification limit for endosulfan was 0.1 μg/L. Endosulfan was found to be widespread in ground water, surface water and drinking water. The contamination was mostly at low levels, but regularly exceeded the European Drinking Water Standard of 0.1 μg/L. The two most contaminated sites were a sub-surface drain in the Hex River Valley and a dam in Grabouw, with 0.83 ± 1.0 μg/L (n = 21 and 3.16 ± 3.5 μg/L (n = 13 average endosulfan levels respectively. Other pesticides including chlorpyrifos, azinphos-methyl, fenarimol, iprodione, deltamethrin, penconazole and prothiofos were detected. Endosulfan was most frequently detected in Grabouw (69% followed by Hex River (46% and Piketberg (39%. Detections were more frequent in surface water (47% than in groundwater (32% and coincided with irrigation, and to a lesser extent, to spraying and trigger rains. Total dietary endosulfan intake calculated from levels found in drinking water did not exceed the Joint WHO/FAO Meeting on Pesticide Residues (JMPR criteria. Conclusion The study has shown the need for monitoring of pesticide contamination in surface and groundwater, and the development of drinking water quality standards for specific pesticides in South Africa.

  12. Forest dynamics in the U.S. indicate disproportionate attrition in western forests, rural areas and public lands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sheng; Mountrakis, Giorgos

    2017-01-01

    Forests are experiencing significant changes; studying geographic patterns in forests is critical in understanding the impact of forest dynamics to biodiversity, soil erosion, water chemistry and climate. Few studies have examined forest geographic pattern changes other than fragmentation; however, other spatial processes of forest dynamics are of equal importance. Here, we study forest attrition, the complete removal of forest patches, that can result in complete habitat loss, severe decline of population sizes and species richness, and shifts of local and regional environmental conditions. We aim to develop a simple yet insightful proximity-based spatial indicator capturing forest attrition that is independent of spatial scale and boundaries with worldwide application potential. Using this proximity indicator, we evaluate forest attrition across ecoregions, land ownership and urbanization stratifications across continental United States of America. Nationally, the total forest cover loss was approximately 90,400 km2, roughly the size of the state of Maine, constituting a decline of 2.96%. Examining the spatial arrangement of this change the average FAD was 3674m in 1992 and increased by 514m or 14.0% in 2001. Simulations of forest cover loss indicate only a 10m FAD increase suggesting that the observed FAD increase was more than an order of magnitude higher than expected. Furthermore, forest attrition is considerably higher in the western United States, in rural areas and in public lands. Our mathematical model (R2 = 0.93) supports estimation of attrition for a given forest cover. The FAD metric quantifies forest attrition across spatial scales and geographic boundaries and assesses unambiguously changes over time. The metric is applicable to any landscape and offers a new complementary insight on forest landscape patterns from local to global scales, improving future exploration of drivers and repercussions of forest cover changes and supporting more informative

  13. Highly Silica-Undersaturated Sapphirine Granulites from the Daqingshan Area of the Western Block, North China Craton: Palaeoproterozoic UHT Metamorphism and Tectonic Implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Jing-hui; ZHAO Guo-chun; Chen Yi; Peng Peng; B. F. Windley; SUN Min

    2008-01-01

    @@ Sapphirine-bearing granulites have recently been found in the Daqingshan and Jining areas, both of which are located in a Palaeoproterozoic collisional belt, named the Khondalite Belt, along which the Yinshan Block in the north and the Ordos Block in the south were amalgamated to form the Western Block at~1.95 Ga, and then the Western Block collided with the Eastern Block along the Trans-North China Orogen to form the coherent basement of the North China Craton at~1.85 Ga.

  14. Bonneville Power Administration Transmission System Vegetation Management Program - Final Environmental Impact Statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    2000-06-23

    Bonneville is responsible for maintaining a network of 24,000 kilometers (km) or 15,000 miles (mi.) of electric transmission lines and 350 substations in a region of diverse vegetation. This vegetation can interfere with electric power flow, pose safety problems for us and the public, and interfere with our ability to maintain these facilities. We need to (1) keep vegetation away from our electric facilities; (2) increase our program efficiency and consistency; (3) review herbicide use (under increased public scrutiny); and (4) maximize the range of tools we can use while minimizing environmental impact (Integrated Vegetation Management). This Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) establishes Planning Steps for managing vegetation for specific projects (to be tiered to this Environmental Impact Statement (EIS)). In addition to No Action (current practice), alternatives are presented for Rights-of-way, Electric Yards, and Non-electric Facilities (landscaping, work yards). Four vegetation control methods are analyzed manual, mechanical, herbicide, and biological. Also evaluated are 23 herbicide active ingredients and 4 herbicide application techniques (spot, localized, broadcast, and aerial). For rights-of-way, we consider three sets of alternatives: alternative management approaches (time-driven or establishing low-growing plant communities); alternative method packages; and, if herbicides are in a methods package, alternative vegetation selections (noxious weeds, deciduous, or any vegetation). For electric yards, one herbicide-use alternative is considered. For non-electric facilities, two method package alternatives are considered. For rights-of-way, the environmentally preferred alternative(s) would use manual, mechanical, and biological control methods, as well as spot and localized herbicide applications for noxious and deciduous plant species; the BPA-preferred alternative(s) would add broadcast and aerial herbicide applications, and would use herbicides

  15. The Tectonic Event of the Cenozoic in the Tasman Area, Western Pacific, and Its Role in Eocene Global Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collot, J.; Sutherland, R.; Rouillard, P.; Patriat, M.; Roest, W. R.; Bache, F.

    2014-12-01

    The geometry and age progression of Emperor and Hawaii seamounts provide compelling evidence for a major change in Pacific plate motion over a short period of geological time at c. 50 Ma. This time approximately coincides with significant changes in plate boundary configuration and rate in the Indian Ocean, Antarctica, and with the onset of subduction zones in the western Pacific from Japan to New Zealand. This new subduction system that initiated during Eocene time can be divided into two sectors: The northern sector formed at the eastern boundary of the Philippine Sea plate and evolved into the Izu-Bonin-Mariana system. It has and is being extensively studied (2014 IODP expedition 351) to determine the magmatic products, but is limited in the record that is preserved because it is entirely intra-oceanic in character. The southern sector, the Tasman Area sector, borders continental fragments of Gondwana from Papua New Guinea, New Caledonia and New Zealand. This subduction zone evolved into the Tonga-Kemadec system. Because most of the southwest Pacific remained in marine conditions throughout Paleogene time and because rapid seawards roll-back of the subduction is inferred to have happened, it presents extensive well-preserved stratigraphic records to study the Eocene-Oligocene plate boundary evolution. The recent compilation of c. 100.000 km of 2D seismic data in the Tasman Frontier database has allowed us to describe, in the overriding plate of the proto subduction, stratigraphic evidence for large Cenozoic vertical movements (2-4 km) over a lateral extension of 2000 km (from New Caledonia to New Zealand), long-wavelength (~500 km) warping and large amounts of reverse faulting and folding near the proto-trench. These recent observations from the Lord Howe Rise, New Caledonia Trough and South Norfolk Ridge system reveal clear evidence for convergent deformation (uplift and erosion) and subsequent subsidence recorded in Eocene and Oligocene stratal relationships

  16. Area-Efficient 60 GHz +18.9 dBm Power Amplifier with On-Chip Four-Way Parallel Power Combiner in 65-nm CMOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahabadi, Payam Masoumi; Basaligheh, Ali; Saffari, Parvaneh; Moez, Kambiz

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents a compact 60-GHz power amplifier utilizing a four-way on-chip parallel power combiner and splitter. The proposed topology provides the capability of combining the output power of four individual power amplifier cores in a compact die area. Each power amplifier core consists of a three-stage common-source amplifier with transformer-coupled impedance matching networks. Fabricated in 65-nm CMOS process, the measured gain of the 0.19-mm2 power amplifier at 60 GHz is 18.8 and 15 dB utilizing 1.4 and 1.0 V supply. Three-decibel band width of 4 GHz and P1dB of 16.9 dBm is measured while consuming 424 mW from a 1.4-V supply. A maximum saturated output power of 18.3 dBm is measured with the 15.9% peak power added efficiency at 60 GHz. The measured insertion loss is 1.9 dB at 60 GHz. The proposed power amplifier achieves the highest power density (power/area) compared to the reported 60-GHz CMOS power amplifiers in 65 nm or older CMOS technologies.

  17. [Analysis on the status of vitamin A deficiency among children under 5 years old in poor rural areas of 6 Western Chinese provinces in 2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ji-guo; Zhang, Bing; Du, Wen-wen; Su, Chang; Liu, Ai-dong; Zhang, Ji; Ma, Yu-xia; Zhai, Feng-Ying

    2011-12-01

    To analyze the status of vitamin A deficiency among children under 5 years old in poor rural areas of 6 Western Chinese provinces in 2009. The study subjects involved 2091 children from a program - 'Appropriate measurements in improving children under-nutrition in poor rural areas'. In 2009, prevalence of vitamin A deficiency among children under 5 years old from the poor rural areas of 6 western Chinese provinces was 20.2%, with boys as 20.6% and girls as 19.7%. Prevalence rates of vitamin A deficiency among children under 5 years old in the highest and lowest areas were seen in Gansu (25.5%) and Guangxi (12.2%) provinces, respectively. The peak of vitamin A deficiency prevalence fell in the 6 - 11 months age group. The prevalence of vitamin A deficiency declined along with the increase of age. from this study demonstrated that vitamin A deficiency among children under 5 years old appeared to be a serious public health problem in the poor rural areas of 6 Western Chinese provinces. Education on reasonable ways of feeding and provision of complementary nutrients to children with vitamin A deficiency, should be the key points in the prevention and control programs on this problem.

  18. Voltage control and protection in electrical power systems from system components to wide-area control

    CERN Document Server

    Corsi, Sandro

    2015-01-01

    Based on the author’s twenty years of experience, this book shows the practicality of modern, conceptually new, wide area voltage control in transmission and distribution smart grids, in detail. Evidence is given of the great advantages of this approach, as well as what can be gained by new control functionalities which modern technologies now available can provide. The distinction between solutions of wide area voltage regulation (V-WAR) and wide area voltage protection (V-WAP) are presented, demonstrating the proper synergy between them when they operate on the same power system as well as the simplicity and effectiveness of the protection solution in this case. The author provides an overview and detailed descriptions of voltage controls, distinguishing between generalities of underdeveloped, on-field operating applications and modern and available automatic control solutions, which are as yet not sufficiently known or perceived for what they are: practical, high-performance and reliable solutions. At th...

  19. Distributed Hierarchical Control of Multi-Area Power Systems with Improved Primary Frequency Regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lian, Jianming; Marinovici, Laurentiu D.; Kalsi, Karanjit; Du, Pengwei; Elizondo, Marcelo A.

    2012-12-12

    The conventional distributed hierarchical control architecture for multi-area power systems is revisited. In this paper, a new distributed hierarchical control architecture is proposed. In the proposed architecture, pilot generators are selected in each area to be equipped with decentralized robust control as a supplementary to the conventional droop speed control. With the improved primary frequency control, the system frequency can be restored to the nominal value without the help of secondary frequency control, which reduces the burden of the automatic generation control for frequency restoration. Moreover, the low frequency inter-area electromechanical oscillations can also be effectively damped. The effectiveness of the proposed distributed hierarchical control architecture is validated through detailed simulations.

  20. 75 FR 4102 - Folsom Lake State Recreation Area and Folsom Power House State Historic Park General Plan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-26

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Folsom Lake State Recreation Area and Folsom Power House State Historic Park General Plan/Resource Management Plan AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... joint Final EIS/EIR for the Folsom Lake State Recreation Area and Folsom Power House State Historic...

  1. 试论行政权力滥用及其防范%Study on the Abuse and Precaution of Administrative Power

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俊杰

    2012-01-01

    分析了行政权力滥用产生的原因、表现及其危害,提出了规范行政权力行使的对策:改革权力运行考核评价机制,提高行政人员道德素质,完善行政法律法规,健全政府信息公开制度。%The reasons, performance and harmness of administrative power abuse are analyzed. Some countermeasures are put forward to normalize the performance of administrative power: to reform assessment system of administrative power, to improve moral integrity of administrative staff, to perfect administrative laws and regulations and to perfect information public system of government.

  2. Oscillation Performance and Wide‐area Coordination Control of Power System with Large‐scale Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, Chi

    power flow (OPF) strategy is introduced, with system oscillation damping considered in the constraints of the optimization process. The method is validated by simulations in two test systems. For the power system control aspect, an optimal PMU placement method is used so as to provide full topological...... observability of the target power system and to provide wide‐area signals for damping controllers while minimizing the total PMU installation cost. Power system stabilizer (PSS) designs with both local input signal and wide‐area input signal are studied and compared. The PSS design is based on residue method......With the growing interconnection among distant power grids, low‐frequency oscillation problem across wide area arises in some modern power systems. This oscillation problem is commonly regarded as lack of damping in inter‐area oscillation modes in the sense of small signal stability. Solutions...

  3. Design and analysis of low-power body area networks based on biomedical signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Fengye; Li, Shasha; Xue, Tao; Li, Guofeng

    2012-06-01

    A body area network (BAN) as one branch of Sensor Networks, is an inter-disciplinary area which holds great promises for revolutionising the current health care systems. BAN combines the real-time updating of biomedical data with the continuous and dynamic health care monitoring closely. A number of intelligence biomedical sensors can be integrated into a wireless BAN system, and the system can be used for prevention, diagnosis and timely treatment of various medical conditions. In this article, we propose a data fusion technique for a BAN based on biomedical signals. This proposed solution is of much lower complexity than conventional techniques and hence can significantly reduce the power consumption in the BAN. The technology is carried out by removing redundant and unnecessary sample information and shifting a large portion of processing and control loads to the remote control centre in an asymmetric manner. This approach not only reduces the power consumption of biosensor nodes in a BAN, but also ensures the integrity of the biomedical information. In addition, we present a self-designed distributed time-space correlation compressive sensing model and propose an efficient algorithm based on biomedical signals. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can not only reconstruct the original signal with high accuracy and but also achieve significant reduction in power consumption.

  4. Long-term consequences of URB597 administration during adolescence on cannabinoid CB1 receptor binding in brain areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco, Eva María; Rubino, Tiziana; Adriani, Walter; Viveros, María-Paz; Parolaro, Daniela; Laviola, Giovanni

    2009-02-27

    Despite the alarming increment in the use and abuse of cannabis preparations among young people, little is known about possible long-term consequences of targeting the endocannabinoid system during the critical developmental period of adolescence. Therefore, we aimed to analyze possible long-lasting neurobiological consequences of enhancing endocannabinoid signalling during adolescence, by means of blocking anandamide (AEA) hydrolysis. Adolescent Wistar male rats were administered an inhibitor of AEA hydrolysis, i.e. URB597 (0, 0.1 or 0.5 mg/kg/day from postnatal days 38 to 43). The expression of brain cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1R) was then analyzed by [(3)H]CP-55,940 auto-radiographic binding at adulthood. Repeated URB597 administration during adolescence persistently modified CB1R binding in a region-dependent manner. A long-lasting decrease of CB1R binding levels was found in caudate-putamen, nucleus accumbens, ventral tegmental area and hippocampus, while an opposite increment was observed in the locus coeruleus. Present results provide evidence for long-lasting effects of adolescent URB597 administration. Activation of endocannabinoid transmission during the still plastic phase of adolescence may have implications for the maturational end-point of the endocannabinoid system itself, which could lead to permanent alterations in neuronal brain circuits and behavioural responses. Insights into the developmental trajectories of this neuromodulatory system may help us to better understand and prevent outcomes of neonatal and adolescent cannabis exposure.

  5. Recent drilling activities at the earth power resources Tuscarora geothermal power project's hot sulphur springs lease area.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goranson, Colin

    2005-03-01

    Earth Power Resources, Inc. recently completed a combined rotary/core hole to a depth of 3,813 feet at it's Hot Sulphur Springs Tuscarora Geothermal Power Project Lease Area located 70-miles north of Elko, Nevada. Previous geothermal exploration data were combined with geologic mapping and newly acquired seismic-reflection data to identify a northerly tending horst-graben structure approximately 2,000 feet wide by at least 6,000 feet long with up to 1,700 feet of vertical offset. The well (HSS-2) was successfully drilled through a shallow thick sequence of altered Tertiary Volcanic where previous exploration wells had severe hole-caving problems. The ''tight-hole'' drilling problems were reduced using drilling fluids consisting of Polymer-based mud mixed with 2% Potassium Chloride (KCl) to reduce Smectite-type clay swelling problems. Core from the 330 F fractured geothermal reservoir system at depths of 2,950 feet indicated 30% Smectite type clays existed in a fault-gouge zone where total loss of circulation occurred during coring. Smectite-type clays are not typically expected at temperatures above 300 F. The fracture zone at 2,950 feet exhibited a skin-damage during injection testing suggesting that the drilling fluids may have caused clay swelling and subsequent geothermal reservoir formation damage. The recent well drilling experiences indicate that drilling problems in the shallow clays at Hot Sulphur Springs can be reduced. In addition, average penetration rates through the caprock system can be on the order of 25 to 35 feet per hour. This information has greatly reduced the original estimated well costs that were based on previous exploration drilling efforts. Successful production formation drilling will depend on finding drilling fluids that will not cause formation damage in the Smectite-rich fractured geothermal reservoir system. Information obtained at Hot Sulphur Springs may apply to other geothermal systems developed in

  6. Link-state-estimation-based transmission power control in wireless body area networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seungku; Eom, Doo-Seop

    2014-07-01

    This paper presents a novel transmission power control protocol to extend the lifetime of sensor nodes and to increase the link reliability in wireless body area networks (WBANs). We first experimentally investigate the properties of the link states using the received signal strength indicator (RSSI). We then propose a practical transmission power control protocol based on both short- and long-term link-state estimations. Both the short- and long-term link-state estimations enable the transceiver to adapt the transmission power level and target the RSSI threshold range, respectively, to simultaneously satisfy the requirements of energy efficiency and link reliability. Finally, the performance of the proposed protocol is experimentally evaluated in two experimental scenarios-body posture change and dynamic body motion-and compared with the typical WBAN transmission power control protocols, a real-time reactive scheme, and a dynamic postural position inference mechanism. From the experimental results, it is found that the proposed protocol increases the lifetime of the sensor nodes by a maximum of 9.86% and enhances the link reliability by reducing the packet loss by a maximum of 3.02%.

  7. Measurement of CIB power spectra over large sky areas from Planck HFI maps

    CERN Document Server

    Ying, Suet; Challinor, Anthony; Efstathiou, Geroge; Lagache, Guilaine

    2016-01-01

    We present new measurements of the power spectra of the cosmic infrared background (CIB) anisotropies using the Planck 2015 full-mission HFI data at 353, 545, and 857 GHz over 20000 square degrees. We use techniques similar to those applied for the cosmological analysis of Planck, subtracting dust emission at the power spectrum level. Our analysis gives stable solutions for the CIB power spectra with increasing sky coverage up to about 50% of the sky. These spectra agree well with Hi cleaned spectra from Planck measured on much smaller areas of sky with low Galactic dust emission. At 545 and 857 GHz our CIB spectra agree well with those measured from Herschel data. We find that the CIB spectra at l > 500 are well fitted by a power-law model for the clustered CIB, with a shallow index {\\gamma}^cib = 0.53\\pm0.02. This is consistent with the CIB results at 217 GHz from the cosmological parameter analysis of Planck. We show that a linear combination of the 545 and 857 GHz Planck maps is dominated by CIB fluctuati...

  8. LOW POWER-AREA DESIGN OF FULL ADDER USING SELF RESETTING LOGIC WITH GDI TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simran Khokha1

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Various electronic devices such as mobile phones, DSPs,ALU etc., are designed by using VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration technology. In VLSI dynamic CMOS logic circuits are concentrating on the Area ,reducing the power consumption and increasing the Speed by reducing the delay. ALU (Arithmetic Logic Circuits are designed by using adder, subtractors, multiplier, divider, etc.Various adder circuits designs have been proposed over last few years with different logic styles. To reduce the power consumption several parameters are to be taken into account, such as feedthrough, leakage power single-event upsets, charge sharing by parasitic components while connecting source and drain of CMOS transistors There are situations in a logic that permit the use of circuits that can automatically precharge themselves (i.e., reset themselves after some prescribed delays. These circuits are hence called postcharge or self-resetting logic which are widely used in dynamic logic circuits. Overall performance of various adder designs is evaluated by using Tanner tool . The earlier and the proposed SRLGDI primitives are simulated using Tanner EDA with BSIM 0.250 lm technology with supply voltage ranging from 0 V to 5 V in steps of 0.2 V. On comparing the various SRLGDI logic adders, the proposed adder shows low power, delay and low PDP among its counterparts.

  9. Measurement of CIB power spectra over large sky areas from Planck HFI maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Daisy Suet Ying; Challinor, Anthony; Efstathiou, George; Lagache, Guilaine

    2017-04-01

    We present new measurements of the power spectra of the cosmic infrared background (CIB) anisotropies using the Planck 2015 full-mission High frequency instrument data at 353, 545 and 857 GHz over 20 000 deg2. We use techniques similar to those applied for the cosmological analysis of Planck, subtracting dust emission at the power spectrum level. Our analysis gives stable solutions for the CIB power spectra with increasing sky coverage up to about 50 per cent of the sky. These spectra agree well with H I-cleaned spectra from Planck measured on much smaller areas of sky with low Galactic dust emission. At 545 and 857 GHz, our CIB spectra agree well with those measured from Herschel data. We find that the CIB spectra at ℓ ≳ 500 are well fitted by a power-law model for the clustered CIB, with a shallow index γcib = 0.53 ± 0.02. This is consistent with the CIB results at 217 GHz from the cosmological parameter analysis of Planck. We show that a linear combination of the 545 and 857 GHz Planck maps is dominated by the CIB fluctuations at multipoles ℓ ≳ 300.

  10. Evaluating a k-nearest neighbours-based classifier for locating faulty areas in power systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Mora Flórez

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a strategy for identifying and locating faults in a power distribution system. The strategy was based on the K-nearest neighbours technique. This technique simply helps to estimate a distance from the features used for describing a particu-lar fault being classified to the faults presented during the training stage. If new data is presented to the proposed fault locator, it is classified according to the nearest example recovered. A characterisation of the voltage and current measurements obtained at one single line end is also presented in this document for assigning the area in the case of a fault in a power system. The pro-posed strategy was tested in a real power distribution system, average 93% confidence indexes being obtained which gives a good indicator of the proposal’s high performance. The results showed how a fault could be located by using features obtained from voltage and current, improving utility response and thereby improving system continuity indexes in power distribution sys-tems.

  11. Beam shaping in high-power broad-area quantum cascade lasers using optical feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferré, Simon; Jumpertz, Louise; Carras, Mathieu; Ferreira, Robson; Grillot, Frédéric

    2017-03-01

    Broad-area quantum cascade lasers with high output powers are highly desirable sources for various applications including infrared countermeasures. However, such structures suffer from strongly deteriorated beam quality due to multimode behavior, diffraction of light and self-focusing. Quantum cascade lasers presenting high performances in terms of power and heat-load dissipation are reported and their response to a nonlinear control based on optical feedback is studied. Applying optical feedback enables to efficiently tailor its near-field beam profile. The different cavity modes are sequentially excited by shifting the feedback mirror angle. Further control of the near-field profile is demonstrated using spatial filtering. The impact of an inhomogeneous gain as well as the influence of the cavity width are investigated. Compared to existing technologies, that are complex and costly, beam shaping with optical feedback is a more flexible solution to obtain high-quality mid-infrared sources.

  12. Area price and demand response in a market with 25% wind power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grohnheit, Poul Erik; Møller Andersen, Frits; Larsen, Helge V.

    2011-01-01

    , which can improve market efficiency, and a welfare gain is obtained. An important limitation for demand response is events of several consecutive hours with extreme values. The analysis in this paper is a summary and update of some of the issues covered by the EU RESPOND project. It shows that extreme...... not only on the electricity wholesale prices, but also on the development of the market. Hourly market data are available from the website of Danish TSO from 1999. In this paper these data are analysed for the period 2004–2010. Electricity generators and customers may respond to hourly price variations...... events were few, and the current infrastructure and market organisation have been able to handle the amount of wind power installed so far. This recommends that geographical bidding area for the wholesale electricity market reflects external transmission constraints caused by wind power....

  13. Beam shaping in high-power broad-area quantum cascade lasers using optical feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferré, Simon; Jumpertz, Louise; Carras, Mathieu; Ferreira, Robson; Grillot, Frédéric

    2017-01-01

    Broad-area quantum cascade lasers with high output powers are highly desirable sources for various applications including infrared countermeasures. However, such structures suffer from strongly deteriorated beam quality due to multimode behavior, diffraction of light and self-focusing. Quantum cascade lasers presenting high performances in terms of power and heat-load dissipation are reported and their response to a nonlinear control based on optical feedback is studied. Applying optical feedback enables to efficiently tailor its near-field beam profile. The different cavity modes are sequentially excited by shifting the feedback mirror angle. Further control of the near-field profile is demonstrated using spatial filtering. The impact of an inhomogeneous gain as well as the influence of the cavity width are investigated. Compared to existing technologies, that are complex and costly, beam shaping with optical feedback is a more flexible solution to obtain high-quality mid-infrared sources. PMID:28287175

  14. Design of small photovoltaic power supplies for remote and rural areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traca-de-Almeida, A.

    The use of photovoltaic power is more and more attractive to supply small loads located in remote and rural areas. A program was developed to optimize the photovoltaic array and battery sizes, bearing in mind their unit costs, the load characteristics, battery self-discharge and maximum depth of discharge, the site solar radiation data and latitude. The tilt of the arrays is also made to change to obtain the minimum cost solution. A voltage regulator was made to avoid overcharge and loss of electrolyte of the batteries which works in shunt with the load, thus avoiding any voltage drop. The voltage regulator has a very small stand-by power consumption, with a current drain of 300 microamperes. An Ampere-hour meter was also developed to monitor the energy flows from the photovoltaic arrays and into loads.

  15. Zinc oxide integrated area efficient high output low power wavy channel thin film transistor

    KAUST Repository

    Hanna, A. N.

    2013-11-26

    We report an atomic layer deposition based zinc oxide channel material integrated thin film transistor using wavy channel architecture allowing expansion of the transistor width in the vertical direction using the fin type features. The experimental devices show area efficiency, higher normalized output current, and relatively lower power consumption compared to the planar architecture. This performance gain is attributed to the increased device width and an enhanced applied electric field due to the architecture when compared to a back gated planar device with the same process conditions.

  16. Control of lateral divergence in high-power, broad-area photonic crystal lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Jiamin; Xing, Enbo; Wang, Lijie; Shu, Shili; Tian, Sicong; Tong, Cunzhu; Wang, Lijun

    2016-07-01

    One-dimensional photonic bandgap crystal (PBC) lasers have demonstrated ultra-low vertical divergence and record brightness; however, their future development is limited by their lateral beam quality. In this paper, a fishbone microstructure is proposed to control the lateral modes in broad-area PBC lasers. The findings reveal that the introduction of the microstructure improves the full width at half maximum of the lateral far field by 22.2% and increases the output power to a small extent. The detailed measurements show that the lateral beam parameter product decreases by 15.9%.

  17. FSM State-Encoding for Area and Power Minimization Using Simulated Evolution Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we describe the engineering of a non-deterministic iterative heuristic [1] known as simulated evolution(SimE) to solve the well-known NP-hard state assignment problem (SAP). Each assignment of a code to a state isgiven a Goodness value derived from a matrix representation of the desired adjacency graph (DAG) proposed byAmaral et.al [2]. We use the (DAGa) proposed in previous studies to optimize the area, and propose a new DAGpand employ it to reduce the power dissipation. In the...

  18. Use of EEG Beta-1 Power and Theta/Beta Ratio Over Broca's Area to confirm Diagnosis of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangal, R Bart; Sangal, JoAnne M

    2015-07-01

    The Food and Drug Administration has approved a medical device using the electroencephalogram (EEG) theta/beta ratio (tbr) to help assess pediatric attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Tbr is reported to be higher in ADHD, with increased theta and decreased beta. This study examined theta and beta-1 power differences between ADHD and normal children, during tasks of selective attention, and elucidated topographical differences. EEGs were collected from 28 normal and 58 ADHD children, aged 6 to 14 years, using 31 scalp electrodes during auditory and visual tasks requiring selective attention. Spectral analysis was performed. Tbr was higher in ADHD than in normal children (2.60 vs 2.25, P = .007), with lower beta-1 (3.66 vs 4.22, P = .01), but no difference in theta power. There was lower beta-1 (P power over Broca's area was the best diagnostic test, with sensitivity 0.86 and specificity 0.57. Tbr is higher and beta-1 power lower in ADHD than in normal children, especially over Broca's area. Beta-1 power and tbr assist in confirming the diagnosis of ADHD in a sample with moderate pretest probability of ADHD.

  19. 2005 St. Johns River Water Management District (SJRWMD) Lidar: Western Seminole County, Florida

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of a bare earth data set of 498 files covering a geographic area of 175 square miles in western Seminole County, Florida and includes small...

  20. 2005 St. Johns River Water Management District (SJRWMD) Lidar: Western Seminole County, Florida

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of a bare earth data set of 498 files covering a geographic area of 175 square miles in western Seminole County, Florida and includes small...

  1. Wide-Area Robust Decentralized Coordinated Control of HVDC Power System Based on Polytopic System Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiyun Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study proposes a hierarchical wide-area decentralized coordinated control framework for HVDC power system that is robust to multiple operating conditions. The upper level wide-area coordinated controller is designed in the form of dynamic output feedback control that coordinates the lower level HVDC supplementary controller, PSS, and SVC. In order to enhance the robustness of the designed controller under various operating conditions, the polytopic model is introduced such that the closed-loop control system can be operated under strong damping mode in virtue of the stability criterion based on damping ratio. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed controller design algorithm is capable of enhancing the system damping over four different conditions.

  2. Maxwell's equal area law for black holes in power Maxwell invariant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huai-Fan; Guo, Xiong-ying; Zhao, Hui-Hua; Zhao, Ren

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, we consider the phase transition of black hole in power Maxwell invariant by means of Maxwell's equal area law. First, we review and study the analogy of nonlinear charged black hole solutions with the Van der Waals gas-liquid system in the extended phase space, and obtain isothermal P- v diagram. Then, using the Maxwell's equal area law we study the phase transition of AdS black hole with different temperatures. Finally, we extend the method to the black hole in the canonical (grand canonical) ensemble in which charge (potential) is fixed at infinity. Interestingly, we find the phase transition occurs in the both ensembles. We also study the effect of the parameters of the black hole on the two-phase coexistence. The results show that the black hole may go through a small-large phase transition similar to those of usual non-gravity thermodynamic systems.

  3. Castrum Persiceta. Power and territory in a border area, 6th-9th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Santos Salazar

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the suggestions coming from recent historical studies on the concept of border, we mean to analyse the border area between the regnum Langobardorum and the Byzantine Exarchate in Italy. The subject of the research is the group of castra in the Emilia region along the territories of the regnum mentioned in the sources in the 8th century, and mainly the castrum Persiceta. The analysis shows how the frontier were an uncertain bordering ambit, an area of political separation, and tries offering an interpretation that, through the analysis of long term processes, points out the specificity of castra as framework units for the population and media between local powers and central political structures in the period from the 5th to the 9th century.

  4. On Capital Construction Stage Tax Administration for Thermal Power Enterprise%火力发电企业基建期税务如何进行管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余夏勇

    2015-01-01

    本文分析了火力发电企业税务管理的动机和应遵循的原则,基建期税务管理的方法,结合火力发电企业基建期的实际情况,探讨了火力发电企业在基建期应如何通过税务管理为企业创造价值。%This paper analyzes the motives and the principle of the thermal power enterprise tax administration and the tax administration methods in capital construction stage. Combined with the actual situation of the thermal power enterprises in capital construction stage, this paper discusses the measures for thermal power enterprises to create value through tax administration in the capital construction stage.

  5. Wavy channel Thin Film Transistor for area efficient, high performance and low power applications

    KAUST Repository

    Hanna, Amir

    2014-06-01

    We report a new Thin Film Transistor (TFT) architecture that allows expansion of the device width using wavy (continuous without separation) fin features - termed as wavy channel (WC) architecture. This architecture allows expansion of transistor width in a direction perpendicular to the substrate, thus not consuming extra chip area, achieving area efficiency. The devices have shown for a 13% increase in the device width resulting in a maximum 2.4x increase in \\'ON\\' current value of the WCTFT, when compared to planar devices consuming the same chip area, while using atomic layer deposition based zinc oxide (ZnO) as the channel material. The WCTFT devices also maintain similar \\'OFF\\' current value, similar to 100 pA, when compared to planar devices, thus not compromising on power consumption for performance which usually happens with larger width devices. This work offers a pragmatic opportunity to use WCTFTs as backplane circuitry for large-area high-resolution display applications without any limitation any TFT materials.

  6. Wavy channel thin film transistor architecture for area efficient, high performance and low power displays

    KAUST Repository

    Hanna, Amir

    2013-12-23

    We demonstrate a new thin film transistor (TFT) architecture that allows expansion of the device width using continuous fin features - termed as wavy channel (WC) architecture. This architecture allows expansion of transistor width in a direction perpendicular to the substrate, thus not consuming extra chip area, achieving area efficiency. The devices have shown for a 13% increase in the device width resulting in a maximum 2.5× increase in \\'ON\\' current value of the WCTFT, when compared to planar devices consuming the same chip area, while using atomic layer deposition based zinc oxide (ZnO) as the channel material. The WCTFT devices also maintain similar \\'OFF\\' current value, ~100 pA, when compared to planar devices, thus not compromising on power consumption for performance which usually happens with larger width devices. This work offers an interesting opportunity to use WCTFTs as backplane circuitry for large-area high-resolution display applications. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Cooperative Downlink Listening for Low-Power Long-Range Wide-Area Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byoungwook Kim

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the development of the Internet of Things (IoT applications has become more active with the emergence of low-power wide-area network (LPWAN, which has the advantages of low-power and long communication distance. Among the various LPWAN technologies, long-range wide-area network (LoRaWAN, or LoRa is considered as the most mature technology. However, since LoRa performs uplink-oriented communication to increase energy efficiency, there is a restriction on the downlink function from the network server to the end devices. In this paper, we propose cooperative downlink listening to solve the fundamental problem of LoRa. In particular, the proposed scheme can be extended to various communication models such as groupcasting and geocasting by combining with the data-centric model. Experiments also show that the proposed technology not only significantly reduces network traffic compared to the LoRa standard, but also guarantees maximum energy efficiency of the LoRa.

  8. Selection of organic Rankine cycle working fluid based on unit-heat-exchange-area net power

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭美茹; 朱启的; 孙志强; 周天; 周孑民

    2015-01-01

    To improve energy conversion efficiency, optimization of the working fluids in organic Rankine cycles (ORCs) was explored in the range of low-temperature heat sources. The concept of unit-heat-exchange-area (UHEA) net power, embodying the cost/performance ratio of an ORC system, was proposed as a new indicator to judge the suitability of ORC working fluids on a given condition. The heat exchange area was computed by an improved evaporator model without fixing the minimum temperature difference between working fluid and hot fluid, and the flow pattern transition during heat exchange was also taken into account. The maximum UHEA net powers obtained show that dry organic fluids are more suitable for ORCs than wet organic fluids to recover low-temperature heat. The organic fluid 1-butene is recommended if the inlet temperature of hot fluid is 353.15−363.15 K or 443.15−453.15 K, heptane is more suitable at 373.15−423.15 K, and R245ca is a good option at 483.15−503.15 K.

  9. 行政权滥用的预测与防范%Prediction and Precaution for Abusing the Administrative Powers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔卓兰; 杜一平

    2012-01-01

    行政主体面对在执法中潜在的隐患和未来的不利因素时,因缺乏较好的认知意识和防范机制,在面对权力欲、金钱欲和物质欲望的刺激时容易丧失免疫力,导致以权谋私、权钱交易等为求利益而滥用行政权的问题产生。行政权滥用严重干扰了经济与社会的健康发展,阻碍了国家法治目标的实现。行政权滥用具有事先预防的可能性,本文以政府自身建设为基点,通过对执法程序中可能存在行政权滥用的环节进行事前预测和分析,提出了科学有效的事前防范与控制机制,以此作为实现依法行政的制度保障。%When the administrative agencies face the latent dangers and coming disadvantageous factors with law enforcement, due to the worse cognition and prevention system, and the worship for power, money and material, tend to depart from principle, problems of abusing of authority for personal gains will easily occur, with the exchange of right and money, whereas, it has the possibilities for the administrative agencies to take precautions against the abuse of authority in advance. This paper bases on the government self - improvement, predicts and analyses problems of authority abuse during the enforcement, proposes a scientific and effective precaution and control mechanism, to achieve security supervision system of law - based administration.

  10. Morphology and dynamics of the base of the western jetty, probable area for the Rio Grande port pilot station, RS State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Hartmann, Carlos; Arejano, Tadeu Braga; Antiqueira, José Antonio Fonseca de

    2009-01-01

    The Rio Grande port has suffered accelerated growth over the past few years, a faet which has provoked the arrival of new enterprises, determining a restructuring (change) in the zoning plan of the organized port. The pilot station of the Barra is presently located at the intermediat portion of the Rio Grande Super port. Western margin of the access canal, and in order to improve assistance and navigation safety, it will be transferred to an area closer to the lagoon mouth; such area will be ...

  11. A Very Low Power MAC (VLPM Protocol for Wireless Body Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Sup Kwak

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs consist of a limited number of battery operated nodes that are used to monitor the vital signs of a patient over long periods of time without restricting the patient’s movements. They are an easy and fast way to diagnose the patient’s status and to consult the doctor. Device as well as network lifetime are among the most important factors in a WBAN. Prolonging the lifetime of the WBAN strongly depends on controlling the energy consumption of sensor nodes. To achieve energy efficiency, low duty cycle MAC protocols are used, but for medical applications, especially in the case of pacemakers where data have time-limited relevance, these protocols increase latency which is highly undesirable and leads to system instability. In this paper, we propose a low power MAC protocol (VLPM based on existing wakeup radio approaches which reduce energy consumption as well as improving the response time of a node. We categorize the traffic into uplink and downlink traffic. The nodes are equipped with both a low power wake-up transmitter and receiver. The low power wake-up receiver monitors the activity on channel all the time with a very low power and keeps the MCU (Micro Controller Unit along with main radio in sleep mode. When a node [BN or BNC (BAN Coordinator] wants to communicate with another node, it uses the low-power radio to send a wakeup packet, which will prompt the receiver to power up its primary radio to listen for the message that follows shortly. The wake-up packet contains the desired node’s ID along with some other information to let the targeted node to wake-up and take part in communication and let all other nodes to go to sleep mode quickly. The VLPM protocol is proposed for applications having low traffic conditions. For high traffic rates, optimization is needed. Analytical results show that the proposed protocol outperforms both synchronized and unsynchronized MAC protocols like T-MAC, SCP-MAC, B

  12. A very low power MAC (VLPM) protocol for Wireless Body Area Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Niamat; Khan, Pervez; Kwak, Kyung Sup

    2011-01-01

    Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) consist of a limited number of battery operated nodes that are used to monitor the vital signs of a patient over long periods of time without restricting the patient's movements. They are an easy and fast way to diagnose the patient's status and to consult the doctor. Device as well as network lifetime are among the most important factors in a WBAN. Prolonging the lifetime of the WBAN strongly depends on controlling the energy consumption of sensor nodes. To achieve energy efficiency, low duty cycle MAC protocols are used, but for medical applications, especially in the case of pacemakers where data have time-limited relevance, these protocols increase latency which is highly undesirable and leads to system instability. In this paper, we propose a low power MAC protocol (VLPM) based on existing wakeup radio approaches which reduce energy consumption as well as improving the response time of a node. We categorize the traffic into uplink and downlink traffic. The nodes are equipped with both a low power wake-up transmitter and receiver. The low power wake-up receiver monitors the activity on channel all the time with a very low power and keeps the MCU (Micro Controller Unit) along with main radio in sleep mode. When a node [BN or BNC (BAN Coordinator)] wants to communicate with another node, it uses the low-power radio to send a wakeup packet, which will prompt the receiver to power up its primary radio to listen for the message that follows shortly. The wake-up packet contains the desired node's ID along with some other information to let the targeted node to wake-up and take part in communication and let all other nodes to go to sleep mode quickly. The VLPM protocol is proposed for applications having low traffic conditions. For high traffic rates, optimization is needed. Analytical results show that the proposed protocol outperforms both synchronized and unsynchronized MAC protocols like T-MAC, SCP-MAC, B-MAC and X-MAC in terms

  13. Extensional Late Paleozoic deformation on the western margin of Pangea, Patlanoaya area, Acatlán Complex, southern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Arias, M. A.; Keppie, J. D.; Ortega-Rivera, A.; Lee, J. W. K.

    2008-02-01

    New mapping in the northern part of the Paleozoic Acatlán Complex (Patlanoaya area) records several ductile shear zones and brittle faults with normal kinematics (previously thought to be thrusts). These movement zones separate a variety of units that pass structurally upwards from: (i) blueschist-eclogitic metamorphic rocks (Piaxtla Suite) and mylonitic megacrystic granites (Columpio del Diablo granite ≡ Ordovician granites elsewhere in the complex); (ii) a gently E-dipping, listric, normal shear zone with top to the east kinematic indicators that formed under upper greenschist to lower amphibolite conditions; (iii) the Middle-Late Ordovician Las Minas quartzite (upper greenschist facies psammites with minor interbedded pelites intruded by mafic dikes and a leucogranite dike from the Columpio del Diablo granite) unconformably overlain by the Otate meta-arenite (lower greenschist facies psammites and pelites): roughly temporal equivalents are the Middle-Late Ordovician Mal Paso and Ojo de Agua units (interbedded metasandstone and slate, and metapelite and mafic minor intrusions, respectively) — some of these units are intruded by the massive, 461 ± 2 Ma, Palo Liso megacrystic granite: decussate, contact metamorphic muscovite yielded a 40Ar/ 39Ar plateau age of 440 ± 4 Ma; (iv) a steeply-moderately, E-dipping normal fault; (v) latest Devonian-Middle Permian sedimentary rocks (Patlanoaya Group: here elevated from formation status). The upward decrease in metamorphic grade is paralleled by a decrease in the number of penetrative fabrics, which varies from (i) three in the Piaxtla Suite, through (ii) two in the Las Minas unit (E-trending sheath folds deformed by NE-trending, subhorizontal folds with top to the southeast asymmetry, both associated with a solution cleavage), (iii) one in the Otate, Mal Paso, and Ojo de Agua units (steeply SE-dipping, NE-SW plunging, open-close folds), to (iv) none in the Patlanoaya Group. 40Ar/ 39Ar analyses of muscovite from the

  14. Assessing the response of area burned to changing climate in western boreal North America using a Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS) approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balshi, M. S.; McGuire, A.D.; Duffy, P.; Flannigan, M.; Walsh, J.; Melillo, J.

    2009-01-01

    Fire is a common disturbance in the North American boreal forest that influences ecosystem structure and function. The temporal and spatial dynamics of fire are likely to be altered as climate continues to change. In this study, we ask the question: how will area burned in boreal North America by wildfire respond to future changes in climate? To evaluate this question, we developed temporally and spatially explicit relationships between air temperature and fuel moisture codes derived from the Canadian Fire Weather Index System to estimate annual area burned at 2.5?? (latitude ?? longitude) resolution using a Multivariate Adaptive Regression Spline (MARS) approach across Alaska and Canada. Burned area was substantially more predictable in the western portion of boreal North America than in eastern Canada. Burned area was also not very predictable in areas of substantial topographic relief and in areas along the transition between boreal forest and tundra. At the scale of Alaska and western Canada, the empirical fire models explain on the order of 82% of the variation in annual area burned for the period 1960-2002. July temperature was the most frequently occurring predictor across all models, but the fuel moisture codes for the months June through August (as a group) entered the models as the most important predictors of annual area burned. To predict changes in the temporal and spatial dynamics of fire under future climate, the empirical fire models used output from the Canadian Climate Center CGCM2 global climate model to predict annual area burned through the year 2100 across Alaska and western Canada. Relative to 1991-2000, the results suggest that average area burned per decade will double by 2041-2050 and will increase on the order of 3.5-5.5 times by the last decade of the 21st century. To improve the ability to better predict wildfire across Alaska and Canada, future research should focus on incorporating additional effects of long-term and successional

  15. Comparison of benthos and plankton for selected areas of concern and non-areas of concern in western Lake Michigan Rivers and Harbors in 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eikenberry, Barbara C. Scudder; Bell, Amanda H.; Templar, Hayley A.; Burns, Daniel J.

    2016-07-25

    Recent data are lacking to assess whether impairments still exist at four of Wisconsin’s largest Lake Michigan harbors that were designated as Areas of Concern (AOCs) in the late 1980s due to sediment contamination and multiple Beneficial Use Impairments (BUIs), such as those affecting benthos (macroinvertebrates) and plankton (zooplankton and phytoplankton) communities. During three seasonal sampling events (“seasons”) in May through August 2012, the U.S. Geological Survey collected sediment benthos and water plankton at the four AOCs as well as six less-degraded non-AOCs along the western Lake Michigan shoreline to assess whether AOC communities were degraded in comparison to non-AOC communities. The four AOCs are the Lower Menominee River, the Lower Green Bay and Fox River, the Sheboygan River, and the Milwaukee Estuary. Due to their size and complexity, multiple locations or “subsites” were sampled within the Lower Green Bay and Fox River AOC (Lower Green Bay, the Fox River near Allouez, and the Fox River near De Pere) and within the Milwaukee Estuary AOC (the Milwaukee River, the Menomonee River, and the Milwaukee Harbor) and single locations were sampled at the other AOCs and non-AOCs. The six non-AOCs are the Escanaba River in Michigan, and the Oconto River, Ahnapee River, Kewaunee River, Manitowoc River, and Root River in Wisconsin. Benthos samples were collected by using Hester-Dendy artificial substrates deployed for 30 days and by using a dredge sampler; zooplankton were collected by net and phytoplankton by whole-water sampler. Except for the Lower Green Bay and Milwaukee Harbor locations, communities at each AOC were compared to all non-AOCs as a group and to paired non-AOCs using taxa relative abundances and metrics, including richness, diversity, and an Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI, for Hester-Dendy samples only). Benthos samples collected during one or more seasons were rated as degraded for at least one metric at all AOCs. In the

  16. Contracts under administrative law in the areas of emission control and water protection law; Verwaltungsrechtliche Vertraege im Immissions- und Gewaesserschutzrecht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlhaus, Jens

    2011-07-01

    Using the fields of emission control and water protection as an example the author investigates how environmental law is executed by way of contracts between the citizen and the administration. The study encompasses fundamental theoretical deliberations as well as practical experiences. It undertakes a discussion in legal theory on the instrument of an administrative contract, taking into consideration the results of a survey among 100 companies. The study identifies application fields for administrative contracts in the field of emission control and water protection law. It carves out and illustrates by way of examples the advantages and drawbacks of the use of administrative contracts as compared with regulation through administrative acts.

  17. Application of Time Series Insar Technique for Deformation Monitoring of Large-Scale Landslides in Mountainous Areas of Western China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, T.; Lu, P.; Liu, C.; Wan, H.

    2016-06-01

    Western China is very susceptible to landslide hazards. As a result, landslide detection and early warning are of great importance. This work employs the SBAS (Small Baseline Subset) InSAR Technique for detection and monitoring of large-scale landslides that occurred in Li County, Sichuan Province, Western China. The time series INSAR is performed using descending scenes acquired from TerraSAR-X StripMap mode since 2014 to get the spatial distribution of surface displacements of this giant landslide. The time series results identify the distinct deformation zone on the landslide body with a rate of up to 150mm/yr. The deformation acquired by SBAS technique is validated by inclinometers from diverse boreholes of in-situ monitoring. The integration of InSAR time series displacements and ground-based monitoring data helps to provide reliable data support for the forecasting and monitoring of largescale landslide.

  18. Application and Demonstration of a Series of Rare Earth Drought Resistant Materials in Western Area of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Guoqiang; Wang Jiachen

    2004-01-01

    The application and effects for a series of rare earth (RE) drought resistant materials used in arid, salina,hungriness, wind defending and sand fixing matter, withdraw farming and return to grass and forest in western of China were reported.The important discussion was technological innovation within two years: such as seed clothing agent,RE liquid field film, RE grass and woods transplant living agent, and RE complex pesticide development and application.

  19. Ferricretes of the Early Tertiary Dammam Formation in the Dukhan Area, Western Qatar: mineralogy, geochemistry, and environment of deposition

    OpenAIRE

    Nasir, Sobhi J. [صبحي جابر نصر; Al-Saad, Hamad; Al-Sayigh, Abdul Razak; Al-Harthy, Abdul Rahman; Almishwat, Ali; Dill, Harald

    2003-01-01

    Ferricretes of the Middle Eocene Dammam Formation, Western Qatar, were investigated using petrographic and ore microscopy, IR TGA, XRD, and geochemical analyses. The ferricretes mainly consist of goethite, which is very varigated in habit and texture. Geochemical analyses show that the ferricretes consist of impure chemical sediments, iron hydroxides plus variable amounts of carbonate and siliciclastic materials. The ferricretes resemble with respect to texture, mineralogy and chemistry mo...

  20. Transient stability enhancement of modern power grid using predictive Wide-Area Monitoring and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefian, Reza

    This dissertation presents a real-time Wide-Area Control (WAC) designed based on artificial intelligence for large scale modern power systems transient stability enhancement. The WAC using the measurements available from Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs) at generator buses, monitors the global oscillations in the system and optimally augments the local excitation system of the synchronous generators. The complexity of the power system stability problem along with uncertainties and nonlinearities makes the conventional modeling non-practical or inaccurate. In this work Reinforcement Learning (RL) algorithm on the benchmark of Neural Networks (NNs) is used to map the nonlinearities of the system in real-time. This method different from both the centralized and the decentralized control schemes, employs a number of semi-autonomous agents to collaborate with each other to perform optimal control theory well-suited for WAC applications. Also, to handle the delays in Wide-Area Monitoring (WAM) and adapt the RL toward the robust control design, Temporal Difference (TD) is proposed as a solver for RL problem or optimal cost function. However, the main drawback of such WAC design is that it is challenging to determine if an offline trained network is valid to assess the stability of the power system once the system is evolved to a different operating state or network topology. In order to address the generality issue of NNs, a value priority scheme is proposed in this work to design a hybrid linear and nonlinear controllers. The algorithm so-called supervised RL is based on mixture of experts, where it is initialized by linear controller and as the performance and identification of the RL controller improves in real-time switches to the other controller. This work also focuses on transient stability and develops Lyapunov energy functions for synchronous generators to monitor the stability stress of the system. Using such energies as a cost function guarantees the convergence