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Sample records for western anatolia turkey

  1. Role of the Western Anatolia Shear Zone (WASZ) in Neotectonics Evolution of the Western Anatolia Extended Terrain, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cemen, I.; Gogus, O. H.; Hancer, M.

    2013-12-01

    The Neotectonics period in western Anatolia Extended Terrain, Turkey (WAET) may have initiated in late Oligocene following the Eocene Alpine collision which produced the Izmir-Ankara suture zone. The Western Anatolia Shear Zone (WASZ) bounds the WAET to the east. The shear zone contains mostly normal faults in the vicinity of the Gulf of Gokova. However, its movement is mostly oblique slip from the vicinity of Tavas towards the Lake of Acigol where it makes a northward bend and possibly joins the Eskisehir fault zone to the north of the town of Afyon. The shear zone forms the southern and eastern margins of the Kale-Tavas, Denizli and Acigol basins. The shear zone is similar in its structural/tectonics setting to the Eastern California Shear zone (ECSZ) of the Basins and Ranges of North America Extended terrain which is also composed of many normal to oblique-slip faults and separates two extended terrains with different rates of extension. Western Anatolia experienced many devastating earthquakes within the last 2000 years. Many of the ancient Greek/Roman city states, including Ephesus, Troy, and Hierapolis were destroyed by large historical earthquakes. During the second half of the 20th century, the region experienced two major large earthquake giving normal fault focal mechanism solutions. They are the 1969, M=6.9 Alasehir and the 1970, M=7.1 Gediz earthquakes. These earthquakes had caused substantial damage and loss of life in the region. Therefore, a comprehensive understanding of the kinematics of the Cenozoic extensional tectonics and earthquake potential of the WASZ in the region, is very important, especially since the fault zone is very close to the major towns in eastern part of western Turkey, such as Mugla, Denizli, Sandikli, Dinar and Afyon.

  2. Overwintered Hatchlings of Emys orbicularis from Lake Sülüklü (Western Anatolia, Turkey

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    Dinçer Ayaz

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available During our monitoring survey of amphibians and Emys orbicularis in Lake Sülüklü (Western Anatolia, Turkey, we observed four overwintered hatchlings of European pond turtle on May 4 and 10, 2010. The average straightline maximum carapace length of the neonates captured was 26.48 mm and their average weight was 4.18 g. This observation is the second record for the Turkish population of Emys orbicularis.

  3. Thermal conductivity of major rock types in western and central Anatolia regions, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkan, Elif; Erkan, Kamil; Şalk, Müjgan

    2017-08-01

    Thermal conductivity is a key parameter in heat flow and geothermal investigations as it controls the temperature distribution within the Earth. Turkey has a significant geothermal potential yet rock thermal conductivity studies have been very limited. Here, we report new thermal conductivity values collected from 240 rock samples in western and central Anatolia regions. The data were initially classified according to lithologic descriptions; then mean thermal conductivities were determined after applying corrections from dry to saturated conditions, if necessary. The major rock types encountered in these regions are igneous metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks. Limestone is the most common lithological unit encountered both in western and central Anatolia regions. The limestones in western Anatolia show a higher mean thermal conductivity than the limestones in central Anatolia. Dolomitization has a significant effect on the thermal conductivity of limestones. Neritic limestones show a higher mean thermal conductivity compared to lacustrine limestones. The results of this study reveal large contrasts in thermal conductivity values among different rock types that can have major implications for future heat flow and geothermal modeling studies in these regions.

  4. Mass and stress changes in the Menderes Massif (Western Anatolia, Turkey)

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    Çırmık, Ayça; Pamukçu, Oya; Akçığ, Zafer

    2016-12-01

    Comparing the results of the microgravity and GNSS measurements is useful for understanding the vertical displacements of the plates. In this study, for determining the geodynamical behaviors of seismically active tectonic structures of Gediz and Büyük Menderes grabens which are located in Western Anatolia (Turkey) graben system, the mass changes were examined by processing of GNSS and microgravity data. Besides, after modeling the GNSS velocity by Coulomb stress analysis, the stress distributions were investigated for these models. Therefore, first of all, the changes of gravity and the vertical components of GNSS velocity values were evaluated together with a statistical method. Secondly, GNSS velocities were calculated relative to the main tectonic structures and the stress changes of tectonic structures were obtained at different depths with Coulomb stress analysis by using these velocities and all results were evaluated with the earthquakes that had occurred in the study area. Consequently, the crustal movements of the areas located at the GNSS stations and their surroundings were put forwarded as in compensation or uncompensation concept of surface and subsurface loadings due to the mass or groundwater effects by using both microgravity and GNSS measurements, as an initial study on Western Anatolia graben system.

  5. GIS based geothermal potential assessment: A case study from Western Anatolia, Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuefekci, Nesrin; Luetfi Suezen, M.; Guelec, Nilguen [Geological Engineering, Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara (Turkey)

    2010-01-15

    Potential geothermal areas are identified through investigation of spatial relations between geothermal occurrences and their surrounding geological phenomena in western Anatolia, Turkey. The identification is based on only publicly available data. It is expected that the study will guide further preliminary investigations performed for large areas having limited information. Magnetic anomaly, Bouger gravity anomaly, earthquake epicenter and lineament datasets are used for the analysis. The first is used without any modification whereas the rest are utilized to extract three evidence maps; distance to major grabens, Gutenberg-Richter b-value and distance to lineaments, respectively. Predictor maps are produced from these evidence maps as well as from the unprocessed magnetic anomaly map by applying two different binarization procedures. From each binarization procedure a favorability map is produced separately using Index Overlay (IO) and Weights of Evidence (WofE) methods. The findings reveal that weighting predictor maps according to spatial association between evidence maps and training points lead to more accurate prediction in both WofE and IO methods. The potential areas in the final maps are Aydin, Denizli, Manisa, Balikesir and Kutahya of which first two have been explored and exploited, and thus found to be favorable, while the rest are nearly unexplored. (author)

  6. A radiological survey of the Eğrigöz granitoid, Western Anatolia/Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canbaz Öztürk, B; Yaprak, G; Çam, N F; Candan, O

    2015-06-01

    A radiological survey of the granitoid areas throughout Western Anatolia was conducted during 2007-14. As a part of this radiological survey, this article presents results obtained from Eğrigöz pluton, which lies in the northeastern region of Western Anatolia. In the investigated area, the activity measurements of the natural gamma-emitting radionuclides ((226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K) in the granitic rock samples and soils have been carried out by means of the NaI(Tl) gamma-ray spectrometry system. The activity concentrations of the relevant natural radionuclides in the granite samples appeared in the ranges as follows: (226)Ra, 28-95 Bq kg(-1); (232)Th, 50-122 Bq kg(-1) and (40)K, 782-1365 Bq kg(-1), while the typical ranges of the (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K activities in the soil samples were found to be 7-184, 11-174 and 149-1622 Bq kg(-1), respectively. Based on the available data, the radiation hazard parameters associated with the surveyed rocks/soils are calculated. The corresponding absorbed dose rates in air from all those radionuclides were always much lower than 200 nGy h(-1) and did not exceed the typical range of worldwide average values noted in the UNSCEAR (2000) report. Furthermore, the data are also used for the mapping of the surface soil activity of natural radionuclides and the corresponding gamma dose rates of the surveyed area.

  7. Hydrothermal fluids circulation and travertine deposition in an active tectonic setting: Insights from the Kamara geothermal area (western Anatolia, Turkey)

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    Brogi, Andrea; Alçiçek, M. Cihat; Yalçıner, Cahit Çağlar; Capezzuoli, Enrico; Liotta, Domenico; Meccheri, Marco; Rimondi, Valentina; Ruggieri, Giovanni; Gandin, Anna; Boschi, Chiara; Büyüksaraç, Aydin; Alçiçek, Hülya; Bülbül, Ali; Baykara, Mehmet Oruç; Shen, Chuan-Chou

    2016-06-01

    Coexistence of thermal springs, travertine deposits and tectonic activity is a recurring feature for most geothermal areas. Although such a certainty, their relationships are debated mainly addressing on the role of the tectonic activity in triggering and controlling fluids flow and travertine deposition. In this paper, we present the results of an integrated study carried out in a geothermal area located in western Anatolia (Turkey), nearby the well-known Pamukkale area (Denizli Basin). Our study focused on the relationships among hydrothermal fluids circulation, travertine deposition and tectonic activity, with particular emphasis on the role of faults in controlling fluids upwelling, thermal springs location and deposition of travertine masses. New field mapping and structural/kinematics analyses allowed us to recognize two main faults systems (NW- and NE-trending), framed in the Neogene-Quaternary extensional tectonic evolution of western Anatolia. A geo-radar (GPR) prospection was also provided in a key-area, permitting us to reconstruct a buried fault zone and its relationships with the development of a fissure-ridge travertine deposit (Kamara fissure-ridge). The integration among structural and geophysical studies, fluids inclusion, geochemical, isotopic data and 230 Th/238 U radiometric age determination on travertine deposits, depict the characteristics of the geothermal fluids and their pathway, up to the surface. Hydrological and seismological data have been also taken in account to investigate the relation between local seismicity and fluid upwelling. As a main conclusion we found strict relationships among tectonic activity, earthquakes occurrence, and variation of the physical/chemical features of the hydrothermal fluids, presently exploited at depth, or flowing out in thermal springs. In the same way, we underline the tectonic role in controlling the travertine deposition, making travertine (mainly banded travertine) a useful proxy to reconstruct the

  8. Occurrence of a new sulphate mineral: Ca7Na3K(SO4)9 in the Emet borate deposits, western Anatolia (Turkey)

    OpenAIRE

    García-Veigas, Francisco Javier; Ortí Cabo, Federico; Rosell, Laura (Rosell i Ortiz); Gündogan, Ibrahim; Helvaci, Cahit

    2010-01-01

    This paper is a preliminary report on the petrographic and geochemical characteristics of a new sulphate mineral associated with lacustrine glauberite layers. This mineral is present in two boreholes recently drilled in the Emet borate district (Mio-cene; western Anatolia , Turkey). The evaporitic succession in these boreholes is mainly formed of a glauber ite-probertiteal-ternation. We suggest the name"emetite", after the town of Emet, for the new sulphate mineral, although the fine crystal ...

  9. TURRIGLOMINA? ANATOLICA, N. SP. (FORAMINIFERIDA FROM THE CRETACEOUS OF NORTH-WESTERN ANATOLIA (TURKEY: REMARKS ON THE EVOLUTION OF THE MESOZOIC MEANDROSPIRIDS

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    DEMIR ALTINER

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available A new species of foraminifer, Turriglomina? anatolica n. sp., is erected from the Lower Cretaceous of North-Western Anatolia, Turkey. The species is characterized by a well developed meandrospirid stage followed by a rectilinear, helicoidal stage. The morphology of the new taxon is similar to that of the Triassic genus Turriglomina zaninetti, however, the generic attribution is doubtful as the evolutionary path of meandrospirids is not documented from Triassic to Cretaceous. 

  10. Naturally occurring arsenic in terrestrial geothermal systems of western Anatolia, Turkey: potential role in contamination of freshwater resources.

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    Bundschuh, Jochen; Maity, Jyoti Prakash; Nath, Bibhash; Baba, Alper; Gunduz, Orhan; Kulp, Thomas R; Jean, Jiin-Shuh; Kar, Sandeep; Yang, Huai-Jen; Tseng, Yu-Jung; Bhattacharya, Prosun; Chen, Chien-Yen

    2013-11-15

    Arsenic (As) contamination in terrestrial geothermal systems has been identified in many countries worldwide. Concentrations higher than 0.01 mg/L are detrimental to human health. We examined potential consequences for As contamination of freshwater resources based on hydrogeochemical investigations of geothermal waters in deep wells and hot springs collected from western Anatolia, Turkey. We analyzed samples for major ions and trace element concentrations. Temperature of geothermal waters in deep wells showed extreme ranges (40 and 230 °C), while, temperature of hot spring fluids was up to 90 °C. The Piper plot illustrated two dominant water types: Na-HCO3(-) type for geothermal waters in deep wells and Ca-HCO3(-) type for hot spring fluids. Arsenic concentration ranged from 0.03 to 1.5mg/L. Dominance of reduced As species, i.e., As(III), was observed in our samples. The Eh value ranged between -250 and 119 mV, which suggests diverse geochemical conditions. Some of the measured trace elements were found above the World Health Organization guidelines and Turkish national safe drinking water limits. The variation in pH (range: 6.4-9.3) and As in geothermal waters suggest mixing with groundwater. Mixing of geothermal waters is primarily responsible for contamination of freshwater resources and making them unsuitable for drinking or irrigation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Geoarchaeological research of the mid-age Ilyas Bey complex buildings with ground penetrating radar in Miletus, Aydin, Western Anatolia, Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadioglu, S [Ankara University, Eng. Fac. Geophysical Engineering Department, 06100 Ankara (Turkey); Kadioglu, Y K [Ankara University, Eng. Fac. Geological Engineering Department, 06100 Ankara (Turkey); Akyol, A A [Ankara University, Baskent Vac. High Sch. Prog. of Restoration and Cons., Ankara (Turkey)], E-mail: kadioglu@eng.ankara.edu.tr, E-mail: kadi@eng.ankara.edu.tr, E-mail: akyol@ankara.edu.tr

    2008-07-01

    ) studies reveal that the main bulding rock units of Ilyas Bey Mosque are mainly composed of 4 main units these are marble, metalimestone, mica gneiss and granodiorite. The marble, metalimestone with the mica gneiss were obtained from Menderes Massif in Western Anatolia. The granodiorite columns might be obtained from Kozak Pluton in the north of Bergama-Izmir line of western Anatolia.

  12. Diachronous uplift and cooling history of the Menderes core complex, western Anatolia (Turkey), based on new Zircon (U-Th)/He ages

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    Baran, Zeynep Oner; Dilek, Yildirim; Stockli, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    New (U-Th)/He thermochronology data from the syn-extensional granitoids in the central part of the Menderes Massif in western Turkey reveal a minimum slip rate of 12.5 km/Myr along the Alasehir detachment ( 14° dip angle) and denudation rates between 1.75 km/Myr and 3.25 km/Myr between 4 Ma and 2 Ma. These values suggest relatively fast exhumation of the Central sub-massif, associated with cooling rates between 53 °C/Myr and 128 °C/Myr, which are higher than the estimated footwall cooling rates (60 °C/Myr to 120 °C/Myr) from the Northern sub-massif. Based on the initial crystallization ages of the syn-extensional granitoid intrusions and their exhumation-related cooling ages, our thermochronological findings suggest that the Central sub-massif in Menderes underwent accelerated uplift and faster exhumation in the latest Cenozoic than the Northern and Southern sub-massifs. This latest doming and rapid extension of the Central sub-massif was associated with the asthenospheric upwelling beneath the region and the related Na-alkaline, Kula volcanism. Our results indicate that the Menderes Massif has had a diachronous uplift and cooling history during its extensional tectonic evolution in the late Cenozoic. Thermal weakening of the young orogenic crust in western Anatolia via both lithospheric and asthenospheric melting episodes and magmatism produced higher than normal geothermal gradients and played a significant role in core complex formation.

  13. Geochemistry of the Topuk Pluton associated with the Kozbudaklar W-skarn deposit (Western Anatolia, Turkey): Implication for crystallization conditions

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    Orhan, Ayşe; Demirbilek, Mehmet; Mutlu, Halim

    2017-06-01

    The Kozbudaklar scheelite-bearing skarn deposit in the Tavşanlı Zone, western Turkey, occurs at the contact between Eocene Topuk pluton and Triassic İnönü marble of calcic character. The Topuk pluton is medium-coarse grained, granodiorite in composition and has a hypidiomorphic equigranular texture. The host rock contains mafic microgranular enclaves (MME) of monzodiorite-monzogabbro composition and is interrupted by porphyritic granodiorite and granite-aplite vein rocks. The pluton is calk-alkaline, metaluminous and composed of I-type melt character. δ18O and δD compositions of silicate minerals from granodioritic host rock are 5.9-10.6‰ and -77.0 to -71.4‰ and conformable with the range of unaltered I-type granites. Trace element contents indicate that pluton is crystallized from mantle-derived magma interacted with continental crust in a volcanic arc or subduction related setting. Major and trace element concentrations of Topuk pluton are quite consistent with geochemical patterns of Cu-skarn granitoids. Results of mineral chemistry analysis of the pluton yield that plagioclases are of oligoclase-andesine, amphiboles are of magnesio-hornblende and biotites are of ferro-magnesian composition. Amphiboles and biotites of granodioritic host rock are represented by calc-alkaline, I-type melt composition evolved in a subduction environment. Based on the results of plagioclase-Al in hornblende and amphibole chemistry data from the pluton, two different stages are proposed for the magma crystallization. The first stage was developed in a relatively deeper environment (>15 km) under high pressure (>4 kbar) and low log ƒO2 (>-17.6) conditions which reflect fractional crystallization and magma-mixing depth of basaltic magma and these conditions are not correlated with scheelite mineralization. The second crystallization stage of magma which proceeded at shallow depths (-12.9 to -11.0) values are accompanied by high H2O contents (5.39-6.88 wt.%). High water

  14. Association of clinical and genetical features in FMF with focus on MEFV strip assay sensitivity in 452 children from western Anatolia, Turkey.

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    Ozturk, Can; Halicioglu, Oya; Coker, Işil; Gulez, Nesrin; Sutçuoglu, Sumer; Karaca, Neslihan; Aksu, Guzide; Kutukculer, Necil

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between clinical findings and the most common mutated alleles of MEFV gene in a childhood population and to determine the sensitivity of the 12-mutation-strip assay test in familial Mediterranean fever (FMF). Records of 452 FMF children living in western Anatolia, Turkey, (12.3 ± 4.7 years mean) were retrospectively reviewed. Of the 408 patients who met the Tel-Hashomer criteria, 364 were classified into two main groups (two-mutant/one-mutant allele) either of which had three subgroups. The two-mutant allele frequency was 51% and one-mutant allele 38%; 1% had complex-mutant alleles and 10% no mutant-alleles. The mean severity score was 8.3 ± 2.5. Most common clinical features were fever (81.9%), abdominal pain (86.3%) and myalgia (58.8%), and the least common ones: diarrhea (1.7%), protracted febrile myalgia (1.2%) and acute orchitis (1.5%). We detected 33 different genotypes of the MEFV gene: the most common mutant allele was M694V followed by symptomatic allele mutation of E148Q. Although not significantly associated with clinical findings, P369S mutation was not rare (7.5%). Phenotype-genotype correlation revealed that patients with two-allele mutations had more severe clinical presentation and high constipation rate (22.5%); 32.6% of patients with M694V/M694V had splenomegaly. Acute orchitis and protracted febrile myalgia as rare clinical findings were more common in M694V homozygotes. Comparisons of clinical findings among patients with one-mutation allele were made for the first time, but no significant association was found. Positive predictive value of strip assay screening for 12 mutations was recorded as 89%. We suggest that whole sequence analysis for supportive diagnosis of FMF should be performed for selected patients only.

  15. Reconstructing the paleoseismic history of the Priene-Sazli Fault using 36Cl cosmogenic nuclide dating method, Western Anatolia, Turkey

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    Mozafari Amiri, Nasim; Sümer, Ökmen; Tikhomirov, Dmitry; Özkaymak, Çaǧlar; Ivy-Ochs, Susan; Uzel, Bora; Vockenhuber, Christof; Sözbilir, Hasan; Akçar, Naki

    2014-05-01

    The 300-km wide West Anatolian Extensional Province is one of the regions of intense seismic activity in the world within the Alpine-Himalayan belt. Deformation pattern in the area is controlled by three major E-W trending graben systems of Gediz, Küçük Menderes and Büyük Menderes which have been formed as a result of roughly N-S extensional tectonic regime since the early Miocene. These graben systems show evidences of surface faulting during the Pleistocene-Holocene and are geomorphologically characterized by well-exposed limestone normal fault scarps with a relief of tens of meters and well-preserved slickenlines. Since limestones are resistant to weathering, the limestone scarps can efficiently record several past earthquakes. Cosmogenic 36Cl is the only element to identify and date the rupture events. Each rupture causes exposure of previously buried section of the scarp to the surface. Accordingly, due to being well enough exposed to cosmic rays, accumulation of 36Cl accelerates during period of quiescence. Thus, distribution of measured 36Cl concentrations can be applied to investigate periods of seismic activity and inactivity and also to calculate the vertical displacement along the fault plane in association with each rupture. In this study, we focus on the Priene-Sazli Fault, located on the most western part of Büyük Menderes graben. Along the active fault zone, well exposed archaeological sites (e.g. Priene) have been discovered, where destructive historical earthquakes have left evidence of ancient damages in the historical period and during the 20th century. The Priene-Sazli Fault caused the July 16, 1955 Söke-Balat earthquake (M=6.8) with fault-plane solution indicating of normal southeast downthrow along with subsidiary dextral motion. We collected 117 samples from four continuous strips on the Priene-Sazli Fault to measure 36Cl concentrations. We used a new Matlab code to identify the significant ruptures and their timing. Our preliminary

  16. Saponaria emineana (Caryophyllaceae), a new species from inner Anatolia, Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gemici, Yusuf; Tan, Kit; Yildirim, H.;

    2011-01-01

    Saponaria emineana (Caryophyllaceae) is illustrated and described as a new species endemic to the inner part of West Anatolia, Turkey. It is related to S. pamphylica and differs from that species in having a densely tufted habit with compact and much-branched woody base, subfleshy, narrowly...

  17. Late Miocene Sciuridae (Mammalia, Rodentia) from Anatolia, Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, A.A.; de Bruijn, H.; Wessels, W.

    2013-01-01

    Isolated cheek teeth of Sciuridae (Rodentia, Mammalia) from nine late Miocene localities in central Anatolia (Turkey) are described. The teeth represent at least 12 different species, five of which belong to the ground squirrel genus Tamias, two to the ground squirrel genus Spermophilinus, one to th

  18. Hyurterianum (Asteraceae, Inuleae), a new species from NE Anatolia, Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gemici, Y.; Tan, K.; Yidirim, H.

    2008-01-01

    Helichrysum yurterianum Y. Gemici, Kit Tan, H. Yildirim & M. Gemici (Asteraceae, Inuleae) is described and illustrated. It is a serpentine endemic restricted to the province of Erzincan in NE Anatolia, Turkey. Its affinities are with H. arenarium and H. noeanum, which both have a wider distribution...

  19. Late Miocene Sciuridae (Mammalia, Rodentia) from Anatolia, Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, A.A.; de Bruijn, H.; Wessels, W.

    Isolated cheek teeth of Sciuridae (Rodentia, Mammalia) from nine late Miocene localities in central Anatolia (Turkey) are described. The teeth represent at least 12 different species, five of which belong to the ground squirrel genus Tamias, two to the ground squirrel genus Spermophilinus, one to

  20. A new species of Hesperis (Brassicaceae) from SW Anatolia, Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parolly, G.; Tan, Kit

    2006-01-01

    Hesperis kuerschneri, from the vilayet of Denizli in the Western Taurus is described as a species new to science and illustrated. Its affinities are with H. theophrasti, which has several infraspecific taxa in the Balkans and Anatolia. The new species occurs on steep serpentine scree slopes...... together with other serpentine plants of the Western Taurus and is rather local in distribution....

  1. An analysis of the murder of women in a 10-year period in Eskişehir Province located in western Anatolia in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbeyaz, Kenan; Akkaya, Harun; Balci, Yasemin

    2013-08-01

    Murder of women generally occurs as a result of violence by their husbands and relatives. We evaluated the female victims of murder in Eskişehir, located in western Anatolia, where the education level is high in this study. Our aim was to assess and discuss data related to the victims and murderers. A total of 141 women's murder cases were analysed in the study. After a legal process and the results of the autopsies during 2002-2011 in Eskişehir, 715 subjects found to have died as a result of murder were chosen. Cases were evaluated in terms of their age, marital status, education level, relationship to the murderer, reasons for violence, type of action and reasons for death. It was determined that 48.2% (n = 68) of the victims had been killed by the husband and 7.8% (n = 11) by the ex-husband. Murderers generally stated that the reason of murder was the woman's request for divorce or breaking up (n = 40, 28.4%). In compliance with the literature, the women were most commonly killed by their husbands in our study. Enhancing women's status and preventing violence against women will decrease such murders.

  2. The history of neurosurgery in Anatolia and Turkey: the Turkish Neurosurgical Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solaroglu, Ihsan; Acar, Feridun; Bavbek, Murad; Ture, Ugur; Beskonakli, Ethem

    2013-01-01

    Although the history of neurosurgery in Anatolia goes back ten thousand years, modern surgery began in Turkey in 1890. Neurosurgery in Turkey began in the first half of the 20th century. However, general surgeons began applying neurosurgical techniques back in the late 19th century. Most of these applications included procedures for craniocerebral traumas and infections. Dr. Cemil Topuzlu (1868-1958) is the founder of modern surgery in Turkey. Dr. Abdulkadir Cahit Tuner became the first neurosurgeon with a degree in Turkey in 1923. The first neurosurgery department was established in Istanbul in 1923, and the first training program began in the late 1940s. Currently there are almost 1200 neurosurgeons in Turkey and 75 training clinics at university hospitals and Training and Research Hospitals of the Ministry of Health provide neurosurgery training. The current state of neurosurgery in Turkey is parallel to that of the advanced Western countries. Apart from the application of neurosurgical procedures, there have been many scientific studies from Turkish neurosurgeons contributing to the total body of literature in neurosurgery. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A new record of the freshwater jellyfish Craspedacusta sowerbii Lankester, 1880 (Hydrozoa) in Southeastern Anatolia (Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekleyen, Aysel; Varol, Memet; Gokot, Bulent

    2011-03-01

    We report the first record of the invasive freshwater jellyfish Craspedacusta sowerbii Lankester in Kralkizi Dam Lake, Southeastern Anatolia, Turkey. The medusa was found only in August, 2008 when average surface water temperatures were 26.9°C.

  4. A new record of the freshwater jellyfish Craspedacusta sowerbii Lankester, 1880 (Hydrozoa) in Southeastern Anatolia (Turkey)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aysel BEKLEYEN; Memet VAROL; Bulent GOKOT

    2011-01-01

    We report the first record of the invasive freshwater jellyfish Craspedacusta sowerbii Lankester in Kralkizi Dam Lake, Southeastern Anatolia, Turkey. The medusa was found only in August, 2008 when average surface water temperatures were 26.9℃.

  5. A new Pseudophoxinus (Teleostei, Cyprinidae species from Southwestern Anatolia, with remarks on the distribution of the genus in western Anatolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahrettin Küçük

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Pseudophoxinus burduricus sp. n. is described from drainages of Salda and Burdur lakes, southwestern Turkey. It is distinguished from other Anatolian Pseudophoxinus by a combination of characters: lateral line incomplete, with 21–39 (commonly 26–37 perforated scales and 47–57+1-2 scales in lateral series; 10½–12½ scale rows between lateral line and dorsal fin origin, 3–4(5 scale rows between lateral line and the pelvic fin origin; dorsal fin commonly with 7½ branched rays; anal fin commonly with 6½ branched rays; 7–8(9 gill rakers on the first branchial arch; a faint and diffuse epidermal black stripe from eye to caudal fin base in alive and preserved individuals; mouth slightly subterminal, tip of mouth cleft on about level of lower margin of eye; snout rounded, its length greater than eye diameter. Comparison is given with all Pseudophoxinus species from western Anatolia.

  6. Drought Analysis in the Tuz Lake Basin, Central Anatolia, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustaoglu, Beyza; Akın, Burcu

    2017-04-01

    The research area, Tuz Lake Basin is located in Central Anatolia Region in Turkey. The drought is observed in this area with the result of the meteorological data analysis, satellite imagery and field research. The aim of this study is to determine temporal and spatial characterists of the drought, frequency and extreme droughtness possibilities, drought period, amplitude of the drought and its severity which is observed in Tuz Lake within the context of climate change process effects in Turkey, by using Standart Precipitation Index (SPI) Palmer Drought Harshness Index, De Martonne and Erinç Method. Since the indexes which are used in the study have different parameters, not only meteorological results but also agricultural and hydrological drought results can be inferred. For this purpose, measurements of 12 meteorological stations in the basin between the years 1975-2015 will be studied applying the aforementioned methods in MATLAB. SRTM satellite images used in the study is provided by American Geological Survey (USGS). The findings from satellite imagery and meteorological data integrated into Geographic Information Systems Software ArcMap 10.1, then the effects of the drought to the Tuz Lake were analyzed. The findings of the analysis will be interpreted with the support of the field studies.

  7. Seed Germination of Some Crocus Species of Western Anatolia

    OpenAIRE

    HASPOLAT, Gülden; ÖZZAMBAK, M. Ercan; ŞIK, Levent

    2013-01-01

    In this study, germination studies were carried out on some Crocus species such as Crocus olivieri ssp. balansae, Crocus chrysanthus, Crocus baytopiorum, Crocus pallasii ssp. pallasii spreading at western Anatolia. Seed viability was determined by using tetrazolium test. Testa, endosperm, embryo bed of seeds were examined at stereo binocular. The pretreatments for germination were; waiting seeds in moist sand at 5oC for 4 weeks, keeping seeds for 24 hours in water and in 200400 mg/l GA3 solut...

  8. Clematis austroanatolica (Ranunculaceae), an unusual new species from southern Anatolia, Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zielinski, Jerzy; Tan, Kit

    2011-01-01

    Clematis austroanatolica (Ranunculaceae) is illustrated and described as a new species endemic to southern Anatolia, Turkey. It is related to C. vitalba and differs from the latter in having leaves with narrowly ovate, dentate-serrate leaflets, trifoliolate lowermost pinnae as well as small, pale...

  9. Helichrysum yurterianum (Asteraceae, Inuleae), a new species from NE Anatolia, Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gemici, Yusuf; Tan, Kit; Yildirim, Hasan

    2008-01-01

    Helichrysum yurterianum Y. Gemici, Kit Tan, H. Yildirim & M. Gemici (Asteraceae, Inuleae) is described and illustrated. It is a serpentine endemic restricted to the province of Erzincan in NE Anatolia, Turkey. Its affinities are with H. arenarium and H. noeanum, which both have a wider distribution...

  10. Verbascum lindae (Scrophulariaceae), a new species from SW Anatolia, Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parolly, Gerald; Tan, Kit

    2007-01-01

    Verbascum lindae, a taxonomically isolated limestone chasmophyte from the vilayet of Isparta in SW Anatolia is described as a species new to science and illustrated. Its affinities with other Anatolian Verbascum species, which have either a chasmophytic habit or at least a woody base, are discussed....

  11. Pliocene Basaltic Volcanism in The East Anatolia Region (EAR), Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyan, Vural; Özdemir, Yavuz; Keskin, Mehmet

    2016-04-01

    East Anatolia Region (EAR) is one of the high Plateau which is occurred with north-south compressional regime formed depending on continent-continent collision between Eurasia and Arabia plates (Şengör and Kidd, 1979). Recent studies have revealed that last oceanic lithosphere in the EAR have completely depleted to 20 million years ago based on fission track ages (Okay et al. 2010). Our initial studies suggest that extensively volcanic activity in the EAR peaked in the Pliocene and continued in the same productivity throughout Quaternary. Voluminous basaltic lava plateaus and basaltic lavas from local eruption centers occurred as a result of high production level of volcanism during the Pliocene time interval. In order to better understand the spatial and temporal variations in Pliocene basaltic volcanism and to reveal isotopic composition, age and petrologic evolution of the basaltic volcanism, we have started to study basaltic volcanism in the East Anatolia within the framework of a TUBITAK project (project number:113Y406). Petrologic and geochemical studies carried out on the Pliocene basaltic lavas indicate the presence of subduction component in the mantle source, changing the character of basaltic volcanism from alkaline to subalkaline and increasing the amount of spinel peridotitic melts (contributions of lithospheric mantle?) in the mantle source between 5.5-3.5 Ma. FC, AFC and EC-AFC modelings reveal that the while basaltic lavas were no or slightly influenced by crustal contamination and fractional crystallization, to more evolved lavas such as bazaltictrachyandesite, basalticandesite, trachybasalt might have been important processes. Results of our melting models and isotopic analysis data (Sr, Nd, Pb, Hf, 18O) indicate that the Pliocene basaltic rocks were derived from both shallow and deep mantle sources with different melting degrees ranging between 0.1 - 4 %. The percentage of spinel seems to have increased in the mantle source of the basaltic

  12. Petrogenesis of the Miocene volcanism along the İzmir-Balıkesir Transfer Zone in western Anatolia, Turkey: Implications for origin and evolution of potassic volcanism in post-collisional areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersoy, Yalçın E.; Helvacı, Cahit; Uysal, İbrahim; Karaoğlu, Özgür; Palmer, Martin R.; Dindi, Fulya

    2012-10-01

    The Miocene volcanic rocks along the İzmir-Balıkesir Transfer Zone along the western margin of the Menderes Core Complex (MCC) in western Anatolian Volcanic Province (WAVP), where strike-slip deformation is dominant, comprise: (Group 1) early-middle Miocene high-K to shoshonitic rocks with high-Mg# and relatively low SiO2, (Group 2) middle Miocene phonolitic rocks with low-Mg# and intermediate SiO2, (Group 3) early-middle Miocene medium- to high-K series from andesites to rhyolites, (Group 4) middle Miocene rhyolites with distinct trace element compositions; and (Group 5) late Miocene high-MgO basalts, K-trachybasalts and (Group 6) late Miocene high-MgO basaltic andesites. The geochemical features of these rocks are comparable with the other Oligocene to Miocene volcanic rocks, but differ from the Eocene volcanic rocks in WAVP. The geochemical features of the most primitive early-middle Miocene Group 1 rocks indicate that they were derived from an anomalously metasomatized lithospheric mantle. The mineralogical and geochemical properties of garnet-amphibole peridotite from the Ulten Zone (UZP), Eastern Alps, which is thought to represent a fossil metasomatic mantle wedge contaminated by continental subduction, is similar to the model mantle composition previously proposed for the genesis of the mafic rocks. Together with the presence of Eocene to early Miocene continental subduction beneath the Aegean-west Anatolia region, this strongly suggests that continental subduction was an important factor in the genesis of the high-MgO shoshonitic to ultrapotassic volcanism in this post-collisional area. The origin of the Group 3 andesitic to rhyolitic rocks includes; (1) lower crustal melting, (2) mixing between lower crustally-derived and mantle-derived melts, and (3) FC-AFC processes. The late Miocene Group 5 and 6 rocks, however, derived from a more depleted mantle source, indicating that the mantle became depleted over time. The rhyolites of Group 4 are most probably

  13. A new species of Dianthus (Caryophyllaceae) from Antalya, South Anatolia, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deniz, İsmail Gökhan; Aykurt, Candan; Genç, İlker; Aksoy, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    Dianthus multiflorus from Gazipaşa (Antalya), south Anatolia (Turkey), is described as a new annual species with verrucose calyx. The morphological differences from the species within the same group with Dianthus multiflorus, which are Dianthus aydogdui, Dianthus cyri and Dianthus tripunctatus, are discussed. The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) threat category and observations on the ecology of the populations are noted. The karyology and seed micromorphology of Dianthus multiflorus and Dianthus tripunctatus were examined by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy.

  14. Prokaryotic diversity in the extreme lakes of Turkey, SW Anatolia, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirel, Cansu; Gül Karagüler, Nevin; Menekşe-Kılıç, Meryem; Akçer-Ön, Sena; Haydar Gültekin, A.; Balcı, Nurgül

    2016-04-01

    The Lake District, located in the SW Anatolia region of Turkey, hosts a number of lakes with unique water chemistry. Among them, Lake Acigol, Lake Salda and Lake Yarisli display extreme biogeochemical conditions. In terms of their water chemistry and diverse prokaryotic community, each lake sets a great example for microbially mediated reactions (e.g carbonate precipitation). Lake Acigol (average pH around 8.6) is known for hypersaline and alkaline water chemistry. Lake Salda (average pH around 9.1) is known for its hydromagnesite beaches, clayey-hydromagnesite shoreline and ancient-modern stromatolite formations as well as being a model for Mars. For the first time, Lake Yarisli having alkaline conditions with an average pH value of 9.5 is investigated for its geochemistry and geobiology during this study. Algal bloom and well developed cyanobacterial mats are visible on shallow waters along the Eastern shoreline of the lake. In scope of elucidating complex bio/geochemical reactions that regulate C, S and O cycles in the extreme conditions of these lakes, water, surface sediment and shallow core samples were collected. For the first time, prokaryotic diversity of Lake Acigol, Salda and Yarisli were determined by Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) during this study (Balci et al., 2013). Preliminary results revealed the total number of bacterial classes determined for Lake Acigol, Lake Salda and Lake Yarisli as 22, 19 and 19; respectively. Lake Acigol, Salda and Yarisli are mostly dominated by bacterial classes of Alphaproteobacteria (68.2%, 25.6% and 1.9%; respectively), Cyanobacteria (10.2%, 5.3% and 92.9%; respectively), Bacilli (9.6%, 23.7% and 0.45%; respectively), Gammaproteobacteria (6.1%, 39.6% and 4.3%; respectively) and Actinobacteria (2.7%, 1.8% and 0.06%; respectively). The total number of archaeal classes determined for Lake Acigol, Lake Salda and Lake Yarisli are 8, 7 and 6; respectively. Common most dominant archaeal classes of Lake Acigol, Lake Salda

  15. Plate tectonics and biogeographical patterns of the Pseudophoxinus (Pisces: Cypriniformes) species complex of central Anatolia, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrbek, Tomas; Stölting, Kai N; Bardakci, Fevzi; Küçük, Fahrettin; Wildekamp, Rudolf H; Meyer, Axel

    2004-07-01

    We investigated the phylogenetic relationships of Pseudophoxinus (Cyprinidae: Leuciscinae) species from central Anatolia, Turkey to test the hypothesis of geographic speciation driven by early Pliocene orogenic events. We analyzed 1141 aligned base pairs of the complete cytochrome b mitochondrial gene. Phylogenetic relationships reconstructed by maximum likelihood, Bayesian likelihood, and maximum parsimony methods are identical, and generally well supported. Species and clades are restricted to geologically well-defined units, and are deeply divergent from each other. The basal diversification of central Anatolian Pseudophoxinus is estimated to have occurred approximately 15 million years ago. Our results are in agreement with a previous study of the Anatolian fish genus Aphanius that also shows a diversification pattern driven by the Pliocene orogenic events. The distribution of clades of Aphanius and Pseudophoxinus overlap, and areas of distribution comprise the same geological units. The geological history of Anatolia is likely to have had a major impact on the diversification history of many taxa occupying central Anatolia; many of these taxa are likely to be still unrecognized as distinct. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Inc.

  16. Frequencies of the Common Mefv Gene Mutations in Adiyaman, Southeast Anatolia, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korkmaz D. T.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by fever and serosal inflammation. The reasons for the disorder are mutations in the Mediterranean fever (MEFV gene; the most common of which are M694V, M680I, M694I and V726A. In this study, we aimed to screen these common mutations of the MEFV gene and then determine the prevalence of FMF according to these mutations in Adıyaman, Southeast Anatolia, Turkey. Seven hundred and sixty-seven healthy individuals from the region of Adıyaman participated in the study. Polymerase chain reaction-amplification refractory mutation system (PCR-ARMS methods were used to determine the common mutations of the MEFV gene. Twenty-six (3.9% individuals had only one mutation in the MEFV gene, 25 individuals were heterozygous and one person was homozygous for the V726A mutation (0.15%. In the present study, the V726A mutation (50.0% was the most frequent, followed by M694V (38.5%, M680I (7.7% and M694I (3.8%. It was seen that the carrier rate was very low and the prevalence of FMF was 0.15%, according to the common mutations of the MEFV gene in Adıyaman, Southeast Anatolia, Turkey.

  17. Phosphate Solubilization Potentials of Rhizosphere Isolates from Central Anatolia (Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogut, M.; Er, F.

    2009-04-01

    Plant available-phosphorus (P) is usually low in Anatolian soils due mainly to the precipitation as calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) phosphates in alkaline conditions. Phosphate solubilizing microorganisms (PSM) can enhance plant P-availability by dissolving the hardly soluble-P within the rhizosphere, which is the zone that surrounds the plant roots. PSM's can be used as seed- or soil-inocula to increase plant P-uptake and the overall growth. A total of 162 PSM's were isolated from the rhizosphere of wheat plants excavated from different fields located along a 75 km part of a highway in Turkey. The mean, the standart deviation, and the median for solubilized-P (ppm) in a 24 h culture in a tricalcium phosphate broth were 681, 427, and 400 for glucose; 358, 266, and 236 for sucrose; and 102, 117, and 50 for starch, respectively. There was not a linear relationship between the phosphate solubilized in the liquid cultures and the solubilization index obtained in the Pikovskaya's agar. Nine isolates representing both weak and strong solubilizers [Bacillus megaterium (5), Bacillus pumilis (1), Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolica (1), Pseudomonas fluorescens (1), Arthrobacter aurescens (1) as determined by the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis] were further studied in a five day incubation. Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolica solubilized statistically (P<0.05) higher phosphate (409 ppm) than all the other strains did. There was not a statistically significant (P<0.05) difference in solubilized-P among the Bacillus strains. The pH of the medium fell to the levels between 4 and 5 from the initial neutrality. The phosphate solubilizing strains variably produced gluconic, 2-keto-D-gluconic, glycolic, acetic and butyric acids. The organic acids produced by these microorganisms seem to be the major source of phosphate solubilization in vitro.

  18. Cases of Acute Poisoning in Southeast Anatolia of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahfer Güloğlu

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the biological effects of acute poisoning, nature ofagents involved and pattern of poisoning during 2000 in Diyarbakır City in Southeast AnatolianRegion of Turkey.Data from hospital records of all admissions to Emergency Department (ED of Dicle UniversityHospital following acute poisoning collected retrospectively were analysed for the period January toDecember in 2000. Present study included 44 (25.9% male (M and 126 (74.1% female (F, a total170 consecutive patients. A M/F ratio was found as 1.0/3.5 in the study.Mean age of cases was 23.3±6.3 years old; 63 (37.1% of them were under age of 20 years oldand 147 (86.5% of them were under age of 30 years old. Cases of intoxication have admitted insummer season (93 of 170 patients, especially in April, May and July (24, 26 and 30 patients,respectively. Sixty-two (36.5% cases due to accidental, 108 (63.5% cases due to suicidal goal. Thecases of suicidal purposeful intoxications were mostly determined in females (77 cases, 71.3%,p<0.05, and singles (74 cases, 68.5%, p<0.05. There were only two deaths (1.2% among the 170admissions of acute poisonings during hospitaliztion. One of the deaths was due to pesticides; otherone was due to abuse of medical drug. According to physical examination, tachycardia (59, 34.7%,vomit history (55, 32.4%, and unconsciousness (42, 24.7% were frequently observed; however,hypersecretion (15, 8.8%, bradycardia (5, 2.9%, convulsion (8, 4.7%, and hipertension (2, 1.2%,were seen rarely. Cases who poisoned with pesticide compared other cases have had significantlyhigher rate of convulsion (6, 10.2%, miosis (6, 10.2%, and hypersecretion (12, 20.3% (p=0.018,p<0.0001 and p<0.0001, respectively.In our region, pesticides intoxication especially affected to young unmarried females, and mostof them resulted from suicidal purpose. The annual rate of poisoning-related ED visits and mortalitywere within the reported ranges, psychoactive agents being

  19. Paleomagnetic reconstruction of the Neotethyan Suture in Central Anatolia (Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkaptan, M.; Gulyuz, E.; Kaymakci, N.; Langereis, C. G.

    2016-12-01

    The consumption of the Neo-Tethyan Ocean and the accretion of intervening continental blocks such as the Taurides and Kırşehir Block in the south and the Pontides in the north since the Mesozoic occurred along two sutures. The İzmir-Ankara Suture Zone (IASZ) between the Pontides in the north and the Taurides in the south and Intra-Tauride suture Zone (ITSZ) between the Taurides and the Kırşehir block meets around the Haymana Basin. The IASZ follows roughly an E-W trend and makes a sharp bend of approximately of 90° along the western margin of the Çankırı Basin. The ITSZ, on the other hand, follows a NW-SE trend parallel to the Tuz Gölü Fault Zone and overprinted by the structures related to the İASZ in the north. From West to East; the Haymana, Tuz Gölü and Çankırı basins straddle these suture zones and are developed in relation to the subduction and collision processes, which make them invaluable for unraveling deformation history and evolution of the Neotethys. In this regard we have conducted a very detailed paleomagnetic study to determine vertical axis rotations in the region, mainly on the Late Cretaceous to Recent infill of these basins. Results have shown that the region undergone strong clockwise (CW) and counter-clockwise (CCW) rotations, up to ±90° in places, resulting in the present geometry of the region. The central part of the Haymana Basin rotated as much as 90° CCW sense while its northern parts and the Tuz Gölü basin rotated 30° CW sense, which contradicts with almost all the published paleomagnetic results from the region. The restored geometries, based on new paleomagnetic data indicate that Haymana, Tuz Gölü basins and the SW margin of the Çankırı Basin were initially oriented in N-S direction prior to the Eocene. These results indicate that the most of the paleogeographical maps and evolutionary scenarios and models proposed for the region previously requires major re-thinking and serious revisions.

  20. MODELING OF WEATHER DATA FOR THE EAST ANATOLIA REGION OF TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Akpinar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Monthly average daily data of climatic conditions over the period 1994-2003 of cities in the east Anatolia region of Turkey is presented. Regression methods are used to fit polynomial and trigonometric functions to the monthly averages for nine parameters. The parameters namely temperature, maximum-minimum temperature, relative humidity, pressure, wind speed, rainfall, solar radiation and sunshine duration are useful for renewable energy applications. The functions presented for the parameters should enable determination of specific parameter values and prediction of missing values. They also provide some insight into the variation of these parameters. The models developed can be used in any study related to climatic and its effect on the environment and energy.

  1. Seroprevalence of brucellosis among children in the Middle Anatolia Region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gül, Serdar; Satilmiş, Ozgun Kiriş; Ozturk, Baris; Gökçe, Mehmet Ilker; Kuscu, Ferit

    2014-12-01

    Brucellosis is an important public-health problem in Turkey. Children may constitute 20 to 30% of all brucellosis cases in the world, especially in the endemic regions. Data on the seroprevalence of brucellosis in childhood are very limited. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the seroprevalence of brucellosis among a child population. One thousand one hundred and ten subjects were included in the study. Blood samples were collected and tested with Rose Bengal (RB) and standard tube agglutination test (SAT). RB test results were positive for 6 patients, and SAT was negative for all patients. Our findings suggest that seroprevalence of brucellosis is decreasing in Middle Anatolia due to a new cattle vaccination and eradication programme which was initiated in 2009.

  2. Kaletepe Deresi 3 (Turkey): archaeological evidence for early human settlement in Central Anatolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slimak, Ludovic; Kuhn, Steven L; Roche, Hélène; Mouralis, Damase; Buitenhuis, Hijlke; Balkan-Atli, Nur; Binder, Didier; Kuzucuoğlu, Catherine; Guillou, Hervé

    2008-01-01

    Located in the Central Anatolian Volcanic Province, Kaletepe Deresi 3 was discovered in the summer of 2000 and has been under investigation since that time. Volcanic activity in the region generated a number of obsidian intrusions that have attracted humans to the area throughout prehistory. The stratigraphic sequence at Kaletepe Deresi 3, more than 7 m in depth, presents a series of archaeological horizons representing the Lower and Middle Paleolithic. The site contains the longest open-air Paleolithic sequence excavated in Turkey, as well as the first in situ Acheulean industry documented in Anatolia. Tephras in the upper Middle Paleolithic horizons and the rhyolithic bedrock bracket the timespan represented at Kaletepe Deresi 3. The lithic industry at the site illustrates a wide range of technological behaviors and documents changes in raw-material exploitation and artifact manufacture through the Lower and Middle Paleolithic.

  3. Crustal heat flow measurements in western Anatolia from borehole equilibrium temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Erkan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of a crustal heat flow analysis in western Anatolia based on borehole equilibrium temperatures and rock thermal conductivity data are reported. The dataset comprises 113 borehole sites that were collected in Southern Marmara and Aegean regions of Turkey in 1995–1999. The measurements are from abandoned water wells with depths of 100–150 m. Data were first classed in terms of quality, and the low quality data, including data showing effects of hydrologic disturbances on temperatures, were eliminated. For the remaining 34 sites, one meter resolution temperature-depth curves were carefully analyzed for determination of the background geothermal gradients, and any effects of terrain topography and intra-borehole fluid flow were corrected when necessary. Thermal conductivities were determined either by direct measurements on representative surface outcrop or estimated from the borehole lithologic records. The calculated heat flow values are 85–90 mW m−2 in the northern and central parts of the Menderes horst-graben system. Within the system, the highest heat flow values (> 100 mW m−2 are observed in the northeastern part of Gediz Graben, near Kula active volcanic center. The calculated heat flow values are also in agreement with the results of studies on the maximum depth of seismicity in the region. In the Menderes horst-graben system, surface heat flow is expected to show significant variations as a result of active sedimentation and thermal refraction in grabens, and active erosion on horst detachment zones. High heat flow values (90–100 mW m−2 are also observed in the peninsular (western part of Çanakkale province. The heat flow anomaly here may be an extension of the high heat flow zone previously observed in the northern Aegean Sea. Moderate heat flow values (60–70 mW m−2 are observed in eastern part of Çanakkale and central part of Balıkesir provinces.

  4. Mucocutaneous warts in Middle Anatolia, Turkey: clinical presentations and therapeutic approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gönül, Müzeyyen; Iyidal, Ayşegül Yalçınkaya; Çakmak, Seray; Kılıç, Arzu; Gul, Ulker; Doner, Pinar

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Viral warts are common skin condition caused by the human papilloma virus. Aim To determine the clinical features of warts and therapeutic approaches to warts and compare them with the literature. Material and methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 362 consecutive patients presenting to a dermatology clinic in Ankara, Middle Anatolia, Turkey. Age, gender, anatomic localization, clinical types, number of warts, and medical therapy histories were recorded. Results In our study 139 (38.4%) children and 223 (61.6%) adults had warts. Warts were seen in 191 men, and 171 women. The mean age was 24.7 ±13.5. In all groups the incidence and the number of warts were higher in men. Clinical types of warts were vulgar, anogenital, plantar, verruca plana, filiform, and mosaic. Thirty-six (9.9%) of 362 cases had more than one type. The locations of warts were as follows extremities (n = 233, 64.4%), anogenital (n = 86, 23.7%) and head and neck (n = 73, 20.2%). The incidence of anogenital warts was statistically higher in men than women (p warts were higher in men, which is different than in previous reports. The anogenital wart (AW) was ranked second in all types of warts. According to this finding, we can say that the frequency of AW has been increased in Turkey. To our knowledge recently there have been no studies investigating the clinical features of viral warts in all ages in the literature. PMID:26161058

  5. Premarital hemoglobinopathy screening in Kayseri: a city in Middle Anatolia region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakukcu, Cigdem; Kocer, Derya; Altuner Torun, Yasemin; Karakukcu, Musa; Yokus, Osman; Ozdemir, Mehmet Akif; Patiroglu, Turkan

    2012-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to report the frequency of β-thalassemia trait and other hemoglobinopathies in Kayseri province, which is located in Middle Anatolia of Turkey, as part of the premarital screening program. The study included subjects admitted to Family Planning Center for premarital screening test between January 2009 and March 2010. Blood samples of the couples were obtained during admission to the marriage office. Complete blood counts and hemoglobin (Hb) variant analysis were performed with automatic counter and capillary electrophoresis. A total of 10,261 people were screened. The prevalence of patients with the β-thalassemia trait was 1.71% (175/10261). Moreover, HbD Punjab and HbO Arab were the most common Hb variants after β-thalassemia trait with the frequencies of 0.36% and 0.09%, respectively. Only 2 HbS were detected in 15 months of screening time. In 2 couples both partners were found to be carriers of β-thalassemia trait, and both partners of 1 couple to be carrier of HbD. Kayseri is not a high-risk region according to Mediterranean parts of Turkey, but the city takes migrations apart from neighbor cities, migrations from East and South provinces because of its geographic and industrial situation. For that reason detecting carrier couples with premarital screening program is an effective way of controlling thalassemia major.

  6. Pityriasis rosea: a natural history of pediatric cases in theCentral Anatolia Region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çölgeçen, Emine; Kader, Çiğdem; Ulaş, Yılmaz; Öztürk, Pınar; Küçük, Öznur; Balcı, Mehmet

    2016-12-20

    This study aimed to evaluate the demographic, clinical, and epidemiological features of pityriasis rosea (PR) in a cohort of 46 children in Yozgat, a city in the Central Anatolia Region of Turkey. Forty-six children with PR were monitored at regular intervals (1, 2, 4, and 12 weeks) for 3 months from the time of diagnosis. A complete evaluation of the patient was performed at each visit. The average age of patients at time of diagnosis was 12 ± 3.9 years. Cases were most common in the winter (rainy, snowy months; n = 14, 31%). Fifteen patients had a medical history significant for the presence of upper respiratory tract infection, while skin PR manifestations were preceded by drug intake in a second group of 15 patients. The presence of a herald patch was observed in 78.3% of patients, most frequently on the trunk (n = 23). Pruritus occurred in 75% of patients. Median PR duration was 3 weeks (range: 1-20 weeks). The course of PR is similar in Turkish children and adults. The high prevalence of pruritus in children with PR in Turkey was also significant. Further evaluation of this finding comparing adults and children is now required.

  7. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT AND ORGANIZATIONAL CYNICISM AMONG HOTEL EMPLOYEES IN SOUTHEASTERN ANATOLIA REGION OF TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    Melih Aydin; Gürkan Akdag

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine whether relationship occurs between organizational commitment and organizational cynicism attitudes among employees who were employed in five and four star hotels located in Southeastern Anatolia Region of Turkey and to affirm the extent of the relationship. According to the findings, there is a significant (negative) relationship between three sub-dimensions of organizational cynicism (behavioral cynicism, affective cynicism and cognitive cynici...

  8. The Prevalence of Malnutrition and Obesity in Schoolchildren in the Southeast Anatolia Region of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Hamdi KARA

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of malnutrition, obesity andoverweight, calculated by body mass index (BMI, in elementary school children in theSoutheast Anatolia Region of Turkey. Method: This research is a cross-sectional epidemiological study and elementary schoolchildren with aged 7-16 years were included randomly by layered random sampling method. Atotal of selected 20 schools and 1912 students filled the questionnaires in Diyarbakır and MardinCity Centers. A questionnaire included questions related to the educational and professionalstatus of parents, siblings, household conditions, children’s demographic characteristics andbody mass indexes, body weight and heights was applied to each student. Determined BMIswere classified according to the percentile values of Center for Disease Control and Prevention(CDC-US growth charts and International Obesity Task Force (IOTF.Results: Mean age of 1040 boys (52,3% and 872 girls (47,7%, totally 1912 students was10,8±2,4 years and mean BMI was 17,6±2,8 kg/m2. According to CDC classification, 7,2% ofmale students were categorized as “underweight”, 12,3% of them as “overweight”, and 3,4%of them as “obese” whereas 5,5% of them were categorized as “overweight” and 0,6% of themas “obese” according to IOTF classification. In female students, 8,4% were categorized as“underweight”, 11,1% “overweight”, and 3,3% as “obese” according to CDC classificationwhereas 5,2% were categorized as “overweight” and 1,2% “obese” according to IOTF. Theprevalences were not between boys and girls (p>0.05. Conclusion: In school children in the Southeast Anatolia Region, one of the most importanthealth problems was malnutrition; however prevalances of overweight and obesity had alsononignorable levels.

  9. Diversity and homogeneity among the early farming communities of Western Anatolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eylem Özdoğan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Our knowledge of the Neolithisation of Western Anatolia has increased considerably in recent years. Being located beyond, but on the border of the formative zone of Neolithisation, the region has acted as a buffer in the dispersal of the Neolithic way of life farther to the west. Recent research in Western Anatolia has shown that Neolithic sites appeared in the second quarter of the 7th millennium BC and had become widespread by the second half of the same millennium. There is now adequate data available on both the distribution of sites and the material culture in some subregions. In this context, this article will focus not on the Neolithisation process, but on the characteristic features of the sub-regions and the interaction between them.

  10. Geochemical and mantle-like isotopic (Nd, Sr) composition of the Baklan Granite from the Muratdağı Region (Banaz, Uşak), western Turkey: Implications for input of juvenile magmas in the source domains of western Anatolia Eocene Miocene granites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydoğan, M. Selman; Çoban, Hakan; Bozcu, Mustafa; Akıncı, Ömer

    2008-07-01

    The (late syn)- post-collisional magmatic activities of western and northwestern Anatolia are characterized by intrusion of a great number of granitoids. Amongst them, Baklan Granite, located in the southern part of the Muratdağı Region from the Menderes Massif (Banaz, Uşak), has peculiar chemical and isotopic characteristics. The Baklan rocks are made up by K-feldspar, plagioclase, quartz, biotite and hornblende, with accessory apatite, titanite and magnetite, and include mafic microgranular enclaves (MME). Chemically, the Baklan intrusion is of sub-alkaline character, belongs to the high-K, calc-alkaline series and displays features of I-type affinity. It is typically metaluminous to mildly peraluminous, and classified predominantly as granodiorite in composition. The spider and REE patterns show that the rocks are fractionated and have small negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu ∗ = 0.62-0.86), with the depletion of Nb, Ti, P and, to a lesser extent, Ba and Sr. The pluton was dated by the K-Ar method on the whole-rock, yielded ages between 17.8 ± 0.7 and 19.4 ± 0.9 Ma (Early Miocene). The intrusion possesses primitive low initial 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios (0.70331-0.70452) and negative ɛNd(t) values (-5.0 to -5.6). The chemical contrast between evolved Baklan rocks (SiO 2, 62-71 wt.%; Cr, 7-27 ppm; Ni, 5-11 ppm; Mg#, 45-51) and more primitive clinopyroxene-bearing monzonitic enclaves (SiO 2, 54-59 wt.%; Cr, 20-310 ppm; Ni, 10-70 ppm; Mg#, 50-61) signifies that there is no co-genetic link between host granite and enclaves. The chemical and isotopic characteristics of the Baklan intrusion argue for an important role of a juvenile component, such as underplated mantle-derived basalt, in the generation of the granitoids. Crustal contamination has not contributed significantly to their origin. However, with respect to those of the Baklan intrusion, the generation of the (late syn)- post-collisional intrusions with higher Nd(t) values from the western Anatolia require a much

  11. ESR dating of Soma (Manisa, West Anatolia - Turkey) fossil gastropoda shells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engin, Birol [Ankara Nuclear Research and Training Center, 06100 Besevler, Ankara (Turkey)]. E-mail: birol_engin65@yahoo.com; Kapan-Yesilyurt, Sevinc [Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Department of Geological Engineering, Canakkale (Turkey); Taner, Gueler [Ankara University, Department of Geological Engineering, Tandogan, Ankara (Turkey); Demirtas, Hayruennisa [Ankara Nuclear Research and Training Center, 06100 Besevler, Ankara (Turkey); Eken, Mahmut [Ankara Nuclear Research and Training Center, 06100 Besevler, Ankara (Turkey)

    2006-02-15

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy technique has been employed to date the aragonitic fresh-water gastropod shells (Melanoides curvicosta) collected from Soma (Manisa) district (West Anatolia) of Turkey. The influence of the annealing temperature and {gamma}-radiation dose on dating signal at g = 2.0016 is investigated. The thermal stability and dose response of the ESR signals were found to be suitable for an age determination using a signal at g = 2.0016. The activation energy (E), frequency factor (s) and mean-lifetime ({tau}) at 15 deg. C of the g = 2.0016 center were calculated to be 1.67 {+-} 0.01 eV (3.6 {+-} 0.7) x 10{sup 13} s{sup -1} and 2.02 x 10{sup 8} years, respectively. The ESR signal growth curve on additional {gamma}-irradiation has been best fitted by an exponential saturation function. Based on this model, accumulated dose (AD) value for dating is obtained. We have determined the ESR age of the terrestrial gastropods to be 2.57 {+-} 0.30 Ma. The results show that the ESR age falls into the Late Pliocene (Romanian) epoch of the geological time scale, which agreed with the paleoecological and paleogeographic distribution and stratigraphic level of the fauna.

  12. The Gediz River fluvial archive: A benchmark for Quaternary research in Western Anatolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddy, D.; Veldkamp, A.; Demir, T.; van Gorp, W.; Wijbrans, J. R.; van Hinsbergen, D. J. J.; Dekkers, M. J.; Schreve, D.; Schoorl, J. M.; Scaife, R.; Stemerdink, C.; van der Schriek, T.; Bridgland, D. R.; Aytaç, A. S.

    2017-06-01

    The Gediz River, one of the principal rivers of Western Anatolia, has an extensive Pleistocene fluvial archive that potentially offers a unique window into fluvial system behaviour on the western margins of Asia during the Quaternary. In this paper we review our work on the Quaternary Gediz River Project (2001-2010) and present new data which leads to a revised stratigraphical model for the Early Pleistocene development of this fluvial system. In previous work we confirmed the preservation of eleven buried Early Pleistocene fluvial terraces of the Gediz River (designated GT11, the oldest and highest, to GT1, the youngest and lowest) which lie beneath the basalt-covered plateaux of the Kula Volcanic Province. Deciphering the information locked in this fluvial archive requires the construction of a robust geochronology. Fortunately, the Gediz archive provides ample opportunity for age-constraint based upon age estimates derived from basaltic lava flows that repeatedly entered the palaeo-Gediz valley floors. In this paper we present, for the first time, our complete dataset of 40Ar/39Ar age estimates and associated palaeomagnetic measurements. These data, which can be directly related to the underlying fluvial deposits, provide age constraints critical to our understanding of this sequence. The new chronology establishes the onset of Quaternary volcanism at ∼1320ka (MIS42). This volcanism, which is associated with GT6, confirms a pre-MIS42 age for terraces GT11-GT7. Evidence from the colluvial sequences directly overlying these early terraces suggests that they formed in response to hydrological and sediment budget changes forced by climate-driven vegetation change. The cyclic formation of terraces and their timing suggests they represent the obliquity-driven climate changes of the Early Pleistocene. By way of contrast the GT5-GT1 terrace sequence, constrained by a lava flow with an age estimate of ∼1247ka, span the time-interval MIS42 - MIS38 and therefore do not

  13. Hydroclimatic changes recorded in Lake Van (eastern Anatolia, Turkey) during the last glacial/interglacial cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiecien, O.; Tomonaga, Y.; Stockhecke, M.; Randlett, M.; Bucher, S.; Pickarski, N.; Brennwald, M.; Schubert, C. J.; Kipfer, R.; Anselmetti, F.; Sturm, M.; Haug, G. H.

    2012-12-01

    Lake-level fluctuations of terminal lakes are a sensitive indicator of local/regional moisture balance. Here we reconstruct changes in level of Lake Van, eastern Anatolia, Turkey. We combine several approaches (pore water and sediment geochemistry, lithological analysis, modeling, and mapping of lake terraces) and focus on the last ca. 130 ka of Lake Van's history. For the multi-millennial time scales, we use salinity measured in the pore water to calculate the water volume (and the respective lake level) necessary to dilute or concentrate the dissolved salt content of Lake Van. Our results agree with a previous study on lake terraces in the region of Lake Van (Kuzucuoglu et al., 2010) suggesting that during MIS 5 (130-70 ka BP) the lake level was ca. 100 m higher than today. During the last glacial, the water level dropped significantly, but the lake did not dry out completely (compare Landmann et al., 1996). Pollen data support wet interglacial and dry glacial conditions. In order to resolve centennial-to millennial lake level changes we investigated the terrigenous components of the sediment. The accumulation of terrigenous material in Lake Van is a function of a depocenter distance from a river mouth (fluvial input) and exposition of the shelf (eolian input), both of which are dependent on the lake level. Accordingly, high-resolution XRF Al- and K-data, reflecting terrigenous input, reinforced by lithological analysis provide insight into short-term lake-level fluctuations superimposed on the long-term trend. These data show excellent and detailed correlation with the Greenland ice-core isotope signal. We conclude that in eastern Anatolia, the last interglacial was probably more humid than the recent one. Additionally, during the last glacial, the region experienced not only dry and windy spells in concert with Greenland stadials but also abrupt climate melioration as Greenland warmed into interstadials. Lake Van sediments are thus, to our knowledge, the most

  14. Geochemistry and tectonic setting of Tertiary volcanism in the Güvem area, Anatolia, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tankut, Ayla; Wilson, Marjorie; Yihunie, Tadesse

    1998-10-01

    Detailed field mapping in the Güvem area in the Galatia province of NW Central Anatolia, Turkey, combined with K-Ar dating, has established the existence of two discrete Miocene volcanic phases, separated by a major unconformity. The magmas were erupted in a post-collisional tectonic setting and it is possible that the younger phase could be geodynamically linked to the onset of transtensional tectonics along the North Anatolian Fault zone. The Early Miocene phase (18-20 Ma; Burdigalian) is the most voluminous, comprising of over 1500 m of potassium-rich intermediate-acid magmas. In contrast, the Late Miocene volcanic phase (ca. 10 Ma; Tortonian) comprises a single 70-m-thick flow unit of alkali basalt. The major and trace element and Sr-Nd isotope compositions of the volcanics suggest that the Late Miocene basalts and the parental mafic magmas to the Early Miocene series were derived from different mantle sources. Despite showing some similarities to high-K calc-alkaline magma series from active continental margins, the Early Miocene volcanics are clearly alkaline with higher abundances of high field strength elements (Zr, Nb, Ti, Y). Crustal contamination appears to have enhanced the effects of crystal fractionation in the petrogensis of this series and some of the most silica-rich magmas may be crustal melts. The mantle source of the most primitive mafic magmas is considered to have been an asthenospheric mantle wedge modified by crustally-derived fluids rising from a Late Cretaceous-Early Tertiary Tethyan subduction zone dipping northwards beneath the Galatia province. The Late Miocene basalts, whilst still alkaline, have a Sr-Nd isotope composition indicating partial melting of a more depleted mantle source component, which most likely represents the average composition of the asthenosphere beneath the region.

  15. Tertiary volcanism of the Galatia province, north-west Central Anatolia, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Marjorie; Tankut, Ayla; Guleç, Nilgün

    1997-12-01

    Large volumes of trachyandesitic-dacitic lava flows and pyroclastics of Miocene age are associated with small volumes of alkali basalt lava flows in the Galatia volcanic province, northwest Central Anatolia, Turkey. The volcanism postdates continental collision, occurring in a transtensional tectonic setting associated with movement along the North Anatolian Fault zone. Major and trace element (including REE) and Sr-Nd isotope data and K-Ar ages for representative samples of mafic-intermediate volcanic rocks have been obtained from a series of localities within the province. The K-Ar age data indicate that alkali basalts were erupted during two distinct time periods in the Early Miocene (17-19 Ma) and Late Miocene (< 10 Ma). The two groups of basalts are inferred to have been derived from different mantle sources, based on their Sr-Nd isotope and geochemical characteristics. The Late Miocene basalts were derived from a more depleted mantle source than the Early Miocene basalts, which were generated by partial melting of an incompatible element enriched, subduction-modified, mantle source. The depleted source component is inferred to reside within the asthenosphere and has some affinities with the source of HIMU oceanic island basalts. On the basis of a comprehensive major and trace element and Nd-Sr isotope dataset for the intermediate-acid volcanics and the alkali basalts, it is possible to demonstrate a cogenetic relationship between the alkali basalts and the intermediate volcanics of Early Miocene age, involving fractional crystallisation and assimilation of a heterogeneous upper crustal component.

  16. Structural Geology and Exhumation of the Paleogene Southern Sivas Fold and Thrust Belt, Central Anatolia, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darin, M. H.; Umhoefer, P. J.; Lefebvre, C.; Thomson, S. N.

    2015-12-01

    The Anatolian plate (Turkey) was formed during the late Miocene-Pliocene transition from contractional strain in central and eastern Anatolia (collision) to localized strike-slip faulting along inherited collisional structures (escape tectonics). Structural inheritance undoubtedly played a role in this major plate boundary reorganization, although its significance is not well understood. Considerable uncertainty also exists regarding the timing and kinematics of Tauride-Eurasia collision, initial Arabia-Eurasia collision, and the terminal closure of the Neotethys Ocean. The Sivas Basin is a ~E-W-elongate collisional forearc basin located between the Tauride micro-continent in the south and the Pontide Arc along the southern Eurasian margin in the north. Well-exposed contractional structures in Paleocene-Eocene marine strata of the Southern Sivas fold and thrust belt (SSFTB) provide an excellent opportunity to investigate the timing and kinematics of both Tauride and Arabian collisions and their potential roles in localizing strain and facilitating tectonic escape. We use detailed geologic mapping, structural analysis and detrital geo/thermochronology to investigate the magnitude, style, and timing of collision-related crustal shortening across the SSFTB. The structural geology of the SSFTB is characterized by ENE- to ESE-trending, gently plunging fault propagation folds with slight asymmetry towards the north. Vergence on thrust faults is mainly towards the north, although a few previously unmapped faults are south-vergent. Detrital apatite fission track data from Paleocene-Eocene strata reveal a single phase of rapid exhumation ca. ~36-31 Ma, which may be related to either Tauride or initial Arabian collision. We propose that structural growth of the SSFTB at this time played a major role in marine basin isolation and early Oligocene evaporite deposition. In the central and northern Sivas Basin where salt was likely thickest, salt tectonics was initiated by

  17. Identifying the volcanic eruption depicted in a neolithic painting at Catalhoyuk, Central Anatolia, Turkey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel K Schmitt

    Full Text Available A mural excavated at the Neolithic Çatalhöyük site (Central Anatolia, Turkey has been interpreted as the oldest known map. Dating to ∼6600 BCE, it putatively depicts an explosive summit eruption of the Hasan Dağı twin-peaks volcano located ∼130 km northeast of Çatalhöyük, and a birds-eye view of a town plan in the foreground. This interpretation, however, has remained controversial not least because independent evidence for a contemporaneous explosive volcanic eruption of Hasan Dağı has been lacking. Here, we document the presence of andesitic pumice veneer on the summit of Hasan Dağı, which we dated using (U-Th/He zircon geochronology. The (U-Th/He zircon eruption age of 8.97±0.64 ka (or 6960±640 BCE; uncertainties 2σ overlaps closely with (14C ages for cultural strata at Çatalhöyük, including level VII containing the "map" mural. A second pumice sample from a surficial deposit near the base of Hasan Dağı records an older explosive eruption at 28.9±1.5 ka. U-Th zircon crystallization ages in both samples range from near-eruption to secular equilibrium (>380 ka. Collectively, our results reveal protracted intrusive activity at Hasan Dağı punctuated by explosive venting, and provide the first radiometric ages for a Holocene explosive eruption which was most likely witnessed by humans in the area. Geologic and geochronologic lines of evidence thus support previous interpretations that residents of Çatalhöyük artistically represented an explosive eruption of Hasan Dağı volcano. The magmatic longevity recorded by quasi-continuous zircon crystallization coupled with new evidence for late-Pleistocene and Holocene explosive eruptions implicates Hasan Dağı as a potential volcanic hazard.

  18. Water Management For Drip Irrigated Corn In The Arid Southeastern Anatolia Project Area In Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazar, A.; Gencel, B.

    Microirrigation has the potential to minimize application losses to evaporation, runoff and deep percolation; improve irrigation control with smaller, frequent applications; supply nutrients to the crop as needed; and improve crop yields. The Southeastern Anatolia Project (GAP), when completed, 1.7 million ha of land will be irrigated. Wa- ter supplies are limited, and traditional irrigation practices result in high losses and low irrigation efficiences. This study was conducted to evaluate surface drip irrigation on crop performance. The effect of irrigation frequency and amount on crop yield, yield components, water use, and water use efficiency of corn (Zea mays L., PIO- 3267) were investigated in the Harran Plain in the arid Southeastern Turkey on a clay textured Harran Soil Series. Irrigation frequencies were once in three-day, and once in six-day; irrigation levels varied from full (I-100), medium (I-67; 2/3rd of full), and low (I-33; 1/3rd of full). The full irrigation treatment received 100% of the cumula- tive evaporation within the irrigation interval. Liquid nitrogen was injected into the irrigation water throughout the growing season. Treatments received the same amount of fertilizers. Highest average corn grain yield (11920 kg/ha) was obtained from the full irrigation treatment (I-100) with six-day irrigation interval. Irrigation intervals did not affect corn yields; however, deficit irrigation affected crop yields by reducing seed mass, and the seed number. Maximum water use efficiency (WUE) was found as 2.27 kg/m3 in the I-33 treatment plots with three-day irrigation interval. On the clay soil at Harran, irrigation frequencies are less critical than proper irrigation management for drip irrigation systems to avoid water deficits that have a greater effect on corn yields. The results revealed that about 40% water saving is possible with drip irrigation as compared to traditional surface irrigation methods in the region.

  19. Magnetotelluric Imaging of Hasandaǧ-Karacadaǧ Monogenetic Cluster, Central Anatolia, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uslular, Göksu; Bülent Tank, Sabri; Özaydın, Sinan; Karaş, Mustafa; Gençalioǧlu-Kuşcu, Gonca; Sandvol, Eric

    2017-04-01

    Hasandaǧ stratovolcano is one of the most devastating volcanic edifices in the Central Anatolia, Turkey. The volcano has been studied for decades but there is still no consensus on its origin. To provide new insight on Hasandaǧ, there is also a need for geophysical explorations (e.g. seismology, magnetotelluric-MT) within the region. As a part of collaborative multidisciplinary project (CD-CAT: Continental Dynamics/Central Anatolian Tectonics) funded by NSF, we conducted 25 MT (360 Hz - 0.0002 Hz) measurements to reveal the electrical conductivity structure of the volcanic region between Hasandaǧ and Karacadaǧ stratovolcanoes. By means of two- and three-dimensional numerical modelling attempts based on several state-of-the-art algorithms, the MT data were utilized to create SW-NE trending profiles that visualize to a depth of 50-km of the subsurface structure. Prior to two-dimensional modelling, dimensionality analyses (i.e. geo-electric strike angle determination following Groom and Bailey decomposition for single-site and multi-site cases, phase tensors and induction vectors) were performed. Preliminary findings lead us to suggest that (i) there is a highly conductive body from 20 km to 40 km depth beneath the monogenetic field (i.e. Eǧrikuyu) between Hasandaǧ and Karacadaǧ. This may correspond to the possible depth at which widespread mildly-alkaline basalts are formed due to the decompression melting of heterogeneous mantle (mixing of mostly subduction-modified lithospheric and partially upwelling asthenospheric). (ii) Relatively low conductive body at shallow depth possibly due to the presence of buried ignimbrite. (iii) One of the maar with a deep source (diatreme-like) may still store hot fluids that result from highly conductive body, and here would be a suitable prospect area for geothermal exploration. (iv) low to high conductivity boundary underneath the Tuz Gölü fault appear as a barrier for fluid flow.

  20. Stratigraphy and Ar/Ar geochronology of the Miocene lignite-bearing Tunçbilek-Domaniç Basin, western Anatolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helvacı, C.; Ersoy, E. Y.; Billor, M. Z.

    2016-08-01

    The Tunçbilek-Domaniç Basin is one of the Neogene basins containing economic coal deposits in western Anatolia, Turkey. The basin fill represents fluvial to lacustrine sedimentary units which are interlayered with volcanic rocks with bimodal composition. In order to reveal the stratigraphy and the exact ages of the basin fill and coal deposits, and to explore the tectonic evolution of the basin, we present new field data and Ar/Ar age data from the volcanic units. The field studies and the age data indicate that the whole basin fills were deposited between ~23 and ~19 Ma (Aquitanian-Early Burdigalian) without any unconformity. Taking into account the ages of the coal-bearing sedimentary units in the other Neogene basins in the region, it is concluded that most of the economic coal deposits in the western Anatolia were formed during Aquitanian. The field studies also show that the deposition of the sedimentary units in the basin was controlled by the NE-SW-trending strike- to oblique-slip normal faults. In a regional scale, tectonic evolution of the Tunçbilek-Domaniç Basin is linked to the differential stretching in the hanging wall of the southerly located, a crustal-scale low-angle detachment fault (the Simav detachment fault) that controlled the Early Miocene exhumation of the Menderes Extensional Core Complex.

  1. Structure of the Nemrut caldera (Eastern Anatolia, Turkey) and associated hydrothermal fluid circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulusoy, İnan; Labazuy, Philippe; Aydar, Erkan; Ersoy, Orkun; Çubukçu, Evren

    2008-07-01

    Plio-Quaternary volcanism played an important role in the present physical state of Eastern Anatolia. Mount Nemrut, situated to the west of Lake Van is one of the main volcanic centers in the region, with a spectacular summit caldera 8.5 × 7 km in diameter. The most recent eruptions of the volcano were in 1441, 1597 and 1692. Nemrut Lake covers the western half of the caldera; it is a deep, half-bowl-shaped lake with a maximum depth of 176 m. Numerous eruption centers are exposed within the caldera as a consequence of magma-water interaction. Current activity of Nemrut caldera is revealed as hot springs, fumaroles and a small, hot lake. Self-potential and bathymetric surveys carried out in the caldera were used to characterize the structure of the caldera and the associated hydrothermal fluid circulation. In addition, analyses based on digital elevation models and satellite imagery were used to improve our knowledge about the structure of the caldera. According to SP results, the flanks of the volcano represent "the hydrogeologic zone", whereas the intra-caldera region is an "active hydrothermal area" where the fluid circulation is controlled by structural discontinuities. There is also a northern fissure zone which exhibits hydrothermal signatures. Nemrut caldera collapsed piecemeal, with three main blocks. Stress controlling the collapse mechanism seems to be highly affected by the regional neotectonic regime. In addition to the historical activity, current hydrothermal and hydrogeologic conditions in the caldera, in which there is a large lake and shallow water table, increase the risk of the quiescent volcano.

  2. Determination compliance abilities of some triticale varieties and comparison with wheat in Southeastern Anatolia conditions of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendal, Enver; Tekdal, Sertaç; Aktas, Hüsnü; Karaman, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    In this research, were used 3 triticale varieties (Tacettinbey, Karma 2000 and Presto), one durum (Sariçanak 98) and one bread (Nurkent) wheat varieties. The study, was randomized as complete block design with four replications in 4 location (southeastern Anatolia of Turkey) and under rainfed conditions during the growing season 2010-2011. With an analysis of variance, significant differences were determined among locations, genotypes and genotype x location interactions at the 1% and 5% level. Following results were obtained: period to heading 109 till 113 days, plant height between 96 and 127 cm, hectoliter weight between 68.2 and 81.7 kg/hl, thousand grain weight between 32.9 and 42.7 g, protein content between 13.3 and 14.7%, humidty kernels at harvest between 9.2 and 9.5% and grain yield between 4409 and 6119 kg/ha(-1). The highest grain yield was obtained with Sariçanak 98 (durum wheat variety) while the best thousant grain weight was obtained by the triticale variety Tacettinbey. The triticale variety Karma 2000 showed higher protein content (14.7%) than other the other triticale varieties as well as durum and bread wheat varieties included trial. For the Southeastern Anatolia Region he results of this study demonstrated that the grain yield of triticale varieties were lower compared to common wheat. Nevertheless the triticale grain yield was higher than these of durum and bread wheat varieties under the more extrem (higher temperature and drought) growing conditions of the Kiziltepe region. For triticale the highest mean grain yield has been obtained fwith the variety Tacettinbey which is spring type. New sping type vatieties are more suitable than wheat for the more extreme growing conditions of the Southeastern Anatolia Region.

  3. Reconstructing Early Pleistocene (1.3 Ma) terrestrial environmental change in western Anatolia: Did it drive fluvial terrace formation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, A.; Candy, I.; Jongmans, A.G.; Maddy, D.; Demir, T.; Schoorl, J.M.; Schreve, D.; Stemerdink, C.; Schriek, van der T.

    2015-01-01

    A terrestrial environmental reconstruction of an Early Pleistocene landscape from western Anatolia is presented. The basis of this reconstruction is a sedimentary stack comprising fluvial and colluvial slope deposits. Contained within this stack is a sequence comprising two massive laminar calcretes

  4. Paleomagnetic evidence for an inverse rotation history of Western Anatolia during the exhumation of Menderes core complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uzel, Bora; Langereis, Cornelis G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073584223; Kaymakçı, Nuretdin; Sözbilir, Hasan; Özkaymak, Çağlar; Özkaptan, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Within the Aegean extensional system, the Izmir-Balikesir Transfer Zone (IBTZ) is a crucial element in the late Cenozoic evolution of western Anatolia since it accommodates the differential deformation between the Cycladic and the Menderes metamorphic core complexes. Here, we determine the rotationa

  5. Offshore Seismic Observation in the Western Marmara Sea, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Y.; Takahashi, N.; Citak, S.; Kalafat, D.; Pinar, A.; Gurbuz, C.; Kaneda, Y.

    2014-12-01

    The North Anatolian Fault (NAF) extends 1600 km westward from a junction with the East Anatolian Fault at the Karliova Triple Junction in eastern Turkey, across northern Turkey and into the Aegean Sea, accommodating about 25 mm/yr of right-lateral motion between Anatolia and the Eurasian plate. Since 1939, devastating earthquakes with magnitude greater than seven ruptured NAF westward, starting from 1939 Erzincan at the eastern Turkey and including the latest 1999 Izmit-Golcuk and the Duzce earthquakes in the Marmara region. Considering the fault segments ruptured by the May 24th, 2014 Northern Aegean earthquake, the only un-ruptured segments left behind NAF locate beneath the Marmara Sea and those segments keep their mystery due to their underwater location. To clarify the detailed fault geometry beneath the western Marmara Sea, we started to operate a series of ocean bottom seismographic (OBS) observations. As a first step, we deployed 3 pop-up type OBSs on 20th of March 2014 as a trial observation, and recovered them on 18thof June 2014. Although one of the OBSs worked only 6 days from the start of the observation, other two OBSs functioned properly during the whole 3-month observation period. Only 8 earthquakes were reported near the OBS network in 3 months periods according to the Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute catalogue. Thus, we first searched for the microearthquakes missing by the land seismic network and estimated their precious location by using the initial 6 days data. We could identify about 50 earthquakes with more than 5 picking data of P and S first arrivals, and half of them located near the NAF. We also tested the hypocenter relocation by combining the land and OBS seismic data for the 8 earthquakes, and found that these earthquakes are located in between 12-24 km depths. Next, we are planning to deploy 10 OBSs from September 2014 to June 2015 as a second step for our observation. At the AGU fall meeting, we will be able to

  6. Chaenorhinum semispeluncarum sp. nov. and C. yildirimlii sp. nov. (Scrophulariaceae) from east Anatolia, Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yildirim, Hasan; Tan, Kit; Senol, Serdar;

    2010-01-01

    Chaenorhinum semispeluncarum H. Yildirim, Kit Tan, S. Senol & A. Pirhan sp. nov. and C. yildirimlii Kit Tan, H. Yildirim, S. Senol & A. Pirhan sp. nov. (Scrophulariaceae, C. sect. Microrrhinum) from east Anatolia are described and illustrated. They are both narrow endemics related to the rare C. ...

  7. Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-01

    Focus in this discussion of Turkey is on the following: geography; the people; history; government and political conditions; the economy; defense; and relations between the US and Turkey. In 1986, Turkey's population was estimated to be 51.8 million with an annual growth rate of 2.5%. The infant mortality rate is 12.3/1000 with a life expectancy of 62.7 years. Turkey is located partly in Europe and partly in Asia. Since 1950, urban areas have experienced tremendous growth, and squatter dwellings are evident around the cities' edges. About half of Turkey's population live in urban areas. Turkish culture is made up of both the modern and traditional, Ottoman and folkloric, elements. The Republic of Turkey was founded by Mustafa Kemal, subsequently named Ataturk, in 1982 after the collapse of the 600-year-old Ottoman empire. The new republic focused on modernizing and Westernizing the empire's Turkish core -- Anatolia and a small part of Thrace. The 1982 constitution preserves a democratic, secular, parliamentary form of government with a strengthened presidence. It provides for an independent judiciary along with the safeguarding of internationally recognized human rights. The legislative functions are carried out by the unicameral, 450-member GNA. The economy is developing structurally, yet the agricultural sector remains significant and produces cotton, tobacco, grains, fruits, and vegetables. Over half of the labor force are farmers, contributing over 1/5 of the gross domestic product. A significant portion of industry also is involved in processing agricultural products. The period from the mid-1960s to the mid-1970s was the longest sustained period of economic growth and development in modern Turkish history, with annual growth rates of nearly 7%. Oil price increases after 1973 and the concomitant European recession slowed Turkish growth and also revealed major structural deficiencies. The economic crisis worsened in 1979 as oil prices doubled again. The Demirel

  8. Crustal Structure of the Central Anatolia - Eastern Mediterrenean, Turkey and Cyprus from Wide-Angle Seismic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denli, Alper; Gürbüz, Cemil; Mechie, James; Weber, Michael

    2016-04-01

    As a part of the CyprusArc project, a seismic wide-angle reflection/refraction profiles were carried out in March 2010. The 300 km and 45 km long north-south trending profiles extended from Cihanbeyli in Central Anatolia to Anamur in eastern Mediterranean, Turkey and in southern Cyprus, respectively. The purpose of the project is to observe the impact of the transition from subduction to continent-continent collision of the African plate with the Anatolian plate. The field experiment comprised two land shots (1125 kg explosives) in Turkey and airguns (98 cubic liters) on the Mediterranean sea, beneath Cyprus. 244 stations were installed on land for data acquisition. 77 three-component sensors and 167 vertical-component sensors were installed along ~300 km distances between Cihanbeyli and Anamur with an average spacing of 1.25 km, on Turkey. 24 three-component sensors and 21 vertical component sensors were deployed along 45 km distances on land at southern Cyprus with an average spacing of 1.25 km. To reveal a good data quality, a visual quality check, frequency analysis and filtering were applied to the seismic data. Two land shots on Turkey (also recorded on Cyprus) and airgun shots on the Mediterranean sea beneath Cyprus, geological and previous seismic investigations provide information to derive a layered velocity models beneath from the Anatolian plateau to eastern Mediterranean, Turkey and for the ophiolite complex on Cyprus. After picking observed seismic phases, finite-differences ray tracing of the wide-angle data leads a 2-D crustal P-wave velocity models. The results show moho depth increases from 38 km to 45 km depth along north-south trending profile on Turkey and crustal thinning between south Turkey and Cyprus from 40 km to 36 km. Obtained models were further refined using forward modeling to generate synthetic seismograms for individual shot gathers. Thus, by varying the velocity structure, the theoretical times and amplitudes of the various

  9. Quaternary bimodal volcanism in the Niğde Volcanic Complex (Cappadocia, central Anatolia, Turkey): age, petrogenesis and geodynamic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Faruk; Schmitt, Axel K.; Siebel, Wolfgang; Sönmez, Mustafa; Ersoy, Yalçın; Lermi, Abdurrahman; Dirik, Kadir; Duncan, Robert

    2014-11-01

    The late Neogene to Quaternary Cappadocian Volcanic Province (CVP) in central Anatolia is one of the most impressive volcanic fields of Turkey because of its extent and spectacular erosionally sculptured landscape. The late Neogene evolution of the CVP started with the eruption of extensive andesitic-dacitic lavas and ignimbrites with minor basaltic lavas. This stage was followed by Quaternary bimodal volcanism. Here, we present geochemical, isotopic (Sr-Nd-Pb and δ18O isotopes) and geochronological (U-Pb zircon and Ar-Ar amphibole and whole-rock ages) data for bimodal volcanic rocks of the Niğde Volcanic Complex (NVC) in the western part of the CVP to determine mantle melting dynamics and magmatic processes within the overlying continental crust during the Quaternary. Geochronological data suggest that the bimodal volcanic activity in the study area occurred between ca. 1.1 and ca. 0.2 Ma (Pleistocene) and comprises (1) mafic lavas consisting of basalts, trachybasalts, basaltic andesites and scoria lapilli fallout deposits with mainly basaltic composition, (2) felsic lavas consisting of mostly rhyolites and pumice lapilli fall-out and surge deposits with dacitic to rhyolitic composition. The most mafic sample is basalt from a monogenetic cone, which is characterized by 87Sr/86Sr = 0.7038, 143Nd/144Nd = 0.5128, 206Pb/204Pb = 18.80, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.60 and 208Pb/204Pb = 38.68, suggesting a moderately depleted signature of the mantle source. Felsic volcanic rocks define a narrow range of 143Nd/144Nd isotope ratios (0.5126-0.5128) and are homogeneous in Pb isotope composition (206Pb/204Pb = 18.84-18.87, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.64-15.67 and 208Pb/204Pb = 38.93-38.99). 87Sr/86Sr isotopic compositions of mafic (0.7038-0.7053) and felsic (0.7040-0.7052) samples are similar, reflecting a common mantle source. The felsic rocks have relatively low zircon δ18O values (5.6 ± 0.6 ‰) overlapping mantle values (5.3 ± 0.3 %), consistent with an origin by fractional crystallization

  10. Palaeocology of coal-bearing Eocene sediments in central Anatolia (Turkey) based on quantitative palynological data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akkiraz, M.S.; Kayseri, M.S.; Akgun, F. [Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir (Turkey). Dept. of Geological Engineering

    2008-04-15

    In this study, the lignite-bearing Yoncali formation between Yozgat and Sorgun, in central Anatolia has been palynologically examined. Based on 37 outcrop samples, quantitative palynological studies recognized 64 genera and 136 palynoflora species in the palynological assemblage, which indicated a Middle-Late Eocene age. This paper also presents a quantitative palaeovegetation and palaeoclimate reconstruction for the Middle-Upper Eocene coal occurrences of Central Anatolia on the basis of palynomorph assemblages. The diversified floral and ecological characteristics of the pollen taxa indicates that the Middle-Upper Eocene formations in central Anatolia were characterized by the presence of a complex mangrove swamp with contributions by Nypa, Pelliciera, Avicennia, Diporites tszkaszentgydrgyi and dinoflagellate cysts which reflect warm climatic conditions. Lowland-riparian and montane elements are characterized by the dominance of Myricaceae, Symplocaceae, Icacinaceae, Quercus, Pinus and Castanea. Swamp-freshwater elements are represented by Sparganjaceae, Nymphaceae, Taxodjaceae, Cupressaceae and Nyssa as well as fern spores such as Osmundaceae and Gleicheniaceae. The calculations were performed with the help of the 'Coexistence Approach' method to climatically evaluate palynoflora from the Yozgat-Sorgun area. The obtained results have been compared to data derived from the application of the Coexistence Approach to other, already published Central Anatolian palynofloras of the same age. The results of the climatic inferences suggest that the palaeoclimatic conditions were in the megathermal zone, megatherm/mesotherm intermediate zone whereas mesothermic conditions prevailed in the montane region. Likewise, the results of mean annual range of temperatures indicate the influence of the Indian ocean, which enabled the development of the mangroves.

  11. Post-Paleogene (post-Middle Eocene-pre-Miocene) Geodynamic evolution of the Upper Cretaceous-Paleogene Basins in Central Anatolia, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojay, Bora

    2017-04-01

    Central Anatolia is one of the key areas on the evolution of Cretaceous-Paleogene Tethys where stratigraphy of the region is well studied. However not well linked with tectonics. The so-called "Ankara Mélange" belt (AOM) and the basins on top are important elements in the understanding of the İzmir-Ankara-Erzincan suture belt (İAES) evolution in Anatolia (Turkey) and in the evolution of Tethys in minor Asia (Turkey). Some of the basins are directly situated on top of the tectonic slices of the accretionary prism (IAES). However, some are not tectonically well explained as in the case of Haymana basin. The southern continental fragments (eg. Kütahya-Bolkardaǧ and Kırşehir blocks from Gondwana) are approaching to northern continents (Pontides of Lauriasia) where basins like Haymana, Alçı, Kırıkkale and Orhaniye extensional basins are evolved in between the closing margins of two continents. Haymana basin is an extensional basin developed under contractional regime on top of both northward subducting oceanic fragments and an approaching fragments of southern continents. Paleogene (end of Eocene) is the time where the Seas were retreated to S-SE Anatolia leaving a continental setting in Anatolia during Oligocene-Miocene. The slip data gathered from the faults cross-cutting the Paleogene Units and the fabric from Cretaceous mélanges depicts a NNW-SSE to NNE-SSW compressional stress regime operated during post-Eocene-pre-Miocene period. Lately the slip surfaces were overprinted by post-Pliocene normal faulting. Key words: fault slip data, Paleogene, NNW-SSE compression, Anatolia.

  12. Antimicrobial activities, pollen diversity and physicochemical properties of natural honey from Southeastern Anatolia of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menderes Cenet

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Honey, a natural sweetener, is produced from the nectar of many plants. The pollen diversity, physicochemical properties, and antimicrobial activities were analyzed in honey samples from Mardin (Southeastern Anatolia. Methods: The melissopalynological method was used to identify and enumerate the pollen granules. Analytical methods and agar well diffusion assays were employed for the determination of some quality parameters and the antimicrobial potential of honey samples, respectively. Results: The pollen composition consisted of 27 taxa belonging to 13 families. The origins of all honey were determined as the multifloral sources. The most predominant taxa were mainly Hedysarum sp., Carduus sp., Melissa officinalis, Gossypium hirsitum, Paliurus spina-christi, Salix sp. and Pimpinella anisum. The secondary pollen taxa were Hedysarum sp., Trifolium sp., Astragalus sp., Salix sp., Paliurus spina-christi, Asphodeline sp., Centaurea sp., Carduus sp., Zea mays and Cistus sp., respectively. Asphodeline sp. as a secondary pollen taxon in a honey sample could be considered as the first report. The pH, total acidity, brix, refractive index, electrical conductivity, moisture and L, a, b values of the samples varied from 3.75 to 4.28, 30 to 42, 67.3 to 85.70, 1.45 to 1.50, 12.40 to 31.61, 0.24 to 0.90, 47.81 to 57.59, -0.94 to 4.31, 20.37 to 31.28, respectively. Antimicrobial activities of the honey specimens were also effective on five bacterial species and two yeast species. Conclusions: Honey samples from Southeastern Anatolia revealed a good diversity of pollen granules. The rich multiflora of honey increases not only its nutritional quality as well as antimicrobial potential on various clinically important microorganisms.

  13. Assessment of metal concentrations in sediments from Lake Bafa (Western Anatolia): an index analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilgor, Sinem; Kucuksezgin, Filiz; Ozel, Erdeniz

    2012-09-01

    Metals, organic carbon contents were determined in surficial and core sediment samples from Lake Bafa, Western Anatolia in 2010. The ranges of Fe, Mn, Pb, Cu, Ni, Cr, Zn and Hg contents of sediments from the Bafa Lake were 9.4-35 g kg(-1), 250-780, 2.3-20, 5.8-55, 1.2-480, 63-278, 26.6-79.9 and 0.013-0.273 mg kg(-1), respectively. The mean metal concentrations in surficial sediments obtained in this study decreased in the following order; Fe > Mn > Ni > Cr > Zn > Cu > Pb > Hg for Bafa lake. Total organic carbon concentrations of the bottom sediments from the Bafa Lake varied between 0.35% and 3.58%. The mean concentrations of metal were lower than the background levels in earth crust except Cr and Ni in the core sediments. The metal levels were evaluated according to the New Geo-accumulation Index, enrichment and contamination factors. The results confirmed that the Bafa Lake is not facing serious environmental pollution risk due to metal contamination except Hg. The levels of Cr, Ni, Cu, Fe, Zn and Mn generally appear to be uniformly distributed with depth except Hg and Pb due to anthropogenic sources in the core sediments.

  14. Depositional conditions of the coal-bearing Hirka Formation beneath late Miocene explosive volcanic products in NW central Anatolia, Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sener, M. [Nigde University, Nigde (Turkey). Dept. of Geology

    2007-04-15

    This work focuses on the relationship between the coal deposition and explosive volcanism of the Miocene basin, NW central Anatolia, Turkey. The coal-bearing Hirka Formation was deposited over the Galatian Andesitic Complex and/or massive lagoonal environments during the Miocene. The investigated lignite is a high ash (from 32 to 58%) and sulphur (from 1.43 to 3.03%) lignite which is petrographically characterised by a high humunite content. The mineral matter of the studied lignite samples is made up of mainly clay minerals (illite-smectite and kaolinite), plagioclase and quartz in Bolu coal field, clay minerals (illite-smectite, smectite and illite), quartz, calcite, plagioclase and gypsum in Seben coal field, quartz, K-feldspar, plagioclase and clay minerals (kaolinite and illite) in Kibriscik, and dolomite, quartz, clinoptilolite, opal CT and gypsum in Camhdere coal field. The differences in these four types of lignite with specific mineralogical patterns may be due to the explosive volcanic events and depositional conditions which changed from one coal field to the others. There is a zonation from SW to SE in the studied area for zeolites. Carbonate minerals are commonly calcite in Seben and Kibriscik coal fields. In Bolu, coal samples are devoid of calcite and dolomite. These analyses show that there is an increase in the amount of Mg and a decrease in the amount of Na from the northwestern part to the southern part in the study area.

  15. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT AND ORGANIZATIONAL CYNICISM AMONG HOTEL EMPLOYEES IN SOUTHEASTERN ANATOLIA REGION OF TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melih Aydin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine whether relationship occurs between organizational commitment and organizational cynicism attitudes among employees who were employed in five and four star hotels located in Southeastern Anatolia Region of Turkey and to affirm the extent of the relationship. According to the findings, there is a significant (negative relationship between three sub-dimensions of organizational cynicism (behavioral cynicism, affective cynicism and cognitive cynicism and organizational commitment. Multiple regression and correlation analysis were applied to analyze data and identify the relationship between organizational commitment and organizational cynicism. According to the findings of the research, it is revealed that, as the level of organizational cynicism arises, attitudes toward organizational commitment decrease. Those results are consistent with findings of the previous studies that employees with cynical attitudes exhibited lower commitment in the organization. The results of this research showed that hotel employees mostly experience cognitive cynicism among sub-dimensions of cynicism and they rarely experience affective cynicism. In conclusion, it is possible to assert that employees were with medium level of organizational cynicism and organizational commitment.

  16. Measuring willingness to pay to improve municipal water in southeast Anatolia, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgic, Abdulbaki

    2010-12-01

    Increasing demands for water and quality concerns have highlighted the importance of accounting for household perceptions before local municipalities rehabilitate existing water infrastructures and bring them into compliance. We compared different willingness-to-pay (WTP) estimates using household surveys in the southern Anatolian region of Turkey. Our study is the first of its kind in Turkey. Biases resulting from sample selection and the endogeneity of explanatory variables were corrected. When compared to a univariate probit model, correction of these biases was shown to result in statistically significant findings through moderate reductions in mean WTP.

  17. The Tethyan Upper Cretaceous in northwestern Turkey - an integrated study of pelagic sections in northwestern Anatolia and the southern Black Sea coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfgring, Erik; Böhm, Katharina; Ömer Yilmaz, Ismael; Tüysüz, Okan; Dinarès-Turell, Jaume; Wagreich, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Upper Cretaceous sections in northwestern Turkey record pelagic depositional environments that are characterised by frequent volcanic events. The aim of the ongoing project is to cover a continuous cyclostratigraphic record of the Tethyan Campanian and to date palaeoenvironmental changes and volcanic events. Cyclic successions of pelagic deposits depicting shales and marl-marly limestone alternations with inter bedded tuff and turbidite layers were logged. Deposits alongside the southern Black Sea coast (in the western Pontide orogen) and in northwestern Anatolia (Göynük and Nallihan area) were examined for geochemistry and mineralogy of tuff beds, as well as for biostratigraphy and palaeoecology. Three formations of Turonian to Campanian age in the western Pontide area are present; Dereköy, Unaz and Cambu Formation are reflecting different geodynamic phases, i.e. subduction of the Neotethys as well formation of the Western Black Sea basin, overlain by the late Campanian-Maastrichtian Akveren Formation. Planktonic foraminiferal data suggest an age of upper Turonian Marginotruncana sigali -Dicarinella primitiva to lower Campanian Globotruncanita elevata Zone bracketing the first major phase of volcanism (Dereköy Fm.). The second volcanic unit (Cambu Fm.) is of early Campanian age, when spreading in the western Black Sea basin started. Geochemistry of tuff layers confirms magmatic activity of the Pontide volcanic arc from Turonian to Campanian. Discrimination diagrams using immobile elements classify calc-alkaline magma series and balsaltic-andesite and basalt rock types. Northwestern Anatolian sections are located in the Central Sakyrya region's Mudurnu-Göynük basin. Upper Cretaceous deposits of Turonian to Campanian age are recorded in pelagic limestones of the Yenipazar Formation. The cyclic pelagic Göynük section covers the Santonian-Campanian boundary, followed by a lower Campanian volcano-clastic unit and overlying turbidites and pelagic shales of late

  18. The relationship between Early Holocene climate change and Neolithic settlement in central Anatolia, Turkey: current issues and prospects for future research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Asouti

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Episodes of global climate change have traditionally been invoked as explanations for settlement re-organisation and socio-economic transformation in the prehistory of the Middle East (e.g., the Neolithic period. By focusing on the 8.2K event, this paper presents a theoretical and methodological argument against the assumption of unilinear, passive responses by prehistoric societies to global climate change, using as a case study datasets recently obtained from the Konya Plain in Central Anatolia, Turkey.

  19. The relationship between weathering and welding degree of pyroclastic rocks in the Kilistra ancient city, Konya (Central Anatolia, Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozdaǧ, Ali; Bayram, A. Ferat; İnce, İsmail; Asan, Kürşad

    2016-11-01

    Pyroclastic rocks used in both historical and modern structures are inevitably exposed to various weathering processes, leading to damage and destruction of them. To reduce the effects of weathering caused by various atmospheric effects, geologists need to know what processes are more effective and how they affect rock bodies. In this study, our aim is to show the relationship between the weathering and welding degree of pyroclastic rocks, sampled around the Ancient City of Kilistra in Konya (Central Anatolia, Turkey). For this purpose, we conducted field trips, and used petrographic and laboratory techniques such as, physico-mechanical tests and accelerated weathering tests (i.e., Freeze-Thaw, F-T; Wetting-Drying, W-D and Salt Crystallization, SC). Pyroclastic rocks around Kilistra ancient city comprise two different sub-units: the unwelded, lower pyroclastic unit (LPU) and the welded, upper pyroclastic unit (UPU). Following cycles of F-T and SC tests, we observed an increase in porosity values, but a decrease in uniaxial compressive strength values, which was more evident in unwelded-LPU samples. Also, the significant macroscopic textural changes occurred in LPU samples, linked to their unwelded nature. However, physico-mechanical features of both LPU and UPU samples were not significantly changed after W-D tests. Altogether, our findings show that welding degree is one of the main factors controlling weathering and physico-mechanical properties of pyroclastic rocks, and also F-T and SC are more effective processes than W-D on weathering. Accordingly, our approach here could be used to protect the endangered historical structures carved into pyroclastic rocks around the world.

  20. Depositional conditions of the coal-bearing Hirka Formation beneath Late Miocene explosive volcanic products in NW central Anatolia, Turkey

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mehmet Şener

    2007-04-01

    This work focuses on the relationship between the coal deposition and explosive volcanism of the Miocene basin, NW central Anatolia, Turkey. The coal-bearing Hirka Formation was deposited over the Galatian Andesitic Complex and/or massive lagoonal environments during the Miocene. The investigated lignite is a high ash (from 32 to 58%) and sulphur (from 1.43 to 3.03%) lignite which is petrographically characterised by a high humunite content. The mineral matter of the studied lignite samples is made up of mainly clay minerals (illite–smectite and kaolinite), plagioclase and quartz in Bolu coal field, clay minerals (illite–smectite, smectite and illite), quartz, calcite, plagioclase and gypsum in Seben coal field, quartz, K-feldspar, plagioclase and clay minerals (kaolinite and illite) in Kıbrıscık, and dolomite, quartz, clinoptilolite, opal CT and gypsum in C¸ amlıdere coal field. The differences in these four types of lignite with specific mineralogical patterns may be due to the explosive volcanic events and depositional conditions which changed from one coal field to the others. There is a zonation from SW to SE in the studied area for zeolites such as Opal CT+smectite-clinoptilolite-analcime-K-feldspar. Carbonate minerals are commonly calcite in Seben and Kıbrıscık coal fields. In Bolu, coal samples are devoid of calcite and dolomite. These analyses show that there is an increase in the amount of Mg and a decrease in the amount of Na from the northwestern part to the southern part in the study area.

  1. Identifying the Volcanic Eruption Depicted in a Neolithic Painting at Çatalhöyük, Central Anatolia, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Axel K.; Danišík, Martin; Aydar, Erkan; Şen, Erdal; Ulusoy, İnan; Lovera, Oscar M.

    2014-01-01

    A mural excavated at the Neolithic Çatalhöyük site (Central Anatolia, Turkey) has been interpreted as the oldest known map. Dating to ∼6600 BCE, it putatively depicts an explosive summit eruption of the Hasan Dağı twin-peaks volcano located ∼130 km northeast of Çatalhöyük, and a birds-eye view of a town plan in the foreground. This interpretation, however, has remained controversial not least because independent evidence for a contemporaneous explosive volcanic eruption of Hasan Dağı has been lacking. Here, we document the presence of andesitic pumice veneer on the summit of Hasan Dağı, which we dated using (U-Th)/He zircon geochronology. The (U-Th)/He zircon eruption age of 8.97±0.64 ka (or 6960±640 BCE; uncertainties 2σ) overlaps closely with 14C ages for cultural strata at Çatalhöyük, including level VII containing the “map” mural. A second pumice sample from a surficial deposit near the base of Hasan Dağı records an older explosive eruption at 28.9±1.5 ka. U-Th zircon crystallization ages in both samples range from near-eruption to secular equilibrium (>380 ka). Collectively, our results reveal protracted intrusive activity at Hasan Dağı punctuated by explosive venting, and provide the first radiometric ages for a Holocene explosive eruption which was most likely witnessed by humans in the area. Geologic and geochronologic lines of evidence thus support previous interpretations that residents of Çatalhöyük artistically represented an explosive eruption of Hasan Dağı volcano. The magmatic longevity recorded by quasi-continuous zircon crystallization coupled with new evidence for late-Pleistocene and Holocene explosive eruptions implicates Hasan Dağı as a potential volcanic hazard. PMID:24416270

  2. Some Phrygian Plant and Insect Remains from Kerkenes Dağ, Central Anatolia (Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexia Smith

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available During the 1996 and 2000 seasons of excavation at Kerkenes Dağ, a large single‐period Phrygian mountain‐top city located in central Turkey, a small assemblage of archaeobotanical remains and an insect were recovered from two specific archaeological contexts dated to the 540s B.C. This report documents a well‐cleaned Triticum durum/aestivum grain cache retrieved from a baking area, along with hand‐picked remains of Cornus mas, Cerasus cf. avium, and a Brachycerus sp. weevil.

  3. Physical and microbiological properties of alluvial calcareous Çumra province soils (Central Anatolia, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Sami Erol

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Alluvial calcareous soils in Central Anatolia (Konya province, Çumra district has a heavy granulometric composition (average clay, low organic carbon content (less than 1%, but stable pore space structure and favorable agrophysical properties. Studies of the water regime in drip irrigation confirm favorable hydrological properties of these soils. It is assumed that the favorable structure of the pore space due to vigorous activity a large and diverse soil biota. Four phyla dominate in soil biota, among which predominate Actinobacteria. The higher (Streptomyces, and lower (three species Rhodococcus actinobacteria are predominant in large amounts as a part of this phyla. Large biodiversity at a sufficiently high bacteria richness formed the structure of the microbial community that contribute to the balanced production of specific metabolites, including gases (CO2, N2, which allows the soil to function actively, preventing compaction of the pore space and maintaining optimal density, porosity, hydrologic properties of the studied silty clay soils. m the uppermost soil horizons. Analyses of heavy mineral fraction show presence of metamorphic and igneous minerals which indicate participation of weathering products from other rock types in the nearby area. The types of heavy minerals in soils depend more on composition of parent rocks and geomorphic position than on climate type. Soils from Nova Lovcha show similar composition, but the quantity of goethite and hematite significantly increase in soil from plain. Typical high-metamorphic minerals as andalusite, kyanite and sillimanite present only in Nova Lovcha, while garnet dominates in Petrovo and opaque minerals - in Dobrostan. Red soils, formed on slopes, where erosion prevails over accumulation, contain more illite, smectite and vermiculite-smectite, and very few or no kaolinite, whereas the kaolinite is dominant in soils formed on plain. The mineralogical composition of clays in different

  4. Preliminary results on a promising long paleoclimatic archive for the Near East: the lacustrine sequence of Acigöl (Anatolia, Turkey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demory, François; Perrin, Mireille; Cihat Alçiçek, Mehmet; Lebatard, Anne-Elizabeth; Nomade, Sébastien; Andrieu-Ponel, Valérie; Djamali, Morteza; Rochette, Pierre; Helvaci, Cahit

    2016-04-01

    A 601 m long core was drilled in Lake Acigöl located in an extensional basin in SW Anatolia (Turkey). The alternation of carbonates relatively rich in evaporites, siliciclastic particles and fossils (ostracods, gastropods and bivalves) gives to the sequence a high potential for palaeoclimatic record. The Acigöl sequence is younger than 3.4 Ma, the oldest age determination recorded for lacustrine successions elsewhere in SW Anatolia (van den Hoek Ostende, 2015). The first paleomagnetic investigations show numerous reverse polarities implying that two third of the sequence is older than 0.78 Ma (Brunhes/Matuyama transition) with a base dating back to 1.7 Ma or more. Indeed, although Jaramillo subchron (from 0.9 to 1.06 Ma) is well recorded, uncertainty remains for the Odulvaï subchron (from 1.78 to 2 Ma) which is not yet robustly identified. The age model will be soon completed by radiometric dating of a tephra found in the sequence and by authigenic 10Be/9Be dating. Detrital proxies (such as magnetic susceptibility) versus biological proxies will allow discrimination between tectonic and climatic signals and may reveal the response of terrestrial ecosystems to the mid-Pleistocene climatic transition. This research is supported by a two-year bilateral cooperation between CNRS-INSU and TUBITAK (grant number 114Y723). Reference: van den Hoek Ostende L.W. Gardner J.D. van Bennekom L. Alçiçek M.C. Murray A.M. Wesselingh F.P. Alçiçek H. Tesakov A.S. 2015. Ericek, a new Pliocene vertebrate locality from the Çameli Basin (SW Anatolia, Turkey). Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments 95, 305-320

  5. Geology and Magmatism of Gülşehir Area, City of Nevşehir, Central Anatolia, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayhan, Uǧur Can; Miyak, İlayda; Keskin, Mehmet

    2016-04-01

    Basement of the study area is represented by the Kırşehir Massif, which is one of important metamorphic massifs in Turkey. This metamorphic basement is unconformably overlain by clastic sediments which were deposited in Paleogene basins and then heavily deformed due to the closure of the Neotethys Ocean in the North. Paleogene deposits are, in turn, overlain by younger post-collisional sediments and volcano-sedimentary units, ranging in age from Tertiary to Quaternary. The apparent lowermost part of the Kırşehir Massif in the study area is represented by the Kaman Group, which is made up of quartz mica schists and marbles and is thought to be pre Mesozoic in age. The Kaman Group is cut by a granitoid pluton (i.e. Ortaköy granitoid) which is Maastrichian in age and subvolcanic bodies (i.e. Kızıltepe volcanics) which are also Cretaceous in age. Both the metamorphic basement and the magmatic intrusions are unconformably overlain by a volcano-sedimentary succession (i.e. Akmezardere formation), deposited in a marine environment during the Lutetian. The Akmezardere formation contains fold and thrust structures as well as slumps related to the closure of the northern branch of the Neotehtys Ocean. Most part of the region was uplifted and as a result, turned into a continental subaerial environment after Oligocene. The Oligocene-Miocene sediments were precipitated in lakes and lagoons. The region was subjected to intense post-collisional volcanism initiated during the Miocene. During the Upper Miocene, the Cappadocia volcanic province started to be formed. The lithospheric delamination and slab breakoff processes were possibly responsible for both the regional uplift and intense calc-alkaline to alkaline volcanism across the region. The Cappadocia volcanic province includes a wide range of volcanic units, (i.e. lavas and pyroclastics displaying the characteristics of fall, flow and surge processes) ranging in composition from basalt to rhyolite and in geochemical

  6. Prevalence of dementia and associated risk factors in Middle Anatolia, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslantaş, Didem; Ozbabalik, Demet; Metintaş, Selma; Ozkan, Serhat; Kalyoncu, Cemalettin; Ozdemir, Gazi; Arslantas, Ali

    2009-11-01

    This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of various cognitive disorders in the older population (age 55 years and above) of Eskisehir, Turkey, by conducting a cluster sampled door-to-door survey. A total of 3100 inhabitants were screened with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and a questionnaire concerning demographic, occupational and social data. Individuals (n=320) with MMSE scores of 25 were assessed according to the 10th Revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10) and were investigated in the more detailed phase 2 study. The overall prevalence of dementia was 8.4%, although it ranged from 2.2% among those aged 55-59 years to 5.3% among those aged 60-64 years, and to 30.4% among those aged 75 or above. Vascular dementia was the most common type (51.1%), followed by Alzheimer's dementia (48.8%). In a very small proportion of individuals (0.1%), dementia was due to other causes such as B12 deficiency, a tumour or hydrocephalus. Significant risk factors for dementia were female sex, low education, age, living in a rural area and a family history of dementia.

  7. Geodetic and seismological investigation of crustal deformation near Izmir (Western Anatolia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogru, Asli; Gorgun, Ethem; Ozener, Haluk; Aktug, Bahadir

    2014-03-01

    The Aegean region including western Turkey, mainland Greece, and the Hellenic Arc is the most seismological and geodynamical active domain in the Alpine Himalayan Belt. In this study, we processed 3 years of survey-mode GPS data and present the analysis of a combination of geodetic and seismological data around Izmir, which is the third most populated city in Turkey. The velocities obtained from 15 sites vary between 25 mm/yr and 28 mm/yr relative to the Eurasian plate. The power law exponent of earthquake size distribution (b-value) ranges from 0.8 to 2.8 in the Izmir region between 26.2°E and 27.2°E. The lowest b-value zones are found along Karaburun Fault (b = 0.8) and, between Seferihisar and Tuzla Faults (b = 0.8). A localized stress concentration is expected from numerical models of seismicity along geometrical locked fault patches. Therefore, areas with lowest b-values are considered to be the most likely location for a strong earthquake, a prediction that is confirmed by the 2005 Mw = 5.9 Seferihisar earthquake sequences, with epicentres located to the south of the Karaburun Fault. The north-south extension of the Izmir area is corroborated by extension rates up to 140 nanostrain/yr as obtained from our GPS data. We combined the 3-year GPS velocity field with the published velocity field to determine the strain rate pattern in the area. The spatial distribution of b-value reflects the normal background due to the tectonic framework and is corroborated by the geodetic data. b-Values correlate with strain pattern. This relationship suggests that decrease of b-values signifies accumulating strain.

  8. The evolution of the Cappadocia Geothermal Province, Anatolia (Turkey): geochemical and geochronological evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şener, M. Furkan; Şener, Mehmet; Uysal, I. Tonguç

    2017-07-01

    Cappadocia Geothermal Province (CGP), central Turkey, consists of nine individual geothermal regions controlled by active regional fault systems. This paper examines the age dating of alteration minerals and the geochemistry (trace elements and isotopes) of the alteration minerals and geothermal waters, to assess the evolution of CGP in relation to regional tectonics. Ar-Ar age data of jarosite and alunite show that the host rocks were exposed to oxidizing conditions near the Earth's surface at about 5.30 Ma. Based on the δ18O-δD relationhip, water samples had a high altitude meteoric origin. The δ34S values of jarosite and alunite indicate that water samples from the southern part of the study area reached the surface after circulation through volcanic rocks, while northern samples had traveled to the surface after interacting with evaporates at greater depths. REY (rare earth elements and yttrium) diagrams of alteration minerals (especially illite, jarosite and alunite) from rock samples, taken from the same locations as the water samples, display a similar REY pattern to water samples. This suggests that thermal fluids, which reached the surface along a fault zone and caused the mineral alteration in the past, had similar chemical composition to the current geothermal water. The geothermal conceptual model, which defines a volcanically heated reservoir and cap rocks, suggests there are no structural drawbacks to the use of the CGP geothermal system as a resource. However, fluid is insufficient to drive the geothermal system as a result of scanty supply of meteoric water due to evaporation significantly exceeding rainfall.

  9. Wetter and cooler: pronounced temperate climate conditions in western Anatolia during the Middle Miocene Climatic Optimum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güner, Tuncay H.; Bouchal, Johannes M.; Köse, Nesibe; Denk, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    proposed that has only a weak seasonality in precipitation (lower precipitation in winter). The findings of our study provide valuable information for inferring palaeoenvironments of middle Miocene rich ungulate faunas in western Turkey (e.g. Paşalar), for which seasonal tropical and subtropical forest communities have been proposed (Andrews, 1990). The fossil floras of the Tınaz and Salihpaşalar lignite mines, representing the Tınaz sub-basin and the main basin of the wider Yataǧan Basin, are investigated at the moment, and a synthesis paper combining and comparing evidence from the macro floral and palynological data is soon to be submitted. Andrews. (1990) Palaeoecology of the Miocene fauna from Paşalar, Turkey. Journal of Human evolution 19:569-582.

  10. Petrology and petrogenesis of the Eocene Volcanic rocks in Yildizeli area (Sivas), Central Anatolia, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doğa Topbay, C.; Karacık, Zekiye; Genç, S. Can; Göçmengil, Gönenç

    2015-04-01

    Yıldızeli region to the south of İzmir Ankara Erzincan suture zone is situated on the large Sivas Tertiary sedimentary basin. After the northern branch of the Neotethyan Ocean was northerly consumed beneath the Sakarya Continent, a continent - continent collision occurred between the Anatolide- Tauride platform and Pontides and followed a severe intermediate magmatism during the Late Cretaceous- Tertiary period. This created an east-west trending volcanic belt along the whole Pontide range. In the previous studies different models are suggested for the Eocene volcanic succession such as post-collisional, delamination and slab-breakoff models as well as the arc model for its westernmost parts. We will present our field and geochemical data obtained from the Yıldızeli and its surroundings for its petrogenesis, and will discuss the tectonic model(s) on the basis of their geochemical/petrological aspects. Cenozoic volcanic sequences of Yıldızeli region which is the main subject of this study, overlie Pre-Mesozoic crustal meta-sedimentary group of Kırşehir Massif, Ophiolitic mélange and Cretaceous- Paleocene? flysch-like sequences. In the northern part of Yıldızeli region, north vergent thrust fault trending E-W seperates the ophiolitic mélange complex from the Upper Cretaceous-Paleocene and Tertiary formations. Volcano-sedimentary units, Eocene in age, of the Yıldızeli (Sivas-Turkey) which are intercalated with sedimentary deposits related to the collision of Anatolide-Tauride and a simultaneous volcanic activity (i.e. the Yıldızeli volcanics), exposed throughout a wide zone along E-W orientation. Yıldızeli volcanics consist of basalts, basaltic-andesites and andesitic lavas intercalated flow breccias and epiclastic, pyroclastic deposits. Basaltic andesite lavas contain Ca-rich plagioclase + clinopyroxene ± olivine with minor amounts of opaque minerals in a matrix comprised of microlites and glass; andesitic lavas are generally contain Ca

  11. Trace metals and {sup 210}Po ({sup 210}Pb) concentrations in mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) consumed at western Anatolia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ugur, Aysun E-mail: aysun@bornova.ege.edu.tr; Yener, G.Guengoer; Bassari, Asiye

    2002-10-01

    The mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) have been evaluated for their bioavailability as biomonitors of trace and toxic elements in coastal water of western Anatolia. The levels of Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, Br and Sr in the edible part of mussels were determined using X-ray fluorescence method during the period of September 1999-July 2000. Distribution of {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb activities were measured by radiometric methods and their ratios were calculated. The activity concentrations of {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb were found to vary between 52{+-}6-1344{+-}108 and 6{+-}2-167{+-}10 Bq kg{sup -1} dry wt, respectively. The highest values for {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb were measured in Foca mussels and also observed the highest Fe, Zn and Br concentrations in the same species. {sup 210}Po/{sup 210}Pb activity ratio were derived as between 3.1 and 25.0.

  12. GUADALUPIAN BRACHIOPODS FROM WESTERN TAURUS, TURKEY

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    VINCENZO VERNA

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available  Here we describe 41 brachiopod species belonging to the orders Productida, Orthotetida, Orthida, Rhynchonellida, Athyridida, Spiriferida, Spiriferinida, and Terebratulida coming from the Guadalupian lower-middle part of the Pamuçak Formation at Çürük Dað, Antalya (Western Taurus, Turkey. Associated conodonts are also reported and illustrated. The brachiopod taxa are either pedicle attached genera, with one genus also stabilized by penetration of its elongate umbo, or free living concavo-convex semi-infaunal genera; this indicates that the energy of the environment was never very high, as in settings just below the fair weather wave-base or in a back-reef, more protected inner platform. The brachiopods from the Pamuçak Formation are very similar to the Wordian fauna of southeastern Oman, and they are similar to the Guadalupian assemblages of Chios, North Iran, South Thailand, and Salt Range. In comparison they share only a few taxa with the Guadalupian faunas of Central Afghanistan and Karakorum. Therefore the biotic affinity of the Guadalupian brachiopods of the Pamuçak Formation is clearly peri-Gondwanan. The brachiopod record at Çürük Dað has implications for understanding the pattern of the end-Guadalupian (pre-Lopingian biotic crisis. The pre-Lopingian crisis assemblages are quite diverse and nearly totally consist of Guadalupian genera and species except for a single Lopingian incomer. Their stratigraphic range terminates rather abruptly and the following 120 metres of shallow water limestones are barren of brachiopods, after which there is the first occurrence of Lopingian brachiopod taxa, which show a much lower biodiversity.  This pattern is different from that observed in South China and it shows that the end-Guadalupian crisis is not only characterized by taxonomic selectivity, but also by a strong local control on the extinction/recovery pattern of some groups. 

  13. Tectono-stratigraphy of the Orhaniye Basin, Turkey: Implications for collision chronology and Paleogene biogeography of central Anatolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licht, A.; Coster, P.; Ocakoğlu, F.; Campbell, C.; Métais, G.; Mulch, A.; Taylor, M.; Kappelman, John; Beard, K. Christopher

    2017-08-01

    Located along the İzmir-Ankara-Erzincan Suture (IAES), the Maastrichtian - Paleogene Orhaniye Basin has yielded a highly enigmatic -yet poorly dated- Paleogene mammal fauna, the endemic character of which has suggested high faunal provincialism associated with paleogeographic isolation of the Anatolian landmass during the early Cenozoic. Despite its biogeographic significance, the tectono-stratigraphic history of the Orhaniye Basin has been poorly documented. Here, we combine sedimentary, magnetostratigraphic, and geochronological data to infer the chronology and depositional history of the Orhaniye Basin. We then assess how our new data and interpretations for the Orhaniye Basin impact (1) the timing and mechanisms of seaway closure along the IAES and (2) the biogeographic evolution of Anatolia. Our results show that the Orhaniye Basin initially developed as a forearc basin during the Maastrichtian, before shifting to a retroarc foreland basin setting sometime between the early Paleocene and 44 Ma. This chronology supports a two-step scenario for the assemblage of the central Anatolian landmass, with incipient collision during the Paleocene - Early Eocene and final seaway retreat along the IAES during the earliest Late Eocene after the last marine incursion into the foreland basin. Our dating for the Orhaniye mammal fauna (44-43 Ma) indicates the persistence of faunal endemism in northern Anatolia until at least the late Lutetian despite the advanced stage of IAES closure. The tectonic evolution of dispersal corridors linking northern Anatolia with adjacent parts of Eurasia was not directly associated with IAES closure and consecutive uplifts, but rather with the build-up of continental bridges on the margins of Anatolia, in the Alpine and Tibetan-Himalayan orogens.

  14. Trouble in Anatolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick R Anthonisen

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this issue of the Canadian Respiratory Journal, Gulmez et al (pages 287-290 review the presentation, management and outcome of malignant mesothelioma in central Anatolia, Turkey. There is nothing particularly new about the disease here; it presents with chest pain, dyspnea and pleural effusion, is diagnosed by biopsy and has a miserable outcome whatever is done for it, just like malignant mesothelioma in Canada. Mesothelioma in Anatolia is unusual in that it is very common, with an approximately equal sex distribution, and frequently occurs in relatively young people. The reasons for this are not a mystery. Anatolia is a volcanic area; there is a lot of asbestos on or near the surface, and it is widely used as construction material, in painting, and as insulation (pages 287-290! Asbestos related disease is due to environmental, not occupational exposure, and exposure is more intense and occurs at an earlier age than in Canada. Not only that, but some areas of Anatolia are rich in erionite, and people build homes in and on erionite-bearing rocks. Erionite is apparently something like asbestos but worse in terms of carcinogenicity (1, perhaps because its crystals have large surface areas, and areas with erionite have an even higher incidence of mesothelioma.

  15. Seroepidemiological Study of Toxocariasis among Volunteers Animal Husbandry Workers and Veterinary in Southern Anatolia in Turkey in 2014

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    Hamdi SOZEN

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background:Human toxocariasis is a parasitic infection caused by the larvae of Toxocaracanis. We examine the Toxocara seroprevalance in veterinarians and animal husbandry workers living in the Mugla Province, Turkey to evaluate better the risk factors for Toxocara exposure.Methods: In 2014, 376 volunteers participated in the study in 2014. All blood specimens were tested using a commercial enzyme immunoassay kit and ELISA positive samples were confirmed by Western Blot (WB method.Results: The seroprevalence of Toxocara, as determined by WB, was 8%. A statistically significant correlation was evident between patient age and Toxo­cara positivity among animal husbandry workers (P = 0.029. A strong associa­tion was also evident between sex and seropositivity in the animal husbandry group (P=0.024. Veterinarians working in pet clinics did in fact exhibit higher Toxocara seropositivities relative to those of other groups (P = 0.029. A statisti­cally significant difference was detected between the rural geographic areas surveyed (P = 0.04.Conclusion: In Mugla Province, seroprevalence of Toxocara is lower than other regions. Despite the low seroprevalence observed, especially in high risk professions toxocariasis remains an important medical concern within the region. 

  16. Bronze Age metal artefacts found on Cyprus - metal from Anatolia and the Western Mediterranean

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    Stos-Gale, Zofia A.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Hundreds of Bronze Age metal artefacts excavated on archaeological sites in Cyprus have been analysed for their lead isotope and elemental composition in the Isotrace Laboratory, University of Oxford, in the years 1982-2002. In parallel, but in particular after 1995, hundreds of samples of minerals and slags collected from the mines and smelting sites around the Troodos Mountains were also analysed. Most of the results were published in various articles over the years, but the interpretation of some of the lead isotope data needs a current revision in view of new research conducted in Spain, Sardinia and southern France. It has been known that the lead isotope data for metal artefacts from the Cypriot Bronze Age sites shows that not all of the copper is consistent with origin from the Cypriot ores. In addition, the lead and silver artefacts found there must have been imported, because there are no lead or silver ores on Cyprus. The re-evaluation of the data shows that about 11 % of the analysed metal artefacts are consistent with the origin from the deposits in the Aegean and Turkey, while about 14 % with sources in the Western Mediterranean. This paper discusses in detail the current interpretation of the research into the sources of imported metal found in the Bronze Age context on Cyprus.

    Cientos de objetos de metal de la Edad del Bronce excavados en yacimientos de Chipre han sido analizados para conocer su composición elemental y sus isótopos de plomo en el Isotrace Laboratory de la Universidad de Oxford entre los años 1982 y 2002. Especialmente con posterioridad a 1995 cientos de muestras de minerales y escorias recogidas de minas y sitios de reducción de minerales localizadas en el entorno de las montañas de Troodos también fueron analizadas. La mayoría de los resultados fueron publicados en varios artículos a lo largo del tiempo, pero la interpretación de algunos análisis de isótopos de plomo necesitan de una revisión a

  17. Record of high-pressure overprint in metamorphic soles of the Tavşanli zone, Western Anatolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plunder, Alexis; Agard, Philippe; Chopin, Christian; Okay, Aral

    2013-04-01

    Large obducted ophiolites correspond to the emplacement of dense oceanic lithosphere on top of a continent and thereby provide insights into rheological and thermal coupling between plates or fluid budgets. Obducted ophiolites thrust onto the continental margin of the Anatolide-Tauride block (Western Anatolia, south of the Izmir-Ankara suture zone) are dated through their metamorphic sole at ca. 90-95Ma and derive from the same intra-oceanic Neotethyan subduction. We herein focus on the metamorphic soles of the Tavşanlı zone, which show a variable high-pressure low-temperature (HP-LT) overprint of the initial amphibolitic metamorphic conditions (Önen & Hall, 1993; Dilek & Whitney, 1997; Okay et al, 1998). Systematic sampling was done in both the already studied areas as well as new locations. PT conditions were estimated at 8 kbar and 700°C for the amphibolitic stage with the assemblage hornblende + plagioclase ± garnet ± epidote. The HP-LT metamorphic overprint reached incipient blueschist to blueschist facies PT conditions. Development of the characteristic assemblage glaucophane + lawsonite yields PT estimates of >6-7 kbar and 300°C. The high-pressure stage is similar to the one observed for the underlying accretionary-complex unit of the Tavşanlı zone (Plunder et al, this meeting). This HP overprint was not observed in other obduction contexts such as Oman or New Caledonia but was documented in Fransciscan Complex amphibolites (Wakayabashi, 1990). The record of two metamorphic events can be understood as: (1) rapid cooling of the subduction zone after initiation and the exhumation of the metamorphic sole; (2) reburial after or during exhumation of the amphibolite initially welded at the base of the ophiolite. Several observations (i.e., lack of tectonic contact between the ophiolitic body and the metamorphic sole, PT estimates,...) point to cooling as the most likely hypothesis. Metamorphic soles allow to highlight: (1) the dynamics of obducted

  18. Geochemistry of uranium and thorium and natural radioactivity levels of the western Anatolian plutons, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Argyrios; Altunkaynak, Şafak; Koroneos, Antonios; Ünal, Alp; Kamaci, Ömer

    2017-01-01

    Seventy samples from major plutons (mainly granitic) of Western Anatolia (Turkey) have been analyzed by γ-ray spectrometry to determine the specific activities of 238U, 226Ra, 232Th and 40K (Bq/kg). Τhe natural radioactivity ranged up to 264 Bq/kg for 238U, 229.62 Bq/kg for 226Ra, up to 207.32 Bq/kg for 232Th and up to 2541.95 Bq/kg for 40K. Any possible relationship between the specific activities of 226Ra, 238U, 232Th and 40K and some characteristics of the studied samples (age, rock-type, colour, grain size, occurrence, chemical and mineralogical composition) was investigated. Age, major and trace element geochemistry, color, pluton location and mineralogical composition are likely to affect the concentrations of the measured radionuclides. The range of the Th/U ratio was large (0.003-11.374). The latter, along with 226Ra/238U radioactive secular disequilibrium, is also discussed and explained by magmatic processes during differentiation.

  19. Geodetic Network Design and Optimization on the Active Tuzla Fault (Izmir, Turkey) for Disaster Management

    OpenAIRE

    Haluk Ozener; Kerem Halicioglu

    2008-01-01

    Both seismological and geodynamic research emphasize that the Aegean Region, which comprises the Hellenic Arc, the Greek mainland and Western Turkey is the most seismically active region in Western Eurasia. The convergence of the Eurasian and African lithospheric plates forces a westward motion on the Anatolian plate relative to the Eurasian one. Western Anatolia is a valuable laboratory for Earth Science research because of its complex geological structure. Izmir is a large city in Turkey wi...

  20. Microelement contents and fatty acid compositions of Rhus coriaria L. and Pistacia terebinthus L. fruits spread commonly in the south eastern Anatolia region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizil, Suleyman; Turk, Murat

    2010-01-01

    Sumac (Rhus coriaria L.) and terebinth (Pistacia terebinthus L.) are two important spice plants of south eastern Anatolia, Turkey. Nutrients, physical properties including moisture, ash, dry matter, protein, fatty oil and essential oil content, along with Al, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na, Ni, Pb, Zn and characteristics of fruit sizes and fatty acid compositions of both plants were determined from ripe fruits. The free fatty acid content was determined in the fruit oil, and the main fatty acids of sumac and terebinth were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. They included oleic, linoleic, palmitic and stearic acids in a ratio of 37.7% and 34.8%, 27.4% and 17.3%, 21.1% and 21.7% and, 4.7% and 2.5%, respectively. The fruits of both plants were rich in oil, fatty acids and minerals, suggesting that they are valuable for using in food. The data may also be useful for the evaluation of nutritional information.

  1. Miocene transgression in the central and eastern parts of the Sivas Basin (Central Anatolia, Turkey) and the Cenozoic palaeogeographical evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poisson, André; Vrielynck, Bruno; Wernli, Roland; Negri, Alessandra; Bassetti, Maria-Angela; Büyükmeriç, Yesim; Özer, Sacit; Guillou, Hervé; Kavak, Kaan S.; Temiz, Haluk; Orszag-Sperber, Fabienne

    2016-01-01

    We present here a reappraisal of the tectonic setting, stratigraphy and palaeogeography of the central part of the Sivas Basin from Palaeocene to late Miocene. The Sivas Basin is located in the collision zone between the Pontides (southern Eurasia) and Anatolia (a continental block rifted from Gondwana). The basin overlies ophiolites that were obducted onto Anatolia from Tethys to the north. The Central Anatolian Crystalline Complex (CACC) experienced similar ophiolite obduction during Campanian time, followed by exhumation and thrusting onto previously emplaced units during Maastrichtian time. To the east, crustal extension related to exhumation of the CACC created grabens during the early Tertiary, including the Sivas Basin. The Sivas Basin underwent several tectonic events during Paleogene-Neogene. The basin fill varies, with several sub-basins, each being characterised by a distinctive sequence, especially during Oligocene and Miocene. Evaporite deposition in the central part of the basin during early Oligocene was followed by mid-late Oligocene fluvio-lacustrine deposition. The weight of overlying fluvial sediments triggered salt tectonics and salt diapir formation. Lacustrine layers that are interbedded within the fluviatile sediments have locally yielded charophytes of late Oligocene age. Emergent areas including the pre-existing Sivas Basin and neighbouring areas were then flooded from the east by a shallow sea, giving rise to a range of open-marine sub-basins, coralgal reef barriers and subsiding, restricted-marine sub-basins. Utilising new data from foraminifera, molluscs, corals and nannoplankton, the age of the marine transgression is reassessed as Aquitanian. Specifically, age-diagnostic nannoplankton assemblages of classical type occur at the base of the transgressive sequence. However, classical stratigraphic markers have not been found within the planktic foraminiferal assemblages, even in the open-marine settings. In the restricted-marine sediments

  2. Natural and anthropogenic radionuclides in rocks and beach sands from Ezine region (Canakkale), Western Anatolia, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orgün, Y; Altinsoy, N; Sahin, S Y; Güngör, Y; Gültekin, A H; Karahan, G; Karacik, Z

    2007-06-01

    This paper represents the first reports on the natural and anthropogenic radionuclides in Kestanbol granitic pluton and surrounding rocks, and coastal region of the Ezine town. To assess the radiological hazard of the natural radioactivity, the radium equivalent activity, the absorbed dose rate and the external hazard index were calculated, and in situ gamma dose rates were measured. The high-activity concentrations were measured in the pluton and sands, which was originated mainly from the pluton, due to the presence of zircon, allanite, monazite, thorite, uranothorite and apatite. The average activity concentrations of (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K are 174.78, 204.69 and 1171.95 Bq kg(-1) for pluton, and 290.36, 532.04 and 1160.75 Bq kg(-1) for sands, respectively. (137)Cs in Ezine region ranged from 0-6.57 Bq kg(-1). The average absorbed dose rate for the granitic and sand samples were calculated to be 251.6 and 527.92 nGy h(-1), respectively. The maximum contribution to the total absorbed gamma dose rate in air was due to the (232)Th (52.3% for pluton and 67.1% for sands). The Raeq activities of the pluton and sands are higher than the recommended maximum value of 370 Bq kg(-1) criterion limit of Raeq activity for building materials.

  3. The Konya earthquakes of 10–11 September 2009 and soil conditions in Konya, Central Anatolia, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Aksoy

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Earthquakes registering magnitudes Md = 4.5 and 4.7 struck the city of Konya, Central Anatolia, on 10–11 September 2009, causing very slight damages. The earthquake epicenters were located at the east of Sille District along the Konya Fault Zone, a dip-slip fault. The nature and seismicity of the fault zone indicates that it is capable of producing earthquakes of moderate magnitudes. This paper summarizes the geologic data along the fault zone and documents groundwater conditions and analyzes borehole and geotechnical data of the Konya city. The residential area of the city covers an area of approximately 1150 square kilometers and consists almost entirely of flat land except for a small part of rugged land in the southwestern corner. Groundwater and geotechnical data were collected and analyzed to evaluate the liquefaction potential of deposits under the Konya city. This preliminary investigation indicates that areas for liquefaction are generally limited to the eastern and east central parts of the city.

  4. Data on the reproduction of a Caucasian Viper, Vipera kaznakovi Nikolsky, 1909 (Serpentes: Viperidae from Hopa (Northeastern Anatolia, Turkey

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    Bayram Göçmen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the current study we report an observation of a Caucasian Viper, Vipera kaznakovi from Hopa (Artvin, Turkey giving birth. During our field studies, we captured a female Vipera kaznakovi on July 21, 2012 from Esenkıyı village, Hopa (Artvin, Turkey, it was brought to the laboratory and kept in a terrarium for a period until May 28, 2013. The female (SVL= 483 mm, total length, TL = 541 mm gave birth to eight young (mean SVL= 146 mm, mean TL= 161.4 mm, range= 155 – 172 mm; mean weight, W= 3.11 g, range= 2.6 – 3.4 g on August 11, 2012. In six and a half months, the juvenile snakes had reached 163 mm SVL, 187 mm TL and 5.1g W and increased their size by approximately 15%.

  5. Bioaccumulation of metals in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) from water bodies of Anatolia (Turkey): a review with implications for fisheries and human food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilizzi, Lorenzo; Tarkan, Ali Serhan

    2016-04-01

    Although fish is widely consumed by humans for its nutritional properties, accumulation of heavy metals can pose serious health hazards. Widespread common carp Cyprinus carpio is cultured worldwide and represents an economically important species for fisheries in several countries. These include Turkey, where C. carpio often makes for a large part of the sales of the locally marketed fish and also for a traditional dish. This study provides a review of bioaccumulation of metals in tissues of C. carpio from water bodies of Anatolia and also includes reference to worldwide studies. From 42 water bodies across the region, 27 metals in total were studied, of which Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn were the most widely analysed, mainly in the muscle, liver and gill tissues. Amongst the potentially toxic metals, Cd, Cr and Pb occurred in several water bodies at concentrations not only above maximum allowed limits but also higher relative to other water bodies worldwide, even though As, Hg and Ni were also sometimes present at potentially hazardous concentrations. The essential metals Cu, Fe, Mn, Se and Zn were detected at various concentrations, with the latter two occasionally above limit. All water bodies flagged as having especially critical (i.e. above limit) concentrations of toxic metals supported C. carpio fisheries from highly populated regions, raising concern about food safety and calling for preventative measures. Given the significantly lower bioaccumulation levels in the muscle relative to the liver and gill tissues, it is suggested that consumption of C. carpio as fillets may be safer than after processing into e.g. meat balls and sausages. The limits of 1.0 μg/g for Cr and 1.15 μg/g for Se, currently lacking from the Turkish food safety legislation, are proposed, and it is suggested that a similar meta-analytical approach as adopted in this study may benefit other countries where C. carpio represents an important fisheries resource.

  6. Micro-chemical and micro-structural investigation of archaeological bronze weapons from the Ayanis fortress (lake Van, Eastern Anatolia, Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraldi, F.; Çilingirǒglu, A.; Angelini, E.; Riccucci, C.; De Caro, T.; Batmaz, A.; Mezzi, A.; Caschera, D.; Cortese, B.

    2013-12-01

    Bronze weapons (VII cen BC) found during the archaeological excavation of the Ayanis fortress (lake Van, eastern Anatolia, Turkey) are investigated in order to determine their chemical composition and metallurgical features as well as to identify the micro-chemical and micro-structural nature of the corrosion products grown during long-term burial. Small fragments were sampled from the artefacts and analysed by means of the combined use of optical microscopy (OM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS). The results show that the bronze artefacts have been manufactured by using alloys with a controlled and refined chemical composition demonstrating the high level metallurgical competence and skill of the Urartian craftsmen and artists. Furthermore, the micro-structural and metallurgical investigations evidence the presence of equiaxed grains in the matrix, indicating that the artefact were produced by repeated cycles of mechanical shaping and thermal annealing treatments to restore the alloy ductility. From the degradation point of view, the results show the structures and the chemical composition of the stratified corrosion layers (i.e. the patina) where the copper or tin depletion phenomenon is commonly observed with the surface enrichment of some elements coming from the burial soil, mainly Cl, which is related to the high concentration of chlorides in the Ayanis soil. The results reveal also that another source of degradation is the inter-granular corrosion phenomenon likely increased by the metallurgical features of the alloys caused by the high temperature manufacturing process that induces crystallisation and segregation phenomena along the grain boundaries.

  7. Level of heavy metals in some edible and poisonous macrofungi from Batman of South East Anatolia, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesil, Omer Faruk; Yildiz, Abdunnasir; Yavuz, Omer

    2004-07-01

    The macrofungi specimens were collected and identified from locations around Batman province of Turkey. A group of 21 macrofungi were collected from 29 different locations and analysed for the heavy metal contents. The highest Pb and Cu levels were found in Russula rubroalba while the highest Cd level was determined for the species Agaricus xanthodermus. Fe level was maximum for the species Funalia trogii; Mn for Mycena personsii; Zn level was for Morchella esculenta and Co level was for the species Agaricus xanthodermus. The lowest Cd, Cu, Mn and Zn contents were found in Inotus hispidus.

  8. Site characterisation in north-western Turkey based on SPAC and HVSR analysis of microtremor noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asten, Michael W.; Askan, Aysegul; Ekincioglu, E. Ezgi; Sisman, F. Nurten; Ugurhan, Beliz

    2014-02-01

    The geology of the north-western Anatolia (Turkey) ranges from hard Mesozoic bedrock in mountainous areas to large sediment-filled, pull-apart basins formed by the North Anatolian Fault zone system. Düzce and Bolu city centres are located in major alluvial basins in the region, and both suffered from severe building damage during the 12 November 1999 Düzce earthquake (Mw = 7.2). In this study, a team consisting of geophysicists and civil engineers collected and interpreted passive array-based microtremor data in the cities of Bolu and Düzce, both of which are localities of urban development located on topographically flat, geologically young alluvial basins of Miocene age. Interpretation of the microtremor data under an assumption of dominant fundamental-mode Rayleigh-wave noise allowed derivation of the shear-wave velocity (Vs) profile. The depth of investigation was ~100 m from spatially-averaged coherency (SPAC) data alone. High-frequency microtremor array data to 25 Hz allows resolution of a surface layer with Vs < 200 m/s and thickness 5 m (Bolu) and 6 m (Düzce). Subsequent inclusion of spectral ratios between horizontal and vertical components of microtremor data (HVSR) in the curve fitting process extends useful frequencies up to a decade lower than those for SPAC alone. This allows resolution of two interfaces of moderate Vs contrasts in soft Miocene and Eocene sediments, first, at a depth in the range 136-209 m, and second, at a depth in the range 2000 to 2200 m.

  9. Prevalence and risk factors of onychomycosis in primary school children living in rural and urban areas in Central Anatolia of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Gulgun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Onychomycosis is a world-wide public health concern in children, requiring epidemiological data for different regions for control and prevention. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the predominant pathogens and risk factors for onychomycosis in school children living in Kayseri, Turkey. Methods: This study included 8122 school children, aged 5-16 years, living in the rural and urban areas around Kayseri. Onychomycosis was clinically classified as distal and lateral subungual (DLSO, proximal subungual, superficial white, endonyx and totally dystrophic onychomycosis. Nail samples from children with clinically diagnosed onychomycosis were collected, examined by direct microscopy and inoculated for culture study. The demographic features and possible risk factors were recorded and assessed by logistic regression models. Results: We clinically diagnosed onychomycosis in 152 out of 8,122 (0.18% school children. DLSO was the most frequent clinical diagnosis (120/152, 78.9%. Culture-positive onychomycosis was detected in 27/152 (17.7% children. The prevalence of culture-positive onychomycosis was determined as 0.33%. All culture-positive samples were only from toenails. The onychomycosis causative agents were dermatophytes in 17/27 cases (62.9%, including Trichophyton rubrum 12 (44.4%, Trichophyton mentagrophytes 1 (3.7%, Trichophyton tonsurans 1 (3.7% and Trichophyton spp. 3 (11.1% and yeasts in 10/27 cases (37.1%, including Candida glabrata 4 (14.8%, Candida parapsilosis 1 (3.7%, Trichosporon 2 (7.4% and Rhodotorula 3 (11.1%. Age, father′s occupation, number of siblings and rooms were statistically associated with the frequency of onychomycosis. Conclusions: Although to be prevalence of onychomycosis in school children in central Anatolia of Turkey seems very low degree, pediatric onychomycosis is a growing public health concern all over the world. Children having more siblings or unemployed fathers and children living in small

  10. Labor productivity losses over western Turkey in the twenty-first century as a result of alteration in WBGT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altinsoy, Hamza; Yildirim, Haci Ahmet

    2015-04-01

    Occupational fatalities and work-related injuries are more common in Turkey than in most developing and developed countries. Several precautions have been taken concerning the matter, and The Occupational Health and Safety Act (OHSL 2012) has been passed. These efforts, however, have failed to incorporate in their framework the role of global warming. New legislation is underway for the prevention of occupational diseases, injuries, and fatalities. This is particularly worrisome given that Turkey is in the forefront of countries projected to be affected seriously by climate change. Consequently, a study on the direct and indirect impact of climate change on workers' health and labour productivity is paramount. The main purpose of this research is to present diminishing labour productivity as a consequence of decreased working hours via an estimate of rest hours of workers in manual labour. The climatic outputs of Regional Climate Model (RegCM3) obtained from the ENSEMBLES Project are used to calculate the wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) over western Turkey. The study covers the span of years between 1971 and 2100. Moreover, spatial distributions of observed domain are estimated by means of a seasonal analysis, preliminary to a more detailed research. Critical regions, more adversely influenced than others, are identified. The total number of loss days for these critical regions are presented for various time periods. As a result, labour productivity particularly in agriculture and construction is expected to diminish seriously over Central Anatolia, Cyprus, and parts of the Aegean and eastern Mediterranean coastal areas. Between 2071 and 2100, deficiency in labour productivity may reach up to 52 % during the summer across some of these critical regions. Though it will be seen that the present study has focused primarily on manual labour and outdoor work in particular, it foreshadows nevertheless the dangerous impact of climate change on occupational health and

  11. Labor productivity losses over western Turkey in the twenty-first century as a result of alteration in WBGT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altinsoy, Hamza; Yildirim, Haci Ahmet

    2015-04-01

    Occupational fatalities and work-related injuries are more common in Turkey than in most developing and developed countries. Several precautions have been taken concerning the matter, and The Occupational Health and Safety Act (OHSL 2012) has been passed. These efforts, however, have failed to incorporate in their framework the role of global warming. New legislation is underway for the prevention of occupational diseases, injuries, and fatalities. This is particularly worrisome given that Turkey is in the forefront of countries projected to be affected seriously by climate change. Consequently, a study on the direct and indirect impact of climate change on workers' health and labour productivity is paramount. The main purpose of this research is to present diminishing labour productivity as a consequence of decreased working hours via an estimate of rest hours of workers in manual labour. The climatic outputs of Regional Climate Model (RegCM3) obtained from the ENSEMBLES Project are used to calculate the wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) over western Turkey. The study covers the span of years between 1971 and 2100. Moreover, spatial distributions of observed domain are estimated by means of a seasonal analysis, preliminary to a more detailed research. Critical regions, more adversely influenced than others, are identified. The total number of loss days for these critical regions are presented for various time periods. As a result, labour productivity particularly in agriculture and construction is expected to diminish seriously over Central Anatolia, Cyprus, and parts of the Aegean and eastern Mediterranean coastal areas. Between 2071 and 2100, deficiency in labour productivity may reach up to 52% during the summer across some of these critical regions. Though it will be seen that the present study has focused primarily on manual labour and outdoor work in particular, it foreshadows nevertheless the dangerous impact of climate change on occupational health and

  12. Offshore seismicity in the western Marmara Sea, Turkey, revealed by ocean bottom observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yojiro; Takahashi, Narumi; Citak, Seckin; Kalafat, Doǧan; Pinar, Ali; Gürbüz, Cemil; Kaneda, Yoshiyuki

    2015-04-01

    The North Anatolian Fault (NAF) extends 1600 km westward from a junction with the East Anatolian Fault at the Karliova Triple Junction in eastern Turkey, across northern Turkey and into the Aegean Sea, accommodating about 25 mm/yr of right-lateral motion between Anatolia and the Eurasian plate. Since 1939, devastating earthquakes with magnitude greater than seven ruptured NAF westward, starting from 1939 Erzincan (Ms=7.9) at the eastern Turkey and including the latest 1999 Izmit-Golcuk (Ms=7.7) and the Duzce (Ms=7.4) earthquakes in the Marmara region. Considering the fault segments ruptured by the May 24th, 2014 Northern Aegean earthquake (Mw=6.9), the only un-ruptured segments left behind the 1600 km long NAF locate beneath the Marmara Sea and those segments keep their mystery due to their underwater location. To consider the earthquake hazard and disaster mitigation, the detailed information about fault geometry and its stick-slip behavior beneath the western Marmara Sea is very important. Thus, we started to operate a series of ocean bottom seismographic (OBS) observations to estimate the fault geometry from microearthquake distribution. As a first step, we deployed 3 pop-up type OBSs on 20th of March 2014 as a trial observation, and recovered them on 18th of June 2014. Although one of the OBSs worked only 6 days from the start of the observation, other two OBSs functioned properly during the whole 3-month observation period. We first searched for the microearthquakes missing by the land seismic network and estimated their precious location by using the initial 6 days data, i.e., using all the temporary OBS stations. Although there are only 3 earthquakes listed on the Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute (KOERI) catalogue, we could identify 41 earthquakes with more than 5 picking data of P and S first arrivals, and two-third of them located within the OBS network. We found the earthquake cluster along the main NAF and whose depth interval is 12

  13. Jurassic–Paleogene intraoceanic magmatic evolution of the Ankara Mélange, north-central Anatolia, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sarifakioglu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Oceanic rocks in the Ankara Mélange along the Izmir–Ankara–Erzincan suture zone (IAESZ in north-central Anatolia include locally coherent ophiolite complexes (~ 179 Ma and ~ 80 Ma, seamount or oceanic plateau volcanic units with pelagic and reefal limestones (96.6 ± 1.8 Ma, metamorphic rocks with ages of 256.9 ± 8.0 Ma, 187.4 ± 3.7 Ma, 158.4 ± 4.2 Ma, and 83.5 ± 1.2 Ma indicating northern Tethys during the late Paleozoic through Cretaceous, and subalkaline to alkaline volcanic and plutonic rocks of an island arc origin (~ 67–63 Ma. All but the arc rocks occur in a shale–graywacke and/or serpentinite matrix, and are deformed by south-vergent thrust faults and folds that developed in the middle to late Eocene due to continental collisions in the region. Ophiolitic volcanic rocks have mid-ocean ridge (MORB and island arc tholeiite (IAT affinities showing moderate to significant large ion lithophile elements (LILE enrichment and depletion in Nb, Hf, Ti, Y and Yb, which indicate the influence of subduction-derived fluids in their melt evolution. Seamount/oceanic plateau basalts show ocean island basalt (OIB affinities. The arc-related volcanic rocks, lamprophyric dikes and syenodioritic plutons exhibit high-K shoshonitic to medium- to high-K calc-alkaline compositions with strong enrichment in LILE, rare earth elements (REE and Pb, and initial εNd values between +1.3 and +1.7. Subalkaline arc volcanic units occur in the northern part of the mélange, whereas the younger alkaline volcanic rocks and intrusions (lamprophyre dikes and syenodioritic plutons in the southern part. The late Permian, Early to Late Jurassic, and Late Cretaceous amphibole-epidote schist, epidote-actinolite, epidote-chlorite and epidote-glaucophane schists represent the metamorphic units formed in a subduction channel in the northern Neotethys. The Middle to Upper Triassic neritic limestones spatially associated with the

  14. Mineral chemistry and petrology of mantle peridotites from the Guleman ophiolite (SE Anatolia, Turkey): Evidence of a forearc setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizeli, Mustafa Eren; Beyarslan, Melahat; Wang, Kuo-Lung; Bingöl, A. Feyzi

    2016-11-01

    The mantle section of Guleman ophiolite, southeast (SE) Turkey consists mainly of harzburgites and dunite lenses and large chromitite pods. The average Cr ratio = [100 × Cr/(Cr + Al) atomic ratio] of Cr-spinels in harzburgites and dunites is remarkably high (>63). The forsterite (Fo) content of olivine is between 90.9 and 92.3 in harzburgites and dunites. These features indicate that the harzburgites and dunites resulted from >35% of partial melting of a depleted mantle source. Discriminant geochemical diagrams based on the mineral chemistry of harzburgites indicate a supra-subduction zone (SSZ) origin. Orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene from the Guleman harzburgites have low CaO, Al2O3 and TiO2 contents, resembling those of depleted harzburgites from modern forearcs and contrasting with moderately depleted abyssal peridotites. Consequently, we propose that the Guleman peridotites formed in a forearc setting during the subduction initiation that developed as a result of northward subduction of the southern branch of the Neo-Tethys in response to the convergence between the Arabian and Anatolian plates.

  15. Boron content of Lake Ulubat sediment: A key to interpret the morphological history of NW Anatolia, Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazanci, N. [Department of Geological Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Ankara University 06100 Besevler, Ankara (Turkey)]. E-mail: nizamettin.kazanci@eng.ankara.edu.tr; Toprak, O. [Gebze Institute of Technology, 41400 Gebze, Kocaeli (Turkey); Leroy, S.A.G. [Department of Geography and Earth Sciences, Brunel University, Uxbridge, Middlesex UB8 3PH (West London) (United Kingdom); Oncel, S. [Gebze Institute of Technology, 41400 Gebze, Kocaeli (Turkey); Ileri, O. [General Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration, 06520 Ankara (Turkey); Emre, O. [General Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration, 06520 Ankara (Turkey); Costa, P. [Department of Geography and Earth Sciences, Brunel University, Uxbridge, Middlesex UB8 3PH (West London) (United Kingdom); Erturac, K. [Istanbul Technical University, Eurasia Institute of Earthsciences, Maslak, Istanbul (Turkey); McGee, E. [Environmental Radiation Research Laboratory, Department of Experimental Physics, University College, Dublin 4 (Ireland)

    2006-01-15

    Freshwater Lake Ulubat (c. 1.5 m deep and c. 138 km{sup 2}) receives sediment from a 10.414 km{sup 2} area in the seismically active Susurluk Drainage Basin (SDB) of NW Turkey. The B and trace element contents of the lake infill seem to be a link between the fresh landforms of the SDB and the lacustrine sediment. Deposition in Lake Ulubat has been 1.60 cm a{sup -1} for the last 50 a according to radionuclides; however the sedimentation rate over the last millennium was 0.37 cm a{sup -1} based on {sup 14}C dating. The B content of the lacustrine infill displays a slight increase at 0.50 m and a drastic increase at 4 m depth occurring c. 31 a and c. 1070 a ago, respectively. Probably the topmost change corresponds to the start of open mining in the SDB and the second one to the natural trenching of borate ore-deposits. These dates also show indirectly a 1.4 cm a{sup -1} erosion rate during the last millennium as the borate beds were trenched up to 15 m. By extrapolation, it is possible to establish that the formation of some of the present morphological features of the southern Marmara region, especially river incision, began in the late Pleistocene, and developed especially over the last 75 ka.

  16. New locality records of the snake-eyed lizard, Ophisops elegans Ménétriés, 1832 (Squamata: Lacertidae), in the western Black Sea region of Anatolia

    OpenAIRE

    YILDIZ, Mehmet Zülfü; AKMAN, Bahadır; Göçmen, Bayram

    2014-01-01

    We report 18 specimens of Ophisops elegans from Kastamonu and Sinop provinces in the western Black Sea region of Anatolia. Previously, the northernmost known locality for O. elegans in Anatolia was Sinop Province. These new records extend the known distribution area of the species and fill the gaps in the distribution range of the species in the Black Sea region. The specimens were compared with the geographically closest subspecies, O. e. centralanatoliae from Ulukışla, Niğde. On the basis o...

  17. Assessment of the desertification vulnerability of the Cappadocian district (Central Anatolia, Turkey based on aridity and climate-process system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Türkeş

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study discusses climate of the Cappadocian district in Turkey on the basis of Thornthwaite’s climate classification and water budget, Erinç’s aridity index and United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD aridity index, along with the spatial and inter-seasonal variations of precipitation and air temperatures. Vulnerability of the Cappadocia to desertification processes was also investigated with respect to the aridity, lithology dominated by tuffs and climate-process system and present land-use features of the district. The data analysis revealed that coefficients of variation (CV of the mean and maximum temperatures are the greatest in summer and the smallest in winter. Nevşehir and Kayseri environs are the most continental parts of the Cappadocia with a high inter-annual variability and low temperatures. Cappadocia is characterized with a continental rainfall regime having a maximum precipitation in spring. Variability of summer precipitation totals is greater than that of other seasons, varying from 65.7% to 78%. The CVs of the annual precipitation totals are about 18% at north and about 20% at south. Semi-arid and dry sub-humid or semi-humid climate types prevail over Cappadocia according to Thornthwaite’s moisture and Erinç’s aridity indices. Steppe is the dominant vegetation formation with sparse dry forests. The Cappadocia is vulnerable to the desertification processes due to both natural factors (e.g. degree of aridity, climate-process system, weathering of tuffs, erosion, climate change, etc. and human-involvement (e.g. land degradation and intensive tourism, etc.. In order to mitigate desertification and to preserve the historical and cultural heritages in Cappadocia, sustainable land-use management and tourism planning applications are urgently needed.

  18. Assessment of the desertification vulnerability of the Cappadocian district (Central Anatolia, Turkey based on aridity and climate-process system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Türkeş

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study discusses climate of the Cappadocian district in Turkey on the basis of Thornthwaite’s climate classification and water budget, Erinç’s aridity index and United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD aridity index, along with the spatial and inter-seasonal variations of precipitation and air temperatures. Vulnerability of the Cappadocia to desertification processes was also investigated with respect to the aridity, lithology dominated by tuffs and climate-process system and present land-use features of the district. The data analysis revealed that coefficients of variation (CV of the mean and maximum temperatures are the greatest in summer and the smallest in winter. Nevşehir and Kayseri environs are the most continental parts of the Cappadocia with a high inter-annual variability and low temperatures. Cappadocia is characterized with a continental rainfall regime having a maximum precipitation in spring. Variability of summer precipitation totals is greater than that of other seasons, varying from 65.7% to 78%. The CVs of the annual precipitation totals are about 18% at north and about 20% at south. Semi-arid and dry sub-humid or semi-humid climate types prevail over Cappadocia according to Thornthwaite’s moisture and Erinç’s aridity indices. Steppe is the dominant vegetation formation with sparse dry trees. The Cappadocia is vulnerable to the desertification processes due to both natural factors (e.g. degree of aridity, climate-process system, weathering of tuffs, erosion, climate change, etc. and human-involvement (e.g. land degradation and intensive tourism, etc.. In order to mitigate desertification and to preserve the historical and cultural heritages in Cappadocia, sustainable land-use management and tourism planning applications are urgently needed.

  19. Sulfate reduction controlled by organic matter availability in deep sediment cores from the saline, alkaline Lake Van (Eastern Anatolia, Turkey

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    Clemens eGlombitza

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available As part of the International Continental Drilling Program (ICDP deep lake drilling project PaleoVan, we investigated sulfate reduction (SR in deep sediment cores of the saline, alkaline (salinity 21.4 ‰, alkalinity 155 m mEq-1, pH 9.81 Lake Van, Turkey. The cores were retrieved in the Northern Basin (NB and at Ahlat Ridge (AR and reached a maximum depth of 220 m. Additionally, 65-75 cm long gravity cores were taken at both sites. Sulfate reduction rates (SRR were low (≤ 22 nmol cm-3 d-1 compared to lakes with higher salinity and alkalinity, indicating that salinity and alkalinity are not limiting SR in Lake Van. Both sites differ significantly in rates and depth distribution of SR. In NB, SRR are up to 10 times higher than at AR. Sulfate reduction (SR could be detected down to 19 meters below lake floor (mblf at NB and down to 13 mblf at AR. Although SRR were lower at AR than at NB, organic matter (OM concentrations were higher. In contrast, dissolved OM in the pore water at AR contained more macromolecular OM and less low molecular weight OM. We thus suggest, that OM content alone cannot be used to infer microbial activity at Lake Van but that quality of OM has an important impact as well. These differences suggest that biogeochemical processes in lacustrine sediments are reacting very sensitively to small variations in geological, physical or chemical parameters over relatively short distances. 

  20. Seismic Modeling of the Alasehir Graben, Western Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozde Okut, Nigar; Demirbag, Emin

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a depth model to make synthetic seismic reflection sections, such as stacked and migrated sections with different velocity models. The study area is east-west trending Alasehir graben which is one of the most prominent structure in the western Anatolia, proved to have geothermal energy potential by researchers and exploration companies. Geological formations were taken from Alaşehir-1 borehole drilled by Turkish Petroleum Corporation (Çiftçi, 2007) and seismic interval velocities were taken from check-shots in the same borehole (Kolenoǧlu-Demircioǧlu, 2009). The most important structure is the master graben bounding fault (MGBF) in the southern margin of the Alasehir graben. Another main structure is the northern bounding fault called the antithetic fault of the MGBF with high angle normal fault characteristic. MGBF is a crucial contact between sedimentary cover and the metamorphic basement. From basement to the surface, five different stratigraphic units constitute graben fill . All the sedimentary units thicknesses get thinner from the southern margin to the northern margin of the Alasehir graben displaying roll-over geometry. A commercial seismic data software was used during modeling. In the first step, a 2D velocity/depth model was defined. Ray tracing was carried out with diffraction option to produce the reflection travel times. The reflection coefficients were calculated and wavelet shaping was carried out by means of band-pass filtering. Finally synthetic stacked section of the Alasehir graben was obtained. Then, migrated sections were generated with different velocity models. From interval velocities, average and RMS velocities were calculated for the formation entires to test how the general features of the geological model may change against different seismic models after the migration. Post-stack time migration method was used. Pseudo-velocity analysis was applied at selected CDP locations. In theory

  1. Geometry and thermal structure of the Menderes Massif Core Complex (Western Turkey), implications for thermal evolution of Hellenic subduction zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Vincent; Jolivet, Laurent; Guillou-Frottier, Laurent; Tuduri, Johann; Bouchot, Vincent; Beccaletto, Laurent; Lahfid, Abdeltif

    2016-04-01

    The eastern Mediterranean region is one of the most promising geothermal areas, with more than 250 geothermal fields discovered in Turkey (Parlaktuna, 2013), in a region of active tectonics and volcanism. Although the potential of these deep geothermal resources has not been systematically investigated yet, the geothermal activity of the western Turkey area is the most recent signature of the high heat flow (120-140 mW/m²; Aydin, 2005, from Teczan, 1995). Based on Turkish data, 2084 MWt are being utilized for direct applications and most of the energy originates from the Menderes Massif (Baba et al., 2015). This large-scale thermal anomaly at the surface is correlated to a long wavelength east-west increase of surface heat flow that could reflect the thermal state of Aegean subduction zone at depth. In order to better understand and characterize the possible connections between large-scale mantle dynamics and surface processes in space and time, we study the structure and thermal evolution of the Menderes Massif. Both the acceleration of the Aegean extension in the Middle Miocene and the recent escape of Anatolia have been proposed to result from several slab tearing events, the first one being located below western Turkey and the Eastern Aegean Sea. These events have triggered the formation of metamorphic complexes with contrasted exhumation P-T paths. While the extension in the Aegean domain is well-characterized with high-temperature domes in the center and east, the succession of several metamorphic events in the Menderes Massif and their significance in terms of geodynamics is still debated. Hence, the exhumation history is key to understanding the temporal and spatial distribution of the thermal signature of the Hellenic slab and its tearing/detachment. The Menderes Massif displays a large variety of metamorphic facies, from the Barrovian type metamorphism in the Eocene (the Main Menderes Metamorphism) to the coeval (?) HP-LT metamorphism on the southernmost

  2. Surface exposure dating of Holocene basalt flows and cinder cones in the Kula volcanic field (western Turkey) using cosmogenic 3He and 10Be

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heineke, Caroline; Niedermann, Samuel; Hetzel, Ralf; Akal, Cüneyt

    2015-04-01

    The Kula volcanic field is the youngest volcanic province in western Anatolia and covers an area of about 600 km2 around the town Kula (Richardson-Bunbury, 1996). Its alkali basalts formed by melting of an isotopically depleted mantle in a region of long-lived continental extension and asthenospheric upwelling (Prelevic et al., 2012). Based on morphological criteria and 40Ar/39Ar dating, four phases of Quaternary activity have been distinguished in the Kula volcanic field (Richardson-Bunbury, 1996; Westaway et al., 2006). The youngest lava flows are thought to be Holocene in age, but so far only one sample from this group was dated by 40Ar/39Ar at 7±2 ka (Westaway et al., 2006). In this study, we analysed cosmogenic 3He in olivine phenocrysts from three basalt flows and one cinder cone to resolve the Holocene history of volcanic eruptions in more detail. In addition, we applied 10Be exposure dating to two quartz-bearing xenoliths found at the surface of one flow and at the top of one cinder cone. The exposure ages fall in the range between ~500 and ~3000 years, demonstrating that the youngest volcanic activity is Late Holocene in age and therefore distinctly younger than previously envisaged. Our results show that the Late Holocene lava flows are not coeval but formed over a period of a few thousand years. We conclude that surface exposure dating of very young volcanic rocks provides a powerful alternative to 40Ar/39Ar dating. References Prelevic, D., Akal, C. Foley, S.F., Romer, R.L., Stracke, A. and van den Bogaard, P. (2012). Ultrapotassic mafic rocks as geochemical proxies for post-collisional dynamics of orogenic lithospheric mantle: the case of southwestern Anatolia, Turkey. Journal of Petrology, 53, 1019-1055. Richardson-Bunbury, J.M. (1996). The Kula Volcanic Field, western Turkey: the development of a Holocene alkali basalt province and the adjacent normal-faulting graben. Geological Magazine, 133, 275-283. Westaway, R., Guillou, H., Yurtmen, S., Beck, A

  3. Geochronological and geochemical constraints on the petrogenesis of late Cretaceous volcanic rock series from the eastern Sakarya zone, NE Anatolia-Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Faruk; Oǧuz, Simge; Şen, Cüneyt; Uysal, İbrahim; Başer, Rasim

    2016-04-01

    New SHRIMP zircon U-Pb ages and whole-rock geochemical data as well as Sr-Nd-Pb and δ18O isotopes of late Cretaceous volcanic rock series from the Giresun and Artvin areas (NE Anatolia, Turkey) in the northern part of the eastern Sakarya zone (ESZ) provide important evidence for northward subduction of the Neo-Tethyan oceanic lithosphere along the southern border of the ESZ. In particular, tectonic setting and petrogenesis of these subduction-related volcanites play a critical role in determining the nature of the lower continental crust and mantle dynamics during late Mesozoic orogenic processes in this region. The late Cretaceous time in the ESZ is represented by intensive volcanic activities that occurred in two different periods, which generally consist of alternation of mafic-intermediate (basaltic to andesitic) and felsic rock series (dacitic to rhyolitic) within each period. Although there is no geochronological data for the lower mafic-intermediate rock series of the first volcanic period, U-Pb zircon dating from the first cycle of felsic rocks yielded ages ranging from 88.6±1.8 to 85.0±1.3 Ma (i.e. Coniacian-Early Santonian). The first volcanic period in the region is generally overlain by reddish biomicrite-rich sedimentary rocks of Santonian-Early Campanian. U-Pb zircon dating for the second cycle of mafic-intermediate and felsic rocks yielded ages varying from 84.9±1.7 to 80.8±1.5Ma (i.e. Early to Middle Campanian). The studied volcanic rocks have mostly transitional geochemical character changing from tholeiitic to calc-alkaline with typical arc signatures. N-MORB-normalised multi-element and chondrite-normalised rare earth element (REE) patterns show that all rocks are enriched in LILEs (e.g. Rb, Ba, Th) and LREEs (e.g. La, Ce) but depleted in Nb and Ti. In particular, the felsic samples are characterised by distinct negative Eu anomalies. The samples are characterized by a wide range of Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositions (initial ɛNd values from -7

  4. Complete Alpine reworking of the northern Menderes Massif, western Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenki-Tok, B.; Expert, M.; Işık, V.; Candan, O.; Monié, P.; Bruguier, O.

    2016-07-01

    This study focuses on the petrology, geochronology and thermochronology of metamorphic rocks within the northern Menderes Massif in western Turkey. Metasediments belonging to the cover series of the Massif record pervasive amphibolite-facies metamorphism culminating at ca. 625-670 °C and 7-9 kbars. U-Th-Pb in situ ages on monazite and allanite from these metapelites record crustal thickening and nappe stacking associated with the internal imbrication of the Anatolide-Taurides platform during the Eocene. In addition, new 39Ar/40Ar single muscovite grain analyses on deformed rocks were performed in three localities within the northern Menderes Massif and ages range from 19.8 to 25.5 Ma. These mylonites may be related to both well-known detachments, Simav to the north and Alaşehir to the south, which accommodate Oligo-Miocene exhumation of the Menderes core complex. U-Th-Pb data on monazite grains (22.2 ± 0.2 Ma) from migmatites emplaced within the Simav detachment confirm these ages.

  5. The origin and determination of silica types in the silica occurrences from Altintaş region (Uşak-Western Anatolia) using multianalytical techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koralay, Tamer; Kadıoğlu, Yusuf Kağan

    2015-02-01

    The studied area is located in Western Anatolia and situated on the NE-SW directed Uşak-Güre cross-graben that developed under a crustal extensional regime during the Late Miocene-Pliocene. Silica occurrences have been mostly found as mushroom-shaped big caps. They also show sedimentary structures such as stratification. Silica occurrences are milky white, yellowish white, yellow to chocolate brown and rarely pale blue, bluish gray in color and have no crystal forms in hand specimen. Some of the silica samples show conchoidal fracture. Silica minerals are mostly chalcedony, low-quartz (α-quartz) and sporadically opal-CT in spectras, according to confocal Raman spectrometry. The silica samples have enrichment of Fe (1000-24,600 ppm), Ca (100-10,200 ppm), P (4-3950 ppm) and Mn (8-3020 ppm). Other striking elements in fewer amounts are Ba (0.9-609.6 ppm), Ni (15.7-182.3 ppm) and Co (18.6-343.1 ppm). In chondrite-normalized spider diagram, silica samples display partial enrichment in LIL elements (Rb, Ba, Th). The δ18O (‰ V-SMOW) values for silica samples vary from 18.4‰ to 22.8‰ and are similar to low temperature hydrothermal silica. Confocal Raman spectrometry and oxygen isotope indicate that the silica minerals may precipitate from host fluid which is relatively has low temperatures hydrothermal solutions derived from the residual melt of basaltic magma.

  6. Neogene basin development around Söke-Kuşadası (western Anatolia) and its bearing on tectonic development of the Aegean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürer, Ömer Feyzi; Bozcu, Mustafa; Yılmaz, Kamil; Yılmaz, Yücel

    There is a N-S lying narrow strip of Neogene outcrop between the towns of Kuşadası and Söke in western Anatolia. It contains remnants of successive Neogene graben basins. The first graben began to form under the control of a N40-70°E-trending oblique fault system during the Early Miocene. At the initial phase of the opening coarse clastic rocks were deposited in front of the fault-elevated blocks as scree deposits and fanglomerates. Later the graben advanced into a large lake basin. Towards the end of the Middle Miocene the lacustrine sediments of the Early-Middle Miocene age underwent an approximately N-S compressional deformation and elevated above the lake level, and were partly eroded. During the Late Miocene a new graben basin began to form as a consequence of the development of E-W-trending normal faults, formed under the N-S extensional regime. This graben also turned later into a lake environment. The lake extended far beyond the limits of the fault zones, and covered the entire regions stretching from the south of Bafa Lake in the south to Kuşadası and beyond in the north. Micritic clayey limestones were predominantly deposited in the lake. A severe erosional phase followed the termination of the lake basin. This corresponds to the cessation of the N-S extension. When the N-S extension regenerated during the Pliocene(?)-Pleistocene, the Büyük Menderes graben system began to form. In the western part of the graben, a conjugated pair of oblique faults, the Priene-Sazlı fault and the Kuşadası fault, have formed. The faults having important strike-slip components, bounded a tectonic wedge, which began to move westward into the Aegean Sea region. Major morphological features of the region were formed under the effective control of these fault zones.

  7. Late Paleogene terrestrial fauna and paleoenvironments in Eastern Anatolia: New insights from the Kağızman-Tuzluca Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Métais, Grégoire; Sen, Sevket; Sözeri, Koray; Peigné, Stéphane; Varol, Baki

    2015-08-01

    In Eastern Turkey, relatively little work has been undertaken to characterize the sedimentologic and stratigraphical context of the Kağızman-Tuzluca Basin until now. Extending across the Turkey-Armenian border, this basin documents the syn- and post-collisional evolution of Eastern Anatolia, resulting from the closure of the Neotethyan Seaways and the final collision of the Afro-Arabian and Eurasian plates. From detailed sedimentological and paleontological studies, we propose an interpretation of the lithology and depositional environment of the Late Paleogene Alhan Formation located on the western bank of the Aras River. This sequence of terrestrial clastics rests directly and unconformably onto the ophiolitic mélange, and it documents several depositional sequences deposited in alluvial plain and lacustrine environments. At this stage, the age of the Alhan Formation can only be calibrated by fossil evidence. Several stratigraphic levels yielding fossil data along the section have been identified, but these poor assemblages of fauna and flora hamper extensive comparisons with roughly contemporaneous localities of Central and Southern Asia. Carnivorous and ruminant mammal remains are reported for the first time from the supposed Late Oligocene Güngörmez Formation. The identified fossil mammal taxa reveal biogeographic affinities between Central Anatolia and southern Asia, thus suggesting dispersal between these areas during the Oligocene or earlier. Further studies of the fossil assemblages from the Kağızman-Tuzluca Basin and other basins of Eastern Anatolia and lesser Caucasus regions are needed to better constrain the paleobiogeographic models.

  8. Human brains found in a fire-affected 4000-years old Bronze Age tumulus layer rich in soil alkalines and boron in Kutahya, Western Anatolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altinoz, M A; Ince, B; Sav, A; Dincer, A; Cengiz, S; Mercan, S; Yazici, Z; Bilgen, M N

    2014-02-01

    Undecomposed human bodies and organs always attracted interest in terms of understanding biological tissue stability and immortality. Amongst these, cases of natural mummification found in glaciers, bog sediments and deserts caused even more attention. In 2010, an archeological excavation of a Bronze Age layer in a tumulus near the Western Anatolia city Kütahya revealed fire affected regions with burnt human skeletons and charred wooden objects. Inside of the cracked skulls, undecomposed brains were discernible. To analyze the burial taphonomy of the rare phenomenon of brain preservation, we analyzed brains, bone, teeth and surrounding soils elements using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS). Adipocere formation or saponification of postmortem tissue fat requires high levels of alkalinity and especially potassium. Indeed, ICP-MS analysis of the brain, teeth and bone and also of the surrounding soil revealed high levels of potassium, magnesium, aluminum and boron, which are compatible with the famous role of Kütahya in tile production with its soil containing high level of alkalines and tile-glazing boron. Fatty acid chromatography revealed simultaneous saturation of fats and protection of fragile unsaturated fatty acids consistent with soil-presence of both pro-oxidant and anti-oxidant trace metals. Computerized tomography revealed protection of diencephalic, metencephalic and occipital tissue in one of the best-preserved specimens. Boron was previously found as an intentional preservative of Tutankhamen and Deir el Bahari mummies. Here, in natural soil with its insect-repellant, anti-bacterial and fire-resistance qualities it may be a factor to preserve heat-affected brains as almost bioporcellain specimens.

  9. Integrated geophysical investigations in a fault zone located on southwestern part of İzmir city, Western Anatolia, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drahor, Mahmut G.; Berge, Meriç A.

    2017-01-01

    Integrated geophysical investigations consisting of joint application of various geophysical techniques have become a major tool of active tectonic investigations. The choice of integrated techniques depends on geological features, tectonic and fault characteristics of the study area, required resolution and penetration depth of used techniques and also financial supports. Therefore, fault geometry and offsets, sediment thickness and properties, features of folded strata and tectonic characteristics of near-surface sections of the subsurface could be thoroughly determined using integrated geophysical approaches. Although Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) and Seismic Refraction Tomography (SRT) methods are commonly used in active tectonic investigations, other geophysical techniques will also contribute in obtaining of different properties in the complex geological environments of tectonically active sites. In this study, six different geophysical methods used to define faulting locations and characterizations around the study area. These are GPR, ERT, SRT, Very Low Frequency electromagnetic (VLF), magnetics and self-potential (SP). Overall integrated geophysical approaches used in this study gave us commonly important results about the near surface geological properties and faulting characteristics in the investigation area. After integrated interpretations of geophysical surveys, we determined an optimal trench location for paleoseismological studies. The main geological properties associated with faulting process obtained after trenching studies. In addition, geophysical results pointed out some indications concerning the active faulting mechanism in the area investigated. Consequently, the trenching studies indicate that the integrated approach of geophysical techniques applied on the fault problem reveals very useful and interpretative results in description of various properties of faulting zone in the investigation site.

  10. Fluvial response to Holocene volcanic damming and breaching in the Gediz and Geren rivers, western Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gorp, W.; Veldkamp, A.; Temme, A. J. A. M.; Maddy, D.; Demir, T.; van der Schriek, T.; Reimann, T.; Wallinga, J.; Wijbrans, J.; Schoorl, J. M.

    2013-01-01

    This study discusses the complex late Holocene evolution of the Gediz River north of Kula, western Turkey, when a basaltic lava flow dammed and filled this river valley. Age control was obtained using established and novel feldspar luminescence techniques on fluvial sands below and on top of the flo

  11. Serological and microbial survey of Mycoplasma gallisepticum in wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) from six western states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, B A; Thomas, C B; Yuill, T M

    1992-01-01

    From 1986 to 1989, sera from wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo), including three subspecies (M. gallopavo intermedia, M. gallopavo merriami and M. gallopavo mexicana) trapped in six western states were tested for antibody to Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) (n = 724), M. synoviae (MS) (n = 461) and M. meleagridis (MM) (n = 354) using the rapid plate agglutination (RPA) assay. Subsamples of these sera were also evaluated using the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay for antibody to MG (n = 664) and MS (n = 403). Attempts were made to isolate mycoplasmas by swabbing the trachea and cloaca of 190 live wild turkeys and from various tissues (sinus, nasal turbinates, trachea, lung, ovaries and oviduct) from 76 turkeys at necropsy. Isolates were identified using an immunobinding assay. Seroprevalence of MG, MS and MM in the RPA test was highly variable among years and geographic sites, ranging from 0 to 85%, 0 to 87%, and 0 to 83%, respectively, for each mycoplasma species. Of the 724 wild turkey sera tested, 200 (28%) were positive using the RPA assay, while only 20 (3%) of 664 sera tested using the HI assay were positive (at a titer greater than/= 1:80) for antibody to MG. Of the 461 sera tested 178 (39%) were RPA positive for MS, whereas none of the 403 samples tested by HI were positive for MS. Antibody to MM was detected in 72 (20%) of 354 turkey sera tested by RPA. Mycoplasmas were cultured from 81 (30%) of 266 wild turkeys, including 48 that were sampled live and 33 that were examined by necropsy. Mycoplasmas were isolated from every population in which culture was attempted. M. gallopavonis (MGP) was isolated from 37 (46%) of 81 birds which yielded mycoplasma, representing seven of 12 populations sampled. MG was isolated from lower respiratory tissues of one Rio Grande wild turkey trapped in Texas. M. synoviae was isolated from five of 16 Merriam's wild turkeys trapped in Arizona. Sera of birds from which MG or MS was isolated were positive to the respective

  12. Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2014-01-01

    The Country Opinion Survey in Turkey assists the World Bank Group (WBG) in gaining a better understanding of how stakeholders in Turkey perceive the WBG. It provides the WBG with systematic feedback from national and local governments, multilateral/bilateral agencies, media, academia, the private sector, and civil society in Turkey on 1) their views regarding the general environment in Tur...

  13. Crustal structure of the northern Menderes Massif, western Turkey, imaged by joint gravity and magnetic inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessner, Klaus; Gallardo, Luis A.; Wedin, Francis; Sener, Kerim

    2016-10-01

    In western Anatolia, the Anatolide domain of the Tethyan orogen is exposed in one of the Earth's largest metamorphic core complexes, the Menderes Massif. The Menderes Massif experienced a two-stage exhumation: tectonic denudation in the footwall of a north-directed Miocene extensional detachment, followed by fragmentation by E-W and NW-SE-trending graben systems. Along the northern boundary of the core complex, the tectonic units of the Vardar-Izmir-Ankara suture zone overly the stage one footwall of the core complex, the northern Menderes Massif. In this study, we explore the structure of the upper crust in the northern Menderes Massif with cross-gradient joint inversion of gravity and aeromagnetic data along a series of 10-km-deep profiles. Our inversions, which are based on gravity and aeromagnetic measurements and require no geological and petrophysical constraints, reveal the salient features of the Earth's upper crust. We image the northern Menderes Massif as a relatively homogenous domain of low magnetization and medium to high density, with local anomalies related to the effect of interspersed igneous bodies and shallow basins. In contrast, both the northern and western boundaries of the northern Menderes Massif stand out as domains where dense mafic, metasedimentary and ultramafic domains with a weak magnetic signature alternate with low-density igneous complexes with high magnetization. With our technique, we are able to delineate Miocene basins and igneous complexes, and map the boundary between intermediate to mafic-dominated subduction-accretion units of the suture zone and the underlying felsic crust of the Menderes Massif. We demonstrate that joint gravity and magnetic inversion are not only capable of imaging local and regional changes in crustal composition, but can also be used to map discontinuities of geodynamic significance such as the Vardar-Izmir-Ankara suture and the West Anatolia Transfer Zone.

  14. Peridotite hosted chromite, magnesite and olivine deposits of West Anatolia: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zedef, Veysel

    2016-04-01

    Turkey has important chromite, magnesite and olivine deposits within peridotite host rocks. The peridotites (harzburgite, verlite, lherzolite and dunite) are mostly serpentinised as a result of metasomatic reaction of olivine and pyroxene minerals with percolating water. The serpentinites are generally an important part of ophiolitic complexes which displays a discontinuous belts all over the country. The chromite deposits are often related to cumulates and tectonites (as Alpine and/or podiform type deposits) and despite their small reserves, their grade can reach up to 58 %. In most deposits, a little enrichment efforts, the grade of chromite can easily be reached from 25 % to 40-45 %. The magnesite deposits of West Anatolia is especially concentrated in three provinces. These provinces are Konya, Kutahya and Eskisehir. The magnesites are of cryptocrystalline type and, like chromite deposits, their reserve are small but have high grade with low FeO-CaO and high MgO ratio. Once again, these deposits are found within serpentinised peridotites of ultramafic belts. The total (proven and inferred) magnesite reserves are approximately 200 million tons, and these are mostly cryptocrystalline character. A small amount of sedimentary magnesite deposits also present in Denizli (SW Anatolia) and Erzincan (Eastern Anatolia). The olivine deposits are found within peridotites of Western Anatolia. Especially, the Kızıldag olivine deposits (located between the border of Antalya and Konya provinces) are noteworthy with its huge (9 billion tons) reserves. The main olivine mineral is forsterite (Mg2SiO4) which has economically important when compared to other olivine mineral fayalite. The deposits have no quality problem but have a serious disadvantages since its location far from the ports and railway stations.

  15. The earliest securely-dated hominin artefact in Anatolia?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maddy, D.; Schreve, D.; Demir, T.; Veldkamp, A.; Wijbrans, J. R.; van Gorp, W.; van Hinsbergen, D. J. J.; Dekkers, M. J.; Scaife, R.; Schoorl, J. M.; Stemerdink, C.; van der Schriek, T.

    2015-01-01

    Anatolia lies at the gateway from Asia into Europe and has frequently been favoured as a route for Early Pleistocene hominin dispersal. Although early hominins are known to have occupied Turkey, with numerous finds of Lower Palaeolithic artefacts documented, the chronology of their dispersal has lit

  16. Evaluation of Seismicity Using Density Analysis of 2000-2015 Earthquakes in The West Coastal Zone of Anatolia (Turkey) And Its Correlation with Geothermal Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakak, Özde

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of the study is to evaluate the seismic activity using the density analysis methods (point density and Kernel density analysis) for 2000-2015 earthquake catalogue belonging to the study area surrounded by Qanakkale to the north, Fethiye to the south and Denizli (Buharkent) to the east, and also to apply its correlation with geothermal regions. The earthquake data, in total 6.675 earthquakes with M>3 magnitudes were obtained from DDA Catalogue of Prime Ministry Disaster & Emergency Management Authority (AFAD) official website. In this survey, data analysis and maps were prepared using ArcGIS (version_10.1) program. The analysis maps present (1) the intensity clustered earthquakes dominant in Sigacik and Gokova Gulfs, (2) regions which have high seismic risk were determined according to Buffer analysis for 2 km distance, (3) geothermal areas (21.4-153°C) in the west coastal zone of Anatolia were mapped, (4) regions the most affected by seismic activity for the last 15 years were detected from 2015 population data, and as latest (5) Seferihisar, Urla, Gulbahge, Demircili, Bodrum, and Datga provinces are identified as areas having high seismic activity for the last 15 years. Consequently, all analysis results were compared with the geothermal areas, and the review made that earthquake catalogue has not the relationship with hot regions and also these shocks triggered by active faults in this region using ArcGIS program. the author recommends that these regions should be investigated the earthquake sensitivity analysis in the near future.

  17. Palaeoenvironmental reconstruction from Lake Iznik (W Turkey) and Üçaǧizli Cave (S Turkey) - implications for human dispersal in the Upper Palaeolithic along coastal Anatolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viehberg, Finn A.; Assanov, Sergey; Kuhn, Steven; Reed, Jane; Ülgen, Umut B.; Namık Çaǧatay, M.; Melles, Martin

    2013-04-01

    Transcontinental dispersal of modern humans from the Near East to the Balkans in the Middle and Upper Palaeolithic is expected to have followed the coastline (i.e., Yarımburgaz, Karain and Üçaǧızlı caves). Lake Iznik is situated 80 km south of the Bosphorus (Western Turkey) close to the Marmara Sea. Here we retrieved a continuous sediment record covering the past ~40 ka cal BP. A multiproxy approach enabled us to reconstruct the environmental history. We included biological proxies i.e., diatoms, cladocerans and ostracods as biological proxies, but also physical and geochemical proxies were analysed. Geomorphological findings in the lake basin and geochemical analyses hint to changing lake water levels at least since 40 ka cal BP that lasted until c. 11 cal. kyr BP. This supports the theory of persisting dry climate conditions before the onset of the Holocene also inferred from geochemical sediment proxies (i.e., element analysis), diatoms and ostracod shell chemistry. The Upper Palaeolithic sequences (45-33 ka cal BP) at the Üçaǧızlı Cave (Hatay) yield clear evidence of the technological transition between Initial Upper Palaeolithic and Ahmarian, but also documents major shifts in diet of past hunting community. The identified animal remains in the cave sequence change from larger ungulates to smaller ungulates and increase in fish and shellfish. It is proposed that the compositional change in game is not solitarily caused by technology advances, but also by environmental and climatic changes as inferred from sediment archives of Lake Iznik.

  18. Geochemical, isotopic (Sr-Nd-Pb) and geochronological (Ar-Ar and U-Pb) constraints on Quaternary bimodal volcanism of the Nigde Volcanic Complex (Central Anatolia, Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, F.; Siebel, W.; Uysal, I.; Ersoy, E. Y.; Schmitt, A. K.; Sönmez, M.; Duncan, R.

    2012-04-01

    The Nigde Volcanic Complex (NVC) is a major Late Neogene-Quaternary volcanic centre within the Cappadocian Volcanic Province of Central Anatolia. The Late Neogene evolution of the NVC generally initiated with the eruption of extensive andesitic-dacitic lavas and pyroclastic flow deposits, and minor basaltic lavas. This stage was followed by a Quaternary bimodal magma suite which forms Na-alkaline/transitional basaltic and high-K calc-alkaline to alkaline silicic volcanic rocks. In this study, we present new geochemical, isotopic (Sr-Nd-Pb) and geochronological (Ar-Ar and U-Pb) data for the bimodal volcanic suite within the NVC. Recent data suggest that the eruption of this suite took place ranges between ~650 and ~220 ka (Middle-Late Pleistocene). Silicic rocks consisting of rhyolite and associated pumice-rich pyroclastic fall out and surge deposits define a narrow range of 143Nd/144Nd isotope ratios (0.5126-0.5127), and show virtually no difference in Pb isotope composition (206Pb/204Pb = 18.84-18.87, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.64-15.67 and 208Pb/204Pb = 38.93-38.99). 87Sr/86Sr isotopic compositions of the silicic (0.704-0.705) and basaltic rocks (0.703-0.705) are rather similar reflecting a common source. The most mafic sample from basaltic rocks related to monogenetic cones is characterized by 87Sr/86Sr = 0.704, 143Nd/144Nd = 0.5127, 206Pb/204Pb = 18.80, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.60 and 208Pb/204Pb = 38.68. These values suggest a moderately depleted signature of the mantle source. The geochronological and geochemical data suggest that NVC silicic and basaltic rocks are genetically closely related to each other. Mantle derived differentiated basaltic melts which experienced low degree of crustal assimilation are suggested to be the parent melt of the rhyolites. Further investigations will focus on the spatial and temporal evolution of Quaternary bimodal magma suite in the NVC and the genetic relation between silicic and basaltic rocks through detailed oxygen isotope analysis and (U

  19. Geogenic Groundwater Contamination: A Case Study Of Canakkale - Western Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deniz, Ozan; Çalık, Ayten

    2016-04-01

    Study area is located NW of Turkey. Total area of the drainage basin is 465 square kilometers and mostly covered by volcanic rocks. Majority of these rocks have highly altered and lost their primary properties because of alteration processes. Especially argillic alteration is common. Tectonic movements and cooling fractures were created suitable circulation environment of groundwater in the rocks (secondary porosity). Alteration affects the composition of groundwater and some rock elements pass into groundwater during the movement of water in the cavities of rocks. High concentration of natural contaminants related to water-rock interaction in spring water has been studied in this research. Field measurements such as pH, electrical conductivity, temperature, oxidation-reduction potential and salinity carried out in 500 water points (spring, drilling, well and stream). 150 water samples taken from the water points and 50 rock samples taken from the source of springs has been investigated in point of major anion-cations, heavy metals and trace elements. Some components in the water such as pH (3.5-9.1), specific electrical conductivity (84-6400 microS/cm), aluminum (27-44902 ppb), iron (10-8048 ppb), manganese (0.13-8740 ppb), nickel (0.2-627 ppb), lead (0.1-42.5 ppb) and sulphate (10 to 1940 ppm) extremely high or low in the springs sourced from especially highly altered Miocene aged volcanic rocks. Some measured parameters highly above according to European Communities Drinking Water Regulations (2007) and TS266 (2015-Intended for Human Consumption Water Regulations of Turkey) drinking water standards. The most common element which is found in the groundwater is aluminum that is higher than to the drinking water standards (200 microg/L). The highest levels of the Al values measured in acidic waters with very low pH (3.4) emerging from altered volcanic rocks because of acid mine drainage in Obakoy district, north of the study area. The abundance of this element in

  20. Biomarker geochemistry of bituminous shale sequence and crude oil in the Ereǧli-Bor Basin (Konya-Niǧde), Central Anatolia, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara-Gulbay, Reyhan; Erdogan, Mert; Korkmaz, Sadettin; Kadinkiz, Gökhan

    2016-04-01

    In the Ereǧli-Bor Basin (Konya-Niǧde), Central Anatolia, bituminous shale sequence with thickness ranging between 72 and 160 m occurs in lacustrine deposits of Upper Miocene-Pliocene age. The live oil has also been observed in this bituminous shale sequence. Rock-Eval/TOC, GC and GC-MS analyses were conducted on selected bituminous shale samples from four borehole (key-12/1, key-12/2, key-12/3 key-12/4) and one crude oil sample from a borehole (key-12/2) in the basin. In this study, organic matter type, maturity and depositional environment of bituminous shale are evaluated and the origin of crude oil is determined by the bituminous shale-crude oil correlation. The total organic carbon (TOC) values of the bituminous shale samples range from 1.21-13.98 wt% with an average TOC value of 4.75wt%. The bituminous shale sequence is characterized by high HI (127-662 mg HC/g TOC) and low OI (7-50 mgCO2/TOC). Tmax varies from 332-419ᵒC. Very low Pr/Ph ratios of bituminous shale (0.09-0.22) are indicative of anoxic depositional conditions. C27 is dominate sterane for bituminous shale and crude oil samples with C27>C29>C28. Normal steranes are more dominant compare to iso- and diasteranes. Ouite high sterane/hopane ratios (1.14-2.70) indicate dominant algal organic matter input for bituminous shale and source rock of crude oil. C31R/hopane ratio for bituminous shale and crude oil samples are very low (0.09-0.13) and these ratio show a lacustrine depositional envirronment for bituminous shale and source rock of crude oil. Sterane and terpane distributions of bituminous shale and crude oil are very similar. A very good correlation in terms of biomarker between bituminous shale and crude oil samples indicate that source rock of crude oil is bituminous shale. The 22S/(22R + 22S) C32 homohopane ratios of bituminous shale and crude oil samples are found to be 0.56 and 0.61, indicating that homohopane isomerization has attained equilibrium and bituminous shale and crude oil are

  1. The Variation of Several Biological Characteristics of the Chub, Squalius cephalus (L., 1758, in the Orenler Dam Lake, Northwest Anatolia, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sait BULUT

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, several growth parameters of 338 Squalius cephalus (L., 1758 specimens collected from the Orenler dam lake (Turkey between July 2005 and June 2006 were studied. The population comprised 50.74% males, 46.29% females, and 2.97% males+females. In the examined samples, the age of females and males ranged from I to VII and I to VI, respectively. The fork length and weight of females were 14.7-38.0 cm and 40.68-27.0 g, respectively; these values were 16.3-33.7 cm and 57.7-560.0 g, respectively, for males. The age-length and age-weight relationships at time t were calculated by the von Bertalanffy equation for females, and the following results were obtained: Lt = 37.12[1–e–0.36(t–(–0.96], Wt = 775.6[1–e–0.36(t–(–0.96]3.27, Lt = 43.59[1–e–0.3356(t–(–0.719], and Wt = 1123.2[1–e–0.3356(t–(–0.719]3.08. The calculated length-weight relationship was W = 0.36L3.27 for females and W = 0.03356L3.08 for males. The average condition factor was 1.412 for females and 1.284 for males. Consequently, in the Orenler dam lake, S. cephalus grows very well according to the study’s results.

  2. 3-D crustal velocity structure of western Turkey: Constraints from full-waveform tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çubuk-Sabuncu, Yeşim; Taymaz, Tuncay; Fichtner, Andreas

    2017-09-01

    The Sea of Marmara and western Turkey are characterized by intense seismicity and crustal deformation due to transition tectonics between the North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ) and the extensional Aegean. Seismic imaging of the crust and uppermost mantle in W-NW Turkey is crucial to obtain a better understanding of its seismotectonics and geodynamics. So far, the Sea of Marmara and surroundings were considered in various active and passive seismic experiments providing significant information on crustal properties. Here, we further investigate the 3-D seismic velocity structure in this rapidly deforming region using non-linear full-waveform tomography based on the adjoint method. Our model is constrained by complete waveforms of 62 regional earthquakes (epicentral distance data uncertainties. Furthermore, quantitative resolution analyses yield 15 to 35 km horizontal resolution lengths in the shallow and deep crust beneath well-covered areas of W-NW Turkey. Our full-waveform tomography results indicate the presence of strong lateral and vertical velocity variations (2.55 ≤ VS ≤ 4.0 km/s) down to depths of ∼35 km. The seismic velocity distribution is characteristic of highly deformed and distributed crustal features along major fault zones (e.g. NAFZ and its branches), historic and recent regional volcanism (e.g. Kula volcanic province), and metamorphic core complex developments (e.g. Menderes and Kazdağ massifs). Radial anisotropy is very strong (around 20%) throughout the crust, further attesting to strong deformation and heterogeneity. Generally, our 3-D model is overall consistent with the active tectonics of western Turkey.

  3. Planning for Heritage Preservation in Western Turkey: A GIS Approach to Archaeotourism and Agricultural Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curtis, Caitlin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In the Marmara Lake basin, western Turkey, the burial mounds of Bin Tepe are constantly threatened by looting, development, and agricultural expansion. This study outlines a Geographic Information Systems (GIS methodology used to plan for a solution to preservation through archaeotourism development and agricultural policy compromise in the region. The components of this study include determining how to best take advantage of the scenic view of the mounds for tourism, projecting the potential future visual impact of growing olive trees, and developing a plan to mitigate this impact with unplanted zones. Fieldwork in 2011 both confirmed and furthered GIS analyses.

  4. Ground Motion Data Profile of Western Turkey with Intelligent Hybrid Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkmaz, Kasim A.; Demir, Fuat

    2016-09-01

    The recent earthquakes caused severe damages on the existing buildings. By this motivation, an important amount of research work has been conducted to determine the seismic risk of seismically active regions. For an accurate seismic risk assessment, processing of ground motions would provide an advantage. Using the current technology, it is not possible to precisely predict the future earthquakes. Therefore, most of the current seismic risk assessment methodologies are based on statistical evaluation by using recurrence and magnitude of the earthquakes hit the specified region. Because of the limited number of records on earthquakes, the quality of definitions is questionable. Fuzzy logic algorithm can be used to improve the quality of the definition. In the present study, ground motion data profile of western Turkey is defined using an intelligent hybrid processing. The approach is given in a practical way for an easier and faster calculation. Earthquake data between 1970 and 1999 from western part of Turkey have been used for training. The results are tested and validated with the earthquake data between 2000 and 2015 of the same region. Enough approximation was validated between calculated values and the earthquake data by using the intelligent hybrid processing.

  5. Ground Motion Data Profile of Western Turkey with Intelligent Hybrid Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkmaz, Kasim A.; Demir, Fuat

    2017-01-01

    The recent earthquakes caused severe damages on the existing buildings. By this motivation, an important amount of research work has been conducted to determine the seismic risk of seismically active regions. For an accurate seismic risk assessment, processing of ground motions would provide an advantage. Using the current technology, it is not possible to precisely predict the future earthquakes. Therefore, most of the current seismic risk assessment methodologies are based on statistical evaluation by using recurrence and magnitude of the earthquakes hit the specified region. Because of the limited number of records on earthquakes, the quality of definitions is questionable. Fuzzy logic algorithm can be used to improve the quality of the definition. In the present study, ground motion data profile of western Turkey is defined using an intelligent hybrid processing. The approach is given in a practical way for an easier and faster calculation. Earthquake data between 1970 and 1999 from western part of Turkey have been used for training. The results are tested and validated with the earthquake data between 2000 and 2015 of the same region. Enough approximation was validated between calculated values and the earthquake data by using the intelligent hybrid processing.

  6. The Pliocene initiation and Early Pleistocene volcanic disruption of the palaeo-Gediz fluvial system, Western Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maddy, D.; Demir, T.; Bridgland, D.R.; Veldkamp, A.; Stemerdink, C.; Schriek, van der T.; Schreve, D.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we report our latest observations concerning a Pliocene and Early Pleistocene record from Western Turkey. The sedimentary sequence described comprises the fluvial deposits of an Early Pleistocene palaeo-Gediz river system and its tributaries prior to the onset of volcanism around Kula

  7. The Early Pleistocene development of the Gediz River, Western Turkey: An uplift-driven, climate-controlled system?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maddy, D.; Demir, T.; Bridgland, D.R.; Veldkamp, A.; Stemerdink, C.; Schriek, van der T.; Westaway, R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the latest details from an on-going investigation of the Early Pleistocene buried river terrace sequence of the Gediz River 40 km upstream of the Ala¿ehir graben in the Kula volcanic province, Western Turkey. Using clast lithology to characterise sediment provenance, we demonstrat

  8. Cutaneous anthrax in Southeast Anatolia of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekin, Recep; Sula, Bilal; Devecı, Ozcan; Tekin, Alicem; Bozkurt, Fatma; Ucmak, Derya; Kaya, Şafak; Bekcibasi, Muhammed; Erkan, Mehmet Emin; Ayaz, Celal; Hosoglu, Salih

    2015-03-01

    Anthrax is a rare disease cause by Bacillus anthracis, a Gram-positive, rod-shaped endospore-forming capsuled bacterium. Anthrax is manifest in three primary forms: cutaneous, respiratory, and gastrointestinal. Cutaneous anthrax accounts for approximately 95% of all cases of anthrax in humans. In the present study, we evaluated the clinical diagnosis and treatment of cutaneous anthrax, a rare disease that nonetheless remains a serious healthcare problem in developing countries. The complete medical records of patients diagnosed with cutaneous anthrax between January 2001 and December 2012 were examined in a retrospective manner. Cutaneous anthrax was diagnosed by the identification of typical anthrax lesions and/or the presence of Gram-positive-capsuled bacillus after staining with Gram stain and methylen blue in pathology samples obtained from these lesions and the presence of characteristic scarring with a history of severe swelling, black eschar, and positive response to treatment form the basis of diagnosis in cases where cultures were negative for the presence of bacillus. A total of 58 patients were admitted to the hospital with cutaneous anthrax between January 2001 and December 2012. This included 32 (55.2%) males and 26 (44.8%) females, with an age range of 15-82 years and a mean age of 38 ± 13.8 years. The incubation period for the infection ranged between 1 and 20 d (mean 3.7 ± 1.4 d). The most common symptoms at the time of hospital referral were swelling, redness, and black eschar of the skin. The most common lesion site was the hand and fingers (41.3%). Isolated of bacteria was used to diagnose the disease in six cases (23.8%), detection of Gram-positive bacillus in samples of characteristic lesion material was used in seven (28.5%) cases, and the presence of a characteristic lesion was the sole diagnostic criteria in 45 (77.6%) cases. Treatment consisted of penicillin G (12 cases), ampicillin-sulbactam (30 cases), Cefazolin (12 cases), or ciprofloxacin (4 cases). Although the prevalence of anthrax is a decreasing worldwide, it remains a significant problem in developing countries. Rapid identification of the signs and symptoms of cutaneous anthrax is essential for effective treatment. Early supportive treatment and appropriate antimicrobial measures are necessary to address this potentially life-threatening disease.

  9. Structure of some western Anatolia coals investigated by FTIR, Raman, C-13 solid state NMR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction

    OpenAIRE

    Baysal, Mustafa; Yürüm, Alp; Yurum, Alp; Yıldız, Burçin; Yildiz, Burcin; YÜRÜM, YUDA; Yurum, Yuda

    2016-01-01

    Turkey has one of the largest lignite deposits in Europe but the low calorific values of Turkish lignites dictate new and environmentally safe new utilization technologies for further utilization. Research on coal chemical structures has long been of great interest as a fundamental issue for coal chemistry. Identifying the structures of organic material in lignites is important for lignite conversions to clean liquid fuels and value-added chemicals. Therefore, investigation of chemical and de...

  10. Project management of DAG: Eastern Anatolia Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Onur; Yesilyaprak, Cahit; Yerli, Sinan K.; Zago, Lorenzo; Guver, Tolga; Alis, Sinan

    2016-08-01

    The four meter DAG (Eastern Anatolia Observatory in Turkish) telescope is not only the largest telescope in Turkey but also the most promising telescope in the northern hemisphere with a large potential to offer scientific observations with its cutting edge technology. DAG is designed to be an AO telescope which will allow both infrared and visible observations with its two Nasmyth platforms dedicated to next generation focal plane instruments. In this paper, status updates from DAG telescope will be presented in terms of; (i) in house optical design of DAG, (ii) tender process of telescope, (iii) tender process of enclosure, and (iv) tender process of the observatory building. Also status updates from the focal plane instruments project and possible collaboration activities will be presented.

  11. The Dilaridae of the Balkan Peninsula and of Anatolia (Insecta, Neuropterida, Neuroptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Aspöck

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Basing upon all available information on type material of Dilar turcicus Hagen, 1858, Dilar syriacus Navás, 1909, and Dilar lineolatus Navás, 1909, together with a large number of dilarid specimens, the pleasing lacewings of Anatolia and Southeast Europe are revised. The current taxonomic concept of D. turcicus is confirmed, and a lectotype is designated. Dilar turcicus is widely distributed in the southeast of Europe (being the only representative of Dilaridae in this region, in Anatolia, and, most probably, in the Caucasus region. Dilar syriacus and D. lineolatus remain nomina dubia. Dilar syriacus might occur in Anatolia, while D. lineolatus is a species occurring in western Central Asia. Two new species, Dilar anatolicus sp. n. and Dilar fuscus sp. n. are described from Anatolia. Wings and genital segments of the three species occurring in Anatolia are illustrated, and a map documenting the known distribution of these species is provided.

  12. Analyzing Turkey's data from TIMSS 2007 to investigate regional disparities in eighth grade science achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erberber, Ebru

    Turkey is expected to be a full member of the European Union (EU) by 2013. In the course of its integration into the EU, Turkey has been simultaneously facing access, quality, and equity issues in education. Over the past decade, substantial progress has been made on increasing the access. However, improving the country's low level of education quality and achieving equity in quality education across the regions continue to be a monumental challenge in Turkey. Most recently, results from the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2007 indicated that Turkey's educational achievement at the eighth grade, the end of compulsory primary education in Turkey, was far below that of other countries in the EU. Considering Turkey's long standing socioeconomic disparities between the western and eastern parts of the country, the challenges of improving overall education quality are coupled with the challenges of achieving equity in learning outcomes for students across the regions. This dissertation used data from TIMSS 2007 to document the extent of Turkey's regional differences in science achievement at the eighth grade and to investigate factors associated with these differences. Findings from a series of analyses using hierarchical linear models suggested that attempts to increase Turkish students' achievement and close the achievement gaps between regions should target the students in the undeveloped regions, particularly in Southeastern Anatolia and Eastern Anatolia. Designing interventions to improve competency in Turkish and to compensate for the shortcomings of insufficient parental education, limited home educational resources, poor school climate for academic achievement, and inadequate instructional equipment and facilities might be expected to close the regional achievement gaps as well as raise the overall achievement level in Turkey.

  13. Extensional and compressional regime driven left-lateral shear in southwestern Anatolia (eastern Mediterranean): The Burdur-Fethiye Shear Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elitez, İrem; Yaltırak, Cenk; Aktuğ, Bahadır

    2016-10-01

    The tectonic framework of the eastern Mediterranean presented in this paper is based on an active subduction and small underwater hills/mountains on the oceanic crust moving toward the north. The Hellenic Arc, the Anaximander Mountains, the Rhodes and Finike basins, the compressional southern regions of the Western Taurides, and the extensional western Anatolian graben are the main interrelated tectonic structures that are shaped by the complex tectonic regimes. There are still heated debates regarding the structural properties and tectonic evolution of the southwestern Anatolia. GPS velocities and focal mechanisms of earthquakes demonstrate the absence of a single transform fault across the Burdur-Fethiye region; however, hundreds of small faults showing normal and left-lateral oblique slip indicate the presence of a regionally extensive shear zone in southwestern Turkey, which plays an important role in the eastern Mediterranean tectonics. The 300-km-long, 75-90-km-wide NE-SW-trending Burdur-Fethiye Shear Zone developed during the formation of Aegean back-arc extensional system and the thrusting of Western Taurides. Today, the left-lateral differential motion across the Burdur-Fethiye Shear Zone varies from 3 to 4 mm/yr in the north to 8-10 mm/yr in the south. This finding could be attributed to the fact that while the subduction of the African Plate is relatively fast beneath the western Anatolia at the Hellenic Trench, it is slow or locked beneath the Western Taurides. Therefore, the GPS vectors and their distributions on land indicate remarkable velocity differences and enable us to determine the left-lateral shear zone located between the extensional and compressional blocks. Furthermore, this active tectonic regime creates differences in topography. This study also demonstrates how deep structures, such as the continuation of the subduction transform edge propagator (STEP) fault between the Hellenic and Cyprus arcs in the continental area, can come into play

  14. Multilocus phylogenetic analysis of true morels (Morchella) reveals high levels of endemics in Turkey relative to other regions of Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taskin, Hatira; Büyükalaca, Saadet; Hansen, Karen; O'Donnell, Kerry

    2012-01-01

    The present study was conducted to better understand how the phylogenetic diversity of true morels (Morchella) in Turkey compares with species found in other regions of the world. The current research builds on our recently published surveys of 10 Turkish provinces and the northern hemisphere in which DNA sequence data from 247 and 562 collections respectively were analyzed phylogenetically. Herein we report on phylogenetic analyses of 243 additional collections made in spring 2009 and 2010 from eight additional provinces in the Aegean, Black Sea, central Anatolia, eastern Anatolia and Marmara regions of Turkey. Our analysis revealed that five species within the Esculenta clade (yellow morels) and 15 species within the Elata clade (black morels) were present in Turkey. Our preliminary results also indicate that M. anatolica, recently described from a collection in Muğla province in the Aegean region of Turkey, is a closely related sister of M. rufobrunnea; these two species comprise a separate evolutionary lineage from the Esculenta and Elata clades. Nine species of Morchella currently are known only from Turkey, four species were present in Turkey and other European countries and seven species might have been introduced to Turkey anthropogenically. Three of the putatively exotic species in Turkey appear to be endemic to western North America; they are nested within a clade of fire-adapted morels that dates to the late Oligocene, 25 000 000 y ago. Our results indicate that there are roughly twice as many Morchella species in Turkey compared with the other regions of Europe sampled. Knowledge of Morchella species diversity and their biogeographic distribution are crucial for formulating informed conservation policies directed at preventing species loss and ensuring that annual morel harvests are sustainable and ecologically sound.

  15. Risk Factors for Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma in Western Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güliz Fatma Yavaş

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Pur po se: To evaluate the prevalence of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG in subjects aged over 40 years in Western Turkey and to quantify its association with several systemic risk factors. Ma te ri al and Met hod: The research was conducted in Afyonkarahisar, a middle Anatolian city, between November 2005 and February 2006. A total of 1533 subjects aged 40 years or more were included in the study. Diabetes mellitus, hypertension, atherosclerotic cardiac disease, obesity, smoking, alcohol consumption, and dietary habitus (meat, chicken, and fish consumption were asked. Level of blood glucose, serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, very-low-density lipoprotein, Vitamin B12, and thyroid-stimulating-hormone were determined. Ophthalmic examination was performed, and intraocular pressure was measured by tonopen. Subjects with an IOP of 21 mmHg or more and/or with a cupping/disc ratio of 0.3 or more were told to come to the clinic for visual field analysis and gonioscopy. Subjects with a typical glaucomatous visual field defect and an open angle were recorded as POAG. Risk factors for POAG were determined by chi-square test. Re sults: Prevalence of POAG was found to be 2% (30 subjects and the only associated risk factor was age (p=0.05. Dietary habitus was also not associated with glaucoma (p>0.05. Dis cus si on: This study provides a population-based data about the prevalence and risk factors of POAG in Turkey. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2013; 43: 87-90

  16. Complex Crustal Structure Beneath Western Turkey Revealed by 3D Seismic Full Waveform Inversion (FWI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubuk-Sabuncu, Yesim; Taymaz, Tuncay; Fichtner, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    We present a 3D radially anisotropic velocity model of the crust and uppermost mantle structure beneath the Sea of Marmara and surroundings based on the full waveform inversion method. The intense seismic activity and crustal deformation are observed in the Northwest Turkey due to transition tectonics between the strike-slip North Anatolian Fault (NAF) and the extensional Aegean region. We have selected and simulated complete waveforms of 62 earthquakes (Mw > 4.0) occurred during 2007-2015, and recorded at (Δ DAD). The spectral-element solver of the wave equation, SES3D algorithm, is used to simulate seismic wave propagation in 3D spherical coordinates (Fichtner, 2009). The Large Scale Seismic Inversion Framework (LASIF) workflow tool is also used to perform full seismic waveform inversion (Krischer et al., 2015). The initial 3D Earth model is implemented from the multi-scale seismic tomography study of Fichtner et al. (2013). Discrepancies between the observed and simulated synthetic waveforms are determined using the time-frequency misfits which allows a separation between phase and amplitude information (Fichtner et al., 2008). The conjugate gradient optimization method is used to iteratively update the initial Earth model when minimizing the misfit. The inversion is terminated after 19 iterations since no further advances are observed in updated models. Our analysis revealed shear wave velocity variations of the shallow and deeper crustal structure beneath western Turkey down to depths of ~35-40 km. Low shear wave velocity anomalies are observed in the upper and mid crustal depths beneath major fault zones located in the study region. Low velocity zones also tend to mark the outline of young volcanic areas. Our final 3D Earth model is tested using forward wave simulations of earthquakes (M ≥ 3.7) that were not used during the inversion process. The comparison of observed and synthetic seismograms, calculated by initial and final models, showed significant

  17. Organic facies characteristics of the Carboniferous Pamucakyayla Formation, western Taurus, Antalya Nappes, Kemer (Antalya/Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertan Gulludag, Cevdet; Altunsoy, Mehmet; Ozcelik, Orhan

    2015-04-01

    The study area is located in the western part of the Taurus Belt (SW Turkey). This region exhibits a complex structure involving two autochthonous units surrounded and imbricated with three allochthonous complexes. Antalya Nappes is a complex tectonic imbricate structure including sedimantary and ultrabasic rocks. In this study, organic facies characteristics of Carboniferous coaly units in the Pamucakyayla region (Kemer, Antalya-Turkey) were examined. The Carboniferous Pamucakyayla Formation, which is characterized by sandstone, claystone, marl and coaly units. This units includes different levels of coal seams in different thicknesses. Organic matter is composed predominantly of woody and amorphous material, with a minor contribution of planty and coaly material. Kerogen in the deposits is type II/III, as indicated by organic petrographic observations and Rock-Eval data. Total organic carbon (TOC) values are generally between 0.01 and 1.44 %, but reach 5.81 % in the formation. Tmax values vary between 446 and 451 °C and indicate mature zone (Based on the value of 0.25 % TOC). Organic facies type BC, C and CD were identified in the investigated units. Organic facies BC is related sandstoneand marl lithofacies. This facis is deposited under an anoxic water column in a fine grained clastics, where rapid deposition creates anoxia in the sediments after deposition. This facies is characterized by average values of HI around 317 (equivalent to type II kerogene), TOC around 0.02 %, and an average of S2 of 0.04 mg HC/g of rock. Organic facies C is related to sandstone, marl and coal lithofacies. This facies is characterized by average values of HI around 176 (equivalent to type III kerogene), TOC around 0.19 %, and an average of S2 of 0.03 mg HC/g of rock. The organic matter is partly oxidized, and terrestrial. Organic facies C is the "gas-prone" facies. Organic facies CD is related to limestone, marl and coal lithofacies. This facies is characterized by average values

  18. Growth response of Lebanon cedar (Cedrus libani) plantations to thinning intensity in Western Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carus, Serdar; Catal, Yilmaz

    2010-09-01

    This paper presents the growth response of 25 yr old Lebanon cedar (Cedrus libani A. Rich.) plantation to thinnings of different intensities in Isparta in western Turkey. The thinning intensity was measured by using the residual basal area (%) as parameter. In spring of 2005, three treatments were tested; light, moderate and heavy thinning with respectively 10, 25 and 35% of basal area removed. The statistical design of the experiment was a randomized incomplete block with two blocks and three treatments. Variables such as diameter at breast height (diameter) and height were measured. Growth rate ratios of diameter in moderately thinned and heavily thinned stands were 1.02 and 1.03, respectively. Basal area growth rates in moderately thinned and heavily thinned plots were 0.93 and 1.05, respectively. The largest values for the mean tree were observed with the heaviest thinning treatment. Absolute diameter increment was positively correlated with initial diameter in all plots. Relative diameter growth was negatively correlated with initial diameter. Growth rate interpretations were supported by analysis of variance using Duncan's test of range multiple. The results obtained show significant differences between treatments for tree height growth, for the two inventories carried out (2005, 2008). However diameter basal area and volume were no found between treatments for tree.

  19. Monazite geochronology, magmatism, and extensional dynamics within the Menderes Massif, western Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catlos, E J [University of Texas at Austin, Jackson School of Geosciences, Geological Science Department, 1 University Station C1100, Austin, TX 78712-0254 (United States); Baker, C B; Cemen, I [Oklahoma State University, School of Geology, 105 Noble Research Center, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States); Sorensen, S S [Smithsonian Institution Museum of Natural History, PO Box 37012, MRC 119, Washington, DC, 20013-7012 (United States); Hancer, M [Pamukkale Universitesi, Muhendislik Fakultesi, Jeoloji Muh. Bolmu, Denizli, 20070 Turkey (Turkey)], E-mail: ejcatlos@gmail.com

    2008-07-01

    Geochemical and geochronological data were collected from S-type, peraluminous granites (Salihli and Turgutlu) that intrude a detachment that bounds the northern edge of the central Menderes Massif core complex (Aegean region, western Turkey). The granites may have been generated due to subduction of the Eastern Mediterranean floor along the Hellenic trench. In situ Th-Pb ion microprobe monazite ages from the rocks range from 21.7{+-}4.5 Ma to 9.6{+-}1.6 Ma ({+-}1{sigma}), which could record their exhumation history. Higher uncertainty in the ages is attributed to monazite common Pb, but the range is consistent with cathodoluminescence (CL) images that document complex textures within the granites. Salihli and Turgutlu granites share many similar characteristics, including multiple generations of plagioclase, plagioclase replacing K-feldspar and the development of myrmekite, evidence for fluid interaction, and multiple generations of microcracks. Ages reported here are similar to dates constraining extension reported elsewhere in the Aegean, but indicate additional complexities when linking movement within the Menderes Massif to large-scale geodynamic processes that created other metamorphic core complexes in the region. Difficulties exist in linking the ages obtained from the granites to specific tectonic events due to the presence of secondary alteration textures, generations of mineral growth and multiple episodes of deformation.

  20. Turkey's Hope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang; Wei

    2008-01-01

      Turkey, lies southeast of Europe on the tip of western Asia, the country enjoys both a historical bond and deep friendship with China.With their respective locations on the west and east ends of the ancient Silk Road, Turkey and China have a long history of political, cultural and trade relations.……

  1. Turkey's Hope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Turkey, lies southeast of Europe on the tip of western Asia, the country enjoys both a historical bond and deep friendship with China.With their respective locations on the west and east ends of the ancient Silk Road, Turkey and China have a long history of political, cultural and trade relations.

  2. Biomonitoring of metals in the vicinity of Soma coal-fired power plant in western Anatolia, Turkey using the epiphytic lichen, Xanthoria parietina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gür, Filiz; Yaprak, Günseli

    2011-01-01

    In this study, epiphytic lichen Xanthoria parietina was applied as the biomonitor of air pollution to determine the environmental influence in the vicinity of Soma coal-fired power plant. Thalli of lichen Xanthoria parietina growing on olive, oak and poplar trees were collected with their substrate in 2004-2006. They were taken from 44 different stations located in 3×3 km grids within an area of 30 km in diameter around the Soma power plant near the town of Soma. Lichen samples were analyzed by using the ICP-MS for As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se, Th, U, V and Zn elements and their concentrations were mapped. The sample analyses results were evaluated by using the statistical software (SPSS 11). Average element contents of samples were, in descending order, Fe > Zn > V > Pb > Cr > Cu > Ni > As > Co > U > Th > Se > Cd > Hg. Results obtained in the current study were generally found to be higher than the data reported in literature although some lower values exist for Cd, Co, Hg, Ni, Pb elements. The most polluted areas were found to be those in the vicinity of the coal-fired power plant, particularly along the direction of predominant wind and in the corridor which runs from west to southeast direction due to topographic conditions. We believe that this research which is conducted around a coal-fired power plant will shed light on future research on pollution.

  3. Implications of Late Cretaceous U-Pb zircon ages of granitic intrusions cutting ophiolitic and volcanogenic rocks for the assembly of the Tauride allochthon in SE Anatolia (Helete area, Kahramanmaraş Region, SE Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurlu, Nusret; Parlak, Osman; Robertson, Alastair; von Quadt, Albrecht

    2016-01-01

    An assemblage of NE-SW-trending, imbricate thrust slices (c. 26 km E-W long × 6.3 km N-S) of granitic rocks, basic-felsic volcanogenic rocks (Helete volcanics), ophiolitic rocks (Meydan ophiolite) and melange (Meydan melange) is exposed near the Tauride thrust front in SE Anatolia. The volcanogenic rocks were previously assumed to be Eocene because of associated Nummulitic limestones. However, ion probe U-Pb dating of zircons extracted from the intrusive granitic rocks yielded ages of 92.9 ± 2.2-83.1 ± 1.5 Ma (Cenomanian-Campanian). The Helete volcanic unit and the overlying Meydan ophiolitic rocks both are intruded by granitic rocks of similar age and composition. Structurally underlying ophiolite-related melange includes similar-aged, but fragmented granitic intrusions. Major, trace element and rare earth element analyses coupled with electron microprobe analysis of the granitic rocks show that they are metaluminus to peraluminus and calc-alkaline in composition. A magmatic arc setting is inferred from a combination of tectonomagmatic discrimination, ocean ridge granite-normalized multi-element patterns and biotite geochemistry. Sr-Nd-Pb isotope data further suggest that the granitoid rocks were derived from variably mixed mantle and crustal sources. Granitic rocks cutting the intrusive rocks are inferred to have crystallized at ~5-16 km depth. The volcanogenic rocks and granitic rocks originated in a supra-subduction zone setting that was widely developed throughout SE Anatolia. Initial tectonic assembly took place during the Late Cretaceous probably related to northward subduction and accretion beneath the Tauride continent (Keban and Malatya platforms). Initial tectonic assembly was followed by exhumation and then transgression by shelf-depth Nummulitic limestones during Mid-Eocene, as documented in several key outcrops. Final emplacement onto the Arabian continental margin took place during the Early Miocene.

  4. Normal faulting in the Simav graben of western Turkey reassessed with calibrated earthquake relocations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasözen, Ezgi; Nissen, Edwin; Bergman, Eric A.; Johnson, Kendra L.; Walters, Richard J.

    2016-06-01

    Western Turkey has a long history of large earthquakes, but the responsible faults are poorly characterized. Here we reassess the past half century of instrumental earthquakes in the Simav-Gediz region, starting with the 19 May 2011 Simav earthquake (Mw 5.9), which we image using interferometric synthetic aperture radar and regional and teleseismic waveforms. This event ruptured a steep, planar normal fault centered at 7-9 km depth but failed to break the surface. However, relocated main shock and aftershock hypocenters occurred beneath the main slip plane at 10-22 km depth, implying rupture initiation in areas of low coseismic slip. These calibrated modern earthquakes provide the impetus to relocate and reassess older instrumental events in the region. Aftershocks of the 1970 Gediz earthquake (Mw 7.1) form a narrow band, inconsistent with source models that invoke low-angle detachment faulting, and may include events triggered dynamically by the unilateral main shock rupture. Epicenters of the 1969 Demirci earthquakes (Mw 5.9, 6.0) are more consistent with slip on the south dipping Akdağ fault than the larger, north dipping Simav fault. A counterintuitive aspect of recent seismicity across our study area is that the largest event (Mw 7.1) occurred in an area of slower extension and indistinct surface faulting, yet ruptured the surface, while recent earthquakes in the well-defined and more rapidly extending Simav graben are smaller (Mw <6.0) and failed to produce surface breaks. Though our study area bounds a major metamorphic core complex, there is no evidence for involvement of low-angle normal faulting in any of the recent large earthquakes.

  5. Stochastic approaches for time series forecasting of boron: a case study of Western Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durdu, Omer Faruk

    2010-10-01

    In the present study, a seasonal and non-seasonal prediction of boron concentrations time series data for the period of 1996-2004 from Büyük Menderes river in western Turkey are addressed by means of linear stochastic models. The methodology presented here is to develop adequate linear stochastic models known as autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) and multiplicative seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) to predict boron content in the Büyük Menderes catchment. Initially, the Box-Whisker plots and Kendall's tau test are used to identify the trends during the study period. The measurements locations do not show significant overall trend in boron concentrations, though marginal increasing and decreasing trends are observed for certain periods at some locations. ARIMA modeling approach involves the following three steps: model identification, parameter estimation, and diagnostic checking. In the model identification step, considering the autocorrelation function (ACF) and partial autocorrelation function (PACF) results of boron data series, different ARIMA models are identified. The model gives the minimum Akaike information criterion (AIC) is selected as the best-fit model. The parameter estimation step indicates that the estimated model parameters are significantly different from zero. The diagnostic check step is applied to the residuals of the selected ARIMA models and the results indicate that the residuals are independent, normally distributed, and homoscadastic. For the model validation purposes, the predicted results using the best ARIMA models are compared to the observed data. The predicted data show reasonably good agreement with the actual data. The comparison of the mean and variance of 3-year (2002-2004) observed data vs predicted data from the selected best models show that the boron model from ARIMA modeling approaches could be used in a safe manner since the predicted values from these models preserve the basic

  6. İkinci Dünya Savaşı Sırasında Türkiye-Sovyetler Birliği İlişkileri ve Türkiye'nin Amerika Birleşik Devletleri ile Yakınlaşmasına Etkileri Turkey-Soviet Union Relations During Second World War and Effects On The Turkey Rapprochement With USA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barış ERTEM

    2013-01-01

    .... As a result of this visit, an16 million Turkish Lira credit has provided to Turkey by the SovietUnion.As Second World War approached, Turkey faced with territorialclaims of Soviet Union in Turkish Straits and Eastern Anatolia...

  7. Hydrochemical zonation of the western part of Göksu Delta aquifer system, Southern Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokuz, U. E.; Çelik, M.; Arslan, Ş.; Engin, H.

    2012-04-01

    In general, coastal areas are preferred places for human settlement, especially at places where infrastructure routes benefit from rivers, streets, or harbours. As a result, these areas usually suffer from rising population and endure increasingly high demand on natural resources like water. Göksu Delta, located in southern Turkey, is one of the important wetland areas of Turkey at the Mediterranean coast. It is divided into two parts by Göksu River. The western part of the delta, which is the subject matter of this study, hosts fertile agricultural fields, touristic places and a Special Environmental Protection Area. These properties of the region lead to a water-dependent ecosystem where groundwater has widely been used for agricultural and domestic purposes. When the exploitation of groundwater peaked in the middle of 1990s, the groundwater levels dropped and seawater intruded. General Directorate of State Hydraulic Works tried to stop seawater intrusion by building irrigation channels connected to Göksu River and banned drilling of new wells for groundwater exploitation, although it is hard to control the drilling of wells without official permit. Geological studies show that the delta is composed of terrestrial sediments including clay to coarse sand deposited during Quaternary. The heterogeneous sediments of Göksu Delta cause hydrogeological features of the aquifer systems to be heterogeneous and anisotropic. Hydrogeological investigations, therefore, indicate mainly two different aquifers, shallow and deep, separated by an aquitard. The shallow aquifer is under unconfined to confined conditions from north to south while the deep aquifer is under confined conditions. This study focuses on hydrogeochemical zonation in terms of hydrochemical processes that affect the Göksu Delta aquifer systems. For this purpose, hydrogeochemical and isotopic studies are conducted to understand the salinisation and softening processes of groundwater. The physicochemical

  8. Assessment of Groundwater Supply Impacts for a Mine Site in Western Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agartan, E.; Yazicigil, H.

    2010-12-01

    A nickel mine located in Turgutlu town in Western Turkey requires 135 L/s of water for the mining processes. The initial studies pointed out that part of the supply will be met by pumping water from the Turgutlu-Salihli aquifer system. The purpose of this study is to assess the impacts associated with meeting groundwater supply requirements for the mine. Scope of the study involved development of the groundwater flow model of the Turgutlu-Salihli aquifer system, determination of the alternative groundwater pumping scenarios, assessment of the impacts associated with each scenario and selection of the most feasible scenario in the aspect of environmental and technical factors. Turgutlu town is located in one of the most tectonically active areas in Turkey which is characterized by an E-W trending Gediz Graben formed as a result of N-S directed extension. Gediz River as a major surface water resource in the study area flows from east to west, passes through Gediz Graben and is connected to the Turgutlu-Salihli aquifer system. Quaternary deposits and Neogene rocks, showing better aquifer properties than the other formations of the Gediz Graben, form the Turgutlu-Salihli aquifer system. Quaternary deposits form the principal aquifer, and Neogene rocks form the secondary aquifer in the study area. Therefore, a two layered groundwater flow model of the Turgutlu-Salihli aquifer system was established using MODFLOW. The model was calibrated under steady state conditions assuming that the conditions in 1991 prior to the significant development represented a pseudo-steady state in the aquifer system. Calibration was carried out for hydraulic conductivity, recharge and boundary conditions. To get today’s groundwater levels, wells being drilled after 1991 were added to the model. In the scope of this study, two potential scenarios were considered, and their effects on the aquifer systems were evaluated. The locations of the scenario wells were determined so that they will

  9. TURKEY IN INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    ГЕТМАН А.В.; ДОЛГАНОВСКАЯ Н.В.

    2016-01-01

    Turkey, officially the Republic of Turkey is a country located mainly in the south western part of Asia, the Middle East, and partly in the south-eastern Europe. Today, Turkey is a full member of such organizations as the UN, IMF, NATO, OBSE. The multi-vector policy of Turkey is caused by the presence of certain national interests in the formation of a direction of foreign policy. The most priority is the Western orientation.

  10. Carcass traits of improved and indigenous lamb breeds of North-Western Turkey under an intensive production system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omur Kocak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to investigate the carcass quality of Turkish Merino, Ramlic, Kivircik, Chios and Imroz breeds in north-western Turkey under an intensive production system. After weaning at approximately 85 days of age, 46 lambs from Turkish Merino, Ramlic, Kivircik, Chios and Imroz breeds were fattened for 56 days. Slaughter weights were 47.39, 45.68, 47.27, 31.08 and 29.82 kg and chilled carcass weights were 23.35, 22.33, 23.51, 14.33 and 13.75 kg, respectively (P<0.001. Improved Turkish Merino and Ramlic and indigenous Kivircik lambs had higher carcass measurements than indigenous Chios and Imroz lambs. Chios lamb carcasses had the highest tail root fat yellowness and tail percentage while having the lowest fatness score, omental and mesenteric fat percentage and kidney knob and channel fat percentage. Turkish Merino lambs had higher shoulder percentage, lean percentage and lean/total fat ratio in the hind leg and produced less total fat in the hind leg than Ramlic and Kivircik lambs. These results indicate that improved Turkish Merino might be used to produce high quality lamb carcasses in north-western Turkey. Among indigenous breeds Kivircik showed an outstanding carcass production performance.

  11. Late Holocene Environmental Reconstruction and Flood Records of Lake Bafa, Western Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalamaz, Burak; Bulkan, Özlem; Namık Çaǧatay, M.; Acar, Dursun

    2016-04-01

    Lake Bafa is a significant inland lake located in the Büyük Menderes River Basin near the Aegean Sea in the horst and graben system of western Turkey. Lake Bafa was part of the ancient Gulf of Latmos that was gradually filled by the prograding sediments of Büyük Menderes River during the Holocene transgression, and resulted in the creation of the Lake in the southern part. The lake is presently located 15 km from the shoreline, 2 m above sea level. It has a maximum depth of 21 m and surface area of 60 km2. We used multi-proxy analyses of a 4.17 m-long core extending back to ca. 2300 years from the central depo centre of the lake. The objectives are to reconstruct the environmental evolution of the Lake Bafa as it changed from a marginal marine to a lacustrine environment, and to investigate the flood records during the past 2300 yrs. The core is composed of three units: an uppermost lacustrine unit, a unit representing marine to lacustrine conditions and a lowermost marine unit. The uppermost lacustrine unit is 1 m-thick, homogenous clayey silt mud layer with relatively high total organic carbon (TOC= 2.5 - 4.5 %), high total inorganic carbon (TIC = 1.8 -4.5 %) and low detrital input (Si, K, Zr, Ti). According to AMS radiocarbon dating, it was deposited over the last 600 yrs under brackish lacustrine conditions. The underlying unit is 2 m-thick, and consists of banded mud layers with relatively low TOC (1.2-4 %) and TIC (1.2-3.5) contents and high detrital input. Its fossil content, with scarce Cardium sp. and Ammonia sp., indicates that it was deposited under brackish water conditions and represents a transition from marine to lacustrine environments. The unit was deposited between ca. 600 and 1750 yrs BP, and includes frequent flood units ranging up to 10 cm-thick fine sand- to clay-bearing coarse silt. The lowermost unit is characterized by relatively high TOC (2-5.5 %), TIC (1.5-3.5 %) contents and high detrital input. With its abundant Cardium sp. and

  12. Stratigraphy of Upper Cretaceous-Palaeogene sequences in the southern and eastern Menderes Massif (western Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özer, Sacit; Sözbilir, Hasan; Özkar, İzver; Toker, Vedia; Sari, Bilal

    2001-03-01

    The stratigraphy of the uppermost levels of the Menderes Massif is controversial and within its details lie vital constraints to the tectonic evolution of south-western Turkey. Our primary study was carried out in four reference areas along the southern and eastern Menderes Massif. These areas lie in the upper part of the Menderes metamorphic cover and have a clear stratigraphic relationship and contain datable fossils. The first one, in the Akbük-Milas area, is located south-east of Bafa Lake where the Milas, then Kızılağaç and Kazıklı formations are well exposed. There, the Milas formation grades upwards into the Kızılağaç formation. The contact between the Kızılağaç and the overlying Kazıklı formation is not clearly seen but is interpreted as an unconformity. The Milas and Kızılağaç formations are also found north of Muğla, in the region of Yatağan and Kavaklıdere. In these areas, the Milas formation consists of schists and conformably overlying platform-type, emery and rudist-bearing marbles. Rudists form the main palaeontological data from which a Santonian-Campanian age is indicated. The Kızılağaç formation is characterized by reddish-greyish pelagic marbles with marly-pelitic interlayers and coarsening up debris flow deposits. Pelagic marbles within the formation contain planktonic foraminifera and nanoplankton of late Campanian to late Maastrichtian age. The Kazıklı formation is of flysch type and includes carbonate blocks. Planktonic foraminifera of Middle Palaeocene age are present in carbonate lenses within the formation. In the Serinhisar-Tavas area, Mesozoic platform-type marbles (Yılanlı formation) belonging to the cover series of the Menderes Massif exhibit an imbricated internal structure. Two rudist levels can be distinguished in the uppermost part of the formation: the first indicates a middle-late Cenomanian age and the upper one is Santonian to Campanian in age. These marbles are unconformably covered by the

  13. An example of triggered earthquakes in western Turkey: 2000-2015 Afyon-Akşehir Graben earthquake sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalafat, Doğan; Görgün, Ethem

    2017-09-01

    We investigate significant earthquake sequences in the observation period between 2000 and 2015 along the Afyon-Akşehir Graben system in western Anatolia. These sequences include a series of strong events with moment magnitudes (Mw) larger than 5.5, e.g. Eber (Mw 5.8), Sultandağı (Mw 6.5) and Çay (Mw 5.8) earthquakes. The mainshocks are shallow focus normal events at depths of 8-15 km. Focal depths of aftershocks range from 2 to 30 km. The focal mechanisms of the aftershocks are mainly normal faulting with variable strike-slip components. The geometry of focal mechanisms reveals a normal faulting regime with NNE-SSW trending direction of T-axis in the entire activated region. A stress tensor inversion of focal mechanism data is performed to acquire a more accurate picture of the Afyon-Akşehir Graben stress field. The stress tensor inversion results display a predominant normal stress regime with a NW-SE oriented maximum horizontal compressive stress (SH). According to high-resolution hypocenter relocations of the Afyon-Akşehir Graben seismic sequences, six clusters are revealed. The aftershock activities in the observation period between 17 January 2000 and 26 October 2015 extend from east to west direction. Seismic cross-sections show that a complex pattern of the hypocenter distribution with the activation of Sultandağı Fault segments. The western clusters are associated with a fault plane trending mainly E-W and dipping towards SE, while the eastern clusters are related to a fault plane trending NW-SE and dipping towards vertical. The best constrained focal depths are mainly confined in the crust (depth < 30 km) and run in the approximate depth range from 2 to 30 km. Moreover, Coulomb stress analysis is also performed to estimate the stress loading for the activated region. We obtain more than 3 bars for positive lobes. This result defines that the values are large enough to increase the Coulomb stress failure towards NE-SW direction.

  14. Schistidium sordidum new to Turkey and southwest Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batan Nevzat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Schistidium sordidum I. Hagen (Grimmiaceae is recorded for the first time in Southwest Asia (Turkey. The specimen was collected in the south (Ağrı Mountain of Iğdır province, East Anatolia Region of Turkey. The nearest locality to Turkey for this species is Russia. A site description, illustrations, ecology, distribution and diagnostic characters of the species are presented.

  15. Friedrich Sarre and the discovery of Seljuk Anatolia

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    Patricia Blessing

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The German art historian Friedrich Sarre (1865-1945 is best known as the director, from 1925-31, of the Islamic collection of the Berlin Museums, and for his collaboration with Ernst Herzfeld on the excavation of the Abbasid palaces of Samarra, Iraq, just before the onset of the 1914-18 war. From a historiographical point of view, however, Sarre also deserves attention for his work on the Seljuk architecture of Anatolia, a subject that had been barely studied within the context of Islamic art when he ventured into it. Crucially, Sarre’s study of Seljuk architecture is rooted in the late nineteenth-century appreciation of Persian art, rather in the later focus on a unified Turkish identity that became pervasive in the late 1920s, following ideological shifts after the foundation of the Republic of Turkey.

  16. ASSESSMENT OF IRRIGATION EFFICIENCIES UNDER CENTRAL ANATOLIA CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Ersoy Yildirim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Turkey is located within semi-arid climate zone and large portion of the country experience water deficits. Thus, efficient water use has become a significand issue in agricultural practices. Current global warming and climate change have aggravated such deficiencies. Konya province is located right at the center of Central Anatolia region and mostly groundwater is used in irrigations. Excessive groundwater withdrawals drop groundwaters levels and also increase energy costs. Although farmers pay quite high sums for energy, they were not using water efficiently and thus were not able to get desired benefits from the irrigations. In this study, irrigation practices of an irrigation cooperative were assessed and compared with optimum irrigation programs created through IRSIS irrigation scheduling software. It was concluded that all irrigation practices of the region were wrong and way behind the optimum ones.

  17. [Immigrations to Anatolia, related public health problems and healthcare services in the beginning of the Twentieth Century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarikaya, Ozlem; Civaner, Murat

    Anatolia, one of the most important crossroads between two continents, has witnessed so many immigrations throughout the history. It is a place where different civilizations and cultures met and transformed each other by interaction. History of important immigrations to Anatolia during the reign of the Ottoman Empire goes back to 1683. Also, the period between the end of 19th century and the beginning of 20th century was the time of wars, immigrations, and death and birth of nations. The Ottoman Empire had joined the several wars as well, and the new Republic of Turkey was established after it collapsed. In this study, we investigated the two large scale immigrations to Anatolia between Balkan Wars and the first years of Republic, and tried to compile our knowledge about the public health problems and the healthcare services provided.

  18. Sustainable development and management of an aquifer system in western Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakiyan, Jale; Yazicigil, Hasan

    This study presents the establishment of sustainable development and management policies for the Küçük Menderes River Basin aquifer system in western Turkey. Geological, hydrogeological, and geophysical data are used conjunctively to define various hydrogeological units and their geometry. Distributions of hydraulic-parameter values and recharge are estimated by geostatistical methods and hydrologic simulations, respectively. A finite-difference groundwater flow model is used to represent the unconfined flow in the aquifer system. The model has been calibrated under steady state and transient conditions. The resulting model was used to test seven management scenarios for a planning period of 21 years to determine the so-called safe yield and sustainable yield of the aquifer system and to investigate the potential impacts of four planned surface water reservoirs on groundwater resources in the basin. The results demonstrate that the continuation of the present pumping rates exceeds both the safe yield and the sustainable yield of the aquifer system. Consequently, the growing need for irrigation water should be met by the construction of the planned surface water reservoirs and the implementation of efficient water management policies and plans. Cette étude présente la proposition d'une politique de développement et de gestion durables du système aquifère du bassin du Petit Mendérès dans l'ouest de la Turquie. Des données géologiques, hydrogéologiques et géophysiques ont été utilisées conjointement pour définir les différentes unités hydrogéologiques et leur géométrie. Les distributions des paramètres hydrauliques et de la recharge ont été estimées respectivement par des méthodes géostatistiques et des simulations hydrologiques. Un modèle d'écoulement souterrain aux éléments finis a été utilisé pour représenter l'écoulement non captif dans le système aquifère. Le modèle a été calibré dans des conditions de r

  19. Early Miocene Kırka-Phrigian Caldera, western Turkey (Eskişehir province), preliminary volcanology, age and geochemistry data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seghedi, Ioan; Helvacı, Cahit

    2016-11-01

    Large rhyolitic ignimbrite occurrences are closely connected to the Early Miocene initiation of extension in the central-western Anatolia crossing the Tavşanlı-Afyon zones. Field and laboratory data performed at the apex of the Eskişehir-Afyon-Isparta volcanic area allowed recognition of newly identified caldera structure, named here "Kırka-Phrigian caldera". Transtensive/distensive tectonic stresses since 25 Ma ago resulted in the NNW-SSE elongation of the magma chamber and influenced the roughly elliptical shape of the subsided block (caldera floor). The caldera, which is roughly oval (24 km × 15 km) in shape, formed during a series of collapse events, starting at 19 Ma, by the generation of a huge volume of extra- and intracaldera ignimbrites. Intracaldera post-collapse sedimentation and further volcanism at the northern edge (at 18.6 Ma) were controlled through subsidence-related faults with generation of a series of volcanic structures (domes and lavas) showing a large compositional range. Enriched mantle components within the subcontinental lithospheric mantle began to melt via decompression melting during the initiation of extension. The heat resulting from the fractionation of ascending mantle melts produced the silicic compositions in large mushy crustal reservoirs; interaction of these melts with fertile crustal rocks further caused crustal anataxis and consequently two different compositions: Rhyolite-1 and Rhyolite-2. The eruptions of Kırka-Phrigian caldera-related ignimbrites were probably triggered by basaltic intrusion. Rock volumes and geochemical evidence suggest that silicic volcanic rocks come from a long-lived complex magma chamber system. After caldera generation there was a northern shift to small volume extra- and intra-caldera episodic rhyolitic, basaltic-trachy andesitic, trachytic and lamproitic volcanism, the latter being the youngest (16.2 Ma) indicating a more primitive magma input which originated in an enriched mantle

  20. Plio-Quaternary kinematic development and paleostress pattern of the Edremit Basin, western Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürer, Ömer Feyzi; Sangu, Ercan; Özburan, Muzaffer; Gürbüz, Alper; Gürer, Aysan; Sinir, Hasan

    2016-06-01

    The Edremit Basin and Kazdağ High are the most prominent morphological features of the Biga Peninsula in northwest Anatolia. There is still no consensus on the formation of Edremit Basin and debates are on whether the basin evolved through a normal, a right-lateral or a left-lateral strike-slip faulting. In this study, the geometric, structural and kinematic characteristics of the Edremit Basin are investigated to make an analytical approach to this problem. The structural and kinematic features of the faults in the region are described according to field observations. These fault-slip data derived from the fault planes were analyzed to determine the paleostress pattern of faulting in the region. According to the performed analysis, the southern end of the Biga Peninsula is under the influence of the ENE-WSW-trending faults of the region, such as the Yenice-Gönen, the Edremit, the Pazarköy and the Havran-Balıkesir Fault Zones. The right step-over geometry and related extension caused to the development of the Edremit Basin as a transtensional pull-apart basin between the Havran-Balıkesir Fault Zone and the Edremit Fault Zone. Field observations showed that the Plio-Quaternary faults at the Edremit Gulf and adjacent areas are prominently right-lateral strike-slip faults. Our paleostress analyses suggest a dominant NE-SW extension in the study area, as well as NW-SE direction. This pattern indicates the major effects of the North Anatolian Fault System and the component of Aegean Extensional System in the region. However, our kinematic analysis represents the dominant signature of the North Anatolian Fault System in basin bounding faults. The field observations and kinematic findings of this study are also consistent with the regional GPS, paleomagnetic and seismological data. This study concludes that the North Anatolian Fault System is the prominent structure in the current morphotectonic framework of the Edremit Gulf and adjacent areas.

  1. Psephellus vanensis (Asteraceae, a new species from east Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekir Dogan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A new species, Psephellus vanensis A.Duran, Behçet & B.Dogan (Asteraceae from Anatolia, Turkey, is described and illustrated. The species grows on the serpentine stony field of the village of Çaldıran in the district of Başkale (Van province in eastern Anatolia. It is morphologically similar to Psephellus pyrrhoblepharus (Boiss. Wagenitz. Diagnostic characters are discussed, and a key to the most similar species is provided. Ecology, conservation status and notes on biogeography of the species are also presented. In addition, the geographical distribution of the new species and other related species in Turkey is mapped.

  2. Eastern Anatolia Observatory (DAG): Recent developments and a prospective observing site for robotic telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesilyaprak, C.; Yerli, S. K.; Keskin, O.

    2016-12-01

    This document (Eastern Anatolia Observatory (DAG) is the new observatory of Turkey with the optical and near-infrared largest telescope (4 m class) and its robust observing site infrastructure. This national project consists of three phases with DAG (Telescope, Enclosure, Buildings and Infrastructures), FPI (Focal Plane Instruments and Adaptive Optics) and MCP (Mirror Coating Plant) and is supported by the Ministry of Development of Turkey. The tenders of telescope and enclosure have been made and almost all the infrastructure (roads, geological and atmospherical surveys, electricity, fiber optics, cable car, water, generator, etc.) of DAG site (Erzurum/Turkey, 3,170 m altitude) have been completed. This poster is about the recent developments of DAG and about the future possible collaborations for various robotic telescopes which can be set up in DAG site.

  3. Intestinal parasites prevalence and related factors in school children, a western city sample-Turkey

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    Onen Ozlem

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intestinal parasitic infections are amongst the most common infections worldwide. Epidemiological research carried out in different countries has shown that the social and economical situation of the individuals is an important cause in the prevalence of intestinal parasites. Previous studies in Turkey revealed a high prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection. The objectives of the current study were to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in Aydin among 7–14 years old school children and to identify associated socio-demographic and environmental factors, behavioral habits and also related complaints. Methods Multistage sampling was used in the selection of the study sample. A questionnaire, cellulose adhesive and a stool specimen examination were done. Results A total of 456 stool specimens were collected. 145 students (31.8% were infected with one or more intestinal parasites. 29 (6.4% of the students were infected more than one parasite, 26 (5.7% with two parasites and 3 (0.7% with three parasites. The three most common were E. vermicularis, G. intestinalis and E. coli. Intestinal parasite prevalence was higher in rural area, in children with less than primary school educated mother, in children who use hands for washing anal area after defecation, and in children who use toilet paper sometimes or never. The relation between child health and mother education is well known. Children were traditionally taught to wash anal area by hand. Toiler paper usage was not common and might be due to low income or just a behavioral habit also. Most of the complaints of the study population were not significantly related with the intestinal parasitic infection. Conclusions Intestinal parasitic infection is an important public health problem in Aydin, Turkey. Rural residence, mother education less than primary school, sometimes or never usage of toilet paper, and washing anal area by hands after defecation were

  4. Q Estimates using the Coda of Local Earthquakes in Western Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyol, Nihal

    2015-04-01

    The regional extension in the central west Turkey has been associated to different deformation processes, such as: spreading and thinning of over-thickened crust following the latest collision across the Neotethys, Arabia-Eurasia convergence resulting in westward extrusion of the Anatolian Plate and Africa-Eurasia convergence forming regional tectonics in the back-arc extensional area. Utilizing single isotropic scattering model, the Coda quality factor (Qc) at five frequency bands (1.5, 3, 5, 7, 10 Hz) and for eight window lengths (25-60 s, in steps of 5 s) were estimated in the region. The data comes from 228 earthquakes with local magnitudes and depths range from 2.9 - 4.9 and 2.2 - 27.0 km, respectively. The source to receiver distance of the records changes between 11 and 72 km. Spatial differences of attenuation characteristics were examined by dividing the region into four subregions. The frequency dependence of Qc values between 1.5 and 10 Hz has been inferred utilizing Qc = Q0fn relationship. Q0 values change between 32.7 and 82.1, while n values changes between 0.91 and 0.79 for the main- and four sub-regions, respectively. Obtained frequency dependence of Qc values for a lapse time of 40 s in the main region is Qc(f) = 49.6±1.0f0.85±0.02. The obtained low Q0 values show that the central west Turkey region is characterized by a high seismic attenuation, in general. Strong frequency and lapse time dependencies of Qc values for the main- and four sub-region imply tectonic complexity in the region. The attenuation and its frequency dependency values versus the lapse time for the easternmost subregion, confirm the slab tear inferred from previous studies. The highest frequency dependency values, at all lapse times, in the westernmost subregion imply high degree of heterogeneity supported by severe anti-clockwise rotation in this area. Lapse time dependencies of attenuation and its frequency dependencies were examined for two different ranges of event depth

  5. Indoor radon levels in workplaces of Adapazarı, north-western Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapdan, Enis; Altinsoy, Nesrin

    2014-02-01

    The main objective of this study is to assess the health hazards due to radon gas accumulation and to compare the concentrations in different kinds of workplaces, in the city of Adapazarı, one of the most important industrial cities of Turkey. For this purpose, radon activity concentration measurements were carried out in schools, factories, offices and outdoors using CR-39 solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD). Results show that the mean radon activity concentrations (RAC) in schools, offices and factories were found to be 66, 76 and 27 Bq/m3, respectively, with an outdoor concentration of 14 Bq/m3. The average concentrations were found to decrease as follows for different types of industries: automotive > electronic > metal > textile. Because the maximum measured radon concentrations are 151 Bq/m3 in the schools, 173 Bq/m3 in the offices and 52 Bq/m3 in the factories, the limits of ICRP are not exceeded in any of the buildings in the region. In addition, the estimated mean annual effective doses to the people in the workplace, students, office workers and factory workers have been calculated as 0.27, 0.63 and 0.20 mSv/y, respectively for the region.

  6. Indoor radon levels in workplaces of Adapazarı, north-western Turkey

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Enis Kapdan; Nesrin Altinsoy

    2014-02-01

    The main objective of this study is to assess the health hazards due to radon gas accumulation and to compare the concentrations in different kinds of workplaces, in the city of Adapazarı, one of the most important industrial cities of Turkey. For this purpose, radon activity concentration measurements were carried out in schools, factories, offices and outdoors using CR-39 solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD). Results show that the mean radon activity concentrations (RAC) in schools, offices and factories were found to be 66, 76 and 27 Bq/m3, respectively, with an outdoor concentration of 14 Bq/m3. The average concentrations were found to decrease as follows for different types of industries: automotive < electronic < metal < textile. Because the maximum measured radon concentrations are 151 Bq/m3 in the schools, 173 Bq/m3 in the offices and 52 Bq/m3 in the factories, the limits of ICRP are not exceeded in any of the buildings in the region. In addition, the estimated mean annual effective doses to the people in the workplace, students, office workers and factory workers have been calculated as 0.27, 0.63 and 0.20 mSv/y, respectively for the region.

  7. Trace and Rare Earth Element Geochemistry of Black Shales in Triassic Kasimlar Formation, Anamas-Akseki Platform, Western Taurids, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuşcu, Mustafa; Özsoy, Rifat; Özçelik, Orhan; Altunsoy, Mehmet

    2016-10-01

    The Triassic black shale sequence of Kasimlar Formation in the Anamas - Akseki Platform, Western Taurids, Turkey do not show any trace element enrichment. But trace element values of Black shales from the Kasimlar Formation are broadly comparable with those of the average upper continental crust. While there are slightly enrichments in As, Bi, Zn, Nb, Cu, Pb, Cs and Sb. The other elements are slightly depleted in black shales according to those of upper continental crust (UC). Organic carbon content of the black shales is between 05 and 0.71% but reach 3.78% (averaging as 0.52%). The black shales do not show metal/TOC correlation. Compared to the black shales of Kasimlar Formation and upper continental crust; The black shales show a significant increase in HREE and LREE. Our data show slightly negative Ce anomalies (Ce/Ce* as low as 0.94) and positive Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu* as high as 3.33). Ce/Ce* and Eu/Eu* values recorded in the depositional environment indicate low oxygenated and anaerobic (reducing) conditions.

  8. A high-resolution Late Holocene landscape ecological history inferred from an intramontane basin in the Western Taurus Mountains, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaniewski, D.; Paulissen, E.; De Laet, V.; Dossche, K.; Waelkens, M.

    2007-09-01

    Late Holocene vegetation and geomorphological history is reconstructed from a 800 cm long high-resolution palynological and sedimentological record sampled from Bereket, a 6.3 km 2 semi-arid to sub-humid intramontane basin in the Western Taurus Mountains (southwest Turkey). The well-dated Bereket record provides from cal. 360 BC to cal. AD ˜400 a unique record of biennial-to-decadal landscape changes caused primarily by intensive human impacts against a background of global climate variations. During this period, land clearance with multiple fire episodes, intensive agricultural practices and grazing pressure profoundly altered the pre-existing warm mixed forest. Increasing moisture availability since cal. ˜280 BC has acted as a trigger to crop cultivation and mountain-adapted arboriculture starting with Juglans regia during the Beyşehir Occupation Phase. Pollen from olive groves have been recorded above 1400 m a.s.l. only at cal. ˜23 BC and have disappeared definitively at cal. AD ˜294. During this phase, the sediment accumulation rate was extremely high, reflecting landscape instability. From cal. AD 450 to recent times, the area has mainly recorded pasture and minor cultivation activities reflected in stable soils and thin colluvial depths.

  9. [Current malaria situation in Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gockchinar, T; Kalipsi, S

    2001-01-01

    Geographically, Turkey is situated in an area where malaria is very risky. The climatic conditions in the region are suitable for the malaria vector to proliferate. Due to agricultural infrastructural changes, GAP and other similar projects, insufficient environmental conditions, urbanization, national and international population moves, are a key to manage malaria control activities. It is estimated that malaria will be a potential danger for Turkey in the forthcoming years. The disease is located largely in south-eastern Anatolia. The Diyarbakir, Batman, Sanliurfa, Siirt, and Mardin districts are the most affected areas. In western districts, like Aydin and Manisa, an increase in the number of indigenous cases can be observed from time to time. This is due to workers moving from malaria districts to western parts to final work. Since these workers cannot be controlled, the population living in these regions get infected from indigenous cases. There were 84,345 malaria cases in 1994 and 82,096 in 1995, they decreased to 60,884 in 1996 and numbered 35,456 in 1997. They accounted for 36,842 and 20,963 in 1998 and 1999, respectively. In Turkey there are almost all cases of P. vivax malaria. There are also P. vivax and P. falciparum malaria cases coming from other countries: There were 321 P. vivax cases, including 2 P. falciparum ones, arriving to Turkey from Iraq in 1995. The P. vivax malaria cases accounted for 229 in 1996, and 67, cases P. vivax including 12 P. falciparum cases, in 1997, and 4 P. vivax cases in 1998 that came from that country. One P. vivax case entered Turkey from Georgia in 1998. The cause of higher incidence of P. vivax cases in 1995, it decreasing in 1999, is the lack of border controls over workers coming to Turkey. The other internationally imported cases are from Syria, Sudan, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Nigeria, India, Azerbaijan, Malaysia, Ghana, Indonesia, Yemen. Our examinations have shown that none of these internationally imported cases

  10. 500.000 years of environmental history in Eastern Anatolia: The PALEOVAN drilling project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Litt, Thomas; Anselmetti, Flavio; Baumgarten, Henrike

    2012-01-01

    International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) drilled a complete succession of the lacustrine sediment sequence deposited during the last ~500,000 years in Lake Van, Eastern Anatolia (Turkey). Based on a detailed seismic site survey, two sites at a water depth of up to 360 m were...... drilled in summer 2010, and cores were retrieved from sub-lake-floor depths of 140 m (Northern Basin) and 220 m (Ahlat Ridge). To obtain a complete sedimentary section, the two sites were multiple-cored in order to investigate the paleoclimate history of a sensitive semi-arid region between the Black...

  11. Dental age assessment: The applicability of Demirjian method in southwestern of eastern Anatolia region Turkish children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oğuzhan Altun

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Objectives: Age estimation plays an important role in forensic medicine and orthodontics. Many methods of age estimation have been suggested. Demirjian method is the most frequently used one of these. In the literature, there is a little known about applicability of this method in Turkish children. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the reliability of Demirjian method of dental age estimaiton and for description of mandibular permanent tooth formation in Turkish children from the southwest Eastern Anatolia region.

    Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was performed on 1015 panoramic radiographs and 5-15 years of age South western of Eastern Anatolia Regionof Turkish children. The stages of dental maturity of the mandibular left seven permanent teeth for each subject using the eight radiographic dental maturity stages demonstrated by Demirjian’s method were evaluated. A pired t-test was used for statistical analysis.

    Results: The mean difference between the chronological and dental ages ranged 0,28 to 1,10 years in boys and from 0,18 to 0,68 years in girls. South western of Eastern Anatolia Region ofTurkish children were generally delayed in dental maturity compared with children in Demirjian sample. The differences between the chronological and dental ages were statistically significant in 6-6.9, 8-8.9, 9-9.9, 10-10.9, 11-11.9 years in boys and in 8-8.9, 9-9.9,11-11.9 years in girls.

    Conclusions: Turkish children from the southwest Eastern Anatolia region are significantly more delayed in dental maturity compared to Demirjian’s French-Canadian sample. The applicability of Demirjian data is not suitable for Southwestern of Eastern Anatolia Region of Turkish children.

  12. Spatial and Temporal Variation of the Extreme Saharan Dust Event over Turkey in March 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakki Baltaci

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the influence of an extraordinary Saharan dust episode over Turkey on 23–24 March 2016 and the atmospheric conditions that triggered this event were evaluated in detail. PM10 (particulate matter less than 10 μm observations from 97 air quality stations, METAR (Meteorological Terminal Aviation Routine Weather Report observations at 64 airports, atmospheric soundings, and satellite products were used for the analysis. To determine the surface and upper levels of atmospheric circulation, National Centers of Environmental Prediction (NCEP/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR Reanalysis data were applied to the extreme dust episodes. On 23 March 2016, high southwesterly winds due to the interaction between surface low- and high-pressure centers over Italy and Levant basin brought thick dust particles from Libya to Turkey. The daily PM10 data from 43 stations exceeded their long-term spring means over Turkey (especially at the northern and western stations. As a consequence of the longitudinal movement of the surface low from Italy to the Balkan Peninsula, and the quasi-stationary conditions of the surface high-pressure center allowed for the penetration of strong south and southwesterly winds to inner parts of the country on the following day. As a consequence, 100%, 90%, 88%, and 87% of the monitoring stations in Marmara (NW Turkey, central Anatolia, western (Aegean and northern (Black Sea regions of Turkey, respectively, exhibited above-normal daily PM10 values. In addition, while strong subsidence at the low levels of the atmosphere plays a significant role in having excessive daily PM10 values in Black Sea, dry atmospheric conditions and thick inversion level near the ground surface of Marmara ensured this region to have peak PM10 values ~00 Local Time (LT.

  13. Focal mechanisms and stress variations in the Caucasus and Northeast Turkey from constraints of regional waveforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Tai-Lin; Hsu, Hsin-Chih; Jian, Pei-Ru; Huang, Bor-Shouh; Hu, Jyr-Ching; Chung, Sun-Lin

    2016-11-01

    The continental collision between Arabia and Eurasia created large strike-slip faults in Turkey as well as mountains in the Caucasus and the volcanic plateau between them. In this study, we use regional waveforms of a new seismic array deployed between 2008 and 2012 to constrain the focal mechanisms and depths of small to moderate sized earthquakes occurring in the western part of the Central Caucasus and northeast Turkey. The distribution of aftershocks and the twelve focal mechanisms involved in the sequence of the 2009 earthquake in Racha are clearly a reactivation of a deeper segment of the 1991 M7 Racha rupture zone. The deeper segment is not well connected to the shallower décollement separating the basement and sedimentary basin. The earthquakes we determined in northeastern Turkey and southern Georgia are related to the strike-slip fault system. We further combined all of the reliably determined focal mechanisms over the last 30 years to investigate the current stress status of the crust in three areas: Racha in the western Greater Caucasus, Javakheti near the Lesser Caucasus and in Northeast Turkey. Our results show that the directions of maximum compressional stress consistently fall within - 2 to 14°N throughout the entire study region. This appears to be controlled by the continental collision. Nonetheless, the minimum compression switches from vertical (in the Greater Caucasus) to the east-west direction (in northeastern Turkey), due to the westward extrusion of the Anatolia block, which is driven partly by the Hellenic subduction. The transition of the stress field is close to the Javakheti volcanic plateau in the Lesser Caucasus, where the relative magnitude between the principal stresses appears to be strongly variable.

  14. Mineralogy and petrology of leucite ankaratrites with affinities to kamafugites and carbonatites from the Kayıköy area, Isparta, SW Anatolia, Turkey: Implications for the influences of carbonatite metasomatism into the parental mantle sources of silica-undersaturated potassic magmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caran, Şemsettin

    2016-07-01

    In the Kayıköy area of Isparta-Gölcük district, Inner Isparta Angle, SW Anatolia, Turkey, a small volume of newly discovered K-rich mafic potassic magma was emplaced in the form of dome in the vicinity of graben structures under Pliocene (3.68 ± 0.5 Ma) extensional tectonics. Kayıköy leucite ankaratrites are made up of abundant diopside, barian phlogopite and leucite, and lesser olivine, that rarely contains Cr-spinel, nepheline and haüyne, with abundant magnetite. They have low SiO2 (44.00-46.04 wt.%) and Al2O3 (12.10-12.64 wt.%) with high K2O (4.00-4.42 wt.%), CaO (13.50-14.40 wt.%) and MgO (8.52-9.36 wt.%), with high Cr (397-547 ppm) and moderate Ni (57-74 ppm) contents. They represent the less evolved silica-undersaturated mafic potassic magmas within the Isparta-Gölcük volcanic province, and may be considered another parental source to the wide spectrum of the K-rich rocks. They are highly enriched in most of the incompatible elements (e.g., Ba, 2761 to > 10,000 ppm; Sr, 3700-4074 ppm; Th, 33.60-36.99 ppm; Zr, 274-321 ppm) with high LREEs, low HREEs and elevated LREEs/HREEs ratios [(La/Yb)N, 73-80] and are comparable with kamafugite and carbonatites. Trace element patterns have negative P, Ti and Nb-Ta anomalies in common with the Italian kamafugite province and lack of a Eu anomaly, in contrast to the negative Eu anomaly of the Italian province. Their Sr87/86-Nd143/144 (0.703877-0.512765) isotopic compositions, together with those of other potassic volcanics from the Inner Isparta Angle, coincide with the West Quinling (China) kamafugites with highly depleted mantle signatures, and young East African carbonatites. Olivine-Cr-spinel pairs, high Mg# (0.69-0.73) numbers and Cr values, and high incompatible and LREE contents in Kayıköy leucite ankaratritic magma are consistent with near-primary magmas equilibrated with enriched and heterogeneous (peridotitic/pyroxenitic) mantle sources. On the basis of (i) their geochemical signatures [low Ti

  15. Geochemistry, geochronology, and cathodoluminescence imagery of the Salihli and Turgutlu granites (central Menderes Massif, Western Turkey): Implications for Aegean tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catlos, E. J.; Baker, C.; Sorensen, S. S.; Çemen, I.; Hançer, M.

    2009-04-01

    The Menderes Massif (western Turkey) is an important metamorphic core complex located in the Aegean region; geochemical and geochronological data from this extensional domain facilitates our understanding of large-scale extension of the Earth's lithosphere. S-type, peraluminous granites (Salihli and Turgutlu) that intrude the Alasehir detachment which bounds the northern edge of the central Menderes Massif may have been generated due to subduction of the Eastern Mediterranean floor along the Hellenic trench. In situ Th-Pb ion microprobe monazite ages from the granites range from 21.7±4.5 Ma to 9.6±1.6 Ma (±1s). The range is consistent with cathodoluminescence (CL) imagery that document complex textures within the samples. Salihli and Turgutlu granites share many similar characteristics, including multiple generations of plagioclase (some with shocked cores consistent with magma mixing), plagioclase replacing K-feldspar and the development of myrmekite, clear evidence for fluid infiltration, and multiple generations of microcracks and microfaults. The granites may have evolved from compositionally distinct magma sources, as Salihli samples in general contain allanite as the major accessory mineral, whereas Turgutlu granites contain monazite. However, the CL imagery document similar alteration textures. Ages reported here are similar to dates constraining extension reported elsewhere in the Aegean, but indicate a level of complexity when linking movement within the Menderes Massif to the large-scale geodynamic processes that created other metamorphic core complexes in the region. Difficulties exist in linking the ages obtained from the granites to specific tectonic events due to the presence of secondary alteration textures, generations of mineral growth, and multiple episodes of deformation.

  16. Ethnomathematics in Anatolia-Turkey: Mathematical Thoughts in Multiculturalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Küçük

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Los pensamientos matemáticos están en interacción con la cultura y forman un todo indivisible. Por consiguiente la Etnomatemática nos ayuda a comprender la naturaleza de las matemáticas y contribuye a la comprensión de uno mismo, así como a las demás personas que comparten el mismo planeta. La Etnomatemática refleja los estudios del pensamiento matemático de las sociedades multiculturales o tradicionales. El pensamiento matemático es un enfoque en que las personas intentan encontrar soluciones rápidas y sistemáticas a un problema de varias maneras. El rol de la Etnomatemática, que estudia los pensamientos matemáticos, no puede ser ignorado en un contexto histórico-cultural. Este documento examina algunas reflexiones etnomatemáticas en la cultura Anatoliana a través de la percepción de la geométrica en el campo de la ingeniería, las alfombras, los adornos de las alfombras y los juegos de inteligencia.

  17. Turkey`s Harmless Tango Between East and West

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Mujanovic

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Turkey got actively involved in world politics and international relations after AKP came to power in early 2000s. Turkey`s foreign policy since AKP came to power, has the theoretical basis in Davutoglu`s Strategic Depth. New doctrines rely on historical right inherited from the Ottoman Empire, which contributed towards Turkish pro-active and multi-dimensional foreign policy. Without forgetting traditional Western allies, Turkey has established itself as a regional power in the Balkans, Middle East and Central Asia with significant success. This paper attempts to analyze how Turkey has been playing a harmless tango between its traditional allies in the West and regions in the near abroad which had made Turkey a global player in the international relations. Then, it is important to analyze Turkey's transformation and its approved role by the Western powers as a strong Islamic country with secular governance in the Middle East and Central Asia.

  18. Determination of the Deformation along the Tuzla Fault, Izmir, Turkey by Geodetic Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabuncu, A.; Ozener, H.

    2010-12-01

    The Aegean region is the most seismically active domain in Western Anatolia which comprises Greece, the Hellenic Arc, and Western Turkey. The Aegean region is mainly under pure shear stress from an internally deforming counter-clockwise direction of the Anatolian Plate relative to the Eurasia Plate. Izmir is the third largest city in Turkey with 2.7 million population. The Tuzla Fault is lying between the town of Menderes and Cape Doganbey which has NE-SW lineament trending. It is 42 km long through the land with 3 right lateral strike slip segments. This fault has a great importance as its proximity to the city of Izmir. The study aims to perform a large scale investigation, focusing on the Tuzla Fault and its vicinity for better understanding of the region’s tectonics. A micro-geodetic network with 15 points has been established in the study area. In order to investigate the crustal deformation and relative displacements along the Tuzla Fault GPS and Precise leveling techniques were used. Observations of two GPS campaigns and two precise leveling measurements were performed in 2009 and 2010. In order to process collected data by GPS campaigns, GAMIT/GLOBK software was used. As a result of two GPS campaigns, the velocity vectors of points are rated between 21mm/yr to 25mm/yr. In addition, 6.6 mm vertical displacement was observed between two leveling benchmarks which seems critical and needs further investigation.

  19. Microtremor exploration for shallow S-wave velocity profiles at stations in local strong motion network in Bursa, Yalova, and Kocaeli in north-western Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özmen, Özgür Tuna; Yamanaka, Hiroaki; Chimoto, Kosuke; Çeken, Ulubey; Alkan, Mehmet Akif; Tekin, Kudret; Ateş, Erkan

    2017-05-01

    We conducted microtremor array surveys for shallow S-wave velocity profiles at 20 sites in Bursa, Yalova and Kocaeli provinces in the north-western part of Turkey to provide fundamental data to assess the seismic hazard in the area. All of the measurement sites were positioned very close to strong motion stations belonging to the Disaster and Emergency Management Presidency of Turkey (AFAD) in order to further understand site amplification factors in strong motion records. Of the 20 study sites, two were located in Yalova, four in Bursa and 14 in Kocaeli. We temporarily installed two small arrays to obtain simultaneous records of vertical microtremors. Then, the spatial autocorrelation method was applied to retrieve Rayleigh wave phase velocity curves in a frequency range from 1 to 30 Hz from the array records. The phase velocities in the western part of the Kocaeli area are low across a wide frequency range, while relatively high phase velocities are found in the eastern part of the Kocaeli province. The phase velocities in the Yalova and Bursa provinces are widely distributed suggesting large variations in soil conditions. The observed phase velocity curve at each site was inverted to a one-dimensional (1D) S-wave velocity profile to a depth of 100 m, using a hybrid heuristic inversion method. All the S-wave velocity profiles in the eastern Kocaeli area are similar; however, the sites in the western Kocaeli and Yalova-Bursa areas have profiles with different features from the others. Finally, we discuss amplification factors for S-waves using the inverted profiles. The dominant fundamental periods of the amplification factors were distributed in a frequency range from 0.7 to 5 Hz. The profiles obtained are also used to map average S-wave velocities in the study area, with an addition of existing data at strong motion stations of the AFAD.

  20. Canopy recovery of pedunculate oak, Turkey oak and beech trees after severe defoliation by gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar: Case study from Western Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csóka György

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the canopy recovery of 3 tree species (pedunculate oak, Turkey oak, European beech at two locations in the Veszprém county (Western Hungary after severe defoliation by gypsy moth caterpillars in the spring of 2005. The Turkey oak has evidently the best recovery potential, and it almost completely replaced the lost foliage in 4 months. The pedunculate oak and beech needed 2 years to reach the same level of recovery. The pedunculate oak suffered from a heavy infection of Microsphaera alphitoides after defoliation and it probably slowed down its recovery. Neither the presence of Agrilus biguttatus in the oak plot nor the appearance of Agrilus viridis in the beech plot was observed during the study period. Population density of the buprestid Coraebus floerentinus showed a considerable increase in the oak plot, but remained under the damage level. Neither other harmful appearance of other pests nor significant tree mortality were observed within 4 years from the defoliation. These results provide information for the evaluation of longer term influences of the gypsy moth defoliation and may support the decisions concerning pest control.

  1. High-Resolution Late Holocene Climatic Records From Kucukcekmece Lagoon and Uludag Glacial, Yeniçaga, Bafa Lakes in Western Turkey: Some Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akcer On, S.; Cagatay, M.; Sakinc, M.

    2010-12-01

    This study focuses on climatic and environmental sedimentary records of the last 4000 years in Kucukcekmece Lagoon (Istanbul), Uludag glacial (Bursa) , Yenicaga (Bolu) and Bafa (Mugla) Lakes in western Turkey. The water bodies are located on a N-S transect in western Turkey, and as such the’r records are important for assesment of Late Holocene eastern Mediterranean climatic changes. A total of 12 cores varying between 0.6 and 4.8 m are analyzed at 5mm resolution using Multi Sensor Core Logger (MSCL) having magnetic susceptibilty, P-Wave, density and resistivity sensors, XRF(X-Ray Fluoresance) core scanner multi element analysis at a 0.2 mm resolution. The cores are then sampled at 20, 50 and 100 mm intervals for different analyses. The samples are analyzed for total inorganic (TIC) and organic carbon (TOC). The ostracoda and benthic foraminifera shells in the sand size fraction of the sediment samples are identified under binocular microscope and suitable species are picked and analyzed for the stable oxygen and carbon isotope analysis. The cores are dated using AMS 14C analysis. The data from these lakes and lagoon are interpreted for environmental and climatic changes and compared with historical and other regional and global climate signals. The results indicate dry periods during 3300 -2500 ka BP and 867-1790 AD and1070-1690 AD with some brief intervening humid periods. Abrupt environmental change starting around1950 due to mainly human activities has also been clearly detected. These changes in the sedimentds are well correlated with the historical records.

  2. An annotated catalogue of the mayfly fauna of Turkey (Insecta, Ephemeroptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Salur

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The mayfly fauna of Turkey was reviewed including all hitherto known distribution records together with references and a few new records. Additionally, comments on taxonomy, identification and nomenclature are provided. Two species are new for the Turkish fauna: Ephemera romantzovi Kluge, 1988 and Thraulus thraker Jacob, 1988. A list of taxa including their recorded distribution in Turkey (according to provinces is provided in the annotated catalogue. The type locality is also given for each species originally described from Turkey. According to the literature and the new records, 157 mayfly taxa representing 33 genera and 14 families were described from Turkey. Among them, 24 species are considered endemic to Anatolia.

  3. Incidence and clinical features of acute rheumatic fever in Kayseri, Central Anatolia, 1998-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narin, Nazmi; Mutlu, Fatma; Argun, Mustafa; Ozyurt, Abdullah; Pamukcu, Ozge; Baykan, Ali; Baykan, Zeynep; Uzum, Kazım

    2015-04-01

    In developing countries, acute rheumatic fever is the most common cause of acquired heart disease in the paediatric and adolescent population. It is believed that vulnerability to developing acute rheumatic fever is associated with several factors such as socio-economic and living conditions. Aim Determine the incidence and clinical characteristics of acute rheumatic fever in the Central Anatolia region of Kayseri within the last 14 years, and to make a comparison of two 7-year periods. Material and methods We performed a retrospective analysis of 624 patients who were diagnosed with acute rheumatic fever at the Department of Pediatric Cardiology in the Medical Faculty of Erciyes University between January, 1998 and December, 2011. The mean age of patients was 10.9±2.7 years. The female/male ratio was 1.4. When patients were categorised according to age groups, the largest group represented 376 patients (60.3%) aged between 10 and 14 years. The estimated incidence rate of acute rheumatic fever was 7.4/100,000 in the Central Anatolia region of Kayseri. Among the major findings, the most common included carditis at 54%, arthritis at 35%, Sydenham's chorea at 25%, and subcutaneous nodules at 0.5%, respectively. No significant difference was found between the first 7-year period and second 7-year period in distributions of age, gender, and major findings. Although there has been socio-economic development in Turkey in the recent years, the incidence of acute rheumatic fever is still high in the Central Anatolia region of Kayseri.

  4. Kula Geopark: Turkeys first European and Global Geopark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumus, Erdal; Zouros, Nickolas

    2014-05-01

    The Kula European and Global Geopark is situated in the Aegean Region of Turkey at Western Anatolia, within Manisa Province. The Geopark area covers 300 km2. The Kula Geopark area is the youngest volcanic region of Turkey where the volcanic activity continued up to prehistoric times. The outstanding volcanic structures of Kula Geopark area are well known at least for 2 thousand years. The great ancient Greek Geographer Strabo (63BC-24AD) in his majestic book "Geographica" named Kula as "Katakekaumene" (fire-born) because of the coal black lava. The geological significance and the cultural richness of Kula was mentioned by many foreign travellers and researchers like Charles Texier (1832) "Asia Minor" and Henry Washington's PhD thesis in 1893 where he named Kula basalts as "Kulaite". Kula Geopark area is awarded with high geodiversity representing 200 million years of earth history from Palaeozoic to Holocene including maars, monogenic cinder cones, successive lava flow plains, lava caves and tubes, craters, basalt columns, xenoliths, contact metamorphism, ash deposits, waterfalls in volcanic canyons, active karstic caves, badlands and fairy chimneys, mesa structures and schist tor, as far as 15 thousand years of fossil human foot prints preserved in volcanic ash. Kula Geopark is the land of miniature volcanoes where cinder cones are not higher than 150m. As a result, the geosites are easy to access and visiting the area requires very little risk, effort and time which makes the area excellent for geotourism and geoeducation. In addition to these outstanding natural and geological heritages, Kula Geopark reveals rich cultural, architectural historical, archaeological, and paleontological monuments. Kula represents well-preserved monuments of the 18th century Ottoman urban architecture in Turkey. The Kula Geopark Project was initiated in 2011 by PhD Erdal Gümüş with the support of the Kula Municipality. In September 2013 the Kula Geopark was certified as the first

  5. Signature of slab fragmentation beneath Anatolia from full-waveform tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govers, Rob; Fichtner, Andreas

    2016-09-01

    When oceanic basins close after a long period of convergence and subduction, continental collision and mountain building is a common consequence. Slab segmentation is expected to have been relatively common just prior to closure of other oceans in the geological past, and may explain some of the complexity that geologists have documented in the Tibetan plateau also. We focus on the eastern Mediterranean basin, which is the last remainder of a once hemispherical neo-Tethys ocean that has nearly disappeared due to convergence of the India and Africa/Arabia plates with the Eurasia plate. We present new results of full-waveform tomography that allow us to image both the crust and upper mantle in great detail. We show that a major discontinuity exists between western Anatolia lithosphere and the region to the east of it. Also, the correlation of geological features and the crustal velocities is substantially stronger in the west than in the east. We interpret these observations as the imprint in the overriding plate of fragmentation of the neo-Tethys slab below it. This north-dipping slab may have fragmented following the Eocene (about 35 million years ago) arrival of a continental promontory (Central Anatolian Core Complex) at the subduction contact. From the Eocene through the Miocene, slab roll-back ensued in the Aegean and west Anatolia, while the Cyprus-Bitlis slab subducted horizontally beneath central and east Anatolia. Following collision of Arabia (about 16 million years ago), the Cyprus-Bitlis slab steepened, exposing the crust of central and east Anatolia to high temperature, and resulting in the velocity structure that we image today. Slab fragmentation thus was a major driver of the evolution of the overriding plate as collision unfolded.

  6. Metamorphic sole formation, emplacement and blueschist overprint: early obduction dynamics witnessed by W. Turkey ophiolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plunder, Alexis; Agard, Philippe; Chopin, Christian; Soret, Mathieu; Okay, Aral; Whitechurch, Hubert

    2016-04-01

    Western Turkey, with a >200 km long-belt of unmetamorphosed ophiolite overlying continental lithosphere is one or even the largest obducted ophiolite on Earth and therefore a key example to study obduction and early subduction dynamics. All Western Turkish ophiolite fragments are considered as part of the same Neotethyan branch resulting of a long-lived continental subduction (or underthrusting). Synchronous (ca. ~ 93 Ma) metamorphic sole formation and preservation at the base of most of the Turkish ophiolite fragments support this single event and place a strong constraint on the age of subduction initiation. Metamorphic soles are indeed generally considered to have formed during the early and hot subduction zone at 25 ± 10 km depths and welded to the overriding oceanic lithosphere. In Western Turkey however (as for most places worldwide) a systematic study of the pressure-temperature conditions with modern thermobarometric tools is generally lacking, and fundamental mechanisms of formation or accretion to the upper plate are poorly (if at all) constrained. We herein reappraise Western Turkish metamorphic soles focusing on the following points and issues: (i) detailed structures of metamorphic sole and other subduction derived units, petrological evolution and refined pressure-temperature conditions; peak pressure-temperature conditions of metamorphic sole were estimated using garnet, clinopyroxene, amphibole and plagioclase as the peak paragenesis at 10.5 ± 2 kbar and 800 ± 50°C based on pseudosections using the Theriak/Domino package (ii) the rather unique (and enigmatic) blueschist facies overprint found in places was investigated in terms of structural position and pressure-temperature conditions. Conditions of overprint were estimated around 12 kbar and 425 °C from the presence of glaucophane, lawsonite, jadeite and garnet overgrowing the amphibolite-facies assemblage. This field-based study provides clues to mechanisms of metamorphic sole underplating

  7. Molecular detection and identification of Leishmania spp. in naturally infected Phlebotomus tobbi and Sergentomyia dentata in a focus of human and canine leishmaniasis in western Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özbel, Yusuf; Karakuş, Mehmet; Arserim, Suha K; Kalkan, Şaban Orçun; Töz, Seray

    2016-03-01

    Human visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is reported from 38 provinces of Turkey and dogs are accepted as main reservoir hosts. Kuşadası town, belonging to Aydın province and located in western part of Turkey, is endemic for human and canine visceral leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum MON1 and MON98. In this study, phlebotomine survey was conducted to determine the vector sand fly species and to identify sand fly blood meal sources. In August and September 2012, 1027 sand fly specimens were caught using CDC light traps. Eight Phlebotomus and two Sergentomyia species with the dominancy of Phlebotomus tobbi (61.34%) were detected. A total of 622 female sand flies (571 Phlebotomus; 51 Sergentomyia) were checked for Leishmania infection by direct dissection of the midgut. The half of the midgut content was inoculated into NNN culture for isolation of the parasite. Leishmania species-specific ITS1 real time PCR, conventional PCR assays of ITS1 and hsp70 genes and subsequent sequencing were performed from extracted DNAs. A region of cytochrome b (cyt-b) gene of vertebrates based PCR was used to determine the source of blood meal of sand flies. In microscopical examinations, two female specimens (0.32%) were found naturally infected with high number and different stages of promastigotes. No growth was observed in NNN culture but Leishmania DNA was obtained from both specimens. First positive specimen was identified as P. tobbi and L. infantum DNA was detected. Second specimen was Sergentomyia dentata, but Leishmania DNA could not be identified on species level. A total of 16 blood-fed female P. tobbi specimens were used for blood meal analysis and eight, three and one specimens were positive for human, dog and mouse, respectively. This is the first detection of Leishmania promastigotes using microscopical examination in P. tobbi and S. dentata in human and canine visceral leishmaniasis endemic area in western part of Turkey. Our results indicate that, (i) P. tobbi is

  8. First report of Fusarium hostae causing crown rot of wheat (Triticum spp.) in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crown rot disease of wheat is caused by a complex of Fusarium species. To identify species associated with crown rot in Turkey, crowns and stems of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and durum wheat (T. durum Desf.) were collected from the Central and Southeast Anatolia, Black Sea, Aegean, Mediterr...

  9. The Role of Cultural Context in Continuing Vocational Training: A Study on Auto Repairmen in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbas, Oktay

    2011-01-01

    This study analysed how auto repairmen working in micro-enterprises undertake continuing vocational training in relation to cultural context. The study was conducted in Kirikkale, a city in central Anatolia in Turkey. To this end, the descriptive research technique of structured interview was used. Interviews with 33 auto repairmen were recorded…

  10. The prevalence of asthma and allergic symptoms in Manisa, Turkey (A western city from a country bridging Asia and Europe).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakar, Aysin; Yorgancioglu, Arzu; Dinc, Gonul; Yuksel, Hasan; Celik, Pinar; Dagyildizi, Lale; Coskun, Evsen; Kaya, Ece; Ozyurt, Beyhan; Ozcan, Cemil

    2006-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of asthma and allergic symptoms in Manisa city center, Turkey, to evaluate the determinants effective on those values, and to review the prevalence rates reported from different parts of the country. Data were collected from 610 households and complete interviews were conducted with 1,336 adults over 18 years of age by using European Community Respiratory Health Survey-ECRHS questionnaire. The prevalences of current asthma, cumulative asthma and asthma-like symptoms were found in 1.2, 1.0 and 25.0%, respectively, of the 20-44 years age group and the prevalences of allergic rhinitis, allergic dermatitis and family atopy were found in 14.5, 10.9, and 15.2%, respectively, in all age group. Wheezing with breathlessness, wheezing without cold, woken up with shortness of breath and woken up with cold were reported by 9.1%, 6.9%, 6% and 16.1% of the study population, respectively. Gender, age, active or passive smoking, family atopy and home condition effect on prevalence of asthma and allergic symptoms. In this study prevalence of asthma correlated with the studies reporting low prevalence rates of Turkey.

  11. High microsatellite and mitochondrial diversity in Anatolian native horse breeds shows Anatolia as a genetic conduit between Europe and Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koban, E; Denizci, M; Aslan, O; Aktoprakligil, D; Aksu, S; Bower, M; Balcioglu, B K; Ozdemir Bahadir, A; Bilgin, R; Erdag, B; Bagis, H; Arat, S

    2012-08-01

    The horse has been a food source, but more importantly, it has been a means for transport. Its domestication was one of the crucial steps in the history of human civilization. Despite the archaeological and molecular studies carried out on the history of horse domestication, which would contribute to conservation of the breeds, the details of the domestication of horses still remain to be resolved. We employed 21 microsatellite loci and mitochondrial control region partial sequences to analyse genetic variability within and among four Anatolian native horse breeds, Ayvacık Pony, Malakan Horse, Hınıs Horse and Canik Horse, as well as samples from indigenous horses of unknown breed ancestry. The aims of the study were twofold: first, to produce data from the prehistorically and historically important land bridge, Anatolia, in order to assess its role in horse domestication and second, to analyse the data from a conservation perspective to help the ministry improve conservation and management strategies regarding native horse breeds. Even though the microsatellite data revealed a high allelic diversity, 98% of the genetic variation partitioned within groups. Genetic structure did not correlate with a breed or geographic origin. High diversity was also detected in mtDNA control region sequence analysis. Frequencies of two haplogroups (HC and HF) revealed a cline between Asia and Europe, suggesting Anatolia as a probable connection route between the two continents. This first detailed genetic study on Anatolian horse breeds revealed high diversity among horse mtDNA haplogroups in Anatolia and suggested Anatolia's role as a conduit between the two continents. The study also provides an important basis for conservation practices in Turkey. © 2011 The Authors, Animal Genetics © 2011 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  12. Regional Geothermal Characterisation of East Anatolia from Aeromagnetic, Heat Flow and Gravity Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bektaş, Özcan; Ravat, Dhananjay; Büyüksaraç, Aydin; Bilim, Funda; Ateş, Abdullah

    2007-05-01

    East Anatolia is a region of high topography made up of a 2-km high plateau and Neogene and Quaternary volcanics overlying the subduction-accretion complex formed by the process of collision. The aeromagnetic and gravity data surveyed by the Mineral Research and Exploration (MTA) of Turkey have been used to interpret qualitatively the characteristics of the near-surface geology of the region. The residual aeromagnetic data were low-pass filtered and analyzed to produce the estimates of magnetic bottom using the centroid method and by forward modelling of spectra to evaluate the uncertainties in such estimates. The magnetic bottom estimates can be indicative of temperatures in the crust because magnetic minerals lose their spontaneous magnetization at the Curie temperature of the dominant magnetic minerals in the rocks and, thus, also are called Curie point depths (CPDs). The Curie point depths over the region of Eastern Anatolia vary from 12.9 to 22.6 km. Depths computed from forward modelling of spectra with 200 600 km window sizes suggest that the bottom depths from East Anatolia from the magnetic data may have errors exceeding 5 km; however, most of the obtained depths appear to lie in the above range and indicate that the lower crust is either demagnetized or non-magnetic. In the interpretation of the magnetic map, we also used reduction-to-pole (RTP) and amplitude of total gradient of high-pass filtered anomalies, which reduced dipolar orientation effects of induced aeromagnetic anomalies. However, the features of the RTP and the total gradient of the high-pass filtered aeromagnetic anomalies are not highly correlated to the hot spring water locations. On the other hand, many high-amplitude features seen on the total gradient map can be correlated with the ophiolitic rocks observed on the surface. This interpretation is supported by Bouguer gravity data. In this paper, we recommend that the sources of the widespread thermal activity seen in East Anatolia must

  13. Rediscovery of historical Vitis vinifera varieties from the South Anatolia region by using amplified fragment length polymorphism and simple sequence repeat DNA fingerprinting methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilancioglu, Kaan; Cetiner, Selim

    2013-05-01

    Anatolia played an important role in the diversification and spread of economically important Vitis vinifera varieties. Although several biodiversity studies have been conducted with local cultivars in different regions of Anatolia, our aim is to gain a better knowledge on the biodiversity of endangered historical V. vinifera varieties in the northern Adana region of southern Anatolia, particularly those potentially displaying viticulture characteristics. We also demonstrate the genetic relatedness in a selected subset of widely cultivated and commercialized V. vinifera collection cultivars, which were obtained from the National Grapevine Germplasm located at the Institute of Viticulture, Turkey. In the present study, microsatellites were used in narrowing the sample size from 72 accessions down to a collection of 27 varieties. Amplified fragment length polymorphisms were then employed to determine genetic relatedness among this collection and local V. vinifera cultivars. The unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean cluster and principal component analyses revealed that Saimbeyli local cultivars form a distinct group, which is distantly related to a selected subset of V. vinifera collection varieties from all over Turkey. To our knowledge, this is the first study conducted with these cultivars. Further preservation and use of these potential viticultural varieties will be helpful to avoid genetic erosion and to promote continued agriculture in the region.

  14. Assessing poverty and related factors in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saatci, Esra; Akpinar, Ersin

    2007-10-01

    Poverty, a complex, multidimensional, and universal problem, has been conceptualized as income and material deprivation. In this article, we discuss poverty and related factors in Turkey. The absolute poverty line for Turkey was US$ 4 per capita per day. Turkey was ranked 92nd out of 177 countries with moderate human development in the 2006 Human Development Report. The individual food poverty rate was 1.35% and the non-food poverty rate was 25.6%. The highest poverty rate was among primary school graduates (42.5%; 38.5% for women and 46.8% for men). The rate for this group was higher in urban than in rural areas. Among poor people, 57.2% were married. The highest poverty rate was among agricultural workers (46.6%) and in Eastern and Southeastern Anatolia. Factors related to poverty were crowded households, unemployment, immigration, working for a daily wage in the agricultural and construction sector, low educational status, female sex or married status, lacking social insurance, and living in rural areas or in Eastern and Southeastern Anatolia.

  15. Attachment of Adolescents to Parents: Turkey Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turkan Dogan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to determine the attachment of adolescents to their parents according to geographical regions in Turkey and gender. The research group consisted of 6061 adolescents. With an age average of 15.53 years. The Inventory of Attachment to Parents and Friends- Brief Form (EABE was used as data acquisition tool. The results of the study indicated significant difference between the scores of students regarding the inventory of attachment to parents according to regions. Evaluating the findings regarding attachment to father and mother together, the findings were similar, and the attachment levels of adolescents in Middle Anatolia, Eastern Anatolia and Black Sea Region were found to be higher than the ones in other regions. This result may be related with socioeconomic, geographical and cultural structures of the regions. Examining the finding according to gender variable, the scores of male students are significantly lower than the scores of female students. As a result according to the data gained from a wide sample group; the main factors for the attachment of adolescents to their parents in Turkey are the geographical regions in Turkey and the gender. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(4.000: 406-419

  16. Identification of Candida species isolated from bovine mastitic milk and their in vitro hemolytic activity in Western Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seker, Esra

    2010-04-01

    In this study, identification of 207 Candida isolates, previously isolated from mastitic bovine quarter milk samples at the level of genus, was made using API 20 C AUX system. The most frequently isolated species were Candida krusei (34.8%), followed by Candida rugosa (16.4%), Candida kefyr (12.6%), Candida albicans (10.1%), and Candida tropicalis (9.2%). Less common isolates were Candida zeylanoides (5.8%), Candida parapsilosis (4.3%), Candida guilliermondii (3.4%), Candida famata (1.9%), and Candida glabrata (1.5%). Additionally, in vitro hemolytic activity of all Candida strains were also examined in the present study. C. krusei (72 isolates), C. kefyr (26), C. albicans (21), C. tropicalis (19), C. zeylanoides (12), and C. glabrata (3) demonstrated both alpha and beta hemolysis at 48-h postinoculation. Only alpha hemolysis was detected in C. rugosa (34), C. guilliermondii (7), and C. famata (4), while C. parapsilosis (9) did not show any hemolytic activity after incubation for 72 h. Statistically significant difference (P hemolytic activities of Candida strains. The hemolytic activities of C. zeylanoides, C. albicans and C. kefyr were higher than other strains. This is the first study to describe variable hemolysis types exhibited by different Candida strains isolated from bovine mastitic milk in Turkey.

  17. Geodetic Network Design and Optimization on the Active Tuzla Fault (Izmir, Turkey) for Disaster Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halicioglu, Kerem; Ozener, Haluk

    2008-01-01

    Both seismological and geodynamic research emphasize that the Aegean Region, which comprises the Hellenic Arc, the Greek mainland and Western Turkey is the most seismically active region in Western Eurasia. The convergence of the Eurasian and African lithospheric plates forces a westward motion on the Anatolian plate relative to the Eurasian one. Western Anatolia is a valuable laboratory for Earth Science research because of its complex geological structure. Izmir is a large city in Turkey with a population of about 2.5 million that is at great risk from big earthquakes. Unfortunately, previous geodynamics studies performed in this region are insufficient or cover large areas instead of specific faults. The Tuzla Fault, which is aligned trending NE–SW between the town of Menderes and Cape Doganbey, is an important fault in terms of seismic activity and its proximity to the city of Izmir. This study aims to perform a large scale investigation focusing on the Tuzla Fault and its vicinity for better understanding of the region's tectonics. In order to investigate the crustal deformation along the Tuzla Fault and Izmir Bay, a geodetic network has been designed and optimizations were performed. This paper suggests a schedule for a crustal deformation monitoring study which includes research on the tectonics of the region, network design and optimization strategies, theory and practice of processing. The study is also open for extension in terms of monitoring different types of fault characteristics. A one-dimensional fault model with two parameters – standard strike-slip model of dislocation theory in an elastic half-space – is formulated in order to determine which sites are suitable for the campaign based geodetic GPS measurements. Geodetic results can be used as a background data for disaster management systems. PMID:27873783

  18. Geodetic Network Design and Optimization on the Active Tuzla Fault (Izmir, Turkey for Disaster Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haluk Ozener

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Both seismological and geodynamic research emphasize that the Aegean Region, which comprises the Hellenic Arc, the Greek mainland and Western Turkey is the most seismically active region in Western Eurasia. The convergence of the Eurasian and African lithospheric plates forces a westward motion on the Anatolian plate relative to the Eurasian one. Western Anatolia is a valuable laboratory for Earth Science research because of its complex geological structure. Izmir is a large city in Turkey with a population of about 2.5 million that is at great risk from big earthquakes. Unfortunately, previous geodynamics studies performed in this region are insufficient or cover large areas instead of specific faults. The Tuzla Fault, which is aligned trending NE–SW between the town of Menderes and Cape Doganbey, is an important fault in terms of seismic activity and its proximity to the city of Izmir. This study aims to perform a large scale investigation focusing on the Tuzla Fault and its vicinity for better understanding of the region's tectonics. In order to investigate the crustal deformation along the Tuzla Fault and Izmir Bay, a geodetic network has been designed and optimizations were performed. This paper suggests a schedule for a crustal deformation monitoring study which includes research on the tectonics of the region, network design and optimization strategies, theory and practice of processing. The study is also open for extension in terms of monitoring different types of fault characteristics. A one-dimensional fault model with two parameters – standard strike-slip model of dislocation theory in an elastic half-space – is formulated in order to determine which sites are suitable for the campaign based geodetic GPS measurements. Geodetic results can be used as a background data for disaster management systems.

  19. Geodetic Network Design and Optimization on the Active Tuzla Fault (Izmir, Turkey) for Disaster Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halicioglu, Kerem; Ozener, Haluk

    2008-08-19

    Both seismological and geodynamic research emphasize that the Aegean Region, which comprises the Hellenic Arc, the Greek mainland and Western Turkey is the most seismically active region in Western Eurasia. The convergence of the Eurasian and African lithospheric plates forces a westward motion on the Anatolian plate relative to the Eurasian one. Western Anatolia is a valuable laboratory for Earth Science research because of its complex geological structure. Izmir is a large city in Turkey with a population of about 2.5 million that is at great risk from big earthquakes. Unfortunately, previous geodynamics studies performed in this region are insufficient or cover large areas instead of specific faults. The Tuzla Fault, which is aligned trending NE-SW between the town of Menderes and Cape Doganbey, is an important fault in terms of seismic activity and its proximity to the city of Izmir. This study aims to perform a large scale investigation focusing on the Tuzla Fault and its vicinity for better understanding of the region's tectonics. In order to investigate the crustal deformation along the Tuzla Fault and Izmir Bay, a geodetic network has been designed and optimizations were performed. This paper suggests a schedule for a crustal deformation monitoring study which includes research on the tectonics of the region, network design and optimization strategies, theory and practice of processing. The study is also open for extension in terms of monitoring different types of fault characteristics. A one-dimensional fault model with two parameters - standard strike-slip model of dislocation theory in an elastic half-space - is formulated in order to determine which sites are suitable for the campaign based geodetic GPS measurements. Geodetic results can be used as a background data for disaster management systems.

  20. THANETIAN AND EARLY YPRESIAN ORTHOPHRAGMINES (FORAMINIFERA: DISCOCYCLINIDAE AND ORBITOCLYPEIDAE FROM THE CENTRAL WESTERN TETHYS (TURKEY, ITALY AND BULGARIA AND THEIR REVISED TAXONOMY AND BIOSTRATIGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GYÖRGY LESS

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The rich orthophragminid assemblages from the upper Thanetian and lower Ypresian of Turkey are discussed together with the coeval faunas from Spilecco (N Italy and Beloslav (Bulgaria. Their taxonomy, evolution and biozonation in the Western Tethys are revised. Our biometric study is based mainly on a large number of equatorial sections of megalospheric individuals. We present the emended description of Discocyclina seunesi, D. tenuis, Orbitoclypeus multiplicatus, O. bayani and Asterocyclina taramellii. A new species, Nemkovella stockari is introduced. The evolutionary lineages of Discocyclina seunesi, Orbitoclypeus multiplicatus and O. bayani are restored for the first time by using the consistent size-increase of the megalospheric embryon that also allowed introducing some new subspecies (Discocyclina seunesi beloslavensis, D. s. karabuekensis, Orbitoclypeus multiplicatus kastamonuensis, O. bayani kurucasileensis and O. munieri ponticus. By owing the most complete record of Thanetian and early Ypresian orthophragmines from the Western Tethys (using also data from SW France and the Crimean Peninsula we could reconstruct their early evolution. The chronostratigraphical position of some localities was ascertained from planktic and larger benthic foraminifera, as well as calcareous nannoplankton. In the updated orthophragminid zonation (zones are marked by OZ, OZ 1a corresponds to the early Thanetian, OZ 1b to the middle Thanetian. They are distinguished on the base of the evolution of Discocyclina seunesi. In these zones, only two unribbed species of Discocyclina and Orbitoclypeus each are present. Ribbed Orbitoclypeus, genus Asterocyclina and Nemkovella appeared in the redefined OZ 2 zone belonging to the late Thanetian. Discocyclina archiaci and D. dispansa substituted D. seunesi at about the Paleocene/Eocene boundary. The early Ypresian can be subdivided into the OZ 3 and 4 zones that can be distinguished from each other by the different

  1. Impact of deforestation on soil carbon stock and its spatial distribution in the Western Black Sea Region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucuker, Mehmet Ali; Guney, Mert; Oral, H Volkan; Copty, Nadim K; Onay, Turgut T

    2015-01-01

    Land use management is one of the most critical factors influencing soil carbon storage and the global carbon cycle. This study evaluates the impact of land use change on the soil carbon stock in the Karasu region of Turkey which in the last two decades has undergone substantial deforestation to expand hazelnut plantations. Analysis of seasonal soil data indicated that the carbon content decreased rapidly with depth for both land uses. Statistical analyses indicated that the difference between the surface carbon stock (defined over 0-5 cm depth) in agricultural and forested areas is statistically significant (Agricultural = 1.74 kg/m(2), Forested = 2.09 kg/m(2), p = 0.014). On the other hand, the average carbon stocks estimated over the 0-1 m depth were 12.36 and 12.12 kg/m(2) in forested and agricultural soils, respectively. The carbon stock (defined over 1 m depth) in the two land uses were not significantly different which is attributed in part to the negative correlation between carbon stock and bulk density (-0.353, p < 0.01). The soil carbon stock over the entire study area was mapped using a conditional kriging approach which jointly uses the collected soil carbon data and satellite-based land use images. Based on the kriging map, the spatially soil carbon stock (0-1 m dept) ranged about 2 kg/m(2) in highly developed areas to more than 23 kg/m(2) in intensively cultivated areas as well as the averaged soil carbon stock (0-1 m depth) was estimated as 10.4 kg/m(2).

  2. Identification of a Bovine Enteric Calicivirus, Kırklareli Virus, Distantly Related to Neboviruses, in Calves with Enteritis in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkan, Feray; Karayel, İlke; Catella, Cristiana; Bodnar, Livia; Lanave, Gianvito; Bányai, Krisztián; Di Martino, Barbara; Decaro, Nicola; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2015-01-01

    A calicivirus was detected in neonatal calves with enteritis in Kırklareli, Thrace, Turkey. In the full-length genome, Kırklareli virus was related (48% nucleotide identity) to bovine enteric caliciviruses (Nebovirus genus). The virus was also detected in a herd in Ankara, Central Anatolia, but not in other Turkish prefectures. PMID:26292294

  3. Pig domestication and human-mediated dispersal in western Eurasia revealed through ancient DNA and geometric morphometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottoni, Claudio; Flink, Linus Girdland; Evin, Allowen; Geörg, Christina; De Cupere, Bea; Van Neer, Wim; Bartosiewicz, László; Linderholm, Anna; Barnett, Ross; Peters, Joris; Decorte, Ronny; Waelkens, Marc; Vanderheyden, Nancy; Ricaut, François-Xavier; Cakirlar, Canan; Cevik, Ozlem; Hoelzel, A Rus; Mashkour, Marjan; Karimlu, Azadeh Fatemeh Mohaseb; Seno, Shiva Sheikhi; Daujat, Julie; Brock, Fiona; Pinhasi, Ron; Hongo, Hitomi; Perez-Enciso, Miguel; Rasmussen, Morten; Frantz, Laurent; Megens, Hendrik-Jan; Crooijmans, Richard; Groenen, Martien; Arbuckle, Benjamin; Benecke, Nobert; Vidarsdottir, Una Strand; Burger, Joachim; Cucchi, Thomas; Dobney, Keith; Larson, Greger

    2013-04-01

    Zooarcheological evidence suggests that pigs were domesticated in Southwest Asia ~8,500 BC. They then spread across the Middle and Near East and westward into Europe alongside early agriculturalists. European pigs were either domesticated independently or more likely appeared so as a result of admixture between introduced pigs and European wild boar. As a result, European wild boar mtDNA lineages replaced Near Eastern/Anatolian mtDNA signatures in Europe and subsequently replaced indigenous domestic pig lineages in Anatolia. The specific details of these processes, however, remain unknown. To address questions related to early pig domestication, dispersal, and turnover in the Near East, we analyzed ancient mitochondrial DNA and dental geometric morphometric variation in 393 ancient pig specimens representing 48 archeological sites (from the Pre-Pottery Neolithic to the Medieval period) from Armenia, Cyprus, Georgia, Iran, Syria, and Turkey. Our results reveal the first genetic signatures of early domestic pigs in the Near Eastern Neolithic core zone. We also demonstrate that these early pigs differed genetically from those in western Anatolia that were introduced to Europe during the Neolithic expansion. In addition, we present a significantly more refined chronology for the introduction of European domestic pigs into Asia Minor that took place during the Bronze Age, at least 900 years earlier than previously detected. By the 5th century AD, European signatures completely replaced the endemic lineages possibly coinciding with the widespread demographic and societal changes that occurred during the Anatolian Bronze and Iron Ages.

  4. Pig Domestication and Human-Mediated Dispersal in Western Eurasia Revealed through Ancient DNA and Geometric Morphometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottoni, Claudio; Girdland Flink, Linus; Evin, Allowen; Geörg, Christina; De Cupere, Bea; Van Neer, Wim; Bartosiewicz, László; Linderholm, Anna; Barnett, Ross; Peters, Joris; Decorte, Ronny; Waelkens, Marc; Vanderheyden, Nancy; Ricaut, François-Xavier; Çakırlar, Canan; Çevik, Özlem; Hoelzel, A. Rus; Mashkour, Marjan; Mohaseb Karimlu, Azadeh Fatemeh; Sheikhi Seno, Shiva; Daujat, Julie; Brock, Fiona; Pinhasi, Ron; Hongo, Hitomi; Perez-Enciso, Miguel; Rasmussen, Morten; Frantz, Laurent; Megens, Hendrik-Jan; Crooijmans, Richard; Groenen, Martien; Arbuckle, Benjamin; Benecke, Nobert; Strand Vidarsdottir, Una; Burger, Joachim; Cucchi, Thomas; Dobney, Keith; Larson, Greger

    2013-01-01

    Zooarcheological evidence suggests that pigs were domesticated in Southwest Asia ∼8,500 BC. They then spread across the Middle and Near East and westward into Europe alongside early agriculturalists. European pigs were either domesticated independently or more likely appeared so as a result of admixture between introduced pigs and European wild boar. As a result, European wild boar mtDNA lineages replaced Near Eastern/Anatolian mtDNA signatures in Europe and subsequently replaced indigenous domestic pig lineages in Anatolia. The specific details of these processes, however, remain unknown. To address questions related to early pig domestication, dispersal, and turnover in the Near East, we analyzed ancient mitochondrial DNA and dental geometric morphometric variation in 393 ancient pig specimens representing 48 archeological sites (from the Pre-Pottery Neolithic to the Medieval period) from Armenia, Cyprus, Georgia, Iran, Syria, and Turkey. Our results reveal the first genetic signatures of early domestic pigs in the Near Eastern Neolithic core zone. We also demonstrate that these early pigs differed genetically from those in western Anatolia that were introduced to Europe during the Neolithic expansion. In addition, we present a significantly more refined chronology for the introduction of European domestic pigs into Asia Minor that took place during the Bronze Age, at least 900 years earlier than previously detected. By the 5th century AD, European signatures completely replaced the endemic lineages possibly coinciding with the widespread demographic and societal changes that occurred during the Anatolian Bronze and Iron Ages. PMID:23180578

  5. The Prevalence of Infertility and Loneliness among Women Aged 18-49 Years Who Are Living in Semi-Rural Areas in Western Turkey

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    Mehmet Enes Gokler

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: To determine the correlates and the prevalence of infertility in a group of women. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out on 570 subjects aged 18-49 years in a town of western Turkey between July and August 2012. Women who have inability to become pregnant despite regular sexual intercourse during the last year were considered to be infertile. UCLA Loneliness Scale was used to assess the severity of loneliness. The data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis, Mann Whitney U and Chi-square tests. Results: The mean age of the participants was 35.48 ± 8.39 years. The frequency of the infertility in our study was 12.8% (n=73. The prevalence of infertility was higher in those with a history of gynecological disease or gynecologic surgery and in those with menstrual irregularity (p<0.05; for each. The mean score on the UCLA Loneliness Scale was 32.16 ± 9.49 (from 20 to 70. In this study, no difference was found between the level of loneliness and who is responsible for infertility among infertile/fertile women (p≥0.05. Level of loneliness among the women with primary infertility was higher compared to the women with secondary infertility (p<0.05. Conclusion: The prevalence of infertility among the women was relatively high. It was concluded that prospective studies are needed in order to expose the relationship between the infertility and the level of loneliness in women.

  6. Mitochondrial DNA sequence variation in the Anatolian Peninsula (Turkey)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hatice Mergen; Reyhan Öner; Cihan Öner

    2004-04-01

    Throughout human history, the region known today as the Anatolian peninsula (Turkey) has served as a junction connecting the Middle East, Europe and Central Asia, and, thus, has been subject to major population movements. The present study is undertaken to obtain information about the distribution of the existing mitochondrial D-loop sequence variations in the Turkish population of Anatolia. A few studies have previously reported mtDNA sequences in Turks. We attempted to extend these results by analysing a cohort that is not only larger, but also more representative of the Turkish population living in Anatolia. In order to obtain a descriptive picture for the phylogenetic distribution of the mitochondrial genome within Turkey, we analysed mitochondrial D-loop region sequence variations in 75 individuals from different parts of Anatolia by direct sequencing. Analysis of the two hypervariable segments within the noncoding region of the mitochondrial genome revealed the existence of 81 nucleotide mutations at 79 sites. The neighbour-joining tree of Kimura’s distance matrix has revealed the presence of six main clusters, of which H and U are the most common. The data obtained are also compared with several European and Turkic Central Asian populations.

  7. Anatolia tattoo art; Tunceli exampleAnadolu dövme sanatı; Tunceli ili örneği

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Çağlayandereli

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article, Anatolia tattoo tradition and art are examinated of Tunceli culture. Tattoo is accepted the first father of writing is defined to aim of decoration or giving message and to paint specific cultural figures to the body and lower part of skin surface. Tattoo is one of subject of social sciences especially sociology and antropology, tattoo is dating back to old periods of history, and it is seen in all societies as a cultural object. The tattoo is also a colorful elemen of Anatolian civilization. As a sociological context of tattoo is used to show an occupation group as a ‘mark’, social statute or tribe and tariqat of a person’s society. However, there is a belief such as Anatolian tattoo motifs protect to people from illness and the evi leye and these motifs bring beauty and bravery. Anatolia tattoo art is a general expression of composition of different local specifics. Tunceli region is the most specific city in Turkey with its geographical density of ‘Alevi’ and ‘Kurd’ identities. More than 90% population in Tunceli, societies are formed from tribes and these tribes are different from general society. According to this information, the aim of this research is to describe Tunceli tattoo art, which is estimated specific, and to determine its similarities and differences from Anatolia tattoo art. At the same time, this information are quality to assist in Anatolia tattoo art literature. Datas in Article are gotten after face-to-face interviews, which are prepared by researches via their developed standart question form, and 15 people (who had tattooes on their body in 2010 in Tunceli. Tunceli tatoo art sample pictures are presented in Article’s addition part (with approval of source people. The general result from the research is: (1 Tunceli tattoos are not Picture; they are ideogram form of Picture. (2 Tunceli tattoo technique is not more different from East and South-East Anatolia regions. (3 Ethnic or religious

  8. Prevalence of hypertension among individuals aged 50 years and over and its impact on health related quality of life in a semi-rural area of western Turkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Didem Arslantas; Unal Ayranci; Alaettin Unsal; Mustafa Tozun

    2008-01-01

    Background Hypertension is common,especially in individuals aged 40 years and over,and it affects about half of the population aged 60 years and over.This study aimed to determine the frequency and risk factors of hypertension among individuals aged 50 years and over,and to examine its effect on the health related quality of life(HRQOL).Methods This population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in two settlements in a region of western Turkey between March 1 and April 30,2007.A questionnaire concerning life habits associated with hypertension,medical histories,and demographic characteristics was filled in by a face to face interview.The SF·36 scale was used to assess HRQOL Body mass index(BMI)was calculated by measuring the weight and length of the body. Results of 1599 individuals living in the region,1193 participated in the survey(48.3%men and 51.7%women).The overall prevalence rate of hypertension was 59.5%(n=710),being 58.O%in men and 60.9% in women(P>0.05).The variables that most positively influenced hypertension(P≤0.05,for each one)were older age(especially the age group of those aged 60 and over),single,no health insurance,consumption of animal fat in meals,and family history of hypertension.The HRQOL of the patients with hypertension was lower than that of those without hypertension(P≤0.05). The HRQOL was better in hypertensive patients whose blood pressure was under control,whereas it was worse in those with at least one chronic disorder accompanying hypertension(P≤0.05,for each one).Conclusions Great emphasis should be placed on the need for a public health program for the detection,prevention, and control of hypertension,including other risk factors,as well as for the modification of foods and life habits,specifically in individuals who are most likely to be at risk of hypertension.

  9. Stratigraphy and palaeoenvironment of the Lower-``middle'' Oligocene units in the northern part of the Western Taurides (İncesu area, Isparta, Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkiraz, Mehmet Serkan; Akgün, Funda; Örçen, Sefer

    2011-01-01

    This study describes the stratigraphic and palaeoenvironmental significance of the Lower-"middle" Oligocene sediments based on the fauna from the Delikarkası Formation and the microflora from the İncesu Formation of the İncesu area (northern part of the western Taurides, Isparta province, Turkey). In the area, the Oligocene sediments show a regressive succession, which begins with the limestones of the Delikarkası Formation indicating marine conditions followed by conglomerates, sandstones and coaly mudstones of alluvial and fluvial (shallow marine-continental) origin. A well preserved foraminiferal assemblage including Nummulitesintermedius, Nummulitesvascus and Halkyardiamaxima proves an Early Oligocene age for the Delikarkası Formation. Due to palynological markers such as Boehlensipollishohli, Slowakipollishippophaëoides, Dicolpopolliskockelii, Magnolipollisneogenicus ssp. minor, Plicapollispseudoexcelsus, Caryapollenitessimplex and Intratriporopollenitesinstructus the İncesu Formation, which concordantly rests on the Delikarkası Formation, may be assigned to the Early-"middle" Oligocene. From the palynomorph assemblage, three zones have been recognised according to abundance of species. Zone 1 is characterized by predominance of C.simplex and Momipitespunctatus and rarely presence of tricolpate and tricolporate pollen. Zone 2 consists mainly of Inaperturopollenitesdubius, Leiotriletesmaxoides ssp. maximus, Verrucatosporitesfavus,Verrucatosporitesalienus and infrequently marine dinoflagellate cysts. Zone 3 is characterized by a high percentage of ferns such as Echinatisporis? chattensis and Polypodiaceoisporitessaxonicus. The presence of marine dinoflagellate cysts like Apectodinium sp. and Cleistosphaeridium sp., back-mangrove elements such as Acrostichumaureum and lepidocaryoid palms (e.g. Longapertitesdiscordis, Longapertitespunctatus and Longapertitespsilatus) in the sediments of the İncesu Formation imply coastal or near-coastal conditions

  10. Source components and magmatic processes in the genesis of Miocene to Quaternary lavas in western Turkey: constraints from HSE distribution and Hf-Pb-Os isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldanmaz, Ercan; Pickard, Megan; Meisel, Thomas; Altunkaynak, Şafak; Sayıt, Kaan; Şen, Pınar; Hanan, Barry B.; Furman, Tanya

    2015-08-01

    Hf-Pb-Os isotope compositions and highly siderophile element (HSE) abundance variations are used to evaluate the mantle source characteristics and possible effects of differentiation processes in lavas from western Turkey, where the eruption of Late Miocene to Quaternary OIB-type intraplate mafic alkaline lavas followed pre-Middle Miocene convergent margin-type volcanism. Concentrations of Os, Ir, and Ru (IPGE) in the OIB-type intraplate lavas decrease with fractionation for primitive melts (MgO > 10 wt%), suggesting that these elements reside predominantly in olivine and associated HSE retaining trace phases and behave compatibly during olivine-dominated fractionation. Fractional crystallization trends indicate distinctly lower bulk partition coefficients for IPGE in more evolved lavas, possibly reflecting a change in the fractionating assemblages. Pd and Re in the primitive melts display negative correlations with MgO, demonstrating moderately incompatible behavior of these elements during fractionation, while the significantly scattered variation in Pt against MgO may indicate the effects of micronuggets of a Pt-rich alloy. Os-rich alkaline primary lavas (>50 ppt Os) exhibit a limited range of 187Os/188Os (0.1361-0.1404), with some xenolith-bearing lavas displaying depletions in 187Os/188Os (0.1131-0.1232), suggesting slight compositional modification of primitive melts through contamination with highly depleted, Os-rich mantle lithosphere. More radiogenic Os isotope ratios (187Os/188Os > 0.1954) in the evolved lavas reflect contamination of the magmas by high187Os/188Os crustal material during shallow differentiation. The OIB-type lavas show limited variations in Hf and Pb isotopes with 176Hf/177Hf = 0.282941-0.283051, 206Pb/204Pb = 18.683-19.091, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.579-15.646, 208Pb/204Pb = 38.550-38.993; 176Hf/177Hf ratios correlate negatively with 208Pb*/206Pb*, suggesting the effects of similar mantle processes on the evolution of time-integrated Th/U and Lu

  11. Upper-Mantle Flow Driven Dynamic Topography in Eastern Anatolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengul Uluocak, Ebru; Pysklywec, Russell; Eken, Tuna; Hakan Gogus, Oguz

    2016-04-01

    Eastern Anatolia is characterized by 2 km plateau uplift -in the last 10 Myrs-, high surface heat flow distribution, shallow Curie-point depth, anomalous gravity field. Seismological observations indicate relatively high Pn and Sn attenuation and significant low seismic velocity anomalies in the region. Moreover, the surface geology is associated predominantly with volcanic rocks in which melt production through mantle upwelling (following lithospheric delamination) has been suggested. It has been long known that the topographic loading in the region cannot be supported by crustal thickness (~45 km) based on the principle of Airy isostasy. Recent global geodynamic studies carried out for evaluating the post-collisional processes imply that there is an explicit dynamic uplift in Eastern Anatolia and its adjacent regions. In this study we investigate the instantaneous dynamic topography driven by 3-D upper-mantle flow in Eastern Anatolia. For this purpose we conducted numerous thermo-mechanical models using a 2-D Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) finite element method. The available P-wave tomography data extracted along 10 profiles were used to obtain depth-dependent density anomalies in the region. We present resulting dynamic topography maps and estimated 3D mantle flow velocity vectors along these 2-D cross sections for each profile. The residual topography based on crustal thickness and observed topography was calculated and compared with other independent datasets concerning geological deformation and dynamic topography predictions. The results indicate an upper mantle driven dynamic uplift correlated with the under-compensated characteristic in Eastern Anatolia. We discuss our results combined with 3D mantle flow by considering seismic anisotropy studies in the region. Initial results indicate that high dynamic uplift and the localized low Pn velocities in concurrence with Pn anisotropy structures show nearly spatial coherence in Eastern Anatolia.

  12. Groundwater Arsenic Contamination in Kopruoren Basin (Kutahya), Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, S.; Dokuz, U.; Celik, M.; Cheng, Z.

    2012-12-01

    Groundwater quality in the Kopruoren Basin located to the west of Kutahya city in western Anatolia was investigated. Kopruoren Basin is about 275 km2 with about 6,000 residents, but the surface and ground-water quality in this basin impacts a much larger population since the area is located upstream of Kutahya and Eskisehir plains. Groundwater occurs under confined conditions in the limestones of Pliocene units. The only silver deposit of Turkey is developed in the metamorphic basement rocks, Early Miocene volcanics and Pliocene units near Gumuskoy. The amount of silver manufactured annually comprises about 1% of the World's Silver Production. The cyanide-rich wastes of the Eti Gumus silver plant is stored in waste pools. There have been debates about the safety of this facility after a major collapse occurred in one of the pools in May 2011. In this study samples from 31 wells and 21 springs were collected in July and October 2011 and May 2012. The groundwaters are of Ca-Mg-HCO3 type, with arsenic, zinc and antimony occurring at high concentrations. Dissolved arsenic concentrations are as high as 48 ug/L in springs and 734 ug/L in well water. Arsenic in 57% of the springs and 68% of the wells exceeded the WHO guideline value (10 ug/L). Natural sources of arsenic in the area include the dissolution of arsenic-rich minerals such as realgar and orpiment associated with the mineral deposits in the southern part of the study area. In the northern part, arsenic is enriched due to the dissolution of arsenic-bearing coal deposits. Besides these natural sources of contamination, the silver mining activity could be an important anthropogenic source. The leakage of cyanide and arsenic, together with other trace elements to the environment from the waste pools, will continue to poison the environment if necessary precautions are not taken immediately.

  13. Genetic Diversity Among Historical Olive (Olea europaea L.) Genotypes from Southern Anatolia Based on SSR Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakar, Ebru; Unver, Hulya; Ercisli, Sezai

    2016-12-01

    Olive (Olea europaea) is an ancient and important crop in both olive oil production and table use. It is important to identify the genetic diversity of olive genetic resources for cultivar development and evaluation of olive germplasm. In the study, 14 microsatellite markers (UDO4, UDO8, UDO9, UDO11, UDO12, UDO22, UDO24, UDO26, UDO28, DCA9, DCA11, DCA13, DCA15, and DCA18) were used to assess the genetic variation on 76 olive (Olea europaea L.) genotypes from Mardin province together with 6 well-known Turkish and 4 well-known foreign reference cultivars. All microsatellite markers showed polymorphism and the number of alleles varied between 9 and 22, with an average of 14.57. The most informative loci were DCA 11 (22 alleles) and DCA 9 (21 alleles). Dendrogram based on genetic distances was constructed for the 86 olive genotypes/cultivars, which revealed the existence of different clusters. The high genetic similarity was evident between Bakırkire2 and Zinnar5 (0.74) genotypes, while the most genetically divergent genotypes were Gürmeşe5 and Yedikardeşler2 (0.19). It was concluded that there was abundant SSR polymorphism in olive germplasm in southern Anatolia in Turkey and could be important for future breeding activities.

  14. 500,000 Years of Environmental History in Eastern Anatolia: The PALEOVAN Drilling Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemens Glombitza, and Jens Kallmeyer

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP drilled a complete succession of the lacustrine sediment sequence deposited during the last ~500,000 years in Lake Van, Eastern Anatolia (Turkey. Based on a detailed seismic site survey, two sites at a water depth of up to 360 m were drilled in summer 2010, and cores were retrieved from sub-lake-floor depths of 140 m (Northern Basin and 220 m (Ahlat Ridge. To obtain a complete sedimentary section, the two sites were multiple-cored in order to investigate the paleoclimate history of a sensitive semi-arid region between theBlack, Caspian, and Mediterranean seas. Further scientific goals of the PALEOVAN project are the reconstruction of earthquake activity, as well as the temporal, spatial, and compositional evolution of volcanism as reflected in the deposition of tephra layers. The sediments host organic matter from different sources and hence composition, which will be unravelled using biomarkers. Pathways for migration of continental and mantle-derived noble gases will be analyzed in pore waters. Preliminary 40Ar/39Ar single crystal dating of tephra layers and pollen analyses suggest that the AhlatRidge record encompasses more than half a million years of paleoclimate and volcanic/geodynamic history, providing the longest continental record in the entire Near East to date.

  15. Growth, destruction and volcanic facies architecture of three volcanic centres in the Miocene Uşak-Güre basin, western Turkey: Subaqueous-subaerial volcanism in a lacustrine setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaoğlu, Özgür; Helvacı, Cahit

    2012-11-01

    Early to Mid-Miocene extension in western Anatolia, related to plate tectonic motions, resulted in the development of a number of normal fault-bounded sedimentary basins as well as different styles and compositions of volcanic activity. The Uşak and Güre basins accumulated a thick fluvio-lacustrine fill in which three distinct volcanic edifices (Elmadağ, İtecektepe and Beydağı) and their deposits can overlap with each other and with the sediments produced by the background sedimentation. In addition, complete facies architectures of small-volume (monogenetic) volcanoes have been recognised in association with the three large complex (polygenetic) volcanoes providing a complex mixed siliciclastic and volcaniclastic basin infill in the respective basins where volcanism took place. All three volcanic centres display a complex succession of effusive and explosive volcanisms and their reworked deposits, with abundant evidences of magma-water interaction such as peperites for non-explosive magma-water interaction with the lacustrine water-saturated sediment and standing water body in a large alkaline lake. During the constructive phase, proximal successions of pyroclastic flows, pyroclastic falls, and rarely surge deposits are associated with distally-emplaced debris flow deposits, sometimes of mixed volcanogenic and terrestrial origins, and are interbedded with lacustrine sediments of the Inay Group. All three volcanic centres then experienced a phase of volcano growth and degradation between 17 and 15 Ma ago, most likely related to a combination of tectonic movements on NE-SW-trending basement faults, which triggered multiple flank collapses and volcanic debris avalanches (Elmadağ), and voluminous ignimbrite eruptions that triggered caldera formation (İtecektepe and Beydağı volcanic centres). Lacustrine conditions persisted during the destruction and post-destruction stages of the volcano's evolution, as evidenced by indications of magma-water interactions

  16. Problems and Prospects of Turkey in the 1990s

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-01

    sianificant pillar of the European economic. deience. and social structure. VI - 2 NOTES 1. Karabulut, Orhan . "The Turkish Navy in the 1990s." NATO’s...Kamran. "The South-East Anatolia Project." Turkish Review (Spring 1989) Ankara-Turkey Karabulut, Orhan . Adm. "The Turkish Navy in the 1990s.0 NATO’s...SCALE 1 :25SO0000 PROJECTION UNIVERSAL TRANSVERSE MERCATOR ULTM) 2𔃼*24, 25- 6 27* 2. I.to Im,wiaa Weua (AWin 871 %)I B U L G A R IA 6*4 wwa j*am.Ap

  17. Palynostratigraphical correlation of the excavated Miocene lignite seams of the Yataǧan basin (Muǧla Province, south-western Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchal, Johannes Martin; Grímsson, Friðgeir; Denk, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    The excavated main lignite seams and overlying lacustrine sediments of the opencast mines Eskihisar, Salihpaşalar, and Tı naz, Muǧla Province, south-western Turkey were investigated using a high taxonomic resolution palynological approach. The Eskihisar section comprises 47m and 56 samples of which 30 were usable for palynological analysis. The Tı naz section comprises 75 m and 29 samples of which 15 were usable for palynological analysis. Finally, the Salihpaşalar section comprises 25 m and 26 samples of which 16 were usable for palynological analysis. The age of the palynological sections is middle to late Miocene based on radiometric dating and vertebrate fossils. In order to investigate dispersed pollen and spores and their botanical affinities a combined light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy approach was used. The rich palynoflora comprises: seven types of algal cysts (Botryococcus, Zygnemataceae), seventeen spore types belonging to Lycopsida (club mosses), Marsileaceae (water-clover), Osmundaceae, Pteridaceae (brake), and Polypodiaceae; 14 types of gymnosperm pollen belonging to Ephedraceae (Mormon tea), Cupressaceae, Pinaceae (Cathaya, cedar, hemlock, pine, spruce); five types of monocotyledone pollen belonging to Poaceae (grasses, common reed), and Typhaceae (bulrush, bur-reed); ca 90 dicotyledone pollen types belonging to Altingiaceae (sweet gum), Amaranthaceae (goosefoot), Anacardiaceae (sumac family), Apiaceae (parsley family), Aquifoliaceae (holly), Asteraceae (sunflower family), Betulaceae (alder, birch, hazel, hophornbeam, hornbeam), Campanulaceae (bellflower family), Cannabaceae (hackberries), Caprifoliaceae (honeysuckle, teasel family), Caryophyllaceae (pink family), Ericaceae (heather family), Eucommiaceae, Euphorbiaceae (spurge family), Fabaceae (bean family), Fagaceae (beech, oak), Geraniaceae (storkbills), Juglandaceae (hickory, walnut, wingnut), Lamiaceae (bagflower), Linaceae (flax), Lythraceae (waterwillow), Malvaceae

  18. Modelling the initial expansion of the Neolithic out of Anatolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxime Brami

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Using the space-time distribution of 1162 uniformly recalibrated dates from 71 sites in Asia Minor, the Aegean Basin, Southern Thrace and Macedonia, this article presents geostatistical (kriging and graphical simulations of the Neolithic expansion out of Anatolia. How fast was the advance of the agricultural pioneer front? Did it proceed in a single wave, moving at a steady pace, or did it involve instead long periods of stasis, punctuated by rapid advances? The article suggests that the expansion was more arrhythmic than linear. The spread of farming halted in Central Anatolia for several hundred years, before quickly expanding into Europe.

  19. A new Consolida subspecies from Anatolia

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    Misirdali, H.

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available A new subspecies from Anatolia. Consolida hellespontica (Boiss. Chater subsp. rosea Misirdali & Ilarslan subsp. nova, is described.

    [ca] Es descriu una nova subspècie d'Anatòlia, Consolida hellespontica (Boiss. Chater subsp. rosea Misirdali & Ilarslan subsp. nova

  20. Child poverty and regional disparities in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eryurt, Mehmet Ali; Koç, Ismet

    2013-01-01

    The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) defines child poverty as the inability of the child to realize their existing potential due to their inability to access resources across different dimensions of life (income, health, nutrition, education, environment, etc.). On the basis of this definition, an attempt has been made in this study to put forth the disadvantaged positions children have in different dimensions of their lives, specifically by taking regional disparities into account. As the data source, the Turkey Demographic and Health Survey 2008 is used, a survey that consists of detailed information about the different dimensions of child poverty. In this study, in order to measure poverty in four different dimensions (education and work, health and nutrition, family environment, and domestic environment), a total of 25 variables were used and descriptive and multivariate analyses were made in order to highlight the regional disparities in child poverty. Principle components analysis conducted through the use of a deficit approach reveals that the variables closely related with education and health and nutrition were the critical dimensions behind child poverty in Turkey. The results of this study indicate that 22.4% of children in Turkey are poor when various dimensions of life are taken into account; the region with the highest child poverty is Central East Anatolia, at 34.9%, while the region with the lowest rate is East Marmara, at 15.6%.

  1. Miocene to Quaternary tectonostratigraphic evolution of the middle section of the Burdur-Fethiye Shear Zone, south-western Turkey: Implications for the wide inter-plate shear zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elitez, İrem; Yaltırak, Cenk

    2016-10-01

    The Burdur-Fethiye Shear Zone (BFSZ) is a 75- to 90- km wide and 300-km-long transtensional left-lateral shear zone which is located in one of the most tectonically active regions in south-western Turkey. A considerable number of studies suggested contradictory models of the evolution and Neogene stratigraphy of the BFSZ and in most cases, the local river and alluvial fan deposits were mapped together with the lacustrine sediments and assigned a Pliocene age. We present new field data, fault kinematic analyses, and DEM and earthquake data to characterize the tectonic controls and extent of the middle section of the BFSZ including Acıpayam, Çameli and Gölhisar basins. Our field observations revealed two distinct sedimentary sequences that unconformably overlie the pre-Neogene basement. The first sequence begins with middle-upper Miocene meandering- and braided-river sediments of the Gölhisar Formation, which transition upward into lacustrine sediments of the upper Miocene-lower Pliocene İbecik Formation. This sequence is overlain by upper Pliocene-lower Quaternary alluvial fan conglomerates, mudstones and claystones of the Dirmil Formation. The basin deposits located in the middle section of the BFSZ consist of lacustrine sediments of a late Miocene lake that likely evaporated due to the Messinian salinity crisis. Fault kinematic analysis and DEM and earthquake data indicate that the middle BFSZ can be characterized as a heterogeneous left-lateral transtensional shear zone rather than a major fault system. Our findings suggest that the middle section of the BFSZ developed under the influence of progressive counter clockwise rotation of south-western Turkey, the Aegean graben system and the Cyprus and Hellenic arcs since the middle Miocene.

  2. Status and Future Outlook of Cultivated Mushroom Sector in Turkey

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    Erkan Eren

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mushroom production that started in 1960's in Turkey gained economic value from the 1990's and it started improving as a commercial sector after that time. While Turkey mushroom production was 80 tons in 1973, it increased up to 45.000 tons in 2014. There is a rapid changes and improvement in cultivated mushroom production and consumption in Turkey. The object of the study is to reveal current status of mushroom production in the world and Turkey, and the problems of the mushroom sector in Turkey and the necessary precautions and ways to solve these problems. The data obtained from the inspections of the mushroom enterprises that in mushroom production regions of Turkey, and the secondary data obtained from Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO, Turkish Statistical Institute (TUIK and Union of Antalya Exporters (AIB and also national and international publication’ data has been used in this study. In Turkey, Mediterranean and Marmara Regions rank first in mushroom production and consumption with the share of 61.5 and 40%, respectively. It has been determined that big enterprises producing mushroom and compost established in the Central Anatolia in this study. The number of enterprises producing mushroom by using technology increases and 15-20% of the total production are provided by the big enterprises having 2000 m2 and over mushroom production areas. Recent years, there are serious increases in the production of different mushroom species such as especially Pleurotus ostreatus. In addition, precision agriculture applications are widespread with the time. For the continuation of growth of the mushroom sector in Turkey and the solving of the sector problems, there are needs both in making the necessary changes in legislation and to be given priority researches related to mushroom production in university and public research institutions and also to support them.

  3. Mole guns in Turkey in 2003-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Riza; Birincioğlu, Ismail; Cakir, Ismail; Uner, H Bülent; Açikgöz, Dinç; Seçkin, Cetin

    2007-01-01

    This study describes the frequency of mole guns in Turkey by examining the cases sent to the Council of Forensic Medicine of Turkey between 2003 and 2005. In total, 11 mole guns were examined. Mole guns are manufactured to be used as a trap against detrimental animals. Although they are not meant to be used as a firearm, they are able to cause death. Mole guns appearing in regular casework were evaluated in terms of type of the gun, number of barrels, size and caliber, rifling, design, mechanism, fitness for use, legality, and geographical distribution. Ninety-one percent of the guns were 12 gauge. Most commonly they originate from Inner Anatolia. Mole guns are typically handmade. Some examples of injuries and deaths caused by mole guns are also offered.

  4. Antibiotic Susceptibility of Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci Isolated from Bovine Subclinical Mastitis in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beytullah Kenar*, Yahya Kuyucuoğlu and Esra Şeker

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A total of 572 California Mastitis Test (CMT positive milk samples were collected from 423 lactating cows on 18 private farms in the Middle Western Anatolia. Coagulase–negative staphylococci colonies and CNS species identification was performed based on conventional biochemical techniques and using the API Staph test. Slime production was detected by Congo Red Agar (CRA method. The antibiotic susceptibility was determined according to the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards guidelines (NCCLS. A total of 67 (11.7% coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS were isolated from CMT positive milk samples. In total, 11 CNS species: S. epidermidis (n=18, S. simulans (n=14, S. warneri (n=10, S. hominis (n=5, S. chromogenes (n=4, S. caprae (n=4, S. xylosus (n=3, S. haemolyticus (n=3, S. hyicus (n=3, S. cohnii (n=2, and S. capitis (n=1 were identified. The most commonly identified CNS species were Staphylococcus epidermidis (26.8% and Staphylococcus simulans (20.8% followed by Staphylococcus warneri (14.9%. Out of 67 CNS isolates, slime production was found in 37 (55.2% CNS strains. CNS isolates were the most resistance to trimethoprim+sulphamethoxazole (76.2%, erythromycin (73.2%, oxacillin and ampicillin (70.2% followed by penicillin (58.3%, gentamicin (53.8%, tetracycline (52.3%, vancomycin (51.8%, ciprofloxacin (26.9%, cefoxitim (23.9%, and cephalothin (13.5%. These results indicate that CNS species are resistant at high rates to the beta-lactam antibiotics which are intensively used in the prevention and treatment of mastitis without any antibiotic susceptibility test in the Middle Western of Turkey.

  5. Tectonic activity and stratigraphic history over the last 130-540 ka on the Southern Shelf of the Sea of Marmara, western North Anatolian Fault, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, W. H.; Grall, C.; Sorlien, C. C.; Steckler, M. S.; Okay, S.; Cormier, M. H.; Seeber, L.; Cifci, G.; Dondurur, D.

    2016-12-01

    The submerged section of the North Anatolian Fault in the Sea of Marmara, which corresponds to the dextral plate boundary between Eurasia and Anatolia, poses strong hazard for earthquakes and subsequent submarine landslides and tsunamis in the vicinity of the highly populated region of Istanbul. Most of the right-lateral slip is accommodated by the Northern Branch of the North Anatolian Fault (NAF-N), which crosses the central part of the Sea of Marmara and is capable of an earthquake with a magnitude greater than 7. However, both the geology and the geodesy suggest that the NAF-N accommodates only 3/4 of the total slip between the plates. The deformation mechanisms for the rest of the strain (slip distributed on secondary faults, strain partitioning, and diffuse deformation) remains unexplained. Other fault systems, primarily south of the NAF-N, are shown to be important regarding the tectonic evolution of the Sea of Marmara. However, the activity of these peripheral fault systems as well as their relationships with the NAF-N need to be further constrained. For this purpose, a dense dataset of 2D geophysical images (high-resolution seismic reflection data, sparker reflection, CHIRP sub-bottom profiling), as well as multibeam bathymetry, have been acquired in 2008, 2010, 2013 and 2014 during TAMAM and SOMAR cruises, primarily in the southern shelf of the Sea of Marmara. The 15-20 km-wide southern shelf ledge is relatively flat and mostly shallower than 90 m. In this shallow marine region, we have been able to image the detailed stratigraphic record associated with the 125 ka and younger glacio-eustatic cycles and, notably, to identify paleo-shorelines at water depths shallower than 100 m. Several erosional unconformities, laterally correlative to low-stand deltas have been regionally linked to the stratigraphic boundaries previously defined for the last 130-540 ka. While the present-day shelf is relatively flat, a shallow ridge separates the inner and outer parts

  6. Evaluation of blood cultures in a children’s hospital located in Southeastern Anatolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiş, Reyhan

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Bloodstream infections in hospitalized patients are one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality despite antimicrobial therapy. Early diagnosis and treatment of these infections is crucial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the distribution and antibiotic susceptibility of bacteria isolated from blood cultures in a children’s hospital in the Southeastern Anatolia during an 18-month period. Material and Methods: 7 040 blood cultures which were sent from hospitalized patients in Gaziantep Children’s Hospital between 01.07.2010 and 01.01.2012 were evaluated. Results: A total of 7 040 blood cultures were evaluated in this study. Microbial growth was detected in 2075 (29.47%) blood cultures. The most frequently isolated bacteria were coagulase-negative staphylococci (%45.97) which were followed by Salmonella spp. (%7.8). 12.12% of enterococcal isolates were resistant to glycopeptide antibiotics. The most frequently isolated gram negative bacterium was Salmonella spp. 15.43% of Salmonella spp. showed decreased susceptibility against quinolones. The ESBL positivity rate of E. coli and K. pneumoniae strains was found to be 35.08% and 57.14%, respectively. The imipenem resistance rate of P. aeruginosa was found to be 33.33%. The most common nonfermentative bacterium was S. maltophilia. Conclusions: The distribution of bacteria isolated from blood cultures and antibiotic resistance rates differ among different regions of Turkey. Different results obtained in our study may be related with regional tendencies to infections and patient population. Distribution of infectious agents and antibiotic resistance rates should be evaluated at regular intervals. This will lead to establishment of proper antibiotic usage policies in our country. PMID:26265894

  7. A founder TMIE mutation is a frequent cause of hearing loss in southeastern Anatolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirmaci, A; Oztürkmen-Akay, H; Erbek, S; Incesulu, A; Duman, D; Taşir-Yilmaz, S; Ozdağ, H; Tekin, M

    2009-06-01

    Using Affymetrix 10K arrays, we searched for regions of homozygosity in 51 Turkish families including at least three members with either congenital or prelingual autosomal recessive non-syndromic sensorineural hearing loss (ARNSSNHL), and identified four families whose deafness mapped to the DFNB6 locus on 3p21 containing the TMIE gene. Mutation analysis revealed the p.R84W mutation in all four families. Screening of this mutation in 254 families with ARNSSNHL, without GJB2 mutations, revealed four additional affected families. A novel mutation was found in a non-complementary marriage between a deaf couple who were homozygous for p.R84W and p.W57X, respectively with two affected children who were compound heterozygotes. Six of the TMIE families originated from southeastern Anatolia, making p.R84W a common cause of hearing loss in that region with a relative frequency of 10.3% (95% CI is 2.5-18.1%). The overall prevalence of the p.R84W mutation in ARNSSNHL in Turkey is 2.4% (95% CI is 0.7-4.0%). Genotyping of single-nucleotide polymorphisms flanking the TMIE gene revealed a conserved haplotype, suggesting a single origin for p.R84W from a common ancestor 1250 years ago (95% CI is 650-2500 years). We conclude that p.R84W could be a common mutation in other Middle Eastern populations and should be included in mutation screening offered to individuals with ARNSSNHL.

  8. Back to the suture: the distribution of intraspecific genetic diversity in and around anatolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgin, Rasit

    2011-01-01

    The effect of ice ages in speciation and diversification is well established in the literature. In Europe, the Iberian, the Italian and the Balkan peninsulas comprise the main glacial refugia, where the subsequent re-population of Europe started. Though not studied as extensively, Anatolia has also been hinted to be a potential glacial refugium for Europe, and with its proximity to the Caucasus and the Middle East at the same time, has potential to exhibit high levels of intraspecific diversity. The more ubiquitous use and cheaper availability of molecular methods globally now makes it possible to better understand molecular ecology and evolution of the fauna and flora in the genetically understudied regions of the world, such as Anatolia. In this review, the molecular genetic studies undertaken in Anatolia in the last decade, for 29 species of plants and animals, are examined to determine general phylogeographic patterns. In this regard, two major patterns are observed and defined, showing genetic breaks within Anatolia and between Anatolia and the Balkans. A third pattern is also outlined, which suggests Anatolia may be a center of diversity for the surrounding regions. The patterns observed are discussed in terms of their relevance to the location of suture zones, postglacial expansion scenarios, the effect of geographic barriers to gene flow and divergence time estimates, in order to better understand the effect of the geological history of Anatolia on the evolutionary history of the inhabitant species. In view of the current state of knowledge delineated in the review, future research directions are suggested.

  9. An investigation of equine infectious anaemia infection in the Central Anatolia region of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Yapkic

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 162 horses, 80 donkeys and 51 mule serum samples were collected in Konya city. Additionally, 64 horse serum samples from Ankara and 49 samples from Kayseri city were included in the study. A total of 406 serum samples were examined by agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for antibody to equine infectious anaemia virus (EIAV and no positive result was detected.

  10. Heliotropium thermophilum (Boraginaceae), a new taxon from SW Anatolia, Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit; Celik, Ali; Gemici, Yusuf

    2008-01-01

    of its unusual habitat, which is a geothermal area with ground temperatures of 55-65 °C. Affinities clearly lie with the annual H. hirsutissimum Grauer, which is distributed in N Africa, the East Mediterranean area, and SW Asia; the latter, however, is hexaploid (2n = 48) and never occurs in thermal...... habitats. Micromorphological, ecological, and ecophysiological data for the new taxon are provided. Ecological isolation has allowed the evolution and differentiation of a new and distinct species....

  11. Alkali Basalts From the Galatia Volcanic Complex, NW Central Anatolia, Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Tankut, Ayla; GÜLEÇ, Nilgün

    2014-01-01

    Alkali basalts occur as small lava flows associated with the andesitic lava flows and pyroclastics of Early to Middle Miocene age which are the main constituents of the Galatia volcanic complex. The northern margin of the complex is bordered by the North Anatolian Fault wher eas the southern margin is surrounded by a continental sedimentary sequence which interfingers with the volcanics. New K-Ar age determinations of the basalts reveal that alkali basalts erupted at two differ ent periods ...

  12. The trace metal levels in milk and dairy products consumed in middle Anatolia-Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayar, Ahmet; Sert, Durmuş; Akin, Nihat

    2009-05-01

    In this study, aluminium (Al), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), selenium (Se) and arsenic (As) contents in milk and different dairy product samples were measured. Pb, Cd, As, Al and Se contents in the milk and different dairy products ranged from 0.054 mg/kg (milk powder)-1.100 mg/kg (Kaşar cheese), 0.009 mg/kg (whey powder and yogurt)-0.051 mg/kg (Tulum cheese), 0.010 mg/kg (whey powder)-0.146 mg/kg (butter), 2.848 mg/kg (ice cream)-8.778 (drained yogurt) and n.d. (ice cream, milk and whey powder, yogurt, ayran and Lor cheese)-0.434 mg/kg (Tulum cheese), respectively. The 75% of White and Kaşar cheeses, 50% of Lor and 12.5% of Tulum cheese samples contained higher Pb according to the legal limits established by the Turkish Food Codex and European Communities regulation and 12.5% of Tulum cheese sample contained Cd. It was concluded that Pb contents of milk and dairy products from this region might be highly hazardous to human.

  13. Geochemical characteristics of Kırka (Sarıkaya) borate deposit, northwestern Anatolia, Turkey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Koçak, İ; Koç, Ş

    2016-01-01

    .... The mineral paragenesis is composed of borax, tincalconite, ulexite, kurnakovite, probertite, tunellite, colemanite, dolomite, smectite group minerals, illite and some firstly reported minerals...

  14. Toxic gas emissions from the Kayseri peat deposit, central Anatolia, Turkey

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mehmet Şener; Mustafa Korkanç; M Furkan Şener; Selma Yaşar Korkanç; F Zafer Özgür

    2012-10-01

    Toxic gases evolving from the soil in urbanized peatland regions constitute a serious hazard since buildings may be subject to the direct ingress of volatiles into the structures. Peat formed in swamp and rarely exposed to subaerial conditions has been associated with the development of the folded foreland of the Quaternary Kayseri pull-apart basin. The peat deposit is extensively urbanized but so far no studies have evaluated the extent of the ground gas hazard. In this paper, the geology, petrography and chemical variation of the Kayseri peat deposit have been studied in order to predict the public health risk from the land gases’ behaviour, especially in soil gases. The main volatile species detected are methane (CH4), hydrogen sulphide (H2S) and carbon dioxide (CO2), all of which are highly toxic. The primary means of gas entry is directly from the ground through the floors, walls, and especially subsurface telephone cable pipes. Indoor vents emit 1000–70,000 ppm CH4, 330–49,000 ppm CO2 and 3.8–6.5 ppm H2S in soil and subsurface pipes; concentrations high enough to present an acute respiratory hazard to persons close to the vents.

  15. Kaletepe Deresi 3 (Turkey) : Archaeological evidence for early human settlement in Central Anatolia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slimak, Ludovic; Kuhn, Steven L.; Roche, Helene; Mouralis, Damase; Buitenhuis, Hijlke; Balkan-Atli, Nur; Binder, Didier; Kuzucuoglu, Catherine; Guillou, Herve

    2008-01-01

    Located in the Central Anatolian Volcanic Province, Kaletepe Deresi 3 was discovered in the summer of 2000 and has been under investigation since that time. Volcanic activity in the region generated a number of obsidian intrusions that have attracted humans to the area throughout prehistory. The str

  16. Factors Controlling Sediment Load in The Central Anatolia Region of Turkey: Ankara River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duru, Umit; Wohl, Ellen; Ahmadi, Mehdi

    2017-01-18

    Better understanding of the factors controlling sediment load at a catchment scale can facilitate estimation of soil erosion and sediment transport rates. The research summarized here enhances understanding of correlations between potential control variables on suspended sediment loads. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool was used to simulate flow and sediment at the Ankara River basin. Multivariable regression analysis and principal component analysis were then performed between sediment load and controlling variables. The physical variables were either directly derived from a Digital Elevation Model or from field maps or computed using established equations. Mean observed sediment rate is 6697 ton/year and mean sediment yield is 21 ton/y/km² from the gage. Soil and Water Assessment Tool satisfactorily simulated observed sediment load with Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency, relative error, and coefficient of determination (R²) values of 0.81, -1.55, and 0.93, respectively in the catchment. Therefore, parameter values from the physically based model were applied to the multivariable regression analysis as well as principal component analysis. The results indicate that stream flow, drainage area, and channel width explain most of the variability in sediment load among the catchments. The implications of the results, efficient siltation management practices in the catchment should be performed to stream flow, drainage area, and channel width.

  17. Factors Controlling Sediment Load in The Central Anatolia Region of Turkey: Ankara River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duru, Umit; Wohl, Ellen; Ahmadi, Mehdi

    2017-05-01

    Better understanding of the factors controlling sediment load at a catchment scale can facilitate estimation of soil erosion and sediment transport rates. The research summarized here enhances understanding of correlations between potential control variables on suspended sediment loads. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool was used to simulate flow and sediment at the Ankara River basin. Multivariable regression analysis and principal component analysis were then performed between sediment load and controlling variables. The physical variables were either directly derived from a Digital Elevation Model or from field maps or computed using established equations. Mean observed sediment rate is 6697 ton/year and mean sediment yield is 21 ton/y/km² from the gage. Soil and Water Assessment Tool satisfactorily simulated observed sediment load with Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency, relative error, and coefficient of determination ( R²) values of 0.81, -1.55, and 0.93, respectively in the catchment. Therefore, parameter values from the physically based model were applied to the multivariable regression analysis as well as principal component analysis. The results indicate that stream flow, drainage area, and channel width explain most of the variability in sediment load among the catchments. The implications of the results, efficient siltation management practices in the catchment should be performed to stream flow, drainage area, and channel width.

  18. Geochemical characteristics of Kırka (Sarıkaya) borate deposit, northwestern Anatolia, Turkey

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    İ Koçak; Ş Koç

    2016-02-01

    The Kırka borate deposit was deposited in a Miocene lacustrine basin which is closely associated with volcanic activity which lasted from Paleogene to the beginning of Quaternary. Borate mineralization alternates with claystone, mudstone, tuff and fine-layered limestone and mostly shows a lenticular structure. The mineral paragenesis is composed of borax, tincalconite, ulexite, kurnakovite, probertite, tunellite, colemanite, dolomite, smectite group minerals, illite and some firstly reported minerals for the Kırka deposit including hydrochloroborite, brianroulstonite, hilgardite-4M and searlesite minerals. In comparison to average values of earth crust, concentrations of Cs, Sr, Li, As and Se were significantly enriched with respective rates of 21, 15, 14, 3 and 188 folds. Regarding KY, KS1 and KS2 locations, there are differences in both element abundances and their geochemical tendencies which are attributed to variations in discharge regime and physico-chemical conditions of the depositional environment. Independent behaviour of B2O3 might indicate that boron is not associated with clays and carbonates and, therefore, most part of boron must be derived from volcanic activity (hydrothermal solutions, gases). REE data indicate that the Kırka borate deposit was formed in a sedimentary environment where highly alkaline (high pH) hydrothermal solutions also took part in borate precipitation process.

  19. Structural Evolution of the Tuzgölü Basin in Central Anatolia, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çemen; Göncüoglu; Dirik

    1999-11-01

    The Central Anatolian segment of the Alpine-Himalayan orogen contains "interior" basins, the largest of which is the Tuzgölü (Salt Lake) basin (>20,000 km2). It is bounded on the east by the Tuzgölü (Salt Lake) fault zone and on the west by the Yeniceoba and Cihanbeyli fault zones. Structural, stratigraphic, and sedimentologic evidence suggests that the Tuzgölü basin started as a fault-controlled basin during late Maastrichtian tectonism when the present-day northwest-trending faults that bound the basin were initiated. These faults may have been formed as normal faults suggesting extension or strike-slip faults with a normal component of movement indicating a large transtension at the time of their initiation. The late Maastrichtian faults were reactivated as strike-slip faults in response to late Eocene compression in the region that produced the Central Anatolian thrust belt to the north and the late Eocene south-dipping thrust faults of the Ulukisla basin to the south. This reactivation is suggested by structurally repeated and missing Paleocene-Eocene deposits in some of the basin's wildcat wells. The late Eocene regression in the Tuzgölü basin was caused by the combined effects of Eocene shortening and a large environmental change. Late Eocene evaporites suggest that the basin was dry before the start of the Neotectonic period, while during the Neotectonic itself the Tuzgölü fault zone was reactivated again, predominantly as a normal fault with a right-lateral strike-slip component. This is evidenced by (1) a major unconformity between the post-Eocene Koçhisar Formation of the Tuzgölü basin and the underlying Eocene rock units; (2) a well-developed rollover anticline observed on seismic reflection profiles; and (3) a right-step along the Tuzgölü fault zone seen in the field.

  20. Geology and Tectonic Evolution of the Kazdaǧ Massif (NW Anatolia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdoğan, B.; Akay, E.; Hasözbek, A.; Satır, M.; Siebel, W.

    2009-04-01

    and paleogeographic evolution of the southern part of the northwestern Anatolia. Geologica Romana 27, 13-80 Bingöl, E. (1971) Classification of age determination methods and application of Rb/Sr and K/Ar methods in Kazdağ. Bulletin of the Mineral Research and Exploration Institute of Turkey 14, 1-16 (in Turkish) Duru, M., Pehlivan, Ş., Şentürk, Y., Yavaş, F. ve Kar, H. (2004) New results on the lithostratigraphy of the Kazdağ Massif in northwest Turkey. Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences 13, 177-186 Okay, A.I and Monie, P. (1997) Early Mesozoic subduction in the eastern Mediterranean: Evidence from Triassic eclogite in northwest Turkey. Geology 25, 595-598 Okay, A.I and Satır, M. (2000) Coeval plutonism and metamorphism in a latest Oligocene metamorphic core complex in northwestern Turkey. Geological Magazine 137, 495-516 Okay, A.I, Siyako, M and Burkan, K.A. (1991) Geology and tectonic evolution of the Biga Peninsula, northwestern Turkey. Bulletin of the Technical University of İstanbul 44, 191-256 Okay, A.I, Monod, O and Monie, P. (2002) Triaasic blueschists and eclogites from northwestern Turkey: vestiges of the Paleo-Tethyan subduction. Lithos 64, 155-178 Okay, A.I, Satır, M., Maluski, H., Sıyako, M., Monie, P., Metzger, R., Akyüz, S., (1996) Paleo- and Neo-Tethyan events in northwestern Turkey: Geologic and geochronologic constrains. The Tectonic Evolution of Asia, 420-441 Topuz, G, Altıner, D, Satır, M, and Schwartz, W.H. (2004) Low-grade metamorphic rocks from the Pulur Complex, NE Turkey: implications for the pre-Liassic evolution of the Eastern Pontides. International Journal of Earth Science, 93, 72-91 Yaltırak C. and Okay A.İ (1994) Geology of the Paleo-Tethyan units in the north of Edremit Bay. Bulletin of the Technical University of İstanbul , 3/1, 67-79 (in Turkish)

  1. Refugee movements and Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirisci, K

    1991-12-01

    There has been a long tradition in the Ottoman Empire and the Turkish Republic of receiving refugees. There were Jewish refugees from the Spanish Inquisition, Hungarians and Poles fleeing revolts in 1848-9, and those of Turkish descent and usually from the Balkans. Concurrent with this trend is the history of refugees and immigrants leaving Turkey, such as many Armenians, Greeks and Jews leaving at the turn of the century, and after 1923 and the Treaty of Lausanne. Little is currently published on the topic. This article defines a refugee; provides an overview of the refugee problems of the 1980's due to Bulgarian, Kurdish, and Turkish refugees; and the legal and political aspects. As a country of origin, there is discussion of the political and economic aspects of Turkish asylum seekers in Europe. The potential refugee flows to and from Turkey are also examined. I) For this study, refugees are victims of political violence and are persecuted for political or religious beliefs, ethnic or racial background, or war. In Turkey, there are national refugees, international refugees outside the Convention, and UNHCR Convention refugees. During the 1980's all 3 groups were arriving: from eastern Europe, Iranian Kurds, Iraqis, and ethnic Turks from Bulgaria and Afghanistan. The Turkish restricted acceptance of the 1951 Convention on Refugees creates serious humanitarian and security consequences for refugees other than those from eastern Europe and of Turkish ethnicity. Political considerations play an important role in treatment where security threats outweigh humanitarian need. The case is given for Kurdish refugees. II) Asylum seekers from Turkey in Western Europe was determined between 1986-90 to be 185,000 from applications. These figures have risen steadily due to the political instability and military activity of areas bordering Iraq and Syria, the Emergency Region. In addition there are economic and employment problems, and there has been a suspension of human

  2. Late Cenozoic stress state distributions at the intersection of the Hellenic and Cyprus Arcs, SW Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Över, Semir; Özden, Süha; Pınar, Ali; Yılmaz, Hüseyin; Kamacı, Züheyr; Ünlügenç, Ulvi Can

    2016-12-01

    The history of the Late Cenozoic stress regime was determined for an area between the gulfs of Fethiye and Antalya. Fault kinematic analysis and inversion of focal mechanisms of shallow earthquakes reveal significant evolution of the regional stress regime in SW Anatolia, i.e., the area of interaction between the Hellenic and Cyprus arcs, from the Mio-Pliocene to the present time. Fault kinematic analysis yields two different normal faulting stress regimes along the southwestern part of Fethiye-Burdur Fault zone, e.g., in and around Çameli Basin (Zone A1) and two different strike-slip to normal faulting stress regimes characterized by a roughly orthogonal set of extensional axes between Fethiye and Demre (Zone B) with an older NW-SE σ3 axis for Mio-Pliocene and a younger NE-SW σ3 axis for Plio-Quaternary time. Inversion of focal mechanisms of the earthquakes occurring in Zone A1 provides an extensional stress state with approximately N-S σ3 axis. Inversion of those occurring in Zone B, south of Zone A1, yields a dominantly strike-slip stress state with a NE-SW σ3 axis and a NW-SE σ1 axis respectively. The inversion slip vectors from fault planes yield a consistent normal faulting stress regime in Burdur Basin and its surroundings (i.e., along the northeastern part of Fethiye-Burdur Fault Zone, (Zone A2)) during Plio-Quaternary, continuing into recent time as indicated by earthquake focal mechanism inversions. Both states have a consistent NW-SE σ3 axis. Fault kinematic analysis indicates NW-SE extension acting in Zone C (subarea between Demre and Antalya), south of Zone A2, during Mio-Pliocene time. The inversion of focal mechanisms yields normal faulting also characterized by a consistent NW-SE σ3 axis. The nearly orthogonal extensional stress regimes (NW-SE and NE-SW) obtained by inversion of both measured and seismic faults seem to have been acting contemporaneously with each other at different intensities from the Mio-Pliocene onwards in SW Turkey. This

  3. LGBT in Turkey: Policies and Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceylan Engin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available While LGBT studies have been problematizing normative categories of sexuality primarily in Western cultures, the status of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT individuals in non-Western societies remains understudied. This study examines the political attitudes toward LGBT individuals in Turkish society and explores the experiences of transgender individuals. While Turkey holds a strong economic position among Western countries, the situation of sexual minorities lags behind international standards. This study explores two research questions. First, what is the Turkish government’s outlook for the LGBT community? Secondly, what kind of problems and challenges do trans-individuals experience in Turkey? This study first introduces a macro-level analysis of the politics of gender identity in Turkey by analyzing the debates of four deputies in the Turkish Parliament, each representing their parties’ disparate viewpoints. Secondly, a micro-level analysis of previously collected interviews with twenty-five trans-individuals are also examined that shed light on the difficulties of being a trans-individual in Turkey. The content analysis shows that trans-individuals experience physical, sexual, and emotional violence, in addition to experiencing discrimination in employment, housing, and healthcare. The findings of this micro-level analysis elucidate the continuous discrimination, inequality, and violence that these individuals experience, while the macro-level analysis portrays the state’s discriminatory policies toward LGBT individuals in Turkey.

  4. Spatio-temporal trends in the hydroclimate of Turkey for the last decades based on two reanalysis datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokmen, Mustafa

    2016-09-01

    We present a regional assessment of the spatiotemporal trends in several hydro-climate variables from 1979 to 2010 in Turkey, one of the countries of the eastern Mediterranean vulnerable to climate change, using the two reanalysis products of the ECMWF: ERA-Interim and ERA-Interim/Land. The trend analysis revealed that an average warming of 1.26 °C [0.8-1.8] occurred in Turkey from 1979 to 2010, with high confidence intervals (95-99 %, mostly). Geographically, the largest warming (up to 1.8 °C) occurred in the western coastal areas next to the Aegean Sea and in the southeastern regions. The air temperature trends were generally confirmed by the in situ data from about 100 weather stations around the country, though in situ data indicated slightly higher trends ranging from 1 to 2.5°. With respect to the regional trends in hydrological variables, ERA-Interim and ERA-Interim/Land revealed quite different pictures: the ERA-Interim dataset indicated that there have been significant decreasing trends of precipitation, snow water equivalent (SWE) and runoff in some parts of inner/southeastern Anatolia (a total decrease of up to 250 mm in the upstream of the Euphrates, Kizilirmak and Seyhan basins), while ERA-Interim/Land showed no or minor trends in the same areas. Based on the extensive comparisons with precipitation and SWE gauge data, we can suggest that the hydrological trends shown by the ERA-Interim/Land dataset, which is said to be a model improvement, are relatively closer to the observations. From the hydrological trends revealed by the ERA-Interim/Land dataset, we can conclude that, despite the strong warming trends over Turkey from 1979 to 2010, there have been no widespread and strong hydrological trends for the same period throughout the country. In this regard, we can suggest that the impacts of global warming on the water cycle are not straightforward, especially at the regional scale, and future climate simulations indicating considerable

  5. Tectonic setting of the Jurassic bimodal magmatism in the Sakarya Zone (Central and Western Pontides), Northern Turkey: A geochemical and isotopic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genç, Ş. Can; Tüysüz, Okan

    2010-07-01

    The Lower to Middle Jurassic Mudurnu formation of the Sakarya Zone (Northern Turkey) was deposited in an extensional basin. This unit crops out along the southern Pontide range and consists of marine sedimentary rocks including debris flows, lignite-bearing clastic rocks and Ammonitico Rosso horizons alternating with mafic and felsic volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks. Magmatic rocks of the Mudurnu formation comprise two compositionally different groups; 1) a mafic group including diabase-microgabbro-basaltic lavas and their pyroclastic equivalents, and 2) a felsic group including granite porphyries and felsic pyroclastic rocks. All the magmatic members of the Mudurnu formation are subalkaline and display a calc-alkaline affinity. They are bimodal, with a significant silica gap between the mafic and felsic members with the exception of a few samples. These magmatic rocks display enrichment in LILE and depletion in Nb, Ta, P and Ti, implying a subduction-related magmatic signature. Melting modelling for the mafic rocks indicates that they originated possibly from subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) composed of spinel lherzolite. ɛNd(i) values (+ 1.5 to + 4.3) imply that the mafic volcanic and hypabyssal rocks were possibly derived from a time-integrated LREE-depleted mantle source. The initial Sr and Nd isotope values, and ɛNd(i) of the felsic hypabyssal rocks are comparable to the mafic ones. The isotope data point to a genetic relationship between the felsic and mafic members. Results obtained from the geochemical modelling of incompatible versus compatible trace elements show that the felsic rocks were derived from the mafic melts by fractional crystallization (FC) process. In the light of their regional geological setting and these geochemical characteristics, we propose that the magmatic rocks of the Mudurnu formation formed in an extensional basin situated on an active and/or just ended subduction zone during the Jurassic period. The Mudurnu formation

  6. The Orthoceltites beds - a case study on a Triassic mass-occurrence (Carnian, Taurus, Turkey)

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    Lukeneder, A.; Lukeneder, S.

    2012-04-01

    Mass-occurrences in the palaeontological record can act as proxy for the environmental activities and biotic crisis through time. It has to be noted that the ultimate causes are often unknown and not well understood and are still under comprehensive discussion. The formation of the ammonite beds (e.g. Orthoceltites) is either autochthonous or allochthonous (transported). Expected 3D modelling results will be essential to reach geodynamic, palaeooceanographic and palaeobiological conclusions. 3D reconstructed faunas, representing environmental changes as displayed by the sea-level and climate can become more obvious and the 'motor' behind the demise better understood. While the Carnian, an ammonite mass-occurrence (Anatolia, Turkey) was deposited within an intrashelf area on the western end of the Cimmerian System, with intermediate connection to both, the Neo-Tethys and the Palaeo-Thetys Oceans. The mass-occurrence can be observed over several square kilometers around Aşağiyaylabel and Karapinar. This ammonite mass occurrence (Orthoceltites sp.) is now located at the boundary from the Kartoz and the Kasimlar Formation. The ceratitid ammonite Orthoceltites dominated the ammonite fauna (approx. 99.9%; n > 1 000 000) and is accompanied by rare individuals of Klipsteina and Sirenites. Statistical analysis of the orientation and relative position of the ammonite shells hint to current or transport directions. 3D modelling of ammonites will lead to a geometrical reconstruction and shed light on the biostratinomic and additional diagentic processes. The proposed research integrates well established 3D visualisation and geometrical modelling techniques in an exciting palaeontological task of reconstructing the distribution and alignment of ammonite in a Triassic mass-occurrence from Turkey. Computed tomography and laser surface-scans of ammonites and computed tomography provide additional information on shape and internal structures, which will in a further step be

  7. Back to the Suture: The Distribution of Intraspecific Genetic Diversity in and Around Anatolia

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    Rasit Bilgin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of ice ages in speciation and diversification is well established in the literature. In Europe, the Iberian, the Italian and the Balkan peninsulas comprise the main glacial refugia, where the subsequent re-population of Europe started. Though not studied as extensively, Anatolia has also been hinted to be a potential glacial refugium for Europe, and with its proximity to the Caucasus and the Middle East at the same time, has potential to exhibit high levels of intraspecific diversity. The more ubiquitous use and cheaper availability of molecular methods globally now makes it possible to better understand molecular ecology and evolution of the fauna and flora in the genetically understudied regions of the world, such as Anatolia. In this review, the molecular genetic studies undertaken in Anatolia in the last decade, for 29 species of plants and animals, are examined to determine general phylogeographic patterns. In this regard, two major patterns are observed and defined, showing genetic breaks within Anatolia and between Anatolia and the Balkans. A third pattern is also outlined, which suggests Anatolia may be a center of diversity for the surrounding regions. The patterns observed are discussed in terms of their relevance to the location of suture zones, postglacial expansion scenarios, the effect of geographic barriers to gene flow and divergence time estimates, in order to better understand the effect of the geological history of Anatolia on the evolutionary history of the inhabitant species. In view of the current state of knowledge delineated in the review, future research directions are suggested.

  8. Radionuclide distribution of Holocene sediments and its effects on the habitat of recent foraminifers: A case study from the Western Marmara Sea (Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ünal Yumun, Zeki; Kam, Erol; Murat Kılıc, Ali

    2017-04-01

    ABSTRACT Radionuclides cause radioactive contamination in aquatic environments just as other non-biodegradable pollutants, such as heavy metals, sink to the seafloor and accumulate in the sediments. These radioactive pollutants especially affect benthic foraminifera living on the sediment surface or in the sediments in the seafloor. Foraminifera were used as bioindicators to analyze the effect of radioactivity pollution on ecosystems. In this study, we have investigated natural and artificial radionuclide (232Th, 226Ra, 40K and 137Cs) distribution in sediment samples taken in the living areas of benthic foraminifera in the Western Marmara Sea by means of gamma spectrometry. Accordingly, 29 core samples taken in 2016 from depths of about 20-35 m close to the shores of the Marmara Sea were used. Core samples representing the pollution of the study area were collected at locations such as discharge points for domestic and industrial areas, port locations, and others. Other samples were taken from areas unaffected or less affected by pollution. The radionuclide concentration activity values in the sediment samples obtained from the locations, in Bq/kg, were 137Cs, 0.9-9.4; 232Th, 18.9-86; 226Ra, 10-50; 40K, 24.4-670. These values were compared with the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) data, and an environmental analysis was carried out. The 226Ra series, the 232Th series, and the 40K radionuclides accumulate naturally, and they are also increasing continuously due to anthropogenic pollution. Although the 226Ra values obtained throughout the study areas remained within normal limits according to the UNSCEAR values, the 40K and 232Th series values were found to be higher in almost all locations. According to these results, the main causes of radioactive pollution in the investigation area are agricultural and mining activities. Keywords: Ra-226, Th-232, K-40, Cs-137, radionuclide, Western Marmara Sea, Foraminifera

  9. Geodynamic and Magmatic Evolution of the Eastern Anatolian-Arabian Collision Zone, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Mehmet

    2014-05-01

    The Eastern Anatolian-Arabian Collision Zone represents a crucial site within the Tethyan domain where a subduction system involving a volcanic arc (i.e. Cretaceous to Oligocene Pontide volcanic arc in the north) associated with a large subduction-accretion complex (i.e. Cretaceous to Oligocene Eastern Anatolian Accretionary Complex i.e. "EAAC" in the south) turned later into a major continental collision zone that experienced a series of geodynamic events including lithospheric delamination, slab-steepening & breakoff, regional domal uplift, widespread volcanism and tectonic escape via strike slip fault systems. The region includes some of the largest volcanic centers (e.g. Karacadaǧ, Aǧırkaya caldera, Ararat, Nemrut, Tendürek and Süphan volcanoes) and plateaus (e.g. The Erzurum-Kars Plateau) as well as the largest transform fault zones in the Mediterranean region. A recent geodynamic modeling study (Faccenna et al., 2013) has suggested that both the closure of the Tethys Ocean and the resultant collision were driven by a large scale and northerly directed asthenospheric mantle flow named the "Tethyan convection cell". This convection cell initiated around 25 Ma by combined effects of mantle upwelling of the Afar super plume located in the south, around 3,000 km away from the collision zone and the slab-pull of the Tethyan oceanic lithosphere beneath Anatolia in the north. The aforementioned mantle flow dragged Arabia to the north towards Eastern Anatolia with an average velocity of 2 cm/y for the last 20 My, twice as fast as the convergence of the African continent (i.e. 1 cm/y) with western and Central Turkey. This 1 cm/y difference resulted in the formation of the left lateral Dead Sea Strike Slip Fault between the African and Arabian plates. Not only did this mantle flow result in the formation of a positive dynamic topography in the west of Arabian block, but also created a dynamic tilting toward the Persian Gulf (Faccenna et al., 2013). Another

  10. Impact of volcanism on the evolution of Lake Van (eastern Anatolia) III: Periodic (Nemrut) vs. episodic (Süphan) explosive eruptions and climate forcing reflected in a tephra gap between ca. 14 ka and ca. 30 ka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmincke, Hans-Ulrich; Sumita, Mari

    2014-09-01

    Fifteen Lateglacial to Holocene rhyolitic, dominantly primary tephra layers piston-cored and drilled (ICDP Paleovan drilling project) in western Lake Van (eastern Anatolia, Turkey) were precisely correlated to either of the two adjacent and active large volcanoes Nemrut and Süphan based on shard textures, mineralogy and mineral and glass compositions. The young peralkaline (comenditic to pantelleritic) primary rhyolitic Nemrut tephras are characterized by anorthoclase, hedenbergitic to augitic clinopyroxene, fayalitic olivine, minor quartz, and rare accessory chevkinite and zircon. Phenocrysts in subalkaline primary rhyolitic Süphan tephras are chiefly oligoclase-labradorite, with minor K-rich sanidine in some, biotite, amphibole, hypersthene, rare augitic clinopyroxene, relatively common allanite and rare zircon. Two contrasting explosive eruptive modes are distinguished from each other: episodic (Süphan) and periodic (Nemrut). The Lateglacial Süphan tephra swarm covers a short time interval of ca. 338 years between ca. 13,078 vy BP and 12,740 vy BP, eruptions having occurred statistically every ca. 42 years with especially short intervals between V-11 (reworked) and V-14. Causes for the strongly episodic Süphan explosive behavior might include seismic triggering of a volcano-magma system unable to erupt explosively without the benefit of external triggering, as reflected in pervasive faulting preceding the Süphan tephra swarm. Seismic triggering may have caused the rise of more mafic ("trachyandesitic") parent magma, heating near-surface pockets of highly evolved magma - that might have formed silicic domes during this stage of volcano evolution - resulting in ascent and finally explosive fragmentation of magma essentially by external factors, probably significantly enhanced by magma-water/ice interaction. Explosive eruptions of the Nemrut volcano system, interpreted to be underlain by a large fractionating magma reservoir, follow a more periodic mode of (a

  11. Mold Flora of Traditional Cheeses Produced in Turkey

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    Musa Yalman

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In our country, there are many cheese types that are produced traditionally. Cheeses which produced from cows, sheep and goat milk that matured with spontaneous growth of molds present in livestock skins, pots and similar environments are among them. They are produced traditionally in Mediterrian, Central and Eastern Anatolia regions. Molds that grow spontaneously in cheeses could create public health risk because of their secondary metabolites. Penicillium spp. are the most isolated mold from these cheeses and Penicillium roqueforti is determined as the dominant species. Furthermore, Aspergillus, Alternaria, Mucor, Geotrichum, Cladosporium species have been isolated. It is very important to control the ripening conditions and starter strain selection since some strains were reported as mycotoxin producers. In this review, it has been tried to give general information about traditional production of mold-ripened cheese in Turkey and the mold flora found in traditional cheeses. In addition, public health risk of these cheeses is reported.

  12. New and remarkable records of microfungi from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ale-Agha, N; Feige, G B; Christiaans, B; Dündar, A E

    2003-01-01

    During a botanical excursion of the University of Essen in the year 2002 to North-, Central- and South-Anatolia we have collected representatives of about 100 genera of microfungi as parasites or saprophytes on crops and wild plants. Some of them are new for Turkey: Passalora dubia on Atriplex hortensis, Pseudocercospora ligustri on Ligustrum ovalifolium, Passalora smilacis on Smilax aspera, Uromyces limonii on Limonium spec., Puccinia jasmini on Jasminim spec., Sawadea bicornis on Acer negundo, Puccinia sii-falcariae on Falcaria vulgaris, Phomia hedericola on Hedera helix, Camorosporium pistaciae on Pistacia terebinthus, Erysiphe bahrii on Silene spec., Ramularia heraclei on Apium graveolens. All specimens are located in the Herbarium ESS, Mycotheca parva, collection G.B. Feige & N. Ale-Agha.

  13. Ideology, religion and the army in Turkey

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    Ali Arslan

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Turkey has a strategic place in world politics. As Ahmad (1991: 226 and 1993 said, Turkey's strategic location on the Straits and on the cross-roads between Europe and Asia will remain unchanged. Turkey is a meeting point between Europe and Asia not only geographically, but also ideologically between Eastern and Western civilisation The Turkish secular and democratic system has provided a model to both the Islamic Middle East and the new Turkish states of the former Soviet Union.     The new state was created from the ruins of the Ottoman Empire in 1920s. Turkey has turned her face completely to the west since the foundation of the Republic. The economic and social development, as Hale examined (Hale, 1981, have proceeded in a predominantly liberal competitive political system since the 1940s.    This paper will concern itself with the Turkish political leaders. Firstly, a brief information about the political structure of contemporary Turkey will be given. Then, the major findings on Turkish top political elites will be presented. The top political elites comprise all the presidents, presidents of the TGNA, prime ministers, and ministers who served in three or more cabinets during the whole modern Republican history of Turkey. In doing this, the variables of age, educational level, education type, occupation, foreign languages, gender and marital status, family size were used.

  14. IMPACT OF THE ATATÜRK DAM LAKE ON AGRO-METEOROLOGICAL ASPECTS OF THE SOUTHEASTERN ANATOLIA REGION USING REMOTE SENSING AND GIS ANALYSIS

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    O. Ozcan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The Atatürk Dam is the fourth largest clay-cored rock fill dam in the world. It was constructed on the Euphrates River located in semi-arid Southeastern Turkey in the 1980s as the central component of a large-scale regional development project for the Southeastern Anatolia region (referred to as GAP. The construction began in 1983 and was completed in 1990. The dam and the hydroelectric power plant, which went into service after filling up the reservoir was accomplished in 1992. The Atatürk Dam, which has a height of 169 m, a total storage capacity of 48.7 million m3, and a surface area of about 817 km2 plays an important role in the development of Turkey's energy and agriculture sectors. In this study, the spatial and temporal impacts of the Atatürk Dam on agro-meteorological aspects of the Southeastern Anatolia region have been investigated. Change detection and environmental impacts due to water-reserve changes in Atatürk Dam Lake have been determined and evaluated using multi-temporal Landsat satellite imageries and meteorological datasets within a period of 1984 to 2011. These time series have been evaluated for three time periods. Dam construction period constitutes the first part of the study. Land cover/use changes especially on agricultural fields under the Atatürk Dam Lake and its vicinity have been identified between the periods of 1984 to 1992. The second period comprises the 10-year period after the completion of filling up the reservoir in 1992. At this period, Landsat and meteorological time-series analyses are examined to assess the impact of the Atatürk Dam Lake on selected irrigated agricultural areas. For the last 9-year period from 2002 to 2011, the relationships between seasonal water-reserve changes and irrigated plains under changing climatic factors primarily driving vegetation activity (monthly, seasonal, and annual fluctuations of rainfall rate, air temperature, humidity on the watershed have been investigated

  15. Present-day dynamic and residual topography in Central Anatolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şengül Uluocak, Ebru; Pysklywec, Russell; Göǧüş, Oǧuz H.

    2016-09-01

    The Central Anatolian orogenic plateau is represented by young volcanism, rapid plateau uplift and distinctive (past and active) tectonic deformation. In this study, we consider observational data in terms of regional present-day geodynamics in the region. The residual topography of Central Anatolia was derived to define the regional isostatic conditions according to Airy isostasy and infer the potential role of `dynamic topography'. 2-D thermomechanical forward models for coupled mantle-lithosphere flow/deformation were conducted along an N-S directional profile through the region (e.g. northern/Pontides, interior and southern/Taurides). These models were based on seismic tomography data that provide estimates about the present-day mantle thermal structure beneath the Anatolian plate. We compare the modelling results with calculated residual topography and independent data sets of geological deformation, gravity and high surface heat flow/widespread geothermal activity. Model results suggest that there is ˜1 km of mantle flow induced dynamic topography associated with the sublithospheric flow driven by the seismically inferred mantle structure. The uprising mantle may have also driven the asthenospheric source of volcanism in the north (e.g. Galatia volcanic province) and the Cappadocia volcanic province in the south while elevating the surface in the last 10 Myr. Our dynamic topography calculations emphasize the role of vertical forcing under other orogenic plateaux underlain by relatively thin crust and low-density asthenospheric mantle.

  16. Present-day dynamic and residual topography in Central Anatolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şengül Uluocak, Ebru; Pysklywec, Russell; Göǧüş, Oǧuz H.

    2016-09-01

    The Central Anatolian orogenic plateau is represented by young volcanism, rapid plateau uplift and distinctive (past and active) tectonic deformation. In this study, we consider observational data in terms of regional present-day geodynamics in the region. The residual topography of Central Anatolia was derived to define the regional isostatic conditions according to Airy isostasy and infer the potential role of `dynamic topography'. 2-D thermomechanical forward models for coupled mantle-lithosphere flow/deformation were conducted along an N-S directional profile through the region (e.g. northern/Pontides, interior and southern/Taurides). These models were based on seismic tomography data that provide estimates about the present-day mantle thermal structure beneath the Anatolian plate. We compare the modelling results with calculated residual topography and independent data sets of geological deformation, gravity and high surface heat flow/widespread geothermal activity. Model results suggest that there is ˜1 km of mantle flow induced dynamic topography associated with the sublithospheric flow driven by the seismically inferred mantle structure. The uprising mantle may have also driven the asthenospheric source of volcanism in the north (e.g. Galatia volcanic province) and the Cappadocia volcanic province in the south while elevating the surface in the last 10 Myr. Our dynamic topography calculations emphasize the role of vertical forcing under other orogenic plateaux underlain by relatively thin crust and low-density asthenospheric mantle.

  17. Oligo-Miocene foraminiferal record (Miogypsinidae, Lepidocyclinidae and Nummulitidae) from the Western Taurides (SW Turkey): Biometry and implications for the regional geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özcan, Ercan; Less, György; Báldi-Beke, Mária; Kollányi, Katalin; Acar, Ferhat

    2009-05-01

    The marine Oligo-Miocene units of western Taurides, deposited under different tectonic regimes (in Bey Dağları platform in foreland and coeval sequences in hinterland), were studied to establish a high-resolution biostratigraphic framework. Biometric study of the full spectrum of larger foraminifera in a regional scale allowed us correlating them with the shallow benthic zonation (SBZ) system introduced by [Cahuzac, B., Poignant, A., 1997. Essai de biozonation de l'Oligo-Miocène dans les bassins européens à l'aide des grands foraminifères néritiques. Bulletin de la Société géologique de France 168, 155-169], and to determine the ages of these sites on zonal precision for the first time. In correlating these assemblages to standard shallow benthic zones, planktonic data were also used whenever possible. Taxa, classified under the genera Nummulites, Miogypsina, Miolepidocyclina, Nephrolepidina, Eulepidina, Heterostegina, Operculina and Cycloclypeus (?) and their assemblages, closely resemble to the fauna described from European basins. These groups characterize the SBZ 22B to 25 zones referring to a time interval from early Chattian to Burdigalian. However, a main gap in late Chattian (SBZ 23) and in early part of the Aquitanian (SBZ 24) is also recorded in the platform succession. In the meantime, rare Eulepidina in the Burdigalian levels suggest a clear Indo-Pacific influence. Based on the discovery of early Chattian (SBZ 22B) deposits (previously mapped under Eocene/Miocene units), the Oligo-Miocene stratigraphy of the Bey Dağları platform is also revised. A more precise chronology for regional Miocene transgression is presented based on the miogypsinid evolutionary scale.

  18. Reevaluation and whole distribution areas of endemic plants of Kütahya (Turkey according to new IUCN danger categoriesSpread Areas on Kütahya (Turkey of Some Endemic Plants and Reevaluation According to New IUCN Danger Categories

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    Ahmet Tel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study is carried to determine the localities of endemic taxa of Kütahya, in the inner Western part of Anatolia, and later to delineate their spread in other parts of Turkey and to reevaluate IUCN categories in light of these data. According to this, there are 291 endemic taxa and 4 rare taxa belonging to 39 families are determined in the boundaries of Kütahya. Only, 16 taxa were spread on city of Kütahya. 45 taxa were spread on Aegean region; other taxa were spread on outside of Aegean region. Most families contain more taxa are Asteraceae (43 taxa, Fabaceae (35 taxa, Scrophulariaceae (29 taxa, Lamiaceae (27 taxa and Brassicaceae (18 taxa. The endemic taxa numbers (114 taxa of endemic taxa on the Murat Mountain (the highest altitude of Kütahya are more than other localities. The phytogeographic elements of endemic plants of Kütahya are represented as follows: Irano-Turanian 93 taxa, Mediterranean 72 taxa and Europe-Siberian region 10 taxa. The threatened catagories of these endemics taxa were reevaluated and certain danger categories are updated by using literature. According to the new IUCN danger categories as follows; 2 taxa in CR (critically endangered category, 17 taxa in EN (endangered category, 30 taxa in VU (vulnerable, 28 taxa in the cd (conservation sub-category of LR (lower risk, 23 taxa in the nt (near threatened sub-cetagory of LR, 190 taxa in lc (least concern sub-category of LR and one takson in DD (data deficient categories were determined.

  19. TURKEY AT THE INTERSECTION OF ECONOMIC AND COMMERCIAL INTERESTS

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    Alexandru GRIBINCEA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Turkey has made in the last 4 decades a remarkable growth in economy. The energy industry is represented mainly by the coal industry (especially lignite and coal, located in northwest Anatolia. The electricity is produced in the hydro and thermal power plants. Turkey has the world's 17th largest nominal GDP, and 15th largest GDP by PPP. The country is a founding member of the OECD (1961 and the G-20 major economies (1999. Since December 31, 1995, Turkey is also a part of the EU Customs Union. While many economies have been unable to recover from the recent global financial recession, the Turkish economy expanded by 9.2% in 2010, and 8.5 percent in 2011, thus standing out as the fastest growing economy in Europe, and one of the fastest growing economies in the world. Hence, Turkey has been meeting the “60 percent EU Maastricht criteria” for public debt stock since 2004. Similarly, from 2002 to 2011, the budget deficit decreased from more than 10 percent to less than 3 percent, which is one of the EU Maastricht criteria for the budget balance. As of 2012, the main trading partners of Turkey are Germany, Russia and Iran. Turkey has taken advantage of a customs union with the European Union, signed in 1995, to increase industrial production for exports, while benefiting from EU – origin foreign investment into the country. Turkey is also a source of foreign direct invest-ment in central and eastern Europe and the CIS, with more than $1.5 billion invested. 32% has been invested in Russia, primarily in the natural resources and construction sector, and 46% in Turkey’s Black Sea neighbours, Bulgaria and Romania. Turkish companies also have sizable FDI stocks in Poland, at about $100 million. The construction and contracting companies have been significant players, such as Enka, Tekfen, Gama, and Üçgen İnşaat, as well as the three industrial groups, Anadolu Efes Group, ŞişeCam Group and Vestel Group. The exports reached $115.3 billion in

  20. GEÇMİŞTEN GÜNÜMÜZE ANADOLU’DA MÜSLÜMAN HIRİSTİYAN MÜNASEBETLERİ / THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MUSLIM AND CHRISTIAN IN ANATOLIA FROM PAST TO NOW

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    Mustafa YİĞİTOĞLU

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışma Anadolu’da (Türkiye Müslüman-Hıristiyan münasebetlerini ve uzun süredir devam eden Avrupa Birliği sürecini incelemektedir.Çünkü bu topraklar, dünya üzerinde dinsel inanışların geçmişten günümüze varlığını devam ettirdiği, inançların ve medeniyetlerin coğrafi özelliği gereği bir mekez konumundadır. Üç bin yıllık geçmişe ve bir çok değere sahiptir. Bu değerlerden en önemlisi Hıristiyanlık ve İslam’dır. Dolayısı ile Müslümanlar (yani Türkler ile Hıristiyanlar arasında münasebet kaçınılmaz olacaktır.Anahtar Kelimeler: Anadolu, İslam, Hıristiyanlık, Münasebet, Diyalog, MisyonerlikThis study examines the relationship between Christian and Muslim in Anatolia from past to now.Because Anatolia (Turkey has become more important country for religious being to sustain in their life in the world from past to now, on account of its geographical location has always been a center for civilizations and believes. As a result of a 3000 years rich background, Anatolia has many important values for many religions. Ancient religions especially Christianity and today Islam (Turks.

  1. Intestinal parasites of unisexual and bisexual lizards Darevskia spp. (Lacertidae from Northeastern Anatolia

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    Roca V.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Four bisexual and two unisexual species of the lizard genus Darevskia from northeastern Anatolia were searched for intestinal parasites in adult specimens. One cestode, Nematotaenia tarentolae, and two nematode species, Spauligodon saxicolae and Strongyloides darevskyi, were found, the latest identified as a Darevskia specialist. No major differences between host species were recorded. The very low infection rates and diversity result in depauperate helminth communities for all these lacertid lizards being the lowest among the Palaearctic saurians. Patterns of these helminth communities are compared with those observed in other lacertid lizards from Anatolia and Europe.

  2. Women and leprosy in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakiner, T; Yüksel, A; Soydan, M; Saylan, T; Bahçeci, E

    1993-01-01

    Women in Turkey have many social, cultural and economical problems. Women with leprosy have problems in common with other women as well as those related to physical and social consequences of leprosy. There are 2,414 patients with leprosy in Turkey, registered to Istanbul Leprosy Hospital and 829 of them are females. The mean age and duration of disease of our female leprosy patients are high. Most women with leprosy were born in eastern part of Turkey where prevalence of leprosy is higher and most have moved to western regions. The proportion of women who have some kind of social security is very low. Their economic status is also not good and 79% of patients had stigma about their disease. Three fourths of these cases have been hospitalized some time, for different reasons. Most of them (97.2%) have inactive disease at present. Disability degrees of patients are high. Patients with disability degrees over one constitute 54% of total for eyes, 55% for hands and 51% for feet. High percentage of multibacillary form and long duration of disease, delayed diagnosis, insufficient self-care of patients due to low socio-economic and cultural status and failure of health personnel to control patients periodically may be among the reasons for such high ratios of moderate and severe disabilities. In the light of the data obtained in our study, some measures to alleviate the problems of patients resulting from their socio-economic, cultural and social status have been suggested.

  3. Assessment of soil quality index for wheat and sugar beet cropping systems on an entisol in Central Anatolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şeker, Cevdet; Özaytekin, Hasan Hüseyin; Negiş, Hamza; Gümüş, İlknur; Dedeoğlu, Mert; Atmaca, Emel; Karaca, Ümmühan

    2017-04-01

    The sustainable use of agricultural lands is significantly affected by the implemented management and land processing methods. In sugar beet and wheat cropping, because the agronomic characteristics of plants are different, the tillage methods applied also exhibit significant variability. Soil quality concept is used, as a holistic approach to determining the effects of these applications on the sustainable use of soil. Agricultural soil quality evaluation is essential for economic success and environmental stability in rapidly developing regions. At present, a variety of methods are used to evaluate soil quality using different indicators. This study was conducted in one of the most important irrigated agriculture areas of Çumra plain in Central Anatolia, Turkey. In the soil under sugar beet and wheat cultivation, 12 soil quality indicators (aggregate stability (AS), available water capacity (AWC), surface penetration resistance (PR0-20), subsurface penetration resistance (PR20-40), organic matter (OM), active carbon (AC), potentially mineralizable nitrogen (PMN), root health value (RHV), pH, available phosphorus (AP), potassium (K), and macro-micro elements (ME) (Mg, Fe, Mn, and Zn)) were measured and scored according to the Cornell Soil Health Assessment (CSHA) and the Soil Management Assessment Framework (SMAF). The differences among 8 (AS, AWC, PR0-20, PR20-40, AC, PMN, AP, and ME) of these 12 soil quality characteristics measured in two different plant cultivation were found statistically significant. The result of the soil quality evaluation with scoring function in the examined area revealed a soil quality score of 61.46 in the wheat area and of 51.20 in the sugar beet area, which can be classified as medium and low, respectively. Low soil quality scores especially depend on physical and biological soil properties. Therefore, improvement of soil physical and biological properties with sustainable management is necessary to enhance the soil quality in the

  4. Social cleavages and electoral support in Turkey -- toward convergence?

    OpenAIRE

    Hazama, Yasushi

    2003-01-01

    Studies on Western democracies have shown that deep-seated social cleavages stabilize the electoral behavior and thus reduce electoral volatility. But how do social cleavages affect a party system that is undergoing democratic consolidation, such as in Turkey? In this study, investigations were carried out on long- and short-term relationships between social cleavages (religiosity, ethnicity, and sectarism) and electoral volatility in Turkey during the 1961-2002 period. Cross-sectional multip...

  5. The interaction between Aegean back-arc extension and Anatolia escape since Middle Miocene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Philippon, M.; Brun, J.-P.; Gueydan, F.; Sokoutis, D.

    2014-01-01

    The Aegean domain is a key area for understanding the processes of back-arc extension. Observed deformation pattern and present day kinematics result from the interaction between the southward retreat of the Hellenic trench and the westward escape of Anatolia. Lithosphere-scale analogue models were

  6. A 500,000-Year-Long Sediment Archive of Lake Van in Eastern Anatolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litt, T.; Anselmetti, F. S.; Cagatay, M. N.; Kipfer, R.; Krastel, S.; Schmincke, H.-U.; Sturm, M.

    2012-04-01

    Lake Van, a large terminal lake in eastern Anatolia (Turkey), holds a key position within a sensitive climate region between the Black Sea, Caspian Sea and Mediterranean Sea. Lake Van extends over 130 kilometers on a high plateau; lake level at present is 1665 meters above sea level. The lake water, up to 450 meters deep, is alkaline (pH ~9.8) and saline (~21.4‰). Its long and partly annually laminated sedimentary record provides an excellent paleoclimate archive because it yields a long and continuous continental sequence that covers several glacial-interglacial cycles spanning more than 500,000 years. Lake Van is therefore a key site to reconstruct Quaternary climate evolution in the near east. Moreover, being located in a tectonically active area bordered by two historically active volcanoes, it holds a unique paleoseismic and volcanic archive. As a closed and saline lake, Lake Van reacts very sensitively to lake level changes caused by any alterations in the hydrological regime in response to climate change. Because the lake is the deepest lake in Anatolia, which, in contrast to other more shallow lakes, likely never dried out in its history, it was identified as the most promising candidate to contain a long and continuous sediment archive. The drilling campaign, supported by the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP), operated by the U.S.-based company Drilling, Observation and Sampling of the Earths Continental Crust (DOSECC), was carried on in July and August 2010. DOSECC developed and assembled a new Deep Lake Drilling System (DLDS) that was specifically designed for coring sediments from deep lakes and that was first operated in Lake Van. The DLDS worked at water depths of up to 360 meters. Cores from 140 meters (Northern Basin site) and 220 meters (AhlatRridge site) below the lake bed depth were retrieved. To obtain a complete sedimentary section, the two sites were cored multiple times. Total length of all parallel cores

  7. Clashes between or within civilizations? Meeting of cultures in Anatolia and Western Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinessen, M.M. van

    2003-01-01

    Samuel Huntington’s thesis of a clash of civilizations, formulated in the early 1990s, has gained renewed popularity in the wake of September 11 and America’s declaration of war on terror. This thesis came out of a research project that aimed to search for the likely sources of major conflict

  8. Clashes between or within civilizations? Meeting of cultures in Anatolia and Western Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinessen, M.M. van

    2007-01-01

    Samuel Huntington’s thesis of a clash of civilizations, formulated in the early 1990s, has gained renewed popularity in the wake of September 11 and America’s declaration of war on terror. This thesis came out of a research project that aimed to search for the likely sources of major conflict after

  9. The Muslim Emigration in Western Anatolia L’émigration musulmane de 1914 en Anatolie occidentale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elçin Macar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Avec les guerres balkaniques, toute la région apprit à connaître un nouveau concept : le nettoyage ethnique. Les États cherchant à homogénéiser leur population le firent de deux manières : par les traités ou par la force. Les statistiques démographiques devinrent ainsi un instrument politique et commença alors « la manipulation ethnique ». Parmi les Chrétiens anatoliens, les Grecs ottomans furent la première cible du CUP qui craignait de perdre « le dernier territoire restant ». Talat Pacha, ministre de l'Intérieur parla aux diplomates allemands de débarrasser le pays « des ennemis de l’intérieur ». Expulsions, terreur et déportations : entre 1912 et 1918, sur les deux rives de l’Égée, près de la moitié des 17,5 millions d’habitants ont été « déplacés ». Le legs le pire de cette période est la tendance des États à croire qu’ils ont le droit d’échanger ou de déporter leurs populations comme du bétail.With the Balkan Wars, the whole region was introduced to a new concept: Ethnic cleansing. States looking to homogenize their population did this in two ways: either by treaty or by force. Population statistics thus became one political instrument and then started the “ethnic engineering”. Among Anatolian Christians, Ottoman Greeks were the first target of the CUP who feared losing the “last remaining territory”. Talat Pasha, Minister of the Interior, talked to German diplomats about ridding the country of “internal enemies”. After expulsions, terrorism and deportations between 1913 and 1918, on both sides of the Aegean, almost half the population of 17.5 million changed places. The era’s worst legacy is the idea that states have a right to exchange or deport their populations like property.

  10. [Tularemia is spreading from north to south side of Turkey: a small outbreak in Kahramanmaras, Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurt, İlkay; Kiliç, Selçuk

    2014-07-01

    spontaneously during examination. Three of the patients were treated with streptomycin, two with ciprofloxacin and one with doxycycline. Although no polymerase chain reaction positivities in terms of F.tularensis were detected in the water samples, the outbreak was thought to be waterborne since the hygienic conditions of the water sources were inadequate and the chlorination procedures were inappropriate. In conclusion, the detection of the first case of tularemia and the following small outbreak in Kahramanmaras region, emphasized that the disease has had a spreading trend from the endemic northern Anatolia to nonendemic southern provinces of Turkey.

  11. Update on Plum pox virus distribution in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birol AKBAŞ

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 false false false IT ZH-TW X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Extensive surveys to determine the occurrence of Plum pox virus (PPV in Turkey were carried out between 2007 and 2010 in commercial stone fruit orchards and nurseries, in non commercial stone fruit trees at other locations, and in rural and urban residential properties located in 56 of Turkey’s 81 provinces. A total of 5,762 samples were collected from almond, apricot, mahaleb, nectarine, plum, peach, sweet cherry and sour cherry and tested by biological indexing, DAS-ELISA and RT-PCR. Two hundred and twenty two samples from 4 regions (the Aegean region, the Central Anatolia region, the Marmara region and the Mediterranean region were found to be infected with PPV. This virus has occurred in Turkey since 1968. This is the first record of PPV occurrence in Aksaray, Çanakkale, İzmir, Kayseri, and Konya provinces.

  12. Migration and self-esteem: A qualitative study among internal migrant girls in Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altinyelken, H.K.

    2009-01-01

    This article examining the impact of migration experience on self-esteem of girls enrolled at primary schools in Turkey. It is based on a broader study that explored edueational and coping strategies of internal migrant girls living in a suburban town in the western part of Turkey. The study showed

  13. Migration and self-esteem: A qualitative study among internal migrant girls in Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altinyelken, H.K.

    2009-01-01

    This article examining the impact of migration experience on self-esteem of girls enrolled at primary schools in Turkey. It is based on a broader study that explored edueational and coping strategies of internal migrant girls living in a suburban town in the western part of Turkey. The study showed

  14. Adult Education in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miser, Rifat; Ural, Ozana; Ünlühisarýklý, Özlem

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the situation and practices of adult education in Turkey in terms of (a) participants, (b) providers, and (c) program areas. The data were derived from published statistical data and one-to-one interaction with adult education providers when such data are unavailable. Turkey has a long tradition of adult education with…

  15. Alu insertion polymorphisms and an assessment of the genetic contribution of Central Asia to Anatolia with respect to the Balkans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkman, Ceren Caner; Dinc, Havva; Sekeryapan, Ceran; Togan, Inci

    2008-05-01

    In the evolutionary history of modern humans, Anatolia acted as a bridge between the Caucasus, the Near East, and Europe. Because of its geographical location, Anatolia was subject to migrations from multiple different regions throughout time. The last, well-known migration was the movement of Turkic speaking, nomadic groups from Central Asia. They invaded Anatolia and then the language of the region was gradually replaced by the Turkic language. In the present study, insertion frequencies of 10 Alu loci (A25 = 0.07, APO = 0.96, TPA25 = 0.44, ACE = 0.37, B65 = 0.57, PV92 = 0.18, FXIIIB = 0.52, D1 = 0.40, HS4.32 = 0.66, and HS4.69 = 0.30) have been determined in the Anatolian population. Together with the data compiled from other databases, the similarity of the Anatolian population to that of the Balkans and Central Asia has been visualized by multidimensional scaling method. Analysis suggested that, genetically, Anatolia is more closely related with the Balkan populations than to the Central Asian populations. Central Asian contribution to Anatolia with respect to the Balkans was quantified with an admixture analysis. Furthermore, the association between the Central Asian contribution and the language replacement episode was examined by comparative analysis of the Central Asian contribution to Anatolia, Azerbaijan (another Turkic speaking country) and their neighbors. In the present study, the Central Asian contribution to Anatolia was estimated as 13%. This was the lowest value among the populations analyzed. This observation may be explained by Anatolia having the lowest migrant/resident ratio at the time of migrations.

  16. Development of pathology in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan GEDİKOĞLU

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Autospy is an important tool for the development of pathology as a science. In western civilisation dissection of human body became widespread with Renaissance, in contrast in the Ottoman Empire first dissection was not performed until the 19th century. Mustafa Behçet Efendi, head physician of the Empire, was one of the Ottoman physician who suggested the importance of dissection in the medical education. The first dissection was however performed by Charles Ambroise Bernard, a foreign physician who had been invited to help establishing a new medical school; “Mekteb-i Tıbbiye-i Adliye-i Şâhâne”, in 1843. The first modern medical schools called “Tıphane” and “Cerrahhane-i Amire” which were founded in 1827, did not have pathology courses. Pathology courses began in “Mekteb-i Tıbbiye-i Adliyei Şâhâne”. Dr. Hamdi Suat (Aknar, educated in anatomic pathology in Germany, was the first pathologist who established the modern pathology in Turkey in “İstanbul Darülfünun” medical school. In 1933 “Darülfünün” was closed and İstanbul University was built and the “University Reform Commission” invited many scientists escaping from Nazi government to study in İstanbul University. Dr. Philipp Schwartz had an important role both in the invitation of these scientists and establishment of the pathology department in İstanbul University. Practical courses were increased, clinicopathologic courses were organized for the first time and a lot of autopsies were performed, as high as 1000 autopsy per year, by Dr. Philipp Schwartz. More progress has takes place in Turkey over the years since pathology was first established. Today Turkey has many pathology departments which keep up with the worldwide advances in the field.

  17. Acne: prevalence and relationship with dietary habits in Eskisehir, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksu, A E Koku; Metintas, S; Saracoglu, Z N; Gurel, G; Sabuncu, I; Arikan, I; Kalyoncu, C

    2012-12-01

    Acne vulgaris is a common disease affecting adolescents. There is not comprehensive data on acne prevalence in the Central Anatolia Region in particular. Etiology of acne is not clarified yet. Acne might be related to environmental factors. There is increasing evidence supporting acne and diet relationship. The aim of the study was to determine the acne prevalence in adolescents in the city of Eskisehir, located in the Central Anatolia, Turkey in addition to evaluate factors affecting acne and its relationship with dietary habits. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 2300 participants aged 13-18 years. The participants were asked to complete a questionnaire form consisting information about acne and a questionnaire form consisting information about dietary habits (The Adolescent Food Habits Checklist). In addition an objective evaluation of acne was determined. The mean age of students with acne was 15.10±1.53. The current acne prevalence was 60.7%. Although 21% of the participants had severe acne (grade 3-4) and 25% developed sequelaes, only 11.5% of all participants consulted a doctor. The participants without acne had healthier dietary habits than participants with acne (Pacne. Acne prevalence is high among adolescents in Eskisehir but the rate of consulting doctor is low. Increasing public awareness is critical for convincing adolescents to seek medical help earlier. Acne was related with dietary habits. Fat, sugar and fast food consumption is found to be positively correlated with acne prevalence. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2011 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  18. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants in Marmaris (Muğla, Turkey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürdal, Bahar; Kültür, Sükran

    2013-03-07

    This study aimed to document traditional uses of medicinal plants in the Marmaris district of south-west Anatolia and to compare this information with our current knowledge of plant medicine in Turkey and the Mediterranean countries. We collected the information through semi-structured interviews with 98 informants (51 men and 47 women). In addition, the relative importance value of species was determined and informant consensus factor (FIC) was calculated for the medicinal plants included in the study. We report the medicinal uses of 64 plant species belonging to 35 families, including the uses of nine essential oils. Most of the medicinal plants used in the Marmaris district belong to the families Lamiaceae (13 species) and Asteraceae (four species). The most commonly used plant species are Salvia fruticosa, Origanum onites, Lavandula stoechas, Mentha pulegium and Satureja thymbra. For the purposes of making essential oils, Salvia fruticosa is the plant species most commonly used. Two of the plants we report on (Liquidambar orientalis, Phlomis lycia) are endemic to Turkey and the East Agean Islands. Sideritis libanotica subsp. linearis is endemic to Turkey, Lebanon and Syria. Thymus cilicicus is endemic to Turkey, East Agean Islands, Lebanon and Syria. For six plant species (Narcissus tazetta, Lagenaria siceraria, Hypericum montbrettii, Phlomis grandiflora var. grandiflora, Polygonum bellardii, Crataegus aronia var. aronia) we report new different ethnobotanical uses not previously reported in Turkey. Some plants are used for medicinal purposes both in Marmaris and in other parts of Turkey and in the Mediterranean countries, either for the same or for different purposes. This paper helps to preserve valuable information that may otherwise be lost to future generations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Block-like plate movements in eastern Anatolia observed by InSAR

    KAUST Repository

    Cavalie, Olivier

    2014-01-16

    The question whether continental plates deform internally or move as rigid blocks has been debated for several decades. To further address this question, we use large-scale interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data sets to study how eastern Anatolia and its surrounding plates deform. We find that most of the deformation is focused at the North and East Anatolian faults and little intraplate deformation takes place. Anatolia is therefore moving, at least its eastern part, as a uniform block. We estimate the slip velocity and locking depth of the North Anatolian fault at this location to be 20 mm/yr and ~14 km, respectively. High deformation gradient found near the East Anatolian fault, on the other hand, suggests that little stress is accumulating along the eastern sections of that fault.

  20. The Oldest Medical Center of the Anatolia : Gevher Nesibe Darussifa and Medical School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedri Selim Benek

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Turks started a diverse array of reconstruction activities following their settlement in Anatolia- Asia’s extended arm towards the Europe-. Within a short period, Turks built too many types of artifacts such as; madrasahs, mosques, darüssifas. In the   Turkish-Islamic darussifas (hospitals were established between India and Spain between 8th-17th centuries, medical subjects were taught according to researches and scientific principles, and surgeons were educated at medical madrasahs as well. Medical health care service was provided in those places. The pioneering artifacts in the treatment of several diseases in the quality of today’s clinics in terms of medicine, psychiatry and architecture. Gevher Nesibe Darussifa, built in Kayseri, is one of the oldest hospital and school of medicine in Anatolia.

  1. Extensive Quaternary glaciations in eastern Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeşilyurt, Serdar; Akçar, Naki; Doǧan, Uǧur; Yavuz, Vural; Ivy-Ochs, Susan; Vockenhuber, Christof; Schlunegger, Fritz; Schlüchter, Christian

    2016-04-01

    During cold periods in the Quaternary, global ice volume increased and as a result valley glaciers advanced and the vice versa occurred during the warm periods. Quaternary glacier fluctuations had been also recorded in the Turkish mountains. Recently, the chronology of Late Quaternary advances in the northern and western Turkish mountains was reconstructed by surface exposure dating. However, these advances in the eastern Turkey are not dated yet. In this study, we investigated paleoglaciations in Kavuşşahap Mountains, which is located to the south of Lake Van in eastern Turkey. These mountains are one of the extensively glaciated areas in Turkey. Glacial activity is evidenced by more than 20 U-shaped valleys. For instance, one of the prominent and well-preserved glacial landscapes of Turkey is situated in the Narlıca valley system. Lateral and terminal moraines in the valley system indicate more than 10 glacial advances. To build their chronology, 39 erratic carbonaceous boulders were sampled for surface exposure dating with cosmogenic 36Cl. We also reconstructed the ice margin reconstruction of the Narlıca paleoglacier using the accumulation area ratio and area-altitude balance ratio approaches. We estimated an equilibrium line altitude (ELA) of ca. 2900 m above sea level based on the maximum ice extend, which implied ca. 800 m decrease in the ELA during the Late Quaternary in comparison to the lower bound of the modern ELA estimate. The first results of the surface exposure dating will be presented.

  2. WHO IMMIGRATED TO TURKEY, WHERE THEY MIGRATE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir TEMURÇİN

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Migrations from Turkey to abroad for half a century have proceeded in the recent times by undergoing important changes. Moreover, it has been observed that there exist various types and ways of foreigner migration from abroad to Turkey which began from 1980 onwards and became clarified in the 2000s. This study is aimed to focus on who migrated from abroad to Turkey and where they migrated later on the basis of the 2000 General Census.As in the internal migration, the external migration tends towards the western part of the country, particularly big cities. Thusly, % 44 of the migration occurred in big cities; % 33.4 in the centre of towns and provinces; the rest % 22.5 in the countryside. The fact that % 51.9 of immigrants were born in Turkey gives rise to "comeback migration" thought with regard to the external migration. Moreover, that % 77.7 of them are Turkish nationals supports this judgment. On the other hand, the foreign nationals whose number has reached to 50.251 (% 21.5 are non-negligible. The big cities where the external nationals are grouped and the touristic centers on the Aegean and Mediterranean coasts are also the areas immigrants of foreign origin have settled down.

  3. THE ROLE AND IMPORTANCE OF REPUBLIC OF TURKEY WITHIN EUROPEAN UNION NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan GÜZEL

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines Republic of Turkey’s relationships with Western world in general, and with EU in special. Putting forth the relationship betweeen EU and Republic of Turkey in a clear manner, underlying factors of Republic of Turkey’s accession to the EU has been discussed in accordance with the main problem of Republic of Turkey, including overpopulation and unemployment rate. However, it is essential for EU to consider geostrategical position of Republic of Turkey bringing Europe and Asia continent together and taking place amidst Caucasus and therefore Turkish nations. After all, if Republic of Turkey’s full membership will not materialize, Republic of Turkey should seek another unions to join or form a new one. In any case, EU like Republic of Turkey is well aware of that the reasons of Republic of Turkey’s efforts in joining to the EU greatly depend on Republic of Turkey’s westernization policy.

  4. Event studies in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulkem Basdas

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The primary goal of this paper is to review the event studies conducted for Turkey to in order to identify the common components in their designs. This paper contributes to the existing literature by reviewing all event studies for Turkey for the first time, but more importantly; this review leads to the upcoming event studies on Turkey by highlighting main components of a proper design. Based on the review of 75 studies, it is observed that event studies generally choose BIST-100 (formerly, ISE-100 market index and market adjusted returns with the parametric tests. In general, the studies prefer to rely on one type of model to calculate abnormal returns without discussing the selection of the underlying model. Especially for the event studies focusing on the impact of political events or macroeconomic announcements in Turkey, there is a risk of clustering due to the application of same event date for all observations.

  5. Energy Security and Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    Russia - Ukraine Gas Crisis,” Center for Eurasian Strategis Studies ( ASAM ), Ankara, Turkey, April 21, 2008, www.asam.org.tr/temp/temp111.doc...Necdet Pamir. “Energy in Security and the Most Recent Lesson: The Russia - Ukraine Gas Crisis,” Center for Eurasian Strategis Studies ( ASAM ), Ankara...Crisis,” Center for Eurasian Strategis Studies ( ASAM ), Ankara, Turkey, April 21, 2008, www.asam.org.tr/temp/temp111.doc (accessed May 21, 2008). 53

  6. Physical and chemical degradation of grassland soils in semi-arid regions: A case from Central Anatolia, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaşar Korkanç, Selma; Korkanç, Mustafa

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study is to determine some hydro-physical and chemical characteristics of soils on the grassland areas under semi-arid conditions in terms of soil degradation processes. Three sampling plots of 20 × 20 m size were selected from the Emen Plain as Locations-I, II and III basing on the area covered with vegetation and visual soil properties; and total 108 soil samples from 2 points and 3 depth levels (0-20 cm, 20-40 cm, 40-60 cm) of each sampling plot. Soils of the research area are in degradation process in terms of some physical and chemical characteristics. It was observed that soil properties (i.e. bulk density, total porosity, organic matter, pH, electrical conductivity and saturated hydraulic conductivity) in Location-II and Location-III changed negatively in comparison to Location-I almost at all depths. In the Location-III grassland, bulk density, pH, electrical conductivity and Na + values are higher than those in Location-I, whereas the organic matter, total porosity and saturated hydraulic conductivity values are low. Grassland area is vulnerable to erosion. High Exchangeable Sodium Percentage (ESP) values in Locations-II and III indicates the sodicity problem in these areas.

  7. Diatom community and palaeoenvironmental properties of Karacaören diatomite deposits (Nevşehir, Central Anatolia, Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldız, Ayşegül; Gürel, Ali; Dursun, Yusuf Gökhan

    2017-10-01

    The diatom community and palaeoenvironmental properties of volcano genetic diatomite deposits that outcrop in the Karacaören (Nevşehir) area are described. Two stratigraphic sections were measured in the study area. One of these sections was measured in Quaternary lake units (K1), and the other in lacustrine sediments of the late Miocene-Pliocene Ürgüp Formation's Bayramhacılı Member (K2). According to stratigraphic and chemical characteristics of the sections, two distinct paleogeographic domains were determined in the study area. One of these, the shallow lacustrine to fluvial area (Quaternary) which is represented by an alternating sequence of diatomite, silt/mud, and tuffite. The other was the deeper lacustrine stage (late Miocene) which is represented by diatomites with some interbedded mud facies, chert and volcanics. From the diatomite samples of these sections, twenty-five species of 10 different diatom genera were identified. When evaluated together, the ecological properties and the distribution of numerical values of the determined diatom genera and species, showed that the study area's diatomite was generally deposited in shallow, high temperature, nutrient-rich water, where nitrogen and phosphorus were abundant and which was an alkaline (pH > 7) freshwater lake environment. Over time the pH value of the environment decreased (pH < 7), and the environment became acidic.

  8. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT AND ORGANIZATIONAL CYNICISM AMONG HOTEL EMPLOYEES IN SOUTHEASTERN ANATOLIA REGION OF TURKEY

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Melih Aydin; Gürkan Akdag

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine whether relationship occurs between organizational commitment and organizational cynicism attitudes among employees who were employed in five and four star hotels...

  9. Space-time kriging of precipitation variability in Turkey for the period 1976-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, Nussaïbah B.; Aydin, Olgu; Türkoğlu, Necla; Çiçek, Ihsan

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to revaluate the changing spatial and temporal trends of precipitation in Turkey. Turkey is located in one of the regions at greatest risk from the potential effects of climate change. Since the 1970s, a decreasing trend in annual precipitation has been observed, in addition to an increasing number of precipitation-related natural hazards such as floods, extreme precipitation, and droughts. An understanding of the temporal and spatial characteristics of precipitation is therefore crucial to hazard management as well as planning and managing water resources, which depend heavily on precipitation. The ordinary kriging method was employed to interpolate precipitation estimates using precipitation records from 228 meteorological stations across the country for the period 1976-2010. A decreasing trend was observed across the Central Anatolian region, except for 1996-2000 which saw an increase in precipitation. However, this same period is identified as the driest year in Eastern and South Eastern Anatolia. The Eastern Black Sea region has the highest precipitation in the country; after 1996, an increase in annual precipitation in this region is observed. An overall reduction is also seen in southwest Turkey, with less variation in precipitation.

  10. Space-time kriging of precipitation variability in Turkey for the period 1976-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, Nussaïbah B.; Aydin, Olgu; Türkoğlu, Necla; Çiçek, Ihsan

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to revaluate the changing spatial and temporal trends of precipitation in Turkey. Turkey is located in one of the regions at greatest risk from the potential effects of climate change. Since the 1970s, a decreasing trend in annual precipitation has been observed, in addition to an increasing number of precipitation-related natural hazards such as floods, extreme precipitation, and droughts. An understanding of the temporal and spatial characteristics of precipitation is therefore crucial to hazard management as well as planning and managing water resources, which depend heavily on precipitation. The ordinary kriging method was employed to interpolate precipitation estimates using precipitation records from 228 meteorological stations across the country for the period 1976-2010. A decreasing trend was observed across the Central Anatolian region, except for 1996-2000 which saw an increase in precipitation. However, this same period is identified as the driest year in Eastern and South Eastern Anatolia. The Eastern Black Sea region has the highest precipitation in the country; after 1996, an increase in annual precipitation in this region is observed. An overall reduction is also seen in southwest Turkey, with less variation in precipitation.

  11. The importance of associations in the struggle against tuberculosis in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksu, Murat; Toprak, Sadık

    2012-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a disease as old as human history and has affected every area of human life. The struggle against tuberculosis had been started by non-governmental organizations and achieved success after second world war. In Anatolia as well as all over the world fight against tuberculosis, with the leading names in medicine, started during the Ottoman Empire. In the following years of struggle within the executive team will host association (Istanbul Anti-tuberculosis Association) was founded in 1918. Due to political developments that occurred shortly after standing association studies, in 1923, the Republic of Turkey in Izmir during the re-started. In the 1925 and 1927 a national medical congress, tuberculosis as the main election issue, was organized, and then in 1928 in Istanbul Tuberculosis Association again take action in the fight against decisive role in association studies have begun to undertake. In the years 1953-1973, UNICEF, Ministry of Health and later efforts Turkish National Anti-tuberculosis Association jointly significant results were obtained in the fight against tuberculosis. These positive statements given the lethargy environment, economic and political crises in the last 10 years, in parallel with the increase of tuberculosis around the world experiencing, there was an increase in Turkey. In 1986, the National Anti-Tuberculosis Federation was founded by Anti-Tuberculosis Associations. The Anti-Tuberculosis Federation has put in practice DOTS programme in 2005 in Turkey. In conclusion, we evaluate that the Anti-Tuberculosis Associations in Turkey have played a major role in struggle against tuberculosis in Turkey since the last century.

  12. Preliminary risk assessment of radon in groundwater: a case study from Eskisehir, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuce, Galip; Gasparon, Massimo

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the radon concentrations in the water supplies of a residential area of central west Anatolia, Turkey. This research provides a preliminary risk assessment for inhabitants in the study area which can be applied for other regions. In 14 out of the 19 water supplies analysed, radon concentrations exceeded the maximum contaminant level (11.1 Bq l(-1)). The total annual effective doses of 10 for the wet season and 14 for the dry season out of the 19 water supplies are greater than the values recommended by EPA [Cancer Risk Coefficients for Environmental Exposure to Radionuclides, Federal Guidance Report No. 13 (US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, 1999) pdf >] (0.1 mSv a(-1)). The elevated radon concentrations in water resources are most probably linked with geological origin which contains significant amounts of radioactive minerals.

  13. Quantification of fluvial response to tectonic deformation in the Central Pontides, Turkey; inferences from OSL dating of fluvial terraces

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClain, Kevin; Yıldırım, Cengiz; Çiner, Attila; Akif Sarıkaya, M.; Şahin, Sefa; Özcan, Orkan; Güneç Kıyak, Nafiye; Öztürk, Tuǧba

    2017-04-01

    From Late Miocene to present, Anatolia's rapid counterclockwise movement, which increases in velocity towards the Hellenic Arc, has formed the North Anatolian Fault (NAF), a dextral transform fault along the Anatolia-Eurasia plate boundary and the northern margin of the Central Anatolian Plateau (CAP). A zone of transpression referred to as the Central Pontides exists between the broad restraining bend of the NAF and the Black Sea Basin, uplifting what is interpreted as a detached flower structure. Dating of Quaternary landforms in the eastern flank of the Central Pontides has helped to understand its recent deformation. However, in the western flank of the Central Pontides there is an absence of Quaternary studies, relatively quiet modern seismicity, and difficulties locating or observing fault scarps. This led us to use optically stimulated luminescence dating (OSL-dating) of fluvial terrace sediments and the study of geomorphic features to gain insight into the influence of climate and tectonics on landscape evolution of this area. In this area, the Filyos River crosses the Karabük Fault (reverse fault) and deeply incises a gorge through the Karabük Range before flowing towards the Black Sea. In the gorge an abundance of indicators of tectonic deformation were mapped, such as hanging valleys, wind gaps, bedrock gorges, landslides, steep V-shaped channels, tilted basins, as well as fluvial strath terraces. In particular, strath terraces of at least 8 levels within just 1.5 km of horizontal distance were examined. We used OSL-dating to estimate five deposition ages of fluvial strath terrace sediments, leading to an estimation of incision and uplift rates over time. Using three samples per terrace with strath elevations of 246 ± 0.2 m, 105.49 ± 0.2 m, 43.6 ± 0.2 m, 15.3 ± 0.2 m and 3.6 ± 0.2 m above the Filyos River, we determined corresponding ages of 841 ± 76 ka, 681 ± 49 ka, 386 ± 18 ka, 88 ± 5.1 ka and 50.9 ± 2.8 ka. Incision rates over time (oldest

  14. Magmatism and Geodynamics of Eastern Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Mehmet; Oyan, Vural; Sharkov, Evgenii V.; Chugaev, Andrey V.; Genç, Ş. Can; Ünal, Esin; Aysal, Namık; Duru, Olgun; Kavak, Orhan

    2013-04-01

    Eastern Turkey has been an active collision zone for the last 15 My between the Arabian Plate and Eurasian continent. The collision initiated after the closure of the southern branch of the Neotethys Ocean by northward subduction beneath E Anatolia at ~15 Ma. The collision-related volcanism started immediately after the closure of the ocean (again at around 15 Ma) in the north of the present day Lake Van with the eruption of mostly intermediate to acid lavas displaying distinct subduction characteristics. Both continental collision and the magmatism are still active, because the Arabian plate still converges to Anatolia with a velocity of ~2.5 cm/y. The overriding Anatolian block experienced a major uplift event around 10 Ma. The region once resided below the sea level merged as a widespread plateau ~2 km above the sea level as part of a regional dome structure with ~1000 km diameter, extending from Central Anatolia in the West to Azerbaijan in the East. The first alkaline lavas derived from a relatively more enriched source erupted to the surface in the N of Lake Van coeval with the initiation of the uplift at around 10 Ma. The underthrusting Arabian platform, on the other hand, was deformed as a result of both crustal-scale east-west folds adjacent to the major thrust zone and extensional deformations perpendicular to the suture zone. Alkaline within-plate lavas with no subduction component erupted through these extension zones. This intraplate volcanism focused on the Karacadaǧ volcanic complex that covers an area of ~10,000 km2. Early Stage volcanism of Karacadaǧ was dominated by magmas derived from a shallower metasomatized (litospheric) mantle source, while magmas of the later stages were derived from deeper (asthenospheric) sources. The Karacadaǧ volcanic area of SE Anatolia was sourced by a garnet bearing, deep asthenospheric mantle which is similar to that of Afar in terms of its Pb isotopic ratios. This brings into question whether the mantle material

  15. Emotional Problems and Victimisation among Youth with National and International Migration Experience Living in Austria and Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohmeier, Dagmar; Dogan, Aysun

    2012-01-01

    Young people with international migration experiences constitute an increasing proportion of the population in many European countries. In Austria, a substantial proportion of these international migrants come from Turkey. In Turkey, many adolescents are national migrants, having moved from the eastern part to the western part of the country. This…

  16. Miocene to Recent Magmatism and Geodynamics of Eastern Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, M.; Sharkov, E. V.; Lebedev, V. A.; Chugaev, A. V.; Oyan, V.; Genc, S. C.; Unal, E.; Aysal, N.

    2012-04-01

    Eastern Turkey has been an active continental collision zone for the last 15 My between the African and Eurasian continents. The collision started at around 15 Ma after the total consumption of oceanic lithosphere of the southern branch of the Neotethys Ocean beneath E Anatolia and is still going on, as Africa still converges to E Anatolia with a velocity of ~2.5 cm/y. The overriding Anatolian plate, resided below the sea level till the collision, was subjected to a major block uplift event around 10 Ma, emerging as a widespread plateau ~2 km above the sea level, which has been roughened by later erosion and volcanic activities. The aforementioned plateau is considered as part of a regional dome structure with ~1000 km diameter extending from E Anatolia up to Azerbaijan. Immediately after the collision, a widespread volcanism emerged on the Eastern Anatolian Plateau, whose products covered almost over half of the region. Characteristically, all these products contain a distinct subduction component. The volcanism in the collision zone continued to the historical times and is considered to be still active. The region includes some of the largest volcanic centers (e.g. Ararat, Nemrut, Tendürek and Süphan volcanoes) and plateaus (e.g. The Erzurum-Kars Plateau) around the circum-Mediterranean region. The collision-related volcanic province is not only confined into Anatolia but also continues into the neighboring countries through Georgia, Armenia, Iran and up to Russia, spanning ~1000 km. In contrast, the underthrusting Arabian platform was subjected to both crustal-scale east-west folding close to the thrust front and extensional deformations perpendicular to the suture zone. Along these extensional fractures, within-plate lavas with no subduction component erupted. This intraplate volcanism focused on the Karacadağ volcanic complex, covering an area ~10,000 km2. Early Stage volcanism of Karacadağ was dominated by magmas derived from a shallower (litospheric

  17. Abrupt climate variability of eastern Anatolia vegetation during the last glacial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Pickarski

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Detailed analyses of the Lake Van pollen and stable oxygen isotope record allow the identification of millennial-scale vegetation and environmental changes in eastern Anatolia throughout the last glacial. The climate within the last glacial period (∼75–15 ka BP was cold and dry, with low arboreal pollen (AP levels. The driest and coldest period corresponds to Marine Isotope Stage (MIS 2 (∼28–14.5 ka BP dominated by the highest values of xerophytic steppe vegetation. Our high-resolution multi proxy record shows rapid expansions and contractions that mimic the stadial-interstadial pattern of the Dansgaard–Oeschger (DO events as recorded in the Greenland ice cores, and thus, provide a linkage to North Atlantic climate oscillations. Periods of reduced moisture availability characterized at Lake Van by enhanced xerophytic species correlates well with increase in ice-rafted debris (IRD and a decrease of sea surface temperature (SST in the North Atlantic. Furthermore, comparison with the marine realm reveals that the complex atmosphere–ocean interaction can be recognized by the strength and position of the westerlies in eastern Anatolia. Influenced by rough topography at Lake Van, the expansion of temperate species (e.g. deciduous Quercus was stronger during interstadials DO 19, 17–16, 14, 12 and 8. However, Heinrich events (HE, characterized by highest concentrations of ice-rafted debris in marine sediments, are identified in eastern Anatolia by AP values not lower and high steppe components not more abundant than during DO stadials. In addition, this work is a first attempt to establish a continuous microscopic charcoal record over the last glacial in the Near East, which documents an initial immediate response to millennial-scale climate and environmental variability and enables the shed light on the history of fire activity during the last glacial.

  18. Cultural Studies in Turkey: The State of the Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gönül Pultar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent socio-political developments have rendered cultural studies of the Repub-lic of Turkey an ever-widening field of study, as they lead apparently to a proba-ble paradigm shift in a society that was once thought to be purely Western-oriented. The analysis of this transformation is before all else a cultural studies task. Accordingly, this paper has two aims: one, to make a a brief survey of cultur-al studies work that has been done so far in Turkey; and two, draw attention to the various problems encountered by the instruction and practice of cultural stud-ies in the country.

  19. Geochemistry and petrology of the Early Miocene lamproites and related volcanic rocks in the Thrace Basin, NW Anatolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersoy, Yalçın E.; Palmer, Martin R.; Uysal, İbrahim; Gündoğan, İbrahim

    2014-08-01

    The extensional Thrace basin (NW Anatolia) contains an association of early Miocene diopside-leucite-phlogopite (Doğanca) and diopside-phlogopite (Korucuköy) lamproites with Oligocene medium-K calc-alkaline andesites (Keşan volcanics), early Miocene shoshonitic rocks (Altınyazı trachyte) and middle Miocene Na-alkaline basalts (Beğendik basalts). The Doğanca lamproite (K2O = 5.1-5.5 wt.%; K/Na = 2.78-2.89; MgO = 11.4-11.8 wt.%) consists of olivine (Fo71-86), diopside (Al2O3 = 1.0-5.0, Na2O = 0.2-0.6), phlogopite (TiO2 = 1.1-9.4, Al2O3 = 11.1-13.9), spinel (Mg# = 22.9-32.6; Cr# = 64-83.4), leucite, apatite, zircon, Fe-Ti-oxides and magnetite in a poikilitic sanidine matrix. The potassic volcanic units (lamproites and trachytes) in the region have similarly high Sr and low Nd isotopic compositions (87Sr/86Sr(i) = 0.70835-0.70873 and 143Nd/144Nd(i) = 0.51227-0.51232). The major and trace element compositions and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic ratios of the shoshonitic, ultrapotassic and lamproitic units closely resemble those of other Mediterranean ultrapotassic lamproites (i.e., orogenic lamproites) from Italia, Serbia, Macedonia and western Anatolia. The Beğendik basalts show intraplate geochemical signatures with an Na-alkaline composition, an absence of Nb negative anomalies on primitive mantle-normalized multi-element diagrams, as well as low Sr (~ 0.70416) and high Nd (0.51293) isotopic ratios; and include olivine (Fo72-84), diopside, spinel, Fe-Ti-oxides and magnetite. The Oligocene Keşan volcanics were emplaced in the earlier stages of extension in Thrace, and represent the typical volcanic products of post-collisional volcanism. The continental crust-like trace element abundances and isotopic compositions of the most primitive early Miocene ultrapotassic rocks (Mg# up to 74) indicate that their mantle sources were intensely contaminated by the continental material. By considering the geodynamic evolution of the region, including oceanic subduction, crustal

  20. Surface and Ground Water Quality in Köprüören Basin (Kütahya), Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Şebnem; Çelik, Mehmet; Erdem Dokuz, Uǧur; Abadi Berhe, Berihu

    2014-05-01

    In this study, quality of the water resources in Köprüören Basin, located to the west of Kütahya city in western Anatolia, were investigated. The total catchment area of the basin is 275 km2 and it is located upstream of Kütahya and Eskişehir plains. Therefore, besides 6,000 people residing in the basin, a much larger population will be impacted by the quality of surface and groundwater resources. Groundwater occurs under confined conditions in the limestones of Pliocene units. Groundwater flow is from north to south and south to north towards Kocasu stream, which flows to Enne Dam. The surface and ground water quality in this area are negatively affected by the mining activities. In the northern part of the area, there are coal deposits present in Miocene Tunçbilek formation. Ground waters in contact with the coal deposits contain low concentrations of arsenic (up to 30 µg/l). In the southern part, the only silver deposit of Turkey is present, which is developed in metamorphic basement rocks, Early Miocene volcanics and Pliocene units near Gümüşköy (Gümüş means silver, köy means village in Turkish). The amount of silver manufactured annually in this silver plant is huge and comprises about 1% of the World's Silver Production. The wastes, enriched in cyanide, arsenic, stibnite, lead and zinc, are stored in waste pools and there is extensive leakage of these heavy metals from these pools. Therefore, surface waters, soils and plants in the affected areas contain high concentrations of arsenic, stibnite and lead. The As, Sb, Pb and Zn concentrations are up to 733 µg/l, 158 µg/l, 48 µg/l, and 286 µg/l in surface waters (in dry season), 6180 ppm, 410 ppm, 4180 ppm, 9950 ppm in soils and 809 ppm, 399 ppm, 800 ppm, 2217 ppm in plants, respectively. Today, most of the As, Sb, Pb and Zn are absorbed by the soils and only a small part are dissolved in water. However, conditions might change in future leading to desorption of these contaminants. Therefore

  1. Tibet and Beyond: Magmatic Records from CIA (Caucasus-Iran-Anatolia) and Southern Tibet with Implications for Asian Orogeny and Continental Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sun-Lin

    2016-04-01

    This study, based on an ongoing joint research project "Tibet and Beyond", presents a synthesis of principal magmatic records from the CIA (Caucasus-Iran-Anatolia) and Tibet-Himalaya orogens resulting from the continental collisions of Arabia and India, respectively, with Eurasia. In both orogens, through this and other recent studies, the temporal and spatial variations in magmatism pre-, syn- and post-dating the collisions can now be much better defined, thus improving our understanding of collision zone magmatism that appears to have evolved with changes in the lithospheric structures over time and space by collisional processes. The two "collisional" Tethyan orogens were preceded by accretionary orogenic processes, which not only had produced a substantial amount of juvenile continental crust but also fulfill the "orogenic cycle" that evolved from an accretionary into a collisional system. Geochemical data reveal that in contrast to generating vast portions of juvenile crust in the early, accretionary stages of orogenic development, crustal recycling plays a more important role in the later, collisional stages. The latter, as exemplified in SE Turkey and southern Tibet, involves addition of older continental crust material back into the mantle, which subsequently melted and caused compositional transformation of the juvenile crust produced in the accretionary stages. Similar features are observed in young volcanic rocks from eastern Taiwan, the northern Luzon arc complex and part of the active subduction/accretion/collision system in Southeast Asia that may evolve one day to resemble the eastern Tethyan and central Asian orogenic belts by collision with the advancing Australian continent.

  2. Mycotoxigenic moulds and mycotoxins in flours consumed in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirel, Rasime; Sariozlu, Nalan Yilmaz

    2014-06-01

    Aflatoxins (AFs) and ochratoxin A (OTA) are metabolites produced by several fungi of the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium and have been found to contaminate human foods and animal feeds. The aim of this study was to investigate the abundance and diversity of total microfungi and mycotoxigenic fungi in 25 samples of different grain-based flours from four regions of Turkey (Thrace and Central, Northwest and West Anatolia) and to evaluate the level of AF and OTA contamination. Microscopic and polymerase chain reaction analyses were used to identify fungi, while high-performance liquid chromatography was used for the detection of AFs and OTA. A total of 551 fungal strains were obtained from the samples and identified morphologically and by multi-locus gene sequencing. All samples were contaminated with fungi ((2-4.8) × 10(4) colony-forming units g(-1) ) and three of them exceeded the European Commission (EC) limits. The data also revealed that 70.5 and 14.7% of the fungal isolates were positive for AF and OTA production respectively. In addition, 21 samples were contaminated by AFs (14.98 and 22.4 µg kg(-1) for AFB1 ) and OTA (3.02 and 4.76 µg kg(-1) ) and three of them exceeded the EC limits. This study is the first report on problems with the occurrence of microfungi, mycotoxin contamination, AFs and OTA in different grain-based flour samples from Turkey and highlights developable points of current limits for food and public health safety. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. The Extreme Results of Climate Changes in Turkey: Sinkholes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onursal Denli, G.; Denli, H. H.

    2016-12-01

    During the past few years a strange phenomenon has been increasingly observed all over the world. Residents of various places around the world have been taken aback to find sinkholes suddenly come up in their locality - sometimes involving fatalities. A sinkhole is a depression or hole in the ground caused by some form of collapse of the surface layer. The ground caves in all of a sudden, creating large holes in the ground and sometimes devouring whole buildings. Geologists have offered various theories for the natural causes of sinkholes such as the type of soil / rock giving way to rainwater and underground water. Other natural causes submitted by experts include heavy rainfall, global warming, underground gas explosions, etc. They can also occur from the over-pumping and extraction of groundwater and subsurface fluids. In Turkey, especially mid and south-east Anatolian regions have very arid soils. There is not sufficient rain and irrigation in these regions. Despite of using 75% of the fresh water for agriculture, old methods of irrigation causes wastefulness of water. Planless and randomly used water causes difficulties in agriculture. These regions are known as granary in the country. Because of drought, farmers use underground water with draw well unconsciously. At the result of underground water movement and withdrawal of water to surface, depression and very huge holes are occurred in the ground with tremendous noise. During the last two years dozens of sinkholes occurred in these regions in Turkey. Most of them are in the rural area, the others are also in center of the cities. Various sizes of holes scare the people living in these regions. In this study, sinkholes, which are occurred in different dimensions in central Anatolia region in the last years, are observed and the causes of these formations are examined. According to the reasons, suggestions to avoid these formations will be given respectively.

  4. An integrated study on microtectonics, geothermometry and thermochronology of the Çataldaǧ Core Complex (NW Turkey): Implications for cooling, deformation and uplift history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaci, Omer; Altunkaynak, Safak

    2017-04-01

    range of 500°C to <250°C. The GGMC and ÇG, which were formed in different periods, suffered continuous ductile-to-brittle deformation and uplifted together along ÇDFZ during Early Miocene when the first major period of N-S extension began in the western Anatolia. Microstructural grades, two-feldspar geothermometry and geochronological data indicate that the GGMC and ÇG, which were formed in different periods, suffered continuous ductile-to-brittle deformation and uplifted together along ÇDFZ during Early Miocene when the first major period of N-S extension began in the western Anatolia.

  5. Mesobuthus eupeus scorpionism in Sanliurfa region of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Ozkan

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The epidemiology and clinical findings of scorpion stings in Sanliurfa region of Turkey, from May to September 2003, were evaluated in this study. Mesobuthus eupeus (M. eupeus plays a role on 25.8% of the scorpionism cases. This study also showed that intoxications caused by M. eupeus in the southeast of Anatolia region were seen in hot months of the summer, especially on July. Females and people above 15 years old were mostly affected and stung on extremities. Intense pain in the affected area was observed in 98.7% cases, hyperemia in 88.8%, swelling in 54.6%, burning in 19.7%, while numbness and itching were seen less frequently. In our study, the six most frequently observed symptoms were local pain, hyperemia, swelling, burning, dry mouth, thirst, sweating, and hypotension. In this study involving 152 M. eupeus toxicity cases, patients showed local and systemic clinical effects but no death was seen. Autonomic system and local effects characterized by severe pain, hyperemia and edema were dominantly seen in toxicity cases.

  6. A clinical and epidemiological study on spider bites in Turkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yildirim Cesaretli; Ozcan Ozkan

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To classify and characterize spider bites among inquiries to the National Poison Information Center (NPIC) between1995 and2004, in terms of the epidemiology and clinical symptomatology.Methods: Clinical and epidemiological data were obtained from theNPIC’s patient records. The following information was recorded for each spider bite: demographics, circumstances of the bite, and local and systemic effects.Results: A total of82 cases were reported. The accidents were mostly seen during August. The gender distribution was59.76%male, 37.20% female, and2.44% unknown and the20-29 age group presented more spider bites. Most of the cases were in the Central Anatolia, Marmara, Mediterranean, and Black Sea regions. Local symptoms were observed in60.87% of the cases, including local pain, edema, redness, itching, debris, burning, and numbness. Systemic symptoms were observed such as nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, lethargy, anxiety, weakness, somnolence, dyspnea, hypertension, hypotension, and hyperthermia.Conclusions: In conclusion, these findings emphasize the presence of medically important spider species in Turkey. All patients and especially pediatric patients should be admitted to the hospital. Identification of spider species may be considered a useful clinical and epidemiological tool in determining the incidence and risk of spider bites.

  7. Tracing the geochemical evolution of alkaline Lake Van, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiecien, Ola; Viehberg, Finn; Plessen, Birgit; Litt, Thomas; Tillman Meyer, Felix

    2015-04-01

    Terminal Lake Van, the world's largest soda basin, is characterised by Na-CO3-Cl water chemistry (Reimer et al., 2008), salinity of ~22 ‰ and high pH of ~9.7. The sedimentary record of the lake goes ca. 600 ka back and documents major climatic events over that period (Stockhecke et al., 2014). Alas, the longevity of the basin does not mean that it persisted unchanged over such a long time. Information collected within the ICDP PALEOVAN project clearly suggests that upon its birth the chemistry of early Lake Van was very different from its modern alkaline equivalent. Here we document, by means of proxy data, the changes in water chemistry in a transforming basin. Results of lithological (Stockhecke et al., 2014) and micropaleontological (ostracod, gastropod and diatom assemblages) analysis, combined with geochemical data (δ18O, δ13C, Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca) obtained from the biogenic and authigenic carbonate fraction imply, that early Lake Van was a relatively shallow, fresh-to-brackish and, most probably, open basin. Sedimentological information points to tectonic factors rather than climatic changes responsible for closing the lake ca. 430 ka ago. Reimer, A., Landmann, G., Kempe, S., 2008. Lake Van, Eastern Anatolia, Hydrochemistry and History. Aquat. Geochemistry 15, 195-222. Stockhecke, M., Sturm, M., Brunner, I., Schmincke, H.-U., Sumita, M., Kipfer, R., Cukur, D., Kwiecien, O., Anselmetti, F.S., 2014. Sedimentary evolution and environmental history of Lake Van (Turkey) over the past 600 000 years. Sedimentology.

  8. An 8-year longitudinal sero-epidemiological study of bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) infection in dairy cattle in Turkey and analysis of risk factors associated with BLV seropositivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şevik, Murat; Avcı, Oğuzhan; İnce, Ömer Barış

    2015-04-01

    Enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL) which is caused by bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) has an important economic impact on dairy herds due to reduced milk production and restrictions on livestock exports. This study was conducted to determine the BLV infection status in Central Anatolia Region of Turkey, an important milk production centre, and to examine the risk factors such as purchasing cattle, increasing cattle age, cattle breed and herd size associated with transmission of BLV infection. To estimate the rate of BLV infection, a survey for specific antibodies in 28,982 serum samples from animals belonging to 1116 different herds situated in Central Anatolia Region of Turkey were tested from January 2006 to December 2013. A generalized mixed linear model was used to evaluate the risk factors that influenced BLV seroprevalence. Antibodies against BLV were detected in 431 (2.28 %) of 18,822 Holstein and 29 (0.28 %) of 10,160 Brown Swiss cows. Among 1116 herds, 132 herds (11.82 %) had one or more positive animals. Also results of our study show that the prevalence of BLV infection increased from 2006 to 2011, and it tends to reduce with BLV control programme. Furthermore, we found positive associations between percentage of seropositive animal and increasing cattle age, herd size, cattle breed and purchased cattle. Age-specific prevalence showed that BLV prevalence increased with age. These factors should be taken into consideration for control of BLV infection.

  9. Terrorism in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodoplu, Ulkumen; Arnold, Jeffrey; Ersoy, Gurkan

    2003-01-01

    Over the past two decades, terrorism has exacted an enormous toll on the Republic of Turkey, a secular democracy with a 99.8% Muslim population. From 1984 to 2000, an estimated 30,000 to 35,000 Turkish citizens were killed by a nearly continuous stream of terrorism-related events. During this period, the Partiya Karekerren Kurdistan (PKK), a Kurdish separatist group (re-named KADEK in 2002), was responsible for the vast majority of terrorism-related events (and casualties), which disproportionately affected the eastern and southeastern regions of Turkey, in which the PKK has focused its activities. Most terrorist attacks over the past two decades have been bombings or shootings that produced or = 30 casualties (eight shootings, five bombings, and two arsons). The maximum number of casualties produced by any of these events was 93 in the Hotel Madimak arson attack by the Turkish Islamic Movement in 1993. This pattern suggests that terrorist attacks in Turkey rarely required more than local systems of emergency medical response, except in rural areas where Emergency Medical Services (EMS) are routinely provided by regional military resources. The last decade has seen the development of several key systems of local emergency response in Turkey, including the establishment of the medical specialty of Emergency Medicine, the establishment of training programs for EMS providers, the spread of a generic, Turkish hospital emergency plan based on the Hospital Emergency Incident Command System, and the spread of advanced training in trauma care modeled after Advanced Trauma Life Support.

  10. Osteomyelitis in turkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkey osteomyelitis complex (TOC) is a condition in which apparently healthy, usually male birds have infections that are hidden in their bones, joints, and muscles. Some of these birds have a green liver, which provides a method for detecting these carcasses in the processing plant. Our research h...

  11. Axiom turkey genotyping array

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Axiom®Turkey Genotyping Array interrogates 643,845 probesets on the array, covering 643,845 SNPs. The array development was led by Dr. Julie Long of the USDA-ARS Beltsville Agricultural Research Center under a public-private partnership with Hendrix Genetics, Aviagen, and Affymetrix. The Turk...

  12. 1975 Lice, Turkey Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Eastern Turkey. A magnitude 6.7 earthquake that struck the Turkish district of Lice at 12:20 local time (09:20 UTC) on September 6, 1975, killing 2,311 people. The...

  13. Wind energy and Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coskun, Aynur Aydin; Türker, Yavuz Özhan

    2012-03-01

    The global energy requirement for sustaining economic activities, meeting social needs and social development is increasing daily. Environmentally friendly, renewable energy resources are an alternative to the primary non-renewable energy resources, which devastate ecosystems in order to meet increasing demand. Among renewable energy sources such as hydropower, biopower, geothermal power and solar power, wind power offers distinct advantages to Turkey. There is an increasing tendency toward wind globally and the European Union adjusted its legal regulations in this regard. As a potential EU Member state, Turkey is going through a similar process. The number of institutional and legal regulations concerning wind power has increased in recent years; technical infrastructure studies were completed, and some important steps were taken in this regard. This study examines the way in which Turkey has developed support for wind power, presents a SWOT analysis of the wind power sector in Turkey and a projection was made for the concrete success expected to be accomplished in the future.

  14. Turkey: Thwarted Ambition

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    military in the democratic process. 14. Heper, State Tradition, 45. 15. Andrew Mango , "The State of Turkey," Middle Eastern Studies, 13 (1977), 265...G. DeWolf, SDI and Arms Control, November 1989. 5. Martin C. Libicki, What Makes Industries Strategic, November 1989. 6. Melvin A. Goodman

  15. İkinci Dünya Savaşı Sırasında Türkiye-Sovyetler Birliği İlişkileri ve Türkiye'nin Amerika Birleşik Devletleri ile Yakınlaşmasına Etkileri Turkey-Soviet Union Relations During Second World War and Effects On The Turkey Rapprochement With USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barış ERTEM

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The newly established two state, Turkey and the Soviet Union arebecame in close diplomatic relations in the years of 1920’s and in firsthalf of 1930’s. On December 17, 1925, a Treaty of Non-aggression wassigned between Turkey and Soviet Union. In the year of 1932, PrimeMinister of the Republic of Turkey, İsmet İnönü has made a visit toMoscow at the invitation of the Soviet Union. As a result of this visit, an16 million Turkish Lira credit has provided to Turkey by the SovietUnion.As Second World War approached, Turkey faced with territorialclaims of Soviet Union in Turkish Straits and Eastern Anatolia. Becauseof these Soviet claims, Turkey tried to establish closer relations withWestern states. On the other hand, Turkey also tried to improverelations with the Soviets. Due to the neutrality diplomacy in SecondWorld War, Turkey succeed to stay out of war and also protected itselffrom Soviet threat. However, Turkey, who has not joined the war,remained alone against the Soviet demands at the end of war. As aresult, to protect itself, Turkey approached to the Western Block,especially to the USA in the Cold War. On alliance with the USA, Turkeycould defend itself against Soviet threat in the years of 40’s and 50’s. Türkiye ve Sovyetler Birliği, yeni kurulan iki devlet olarak 1920’li ve 1930’lu yılların ilk yarısı boyunca yakın diplomatik ilişkiler içerisinde olmuşlardır. 1925 yılında iki ülke arasında imzalanan Dostluk ve Saldırmazlık Antlaşması, bu yakınlaşmanın önemli sonuçlarındandır. 1932 yılında Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Başbakanı İsmet İnönü’nün Sovyetler Birliği’nin davetlisi olarak Moskova’yı ziyareti ve burada Stalin’le olan samimi görüşmeleri, iki ülke arasındaki iyi ilişkileri 1920’li yıllardan 1930’lu yılların başlarına taşımıştır. Bu ziyaret sonunda Sovyetler Birliği tarafından Türkiye’ye 16 milyon liralık kredi verilmesi, iki ülke arasındaki ili

  16. Snakebites in Turkey: epidemiological and clinical aspects between the years 1995 and 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Cesaretli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The venom of poisonous snakes comprises a complex mixture of several proteins with other less significant constituents, resulting in principles capable of changing viable tissues. The hemotoxic factor is the main responsible for necrosis and tissue sloughing. Envenomations are common in rural areas of Turkey caused by snake species that present hepatotoxic venom, which causes local swelling, ecchymosis and alterations in blood profile. The epidemiological and clinical findings of snake envenomations in Turkey were evaluated based on data recorded by the National Poison Information Center (NPIC between 1995 and 2004, in a total of 550 snakebite cases. The month of peak incidence was June (24.3% while most incidents occurred in Marmara, Central Anatolia and Black Sea regions of Turkey. The victims were mainly adults (54.1%. Hospitalized patients displayed clinical signs of local (75.2% and systemic effects (24.7%. Local clinical symptoms comprised edema, pain, hyperemia, numbness and ecchymosis, while systemic clinical symptoms included nausea, vomiting, hypotension, tachycardia, dyspnea, dry mouth, paresthesia, generalized edema, cyanosis and compartment syndrome. Occasionally, convulsions, confusion, loss of consciousness, hyperthermia, hepatic and circulation failure, hematoma, drowsiness, epistaxis, chest and abdominal pain, venous spasm, thrombocytopenia and bradycardia were recorded. Approximately one third (34.2% of the patients were treated symptomatically, while 10.5% required antivenom therapy along with symptomatic treatments and 26.3% of all patients were exclusively treated with antivenom. Although a significant number of incidents were reported, no deaths occurred. These findings emphasize the presence of multiple medically important snake species in Turkey and that public awareness and therapeutic approaches appear sufficient to manage snakebite incidents.

  17. Earthquake and Tsunami Disaster Mitigation in the Marmara Region and Disaster Education in Turkey Part2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneda, Yoshiyuki; Ozener, Haluk; Meral Özel, Nurcan

    2016-04-01

    Turkey is one of seismogenic countries with destructive earthquakes. In Turkey, the 1999 Izumit Earthquake as the destructive earthquake occurred along the North Anatolian fault. This fault is crossing the Marmara sea. In this SATREPS project, Marmara Sea should be focused on because of a seismic gap in the North Anatolian fault. Istanbul is located around the Marmara Sea, so, if next earthquake in the Marmara will occur near Istanbul, fatal damages will be generated as compound damages including Tsunami and liquefaction etc. The Japan and Turkey can share our own experiences during past damaging earthquakes and we can prepare for future large earthquakes in cooperation with each other. In earthquakes in Tokyo area and Istanbul area as the destructive earthquakes near high population cities, there are common disaster researches and measures in each country. For disaster mitigation, we are progressing multidisciplinary researches in this SATREPS project. Our goals of this SATREPS project are as follows, This project is composed of four research groups. 1) The first group is Marmara Earthquake Source region observationally research group. This group has 4 sub-themes such as Seismicity, Geodesy, Electromagnetics and Trench analyses. 2) The second group focuses on scenario researches of earthquake occurrence along the North Anatolia fault and precise tsunami simulation in the Marmara region. 3) Aims of the third group are improvements and constructions of seismic characterizations and damage predictions based on observation researches and precise simulations. 4) The fourth group is promoting disaster educations using research result visuals. In this SATREPS project, we will integrate these research results for disaster mitigation in Marmara region and disaster education in Turkey. Finally, these results and knowledges will be applied to Japanese disaster mitigation researches and disaster educations. We will have a presentation of the updated results of this SATREPS

  18. Cretaceous to miocene palaeogegraphic evolution of Turkey: implications for hydrocarbon potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorur, N. [Tubitak Mam, Gebze (Turkey)

    2001-04-01

    The Cretaceous to Miocene palaeogeographic development of Turkey in general reflects the evolution of the various oceanic branches of Neo-Tethys together with interactions between the Laurasian and Gondwanan margins. At the beginning of the Cretaceous, the first-order palacotectonic units which make up present-day Turkey either formed parts of these supercontinents or were isolated continental blocks within the Neo-Tethys. In Aptian to Albian times, north-dipping subduction commenced along the southern margins of these units and resulted in the development of magmatic arcs and arc-related sedimentary basins. Coeval with the start of subduction, large-scale ophiolite abduction occurred on the units' passive margins. Terminal closure of the oceans' branches took place between the latest Cretaceous and the Miocene, forming the Anatolian orogenic collage whose outline defines present-day Turkey. Post-collisional intra-continental convergence continued until the late Miocene and resulted in north-south shortening of the collage. This shortening led to internal imbrication, thrusting and crustal thickening. It forced the Anatolian landmass westwards, away from east Anatolia where there has been continuous north-south compression since the Miocene between Laurasia and the Arabian Platform. Both the continental and the oceanic palaeotectonic units pose significant problems regarding their original geometry, size, depth, extent, contact relations, motion paths, subduction polarity, stratigraphy and timing of formation. Clarification of these issues is essential if the units' original paleogeographic relationships with respect to Neo-Tethys are to be reconstructed. This paper reviews some of these problems with the aid of a number of palinspastic and non-palinspastic maps. These maps are intended to provide a basis for evaluating the hydrocarbon potential of Turkey. (author)

  19. Serological, molecular and entomological surveillance demonstrates widespread circulation of West Nile virus in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergunay, Koray; Gunay, Filiz; Erisoz Kasap, Ozge; Oter, Kerem; Gargari, Sepandar; Karaoglu, Taner; Tezcan, Seda; Cabalar, Mehmet; Yildirim, Yakup; Emekdas, Gürol; Alten, Bulent; Ozkul, Aykut

    2014-07-01

    West Nile virus (WNV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus with significant impact on human and animal health, has recently demonstrated an expanded zone of activity globally. The aim of this study is to investigate the frequency and distribution of WNV infections in potential vectors and several mammal and avian species in Turkey, where previous data indicate viral circulation. The study was conducted in 15 provinces across Turkey during 2011-2013. In addition, the entomological study was extended to 4 districts of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus. WNV exposure was determined in humans, horses, sheep and ducks from Mersin, Sanliurfa, Van and Kars provinces of Turkey, via the detection of neutralizing antibodies. WNV RNA was sought in human and equine samples from Mersin, Adana and Mugla provinces. Field-collected mosquitoes from 92 sites at 46 locations were characterized morphologically and evaluated for viral RNA. Neutralizing antibodies were identified in 10.5% of the 1180 samples studied and detected in all species evaluated. Viral nucleic acids were observed in 5.9% of 522 samples but only in horses. A total of 2642 mosquito specimens belonging to 15 species were captured, where Ochlerotatus caspius (52.4%), Culex pipiens sensu lato (24.2%) comprise the most frequent species. WNV RNA was detected in 4 mosquito pools (1.9%), that comprise Oc. caspius Cx. pipiens s.l. and DNA barcoding revealed the presence of Cx. quinquefasciatus and Cx. perexiguus mosquitoes in infected Culex pools. All WNV partial sequences were characterized as lineage 1 clade 1a. These findings indicate a widespread WNV activity in Turkey, in Eastern Thrace and Mediterranean-Aegean regions as well as Southeastern and Northeastern Anatolia.

  20. A geographical assessment of labour immigration in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Akay Ertürk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Turkey has a unique geographical location, and serves as a bridge between East and West, and between Asia and Europe. While it has been a source country for labour migration, especially to Western Europe in the 1960s and 1970s, it has become a destination country, particularly for those from neighbouring countries in the 1990s. Immigrants from more distant countries were also attracted. Due to the end of the Cold War (the dissolution of the Soviet Union, economic problems resulting from regime change in the Eastern Bloc countries, China’s emergence as an economic power affecting the world economy, along with globalization, political problems and civil wars in the Middle East and Africa, a proportion of the people living in these geographical regions migrated to Turkey to find jobs. The aim of the present study is to investigate the quantitative changes concerning foreigners with work permits in Turkey and to research their origins. The study also presents some figures on distribution by gender and country of origin. To achieve this aim and investigate the present state of Turkey, statistical data concerning labour migration have been used. It is conclude that Turkey being considered as a country mostly sending labour emigrants has turned into a country receiving labour immigrants, not only from neighbouring countries but also from distant countries thanks to its unique geographical location and economic diversity.

  1. 3D modelling of the Carnian Crisis in a new FWF Project (P22109-B17) - Ammonite mass mortality (200 000 000 !!! specimens) as proxy for the Carnian Crisis (Taurus, Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayrhofer, Susanne; Lukeneder, Alexander

    2010-05-01

    The Upper Triassic in general, and the Carnian stage in detail was devastated by one of the most severe ecological crisis of the Mesozoic Era, the Carnian Crisis (= Carnian Pluvial Event), when the carbonate platforms demised and with them most of the reef-builders disappeared. The Orthoceltites assemblage (ammonoids, cephalopods) was formed in the Carnian Crisis, now located at the boundary from Kartoz and Kasimlar Formation (Anatolia, Turkey), can act as proxy for the environmental activities and biotic crisis in the Carnian time. It has to be noted that the ultimate cause of this drastic Mesozoic crisis is still under comprehensive discussion. The main investigation topics of the project are the palaeoecologic, palaeobiogeographic, litho-, cyclo- and magnetostratigraphic development of the Upper Triassic (Carnian) ammonoid mass-occurrence at the Asagiyaylabel section in Anatolia (Turkey), formed during the Carnian Crisis. This area is a key section within the Taurids and has a connecting and intermediate position. Situated on the western end of the Cimmerian System at that time it shows connection to both, the Neo-Tethys and the Palaeo-Tethys Oceans. New insights into the taxonomy and the palaeoecology of the investigated ammonoids and associated macro- and microfossils are expected. The abundant ammonoid Orthoceltites, at least 200 000 000 !!! specimens, is assumed to be a new species. Further topics of investigation are the original position and environmental conditions of the sedimentation area at the Asagiyaylabel section, located in the Taurids. The formation of the ammonoid beds is either autochthonous or allochthonous (transported). Expected 3D modelling results will be essential to reach geodynamic, palaeooceanographic and palaeobiological conclusions. This further leads to the question of the original water depths during the formation of ammonoid mass occurrences. As a multitasking project, one aim is to underline a crucial fact in working within

  2. Diet and prey selection of pikeperch (Sander lucioperca Linnaeus, 1758 population in Lake Eğirdir (Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yağci M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The diet and prey selection of pikeperch (Sander lucioperca L., 1758 were assessed by determining the frequency of occurrence, numeric and weight percentages, and the index of relative importance (IRI% between January 2010 and December 2010 in Lake Eğirdir, Turkey. Pearre’s index was used to estimate diet selectivity, while the Schoener Overlap Index was utilized to compare diets. The stomach contents of 241 S. lucioperca were analyzed. Pikeperch diet included prey fish, insects and other organisms. The diet was predominantly fish, consisting of Atherina boyeri, Knipowitschia caucasica, Aphanius anatoliae, Seminemacheilus ispartensis and Carassius gibelio. A. boyeri was the most abundant prey fish in the lake; it was a positively selected food item (V= 0.130, X2= 3.359, p> 0.05 and was not statistically significant. C. gibelio also inhabits the lake, but was not preferred by pikeperch (V=0.134, X2= 3.582, p> 0.05. In addition, A. anatoliae (V=-0.223, X2=9.977, p50 cm in length pikeperch. Cannibalism was not evident during a decade, due to there being enough food for pikeperch in the lake.

  3. Water Policies of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Istanbulluoglu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Water is one of our most critical resources. Civilization has historically flourished around major waterways. The most important uses of water are; agricultural, industrial and domestic use. This critical resource is under threat around the world. In the next 20 years, the quantity of water available to everyone is predicted to decrease by 30%. 40% of the world\\\\\\\\\\\\\\'s inhabitants currently have insufficient fresh water for minimal hygiene. In 2000 more than 2.2 million people died from waterborne diseases. Water politics is politics affected by water and water resources. There are connections between water resources, water systems, and international security and conflict. Today, water is a strategic resource in the globe and an important element in many political conflicts. Turkey can be faced severe water-stress in the near future. Therefore Turkey has to develop realistic and feasible water policy for future generations. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(3.000: 327-338

  4. GEOTHERMAL GREENHOUSING IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedat Karaman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Use of renewable energy resources should be brought forward to reduce heating costs of greenhouses and to minimize the use of ever-depleting fossil fuels. Geothermal energy not only provides the heat required throughout plant growth, but also allow a year-long production. Geothermal resources with several other benefits therefore play significant role in agricultural activities. With regard to geothermal potential and implementation, Turkey has the 7th place in the world and the 1st place in Europe. Majority of country geothermal resources is used in greenhouse heating. The size of geothermal greenhouses increased 5 folds during the last decade and reached to 2500 decare. In this study, current status of geothermal greenhousing of Turkey was presented; problems and possible solutions were discussed.

  5. Geodynamic evolution of the lithosphere beneath the Eastern Anatolia region: Constraints from geodynamic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memis, Caner; Hakan Gogus, Oguz; Pysklywec, Russell; Keskin, Mehmet; Celal Sengor, A. M.; Topuz, Gultekin

    2016-04-01

    The east Anatolian orogenic plateau is characterized by an average elevation of 2 km, and is delimited by the Bitlis-Zagros collision zone to the south and the Pontide arc to the north. Stratigraphic evidence suggests that the high plateau attained its current elevation since the Serravallian (about 12 million years ago), but probably did not reach its present height until at least the latest Pliocene. While the crustal shortening following the Arabia-Eurasia collision in the south enabled its relatively rapid rise and regional tectonic evolution, the presumed removal of the downgoing slab beneath east Anatolia has potentially played a significant role in this geodynamic configuration. According to the proposed scenario, the northward subducting slab of Neo-Tethys peels away from the overlying crust similar to the lithospheric delamination model. In this work, we performed a series of lithospheric removal models by varying rheological, physical and mechanical properties by using 2D numerical geodynamic experiments, (e.g. plate convergence rate, crustal thickness, mantle lithosphere yield-stress). Our model results show that the average amount of delamination hinge motion is maximum (18 km/my) when the lower crustal rheology is felsic granulite. The slab break-off only occurs at lower convergence rates (≤ 2 cm/yr), and is imposed on the margin of delaminating mantle lithosphere. The surface uplift takes place above the asthenospheric column (or plateau gap) through isostatic and thermal support of asthenospheric upwelling, and varies dependent on the width of the asthenospheric column. However; with higher plate convergence rates (≥3 cm/yr), the asthenospheric column does not widen enough and the continental collision occurs rather than delamination/peeling away. In this case, the average uplift appears in the central section of the crust, and this exceeds a surface elevation of 3 km. All model results are consistent with the observations from the Eastern

  6. Fatty acid composition of some walnut ( Juglans regia L. cultivars from east Anatolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akgul, Attila

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the fatty acid composition of different walnut (Juglans regia L. cultivars grown in Adilcevaz in east Anatolia was determined. The total oil content of the walnuts ranged from 65.00 ± 0.06 to 70.00 ± 0.58 %. The oleic acid content of the oils ranged from 22.63 to 27.27 % of the total fatty acids while the linoleic acid and linolenic contents ranged from 49.93 to 54.41 % and 14.32 to 17.82 % respectively. The palmitic acid content of the walnuts ranged from 5.61 % to 5.82 % while there was a trace amount of miristic acid (En este estudio se ha determinado la composición en ácidos grasos de diferentes cultivos de nueces ( Juglans regia L. producidos en Adilcevaz en el Este de Anatolia. El contenido de aceite total de las nueces osciló entre 65.00 ± 0.06 y 70.00 ± 0.58 %. El contenido en ácido oleico varió desde 22.63 a 27.27 % respecto a los ácidos grasos totales mientras que los contenidos en ácido linoleico y linolénico variaron desde 49.93 hasta 54.41 % y desde 14.32 hasta 17.82 % respectivamente. El contenido en ácido palmítico de las muestras de nueces estuvo comprendido entre 5.61 y 5.82 % mientras que de ácido miristico solo se encontraron trazas ( < 0.1 %. Finalmente, los resultados de los ácidos grasos indicaron que los cultivos de nueces del Este de Anatolia son distintos en cuanto a su perfil de ácido linolenico. Estos resultados pueden ser significativos para estudios de selección en orden a identificar mejor las variedades de nueces para dietas saludables.

  7. Turkey and PKK terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    Zehni, Tevfik

    2008-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. In this thesis, Turkey’s struggle against PKK terrorism is analyzed to find an answer to the main research question of this thesis: “Why has Turkey not overcome the PKK and its terrorism after thirty years of struggle?” To accomplish this, two subquestions are asked. The first sub-question deals with the perceptions and consequences of terrorism. Consequently, the thesis seeks a comprehensive understanding the motivations of ...

  8. Authoritarianism in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    against Kurdish nationalism and the Kurdistan Worker’s Party ( PKK ), but in response to an armed offensive.56 The dichotomy makes it difficult to...classify the military’s actions towards the PKK as authoritarian, except to point out that repression of Kurdish desire to make public use of the Kurdish...129 Ibid., 229. 130 Zürcher, Turkey: A Modern History, 163–72. 131 Attorney-General’s Department, “Kurdistan Workers Party ( PKK ),” accessed May 9

  9. Spatial analysis of climate factors used to determine suitability of greenhouse production in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cemek, Bilal; Güler, Mustafa; Arslan, Hakan

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to identify the most suitable growing periods for greenhouse production in Turkey in order to make valuable contribution to economic viability. Data collected from the meteorological databases of 81 provinces was used to determine periodic climatological requirements of greenhouses in terms of cooling, heating, natural ventilation, and lighting. Spatial distributions of mean daily outside temperatures and greenhouse heating requirements were derived using ordinary co-kriging (OCK) supported by Geographical Information System (GIS). Mean monthly temperatures throughout the country were found to decrease below 12 °C in January, February, March, and December, indicating heating requirements, whereas temperatures in 94.46 % of the country rose above 22 °C in July, indicating cooling requirements. Artificial lighting is not a requirement in Turkey except for November, December, and January. The Mediterranean, Aegean, Marmara, and Black Sea Regions are more advantageous than the Central, East, and Southeast Anatolia Regions in terms of greenhouse production because the Mediterranean and Aegean Regions are more advantageous in terms of heating, and the Black Sea Region is more advantageous in terms of cooling. Results of our study indicated that greenhouse cultivation of winter vegetables is possible in certain areas in the north of the country. Moreover, greenhouses could alternatively be used for drying fruits and vegetables during the summer period which requires uneconomical cooling systems due to high temperatures in the Mediterranean and Southeastern Anatolian Regions.

  10. Genetic Characterization of Green Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Accessions from Turkey with SCAR and SSR Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madakbaş, Seher Yıldız; Sarıkamış, Gölge; Başak, Hakan; Karadavut, Ufuk; Özmen, Canan Yüksel; Daşçı, Mete Gürhan; Çayan, Selin

    2016-08-01

    Characterization, conservation, and utilization of genetic resources is essential for the sustainability in agriculture. Plant genetic resources are important for breeding efforts designed for the generation of new cultivars or for the improvement of existing ones. Green bean has been cultivated extensively in Turkey giving rise to local accessions through selection over time and adaptation to various environmental conditions. The objective of the present study was to determine the genetic relationships of green bean accessions collected from Kırşehir Province of Turkey, located at the central Anatolia. Within a population of 275 green bean accessions, 50 accessions were selected on the basis of morphological observations for further evaluation with SSR and STS/SCAR markers together with 4 reference cultivars of Andean and Mesoamerican origin. SSR markers selected on the basis of high polymorphism information content revealed the genetic relatedness of selected green bean accessions. STS/SCAR markers associated with bean anthracnose, common bacterial blight, white mold, halo blight, and phaseolin protein demonstrated the inheritance of resistance traits of local accessions at the selected loci. These findings may help better utilize genetic resources and furthermore are expected to facilitate forthcoming breeding studies for the generation of novel cultivars well adapted to the region.

  11. Action plan to regain unnecessary deferred blood donors due to malaria risk in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Değirmenci, Aysu; Döşkaya, Mert; Caner, Ayşe; Nergis, Sebnem; Gül, Kadri; Aydınok, Yeşim; Ertop, Tufan; Aksoy, Nurten; Korkmaz, Metin; Alkan, Mehmet Ziya; Üner, Ahmet; Gürüz, Yüksel

    2012-06-01

    Malaria was expected to be a major problem during blood donation in Turkey due to existence of malaria cases in southeastern region of Turkey. The present study aimed for the first time, to investigate malaria in "donors deferred for malaria risk" and to determine the regional rates of malaria deferral in Turkey. Blood samples were collected from several Blood Banks of southeastern provinces where local malaria cases still exist and from Blood Bank of Ege University Medical School (EUMS) located in western Turkey where malaria is eradicated decades ago. Plasmodium spp. and specific antibodies were investigated by stained smears, antigen detection, PCR and ELISA. Among the donors deferred for malaria risk, Plasmodium spp. were not detected by microscopy, PCR or antigen detection. Seroprevalances were 2% and 3.92% in western and southeastern regions, respectively. Rate of donor deferral for malaria risk was 0.9% in EUMS and deferrals were exclusively because of travel to southeastern Turkey. In southeastern provinces, deferrals were mainly due to malaria like fever history. The present study first time assessed regional rates of donor deferral due to malaria risk in Turkey. Previously, malaria was expected to be a major problem during blood donation in Turkey due to existence of malaria cases in southeastern region of Turkey. The results of the study showed that 97% of the deferrals were unnecessary. In conclusion, to reduce unnecessary donor deferrals in Turkey, in addition to comprehensive questioning for malaria history, the usage of a malaria antibody screening method should be initiated prior to deferral decision.

  12. Active optics system for the 4m telescope of the Eastern Anatolia Observatory (DAG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lousberg, Gregory P.; Mudry, Emeric; Bastin, Christian; Schumacher, Jean-Marc; Gabriel, Eric; Pirnay, Olivier; Flebus, Carlo

    2016-07-01

    An active optics system is being developed by AMOS for the new 4m-class telescope for the Turkish Eastern Anatolia Observatory (DAG). It consists in (a) an adjustable support for the primary mirror and (b) two hexapods supporting M2 and M3. The M1 axial support consists of 66 pneumatic actuators (for mirror shape corrections) associated with 9 hydraulic actuators that are arranged in three independent circuits so as to fix the axial position of the mirror. Both M1 support and the hexapods are actively controlled during regular telescope operations, either with look-up tables (openloop control) or using optical feedback from a wavefront sensor (closed-loop control).

  13. Were pneumothorax and its management known in 15th-century anatolia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Seyda Ors; Karatepe, Mustafa; Tok, Turgut; Onem, Gokhan; Dursunoglu, Nese; Goksin, Ibrahim

    2009-01-01

    Jean-Marc Gaspard Itard, a student of René Laennec's, first recognized pneumothorax in 1803, and Laennec himself described the full clinical picture of the condition in 1819. Treatment of pneumothorax was not begun as a standard procedure until World War II, but we think that Serefeddin Sabuncuoglu recognized the condition and applied treatment in the 15th century.Sabuncuoglu (1385-1470) was a surgeon who lived in Amasya (in Anatolia). In 1465, he completed Cerrahiyyetül Haniyye (Imperial Surgery), the 1st illustrated surgical textbook in the Turkish-Islamic medical literature. We describe the highlights of the book's recommendations concerning treatment of thoracic trauma, particularly of pneumothorax. We reproduce 2 of the colored miniature illustrations and add our comments regarding the advice of Sabuncuoglu. Most notably, he advocated "mihceme," a cupping therapy, as a simple technique of thoracic aspiration.

  14. New Records for Distribution of Invasive Topmouth gudgeon (Pseudorasbora parva Temminck & Schlegel, 1846 in Anatolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedat YEĞEN

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The topmouth gudgeon Pseudorasbora parva is described as most invasive fish in Europe. It’s a small cyprinid fish native to East Asia. In 1982, the existence of this species was first recorded from the Thrace region of Türkiye. Todays it is recorded from Thrace to Ceyhan region. In this study was carried out Afyonkarahisar, Bilecik, Burdur, Denizli, Eskişehir, Isparta, Konya, Kütahya and Uşak provinces between 2001 and 2013. Specimens collected from various localities in these provinces. Our results are shown P. parva has invaded many freshwater systems in Türkiye. This species has a potential threat to the diversity of the ichthyofauna of Anatolia and fish farms because of causing an increased mortality pressure on some salmonids and cyprinids, and totally inhibiting spawning of existing native fish.

  15. Risk of hypertension in Yozgat Province, Central Anatolia: application of Framingham Hypertension Prediction Risk Score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, M; Ede, H; Kilic, A I

    2016-07-10

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to estimate the risk of hypertension in 1106 Caucasian individuals aged 20-69 years in Yozgat Province, using the Framingham Hypertension Risk Prediction Score (FHRPS). According to FHRPS, average risk of developing hypertension over 4 years was 6.2%. The participants were classified into low- (10%) risk groups. The percentage of participants that fell into these groups was 59.4%, 19.8% and 20.8% respectively. The proportion of participants in the high-risk group was similar to the 4-year incidence of hypertension (21.3%) in the Turkish population. Regression analysis showed that high salt consumption and low educational level significantly increased the risk of hypertension. Economic level, fat consumption, life satisfaction, physical activity, and fruit and vegetable consumption were not correlated with risk of hypertension. This study shows that FHRPS can also be used for predicting risk of hypertension in Central Anatolia.

  16. Demographic Factors Influencing Consumer Preferences of Seafood Consumption: Central Anatolia Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Orkan Özer

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in order to analyze seafood consumption level of consumers in Central Anatolia Region (Province Ankara and their consumption behavior. Proportional sampling method was used in determining sample size and sample size was determined as 167. Data were collected from randomly chosen individuals with face-to-face interviews. As a result of study, in order to determine possible effects of socio-economic properties of consumers on seafood consumption, CHAID analysis which is one of the decision tree analyses was used. According to the results of analysis; it can be said that dependent variables of income, education and age have effect on attitude and behavior of consumers while gender have no effect on consumption behaviors.

  17. A critical examination of imperialism and language teaching in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Tarhan, HNüvit

    1998-01-01

    Ankara : Bilkent Univ., 1998. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 1998. Includes bibliographical references leaves 57-60 This study aimed to answer the following question: what relations are there between the teaching of English in Turkey and Turkish socio-economic and political life? Socio-economic and political relationships between the Turkish governments and Western nations are considered as the background for the study. To determine the relationships between for...

  18. Turkey and European Security Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    relationships between Turkey, the United States, the Kurds, and Europe. As a source often critical of Turkey and the United States ( Noam Chomsky ...Turkish model , as it is this author’s experience that Turkish military personnel are less likely than their American counterparts to state their...field and other propaganda items (although lately this has disappeared from the website). 68

  19. Water resources development in Turkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bulent Acma

    2010-01-01

    The Southeastern Anatolia Project(GAP),one of the most important projects for developing remarkable natural resources of the world,is accepted as a change for getting benefit from rich water and agricultural resources of the Southeastern Anatolia Region.The GAP Project has been considered as a regional development projects through years,but the dimensions of sustainability,protection of environment and participatory have been attached to the master of the project in recent years.When the GAP Project is completed,the Upper Mesopotomia,the centers of many civilisation,will re-again its importance as it had in the ancient times,and will be alive a center of civilisation.Moreover,when the problem of water shortage and water supplies in the world for the future is kept in mind,the importance of Southeastern Anatolia's water supplies will be doubled.For this reason,the GAP Project,developed by depending on water and natural resources of the region,will have an important place in the world.The aim of this study is to introduce the region with rich natural resources and the GAP Project.For this reason,firstly,the natural potential of the region will be introduced.Second,the GAP Project will be presented in details.In the third stage,the projects being processed for protecting the natural sources and environment will be analyzed.In the last stage,strategies and policies to develop and to protect the natural resources of the region in short,mid,and long terms will be proposed.

  20. The Kurdistan Workers Party and a New Left in Turkey: Analysis of the revolutionary movement in Turkey through the PKK’s memorial text on Haki Karer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, J.P.; Akkaya, A.H.

    2012-01-01

    One of the banners the left had been marching behind in the 1970s was that of a ‘Fully Independent Turkey!’ – and yet, while these radical voices evaluated Turkey’s status as that of a semi-colony (of Western capitalist imperialism), it had turned a blind eye to Turkey’s own role as itself a coloniz

  1. The Kurdistan Workers Party and a New Left in Turkey: Analysis of the revolutionary movement in Turkey through the PKK’s memorial text on Haki Karer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, J.P.; Akkaya, A.H.

    2012-01-01

    One of the banners the left had been marching behind in the 1970s was that of a ‘Fully Independent Turkey!’ – and yet, while these radical voices evaluated Turkey’s status as that of a semi-colony (of Western capitalist imperialism), it had turned a blind eye to Turkey’s own role as itself a

  2. Question Posed by Students Pertaining Interpretation Lectures in Ottoman Anatolia Example of the Interpretation of Part of Amme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail BAYER

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, with respect to the text, namely “Tefsîr-u cuz-i ʻamme min halakâti’t-tefsîr fî Anadol el-kurûni’l-vustâ (The Interpretation of Part of Amme in the Lectures Given in Medieval Anatolia”, questions reflecting students’ interests and tendencies in interpretation lectures given in Medieval Anatolia are analyzed to create data for contemporary religious education and Quran studies.

  3. The Status of Woman in Family and Society in 19th Century Anatolia (A Case Study in Ayntab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bülent Çukurova

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the ancient times, in states that have been established in Anatolia (Asia Minor women have had a special place in the family and in the society. Until the acceptance of Islamic traditions by the Anatolian people, women were considered to be equal to men in terms of legal and social standing. Even in the administration of governmental affairs women used to have a say equal to that of men or the khan. Islamic traditions have been shaped by Arab and Iranians more than any other people or culture. Both cultures have had a strong influence on Anatolian people after the acceptance of Islamic traditions. To understand how such influences of Arabic and Iranian cultures are reflected on Anatolia today, one needs to examine the role of women in the family and in the society. In general, when we observe Anatolia in terms of women’s right to inherited property and marital decisions and affairs as well as other socioeconomic rights we see different traditions and rules applied depending on location of living whether women living in rural or urban areas of the country. We also observe differences in terms of society’s treatment of women based on the ethnicity or religious affinity

  4. Human cyclosporiosis in Turkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S(u)leyman Yazar; Saban Yalcln; izzet Sahin

    2004-01-01

    Six patients infected with Cyclospora cayetanensis who sought medical care at three different hospitals in Turkey are herein presented. Four patients were male and the others were female and their ages ranged from 7 to 62 years. The first patient was HIV-positive and presented with watery diarrhea with a frequency of up to 18 times a day for more than ten months and diagnosed as cyclosporiosis in Kayseri, 1996.The second patient was also HIV positive and diagnosed as cyclosporiosis in Kayseri, 2000. The third patient was an acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) patient and diagnosed in Istanbul, 2000. The fourth patient was idiopathic hepatic cirrhosis complaining of diarrhea and weakness and diagnosed in Kayseri, 2001. The fifth and sixth patients were immunocompetent patients complaining of diarrhea and diagnosed in Izmir and Kayseri, 2002. Diarrhea occurring from one to ten times a day continued for 7 to 70 d in the last 5 patients. Treatment with a trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole compound was done for all patients. Both symptomatic and parasitologic improvements were quickly observed. In summary, C. cayetanensis infection is rare in Turkey and most patients infected with this pathogen tend to be immunosuppressive individuals at present.

  5. Internet censorship in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Akgül

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Turkey passed an internet censorship law in 2007 with the declared objective of protecting families and minors (Akdeniz, 2010. It established a unit within the regulator BTK (Information and Communication Technologies Authority responsible for imposing bans and blocks on websites based on nine catalogue crimes defined by other national laws (Akgül 2008, 2009a, 2009b. As of May 2015, 80,000 websites were banned based on civil code related complaints and intellectual property rights violations, reports the independent website Engelliweb. Blocking decisions rendered by penal courts are enforced even when they are based on grounds other that the nine catalogue crimes - such as terrorism, organised crime and crime against the state. Passed in parliament while ignoring the pleas of NGOs and of the internet sector, the Internet Law No. 5651 has since been used to temporarily ban popular platforms such as Blogger, Last.fm, Vimeo, Wordpress and YouTube. At the same time, some blocking decisions by the courts (e.g., Google and Facebook were not enforced by the authorities. Since its introduction, the European Court of Human Rights has ruled that Law No. 5651 (Council of Europe, 2011 is against the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR, 2013. This article provides an overview of internet censorship and its social background in Turkey.

  6. Peralkaline volcanism in a continental collisional setting: Mount Nemrut volcano, Eastern Anatolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çubukçu, H. E.; Ulusoy, I.; Aydar, E.; Sen, E.; Ersoy, O.; Gourgaud, A.

    2012-04-01

    Quaternary Mount Nemrut is an active volcano in the Eastern Anatolia which culminates at 2948 m and having an elliptic summit caldera with 8.5 x 7 km diameter. The volcano is situated on the east of the deformed and dissected remnant of the Muş-Van ramp basin located at the northern foot of the Bitlis-Zagros suture zone. The suture zone is the southern margin of the continental collision between Arabian and Anatolian plates. The continental collision along the Bitlis-Zagros suture zone commenced in the Middle Miocene following the closure of the southern segment of Neo-Tethys ocean and the subduction of northern margin of Arabian plate beneath Anatolian plate. Upon the collision and the uplift of the region, widespread volcanism, which exhibits varying eruption styles and geochemical characteristics, affected most of the Eastern Anatolia. The intracontinental convergence and N - S directed compressional - contractional tectonic regime remained till the end of Late Miocene. However, compressional - extensional regime became dominant in the Early-Late Pliocene. Following the slab break off, asthenosphere beneath the Arabian Foreland probably have migrated towards the slab window, which was opened during the detachment, and invaded the mantle wedge beneath East Anatolian Collision zone. Volcanism is still active in the region, represented by major Quaternary volcanic centers. The magmatic characteristics of Nemrut volcano is appealingly distinct compared to the other Quaternary volcanic centers in the region. The overall geochemical and mineralogical affinity of Nemrut volcanism exhibits strong similarities with the well-known sites of continental intra-plate extension. The volcano has distinguishing features of a typical silica oversaturated peralkaline (molecular ratio (Na + K / Al)>1) suite: (a) The volcanic products vary from transitional olivine basalt to peralkaline rhyolite (abundant comendite and scarce pantellerite) (b) Predominance by erupted volume of

  7. Stable isotopic composition of cryptocrystalline magnesite from deposits in Turkey and Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horkel, K.; Ebner, F.; Spötl, Ch

    2009-04-01

    Cryptocrystalline magnesite (CM) occurs all over the world predominantly in ultramafic rocks and within those mainly in ophiolite zones. The mineralization forms either veins and networks, which are strictly controlled by regional fault tectonics (Kraubath-type), or nodules and layers, which occur in sediments above the ophiolite close to the paleosurface (Bela Stena type). These types are well established and named after their type deposits in Austria and Serbia, respectively (Pohl, 1990; Prochaska, 2000; Wilson & Ebner, 2006). Stable isotopic studies of CM showed that in comparison to sparry magnesite CM has lower δ13C values (-18‰ to -6‰) and more constant δ18O values (+22‰ to +29‰) (Kralik et al., 1989). Furthermore, it was observed that the Kraubath-type and Bela Stena-type CM differ in their isotopic composition in that the latter is characterised by higher δ13C (-1‰ to +4‰) and δ18O values (+26‰ to +36‰) (Jurković & Pamić, 2003). The formation of CM is still a subject of debate. The δ18O values suggests formation temperatures below 80°C (Kralik et al., 1989; Ece et al., 2005). The C isotope data indicate that the C was either derived from the atmosphere or by decarboxylation of organic-rich sediments (Zedef et al. 2000). Our research addresses the following major questions: (a) What are the reasons for the difference in stable isotopic composition between the Kraubath and the Bela Stena-type? (b) Is it possible to distinguish different types of mineralizations within a deposit using stable isotope data and can this information be applied as a tool for CM exploration? (c) Do the individual isotopic patterns of the individual deposits reflect different conditions for formation or later (post-mineralization) alteration events? Our investigations were concentrated on the type locality in Kraubath (Austria) as well as on some currently operating deposits in the magnesite districts of Eskişehir and Tavşanlı (western Anatolia/ Turkey

  8. Organophosphate toxicity in wild turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettles, V F

    1976-10-01

    An accidental poisoning of wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo silvestris) by O,O-Diethyl O-[p-(methylsulfinyl) phenyl] phosphorothioate is reported. Diagnosis was achieved by history, clinical observations, postmortem lesions, diagnostic therapy and pesticide analysis.

  9. Environmental Assessment of Wild Turkey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is an unpublished report on the environmental assessment and proposed restocking of Wild Turkey at Santee National Wildlife Refuge. Santee Refuge proposes,...

  10. Turkey Run Landfill Emissions Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — landfill emissions measurements for the Turkey run landfill in Georgia. This dataset is associated with the following publication: De la Cruz, F., R. Green, G....

  11. How Turkey Meets MPOWER Criteria?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazmi Bilir

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In 2003 World Health Assembly adopted an international treaty on tobacco control; FCTC, Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Five year later World Health Organization (WHO declared the six effective approach for tobacco control, under the name of MPOWER. In the following years, WHO evaluated the level of implementation of MPOWER criteria in the countries. In this article, how Turkey implemented these six criteria will be discussed. Monitor tobacco use and prevention policies: Monitoring of tobacco use prevalence has been successfully monitored in Turkey through Global Adult Tobacco Survey, Global Youth Tobacco Survey and Health Professionals Tobacco Use Survey. Nevertheless, monitoring of tobacco industry activities was not successfully implemented. Protect people from tobacco smoke: Smoking was banned in most of the indoor public places in Turkey since 1996, and Turkey became a complete smoke-free country by the exposion of smoke-free places including the hospitality workplaces in 2008. Offer help to quit tobacco use: Although smoking cessation services has been a bit late in Turkey, availability of smoking cessation drugs and the establishment of free quitline services made Turkey successful in this regard. Warn about the dangers of tobacco: Since 1996, all TV channels have a duty of broadcasting programs on harms of tobacco use, not less than 90 minutes in a month and it has been implemented successfully. Additionally written messages indicating harms of tobacco has been printed on the packs since 1988 and pictures was added in 2010. But since the average surface area covered by the messages in less than 50% of the total surface of the pack, Turkey was not regarded as to meet the requirement. Enforce bans on tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship: All kinds of tobacco advertisement and promotion was banned by the Law in 1996. But the tobacco products was not in closed boxes at the sales points. Turkey was not found as successful

  12. Magnetic properties of tephras from Lake Van (Eastern Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makaroglu, Ozlem; Caǧatay, Namık; Pesonen, Lauri J.; Orbay, Naci

    2013-04-01

    Here we present magnetic properties of tephra layers in the cores taken from Lake Van, Eastern Anatolia, Turkey. Lake Van is the fourth largest terminal Lake in the world by volume (607 km3). It is 460 m deep and has a salinity of 21.4 per mil and a pH of 9.81. It is located on the East Anatolian Plateau with present day water level of 1648 m.a.s.l., and surrounded by large stratovolcanoes Nemrut, Suphan, Tendurek, and Ararat to the west and north. It has accumulated varved-sediments with tephra units, which all provide important paleoenvironmental records. After a seismic survey, four different locations were selected for coring in Lake Van, with water depths varying between 60 m and 90 m. Four cores having between 3 and 4.8 m length were analyzed for for element geochemistry using XRF Core Scanner analysis. The sub-samples were taken into plastic boxes with a volume of 6.4 cm3 for mineral magnetic analysis. The mineral magnetic measurements included magnetic susceptibility (χ), anhysteretic remanent magnetisation (ARM), isothermal remanent magnetisation (IRM), hysteresis properties and thermomagnetic analyses. According to the mineral magnetic measurements and geochemical analysis, we identified the five tephra layers (T1-T5). These tephra units were correlated with the previously varve-dated units of Landmann et al. (2011). The varve ages of the tephra layers were used to obtain the age-depth model for the cores. According to the age models the cores extend back to 9500 ka BP (varve years). Down-core profiles of all the magnetic properties are highly correlatable between different cores, suggesting that the magnetic records are of regional character. ARM values are found to be more convenient than χ values for correlating the tephra layers. The hysteresis parameters of samples taken from these layers indicate that they are within Pseudo Single Domain range. IRM curves show that low coersivity magnetic minerals are dominated in all tephra layers. Measurements

  13. Edible Snails (Terrestrial) of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    YILDIRIM, M. Zeki

    2004-01-01

    Edible species and their distribution in Turkey were studied. The absence of Helix pomatia, a species reported to occur in Turkey in resources in various disciplines, is mentioned, while 7 species of edible snails determined (Theba pisana, Eobania vermiculata, Cryptomphalus aspersus, Cantareus apertus, Helix asemnis, Helix cincta and Helix lucorum) are described in detail by means of morphology, distribution, systematical positions, and a key to the species is given. Additionally, problems ab...

  14. Equine glanders in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arun, S; Neubauer, H; Gürel, A; Ayyildiz, G; Kusçu, B; Yesildere, T; Meyer, H; Hermanns, W

    1999-03-01

    In the course of an epidemiological study of glanders on a number of Turkish islands in the Sea of Marmara, 1128 horses were examined by using the intracutaneous mallein test. Thirty-five (3-1 per cent) developed an increase in rectal temperature and a swelling at the point of injection. Ten of these horses were killed and glanders was confirmed in five cases by the presence of lesions and by the immunohistological demonstration of the causative agent, Burkholderia mallei. Clinical and pathological findings indicated that in all cases the infection was restricted to the mucous membrane of the nasal cavity with its parasinus, the nostrils and the upper lips. It was confirmed that equine glanders is endemic in Turkey.

  15. Field evidences of secondary surface ruptures occurred during the 20 February 1956 Eskişehir earthquake in the NW Anatolia

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Faruk Ocakoğlu; Sanem Açıkalın

    2010-12-01

    Surface rupture and source fault of the 20 February 1956 Eskişehir earthquake have been a matter of debate that potentially contributes towards the understanding of the active deformation and seismic risk in the highly populated NW Anatolia. Field observations on the two fault segments (namely Kavacık and Uludere faults) in the north of the Eskişehir graben revealed evidences of co-seismic surface rupture and mass movements during the Eskişehir earthquake. Surface rupture was observed as a 2.5 m wide, a 100 m long and ca.20 cm deep asymmetric depression in the Gümüşlü valley, 2 km east of the Uludere village. A trench dug on this depression con firms a prominent high-angle south dipping fault (dominantly left lateral strike slip) and two faint north-dipping antithetics as clear noticeable shear zones in organic-rich thick soil. Mass failures are particularly observed in spring depressions filled with loose torrent and carbonaceous material in front of the fault scarp. Some rock slides of several tens of meters in size that obviously require significantly high ground shaking were also developed on steep fault scarps. The orientation of the principal stress tensor as deduced from the surface rupture of the Eskişehir earthquake displays clear inconsistency with the geometry of prominent faults in the area. We concluded that this disagreement may be explained by a curved surface rupture. The western and eastern tips of this rupture are EW trending and the probable NW-running part in the middle would correspond to the bounding zone between two right-stepping faults.

  16. Composite biostratigraphy and microfacies analysis of the Upper Jurassic - Lower Cretaceous carbonate platform to slope successions in Sivrihisar (Eskişehir) region (NW Turkey, Pontides): Remarks on the palaeogeographic evolution of the Western Sakarya Zo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atasoy, Serdar G.; Altıner, Demir; Okay, Aral I.

    2017-04-01

    Two stratigraphical sections were measured along the Upper Jurassic - Lower Cretaceous carbonate successions exposed in a tectonic klippe of the Sakarya Zone (Pontides), north of Sivrihisar. According to the biozonation and microfacies types, two coeval but dissimiliar rock successions, separated by a thrust fault, have been detected. These successions belong to different depositional belts of the Edremit-Bursa-Bilecik Carbonate Platform (EBBCP), western Sakarya Zone. The lower succession displays a slope to basin facies and consists of the Kimmeridgian - Berriasian Yosunlukbayırı Formation and the overlying Valanginian Soǧukçam Limestone. Within these deposits the following biozones were defined: Globuligerina oxfordiana - Mohlerina basiliensis Zone (Kimmeridgian), Saccocoma Zone (Lower Tithonian), Protopeneroplis ultragranulata Zone (Upper Tithonian), Crassicollaria (massutiana subzone) Zone (uppermost Tithonian), Calpionella (alpina, Remaniella, elliptica subzones) Zone (Lower Berriasian), Calpionellopsis (simplex, oblonga subzones) Zone (Upper Berriasian) and Calpionellites (darderi subzone) Zone (Lower Valanginian). This succession is overthrusted from north to south by another distinct succession characterized by the shallow marine carbonate facies of the Kimmeridgian Günören Formation. Within this unit Labyrinthina mirabilis - Protopeneroplis striata (Kimmeridgian) Zone is recognized. A facies model is proposed for the Sivrihisar transect of the EBBCP for Kimmeridgian - Valanginian interval, based on the distribution of microfacies types. The toe-of-slope facies are characterized by peloidal-bioclastic packstone, mudstone-wackestone and calpionellid/ radiolarian wackestone-packstone comprising pelagic taxa (calpionellids, radiolaria, Globochaete sp., Pithonella sp., Saccocoma sp., calcareous dinocysts, aptychi, very rare planktonic foraminifera and nannoconids) and rare fossil groups transported from the carbonate platform (benthic foraminifera

  17. Palynological evidence for late-Holocene human occupation recorded in two wetlands in SW Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermoere, M; Bottema, S; Vanhecke, L; Waelkens, M; Paulissen, E; Smets, E

    2002-01-01

    Pollen diagrams from mountain lakes and marshes in SW Turkey show evidence of intensive anthropogenic influence in the landscape between 3500 and 1300 BP. Three cores from within the territory of the classical city Sagalassos (Western Taurus, Pisidia) were palynologically analysed to make a reconstr

  18. Long-term spatio-temporal drought variability in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabanlı, İsmail; Mishra, Ashok K.; Şen, Zekai

    2017-09-01

    The spatio-temporal variability of drought is presented by evaluating homogeneously distributed 250 station records from 1931 to 2010 for 80 years' duration in Turkey. The drought analysis is implemented using Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) in terms of SPI-1, SPI-3, SPI-6, SPI-6AS (SPI-6 April to September) and SPI-12. The principle component analysis (PCA) is applied to SPI time series to identify spatial and temporal drought patterns. SPI time series are classified into two groups (1st group: SPI-1, SPI-3, SPI-6AS; and 2nd group: SPI-6 and SPI-12) according to the similarity in spatial drought patterns. SPI-3 and SPI-12 are selected as representative members of each group for spatio-temporal analysis. A relationship among correlation area (An), correlation coefficient (CC), principle component numbers (Fn) and total variances explained (Vexp) are investigated for identifying four well-defined drought vulnerable homogeneous regions over Turkey mainland. Mean percentages of extreme, severe, and moderate drought areas are calculated as 3.13% (2.81%), 3.75% (4.06%) and 7.19% (7.50%) for SPI-3 (SPI-12) based on 80 years in all drought vulnerable regions. Spectral characteristics of drought are also investigated based on fast Fourier transform (FFT) method. It is observed that while southeastern and western parts of Turkey are more stable due to the highly-correlated variances of spatial patterns; central parts and few pockets in northern areas of Turkey are less stable regions because of the low-correlated variance scores (below 10%). Furthermore, the impact of extreme phases of the ENSO (El Nino/La Nina) on droughts in four drought regions over Turkey is discussed.

  19. Four new tree-ring chronologies from old black pine forests of Sandıras Mountain (Mugla, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Doğan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sandıras Mountain is located in southwest of Gölgeli Mountain, which lies parallel to border of Aegean and Mediterranean Regions, in Southwestern Anatolia. This mountainous area is one of the natural distribution areas of black pine (Pinus nigra Arn. and has the oldest black pine communities in Turkey. Monumental black pine stands and the large number of individual monumental trees can be observed between the 1200 and 2000 m elevations of the mountain (especially north slope of the mountain. In this paper, we present preliminary results of a dendrochronological research on old black pine trees of Sandıras Mountain. Four new tree-ring chronologies were built from upper and lower elevations of south and north slopes of the mountain. The shortest and the longest chronologies were 241 and 820 years-long (obtained from upper elevation of the north slope, respectively. In this research, we record the most sensitive black pine trees (mean sensitivity value is 0.27 of Turkey from the north slope of Sandıras Mountain.

  20. Coastline change assessment on water reservoirs located in the Konya Basin Area, Turkey, using multitemporal landsat imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durduran, S Savas

    2010-05-01

    This paper focuses mainly on the coastline change assessment on water reservoirs located in the Konya Basin Area, Turkey. The Konya Closed Basin exists at the Central Anatolia Region and covers a region of 50,000 km(2) area corresponding to the 7% cumulative area of Turkey in which three million people live, 45% in rural areas and 55% in urban areas. The basin is surrounded with the city centers of Konya, Aksaray, Karaman, Isparta, Niğde, Ankara, Nevşehir, and Antalya cities. In this study, these changes were examined using Landsat TM and ETM+ 1987-2006 and 1990-2000. In the image processing step, image and vectorization of the satellite images were carried out to monitor coastline changes over the lakes located in the Konya Closed Basin Area. At the end of the study, significant coastline movements were detected for a 19-year period due to drought effects, agricultural watering, and planning mistakes experienced in the basin.

  1. Evaluation of Groundwater Storage changes at Konya Closed Basin, Turkey using GRACE-based and in-situ measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamil Yilmaz, Koray; Saber, Mohamed; Tugrul Yilmaz, Mustafa

    2016-04-01

    The Konya Closed Basin (KCB) located in Central Anatolia, Turkey, is the primary grain producer in Turkey. The lack of sufficient surface water resources and recently changing crop patterns have led to over-exploitation of groundwater resources and resulted in significant drop in groundwater levels. For this reason monitoring of the groundwater storage change in this region is critical to understand the potential of the current water resources and to devise effective water management strategies to avoid further depletion of the groundwater resources. Therefore, the main objective of this study is to examine and assess the utility of the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) and the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) to monitor and investigate the groundwater storage changes in the Konya Closed Basin. Groundwater storage changes are derived using GRACE and GLDAS data and then are compared with the groundwater changes derived from the observed groundwater levels. The initial results of the comparison indicate an acceptable agreement between declining trends in GRACE-based and observed groundwater storage change during the study time period (2002 to 2015). Additionally, the results indicated that the study region exhibited remarkable drought conditions during 2007-2008 period. This study shows that the GRACE/GLDAS datasets can be used to monitor the equivalent groundwater storage changes which is crucial for long-term effective water management strategies.

  2. Histomoniasis in wild turkeys in Mississippi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, G A

    1980-07-01

    Blackhead (histomoniasis, enterohepatitis) was diagnosed as the cause of death for three wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo silvestris) found in widely separated areas in Mississippi. The turkeys came from areas with high turkey population densities and supplemental feeding programs. Finding three sick and/or dead wild turkeys in a year's period suggests that the disease is more prevalent than generally believed. Recommendations for management programs are presented.

  3. EU-Turkey Relations: Changing Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Tamás Szigetvári

    2014-01-01

    The enlargement policy is important for the EU not only to extend its zone of peace, stability and prosperity, but also to increase its global competitiveness. Among the potential EU candidates, Turkey has a special place. As the only candidate that belongs to the group of newly emerging economic powers, Turkey may contribute significantly to the economic prosperity of Europe. Since its creation in 1923, Turkey showed an eager wish to belong to the European nations. Turkey adopted deep reform...

  4. The genetic polymorphisms and colonization process of olive fly populations in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogaç, Ersin; Kandemir, İrfan; Taskin, Vatan

    2013-01-01

    The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, is the most important pest of olives in olive growing regions worldwide, especially in the Mediterranean basin and North America. Despite the economic importance of the olive fly, the colonization route of this species is unclear. We used nuclear microsatellite markers and mitochondrial DNA to provide information about the population structure and invasion route of olive fly populations in Turkey, as representative of the Eastern Mediterranean region. Adult fly samples were collected from 38 sublocations covering all olive growing regions in Turkey. The simple sequence variability data revealed a significant genetic variability in olive fly populations and a certain degree of differentiation between Mediterranean and Aegean populations. Mediterranean populations harbor higher levels of microsatellite variation than Aegean populations, which points to the eastern part of the Mediterranean as the putative source of invasion. mtDNA results suggest olive flies from the western part of Turkey are closely related to Italo-Aegean flies of the Mediterranean basin and the olive fly populations have invaded the northern part of the Mediterranean basin through western Turkey. In addition, finding specific American haplotypes in high frequencies might indicate that Turkey is the possible source of American olive fly populations. In order to more precisely characterize the population structure and invasion routes of this organism, more DNA-based sequence analysis should be carried out worldwide.

  5. Western Sufism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sedgwick, Mark

    Western Sufism is sometimes dismissed as a relatively recent "new age" phenomenon, but in this book, Mark Sedgwick argues that it actually has very deep roots, both in the Muslim world and in the West. In fact, although the first significant Western Sufi organization was not established until 1915......, the first Western discussion of Sufism was printed in 1480, and Western interest in some of the ideas that are central to Sufi thought goes back to the thirteenth century. Sedgwick starts with the earliest origins of Western Sufism in late antique Neoplatonism and early Arab philosophy, and traces later...

  6. Time's Up, Turkey--Pop-Up Thermometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, Richard; Everett, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Meat thermometers can be awkward to use in terms of placement and avoidance of bones. Because of these problems, each year 30 million Thanksgiving turkeys have a built-in thermometer that pops up when the turkey is properly cooked. Turkey timers are an example of how engineering solved a common, everyday problem. The following 5E learning cycle…

  7. Time's Up, Turkey--Pop-Up Thermometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, Richard; Everett, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Meat thermometers can be awkward to use in terms of placement and avoidance of bones. Because of these problems, each year 30 million Thanksgiving turkeys have a built-in thermometer that pops up when the turkey is properly cooked. Turkey timers are an example of how engineering solved a common, everyday problem. The following 5E learning cycle…

  8. REVIEW OF THE OCCURRENCE OF TWO NEW MINERALS IN THE EMET BORATE DEPOSIT, TURKEY: EMETITE, Ca7Na3K(SO4)9, and FONTARNAUITE, Na2Sr(SO4)[B5O8(OH)](H2O)2

    OpenAIRE

    Helvaci, Cahit

    2015-01-01

    The Emet borate deposit is situated in the middle of the known borate deposits of western Anatolia. Emet is the world biggest colemanite-probertite deposit which is located in the upper section of the volcano-sedimentary sequence of the Emet basin. Emet borate deposit is unique and has unusual mineral associations. The principal minerals in the Emet borate deposit are colemanite with minor probertite, ulexite and hydroboracite. In addition, rare species such as meyerhofferite, veatchite-A, tu...

  9. Earthquake and Tsunami Disaster Mitigation in the Marmara Region and Disaster Education in Turkey Part3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneda, Yoshiyuki; Ozener, Haluk; Meral Ozel, Nurcan; Kalafat, Dogan; Ozgur Citak, Seckin; Takahashi, Narumi; Hori, Takane; Hori, Muneo; Sakamoto, Mayumi; Pinar, Ali; Oguz Ozel, Asim; Cevdet Yalciner, Ahmet; Tanircan, Gulum; Demirtas, Ahmet

    2017-04-01

    There have been many destructive earthquakes and tsunamis in the world.The recent events are, 2011 East Japan Earthquake/Tsunami in Japan, 2015 Nepal Earthquake and 2016 Kumamoto Earthquake in Japan, and so on. And very recently a destructive earthquake occurred in Central Italy. In Turkey, the 1999 Izmit Earthquake as the destructive earthquake occurred along the North Anatolian Fault (NAF). The NAF crosses the Sea of Marmara and the only "seismic gap" remains beneath the Sea of Marmara. Istanbul with high population similar to Tokyo in Japan, is located around the Sea of Marmara where fatal damages expected to be generated as compound damages including Tsunami and liquefaction, when the next destructive Marmara Earthquake occurs. The seismic risk of Istanbul seems to be under the similar risk condition as Tokyo in case of Nankai Trough earthquake and metropolitan earthquake. It was considered that Japanese and Turkish researchers can share their own experiences during past damaging earthquakes and can prepare for the future large earthquakes in cooperation with each other. Therefore, in 2013 the two countries, Japan and Turkey made an agreement to start a multidisciplinary research project, MarDiM SATREPS. The Project runs researches to aim to raise the preparedness for possible large-scale earthquake and Tsunami disasters in Marmara Region and it has four research groups with the following goals. 1) The first one is Marmara Earthquake Source region observational research group. This group has 4 sub-groups such as Seismicity, Geodesy, Electromagnetics and Trench analyses. Preliminary results such as seismicity and crustal deformation on the sea floor in Sea of Marmara have already achieved. 2) The second group focuses on scenario researches of earthquake occurrence along the North Anatolia Fault and precise tsunami simulation in the Marmara region. Research results from this group are to be the model of earthquake occurrence scenario in Sea of Marmara and the

  10. GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF TROUT FARMING IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güven ŞAHİN

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Turkey is a peninsula, surrounded by seas on three sides, with a total coastline of 8.333km. As a result of its heritage from ancient inland living culture, Turkey has a limited development in fishery production. However, there have been significant efforts in developing Trout Farming, compared to the other aquaculture products in Turkey. The recent developments in trout farming in Turkey have led to an increase in trout productions, providing alternatives for public nutrition. This study aims to assess the geographical distribution of trout farming and trout fish consumption in Turkey.

  11. Experimental Toxoplasmosis in White Turkeys

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    Ayhan ATASEVER

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, forming of experimental toxoplasmosis in white turkeys; clinical, pathological and serological determination of tissue lesions, aimed to compare them and determine pathogenesis. For these purposes, a total of 120 two months old white turkeys were divided into groups as oral and parenteral infections and also their controls. The oral group was infected with 0.5 mL of Toxoplasma gondii RH strain inoculum suspension contains 106 tachyzoites while its control group was given 0.5 mL of saline. The parenteral group were divided into four groups as intraperitoneal (IP, intramuscular (IM, intravenous (IV and cloacal (C. Each parenteral route was divided into two groups and one control group for inoculums given 105 and 104 tachyzoites in 0.5 mL. These two control groups were also given 0.5 mL saline as indicated above. Due to acute toxoplasmosis, death occurred in three white turkeys given tachyzoites IP 105 showed neurological clinical symptoms as torticollis, ataxia, and tremor. In the histopahologic examination of these three turkeys, T. gondii tissue cysts were detected in the brain. Also, one of given 105 tachyzoites IP group in the brain and one given 104 tachyzoites IV group in the liver were observed tissue cysts associated with toxoplasmosis. The turkeys in all infection groups were found seropositive in both Sabin-Feldman Dye Test (SFDT and Indirect Hemagglutination Test (IHA. The statistical difference between SFDT and IHA was insignificantly for the both parenteral infection groups (P>0.05 while the difference was found significantly for the orally infected group (P<0.05. In conclusion in the present study, the tissue cysts of T. gondii were microscopically seen in brain and liver of the experimental infected white turkeys.

  12. Azerbaycan Türkçesi İle Doğu Anadolu Ağızlarındaki Ortaklıklar Üzerine On The Common Traits Of The Azerbaijan Turkish And The Eastern Anatolia Dialects

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    Engin GÖKÇÜR

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We call Oghuz Turkish spoken from Central Asia to Baghdad, the capital of the Abbasid Empire, since 11th century, as the Western Turkic. This period is divided into two branches in time. One of them is the Eastern Oghuz branch covering Eastern Anatolia and Azerbaijani and the other one is the Western Oghuz branch covering Ottoman field. The Eastern Oghuz branch covering Eastern Anatolia and Azerbaijani, and the Western Oghuz branch covering Ottoman field are represented by a single written language named as “Western Turkish” till 16thCentury. Azerbaijan and the Ottoman writing languages separated fromeach other in the 16th century as a result of the fact that the Azerbaijanterritory was dominated by Karakoyunlu and Akkoyunlu in the 15thCentury and Safavid Empire in the 16th century. For that reason,Western Turkic reaches the present day from the 16th century with twowriting languages including some phonetic and morphologic differences.Although the East Anatolian dialects have been in the Western Oghuzbranch, they still have the traits of the Eastern Oghuz branch in termsof phonetics and morphology.In studies of language products in the provinces of EasternAnatolia it is seen that the dialects of the region are in the domain ofAzerbaijan Turkish. So in this article, the studies of the dialects of theEastern Anatolia Region (Erzurum, Elazığ, Erzincan, Kars, Iğdır,Ardahan, Muş, Bitlis ve Van are examined; and the phonetic andmorphological similarities of this studies with Azerbaijani Turkic areidentified. 11. yüzyıldan itibaren Orta Asya’dan Abbasi Devleti'nin başkenti Bağdat’a kadar olan bölgede konuşulan Oğuz Türkçesine Batı Türkçesi denilmektedir. Bu dönem zamanla iki kola ayrılmıştır. Bunlardan biri Azerbaycan ve Doğu Anadolu sahasını içine alan Doğu Oğuz kolu, diğeri Osmanlı sahasını içine alan Batı Oğuz koludur. Azerbaycan ve Doğu Anadolu sahasının içinde bulunduğu Doğu Oğuz kolu ile Osmanl

  13. Turkey and its international relations in the history of medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, N

    2001-12-01

    My discussions with ISHM members have disclosed considerable interest in the history of the relations that Turkey and its medicine have had with other countries. Dr Lellouch, the secretary of ISHM, originally suggested that I address the subject of Turkish-French relations by means of an essay in Vesalius. This led me to consider a wider ranging paper on Ottoman-European relations. For completeness, I have briefly covered the Turkish peoples' relations with the Eastern, as well as the Western World. The overall aim of this article is to act as a stimulus for further discussion on the international relations in health sciences between Turks and other peoples.

  14. a Survey of Landnet Sites Focusing on Tuz GÖLÜ Salt Lake, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürbüz, S. Z.; Özen, H.; Chander, G.

    2012-07-01

    Radiometric calibration is critical to ensure the accuracy, veracity, continuity and reliability of satellite data measured from multiple sensors and platforms, and is thus recognized as a key activity by all satellite operators. For imaging sensors, vicarious methods using natural targets (such as salt lakes, deserts, or flatlands that are well-characterized and preferably temporally and spatially stable) as a reference are similarly well established. However, while selecting a target site, it is important that its quality and location are selected to minimize sources of uncertainty for any given sensor. To maximize the benefit from limited resources and minimize the impact on satellite operators, the Infrared Visible Optical Sensor (IVOS) sub-group of Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) Working Group on Calibration and Validation (WGCV) has selected a few, well-characterized, regularly instrumented target sites, which have since become known as LANDNET sites. Currently, there are eight LANDNET sites: 1) Dome C, Antarctica; 2) Dunhuang, China, Asia; 3) Lspec Frenchman Flat, NV, USA, North America; 4) Ivanpah, NV/CA, USA, North America; 5) La Crau, France, Europe; 6) Negev, Southern Israel, Asia; 7) Railroad Valley Playa, NV, USA, North America; 8) Tuz Gölü, Central Anatolia, Turkey, Asia. This work summarizes the key characteristics, and areas of application of each of the LANDNET sites, especially that of Tuz Gölü, to guide and inform researchers on site selection, and increase international awareness and collaboration in this field. Additionally, detailed information about the Tuz Gölü, Turkey test site is provided, including geographical characteristics, spatial uniformity qualities, and opportunities for international researchers to conduct experiments and measurements. Practical, technical, and logistical experience gained through the international field campaigns organized over the last few years at Tuz Gölü is also shared in detail.

  15. Brucellar epididymo-orchitis in southeastern part of Turkey: an 8 year experience

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    Mustafa Kemal Celen

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: the different clinical and laboratory features and response to treatment of patients with acute brucellar epididymo-orchitis (BEO reporting to the reference hospital in Southeastern Anatolia of Turkey. MATERIAL AND METHODS: in this study, 27 male patients with brucellosis, who presented with epididymitis or epididymo-orchitis (EO at the university hospital in Diyarbakir from 1998 to 2006, were included. They were compared with the other male patients. Positive blood culture or high agglutination titers of > 1/160 and positive clinical manifestations of brucellosis were the main criteria for diagnosing brucellosis. RESULTS: fourteen patients had unilateral EO. Leukocytosis was present in 10 patients; all of them had initial agglutination titers of > 1/160 and 10 patients had a positive blood culture. All patients received combined therapy with streptomycin for the first 21 days (or oral rifampicin for 6-8 weeks with doxycycline or tetracycline for 6-8 weeks. All showed improvement, fever subsided in 3-7 days, and the scrotal enlargement and tenderness regressed. Only one patient had a relapse within one year. CONCLUSION: in brucellosis-endemic areas, clinicians encountering EO should consider the likelihood of brucellosis. In this study, young age was the most common risk factor, and leukocytosis and high CRP level were the most common laboratory findings. Most cases were unilateral. All patients responded to medical management very well. Conservative management with combination antibiotic therapy was adequate for managing BEO. Conclusively, brucellosis must be considered as a cause of orchitis, especially in endemic regions like Turkey.

  16. Kurban (sacrifice tradition in Western Thracian Turks

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    Füsun Aşkar

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is prepared within 04-DPT-007 the Project of Preparing Museum and Archive on Folk Music Instruments, Folk Dances, Traditional Clothes and Folk Music in Anatolia and the Balkans started with the research of Ege University State Turkish Music Conservatory, Turkish Folk Dance Department in Macedonia on 18 April 2004.In the Greece trip within the project, on-site monitoring works have been conducted in the villages where Western Thracian Turks that are taken under research live in Komotini and Xanthi and as a result of these works it is seen that traditions that can be expressed as the facts of cultural remnants from past to present that have still maintained through cultural sanctions have maintained even with different applications.One of the traditions of Western Thracian Turks, Kurban (Sacrifice Tradition attracts attention as a tradition reflects acting collectively and union of forces and a tradition based on cooperation. In this article, this tradition that has still continued to maintain is going to be handled.

  17. Kurban (sacrifice tradition in Western Thracian Turks

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    Füsun Aşkar

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is prepared within 04-DPT-007 the Project of Preparing Museum and Archive on Folk Music Instruments, Folk Dances, Traditional Clothes and Folk Music in Anatolia and the Balkans started with the research of Ege University State Turkish Music Conservatory, Turkish Folk Dance Department in Macedonia on 18 April 2004. In the Greece trip within the project, on-site monitoring works have been conducted in the villages where Western Thracian Turks that are taken under research live in Komotini and Xanthi and as a result of these works it is seen that traditions that can be expressed as the facts of cultural remnants from past to present that have still maintained through cultural sanctions have maintained even with different applications. One of the traditions of Western Thracian Turks, Kurban (Sacrifice Tradition attracts attention as a tradition reflects acting collectively and union of forces and a tradition based on cooperation. In this article, this tradition that has still continued to maintain is going to be handled.

  18. Paleoseismological investigations on a slow-moving active fault in central Anatolia, Tecer Fault, Sivas

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    Husnu Serdar Akyuz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tecer Fault is a N60˚-70˚E-trending, left-lateral, strike-slip fault to the south of the town of Sivas, Turkey. This fault is considered as the eastward continuation of Deliler Fault, which was classified as a probably active, left-lateral fault on the Active Fault Map of Turkey. We investigated the field characteristics and paleoseismic history of Tecer Fault in detail. After analyzing aerial photographs and satellite images, we mapped the exact fault trace on a 1/25,000 scale topographic map, between the towns of Deliilyas in southwest and Bogazdere in northeast. Tecer Fault is characterized by morphological features such as offset streams and gullies, linear depressions and scarps, and elongated hills. Four paleoseismological trenches were excavated on the northeastern extent of the fault. Two past earthquakes were identified in these trenches, and the dates of the collected charcoal samples suggested that the first of these earthquakes occurred about 8000 B.C. while the more recent event took place around 3500 B.C. Field observations and paleoseismic data indicate that Tecer Fault is an active, pure sinistral, strike-slip fault, and that there is about a 4500 years time span between the two earthquakes. It is also clear that there has not been any surface-ruptured faulting over the last 800 years. Compared with the earthquake characteristics of other strike-slip fault zones in Turkey in terms of time-slip relations, the slip rate can be estimated as about 1 mm/yr on Tecer Fault.

  19. A new species of the genus Rossomyrmex Arnoldi, 1928 from Turkey (Hymenoptera. Formicidae

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    Tinaut, A.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A new species, Rossomyrmex anatolicus, is described from the Anatolian plains (Turkey. Although it is very similar to R. proformicarum because of the abundant pilosity, it can be distinguished by the petiole, which gradually narrows towards the apex. This character, together with the high number of hairs, can be used, also, to differentiate it from R. minuchae. The geographical distribution of the genus Rossomyrmex is discussed and compared with other taxa that also show disjointed distributions.Se describe Rossomyrmex anatolicus, nueva especie encontrada en las llanuras de Anatolia (Turquía. Muy parecida a R. proformicarum por la abundante pilosidad, se diferencia de ésta por el peciolo, que se estrecha gradualmente hasta el ápice. Este mismo carácter, junto con la pilosidad permiten diferenciarla de R. minuchae. Se discute la distribución geográfica del género Rossomyrmex y se compara con la de otros taxones que muestran también distribución disjunta.

  20. Preliminary seismic microzonation of Sivas city (Turkey) using microtremor and refraction microtremor (ReMi) measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büyüksaraç, Aydın; Bektaş, Özcan; Yılmaz, Hüseyin; Arısoy, M. Özgü

    2013-04-01

    Sivas city, located in the inner east part of Anatolia (Turkey), is far from seismic sources. However, the city is under risk owing to strong earthquakes occurring around the area, and different soil conditions that can produce variation in the ground motion amplification. Microzonation of cities provides a basis for site-specific hazard analysis in urban settlements. In particular, seismic microzonation can be achieved by means of detailed seismic assessment of the area, including earthquake recordings and geological studies. In this paper, we propose a preliminary microzonation map for the city of Sivas, based on the variation in the dominant periods of the sediments covering the area. The periods are retrieved from microtremor measurements conducted at 114 sites, using the horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio technique. The results of microtremor analysis were compared with those obtained from refraction microtremor measurements at two profiles crossing the studied area. According to the classification of dominant periods, Sivas area can be divided into four zones, probably prone to different levels of seismic hazard. However, specific studies including analysis of weak earthquakes are required in the future to validate our microzonation map.

  1. Investigation of the Galatian volcanic complex in the northern central Turkey using potential field data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilim, Funda

    2011-03-01

    The Galatia volcanic complex (GVC) is one of two important volcanic complexes located in central Anatolia, Turkey. The study of potential field data can yield useful information about the subsurface magnetisation and density distribution. In this paper, a study of the thermal structural setting of the GVC using the analysis and interpretation of aeromagnetic data is presented. Volcanic rocks are the main cause of the magnetic anomalies that occur in the study region. A Curie-point-depth (CPD) map was constructed using the azimuthally averaged power spectrum of aeromagnetic anomaly data that was reduced-to-the-pole transformed (RTP); the map shows high geothermal potential for the GVC. The Curie point depths vary from about 6.74 km to 16.9 km and are consistent with the results of previous geothermal studies. The GVC exhibits low CPD and high heat-flow values (>100 mW m -2). The CPD suggested that deep-seated magnetised sources continue downward up to 10 km (inside the upper crust). A horizontal gradient analytic signal (HGAS) map exhibits the images and locations of deep-seated magnetised sources. In addition, the CPD and average Moho depth (33 km, calculated from gravity anomaly data) are used to determine the presence of magnetic and non-magnetic crust in two cross sections taken from the GVC. The results presented should shed considerable light on some aspects of geothermal exploration in the GVC.

  2. A debris avalanche at Süphan stratovolcano (Turkey) and implications for hazard evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, Yavuz; Akkaya, İsmail; Oyan, Vural; Kelfoun, Karim

    2016-02-01

    The Quaternary Süphan debris avalanche deposit is located in Eastern Anatolia, Turkey. The avalanche formed by the sector collapse of a major stratovolcano towards the north, possibly during a single catastrophic event. The deposit has an estimated volume of 4 km3 and ran out over 25 km to cover an area of approximately 200 km2. Products of the collapse are overlain by younger eruptive units from the Süphan volcano. We have tested the numerical code VolcFlow to first reproduce the emplacement of the Quaternary Süphan debris avalanche and then to develop a hazard assessment for potential future sector collapses and subsequent emplacement of debris avalanches and associated tsunami. The numerical model captures the main features of the propagation process, including travel distance, lateral spread, and run up. The best fit obtained for the existing flow has a constant retarding stress of 50 kPa and a collapse scar volume of 4 km3. Analysis of potential future collapse scenarios reveals that northern sector debris avalanches (up to 6 km3) could affect several towns. In the case of a sector collapse towards the south, a tsunami will reach the city of Van and several of the biggest towns on the southern shoreline of Lake Van. Cities most affected by the larger amplitude waves would be Van, Edremit, Gevaş, Tatvan, and, to a lesser extent, Erciş, with wave amplitudes (first waves after the onset of the collapse) between 8 and 10 m.

  3. Dose-dependent Medicinal Effects of Thymus haussknechtii Velen Grown Wild in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kılıçgün, Hasan; Korkmaz, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    In this study, it was aimed to determine dose-dependent interactions between phenolic contents and antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal effect mechanisms of the infusions of Thymus haussknechtii Velen, naturally grown in the Eastern Anatolia region of Turkey. Therefore, the infusions of Thymus haussknechtii were tested and the interactions between phenolic contents and antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal effect mechanisms were determined by way of different antioxidant, antibacterial and antioxidant test systems. The concentrations of Thymus haussknechtii showed strong hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity and free radical scavenging activity [1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil (DPPH) % inhibition]. Also, it was seen that Thymus haussknechtii infusions possessed strong antibacterial and antifungal activity against different gram negative and positive bacteria and fungi. In this study, positive correlations between antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal potency and the total phenolic content of Thymus haussknechtii were found. When the concentration differences were examined, it was seen that concentrations of 4% had the most strong antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal activity. As a result, Thymus haussknechtii can be reliable antioxidant, antibacterial antifungal substance at concentrations of 4% when it is used as a supplement to therapeutic regimens and for medicinal purposes.

  4. The knowledge levels of health personnel in Turkey regarding forensic evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calışkan, Nurcan; Ozden, Dilek

    2012-09-01

    It is important that health personnel have extensive and adequate knowledge and practice regarding forensic evidence. This article describes the knowledge and practices of health personnel, who work in emergency rooms and health centers, regarding forensic evidence. The health personnel in a city in Central Anatolia, Turkey, constitute the population of this descriptive study and 233 personnel constitute its sample. It was determined that 31.3% stated that the practices of forensic evidence collection are inadequate. It was determined that average knowledge scores of health personnel with respect to forensic evidence are 23.5 ± 7.28 of 40. It was found that there was a statistically significant difference between knowledge scores on the subject of forensic with respect to duty (p = 0.005), level of education (p = 0.005), and institution of health personnel (p = 0.015). It was determined that the scores of the health personnel, who work in emergency services and health centers, on the subject of forensic evidence, are not at a desirable level.

  5. Radon survey and soil gamma doses in primary schools of Batman, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damla, Nevzat; Aldemir, Kamuran

    2014-06-01

    A survey was conducted to evaluate levels of indoor radon and gamma doses in 42 primary schools located in Batman, southeastern Anatolia, Turkey. Indoor radon measurements were carried out using CR-39 solid-state nuclear track detector-based radon dosimeters. The overall mean annual (222)Rn activity in the surveyed area was found to be 49 Bq m(-3) (equivalent to an annual effective dose of 0.25 mSv). However, in one of the districts (Besiri) the maximum radon value turned out to be 307 Bq m(-3). The estimated annual effective doses are less than the recommended action level (3-10 mSv). It is found that the radon concentration decreases with increasing floor number. The concentrations of natural and artificial radioisotopes were determined using gamma-ray spectroscopy for soil samples collected in close vicinity of the studied schools. The mean gamma activity concentrations in the soil samples were 31, 25, 329 and 12 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K and (137)Cs, respectively. The radiological parameters such as the absorbed dose rate in air and the annual effective dose equivalent were calculated. These radiological parameters were evaluated and compared with the internationally recommended values.

  6. Diagenesis of Oligocene continental sandstones in salt-walled mini-basins-Sivas Basin, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichat, Alexandre; Hoareau, Guilhem; Callot, Jean-Paul; Ringenbach, Jean-Claude

    2016-06-01

    The recent discovery of Oligo-Miocene salt-walled continental mini-basins in the Sivas Basin (central Anatolia, Turkey) provides the opportunity to unravel the influence of halokinesis on the diagenesis of continental mini-basin infilling. In this study, petrographic and geochemical analyses are used to define the diagenetic sequences recorded by two mini-basins filled mainly by fluvial clastic sediments of the upper Oligocene Karayün Formation. The initial diagenetic features are those commonly encountered in arid to semi-arid continental environments, i.e. clay infiltration, hematite precipitation and vadose calcite cement. Other early cements were strongly controlled by sandstone detrital composition in the presence of saline/alkaline pore water. In feldspathic litharenites and lithic arkoses, near-surface alterations were characterized by the precipitation of analcime (up to 10%), albite and quartz overgrowths (burial diagenesis which prevented further mesogenetic alteration phenomena such as compaction. In feldsarenites, early diagenesis differs by (i) the absence of analcime, (ii) better developed albite cements, (iii) thin smectite-illite coatings forming pore linings and (iv) patchy calcite cementation (burial, and result in a significant degradation of porosity.

  7. Genetic characterization of autochthonous grapevine cultivars from Eastern Turkey by simple sequence repeats (SSRs

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    Sadiye Peral Eyduran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research, two well-recognized standard grape cultivars, Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot, together with eight historical autochthonous grapevine cultivars from Eastern Anatolia in Turkey, were genetically characterized by using 12 pairs of simple sequence repeat (SSR primers in order to evaluate their genetic diversity and relatedness. All of the used SSR primers produced successful amplifications and revealed DNA polymorphisms, which were subsequently utilized to evaluate the genetic relatedness of the grapevine cultivars. Allele richness was implied by the identification of 69 alleles in 8 autochthonous cultivars with a mean value of 5.75 alleles per locus. The average expected heterozygosity and observed heterozygosity were found to be 0.749 and 0.739, respectively. Taking into account the generated alleles, the highest number was recorded in VVC2C3 and VVS2 loci (nine and eight alleles per locus, respectively, whereas the lowest number was recorded in VrZAG83 (three alleles per locus. Two main clusters were produced by using the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean dendrogram constructed on the basis of the SSR data. Only Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot cultivars were included in the first cluster. The second cluster involved the rest of the autochthonous cultivars. The results obtained during the study illustrated clearly that SSR markers have verified to be an effective tool for fingerprinting grapevine cultivars and carrying out grapevine biodiversity studies. The obtained data are also meaningful references for grapevine domestication.

  8. CO{sub 2} storage possibilities in karstik regions: A case study from southwestern Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sener, M.; Tufekci, K. [Nigde University, Nigde (Turkey). Dept. of Geology

    2008-07-01

    In Turkey, the three power plants (Yataan, Yenikoy, and Kemerkoy) in the southwestern part of Anatolia use Upper Miocene-Pliocene coal and cause environmental pollution in the winter. For this reason, some considerations have been given to the injection of CO{sub 2} from the power plants into the crust. A research project has been put into the practice for decreasing of global warming. Karstification and geological features, which are included in very thick carbonate rocks (a thickness over 2,000 m and limestone, dolomite, and marble from Paleozoic to Pliocene), and faults-lineaments have been considered as very important agents that will affect the injection of CO{sub 2}. The micro- and macro-karstification and lineament of the region have been studied, and the rocks of the area have been grouped into two classes based on the appropriateness of karstification as suitable and unsuitable rocks. Karstic and geological features (rocks and dislocation lines) have been compared together in a Geographic Information Systems (GIS); thus, by taking note of the geological-geomorphological characteristics of the area, a case study has been proposed for the CO{sub 2} injection from the Gokova power plant emissions with GIS applications, and suitable areas for the injection have been determined for further research.

  9. ISLAMIC BANKING IN TURKEY: POPULATION PERCEPTION AND DEVELOPMENT CHALLENGES

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    István EGRESI

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Islamic banks have, over the last few decades, become very popular in the Gulf countries and in some countries in Southeast Asia with a majority Muslim population. They are on the rise even in some western cities such as London or New York which have witnessed a significant increase in their Muslim population. In this context, it is then surprising to see that in Turkey, a country in which almost 100% of the population is Muslim, the Islamic banking system is still in its incipient stage. This study has investigated the reasons for the underdevelopment of the Islamic banking system in Turkey. We found that, due to the long period of secularism, most Turks separate religion from business and select their bank based on financial advantages, diversity of financial products and quality of service rather than based on the need to adhere to Shari’a principles. Many people also do not trust that these institutions are really Shari’a-compliant and safe. This is partly due to the customers’ lack of understanding of how these banks operate and partly due to the numerous cases of bad practices reported by the media and the academic literature. We conclude that, while their assets and share will most probably increase over the next 10 years it seems very unlikely that Islamic banks will really become a sustainable alternative banking system in Turkey. The Islamic banking system will rather remain an additional or complementary banking system.

  10. Tracking Ophiolite Gabbro from Origin To Dispersal: A Record of Tectonic and Surface Processes in Central Anatolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, D.; Radwany, M.; Brocard, G. Y.; Umhoefer, P. J.

    2016-12-01

    Anatolia is festooned with ophiolitic rocks derived from Tethyan seaways; they mark sutures between Eurasia, Gondwana/Arabia, and continental ribbons and island arcs. Ophiolites are also dispersed between sutures, indicating tectonic transport of possibly 100s of kms. In Central Anatolia, isolated fragments of a Late-K ophiolite (Central Anatolian Ophiolite, CAO) have been assigned to northern (Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan) or southern (Inner-Tauride) sutures, with implications for the magnitude and direction of transport and relation of ophiolite obduction to regional metamorphism. Ophiolitic clasts (primarily gabbro) are widespread in sedimentary basins and alluvial terraces, suggesting that one or several erosional events almost completely removed a formerly extensive ophiolitic nappe. We have obtained petrologic and geochemical data from gabbro outcrops, gabbro clasts in conglomerates and gabbro cobbles on alluvial terraces near the Niĝde metamorphic dome to locate the paleosources and reconstruct ophiolite emplacement, erosion, and dispersal. Our new data show that gabbro currently cropping out at the northern margin of the Niĝde dome is geochemically similar to the CAO: Niĝde and CAO gabbro both have Ti/V Mio/Pliocene sediments - even those south of the topographic high of the Niĝde dome - were sourced entirely from the CAO to the north. These results show that the Miocene rise of the Central Anatolian plateau drove reorganization of sediment dispersal and topographic disconnection of Miocene depocenters from their CAO sources.

  11. A national registry of thalassemia in Turkey; demographic and disease characteristics of patients, achievements and challenges in prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydınok, Yeşim; Oymak, Yeşim; Atabay, Berna; Aydoğan, Gönül; Yeşilipek, Akif; Ünal, Selma; Kılınç, Yurdanur; Oflaz, Banu; Akın, Mehmet; Vergin, Canan; Sezgin Evim, Melike; Çalışkan, Ümran; Ünal, Şule; Bay, Ali; Kazancı, Elif; İleri, Dilber Talia; Atay, Didem; Patıroğlu, Türkan; Kahraman, Selda; Söker, Murat; Akcan, Mediha; Akdeniz, Aydan; Büyükavcı, Mustafa; Alanoğlu, Güçhan; Bör, Özcan; Soyer, Nur; Özdemir Karadaş, Nihal; Uysalol, Ezgi; Türker, Meral; Akçay, Arzu; Ocak, Süheyla; Güneş, Adalet Meral; Tokgöz, Hüseyin; Uysal, Zümrüt; Tiftik, Naci; Karakaş, Zeynep

    2017-04-13

    Turkish Society of Pediatric Hematology set up a National Hemoglobinopathy Registry to demonstrate demographic and disease characteristics of patients, and assessed the efficacy of hemoglobinopathy control program (HCP) over 10 years in Turkey. A total of 2046 patients from 27 Thalassemia Centers were registered in which 1988 were eligible for analysis. This cohort mainly comprised patients with β-thalassemia major (n=1658, 83.4%) and intermedia (n=215, 10.8%). The majority of patients were accumulated into the costal areas of Turkey. The high number of patients in South Eastern Anatolia would be contributed by the highest rate of consanguinity marriage and fertility. The most common 11 mutations represented 90% of all β-thalassemia alleles in which 47% of those was IVS1-110(G->A). The probability to undergo splenectomy within the first 10 years of life was 20% and unchanged since 1980s. The iron chelators were administered as monotherapy regimen in 95% of patients and deferasirox was prescribed in 81.3% of those. Deferasirox administration was the highest (93.6%) in patients aged thalassemia major patients had match-related hemopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) with a success rate of 77%. Cardiac disease was detected as a major cause of deaths and didn't show a decreasing trend at 5 years' cohorts since 1999. While, HCP has been implemented since 2003, the affected births have shown a consistent decrease only after 2009, at lowest 34 cases per year. The program failure was resulted from missing premarital screening in the majority. Following problems were unawareness of the risk and misinformation of the risk couples. In addition, prenatal diagnosis was either not offered to or not accepted by the risk families. This study indicated that a continuous effort is needed for optimizing management of thalassemia and developing strategies are essential for further achievements in HCP in Turkey.

  12. Capillariasis in penned wild turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, G A; Turner, L W; Tucker, F S

    1979-07-01

    Capillariasis caused by Capillaria annulata was associated with dilated crops, emaciation and mortality of 23 juvenile wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo silvestris) in a captive flock. Gross lesions in the crops ranged from slithtly-thickened lining folds to a thick necrotic diphtheritic membrane covering the entire inside surface. The parasites were in the squamous epithelium. Hygromycin controlled the outbreak.

  13. Suicide in Batman, Southeastern Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altindag, Abdurrahman; Ozkan, Mustafa; Oto, Remzi

    2005-01-01

    The southeastern part of Turkey has comparatively high female suicide rates. We aimed to research social, economic, cultural, and psychiatric reasons of suicides in Batman in a case-controlled psychological autopsy study comparing suicides with matched community controls. The female suicide rate was 9.3 per 100.000 and the female/male ratio was…

  14. Thalassemias and hemoglobinopathies in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canatan, Duran

    2014-01-01

    Thalassemias and hemoglobinopathies are a serious health problem in Turkey. There is a 70-year history of thalassemia in Turkey. The first patient with β-thalassemia major (β-TM) was reported in 1941. The first clinical and hematological studies were published by Aksoy in 1958. The overall incidence of β-thalassemia (β-thal) was reported by Çavdar and Arcasoy to be 2.1% in 1971. Important steps such as written regulations, education and prevention campaigns, have been taken to prevent thalassemia in Turkey by the Ministry of Health (MOH), the Turkish National Hemoglobinopathy Council (TNHC) and the Thalassemia Federation of Turkey (TFT) since 2000. A national hemoglobinopathy prevention program was started in provinces with a high prevalence by the MOH in 2003. While the percentage of premarital screening test was 30.0% of all couples in 2003, it reached 86.0% in 2013. While the number of newborn with thalassemias and hemoglobinopathies was 272 in 2002, it had dropped to 25 in 2010. There has been a 90.0% reduction of affected births in the last 10 years.

  15. Three Grasses New to Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    SCHOLZ, Hildemar

    2014-01-01

    Studies on herbarium material of grasses recently collected in Turkey revealed the existence of three taxa hitherto not reported from this country: Bromus tomentellus Boiss. subsp. nivalis (Bornm.) H. Scholz & Byfield, subsp. et stat. nov., Microstegium vimineum (Trin.) A. Camus as a probably introduced plant, and Poa asiae-minoris H. Scholz & Byfield, sp. nova, described here as a species new to science.

  16. Three Grasses New to Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    SCHOLZ, Hildemar

    2000-01-01

    Studies on herbarium material of grasses recently collected in Turkey revealed the existence of three taxa hitherto not reported from this country: Bromus tomentellus Boiss. subsp. nivalis (Bornm.) H. Scholz & Byfield, subsp. et stat. nov., Microstegium vimineum (Trin.) A. Camus as a probably introduced plant, and Poa asiae-minoris H. Scholz & Byfield, sp. nova, described here as a species new to science.

  17. Early Childhood Inclusion in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diken, Ibrahim H.; Rakap, Salih; Diken, Ozlem; Tomris, Gozde; Celik, Secil

    2016-01-01

    Inclusion of young children with disabilities into regular preschool classrooms is a common practice that has been implemented for several decades in industrialized nations around the world, and many developing countries including Turkey have been developing and implementing laws, regulation, and services to support inclusion and teaching in…

  18. Mobility in Turkey. Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazgan, M. [Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, Turan Gunes Bulvari, Hollanda Caddesi, No.5,06550 Yildiz-Ankara (Turkey)

    2013-01-15

    The purpose of this report is to provide information about electric vehicles (EVs) and e-mobility as an emerging market in Turkey. EVs receive attention from the Turkish government for a number of reasons: Turkey has a strong automotive industry and needs to follow the technological developments taking place regarding intelligent vehicles and intelligent transport systems, as well as electric transportation technologies. Secondly, a considerable amount of carbon emissions from motor vehicles is of great concern in relation to climate change. EVs might be an alternative which can break the dependence of Turkey on imported fuel that has a negative influence on its current account deficit (CAD). On top of these factors, the Prime Minister of Turkey has a desire to have a 'Local Brand Vehicle' before the 100th year of the establishment of the Republic in 2023 and preferably an 'EV'. EVs are included in the strategy documents and action plans of almost all ministries and public institutions. Among all ministries, the Ministry of Science, Industry and Technology (MoSI and T) takes a leading position. It holds bi-annual meetings with stakeholders to monitor and evaluate progress about the level of actualization of the identified policies on e-mobility. MoSI and T's related institution of the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) co-ordinates the R and D activities and provides generous R and D incentives. EVs have been put on sale in Turkey in 2012 and are still very limited in number. Public institutions are taking the lead by converting their vehicle fleet to EVs. EVs are also more suitable for businesses/ duties with a fixed/short route; therefore it is expected that the growth of the sector will mainly come from the vehicle fleet of the public organisations and institutions, followed by the private vehicle fleet of companies, e.g. freight companies. Although there are some on-going test drives, it is not yet proven

  19. Geodynamic Evolution of Subduction to Collision to Escape in Central Anatolia From Surface to Mantle - Results From the CD-CAT Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darin, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Despite significant progress toward understanding the kinematics of modern tectonic escape in Anatolia, considerable uncertainty remains regarding the dynamics of the transition from collision to escape. Because of the relatively small size of the Anatolia microplate, regional-scale studies spanning the plate margins and interior are well-suited to investigate the driving forces and space-time evolution of this unique tectonic transition in collisional orogens. CD-CAT (Continental Dynamics-Central Anatolia Tectonics) is a five-year (2011-2016) project funded by the National Science Foundation (USA) designed to explore the surface-to-mantle dynamics of Anatolia during the Cenozoic subduction-collision-escape transition in central Anatolia. Our approach integrates results from a diversity of methods including: structural, stratigraphic, and geomorphic analyses; magnetostratigraphy; low-temperature thermochronometry; Ar/Ar geochronology; geochemistry; passive seismic experiments (71 stations over two years); magnetotellurics; and numerical modeling. The principal results from this project include: recognition of a margin-wide magmatic lull from 40-20 Ma, followed by a southwestward migration of the initiation of magmatism toward and within the Central Anatolia Volcanic Province (CAVP); an early Miocene switch from contraction/transpression to extension/transtension in the Kırşehir and Niǧde Massifs, while contraction changed to late Miocene strike-slip deformation east of the Central Anatolian fault zone (CAFZ); rain shadow development due to uplift of the central Taurides 11-5 Ma; thin to absent lithospheric mantle beneath central Anatolia; the lack of an Arabia slab shallower than 800 km depth; and a change in the Cyprus slab from horizontal beneath the central Taurides and apparently fragmented beneath the CAVP, to very steeply dipping beneath the eastern Isparta Angle. The CAFZ lies along part of the Inner Tauride Suture (ITS) and represents a fundamental

  20. Preliminary Results of Occurrence and Mineralogical Properties of Opals from Northwest part of Central Anatolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çalık, Ayten

    2016-04-01

    , Gökçekısık Opals consist of opal - CT and opal - C based on the results of XRD analysis. Key Words:Opal,opaline phases, Eskişehir,Kütahya, Northwest part of Central Anatolia

  1. Kinematics of SW Anatolia implications on crustal deformation above slab tear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkaptan, Murat; Koç, Ayten; Lefebvre, Côme; Gülyüz, Erhan; Uzel, Bora; Kaymakci, Nuretdin; Langereis, Cornelis G.; Özacar, Arda A.; Sözbilir, Hasan

    2014-05-01

    SW Anatolian tectonics are dominated mainly by emplacement of Lycian Nappes from north to south over the Beydaǧları platform during the early to middle Miocene, which followed by the development of the so called Fethiye Burdur Fault Zone (FBFZ). This fault zone is supposed to be a sinistral strike-slip fault zone that accommodated more than 100 km displacement between the Menderes Massif and the Beydaǧları platform during the exhumation of the Menderes Massif, mainly during the late Miocene. In addition, the FBFZ is collinear with the on-land NE continuation of the Pliny Trench along which the north subducting African slab is thought to be torn apart and retreated from somewhere around the apex of Isparta Angle to its present configuration as a STEP fault. In order to test already proposed evolutionary scenarios, and the feasibility of a STEP fault scenario and tectonic evolution of the region, we have conducted a rigorous paleomagnetic and kinematic study in the region containing more than 3000 paleomagnetic samples collected from 88 locations distributed evenly all over SW Anatolia and more than 2000 fault slip data measured mainly along the FBFZ. According to our preliminary results, except for some local insignificant clockwise rotations - the region underwent counter-clockwise rotation during the early to Late Miocene. The rotation senses and amounts are almost the same everywhere implying that rotation took place uniformly everywhere, as a rigid body rotation or the region underwent no internal rotational deformation. Likewise, rotations in the west and the east of FBFZ are similar for the post-late Miocene implying no internal rotational deformation. In addition to paleomagnetic data, the slickenside pitches and constructed paleostress configurations mainly along the FBFZ indicated that the faults within the FBFZ are mainly normal in character although minor lateral components are observed at the fault terminations or intersections. These fault slip

  2. A simulation of the Neolithic transition in Western Eurasia

    CERN Document Server

    Lemmen, Carsten; Wirtz, Kai W

    2011-01-01

    Farming and herding were introduced to Europe from the Near East and Anatolia; there are, however, considerable arguments about the mechanisms of this transition. Were it people who moved and outplaced the indigenous hunter- gatherer groups or admixed with them? Or was it just material and information that moved-the Neolithic Package-consisting of domesticated plants and animals and the knowledge of its use? The latter process is commonly referred to as cultural diffusion and the former as demic diffusion. Despite continuous and partly combined efforts by archaeologists, anthropologists, linguists, paleontologists and geneticists a final resolution of the debate has not yet been reached. In the present contribution we interpret results from the Global Land Use and technological Evolution Simulator (GLUES), a mathematical model for regional sociocultural development embedded in the western Eurasian geoenvironmental context during the Holocene. We demonstrate that the model is able to realistically hindcast the...

  3. Stratigraphy and tectono-sedimentary evolution of the Upper Cretaceous Tertiary sequence in the southern part of the Malatya Basin, East Anatolia, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Önal, Mehmet; Kaya, Meral

    2007-03-01

    The Malatya Basin is situated on the southern Taurus-Anatolian Platform. The southern part of the basin contains a sedimentary sequence which can be divided into four main units, each separated by an unconformity. From base to top, these are: (1) Permo-Carboniferous; (2) Upper Cretaceous-Lower Paleocene, (3) Middle-Upper Eocene and (4) Upper Miocene. The Upper Cretaceous-Tertiary sedimentary sequence resting on basement rocks is up to 700 m thick. The Permo-Carboniferous basement consist of dolomites and recrystallized limestones. The Upper Cretaceous-Lower Paleocene transgressive-regressive sequence shows a transition from terrestrial environments, via lagoonal to shallow-marine limestones to deep marine turbiditic sediments, followed upwards by shallow marine cherty limestones. The marine sediments contain planktic and benthic foraminifers indicating an upper Campanian, Maastrichtian and Danian age. The Middle-Upper Eocene is a transgressive-regressive sequence represented by terrestrial and lagoonal clastics, shallow-marine limestones and deep marine turbidites. The planktic and benthic foraminifers in the marine sediments indicate a Middle-Upper Eocene age. The upper Miocene sequence consists of a reddish-brown conglomerate-sandstone-mudstone alternation of alluvial and fluvial facies. During Late Cretaceous-Early Paleocene times, the Gündüzbey Group was deposited in the southern part of a fore-arc basin, simultaneously with volcanics belonging to the Yüksekova Group. During Middle-Late Eocene times, the Yeşilyurt Group was deposited in the northern part of the Maden Basin and the Helete volcanic arc. The Middle-Upper Eocene Malatya Basin was formed due to block faulting at the beginning of the Middle Eocene time. During the Late Paleocene-Early Eocene, and at the end of the Eocene, the study areas became continental due to the southward advance of nappe structures. The rock sequences in the southern part of the Malatya Basin may be divided into four tectonic units, from base to top: the lower allochthon, the upper allochthon, the parautochthon and autochthonous rock units.

  4. Neurological Manifestations in Familial Mediterranean Fever: Results of 22 Children from a Reference Center in Kayseri, an Urban Area in Central Anatolia, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canpolat, Mehmet; Gumus, Hakan; Gunduz, Zubeyde; Dusunsel, Ruhan; Kumandas, Sefer; Bayram, Ayşe Kaçar; Yel, Sibel; Poyrazoglu, Hatice Gamze; Yilmaz, Kenan; Doganay, Selim; Yikilmaz, Ali; Dundar, Munis; Per, Huseyin

    2017-04-01

    Background Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is an inherited inflammatory disorder characterized by attacks of fever with polyserositis. Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate pediatric patients with FMF who had central nervous system (CNS) findings. Materials and Methods Our medical records database for 2003 to 2014 was screened retrospectively. In total, 104 patients with FMF were identified, 22 of whom had undergone neurological examination for CNS symptoms. Results Neurological findings included headache in 16 patients (72.7%), epilepsy in 6 patients (27.3%), pseudotumor cerebri in 2 patients (9.1%), multiple sclerosis in 1 patient (4.5%), and tremor in 1 patient (4.5%). The most common MEFV gene mutation was homozygous M694V (40.9%). Conclusions Patients with FMF can present with various CNS manifestations. Further studies that include large populations are needed to elucidate the neurological manifestations of FMF. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. A clash of civilizations? Examining liberal-democratic values in Turkey and the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Jeffrey C

    2008-12-01

    Turkey's proposed entry into the European Union (EU) has been undermined by Europeans' perceptions of Turkish-European cultural differences, particularly regarding the liberal-democratic values that the EU promotes (democracy, rule of law, and respect for and appreciation of minority/human rights). Yet, cross-national research on values has not focused on Turkey, the EU, and these liberal-democratic values, leaving assumptions of cultural differences and their explanations untested. Through analyses of World and European Values Survey data (1999-2002), this article asks whether people in Turkey have the same values regarding democracy, rule of law (versus religious and authoritarian rule), and minority/human rights as people in EU member and candidate states (as of 2000)? What factors explain these values? I find that people in Turkey support democracy to the same extent as people in EU member and candidate states, but people in Turkey are more supportive of religious and authoritarian rule and are less tolerant of minorities. Although the 'clash of civilizations' thesis expects liberal values to be ordered according to countries' religious traditions, with western Christian the most supportive and Islamic the least, only for tolerance of minorities values is this pattern found. Instead, economic development most consistently explains differences between Turkey and EU member and candidate states in support for these values. I conclude with calls for theoretical refinement, particularly of the clash of civilizations thesis, along with suggestions for future research to examine more Muslim and Orthodox countries; I discuss the debate over Turkey's EU entry.

  6. Sediments of Lake Van - a high-resolution archive of changing climate, volcanic events and seismic activity in Eastern Anatolia for the last 500'000 yrs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockhecke, M.; Anselmetti, F. S.; Sturm, M.; Paleovan Scientific Party

    2012-04-01

    Varved sedimentary records have shown their high potential to reconstruct abrupt and global climate change within the marine realm (e.g. Cariaco Basin, Santa Barbara Basin). Continental counterparts, consisting of long and varved lacustrine records can be found in the subsurface of some deep lakes, such as Lake Van. Lake Van is a 440 m deep closed soda lake situated in a climatically sensitive semiarid and tectonically active region in Eastern Anatolia, Turkey. The ICDP project Paleovan aims to reconstruct the climatic, tectonic and volcanic history of Lake Van. Driven by an international and interdisciplinary scientific team, two sites, Ahlat Ridge (AR) and Northern Basin (NB) were drilled in summer 2010 recovering sedimentary records of 220 and 140 m, respectively. A total of 800 m of sediment-cores were opened, described and photographed in spring 2011 at the IODP core repository in Bremen. Lithologies of up to five parallel cores (multiple coring) were correlated and a composite profile was defined giving priority to core quality and continuity. Preliminary Ar/Ar dates of the core catcher yielded a basal ages of ~500´000 years. Using this rough age model, geochemical measurements (every 20 cm) indicate that TOC is high in warmer periods (interglacials) and low in colder periods (glacials). These TOC fluctuations match marine isotope stages and extrapolated Holocene sedimentation rates. The 219 m long AR composite profile consists of ~80 % lacustrine sediments, ~10 % of volcaniclastic deposits and 10 % gaps interpreted to be coarse-grained volcaniclastic that are difficult to be recovered. The lacustrine mud, i.e., clayey silt composed of mainly clay minerals and carbonate. Based on major macroscopic sediment features eight major lacustrine sediment types (~900 layer) were differentiated and separated from the volcaniclastic deposits (300 layer). Impressive color transitions and a repetitive pattern of similar lithological successions occur throughout the

  7. Blood and gastrointestinal parasites of eastern wild turkeys from Kentucky and Tennessee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, M D; Christensen, B M

    1984-07-01

    Fifty-nine gastrointestinal tracts and 52 blood samples were collected from eastern wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo silvestris Vieillot) during the spring turkey hunts of 1979-1980 from two areas in western Kentucky and Tennessee. Eight species of parasites were recovered, and included (combined prevalence): Haemoproteus meleagridis Levine, 1961 (25%), Hymenolepis carioca (Magalhaes, 1898) (44%), Metroliasthes lucida Ransom, 1900 (25%), Raillietina georgiensis (Reid and Nugara, 1961) (15%), R. williamsi Fuhrmann, 1932 (64%), Ascaridia dissimilis Perez Vigueras, 1931 (83%), Capillaria caudinflata (Molin, 1858) (2%), and Heterakis gallinarum (Schrank, 1788) (27%). A significant difference existed between the intensities of A. dissimilis from the two states. Twenty-two subinoculations of collected blood were made in 1979, but no Plasmodium infections were recovered. Helminths of wild turkeys from 11 southeastern states were compared using similarity and diversity indices. High similarities were observed in helminth populations of two groups of states: 1) Alabama, Mississippi, Arkansas, Virginia, and Tennessee; and 2) Tennessee, Kentucky, and Illinois. Simpson's diversity index indicated helminth populations of wild turkeys in Florida were the most diverse (0.10), while those in Louisiana turkeys were the least diverse (0.33).

  8. Turkey knockdown in successive flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, R D; Edson, R K; Watkins, K L; Robertson, J L; Meldrum, J B; Novilla, M N

    2000-01-01

    Turkey knockdown was diagnosed in three of five flocks of hen turkeys on a single farm within a 12-mo period. The age of birds in the flocks affected ranged from 6 wk 2 days to 7 wk 4 days. The attack rate ranged from 0.02% to 0.30% with a case fatality rate in affected birds ranging from 0 to 74%. The diagnosis was made on the basis of clinical signs and histopathologic lesions associated with knockdown. The feed in all flocks contained bacitracin methylene disalicylate and monensin (Coban). Affected birds were recumbent, demonstrated paresis, and were unable to vocalize. Postmortem examination revealed few significant lesions although pallor of the adductor muscles and petechiation in adductor and gastrocnemius muscles were noted. Birds that had been recumbent for extended periods were severely dehydrated. Consistent microscopic lesions included degeneration, necrosis, and regeneration of adductor, gastrocnemius, and abdominal muscles. No lesion in cardiac tissue was noted. Results of our investigation indicated that changes in water consumption, vitamin E status, and brooder to finisher movement correlated with the occurrence of knockdown. Turkey knockdown was defined in 1993 as any condition identified in a turkey flock that has affected the neuromuscular system to a degree that a turkey is unable to walk or stand. This definition was later modified to...neuromuscular or skeletal systems to a degree that a turkey is unable to walk or stand properly. Knockdown may be associated with numerous feed, management, or disease factors alone or in combination. Dosage of monensin, feed restriction/gorging, water restriction, heat stress, copper, mycotoxins, sodium chloride in feed, and sulfa drugs have all been suggested as contributing factors; however, laboratory studies to duplicate this have not been successful. This report presents observations from a single farm at which three of five hen flocks in a single year experienced knockdown. When a flock was reported as

  9. Turkey in Cyprus: Changing the Status Quo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azuolas Bagdonas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available With few prospects for the resolution of the Cyprus dispute, the costs of the status quo are rising for Turkey. This article argues that Turkey could regain initiative without sacrificing its national interests by withdrawing its military forces stationed on the island and organizing a referendum on the future of the TRNC. The removal of the military would terminate Turkey's status as an occupying power, while a referendum could add legitimacy to the TRNC and put pressure on Cyprus.

  10. CORPORATE GOVERNANCE IN ORGANIZATIONS, SOUTHEASTERN ANATOLIA REGION SMES ON AN APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet KAYGUSUZOĞLU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Corporate governance is important and vital for big businesses as well as small and medium sized enterprises (SME. Executives can find low-cost resources by implementing fairness, transparency, accountability and responsibility principles in their companies and can grow rapidly in the sector in accordance with the cost advantage in hand. The biggest drawback of the SMEs is that they cannot use these advantages because they are mostly built up as Family Corporation. The firms in Turkey are mostly be made up off SMEs. Since the current structure of the SMEs are not suitable in terms of corporate governance and the idea that the principles of corporate governance are hard to be used by SMEs, constitutes the main problem of the research. The data that has been collected analyzed using SPSS and it has been concluded that SME’s in the region are not the sufficient level for corporate governance.

  11. Data on Hatchlings of Caucasian Rock Lizard, Darevskia valentini (Boettger, 1892 in Northeastern Anatolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Tayhan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available During our field work in the Tepeler Village (Ardahan, Turkey on 27th of August, 2010, we observed hatchlings of Darevsika valentini. The mean body length of was found as 28.06±1.14 (25.3 30.4 and the total length as 70.81±3.92 (61.9 81.0. Juveniles were generally observed under stones and those portions of the roots of annual herbaceous plants which remain under stone are also used as shelters for juveniles. Neonates on the southern slopes of the hills could be individually seen and mostly, individuals aggregated [median number of individuals, 6 (115] and lived in groups.

  12. Sugars, organic acids, and phenolic compounds of ancient grape cultivars (Vitis vinifera L.) from Igdir province of Eastern Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyduran, Sadiye Peral; Akin, Meleksen; Ercisli, Sezai; Eyduran, Ecevit; Maghradze, David

    2015-01-13

    The Eurasian grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is the most widely cultivated and economically important horticultural crop in the world. As a one of the origin area, Anatolia played an important role in the diversification and spread of the cultivated form V. vinifera ssp. vinifera cultivars and also the wild form V. vinifera ssp. sylvestris ecotypes. Although several biodiversity studies have been conducted with local cultivars in different regions of Anatolia, no information has been reported so far on the biochemical (organic acids, sugars, phenolic acids, vitamin C) and antioxidant diversity of local historical table V. vinifera cultivars grown in Igdir province. In this work, we studied these traits in nine local table grape cultivars viz. 'Beyaz Kismis' (synonym name of Sultanina or Thompson seedless), 'Askeri', 'El Hakki', 'Kirmizi Kismis', 'Inek Emcegi', 'Hacabas', 'Kerim Gandi', 'Yazen Dayi', and 'Miskali' spread in the Igdir province of Eastern part of Turkey. Variability of all studied parameters is strongly influenced by cultivars (P < 0.01). Among the cultivars investigated, 'Miskali' showed the highest citric acid content (0.959 g/l) while 'Kirmizi Kismis' produced predominant contents in tartaric acid (12.71 g/l). The highest glucose (16.47 g/100 g) and fructose (15.55 g/100 g) contents were provided with 'Beyaz Kismis'. 'Kirmizi Kismis' cultivar had also the highest quercetin (0.55 mg/l), o-coumaric acid (1.90 mg/l), and caffeic acid (2.73 mg/l) content. The highest ferulic acid (0.94 mg/l), and syringic acid (2.00 mg/l) contents were observed with 'Beyaz Kismis' cultivar. The highest antioxidant capacity was obtained as 9.09 μmol TE g(-1) from 'Inek Emcegi' in TEAC (Trolox equivalent Antioxidant Capacity) assay. 'Hacabas' cultivar had the highest vitamin C content of 35.74 mg/100 g. Present results illustrated that the historical table grape cultivars grown in Igdir province of Eastern part of Turkey contained diverse

  13. The population growth and distribution of the foreign-borns in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Yakar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In the beginning of the 20th century the migrations into Turkey from abroad in conjunction with the process of becoming a nation-state have changed correspondingly to the political and economic conditions which have changed on a global scale towards the end of this century. The migration of people of Turkish descent at the beginning of the century has turned into foreign migration towards the end of the century. The aim of this study was to analyze the development and distribution of the overseas borne population from a spatial aspect in order to describe the migration process from abroad into Turkey and its dimensions. Although the overseas borne population has displayed an uneven development depending on the waves of migration from the Balkans a rapid increased trend has taken place after 1980 contributed with the impact of the foreign nationals. It has been determined that the overseas borne population is mainly concentrated in the western part of Turkey and particularly on the coast as well as metropolitan municipalities. Nevertheless the areas of concentration for overseas borne Turkish population and foreign nationals display differences. While the migrant Turkish population from the Balkans has settled/been settled in certain areas since the 19th century to date, the foreign nationals have gathered in the tourism centers on the western coast of Turkey.

  14. The late Oligocene Cevizlidere Cu-Au-Mo deposit, Tunceli Province, eastern Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    İmer, Ali; Richards, Jeremy P.; Creaser, Robert A.; Spell, Terry L.

    2015-02-01

    The Cevizlidere deposit, located in the Tunceli Province of eastern Anatolia, is the largest porphyry Cu-Au-Mo system in Turkey. The deposit is spatially related to a composite stock, which was emplaced into Paleozoic limestones and Paleogene andesitic rocks to the southeast of the Munzur mountains, near the southwestern margin of the Ovacık pull-apart basin. The host plutonic rocks at Cevizlidere are porphyritic, medium-K calc-alkaline diorites and granodiorites. 40Ar/39Ar incremental step-heating analysis of two igneous biotite separates obtained from syn-mineral diorite porphyry yielded late Oligocene cooling ages of 25.49 ± 0.10 and 25.10 ± 0.14 Ma, whereas hydrothermal biotite yielded an age of 24.73 ± 0.08 Ma. Re-Os ages obtained from two molybdenite separates (24.90 ± 0.10 and 24.78 ± 0.10 Ma) indicate that porphyry-style alteration and mineralization developed shortly after magma emplacement. The whole-rock geochemical composition of the Cevizlidere porphyry intrusions is consistent with derivation from partial melting of the metasomatized supra-subduction zone mantle. However, based on regional tectonic reconstructions, Oligocene magmatic activity in this area appears to be related to a major kinematic reorganization that took place at around 25 Ma, during the switch from subduction to collisional tectonics in eastern Anatolia. This kinematic switch may be attributed to break-off of the Southern Neo-Tethys oceanic slab prior to the Arabia-Eurasia continent-continent collision (~12-10 Ma) following widespread middle Eocene (50-43 Ma) arc/back-arc magmatism. In this respect, the subduction-related tectonic setting of the late Oligocene Cevizlidere porphyry deposit is similar to that of the middle Eocene Çöpler epithermal Au deposit. The late timing of Cevizlidere with respect to the Southern Neo-Tethys subduction may be comparable to some early to late Miocene porphyry-epithermal systems that lie within the contiguous Urumieh-Dokhtar belt in central

  15. Magmatic evolution of the Early Pliocene Etrüsk stratovolcano, Eastern Anatolian Collision Zone, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyan, Vural; Keskin, Mehmet; Lebedev, Vladimir A.; Chugaev, Andrey V.; Sharkov, Evgenii V.

    2016-07-01

    The Pliocene Etrüsk stratovolcano, located in the northeast of Lake Van (Eastern Anatolia; Turkey), is one of the important volcanic centres in the Eastern Anatolian collision zone. Mt. Etrüsk overlies a widespread volcanic plateau, consisting of basaltic and hawaiitic lavas formed by fissure eruptions between 4.9-4.5 Ma. These basic lavas contain a phenocryst phase consisting of olivine, plagioclase and clinopyroxene. Trace element ratio diagrams imply that these basic magmas were generated from a mantle that contained a clear subduction component that is related to the subducted sediments rather than fluids or altered oceanic crust. Results of the melting models on the basaltic plateau lavas indicate that there was a marked variation both in the mantle source mineralogy (i.e. the ratio of garnet peridotite to spinel peridotite in the source varies between 60/40% and 40/60%) and the degree of melting (i.e. F between 0.8-4%). This can be explained by a model in which magmas were generated by partial melting of both metasomatised lithospheric and deeper asthenospheric mantle sources in an extensional setting in response to the partial delamination of the lithospheric mantle of Eastern Anatolia and then mixed with each other during Pliocene times. Central eruptions that formed the Etrüsk volcano lasted ~ 600 kyr between 4.3-3.7 Ma during Zanclean times. The estimated depth of the Etrüsk magma chamber is ~ 9-12 km. The volcano erupted lavas with a rather narrow compositional range from latite to rhyolite, which are either transitional or mildly alkaline in character. The Etrüsk lavas contain plagioclase, clino- and orthopyroxene, biotite, K-feldspar and rarely, minor amounts of olivine and amphibole in the phenocryst phase. A composite chemo-stratigraphic section of the volcano and petrological models indicate that the evolved lavas of the Etrüsk volcano differentiated from a parental magma composition, which is similar to that of the most primitive plateau

  16. A review of Dichorrhinus Desbrochers, 1875 (Coleoptera, Curculionidae with two new species from Greece and Turkey, and from Cyprus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Germann

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The species of the Eastern Mediterranean genus Dichorrhinus Desbrochers, 1875 are revie-wed. D. geiseri sp. nov. is described from Samos Island (Greece and Western Turkey, and D. alziari sp. nov. is described from Cyprus. Dichorrhinus korbi Schilsky, 1911 is redescribed. An illustrated key to the species of Dichorrhinus is provided, and new records are presented.

  17. An Analysis of Teacher Candidates' Usage Level of Metacognitive Learning Strategies: Sample of a University in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesilyurt, Etem

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to evaluate the level metacognitive learning strategies are used by teacher candidates. The study was designed as a descriptive research. Study group of present research consists of 291 teacher candidates studying in the Faculty of Education within the body of a Western Anatolian university in Turkey. Research…

  18. An Analysis of Teacher Candidates' Usage Level of Metacognitive Learning Strategies: Sample of a University in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesilyurt, Etem

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to evaluate the level metacognitive learning strategies are used by teacher candidates. The study was designed as a descriptive research. Study group of present research consists of 291 teacher candidates studying in the Faculty of Education within the body of a Western Anatolian university in Turkey. Research…

  19. An Analysis of Teacher Candidates' Usage Level of Metacognitive Learning Strategies: Sample of a University in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesilyurt, Etem

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to evaluate the level metacognitive learning strategies are used by teacher candidates. The study was designed as a descriptive research. Study group of present research consists of 291 teacher candidates studying in the Faculty of Education within the body of a Western Anatolian university in Turkey. Research…

  20. Renewable energy education in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acikgoz, Caglayan [Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Bilecik University, P.O.11030, Bilecik (Turkey)

    2011-02-15

    Utilization of renewable energy sources and the application of environmentally sound energy technologies are essential to sustainable development and will help to secure the quality of living and the well-being of the future generations. Turkey presently has considerable renewable energy sources. The most important renewable sources are hydropower, wind, solar, geothermal, and biomass. The use of renewable energy as a topic to study energy and its forms permits a novel way to motivate students, particularly those who energy topics taking conscience with the environment. This paper presents the analysis and classification of renewable energy sources and how to find out their origin and a way to motivate students in energy topics related to renewable sources and also, the development of didactic competencies in special blended learning arrangements for educationalists, trainers and lecturers in adult education in the field of renewable energies in Turkey. (author)

  1. Parasitic zoonotic diseases in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazmiye Altintas

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Zoonoses and zoonotic diseases are becoming more common and they are now receiving increased attention across the world. Zoonotic parasites are found in a wide variety of protozoa, cestodes, nematodes, trematodes and arthropods worldwide and many zoonotic parasites have assumed an important role. The importance of some parasitic zoonoses has increased in recent years due to the fact that they can be agents of opportunistic infections. Although a number of zoonotic parasites are often found and do cause serious illnesses in Turkey, some are more common and these diseases are more important as they cause serious public health problems, such as leishmaniasis, toxoplasmosis, cryptosporidiosis, echinococcosis, trichinellosis and toxocariasis. Information on these zoonotic diseases is provided here as these are the most important zoonotic parasitic diseases in Turkey.

  2. Geothermal energy utilisation in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grepmeier, K. [Zentrum fuer rationelle Energieanwendung und Umwelt GmbH (ZREU), Regensburg (Germany)

    2005-04-01

    The following article highlights some of the outcomes derived from a survey which has been conducted by an international consortium under the auspices of the German consultancy Zentrum fuer rationelle Energieanwendung und Umwelt GmbH (ZREU) in the frame of a cooperative action entitled 'Promotion of Geothermal Energy Utilisation in Turkey'. The project which has been carried out under the umbrella of the European Union's Framework Programme for Research and Technological Development also featured a European business forum and technical site visit about 'Geothermal Energy Opportunities in Turkey' and a site visit tour to successful European geothermal utilisation schemes aiming to foster exchange of experience and to initiate business contacts between Turkish and European market actors. Special consideration has been given to investigate the potential of geothermal electricity generation with future-oriented binary cycle processes (e.g. based on Kalina technology) specifically suitable to exploit Turkey's low temperature geothermal reservoirs. Following up the activities ZREU has entered into a co-operation scheme with e.terras AG and leading technology providers to develop high efficient European turn-key solutions for promising goethermal markets worldwide. (orig.)

  3. High prevalence of thyroid dysfunction and autoimmune thyroiditis in adolescents after elimination of iodine deficiency in the Eastern Black Sea Region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastemir, Mehmet; Emral, Rifat; Erdogan, Gurbuz; Gullu, Sevim

    2006-12-01

    In the present study we evaluated the effects of iodine intake on the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction, autoimmunity, and goiter in two regions with different iodine status after two years of iodization in Turkey. In total 1733 adolescent subjects were enrolled into the study (993 from an iodine-sufficient area--the Eastern Black Sea Region (group 1) and 740 from an iodine-deficient area--Middle Anatolia (group 2)). We measured free thyroxine (FT(4)), thyrotropin (TSH), antithyroid peroxidase antibodies (Anti-TPO), antithyroglobulin antibodies (Anti-Tg), and urinary iodine (UI), and examined the thyroid gland by ultrasound. Median urinary iodine excretion was found to be significantly different in group 1 and group 2 (139 micro/l vs 61micro/l, p 0.05). The percentage of anti-Tg positive subjects was found to be 17.6% in group 1 and 6.4% in group 2; that of anti-TPO positive subjects was 4.3% in group 1 and 1.5% in group 2. The prevalence of antithyroid antibody (anti-Tg and/or anti-TPO) positivity was significantly higher in group 1 than in group 2 (18.52% vs 6.62%; p iodine supplementation in Turkey has resulted in the elimination of iodine deficiency in the Eastern Black Sea Region, and this has been accompanied by an increase in the prevalence of autoimmune thyroiditis and thyroid dysfunction.

  4. Salmonella Levels in Turkey Neck Skins, Drumstick Bones, and Spleens in Relation to Ground Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yue; Guran, Husnu S; Harrison, Mark A; Hofacre, Charles L; Alali, Walid Q

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine Salmonella levels (presence and numbers) in turkey drumstick bone, spleen, and neck skin samples in relation to Salmonella contamination levels in ground turkey at the flock level. Over a 10-month period, a total of 300 samples of each turkey part (i.e., neck skin, spleen, and drumstick) from 20 flocks were collected at a commercial turkey processing plant after the evisceration step. Turkey flocks included in this study were classified as "targeted" and "nontargeted" based on the company's historical ground turkey contamination data. A flock that originated from a turkey farm that had previously produced one or more flocks with ≥20% Salmonella prevalence in ground turkey was labeled as a targeted flock (n = 13). The remaining seven flocks with Salmonella presence and numbers by using most-probable-number and selective enrichment methods. Further genotypic analysis (pulsed-field gel electrophoresis) of the isolates was performed. Ground turkey samples were collected and analyzed for Salmonella levels by the cooperating turkey company. The outside surface of bone and spleen were sterilized prior to Salmonella analysis. The overall Salmonella prevalence in neck skin, drumstick bone, spleen, and ground turkey samples was 42.0, 9.3, 6.7, and 14.5%, respectively. Salmonella prevalence in neck skin, spleen, drumstick bone, and ground turkey from the targeted flocks was significantly (P Salmonella presence in neck skin (when most probable numbers were ≥2 log) and Salmonella-positive ground turkey lot. Based on our findings, Salmonella was detected internally in drumstick bones and spleens at low levels, whereas Salmonella presence at higher levels in neck skin may indicate a flock with greater potential for Salmonella contamination of ground turkey.

  5. MIDDLE JURASSIC-LOWER CRETACEOUS BIOSTRATIGRAPHY IN THE CENTRAL PONTIDES (TURKEY: REMARKS ON PALEOGEOGRAPHY AND TECTONIC EVOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BORA ROJAY

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available The deposition of Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous carbonates in the Pontides was controlled mainly by the evolution of an Atlantic-type continental margin in the Tethys. The study of several stratigraphic sections from allochthonous slices and blocks of the North Anatolian Ophiolitic Melange provided insight into the Middle Jurassic-Early Cretaceous paleogeographic evolution of the Central Pontide Belt. The Callovian-Aptian successions span the Globuligerina gr. oxfordiana, Clypeina jurassica (equivalent of the Tubiphytes morronensis zone, Protopeneroplis ultragranulata (with the Haplophragmoides joukowskyi subzone, Montsalevia salevensis, Hedbergella delrioensis - Hedbergella planispira - Leupoldina - Globigerinelloides and Globigerinelloides algerianus biozones. Two major stratigraphic gaps corresponding to the pre-Callovian and Hauterivian-Early Aptian ages are recognised within the successions. Lithostratigraphic and biostratigraphic studies indicate strong similarities in the evolution of the successions in the Amasya region (Central Pontides and Biga-Bursa-Bilecik (BBB Platform (North-western Anatolia

  6. Consumer Attitude and Behaviour towards Organic Food: Cross-cultural study of Turkey and Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Mutlu, Nihan

    2007-01-01

    Organic food market is very challenging in Europe and developing rapidly with different rates between western and eastern part. Consumers have raised great interest to healthy and tasty diet with high nutritional compounds, confidence in food safety, environmental and animal welfare concern and also sustainability. This paper presents cross-cultural results for organic food consumers in Turkey and Germany. Quantitative data is collected by survey method consisting of structured...

  7. FHF-2 in the turkey (Meleagris gallopavo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, K M

    2002-11-01

    A cDNA clone homologous to the fibroblast growth factor homologous factor (FHF-2) was isolated and sequenced from the turkey (Meleagris gallopavo). The DNA sequence of the turkey was almost identical to that of the chicken (99% similarity) differing at only 8 of 770 nucleotides in the coding region resulting in a single amino acid difference between these poultry species. The 3'UTR of the turkey FHF-2 gene was 445 nucleotides in length and included an imperfect CT microsatellite (ms) repeat. The sequence of the 3'UTR was amplified from genomic DNA of the chicken and found to be highly conserved differing at only three nucleotides when compared to the turkey. Length of the CT repeat was indifferent in a sample of 52 turkeys (monomorphic) however, the number of CT repeats was greater in the turkey than in the chicken. No inter-individual polymorphism was detected in multiple sequences of the 3'UTR of the FHF-2 gene in the turkey. Based on comparison of the turkey and chicken sequences, the mutation rate for coding and associated non-coding (3'UTR) regions of FHF-2 are approximately equal.

  8. Enteric parvovirus infections of chickens and turkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicken and turkey parvoviruses are members of the Parvovirus family. Comparative sequence analysis of their genome structure revealed that they should form a new genus within the vertebrate Parvovirinae subfamily. The first chicken and turkey parvoviruses were identified by electron microscopy duri...

  9. Extreme Forms of Child Labour in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degirmencioglu, Serdar M.; Acar, Hakan; Acar, Yuksel Baykara

    2008-01-01

    Two little known forms of child labour in Turkey are examined. The process through which these children are made to work has parallels with the experiences of slaves. First, a long-standing practice from Northwestern Turkey of parents hiring children to better-off farmers is examined. Further, a more recent problem is examined where children are…

  10. Eastern Mediterranean Natural Gas: Analyzing Turkey's Stance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Tanriverdi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent large-scale natural gas discoveries in East Mediterranean have drawn attention to the region. The discoveries caused both hope and tension in the region. As stated, the new resources may serve as a new hope for all relevant parties as well as the region if managed in a collaborative and conciliatory way. Energy may be a remedy to Cyprus' financial predicament, initiate a process for resolving differences between Turkey and Cyprus, normalize Israel-Turkey relations and so on. On the contrary, adopting unilateral and uncooperative approach may aggravate the tension and undermine regional stability and security. In this sense, the role of energy in generating hope or tension is dependent on the approaches of related parties. The article will analyze Turkey's attitude in East Mediterranean case in terms of possible negative and positive implications for Turkey in the energy field. The article examines Turkey's position and the reasons behind its stance in the East Mediterranean case. Considering Turkey's energy profile and energy policy goals, the article argues that the newly found hydrocarbons may bring in more stakes for Turkey if Turkey adopts a cooperative approach in this case.

  11. Turkey: migration 18th-20th century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akgündüz, A.; Ness, I.

    2013-01-01

    For many centuries, Europe called the Ottoman empire "Turkey." This applied to the registry of population movements to and from the Ottoman empire insofar as such registrations were made. The country's rulers and inhabitants, however, only took on the name Turkey (Türkiye) in 1923, upon proclamation

  12. Characteristics of Inclusive Classrooms in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melekoglu, Macid Ayhan

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, inclusive classrooms in Turkey are described in terms of the characteristics of both classroom teachers and students with special needs. Participants of this study consisted of 54 teachers working in inclusive classrooms and 54 students with mild intellectual disabilities in those classrooms in Turkey. Data for this study were…

  13. Extreme Forms of Child Labour in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degirmencioglu, Serdar M.; Acar, Hakan; Acar, Yuksel Baykara

    2008-01-01

    Two little known forms of child labour in Turkey are examined. The process through which these children are made to work has parallels with the experiences of slaves. First, a long-standing practice from Northwestern Turkey of parents hiring children to better-off farmers is examined. Further, a more recent problem is examined where children are…

  14. ECONOMIC RELATIONS BETWEEN TURKEY AND AFRICA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAYAN_

    It also seeks to analyse recent Turkish initiatives in Africa's energy sector. The article argues, among other ... Keywords: Turkey, Africa, Sustainable Development .... 25.03.2011). Following the First Ministerial Review Conference of Turkey-Africa ..... Such centres aim to contribute to the development of literature on Africa by ...

  15. Citizenship Education in Turkey: Inclusive or Exclusive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ince, Basak

    2012-01-01

    This paper scrutinises citizenship education in Turkey from the foundation of the Turkish Republic (1923) to the present and explores the extent to which it encourages inclusive or exclusive concepts of national identity and citizenship. In Turkey, where there are citizens belonging to ethnic and religious minorities, civic education plays a…

  16. Government Publications and Gray Literature in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anameric, Hakan

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates bibliographic control of government publications and gray literature in Turkey, in order to determine what further measures are needed to support researchers in both Turkey and abroad. It reports the circumstances surrounding the creation of "The Bibliography of Government Publications" prepared in 1971, and…

  17. Human-induced environmental degradation during Anthropocene in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efe, Recep; Curebal, Isa; Soykan, Abdullah; Sönmez, Suleyman

    2015-04-01

    affected by humans (Sanderson et al., 2002; Braje&Erlandson, 2014). The area left in its natural state corresponds to only 15%. Due to population increase, agricultural areas shrinked, forests were destroyed, and pastures declined in size. More chemical fertilizers and agricultural pesticides were used in order to obtain more products. A greater number of machines were employed in agriculture, which led to a rise in the number of products. The human pressure on the environment in Anatolia dates back to thousands of years. Nomadic peoples on these lands have settled in the last 200 years due to settlement policies (Cürebal et al., 2015). This process saw the establishment of villages in higher and inclined areas as a result of the effects of the nomadic culture of Turkomans and other people in Anatolia. Forests in the inclined areas around these villages were destroyed and turned into agricultural areas. Machines, fertilizers, and pesticides were utilized in agricultural activities in order to produce more crops. This transformation led to an increased erosion effect, deterioration of soil, agricultural and environmental pollution (Chin et al., 2013; Hoang et al., 2014; Matteo et al., 2014). The change caused by industrialization gained ground in the 1950s in Turkey. In particular, migration from rural areas to cities gaining pace after the World War II brought about an increased human pressure in and around big cities. Areas around the cities became centers of attraction for many people. Plains around settlement areas were opened to settlement, and most industrial facilities were established there. As a consequence, first class agricultural areas were lost. Settlements and industrial areas generated large amounts of solid and liquid waste. Uncontrolled discharge of liquid waste and intensely stored solid waste caused the physical and chemical pollution of rivers, lakes, and seas to increase in Turkey and other parts of the world (Andersson et al., 2006; Steffen et al

  18. Wildlife of southern forests habitat & management (Chapter 9): Wild Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    James G. Dickson

    2003-01-01

    A traditional and very important game species of southern forests is the wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo). The wild turkey is a truly wild creature and inspires an amazing level of admiration and devotion among turkey hunters. Wild turkeys have stout legs that support the heavy bird and are used to scratch for food, and short powerful wings...

  19. Demographic characteristics and ocular involvement in Behçet patients in Southeast Anatolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Mehmet Türkcü

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the demographiccharacteristics of Behcet’s disease (BD patientswith and without ocular involvement.Methods: In this retrospective study BD patients followedup between 2009 and 2013 years in ophthalmology anddermatology clinics were reviewed. Patients were dividedinto 2 groups according to the ocular involvement asocular or non-ocular BD. For each patient, age of onset,gender, family history, and systemic involvement were examined.The frequency of these data was analyzed.Results: Of the 295 patients 177 were ocular BD and 118were non-ocular BD. Ocular involvement were seen morefrequently in male patients than in females. There wasno change between the groups in terms of age at onsetof the disease, a history of thrombophlebitis or gastrointestinal,pulmonary and joint involvement. Pathergy testpositivity and the presence of genital ulcers had more frequentin non-ocular BD.Conclusion: In this study clinical and demographic characteristicsof ocular and non-ocular BD patients in theSoutheast Anatolian Region of Turkey were presented. Asimilar study was not performed previously in our regiontherefore we believe that those data will be useful for diagnosisand follow-up of BD patients. J Clin Exp Invest2013; 4 (3: 339-342Key words: Behçet disease, eye involvement, demographic characteristics

  20. The history of liver transplantation in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moray, Gökhan; Arslan, Gülnaz; Haberal, Mehmet

    2014-03-01

    Liver transplantation is the definitive treatment for end-stage liver diseases. The first successful liver transplant was performed in the United States by Thomas Starzl in 1967. The first successful solid organ transplant in Turkey was a living-related kidney transplant performed by Dr. Haberal in 1975. After much effort by Dr. Haberal, the Turkish parliament enacted a law about organ transplantation in 1979. After clinical and experimental studies, the first liver transplant in Turkey was performed by Dr. Haberal in 1988. The first successful partial living-donor liver transplant in children in Turkey was performed by the same team on March 15, 1990. On April 24, 1990, the first living-donor liver transplant was performed on a child in Turkey using a left lateral segment by Dr. Haberal and coworkers. On May 16, 1992, Dr. Haberal performed a simultaneous living-donor liver and kidney transplantation to an adult from the same donor. There currently are 30 liver transplantation centers in Turkey. According to data from the Ministry of Health, there presently are 2065 patients in Turkey who are waiting for a liver transplantation. From January 2002 to June 2013, there were 6091 liver transplants performed in Turkey (4020 living-donor [66% ] and 2071 deceased donor liver transplants [34% ]). From January 2011 to June 2013, there were 2514 patients who had liver transplants in Turkey, and 437 patients (17%) died. The number of liver transplants per year in Turkey reached 1000 transplants in 2012 and more than 1150 transplants in 2013 (15.1/million/y). Therefore, Turkey has one of the highest volumes of liver transplantation per population worldwide, with 90% survival within 1 year after transplantation.

  1. A SNP based linkage map of the turkey genome reveals multiple intrachromosomal rearrangements between the Turkey and Chicken genomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aslam, M.L.; Bastiaansen, J.W.M.; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A.; Vereijken, A.; Groenen, M.A.M.; Megens, H.J.W.C.

    2010-01-01

    Background The turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) is an important agricultural species that is the second largest contributor to the world's poultry meat production. The genomic resources of turkey provide turkey breeders with tools needed for the genetic improvement of commercial breeds of turkey for eco

  2. STRUCTURAL VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT OF MASONRY BUILDINGS IN TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    KORKMAZ, Kasım Armagan; CARHOGLU, Asuman Isıl

    2011-01-01

    Turkey is located in an active seismic zone. Mid to high rise R/C building and low rise masonry buildings are very common construction type in Turkey. In recent earthquakes, lots of existing buildings got damage including masonry buildings. Masonry building history in Turkey goes long years back. For sure, it is an important structure type for Turkey. Therefore, earthquake behavior and structural vulnerability of masonry buildings are crucial issues for Turkey as a earthquake prone country. I...

  3. Shared Psychotic Disorder (Folie à Deux in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buket Cinemre

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Shared psychotic disorder or folie à deux is a rare and relatively unknown syndrome. Large case series are needed to find out and clarify the etiological factors and the phenomenology of shared psychotic disorder by comparing the cases from different society and cultures. In this study, we reviewed all reported cases of shared psychotic disorder that had been published or presented in Turkey since 1962. To reach this aim, we have searched Pubmed/Medline, ScienceDirect, Google Scholar, Ulakbim Turkish Medical Index, Turkish Psychiatric Index databases for published records originating from Turkey. We have also manually searched poster abstract books of congresses held in Turkey between 1962 and 2009. All cases eligible for inclusion into this study have been evaluated one by one and grouped as primary or secondary cases. The features of these cases were investigated for a number of variables including age, sex, educational level, occupation, the presence of shared delusion and hallucinations, diagnosis, management, onset of illness, family history, IQ, social isolation, the nature of the relationship and classification system used for diagnosis. The results have showed that the syndrome is more frequently observed among women, within same family members and between sisters. Social isolation was the most common risk factor in these patients and most patients shared hallucinations with their partners along with their delusions. Several secondary cases required antipsychotic drugs for the treatment of their symptoms. Though these features were inline with literature findings, the present findings from Turkish population were different from previous studies with regards to the presence of olfactory hallucinations, absence of grandiose delusions and the number of affected family members. The results mostly supported the challenges and discussions in western countries. To understand this most pathological form of interpersonal relationships

  4. Güzide Komutanlarımızdan Muhittin Paşa, Orduda ve Anadolu’daki Hayat, Resmi Tercüme-i Hali ve ŞahsiyetiOne of Our Distinguished Commanders, Muhittin Pasha, His Life, Biography and Personality In Anatolia And Army

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARAN ERDEBİLLİ

    2014-06-01

    especially in the dominant of military organization in Turkey’s great national struggle. During the terrible time of Anatolia in the national struggle, he worked tirelessly with Turkish spirit behind the front. In Kastamonu, Adana and their regions, and in the Battles of Sakarya and İnönü, he kept the organization and the military training of the recruits up, and displayed a great courage in preparing everyone for the defense of country. Before driving the Greek forces into the sea in Izmir, and when the Turkish army was nearly collapsing and it could not even defend itself, he collected the army, and made it ready for the war. In fact, in Anatolia, especially in Kastamonu and its region, the people even did not know the concept of organization. Therefore, he organized them and got people to make military training, who were unable to keep a weapon. In the most dangerous times of Anatolia, Muhittin Pasha tried and worked non-stop to train in the front, defend high attack of enemy power, and drive the enemy forces into the sea. The people of Anatolia greatly respected this man, who had brought them a great victory. The second activity of Muhittin, who had a high-level military and administrative talent, was in Adana. He was the representative of Turkey in the commission founded in Beirut for the act of Turkey-Syrian Customs Agreement which was the requirement of Article 11th of Cilicia Agreement between Turkey and France.

  5. The evaluation of clinical and laboratory findings of 63 inpatient with cutaneous anthrax: Characteristics of cutaneous anthrax in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Uce Özkol

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Despite a very uncommon disease in developed countries, cutaneous anthrax (CA is currently endemic in our countries. In this study, we aimed to bring out characteristic of anthrax of Turkey by comparing our results and the other CA reports in Turkey. Materials and Methods: Sixty three inpatients with CA between October 2009 and December 2012 were investigated retrospectively. All patients were diagnosed CA by clinical finding and/or microbiological examination. The demographic characteristics patient, routine tests, wound culture and gram staining results were recorded. Results were recorded on statistical program of SPSS 13.0 and were written using percent (%. Results: There were 63 inpatients (41 female (65.1%, 22 male (34.9%, mean age 35.9 years range10-83. Forty nine patients (77.8% had a history of contact with animals or animal product. Thirty-eight (60.3% and twenty-one (33.3% patients were found in the summer and fall season, respectively. Gram staining and culture were performed in 51 patients. Gram-positive bacilli were detected in 17 patients (33.3% by gram smear. Bacillus anthracis bacilli were produced in 11 patients (21.5% in cultures test. The lesions were mostly seen on the left hand (30.2%. Penicillin was most frequently preferred in treatment of CA (87.3%. Conclusion: CA is still endemic in Eastern Anatolia and continues to increase in recent years. Women living in the villages in which income is obtained from buying and selling of animals constitute the most important risk group. Preventive actions such as training of the risky society, vaccination of animals, and obstructing of illegal animal entries across the border, will reduce the incidence of CA.

  6. Pediculosis capitis: prevalence and its associated factors in primary school children living in rural and urban areas in Kayseri, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulgun, Mustafa; Balci, Elçin; Karaoğlu, Abdülbaki; Babacan, Oğuzhan; Türker, Türker

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of pediculosis capitis in schoolchildren living in rural and urban areas in Kayseri, a city located in central Anatolia in Turkey. This cross-sectional school-based study was performed in 24 randomly selected public schools. A total of 8,122 schoolchildren aged 5-16 years, from kindergarten to eighth grade, were examined for the presence of pediculosis capitis. A child was defined as being infested by the presence of live or dead lice or eggs/nits. The results were analyzed using the chi-squared test and logistic regression analysis. The overall prevalence of head lice infestation was 13.1%. Pediculosis was more frequent in girls (25.2%) than in boys (0.86%) (p pediculosis were: being a girl (OR = 40.93; 95% Cl = 29.06-57.66), being 9-11 years old (OR = 1.54; 95% Cl = 1.25-1.89), residing with > or = 3 siblings (OR = 1.98; 95% Cl = 1.57-2.50), having a mother with no education (OR = 1.73; 95% CI = 1.29-2.33), having a father with no education (OR = 1.45; 95% Cl = 1.08-1.94), living in a rural area (OR = 2.34; 95% Cl = 2.02-2.71) and living in a one-room house (OR = 2.39; 95% CI = 1.41-4.08). Pediculosis capitis remains a health problem in schoolchildren in Kayseri, Turkey. In addition to improvement in socioeconomic status, collaborative and participation efforts among physicians, nurses, teachers, and parents are necessary to maintain effective epidemiological surveillance and provide treatment.

  7. Identification and determination of antibiotic susceptibilities of Brucella strains isolated from patients in van, Turkey by conventional and molecular methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlak, Mehmet; Güdücüoğlu, Hüseyin; Bayram, Yasemin; Çıkman, Aytekin; Aypak, Cenk; Kılıç, Selçuk; Berktaş, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    Brucellosis is a worldwide zoonotic disease and still constitutes a major public health problem. In this study, we aimed to identify biovars of Brucella strains isolated from clinical specimens taken from brucellosis patients from the Eastern Anatolia region as well determine the susceptibility of these isolates to tigecycline and azithromycin, drugs that may serve as alternatives to the conventional drugs used in the therapy. Seventy-five Brucella spp. isolates were included in the study. All strains were identified by both conventional and molecular methods. Brucella Multiplex PCR kit (FC-Biotech, Code: 0301, Turkey) and B. melitensis biovar typing PCR kit (FC-Biotech, Code: 0302, Turkey) were used for molecular typing. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of all strains were determined by E-tests. By conventional biotyping, 73 strains were identified as B. melitensis biovar 3 and two strains as B. abortus biovar 3. Molecular typing results were compatible with conventional methods. The MIC50 and MIC90 values of doxycycline were 0.047 and 0.094; tigecycline 0.094 and 0.125; trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole 0.064 and 0.19; ciprofloxacin 0.19 for both; streptomycin 0.75 and 1; rifampin 1 and 2 and azithromycin 4 and 8. According to the MIC values, doxycycline was found to be the most effective antibiotic, followed by tigecycline, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and ciprofloxacin. Currently recommended antibiotics for the treatment of brucellosis such as doxycycline, rifampin, streptomycin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and ciprofloxacin were found to be still effective. While our results showed that tigecycline can be used an alternative agent in the treatment of brucellosis, azithromycin has not been confirmed as an appropriate agent for the treatment.

  8. An investigation of pottery production technology for the West Slope wares from Dorylaion (Eski ehir/Turkey)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Issi, A.; Kara, A.

    2013-02-01

    Researches in the field of pottery production technology in ancient times, done in different settlements during the same period, may contribute to know relationships established within the different cultural communities. In ancient times, Anatolia (Asia Minor) was the crossroads of ancient civilizations. There are several ancient settlements and artifacts belonging to Hellenistic culture (330-30 BC). West Slope wares from Dorylaion (Eski ehir/Turkey) excavations are the main Hellenistic culture findings. In this study, different analytical techniques were employed for the characterization of these findings in order to enlighten the pottery production technology. Wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were employed to study the chemical and mineralogical composition of the bodies, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX) were also performed for the microstructural and microchemical characterization of body and slip layers of the selected potsherds. The raw materials used, firing temperatures and atmosphere and related microstructural characteristics were discussed. (Author) 22 refs.

  9. Ft-Ir Spectroscopic Analysis of Potsherds Excavated from the First Settlement Layer of Kuriki Mound, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayazit, Murat; Isik, Iskender; Cereci, Sedat; Issi, Ali; Genc, Elif

    The region covering Southeastern Anatolia takes place in upper Mesopotamia, so it has numerous cultural heritages due to its witness to various social movements of different civilizations in ancient times. Kuruki Mound is located on the junction point of Tigris River and Batman Creek, near Oymatas village which is almost 15 km to Batman, Turkey. The mound is dated back to Late Chalcolithic. Archaeological excavations are carried out on two hills named as “Kuriki Mound-1” and “Kuriki Mound-2” in which 4-layer and 2-layer settlements have been revealed, respectively. This region will be left under the water by the reservoir lake of Ilısu Dam when its construction is completed. Thus, characterization of ancient materials such as potsherds, metals and skeleton ruins should be rapidly done. In this study, 12 potsherds excavated from Layer-1 (the first settlement layer after the surface) in Kuriki Mound-2 were investigated by FT-IR spectrometry. Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses were used as complementary techniques in order to expose chemical and mineralogical/phase contents, respectively. Obtained results showed that the potteries have been produced with calcareous clays and they include moderate amounts of MgO, K2O, Na2O and Fe2O3 in this context. Additionally, high temperature phases have also been detected with XRD analyses in some samples.

  10. Identification of regional soil quality factors and indicators: a case study on an alluvial plain (central Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şeker, Cevdet; Hüseyin Özaytekin, Hasan; Negiş, Hamza; Gümüş, İlknur; Dedeoğlu, Mert; Atmaca, Emel; Karaca, Ümmühan

    2017-05-01

    Sustainable agriculture largely depends on soil quality. The evaluation of agricultural soil quality is essential for economic success and environmental stability in rapidly developing regions. In this context, a wide variety of methods using vastly different indicators are currently used to evaluate soil quality. This study was conducted in one of the most important irrigated agriculture areas of Konya in central Anatolia, Turkey, to analyze the soil quality indicators of Çumra County in combination with an indicator selection method, with the minimum data set using a total of 38 soil parameters. We therefore determined a minimum data set with principle component analysis to assess soil quality in the study area and soil quality was evaluated on the basis of a scoring function. From the broad range of soil properties analyzed, the following parameters were chosen: field capacity, bulk density, aggregate stability, and permanent wilting point (from physical soil properties); electrical conductivity, Mn, total nitrogen, available phosphorus, pH, and NO3-N (from chemical soil properties); and urease enzyme activity, root health value, organic carbon, respiration, and potentially mineralized nitrogen (from biological properties). According to the results, the chosen properties were found as the most sensitive indicators of soil quality and they can be used as indicators for evaluating and monitoring soil quality at a regional scale.

  11. The Challenge of Characterising Large Assemblages of Exotic Materials: a case study of the obsidian from Domuztepe, SE Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Healey

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Obsidian artefacts from Domuztepe (a large late Neolithic site in the Kahramanmaraş plain in south-east Turkey belonging to the Halaf culture and dated to c. 6000-5500 cal. BC account for about 18%, or some 10,000 artefacts, of the chipped stone assemblage. Obsidian is one of the few non-local materials at Domuztepe and as well as being used to make tools it is also used to make items of jewellery, mirrors, bowls and axe-like objects. We know from the geochemical analysis of a relatively small number of artefacts that the obsidian was imported from eight different and widely separated sources in Central, NE and SE Anatolia. These sources are between 200 and 900km distant from Domuztepe. All these factors suggest that obsidian was valued not only as a raw material for tool manufacture but also as a material from which to make luxury items. As an exotic material it is also likely to have a key role in forging and maintaining social and economic relationships, both within the site and more widely. Understanding of the origins of the obsidians and the form in which they were obtained, worked and used, context by context, is key to this. However, difficulties arise with provenancing such a large assemblage, not least because conventional geo-chemical methods are unfeasibly expensive. This article documents the approaches we have developed to overcome this problem.

  12. The natural diatomite from caldiran-van (Turkey): electroanalytical application to antimigraine compound naratriptan at modified carbon paste electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calışkan, Necla; Sögüt, Eda; Saka, Cafer; Yardım, Yavuz; Sentürk, Zuhre

    2010-09-01

    This paper is the first report describing the characterization of local diatomite of Caldiran-Van region (Eastern Anatolia, Turkey). Special attention was paid to the ability of its electroanalytical performance at modified electrodes and to the potential application of diatomite-modified electrode. For this purpose, the determination of Naratriptan which is a novel oral triptan (5-hydroxytryptamine receptor agonist) in migraine treatment, by means of a carbon paste electrode modified with 10% (w/w) of diatomite was studied using cyclic and square-wave voltammetry. The experimental conditions that affect the electrode reaction process were studied in terms of pH of the supporting electrolyte, scan rate, accumulation variables, modifier composition and square-wave parameters. Using square-wave stripping mode, the drug yielded a well-defined voltammetric response in Britton-Robinson buffer, pH 4.0 at 0.84 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) (a pre-concentration step being carried out with an open circuit at 120 s). The process could be used to determine Naratriptan concentrations in the range 5x10(-7)-9x10(-7) M, with a detection limit of 1.25x10(-7) M (46.5 mug L(-1)). The applicability of the method to spiked human urine samples was illustrated.

  13. A Macroanatomic Study on Larynx Cranialis of Turkeys in Thrace Region, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozan GUNDEMİR

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the differences and similarities between larynx cranialis of turkey and other species of poultry. For this purpose, 8 female and 8 male adult turkeys were used for the anatomical measurements. Furthermore, histological examinations were performed on larynx cranialis of 2 turkeys. Cartilago thyroidea and epiglottis were not observed in the larynx cranialis, in our study. Besides, larynx cranialis were found to constitute from paired cartilago arytneoidea and unpaired cartilago cricoidea and cartilago procricoidea. Crista ventralis was detected on larynx cranialis of turkeys. According to our results, it has been determined that in turkey; the width of glottis in female turkeys were larger than males. Cartilago procricoidea were observed bigger than cartilago arytenoidea and crista ventralis were found to be more prominent than in other birds.

  14. CSAMT investigations of the Caferbeyli (Manisa/Turkey) geothermal area

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sinem Aykaç; Emre Timur; Coşkun Sari; Çagri Çaylak

    2015-02-01

    Western Turkey is one of the most remarkable regions of very active continental extension in the world. The most significant structures of this region are Alaşehir, Gediz, and Büyük Menderes Grabens. Geothermal activity around city of Manisa in Gediz Graben has been investigated by many researchers and many geothermal boreholes were drilled in order to produce electricity and for heating purposes. The Caferbeyli geothermal area is on the southern side of the Gediz Graben just west of Salihli, Manisa, Turkey. According to rising demand on thermal water around Salihli, geophysical studies were performed using the Controlled Source Audio Magnetotellurics (CSAMT) measurements near the area of Cafer-beyli, and they were interpreted by the two-dimensional modelling. Vertical and horizontal resistivity sections were mapped, and it was determined that a low-resistivity layer exists in the SW part of the survey area. As a result of the studies in the area, the boundaries of the low-resistivity layer were mapped and a test drilling was recommended.

  15. VIth EUROPEAN SPORTS MEDICINE CONGRESS October 14-18 2009, Antalya/Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available On behalf of Turkish Sports Medicine Association, we are proud to host 6th. EFSMA European Sports Medicine Congress in Antalya, Turkey; a country founded in Anatolia with a ten thousand year old cultural heritage, acting as a geographic and socio-cultural link between West and East.The choice of Antalya as the venue of our Congress is to provide a unique ambiance with the incomparable historic presence, natural beauty and cultural charm of this part of Anatolia. We hope that this Congress in the land of pioneers of medicine such as Avicenna and Hipocrates inspires and stimulates you. Surrounded by amazing scenery of sharp contrasts, Antalya, Turkey’s principal resort, is an attractive city with shady palm-lined boulevards and a prize-winning marina. Antalya has been continuously inhabited since its founding in 159 BC by Attalos II, a King of Pergamum, who named the city Attaleia after himself.The Romans, Byzantines and Seljuks successively inhabited in Antalya before Ottomans ruled the territory.Today, Antalya is a famous tourism center in Mustafa Kemal Ataturk’s modern Turkish Republic, providing a premium touristic service mainly to Europe.We would like to welcome you to share the recent scientific developments in the area of sports medicine. We believe this Congress provides a high quality scientific environment for the presentation of new research and exchange of information by all disciplines related to sports and medicine.In recent years, the EFSMA has grown and developed into what is now a leading and dynamic force in Sports Medicine in Europe. It is with the same dynamism and expertise that are the hallmarks of a high calibre and carefully arranged scientific programme. A thorough discussion and critical evaluation of the latest advancements in sports medicine are key features of the scientific programme. The sessions, which will include educational courses, state-of-the-art lectures, panel and round table discussions and symposia

  16. Defense Industry Clusters in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir Alpaslan Demir

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available All countries strive for a capable national defense supported by a strong national defense industry. Supporting national defense with imported defense systems has many limitations and risks because the terms of arms trade agreements between countries may easily be influenced by the political climate of the signatories. As a result, establishing an independent national defense requires a strong national defense industry. Furthermore, exporting defense systems may be an important source of national income. National defense industries mostly consist of large-scale defense firms that have the resources required for big defense contracts. However, small to medium enterprises (SMEs do not have the necessary resources, therefore they are at a disadvantage. To overcome this handicap and be part of the business, defense industry clusters mostly consisting of SMEs are being established. Provided that there is good national planning and support in this area, defense clusters consisting of SMEs may play a significant role in industry. SMEs have a chance to offer specialized services, special or customized products when needed. As a result, large defense firms subcontract certain portions of defense projects to SMEs. Since 2010, Turkey has shown signs of continuous improvement in defense industry clustering. In parallel with these developments, this study discusses the importance of clustering in the defense industry, briefly presents the state of the Turkish defense industry as highlighted by national statistics, and presents the current status of defense clusters in Turkey. The novelty of this article consists in its assessment of Turkish defense clusters.

  17. Understanding Urban Regeneration in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candas, E.; Flacke, J.; Yomralioglu, T.

    2016-06-01

    In Turkey, rapid population growth, informal settlements, and buildings and infrastructures vulnerable to natural hazards are seen as the most important problems of cities. Particularly disaster risk cannot be disregarded, as large parts of various cities are facing risks from earthquakes, floods and landslides and have experienced loss of lives in the recent past. Urban regeneration is an important planning tool implemented by local and central governments in order to reduce to disaster risk and to design livable environments for the citizens. The Law on the Regeneration of Areas under Disaster Risk, commonly known as the Urban Regeneration Law, was enacted in 2012 (Law No.6306, May 2012). The regulation on Implementation of Law No. 6306 explains the fundamental steps of the urban regeneration process. The relevant institutions furnished with various authorities such as expropriation, confiscation and changing the type and place of your property which makes urban regeneration projects very important in terms of property rights. Therefore, urban regeneration projects have to be transparent, comprehensible and acceptable for all actors in the projects. In order to understand the urban regeneration process, the legislation and projects of different municipalities in Istanbul have been analyzed. While some steps of it are spatial data demanding, others relate to land values. In this paper an overview of the urban regeneration history and activities in Turkey is given. Fundamental steps of the urban regeneration process are defined, and particularly spatial-data demanding steps are identified.

  18. Mycoplasma gallopavonis in eastern wild turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luttrell, M P; Eleazer, T H; Kleven, S H

    1992-04-01

    Serum samples and tracheal cultures were collected from eastern wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo sylvestris) trapped for relocation in South Carolina (USA) during 1985 to 1990. Sera were tested for Mycoplasma gallisepticum and M. synoviae by the rapid plate agglutination and hemagglutination inhibition tests and were found to be negative. Tracheal cultures were negative for all pathogenic Mycoplasma spp., including M. gallisepticum, M. synoviae, M. meleagridis, and M. iowae. However, M. gallopavonis was isolated from every group of wild turkeys tested in 1986 to 1990. These data suggest that M. gallopavonis, which is generally considered nonpathogenic, may be a common microorganism in eastern wild turkeys.

  19. Proteomic analysis of white and yellow seminal plasma in turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Słowińska, M; Kozłowski, K; Jankowski, J; Ciereszko, A

    2015-06-01

    Yellow semen syndrome (YSS) is endemic within domestic turkey populations. Yellow semen is of lower quality and, when used for insemination, results in reduced fertility and hatchability. Little is known about the etiology of YSS. The aim of this study was to compare the proteome of white and yellow seminal plasma of turkeys using 1) 2-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) to quantify seminal plasma proteins and 2) matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry to identify the proteins that are differentially abundant in white and yellow seminal plasma. A total of 49 protein spots (30 upregulated and 19 downregulated) were differentially expressed in yellow seminal plasma compared with white seminal plasma. Transthyretin and serum albumin-like showed a 3-fold increase in seminal plasma from males with YSS, and the latter was validated using Western blot analysis. A 3-fold increase was observed for hemopexin-like and immunoglobulin light chain V-J-C region. Pantetheinase-like showed a 1.3-fold increase. Ovotransferrin, hepatocyte growth factor activator, cysteine-rich secretory protein 3-like, and ferritin heavy chain-like showed a significant decrease (at least a 1.3-fold decrease) in yellow semen. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the precise function of the above-mentioned proteins in YSS and to establish quality markers of turkey semen to predict the reproductive potential of individual turkeys.

  20. The contribution of Saharan dust in PM(10) concentration levels in Anatolian Peninsula of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabatas, B; Unal, A; Pierce, R B; Kindap, T; Pozzoli, L

    2014-08-01

    Sahara-originated dust is the most significant natural source of particulate matter; however, this contribution is still unclear in the Eastern Mediterranean especially in Western Turkey, where significant industrial sources and metropolitan areas are located. The Real-time Air Quality Modeling System (RAQMS) is utilized to explore the possible effects of Saharan dust on high levels of PM10 measured in Turkey. RAQMS model is compared with 118-air quality stations distributed throughout Turkey (81 cities) for April 2008. MODIS aerosol product (MOD04 for Terra and MYD04 for Aqua) is used to see columnar aerosol loading of the atmosphere at 550 nm (Aerosol optical depth (AOD) values found to be between 0.6 and 0.8 during the episode). High-resolution vertical profiles of clouds and aerosols are provided from CALIOP, on board of CALISPO satellite. The results suggest a significant contribution of Sahara dust to high levels of PM10 in Turkey with RAQMS and in situ time series showing similar patterns. The two data sets are found to be in agreement with a correlation of 0.87.

  1. Geochemical and Isotopic Constrains on the Origin of Kaymaz Gold Deposit, Eskisehir, NW Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toygar, Ozlem; Sendir, Huseyin; Mutlu, Halim; Demirbilek, Mehmet

    2016-04-01

    The Alpine-Himalayan orogenic system produced several gold deposits in Turkey related to subduction, collision, post-collision and rifting processes. The Kaymaz gold deposit in mid-west Anatolia, 65 km southeast of Eskisehir city, is an orogenic gold deposit which formed in association with listwaenites. The gold occurrence is closely related to listwaenitization process and intense silicification. SiO2 content is up to 96% due to pervasive hydrothermal alteration. Listwaenites are enriched in Au, Ag and several metals in varying levels which are also variably correlated with other trace elements. Regarding rare earth element concentrations in the mineralized zone, light rare earth elements are found to display different variations with respect to gold content. It is proposed that these differences are due to the presence of more than one fluid type in the system and/or different phases which transported ore minerals at varying extent. According to microthermometric data on quartz samples, the temperature of the mineralization between 200°C-420°C and 3.9%-9.6% NaCl eq., the deposit is an epithermal-mesothermal type mineralization. δ18O compositions of quartz samples and calculated δ18OH2O values at homogenization temperatures indicate that boiling process and/or hydrothermal fluids affected the system at more than one stage. δ34S compositions of pyrite samples show a magmatic source for sulfur in the system prob