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Sample records for western anatolia extended

  1. Cenozoic Extension of the Southern Menderes Massif along the Kayabuku Shear Zone, Western Anatolia Extended Terrane, Turkey

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    Diniz, E.; Cemen, I.; Catlos, E. J.; Konak, N.; Goncuoglu, C. M.; Kohn, M. J.; Baker, C.; Hancer, M.

    2006-12-01

    Four major low angle extensional shear zones are located in the Menderes massif of the Western Anatolia Extended Terrane in western Turkey. The shear zones are, from north to south, Simav, Alasehir, Buyuk Menderes and Kayabuku (Selimiye) shear zones. We have conducted a detailed field oriented study to determine the role of the Kayabuku (Selimiye) shear zone in the Cenozoic extensional evolution of the Menderes massif. The south-dipping Kayabuku (Selimiye) shear zone of the southern Menderes massif contains well- developed mesoscopic and microscopic shear sense indicators, and separates orthogneiss and augengneiss in its footwall from schist and marble rock units in its hanging wall. Within the shear zone, the average attitude of the foliation planes between the towns of Milas and Yatagan is measured as N86W/50°S. The shear zone shows two ductile sense of shearing; 1) top to the north and 2) top to the south which overprinted the former one. Many thin sections also show top to the south brittle shear sense indicators overprinting the ductile shear sense indicators. The trend of the ductile shear sense indicators, such as stretching lineations, range from N10E to N30E indicating that they are parallel to the shear sense indicators measured along the Simav shear zone of the northern and, Alasehir and Buyuk Menderes shear zones of the central Menderes massif. This suggests to us that the Cenozoic extension which was initiated in Oligocene by the processes of Orogenic Collapse effected the Kayabuku (Selimiye) shear zone. The hanging wall of the Kayabuku shear zone is also locally brittely deformed by a south-dipping normal fault zone, discontinuously exposed between the schist and marble units. The fault zone suggests that the hanging wall of the shear zone has been brittely deformed during the extensional exhumation of the southern Menderes massif. Our field observations and microtectonic studies suggest that the rocks within the Kayabuku (Selimiye) shear zone gained

  2. Geography Teacher Candidates' Experiences of Field Study in Western Anatolia: A Qualitative Study

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    Balci, Ali

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to establish expectations of 5th grade students from Marmara University's Department of Geography Teaching on geographical field study in Western Anatolia. For this reason, a field study trip was organized to Western Anatolia. A survey, which was consisted of open-ended questions, was prepared by experts and it was…

  3. Case study: Examples of Wooden Vernacular Architecture - Turkish Houses in Western Anatolia

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    Yilmaz Karaman Özgül

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Wooden material is described as the oldest construction material along with stone. In the historical process, especially for the buildings of shelter, timber construction components are seen to be used as primary and indispensable structural system components in different geographies of the world as well as Anatolia. This paper focuses on timber-frame structures of four different settlements from Western Anatolia. It is aimed to analyze the traditional techniques, in order to transmit our cultural heritage to the next generations, as well as obtaining some data on construction techniqes to be used for creating alternative solutions to the house production of today.

  4. Seroprevalence of human brucellosis in a rural area of Western Anatolia, Turkey.

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    Cetinkaya, Zafer; Aktepe, Orhan C; Ciftci, Ihsan H; Demirel, Reha

    2005-06-01

    This study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of human brucellosis and identify the potential risk factors in a rural area of Western Anatolia, Turkey. A simple random-sampling method was used for identifying 1,052 subjects for the study. Blood samples, collected from all the subjects, were studied following the methods of Rose Bengal slide agglutination and standard tube agglutination tests. One thousand and one samples (95.2%) were seronegative, and 51 (4.8%) were seropositive. There was a statistically significant correlation between seropositivity and age, sex, consuming fresh cheese and cream made from unboiled milk (p values 0.005, 0.019, dairy products and education regarding eating habits must be pursued for eradication of human brucellosis from rural areas. The findings of the study suggest that human brucellosis is still an important public-health problem in the western Anatolia region of Turkey, especially in rural areas.

  5. Diversity and homogeneity among the early farming communities of Western Anatolia

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    Eylem Özdoğan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Our knowledge of the Neolithisation of Western Anatolia has increased considerably in recent years. Being located beyond, but on the border of the formative zone of Neolithisation, the region has acted as a buffer in the dispersal of the Neolithic way of life farther to the west. Recent research in Western Anatolia has shown that Neolithic sites appeared in the second quarter of the 7th millennium BC and had become widespread by the second half of the same millennium. There is now adequate data available on both the distribution of sites and the material culture in some subregions. In this context, this article will focus not on the Neolithisation process, but on the characteristic features of the sub-regions and the interaction between them.

  6. Overwintered Hatchlings of Emys orbicularis from Lake Sülüklü (Western Anatolia, Turkey

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    Dinçer Ayaz

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available During our monitoring survey of amphibians and Emys orbicularis in Lake Sülüklü (Western Anatolia, Turkey, we observed four overwintered hatchlings of European pond turtle on May 4 and 10, 2010. The average straightline maximum carapace length of the neonates captured was 26.48 mm and their average weight was 4.18 g. This observation is the second record for the Turkish population of Emys orbicularis.

  7. Mineral and whole-rock geochemistry of the Topuk Granitoid (Bursa, Western Anatolia, Turkey)

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    Orhan, Ayşe; Demirbilek, Mehmet; Mutlu, Halim

    2014-05-01

    by the interaction of post-collisional, calc-alkaline, metaluminous and I-type coeval felsic and mafic magmas at shallow depths under similar physicochemical conditions. Keywords: Turkey, Western Anatolia, Topuk Granitoid, geochemistry. Acknowledgement: This study is supported by the Scientific and Technical Research Council of Turkey (TÜBİTAK; YDABAG-111Y289).

  8. Reconstructing Early Pleistocene (1.3 Ma) terrestrial environmental change in western Anatolia: Did it drive fluvial terrace formation?

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    Veldkamp, A.; Candy, I.; Jongmans, A.G.; Maddy, D.; Demir, T.; Schoorl, J.M.; Schreve, D.; Stemerdink, C.; Schriek, van der T.

    2015-01-01

    A terrestrial environmental reconstruction of an Early Pleistocene landscape from western Anatolia is presented. The basis of this reconstruction is a sedimentary stack comprising fluvial and colluvial slope deposits. Contained within this stack is a sequence comprising two massive laminar calcretes

  9. Sedimentary lipid biomarkers in the magnesium rich and highly alkaline Lake Salda (south-western Anatolia

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    Jérôme Kaiser

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Lake Salda located in south-western Anatolia is characterized by the presence of living stromatolites and by a low diversity of both phytoplankton and zooplankton due to high pH and magnesium concentration. The most abundant, free sedimentary lipids of the uppermost centimetres of the lake sediments were studied as potential environmental biomarkers, and proxies based on glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGT were tested in this extreme environment. Dinosterol and tetrahymanol are potentially relevant biomarkers for the dinoflagellate Peridinium cinctum and ciliates, respectively. C20:1 and C25:2 highly branched isoprenoid (HBI alkenes, and n-C17 alkane and n-C17:1 alkene are considered as representing, respectively, diatoms and Cyanobacteria involved in the formation of the stromatolites. Isoprenoid GDGT-0 is assumed to be derived mainly from Euryarchaeota (methanogens, and crenarchaeol from Thaumarchaeota. Allochthonous organic material is represented by long-chain n-alkanes and n-alkanols derived from land plant leaf waxes, as well as branched GDGTs produced by soil bacteria. While pH and temperature proxies based on branched GDGTs are likely not applicable in Lake Salda, TEX86 (tetraether index of tetraethers consisting of 86 carbons, a proxy based on isoprenoid GDGTs, potentially allows estimating mean annual lake surface temperature. Interestingly, C23 and C25 1,2 diols, which have a yet unknown origin, were found for the first time in lake sediments. This study represents the first investigation of sedimentary lipid distribution in an alkaline and magnesium-rich lake in Anatolia, and provides a basis for future biomarker-based paleoenvironmental reconstruction of Lake Salda.

  10. The Gediz River fluvial archive: A benchmark for Quaternary research in Western Anatolia

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    Maddy, D.; Veldkamp, A.; Demir, T.; van Gorp, W.; Wijbrans, J. R.; van Hinsbergen, D. J. J.; Dekkers, M. J.; Schreve, D.; Schoorl, J. M.; Scaife, R.; Stemerdink, C.; van der Schriek, T.; Bridgland, D. R.; Aytaç, A. S.

    2017-06-01

    The Gediz River, one of the principal rivers of Western Anatolia, has an extensive Pleistocene fluvial archive that potentially offers a unique window into fluvial system behaviour on the western margins of Asia during the Quaternary. In this paper we review our work on the Quaternary Gediz River Project (2001-2010) and present new data which leads to a revised stratigraphical model for the Early Pleistocene development of this fluvial system. In previous work we confirmed the preservation of eleven buried Early Pleistocene fluvial terraces of the Gediz River (designated GT11, the oldest and highest, to GT1, the youngest and lowest) which lie beneath the basalt-covered plateaux of the Kula Volcanic Province. Deciphering the information locked in this fluvial archive requires the construction of a robust geochronology. Fortunately, the Gediz archive provides ample opportunity for age-constraint based upon age estimates derived from basaltic lava flows that repeatedly entered the palaeo-Gediz valley floors. In this paper we present, for the first time, our complete dataset of 40Ar/39Ar age estimates and associated palaeomagnetic measurements. These data, which can be directly related to the underlying fluvial deposits, provide age constraints critical to our understanding of this sequence. The new chronology establishes the onset of Quaternary volcanism at ∼1320ka (MIS42). This volcanism, which is associated with GT6, confirms a pre-MIS42 age for terraces GT11-GT7. Evidence from the colluvial sequences directly overlying these early terraces suggests that they formed in response to hydrological and sediment budget changes forced by climate-driven vegetation change. The cyclic formation of terraces and their timing suggests they represent the obliquity-driven climate changes of the Early Pleistocene. By way of contrast the GT5-GT1 terrace sequence, constrained by a lava flow with an age estimate of ∼1247ka, span the time-interval MIS42 - MIS38 and therefore do not

  11. Clarifying the interplate main tectonic elements of Western Anatolia, Turkey by using GNSS velocities and Bouguer gravity anomalies

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    Çırmık, Ayça; Pamukçu, Oya

    2017-10-01

    In this study, the GNSS and gravity data were processed and compared together for examining the continental structures of the Western Anatolia region which has very complicated tectonism. The GNSS data of three national projects were processed and GNSS velocities were found as approximately 25 mm per year towards southwest with respect to the Eurasia fixed frame. In order to investigate the interplate motions of the region, the Anatolian and Aegean block solutions were calculated and the differences in directions and amplitudes of velocities were observed particularly in the Anatolian block solution. Due to the Anatolian block solutions, the study area was grouped into three regions and compared with the tectonic structures as the first time for Western Anatolia by this study. Additionally, W-E and N-S relative GNSS solutions were obtained for observing the possible tectonic borders of the study area. Besides, 2nd order horizontal derivative and low-pass filter methods were applied to Bouguer gravity anomalies and the results of the gravity applications and the changes on crustal-mantle interface were compared with the GNSS horizontal velocities.

  12. Native of the marble in ancient city, Nysa on the Meander of Hellenistic and Roman Period, Aydin- Western Anatolia - Turkey

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    Kadioğlu, M.; Kadioğlu, Y. K.

    2008-07-01

    Nysa, one of the most important cities of Caria in Hellenistic and Roman period, is located on the highway connecting Aydin (ancient name Tralleis) and Denizli, at about three kilometres northwest of Sultanhisar in western Anatolia of Turkey. The archaeological remains of Nysa are located on the slopes on the side of the stream called Tekkecik. The buildings, streets and public squares of the ancient city were supported by vaulted substructures adapted to the topographic conditions. As to the foundation of the city, Strabo relates that three brothers named Athymbros, Athymbrados, and Hydrelos came from Lakedaimon to Caria, and founded there three cities named after themselves. The small rock samples from the building of theatre, stadium, basement of agora and tomb were collected and determined under polarized microscope and confocal Raman spectroscopy to find out the native of these rock sources. The results of these studies reveal that the main rocks of these structures are composed from white colour marble. These marbles have granoblastic texture and are composed of mainly pressure twinned calcite as coarse grain size. The confocal Raman specroscopical studies of reveal that the marble building stone of Nysa city are mainly obtained from Jurassic Cretaceous of Western Anatolia marble.

  13. The natural radioactivity contents in feed coals from the lignite-fired power plants in Western Anatolia, Turkey

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    Cam, N.F.; Yaprak, G.; Eren, E. [Ege University, Izmir (Turkey). Faculty of Science

    2010-12-15

    Lignite burning is one of the sources of technologically enhanced exposure to humans from natural radionuclides. In the preliminary study, part of the survey, the activity concentrations of Ra-226, Th-232 and K-40 in 112 samples of feed lignites from seven lignite-fired power plants in Western Anatolia (Seyitomer, Tuncbilek, Orhaneli, Soma, Yatagan, Yenikoy and Kemerkoy) were, therefore, determined by scintillation gamma spectrometry. The ranges of the relevant radionuclides in the lignite samples are as follows: Ra-226, 23-291 Bq kg{sup -1}; Th-232, 12-68 Bq kg{sup -1}; and K-40, 67-284 Bq kg{sup -1}. Taking the coefficient of variation (CV) as a measure of the variability, the CV is also calculated for the natural radionuclides in the feed lignites. Furthermore, the dose rates in the coal-handling areas due to external gamma radiation are found to be within the range specified by UNSCEAR (2000) report.

  14. Hydrothermal fluids circulation and travertine deposition in an active tectonic setting: Insights from the Kamara geothermal area (western Anatolia, Turkey)

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    Brogi, Andrea; Alçiçek, M. Cihat; Yalçıner, Cahit Çağlar; Capezzuoli, Enrico; Liotta, Domenico; Meccheri, Marco; Rimondi, Valentina; Ruggieri, Giovanni; Gandin, Anna; Boschi, Chiara; Büyüksaraç, Aydin; Alçiçek, Hülya; Bülbül, Ali; Baykara, Mehmet Oruç; Shen, Chuan-Chou

    2016-06-01

    Coexistence of thermal springs, travertine deposits and tectonic activity is a recurring feature for most geothermal areas. Although such a certainty, their relationships are debated mainly addressing on the role of the tectonic activity in triggering and controlling fluids flow and travertine deposition. In this paper, we present the results of an integrated study carried out in a geothermal area located in western Anatolia (Turkey), nearby the well-known Pamukkale area (Denizli Basin). Our study focused on the relationships among hydrothermal fluids circulation, travertine deposition and tectonic activity, with particular emphasis on the role of faults in controlling fluids upwelling, thermal springs location and deposition of travertine masses. New field mapping and structural/kinematics analyses allowed us to recognize two main faults systems (NW- and NE-trending), framed in the Neogene-Quaternary extensional tectonic evolution of western Anatolia. A geo-radar (GPR) prospection was also provided in a key-area, permitting us to reconstruct a buried fault zone and its relationships with the development of a fissure-ridge travertine deposit (Kamara fissure-ridge). The integration among structural and geophysical studies, fluids inclusion, geochemical, isotopic data and 230 Th/238 U radiometric age determination on travertine deposits, depict the characteristics of the geothermal fluids and their pathway, up to the surface. Hydrological and seismological data have been also taken in account to investigate the relation between local seismicity and fluid upwelling. As a main conclusion we found strict relationships among tectonic activity, earthquakes occurrence, and variation of the physical/chemical features of the hydrothermal fluids, presently exploited at depth, or flowing out in thermal springs. In the same way, we underline the tectonic role in controlling the travertine deposition, making travertine (mainly banded travertine) a useful proxy to reconstruct the

  15. Old stories and lost pieces of the Eastern Mediterranean puzzle: a new approach to the tectonic evolution of the Western Anatolia and the Aegean Sea

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    Yaltırak, Cenk; Engin Aksu, Ali; Hall, Jeremy; Elitez, İrem

    2015-04-01

    During the last 20 or so years, the tectonic evolution of Aegean Sea and Western Anatolia has been dominantly explained by back-arc extension and escape tectonics along the North Anatolian Fault. Various datasets have been considered in the construction of general tectonic models, including the geometry of fault patterns, paleomagnetic data, extensional directions of the core complexes, characteristic changes in magmatism and volcanism, the different sense of Miocene rotation between the opposite sides of the Aegean Sea, and the stratigraphy and position of the Miocene and Pliocene-Quaternary basins. In these models, the roles of the Burdur-Fethiye Shear Zone, the Trakya-Eskişehir Fault Zone, the Anaximander Mountains and Isparta Angle have almost never been taken into consideration. The holistic evaluation of numerous land and marine researches in the Aegean Sea and western Anatolia suggest the following evolutionary stages: 1. during the early Miocene, Greece and western Anatolia were deformed under the NE-SW extensional tectonics associated with the back-arc extension, when core complexes and supra-detachment basins developed, 2. following the collision of the Anaximander Mountains and western Anatolia in early Miocene , the Isparta Angle locked this side of the western arc by generating a triangle-shaped compressional structure, 3. while the Isparta Angle penetrated into the Anatolia, the NE-striking Burdur-Fethiye Shear Zone in the west and NW-striking Trakya-Eskişehir Fault Zone in the north developed along the paleo-tectonic zones , 4. the formation of these two tectonic structures allowed the counterclockwise rotation of the western Anatolia in the middle Miocene and this rotation removed the effect of the back-arc extension on the western Anatolian Block, 5. the counterclockwise rotation developed with the early westward escape of the Western Anatolian reached up to 35-40o and Trakya-Eskişehir Fault Zone created a total dextral displacement of about 200

  16. Naturally occurring arsenic in terrestrial geothermal systems of western Anatolia, Turkey: potential role in contamination of freshwater resources.

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    Bundschuh, Jochen; Maity, Jyoti Prakash; Nath, Bibhash; Baba, Alper; Gunduz, Orhan; Kulp, Thomas R; Jean, Jiin-Shuh; Kar, Sandeep; Yang, Huai-Jen; Tseng, Yu-Jung; Bhattacharya, Prosun; Chen, Chien-Yen

    2013-11-15

    Arsenic (As) contamination in terrestrial geothermal systems has been identified in many countries worldwide. Concentrations higher than 0.01 mg/L are detrimental to human health. We examined potential consequences for As contamination of freshwater resources based on hydrogeochemical investigations of geothermal waters in deep wells and hot springs collected from western Anatolia, Turkey. We analyzed samples for major ions and trace element concentrations. Temperature of geothermal waters in deep wells showed extreme ranges (40 and 230 °C), while, temperature of hot spring fluids was up to 90 °C. The Piper plot illustrated two dominant water types: Na-HCO3(-) type for geothermal waters in deep wells and Ca-HCO3(-) type for hot spring fluids. Arsenic concentration ranged from 0.03 to 1.5mg/L. Dominance of reduced As species, i.e., As(III), was observed in our samples. The Eh value ranged between -250 and 119 mV, which suggests diverse geochemical conditions. Some of the measured trace elements were found above the World Health Organization guidelines and Turkish national safe drinking water limits. The variation in pH (range: 6.4-9.3) and As in geothermal waters suggest mixing with groundwater. Mixing of geothermal waters is primarily responsible for contamination of freshwater resources and making them unsuitable for drinking or irrigation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Hydrogeological, Hydrogeochemical and Isotope Geochemical Features of the Geothermal Waters in Seferihisar and Environs, Western Anatolia, Turkey

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    Özgür, Nevzat; Aras Pala, Ebru; Degirmenci, Saliha

    2017-12-01

    The study area of Seferihisar is located within the Izmir-Ankara suture in the NW of the Menderes Massif in western Anatolia, Turkey. The Paleozoic metamorphic rocks of the Menderes Massif form the basement rocks in the area which are overlain by 760 m thick Izmir-flysch series consisting of metamorphic rocks, limestones and ultrabasic rocks tectonically. The Pliocene Bahçecik formation which consists of an alternation of conglomerates, sandstones, claystones, lignite and limestones and shows a thickness of 300 m overlies the (İzmir) flysch series discordantly. This is overlain by 430 m thick Yeniköy formation composed of conglomerates, sandstones, claystones and clayey limestones discordantly. The Miocene volcanic rocks of Cumaovası overlie the Yeniköy formation concordantly which are overlain by alluvium and travertine deposits. Geothermal waters which are observed in the localities of Tuzla, Cumalı, Doğanbey and Karakoç are associated with NE-SW trending faults in the area. The geothermal waters in the area are considered as Na-Cl or Na-Cl-HCO3 type waters. The geothermal waters of Seferihisar and environs are identified to be Na+K>Ca>Mg dominant cations and Cl>HCO3>SO4 dominant anions. According to the diagram of Na/100-K/100-√Mg, a certainly part of the thermal waters can be considered as equilibrated thermal waters during some waters are of immature waters. According to the results of geochemical thermometers, the reservoir temperatures of thermal waters range from 150 to 240°C. The δ2H values of thermal waters are between -13,3 to -31,9, while δ18O values range from -2,55 to -5,70. The tritium contents of thermal waters are between 13 to 64±10 TU.

  18. Bronze Age metal artefacts found on Cyprus - metal from Anatolia and the Western Mediterranean

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    Stos-Gale, Zofia A.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Hundreds of Bronze Age metal artefacts excavated on archaeological sites in Cyprus have been analysed for their lead isotope and elemental composition in the Isotrace Laboratory, University of Oxford, in the years 1982-2002. In parallel, but in particular after 1995, hundreds of samples of minerals and slags collected from the mines and smelting sites around the Troodos Mountains were also analysed. Most of the results were published in various articles over the years, but the interpretation of some of the lead isotope data needs a current revision in view of new research conducted in Spain, Sardinia and southern France. It has been known that the lead isotope data for metal artefacts from the Cypriot Bronze Age sites shows that not all of the copper is consistent with origin from the Cypriot ores. In addition, the lead and silver artefacts found there must have been imported, because there are no lead or silver ores on Cyprus. The re-evaluation of the data shows that about 11 % of the analysed metal artefacts are consistent with the origin from the deposits in the Aegean and Turkey, while about 14 % with sources in the Western Mediterranean. This paper discusses in detail the current interpretation of the research into the sources of imported metal found in the Bronze Age context on Cyprus.

    Cientos de objetos de metal de la Edad del Bronce excavados en yacimientos de Chipre han sido analizados para conocer su composición elemental y sus isótopos de plomo en el Isotrace Laboratory de la Universidad de Oxford entre los años 1982 y 2002. Especialmente con posterioridad a 1995 cientos de muestras de minerales y escorias recogidas de minas y sitios de reducción de minerales localizadas en el entorno de las montañas de Troodos también fueron analizadas. La mayoría de los resultados fueron publicados en varios artículos a lo largo del tiempo, pero la interpretación de algunos análisis de isótopos de plomo necesitan de una revisión a

  19. Wetter and cooler: pronounced temperate climate conditions in western Anatolia during the Middle Miocene Climatic Optimum

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    Güner, Tuncay H.; Bouchal, Johannes M.; Köse, Nesibe; Denk, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    proposed that has only a weak seasonality in precipitation (lower precipitation in winter). The findings of our study provide valuable information for inferring palaeoenvironments of middle Miocene rich ungulate faunas in western Turkey (e.g. Paşalar), for which seasonal tropical and subtropical forest communities have been proposed (Andrews, 1990). The fossil floras of the Tınaz and Salihpaşalar lignite mines, representing the Tınaz sub-basin and the main basin of the wider Yataǧan Basin, are investigated at the moment, and a synthesis paper combining and comparing evidence from the macro floral and palynological data is soon to be submitted. Andrews. (1990) Palaeoecology of the Miocene fauna from Paşalar, Turkey. Journal of Human evolution 19:569-582.

  20. Stratigraphy and Ar/Ar geochronology of the Miocene lignite-bearing Tunçbilek-Domaniç Basin, western Anatolia

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    Helvacı, C.; Ersoy, E. Y.; Billor, M. Z.

    2017-07-01

    The Tunçbilek-Domaniç Basin is one of the Neogene basins containing economic coal deposits in western Anatolia, Turkey. The basin fill represents fluvial to lacustrine sedimentary units which are interlayered with volcanic rocks with bimodal composition. In order to reveal the stratigraphy and the exact ages of the basin fill and coal deposits, and to explore the tectonic evolution of the basin, we present new field data and Ar/Ar age data from the volcanic units. The field studies and the age data indicate that the whole basin fills were deposited between 23 and 19 Ma (Aquitanian-Early Burdigalian) without any unconformity. Taking into account the ages of the coal-bearing sedimentary units in the other Neogene basins in the region, it is concluded that most of the economic coal deposits in the western Anatolia were formed during Aquitanian. The field studies also show that the deposition of the sedimentary units in the basin was controlled by the NE-SW-trending strike- to oblique-slip normal faults. In a regional scale, tectonic evolution of the Tunçbilek-Domaniç Basin is linked to the differential stretching in the hanging wall of the southerly located, a crustal-scale low-angle detachment fault (the Simav detachment fault) that controlled the Early Miocene exhumation of the Menderes Extensional Core Complex.

  1. Mitochondrial genetic variations of an introduced freshwater fish, goldfish Carassius auratus at the frontier between Europe and Asia (western Anatolia, Turkey): proximity to Europe rather than East Asia?

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    Doğaç, Ersin; Ağdamar, Sevan; Keskin, Emre; Tarkan, Ali Serhan; Yapıcı, Sercan; Acar, Ümit

    2016-11-01

    Carassius auratus is one of the most significant ornamental and food fishes of the world that is globally distributed and well known. Although it is known to have existed at least for six decades and expanding its distribution range in Turkish waters, there is a dearth of information on genetic structure and variations of goldfish in Turkey. In this study, four mitochondrial genes (Cytochrome b, cytochrome oxidase II, 12S ribosomal RNA, and 16S ribosomal RNA) were used to infer the genetic variations of goldfish populations sampled from western part of Anatolia, Turkey. Three populations were clustered under three haplotypes for each gene and all haplotypes were special. Cytochrome b was found to have more variable sites and higher genetic diversity than other genes. According to the haplotype networks, goldfish populations in Turkey showed high level of genetic structuring and originated from the common haplotype known in native East Asian populations of the species. Extensive sampling scheme covering whole Anatolia should provide better understanding on the dispersal pattern of the species.

  2. Contrasting melt equilibration conditions across Anatolia

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    Reid, Mary; Delph, Jonathan; Schleiffarth, W. Kirk; Cosca, Michael

    2017-04-01

    The widespread mafic volcanism, elevated crustal temperatures, and plateau-type topography in Central Anatolia, Turkey, could collectively be the result of lithospheric delamination, mantle upwelling, and tectonic escape in response to Arabian-Anatolian plate collision. We used the results from basalt geochemistry and a passive-source broadband seismic experiment obtained as part of an international collaborative effort (Continental Dynamics - Central Anatolia Tectonics) to investigate the crust-mantle structure and melting conditions associated with the Quaternary Hasandag Monogenic Cluster (HMC) south and west of Hasandag volcano. The HMC is unusually mafic, not only for Central Anatolia but globally, enabling meaningful comparisons between geochemical and seismic interpretations of mantle conditions. HMC basalts are characterized by orogenic signatures that could have originated (1) in mantle wedge that, after stagnating because of collision, was remobilized south and upward as a result of rollback of the African slab or, alternatively (2) by piecemeal foundering of residual mantle lithosphere into convecting upper mantle, producing small-scale convection and associated decompression melting. Melt equilibration conditions for the HMC are hot (TP ˜1335-1250˚ C, assuming 1-4 wt.% H2O) and shallow (P = 1.1 to 1.6 GPa), approaching those for MORB. Shear wave velocities are relatively constant at ˜4.1 km/s between the Moho and a depth of ˜45-50 km (˜1.4 GPa; Fig. 6), below which Vs increases with increasing depth. We infer that a melt-perfused mantle lid could be locally present between 40 and 55 km. In contrast to Central Anatolia, estimated equilibration conditions for Western Anatolia and Eastern Anatolia (east of the Inner Tauride Suture) mantle melts are hotter (by ≥60˚ C) and deeper (mostly by 0.6-1.0 GPa). They also have chemical signatures that, unlike Central Anatolia, are similar to those of intraplate basalts. These differences are likely related

  3. Calcite veining and feeding conduits in a hydrothermal system: Insights from a natural section across the Pleistocene Gölemezli travertine depositional system (western Anatolia, Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capezzuoli, Enrico; Ruggieri, Giovanni; Rimondi, Valentina; Brogi, Andrea; Liotta, Domenico; Alçiçek, Mehmet Cihat; Alçiçek, Hülya; Bülbül, Ali; Gandin, Anna; Meccheri, Marco; Shen, Chuan-Chou; Baykara, Mehmet Oruç

    2018-02-01

    Linking the architecture of structural conduits with the hydrothermal fluids migrating from the reservoir up to the surface is a key-factor in geothermal research. A contribution to this achievement derives from the study of spring-related travertine deposits, but although travertine depositional systems occur widely, their feeding conduits are only rarely exposed. The integrated study carried out in the geothermal Gölemezli area, nearby the well-known Pamukkale area (Denizli Basin, western Anatolia, Turkey), focused on onyx-like calcite veins (banded travertine) and bedded travertine well exposed in a natural cross-section allowing the reconstruction of the shallower part of a geothermal system. The onyx-like veins represent the thickest vein network (> 150 m) so far known. New field mapping and structural/kinematic analyses allowed to document a partially dismantled travertine complex (bedded travertine) formed by proximal fissure ridges and distal terraced/pools depositional systems. The banded calcite veins, WNW-trending and up to 12 m thick, developed within a > 200 m thick damaged rock volume produced by parallel fault zones. Th/U dating indicates a long lasting (middle-late Pleistocene) fluids circulation in a palaeo-geothermal system that, due to its location and chemical characteristics, can be considered the analogue of the nearby, still active, Pamukkale system. The isotopic characteristics of the calcite veins together with data from fluid inclusions analyses, allow the reconstruction of some properties (i.e. temperature, salinity and isotopic composition) and processes (i.e. temperature variation and intensity of degassing) that characterized the parent fluids and the relation between degassing intensity and specific microfabric of calcite crystals (elongated/microsparite-micrite bands), controlled by changes/fluctuations of the physico-chemical fluid characteristics.

  4. Comparison of physicochemical characteristics and photofermentative hydrogen production potential of wastewaters produced from different olive oil mills in Western-Anatolia, Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eroglu, Ela; Eroglu, inci [Department of Chemical Engineering, Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara (Turkey); Guenduez, Ufuk; Yuecel, Meral [Department of Biology, Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara (Turkey)

    2009-04-15

    Olive oil extraction produces a dark-colored wastewater that contains nutrients that can be further processed using biotechnology, in parallel with treatment for disposal. For instance, olive mill wastewater (OMW) can be used as a substrate for photofermentative hydrogen production by purple bacteria. A comparative study was investigated with several OMW samples from different olive oil mills in Western-Anatolia, Turkey. The composition of OMW varies significantly for each mill; thus, a detailed physicochemical analysis of each sample has been carried out. Subsequently, samples were assessed for their functioning in anaerobic photofermentative hydrogen production by Rhodobacter sphaeroides O.U.001. The highest hydrogen production potential (19.9 m{sup 3} m{sup -3}) was obtained by the OMW sample with the highest organic content (mainly acetic acid, 9.71 kg m{sup -3}) and the highest carbon-to-nitrogen (C/N) molar ratio (73.8 M M{sup -1}). The organic content was found to be composed of primarily acetic, aspartic, and glutamic acids. There was a linear relationship between C/N ratio and hydrogen production potential across the different OMW samples. This study is unique due to the wide range of analyses of OMW samples and the comparison of many parameters for hydrogen production from wastewater. The results obtained throughout this study can aid in the design of systems using wastewater for biohydrogen production. Particularly, the C/N ratio was found to be the best parameter for choosing a proper substrate. (author)

  5. Reconstructing the paleoseismic history of the Priene-Sazli Fault using 36Cl cosmogenic nuclide dating method, Western Anatolia, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozafari Amiri, Nasim; Sümer, Ökmen; Tikhomirov, Dmitry; Özkaymak, Çaǧlar; Ivy-Ochs, Susan; Uzel, Bora; Vockenhuber, Christof; Sözbilir, Hasan; Akçar, Naki

    2014-05-01

    The 300-km wide West Anatolian Extensional Province is one of the regions of intense seismic activity in the world within the Alpine-Himalayan belt. Deformation pattern in the area is controlled by three major E-W trending graben systems of Gediz, Küçük Menderes and Büyük Menderes which have been formed as a result of roughly N-S extensional tectonic regime since the early Miocene. These graben systems show evidences of surface faulting during the Pleistocene-Holocene and are geomorphologically characterized by well-exposed limestone normal fault scarps with a relief of tens of meters and well-preserved slickenlines. Since limestones are resistant to weathering, the limestone scarps can efficiently record several past earthquakes. Cosmogenic 36Cl is the only element to identify and date the rupture events. Each rupture causes exposure of previously buried section of the scarp to the surface. Accordingly, due to being well enough exposed to cosmic rays, accumulation of 36Cl accelerates during period of quiescence. Thus, distribution of measured 36Cl concentrations can be applied to investigate periods of seismic activity and inactivity and also to calculate the vertical displacement along the fault plane in association with each rupture. In this study, we focus on the Priene-Sazli Fault, located on the most western part of Büyük Menderes graben. Along the active fault zone, well exposed archaeological sites (e.g. Priene) have been discovered, where destructive historical earthquakes have left evidence of ancient damages in the historical period and during the 20th century. The Priene-Sazli Fault caused the July 16, 1955 Söke-Balat earthquake (M=6.8) with fault-plane solution indicating of normal southeast downthrow along with subsidiary dextral motion. We collected 117 samples from four continuous strips on the Priene-Sazli Fault to measure 36Cl concentrations. We used a new Matlab code to identify the significant ruptures and their timing. Our preliminary

  6. Geochemistry of the Topuk Pluton associated with the Kozbudaklar W-skarn deposit (Western Anatolia, Turkey): Implication for crystallization conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, Ayşe; Demirbilek, Mehmet; Mutlu, Halim

    2017-06-01

    The Kozbudaklar scheelite-bearing skarn deposit in the Tavşanlı Zone, western Turkey, occurs at the contact between Eocene Topuk pluton and Triassic İnönü marble of calcic character. The Topuk pluton is medium-coarse grained, granodiorite in composition and has a hypidiomorphic equigranular texture. The host rock contains mafic microgranular enclaves (MME) of monzodiorite-monzogabbro composition and is interrupted by porphyritic granodiorite and granite-aplite vein rocks. The pluton is calk-alkaline, metaluminous and composed of I-type melt character. δ18O and δD compositions of silicate minerals from granodioritic host rock are 5.9-10.6‰ and -77.0 to -71.4‰ and conformable with the range of unaltered I-type granites. Trace element contents indicate that pluton is crystallized from mantle-derived magma interacted with continental crust in a volcanic arc or subduction related setting. Major and trace element concentrations of Topuk pluton are quite consistent with geochemical patterns of Cu-skarn granitoids. Results of mineral chemistry analysis of the pluton yield that plagioclases are of oligoclase-andesine, amphiboles are of magnesio-hornblende and biotites are of ferro-magnesian composition. Amphiboles and biotites of granodioritic host rock are represented by calc-alkaline, I-type melt composition evolved in a subduction environment. Based on the results of plagioclase-Al in hornblende and amphibole chemistry data from the pluton, two different stages are proposed for the magma crystallization. The first stage was developed in a relatively deeper environment (>15 km) under high pressure (>4 kbar) and low log ƒO2 (>-17.6) conditions which reflect fractional crystallization and magma-mixing depth of basaltic magma and these conditions are not correlated with scheelite mineralization. The second crystallization stage of magma which proceeded at shallow depths (emperature (788-854 °C), relatively high pressure (1.20-1.62 kbar), shallow depth (5-6 km

  7. Association of clinical and genetical features in FMF with focus on MEFV strip assay sensitivity in 452 children from western Anatolia, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Can; Halicioglu, Oya; Coker, Işil; Gulez, Nesrin; Sutçuoglu, Sumer; Karaca, Neslihan; Aksu, Guzide; Kutukculer, Necil

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between clinical findings and the most common mutated alleles of MEFV gene in a childhood population and to determine the sensitivity of the 12-mutation-strip assay test in familial Mediterranean fever (FMF). Records of 452 FMF children living in western Anatolia, Turkey, (12.3 ± 4.7 years mean) were retrospectively reviewed. Of the 408 patients who met the Tel-Hashomer criteria, 364 were classified into two main groups (two-mutant/one-mutant allele) either of which had three subgroups. The two-mutant allele frequency was 51% and one-mutant allele 38%; 1% had complex-mutant alleles and 10% no mutant-alleles. The mean severity score was 8.3 ± 2.5. Most common clinical features were fever (81.9%), abdominal pain (86.3%) and myalgia (58.8%), and the least common ones: diarrhea (1.7%), protracted febrile myalgia (1.2%) and acute orchitis (1.5%). We detected 33 different genotypes of the MEFV gene: the most common mutant allele was M694V followed by symptomatic allele mutation of E148Q. Although not significantly associated with clinical findings, P369S mutation was not rare (7.5%). Phenotype-genotype correlation revealed that patients with two-allele mutations had more severe clinical presentation and high constipation rate (22.5%); 32.6% of patients with M694V/M694V had splenomegaly. Acute orchitis and protracted febrile myalgia as rare clinical findings were more common in M694V homozygotes. Comparisons of clinical findings among patients with one-mutation allele were made for the first time, but no significant association was found. Positive predictive value of strip assay screening for 12 mutations was recorded as 89%. We suggest that whole sequence analysis for supportive diagnosis of FMF should be performed for selected patients only.

  8. Preliminary Thermo-Chronometric and Paleo-Magnetic Results from the Western Margin of The Kırşehir Block: Implications for the Timing of Continental Collisions Occurred Along Neo-Tethyan Suture Zones (Central Anatolia, Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gülyüz, Erhan; Özkaptan, Murat; Langereis, Cor G.; Kaymakcı, Nuretdin

    2017-04-01

    Closures of Paleo- (largely Paleozoic) and Neo-Tethys (largely Mesozoic) Oceans developed between Europe, Africa and Arabia are the main driving mechanisms behind the post-Triassic tectonics, magmatism and metamorphism occurred in Anatolia. Although various scenarios have been suggested for the timing and characteristics of the subduction systems, it is largely accepted that these blocks are progressively collided and amalgamated along the northern (İzmir-Ankara-Erzincan suture zone; IAESZ) and the southern (Bitlis-Zagros suture zone; BZSZ) branches of Neo-Tethys Ocean. The geographic positions of these suture zones in Anatolia are marked by imbricated stacks of largely metamorphosed remnants of the Paleo- and Neo-Tethys Oceans. In addition to this tectonic frame, the existence of another suture zone within the northern branch of the Neo-Tethys separating the Kırşehir Block, a triangular (200km*200km*200km) continental domain represented by mainly high-pressure (HP) meta-sedimentary rocks, from the Taurides, is proposed and named as Intra-Tauride Suture Zone (ITSZ). Although traces of the Neo-Tethyan closure and continental collisions in the Central Anatolia are recorded (1) in sedimentary basins as fold and thrust belt developments (as northern Taurides fold and thrust belt along IAESZ and central Taurides fold and thrust belt along ITSZ), (2) on metamorphic rocks with Late Cretaceous to Late Paleocene peak metamorphism, and (3) on magmatic rocks with Late Cretaceous - Paleocene arc-related intrusions and post-Paleocene post-collisional magmatism, timing of these continental collisions are discussed in limited studies and furthermore they indicate a large time span (post-Paleocene to Miocene) for the collisions. This study aims to date continental collisions occurred in Central Anatolia qualitatively. In this regard, low-temperature thermo-chronometric and paleo-magnetic studies were conducted on the sedimentary units cropped-out along the western and north-western

  9. Source contamination and tectonomagmatic signals of overlapping Early to Middle Miocene orogenic magmas associated with shallow continental subduction and asthenospheric mantle flows in Western Anatolia: A record from Simav (Kütahya) region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çoban, Hakan; Karacık, Zekiye; Ece, Ömer Işık

    2012-05-01

    The disappearances of mafic shoshonitic and ultrapotassic magma prior to Late Oligocene in Western Anatolia post-collisional tectonic settings, and the sudden appearance of Early-Middle Miocene potassic lavas with orogenic geochemical signatures, indicate a striking change of mantle sources during the Early-Middle Miocene period, and require a special explanation. In this regard, the Simav (Kütahya) region of Western Anatolia represents a critical area, where the Early-Middle Miocene mafic potassic (shoshonite, absarokite, ultrapotassic) and high-K calc-alkaline (andesite, dacite-rhyolite, granite) series rocks overlap in the extensional geotectonic setting in a back-arc position. The appraisal of petrological data obtained from Simav igneous complex indicates that there is a remarkable geochemical and isotopic similarity (e.g., negative Eu anomalies; Nb-Ta depletions; high Sr, low Nd and variable Pb isotope compositions) between coevally generated mafic potassic and high-K calc-alkaline magma series. The near primitive mafic potassic (MHKS) lavas with high Sr isotope compositions require a heterogeneous mantle source contaminated with crustal materials. Dragged and delaminated crustal components, caused by shallow continental subduction and the late arrived subducted terrigenous sediments from the Aegean trench are likely candidate sources of continental materials incorporated into the mantle source of the Simav mafic potassic (MHKS) magmas. The nature of these components also played a significant role in the compositional variations of Simav mafic series rocks. The Simav mafic potassic (MHKS) magmas were derived from a crust-contaminated, subduction-modified (metasomatized) EM-II type mantle source, interacting with influxed asthenosphere in a back-arc mantle wedge, whereas mixing of lower crustal silicic melts with underplated potassic mafic magmas resulted in coeval high-K calc-alkaline rocks, matched by the extent of crustal contamination observed in the more

  10. Hydrogeological Modelling of the Geothermal Waters of Alaşehir in the Continental Rift Zone of the Gediz, Western Anatolia, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ӧzgür, Nevzat; Bostancı, Yesim; Anilır Yürük, Ezgi

    2017-12-01

    In western Anatolia, Turkey, the continental rift zones of the Büyük Menderes, Küçük Menderes and Gediz were formed by extensional tectonic features striking E-W generally and representing a great number of active geothermal systems, epithermal mineralizations and volcanic rocks from Middle Miocene to recent. The geothermal waters are associated with the faults which strike preferentially NW-SE and NE-SW and locate diagonal to general strike of the rift zones of the Menderes Massif. These NW-SE and NE-SW striking faults were probably generated by compressional tectonic regimes which leads to the deformation of uplift between two extensional rift zones in the Menderes Massif. The one of these rift zones is Gediz which is distinguished by a great number of geothermal waters such as Alaşehir, Kurşunlu, Çamurlu, Pamukkale and Urganlı. The geothermal waters of Alaşehir form the biggest potential in the rift zone of Gediz with a capacity of about 100 to 200 MWe. Geologically, the gneisses from the basement rocks in the study area which are overlain by an Paleozoic to Mesozoic intercalation of mica schists, quartzites and marbles, a Miocene intercalation of conglomerates, sandstones and clay stones and Plio-Quaternary intercalation of conglomerates, sandstones and clay stones discordantly. In the study area, Paleozoic to Mesozoic quartzites and marbles form the reservoir rocks hydrogeologically. The geothermal waters anions with Na+K>Ca>Mg dominant cations and HCO3>Cl> dominant anions are of Na-HCO3 type and can be considered as partial equilibrated waters. According to the results of geochemical thermometers, the reservoir temperatures area of about 185°C in accordance with measured reservoir temperatures. Stabile isotopes of δ18O versus δ2H of geothermal waters of Alaşehir deviate from the meteoric water line showing an intensive water-rock interaction under high temperature conditions. These data are well correlated with the results of the

  11. Trouble in Anatolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick R Anthonisen

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this issue of the Canadian Respiratory Journal, Gulmez et al (pages 287-290 review the presentation, management and outcome of malignant mesothelioma in central Anatolia, Turkey. There is nothing particularly new about the disease here; it presents with chest pain, dyspnea and pleural effusion, is diagnosed by biopsy and has a miserable outcome whatever is done for it, just like malignant mesothelioma in Canada. Mesothelioma in Anatolia is unusual in that it is very common, with an approximately equal sex distribution, and frequently occurs in relatively young people. The reasons for this are not a mystery. Anatolia is a volcanic area; there is a lot of asbestos on or near the surface, and it is widely used as construction material, in painting, and as insulation (pages 287-290! Asbestos related disease is due to environmental, not occupational exposure, and exposure is more intense and occurs at an earlier age than in Canada. Not only that, but some areas of Anatolia are rich in erionite, and people build homes in and on erionite-bearing rocks. Erionite is apparently something like asbestos but worse in terms of carcinogenicity (1, perhaps because its crystals have large surface areas, and areas with erionite have an even higher incidence of mesothelioma.

  12. Metamorphic belts of Anatolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberhänsli, Roland; Prouteau, Amaury; Candan, Osman; Bousquet, Romain

    2015-04-01

    Investigating metamorphic rocks from high-pressure/low-temperature (HP/LT) belts that formed during the closure of several oceanic branches, building up the present Anatolia continental micro-plate gives insight to the palaeogeography of the Neotethys Ocean in Anatolia. Two coherent HP/LT metamorphic belts, the Tavşanlı Zone (distal Gondwana margin) and the Ören-Afyon-Bolkardağ Zone (proximal Gondwana margin), parallel their non-metamorphosed equivalent (the Tauride Carbonate Platform) from the Aegean coast in NW Anatolia to southern Central Anatolia. P-T conditions and timing of metamorphism in the Ören-Afyon-Bolkardağ Zone (>70?-65 Ma; 0.8-1.2 GPa/330-420°C) contrast those published for the overlying Tavşanlı Zone (88-78 Ma; 2.4 GPa/500 °C). These belts trace the southern Neotethys suture connecting the Vardar suture in the Hellenides to the Inner Tauride suture along the southern border of the Kirşehir Complex in Central Anatolia. Eastwards, these belts are capped by the Oligo-Miocene Sivas Basin. Another HP/LT metamorphic belt, in the Alanya and Bitlis regions, outlines the southern flank of the Tauride Carbonate Platform. In the Alanya Nappes, south of the Taurides, eclogites and blueschists yielded metamorphic ages around 82-80 Ma (zircon U-Pb and phengite Ar-Ar data). The Alanya-Bitlis HP belt testifies an additional suture not comparable to the northerly Tavşanlı and Ören-Afyon belts, thus implying an additional oceanic branch of the Neotethys. The most likely eastern lateral continuation of this HP belt is the Bitlis Massif, in SE Turkey. There, eclogites (1.9-2.4 GPa/480-540°C) occur within calc-arenitic meta-sediments and in gneisses of the metamorphic (Barrovian-type) basement. Zircon U-Pb ages revealed 84.4-82.4 Ma for peak metamorphism. Carpholite-bearing HP/LT metasediments representing the stratigraphic cover of the Bitlis Massif underwent 0.8-1.2 GPa/340-400°C at 79-74 Ma (Ar-Ar on white mica). These conditions compares to the Tav

  13. A new species of Hesperis (Brassicaceae) from SW Anatolia, Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parolly, G.; Tan, Kit

    2006-01-01

    Hesperis kuerschneri, from the vilayet of Denizli in the Western Taurus is described as a species new to science and illustrated. Its affinities are with H. theophrasti, which has several infraspecific taxa in the Balkans and Anatolia. The new species occurs on steep serpentine scree slopes toget...

  14. The Dilaridae of the Balkan Peninsula and of Anatolia (Insecta, Neuropterida, Neuroptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Aspöck

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Basing upon all available information on type material of Dilar turcicus Hagen, 1858, Dilar syriacus Navás, 1909, and Dilar lineolatus Navás, 1909, together with a large number of dilarid specimens, the pleasing lacewings of Anatolia and Southeast Europe are revised. The current taxonomic concept of D. turcicus is confirmed, and a lectotype is designated. Dilar turcicus is widely distributed in the southeast of Europe (being the only representative of Dilaridae in this region, in Anatolia, and, most probably, in the Caucasus region. Dilar syriacus and D. lineolatus remain nomina dubia. Dilar syriacus might occur in Anatolia, while D. lineolatus is a species occurring in western Central Asia. Two new species, Dilar anatolicus sp. n. and Dilar fuscus sp. n. are described from Anatolia. Wings and genital segments of the three species occurring in Anatolia are illustrated, and a map documenting the known distribution of these species is provided.

  15. LiDAR-guided Archaeological Survey of a Mediterranean Landscape: Lessons from the Ancient Greek Polis of Kolophon (Ionia, Western Anatolia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammer, Benedikt; Draganits, Erich; Gretscher, Martin; Muss, Ulrike

    2017-01-01

    In 2013, an airborne laser scan survey was conducted in the territory of the Ionian city of Kolophon near the western coast of modern Turkey as part of an archaeological survey project carried out by the Mimar Sinan University of Istanbul (Turkey) and the University of Vienna (Austria). Several light detection and ranging (LiDAR) studies have been carried out in the temperate climate zones of Europe, but only a few in Mediterranean landscapes. Our study is based on the first LiDAR survey carried out for an archaeological purpose in Turkey and one of the first in the Mediterranean that have been planned, measured and filtered especially for archaeological research questions. The interpretation of LiDAR data combined with ground-observations proved extremely useful for the detection and documentation of archaeological remains below Mediterranean evergreen vegetation and dense maquis. This article deals with the methodological aspects of interpreting LiDAR data, using the Kolophon data as a case study. We offer a discussion of the strengths and limitations of LiDAR as an archaeological remote sensing method and suggest a best practice model for interpreting LiDAR data in a Mediterranean context. © 2017 The Authors. Archaeological Prospection published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. TAHTACI TURKMENS IN BALIKESIR AND WESTERN ANATOLIA REGION BALIKESİR VE BATI ANADOLU YÖRESİ TAHTACI TÜRKMENLERİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin Kahraman MUTLU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Balıkesir region is the area that Tahtacı’s lives in a wide geography through Kaz mountains to Taurus mountains. Western Anatolian mountains and plates used as a shelter by Tahtacı Turkmens for a long period of time. These people occupied forestry for living. As a profession “Tahtacılık” (wood work becomes as a cult or religion at the end. In this paper, we aimed to study the history of “Tahtacı” and their community today. Balıkesir ve yöresi Tahtacıları günümüzde Kaz Dağları eteklerinden Toroslara uzanan bir yay içerisinde yaşamaktadırlar. Bu yay içerisinde kalan Batı Anadolu dağları ve yaylaları Tahtacı Türkmenlerine uzun asırlar barınak olmuştur. Tahtacılar yaşamak için uğraş edindikleri meslekleri gereği genellikle orman içlerini tercih etmişlerdir. Bu tercihin sonunda meslek olarak başladıkları tahtacılık sonradan mezhep adına dönüşmüştür.Bu çalışmada eldeki verilerden hareketle Tahtacıların tarihi ve günümüzdeki ocakları ile bu ocaklara bağlı olan Tahtacı oymakları tanıtılmaya çalışılacaktır.

  17. Small-Scale Convection Raising East Anatolia and Northern Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogus, O.; Pysklywec, R. N.; Sengul Uluocak, E.

    2014-12-01

    The East Anatolia and Iranian plateaus (originally referred as a Turkish-Iranian plateau) are characterized by 1.5-2 km average elevation and have been deformed through Alpine-Himalayan continental collision between the Arabian and Eurasian plates. Recent seismological and geological studies suggest that the lithospheric structure between these two plateaus differs significantly since the Zagros fold-thrust belt in western Iran is associated with a thick lithospheric root (up to 225 km) whereas the East Anatolia seems to be lacking its mantle lithosphere. In this work, we use 2-D numerical experiments to test the applicability of small-scale convection model to account for the anomalous topography and uplift across the Turkish-Iranian plateau. Our models are designed to track the evolution of the surface topography as a response to a mantle flow activity in the step like morphology of the lithospheric base as wells as the temperature field. We test the role of several rheological parameters (e.g., viscosity) and variation in the lithospheric thickness in a series of experiments. Modeling results are tested against various observables for eastern Anatolia and Iran such as surface topography, crustal thickness, and surface strain rate. Our results provide new insight in the geodynamic evolution of Alpine type orogenic systems and suggest alternative mechanism to lithospheric delamination and/or slab break-off for the uplift of mountain belts.

  18. Subduction and slab tearing dynamics constrained by thermal anomalies in the Anatolia-Aegean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Vincent; Guillou-Frottier, Laurent; Jolivet, Laurent; Loiselet, Christelle; Bouchot, Vincent

    2015-04-01

    Most previous geodynamic studies treat subduction zones with backward migration (rollback), slab tearing or slab breakoff by numerical or laboratory experiments and by integrating seismicity, tomography data and geochemical studies. Here we investigate these processes in the Aegean-Anatolian domain and particularly the western side of Turkey (western Anatolia) by incorporating thermal regime of the crust, and in particular the geothermal fields as anomalies that could reflect the thermal state of Aegean subduction zone at depth. This domain is characterized by 1) extensional crustal deformation which progressively localized during the Aegean slab retreat from late Eocene to Present, enabling the development of a hot backarc domain; this extension accelerated between 15 and 8 Ma coeval with a fast rotation of the Hellenides and 2) since the latest Miocene, extension is coupled with the development of the North Anatolian Fault that accommodates the westward escape of the Anatolian block. Both the acceleration of extension in the Middle Miocene and the recent escape of Anatolia have been proposed to result from several slab tearing events, the first one being located below western Turkey and the Eastern Aegean Sea, a second one below eastern Turkey and a last one below the Corinth Rift (Faccenna et al., 2006; Jolivet et al., 2013). The distribution of magmatism and mineral resources has been suggested to be largely controlled by these retreat and tearing events (Menant et al., submitted). The development of a widespread active geothermal province in western Anatolia is unlikely to simply result from the Quaternary magmatism whose volcanism part has a too limited extent. Conversely, the long wavelength east-west variation of surface heat flow density could reflect deep thermal processes in the lower crust and/or deeper, and we thus look for possible connections with larger-scale mantle dynamics. We use the distribution of thermal anomalies at different scales and the 3

  19. WOMEN’S HEADDRESSES USED IN ANATOLIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Başak BOĞDAY SAYĞILI

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In history, Anatolia has long been known to have a complex composition, due to its unique geographical location and its role as host to many cultures. Clothes and accessories have been influenced by this cultural diversity. Headdresses used in harmony with clothing and thought to complement it, have been important and indispensable accessories, varying in color, shape and texture according to the clothing worn. These could differ in simplicity or grandeur, and vary according to cultural diffe rences or those in socio - economic levels. No matter their social class, women never ceased wearing th ese complementary accessories. Visual sources on Anatolian clothing culture revealed that although headdresses are accessories complementing clothing, their attributes were never studied with a scientific approach, which has been influential in the choice of the subject matter of this study. The aim of this study is to identify and classify the attributes of traditional women’s headdresses used in Anatol ia and to specify that the examples recorded and photographed are used in Anatolia. Historical and review methods were used in the research. Sources were studied with help of the observation form used as a data collection tool to examine women’s headdresse s used in Anatolia.

  20. Mapping hyper-extended rift systems offshore and onshore: insights from the Bay of Biscay- Western Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugend, Julie; Manatschal, Gianreto; Kusznir, Nicolas J.; Masini, Emmanuel; Thinon, Isabelle

    2013-04-01

    Research conducted at present-day passive continental margins shows more varied crustal architectures than previously assumed. New seismic data together with drill-holes have revealed the occurrence of extremely thinned continental crust in the distal part of the margin as well as exhumed serpentinised sub-continental mantle oceanwards. In addition the understanding of the formation of hyper-extended rift systems has also greatly benefited from the study of onshore analogs preserved in mountain belts. The Bay of Biscay and Western Pyrenees correspond to a Lower Cretaceous rift system leading to the development of hyper-extended domains and ultimately oceanic crust in the Bay of Biscay. This domain represents one of the best natural laboratories to study the formation processes and evolution of hyper-extended domains. During late Cretaceous compression, these rifted domains were inverted resulting in the present-day Pyrenean mountain belt. In this contribution, we present a new paleogeographic map of the Bay of Biscay-Pyrenean rift system. We integrate results from previous works and new work using different mapping methods to distinguish distinctive crustal domains related to hyper-extended systems both offshore and onshore. We combine seismic interpretations with gravity anomaly inversion and residual depth anomaly analysis to distinguish the different crustal domains across the offshore margin. Onshore, we use an innovative approach based on observations from present-day rifted margin architecture associated with classical field work to map the former hyper-extended domains. Another outcome of this work is the creation of a crustal thickness map using gravity inversion linking offshore and onshore domains from the Bay of Biscay to that of the Western-Pyrenees. This multidisciplinary approach enables us to investigate the spatial and temporal evolution of the Bay of Biscay rift system with the aim of better understanding the formation of hyper-extended domains

  1. New seismological evidence for fragmentation of the Tethys slab beneath Anatolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govers, R. M. A.; Fichtner, A.

    2015-12-01

    When oceanic basins close after a long period of convergence and subduction, continental collision and mountain building is a common consequence. The eastern Mediterranean basin is the last remainder of a once hemispherical neo-Tethys ocean that has nearly disappeared due to convergence of the India and Africa/Arabia plates with the Eurasia plate. New results from full waveform inversion for Anatolia give an unprecedented view on the crust and the upper mantle of the region. Based on highly accurate spectral-element simulations of seismic wave propagation in heterogeneous Earth models, full waveform inversion exploits complete seismograms - including body and surface waves - for the benefit of improved resolution. Furthermore, 3D structure in both crust and mantle is constrained jointly, thereby avoiding contamination from commonly applied crustal corrections. Second-order adjoint techniques provide quantitative estimates of direction- and position-dependent resolution length, which is essential for the interpretation of the model. The images connect major structures in the crust as documented in the geology, to features in the upper mantle that reflect the remnants of the convergence and collision. The results show a major discontinuity between western Anatolia lithosphere and the region to the east of it. It is the imprint of syn-collisional segmentation of the neo-Tethys slab, and separates the Aegean and west Anatolia regions from central and east Anatolia. While convergence between Africa and Europe continued, this initiated a period of lithospheric extension in the west and flat slab subduction in the east that set the stage for earthquake and volcanic activity in the region today. Slab segmentation is expected to have been relatively common just prior to closure of other oceans in the geological past, and may explain some of the complexity that geologists have documented in, for instance, the Tibetan plateau also.

  2. Signature of slab fragmentation beneath Anatolia from full-waveform tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govers, Rob; Fichtner, Andreas

    2016-09-01

    When oceanic basins close after a long period of convergence and subduction, continental collision and mountain building is a common consequence. Slab segmentation is expected to have been relatively common just prior to closure of other oceans in the geological past, and may explain some of the complexity that geologists have documented in the Tibetan plateau also. We focus on the eastern Mediterranean basin, which is the last remainder of a once hemispherical neo-Tethys ocean that has nearly disappeared due to convergence of the India and Africa/Arabia plates with the Eurasia plate. We present new results of full-waveform tomography that allow us to image both the crust and upper mantle in great detail. We show that a major discontinuity exists between western Anatolia lithosphere and the region to the east of it. Also, the correlation of geological features and the crustal velocities is substantially stronger in the west than in the east. We interpret these observations as the imprint in the overriding plate of fragmentation of the neo-Tethys slab below it. This north-dipping slab may have fragmented following the Eocene (about 35 million years ago) arrival of a continental promontory (Central Anatolian Core Complex) at the subduction contact. From the Eocene through the Miocene, slab roll-back ensued in the Aegean and west Anatolia, while the Cyprus-Bitlis slab subducted horizontally beneath central and east Anatolia. Following collision of Arabia (about 16 million years ago), the Cyprus-Bitlis slab steepened, exposing the crust of central and east Anatolia to high temperature, and resulting in the velocity structure that we image today. Slab fragmentation thus was a major driver of the evolution of the overriding plate as collision unfolded.

  3. Extended-range forecast for the temporal distribution of clustering tropical cyclogenesis over the western North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhiwei; Li, Tim; Bai, Long; Gao, Jianyun

    2017-11-01

    Based on outgoing longwave radiation (OLR), an index for clustering tropical cyclogenesis (CTC) over the western North Pacific (WNP) was defined. Around 76 % of total CTC events were generated during the active phase of the CTC index, and 38 % of the total active phase was concurrent with CTC events. For its continuous property, the CTC index was used as the representative predictand for extended-range forecasting the temporal distribution of CTC events. The predictability sources for CTC events were detected via correlation analyses of the previous 35-5-day lead atmospheric fields against the CTC index. The results showed that the geopotential height at different levels and the 200 hPa zonal wind over the global tropics possessed large predictability sources, whereas the predictability sources of other variables, e.g., OLR, zonal wind, and relatively vorticity at 850 hPa and relatively humility at 700 hPa, were mainly confined to the tropical Indian Ocean and western Pacific Ocean. Several spatial-temporal projection model (STPM) sets were constructed to carry out the extended-range forecast for the CTC index. By combining the output of STPMs separately conducted for the two dominant modes of intraseasonal variability, e.g., the 10-30 and the 30-80 day mode, useful forecast skill could be achieved for a 30-day lead time. The combined output successfully captured both the 10-30 and 30-80 day mode at least 10 days in advance. With a relatively low rate of false alarm, the STPM achieved hits for 80 % (69 %) of 54 CTC events during 2003-2014 at the 10-day (20-day) lead time, suggesting a practical value of the STPM for real-time forecasting WNP CTC events at an extended range.

  4. Seismo-geodetic Behavior of Basic Tectonic Elements in Anatolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozener, Haluk; Dogru, Asli; Bulut, Fatih; Aktug, Bahadir; Ozdemir, Soner

    2017-04-01

    Understanding earthquake and faulting processes requires investigating tectonic-related surface and sub-surface movements through the Earth's crust. In this context, we jointly investigate geodetic and seismological data in Anatolia and surroundings, representing seismically the most active region of Europe. We combine GPS measurements and seismicity for the time period of 2006-2016 in order to characterize physical stage of the upper crust at different fault sections. Velocity field has been provided by CORS-TR (TUSAGA-Active) consisting of 146 permanent GPS stations monitoring the target region continuously. Earthquake catalogue has been provided by Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute (KOERI) monitoring the target region at a magnitude detection threshold of 3.0 for the time period of our analysis. We produced grid-based distribution of residual velocity field in order to map major inter-plate faults/intra-plate tectonic regimes and their role in whole tectonic process. We also produced a map of seismicity-generated slip distribution along the entire target region. Integrating geodetic and seismological data leads us to quantitatively verify following features: (1) The North Anatolian Fault (NAF) and The East Anatolian Fault (EAF) are the major plate boundaries surrounding the Anatolian Plate. (2) NAF is the most active plate boundary accommodating a slip rates ranging between 7-23.5 mm/yr. (3) The slip rates systematically increase from the east to the west along the fault zone. (4) EAF accommodates relatively a slower inter-plate deformation at an annual slip rate range of 6-9 mm/yr. (5) Anatolian plate reflects internally a very stable tectonic behavior almost for decade. (6) Western Anatolia is however internally deformed as suggested by a variety of slip rates. This probably due to complex fault network developed under large-scale extensional regime. (7) We captured four prominent creeping sections of NAF. (8) In the Sea of Marmara region

  5. Project management of DAG: Eastern Anatolia Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Onur; Yesilyaprak, Cahit; Yerli, Sinan K.; Zago, Lorenzo; Guver, Tolga; Alis, Sinan

    2016-08-01

    The four meter DAG (Eastern Anatolia Observatory in Turkish) telescope is not only the largest telescope in Turkey but also the most promising telescope in the northern hemisphere with a large potential to offer scientific observations with its cutting edge technology. DAG is designed to be an AO telescope which will allow both infrared and visible observations with its two Nasmyth platforms dedicated to next generation focal plane instruments. In this paper, status updates from DAG telescope will be presented in terms of; (i) in house optical design of DAG, (ii) tender process of telescope, (iii) tender process of enclosure, and (iv) tender process of the observatory building. Also status updates from the focal plane instruments project and possible collaboration activities will be presented.

  6. Hydrogeochemistry of the Simav geothermal field, western Anatolia, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemici, Ünsal; Tarcan, Gültekin

    2002-08-01

    Thermal waters hosted by Menderes metamorphic rocks emerge along fault lineaments in the Simav geothermal area. Thermal springs and drilled wells are located in the Eynal, Çitgöl and Naşa locations, which are part of the Simav geothermal field. Studies were carried out to obtain the main chemical and physical characteristics of thermal waters. These waters are used for heating of residences and greenhouses and for balneological purposes. Bottom temperatures of the drilled wells reach 163°C with total dissolved solids around 2225 mg/kg. Surface temperatures of thermal springs vary between 51°C and 90°C. All the thermal waters belong to Na-HCO 3-SO 4 facies. The cold groundwaters are Ca-Mg-HCO 3 type. Dissolution of host rock and ion-exchange reactions in the reservoir of the geothermal system shift the Ca-Mg-HCO 3 type cold groundwaters to the Na-HCO 3-SO 4 type thermal waters. Thermal waters are oversaturated at discharge temperatures for aragonite, calcite, quartz, chalcedony, magnesite and dolomite minerals giving rise to a carbonate-rich scale. Gypsum and anhydrite minerals are undersaturated with all of the thermal waters. Boiling during ascent of the thermal fluids produces steam and liquid waters resulting in an increase of the concentrations of the constituents in discharge waters. Steam fraction, y, of the thermal waters of which temperatures are above 100°C is between 0.075 and 0.119. Reservoir pH is much lower than pH measured in the liquid phase separated at atmospheric conditions, since the latter experienced heavy loss of acid gases, mainly CO 2. Assessment of the various empirical chemical geothermometers and geochemical modelling suggest that reservoir temperatures vary between 175°C and 200°C.

  7. Verbascum lindae (Scrophulariaceae), a new species from SW Anatolia, Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parolly, Gerald; Tan, Kit

    2007-01-01

    Verbascum lindae, a taxonomically isolated limestone chasmophyte from the vilayet of Isparta in SW Anatolia is described as a species new to science and illustrated. Its affinities with other Anatolian Verbascum species, which have either a chasmophytic habit or at least a woody base, are discussed....

  8. Hyurterianum (Asteraceae, Inuleae), a new species from NE Anatolia, Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gemici, Y.; Tan, K.; Yidirim, H.

    2008-01-01

    Helichrysum yurterianum Y. Gemici, Kit Tan, H. Yildirim & M. Gemici (Asteraceae, Inuleae) is described and illustrated. It is a serpentine endemic restricted to the province of Erzincan in NE Anatolia, Turkey. Its affinities are with H. arenarium and H. noeanum, which both have a wider distribution...

  9. Saponaria emineana (Caryophyllaceae), a new species from inner Anatolia, Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gemici, Yusuf; Tan, Kit; Yildirim, H.

    2011-01-01

    Saponaria emineana (Caryophyllaceae) is illustrated and described as a new species endemic to the inner part of West Anatolia, Turkey. It is related to S. pamphylica and differs from that species in having a densely tufted habit with compact and much-branched woody base, subfleshy, narrowly...

  10. Heliotropium thermophilum (Boraginaceae), a new taxon from SW Anatolia, Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit; Celik, Ali; Gemici, Yusuf

    2008-01-01

    Heliotropium thermophilum Kit Tan, A. Çelik & Y. Gemici (Boraginaceae), is described as a species new to science and illustrated. Its diploid chromosome number of 2n = 16 is a first report. It is restricted to the province of Aydin bordering on Denizli in SW Anatolia and is of interest on account...

  11. Tectonic structure and evolution of Eastern Anatolia - insights from new petrologic data and possible lateral correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberhänsli, Roland; Pourteau, Amaury; Candan, Osman; Bousquet, Romain; Çetinkaplan, Mete; Koralay, Ersin

    2013-04-01

    Modern Eastern Anatolia is a high-plateau region characterized by active N-S crustal shortening, mostly accommodated along strike-slip faults, and recent, abundant volcanism. Due to the extensive Cenozoic marine and Quaternary volcano-sedimentary covers, Tetyhan palaeogeography and related tectonic settings, and thence their impact on modern strain partitioning, in this region are particularly difficult to unravel, and therefore remains strongly debated. According to recent works in Armenia and northernmost Eastern Anatolia, blueschists dated to middle Cretaceous times record the accretion of the South-Armenian Block to the southern Eurasian margin, now separated by the Sevan-Akera Suture. Further south, we recently documented Late Cretaceous HP-LT metamorphism in the Bitlis Complex, which belongs to a micro-continental block isolated between the South-Armenian Block and the Arabian Platform. In order to gain further insights into Eastern Anatolia's tectonic architecture, and its continuation into the better-established Central and Western Anatolian tectonic domains, we collected petrologic data from slightly- to strongly metamorphosed sedimentary and crustal lithologies of scattered localities of SE Anatolia, west and north of the Bitlis Complex. From our field observations, we report only low-grade metamorphic assemblages in metasedimentary rocks of the Pütürge Massif, which was commonly considered as the western equivalent of the Bitlis Massif, but obviously did, in contrast to the latter, not experienced HP-LT metamorphism. Nevertheless, glaucophane-bearing rocks were found farther west, north of Adıyaman, might represent the west continuation of the Bitlis HP Complex. From near Malatya, north of the Pütürge Massif and south of the Eastern Tauride non-metamorphosed carbonate platform, eastwards via Elazig and Bingöl, to Aǧrı, between the Bitlis Massif and the South-Armenian Block, we found numerous, scattered occurrences of HT metamorphic assemblages in

  12. Extensional and compressional regime driven left-lateral shear in southwestern Anatolia (eastern Mediterranean): The Burdur-Fethiye Shear Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elitez, İrem; Yaltırak, Cenk; Aktuğ, Bahadır

    2016-10-01

    The tectonic framework of the eastern Mediterranean presented in this paper is based on an active subduction and small underwater hills/mountains on the oceanic crust moving toward the north. The Hellenic Arc, the Anaximander Mountains, the Rhodes and Finike basins, the compressional southern regions of the Western Taurides, and the extensional western Anatolian graben are the main interrelated tectonic structures that are shaped by the complex tectonic regimes. There are still heated debates regarding the structural properties and tectonic evolution of the southwestern Anatolia. GPS velocities and focal mechanisms of earthquakes demonstrate the absence of a single transform fault across the Burdur-Fethiye region; however, hundreds of small faults showing normal and left-lateral oblique slip indicate the presence of a regionally extensive shear zone in southwestern Turkey, which plays an important role in the eastern Mediterranean tectonics. The 300-km-long, 75-90-km-wide NE-SW-trending Burdur-Fethiye Shear Zone developed during the formation of Aegean back-arc extensional system and the thrusting of Western Taurides. Today, the left-lateral differential motion across the Burdur-Fethiye Shear Zone varies from 3 to 4 mm/yr in the north to 8-10 mm/yr in the south. This finding could be attributed to the fact that while the subduction of the African Plate is relatively fast beneath the western Anatolia at the Hellenic Trench, it is slow or locked beneath the Western Taurides. Therefore, the GPS vectors and their distributions on land indicate remarkable velocity differences and enable us to determine the left-lateral shear zone located between the extensional and compressional blocks. Furthermore, this active tectonic regime creates differences in topography. This study also demonstrates how deep structures, such as the continuation of the subduction transform edge propagator (STEP) fault between the Hellenic and Cyprus arcs in the continental area, can come into play

  13. Reactivation of a segmented hyper-extended rift system: the example of the Pamplona transfer zone in the western Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lescoutre, Rodolphe; Schaeffer, Frédéric; Masini, Emmanuel; Manatschal, Gianreto

    2016-04-01

    Numerous studies have revealed the importance of rift-inheritance on the formation of orogens but little consideration was given to rift segmentation and the role of transfer zones on the architecture of mountain chains. Indeed, structural mapping of passive margins pointed out the occurrence of a strong variability in the rift architecture along the margin when crossing through peculiar features that represent transfer zones. These transfer zones are generally oriented in the extension direction and relay the deformation between rift segments. The aim of this study is twofold: 1) characterize and define the Pamplona fault system as well as the structures and architecture of the basins bounding this major paleo-transfer fault located in the Western Pyrenees, and 2) understand its role during the subsequent Pyrenean convergence. The influence of the Pamplona fault system on the structuration of the Mauléon basin to the northeast and the Basque-Cantabrian basin to the southwest is substantial as expressed by their large offset and the occurrence of exhumed deep crustal and mantle rocks flooring the two basins. On the one hand, field work in the Labourd Massif and the western termination of the Mauléon basin enabled to describe faults and their relations to sedimentary sequences. This work also allowed describing the formation and reactivation of faults according to their orientation and their activity with respect to key markers (pre-Trias and post-Cenomanian). A strong relationship between rift architecture (proximal to distal domains) and structural inheritance is suggested. On the other hand, preliminary results from fieldwork, literature compilation and new tomographic imaging enable to determine the role and the history of the Pamplona fault system during Late Cretaceous compression. A significant work of this starting PhD project will be to determine the rift structures that have been reactivated and to assess their influence on the final architecture of the

  14. Post-Paleogene Deformation in central Anatolia, South of Ankara (Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojay, Bora

    2014-05-01

    The closure of the northern Neo-Tethys took place between Eurasia in the north and northern edge of Afro- Arabian plate in the south since the Early Cretaceous is documented in central Anatolia. It is mated by Cretaceous ophiolitic mélanges thrusted over southwards on to the upper Cretaceous-Paleogene fore-arc and foreland sequences along the northern margins of Haymana and Tuzgölü basins, respectively. Two main deformation episodes are recognized in the region. These include post-Cretaceous-pre Miocene compressional regime and Miocene to mid-Pliocene transcurrent regime dominated extensional deformation. The first regime is characterize by NW-SE directed compressional and contractional deformation dominated by south vergent, large wave length, asymmetric to overturned folds and associated thrust/reverse faults. Some of these reverse faults were reactivated as strike-slip faults with reverse components as evidenced by cross-cutting relationships and overprinting slickensides observed extensively in the field. Along these reactivated faults, echelon calcite veins, fault parallel meter thick silica walls with repeated phases of deformation are very common. Following the Miocene, the region is affected by a NNE-SSW to NE-SW directed extension, possibly resulted from the interaction of Tuzgölü Fault with the northwards convex splays of dextral North Anatolian Fault extending into the region. As a conclusion, the Paleogene sequences with ophiolitic mélanges are deformed under NNE-SSW directed compression related to the development of dextral strike slip tectonics during post-Paleogene-pre-Miocene period. Keywords:fault plane slip data, transcurrent regime, post-Paleogene, central Anatolia.

  15. Distribution records and extended range of the Sri Lanka Frogmouth Batrachostomus moniliger (Aves: Caprimulgiformes: Podargidae in the Western Ghats: a review from 1862 to 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Mahabal

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Sri Lanka Frogmouth (or Ceylon Frogmouth Batrachostomus moniliger is an endemic resident bird confined to the evergreen and secondary forests of Sri Lanka and the Western Ghats of India.  The earlier distribution range of the Frogmouth was from the Uttara Kannada District of Karnataka to the southern tip of India and most of Sri Lanka.  Recently, the range has been extended further north to Goa and up to Mumbai in Maharashtra.  A number of observations summarized into 202 distributional records (published reports and records uploaded to eBird basic data set, Oriental Bird Images, and GBIF.org from the years 1862 to 2015 of the Frogmouth have been tabulated with its maps, and reviewed for their state-wise distribution records.  The need of undertaking surveys to fill up the gaps in their distribution range as well as any further northward extension till the culmination of the Western Ghats has been discussed.  It is urged that taxonomical and molecular phylogenetic studies are required to be carried out in different populations of Frogmouths across the entire range. 

  16. Mechanisms of interannual variations in the western boundary currents along the Madagascar coast as revealed by the extended Time-Dependent Island Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagami, Y.; Tozuka, T.

    2016-12-01

    The South Equatorial Current in the South Indian Ocean bifurcates at the east coast of Madagascar into the Northeast and Southeast Madagascar Currents. The dynamical mechanisms of interannual variations in the western boundary currents along Madagascar are examined using the "Time-Dependent Island Rule (TDIR)" for the first time. Since Rossby waves radiated from the Australian coast and the Indonesian Throghflow are known to play a role in oceanic variability over the southern Indian Ocean, the original TDIR is extended to incorporate these effects. Also, inertial effects are included for a more complete discussion. Using this modified TDIR, interannual variability of western boundary currents along Madagascar is shown to be predominantly a response to the meridional transport anomaly in the interior, which is a result of westward propagating Rossby waves induced by wind stress curl anomalies mainly in 60°E-90°E. On the other hand, the interannual variability is not much influenced by inertial effects and the Indonesian Throughflow. Although the damping of Rossby waves has an impact on the amplitude of the interannual variation, it does not alter the above mechanism qualitatively.

  17. A comparison of Y-chromosome variation in Sardinia and Anatolia is more consistent with cultural rather than demic diffusion of agriculture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Morelli

    Full Text Available Two alternative models have been proposed to explain the spread of agriculture in Europe during the Neolithic period. The demic diffusion model postulates the spreading of farmers from the Middle East along a Southeast to Northeast axis. Conversely, the cultural diffusion model assumes transmission of agricultural techniques without substantial movements of people. Support for the demic model derives largely from the observation of frequency gradients among some genetic variants, in particular haplogroups defined by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the Y-chromosome. A recent network analysis of the R-M269 Y chromosome lineage has purportedly corroborated Neolithic expansion from Anatolia, the site of diffusion of agriculture. However, the data are still controversial and the analyses so far performed are prone to a number of biases. In the present study we show that the addition of a single marker, DYSA7.2, dramatically changes the shape of the R-M269 network into a topology showing a clear Western-Eastern dichotomy not consistent with a radial diffusion of people from the Middle East. We have also assessed other Y-chromosome haplogroups proposed to be markers of the Neolithic diffusion of farmers and compared their intra-lineage variation--defined by short tandem repeats (STRs--in Anatolia and in Sardinia, the only Western population where these lineages are present at appreciable frequencies and where there is substantial archaeological and genetic evidence of pre-Neolithic human occupation. The data indicate that Sardinia does not contain a subset of the variability present in Anatolia and that the shared variability between these populations is best explained by an earlier, pre-Neolithic dispersal of haplogroups from a common ancestral gene pool. Overall, these results are consistent with the cultural diffusion and do not support the demic model of agriculture diffusion.

  18. ASSESSMENT OF IRRIGATION EFFICIENCIES UNDER CENTRAL ANATOLIA CONDITIONS

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    Yusuf Ersoy Yildirim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Turkey is located within semi-arid climate zone and large portion of the country experience water deficits. Thus, efficient water use has become a significand issue in agricultural practices. Current global warming and climate change have aggravated such deficiencies. Konya province is located right at the center of Central Anatolia region and mostly groundwater is used in irrigations. Excessive groundwater withdrawals drop groundwaters levels and also increase energy costs. Although farmers pay quite high sums for energy, they were not using water efficiently and thus were not able to get desired benefits from the irrigations. In this study, irrigation practices of an irrigation cooperative were assessed and compared with optimum irrigation programs created through IRSIS irrigation scheduling software. It was concluded that all irrigation practices of the region were wrong and way behind the optimum ones.

  19. Astragalus friederikeanus Kit Tan & Zeitlinger (Fabaceae), a new species from south Anatolia, Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit; Zeitlinger, Jörg

    2007-01-01

    A new species from south Anatolia, Turkey, Astragalus friederikeanus Kit Tan & Zeitlinger (Fabaceae), is described and illustrated. The diagnostic morphological characters separating it from other members of sect. Onobrychium Boiss. are listed.......A new species from south Anatolia, Turkey, Astragalus friederikeanus Kit Tan & Zeitlinger (Fabaceae), is described and illustrated. The diagnostic morphological characters separating it from other members of sect. Onobrychium Boiss. are listed....

  20. The prevalence of Behçet's disease in a city in Central Anatolia in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çölgeçen, Emine; Özyurt, Kemal; Ferahbaş, Ayten; Borlu, Murat; Kulluk, Pınar; Öztürk, Ahmet; Öner, Ayşe Öztürk; Gün, İskender; Aşçıoğlu, Özcan

    2015-03-01

    The prevalence of Behçet's disease (BD) is much higher in countries along the ancient Silk Route, extending from Japan to Mediterranean countries including Turkey, than in northern Europe and the USA. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of BD in Kayseri, a city in Central Anatolia in Turkey. This study investigated cross-sectional prevalences of BD in individuals aged >10 years in Kayseri, Turkey, in two stages. The first stage aimed to identify individuals with recurrent oral ulcers (ROUs) through home visits, and the second stage aimed to further examine those with ROUs for the presence of other BD-related manifestations under hospital conditions. The study was conducted using the criteria defined by the International Study Group for Behçet's Disease. The sample size was determined to be 4697 with an expected sampling error of 5.5 per 10,000, with a 95% confidence interval. A standard questionnaire was administered to a total of 5218 individuals. A history of ROU was recorded in 470 (9.0%) of the 5218 residents, and a previous diagnosis of BD was recorded in nine individuals. The prevalence rate of BD was estimated as 17 cases per 10,000 population in Kayseri, Turkey. The present study contributes towards estimations of prevalences of BD in Turkey and towards raising public awareness about the disease. It also supports previous studies that have reported the world's highest prevalences of BD in Turkey. © 2014 The International Society of Dermatology.

  1. Current Condition and directions of Livestock Breeding in the Central Anatolia Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayhan Ceyhan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Central Anatolia Region is one of the seven geographical regions which are 151 thousand square meters of surface area and it is about 21.0% of Turkey's land area. The population rate of cattle breeds in the Central Anatolia Region is 20.4% exotic cattle breeds, 19.1% crossbred, 11.6% native cattle breeds and total 18.1% in Turkey. The Central Anatolia Region cattle population is consists of 43.9% of exotic breed, 43.5% crossbred and 12.6% the native cattle breeds. The population of exotic cattle breeds (69.5% in Nigde province is the first place and followed by Eskisehir provinces rate of 65.6% in the Central Anatolia Region. The rate of crossbred cattle population is the highest rate (65.0% province of Sivas and followed by Çankırı province (62.8%. Ankara and Yozgat province has the highest rate of native cattle breed 28.3% and 25.5%, respectively. The total populations of cattle breeds in Konya and Kırıkkale provinces were found maximum 518.291 cattle and minimum 45.426 cattle, respectively, in the Central Anatolia Region. The population rate of exotic and crossbred cattle breeds has increased 67.0% and 11.8%, respectively, while population rate of native cattle breeds has decreased 30.3% from 2007 to 2011 in the Central Anatolia Region. The 20.1% of sheep, 8.2% of goat and 18.3% rates of total livestock population in Turkey are in the Central Anatolia Region. The population rate of sheep and goat of the Central Anatolia Region is 20.1% and 9.5%, sheep and goat respectively and 18.3% total in Turkey. The 70.9% for Angora goats, 8.2% hair of goats, and 17.7% indigenous of sheep breeds and 66.0% crossbreed to national Sheep and Goat population has risen in the Central Anatolia Region. All of these results are evaluated, Central Anatolia Region, Turkey, the contribution of animal products grown by population of cattle and small ruminants is important and can be considered a center of attraction for investment in animal breeding

  2. Driving Mechanism of Asthenospheric Flow and Isostasy in Eastern Anatolia: Insight from Gravity Data Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahatsente, Rezene; Önal, Gökay; Çemen, Ibrahim

    2017-04-01

    Eastern Anatolia, Turkey, is part of Alpine-Himalayan collisional belt where continental crust is relatively thin for a collisional zone. The region contains part of the Zagros suture zone formed during the collision of Arabian and Anatolian plates in Miocene. It is underlain by a low-velocity zone associated with asthenospheric flow in the uppermost mantle. The mechanism of the upward asthenospheric flow and subsequent asthenospheric underplating beneath Eastern Anatolia is not well understood. We have constructed gravity models of the crust and upper mantle structures to assess the driving mechanism of asthenospheric flow and isostatic state in Eastern Anatolia, Turkey. The density models are based on terrestrial and satellite-derived gravity data. The gravity models show significant lithospheric thickness variations across the Anatolian and Arabian plates. The lithospheric mantle in Eastern Anatolia is thinner ( 62 - 74 km) than the Arabian Plate ( 84 - 95 km), indicating that part of the Anatolian mantle lithosphere might have been removed by delamination. The lithospheric removal process (delamination) might have occurred following the detachment of the Arabian slab in Miocene. The widespread Holocene volcanism and high heat flow in Eastern Anatolia can be considered as evidences of lithospheric delamination and slab-break off. Thus, the upward asthenospheric flow and subsequent asthenospheric underplating beneath Eastern Anatolia might have been induced by both delamination and slab-break off. The two processes may account for the rapid uplift of the Anatolian plateau. There is a residual topography of approximately 1.7 km in Eastern Anatolia that cannot be explained by crustal roots. Thus, part of the Eastern Anatolian Plateau may be dynamically supported by asthenospheric flow in the upper mantle.

  3. Constraining deformation history and recent activity along the Tuz Gölü fault zone, Central Anatolia, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krystopowicz, N. J.; Schoenbohm, L. M.; Cosca, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    The 200 km long, dextral, transtensive Tuz Gölü fault zone is a prominent northwest-striking feature in Central Anatolia. It is one of the most significant structures in Central Anatolia in that it lies within the transition zone between the Western Anatolian Extensional Province and the Eastern Anatolian Contractional Province; its study therefore offers valuable insight into how Central Anatolia is affected by lateral extrusion related to collision in the east, and gravitational pull forces associated with subduction in the west. Proposals for the initiation of the Tuz Gölü fault zone range from Cretaceous to Neogene times, and the amount of recent activity along this fault system remains poorly constrained. Furthermore, potential basinward migration of deformation into the Tuz Gölü basin poses the question as to whether or not this fault system is active in the Holocene. Previous work suggests that migration of deformation towards the basin interior may be related to lithospheric-scale processes such as plateau development, microplate extrusion, or the onset of crustal thinning associated with slab-tear propagation in subducting African lithosphere. In this study, we use a combination of paleostress and morpho-tectonic analysis to further delineate the segmentation and present activity of the Tuz Gölü fault zone. Paleostress analysis offers insight into the deformation history of the region as well as the modern-day stress regime. We conducted a morphometric analysis of over 300 drainage basins along the range-front, which reveal variations that characterize the unique development of numerous fault strands in the region. Statistical analysis of hypsometric curves, systematic variation in basin morphology and orientation, as well as changes in mountain-front sinuosity reveal fault segmentation. Additionally, field mapping and Ar-Ar dating of offset lava flows from the Hasan Dag Volcano quantitatively constrain slip-rates in the southeastern portion of the

  4. A comparative study on maxillofacial fractures in central and eastern Anatolia. A retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güven, O

    1988-04-01

    The present report is an analysis of 190 patients with maxillofacial fractures from East Anatolia, and 212 patients with maxillofacial fractures from Central Anatolia. The aetiology, types, sites, sex, age, treatment and the results are discussed. These showed a high male:female ratio. The highest incidence was seen in the second and third decades and the lowest incidence in the seventh decade. The predominant causative factor in this study was traffic accidents, followed by fights and falls. Fractures of the body of the mandible, and LeFort I fractures in the midface, were the most common fractures in this study.

  5. Intestinal parasites of unisexual and bisexual lizards Darevskia spp. (Lacertidae from Northeastern Anatolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roca V.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Four bisexual and two unisexual species of the lizard genus Darevskia from northeastern Anatolia were searched for intestinal parasites in adult specimens. One cestode, Nematotaenia tarentolae, and two nematode species, Spauligodon saxicolae and Strongyloides darevskyi, were found, the latest identified as a Darevskia specialist. No major differences between host species were recorded. The very low infection rates and diversity result in depauperate helminth communities for all these lacertid lizards being the lowest among the Palaearctic saurians. Patterns of these helminth communities are compared with those observed in other lacertid lizards from Anatolia and Europe.

  6. Chaenorhinum semispeluncarum sp. nov. and C. yildirimlii sp. nov. (Scrophulariaceae) from east Anatolia, Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yildirim, Hasan; Tan, Kit; Senol, Serdar

    2010-01-01

    Chaenorhinum semispeluncarum H. Yildirim, Kit Tan, S. Senol & A. Pirhan sp. nov. and C. yildirimlii Kit Tan, H. Yildirim, S. Senol & A. Pirhan sp. nov. (Scrophulariaceae, C. sect. Microrrhinum) from east Anatolia are described and illustrated. They are both narrow endemics related to the rare C. ...

  7. Clematis austroanatolica (Ranunculaceae), an unusual new species from southern Anatolia, Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zielinski, Jerzy; Tan, Kit

    2011-01-01

    Clematis austroanatolica (Ranunculaceae) is illustrated and described as a new species endemic to southern Anatolia, Turkey. It is related to C. vitalba and differs from the latter in having leaves with narrowly ovate, dentate-serrate leaflets, trifoliolate lowermost pinnae as well as small, pale...

  8. Helichrysum yurterianum (Asteraceae, Inuleae), a new species from NE Anatolia, Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gemici, Yusuf; Tan, Kit; Yildirim, Hasan

    2008-01-01

    Helichrysum yurterianum Y. Gemici, Kit Tan, H. Yildirim & M. Gemici (Asteraceae, Inuleae) is described and illustrated. It is a serpentine endemic restricted to the province of Erzincan in NE Anatolia, Turkey. Its affinities are with H. arenarium and H. noeanum, which both have a wider distribution...

  9. Clashes between or within civilizations? Meeting of cultures in Anatolia and Western Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinessen, M.M. van

    2003-01-01

    Samuel Huntington’s thesis of a clash of civilizations, formulated in the early 1990s, has gained renewed popularity in the wake of September 11 and America’s declaration of war on terror. This thesis came out of a research project that aimed to search for the likely sources of major conflict

  10. Molecular Typing of Enterobacteriaceae from Pig Holdings in North-Western Germany Reveals Extended- Spectrum and AmpC β-Lactamases Producing but no Carbapenem Resistant Ones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia-Cobos, Silvia; Koeck, Robin; Mellmann, Alexander; Frenzel, Julia; Friedrich, Alexander W.; Rossen, John W. A.

    2015-01-01

    The increase of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) in humans and in food-producing animals is of public health concern. The latter could contribute to spreading of these bacteria or their resistance genes to humans. Several studies have reported the isolation of

  11. Incidence and clinicopathologic features of primary lung cancer: a North-Eastern Anatolia region study in Turkey (2006-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Elif; Daloglu, Ferah; Gundogdu, Cemal; Calik, Muhammet; Sipal, Sare; Akgun, Metin

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most frequent cancer among men and second highest among women overall, including in Turkey. Cigarette smoking is the most important etiologic factor for the development of cancer in both men and women. To determine the lung cancer incidence in Northeastern Anatolia Region of Turkey with a focus on clinical properties, cancer subtypes, the relationships of tumors with cigarette smoking and radiological properties of the lesions. In a retrospective study design, 566 lung cancer cases diagnosed at the Pathology Department of Ataturk University in Erzurum over the last seven years extending from January 2006 to June 2012 were investigated. The results were compared with statistical analyses. The most common histopathological subtype of primary bronchogenic carcinoma in our study was found to be the squamous cell carcinoma, 46.1% (261 out of 566), and the second was small cell lung carcinoma 15.7% (89 out of 566). Based on our data, an overall male predominance was noted with a male/female ratio of 6.1/1. While 296 (52.2%) of the patients were found to be smokers at the time of diagnosis, 125 (22.0%) were nonsmokers and 145 (25.6%) were ex-smokers. Smoking status was found to have a strong correlation with primary lung cancer (p Turkey. Our findings stress the critical need for effective cancer prevention programs such as anti-smoking campaigns.

  12. Block-like plate movements in eastern Anatolia observed by InSAR

    KAUST Repository

    Cavalie, Olivier

    2014-01-16

    The question whether continental plates deform internally or move as rigid blocks has been debated for several decades. To further address this question, we use large-scale interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data sets to study how eastern Anatolia and its surrounding plates deform. We find that most of the deformation is focused at the North and East Anatolian faults and little intraplate deformation takes place. Anatolia is therefore moving, at least its eastern part, as a uniform block. We estimate the slip velocity and locking depth of the North Anatolian fault at this location to be 20 mm/yr and ~14 km, respectively. High deformation gradient found near the East Anatolian fault, on the other hand, suggests that little stress is accumulating along the eastern sections of that fault.

  13. Numerical modeling of present-day stress field and deformation pattern in Anatolia

    OpenAIRE

    Dwivedi, Sunil Kumar; Hayashi, Daigoro; 林, 大五郎

    2010-01-01

    The present-day stress field in the Earth's crust is important and provides insights into mechanisms that drive plate motions. In this study, an elastic plane stress finite element modeling incorporating realistic rock parameters have been used to calculate the stress field, displacement field and deformation of the plate interactions in Anatolia. Modeled stress data for the African-Arabian-Anatolian plate interactions with fixed Eurasian platform correlate well with observed stress indicator...

  14. Chemical Composition of Four Wild Edible Mushroom Species Collected From Southwest Anatolia

    OpenAIRE

    Kalyoncu, Fatih; Ergönül, Bülent; Hasan YILDIZ; KALMIŞ, Erbil; SOLAK, Halil

    2010-01-01

    Four different species of wild edible mushrooms (Armillaria mellea, Infundibulicybe geotropa, Meripilus giganteus and Sparassis crispa) representing four different families (Physalacriaceae, Tricholomataceae, Meripilaceae and Sparassidaceae) growing in southwest regions of Anatolia were analyzed for their Fe, Na, K, Zn, Cu, Cd and Pb contents and ash, dry matter, protein, and fat levels. All mineral concentrations were determined on a dry weight basis (d.w.). The mineral content of mushroom s...

  15. The Classification of the Salvia L. (Labiatae) Species Distributed in West Anatolia According to Phenolic Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    NAKİBOĞLU, Mahmure

    2014-01-01

    The seven species of Salvia L. growing naturally in West Anatolia (Salvia tomentosa Mill., Salvia fruticosa Mill., Salvia smyrnaea Boiss., Salvia argentea L., Salvia horminum L., Salvia verbenaca L., and Salvia virgata Jacq.) and a cultivated form (Salvia officinalis L.) were selected as the study materials. The phenolic compounds extracted from the leaves of the species were separated by two- dimensional thin-layer chromatography. On the basis of the distribution of phenolic spots in the spe...

  16. Conrad III and the Second Crusade in the Byzantine Empire and Anatolia, 1147

    OpenAIRE

    Roche, Jason T.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis aims to revise the established history of the passage of the Second Crusade through the Byzantine Empire and Anatolia in 1147. In particular, it seeks to readdress the ill-fated advance of the army nominally headed by King Conrad III Staufen of Germany towards Ikonion, the fledging Seljuk capital of Rūm. The work consists of four mutually supportive parts. Part I serves to introduce the thesis, the historiographical trends of the current scholarship, and the Byzantine noti...

  17. Plate tectonics and biogeographical patterns of the Pseudophoxinus (Pisces: Cypriniformes) species complex of central Anatolia, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrbek, Tomas; Stölting, Kai N; Bardakci, Fevzi; Küçük, Fahrettin; Wildekamp, Rudolf H; Meyer, Axel

    2004-07-01

    We investigated the phylogenetic relationships of Pseudophoxinus (Cyprinidae: Leuciscinae) species from central Anatolia, Turkey to test the hypothesis of geographic speciation driven by early Pliocene orogenic events. We analyzed 1141 aligned base pairs of the complete cytochrome b mitochondrial gene. Phylogenetic relationships reconstructed by maximum likelihood, Bayesian likelihood, and maximum parsimony methods are identical, and generally well supported. Species and clades are restricted to geologically well-defined units, and are deeply divergent from each other. The basal diversification of central Anatolian Pseudophoxinus is estimated to have occurred approximately 15 million years ago. Our results are in agreement with a previous study of the Anatolian fish genus Aphanius that also shows a diversification pattern driven by the Pliocene orogenic events. The distribution of clades of Aphanius and Pseudophoxinus overlap, and areas of distribution comprise the same geological units. The geological history of Anatolia is likely to have had a major impact on the diversification history of many taxa occupying central Anatolia; many of these taxa are likely to be still unrecognized as distinct. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Inc.

  18. Water Resources Management in Turkey as a Case Study Southeastern Anatolia Project (gap)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ačma, Bülent

    2010-05-01

    The Southeastern Anatolia Project (GAP), one of the most important projects for develop remarkable natural resources of the world, is accepted as a change for getting benefit from rich water and agricultural resources of the Southeastern Anatolia Region. The GAP Project has been considered as a regional development projects through years, but the dimensions of sustainability, protection of environment and participatory have been attached to the master of the project in recent years. When the GAP Project is completed, the Upper Mesopotomia, the centers of many civilisation, will re-again its importance as it had in the ancient times, and will be alive a center of civilisation. Moreover, when the problem of water shortage and water supplies in the world for the future is kept in mind, the importance of Southeastern Anatolia's water supplies will be doubled. For this reason, the GAP Project, developed by depending on water and natural resources of the region, will have an important place in the world. The aim of this study is to introduce the region with rich natural resources and the GAP Project. For this reason, firstly, the natural potential of the region will be introduced. Second, The GAP Project will be presented in detailes. In the third stage, the projects being processed for protecting the natural sources and environment will be analyzed. In the last stage, strategies and policies to develop and to protect the natural resources of the region in short, mid, and long terms will be proposed.

  19. Palaeocology of coal-bearing Eocene sediments in central Anatolia (Turkey) based on quantitative palynological data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akkiraz, M.S.; Kayseri, M.S.; Akgun, F. [Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir (Turkey). Dept. of Geological Engineering

    2008-04-15

    In this study, the lignite-bearing Yoncali formation between Yozgat and Sorgun, in central Anatolia has been palynologically examined. Based on 37 outcrop samples, quantitative palynological studies recognized 64 genera and 136 palynoflora species in the palynological assemblage, which indicated a Middle-Late Eocene age. This paper also presents a quantitative palaeovegetation and palaeoclimate reconstruction for the Middle-Upper Eocene coal occurrences of Central Anatolia on the basis of palynomorph assemblages. The diversified floral and ecological characteristics of the pollen taxa indicates that the Middle-Upper Eocene formations in central Anatolia were characterized by the presence of a complex mangrove swamp with contributions by Nypa, Pelliciera, Avicennia, Diporites tszkaszentgydrgyi and dinoflagellate cysts which reflect warm climatic conditions. Lowland-riparian and montane elements are characterized by the dominance of Myricaceae, Symplocaceae, Icacinaceae, Quercus, Pinus and Castanea. Swamp-freshwater elements are represented by Sparganjaceae, Nymphaceae, Taxodjaceae, Cupressaceae and Nyssa as well as fern spores such as Osmundaceae and Gleicheniaceae. The calculations were performed with the help of the 'Coexistence Approach' method to climatically evaluate palynoflora from the Yozgat-Sorgun area. The obtained results have been compared to data derived from the application of the Coexistence Approach to other, already published Central Anatolian palynofloras of the same age. The results of the climatic inferences suggest that the palaeoclimatic conditions were in the megathermal zone, megatherm/mesotherm intermediate zone whereas mesothermic conditions prevailed in the montane region. Likewise, the results of mean annual range of temperatures indicate the influence of the Indian ocean, which enabled the development of the mangroves.

  20. Abrupt climate and vegetation variability of eastern Anatolia during the last glacial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickarski, N.; Kwiecien, O.; Langgut, D.; Litt, T.

    2015-11-01

    Detailed analyses of the Lake Van pollen, Ca / K ratio, and stable oxygen isotope record allow the identification of millennial-scale vegetation and environmental changes in eastern Anatolia throughout the last glacial (~ 111.5-11.7 ka BP). The climate of the last glacial was cold and dry, indicated by low arboreal pollen (AP) levels. The driest and coldest period corresponds to Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 2 (~ 28-14.5 ka BP), which was dominated by highest values of xerophytic steppe vegetation. Our high-resolution multi-proxy record shows rapid expansions and contractions of tree populations that reflect variability in temperature and moisture availability. These rapid vegetation and environmental changes can be related to the stadial-interstadial pattern of Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) events as recorded in the Greenland ice cores. Periods of reduced moisture availability were characterized by enhanced occurrence of xerophytic species and high terrigenous input from the Lake Van catchment area. Furthermore, the comparison with the marine realm reveals that the complex atmosphere-ocean interaction can be explained by the strength and position of the westerlies, which are responsible for the supply of humidity in eastern Anatolia. Influenced by the diverse topography of the Lake Van catchment, more pronounced DO interstadials (e.g., DO 19, 17-16, 14, 12 and 8) show the strongest expansion of temperate species within the last glacial. However, Heinrich events (HE), characterized by highest concentrations of ice-rafted debris (IRD) in marine sediments, cannot be separated from other DO stadials based on the vegetation composition in eastern Anatolia. In addition, this work is a first attempt to establish a continuous microscopic charcoal record for the last glacial in the Near East. It documents an immediate response to millennial-scale climate and environmental variability and enables us to shed light on the history of fire activity during the last glacial.

  1. 500.000 years of environmental history in Eastern Anatolia: The PALEOVAN drilling project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Litt, Thomas; Anselmetti, Flavio; Baumgarten, Henrike

    2012-01-01

    International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) drilled a complete succession of the lacustrine sediment sequence deposited during the last ~500,000 years in Lake Van, Eastern Anatolia (Turkey). Based on a detailed seismic site survey, two sites at a water depth of up to 360 m were...... drilled in summer 2010, and cores were retrieved from sub-lake-floor depths of 140 m (Northern Basin) and 220 m (Ahlat Ridge). To obtain a complete sedimentary section, the two sites were multiple-cored in order to investigate the paleoclimate history of a sensitive semi-arid region between the Black...

  2. Extended Emotions

    OpenAIRE

    Krueger, Joel; Szanto, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Until recently, philosophers and psychologists conceived of emotions as brain- and body-bound affairs. But researchers have started to challenge this internalist and individualist orthodoxy. A rapidly growing body of work suggests that some emotions incorporate external resources and thus extend beyond the neurophysiological confines of organisms; some even argue that emotions can be socially extended and shared by multiple agents. Call this the extended emotions thesis (ExE). In this article...

  3. Frequencies of the Common Mefv Gene Mutations in Adiyaman, Southeast Anatolia, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korkmaz D. T.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by fever and serosal inflammation. The reasons for the disorder are mutations in the Mediterranean fever (MEFV gene; the most common of which are M694V, M680I, M694I and V726A. In this study, we aimed to screen these common mutations of the MEFV gene and then determine the prevalence of FMF according to these mutations in Adıyaman, Southeast Anatolia, Turkey. Seven hundred and sixty-seven healthy individuals from the region of Adıyaman participated in the study. Polymerase chain reaction-amplification refractory mutation system (PCR-ARMS methods were used to determine the common mutations of the MEFV gene. Twenty-six (3.9% individuals had only one mutation in the MEFV gene, 25 individuals were heterozygous and one person was homozygous for the V726A mutation (0.15%. In the present study, the V726A mutation (50.0% was the most frequent, followed by M694V (38.5%, M680I (7.7% and M694I (3.8%. It was seen that the carrier rate was very low and the prevalence of FMF was 0.15%, according to the common mutations of the MEFV gene in Adıyaman, Southeast Anatolia, Turkey.

  4. Bin weather data for the provinces of the Eastern Anatolia in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oezyurt, Oemer; Bakirci, Kadir; Yilmaz, Mehmet [Ataturk University Engineering Faculty Department of Mechanical Engineering 25240 Erzurum (Turkey); Erdogan, Sadik [Erzurum Vocation School of Higher Education, Atatuerk University, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey)

    2009-05-15

    This paper presents information about bin weather data that have been generated from weather histories and recorded over a period of many years for 14 cities located in the Eastern Anatolia region in Turkey. The analysis covers 14 provinces: Agri, Ardahan, Bingoel, Bitlis, Elazig, Erzincan, Erzurum, Hakkari, Igdir, Kars, Malatya, Mus, Tunceli, and Van. The bin data for dry-bulb temperature from -36 C to 45 C with 3 C increments are calculated in six daily 4-h shifts (1-4, 5-8, 9-12, 13-16, 17-20 and 21-24 h). In the calculations, the hourly dry-bulb temperatures recorded by the Turkish State Meteorological Affairs between the years 1990 and 2005 (16 years) are used. Monthly and yearly bin data are presented in tables and on graphs. The information and data presented in this paper hope to fill a gap in information needed by building designers and engineers for simplified energy calculations of buildings in the Eastern Anatolia region. (author)

  5. Determination of recent horizontal crustal movements and deformations of African and Eurasian plates in western Mediterranean region using geodetic-GPS computations extended to 2006 (from 1997) related to NAFREF and AFREF frames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzouzi, R.

    2009-04-01

    Determination of recent horizontal crustal movements and deformations of African and Eurasian plates in western Mediterranean region using geodetic-GPS computations extended to 2006 (from 1997) related to NAFREF and AFREF frames. By: R. Azzouzi*, M. Ettarid*, El H. Semlali*, et A. Rimi+ * Filière de Formation en Topographie Institut Agronomique et Vétérinaire Hassan II B.P. 6202 Rabat-Instituts MAROC + Département de la Physique du Globe Université Mohammed V Rabat MAROC This study focus on the use of the geodetic spatial technique GPS for geodynamic purposes generally in the Western Mediterranean area and particularly in Morocco. It aims to exploit this technique first to determine the geodetic coordinates on some western Mediterranean sites. And also this technique is used to detect and to determine movements cross the boundary line between the two African and Eurasian crustal plates on some well chosen GPS-Geodynamics sites. It will allow us also to estimate crustal dynamic parameters of tension that results. These parameters are linked to deformations of terrestrial crust in the region. They are also associated with tectonic constraints of the study area. The usefulness of repeated measurements of these elements, the estimate of displacements and the determination of their temporal rates is indisputable. Indeed, sismo-tectonique studies allow a good knowledge of the of earthquake processes, their frequency their amplitude and even of their prediction in the world in general and in Moroccan area especially. They allow also contributing to guarantee more security for all most important management projects, as projects of building great works (dams, bridges, nuclear centrals). And also as preliminary study, for the most important joint-project between Europe and Africa through the Strait of Gibraltar. For our application, 23 GPS monitoring stations under the ITRF2000 reference frame are chosen in Eurasian and African plates. The sites are located around the

  6. Effects of the "New Climate" warmed in North Africa and Western Mediterranean: the situation of recent meteorological droughts and floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karrouk, Mohammed-Said

    2017-04-01

    "New Climate" subjected to North Africa, Western Mediterranean and geoclimatic midlatitude space atmospheric effects of the new regime characterized by the supremacy of the meridian circulation (MAC: Meridian Atmospheric Circulation), by alternating cool conditions (humidity) heat (drought) along the year, and imposes situation of anxiety and perplexity vis-a-vis their socio-economic activities; shoved agricultural calendar, hesitant policymakers, uncertainty and waiting, ... etc. The recent example of the fall-winter 2015-2016 is indicative of the conditions that have left a deep psychological imprint on economic and social Moroccans. During this period, the summer heat has extended to the end of autumn and even winter. And precipitation contracted by more than 51% of accumulated rainfall autumn, compared with the same period a normal year. A slowdown in economic growth has been felt since last December and was extended until the rains return (and snow!) In mid February 2016. Weather conditions during this period were marked by the succession and persistence of very active planetary peaks, projected to the northern borders of Western Europe (Heat Christmas 2015!), Rejecting the negative waves to the east: Algeria, Tunisia, Italy, the Balkans, Anatolia, and even the Middle East. These conditions are the consequences of the "New Climate" warmed, strengthened by the strong El Niño event in 2015 decennial. The identification of hemispheric and regional climate mechanisms of these atmospheric regime systems based on energy balance and atmospheric circulation will be defined, with links of cause and effect, in view of integrating these characters to extreme events in the New Climate Warmed.

  7. Geodynamic evolution of the lithosphere beneath the Eastern Anatolia region: Constraints from geodynamic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memis, Caner; Hakan Gogus, Oguz; Pysklywec, Russell; Keskin, Mehmet; Celal Sengor, A. M.; Topuz, Gultekin

    2016-04-01

    The east Anatolian orogenic plateau is characterized by an average elevation of 2 km, and is delimited by the Bitlis-Zagros collision zone to the south and the Pontide arc to the north. Stratigraphic evidence suggests that the high plateau attained its current elevation since the Serravallian (about 12 million years ago), but probably did not reach its present height until at least the latest Pliocene. While the crustal shortening following the Arabia-Eurasia collision in the south enabled its relatively rapid rise and regional tectonic evolution, the presumed removal of the downgoing slab beneath east Anatolia has potentially played a significant role in this geodynamic configuration. According to the proposed scenario, the northward subducting slab of Neo-Tethys peels away from the overlying crust similar to the lithospheric delamination model. In this work, we performed a series of lithospheric removal models by varying rheological, physical and mechanical properties by using 2D numerical geodynamic experiments, (e.g. plate convergence rate, crustal thickness, mantle lithosphere yield-stress). Our model results show that the average amount of delamination hinge motion is maximum (18 km/my) when the lower crustal rheology is felsic granulite. The slab break-off only occurs at lower convergence rates (≤ 2 cm/yr), and is imposed on the margin of delaminating mantle lithosphere. The surface uplift takes place above the asthenospheric column (or plateau gap) through isostatic and thermal support of asthenospheric upwelling, and varies dependent on the width of the asthenospheric column. However; with higher plate convergence rates (≥3 cm/yr), the asthenospheric column does not widen enough and the continental collision occurs rather than delamination/peeling away. In this case, the average uplift appears in the central section of the crust, and this exceeds a surface elevation of 3 km. All model results are consistent with the observations from the Eastern

  8. Fatty acid composition of some walnut ( Juglans regia L. cultivars from east Anatolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akgul, Attila

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the fatty acid composition of different walnut (Juglans regia L. cultivars grown in Adilcevaz in east Anatolia was determined. The total oil content of the walnuts ranged from 65.00 ± 0.06 to 70.00 ± 0.58 %. The oleic acid content of the oils ranged from 22.63 to 27.27 % of the total fatty acids while the linoleic acid and linolenic contents ranged from 49.93 to 54.41 % and 14.32 to 17.82 % respectively. The palmitic acid content of the walnuts ranged from 5.61 % to 5.82 % while there was a trace amount of miristic acid (En este estudio se ha determinado la composición en ácidos grasos de diferentes cultivos de nueces ( Juglans regia L. producidos en Adilcevaz en el Este de Anatolia. El contenido de aceite total de las nueces osciló entre 65.00 ± 0.06 y 70.00 ± 0.58 %. El contenido en ácido oleico varió desde 22.63 a 27.27 % respecto a los ácidos grasos totales mientras que los contenidos en ácido linoleico y linolénico variaron desde 49.93 hasta 54.41 % y desde 14.32 hasta 17.82 % respectivamente. El contenido en ácido palmítico de las muestras de nueces estuvo comprendido entre 5.61 y 5.82 % mientras que de ácido miristico solo se encontraron trazas ( < 0.1 %. Finalmente, los resultados de los ácidos grasos indicaron que los cultivos de nueces del Este de Anatolia son distintos en cuanto a su perfil de ácido linolenico. Estos resultados pueden ser significativos para estudios de selección en orden a identificar mejor las variedades de nueces para dietas saludables.

  9. Eastern Anatolia Observatory (DAG): Recent developments and a prospective observing site for robotic telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesilyaprak, C.; Yerli, S. K.; Keskin, O.

    2016-12-01

    This document (Eastern Anatolia Observatory (DAG) is the new observatory of Turkey with the optical and near-infrared largest telescope (4 m class) and its robust observing site infrastructure. This national project consists of three phases with DAG (Telescope, Enclosure, Buildings and Infrastructures), FPI (Focal Plane Instruments and Adaptive Optics) and MCP (Mirror Coating Plant) and is supported by the Ministry of Development of Turkey. The tenders of telescope and enclosure have been made and almost all the infrastructure (roads, geological and atmospherical surveys, electricity, fiber optics, cable car, water, generator, etc.) of DAG site (Erzurum/Turkey, 3,170 m altitude) have been completed. This poster is about the recent developments of DAG and about the future possible collaborations for various robotic telescopes which can be set up in DAG site.

  10. Elements for a Comparative Study of Textile Production and Use in Hittite Anatolia and Neighbouring Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigo, Matteo; Bellucci, Benedetta; Baccelli, Giulia

    2014-01-01

    Although our general knowledge on trade and usage of textiles in the ancient Near East seems to be quite consolidated, particularly through the study of the economic and administrative texts of Mesopotamia of the third and second millennia BC, we do not have considerable archaeological remains...... different. There are indeed specific monographs dealing with some aspects of Assyrian trade in Anatolia during the XIX-XVIII centuries BC, through which we are inform on trade routes, ‘textile topography’ (i.e. the provenance and the final destination of particular fabrics), costs of production and selling...... documentation. The study on the unearthed weaving tools could help us to fill the quasi absence of information on crafting and weaving techniques in the written sources. In the same way the Hittite administrative texts should increase our knowledge on the textile trades that did not leave archaeological traces...

  11. MODELING OF WEATHER DATA FOR THE EAST ANATOLIA REGION OF TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Akpinar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Monthly average daily data of climatic conditions over the period 1994-2003 of cities in the east Anatolia region of Turkey is presented. Regression methods are used to fit polynomial and trigonometric functions to the monthly averages for nine parameters. The parameters namely temperature, maximum-minimum temperature, relative humidity, pressure, wind speed, rainfall, solar radiation and sunshine duration are useful for renewable energy applications. The functions presented for the parameters should enable determination of specific parameter values and prediction of missing values. They also provide some insight into the variation of these parameters. The models developed can be used in any study related to climatic and its effect on the environment and energy.

  12. Theileria infections in small ruminants in the east and southeast Anatolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altay, Kürşat; Aktaş, Münir; Dumanli, Nazir

    2007-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of Theileria (T.) ovis and to investigate the presence of T. lestoquardi in small ruminants by microscopic examination (ME) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the East and Southeast Anatolia. Whole blood samples (677 sheep and 142 goats) and thin blood smears (656 sheep and 139 goats) were collected from Malatya, Muş, Erzincan, Erzurum, Iğdir, Diyarbakir and Mardin. Piroplasms of Theileria spp. were detected in 18.29% (120/656) of sheep and 2.88% (4/139) of goats by ME. T. ovis was detected in 58.79% (398/677) of sheep and 11.27% (16/142) of goats by PCR whereas T. lestoquardi was not detected in the same animals.

  13. CORN (Zea mays L. ADAPTATION STUDIES UNDER IRRIGATED CONDITIONS OF SOUTHEASTERN ANATOLIA REGION OF TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Öktem

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Southeastern Anatolia region of Turkey has a great agricultural potential. When the Southeastern Anatolia Project (GAP is complete, 1.7 million hectare area will be irrigated. Corn has a great importance due to have high-yield and being a secondary crop at GAP region which has suitable soil and climate conditions for corn production. The main goal of this study was to determine the suitable corn varieties for GAP region. This research was conducted with 14 hybrid dent corn varieties at Agriculture Faculty in Şanlıurfa province during the growth season of 1997-1998. At this study grain yield, tassel flowering date, plant height, ear length, kernel number of ear, grain weight of ear, 1000 seeds weight and grain moisture at harvest were investigated. Variance analysis results showed that there were significant differences (P<0.01 in grain yield and yield characteristics among tested varieties. According to the average of two years, grain yield varied between 8.83 (Alimax and 13.92 (Rx.770 t /ha and grain moisture at harvest varied from 15.81% (Antbey to 25.92% (P.3394. Antbey had the highest tassel flowering date value (62.3 day and the lowest value was obtained from C.6127 (55.5 day genotype. Plant height varied between 190.5 cm (C.6127 and 243.4 cm (Antbey. Ear length ranged from 18.9 cm (Alimax to 21.8 cm (Tambre. Kernel number of ear varied from 439.0 number/ear (Antbey to 670.9 number/ear (P.3279. The highest grain weight of ear value was obtained from Rx.770 genotype (239.5 g and also the lowest value was 162.1 g (Antbey. 1000 seed weight ranged from 328.9 g (P.3279 to 383.0 g (Tambre. All tested varieties gave over 10 t /ha yield except Alimax, Sele and Antbey varieties.

  14. Seismotectonics of the southern boundary of Anatolia, Eastern Mediterranean region: subduction, collision, and arc jumping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rotstein, Y.; Kafka, A.L.

    1982-09-10

    The pattern of seismicity and fault plane solutions of earthquakes are used to outline the tectonic features of the southern boundary of Anatolia in the eastern Mediterranean and southeastern Turkey. The results of this study show that this boundary is composed of two distinct parts. One, in southeastern Turkey and Syria, is a wide and complex zone of continental collision. The other, in the Levantine basin of the eastern Mediterranean, is a zone of oceanic subduction. In the region of continental collision three zones of seismicity are observed. Most of the seismic activity in this region follows the Bitlis zone and is associated with a zone of thrusting and mountain building. This appears to be the zone of most active deformation and plate consumption in the plate boundary region between Arabia and Turkey. A less active zone of seismicity to the north of the Bitlis zone is interpreted to have been more active in the past whereas another active zone of seismicity to the south is interpreted to be a zone which may be more active in the future as the main zone of plate consumption jumps to the south. In the subduction zone of the eastern Mediterranean the depth of the subducted slab and the rate of seismicity generally increease from east to west. The zone of present-day convergence between Africa and Turkey in the Levantine basin can be best outlined by the northern edge of the Mediterranean ridge. Deep seismic activity near the Gulf of Antalya is associated with a detached subducted slab north of the Anaximander Mountains that is distinctly different from the seismic trend which is associated with present-day active subduction. Most of the focal mechanisms of the earthquakes along the entire southern boundary of Anatolia indicate that N to NNW thrusting is the dominant mode of seismic deformation.

  15. Antimicrobial activities, pollen diversity and physicochemical properties of natural honey from Southeastern Anatolia of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menderes Cenet

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Honey, a natural sweetener, is produced from the nectar of many plants. The pollen diversity, physicochemical properties, and antimicrobial activities were analyzed in honey samples from Mardin (Southeastern Anatolia. Methods: The melissopalynological method was used to identify and enumerate the pollen granules. Analytical methods and agar well diffusion assays were employed for the determination of some quality parameters and the antimicrobial potential of honey samples, respectively. Results: The pollen composition consisted of 27 taxa belonging to 13 families. The origins of all honey were determined as the multifloral sources. The most predominant taxa were mainly Hedysarum sp., Carduus sp., Melissa officinalis, Gossypium hirsitum, Paliurus spina-christi, Salix sp. and Pimpinella anisum. The secondary pollen taxa were Hedysarum sp., Trifolium sp., Astragalus sp., Salix sp., Paliurus spina-christi, Asphodeline sp., Centaurea sp., Carduus sp., Zea mays and Cistus sp., respectively. Asphodeline sp. as a secondary pollen taxon in a honey sample could be considered as the first report. The pH, total acidity, brix, refractive index, electrical conductivity, moisture and L, a, b values of the samples varied from 3.75 to 4.28, 30 to 42, 67.3 to 85.70, 1.45 to 1.50, 12.40 to 31.61, 0.24 to 0.90, 47.81 to 57.59, -0.94 to 4.31, 20.37 to 31.28, respectively. Antimicrobial activities of the honey specimens were also effective on five bacterial species and two yeast species. Conclusions: Honey samples from Southeastern Anatolia revealed a good diversity of pollen granules. The rich multiflora of honey increases not only its nutritional quality as well as antimicrobial potential on various clinically important microorganisms.

  16. Extended Emotions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krueger, Joel; Szanto, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    beyond the neurophysiological confines of organisms; some even argue that emotions can be socially extended and shared by multiple agents. Call this the extended emotions thesis (ExE). In this article, we consider different ways of understanding ExE in philosophy, psychology, and the cognitive sciences....... First, we outline the background of the debate and discuss different argumentative strategies for ExE. In particular, we distinguish ExE from cognate but more moderate claims about the embodied and situated nature of cognition and emotion (Section 1). We then dwell upon two dimensions of ExE: emotions......Until recently, philosophers and psychologists conceived of emotions as brain- and body-bound affairs. But researchers have started to challenge this internalist and individualist orthodoxy. A rapidly growing body of work suggests that some emotions incorporate external resources and thus extend...

  17. Extended thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, Ingo

    1993-01-01

    Physicists firmly believe that the differential equations of nature should be hyperbolic so as to exclude action at a distance; yet the equations of irreversible thermodynamics - those of Navier-Stokes and Fourier - are parabolic. This incompatibility between the expectation of physicists and the classical laws of thermodynamics has prompted the formulation of extended thermodynamics. After describing the motifs and early evolution of this new branch of irreversible thermodynamics, the authors apply the theory to mon-atomic gases, mixtures of gases, relativistic gases, and "gases" of phonons and photons. The discussion brings into perspective the various phenomena called second sound, such as heat propagation, propagation of shear stress and concentration, and the second sound in liquid helium. The formal mathematical structure of extended thermodynamics is exposed and the theory is shown to be fully compatible with the kinetic theory of gases. The study closes with the testing of extended thermodynamics thro...

  18. Tectono-stratigraphy of the Orhaniye Basin, Turkey: Implications for collision chronology and Paleogene biogeography of central Anatolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licht, A.; Coster, P.; Ocakoğlu, F.; Campbell, C.; Métais, G.; Mulch, A.; Taylor, M.; Kappelman, John; Beard, K. Christopher

    2017-08-01

    Located along the İzmir-Ankara-Erzincan Suture (IAES), the Maastrichtian - Paleogene Orhaniye Basin has yielded a highly enigmatic -yet poorly dated- Paleogene mammal fauna, the endemic character of which has suggested high faunal provincialism associated with paleogeographic isolation of the Anatolian landmass during the early Cenozoic. Despite its biogeographic significance, the tectono-stratigraphic history of the Orhaniye Basin has been poorly documented. Here, we combine sedimentary, magnetostratigraphic, and geochronological data to infer the chronology and depositional history of the Orhaniye Basin. We then assess how our new data and interpretations for the Orhaniye Basin impact (1) the timing and mechanisms of seaway closure along the IAES and (2) the biogeographic evolution of Anatolia. Our results show that the Orhaniye Basin initially developed as a forearc basin during the Maastrichtian, before shifting to a retroarc foreland basin setting sometime between the early Paleocene and 44 Ma. This chronology supports a two-step scenario for the assemblage of the central Anatolian landmass, with incipient collision during the Paleocene - Early Eocene and final seaway retreat along the IAES during the earliest Late Eocene after the last marine incursion into the foreland basin. Our dating for the Orhaniye mammal fauna (44-43 Ma) indicates the persistence of faunal endemism in northern Anatolia until at least the late Lutetian despite the advanced stage of IAES closure. The tectonic evolution of dispersal corridors linking northern Anatolia with adjacent parts of Eurasia was not directly associated with IAES closure and consecutive uplifts, but rather with the build-up of continental bridges on the margins of Anatolia, in the Alpine and Tibetan-Himalayan orogens.

  19. Architecture of ductile-type, hyper-extended passive margins: Geological constraints from the inverted Cretaceous basin of the North-Pyrenean Zone ('Chaînons Béarnais', Western Pyrenees)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corre, Benjamin; Lagabrielle, Yves; Labaume, Pierre; Lahfid, Abdeltif; Boulvais, Philippe; Bergamini, Geraldine; Fourcade, Serge; Clerc, Camille

    2017-04-01

    Sub-continental lithospheric mantle rocks are exhumed at the foot of magma-poor distal passive margins as a response to extreme stretching of the continental crust during plate separation. Remnants of the Northern Iberian paleo-passive margin are now exposed in the North-Pyrenean Zone (NPZ) and represent field analogues to study the processes of continental crust thinning and subcontinental mantle exhumation. The NPZ results from the inversion of basins opened between the Iberia and Europa plates during Albo-Cenomanian times. In the western NPZ, the 'Chaînons Béarnais' ranges display a fold-and-thrust structure involving the Mesozoic sedimentary cover, decoupled from its continental basement and associated with peridotite bodies in tectonic contact with Palaeozoic basement lenses of small size. Continental extension developed under hot thermal conditions, as demonstrated by the syn-metamorphic Cretaceous ductile deformation affecting both the crustal basement and the allochthonous Mesozoic cover. In this study, we present structural and geochemical data providing constraints to reconstruct the evolution of the northern Iberia paleo-margin. Field work confirms that the pre-rift Mesozoic cover is intimately associated to mantle rocks and to thin tectonic lenses of crustal basement. It also shows that the pre-rift cover was detached from its bedrock at the Keuper evaporites level and was welded to mantle rocks during their exhumation at the foot of the hyper-extended margin. The crust/mantle detachment fault is a major shear zone characterized by anastomosed shear bands defining a plurimetric phacoidal fabric at the top of the serpentinized mantle. The detachment is marked by a layer of metasomatic rocks, locally 20 meters thick, made of talc-chlorite-pyrite-rich rocks that developped under greenschist facies conditions. Raman Spectroscopy on Carbonaceous Materials (RSCM), performed on the Mesozoic cover reveal that the entire sedimentary pile underwent temperatures

  20. date extended

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C A L AN DER OF EVENTS. Date of issue of bid document : 2016 September 21. Extended Due date and Time for Receipt of Tender : Up to 2016 October 17, Time 13:00 Hrs. Date and Time of opening of bid : 2016 October 17, Time 15:00 Hrs. Cost of Bid Document : Rs. 100/- only (Non-refundable). Earnest Money Deposit ...

  1. Extending Puppet

    CERN Document Server

    Franceschi, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    This book is a clear, detailed and practical guide to learn about designing and deploying you puppet architecture, with informative examples to highlight and explain concepts in a focused manner. This book is designed for users who already have good experience with Puppet, and will surprise experienced users with innovative topics that explore how to design, implement, adapt, and deploy a Puppet architecture. The key to extending Puppet is the development of types and providers, for which you must be familiar with Ruby.

  2. Measures Taken by the Ottoman State against Shah İsmail's Attempts to Convert Anatolia to Shia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Küçükdağ

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Shah Ismail, when he was sheikh of Safevi sect established by Sheikh Safiyuddin, Ismail’s grandfather, established Safevi State in Azerbaijan taking Tebriz as the center at the beginning of XVI th.century. The followers of Safevi Sect were Turcomen originated from Anatolia. They helped Shah Ismail to establish state. Shah Ismail depending on Turcomen followers attempted to annex Anotolia which was under Otoman domination in his new state’s territory. He sent his caliphs to Anatolia to propagandize his sect. They tried to convince Anatolion people about Safevi sect. Ottoman state which understand that the main purpose of Shah Ismail was not the speading of Safevi sect took military, political, economical and cultural measures. In the war between two states, Shah Ismail was defeated by Ottoman army in Caldıran (1514 The relationship of Safevi’s followers with Iran was prevented. In order to prevent economical growth of Safevi State, economical embargo was put. By helping the organization of Halvetiyye which has Safevi sect orijin but accept’ s ottoman state outhority the spread of Safevism was prevented. Turcomen in Anatolia become hopeless when Sheikh Ismail was defeated by I. Selim. Ottoman State does not extinct Safevism

  3. The Status of Woman in Family and Society in 19th Century Anatolia (A Case Study in Ayntab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bülent Çukurova

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the ancient times, in states that have been established in Anatolia (Asia Minor women have had a special place in the family and in the society. Until the acceptance of Islamic traditions by the Anatolian people, women were considered to be equal to men in terms of legal and social standing. Even in the administration of governmental affairs women used to have a say equal to that of men or the khan. Islamic traditions have been shaped by Arab and Iranians more than any other people or culture. Both cultures have had a strong influence on Anatolian people after the acceptance of Islamic traditions. To understand how such influences of Arabic and Iranian cultures are reflected on Anatolia today, one needs to examine the role of women in the family and in the society. In general, when we observe Anatolia in terms of women’s right to inherited property and marital decisions and affairs as well as other socioeconomic rights we see different traditions and rules applied depending on location of living whether women living in rural or urban areas of the country. We also observe differences in terms of society’s treatment of women based on the ethnicity or religious affinity

  4. Comparison of the effects of Artemisia vulgaris and Artemisia absinthium growing in western Anatolia against trichinellosis (Trichinella spiralis) in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caner, Ayşe; Döşkaya, Mert; Değirmenci, Aysu; Can, Hüseyin; Baykan, Sura; Uner, Ahmet; Başdemir, Gülçin; Zeybek, Ulvi; Gürüz, Yüksel

    2008-05-01

    Trichinellosis often causing diarrhea and more rarely fever, periorbital edema and myositis in human, is commonly treated with benzimidazole derivatives. The Artemisia genus has been found to be effective against a variety of parasites. In the present study, the efficacy against trichinellosis (Trichinella spiralis) of Artemisia vulgaris and Artemisia absinthium was examined for the first time in rats. The results of trichinoscopy and artificial digestion, during the enteral (adult) phase of the illness show that 300 mg/kg doses of methanol extracts of the aerial parts of A. vulgaris and A. absinthium reduced the larval rate by 75.6% and 63.5% in tongue, 53.4% and 37.7% in diaphragm, 67.8% and 46.2% in quadriceps, and 66.7% and 60.5% in biceps-triceps muscles of rats, respectively. Furthermore, during the parenteral (encapsulated larvae) phase, 600 mg/kg doses of A. vulgaris and A. absinthium extracts decreased the larval rate by 66.4% and 59.9% in tongue, 57.4% and 50.0% in diaphragm, 47.6% and 43.7% in quadriceps, 60.2% and 46.4% in biceps-triceps muscles of rats, respectively. Analysis of antibody also showed that A. vulgaris significantly reduced the antibody response (P<0.05) during the enteral and parenteral phases. Thus, the results of the present study revealed that A. vulgaris could be an alternative drug against trichinellosis.

  5. GEOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND RARE-EARTH ELEMENT DISTRIBUTIONS OF KOZBUDAKLAR W-SKARN DEPOSIT (BURSA, WESTERN ANATOLIA)

    OpenAIRE

    ORHAN, Ayşe; MUTLU, Halim

    2017-01-01

    The Kozbudaklar W-skarn deposit occurs along thecontact between Eocene Topuk Granitoid and Triassic İnönü Marble in TavşanlıZone. In the study area, the endoskarn is represented by plagioclase-pyroxeneand exoskarn zone which is characterized by pyroxene, pyroxene-garnet, garnetand garnet-pyroxene skarn facies. According to major oxide element contents,exoskarn is of calcic character. In pyroxene and pyroxene-garnet skarn facies,tungsten and molybdenum abundances vary between 434-5507 ppm (mea...

  6. Effects of the "New Climate" warmed in Northern Africa and Western Europe: the situation of meteorological drought and floods 2015-2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karrouk, M. S.

    2016-12-01

    "New Climate" subjected to North Africa, Western Europe and geoclimatic midlatitude space atmospheric effects of the new regime characterized by the supremacy of the Meridian Atmospheric Circulation (MAC), by alternating cool conditions (humidity) heat (drought) along the year, and imposes situation of anxiety and perplexity towards their socio-economic activities; shoved agricultural calendar, hesitant policymakers, uncertainty and waiting, ... etc.The recent example of the fall-winter 2015-2016 is indicative of the conditions that have left a deep psychological, economic and social footprint on the North African and West European people.During this period, the summer heat has extended to the end of autumn and even winter. And precipitation contracted by more than 51% of accumulated rainfall autumn in Morocco, compared with the same period a normal year. A slowdown in economic growth has been felt since last December and was extended until the rains return (and snow!) In mid February 2016.Weather conditions during this period were marked by the succession and persistence of very active planetary crests (Azores anticyclone), projected to the northern borders of Western Europe (Heat Christmas 2015!), rejecting the negative waves (polar Vortex) to the east: Algeria, Tunisia, Italy, the Balkans, Anatolia, and even the Middle East.These conditions are the consequences of the "New Climate" warmed, strengthened by the strong El Niño event in 2015.The identification of hemispheric and regional climate mechanisms of these atmospheric regime systems based on energy balance and atmospheric circulation will be defined, with links of cause and effect, in view of integrating these characters to extreme events in the New Climate Warmed.

  7. Seismotectonics of the southern boundary of Anatolia, eastern Mediterranean region: Subduction, collision, and arc jumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotstein, Yair; Kafka, Alan L.

    1982-09-01

    The pattern of seismicity and fault plane solutions of earthquakes are used to outline the tectonic features of the southern boundary of Anatolia in the eastern Mediterranean and southeastern Turkey. The results of this study show that this boundary is composed of two distinct parts. One, in southeastern Turkey and Syria, is a wide and complex zone of continental collision. The other, in the Levantine basin of the eastern Mediterranean, is a zone of oceanic subduction. In the region of continental collision three zones of seismicity are observed. Most of the seismic activity in this region follows the Bitlis zone and is associated with a zone of thrusting and mountain building. This appears to be the zone of most active deformation and plate consumption in the plate boundary region between Arabia and Turkey. A less active zone of seismicity to the north of the Bitlis zone is interpreted to have been more active in the past whereas another active zone of seismicity to the south is interpreted to be a zone which may be more active in the future as the main zone of plate consumption jumps to the south. In the subduction zone of the eastern Mediterranean the depth of the subducted slab and the rate of seismicity generally increase from east to west. The zone of present-day convergence between Africa and Turkey in the Levantine basin can be best outlined by the northern edge of the Mediterranean ridge. The subduction zone in this area sequentially jumps to the south as small continental fragments collide with existing zones of subduction. Deep seismic activity near the Gulf of Antalya is associated with a detached subducted slab north of the Anaximander Mountains that is distinctly different from the seismic trend which is associated with present-day active subduction. The plate boundary between Africa and Turkey at the center of the Levantine basin appears to have shifted to the south of the Anaximander Mountains and Florence rise. Most of the focal mechanisms of the

  8. Post-Delamination Magmatism at the Hasandag Cinder Cone Province, Central Anatolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall, H. D.; Pickard, M.; Sayit, K.; Hanan, B. B.; Kürkçüoğlu, B.; Furman, T.

    2016-12-01

    Central Anatolian mafic lavas record both closure of the Tethyan Ocean and post-Miocene extension. Regional-scale delamination of the horizontally-subducted Neotethyan slab beneath Central Anatolia 9-14 Ma is inferred on the basis of >1 km of uplift of the Central Anatolian Plateau and the onset of widespread volcanism induced by melting of ascending asthenosphere (Bartol and Govers, 2014). Geochemical data from the Quaternary Hasandağ Cinder Cone Province suggest a more complicated story and require melting of both asthenosphere and lithosphere. Hasandağ cinder cones produce basalt, trachybasalt and basaltic trachyandesite (7.2-10.3 wt. % MgO; 48.9-51.8 wt. % SiO2). Systematic trends in key element ratios indicate a significant contribution from the lithosphere with metasomatic phases including rutile and sodic amphibole. Tb/YbN (1.2-1.7) values restrict depth of melting to the spinel stability field, 30-90 km. Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic values fall within published ranges of post-Miocene Central Anatolian mafic lavas and suggest binary mixing between geographically-constrained enriched and depleted endmembers. In contrast, ternary Pb isotopic abundances are nearly uniform and lack psuedobinary trends indicative of ordered mixing observed elsewhere in Anatolia and in other young extensional provinces. This difference suggests that Hasandağ lavas do not undergo progressive crustal contamination in an evolving extensional environment. Rather, Hasandağ primitive lavas document an increase in degree of melting with depth, a signature associated with drip magmatism (Elkins-Tanton, 2007; Holbig and Grove, 2008).Together, these data argue for a two-part lithospheric foundering process: Miocene microplate-scale delamination of the subducted African slab and the subsequent influx of warm asthenosphere stimulated localized Quaternary drip melting of the remaining Anatolian lithosphere. These distinct mechanisms and scales of lithospheric removal provide a consistent explanation

  9. Extending Experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A computer game's player is experiencing not only the game as a designer-made artefact, but also a multitude of social and cultural practices and contexts of both computer game play and everyday life. As a truly multidisciplinary anthology, Extending Experiences sheds new light on the mesh...... of possibilities and influences the player engages with. Part one, Experiential Structures of Play, considers some of the key concepts commonly used to address the experience of a computer game player. The second part, Bordering Play, discusses conceptual and practical overlaps of games and everyday life...... and the impacts of setting up, crossing and breaking the boundaries of game and non-game. Part three, Interfaces of Play, looks at games as technological and historical artefacts and commodities. The fourth part, Beyond Design, introduces new models for the practical and theoretical dimensions of game design....

  10. Lithospheric flexural strength and effective elastic thicknesses of the Eastern Anatolia (Turkey) and surrounding region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oruç, Bülent; Gomez-Ortiz, David; Petit, Carole

    2017-12-01

    The Lithospheric structure of Eastern Anatolia and the surrounding region, including the northern part of the Arabian platform is investigated via the analysis and modeling of Bouguer anomalies from the Earth Gravitational Model EGM08. The effective elastic thickness of the lithosphere (EET) that corresponds to the mechanical cores of the crust and lithospheric mantle is determined from the spectral coherence between Bouguer anomalies and surface elevation data. Its average value is 18.7 km. From the logarithmic amplitude spectra of Bouguer anomalies, average depths of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB), Moho, Conrad and basement in the study area are constrained at 84 km, 39 km, 16 km and 7 km, respectively. The geometries of the LAB and Moho are then estimated using the Parker-Oldenburg inversion algorithm. We also present a lithospheric strength map obtained from the spatial variations of EET determined by Yield Stress Envelopes (YSE). The EET varies in the range of 12-23 km, which is in good agreement with the average value obtained from spectral analysis. Low EET values are interpreted as resulting from thermal and flexural lithospheric weakening. According to the lithospheric strength of the Eastern Anatolian region, the rheology model consists of a strong but brittle upper crust, a weak and ductile lower crust, and a weak lower part of the lithosphere. On the other hand, lithosphere strength corresponds to weak and ductile lower crust, a strong upper crust and a strong uppermost lithospheric mantle for the northern part of the Arabian platform.

  11. 500,000 Years of Environmental History in Eastern Anatolia: The PALEOVAN Drilling Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemens Glombitza, and Jens Kallmeyer

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP drilled a complete succession of the lacustrine sediment sequence deposited during the last ~500,000 years in Lake Van, Eastern Anatolia (Turkey. Based on a detailed seismic site survey, two sites at a water depth of up to 360 m were drilled in summer 2010, and cores were retrieved from sub-lake-floor depths of 140 m (Northern Basin and 220 m (Ahlat Ridge. To obtain a complete sedimentary section, the two sites were multiple-cored in order to investigate the paleoclimate history of a sensitive semi-arid region between theBlack, Caspian, and Mediterranean seas. Further scientific goals of the PALEOVAN project are the reconstruction of earthquake activity, as well as the temporal, spatial, and compositional evolution of volcanism as reflected in the deposition of tephra layers. The sediments host organic matter from different sources and hence composition, which will be unravelled using biomarkers. Pathways for migration of continental and mantle-derived noble gases will be analyzed in pore waters. Preliminary 40Ar/39Ar single crystal dating of tephra layers and pollen analyses suggest that the AhlatRidge record encompasses more than half a million years of paleoclimate and volcanic/geodynamic history, providing the longest continental record in the entire Near East to date.

  12. Determining the Role of Fluids near a Slab Window in Central Anatolia, Turkey by Magnetotellurics Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tank, B.; Yakar, B.; Cengiz, Ö.; Sandvol, E. A.; Ogawa, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Wideband (360 Hz - 2000 sec.) magnetotelluric stations were installed to form two northwest-southeast aligned profiles, crossing Central Anatolian (Ecemis) Fault for imaging the electrical conductivity structure of the crust and upper mantle in Central Anatolia, Turkey as part of an ongoing 5-year U.S. NSF funded multidisciplinary project entitled Continental Dynamics/Central Anatolian Tectonics (CD/CAT). Each magnetotelluric profile is made up of 30 wideband observations with site separations ranging from 1 to 5 km. Preliminary models, developed from wideband magnetotelluric data collected so far were modeled using sophisticated two- and three-dimensional inversion algorithms. Their results suggests that: (i) Central Anatolian Fault near Pozantı presents a sharp electrical conductivity contrast between Nigde-Kirsehir Massif and Anatolide-Tauride Block (ii) While Adana Basin sediments at the southeast appear as highly conductive, features associated with Nigde-Kirsehir Massif appear as clear low conductivity zones (iii) Deeper high conductivity anomalies appear at the vicinity of Central Anatolian Volcanic Province. Two additional profiles are being planned in the area and in addition to wideband observations, long period magnetotelluric (1 sec. - 10.000 sec.) stations are being installed on each profile to image the deep structure. Resulting conductivity models will be compared and/or correlated with results gained from other geophysical disciplines of the project, such as shear wave velocities.

  13. Pressurized liquid extraction of phenolic compounds from Anatolia propolis and their radical scavenging capacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, Selim; Ates, Burhan; Durmaz, Gokhan; Yilmaz, Ismet; Seckin, Turgay

    2011-07-01

    Propolis samples from important honey producing locations of Anatolia namely; Bingol (BG), Rize (RZ), Tekirdag (TK) and Van (VN), were evaluated for their antiradical capacities, total phenolic contents and individual phenolic compounds which was recovered by means of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE). Several extraction parameters of PLE such as; temperature, pressure, solvent type, extraction time and cell size were investigated for their effects on the extraction performances. The results showed that, 40 °C, 1500 psi, Ethanol:water:HCl; (70:25:5, v/v/v) containing 0.1% tert-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ) as solvent, three extraction cycles within 15 min, and a cell size of 11 mL was the most favorable PLE operating conditions. Results of the tests performed to designate the success of the polyphenol analysis showed that the recovery was in the range of 97.2% and 99.7%. Major phenolic compounds in all samples were found to be gallocatechin (GCT), catechin (CT), epicatechin gallate (ECTG), caffeic acid (CA), chlorogenic acid (ChA), and myricetin (Myr). ChA level of BG propolis was 4.5, 3 and 23 times higher than that of RZ, TK and VN region, respectively. Antiradical tests showed that all propolis samples have superior antiradical capacities up to 500 mg Trolox equivalent activity per gram of extract. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Determination of Selenium and Nickel in Asphaltite from Milli (Sirnak) Deposit in SE Anatolia of Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Isil; Fidan, Celal; Kavak, Orhan; Erek, Figen; Aydin, Firat

    2017-12-01

    Asphaltite is one of the naturally occurring black, solid bitumen’s, which are soluble at heating in carbon disulphide band fuse. Asphaltite is also a solidified hydro carbon compound derived from petroleum [1]. According to the World Energy Council, Turkish National Committee (1998), the total reserve of the asphaltic substances that are found in south eastern Turkey is about 82 million tons, with Silopi and Sirnak reserves to get her comprising the major part of the Asphaltite deposits. Selenium and Nickel are very important elements both environmental and health. Selenium plays an important role in the formation of the enzyme antioxidant effect in the cell. The need for Selenium increases in situations such as pregnancy, menopause, grow than development, air pollution. Nickel is used for preventing iron-poor blood, increasing iron absorption, and treating weak bones. In this study, asphaltites were taken from Milli vein from Sirnak deposit in SE Anatolia of Turkey. A total of 6.500.000 tons of Asphaltite reserves have been identified as asphaltites in Milli (Sirnak). The sample preparation method was developed in Asphaltite by spectroanalytical techniques, wet acid digestion. MW-AD followed by ICP-OES were used for the determination of Selenium and Nickel in Asphaltite. Proximate analysis of Asphaltite fly ash samples was made. It also, Selenium and Nickel element analysis in Asphaltite were made.

  15. SPATIAL PREDICTION OF AIR TEMPERATURE IN EAST CENTRAL ANATOLIA OF TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. C. Bilgili

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Air temperature is an essential component of the factors used in landscape planning. At similar topographic conditions, vegetation may show considerable differences depending on air temperature and precipitation. In large areas, measuring temperature is a cost and time-consuming work. Therefore, prediction of climate variables at unmeasured sites at an acceptable accuracy is very important in regional resource planning. In addition, use a more proper prediction method is crucial since many different prediction techniques yield different performance in different landscape and geographical conditions. We compared inverse distance weighted (IDW, ordinary kriging (OK, and ordinary cokriging (OCK to predict air temperature at unmeasured sites in Malatya region (East Central Anatolia of Turkey. Malatya region is the most important apricot production area of Turkey and air temperature is the most important factor determining the apricot growing zones in this region. We used mean monthly temperatures from 1975 to 2010 measured at 28 sites in the study area and predicted temperature with IDW, OC, and OCK techniques, mapped temperature in the region, and tested the reliability of these maps. The OCK with elevation as an auxiliary variable occurred the best procedure to predict temperature against the criteria of model efficiency and relative root mean squared error.

  16. Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility Studies in Lava Flows of the Eastern Anatolia Region, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ucar, Hakan; Cengiz Cinku, Mualla

    2017-04-01

    Eastern Anatolia comprises one of the high plateaus of the Alpine-Himalaya mountain belt with an average elevation of 2 km above the sea level. Available geochronologic data indicate that the volcanism started in the south of the region around the north of Lake Van and continued towards the norths in a age interval of 15.0 Ma to 0.4 Ma. The products are exposed as stratovolcanoes like Agri, Tendurek, Suphan and Girekol with the eruption of andesitic to rhyolitic lavas, ignimbrites and basaltic lava flows. In this study, anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility measurements were carried out on different lava flows (Tendurek, Girekol and Suphan) to determine the flow direction of lavas. It has been shown that the direction of maximum susceptibility is associated with magma flow direction in the vertical direction, while a horizontal flow direction is predicted for the volcano structure of Suphan. Anisotropy of magnetic measurements show a trend of lineation towards the center of the projection and shallow-dipping foliations which are largely scattered.

  17. Spatial Prediction of Air Temperature in East Central Anatolia of Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgili, B. C.; Erşahin, S.; Özyavuz, M.

    2017-11-01

    Air temperature is an essential component of the factors used in landscape planning. At similar topographic conditions, vegetation may show considerable differences depending on air temperature and precipitation. In large areas, measuring temperature is a cost and time-consuming work. Therefore, prediction of climate variables at unmeasured sites at an acceptable accuracy is very important in regional resource planning. In addition, use a more proper prediction method is crucial since many different prediction techniques yield different performance in different landscape and geographical conditions. We compared inverse distance weighted (IDW), ordinary kriging (OK), and ordinary cokriging (OCK) to predict air temperature at unmeasured sites in Malatya region (East Central Anatolia) of Turkey. Malatya region is the most important apricot production area of Turkey and air temperature is the most important factor determining the apricot growing zones in this region. We used mean monthly temperatures from 1975 to 2010 measured at 28 sites in the study area and predicted temperature with IDW, OC, and OCK techniques, mapped temperature in the region, and tested the reliability of these maps. The OCK with elevation as an auxiliary variable occurred the best procedure to predict temperature against the criteria of model efficiency and relative root mean squared error.

  18. Status of hydropower and water resources in the Southeastern Anatolia Project (GAP of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Kankal

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the water resources development of the Southeastern Anatolia Project (GAP in Turkey. The Euphrates and Tigris Rivers, located in the GAP, have the largest flow volume of 16.9% and 11.4% of Turkey’s average annually runoff (186 billion m3, respectively. While the Euphrates represents over 19.4% of the national gross hydropower potential (433 GWh/year, the Tigris correspond to 11.2% of this potential. 20,523 GWh/year of hydropower potential in the GAP is in operation. When all projects of the GAP in planning are completed, the total hydropower potential reaches a level of 27,419 GWh/year. This value corresponds to 10.9% of the annual electric energy production of Turkey in 2014 (251.96 GWh. There is also irrigable land of 1.06 million ha in the GAP, and now roughly 33.7%, 357,241 ha, of which have been irrigated.

  19. 500,000 Years of Environmental History in Eastern Anatolia: The PALEOVAN Drilling Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litt, T.; Anselmetti, F. S.; Baumgarten, H.; Beer, J.; Cagatay, N.; Cukur, D.; Damci, E.; Glombitza, C.; Haug, G.; Heumann, G.; Kallmeyer, H.; Kipfer, R.; Krastel, S.; Kwiecien, O.; Meydan, A. F.; Orcen, S.; Pickarski, N.; Randlett, M.-E.; Schmincke, H.-U.; Schubert, C. J.; Sturm, M.; Sumita, M.; Stockhecke, M.; Tomonaga, Y.; Vigliotti, L.; Wonik, T.; Paleovan Scientific Team

    2012-09-01

    International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) drilled a complete succession of the lacustrine sediment sequence deposited during the last ~500,000 years in Lake Van, Eastern Anatolia (Turkey). Based on a detailed seismic site survey, two sites at a water depth of up to 360 m were drilled in summer 2010, and cores were retrieved from sub-lake-floor depths of 140 m (Northern Basin) and 220 m (Ahlat Ridge). To obtain a complete sedimentary section, the two sites were multiple-cored in order to investigate the paleoclimate history of a sensitive semi-arid region between the Black, Caspian, and Mediterranean seas. Further scientific goals of the PALEOVAN project are the reconstruction of earthquake activity, as well as the temporal, spatial, and compositional evolution of volcanism as reflected in the deposition of tephra layers. The sediments host organic matter from different sources and hence composition, which will be unravelled using biomarkers. Pathways for migration of continental and mantle-derived noble gases will be analyzed in pore waters. Preliminary 40Ar/39Ar single crystal dating of tephra layers and pollen analyses suggest that the Ahlat Ridge record encompasses more than half a million years of paleoclimate and volcanic/geodynamic history, providing the longest continental record in the entire Near East to date. doi:10.2204/iodp.sd.14.02.2012

  20. Offshore Seismic Observation in the Western Marmara Sea, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Y.; Takahashi, N.; Citak, S.; Kalafat, D.; Pinar, A.; Gurbuz, C.; Kaneda, Y.

    2014-12-01

    The North Anatolian Fault (NAF) extends 1600 km westward from a junction with the East Anatolian Fault at the Karliova Triple Junction in eastern Turkey, across northern Turkey and into the Aegean Sea, accommodating about 25 mm/yr of right-lateral motion between Anatolia and the Eurasian plate. Since 1939, devastating earthquakes with magnitude greater than seven ruptured NAF westward, starting from 1939 Erzincan at the eastern Turkey and including the latest 1999 Izmit-Golcuk and the Duzce earthquakes in the Marmara region. Considering the fault segments ruptured by the May 24th, 2014 Northern Aegean earthquake, the only un-ruptured segments left behind NAF locate beneath the Marmara Sea and those segments keep their mystery due to their underwater location. To clarify the detailed fault geometry beneath the western Marmara Sea, we started to operate a series of ocean bottom seismographic (OBS) observations. As a first step, we deployed 3 pop-up type OBSs on 20th of March 2014 as a trial observation, and recovered them on 18thof June 2014. Although one of the OBSs worked only 6 days from the start of the observation, other two OBSs functioned properly during the whole 3-month observation period. Only 8 earthquakes were reported near the OBS network in 3 months periods according to the Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute catalogue. Thus, we first searched for the microearthquakes missing by the land seismic network and estimated their precious location by using the initial 6 days data. We could identify about 50 earthquakes with more than 5 picking data of P and S first arrivals, and half of them located near the NAF. We also tested the hypocenter relocation by combining the land and OBS seismic data for the 8 earthquakes, and found that these earthquakes are located in between 12-24 km depths. Next, we are planning to deploy 10 OBSs from September 2014 to June 2015 as a second step for our observation. At the AGU fall meeting, we will be able to

  1. Seismic Modeling of the Alasehir Graben, Western Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozde Okut, Nigar; Demirbag, Emin

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a depth model to make synthetic seismic reflection sections, such as stacked and migrated sections with different velocity models. The study area is east-west trending Alasehir graben which is one of the most prominent structure in the western Anatolia, proved to have geothermal energy potential by researchers and exploration companies. Geological formations were taken from Alaşehir-1 borehole drilled by Turkish Petroleum Corporation (Çiftçi, 2007) and seismic interval velocities were taken from check-shots in the same borehole (Kolenoǧlu-Demircioǧlu, 2009). The most important structure is the master graben bounding fault (MGBF) in the southern margin of the Alasehir graben. Another main structure is the northern bounding fault called the antithetic fault of the MGBF with high angle normal fault characteristic. MGBF is a crucial contact between sedimentary cover and the metamorphic basement. From basement to the surface, five different stratigraphic units constitute graben fill . All the sedimentary units thicknesses get thinner from the southern margin to the northern margin of the Alasehir graben displaying roll-over geometry. A commercial seismic data software was used during modeling. In the first step, a 2D velocity/depth model was defined. Ray tracing was carried out with diffraction option to produce the reflection travel times. The reflection coefficients were calculated and wavelet shaping was carried out by means of band-pass filtering. Finally synthetic stacked section of the Alasehir graben was obtained. Then, migrated sections were generated with different velocity models. From interval velocities, average and RMS velocities were calculated for the formation entires to test how the general features of the geological model may change against different seismic models after the migration. Post-stack time migration method was used. Pseudo-velocity analysis was applied at selected CDP locations. In theory

  2. A 600,000 year long continental pollen record from Lake Van, eastern Anatolia (Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litt, Thomas; Pickarski, Nadine; Heumann, Georg; Stockhecke, Mona; Tzedakis, Polychronis C.

    2014-11-01

    Lake Van is the fourth largest terminal lake in the world (38.5°N, 43°E, volume 607 km3, area 3570 km2, maximum water depth 460 m), extending for 130 km WSW-ENE on the eastern Anatolian high plateau, Turkey. The sedimentary record of Lake Van, partly laminated, obtains a long and continuous continental sequence that covers multiple interglacial-glacial cycles. Promoted by the potential of the sedimentary sequence for reconstructing the paleoecological and paleoclimate development of the Near East, a deep drilling operation was carried out in 2010 supported by the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP). The 219 m long continental pollen record presented here is based on a well-dated composite profile drilled on the so-called Ahlat Ridge in water depth of 360 m encompassing the last 600,000 years. It is the longest continuous continental pollen record of the Quaternary in the entire Near East and central Asia obtained to date. The glacial-interglacial cycles and pronounced interstadials are clearly reflected in the vegetation development based on millennial-scale time resolution. In general, the glacial/stadial vegetation is characterized by dwarf-shrub steppe and desert steppe, whereas the climax vegetation of past interglacials can be described as oak steppe-forest similar to the present interglacial in this sensitive semi-arid region between the Black, Caspian, and Mediterranean Seas. By comparing the Lake Van pollen record with other western Asian and southern European long continental pollen sequences as well as marine and ice-core records, the regional variability of the climate signals is also discussed.

  3. Severity and Spatial Distribution of Boron Toxicity in Barley Cultivated Areas of Central Anatolia and Transitional Zones

    OpenAIRE

    Avci, Muzaffer; AKAR, Taner

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the severity and spatial distribution of boron toxicity symptoms on barley cultivated areas in Central Anatolia and Transitional Zones (CATZs). Boron concentrations of plants sampled from barley cultivated areas of the CATZs region at 189 sites during springs 1996 and 1997 were determined. Boron toxicity symptoms were observed mainly in small areas near Konya-Çumra, Ankara-Gölbaşı, Yenikent and Yozgat-Yerköy and between the provinces of Konya and Aksaray...

  4. Effect of the Syrian Civil War on Prevalence of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Southeastern Anatolia, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inci, Rahime; Ozturk, Perihan; Mulayim, Mehmet Kamil; Ozyurt, Kemal; Alatas, Emine Tugba; Inci, Mehmet Fatih

    2015-07-20

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a vector-mediated skin disease, characterized by chronic wounds on the skin and caused by macrophages in protozoan parasites. It is an endemic disease in the southern and southeastern Anatolia region and is still an important public health problem in Turkey. Because of the civil war in Syria, immigrants to this region in the last 3 years have begun to more frequently present with this disease. The aim of this study was to draw attention to the dramatic increase in new cases with CL after the beginning of the civil war in Syria. In this retrospective study, we evaluated demographic, epidemiological, and clinical features of 110 patients diagnosed with cutaneous leishmaniasis who were admitted to the Department of Dermatology at Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University Faculty of Medicine between January 2011 and June 2014. A total of 110 patients included in the study; 50 (45%) were males, and 60 (55%) were females. The age range of the study group was 1-78 years, and the infection was more prevalent in the 0-20 year age group. Of these patients, 76 (69%) were Syrian refugees living in tent camps and 34 (31%) were Turkish citizens. The majority of the cases were diagnosed between October and December. Immigrations to endemic regions of Turkey from neighbouring countries where CL incidence is higher may lead to large increases in case numbers. In order to decrease the risk of exposure, housing conditions of the refugees must be improved, routine health controls must be performed, effective measures must be set in place for vector control, and infected individuals must be diagnosed and treated to prevent spread of the infection.

  5. Factors related to complementary/alternative medicine use among cancer patients in central Anatolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Er, Ozlem; Mistik, Selcuk; Ozkan, Metin; Ozturk, Ahmet; Altinbas, Mustafa

    2008-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of and factors related to the use of complementary/alternative medicine among cancer patients undergoing or following conventional treatment at the Erciyes University Oncology Hospital in Central Anatolia. Face-to-face interview and a questionnaire were carried out with cancer patients attending the outpatient clinic of Medical Oncology. Questionnaire items included patients' demographic data, treatment, use of complementary/alternative medicine and possible related factors. Multivariate analysis was performed to compare the factors related to use of complementary/alternative medicine. A total of 268 consecutive cancer patients were enrolled in the study. Overall, 43% of the patients were using or had used complementary/alternative medicine. Totally, 90% of the patients using complementary/alternative medicine utilized herbs, and most of the herbs used were stinging nettle. Nearly half of the patients using complementary/alternative medicine (46.1%) were aiming to fight the disease. Among users, nearly half of them regarded the method used as effective and 54 (50.5%) suggested the use of complementary/alternative medicine to other patients. Only 23.1% of the patients discussed the use of complementary/alternative medicine with their physician. In logistic regression analysis, younger age, higher educational status, advanced stage of the disease, longer duration of the disease and current treatment status were significantly associated with the use of complementary/alternative medicine. In our regression model, the predictivity rate of these variables was 72.2% for use of complementary/alternative medicine according to the backward Wald test. Use of complementary/alternative medicine among cancer patients in our center is modestly high, and the most common method is herbal therapy. Communication between the patient and the physician should be improved on this subject.

  6. Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and intestinal parasites among food handlers in Sanliurfa, Southeastern Anatolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simsek, Zeynep; Koruk, Ibrahim; Copur, Aysegul Cicek; Gürses, Gulcan

    2009-01-01

    Food-borne diseases represent a persistent global health burden, and food handlers play a major role in their transmission. Staphylococcus aureus carriage and intestinal parasitism are important risk factors for the contamination of food and water. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and intestinal parasites among food handlers working in Sanliurfa, Southeastern Anatolia. In this cross-sectional study, 299 food handlers selected randomly were enrolled. Nasal swabs, throat cultures, and stool samples were examined. The mean age of participants was 26.7 (+/-9.6) years. Only 33.6 percent of food handlers had education beyond the elementary school level. Within this group, 50.8 percent had never previously received a carrier examination and only 31.4 percent received regular examinations. We found that 52.2 percent of food handlers carried intestinal parasites including Giardia intestinalis (26.8%), Ascaris lumbricoides (10.7%), Tenya saginata (10.0%), and Staphylococcus aureus (23.1%). None of the food handlers was positive for Salmonella sp and Shigella sp. These findings necessitate improvements in regional carrier detection, infection control, and food hygiene. Subsequent to this study, researchers from the Department of Public Health, Harran University, instituted a series of interventions aimed at improving infection control. These included establishment of an evidence-based carrier control system, training of municipal food controllers and health professionals, creation of electronic outbreak records and follow-up procedures, and development of a source eradication system for Sanliurfa's primary healthcare center staff.

  7. Genotype-phenotype correlation in patients with familial Mediterranean fever in East Anatolia (Turkey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albayrak, Fatih; Selcuk, Nedim Yilmaz; Odabas, Ali R; Cetinkaya, Ramazan; Pirim, Ibrahim

    2010-06-01

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is an autosomal recessive hereditary disease. Clinical symptoms and findings (phenotypes) seen in this disease are generally fever, abdominal pain, and arthritis. Amyloidosis is also a significant complication. Phenotype-genotype correlations in FMF have not been conclusively resolved. The aims of this study were to find the most frequent mutation/genotype of FMF, as well as to investigate the role of genetic factors on the phenotype and on the development of amyloidosis in a population living in East Anatolia (Turkey). This study included 105 adult patients with FMF. DNA samples were obtained from peripheral blood lymphocytes of the patients. Mutations of the Mediterranean fever (MEFV) gene were analyzed with an FMF Strip Assay test kit (ViennaLab Labordiagnostika GmbH, Vienna, Austria). Patients were separated according to genotypes, and phenotypes were compared statistically by the chi-square test. The most frequent mutation was M694V (53%) and the most frequent genotype was M694V/M694V (26%). In total, 81% of the patients experienced abdominal pain, 76% had fever, and 22% had arthritis. Fever and arthritis were determined in similar ratios to other genotypes (76% and 19%, respectively) in the M694V/M694V genotype (74% and 29%, respectively) (p > 0.50 and p > 0.20, respectively). However, the patients without the M694V/M694V genotype (86%) had a higher abdominal pain ratio than did the patients with the M694V/M694V genotype (67%) (p abdominal pain, arthritis, and renal amyloidosis were determined not only in patients with M694V/M694V genotype but also in other genotypes. Therefore, genotypes may not predict phenotypes in FMF. Renal amyloidosis was seen more frequently in homozygous genotypes.

  8. Western Sufism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sedgwick, Mark

    Western Sufism is sometimes dismissed as a relatively recent "new age" phenomenon, but in this book, Mark Sedgwick argues that it actually has very deep roots, both in the Muslim world and in the West. In fact, although the first significant Western Sufi organization was not established until 1915...... to the internet, Mark Sedgwick demonstrates that the phenomenon of Western Sufism not only draws on centuries of intercultural transfers, but is also part of a long-established relationship between Western thought and Islam that can be productive, not confrontational....

  9. Azerbaycan Türkçesi İle Doğu Anadolu Ağızlarındaki Ortaklıklar Üzerine On The Common Traits Of The Azerbaijan Turkish And The Eastern Anatolia Dialects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engin GÖKÇÜR

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We call Oghuz Turkish spoken from Central Asia to Baghdad, the capital of the Abbasid Empire, since 11th century, as the Western Turkic. This period is divided into two branches in time. One of them is the Eastern Oghuz branch covering Eastern Anatolia and Azerbaijani and the other one is the Western Oghuz branch covering Ottoman field. The Eastern Oghuz branch covering Eastern Anatolia and Azerbaijani, and the Western Oghuz branch covering Ottoman field are represented by a single written language named as “Western Turkish” till 16thCentury. Azerbaijan and the Ottoman writing languages separated fromeach other in the 16th century as a result of the fact that the Azerbaijanterritory was dominated by Karakoyunlu and Akkoyunlu in the 15thCentury and Safavid Empire in the 16th century. For that reason,Western Turkic reaches the present day from the 16th century with twowriting languages including some phonetic and morphologic differences.Although the East Anatolian dialects have been in the Western Oghuzbranch, they still have the traits of the Eastern Oghuz branch in termsof phonetics and morphology.In studies of language products in the provinces of EasternAnatolia it is seen that the dialects of the region are in the domain ofAzerbaijan Turkish. So in this article, the studies of the dialects of theEastern Anatolia Region (Erzurum, Elazığ, Erzincan, Kars, Iğdır,Ardahan, Muş, Bitlis ve Van are examined; and the phonetic andmorphological similarities of this studies with Azerbaijani Turkic areidentified. 11. yüzyıldan itibaren Orta Asya’dan Abbasi Devleti'nin başkenti Bağdat’a kadar olan bölgede konuşulan Oğuz Türkçesine Batı Türkçesi denilmektedir. Bu dönem zamanla iki kola ayrılmıştır. Bunlardan biri Azerbaycan ve Doğu Anadolu sahasını içine alan Doğu Oğuz kolu, diğeri Osmanlı sahasını içine alan Batı Oğuz koludur. Azerbaycan ve Doğu Anadolu sahasının içinde bulunduğu Doğu Oğuz kolu ile Osmanl

  10. A long-lived Late Cretaceous-early Eocene extensional province in Anatolia? Structural evidence from the Ivriz Detachment, southern central Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürer, Derya; Plunder, Alexis; Kirst, Frederik; Corfu, Fernando; Schmid, Stefan M.; van Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.

    2018-01-01

    Central Anatolia exposes previously buried and metamorphosed, continent-derived rocks - the Kırşehir and Afyon zones - now covering an area of ∼300 × 400 km. So far, the exhumation history of these rocks has been poorly constrained. We show for the first time that the major, >120 km long, top-NE 'Ivriz' Detachment controlled the exhumation of the HP/LT metamorphic Afyon Zone in southern Central Anatolia. We date its activity at between the latest Cretaceous and early Eocene times. Combined with previously documented isolated extensional detachments found in the Kırşehir Block, our results suggest that a major province governed by extensional exhumation was active throughout Central Anatolia between ∼80 and ∼48 Ma. Although similar in dimension to the Aegean extensional province to the east, the Central Anatolian extensional province is considerably older and was controlled by a different extension direction. From this, we infer that the African slab(s) that subducted below Anatolia must have rolled back relative to the Aegean slab since at least the latest Cretaceous, suggesting that these regions were underlain by a segmented slab. Whether or not these early segments already corresponded to the modern Aegean, Antalya, and Cyprus slab segments remains open for debate, but slab segmentation must have occurred much earlier than previously thought.

  11. Physical and microbiological properties of alluvial calcareous Çumra province soils (Central Anatolia, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Sami Erol

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Alluvial calcareous soils in Central Anatolia (Konya province, Çumra district has a heavy granulometric composition (average clay, low organic carbon content (less than 1%, but stable pore space structure and favorable agrophysical properties. Studies of the water regime in drip irrigation confirm favorable hydrological properties of these soils. It is assumed that the favorable structure of the pore space due to vigorous activity a large and diverse soil biota. Four phyla dominate in soil biota, among which predominate Actinobacteria. The higher (Streptomyces, and lower (three species Rhodococcus actinobacteria are predominant in large amounts as a part of this phyla. Large biodiversity at a sufficiently high bacteria richness formed the structure of the microbial community that contribute to the balanced production of specific metabolites, including gases (CO2, N2, which allows the soil to function actively, preventing compaction of the pore space and maintaining optimal density, porosity, hydrologic properties of the studied silty clay soils. m the uppermost soil horizons. Analyses of heavy mineral fraction show presence of metamorphic and igneous minerals which indicate participation of weathering products from other rock types in the nearby area. The types of heavy minerals in soils depend more on composition of parent rocks and geomorphic position than on climate type. Soils from Nova Lovcha show similar composition, but the quantity of goethite and hematite significantly increase in soil from plain. Typical high-metamorphic minerals as andalusite, kyanite and sillimanite present only in Nova Lovcha, while garnet dominates in Petrovo and opaque minerals - in Dobrostan. Red soils, formed on slopes, where erosion prevails over accumulation, contain more illite, smectite and vermiculite-smectite, and very few or no kaolinite, whereas the kaolinite is dominant in soils formed on plain. The mineralogical composition of clays in different

  12. [A water-borne tularemia outbreak caused by Francisella tularensis subspecies holarctica in Central Anatolia region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulu Kılıç, Ayşegül; Kılıç, Selçuk; Sencan, Irfan; Ciçek Şentürk, Gönül; Gürbüz, Yunus; Tütüncü, Emin Ediz; Celebi, Bekir; Kıcıman, Özlem; Ergönül, Önder

    2011-04-01

    In this study, we investigated a waterborne tularemia outbreak occured in Kadiozu, a village of Cerkes county of Cankiri province (located in North-west part of central Anatolia, Turkey) between 18 November 2009-24 December 2009. Active surveillance was conducted to determine clinical characteristics and risk factors of cases after two patients from the same village had been diagnosed as oropharyngeal tularemia. All villagers were examined, and clinical specimens from cases and water samples which may be the source of outbreak in the field investigations were taken. Cases were in the form of oropharyngeal, glandular and pneumonic. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and cultures were conducted from lymph node aspirates, throat swabs taken from cases and samples from water sources of epidemic zone. All serum samples taken from the villagers were screened for F.tularensis antibodies with microagglutination test (MAT). Oropharyngeal tularemia was diagnosed in 11 patients, glandular form in 3 patients and pneumonic form in one patient according to clinical and laboratory results. Age of the patients ranged between 6-75 years old (mean age: 52.5 years) and thirty one of them (54.7%) were female. MAT titers ranged between 1/160 and 1/5120 in cases of tularemia. Causative agent was grown in the cultures of two patients (including a throat swab and a lymph node aspirate). F.tularensis DNA was shown by PCR in a throat swab and four lymph node aspirates. F.tularensis was also detected by PCR in the water sample obtained from one of the spring water commonly used by villagers. Only one of the lymph node samples obtained from two different patients, was positive by direct fluorescent antibody method. Causative agent was defined as F.tularensis subsp. holarctica by conventional and also molecular methods. Patients were treated with aminoglycoside (streptomycin, gentamicin, amikacin) or quinolone (ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin) antibiotics. Treatment failure was observed in five

  13. Magnetotelluric Imaging of Hasandaǧ-Karacadaǧ Monogenetic Cluster, Central Anatolia, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uslular, Göksu; Bülent Tank, Sabri; Özaydın, Sinan; Karaş, Mustafa; Gençalioǧlu-Kuşcu, Gonca; Sandvol, Eric

    2017-04-01

    Hasandaǧ stratovolcano is one of the most devastating volcanic edifices in the Central Anatolia, Turkey. The volcano has been studied for decades but there is still no consensus on its origin. To provide new insight on Hasandaǧ, there is also a need for geophysical explorations (e.g. seismology, magnetotelluric-MT) within the region. As a part of collaborative multidisciplinary project (CD-CAT: Continental Dynamics/Central Anatolian Tectonics) funded by NSF, we conducted 25 MT (360 Hz - 0.0002 Hz) measurements to reveal the electrical conductivity structure of the volcanic region between Hasandaǧ and Karacadaǧ stratovolcanoes. By means of two- and three-dimensional numerical modelling attempts based on several state-of-the-art algorithms, the MT data were utilized to create SW-NE trending profiles that visualize to a depth of 50-km of the subsurface structure. Prior to two-dimensional modelling, dimensionality analyses (i.e. geo-electric strike angle determination following Groom and Bailey decomposition for single-site and multi-site cases, phase tensors and induction vectors) were performed. Preliminary findings lead us to suggest that (i) there is a highly conductive body from 20 km to 40 km depth beneath the monogenetic field (i.e. Eǧrikuyu) between Hasandaǧ and Karacadaǧ. This may correspond to the possible depth at which widespread mildly-alkaline basalts are formed due to the decompression melting of heterogeneous mantle (mixing of mostly subduction-modified lithospheric and partially upwelling asthenospheric). (ii) Relatively low conductive body at shallow depth possibly due to the presence of buried ignimbrite. (iii) One of the maar with a deep source (diatreme-like) may still store hot fluids that result from highly conductive body, and here would be a suitable prospect area for geothermal exploration. (iv) low to high conductivity boundary underneath the Tuz Gölü fault appear as a barrier for fluid flow.

  14. Geodynamic Evolution of Subduction to Collision to Escape in Central Anatolia From Surface to Mantle - Results From the CD-CAT Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darin, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Despite significant progress toward understanding the kinematics of modern tectonic escape in Anatolia, considerable uncertainty remains regarding the dynamics of the transition from collision to escape. Because of the relatively small size of the Anatolia microplate, regional-scale studies spanning the plate margins and interior are well-suited to investigate the driving forces and space-time evolution of this unique tectonic transition in collisional orogens. CD-CAT (Continental Dynamics-Central Anatolia Tectonics) is a five-year (2011-2016) project funded by the National Science Foundation (USA) designed to explore the surface-to-mantle dynamics of Anatolia during the Cenozoic subduction-collision-escape transition in central Anatolia. Our approach integrates results from a diversity of methods including: structural, stratigraphic, and geomorphic analyses; magnetostratigraphy; low-temperature thermochronometry; Ar/Ar geochronology; geochemistry; passive seismic experiments (71 stations over two years); magnetotellurics; and numerical modeling. The principal results from this project include: recognition of a margin-wide magmatic lull from 40-20 Ma, followed by a southwestward migration of the initiation of magmatism toward and within the Central Anatolia Volcanic Province (CAVP); an early Miocene switch from contraction/transpression to extension/transtension in the Kırşehir and Niǧde Massifs, while contraction changed to late Miocene strike-slip deformation east of the Central Anatolian fault zone (CAFZ); rain shadow development due to uplift of the central Taurides 11-5 Ma; thin to absent lithospheric mantle beneath central Anatolia; the lack of an Arabia slab shallower than 800 km depth; and a change in the Cyprus slab from horizontal beneath the central Taurides and apparently fragmented beneath the CAVP, to very steeply dipping beneath the eastern Isparta Angle. The CAFZ lies along part of the Inner Tauride Suture (ITS) and represents a fundamental

  15. Post-Paleogene (post-Middle Eocene-pre-Miocene) Geodynamic evolution of the Upper Cretaceous-Paleogene Basins in Central Anatolia, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojay, Bora

    2017-04-01

    Central Anatolia is one of the key areas on the evolution of Cretaceous-Paleogene Tethys where stratigraphy of the region is well studied. However not well linked with tectonics. The so-called "Ankara Mélange" belt (AOM) and the basins on top are important elements in the understanding of the İzmir-Ankara-Erzincan suture belt (İAES) evolution in Anatolia (Turkey) and in the evolution of Tethys in minor Asia (Turkey). Some of the basins are directly situated on top of the tectonic slices of the accretionary prism (IAES). However, some are not tectonically well explained as in the case of Haymana basin. The southern continental fragments (eg. Kütahya-Bolkardaǧ and Kırşehir blocks from Gondwana) are approaching to northern continents (Pontides of Lauriasia) where basins like Haymana, Alçı, Kırıkkale and Orhaniye extensional basins are evolved in between the closing margins of two continents. Haymana basin is an extensional basin developed under contractional regime on top of both northward subducting oceanic fragments and an approaching fragments of southern continents. Paleogene (end of Eocene) is the time where the Seas were retreated to S-SE Anatolia leaving a continental setting in Anatolia during Oligocene-Miocene. The slip data gathered from the faults cross-cutting the Paleogene Units and the fabric from Cretaceous mélanges depicts a NNW-SSE to NNE-SSW compressional stress regime operated during post-Eocene-pre-Miocene period. Lately the slip surfaces were overprinted by post-Pliocene normal faulting. Key words: fault slip data, Paleogene, NNW-SSE compression, Anatolia.

  16. Impact of volcanism on the evolution of Lake Van I: evolution of explosive volcanism of Nemrut Volcano (eastern Anatolia) during the past >400,000 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumita, Mari; Schmincke, Hans-Ulrich

    2013-05-01

    The historically active Nemrut Volcano (2,948 m asl) (Eastern Anatolia), rising close to the western shore of huge alkaline Lake Van, has been the source of intense Plinian eruptions for >530,000 years (drilled lake sediments). About 40 widespread, newly recognized trachytic and less common rhyolitic fallout tephras and ca. 12 interbedded ignimbrites, sourced in Nemrut Volcano, are documented in stratigraphic traverses throughout an area of >6,000 km2 mostly west of Lake Van. Phenocrysts in the moderately peralkaline trachytes and rarer large-volume comenditic rhyolites comprise anorthoclase, hedenbergite-augite, fayalite and, especially in trachytic units, augite, minor aenigmatite, apatite and quartz, and rare chevkinite and zircon. Dacitic to rhyolitic tephras from nearby calcalkalic Süphan Volcano (4,058 m asl), locally interbedded with Nemrut tephras, are characterized by disequilibrium phenocryst assemblages (biotite, augitic clinopyroxene and hypersthene, minor olivine, common crystal clots and/or, in some deposits, amphibole). The magma volume (DRE) of the largest Nemrut tephra sheet (AP-1) described in detail may exceed 30 km3. Extreme facies and systematic compositional changes are documented in the ca. 30 ka Nemrut Formation (NF) deposits formed from one large and complex eruption (thick rhyolitic fallout overlain by ignimbrite, welded agglutinate, overbank surge deposits, and final more mafic fallout deposits). Common evidence of magma mixing in Nemrut ignimbrites reflects eruption from compositionally zoned magma reservoirs. Several young Çekmece Formation trachytes overlying ca. 30 ka old NF deposits and the late trachytes of the NF deposits show compositional affinities to tephra from Süphan Volcano possibly due to temporary influx of Süphan magmas into the Nemrut system following the evacuation of >10 km3 magma (DRE) during the caldera-forming NF eruption. Axes of large fallout fans are dominantly SW-NE but W-E in the younger sheets resembling

  17. Using Multicriteria Decision Making Techniques in Free Zone for Facility Location Selection: An Example for Eastern Anatolia Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan Ağaç

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Free Zones contribute to the prosperity of the region by increasing employment, attracting foreign capital, allowing technology transfer and increasing exports. In this study, an application of location selection was performed for a possible Free Zone established in provinces of Eastern Anatolia Region. For application of the study, AHP, TOPSIS, VIKOR and ELECTRE, which are multi criteria decision making techniques, were used. AHP was used for determine weights of the criteria that influence the Free Zone location selection while TOPSIS, VIKOR and ELECTRE methods were used to rank alternatives. Accordingly; the three most important criteria for the Free Zone location selection were proximity countries, quantity of exports and government incentives while first three provinces were respectively, Iğdır, Hakkâri and Van for Free Zone will be established.

  18. Prokaryotic diversity in the extreme lakes of Turkey, SW Anatolia, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirel, Cansu; Gül Karagüler, Nevin; Menekşe-Kılıç, Meryem; Akçer-Ön, Sena; Haydar Gültekin, A.; Balcı, Nurgül

    2016-04-01

    The Lake District, located in the SW Anatolia region of Turkey, hosts a number of lakes with unique water chemistry. Among them, Lake Acigol, Lake Salda and Lake Yarisli display extreme biogeochemical conditions. In terms of their water chemistry and diverse prokaryotic community, each lake sets a great example for microbially mediated reactions (e.g carbonate precipitation). Lake Acigol (average pH around 8.6) is known for hypersaline and alkaline water chemistry. Lake Salda (average pH around 9.1) is known for its hydromagnesite beaches, clayey-hydromagnesite shoreline and ancient-modern stromatolite formations as well as being a model for Mars. For the first time, Lake Yarisli having alkaline conditions with an average pH value of 9.5 is investigated for its geochemistry and geobiology during this study. Algal bloom and well developed cyanobacterial mats are visible on shallow waters along the Eastern shoreline of the lake. In scope of elucidating complex bio/geochemical reactions that regulate C, S and O cycles in the extreme conditions of these lakes, water, surface sediment and shallow core samples were collected. For the first time, prokaryotic diversity of Lake Acigol, Salda and Yarisli were determined by Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) during this study (Balci et al., 2013). Preliminary results revealed the total number of bacterial classes determined for Lake Acigol, Lake Salda and Lake Yarisli as 22, 19 and 19; respectively. Lake Acigol, Salda and Yarisli are mostly dominated by bacterial classes of Alphaproteobacteria (68.2%, 25.6% and 1.9%; respectively), Cyanobacteria (10.2%, 5.3% and 92.9%; respectively), Bacilli (9.6%, 23.7% and 0.45%; respectively), Gammaproteobacteria (6.1%, 39.6% and 4.3%; respectively) and Actinobacteria (2.7%, 1.8% and 0.06%; respectively). The total number of archaeal classes determined for Lake Acigol, Lake Salda and Lake Yarisli are 8, 7 and 6; respectively. Common most dominant archaeal classes of Lake Acigol, Lake Salda

  19. A 6-year investigation into types of dental trauma treated in a paediatric dentistry clinic in Eastern Anatolia region, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyuboglu, Ozge; Yilmaz, Yucel; Zehir, Cigdem; Sahin, Hakan

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the frequency, the effective factors and the applied treatments for dental trauma among children aged 1-15 years from Eastern Anatolia in a 6-year period. The total frequency of trauma in this study was calculated as 4.9% during a 6-year period. The males were found to have more traumatic injury than females (P < 0.05). Also, the permanent teeth were more vulnerable to dental trauma than the primary teeth (P < 0.05). The highest frequency of traumas in the primary teeth was observed at the age of 5, whereas the rate for the permanent teeth was at the age of 10. The teeth mostly influenced by the traumas were the upper central incisors in both primary and permanent teeth. It was in October that traumas were mostly seen for the permanent teeth and in June for the primary teeth. The most frequent source of trauma in both genders and in both primary and permanent teeth were falls. The most common type of trauma in the primary teeth was lateral luxation, while it was enamel-dentin crown fracture in the permanent ones. Soft tissue injuries were observed in 143 of 653 dental traumatized children. The most common method of treatment was examination and follow up for the primary teeth, and only direct restoration for the permanent teeth without any endodontic treatment. 15% of the patients applied for treatment 1 year after injury event. Therefore, it was concluded that the patients, parents and teachers living in Eastern Anatolia should be informed about the necessity of early treatment of dental traumas and the consequence of a delay.

  20. Sustainability Organic Agriculture and Livestock Production with Respect to European Union in Eastern Anatolia and East Black Sea Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vecihi Aksakal

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The majority of farm households in Turkey and especially the Eastern Anatolia are still based on low-input semi subsistence agriculture and livestock production. Despite a slow decline in recent years, agriculture and livestock production remains a major employer in Turkey and it is a significant contributor to the country’s gross domestic product, GDP. Whist Turkey is one of the EU candidate countries, is self sufficient in food production and Turkish agriculture is poorly structured inefficient, with farming in the Eastern Anatolia being mainly subsistence farming. Yet, these traditional rural structures combined with poor access to low level of education and low level of off-farm unemployment problem makes the situation more complicated and unsustainable. The best way to promote sustainability, better and higher production of Eastern Anatolian and rural Turkey is to invest in the local people, villages through improved, continuing and effective agricultural and livestock programs in particular. Investment in human capital especially in the rural areas leads to more employment opportunities through entrepreneurship and innovation in organic agriculture and livestock production. A holistic approach to developing and improving supply chains could unlock the potential for sophisticated, state-of-the-art organic agriculture and livestock producers and businesses in the region to become EU and global players. Eastern Anatolian livestock producers and the farmers have the ambitions to take part in future progress because the region is naturally organic not by design but default. It is for sure that present potential of the region has not been fully determined and utilized. EU has greatly benefited from previous enlargements economically, politically and socially. When European Union (EU and Turkish Government relations considered and accession of Turkey to EU would be the logical consequence of the previous accessions. The screening on chapter 11

  1. The Anaximander Mountains: a clue to the tectonics of southwest Anatolia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zitter, T.A.C.; Woodside, J.M.; Mascle, J.

    2003-01-01

    The offshore Anaximander Mountains are an important link between the Hellenic and Cyprus arcs. They were formed by southeastward rifting from Turkey in post-Miocenc time. Gravity data have shown that the eastern part of the Anaximander Mountains is different from the western part; multibeam mapping

  2. Thermal Evolution of the Permo−Triassic Karakaya Subduction-accretion Complex Between the Biga Peninsula and the Tokat Massif (Anatolia)

    OpenAIRE

    FEDERICI, ILARIA; CAVAZZA, WILLIAM; Okay, Aral I.; Beyssac, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    The results of the combined application of a series of analytical methods (clay mineralogy, vitrinite reflectance, Raman microspectroscopy) placed tight constraints on the thermal evolution of the Karakaya Complex of northern Anatolia, a mostly Permo-Triassic subduction-accretion complex resulting from the progressive closure of the Palaeotethys. The thermal evolution of the Karakaya Complex is the result of Permian-Triassic subduction-accretion processes, and was not significantly affected b...

  3. Silicone chain extender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a silicone chain extender, more particularly a chain extender for silicone polymers and copolymers, to a chain extended silicone polymer or copolymer and to a functionalized chain extended silicone polymer or copolymer, to a method for the preparation thereof...

  4. Rediscovery of historical Vitis vinifera varieties from the South Anatolia region by using amplified fragment length polymorphism and simple sequence repeat DNA fingerprinting methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilancioglu, Kaan; Cetiner, Selim

    2013-05-01

    Anatolia played an important role in the diversification and spread of economically important Vitis vinifera varieties. Although several biodiversity studies have been conducted with local cultivars in different regions of Anatolia, our aim is to gain a better knowledge on the biodiversity of endangered historical V. vinifera varieties in the northern Adana region of southern Anatolia, particularly those potentially displaying viticulture characteristics. We also demonstrate the genetic relatedness in a selected subset of widely cultivated and commercialized V. vinifera collection cultivars, which were obtained from the National Grapevine Germplasm located at the Institute of Viticulture, Turkey. In the present study, microsatellites were used in narrowing the sample size from 72 accessions down to a collection of 27 varieties. Amplified fragment length polymorphisms were then employed to determine genetic relatedness among this collection and local V. vinifera cultivars. The unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean cluster and principal component analyses revealed that Saimbeyli local cultivars form a distinct group, which is distantly related to a selected subset of V. vinifera collection varieties from all over Turkey. To our knowledge, this is the first study conducted with these cultivars. Further preservation and use of these potential viticultural varieties will be helpful to avoid genetic erosion and to promote continued agriculture in the region.

  5. Woodland vegetation history and human impacts in south-central Anatolia 16,000-6500 cal BP: Anthracological results from five prehistoric sites in the Konya plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabukcu, Ceren

    2017-11-01

    This article addresses the development and palaeoecological history of woodland vegetation in the inland high-altitude plateaux of south-central Anatolia using wood charcoal remains from the sites of Pınarbaşı, Boncuklu, Can Hasan III, Çatalhöyük East, and Çatalhöyük West spanning the period ∼16,000-6500 cal BP. The anthracological evidence highlights the role of Juniperus, Amygdalus and Pistacia as pioneer species during periods of woodland expansion in south-central Anatolia when temperatures started to increase following the Last Glacial Maximum (evidenced at Epipalaeolithic Pınarbaşı). During the early Holocene, three habitation sites (Boncuklu, Can Hasan III, Pınarbaşı A) provide evidence for the presence of diverse semi-arid and riparian woodland habitats in the Konya plain of south-central Anatolia. The anthracological data provide insights into the establishment and spread of regionally significant woodland vegetation types such as the oak and juniper-dominated semi-arid steppe woodlands. It is argued that within the context of early Holocene climatic amelioration, and the first sedentary communities practising agro-pastoral economies, anthropogenic woodland habitats were established.

  6. An example of triggered earthquakes in western Turkey: 2000-2015 Afyon-Akşehir Graben earthquake sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalafat, Doğan; Görgün, Ethem

    2017-09-01

    We investigate significant earthquake sequences in the observation period between 2000 and 2015 along the Afyon-Akşehir Graben system in western Anatolia. These sequences include a series of strong events with moment magnitudes (Mw) larger than 5.5, e.g. Eber (Mw 5.8), Sultandağı (Mw 6.5) and Çay (Mw 5.8) earthquakes. The mainshocks are shallow focus normal events at depths of 8-15 km. Focal depths of aftershocks range from 2 to 30 km. The focal mechanisms of the aftershocks are mainly normal faulting with variable strike-slip components. The geometry of focal mechanisms reveals a normal faulting regime with NNE-SSW trending direction of T-axis in the entire activated region. A stress tensor inversion of focal mechanism data is performed to acquire a more accurate picture of the Afyon-Akşehir Graben stress field. The stress tensor inversion results display a predominant normal stress regime with a NW-SE oriented maximum horizontal compressive stress (SH). According to high-resolution hypocenter relocations of the Afyon-Akşehir Graben seismic sequences, six clusters are revealed. The aftershock activities in the observation period between 17 January 2000 and 26 October 2015 extend from east to west direction. Seismic cross-sections show that a complex pattern of the hypocenter distribution with the activation of Sultandağı Fault segments. The western clusters are associated with a fault plane trending mainly E-W and dipping towards SE, while the eastern clusters are related to a fault plane trending NW-SE and dipping towards vertical. The best constrained focal depths are mainly confined in the crust (depth < 30 km) and run in the approximate depth range from 2 to 30 km. Moreover, Coulomb stress analysis is also performed to estimate the stress loading for the activated region. We obtain more than 3 bars for positive lobes. This result defines that the values are large enough to increase the Coulomb stress failure towards NE-SW direction.

  7. The Konya earthquakes of 10–11 September 2009 and soil conditions in Konya, Central Anatolia, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Aksoy

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Earthquakes registering magnitudes Md = 4.5 and 4.7 struck the city of Konya, Central Anatolia, on 10–11 September 2009, causing very slight damages. The earthquake epicenters were located at the east of Sille District along the Konya Fault Zone, a dip-slip fault. The nature and seismicity of the fault zone indicates that it is capable of producing earthquakes of moderate magnitudes. This paper summarizes the geologic data along the fault zone and documents groundwater conditions and analyzes borehole and geotechnical data of the Konya city. The residential area of the city covers an area of approximately 1150 square kilometers and consists almost entirely of flat land except for a small part of rugged land in the southwestern corner. Groundwater and geotechnical data were collected and analyzed to evaluate the liquefaction potential of deposits under the Konya city. This preliminary investigation indicates that areas for liquefaction are generally limited to the eastern and east central parts of the city.

  8. The Konya earthquakes of 10-11 September 2009 and soil conditions in Konya, Central Anatolia, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, R.; Demiröz, A.

    2012-02-01

    Earthquakes registering magnitudes Md = 4.5 and 4.7 struck the city of Konya, Central Anatolia, on 10-11 September 2009, causing very slight damages. The earthquake epicenters were located at the east of Sille District along the Konya Fault Zone, a dip-slip fault. The nature and seismicity of the fault zone indicates that it is capable of producing earthquakes of moderate magnitudes. This paper summarizes the geologic data along the fault zone and documents groundwater conditions and analyzes borehole and geotechnical data of the Konya city. The residential area of the city covers an area of approximately 1150 square kilometers and consists almost entirely of flat land except for a small part of rugged land in the southwestern corner. Groundwater and geotechnical data were collected and analyzed to evaluate the liquefaction potential of deposits under the Konya city. This preliminary investigation indicates that areas for liquefaction are generally limited to the eastern and east central parts of the city.

  9. Extended icosahedral structures

    CERN Document Server

    Jaric, Marko V

    1989-01-01

    Extended Icosahedral Structures discusses the concepts about crystal structures with extended icosahedral symmetry. This book is organized into six chapters that focus on actual modeling of extended icosahedral crystal structures. This text first presents a tiling approach to the modeling of icosahedral quasiperiodic crystals. It then describes the models for icosahedral alloys based on random connections between icosahedral units, with particular emphasis on diffraction properties. Other chapters examine the glassy structures with only icosahedral orientational order and the extent of tra

  10. The importance of topographic corrections on magnetotelluric response data from rugged regions of Anatolia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerer, A.; Ilkisik, O.M. [Istanbul Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Geophysical Engineering

    1997-01-01

    Topographic irregularities cause some distortions of magnetotelluric (MT) fields. In the vicinity of a topographic feature, the TM-mode distortion increases with the height and inclination of the slope. It is well-known that TM-mode topographic effects are much greater than TE-mode distortions. The authors have made a study of MT anomalies in TM-mode due to two-dimensional topography. In order to reduce these effects, the distortion tensor stripping technique was used. After corrections, the resulting data can be interpreted as if they were obtained over a flat surface and depend only on the subsurface structure. However, this technique sometimes causes some geometrical distortions of the real subsurface structure. One of the aims is to overcome this failure. The authors have modified the correction coefficients by considering the actual one-dimensional geology. Model studies showed that this approach is especially useful in removing the terrain effects on complex 2D subsurface structures. The other purpose of this study is to emphasize the importance of a proper terrain correction for data from sites having mountainous topography over complex geology, e.g., strike-slip faults, suture zones and rift valleys. Some examples of MT data sets collected from the North Anatolian Fault Zone and from the thrust regions of the Western Taurides will be presented.

  11. Relative habitat use by the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) in Köprülü Canyon National Park, Southern Anatolia

    OpenAIRE

    Soyumert, Anil; Gürkan, Behzat

    2013-01-01

    Large carnivore mammals are one of the indicators for healthy ecosystems. Therefore, it is important to gather scientific data about carnivores for comprehensive conservation plans. Red fox is one of the carnivore species with widest distribution in Anatolia. In the present study habitat use of red fox was investigated to contribute to reduce the insufficiency of knowledge about carnivores in Turkey. Scent-station method was used to reveal relative habitat use of red fox in Köprülü Canyon Nat...

  12. Identifying the volcanic eruption depicted in a neolithic painting at Çatalhöyük, Central Anatolia, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Axel K; Danišík, Martin; Aydar, Erkan; Şen, Erdal; Ulusoy, İnan; Lovera, Oscar M

    2014-01-01

    A mural excavated at the Neolithic Çatalhöyük site (Central Anatolia, Turkey) has been interpreted as the oldest known map. Dating to ∼6600 BCE, it putatively depicts an explosive summit eruption of the Hasan Dağı twin-peaks volcano located ∼130 km northeast of Çatalhöyük, and a birds-eye view of a town plan in the foreground. This interpretation, however, has remained controversial not least because independent evidence for a contemporaneous explosive volcanic eruption of Hasan Dağı has been lacking. Here, we document the presence of andesitic pumice veneer on the summit of Hasan Dağı, which we dated using (U-Th)/He zircon geochronology. The (U-Th)/He zircon eruption age of 8.97±0.64 ka (or 6960±640 BCE; uncertainties 2σ) overlaps closely with (14)C ages for cultural strata at Çatalhöyük, including level VII containing the "map" mural. A second pumice sample from a surficial deposit near the base of Hasan Dağı records an older explosive eruption at 28.9±1.5 ka. U-Th zircon crystallization ages in both samples range from near-eruption to secular equilibrium (>380 ka). Collectively, our results reveal protracted intrusive activity at Hasan Dağı punctuated by explosive venting, and provide the first radiometric ages for a Holocene explosive eruption which was most likely witnessed by humans in the area. Geologic and geochronologic lines of evidence thus support previous interpretations that residents of Çatalhöyük artistically represented an explosive eruption of Hasan Dağı volcano. The magmatic longevity recorded by quasi-continuous zircon crystallization coupled with new evidence for late-Pleistocene and Holocene explosive eruptions implicates Hasan Dağı as a potential volcanic hazard.

  13. The relationship between weathering and welding degree of pyroclastic rocks in the Kilistra ancient city, Konya (Central Anatolia, Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozdaǧ, Ali; Bayram, A. Ferat; İnce, İsmail; Asan, Kürşad

    2016-11-01

    Pyroclastic rocks used in both historical and modern structures are inevitably exposed to various weathering processes, leading to damage and destruction of them. To reduce the effects of weathering caused by various atmospheric effects, geologists need to know what processes are more effective and how they affect rock bodies. In this study, our aim is to show the relationship between the weathering and welding degree of pyroclastic rocks, sampled around the Ancient City of Kilistra in Konya (Central Anatolia, Turkey). For this purpose, we conducted field trips, and used petrographic and laboratory techniques such as, physico-mechanical tests and accelerated weathering tests (i.e., Freeze-Thaw, F-T; Wetting-Drying, W-D and Salt Crystallization, SC). Pyroclastic rocks around Kilistra ancient city comprise two different sub-units: the unwelded, lower pyroclastic unit (LPU) and the welded, upper pyroclastic unit (UPU). Following cycles of F-T and SC tests, we observed an increase in porosity values, but a decrease in uniaxial compressive strength values, which was more evident in unwelded-LPU samples. Also, the significant macroscopic textural changes occurred in LPU samples, linked to their unwelded nature. However, physico-mechanical features of both LPU and UPU samples were not significantly changed after W-D tests. Altogether, our findings show that welding degree is one of the main factors controlling weathering and physico-mechanical properties of pyroclastic rocks, and also F-T and SC are more effective processes than W-D on weathering. Accordingly, our approach here could be used to protect the endangered historical structures carved into pyroclastic rocks around the world.

  14. Assessment of soil quality index for wheat and sugar beet cropping systems on an entisol in Central Anatolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şeker, Cevdet; Özaytekin, Hasan Hüseyin; Negiş, Hamza; Gümüş, İlknur; Dedeoğlu, Mert; Atmaca, Emel; Karaca, Ümmühan

    2017-04-01

    The sustainable use of agricultural lands is significantly affected by the implemented management and land processing methods. In sugar beet and wheat cropping, because the agronomic characteristics of plants are different, the tillage methods applied also exhibit significant variability. Soil quality concept is used, as a holistic approach to determining the effects of these applications on the sustainable use of soil. Agricultural soil quality evaluation is essential for economic success and environmental stability in rapidly developing regions. At present, a variety of methods are used to evaluate soil quality using different indicators. This study was conducted in one of the most important irrigated agriculture areas of Çumra plain in Central Anatolia, Turkey. In the soil under sugar beet and wheat cultivation, 12 soil quality indicators (aggregate stability (AS), available water capacity (AWC), surface penetration resistance (PR0-20), subsurface penetration resistance (PR20-40), organic matter (OM), active carbon (AC), potentially mineralizable nitrogen (PMN), root health value (RHV), pH, available phosphorus (AP), potassium (K), and macro-micro elements (ME) (Mg, Fe, Mn, and Zn)) were measured and scored according to the Cornell Soil Health Assessment (CSHA) and the Soil Management Assessment Framework (SMAF). The differences among 8 (AS, AWC, PR0-20, PR20-40, AC, PMN, AP, and ME) of these 12 soil quality characteristics measured in two different plant cultivation were found statistically significant. The result of the soil quality evaluation with scoring function in the examined area revealed a soil quality score of 61.46 in the wheat area and of 51.20 in the sugar beet area, which can be classified as medium and low, respectively. Low soil quality scores especially depend on physical and biological soil properties. Therefore, improvement of soil physical and biological properties with sustainable management is necessary to enhance the soil quality in the

  15. Identifying the volcanic eruption depicted in a neolithic painting at Çatalhöyük, Central Anatolia, Turkey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel K Schmitt

    Full Text Available A mural excavated at the Neolithic Çatalhöyük site (Central Anatolia, Turkey has been interpreted as the oldest known map. Dating to ∼6600 BCE, it putatively depicts an explosive summit eruption of the Hasan Dağı twin-peaks volcano located ∼130 km northeast of Çatalhöyük, and a birds-eye view of a town plan in the foreground. This interpretation, however, has remained controversial not least because independent evidence for a contemporaneous explosive volcanic eruption of Hasan Dağı has been lacking. Here, we document the presence of andesitic pumice veneer on the summit of Hasan Dağı, which we dated using (U-Th/He zircon geochronology. The (U-Th/He zircon eruption age of 8.97±0.64 ka (or 6960±640 BCE; uncertainties 2σ overlaps closely with (14C ages for cultural strata at Çatalhöyük, including level VII containing the "map" mural. A second pumice sample from a surficial deposit near the base of Hasan Dağı records an older explosive eruption at 28.9±1.5 ka. U-Th zircon crystallization ages in both samples range from near-eruption to secular equilibrium (>380 ka. Collectively, our results reveal protracted intrusive activity at Hasan Dağı punctuated by explosive venting, and provide the first radiometric ages for a Holocene explosive eruption which was most likely witnessed by humans in the area. Geologic and geochronologic lines of evidence thus support previous interpretations that residents of Çatalhöyük artistically represented an explosive eruption of Hasan Dağı volcano. The magmatic longevity recorded by quasi-continuous zircon crystallization coupled with new evidence for late-Pleistocene and Holocene explosive eruptions implicates Hasan Dağı as a potential volcanic hazard.

  16. Hydrogeological Modelling of Some Geothermal Waters of Ivrindi, Havran and Gönen in the Province Capital of Balikesir, Western Anatolia, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özgür, Nevzat; Ugurlu, Zehra; Memis, Ümit; Aydemir, Eda

    2017-12-01

    In this study, hydrogeological, hydrogeochemical and isotope geochemical features of Havran, Gönen and Ivrindi within the province capital of Balıkesir, Turkey were investigated in detail. The Early Triassic Karakaya formation in the study area of Havran forms the oldest rocks consisting of spilitic basalts, diabases, gabbros, mudstones, cherts and radiolarites. There are limestone blocks in this formation with intercalations with sandstones and with feldspar contents, quartzite, conglomerates and siltstones. Oligocene to Miocene granodiorite intrusions were generated in association with intensively volcanic events in the area. Between Upper Oligocene and Early Miocene, andesitic and dacitic pyroclastic rocks cropped out due to intensively volcanism. Later, conglomerates, sandstones, claystones, marls and limestones as lacustrine sediments formed from Middle to Upper Miocene in the study area. In the study area of Gönen, the Lower Triassic Karakaya formation consists of basalts, diabases, gabbros, mudstones, cherts and radiolarites and forms the basement rocks overlain by Upper Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous sandy limestones. Upper and Middle Miocene volcanics which can be considered intensive Biga Peninsula volcanos outcrop in the area. These andesitic lava flows are of black, gray and red color with intensive fissures. Neogene lacustrine sediments consist of conglomerates, sandstones, marl, claystone and clayey limestones. Upper Miocene to Pliocene rhyolitic pyroclastics and dacitic lava flows are the volcanic rocks which are overlain by Pliocene conglomerates, sandstones and claystones. In the study area of Ivrindi, the Çaldağ limestones are the oldest formation in Permian age. Çavdartepe metamorphic rocks are of Lower Triassic in which can be observed marbles sporadically. The Kınık formation consisting of conglomerates, sandstones, siltstones and limestones are of Lower Triassic age and display a lateral Stratigraphic progress with volcanic rocks. Upper Miocene to Pliocene Yürekli formation consists of dacites and rhyodacites. Upper Miocene to Pliocene Soma formation is composed of clayey limestone, marl, siltstone, intercalations of sandstone, agglomerate and andesitic gravels and blocks cemented by tuffs. Quaternary alluvium is the youngest formation. The samples of geothermal waters in the area of Havran can be considered as Na-Ca-(SO4)-HCO3, Na-(SO4)-HCO3 and Na-SO4 type waters. In comparison, the geothermal waters in Gönen are of Na-(SO4)-HCO3 and Na-HCO3 type waters. The geothermal waters of Ivrindi are considered as Na-Ca-HCO3 type waters. In the area, a groundwater sample is of Ca-Mg-HCO3 type water. The geothermal waters belong to the cations of Na+K>Ca>Mg in Havran, Gönen and Ivrindi and to the anions of SO4>HCO3>Cl in Havran, HCO3>SO4>Cl in Gönen and SO4>HCO3>Cl in Ivrindi. In the diagram of Na-K-Mg1/2, the geothermal waters in Havran, Gönen and Ivrindi of the province capital of Balıkesir can be classified as immature waters.

  17. Extended family medicine training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Steve; Ross, Shelley; Lawrence, Kathrine; Archibald, Douglas; Mackay, Maria Palacios; Oandasan, Ivy F.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To examine trends in family medicine training at a time when substantial pedagogic change is under way, focusing on factors that relate to extended family medicine training. Design Aggregate-level secondary data analysis based on the Canadian Post-MD Education Registry. Setting Canada. Participants All Canadian citizens and permanent residents who were registered in postgraduate family medicine training programs within Canadian faculties of medicine from 1995 to 2013. Main outcome measures Number and proportion of family medicine residents exiting 2-year and extended (third-year and above) family medicine training programs, as well as the types and numbers of extended training programs offered in 2015. Results The proportion of family medicine trainees pursuing extended training almost doubled during the study period, going from 10.9% in 1995 to 21.1% in 2013. Men and Canadian medical graduates were more likely to take extended family medicine training. Among the 5 most recent family medicine exit cohorts (from 2009 to 2013), 25.9% of men completed extended training programs compared with 18.3% of women, and 23.1% of Canadian medical graduates completed extended training compared with 13.6% of international medical graduates. Family medicine programs vary substantially with respect to the proportion of their trainees who undertake extended training, ranging from a low of 12.3% to a high of 35.1% among trainees exiting from 2011 to 2013. Conclusion New initiatives, such as the Triple C Competency-based Curriculum, CanMEDS–Family Medicine, and Certificates of Added Competence, have emerged as part of family medicine education and credentialing. In acknowledgment of the potential effect of these initiatives, it is important that future research examine how pedagogic change and, in particular, extended training shapes the care family physicians offer their patients. As part of that research it will be important to measure the breadth and uptake of

  18. Pig domestication and human-mediated dispersal in western Eurasia revealed through ancient DNA and geometric morphometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottoni, Claudio; Flink, Linus Girdland; Evin, Allowen; Geörg, Christina; De Cupere, Bea; Van Neer, Wim; Bartosiewicz, László; Linderholm, Anna; Barnett, Ross; Peters, Joris; Decorte, Ronny; Waelkens, Marc; Vanderheyden, Nancy; Ricaut, François-Xavier; Cakirlar, Canan; Cevik, Ozlem; Hoelzel, A Rus; Mashkour, Marjan; Karimlu, Azadeh Fatemeh Mohaseb; Seno, Shiva Sheikhi; Daujat, Julie; Brock, Fiona; Pinhasi, Ron; Hongo, Hitomi; Perez-Enciso, Miguel; Rasmussen, Morten; Frantz, Laurent; Megens, Hendrik-Jan; Crooijmans, Richard; Groenen, Martien; Arbuckle, Benjamin; Benecke, Nobert; Vidarsdottir, Una Strand; Burger, Joachim; Cucchi, Thomas; Dobney, Keith; Larson, Greger

    2013-04-01

    Zooarcheological evidence suggests that pigs were domesticated in Southwest Asia ~8,500 BC. They then spread across the Middle and Near East and westward into Europe alongside early agriculturalists. European pigs were either domesticated independently or more likely appeared so as a result of admixture between introduced pigs and European wild boar. As a result, European wild boar mtDNA lineages replaced Near Eastern/Anatolian mtDNA signatures in Europe and subsequently replaced indigenous domestic pig lineages in Anatolia. The specific details of these processes, however, remain unknown. To address questions related to early pig domestication, dispersal, and turnover in the Near East, we analyzed ancient mitochondrial DNA and dental geometric morphometric variation in 393 ancient pig specimens representing 48 archeological sites (from the Pre-Pottery Neolithic to the Medieval period) from Armenia, Cyprus, Georgia, Iran, Syria, and Turkey. Our results reveal the first genetic signatures of early domestic pigs in the Near Eastern Neolithic core zone. We also demonstrate that these early pigs differed genetically from those in western Anatolia that were introduced to Europe during the Neolithic expansion. In addition, we present a significantly more refined chronology for the introduction of European domestic pigs into Asia Minor that took place during the Bronze Age, at least 900 years earlier than previously detected. By the 5th century AD, European signatures completely replaced the endemic lineages possibly coinciding with the widespread demographic and societal changes that occurred during the Anatolian Bronze and Iron Ages.

  19. Pig Domestication and Human-Mediated Dispersal in Western Eurasia Revealed through Ancient DNA and Geometric Morphometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottoni, Claudio; Girdland Flink, Linus; Evin, Allowen; Geörg, Christina; De Cupere, Bea; Van Neer, Wim; Bartosiewicz, László; Linderholm, Anna; Barnett, Ross; Peters, Joris; Decorte, Ronny; Waelkens, Marc; Vanderheyden, Nancy; Ricaut, François-Xavier; Çakırlar, Canan; Çevik, Özlem; Hoelzel, A. Rus; Mashkour, Marjan; Mohaseb Karimlu, Azadeh Fatemeh; Sheikhi Seno, Shiva; Daujat, Julie; Brock, Fiona; Pinhasi, Ron; Hongo, Hitomi; Perez-Enciso, Miguel; Rasmussen, Morten; Frantz, Laurent; Megens, Hendrik-Jan; Crooijmans, Richard; Groenen, Martien; Arbuckle, Benjamin; Benecke, Nobert; Strand Vidarsdottir, Una; Burger, Joachim; Cucchi, Thomas; Dobney, Keith; Larson, Greger

    2013-01-01

    Zooarcheological evidence suggests that pigs were domesticated in Southwest Asia ∼8,500 BC. They then spread across the Middle and Near East and westward into Europe alongside early agriculturalists. European pigs were either domesticated independently or more likely appeared so as a result of admixture between introduced pigs and European wild boar. As a result, European wild boar mtDNA lineages replaced Near Eastern/Anatolian mtDNA signatures in Europe and subsequently replaced indigenous domestic pig lineages in Anatolia. The specific details of these processes, however, remain unknown. To address questions related to early pig domestication, dispersal, and turnover in the Near East, we analyzed ancient mitochondrial DNA and dental geometric morphometric variation in 393 ancient pig specimens representing 48 archeological sites (from the Pre-Pottery Neolithic to the Medieval period) from Armenia, Cyprus, Georgia, Iran, Syria, and Turkey. Our results reveal the first genetic signatures of early domestic pigs in the Near Eastern Neolithic core zone. We also demonstrate that these early pigs differed genetically from those in western Anatolia that were introduced to Europe during the Neolithic expansion. In addition, we present a significantly more refined chronology for the introduction of European domestic pigs into Asia Minor that took place during the Bronze Age, at least 900 years earlier than previously detected. By the 5th century AD, European signatures completely replaced the endemic lineages possibly coinciding with the widespread demographic and societal changes that occurred during the Anatolian Bronze and Iron Ages. PMID:23180578

  20. Bibliometric Analysis of Anatolia Turizm Araştırmaları Dergisi: An Analysis of Research Subjects and Institutional Collabration through Social Network Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Karagöz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Research subjects and collaboration between universities are important knowledge fields about forms of knowledge networks structures in a scientific community and flow of knowledge traffic. The aims of this study revealed to tourism knowledge network structure and institutional collaboration and examined to the roles of research subjects and collaboration into tourism network structure based on published articles in Anatolia Turizm Araştırmaları Dergisi. The data was collected from refereed articles in Anatolia Turizm Araştırmaları Dergisi between years of 1997-2010. Social Network Analysis is used to define network structure and to examine links between structures. For that purpose, UCINET and Netdraw programs were utilized. At the end of this study, tourism knowledge structure generally has central structure rather than interdisciplinary structure. Management, marketing, economy, education, accounting-finance, health and transportation research subjects are to be linked with each other rather than other research subjects. In this research, institutional collaborations are determined in low degree. In addition important roles are determined of University of Dokuz Eylül, University of Gazi and University of Mersin at institutional collaboration and separation of knowledge to other universities.

  1. Rational extended thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, Ingo

    1998-01-01

    Ordinary thermodynamics provides reliable results when the thermodynamic fields are smooth, in the sense that there are no steep gradients and no rapid changes. In fluids and gases this is the domain of the equations of Navier-Stokes and Fourier. Extended thermodynamics becomes relevant for rapidly varying and strongly inhomogeneous processes. Thus the propagation of high­ frequency waves, and the shape of shock waves, and the regression of small-scale fluctuation are governed by extended thermodynamics. The field equations of ordinary thermodynamics are parabolic while extended thermodynamics is governed by hyperbolic systems. The main ingredients of extended thermodynamics are • field equations of balance type, • constitutive quantities depending on the present local state and • entropy as a concave function of the state variables. This set of assumptions leads to first order quasi-linear symmetric hyperbolic systems of field equations; it guarantees the well-posedness of initial value problems and f...

  2. Extended defects in Germanium

    CERN Document Server

    Osgood, R M

    2008-01-01

    Intends to provide a fundamental understanding of the extended-defect formation during Ge materials and device processing, providing ways to distinguish harmful from less detrimental defects and should point out ways for defect engineering and control.

  3. Pseudomorphs of Neotethyan Evaporites in Anatolia's HP/LT belts - Aptian basin-wide pelagic gypsum deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffler, Franziska; Oberhänsli, Roland; Pourteau, Amaury; Immenhauser, Adrian; Candan, Osman

    2015-04-01

    Rosetta Marble was defined in SW Anatolia as 3D-radiating textures of dm-to-m-long calcite rods in the HP/LT metamorphosed Mid-Cretaceous pelagic carbonate sequence of the Ören Unit. Rosetta Marble in the type locality are interbedded with meta-chert beds, and may constitute entire carbonate beds. Rare aragonite relicts and Sr-rich, fibrous calcite pseudomorphs after aragonite witness the HP metamorphic imprint of this sequence during the closure of a Neotethyan oceanic domain during latest Cretaceous-Palaeocene times. We investigated the Rosetta Marble of the Ören Unit, as well as other known and newly found localities in the Tavşanlı and Afyon zones, and the Alanya Massif and Malatya area, to decipher the metamorphic, diagenetic and sedimentologic significance of these uncommon textures. Based on field, petrographic and geochemical investigations, we document a wide variety of Rosetta-type textures. A striking resemblance with well-known gypsum morphologies (e.g. shallow-tail, palm-tree textures) leads us to argue that Rosetta Marble was initially composed of giant gypsum crystals (selenite). The absence of anhydrite relicts of pseudomorphs indicate that gypsum transformed into calcite soon after the deposition by the mean of a sulphate reduction reaction. The gypsum-to-calcite transformation requires that organic matter intervened as a reactant phase. Mid Cretaceous oceanic domains in the Tethyan realm are characterised by overall anoxic conditions that allowed the preservation of organic material. Rosetta Marble exposures are widely distributed over 600 km along the Neotethyan suture zone. During deepening of the Neotethyan ocean in Mid Cretaceous times, basin-wide and cyclic sedimentation of gypsum and radiolarite occurred. The origin of high-salinity waters needed for gypsum precipitation was located at shelf levels. Density and gravity effects forced the brines to cascade downwards into the deep ocean. Favorable climatic conditions trigger the formation

  4. Climatic Evaluation of Spatiotemporal Trends in Suspended Sediment Flux in the Upper Euphrates River Basin, Eastern Anatolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcan, O.; Bookhagen, B.; Musaoglu, N.

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, some changes have been experienced in the climate in the region related to the dam constructions and lake formations within the scope of the Southeastern Anatolia Project (GAP). In the study, we presented a comprehensive analysis of the spatiotemporal trends in suspended sediment flux based on daily gauge measurements of river discharge (Q) and suspended sediment concentrations (SSC) from seven sites along Euphrates River for 30 years in average. In conjunction with satellite data depicting rainfall we infer climatic evaluation of peak SSC events.All the data were obtained through time in order to provide to make the link to sediment removal and erosion - especially in the aftermath of agricultural development and dam construction. Moreover, we combine these data with remotely sensed rainfall to elucidate driving mechanisms for peak SSC (≥99th percentile) days and assess their impact on the suspended sediment budget. Preliminary results from the gauge data indicate positive correlations between daily river discharge and daily SSC for all stations , i.e. the higher the river discharge, the higher the sediment concentration. This correlation suggests increasing mobilization of transiently stored sediment along the river as the river discharge increases. However, some days are characterized by extraordinary high SSC values that occasionally range 1-2 orders of magnitude above the seasonal average and therefore exhibit large residuals from the fitted Q-SSC relationship. Our preliminary results indicate that in all stations of the study area, the 90th SSC percentile accounts for more than 55% of the total suspended sediment flux and similarly, the 90th discharge percentile accounts for maximum 50% of the total discharge flux. Besides, we defined rainstorms as days during which rainfall exceeds the 99th percentile of all days with rainfall ≥.1 mm/day during the last 15-yr rainfall data set and within each station. We also defined peak SSC days as

  5. Jurassic-Paleogene intraoceanic magmatic evolution of the Ankara Mélange, north-central Anatolia, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarifakioglu, E.; Dilek, Y.; Sevin, M.

    2014-02-01

    Oceanic rocks in the Ankara Mélange along the Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan suture zone (IAESZ) in north-central Anatolia include locally coherent ophiolite complexes (∼ 179 Ma and ∼ 80 Ma), seamount or oceanic plateau volcanic units with pelagic and reefal limestones (96.6 ± 1.8 Ma), metamorphic rocks with ages of 256.9 ± 8.0 Ma, 187.4 ± 3.7 Ma, 158.4 ± 4.2 Ma, and 83.5 ± 1.2 Ma indicating northern Tethys during the late Paleozoic through Cretaceous, and subalkaline to alkaline volcanic and plutonic rocks of an island arc origin (∼ 67-63 Ma). All but the arc rocks occur in a shale-graywacke and/or serpentinite matrix, and are deformed by south-vergent thrust faults and folds that developed in the middle to late Eocene due to continental collisions in the region. Ophiolitic volcanic rocks have mid-ocean ridge (MORB) and island arc tholeiite (IAT) affinities showing moderate to significant large ion lithophile elements (LILE) enrichment and depletion in Nb, Hf, Ti, Y and Yb, which indicate the influence of subduction-derived fluids in their melt evolution. Seamount/oceanic plateau basalts show ocean island basalt (OIB) affinities. The arc-related volcanic rocks, lamprophyric dikes and syenodioritic plutons exhibit high-K shoshonitic to medium- to high-K calc-alkaline compositions with strong enrichment in LILE, rare earth elements (REE) and Pb, and initial ɛNd values between +1.3 and +1.7. Subalkaline arc volcanic units occur in the northern part of the mélange, whereas the younger alkaline volcanic rocks and intrusions (lamprophyre dikes and syenodioritic plutons) in the southern part. The late Permian, Early to Late Jurassic, and Late Cretaceous amphibole-epidote schist, epidote-actinolite, epidote-chlorite and epidote-glaucophane schists represent the metamorphic units formed in a subduction channel in the northern Neotethys. The Middle to Upper Triassic neritic limestones spatially associated with the seamount volcanic rocks indicate that the northern

  6. Jurassic-Paleogene intra-oceanic magmatic evolution of the Ankara Mélange, North-Central Anatolia, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarifakioglu, E.; Dilek, Y.; Sevin, M.

    2013-11-01

    Oceanic rocks in the Ankara Mélange along the Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan suture zone (IAESZ) in North-Central Anatolia include locally coherent ophiolite complexes (~179 Ma and ~80 Ma), seamount or oceanic plateau volcanic units with pelagic and reefal limestones (96.6 ± 1.8 Ma), metamorphic rocks with ages of 187.4 ± 3.7 Ma, 158.4 ± 4.2 Ma, and 83.5 ± 1.2 Ma, and subalkaline to alkaline volcanic and plutonic rocks of an island arc origin (~67-63 Ma). All but the arc rocks occur in a shaly-graywacke and/or serpentinite matrix, and are deformed by south-vergent thrust faults and folds that developed in the Middle to Late Eocene due to continental collisions in the region. Ophiolitic volcanic rocks have mid-ocean ridge (MORB) and island arc tholeiite (IAT) affinities showing moderate to significant LILE enrichment and depletion in Nb, Hf, Ti, Y and Yb, which indicate the influence of subduction-derived fluids in their melt evolution. Seamount/oceanic plateau basalts show ocean island basalt (OIB) affinities. The arc-related volcanic rocks, lamprophyric dikes and syeno-dioritic plutons exhibit high-K shoshonitic to medium-to high-K calc-alkaline compositions with strong enrichment in LILE, REE and Pb, and initial ϵNd values between +1.3 and +1.7. Subalkaline arc volcanic units occur in the northern part of the mélange, whereas the younger alkaline volcanic rocks and intrusions (lamprophyre dikes and syeno-dioritic plutons) in the southern part. The Early to Late Jurassic and Late Cretaceous epidote-actinolite, epidote-chlorite and epidote-glaucophane schists represent the metamorphic units formed in a subduction channel in the Northern Neotethys. The Middle to Upper Triassic neritic limestones spatially associated with the seamount volcanic rocks indicate that the Northern Neotethys was an open ocean with its MORB-type oceanic lithosphere by the Early Triassic. The Latest Cretaceous-Early Paleocene island arc volcanic, dike and plutonic rocks with

  7. An extended day program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ševkušić-Mandić Slavica G.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a pilot project evaluation, carried out as an action investigation whose aim was to provide a better quality extended day for primary school students. The project included the training of teachers involved in extended day program, designing of special activities performed by teachers with children once a week as well as changes and equipping of premises where children stay. The aims of the program were conception and performance of activities in a less formal way than during regular instructional days, linking of learning at school and acquired knowledge to everyday experiences, and work on contents contributing to the development of child's interests and creativity. The program was accomplished in a Belgrade primary school during the 2001/2002 academic year, comprising students of 1st and 2nd grades (N=77. The effects of the program were monitored throughout the academic year (observation and teachers' reports on accomplished workshops and at the end of the academic year (teachers and students' opinions of the program, academic achievement and creativity of students attending the extended day program compared with students not attending it. Findings about positive effects of the program on students' broadening of interests and willingness to express themselves creatively, indicate unequivocally that there is a need for developing special extended day programs. The extended day program is an opportunity for school to exert greater educational influence that has yet to be tapped.

  8. Extended spider cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Japyassú, Hilton F; Laland, Kevin N

    2017-05-01

    There is a tension between the conception of cognition as a central nervous system (CNS) process and a view of cognition as extending towards the body or the contiguous environment. The centralised conception requires large or complex nervous systems to cope with complex environments. Conversely, the extended conception involves the outsourcing of information processing to the body or environment, thus making fewer demands on the processing power of the CNS. The evolution of extended cognition should be particularly favoured among small, generalist predators such as spiders, and here, we review the literature to evaluate the fit of empirical data with these contrasting models of cognition. Spiders do not seem to be cognitively limited, displaying a large diversity of learning processes, from habituation to contextual learning, including a sense of numerosity. To tease apart the central from the extended cognition, we apply the mutual manipulability criterion, testing the existence of reciprocal causal links between the putative elements of the system. We conclude that the web threads and configurations are integral parts of the cognitive systems. The extension of cognition to the web helps to explain some puzzling features of spider behaviour and seems to promote evolvability within the group, enhancing innovation through cognitive connectivity to variable habitat features. Graded changes in relative brain size could also be explained by outsourcing information processing to environmental features. More generally, niche-constructed structures emerge as prime candidates for extending animal cognition, generating the selective pressures that help to shape the evolving cognitive system.

  9. Extending quantum mechanics entails extending special relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravinda, S.; Srikanth, R.

    2016-05-01

    The complementarity between signaling and randomness in any communicated resource that can simulate singlet statistics is generalized by relaxing the assumption of free will in the choice of measurement settings. We show how to construct an ontological extension for quantum mechanics (QMs) through the oblivious embedding of a sound simulation protocol in a Newtonian spacetime. Minkowski or other intermediate spacetimes are ruled out as the locus of the embedding by virtue of hidden influence inequalities. The complementarity transferred from a simulation to the extension unifies a number of results about quantum non-locality, and implies that special relativity has a different significance for the ontological model and for the operational theory it reproduces. Only the latter, being experimentally accessible, is required to be Lorentz covariant. There may be certain Lorentz non-covariant elements at the ontological level, but they will be inaccessible at the operational level in a valid extension. Certain arguments against the extendability of QM, due to Conway and Kochen (2009) and Colbeck and Renner (2012), are attributed to their assumption that the spacetime at the ontological level has Minkowski causal structure.

  10. Impact of volcanism on the evolution of Lake Van (eastern Anatolia) III: Periodic (Nemrut) vs. episodic (Süphan) explosive eruptions and climate forcing reflected in a tephra gap between ca. 14 ka and ca. 30 ka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmincke, Hans-Ulrich; Sumita, Mari

    2014-09-01

    Fifteen Lateglacial to Holocene rhyolitic, dominantly primary tephra layers piston-cored and drilled (ICDP Paleovan drilling project) in western Lake Van (eastern Anatolia, Turkey) were precisely correlated to either of the two adjacent and active large volcanoes Nemrut and Süphan based on shard textures, mineralogy and mineral and glass compositions. The young peralkaline (comenditic to pantelleritic) primary rhyolitic Nemrut tephras are characterized by anorthoclase, hedenbergitic to augitic clinopyroxene, fayalitic olivine, minor quartz, and rare accessory chevkinite and zircon. Phenocrysts in subalkaline primary rhyolitic Süphan tephras are chiefly oligoclase-labradorite, with minor K-rich sanidine in some, biotite, amphibole, hypersthene, rare augitic clinopyroxene, relatively common allanite and rare zircon. Two contrasting explosive eruptive modes are distinguished from each other: episodic (Süphan) and periodic (Nemrut). The Lateglacial Süphan tephra swarm covers a short time interval of ca. 338 years between ca. 13,078 vy BP and 12,740 vy BP, eruptions having occurred statistically every ca. 42 years with especially short intervals between V-11 (reworked) and V-14. Causes for the strongly episodic Süphan explosive behavior might include seismic triggering of a volcano-magma system unable to erupt explosively without the benefit of external triggering, as reflected in pervasive faulting preceding the Süphan tephra swarm. Seismic triggering may have caused the rise of more mafic ("trachyandesitic") parent magma, heating near-surface pockets of highly evolved magma - that might have formed silicic domes during this stage of volcano evolution - resulting in ascent and finally explosive fragmentation of magma essentially by external factors, probably significantly enhanced by magma-water/ice interaction. Explosive eruptions of the Nemrut volcano system, interpreted to be underlain by a large fractionating magma reservoir, follow a more periodic mode of (a

  11. Poster Session- Extended Abstracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack D. Alexander III; Jean Findley; Brenda K. Kury; Jan L. Beyers; Douglas S. Cram; Terrell T. Baker; Jon C. Boren; Carl Edminster; Sue A. Ferguson; Steven McKay; David Nagel; Trent Piepho; Miriam Rorig; Casey Anderson; Jeanne Hoadley; Paulette L. Ford; Mark C. Andersen; Ed L. Fredrickson; Joe Truett; Gary W. Roemer; Brenda K. Kury; Jennifer Vollmer; Christine L. May; Danny C. Lee; James P. Menakis; Robert E. Keane; Zhi-Liang Zhu; Carol Miller; Brett Davis; Katharine Gray; Ken Mix; William P. Kuvlesky Jr.; D. Lynn Drawe; Marcia G. Narog; Roger D. Ottmar; Robert E. Vihnanek; Clinton S. Wright; Timothy E. Paysen; Burton K. Pendleton; Rosemary L. Pendleton; Carleton S. White; John Rogan; Doug Stow; Janet Franklin; Jennifer Miller; Lisa Levien; Chris Fischer; Emma Underwood; Robert Klinger; Peggy Moore; Clinton S. Wright

    2008-01-01

    Titles found within Poster Session-Extended Abstracts include:Assessment of emergency fire rehabilitation of four fires from the 2000 fire season on the Vale, Oregon, BLM district: review of the density sampling materials and methods: p. 329 Growth of regreen, seeded for erosion control, in the...

  12. Extending Critical Performativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spicer, André; Alvesson, Mats; Kärreman, Dan

    2016-01-01

    In this article we extend the debate about critical performativity. We begin by outlining the basic tenets of critical performativity and how this has been applied in the study of management and organization. We then address recent critiques of critical performance. We note these arguments suffer...

  13. Parameterization of extended systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2006-01-01

    The YJBK parameterization (of all stabilizing controllers) is extended to handle systems with additional sensors and/or actuators. It is shown that the closed loop transfer function is still an affine function in the YJBK parameters in the nominal case. Further, some closed-loop stability results...

  14. Two-and three-dimensional gravity modeling along western ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The western continental margin and the intraplate Narmada-Tapti rifts are primarily covered by Deccan flood basalts. Three-dimensional gravity modeling of +70 mgal Bouguer gravity highs extending in the north-south direction along the western continental margin rift indicates the presence of a subsurface high density, ...

  15. Moon - Western Near Side

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    This image of the crescent moon was obtained by the Galileo Solid State imaging system on December 8 at 5 a.m. PST as the Galileo spacecraft neared the Earth. The image was taken through a green filter and shows the western part of the lunar nearside. The smallest features visible are 8 kilometers (5 miles) in size. Major features visible include the dark plains of Mare Imbrium in the upper part of the image, the bright crater Copernicus (100 km, 60 miles in diameter) in the central part, and the heavily cratered lunar highlands in the bottom of the image. The landing sides of the Apollo 12, 14 and 15 missions lie within the central part of the image. Samples returned from these sites will be used to calibrate this and accompanying images taken in different colors, which will extend the knowledge of the spectral and compositional properties of the nearside of the moon, seen from Earth, to the lunar far side.

  16. Detection and identification of cutaneous leishmaniasis isolates by culture, Polymerase chain reaction and sequence analyses in Syrian and Central Anatolia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyhan, Yunus E; Karakus, Mehmet; Karagoz, Alper; Mungan, Mesut; Ozkan, Aysegul T; Hokelek, Murat

    2017-09-01

    To characterize the cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) isolates of Syrian and Central Anatolia patients at species levels. Methods: Skin scrapings of 3 patients (2 Syrian, 1 Turkish) were taken and examined by direct examination, culture in Novy-MacNeal-Nicole (NNN) medium, internal transcribed spacer polymerase chain reaction and sequence analysis (PCR). Results:According to microscopic examination, culture and PCR methods, 3 samples were detected positive. The sequencing results of all isolates in the study were identified as Leishmania tropica. The same genotypes were detected in the 3 isolates and nucleotide sequence submitted into GenBank with the accession number: KP689599. Conclusion: This finding could give information about the transmission of CL between Turkey and Syria. Because of the Syrian civil war, most of the Syrian citizens circulating in Turkey and different part of Europe, this can be increase the risk of spreading the disease. So, prevention measurements must be taken urgently.

  17. Paleomagnetic results from Northeast Anatolia: remagnetization in Late Cretaceous sandstones and tectonic rotation at the Eastern extension of the Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan suture zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cengiz Çinku, Mualla

    2017-12-01

    Paleomagnetic results obtained from Upper Cretaceous sandstones in Northeastern Anatolia demonstrate that the entire area from Erzincan to Kars has been remagnetised. The remagnetisation was acquired before the Middle Eocene collision between the Eastern Pontides and the Arabian Platform because Middle Eocene sandstones carry primary natural remanent magnetisations. The post-folding in situ mean direction of the Upper Cretaceous sandstones is compared with mean directions of younger, Middle Eocene to present rock formations. As a result, a two-stage antagonistic rotation mechanism is proposed. First, the collision between the Pontides and the Taurides between Late Cretaceous and Middle Eocene was associated by clockwise rotation of 26°. In the second stage between Middle Eocene and Middle Miocene and beyond, counterclockwise rotations up to 52° of the Pontide and Anatolide blocks and clockwise rotations of the Van Block were characterised by regional shortening and westward escape.

  18. BYZANTINE AND SASANIAN INFLUENCE IN ANATOLIA (IVth - VIIth CENTURIES ANADOLU’DA BİZANS-SASANİ ETKİLEŞİMİ (IV.-VII. YÜZYILLAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gürhan BAHADIR

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nearly three centuries of Byzantine and Sasanid States ruled eastern Anatolia which separated the foundation of Byzantine state, in the middle of the seventh, have long been viewed as a period of bitter enmity between the Byzantine and Sasanid States. Byzantine army and Sasanid army raided between themselves in eastern Anatolia during three centuries. Despite these overt proclamations of hostility, the two empires survived side by side as acknowledged equals and also had the points of resemblance and mutual influence. Two adjacent worlds struggled themselves in eastern Anatolia. However they were torn between their religions and intellectual tradition, to come to rest in either sphere or to achieve political stability between them. Byzantine and Sasanid history in Anatolia between fourth and seventh century, subject of this article consists of three sections, which are political and military influence, religion and cultural influence, and economical influence. Bizans ve Sasani Devletleri yaklaşık üç yüzyıl Anadolu’nun doğusunda sınır komşusu olarak hâkimiyet kurmuşlardır. Üç yüz otuz yılında Bizans Devleti’nin kuruluşundan başlayıp yedinci yüzyılın ortalarında III. Yezdigirt döneminin sona ermesine kadar devam eden dönem, Sasanilerle Bizanslılar arasında şiddetli düşmanlığın yaşandığı zaman dilimi olarak bilinir. Anadolu’nun doğusunda Bizans ve Sasani orduları üç yüzyıl boyunca karşılıklı akınlar yapmalarına rağmen Bizans ve Sasani Devletleri birbirlerinin eşitliğini kabul ederek yüzyıllarca yan yana yaşadılar. Bu makalede bu süreç açıklanırken Anadolu’nun doğu sınırında üç yüzyıl boyunca bir arada yaşamış iki toplumun benzerlikleri ve karşılıklı etkileşimi de tartışılmıştır. Ayrıca Bizans ve Sasani Devletleri arasında dini, kültürel ve siyasi durumlarının farklılıkları da vurgulandı. Bu makalede IV ile VII. yüzyıllar arasında Anadolu

  19. IMPACT OF THE ATATÜRK DAM LAKE ON AGRO-METEOROLOGICAL ASPECTS OF THE SOUTHEASTERN ANATOLIA REGION USING REMOTE SENSING AND GIS ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Ozcan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The Atatürk Dam is the fourth largest clay-cored rock fill dam in the world. It was constructed on the Euphrates River located in semi-arid Southeastern Turkey in the 1980s as the central component of a large-scale regional development project for the Southeastern Anatolia region (referred to as GAP. The construction began in 1983 and was completed in 1990. The dam and the hydroelectric power plant, which went into service after filling up the reservoir was accomplished in 1992. The Atatürk Dam, which has a height of 169 m, a total storage capacity of 48.7 million m3, and a surface area of about 817 km2 plays an important role in the development of Turkey's energy and agriculture sectors. In this study, the spatial and temporal impacts of the Atatürk Dam on agro-meteorological aspects of the Southeastern Anatolia region have been investigated. Change detection and environmental impacts due to water-reserve changes in Atatürk Dam Lake have been determined and evaluated using multi-temporal Landsat satellite imageries and meteorological datasets within a period of 1984 to 2011. These time series have been evaluated for three time periods. Dam construction period constitutes the first part of the study. Land cover/use changes especially on agricultural fields under the Atatürk Dam Lake and its vicinity have been identified between the periods of 1984 to 1992. The second period comprises the 10-year period after the completion of filling up the reservoir in 1992. At this period, Landsat and meteorological time-series analyses are examined to assess the impact of the Atatürk Dam Lake on selected irrigated agricultural areas. For the last 9-year period from 2002 to 2011, the relationships between seasonal water-reserve changes and irrigated plains under changing climatic factors primarily driving vegetation activity (monthly, seasonal, and annual fluctuations of rainfall rate, air temperature, humidity on the watershed have been investigated

  20. Preliminary Geochemical Data for the Diabase Dykes from the Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan Suture Belt, Central Anatolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcı, Uǧur; Sayıt, Kaan

    2017-04-01

    The Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan Suture Belt preserves oceanic and continental fragments originated from the closure of the northern branch of Neotethys. In the Bogazkale area (Central Anatolia), the pieces of the Neotethyan oceanic lithosphere exist in a chaotic manner, forming an ophiolitic mélange. Within the mélange, diabase dykes occur, which are found to cut various types of oceanic lithospheric rocks, including pillow basalts, gabbros and serpentinized ultramafics. We here present the preliminary geochemical results obtained from the diabase dykes and put some constraints on their petrogenesis. The investigated diabase dykes are chiefly composed of plagioclase and a mafic phase, which is clinopyroxene and/or hornblende. A detailed examination reveals two petrographic types on the basis of predominating mafic mineral phase, namely clinopyroxene-dominated Type 1, and hornblende-dominated Type 2. Ophitic to sub-ophitic textures, where lath-shaped plagioclase crystals are enclosed by clinopyroxene, can be observed in almost all Type 1 dykes. In Type 2 samples, altered mafic phases can be seen enclosed within plagioclase crystals, forming poikilitic texture. Polysynthetic twinning is common in plagioclase. Hornblende occasionally displays simple twinning. Both types appear to have been variably affected by low-grade hydrothermal alteration as reflected by the presence of secondary mineral phases, such as chlorite, epidote, prehnite, and actinolite. The whole-rock geochemistry appear to be consistent with the petrographical grouping, revealing distinct immobile trace element systematics for the two types. Both types have basaltic composition with sub-alkaline characteristics (Nb/Y=0.2-0.3 for Type 1; Nb/Y=0.02-0.08 for Type 2). The relatively low MgO contents of the dykes suggest that they do not represent primary magmas, but evolved through fractionation of mafic phases. In the N-MORB normalized diagrams, Type 2 diabases exhibit marked negative Nb anomalies, with HFSE

  1. Jurassic–Paleogene intraoceanic magmatic evolution of the Ankara Mélange, north-central Anatolia, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sarifakioglu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Oceanic rocks in the Ankara Mélange along the Izmir–Ankara–Erzincan suture zone (IAESZ in north-central Anatolia include locally coherent ophiolite complexes (~ 179 Ma and ~ 80 Ma, seamount or oceanic plateau volcanic units with pelagic and reefal limestones (96.6 ± 1.8 Ma, metamorphic rocks with ages of 256.9 ± 8.0 Ma, 187.4 ± 3.7 Ma, 158.4 ± 4.2 Ma, and 83.5 ± 1.2 Ma indicating northern Tethys during the late Paleozoic through Cretaceous, and subalkaline to alkaline volcanic and plutonic rocks of an island arc origin (~ 67–63 Ma. All but the arc rocks occur in a shale–graywacke and/or serpentinite matrix, and are deformed by south-vergent thrust faults and folds that developed in the middle to late Eocene due to continental collisions in the region. Ophiolitic volcanic rocks have mid-ocean ridge (MORB and island arc tholeiite (IAT affinities showing moderate to significant large ion lithophile elements (LILE enrichment and depletion in Nb, Hf, Ti, Y and Yb, which indicate the influence of subduction-derived fluids in their melt evolution. Seamount/oceanic plateau basalts show ocean island basalt (OIB affinities. The arc-related volcanic rocks, lamprophyric dikes and syenodioritic plutons exhibit high-K shoshonitic to medium- to high-K calc-alkaline compositions with strong enrichment in LILE, rare earth elements (REE and Pb, and initial εNd values between +1.3 and +1.7. Subalkaline arc volcanic units occur in the northern part of the mélange, whereas the younger alkaline volcanic rocks and intrusions (lamprophyre dikes and syenodioritic plutons in the southern part. The late Permian, Early to Late Jurassic, and Late Cretaceous amphibole-epidote schist, epidote-actinolite, epidote-chlorite and epidote-glaucophane schists represent the metamorphic units formed in a subduction channel in the northern Neotethys. The Middle to Upper Triassic neritic limestones spatially associated with the

  2. Incongruity between affinity patterns based on mandibular and lower dental dimensions following the transition to agriculture in the Near East, Anatolia and Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron Pinhasi

    Full Text Available While it has been suggested that malocclusion is linked with urbanisation, it remains unclear as to whether its high prevalence began 8,000 years earlier concomitant with the transition to agriculture. Here we investigate the extent to which patterns of affinity (i.e., among-population distances, based on mandibular form and dental dimensions, respectively, match across Epipalaeolithic, Mesolithic, and Neolithic samples from the Near East/Anatolia and Europe. Analyses were conducted using morphological distance matrices reflecting dental and mandibular form for the same 292 individuals across 21 archaeological populations. Thereafter, statistical analyses were undertaken on four sample aggregates defined on the basis of their subsistence strategy, geography, and chronology to test for potential differences in dental and mandibular form across and within groups. Results show a clear separation based on mandibular morphology between European hunter-gatherers, European farmers, and Near Eastern transitional farmers and semi-sedentary hunter-gatherers. In contrast, the dental dimensions show no such pattern and no clear association between the position of samples and their temporal or geographic attributes. Although later farming groups have, on average, smaller teeth and mandibles, shape analyses show that the mandibles of farmers are not simply size-reduced versions of earlier hunter-gatherer mandibles. Instead, it appears that mandibular form underwent a complex series of shape changes commensurate with the transition to agriculture that are not reflected in affinity patterns based on dental dimensions. In the case of hunter-gatherers there is a correlation between inter-individual mandibular and dental distances, suggesting an equilibrium between these two closely associated morphological units. However, in the case of semi-sedentary hunter-gatherers and farming groups, no such correlation was found, suggesting that the incongruity between

  3. Extended Irreversible Thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Jou, David

    2010-01-01

    This is the 4th edition of the highly acclaimed monograph on Extended Irreversible Thermodynamics, a theory that goes beyond the classical theory of irreversible processes. In contrast to the classical approach, the basic variables describing the system are complemented by non-equilibrium quantities. The claims made for extended thermodynamics are confirmed by the kinetic theory of gases and statistical mechanics. The book covers a wide spectrum of applications, and also contains a thorough discussion of the foundations and the scope of the current theories on non-equilibrium thermodynamics. For this new edition, the authors critically revised existing material while taking into account the most recent developments in fast moving fields such as heat transport in micro- and nanosystems or fast solidification fronts in materials sciences. Several fundamental chapters have been revisited emphasizing physics and applications over mathematical derivations. Also, fundamental questions on the definition of non-equil...

  4. The Fly Printer - Extended

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beloff, Laura; Klaus, Malena

    2016-01-01

    Artist talk / Work-in-progress What is the purpose of a machine or an artifact, like the Fly Printer, that is dislocated, that produces images that have no meaning, no instrumentality, that depict nothing in the world? The biological and the cultural are reunited in this apparatus as a possibilit...... the results. The extended version of the Fly Printer containing the technological perception and DNNs is a collaboration between Laura Beloff and Malene Theres Klaus...

  5. The dialogically extended mind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusaroli, Riccardo; Gangopadhyay, Nivedita; Tylén, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    , we argue that language enhances our cognitive capabilities in a much more radical way: The skilful engagement of public material symbols facilitates evolutionarily unprecedented modes of collective perception, action and reasoning (interpersonal synergies) creating dialogically extended minds. We...... relate our approach to other ideas about collective minds and review a number of empirical studies to identify the mechanisms enabling the constitution of interpersonal cognitive systems....

  6. Extended Theories of Gravitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatibene Lorenzo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of extended theories of gravitation we shall discuss physical equivalences among different formalisms and classical tests. As suggested by the Ehlers-Pirani-Schild framework, the conformal invariance will be preserved and its effect on observational protocols discussed. Accordingly, we shall review standard tests showing how Palatini f(R-theories naturally passes solar system tests. Observation protocols will be discussed in this wider framework.

  7. π-Extended Tetrathiafulvalenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Johannes Fabritius

    This Ph.D.-thesis focuses on the synthesis and properties of various redox-active ¼-extended tetrathiafulvalenes. One class of molecules are so-called H-cruciform shaped molecules. In these molecules the formation of a central stilbene double bond is elucidated. Here it was found that the formation...... of the stilbene bond originates from preformation of a 1,3-dioxa-2-phospholane, formed by reaction between P(OEt)3 present under the reaction conditions and two aldehydes. Under the reaction conditions this 1,3-dioxa-2-phospholane can then be converted to the stilbene. These mechanistic studies lead...

  8. Extended spider cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Japyassú, Hilton F.; Laland, Kevin Neville

    2017-01-01

    HFJ received a visiting professor fellowship from Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq - Brazil) (PDE PDE232691/2014-2). Research supported in part by a Grant from the John Templeton Foundation to KNL. There is a tension between the conception of cognition as a central nervous system (CNS) process, and a view of cognition as extending towards the body or the contiguous environment. The centralised conception requires large or complex nervous systems to cope w...

  9. Offshore seismicity in the western Marmara Sea, Turkey, revealed by ocean bottom observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yojiro; Takahashi, Narumi; Citak, Seckin; Kalafat, Doǧan; Pinar, Ali; Gürbüz, Cemil; Kaneda, Yoshiyuki

    2015-04-01

    The North Anatolian Fault (NAF) extends 1600 km westward from a junction with the East Anatolian Fault at the Karliova Triple Junction in eastern Turkey, across northern Turkey and into the Aegean Sea, accommodating about 25 mm/yr of right-lateral motion between Anatolia and the Eurasian plate. Since 1939, devastating earthquakes with magnitude greater than seven ruptured NAF westward, starting from 1939 Erzincan (Ms=7.9) at the eastern Turkey and including the latest 1999 Izmit-Golcuk (Ms=7.7) and the Duzce (Ms=7.4) earthquakes in the Marmara region. Considering the fault segments ruptured by the May 24th, 2014 Northern Aegean earthquake (Mw=6.9), the only un-ruptured segments left behind the 1600 km long NAF locate beneath the Marmara Sea and those segments keep their mystery due to their underwater location. To consider the earthquake hazard and disaster mitigation, the detailed information about fault geometry and its stick-slip behavior beneath the western Marmara Sea is very important. Thus, we started to operate a series of ocean bottom seismographic (OBS) observations to estimate the fault geometry from microearthquake distribution. As a first step, we deployed 3 pop-up type OBSs on 20th of March 2014 as a trial observation, and recovered them on 18th of June 2014. Although one of the OBSs worked only 6 days from the start of the observation, other two OBSs functioned properly during the whole 3-month observation period. We first searched for the microearthquakes missing by the land seismic network and estimated their precious location by using the initial 6 days data, i.e., using all the temporary OBS stations. Although there are only 3 earthquakes listed on the Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute (KOERI) catalogue, we could identify 41 earthquakes with more than 5 picking data of P and S first arrivals, and two-third of them located within the OBS network. We found the earthquake cluster along the main NAF and whose depth interval is 12

  10. Extending juvenility in grasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaeppler, Shawn; de Leon Gatti, Natalia; Foerster, Jillian

    2017-04-11

    The present invention relates to compositions and methods for modulating the juvenile to adult developmental growth transition in plants, such as grasses (e.g. maize). In particular, the invention provides methods for enhancing agronomic properties in plants by modulating expression of GRMZM2G362718, GRMZM2G096016, or homologs thereof. Modulation of expression of one or more additional genes which affect juvenile to adult developmental growth transition such as Glossy15 or Cg1, in conjunction with such modulation of expression is also contemplated. Nucleic acid constructs for down-regulation of GRMZM2G362718 and/or GRMZM2G096016 are also contemplated, as are transgenic plants and products produced there from, that demonstrate altered, such as extended juvenile growth, and display associated phenotypes such as enhanced yield, improved digestibility, and increased disease resistance. Plants described herein may be used, for example, as improved forage or feed crops or in biofuel production.

  11. Extended Poisson Exponential Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anum Fatima

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A new mixture of Modified Exponential (ME and Poisson distribution has been introduced in this paper. Taking the Maximum of Modified Exponential random variable when the sample size follows a zero truncated Poisson distribution we have derived the new distribution, named as Extended Poisson Exponential distribution. This distribution possesses increasing and decreasing failure rates. The Poisson-Exponential, Modified Exponential and Exponential distributions are special cases of this distribution. We have also investigated some mathematical properties of the distribution along with Information entropies and Order statistics of the distribution. The estimation of parameters has been obtained using the Maximum Likelihood Estimation procedure. Finally we have illustrated a real data application of our distribution.

  12. Extending rational maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Gaven J.

    We investigate when a rational endomorphism of the Riemann sphere overline{C} extends to a mapping of the upper half-space {H3 which is rational with respect to some measurable conformal structure. Such an extension has the property that it and all its iterates have uniformly bounded distortion. Such maps are called uniformly quasiregular. We show that, in the space of rational mappings of degree d , such an extension is possible in the structurally stable component where there is a single (attracting) component of the Fatou set and the Julia set is a Cantor set. We show that generally outside of this set no such extension is possible. In particular, polynomials can never admit such an extension.

  13. Reduced Extended MHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, P. J.; Abdelhamid, H. M.; Grasso, D.; Hazeltine, R. D.; Lingam, M.; Tassi, E.

    2015-11-01

    Over the years various reduced fluid models have been obtained for modeling plasmas, with the goal of capturing important physics while maintaining computability. Such models have included the physics contained in various generalizations of Ohm's law, including Hall drift and electron inertia. In a recent publication it was shown that full 3D extended MHD is a Hamiltonian system by finding its noncanonical Poisson bracket. Subsequently, this bracket was shown to be derivable from that for Hall MHD by a series of remarkable transformations, which greatly simplifies the proof of the Jacobi identity and allows one to immediately obtain generalizations of the helicity and cross helicity. In this poster we use this structure to obtain exact reduced fluid models with the effects of full two-fluid theory. Results of numerical computations of collisionless reconnection using an exact reduced 4-field model will be presented and analytical comparisons of mode structure of previous reduced models will be made.

  14. Retrodeforming the Sivas Basin (Turkey): Structural style of the central Anatolian basins and their integration in the geodynamic framework of Eastern Anatolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legeay, Etienne; Ringenbach, Jean-Claude; Callot, Jean-Paul; Mohn, Geoffroy; Kavak, Kaan

    2017-04-01

    Anatolia is the result of the amalgamation of Gondwandian microcontinents against Eurasia active margin. These were originally separated by several Neotethyan oceanic domains consumed by north-dipping subductions. Prior to the continental collision, regional convergence resulted in an obduction event, from north to south in Campanian time, which led to the emplacement of ophiolite nappes and ophiolitic mélanges onto the Tauride passive margin. Several sedimentary basins subsequently developed above the former sutures zones recorded the long-lasting geological evolution of the Anatolian domain from Late Cretaceous to Present The Sivas Basin is all together the richest, the most studied and also most complex of the group of Tertiary basins. The Sivas Basin formed above the northern leading edge of the Tauride platform, the Kırşehir micro-continent, the edge of the Pontide arc and the related sutures. Its complex structure is that of a fold-and-thrust belt with syn-orogenic salt tectonics. After the obduction, the Sivas basin recorded a relative quiet tectonic phase from Maastrichtian to Paleocene with basinal pelagic sedimentation and carbonate platform emplacement on its southern edge. Then shortening resumed in the Early Eocene with the development of north-verging thrusts. It is recorded by a coarse clastic input, with conglomeratic deltas fans grading up to basinal turbidites until the Late Eocene. Then the basin is progressively isolated and becomes an isolated foreland in which a thick evaporite formation deposited. Oligocene to Miocene continental clastics deposition was then mainly controlled by halokinesis: minibasin, salt ridges and salt sheets development. A first canopy is attributed to the second pulse of contraction from Late-Oligocene to Middle Miocene. This second stage end with the formation of back-thrust within the Sivas Basin and southward as a passive roof above a pre-salt triangle zone. This study relies both on extensive fieldwork (4 Ph

  15. Generic amplification and next generation sequencing reveal Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus AP92-like strain and distinct tick phleboviruses in Anatolia, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinçer, Ender; Brinkmann, Annika; Hekimoğlu, Olcay; Hacıoğlu, Sabri; Földes, Katalin; Karapınar, Zeynep; Polat, Pelin Fatoş; Oğuz, Bekir; Orunç Kılınç, Özlem; Hagedorn, Peter; Özer, Nurdan; Özkul, Aykut; Nitsche, Andreas; Ergünay, Koray

    2017-07-14

    Ticks are involved with the transmission of several viruses with significant health impact. As incidences of tick-borne viral infections are rising, several novel and divergent tick- associated viruses have recently been documented to exist and circulate worldwide. This study was performed as a cross-sectional screening for all major tick-borne viruses in several regions in Turkey. Next generation sequencing (NGS) was employed for virus genome characterization. Ticks were collected at 43 locations in 14 provinces across the Aegean, Thrace, Mediterranean, Black Sea, central, southern and eastern regions of Anatolia during 2014-2016. Following morphological identification, ticks were pooled and analysed via generic nucleic acid amplification of the viruses belonging to the genera Flavivirus, Nairovirus and Phlebovirus of the families Flaviviridae and Bunyaviridae, followed by sequencing and NGS in selected specimens. A total of 814 specimens, comprising 13 tick species, were collected and evaluated in 187 pools. Nairovirus and phlebovirus assays were positive in 6 (3.2%) and 48 (25.6%) pools. All nairovirus sequences were closely-related to the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) strain AP92 and formed a phylogenetically distinct cluster among related strains. Major portions of the CCHFV genomic segments were obtained via NGS. Phlebovirus sequencing revealed several tick-associated virus clades, including previously-characterized Antigone, Lesvos, KarMa and Bole tick viruses, as well as a novel clade. A wider host range for tick-associated virus strains has been observed. NGS provided near-complete sequences of the L genomic segments of Antigone and KarMa clades, as well as Antigone partial S segment. Co- infections of CCHFV and KarMa or novel phlebovirus clades were detected in 2.1% of the specimens. Widespread circulation of various tick-associated phlebovirus clades were documented for the first time in Anatolia. Genomes of CCHFV AP92 strains were

  16. New paleomagnetic results from Upper Cretaceous arc-type rocks from the northern and southern branches of the Neotethys ocean in Anatolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cengiz Cinku, Mualla; Heller, Friedrich; Ustaömer, Timur

    2017-10-01

    A paleomagnetic study of Cretaceous arc type rocks in the Central-Eastern Pontides and in the Southeastern Taurides investigates the tectonic and paleolatitudinal evolution of three volcanic belts in Anatolia, namely the Northern and Southern Volcanic Belts in the Pontides and the SE Taurides volcanic belt. The paleomagnetic data indicate that magnetizations were acquired prior to folding at most sampling localities/sites, except for those in the Erzincan area in the Eastern Pontides. The Southern Volcanic Belt was magnetized at a paleolatitude between 23.8_{-3.8}^{+4.2}°N and 20.2_{-1.2}^{+1.3}°N. Hisarlı (J Geodyn 52:114-128, 2011) reported a more northerly paleolatitude (26.6_{-4.6}^{+5.1}°N) for the Northern Volcanic Belt. The comparison of the new paleomagnetic results with previous ones in Anatolia allows to conclude that the Southern Volcanic Belt in the Central-Eastern Pontides was emplaced after the Northern Volcanic Belt as a result of slab-roll back of the Northern Neotethys ocean in the Late Cretaceous. In the Southeast Taurides, Upper Cretaceous arc-related sandstones were at a paleolatitude of 16.8_{-3.8}^{+4.2} . The Late Cretaceous paleomagnetic rotations in the Central Pontides exhibit a counterclockwise rotation of R± Δ R=-37.1° ± 5.8° (Group 1; Çankırı, Yaylaçayı Formation) while Maastrichtian arc type rocks in the Yozgat area (Group 2) show clockwise rotations R + Δ R = 33.7° ± 8.4° and R + Δ R = 29.3° ± 6.0°. In the SE Taurides counterclockwise and clockwise rotations of R± Δ R=-48.6° ± 5.2° and R± Δ R=+34.1° ± 15.1° are obtained (Group 4; Elazığ Magmatic Complex). The Late Cretaceous paleomagnetic rotations in the Pontides follow a general trend in concordance with the shape of the suture zone after the collision between the Pontides and the Kırşehir block. The affect of the westwards excursion of the Anatolian plate and the associated fault bounded block rotations in Miocene are observed in the east of the

  17. Extended Mixed Vector Equilibrium Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijanur Rahaman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We study extended mixed vector equilibrium problems, namely, extended weak mixed vector equilibrium problem and extended strong mixed vector equilibrium problem in Hausdorff topological vector spaces. Using generalized KKM-Fan theorem (Ben-El-Mechaiekh et al.; 2005, some existence results for both problems are proved in noncompact domain.

  18. Western Australia energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Scaife; Andre Urfer; Phil Brown; Aaron Cottrell; Jason Nunn; Louis Wibberley

    2006-03-15

    The study aims to assess present and future energy supply in Western Australia, and incorporates requests made by Wesfarmers, Griffin Energy, Western Power and the Department of Industry and Resources in October 2003 to include a number of hypothetical energy futures.

  19. TORCH seroprevalence among patients attending Obstetric Care Clinic of Haydarpasa Training and Research Hospital affiliated to Association of Istanbul Northern Anatolia Public Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numan, Onur; Vural, Fisun; Aka, Nurettin; Alpay, Murat; Coskun, Ayse Deniz Erturk

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii, Rubella, Cytomegalovirus and Herpes simplex viruses are microorganisms that cause congenital infections and they are called briefly as TORCH. There is an ongoing argument for the screening of reproductive age women due to the high cost of tests. For a test to be used in screening, prevalence of disease in this population should be known. The aim of this study was to investigate TORCH seroprevalence among women attending a teaching hospital in Istanbul. A total of 1101 patients attending outpatient clinic of Obstetric Care Clinic of Haydarpasa Training and Research Hospital affiliated to Association of Istanbul Northern Anatolia Public Hospitals between September 2013 to January 2015 and their laboratory data were evaluated retrospectively. We investigated Ig G and M seropositivity rates against TORCH. The age of the patients ranged between 17-47 years with a mean age of 30.3±5.8 years. Pregnant population had 99.5% anti-CMV Ig G (+), 94.2% anti-Rubella Ig G (+), 31% anti-Toxoplasma Ig G (+). Seroprevalence for Anti IgM was 0.5% for CMV, 0.2% for rubella. The screening for Toxoplasma gondii may be suggested since the prevalence is not high in our population. The screening of CMV is not meaningful, due to high seroprevalence. Although seroprevalence of rubella is also high, it may be suggested for preconception vaccination especially in women above 20 years of age born prior to National Vaccination Programme.

  20. Thermo-resistant green microalgae for effective biodiesel production: isolation and characterization of unialgal species from geothermal flora of Central Anatolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onay, Melih; Sonmez, Cagla; Oktem, Huseyin Avni; Yucel, Ayse Meral

    2014-10-01

    Oil content and composition, biomass productivity and adaptability to different growth conditions are important parameters in selecting a suitable microalgal strain for biodiesel production. Here, we describe isolation and characterization of three green microalgal species from geothermal flora of Central Anatolia. All three isolates, namely, Scenedesmus sp. METUNERGY1402 (Scenedesmus sp. ME02), Hindakia tetrachotoma METUNERGY1403 (H. tetrachotoma ME03) and Micractinium sp. METUNERGY1405 (Micractinium sp. ME05) are adaptable to growth at a wide temperature range (25-50 °C). Micractinium sp. ME05, particularly has superior properties for biodiesel production. Biomass productivity, lipid content and lipid productivity of this isolate are 0.17 g L(-1) d(-1), 22.7% and 0.04 g L(-1) d(-1), respectively. In addition, Micractinium sp. ME05 and Scenedesmus sp. ME03 mainly contain desirable fatty acid methyl esters (i.e. 16:0, 16:1, 18:0 and 18:1) for biodiesel production. All isolates can further be improved via genetic and metabolic engineering strategies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Determination of Genetic Variations of Toll-Like Receptor (TLR 2, 4, and 6 with Next-Generation Sequencing in Native Cattle Breeds of Anatolia and Holstein Friesian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuket Bilgen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the focus of disease resistance and susceptibility studies in cattle have been on determining patterns in the innate immune response of key proteins, such as Toll-like receptors (TLR. In the bovine genome, there are 10 TLR family members and, of these, TLR2, TLR4, and TLR6 are specialized in the recognition of bacterial ligands. Indigenous cattle breeds of Anatolia have been reported to show fewer signs of clinical bacterial infections, such as bovine tuberculosis and mastitis, and it is hypothesized that this might be due to a less stringent genetic selection during breeding. In contrast, Holstein-Friesian cattle have been under strong selection for milk production, which may have resulted in greater susceptibility to diseases. To test this hypothesis, we have compared the TLR2, TLR4, and TLR6 genes of Anatolian Black (AB, East Anatolian Red (EAR, South Anatolian Red (SAR, Turkish Grey (TG, and Holstein (HOL cattle using next-generation sequencing. The SAR breed had the most variations overall, followed by EAR, AB, TG, and HOL. TG had the most variations for TLR2, whereas SAR had the most variations in TLR4 and TLR6. We compared these variants with those associated with disease and susceptibility traits. We used exon variants to construct haplotypes, investigated shared haplotypes within breeds, and proposed candidate haplotypes for a disease resistance phenotype in Anatolian cattle breeds.

  2. Concurrent occurrence of human and equine West Nile virus infections in Central Anatolia, Turkey: the first evidence for circulation of lineage 1 viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkul, Aykut; Ergunay, Koray; Koysuren, Aydan; Alkan, Feray; Arsava, Ethem M; Tezcan, Seda; Emekdas, Gurol; Hacioglu, Sabri; Turan, Mahur; Us, Durdal

    2013-07-01

    West Nile fever is an important zoonotic infection caused by West Nile virus (WNV), a member of the Flaviviridae. Previous serological data from Turkey suggest widespread WNV circulation. This report includes cases of human and equine WNV infections occurring concurrently, and manifesting as central nervous system infections, in two neighboring provinces of Central Anatolia, Turkey. A partial phylogenetic analysis of the causative virus is given for the first time. The cases were reported in February (horses) and March (human). Symptoms of the disease were similar in the two species, characterized by neurological manifestations suggesting meningoencephalitis. Real-time/nested PCRs and commercial immunoassays and a plaque reduction neutralization assay were employed for the detection of viral RNA and specific antibodies, respectively. WNV RNAs were detected in buffy coat (horses) and cerebrospinal fluid (human) samples. Partial nucleotide sequences of the E-gene coding region revealed that the strains are closely related to viruses of lineage 1, clade 1a. Accompanying equine serosurveillance demonstrated WNV-specific antibodies in 31.6% of the samples. This is the first report of acute WNV infections caused by lineage 1 strains from Turkey, in concordance with previous reports from some European and North African countries. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Silvics of western redcedar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond J. Boyd

    1959-01-01

    Western redcedar (Thuja plicata) is one of the most important commercial species in the Pacific Northwest, Alaska, and British Columbia. Local common names include giant arborvitae, canoe cedar, shinglewood, Pacific redcedar, giant cedar, arborvitae, and cedar (24).

  4. Evaluating Teacher-Candidates’ Teaching in the Extended Practicum

    OpenAIRE

    Brian W. Noonan; Edwin G. Ralph

    2004-01-01

    This study reports the aggregate results of the evaluations of the teaching performance of 17 cohorts of teacher-candidates (n = 374), who completed their extended practicum during their pre-service teacher-education program at one Western Canadian university. Over a 15-year period, one of the researchers served as the College Supervisor for these cohorts in their respective four-month internship in schools in a variety of locations throughout the province. The teacher-candidates’ final...

  5. Extending cosmology: the metric approach

    OpenAIRE

    Mendoza, S.

    2012-01-01

    Comment: 2012, Extending Cosmology: The Metric Approach, Open Questions in Cosmology; Review article for an Intech "Open questions in cosmology" book chapter (19 pages, 3 figures). Available from: http://www.intechopen.com/books/open-questions-in-cosmology/extending-cosmology-the-metric-approach

  6. On core stability and extendability

    OpenAIRE

    Shellshear, Evan

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates conditions under which the core of a TU cooperative game is stable. In particular the author extends the idea of extendability to find new conditions under which the core is stable. It is also shown that these new conditions are not necessary for core stability.

  7. Extended Active Disturbance Rejection Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhiqiang (Inventor); Tian, Gang (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Multiple designs, systems, methods and processes for controlling a system or plant using an extended active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) based controller are presented. The extended ADRC controller accepts sensor information from the plant. The sensor information is used in conjunction with an extended state observer in combination with a predictor that estimates and predicts the current state of the plant and a co-joined estimate of the system disturbances and system dynamics. The extended state observer estimates and predictions are used in conjunction with a control law that generates an input to the system based in part on the extended state observer estimates and predictions as well as a desired trajectory for the plant to follow.

  8. Seroepidemiological Study of Toxocariasis among Volunteers Animal Husbandry Workers and Veterinary in Southern Anatolia in Turkey in 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdi SOZEN

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background:Human toxocariasis is a parasitic infection caused by the larvae of Toxocaracanis. We examine the Toxocara seroprevalance in veterinarians and animal husbandry workers living in the Mugla Province, Turkey to evaluate better the risk factors for Toxocara exposure.Methods: In 2014, 376 volunteers participated in the study in 2014. All blood specimens were tested using a commercial enzyme immunoassay kit and ELISA positive samples were confirmed by Western Blot (WB method.Results: The seroprevalence of Toxocara, as determined by WB, was 8%. A statistically significant correlation was evident between patient age and Toxo­cara positivity among animal husbandry workers (P = 0.029. A strong associa­tion was also evident between sex and seropositivity in the animal husbandry group (P=0.024. Veterinarians working in pet clinics did in fact exhibit higher Toxocara seropositivities relative to those of other groups (P = 0.029. A statisti­cally significant difference was detected between the rural geographic areas surveyed (P = 0.04.Conclusion: In Mugla Province, seroprevalence of Toxocara is lower than other regions. Despite the low seroprevalence observed, especially in high risk professions toxocariasis remains an important medical concern within the region. 

  9. Micro-chemical and micro-structural investigation of archaeological bronze weapons from the Ayanis fortress (lake Van, Eastern Anatolia, Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraldi, F.; Çilingirǒglu, A.; Angelini, E.; Riccucci, C.; De Caro, T.; Batmaz, A.; Mezzi, A.; Caschera, D.; Cortese, B.

    2013-12-01

    Bronze weapons (VII cen BC) found during the archaeological excavation of the Ayanis fortress (lake Van, eastern Anatolia, Turkey) are investigated in order to determine their chemical composition and metallurgical features as well as to identify the micro-chemical and micro-structural nature of the corrosion products grown during long-term burial. Small fragments were sampled from the artefacts and analysed by means of the combined use of optical microscopy (OM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS). The results show that the bronze artefacts have been manufactured by using alloys with a controlled and refined chemical composition demonstrating the high level metallurgical competence and skill of the Urartian craftsmen and artists. Furthermore, the micro-structural and metallurgical investigations evidence the presence of equiaxed grains in the matrix, indicating that the artefact were produced by repeated cycles of mechanical shaping and thermal annealing treatments to restore the alloy ductility. From the degradation point of view, the results show the structures and the chemical composition of the stratified corrosion layers (i.e. the patina) where the copper or tin depletion phenomenon is commonly observed with the surface enrichment of some elements coming from the burial soil, mainly Cl, which is related to the high concentration of chlorides in the Ayanis soil. The results reveal also that another source of degradation is the inter-granular corrosion phenomenon likely increased by the metallurgical features of the alloys caused by the high temperature manufacturing process that induces crystallisation and segregation phenomena along the grain boundaries.

  10. Thermal Investigation in the Cappadocia Region, Central Anatolia-Turkey, Analyzing Curie Point Depth, Geothermal Gradient, and Heat-Flow Maps from the Aeromagnetic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilim, Funda; Kosaroglu, Sinan; Aydemir, Attila; Buyuksarac, Aydin

    2017-12-01

    In this study, curie point depth (CPD), heat flow, geothermal gradient, and radiogenic heat production maps of the Cappadocian region in central Anatolia are presented to reveal the thermal structure from the aeromagnetic data. The large, circular pattern in these maps matches with previously determined shallow (2 km in average) depression. Estimated CPDs in this depression filled with loose volcano-clastics and ignimbrite sheets of continental Neogene units vary from 7 to 12 km, while the geothermal gradient increases from 50 to 68 °C/km. Heat flows were calculated using two different conductivity coefficients of 2.3 and 2.7 Wm-1 K-1. The radiogenic heat production was also obtained between 0.45 and 0.70 μW m-3 in this area. Heat-flow maps were compared with the previous, regional heat-flow map of Turkey and significant differences were observed. In contrast to linear heat-flow increment through the northeast in the previous map in the literature, produced maps in this study include a large, caldera-like circular depression between Nevsehir, Aksaray, Nigde, and Yesilhisar cities indicating high geothermal gradient and higher heat-flow values. In addition, active deformation is evident with young magmatism in the Neogene and Quaternary times and a large volcanic cover on the surface. Boundaries of volcanic eruption centers and buried large intrusions are surrounded with the maxspots of the horizontal gradients of magnetic anomalies. Analytic signal (AS) map pointing-out exact locations of causative bodies is also presented in this study. Circular region in the combined map of AS and maxspots apparently indicates a possible caldera.

  11. Thermal Investigation in the Cappadocia Region, Central Anatolia-Turkey, Analyzing Curie Point Depth, Geothermal Gradient, and Heat-Flow Maps from the Aeromagnetic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilim, Funda; Kosaroglu, Sinan; Aydemir, Attila; Buyuksarac, Aydin

    2017-09-01

    In this study, curie point depth (CPD), heat flow, geothermal gradient, and radiogenic heat production maps of the Cappadocian region in central Anatolia are presented to reveal the thermal structure from the aeromagnetic data. The large, circular pattern in these maps matches with previously determined shallow (2 km in average) depression. Estimated CPDs in this depression filled with loose volcano-clastics and ignimbrite sheets of continental Neogene units vary from 7 to 12 km, while the geothermal gradient increases from 50 to 68 °C/km. Heat flows were calculated using two different conductivity coefficients of 2.3 and 2.7 Wm-1 K-1. The radiogenic heat production was also obtained between 0.45 and 0.70 μW m-3 in this area. Heat-flow maps were compared with the previous, regional heat-flow map of Turkey and significant differences were observed. In contrast to linear heat-flow increment through the northeast in the previous map in the literature, produced maps in this study include a large, caldera-like circular depression between Nevsehir, Aksaray, Nigde, and Yesilhisar cities indicating high geothermal gradient and higher heat-flow values. In addition, active deformation is evident with young magmatism in the Neogene and Quaternary times and a large volcanic cover on the surface. Boundaries of volcanic eruption centers and buried large intrusions are surrounded with the maxspots of the horizontal gradients of magnetic anomalies. Analytic signal (AS) map pointing-out exact locations of causative bodies is also presented in this study. Circular region in the combined map of AS and maxspots apparently indicates a possible caldera.

  12. Bandidaje y piratería en la Anatolia meridional. Definición y circunstancias en el marco de las guerras mitridáticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaías ARRAYÁS MORALES

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo trata sobre el fenómeno pirático en el mundo greco-romano. Su estudio resulta muy complejo, teniendo en cuenta que el vocabulario y la mentalidad de los autores antiguos interfieren de tal manera que es extremadamente complicado ir más allá y precisar el germen de los procesos históricos que fomentan las actividades piráticas, así como el tipo y la naturaleza de las diferentes acciones descritas. En este sentido, resulta casi imposible diferenciar a los piratas, de corsarios, de mercenarios o incluso de simples mercaderes armados, algo habitual considerando el primigenio vínculo entre piratería y comercio. Tan sólo el análisis del contexto histórico nos va a permitir una aproximación a la realidad descrita y, en muchos casos, maquillada, que nos presentan las fuentes literarias antiguas. En nuestro cometido, la evidencia arqueológica apenas puede ayudarnos, pues las trazas dejadas por una banda de piratas no se diferencian de las generadas por un destacamento de soldados o de mercenarios, revestidos de la oficialidad que los diferencia de los bandidos. Con el objetivo de ahondar en la problemática, abordamos las causas del auge del fenómeno pirático en los territorios de la Anatolia meridional en la primera mitad del s. I a. C., calibrando el impacto que tuvieron las guerras mitridáticas en el proceso.

  13. Bioaccumulation of metals in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) from water bodies of Anatolia (Turkey): a review with implications for fisheries and human food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilizzi, Lorenzo; Tarkan, Ali Serhan

    2016-04-01

    Although fish is widely consumed by humans for its nutritional properties, accumulation of heavy metals can pose serious health hazards. Widespread common carp Cyprinus carpio is cultured worldwide and represents an economically important species for fisheries in several countries. These include Turkey, where C. carpio often makes for a large part of the sales of the locally marketed fish and also for a traditional dish. This study provides a review of bioaccumulation of metals in tissues of C. carpio from water bodies of Anatolia and also includes reference to worldwide studies. From 42 water bodies across the region, 27 metals in total were studied, of which Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn were the most widely analysed, mainly in the muscle, liver and gill tissues. Amongst the potentially toxic metals, Cd, Cr and Pb occurred in several water bodies at concentrations not only above maximum allowed limits but also higher relative to other water bodies worldwide, even though As, Hg and Ni were also sometimes present at potentially hazardous concentrations. The essential metals Cu, Fe, Mn, Se and Zn were detected at various concentrations, with the latter two occasionally above limit. All water bodies flagged as having especially critical (i.e. above limit) concentrations of toxic metals supported C. carpio fisheries from highly populated regions, raising concern about food safety and calling for preventative measures. Given the significantly lower bioaccumulation levels in the muscle relative to the liver and gill tissues, it is suggested that consumption of C. carpio as fillets may be safer than after processing into e.g. meat balls and sausages. The limits of 1.0 μg/g for Cr and 1.15 μg/g for Se, currently lacking from the Turkish food safety legislation, are proposed, and it is suggested that a similar meta-analytical approach as adopted in this study may benefit other countries where C. carpio represents an important fisheries resource.

  14. Western blot analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Seishiro

    2012-01-01

    Electrophoresis and the following western blot analysis are indispensable to investigate biochemical changes in cells and tissues exposed to nanoparticles or nanomaterials. Proteins should be extracted from the cells and tissues using a proper method, especially when phosphorylated proteins are to be detected. It is important to select a good blocking agent and an appropriate pair of primary and peroxidase-tagged secondary antibodies to obtain good results in western blot analysis. One thing that may be specific to nanomaterials, and that you should keep in mind, is that some proteins may be adsorbed on the surface of particulate nanomaterials. In this chapter the whole process of western blot analysis, from sample preparation to quantitative measurement of target proteins, is described.

  15. Chemo-probe into the mantle origin of the NW Anatolia Eocene to Miocene volcanic rocks: Implications for the role of, crustal accretion, subduction, slab roll-back and slab break-off processes in genesis of post-collisional magmatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersoy, E. Yalçın; Palmer, Martin R.; Genç, Ş. Can; Prelević, Dejan; Akal, Cüneyt; Uysal, İbrahim

    2017-09-01

    Post-collisional Cenozoic magmatic activity in NW Anatolia produced widespread volcanism across the region. In the Biga Peninsula, in the west, medium-K calc-alkaline to ultra-K rocks with orogenic geochemical signature were emplaced at 43-15 Ma (Biga orogenic volcanic rocks; BOVR). Volcanic activity in the Central Sakarya region, to the east, is mainly restricted to 53-38 Ma, but also continued during the Early Miocene with small basaltic extrusives (Sakarya orogenic volcanic rocks; SOVR). This study presents a new set of geochemical data (whole rock major and trace elements and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositions), obtained from the Cenozoic calc-alkaline volcanic rocks from these two regions. While there is considerable overlap in the emplacement time of volcanism in the two areas, the post-collisional volcanic rocks of these two regions differ in terms of their geochemical compositions: (1) the BOVR show an age-dependent increase in K and other large-ion lithophile elements (LILE), coupled with an increase in radiogenic Sr and Pb compositions from the Eocene to Miocene; whereas (2) the SOVR are characterized by more sodic compositions with lower K and less radiogenic Sr contents with respect to the BOVR, which were unchanged in Eocene and Miocene. We conclude that these geochemical features were principally related to the distinct modes of subduction-related mantle enrichment processes. We suggest that the Eocene to Miocene progressive enrichment in the BOVR mantle was related to successive subduction of oceanic and crustal materials in the western Aegean, while the SOVR mantle was dominantly enriched during the pre-collisional events. Magma generation in the western region was related to subduction roll-back processes associated with post-collisional extension. In the east, thermal perturbation of the mantle in response to asthenospheric upwelling due to slab break-off process was responsible for the magma generation. The time-dependent increase of K (and other

  16. Geochemistry of uranium and thorium and natural radioactivity levels of the western Anatolian plutons, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Argyrios; Altunkaynak, Şafak; Koroneos, Antonios; Ünal, Alp; Kamaci, Ömer

    2017-10-01

    Seventy samples from major plutons (mainly granitic) of Western Anatolia (Turkey) have been analyzed by γ-ray spectrometry to determine the specific activities of 238U, 226Ra, 232Th and 40K (Bq/kg). Τhe natural radioactivity ranged up to 264 Bq/kg for 238U, 229.62 Bq/kg for 226Ra, up to 207.32 Bq/kg for 232Th and up to 2541.95 Bq/kg for 40K. Any possible relationship between the specific activities of 226Ra, 238U, 232Th and 40K and some characteristics of the studied samples (age, rock-type, colour, grain size, occurrence, chemical and mineralogical composition) was investigated. Age, major and trace element geochemistry, color, pluton location and mineralogical composition are likely to affect the concentrations of the measured radionuclides. The range of the Th/U ratio was large (0.003-11.374). The latter, along with 226Ra/238U radioactive secular disequilibrium, is also discussed and explained by magmatic processes during differentiation.

  17. Topological defects in extended inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copeland, E.J. (Department of Physics, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QH (United Kingdom)); Kolb, E.W. (NASA/Fermilab Astrophysics Center, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL (USA) Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Enrico Fermi Institute, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (USA)); Liddle, A.R. (Astronomy Centre, Department of Physics, University of Sussex, Brighton (United Kingdom))

    1990-10-15

    We consider the production of topological defects, especially cosmic strings, in extended-inflation models. In extended inflation, the Universe passes through a first-order phase transition via bubble percolation, which naturally allows defects to form at the end of inflation. The correlation length, which determines the number density of the defects, is related to the mean size of the bubbles when they collide. This mechanism allows a natural combination of inflation and large-scale structure via cosmic strings.

  18. Topological defects in extended inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copeland, E.J. (Sussex Univ., Brighton (UK). Dept. of Physics); Kolb, E.W. (Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (USA) Chicago Univ., IL (USA). Enrico Fermi Inst.); Liddle, A.R. (Sussex Univ., Brighton (UK). Astronomy Centre)

    1990-04-01

    We consider the production of topological defects, especially cosmic strings, in extended inflation models. In extended inflation, the Universe passes through a first-order phase transition via bubble percolation, which naturally allows defects to form at the end of inflation. The correlation length, which determines the number density of the defects, is related to the mean size of bubbles when they collide. This mechanism allows a natural combination of inflation and large-scale structure via cosmic strings. 18 refs.

  19. Extended lactation in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Annette; Muir, D. Donald; Knight, Christopher Harold

    2008-01-01

    of the lactation, protein and fat percentages increasing and lactose percentage decreasing, irrespective of treatment. The quality of the milk for processing into cheese, fermented products, heat-treated products and cream liqueurs was assessed by calculation of casein number (casein protein as a proportion...... interventions, the results lend support to the economic arguments in favour of extended lactation cycles. The likely welfare benefits of extended lactation are also discussed....

  20. Regional models of metal production in Western Asia in the Chalcolithic, Early and Middle Bronze Ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avilova, Liudmila

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is the reconstruction and comparative analysis of regional models of metal production in the Chalcolithic, Early and Middle Bronze Ages. The work is based on the statistical analysis of unique computer database on archaeological metal finds from four regions of the Near East: Anatolia, Mesopotamia, the Levant, and Iran. The materials are analysed by four indicators: distribution by the chronological periods, artefacts’ function, proportion of used metals and copper- based alloys. The author presents a series of conclusions concerning the preconditions for the beginnings of metal production in Western Asia and the pioneering role of Iran in its emergence, the important role the piedmont territories played in the development of metal production, the leap-like pattern of production dynamics shown by the periods, and its relation to the spread of a producing economy, long-distance exchange, and the emergence of the early civilizations.

    El objetivo de este trabajo es la reconstrucción y análisis comparativo de modelos regionales de producción metalúrgica del Calcolítico y la Edad del Bronce Inicial y Media. Se basa en el análisis estadístico de una base de datos única sobre hallazgos metálicos de cuatro regiones del Próximo Oriente: Anatolia, Mesopotamia, el Levante e Irán. Los materiales se analizan atendiendo a cuatro variables: períodos cronológicos, función de los artefactos, proporción de los metales usados y las distintas aleaciones del cobre. La autora aporta una serie de conclusiones respecto a las precondiciones para los inicios de la producción metalúrgica en el Oeste Asiático; sobre el papel pionero de Irán en su aparición; la importancia de los piedemontes en su desarrollo; el patrón no continuo que se observa en las dinámicas de producción por periodos; y su relación con la expansión de la economía de producción, el intercambio a larga distancia y la aparición de las

  1. Extender for securing a closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, II, Patrick A.

    2012-10-02

    An apparatus for securing a closure such as door or a window that opens and closes by movement relative to a fixed structure such as a wall or a floor. Many embodiments provide a device for relocating a padlock from its normal location where it secures a fastener (such as a hasp) to a location for the padlock that is more accessible for locking and unlocking the padlock. Typically an extender is provided, where the extender has a hook at a first end that is disposed through the eye of the staple of the hasp, and at an opposing second end the extender has an annulus, such as a hole in the extender or a loop or ring affixed to the extender. The shackle of the padlock may be disposed through the annulus and may be disposed through the eye of a second staple to secure the door or window in a closed or open position. Some embodiments employ a rigid sheath to enclose at least a portion of the extender. Typically the rigid sheath has an open state where the hook is exposed outside the sheath and a closed state where the hook is disposed within the sheath.

  2. The Chinese-Western Intercultural Couple Standards Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiew, Danika N; Halford, W Kim; van de Vijver, Fons J R; Liu, Shuang

    2015-09-01

    We developed the Chinese-Western Intercultural Couple Standards Scale (CWICSS) to assess relationship standards that may differ between Chinese and Western partners and may challenge intercultural couples. The scale assesses 4 Western-derived relationship standards (demonstrations of love, demonstrations of caring, intimacy expression, and intimacy responsiveness) and 4 Chinese-derived relationship standards (relations with the extended family, relational harmony, face, and gender roles). We administered the CWICSS to 983 Chinese and Western participants living in Australia to assess the psychometric properties of the scores as measures of respondents' relationship standards. The CWICSS has a 2-level factor structure with the items reflecting the 8 predicted standards. The 4 Western derived standards loaded onto a higher order factor of couple bond, and the 4 Chinese derived standards loaded onto a higher order factor of family responsibility. The scale scores were structurally equivalent across cultures, genders, and 2 independent samples, and good convergent and discriminant validity was found for the interpretation of scale scores as respondents' endorsement of the predicted standards. Scores on the 8 scales and 2 superordinate scales showed high internal consistency and test-retest coefficients. Chinese endorsed all 4 family responsibility standards more strongly than did Westerners, but Chinese and Western participants were similar in endorsement of couple bond standards. Across both cultures, couple bond standards were endorsed more highly than were family responsibility standards. The CWICSS assesses potential areas of conflict in Chinese-Western relationships. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Western Indian Ocean

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Western Indian Ocean. II: The sandfish Holothuria scabra (ja'éger, 1833). Richard Rasolofonirina”, Devaraien Vai'tilingon“, Igor Eeckhaut"3 and Michel jangouxm”. IInstitut Halieurique et des Sciences Marines, Universite' de Toliara, BP 141, Toliara 601, Madagascar;. 2Labarrataire de Biologie Marine (CP 160/15), ...

  4. The western blot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western blotting is a technique that involves the separation of proteins by gel electrophoresis, their blotting or transfer to a membrane, and selective immunodetection of an immobilized antigen. This is an important and routine method for protein analysis that depends on the specificity of antibod...

  5. Holocene insect remains from south-western Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøcher, Jens Jensenius; Bennike, Ole; Wagner, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    Remains of plants and invertebrates from Holocene deposits in south-western Greenland include a number of insect fragments from Heteroptera and Coleoptera. Some of the finds extend the known temporal range of the species considerably back in time, and one of the taxa has not previously been found...... of terrestrial insects complement the scarce fossil Greenland record of the species concerned....

  6. The Florence Rise, the Western Bend of the Cyprus Arc

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woodside, J.M.; Mascle, J.; Zitter, T.A.C.; Limonov, A.F.; Ergun, M.; Volkonskaia, A.

    2002-01-01

    The Florence Rise is a submarine feature extending from the island of Cyprus in the southeast to the Anaximander Mountains which form the northwestern end of the Cyprus Arc south of western Turkey. The eastern Florence Rise includes a topographic high near Cyprus while its central domain displays

  7. Site classification for even-aged stands of western hemlock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George H. Barnes

    1949-01-01

    In 1937 normal yield tables were compiled by Meyer for even-aged stands of Sitka spruce and Western hemlock. The basic data from which the tables were compiled were collected over the entire coastal range of the species, extending from southern Oregon through Washington end British Columbia to southeastern Alaska. Data were obtained from temporary sample plots...

  8. Western USA groundwater drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasechko, S.; Perrone, D.

    2016-12-01

    Groundwater in the western US supplies 40% of the water used for irrigated agriculture, and provides drinking water to individuals living in rural regions distal to perennial rivers. Unfortunately, current groundwater use is not sustainable in a number of key food producing regions. While substantial attention has been devoted to mapping groundwater depletion rates across the western US, the response of groundwater users via well drilling to changing land uses, water demands, pump and drilling technologies, pollution vulnerabilities, and economic conditions remains unknown. Here we analyze millions of recorded groundwater drilling events in the western US that span years 1850 to 2015. We show that groundwater wells are being drilled deeper in some, but not all, regions where groundwater levels are declining. Groundwater wells are generally deeper in arid and mountainous regions characterized by deep water tables (e.g., unconfined alluvial and fractured bedrock aquifers), and in regions that have productive aquifers with high water quality deep under the ground (e.g., confined sedimentary aquifers). Further, we relate water quality and groundwater drilling depths in 40 major aquifer systems across the western US. We show that there is substantial room for improvement to the existing 2-D continental-scale assessments of domestic well water vulnerability to pollution if one considers the depth that the domestic well is screened in addition to pollutant loading, surficial geology, and vertical groundwater flow rates. These new continental-scale maps can be used to (i) better assess economic, water quality, and water balance limitations to groundwater usage, (ii) steer domestic well drilling into productive strata bearing clean and protected groundwater resources, and (iii) assess groundwater management schemes across the western US.

  9. Viability of bull semen extended with commercial semen extender ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Andrea Raseona

    Abstract. The aim of this study was to evaluate the viability of bull spermatozoa diluted with commercial semen extender and two culture media stored at controlled room temperature (24 °C) for 72 hours. Two Nguni bulls were used for semen collection with the aid of an electro-ejaculator. After macroscopic evaluation ...

  10. Extended cognition in science communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, David

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this article is to propose a methodological externalism that takes knowledge about science to be partly constituted by the environment. My starting point is the debate about extended cognition in contemporary philosophy and cognitive science. Externalists claim that human cognition extends beyond the brain and can be partly constituted by external devices. First, I show that most studies of public knowledge about science are based on an internalist framework that excludes the environment we usually utilize to make sense of science and does not allow the possibility of extended knowledge. In a second step, I argue that science communication studies should adopt a methodological externalism and accept that knowledge about science can be partly realized by external information resources such as Wikipedia. © The Author(s) 2013.

  11. Western Military Culture and Counterinsurgency:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    francois

    that industrial Western military culture negatively influenced the ability to wage .... revolution occurred when Western troops started to pay attention to local support for ... The fourth principle is the priority of the fight against the insurgents'.

  12. Gujarat, Western India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Extremely high sediment loads are delivered to the Arabian Sea along the coast of Pakistan (upper left) and western India. In the case of the Indus River (far upper left) this sedimentation, containing large quantities of desert sand, combines with wave action to create a large sand-bar like delta. In the arid environment, the delta lacks much vegetation, but contains numerous mangrove-lined channels. This true-color image from May 2001 shows the transition from India's arid northwest to the wetter regions farther south along the coast. The increase in vegetation along the coast is brought about by the moisture trapping effect of the Western Ghats Mountain Range that runs north-south along the coast. Heavy sediment is visible in the Gulf of Kachchh (north) and the Gulf of Khambhat(south), which surround the Gujarat Peninsula.

  13. Holocene Time-slip history of normal fault scarps in western Turkey: 36Cl surface exposure dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozafari Amiri, N.; Sümer, Ö.; Tikhomirov, D.; Özkaymak, Ç.; Uzel, B.; Ivy-Ochs, S.; Vockenhuber, C.; Sözbilir, H.; Akçar, N.

    2016-12-01

    Bedrock fault scarps built in carbonates are the most direct evidence of past earthquakes to reconstruct long-term seismic outline using 36Cl cosmogenic nuclides. The western Anatolia is an active seismic region, in which several major graben systems are formed mainly in carbonates commenced by roughly N-S extensional regime since the early Miocene. The oldest known earthquake in the Eastern Mediterranean and Middle East dates back to 464 B.C. However, to evaluate the earthquake pattern, a complete seismic data over a large time-scale is required. For modelling of seismic periods, a Matlab® code is used based on acceleration of production rate of 36Cl following exposure of fresh material to cosmic rays. By measuring the amount of cosmogenic 36Cl versus height on the fault surface, the timing of significant ruptures and vertical displacements are explored. The best scenario is obtained with the minimum difference between the modelled and measured 36Cl. An ideal target spot is a minimum-eroded surface with length of at least two meters from the intersection of the fault with colluvium. After continuous marking of 10 cm height and 15 cm width on the fault, the samples of 3 cm thick are collected. The geometrical factors of scarp dip, scarp height, top surface dip and colluvium dip are measured. Topographic shielding, density of the fault scarp and colluvium are also estimated. Afterwards, the samples are physically and chemically prepared in laboratory for elemental analysis and AMS measurements. In this study, we collected 584 samples from seven major faults in western Anatolia. Our first results indicate five earthquake sequences in the Priene-Sazlı fault since early Holocene with a recurrence interval of approximately 2000 years and slip of 1.3 to 2.9 meters. The two most recent ruptures are correlated with 1955 and 68 AD earthquakes. A slip rate of roughly 1 mm/yr throughout the activity periods is estimated. Regarding the rupture length, the fault has potential

  14. HLA-A, -B, -DRB1 allele and haplotype frequencies and comparison with blood group antigens in dialysis patients in the East Anatolia region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayhan, B; Kurtoglu, E L; Taskapan, H; Piskin, T; Sahin, I; Otlu, G; Unal, B

    2013-01-01

    The first aim of that study was to investigate HLA class I and class II allele and haplotype frequencies in renal dialysis patients who live in East Anatolia in Turkey. Our second aim was to investigate whether there was a relationship between ABO and D blood group antigens and HLA alleles and haplotypes for the study group. HLA class I and II polymorphisms in 408 renal dialysis patients were studied using sequence-specific primers (SSP) and sequence-specific oligonucleotides (SSO). Blood group antigens were detected by agglutination methods on microplates. A total of 16 HLA-A, 34 HLA-B, and 15 HLA-DRB1 alleles were identified. The most frequent HLA-A alleles were HLA-A*02, HLA-A*24, and HLA-A*11. The most frequent HLA-B alleles were HLA-B*35, HLA-B*51, and HLA-B*44. In case of HLA-DRB1; HLA-DRB1*11, HLA-DRB1*04, and HLA-DRB1*13 were first 3 alleles with higher frequency, in order. In the combination of those 3 alleles, the most frequent HLA-A-B-DRB1 haplotypes were HLA-A*02-B*51-DRB1*11, HLA-A*11-B*35-DRB1*11, A*24-B*35-DRB1*11. The frequency of ABO, D blood group antigens were observed as 0.168 for A Rh(+), 0.019 for A Rh(-), 0.057 for B Rh(+), 0.013 for B Rh(-), 0.123 for O Rh(+), 0.014 for O Rh(-), 0.018 for AB Rh(+), and 0.001 for AB Rh(-). While A Rh(+) samples with HLA-A*02 and HLA-DRB1*11 had the highest frequencies (0.067 and 0.088, respectively), O Rh(+) samples with HLA-B*51 had the highest frequency (0.06). According to haplotype frequencies HLA-A*02-B*51-DRB1*11 is also found at higher frequencies in Bulgarian and Armenian populations. In case of HLA-associated diseases, the east Anatolian population could be susceptible to myastenia gravis, Behçet's disease, and systemic sclerosis due to the high frequencies of HLA-A*24, HLA-B*51, and HLA-DRB1*11 respectively. We did not observe a correlation between blood group antigens and HLA alleles or haplotypes in renal dialysis patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Age and duration of intra-oceanic arc volcanism built on a suprasubduction zone type oceanic crust in southern Neotethys, SE Anatolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Karaoğlan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The southeastern Anatolia comprises numbers of tectono-magmatic/stratigraphic units such as the metamorphic massifs, the ophiolites, the volcanic arc units and the granitoid rocks. All of them play important role for the late Cretaceous evolution of the southern Neotethys. The spatial and temporal relations of these units suggest the progressive development of coeval magmatism and thrusting during the late Cretaceous northward subduction/accretion. Our new U-Pb zircon data from the rhyolitic rocks of the wide-spread volcanic arc unit show ages of (83.1 ± 2.2–(74.6 ± 4.4 Ma. Comparison of the ophiolites, the volcanic arc units and the granitoids suggest following late Cretaceous geological evolution. The ophiolites formed in a suprasubduction zone (SSZ setting as a result of northward intra-oceanic subduction. A wide-spread island-arc tholeiitic volcanic unit developed on the top of the SSZ-type crust during 83–75 Ma. Related to regional plate convergence, northward under-thrusting of SSZ-type ophiolites and volcanic arc units was initiated beneath the Tauride platform (Malatya-Keban and followed by the intrusion of I-type calc-alkaline volcanic arc granitoids during 84–82 Ma. New U-Pb ages from the arc-related volcanic-sedimentary unit and granitoids indicate that under-thrusting of ophiolites together with the arc-related units beneath the Malatya-Keban platform took place soon after the initiation of the volcanic arc on the top of the SSZ-type crust. Then the arc-related volcanic-sedimentary unit continued its development and lasted at ∼75 Ma until the deposition of the late Campanian–Maastrichtian shallow marine limestone. The subduction trench eventually collided with the Bitlis-Pütürge massif giving rise to HP-LT metamorphism of the Bitlis massif. Although the development of the volcanic arc units and the granitoids were coeval at the initial stage of the subduction/accretion both tectono-magmatic units were

  16. The Role of Fractional Crystallization and Magma Mixing/Mingling in the Genesis of Karacaali Magmatic Complex (Central Anatolia, Turkey) Fe, Mo-Cu Mineralizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delibas, O.; Genc, Y.; de Campos, C. P.

    2009-05-01

    This work brings into focus different metal associations (Fe and Mo-Cu) characteristic for the Karacaali Magmatic Complex (KMC), in Central Anatolia, Turkey. The Mo-Cu mineralization is widespread hosted in rhyolitic-rhyodacitic/granidoid rocks or is related to N-S striking vertical quartz-calcite veins. The Fe mineralization, on the other hand, is hosted in gabbroic/basaltic rocks. Field relations and geochronologic studies on single zircons (U-Pb) point towards a coeval temporal relation between plutonites and volcanites. The relatively overlapping ages between monzonite (73.1 Ma) and rhyolitic rocks (67 Ma) reflect a long lasting gradual crystallization within a zoned magma chamber. This is confirmed by progressive transitional contacts from plutonites into volcanites. Based on detailed field, textural and petrographic studies, granitic and monzonitic rocks have been subdivided into four different facies. These are: porphyritic quartz monzonites, quartz-monzonites, fine-grained granites and porphyritic leucogranites. Furthermore, highly diverse textures and structures, which are typical for hybrid rocks, reveal important magma mixing/migling and fractional crystalization processes. From additional geochemical studies, granitic rocks show high Rb/Sr (1.52), nearly flat REE patterns and strong Eu negative anomalies. However; monzonitic and hybrid rocks have relatively low Rb/Sr ratios (0.37 and 0.32) and depleted HREE patterns. Thus, in this complex, granitic rocks are considered as evolved products from the felsic magma. Strong positive Mo-correlation within the granitoids can be explained by a high degree of magmatic fractionation (Ishihara and Tani, 2004). Therefore, last evolved granitic melts are enriched in Mo- rich volatiles giving rise to molybdenite-quartz-calcite veins. Field, macro-micro and chemical studies evidence a co-magmatic origin for the gabbroic/basaltic-hosted Fe-mineralization. Despite the very close relation between compositional character

  17. Superimposed basin formation during Neogene-Quaternary extensional tectonics in SW-Anatolia (Turkey): Insights from the kinematics of the Dinar Fault Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alçiçek, M. Cihat; Brogi, Andrea; Capezzuoli, Enrico; Liotta, Domenico; Meccheri, Marco

    2013-11-01

    In the extensional province of SW-Anatolia, the cross-cutting relationship between the NW- and NE-oriented Neogene and Quaternary basins is an ongoing debate in the understanding of the tectonic evolution of this area. In order to contribute to this issue, we carried out a structural and kinematic study along the seismogenic NW-trending Dinar Fault Zone (DFZ). This structure was initially controlled by the sedimentary and tectonic evolution of the NE-oriented Neogene Baklan, Acıgöl and Burdur basins and, later, by the NW-oriented Quaternary Dinar Basin. On the basis of > 1000 structural and kinematic data, in conjunction with basin stratigraphy, the DFZ can be divided into three almost parallel and continuous bands, that are: (a) the Hangingwall where Quaternary sediments are deformed by normal faults with mechanical striations; (b) the Inner Zone, corresponding to the present Dinar fault scarp, where NW-trending normal faults with mechanical striations are dominant, and (c) the Outer Zone, located in the footwall of the structure comprising the area between the fault scarp and undeformed bedrock, where faults exhibit variable orientation and kinematics, from strike-slip to normal dip-slip. These kinematics are mainly indicated by calcite shear veins and superimposed mechanical striations, respectively. This suggests that the DFZ changed kinematics over time, i.e., the DFZ initiated as dominant dextral strike-slip to oblique-slip fault system and continued with a dominant normal movement. Therefore, we hypothesize that the NW-trending DFZ was initially a transfer zone during the late Miocene-Pliocene, coeval to the sedimentary and structural evolution of the NE-trending Baklan, Acigöl and Burdur basins. During the Quaternary the DFZ, representing an already weakened crustal sector, played the role of a normal fault system providing the accommodation space for the Quaternary Dinar Basin. Hydrothermal circulation and volcanism at NE-/NW-trending faults

  18. Exclusion Bounds for Extended Anyons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Simon; Lundholm, Douglas

    2017-08-01

    We introduce a rigorous approach to the many-body spectral theory of extended anyons, that is quantum particles confined to two dimensions that interact via attached magnetic fluxes of finite extent. Our main results are many-body magnetic Hardy inequalities and local exclusion principles for these particles, leading to estimates for the ground-state energy of the anyon gas over the full range of the parameters. This brings out further non-trivial aspects in the dependence on the anyonic statistics parameter, and also gives improvements in the ideal (non-extended) case.

  19. Extended memory management under RTOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, M.

    1981-01-01

    A technique for extended memory management in ROLM 1666 computers using FORTRAN is presented. A general software system is described for which the technique can be ideally applied. The memory manager interface with the system is described. The protocols by which the manager is invoked are presented, as well as the methods used by the manager.

  20. Extended time-interval analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fynbo, Hans Otto Uldall; Riisager, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    Several extensions of the halflife analysis method recently suggested by Horvat and Hardy are put forward. Goodness-of-fit testing is included, and the method is extended to cases where more information is available for each decay event which allows applications also for e.g. γ decay data. The re...

  1. Extended duration orbiter (EDO) insignia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Extended duration orbiter (EDO) insignia incorporates a space shuttle orbiter with payload bay doors (PLBDs) open and a spacelab module inside. Trailing the orbiter are the initials EDO. The EDO-modified Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, will be flown for the first EDO mission, STS-50.

  2. Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, C. S.; Pool, S. L.; Sawin, C. F.; Nicogossian, A. E.

    1990-01-01

    The Extended Duration Orbiter (EDO) program addresses a need for more time to perform experiments and other tasks during Space Shuttle missions. As a part of this program, the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project (EDOMP) has been instituted to obtain information about physiologic effects of extending mission duration and the effectiveness of countermeasures against factors that might compromise crew health, safety, or performance on extended-duration missions. Only those investigations that address and characterize operational problems, develop countermeasures, or evaluate the effectiveness of countermeasures will be pursued. The EDOMP investigations will include flight-associated Detailed Supplementary Objectives as well as ground-based studies simulating the influence of microgravity. Investigator teams have been formed in the following areas: biomedical physiology, cardiovascular and fluid/electrolyte physiology, environmental health, muscle and exercise physiology, and neurophysiology. Major operational questions must be answered in each of these areas, and investigations have been designed to answer them. The EDO program will proceed only after countermeasures have been shown to be effective in preventing or mitigating the adverse changes they have been designed to attenuate. The program is underway and will continue on each Shuttle flight as the manifest builds toward a 16-day orbital flight.

  3. Applying and extending Oracle Spatial

    CERN Document Server

    Simon Gerard Greener, Siva Ravada

    2013-01-01

    This book is an advanced practical guide to applying and extending Oracle Spatial.This book is for existing users of Oracle and Oracle Spatial who have, at a minimum, basic operational experience of using Oracle or an equivalent database. Advanced skills are not required.

  4. Late Paleozoic Deglaciation in Western Equatorial Pangaea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soreghan, G. S.; Soreghan, M. J.; Eble, C. F.; Sweet, D.; Davogustto, O.; Young, R. A.; Elmore, R. D.

    2005-12-01

    The late Paleozoic icehouse is Earth's best-documented pre-Quaternary icehouse, long thought analogous to our modern world wherein glaciation is confined largely to high-latitude regions. However, emerging data from the Ancestral Rocky Mountains, an intraplate orogenic system in western equatorial Pangaea, indicate that glaciation extended to low latitudes as well. Key data exist in the Uncompahgre-uplift - Paradox basin system (western U.S.) in the form of a preserved Permo-Pennsylvanian glacial valley (ancestral Unaweep Canyon) and associated glacial and proglacial strata (proximal Cutler Formation). Within western Colorado, Unaweep Canyon is a deep, enigmatic, Precambrian-cored gorge that orthogonally bisects the western Uncompahgre Plateau, and is occupied by two underfit creeks flowing from a divide in its midst. A Cenozoic origin for the canyon is difficult to reconcile with geologic data; limited outcrop and well data confirm the canyon harbors a thick fill that includes a basal unit of probable late Paleozoic age as inferred by palynomorph, provenance, and preliminary paleomagnetic data. Geomorphologic attributes of the gorge walls together with preliminary results of cross-canyon gravity profiles indicate the canyon shape is best explained by a glacial genesis. Furthermore, the Permo-Pennsylvanian Cutler Formation onlaps Precambrian basement at the western mouth of the gorge, and contains facies of inferred proglacial (glaciolacustrine and glaciofluvial) origin, including (1) subaqueous sediment gravity flows, dropstones, and large slump blocks of an ice-contact Gilbert-type lacustrine delta, and (2) large-scale, laterally extensive cross-bedded conglomerates that record high-magnitude, outburst-type floods typical of deglaciation. The Cutler facies represent the proximal part of a system that ultimately extended to sea level in the distal Paradox basin. Maximum reasonable depositional gradients on this system yield maximum elevations of 500-1000 m for the

  5. Western Blot Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Brianna

    2017-01-01

    The Western blot is an important laboratory technique that allows for specific identification and characterization of proteins. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE)-separated proteins are electophoretically transferred to a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane which is then incubated with specific antibodies, then developed to show the protein of interest. Here, we describe the transfer and detection of Outer surface protein A (OspA), a protein only found on the surface of Borrelia burgdorferi, the bacteria responsible for Lyme disease.

  6. Evaluate extended surface exchangers carefully

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganapathy, V. (ABCO Industries, Inc., Abilene, TX (US))

    1990-10-01

    Various types of fins, such as circumferential, rectangular, pegs and rods are used in heat transfer equipment. Fins can be used inside as well as on the outside of tubes. However, to illustrate the basic facts of heat transfer and how one should evaluate fins, these discussions pertain to circumferential solid or serrated fins used widely in the energy equipment industry. Extended surfaces have the advantage of reducing the size and weight of heat transfer equipment. In addition they can result in lower gas pressure drop, thus reducing the operating costs. This article compares the performance of an evaporator for a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) using bare and finned tubes. The fact this article brings out is that extended surfaces should be evaluated and purchased based on performance and not based on surface area alone.

  7. Extended Supersymmetries in One Dimension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Toppan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This work covers part of the material presented at the Advanced Summer School in Prague. It is mostly devoted to the structural properties of Extended Supersymmetries in One Dimension. Several results are presented on the classification of linear, irreducible representations realized on a finite number of time-dependent fields. The connections between supersymmetry transformations, Clifford algebras and division algebras are discussed. A manifestly supersymmetric framework for constructing invariants without using the notion of superfields is presented. A few examples of one-dimensional, N-extended, off-shell invariant sigma models are computed. The relation between supersymmetry transformations and graph theory is outlined. The notion of the fusion algebra of irreps tensor products is presented. The relevance of one-dimensional Supersymmetric Quantum Mechanics as a way to extract information on higher dimensional supersymmetric field theories is discussed. 

  8. Extending a browser C++ simulator

    OpenAIRE

    Segarra Roca, Albert

    2017-01-01

    Getting started in computer programming involves using a number of tools such as editors, compilers, debuggers, and terminals. Learning how to use them can be challenging for programming begginers, and installing them may be demanding for certain organizations such as high schools. C– is a project that aims to bridge this gap by providing an educational C++ development environment that runs in a web browser. The goal of this thesis is to extend and improve the current implement...

  9. Locating and extending livelihoods research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prowse, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Much poverty and development research is not explicit about its methodology or philosophical foundations. Based on the extended case method of Burawoy and the epistemological standpoint of critical realism, this paper discusses a methodological approach for reflexive inductive livelihoods research...... that overcomes the unproductive social science dualism of positivism and social constructivism. The approach is linked to a conceptual framework and a menu of research methods that can be sequenced and iterated in light of research questions....

  10. Evolving extended naive Bayes classifiers

    OpenAIRE

    Klawonn, Frank; Angelov, Plamen

    2006-01-01

    Naive Bayes classifiers are a very simple, but often effective tool for classification problems, although they are based on independence assumptions that do not hold in most cases. Extended naive Bayes classifiers also rely on independence assumptions, but break them down to artificial subclasses, in this way becoming more powerful than ordinary naive Bayes classifiers. Since the involved computations for Bayes classifiers are basically generalised mean value calculations, they easily render ...

  11. Extending Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Detection to Older Age Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makrygiannis, Georgios; Labalue, Philippe; Erpicum, Marie

    2016-01-01

    . Current screening policies (e.g., men aged 65-74 years), however, do not account for aging and increased life expectancy of Western populations. This study investigated AAA detection by extending the target population to older age groups (75-85 years). METHODS: AAA screening was conducted in the County......-74 age group but rose to 7.3% in the age-extended group (75-85 years). Further in addition to age, height, current smoking, history of coronary artery disease, hypercholesterolemia, peripheral artery disease of the lower limbs, and varicose veins were significantly associated with the presence of AAA....... CONCLUSIONS: These preliminary findings, based on a representative sample of the elderly population of the Liège region, support the idea that current AAA screening policies should be updated to cover an increasingly aging population. The presence of varicose veins as a potential risk factor for AAA should...

  12. Sediments of Lake Van - a high-resolution archive of changing climate, volcanic events and seismic activity in Eastern Anatolia for the last 500'000 yrs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockhecke, M.; Anselmetti, F. S.; Sturm, M.; Paleovan Scientific Party

    2012-04-01

    Varved sedimentary records have shown their high potential to reconstruct abrupt and global climate change within the marine realm (e.g. Cariaco Basin, Santa Barbara Basin). Continental counterparts, consisting of long and varved lacustrine records can be found in the subsurface of some deep lakes, such as Lake Van. Lake Van is a 440 m deep closed soda lake situated in a climatically sensitive semiarid and tectonically active region in Eastern Anatolia, Turkey. The ICDP project Paleovan aims to reconstruct the climatic, tectonic and volcanic history of Lake Van. Driven by an international and interdisciplinary scientific team, two sites, Ahlat Ridge (AR) and Northern Basin (NB) were drilled in summer 2010 recovering sedimentary records of 220 and 140 m, respectively. A total of 800 m of sediment-cores were opened, described and photographed in spring 2011 at the IODP core repository in Bremen. Lithologies of up to five parallel cores (multiple coring) were correlated and a composite profile was defined giving priority to core quality and continuity. Preliminary Ar/Ar dates of the core catcher yielded a basal ages of ~500´000 years. Using this rough age model, geochemical measurements (every 20 cm) indicate that TOC is high in warmer periods (interglacials) and low in colder periods (glacials). These TOC fluctuations match marine isotope stages and extrapolated Holocene sedimentation rates. The 219 m long AR composite profile consists of ~80 % lacustrine sediments, ~10 % of volcaniclastic deposits and 10 % gaps interpreted to be coarse-grained volcaniclastic that are difficult to be recovered. The lacustrine mud, i.e., clayey silt composed of mainly clay minerals and carbonate. Based on major macroscopic sediment features eight major lacustrine sediment types (~900 layer) were differentiated and separated from the volcaniclastic deposits (300 layer). Impressive color transitions and a repetitive pattern of similar lithological successions occur throughout the

  13. Implications of Late Cretaceous U-Pb zircon ages of granitic intrusions cutting ophiolitic and volcanogenic rocks for the assembly of the Tauride allochthon in SE Anatolia (Helete area, Kahramanmaraş Region, SE Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurlu, Nusret; Parlak, Osman; Robertson, Alastair; von Quadt, Albrecht

    2016-01-01

    An assemblage of NE-SW-trending, imbricate thrust slices (c. 26 km E-W long × 6.3 km N-S) of granitic rocks, basic-felsic volcanogenic rocks (Helete volcanics), ophiolitic rocks (Meydan ophiolite) and melange (Meydan melange) is exposed near the Tauride thrust front in SE Anatolia. The volcanogenic rocks were previously assumed to be Eocene because of associated Nummulitic limestones. However, ion probe U-Pb dating of zircons extracted from the intrusive granitic rocks yielded ages of 92.9 ± 2.2-83.1 ± 1.5 Ma (Cenomanian-Campanian). The Helete volcanic unit and the overlying Meydan ophiolitic rocks both are intruded by granitic rocks of similar age and composition. Structurally underlying ophiolite-related melange includes similar-aged, but fragmented granitic intrusions. Major, trace element and rare earth element analyses coupled with electron microprobe analysis of the granitic rocks show that they are metaluminus to peraluminus and calc-alkaline in composition. A magmatic arc setting is inferred from a combination of tectonomagmatic discrimination, ocean ridge granite-normalized multi-element patterns and biotite geochemistry. Sr-Nd-Pb isotope data further suggest that the granitoid rocks were derived from variably mixed mantle and crustal sources. Granitic rocks cutting the intrusive rocks are inferred to have crystallized at ~5-16 km depth. The volcanogenic rocks and granitic rocks originated in a supra-subduction zone setting that was widely developed throughout SE Anatolia. Initial tectonic assembly took place during the Late Cretaceous probably related to northward subduction and accretion beneath the Tauride continent (Keban and Malatya platforms). Initial tectonic assembly was followed by exhumation and then transgression by shelf-depth Nummulitic limestones during Mid-Eocene, as documented in several key outcrops. Final emplacement onto the Arabian continental margin took place during the Early Miocene.

  14. An extended framework for science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazalis, Roland

    2017-12-01

    We may be at the cusp of a next generation framework for science which can be facilitated by understanding current limitations in the context of a divergence of 'scientific' tradition from the Axial Age (800-200 BCE) to the present. A powerful advance may come from fusing certain elements from Western and Eastern traditions, synthesizing the framework with an apt understanding of the divergence. Key traits will include the ethopoetic nature of the scientist with attention to his/her experience of self. The framework will also 'access' knowledge through a state of mind less encumbered with paradoxes, duality, incompatibility and other aporias. Case studies in biology and physics illustrate possibilities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Archeomagnetism in Western Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvin, A.; Lanos, P.

    2001-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a short review of the archeomagnetic research conducted in Europe. Reference curves of the directional variations of the geomagnetic field over the last two thousand years are now available for France, Great Britain, Bulgaria, Hungary, Ukraine and Caucasus. A reference curve, built using historical volcanic rocks was also published for Italy. Less detailed results were obtained in Germany, Greece, Switzerland, Denmark and Belgium. Our knowledge of the secular variation of the field for older periods is more limited, except in Bulgaria. Very recently, data covering the first millennium BC were obtained in France and Germany. Few paleointensity data have been collected in Western Europe in comparison with other archaeomagnetic areas, such as Bulgaria. More knowledge about the variations of the geomagnetic field strength will allow for developing better models of the past geomagnetic field and should also be useful for future archaeomagnetic dating, especially in the case of pottery and for displaced objects such as tiles, where only the paleoinclination and the paleointensity can be determined. For paleointensity determinations, different experimental techniques (methods of Thellier, Shaw, Tanguy) and different materials (tiles, bricks, pottery) were used. The effect of thermoremanent magnetization (TRM) anisotropy upon the paleointensity values was investigated by different teams. The most efficient method of correction for this effect is to determine the TRM anisotropy tensors for each sample. The effect of the cooling rate upon the TRM intensity seems more difficult to correct. An analysis of the paleointensity data available for the last two thousand years, obtained from sites in Western Europe, was performed using a weighting factor which takes into account the number and type of the samples studied as well as the technique used for the paleointensity determination. This analysis clearly shows that some of the existing data

  16. DuPage County, Ill., makes federal case to extend road through national lab.

    CERN Multimedia

    Meyer, H G

    2003-01-01

    DuPage County officials have submitted plans to extend a highway through the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. Citing a need for more north-south options along the county's western edge, the officials proposed a four-lane roadway including a new 5.5-mile segment curving through the national particle physics research laboratory (1 page).

  17. Departies: conceptualizing extended youth parties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjær, Eivind Grip; Tutenges, Sébastien

    2017-01-01

    -taking behaviors, such as drug use and violence. Here, we scrutinize the research on extended youth parties to identify general changes that young people undergo at these events. We call these celebrations departies, because they center on the organization and facilitation of momentary departures from...... immoral; (4) stylistically, by altering their stylistic expressions through dress, demeanor, and consumption; and (5) experientially, because the parties generate mood and mind alterations. These are overlapping and intertwined elements, the combination of which amounts to a distinct type of youth party...

  18. Comparative study of the topography and sediments of the western and eastern continental shelves around Cape Comorin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Hashimi, N.H.; Kidwai, R.M.; Nair, R.R.

    Western and eastern continental shelves around Cape Comorin show 3 well-defined regions of depositional environments each having its own characteric features. The environments extend from Cochin to Quilon Quilon to Cape Comorin and Cape Comorin...

  19. Production of hybrids between western gray wolves and western coyotes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L David Mech

    Full Text Available Using artificial insemination we attempted to produce hybrids between captive, male, western, gray wolves (Canis lupus and female, western coyotes (Canis latrans to determine whether their gametes would be compatible and the coyotes could produce and nurture offspring. The results contribute new information to an ongoing controversy over whether the eastern wolf (Canis lycaon is a valid unique species that could be subject to the U. S. Endangered Species Act. Attempts with transcervically deposited wolf semen into nine coyotes over two breeding seasons yielded three coyote pregnancies. One coyote ate her pups, another produced a resorbed fetus and a dead fetus by C-section, and the third produced seven hybrids, six of which survived. These results show that, although it might be unlikely for male western wolves to successfully produce offspring with female western coyotes under natural conditions, western-gray-wolf sperm are compatible with western-coyote ova and that at least one coyote could produce and nurture hybrid offspring. This finding in turn demonstrates that gamete incompatibility would not have prevented western, gray wolves from inseminating western coyotes and thus producing hybrids with coyote mtDNA, a claim that counters the view that the eastern wolf is a separate species. However, some of the difficulties experienced by the other inseminated coyotes tend to temper that finding and suggest that more experimentation is needed, including determining the behavioral and physical compatibility of western gray wolves copulating with western coyotes. Thus although our study adds new information to the controversy, it does not settle it. Further study is needed to determine whether the putative Canis lycaon is indeed a unique species.

  20. Production of hybrids between western gray wolves and western coyotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L David; Christensen, Bruce W; Asa, Cheryl S; Callahan, Margaret; Young, Julie K

    2014-01-01

    Using artificial insemination we attempted to produce hybrids between captive, male, western, gray wolves (Canis lupus) and female, western coyotes (Canis latrans) to determine whether their gametes would be compatible and the coyotes could produce and nurture offspring. The results contribute new information to an ongoing controversy over whether the eastern wolf (Canis lycaon) is a valid unique species that could be subject to the U. S. Endangered Species Act. Attempts with transcervically deposited wolf semen into nine coyotes over two breeding seasons yielded three coyote pregnancies. One coyote ate her pups, another produced a resorbed fetus and a dead fetus by C-section, and the third produced seven hybrids, six of which survived. These results show that, although it might be unlikely for male western wolves to successfully produce offspring with female western coyotes under natural conditions, western-gray-wolf sperm are compatible with western-coyote ova and that at least one coyote could produce and nurture hybrid offspring. This finding in turn demonstrates that gamete incompatibility would not have prevented western, gray wolves from inseminating western coyotes and thus producing hybrids with coyote mtDNA, a claim that counters the view that the eastern wolf is a separate species. However, some of the difficulties experienced by the other inseminated coyotes tend to temper that finding and suggest that more experimentation is needed, including determining the behavioral and physical compatibility of western gray wolves copulating with western coyotes. Thus although our study adds new information to the controversy, it does not settle it. Further study is needed to determine whether the putative Canis lycaon is indeed a unique species.

  1. Western Australian goldfields gas up for the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchinson, R. [Goldfields Gas Transmission Joint Venture, West Perth, WA (Australia)

    1995-12-31

    A $A400 million project to pipe gas from fields in the Carnarvon Basin to iron ore mining areas in the Pilbara and the gold and nickel mines around Kalgoorlie is described in this article. It aims to provide a cheaper source of power generation to the industries along its route. Goldfields Gas Transmission joint venture, comprising Western Mining Corporation, BHP Minerals and Normandy Poseidon, were given approval to construct the pipeline by the Western Australian Government. On completion the pipeline will extend from Yarraloola in north west of Western Australia to Kalgoorlie in the Eastern Goldfields to the south, a total of 620 km. It is believed that it could be several years before the joint venturers receive a return on their investment but is expected to become a catalyst for lower cost energy and general development along the pipeline route. 2 figs., 5 photos.

  2. Topics in Extended Dynamical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagavatula, Ravi S.

    This thesis consists of three chapters. Each chapter is self-contained and is devoted to the investigation of a particular topic in extended dynamical systems. In the first chapter, an approach based on Langevin equations is implemented to understand the non-Gaussian nature of the probability distribution function (PDF) of local diffusive variables in extended dynamical systems, e.g., a passive scalar advected by turbulent velocity fluctuations. Two mechanisms are proposed for the origin of non-Gaussian tails: One relies on the nature of temporal correlations of the fluctuations that couple additively to the diffusive field, leading to exponential and stretched exponential tails in the PDF; the other depends on multiplicative coupling between the diffusive field and the fluctuations, producing algebraic tails in the PDF. The mechanisms are illustrated using models for a passive scalar and also a current driven Josephson junction array. This study indicates that shapes of local PDFs in turbulent states are non-universal and crucially depend on local couplings and time scales. The second chapter establishes the existence of a class of locally conserving chaotic (deterministic) systems that exhibit Generic Scale Invariance--algebraic decay of spatial and temporal correlations without tuning parameters. This study also reveals the similarity between noise and chaos in extended systems as far as long-wavelength and long -time behavior is concerned. Specifically, a two dimensional coupled-map lattice model with a conserved density is numerically shown to exhibit, in agreement with heuristic arguments, algebraic decay of spatio-temporal correlations in chaotic states with simple predictable exponents. The third chapter investigates scaling behavior of earthquakes in seismic zone models in which an earthquake is modeled by a quasi-static description that ignores short -time dynamics during an earthquake. The models incorporate the essential feature of long-ranged stress

  3. From Eastern to Western Arabic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Margaret

    This manual is designed to provide instruction for persons who have learned well a dialect of Eastern Arabic, Levantine, and who desire to use a Western Arabic dialect, Moroccan. Special features of Western Arabic pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary, and social usage are listed. Attention is given to the recognition of correspondences between the…

  4. Western Forests and Air Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    United States Environmental Protection Agency

    1992-01-01

    This book addresses the relationships between air pollution in the western United States and trends in the growth and condition of Western coniferous forests. The West is defined in this case as the eleven conterminous states of California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, Nevada, Arizona, New Mexico, Utah, Colorado, Wyoming, and Montana. Approximately one-third of the West is forested, primarily by coniferous forest types.

  5. Extended uncertainty from first principles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa Filho, Raimundo N., E-mail: rai@fisica.ufc.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Caixa Postal 6030, Campus do Pici, 60455-760 Fortaleza, Ceará (Brazil); Braga, João P.M., E-mail: philipe@fisica.ufc.br [Instituto de Ciências Exatas e da Natureza-ICEN, Universidade da Integração Internacional da Lusofonia Afro-Brasileira-UNILAB, Campus dos Palmares, 62785-000 Acarape, Ceará (Brazil); Lira, Jorge H.S., E-mail: jorge.lira@mat.ufc.br [Departamento de Matemática, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Caixa Postal 6030, Campus do Pici, 60455-760 Fortaleza, Ceará (Brazil); Andrade, José S., E-mail: soares@fisica.ufc.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Caixa Postal 6030, Campus do Pici, 60455-760 Fortaleza, Ceará (Brazil)

    2016-04-10

    A translation operator acting in a space with a diagonal metric is introduced to describe the motion of a particle in a quantum system. We show that the momentum operator and, as a consequence, the uncertainty relation now depend on the metric. It is also shown that, for any metric expanded up to second order, this formalism naturally leads to an extended uncertainty principle (EUP) with a minimum momentum dispersion. The Ehrenfest theorem is modified to include an additional term related to a tidal force arriving from the space curvature introduced by the metric. For one-dimensional systems, we show how to map a harmonic potential to an effective potential in Euclidean space using different metrics.

  6. Center for Extended Magnetohydrodynamics Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Jesus [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2017-02-14

    This researcher participated in the DOE-funded Center for Extended Magnetohydrodynamics Modeling (CEMM), a multi-institutional collaboration led by the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory with Dr. Stephen Jardin as the overall Principal Investigator. This project developed advanced simulation tools to study the non-linear macroscopic dynamics of magnetically confined plasmas. The collaborative effort focused on the development of two large numerical simulation codes, M3D-C1 and NIMROD, and their application to a wide variety of problems. Dr. Ramos was responsible for theoretical aspects of the project, deriving consistent sets of model equations applicable to weakly collisional plasmas and devising test problems for verification of the numerical codes. This activity was funded for twelve years.

  7. Hamiltonian dynamics of extended objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capovilla, R [Departamento de FIsica, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Apdo Postal 14-740, 07000 Mexico, DF (Mexico); Guven, J [School of Theoretical Physics, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 10 Burlington Road, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Rojas, E [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apdo Postal 70-543, 04510 Mexico, DF (Mexico)

    2004-12-07

    We consider relativistic extended objects described by a reparametrization-invariant local action that depends on the extrinsic curvature of the worldvolume swept out by the object as it evolves. We provide a Hamiltonian formulation of the dynamics of such higher derivative models which is motivated by the ADM formulation of general relativity. The canonical momenta are identified by looking at boundary behaviour under small deformations of the action; the relationship between the momentum conjugate to the embedding functions and the conserved momentum density is established. The canonical Hamiltonian is constructed explicitly; the constraints on the phase space, both primary and secondary, are identified and the role they play in the theory is described. The multipliers implementing the primary constraints are identified in terms of the ADM lapse and shift variables and Hamilton's equations are shown to be consistent with the Euler-Lagrange equations.

  8. Extended mission life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrone, P. D.

    1985-01-01

    Extended manned space missions which include interplanetary missions require regenerative life support systems. Manned mission life support considerations are placed in perspective and previous manned space life support system technology, activities and accomplishments in current supporting research and technology (SR&T) programs are reviewed. The life support subsystem/system technologies required for an enhanced duration orbiter (EDO) and a space operations center (SOC), regenerative life support functions and technology required for manned interplanetary flight vehicles, and future development requirements are outlined. The Space Shuttle Orbiters (space transportation system) is space cabin atmosphere is maintained at Earth ambient pressure of 14.7 psia (20% O2 and 80% N2). The early Shuttle flights will be seven-day flights, and the life support system flight hardware will still utilize expendables.

  9. Extended Fundamental Model of Resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breiter, Sławomir

    2003-03-01

    Fundamental models are the simplest, one degree of freedom Hamiltonians that serve as a tool to understand the qualitative effects of various resonances. A new, extended fundamental model (EFM) is proposed in order to improve the classical, Andoyer type, second fundamental model (SFM). The EFM Hamiltonian differs from the SFM by the addition of a term with the third power of momentum; it depends on two free parameters. The new model is studied for the case of a first-order resonance, where up to five critical points can be present. Similarly, to the respective SFM, it admits only the saddle-node bifurcations of critical points, but its advantage lies in the capability of generating the separatrix bifurcations, known also as saddle connections. The reduction of parameters for the EFM has been performed in a way that allows the use of the model in the case of the so-called abnormal resonance.

  10. Learning Extended Finite State Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassel, Sofia; Howar, Falk; Jonsson, Bengt; Steffen, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    We present an active learning algorithm for inferring extended finite state machines (EFSM)s, combining data flow and control behavior. Key to our learning technique is a novel learning model based on so-called tree queries. The learning algorithm uses the tree queries to infer symbolic data constraints on parameters, e.g., sequence numbers, time stamps, identifiers, or even simple arithmetic. We describe sufficient conditions for the properties that the symbolic constraints provided by a tree query in general must have to be usable in our learning model. We have evaluated our algorithm in a black-box scenario, where tree queries are realized through (black-box) testing. Our case studies include connection establishment in TCP and a priority queue from the Java Class Library.

  11. Catalytic distillation extends its reach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rock, K.; McGuirk, T. [Catalytic Distillation Technologies, Houston, TX (United States); Gildert, G.R. [Catalytic Distillation Technologies, Pasadena, TX (United States)

    1997-07-01

    Since the early 1980s, catalytic distillation processes have been selected by more than a hundred operators for various applications. Since such a unit performs both reaction and distillation simultaneously, a combined column can replace a separate, fixed-bed reactor and distillation column, thereby eliminating equipment and reducing capital costs. And, compared to the conventional approach, catalytic distillation may also improve other factors, such as reactant conversion, selectivity, mass transfer, operating pressure, oligomer formation and catalyst fouling. The constant washing of the catalyst by liquid flowing down the column and the distillation of high-boiling foulants results in extended catalyst life. Four selective hydrogenation applications of catalytic distillation are discussed: Butadiene selective hydrogenation combined within an MTBE unit; Pentadiene selective hydrogenation; C{sub 4} acetylene conversion; and Benzene saturation.

  12. Oral hydromorphone extended-release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guay, David R P

    2010-12-01

    To review the chemistry, pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, efficacy, tolerability, dosing, and role of the Osmotic-controlled Release Oral delivery System (OROS) hydromorphone extended-release (ER) tablets. A MEDLINE/PUBMED search (1986-August 2010) was conducted to identify studies in the English language, with additional references being obtained from their bibliographies. All studies of hydromorphone ER were reviewed. This is the second long-acting hydromorphone formulation to receive approval by the Food and Drug Administration (a twice-daily formulation was approved in September 2004, but was subsequently withdrawn in July 2005). Hydromorphone is a semi-synthetic mu-opioid receptor agonist structurally similar to morphine, hydrocodone, and oxymorphone. OROS ER technology allows once-daily dosing. Clinical trials have focused on the convertibility of (an) other opioid(s) to hydromorphone ER in chronic malignant and nonmalignant pain. This product displays the expected opioid side effects, being comparable to oxycodone controlled-release. Coadministration with ethanol does not produce the degree of "dose-dumping" seen with the former hydromorphone twice-daily product or oxymorphone ER. Hydromorphone ER is indicated for the management of moderate-to-severe pain in opioidtolerant patients requiring continuous, around-the-clock opioid analgesia for an extended period of time. Dosage adjustment is recommended in patients with moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh class B) and moderate renal impairment (creatinine clearance of 30-60 mL/min). Hydromorphone ER is the newest oral opioid to enter a crowded marketplace now totaling 15 different Schedule 2 opioids (including tapentadol), and tramadol, available in oral, parenteral, rectal, transdermal, transmucosal, and intranasal formulations. It does not appear to have any unique assets or liabilities and should be considered as one of many oral opioids available for the management of persistent pain of moderate

  13. THE EXTENDED VIRGO CLUSTER CATALOG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Suk; Rey, Soo-Chang; Lee, Youngdae; Chung, Jiwon; Pak, Mina; Yi, Wonhyeong; Lee, Woong [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Jerjen, Helmut [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston, ACT 2611 (Australia); Lisker, Thorsten [Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg (ZAH), Mönchhofstraße 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Sung, Eon-Chang [Korea Astronomy and Space Science institute, 776 Daedeokdae-ro, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-01

    We present a new catalog of galaxies in the wider region of the Virgo cluster, based on the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7. The Extended Virgo Cluster Catalog (EVCC) covers an area of 725 deg{sup 2} or 60.1 Mpc{sup 2}. It is 5.2 times larger than the footprint of the classical Virgo Cluster Catalog (VCC) and reaches out to 3.5 times the virial radius of the Virgo cluster. We selected 1324 spectroscopically targeted galaxies with radial velocities less than 3000 km s{sup –1}. In addition, 265 galaxies that have been overlooked in the SDSS spectroscopic survey but have available redshifts in the NASA Extragalactic Database are also included. Our selection process secured a total of 1589 galaxies, 676 of which are not included in the VCC. The certain and possible cluster members are defined by means of redshift comparison with a cluster infall model. We employed two independent and complementary galaxy classification schemes: the traditional morphological classification based on the visual inspection of optical images and a characterization of galaxies from their spectroscopic features. SDSS u, g, r, i, and z passband photometry of all EVCC galaxies was performed using Source Extractor. We compare the EVCC galaxies with the VCC in terms of morphology, spatial distribution, and luminosity function. The EVCC defines a comprehensive galaxy sample covering a wider range in galaxy density that is significantly different from the inner region of the Virgo cluster. It will be the foundation for forthcoming galaxy evolution studies in the extended Virgo cluster region, complementing ongoing and planned Virgo cluster surveys at various wavelengths.

  14. BENCHMARKING WESTERN BALKAN ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Stošić

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyse the relative positions of Western Balkan countries and to determine the differences or similarities in the results based on survey data (of international institutions: EBRD, World Bank, World Economic Forum, Heritage Foundation, and on based on selected key statistical indicators. Using the sample of countries in same region and by applying the method of “multi-country” statistical analysis, it was attempted to establish relation between results obtained in studies of international institutions, and some actual achieved key economic performances by the first measure of correlation (so-called Spearman's coefficient of correlation. The obtained results differ to a smaller or greater extent according to the experiential test we used in the case of this region. Therefore, our findings reveal that overall economic position of selected country cannot be perceived only by relying on one methodology or type of data. Consequently, we point out that multi-criteria are a must and each methodology can be useful, because it emphasizes different aspects of the economic performances and country position.

  15. Moon - Western Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    This image of the western hemisphere of the Moon was taken through a green filter by the Galileo spacecraft at 9:35 a.m. PST Dec. 9 at a range of about 350,000 miles. In the center is the Orientale Basin, 600 miles in diameter, formed about 3.8 billion years ago by the impact of an asteroid-size body. Orientale's dark center is a small mare. To the right is the lunar nearside with the great, dark Oceanus Procellarum above and the small, circular, dark Mare Humorum below. Maria are broad plains formed mostly over 3 billion years ago as vast basaltic lava flows. To the left is the lunar far side with fewer maria but, at lower left, the South-Pole-Aitken basin, about 1200 miles in diameter, which resembles Orientale but is much older and more weathered and battered by cratering. The intervening cratered highlands of both sides, as well as the maria, are dotted with bright, young craters. This image was 'reprojected' so as to center the Orientale Basin, and was filtered to enhance the visibility of small features. The digital image processing was done by DLR, the German Aerospace Research Establishment near Munich, an international collaborator in the Galileo mission.

  16. Pleistocene range shifts, refugia and the origin of widespread species in western Palaearctic water beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Vázquez, David; Bilton, David T; Foster, Garth N; Ribera, I

    2017-09-01

    Quaternary glacial cycles drove major shifts in both the extent and location of the geographical ranges of many organisms. During glacial maxima, large areas of central and northern Europe were inhospitable to temperate species, and these areas are generally assumed to have been recolonized during interglacials by range expansions from Mediterranean refugia. An alternative is that this recolonization was from non-Mediterranean refugia, in central Europe or western Asia, but data on the origin of widespread central and north European species remain fragmentary, especially for insects. We studied three widely distributed lineages of freshwater beetles (the Platambus maculatus complex, the Hydraena gracilis complex, and the genus Oreodytes), all restricted to running waters and including both narrowly distributed southern endemics and widespread European species, some with distributions spanning the Palearctic. Our main goal was to determine the role of the Pleistocene glaciations in shaping the diversification and current distribution of these lineages. We sequenced four mitochondrial and two nuclear genes in populations drawn from across the ranges of these taxa, and used Bayesian probabilities and Maximum Likelihood to reconstruct their phylogenetic relationships, age and geographical origin. Our results suggest that all extant species in these groups are of Pleistocene origin. In the H. gracilis complex, the widespread European H. gracilis has experienced a rapid, recent range expansion from northern Anatolia, to occupy almost the whole of Europe. However, in the other two groups widespread central and northern European taxa appear to originate from central Asia, rather than the Mediterranean. These widespread species of eastern origin typically have peripherally isolated forms in the southern Mediterranean peninsulas, which may be remnants of earlier expansion-diversification cycles or result from incipient isolation of populations during the most recent Holocene

  17. The structure of western Sicily, central Mediterranean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catalano, R.; Sulli, A. [Universita di Palermo, Dip. di Geologia e Geodesia, Palermo (Italy); Merlini, S. [ENI-Divisione AGIP, San Donato Milanese (Italy)

    2002-07-01

    Western Sicily is part of the Sicilian chain, a sector of the SE-verging Alpine orogenic belt in the central Mediterranean. Interpretation of seismic reflection profiles, boreholes and recent inland geological data, have enabled us to assess the deep structural grain. A wedge of flat-lying Mesozoic-Miocene carbonate and terrigenous rocks (pre-Panormide nappes) is superimposed on NW-trending, 7-8 km thick, Mesozoic-Paleogene carbonate thrust ramps (Trapanese units), arranged in two structural levels extending from the Tyrrhenian coast to western offshore Sicily. Upper Miocene to Pleistocene terrigenous strata, often deformed, fill syntectonic basins above the thrust pile. The main tectonic transport of the thrust pile, developing from Early Miocene to Early-Middle Pleistocene times, was towards the east and southeast. Initial stacking and deformation of the pre-Panormide allochthon is bracketed between Early and Late Miocene. The Late Miocene-Early Pleistocene underthrusting of the Trapanese-Saccense units, that acted through more recent deep-seated thrusts in the carbonate platform layer, induced late stage refolding and further shortening in the early emplaced pre-Panormide nappe. Previously formed structures appear to have been dissected or reactivated by a right oblique transpression during the Late Pliocene-Pleistocene. The geometry of the carbonate bodies opens new potential perspectives on the existence of structural traps, but the uncertainties of source rock occurrence remain. (Author)

  18. antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of extended spectrum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JAMILU

    ABSTRACT. The emergence of resistant strains of urogenital extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing ... antimicrobial susceptibility test using CLSI recommended, WHO modified Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method. ... Keywords: Extended Spectrum Beta-lactamases, Prevalence, Gram-negative urogenital isolates,.

  19. IN WESTERN SIBERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chizhikov Il'ja Aleksandrovich

    2012-10-01

    along the oil transportation route that connected three Salym oil fields in Western Siberia.

  20. 42 CFR 488.310 - Extended survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Extended survey. 488.310 Section 488.310 Public...) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION SURVEY, CERTIFICATION, AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Survey and Certification of Long-Term Care Facilities § 488.310 Extended survey. (a) Purpose of survey. The purpose of an extended...

  1. Extended empirical likelihood for estimating equations

    OpenAIRE

    Min Tsao; Fan Wu

    2014-01-01

    We derive an extended empirical likelihood for parameters defined by estimating equations which generalizes the original empirical likelihood to the full parameter space. Under mild conditions, the extended empirical likelihood has all the asymptotic properties of the original empirical likelihood. The first-order extended empirical likelihood is easy to use and substantially more accurate than the original empirical likelihood.

  2. A quantum extended Kalman filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emzir, Muhammad F.; Woolley, Matthew J.; Petersen, Ian R.

    2017-06-01

    In quantum physics, a stochastic master equation (SME) estimates the state (density operator) of a quantum system in the Schrödinger picture based on a record of measurements made on the system. In the Heisenberg picture, the SME is a quantum filter. For a linear quantum system subject to linear measurements and Gaussian noise, the dynamics may be described by quantum stochastic differential equations (QSDEs), also known as quantum Langevin equations, and the quantum filter reduces to a so-called quantum Kalman filter. In this article, we introduce a quantum extended Kalman filter (quantum EKF), which applies a commutative approximation and a time-varying linearization to systems of nonlinear QSDEs. We will show that there are conditions under which a filter similar to a classical EKF can be implemented for quantum systems. The boundedness of estimation errors and the filtering problem with ‘state-dependent’ covariances for process and measurement noises are also discussed. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the quantum EKF by applying it to systems that involve multiple modes, nonlinear Hamiltonians, and simultaneous jump-diffusive measurements.

  3. Extended attention span training system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Alan T.; Bogart, Edward H.

    1991-01-01

    Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) is a behavioral disorder characterized by the inability to sustain attention long enough to perform activities such as schoolwork or organized play. Treatments for this disorder include medication and brainwave biofeedback training. Brainwave biofeedback training systems feed back information to the trainee showing him how well he is producing the brainwave pattern that indicates attention. The Extended Attention Span Training (EAST) system takes the concept a step further by making a video game more difficult as the player's brainwaves indicate that attention is waning. The trainee can succeed at the game only by maintaining an adequate level of attention. The EAST system is a modification of a biocybernetic system that is currently being used to assess the extent to which automated flight management systems maintain pilot engagement. This biocybernetic system is a product of a program aimed at developing methods to evaluate automated flight deck designs for compatibility with human capabilities. The EAST technology can make a contribution in the fields of medical neuropsychology and neurology, where the emphasis is on cautious, conservative treatment of youngsters with attention disorders.

  4. The motivation behind extended suicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Kuruc

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of motivation of suicidal behaviour in cases of so-called extended suicide is of great importance from a forensic-psychological viewpoint. The initiator of such action is often a person suffering from endogenous depression. The motives behind successful suicide are generally not known. This paper aims to demonstrate the motives behind the successful suicide, less frequent in our conditions, of two family members – a father and a son. The case has been thoroughly analysed by morphological methods with the help of additional laboratory tests. At the centre was a suicide letter which was hidden in a very unusual way and which was elucidated only thanks to autopsy of both persons. The manner of realisation – hanging – was among the most frequent in the region and in the state too. The men were not under the influence of any toxic substances. The motivation behind the suicide was an escape from hard living conditions.

  5. Western Civ After the Revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Scott

    1973-01-01

    Author considered Western Civilization in the light of present realities and stated his reasons for believing that the course is not suited to the needs of the greatest number of those students who take it. (Author/RK)

  6. Western Pacific Typhoon Aircraft Fixes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Western Pacific typhoon aircraft reconnaissance data from the years 1946 - 1965 and 1978, excluding 1952, were transcribed from original documents, or copy of...

  7. Western Hemisphere Knowledge Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, T. F.

    2001-05-01

    , and application of knowledge concerning the nature of -- and interaction among -- matter, living organisms, energy, information, and human behavior. This strategy calls for innovative partnerships among the physical, biological, health, and social sciences, engineering, and the humanities. New kinds of partnership must also be forged among academia, business and industry, governments, and nongovernmental organizations. Geophysicists can play an important role in these partnerships. A focus for these partnerships is to manage the individual economic productivity that drives both human development and global change. As world population approaches stability during the twenty-first century, individual economic productivity will be the critical link between the human and the natural systems on planet Earth. AGU is among a core group of individuals and institutions proposing Western Hemisphere Knowledge Partnerships (WHKP) to test the hypothesis that knowledge, broadly construed, is an important organizing principle in choosing a path into the future. The WHKP agenda includes: (1) life-long learning, (2) the health and resilience of natural ecosystems, (3) eco-efficiency in economic production and consumption, (4) extension of national income accounts, (5) environmentally benign sources of energy, (6) delivery of health care, (7) intellectual property rights, and (8) networks for action by local communities.Collaboratories and distance education technologies will be major tools. A panel of experts will explore this proposal.

  8. From palaeotectonics to neotectonics in the Neotethys realm: The importance of kinematic decoupling and inherited structural grain in SW Anatolia (Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Veen, J. H.; Boulton, S. J.; Alçiçek, M. C.

    2009-07-01

    In order to asses young, i.e. "neotectonic" fault kinematics and the relation with plate-tectonic processes in SW Turkey we focused on the questions: 1) what produced the structural grain, i.e. how and when are faults generated, 2) what was/is the kinematic behaviour of these faults and 3) during which period(s) were these faults active? Firstly, the distribution of faults has been investigated using a lineament analysis performed on satellite imagery and digital elevation models. We define five main tectonic domains in SW Turkey: 1 and 2) the Northern and Southern Western Anatolian extensional provinces; 3) the eastern Hellenic arc (including Rhodes Island and the submarine Anaximander mountains); 4) The Lycian Taurides and 5) the western limb of the Isparta Angle. Lineament analysis reveals dominance of three lineament groups, i.e. NNE-, ENE-, and WNW-trending, in all identified domains. Variations in the relative importance of lineament groups exist and are attributed to the specific tectonic evolution of each domain. A synthesis of recently published field data shows that the onset of activity of related fault groups is neither synchronous, nor uniform. The "structural grain" for the neotectonic deformation in SW Turkey is formed during the last stage of palaeotectonic deformation (stage 1), which is dominated by the onset of the Menderes Massif exhumation along a top-N major detachment, the Datça break-away fault [Seyitoğlu, G., Işık, V., and Çemen, İ., 2004. Complete Tertiary exhumation history of the Menderes massif, western Turkey: an alternative working hypothesis. Terra Nova, 16, 358-364.], and related SE-ward sliding of the Lycian Nappes in the footwall of this fault. This stage is characterized by spatially variable types of deformation that are delineated by, from NW to SE, the Datça Fault around the Menderes-Lycian contact zone and the Lycian frontal thrust zone, respectively. The kinematic decoupling along these structures explains the co

  9. Is Western Marxism Western? The Cases of Gramsci and Tosaka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Chino

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to show that two eminent Marxists in the 1930s, the Italian Antonio Gramsci and the Japanese Tosaka Jun, shared three important characteristics of so-called Western Marxism: the methodological development of Marxism, the focus on the superstructure, and the pessimism about the impossibility of immediate revolution. Showing that Gramsci and Tosaka shared these characteristics enables us to revisit the framework of “Western Marxism,” which confusingly consists of both theoretical characteristics and geographical criteria. Looking at Gramsci and Tosaka on the same plane allows us to revisit Marxist thought different from the orthodox Marxism in Soviet Russia, and not strictly as a Western, but as a part of potentially global movement of thought.

  10. Evaluating Teacher-Candidates’ Teaching in the Extended Practicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian W. Noonan

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the aggregate results of the evaluations of the teaching performance of 17 cohorts of teacher-candidates (n = 374, who completed their extended practicum during their pre-service teacher-education program at one Western Canadian university. Over a 15-year period, one of the researchers served as the College Supervisor for these cohorts in their respective four-month internship in schools in a variety of locations throughout the province. The teacher-candidates’ final evaluations on nine categories of teaching performance revealed varying levels of strength among the skill areas. Implications of the findings are drawn: (a for the undergraduate program administrators, faculty members, and practicum-program personnel at the university connected to this study, and (b for other teacher-education institutions interested in making use of this information to help inform their deliberations in assessing/improving their own pre-service and practicum initiatives.

  11. Extended empirical likelihood for general estimating equations

    OpenAIRE

    Tsao, Min; Wu, Fan

    2013-01-01

    We derive an extended empirical likelihood for parameters defined by estimating equations which generalizes the original empirical likelihood for such parameters to the full parameter space. Under mild conditions, the extended empirical likelihood has all asymptotic properties of the original empirical likelihood. Its contours retain the data-driven shape of the latter. It can also attain the second order accuracy. The first order extended empirical likelihood is easy-to-use yet it is substan...

  12. An algebraic approach to symmetric extended formulations

    OpenAIRE

    Braun, Gábor; Pokutta, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Extended formulations are an important tool to obtain small (even compact) formulations of polytopes by representing them as projections of higher dimensional ones. It is an important question whether a polytope admits a small extended formulation, i.e., one involving only a polynomial number of inequalities in its dimension. For the case of symmetric extended formulations (i.e., preserving the symmetries of the polytope) Yannakakis established a powerful technique to derive lower bounds and ...

  13. Active tectonics of the Eastern Mediterranean region: deduced from GPS, neotectonic and seismicity data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Reilinger

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the main tectonic features of the Eastern Mediterranean region combining the recent information obtained from GPS measurements, seismicity and neotectonic studies. GPS measurements reveal that the Arabian plate moves northward with respect to Eurasia at a rate of 23 ± 1 mm/yr, 10 mm/yr of this rate is taken up by shortening in the Caucasus. The internal deformation in Eastern Anatolia by conjugate strike-slip faulting and E-W trending thrusts, including the Bitlis frontal thrust, accommodates approximately a 15 mm/yr slip rate. The Northeast Anatolian fault, which extends from the Erzincan basin to Caucasus accommodates about 8 ± 5 mm/yr of left-lateral motion. The neotectonic fault pattern in Eastern Anatolia suggests that the NE Anatolian block moves in an E-ENE direction towards the South Caspian Sea. According to the same data, the Anatolian-Aegean block is undergoing a counter-clockwise rotation. However, from the residuals it appears that this solution can only be taken as a preliminary approximation. The Eulerian rotation pole indicates that slip rate along the North Anatolian fault is about 26 ± 3 mm/yr. This value is 10 mm/yr higher than slip rates obtained from geological data and historical earthquake records and it includes westward drift of the Pontides of a few millimetres/year or more. GPS measurements reveal that the East Anatolian fault accommodates an 11 ± 1 mm/yr relative motion. GPS data suggest that Central Anatolia behaves as a rigid block, but from neotectonic studies, it clearly appears that it is sliced by a number of conjugate strike-slip faults. The Isparta Angle area might be considered a major obstacle for the westward motion of the Anatolian block (Central and Eastern Anatolia. The western flank of this geological structure, the Fethiye-Burdur fault zone appears to be a major boundary with a slip rate of 15-20 mm/yr. The Western Anatolian grabens take up a total of 15 mm/yr NE-SW extension

  14. The Overthrust Belt of Western North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verrall, P.

    1993-02-01

    The Overthrust Belt extends for 5000 mi (8000 km) from the Brooks Range in Alaska to the Sierra Madre Oriental in Mexico. It consists of northeastward vergent thrust and fold structures involving late Precambrian to early Tertiary sedimentary section. These sediments represent deposition off the western rift margin, formed in late Precambrian time, of the North American Precambrian craton. The northeastward thrusting continued throughout the Mesozoic as a response to the convergence of the East Pacific Plate with the North American Plate. This convergence resulted in subduction beneath the North American Plate except at the northwest end (the Brooks Range) where the result was obduction. Convergence ceased when the west edge of the East Pacific Plate reached the subduction zone. The sedimentary section involved in the Thrust Belt contains good Devonian to Cretaceous hydrocarbon source rocks, and Ordovician to traps related to the thrusting (simple thrust sheets, imbricate thrust sheets, folded thrust sheets, step anticlines, footwall cutoffs, footwall anticlines, etc.). Field methods involved in exploration for hydrocarbons include field geological mapping, remote sensing (aerial photography and Landsat imagery), various seismic refraction and seismic reflection techniques (including modern detailed three dimension surveys) and potential field methods such as gravity and magnetic surveying. Studies of the field data include paleontology, source rock and hydrocarbon migration studies, structural and stratigraphic analyses, and the processing of geophysical data. This work has succeeded in two major areas: the Western Canadian Rocky Mountain Foothills, a major gas province producing mainly from Paleozoic reservoirs; and the Wyoming-Idaho-Utah portion of the thrust belt, also a major gas producer from Paleozoic reservoirs and, in addition, a major oil producer from the Jurassic Nugget Sandstone.

  15. U-Pb zircon geochronology of the Paleogene - Neogene volcanism in the NW Anatolia: Its implications for the Late Mesozoic-Cenozoic geodynamic evolution of the Aegean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersoy, E. Yalçın; Akal, Cüneyt; Genç, Ş. Can; Candan, Osman; Palmer, Martin R.; Prelević, Dejan; Uysal, İbrahim; Mertz-Kraus, Regina

    2017-10-01

    The northern Aegean region was shaped by subduction, obduction, collision, and post-collisional extension processes. Two areas in this region, the Rhodope-Thrace-Biga Peninsula to the west and Armutlu-Almacık-Nallıhan (the Central Sakarya) to the east, are characterized by extensive Eocene to Miocene post-collisional magmatic associations. We suggest that comparison of the Cenozoic magmatic events of these two regions may provide insights into the Late Mesozoic to Cenozoic tectonic evolution of the Aegean. With this aim, we present an improved Cenozoic stratigraphy of the Biga Peninsula derived from a new comprehensive set of U-Pb zircon age data obtained from the Eocene to Miocene volcanic units in the region. The compiled radiometric age data show that calc-alkaline volcanic activity occurred at 43-15 Ma in the Biga Peninsula, 43-17 Ma in the Rhodope and Thrace regions, and 53-38 Ma in the Armutlu-Almacık-Nallıhan region, which are slightly overlapping. We discuss the possible cause for the distinct Cenozoic geodynamic evolution of the eastern and western parts of the region, and propose that the Rhodope, Thrace and Biga regions in the north Aegean share the same Late Mesozoic to Cenozoic geodynamic evolution, which is consistent with continuous subduction, crustal accretion, southwestward trench migration and accompanying extension; all preceded by the Late Cretaceous - Paleocene collision along the Vardar suture zone. In contrast, the Armutlu-Almacık-Nallıhan region was shaped by slab break-off and related processes following the Late Cretaceous - Paleocene collision along the İzmir-Ankara suture zone. The eastern and western parts of the region are presently separated by a northeast-southwest trending transfer zone that was likely originally present as a transform fault in the subducted Tethys oceanic crust, and demonstrates that the regional geodynamic evolution can be strongly influenced by the geographical distribution of geologic features on the

  16. ADD, LD and Extended Information Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolzenberg, J. B.; Cherkes-Julkowski, M.

    This study examines executive function and its relationship to attention dysfunction and working memory. It attempts to document the manifestations of executive function problems in school-related extended processing tasks, such as verbal problem-solving in math and reading of extended passages. Subjects (in grades 1-12) included 49 children with…

  17. Extended, Embodied Cognition and Second Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Dwight

    2010-01-01

    A "cognitivist" approach to cognition has traditionally dominated second language acquisition (SLA) studies. In this article, I examine two alternative approaches--"extended cognition" and "embodied cognition"--for how they might help us conceptualize SLA. More specifically, I present: (i) summaries of extended and embodied cognition, followed by…

  18. Strontium doping of bone graft extender

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose Allografts are often used during revision hip replacement surgery for stabilization of the implant. Resorption of the allograft may exceed new bone formation, and instability of the prosthesis can develop. We investigated whether strontium could regulate the imbalance of fast resorption of allograft and slower formation of new bone, because it is both an anabolic and an anticatabolic agent. Method Strontium was added to the implant interface environment by doping a hydroxyapatite bone graft extender. 10 dogs each received 2 experimental titanium implants. The implants were inserted within a 2.7-mm concentric gap in cancellous bone. The gap was filled with 50% (v/v) allograft mixed with 50% bone graft extender. The extender either had 5% strontium doping (SrHA) or was undoped (HA). After 4 weeks, osseointegration and mechanical fixation were evaluated by histomorphometry and by push-out test. Results SrHA bone graft extender induced a 1.2-fold increase in volume of new bone, a 1.2-fold increase in allograft remaining in the gap, and a 1.4-fold increase in surface area of the bone graft extender material in contact with new bone compared to HA bone graft extender. All these increases were statistically significant. SrHA bone graft extender did not significantly improve ongrowth of bone onto the implants or improve any of the mechanical push-out parameters compared to HA bone graft extender. Interpretation Doping of the HA bone graft extender with 5% strontium increased gap healing, preserved more of the allograft in the gap, and increased the ongrowth of bone onto the bone graft extender material, but did not improve mechanical fixation. PMID:21895497

  19. Adult Education in Western Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, Joachim H.; And Others

    Here are abstracts of three books on adult education in Western Germany, where the institutions and methods of continuing education have been nearly unknown. The first, ERWACHSENENBILDUNG IN DER BUNDESREPUBLIK (ADULT EDUCATION IN THE FEDERAL REPUBLIC), 167 pages, justifies regarding adult education today as a complete changeover from its forms in…

  20. Western juniper in eastern Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald R. Gedney; David L. Azuma; Charles L. Bolsinger; Neil. McKay

    1999-01-01

    This report analyzes and summarizes a 1988 inventory of western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis Hook.) in eastern Oregon. This inventory, conducted by the Pacific Northwest Research Station of the USDA Forest Service, was intensified to meet increased need for more information about the juniper resource than was available in previous inventories. A...

  1. ALIENS IN WESTERN STREAM ECOSYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USEPA's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program conducted a five year probability sample of permanent mapped streams in 12 western US states. The study design enables us to determine the extent of selected riparian invasive plants, alien aquatic vertebrates, and some ...

  2. The Western Sahara conflict I

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Politica; Analyst. Munich. The history of the Western Sahara has seen many developments familiar to Africa: • the drawing of artificial boundaries in foreign European capitals at the tum of the century,. • clandestine agreements between colonial and regional powers without proper consultation with the territory's population,.

  3. Social mix in Western countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musterd, S.; Ostendorf, W.; Smith, S.J.; Elsinga, M.; Eng, O.S.; Fox O’Mahony, L.; Wachter, S.

    2012-01-01

    In Western countries, it appears to have become ‘fashionable’ for politicians who are engaged in urban issues to argue for more social mix of the population at the neighbourhood level. It is assumed that a concentration of poverty reproduces a lack of social opportunities. Therefore, a more balanced

  4. Western Transitology and Chinese Reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik

    It is the object of considerable debate in Western scholarship whether an authoritarian political order dominated by a strong communist party can continue to exist in China given the many challenges stemming from internal reform and the impact of globalization. Will China eventually turn democratic...

  5. Geology of a Proposed MER Landing Site in Western Melas Chasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitz, C. M.; Parker, T. J.; Anderson, F. S.; Grant, J. A.

    2002-01-01

    A proposed landing site for the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) has been identified in western Melas Chasma. The landing ellipse contains a blocky, bright deposit which we propose formed as a landslide, perhaps beneath a former lake. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  6. Does predation danger on southward migration curtail parental investment by female western sandpipers?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jamieson, S.E.; Ydenberg, R.C.; Lank, D.B.

    2014-01-01

    Theory predicts that if extending parental care delays migratory departure, and if later migration is more dangerous, then parental care should be curtailed to make an earlier departure. Adult western sandpipers (Calidris mauri) depart Alaska in July, and the presence of peregrine falcons (Falco

  7. Evaluation of 12 Y-chromosome STR loci in Western Mediterranean populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez, V.; Tomas, Carmen; Sanchez, Juan J.

    2008-01-01

    With the aim to establish a Y-STR haplotype database, a total of 554 males from seven Western Mediterranean populations were genotyped for the 12 Y-chromosome STR loci (minimal haplotype extended by loci DYS437, DYS438 and DYS439) included in the Powerplex Y System (Promega). Among the 554 males...

  8. Roebuck Bay and the Town of Broome, Western Australia, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Roebuck Bay (18.0S, 122.0E) is a prominent bay on the arid northwest coast of Western Australia and the town of Broome is one of the few prominent towns along this very sparsley settled coast. The large gray area extending back from the shoreline of the bay is the Roebuck Plains slowly being filled with sediment by local streams draining the Great Sandy Desert. The irregular bare patches on the desert to the south are burn scars from brush fires.

  9. Extended cycle hormonal contraception in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sucato, Gina S; Gerschultz, Kelly L

    2005-10-01

    There is increasing interest in the use of extended cycles of hormonal contraception to manage menstrual cycle-related complaints in adolescents and to accommodate the menstrual preferences of patients using hormonal contraception. This review summarizes recent findings related to the use of extended cycles and highlights their relevance to adolescents. Many adolescents would prefer to menstruate less frequently. Among health care providers who prescribe hormonal contraceptives, the majority believe suppressing withdrawal bleeding is well tolerated and prescribe extended cycling regimens to their patients. Shortening or eliminating the hormone-free interval results in greater ovarian suppression and thus may increase contraceptive efficacy. Studies in adult women have not identified changes in metabolic parameters beyond what would be expected from traditional cyclic use. New endometrial biopsy data have found no pathologic changes; most women using an extended cycle had atrophic endometriums. Extended cycling is frequently associated with breakthrough bleeding. In some women, this can be managed with a brief hormone-free interval. Recent findings demonstrate high levels of interest in extended cycling among adolescents and providers, and continue to add to the growing body of literature supporting the safety and improved contraceptive efficacy of extended regimens. Further research is warranted to focus on issues including cancer, thrombotic disease and fertility, and should enroll a sufficient adolescent sample.

  10. Modeling the Extended Warranty: A Managerial Focus

    OpenAIRE

    Myung, Noah; Eger, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    We provide a model of an extended warranty. To maximize profit, a producer always wants to sell with some type of warranty as opposed to selling with no warranty. The extended warranty is more likely to be provided as the consumer becomes more patient, as the producer becomes impatient, or if the likelihood of product failure does not increase too much in the extended period. We show that there is a separating equilibrium in which the high quality producers sell with warranties and the low qu...

  11. Extended Hamiltonian approach to continuous tempering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobbo, Gianpaolo; Leimkuhler, Benedict J

    2015-06-01

    We introduce an enhanced sampling simulation technique based on continuous tempering, i.e., on continuously varying the temperature of the system under investigation. Our approach is mathematically straightforward, being based on an extended Hamiltonian formulation in which an auxiliary degree of freedom, determining the effective temperature, is coupled to the physical system. The physical system and its temperature evolve continuously in time according to the equations of motion derived from the extended Hamiltonian. Due to the Hamiltonian structure, it is easy to show that a particular subset of the configurations of the extended system is distributed according to the canonical ensemble for the physical system at the correct physical temperature.

  12. MIDDLE JURASSIC NAUTILOIDEA FROM WESTERN FRANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PATRICK BRANGER

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The Middle Jurassic shelf margin limestones and marly limestones of Western France yield quite numerous Nautilida. This record is here described for the first time in detail, nine genera and more than forty species, whose range rarely exceeds one or two ammonite biozones, constitute a rather precise tool to date Middle Jurassic beds. Each taxon is placed in an accurate biostratigraphical chart; a new genus, Pictonautilus nov. gen., is described. The stratigraphical range of Cenoceras, Digonioceras and Gen. B n. ? (sensu Chirat 1997 is extended up to the Middle Callovian. In the Jurassic successions of Poitou, Nautilida always represent a minor part of the fossil record, they are more abundant in four levels: Middle Aalenian, base of Upper Bajocian, Lower Bathonian and top of Middle Bathonian. Dwarf Nautilida (Paracenoceras and species showing more folded septa and a subventral siphuncle (Pseudaganides or strongly ribbed specimens (Cymatonautilus are characteristic of stable open-shelf environments (Callovian, whereas large shelled nautilus would be mostly present during deepening episodes. The geographical extension of many taxa indicates a provincialism that fits with that of ammonites of the same period.

  13. Labor productivity losses over western Turkey in the twenty-first century as a result of alteration in WBGT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altinsoy, Hamza; Yildirim, Haci Ahmet

    2015-04-01

    Occupational fatalities and work-related injuries are more common in Turkey than in most developing and developed countries. Several precautions have been taken concerning the matter, and The Occupational Health and Safety Act (OHSL 2012) has been passed. These efforts, however, have failed to incorporate in their framework the role of global warming. New legislation is underway for the prevention of occupational diseases, injuries, and fatalities. This is particularly worrisome given that Turkey is in the forefront of countries projected to be affected seriously by climate change. Consequently, a study on the direct and indirect impact of climate change on workers' health and labour productivity is paramount. The main purpose of this research is to present diminishing labour productivity as a consequence of decreased working hours via an estimate of rest hours of workers in manual labour. The climatic outputs of Regional Climate Model (RegCM3) obtained from the ENSEMBLES Project are used to calculate the wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) over western Turkey. The study covers the span of years between 1971 and 2100. Moreover, spatial distributions of observed domain are estimated by means of a seasonal analysis, preliminary to a more detailed research. Critical regions, more adversely influenced than others, are identified. The total number of loss days for these critical regions are presented for various time periods. As a result, labour productivity particularly in agriculture and construction is expected to diminish seriously over Central Anatolia, Cyprus, and parts of the Aegean and eastern Mediterranean coastal areas. Between 2071 and 2100, deficiency in labour productivity may reach up to 52 % during the summer across some of these critical regions. Though it will be seen that the present study has focused primarily on manual labour and outdoor work in particular, it foreshadows nevertheless the dangerous impact of climate change on occupational health and

  14. Labor productivity losses over western Turkey in the twenty-first century as a result of alteration in WBGT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altinsoy, Hamza; Yildirim, Haci Ahmet

    2015-04-01

    Occupational fatalities and work-related injuries are more common in Turkey than in most developing and developed countries. Several precautions have been taken concerning the matter, and The Occupational Health and Safety Act (OHSL 2012) has been passed. These efforts, however, have failed to incorporate in their framework the role of global warming. New legislation is underway for the prevention of occupational diseases, injuries, and fatalities. This is particularly worrisome given that Turkey is in the forefront of countries projected to be affected seriously by climate change. Consequently, a study on the direct and indirect impact of climate change on workers' health and labour productivity is paramount. The main purpose of this research is to present diminishing labour productivity as a consequence of decreased working hours via an estimate of rest hours of workers in manual labour. The climatic outputs of Regional Climate Model (RegCM3) obtained from the ENSEMBLES Project are used to calculate the wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) over western Turkey. The study covers the span of years between 1971 and 2100. Moreover, spatial distributions of observed domain are estimated by means of a seasonal analysis, preliminary to a more detailed research. Critical regions, more adversely influenced than others, are identified. The total number of loss days for these critical regions are presented for various time periods. As a result, labour productivity particularly in agriculture and construction is expected to diminish seriously over Central Anatolia, Cyprus, and parts of the Aegean and eastern Mediterranean coastal areas. Between 2071 and 2100, deficiency in labour productivity may reach up to 52% during the summer across some of these critical regions. Though it will be seen that the present study has focused primarily on manual labour and outdoor work in particular, it foreshadows nevertheless the dangerous impact of climate change on occupational health and

  15. Slip along the Sultanhanı Fault in Central Anatolia from deformed Pleistocene shorelines of palaeo-lake Konya and implications for seismic hazards in low-strain regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnick, Daniel; Yıldırım, Cengiz; Hillemann, Christian; Garcin, Yannick; Çiner, Attila; Pérez-Gussinyé, Marta; Strecker, Manfred R.

    2017-06-01

    Central Anatolia is a low-relief, high-elevation region where decadal-scale deformation rates estimated from space geodesy suggest low strain rates within a stiff microplate. However, numerous Quaternary faults have been mapped within this low-strain region and estimating their slip rate and seismic potential is important for hazard assessments in an area of increasing infrastructural development. Here we focus on the Sultanhanı Fault (SF), which constitutes an integral part of the Eskişehir-Cihanbeyli Fault System, and use deformed maximum highstand shorelines of palaeo-lake Konya to estimate tectonic slip rates at millennial scale. Some of these shorelines were previously interpreted as fault scarps, but we provide conclusive evidence for their erosional origin. We found that shoreline-angle elevations estimated from differential GPS profiles record vertical displacements of 10.2 m across the SF. New radiocarbon ages of lacustrine molluscs suggest 22.4 m of relative lake-level fall between 22.1 ± 0.3 and 21.7 ± 0.4 cal. ka BP, constraining the timing of abrupt abandonment of the highstand shoreline. Models of lithospheric rebound associated with regressions of the Tuz Gölü and Konya palaeo-lakes predict only ∼1 m of regional-scale uplift across the Konya Basin. Dislocation models of displaced shorelines suggest fault-slip rates of 1.5 and 1.8 mm yr-1 for planar and listric fault geometries, respectively, providing reasonable results for the latter. We found fault scarps in the Nasuhpınar mudflat that likely represent the most recent ground-breaking rupture of the SF, with an average vertical displacement of 1.2 ± 0.5 m estimated from 54 topographic profiles, equivalent to a M ∼ 6.5-6.9 earthquake based on empirical scaling laws. If such events were characteristic during the ultimate 21 ka, a relatively short recurrence time of ∼800-900 yr would be needed to account for the millennial slip rate. Alternatively, the fault scarp at Nasuhpınar might

  16. Generalized Laplace Transforms and Extended Heaviside Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deakin, Michael A. B.

    2008-01-01

    An extended Heaviside calculus proposed by Peraire in a recent paper is similar to a generalization of the Laplace transform proposed by the present author. This similarity will be illustrated by analysis of an example supplied by Peraire.

  17. Extended Adjuvant Therapy for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    An NCI Cancer Currents blog on findings from a recent clinical trial which showed that extending adjuvant therapy with an aromatase inhibitor can have important benefits for some women with early-stage cancer.

  18. PREVALENCE OF EXTENDED SPECTRUM β-LACTAMASES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    ABSTRACT. Confirmed variants of enterobacteriaceae isolated from 143 patients that attended Murtala. Mohammed Specialist Hospital Kano, were screened for extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) production using Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) breakpoint. Suspected ESBLs producers were ...

  19. Some Aspects of Extended Kinetic Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilip Kumar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the pathway model of Mathai introduced in 2005 [Linear Algebra and Its Applications, 396, 317–328] we extend the standard kinetic equations. Connection of the extended kinetic equation with fractional calculus operator is established. The solution of the general form of the fractional kinetic equation is obtained through Laplace transform. The results for the standard kinetic equation are obtained as the limiting case.

  20. Musical Manipulations and the Emotionally Extended Mind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Krueger

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available I respond to Kersten's criticism in his article "Music and Cognitive Extension" of my approach to the musically extended emotional mind in Krueger (2014. I specify how we manipulate—and in so doing, integrate with—music when, as active listeners, we become part of a musically extended cognitive system. I also indicate how Kersten's account might be enriched by paying closer attention to the way that music functions as an environmental artifact for emotion regulation.

  1. Extended Dislocations in Plastically Deformed Metallic Nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Bin Zheng; Yi-Nong Wang; Min Qi; Huiling Du

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, the sawtooth nature of compressive loading of metallic nanoparticles is observed using a molecular dynamics simulation. The atomic structure evolution confirmed that extended dislocations are the main defects split into two asynchronous partial disloca‐ tions, along with stored and released fault energy. This is considered the essence of sawtooth loading. The size of the nanoparticles relative to the equilibrium width of the extended dislocation is discussed to explain t...

  2. Extended Dislocations in Plastically Deformed Metallic Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Zheng

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the sawtooth nature of compressive loading of metallic nanoparticles is observed using a molecular dynamics simulation. The atomic structure evolution confirmed that extended dislocations are the main defects split into two asynchronous partial disloca‐ tions, along with stored and released fault energy. This is considered the essence of sawtooth loading. The size of the nanoparticles relative to the equilibrium width of the extended dislocation is discussed to explain the simulation results.

  3. Gendering Citizenship in Western Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte; Lister, Ruth; Williams, Fiona

    The first part of the book clarifies the ways that the concept of citizenship has developed historically and is understood today in a range of Western European welfare states. It elaborates on the contempory framing of debates and struggles around citizenship. This provides a framework for thee p...... policy studies, looking at migration and multiculturalism, the care of young children, and home-based childcare and transnational dynamics.......The first part of the book clarifies the ways that the concept of citizenship has developed historically and is understood today in a range of Western European welfare states. It elaborates on the contempory framing of debates and struggles around citizenship. This provides a framework for thee...

  4. Extended Access List untuk Mengendalikan Trafik Jaringan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari Antoni Musril

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Keamana jaringan komputer saat ini menjadi hal penting untuk diterapkan. Banyak organisasi yang telah menjadikan teknologi informasi sebagai bahagian penting dalam menunjang aktivitasnya. Akses pengguna yang tidak dibatasi menjadi ancaman bagi sebuah organisasi, karena banyak data dan informasi penting yang tersebar dalam perangkat jaringan komputer di organisasi tersebut dapat disusupi oleh pihak yang tidak berwenang. Salah satu usaha yang dapat dilakukan adalah dengan menerapkan extended access list yang merupakan salah satu bagian dari metode access control list. Extended access list dapat menyaring lalu lintas data suatu jaringan dengan mengontrol apakah paket-paket tersebut dilewatkan atau dihentikan. Extended access list juga dapat menjamin keamanan untuk setiap komputer sehingga jalur komunikasi serta hak akses setiap komputer dapat berjalan dengan baik. Extended access list memungkinkan penyaringan berdasarkan sumber atau alamat tujuan, protokol yang dipilih, port yang digunakan, dan apakah koneksi sudah ditetapkan. Tulisan ini membahas penerapan extended access list dalam jaringan supaya dapat melakukan filter terhadap paket data yang melewati jaringan. Penerapannya menggunakan software Packet Tracer 6.1.1 untuk membuat prototipe jaringan dan mensimulasikannya. Sehingga nanti dapat diterapkan pada jaringan yang sebenarnya. List yang dibangun pada penelitian ini diterapkan untuk protokol antara lain : TCP (WWW, FTP, Telnet, SMTP, POP3, UDP (DNS, dan ICMP (Ping. Hasilnya didapatkan extended access list yang dikonfigurasi pada router dalam topologi penelitian ini mampu melakukan filter terhadap paket yang melewati jaringan. Hasil konfigurasinya sangat spesifik, sehingga penerapan hak akses permit dan deny dapat dilakukan sesuai dengan aturan dan skenario yang dirancang.

  5. The Shape of a Western

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jakob Isak

    2007-01-01

    The article is written for an issue on the Western genre. By means of a comparative analysis of Winchester '73 (Anthony Mann, 1950) and The Man from Laramie (Anthony Mann, 1955) the article accounts for stylistic, narrative, generic and theoretical implications of the transition from Academy rati...... (1.37: 1) to CinemaScope (2.66, 2.55 og 2.35: 1)....

  6. Devonian tetrapod from western Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Clement, G.; Ahlberg, P.E.; Blieck, A.; Blom, H.; Clack, J.A.; Poty, E.; Thorez, J.; Janvier, P.

    2004-01-01

    Several discoveries of Late Devonian tetrapods (limbed vertebrates) have been made during the past two decades but each has been confined to one locality. Here we describe a tetrapod jaw of about 365 million years (Myr) old from the Famennian of Belgium, which is the first from western continental Europe. The jaw closely resembles that of Ichthyostega, a Famennian tetrapod hitherto known only from Greenland. The environment of this fossil provides information about the conditions that prevail...

  7. Buddha philosophy and western psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aich, Tapas Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Four noble truths as preached by Buddha are that the life is full of suffering (Duhkha), that there is a cause of this suffering (Duhkha-samudaya), it is possible to stop suffering (Duhkha-nirodha), and there is a way to extinguish suffering (Duhkha-nirodha-marga). Eight fold Path (astangika-marga) as advocated by Buddha as a way to extinguish the sufferings are right views, right resolve/aspiration, right speech, right action/conduct, right livelihood, right effort right mindfulness and right concentration. Mid-twentieth century saw the collaborations between many psychoanalysts and Buddhist scholars as a meeting between "two of the most powerful forces" operating in the Western mind. Buddhism and Western Psychology overlap in theory and in practice. Over the last century, experts have written on many commonalities between Buddhism and various branches of modern western psychology like phenomenological psychology, psychoanalytical psychotherapy, humanistic psychology, cognitive psychology and existential psychology. Orientalist Alan Watts wrote 'if we look deeply into such ways of life as Buddhism, we do not find either philosophy or religion as these are understood in the West. We find something more nearly resembling psychotherapy'. Buddha was a unique psychotherapist. His therapeutic methods helped millions of people throughout the centuries. This essay is just an expression of what little the current author has understood on Buddha philosophy and an opportunity to offer his deep tribute to one of the greatest psychotherapists the world has ever produced!

  8. The seismic interactions and spatiotemporal evolution of seismicity following the October 23, 2011 Mw 7.1 Van, Eastern Anatolia, earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Işık, Sezim E.; Özgun Konca, A.; Karabulut, Hayrullah

    2017-04-01

    We studied the mechanisms and spatiotemporal distribution of aftershocks of the Mw 7.1 Van earthquake, in Eastern Turkey. The Van earthquake occurred on an E-W trending thrust fault, in a region under N-S compression due to the convergence of the Arabian plate toward Eurasia. We relocated the seismicity by combining catalogs from two agencies and studied the source mechanisms of the Mw 3.5-5.6 aftershocks using regional body and surface waves. In addition to the aftershocks with thrust mechanism on the mainshock fault, we identified three clusters with strike-slip activity. Two of the clusters are on the left-lateral faults perpendicular to the mainshock fault and are located at the lateral termination of the co-seismic rupture in each direction. Both western and eastern strike-slip clusters were triggered within the first few hours following the mainshock. They were initiated very close to the mainshock rupture plane and propagated away toward the south and north respectively. These two dominantly strike-slip zones are connected to the mainshock fault at a depth of 15 km and possibly determined the lateral extent of the 2011 rupture. This system of two bounding left lateral faults with a thrust fault in between is overall consistent with the N-S convergent tectonic regime in the region. The complex geometry explains unexpected post-seismic motion at a GPS site and can be used to improve the post-seismic slip estimate of the earthquake. The third strike-slip cluster with 17 days delay occurred on an E-W trending right-lateral fault and 40 km on the south of the mainshock. The three activated faults have experienced Coulomb stress increase due to co-seismic rupture. In addition, most of the seismicity has occurred in regions that experienced Coulomb stress increase.

  9. Women and Islam in the Western Media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vintges, K.; Ennaji, M.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter focuses on recent debates on women and Islam as framed in the Western media. The first section discusses the way these debates are organized through the presentations and self-presentations of Muslim women in the Western media. The second section (titled “The Restyling of Western

  10. The coming of the Greeks to Provence and Corsica: Y-chromosome models of archaic Greek colonization of the western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novelletto Andrea

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The process of Greek colonization of the central and western Mediterranean during the Archaic and Classical Eras has been understudied from the perspective of population genetics. To investigate the Y chromosomal demography of Greek colonization in the western Mediterranean, Y-chromosome data consisting of 29 YSNPs and 37 YSTRs were compared from 51 subjects from Provence, 58 subjects from Smyrna and 31 subjects whose paternal ancestry derives from Asia Minor Phokaia, the ancestral embarkation port to the 6th century BCE Greek colonies of Massalia (Marseilles and Alalie (Aleria, Corsica. Results 19% of the Phokaian and 12% of the Smyrnian representatives were derived for haplogroup E-V13, characteristic of the Greek and Balkan mainland, while 4% of the Provencal, 4.6% of East Corsican and 1.6% of West Corsican samples were derived for E-V13. An admixture analysis estimated that 17% of the Y-chromosomes of Provence may be attributed to Greek colonization. Using the following putative Neolithic Anatolian lineages: J2a-DYS445 = 6, G2a-M406 and J2a1b1-M92, the data predict a 0% Neolithic contribution to Provence from Anatolia. Estimates of colonial Greek vs. indigenous Celto-Ligurian demography predict a maximum of a 10% Greek contribution, suggesting a Greek male elite-dominant input into the Iron Age Provence population. Conclusions Given the origin of viniculture in Provence is ascribed to Massalia, these results suggest that E-V13 may trace the demographic and socio-cultural impact of Greek colonization in Mediterranean Europe, a contribution that appears to be considerably larger than that of a Neolithic pioneer colonization.

  11. Tectonic Structures of the Western Carpathians Projected in Geophysical Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezak, V.; Bielik, M.; Soltis, T.; Pek, J.; Vajda, P.; Vozar, J.

    2013-12-01

    The major part of the Western Carpathians extends on the territory of Slovakia. Their tectonic structure is the result of long-term tectonic development. Its typical feature is incorporation of fragment of several orogens. The tectonic elements of the Western Carpathians originated in two main orogenic stages - the Hercynian and the Alpine. The Hercynian orogeny took place during the Paleozoic between Gondwana and Laurasia. The Alpine orogeny in the Mesozoic and Tertiary had several stages, which we distinguish conventionally according to closing of oceanic domains in the region between the European and African plate. The deep interpretation of main tectonic units of the Western Carpathians is based on the geophysical (seismic, gravimetric, magnetotelluric and magnetic) data. The geophysical surveys in the Western Carpathians image most of these tectonic units and structures. We are showing how the interpretations of geophysical profiles and maps are in agreement with the assumed structure of the crust. The presented profiles are for exmple magnetotelluric MT-15, gravimetric and seismic 2T, and magnetic anomalies map. The oldest tectonic elements of the Western Carpathians are fragments of Cadomian blocks in the substratum (European platform in the north, fragments in the substratum in southern Slovakia) - exhibit higher density and magnetization. Hercynian tectonic units of the crystalline basement, which are the fundamental structural units of the Western Carpathian crust are middle crustal nappes composed of complexes of metamorphosed rocks and granitoid bodies. These units can be distinguished by different conductivity. The Paleoalpine tectonic units of the Inner Carpathians are divided into two groups: near-surface nappes and crustal units. The crustal units are built up of the crystalline basement, which includes fragments of Hercynian tectonic units and of cover units of the Late Paleozoic and Mesozoic - here we can observe in seismic profiles effects of

  12. Forest fire weather in western Oregon and western Washington in 1957.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen P. Cramer

    1957-01-01

    Severity of 1957 fire weather west of the Cascade Range summit in Oregon and Washington was near the average of the previous 10 years. The season (April 1 through October 31) was slightly more severe than 1956 in western Oregon and about the same as 1956 in western Washington. Spring fire weather was near average severity in both western Washington and western Oregon....

  13. The occupational status of immigrants in Western and non-Western societies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spörlein, Christoph; van Tubergen, Frank

    2014-01-01

    This study examines existing hypotheses on cross-national differences in immigrants' labor market integration. Unlike previous research, which focused on Western countries, we study the occupational status of immigrants in both Western and non-Western countries. We use census data for 45 Western and

  14. [Extended endoscopic endonasal approach to skull base].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Arbolay, Omar; González-González, Justo; Rojas-Manresa, Jorge Luis

    2012-11-01

    Different approaches to the skull base have been developed through the sphenoidal sinus. Traditional boundaries of the trans-sphenoidal approach can be extended in antero-posterior and lateral plane. We review our experience with extended endoscopic endonasal approach in 127 cases. We used the extended endoscopic endonasal approach in 127 patients with different lesions of the skull base. This study specifically focuses on: type of lesions, surgical approach, outcome and surgical complications. Extended endoscopic endonasal approach was used in 127 patients with following lesions: 61 invasive adenomas to cavernous sinus, 10 clival chordomas, 21 craniopharyngiomas, 26 meningiomas, 4 cerebrospinal fluid leakages, one meningoencephalocele, 2 malignan lesions and 2 thyroid ophthalmopathy. In tumoral lesions gross total resection was achieved in 82.5%, with better results in craniopharyngiomas 90.5%, followed by invasive adenomas with 85.2%, and meningiomas with 84.6%. The most frequent complications were the insipid (8.6%) diabetes, meningoencefalitis (3.9%) and the hydrocephalic (3.9%). Mortality was 3.9%. The extended endoscopic endonasal approach is a promising minimally invasive alternative for selective cases with skull base lesions. As techniques and technology advance this approach may become the procedure of choice for most lesions and should be considered an option in the management of the patients with these complex pathologies by skull base surgeon. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  15. Modeling extended lactations of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, B; Koops, W J; Herrero, M; Van Arendonk, J A

    2000-06-01

    Nine mathematical models were compared for their ability to predict daily milk yields (n = 294,986) in standard 305-d and extended lactations of dairy cows of Costa Rica. Lactations were classified by parity (first and later), lactation length (9 to 10, 11 to 12, 13 to 14, 15 to 16, and 16 to 17 mo), and calving to conception interval (1 to 2, 3 to 4, 5 to 6, 7 to 8, and 9 to 10 mo). Of the nine models, the diphasic model and lactation persistency model resulted in the best goodness of fit as measured by adjusted coefficient of determination, residual standard deviation, and Durbin-Watson coefficient. All other models showed less accuracy and positively correlated residuals. In extended lactations, models were also fitted using only test-day records before 305 d, which resulted in a different ranking. The diphasic model showed the best prediction of milk yield in standard and extended lactations. We concluded that the diphasic model provided accurate estimates of milk yield for standard and extended lactations. Interpretation of parameters deserves further attention because of the large variation observed. As expected, the calving to conception interval was found to have a negative effect on milk yield for cows with a standard lactation length. In extended lactations, these negative effects of pregnancy on milk yield were not observed.

  16. The Extended Family and Children's Educational Success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Mads Meier

    2012-01-01

    characteristics of grandparents and aunts and uncles have few direct effects on educational success, resources in the extended family compensate lacking resources in low-SES families, which in turn promote children’s educational success. The main conclusion is that the total effect of family background......Research on family background and educational success focuses almost exclusively on two generations and on parents and children. This paper argues that the extended family makes up a significant part of the total effect of family background on educational success. Empirical results based...... on the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study show that, net of family factors shared by siblings from the same immediate family, factors shared by first cousins from the same extended family account for a nontrivial part of the total variance in children’s educational success. Results also show that while socioeconomic...

  17. Remarkable connections between extended magnetohydrodynamics models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lingam, M., E-mail: manasvi@physics.utexas.edu; Morrison, P. J., E-mail: morrison@physics.utexas.edu; Miloshevich, G., E-mail: gmilosh@physics.utexas.edu [Department of Physics and Institute for Fusion Studies, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Through the use of suitable variable transformations, the commonality of all extended magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) models is established. Remarkable correspondences between the Poisson brackets of inertialess Hall MHD and inertial MHD (which has electron inertia, but not the Hall drift) and extended MHD (which has both effects) are established. The helicities (two in all) for each of these models are obtained through these correspondences. The commonality of all the extended MHD models is traced to the existence of two Lie-dragged 2-forms, which are closely associated with the canonical momenta of the two underlying species. The Lie-dragging of these 2-forms by suitable velocities also leads to the correct equations of motion. The Hall MHD Poisson bracket is analyzed in detail, the Jacobi identity is verified through a detailed proof, and this proof ensures the Jacobi identity for the Poisson brackets of all the models.

  18. İlhanlı Hâkimiyeti Altında Anadolu’da Siyasetin Temel Dinamiği: Göçebe Moğol-Türkmen Çatışması The Basic Dynamic Of Politics In Anatolia Under The Ilkhanid Rule: The Struggle Of Nomad Turcomans And Mongols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil ÇETİN

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The nomad Mongols established their hegemony in Anatolia after the Kosedagh War in 1243. When the Hülagü destroyed Bagdad in 1258 and Ilkhanids took the leadership in the Middle East, the Mongols, thus, became the policy makers in Anatolia. Not sooner, however, they were confronted with the alliance of the states of Mamluks, Seljukids and nomads of Anatolia, the Turcomans. Among them the Turcomansconstituted the most decisive point of resistance against the politicalaims and military operations of the Mongols. The opposition, involvedreligious motifs like gaza, holy war, was, indeed, the result ofTurcomans’ efforts to make Anatolia their homeland. In fact, there wasno any choice for the Turcomans who intensively populated the frontierzones of Anatolia since the political and geographical frontiers of thepeninsula prevented them from migrating to another region. For thisreason the attitudes of making Anatolia their homeland decisively andopposing to the Mongols persistently balanced each other. Thus thelong lasting struggles between the Mongol and Turcoman nomads wereresulted in the collapse of both the Seljukid and Ilkhanid rules inAnatolia. The Turcomans, in turn, becoming the leading political actorsconsequently adopted the Political Turcoman Identity. It seems thatpolitical and social groups who established the Turcoman Beyliks in thefrontier zones of Anatolia at the beginning of the fourteenth centurywere under the influence of this identity. For example, Osman Bey,founder of the Ottoman Beylik, used the political methods, argumentsand tools produced as a result of the struggle between Mongol andTurcoman nomads under the Ilkhanid rule. Göçebe Moğollar, 1243 Kösedağ Bozgunu ile Anadolu’da hâkimiyet tesis etmişlerdir. Hülagü 1258’de Bağdad’ı yıktığında ve İlhanlı Devleti Ortadoğu’da liderliği ele geçirdiğinde, Moğollar Anadolu’da siyasetin aktörü haline geldiler. Fakat çok geçmeden karşılarında Meml

  19. Introduction: Coping With Western Drought

    OpenAIRE

    Cain, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Drought adaptation is not just a matter of hydrology and technology. It is at least as much about the way we govern.  As John Wesley Powell and others explored and surveyed the territory west of the 100th meridian, they observed that it was distinctive in its aridity and topography. From a water perspective, it might have been better had western state boundaries conformed more closely to the contours of rivers and groundwater basins. Perhaps then the West could have avoided such bitter inters...

  20. Sum rules in extended RPA theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adachi, S.; Lipparini, E.

    1988-11-28

    Different moments m/sub k/ of the excitation strength function are studied in the framework of the second RPA and of the extended RPA in which 2p2h correlations are explicitly introduced into the ground state by using first-order perturbation theory. Formal properties of the equations of motion concerning sum rules are derived and compared with those exhibited by the usual 1p1h RPA. The problem of the separation of the spurious solutions in extended RPA calculations is also discussed.

  1. Extended Interneuronal Network of the Dentate Gyrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gergely G. Szabo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Local interneurons control principal cells within individual brain areas, but anecdotal observations indicate that interneuronal axons sometimes extend beyond strict anatomical boundaries. Here, we use the case of the dentate gyrus (DG to show that boundary-crossing interneurons with cell bodies in CA3 and CA1 constitute a numerically significant and diverse population that relays patterns of activity generated within the CA regions back to granule cells. These results reveal the existence of a sophisticated retrograde GABAergic circuit that fundamentally extends the canonical interneuronal network.

  2. The extended oloid and its inscribed quadrics

    OpenAIRE

    Bäsel, Uwe; Dirnböck, Hans

    2015-01-01

    The oloid is the convex hull of two circles with equal radius in perpendicular planes so that the center of each circle lies on the other circle. It is part of a developable surface which we call extended oloid. We determine the tangential system of all inscribed quadrics $\\mathcal{Q}_\\lambda$ of the extended oloid $\\mathcal{O}$ where $\\lambda$ is the system parameter. From this result we conclude parameter equations of the touching curve $\\mathcal{C}_\\lambda$ between $\\mathcal{O}$ and $\\math...

  3. Turbo Codes Extended with Outer BCH Code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jakob Dahl

    1996-01-01

    The "error floor" observed in several simulations with the turbo codes is verified by calculation of an upper bound to the bit error rate for the ensemble of all interleavers. Also an easy way to calculate the weight enumerator used in this bound is presented. An extended coding scheme is propose...... including an outer BCH code correcting a few bit errors.......The "error floor" observed in several simulations with the turbo codes is verified by calculation of an upper bound to the bit error rate for the ensemble of all interleavers. Also an easy way to calculate the weight enumerator used in this bound is presented. An extended coding scheme is proposed...

  4. Extending Symfony 2 web application framework

    CERN Document Server

    Armand, Sébastien

    2014-01-01

    Symfony is a high performance PHP framework for developing MVC web applications. Symfony1 allowed for ease of use but its shortcoming was the difficulty of extending it. However, this difficulty has now been eradicated by the more powerful and extensible Symfony2. Information on more advanced techniques for extending Symfony can be difficult to find, so you need one resource that contains the advanced features in a way you can understand. This tutorial offers solutions to all your Symfony extension problems. You will get to grips with all the extension points that Symfony, Twig, and Doctrine o

  5. Market Diffusion of Extended Cycle Hormonal Contraceptives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megen Leeds Schumacher, Pharm.D.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Extended cycle hormonal contraceptives (e.g. Seasonale, Seasonique when introduced in 2003 were considered a very novel approach to contraception. The idea of manipulating the menstrual cycle so that women would experience just four menstruations a year was radical and was assumed to be responsible for the slow acceptance rate among the general public.Objective: This report analyzes two different aspects of the acceptance of this unique idea in the population. The first was the level of usage of extended cycle hormonal contraceptives in the general population, which was measured by a review of sales figures over time in the United States. The second was an examination of market diffusion as it relates to consumer perceptions regarding the characteristics of these products.Methods: To determine the degree of usage of extended cycle hormonal contraceptives the yearly sales, in terms of units sold, were compared with that of other leading methods of hormonal contraception. Along with the data, survey answers were obtained from 65 women who volunteered to participate in the study. Participants were selected randomly to represent the target population to assess the level of awareness about the benefits, risks, and any other concerns regarding the use of extended cycle hormonal contraceptives.Results: The yearly sales data of units sold showed a definitive increase in the sales of extended cycle hormonal contraceptives since their release on the market. The survey results showed an overwhelming awareness in the study population about the extended regimen. However, only about half of the women in the survey group were aware of its benefits. The main concern reported was the perceived significant side effect profile.Conclusion: Though awareness about the extended cycle hormonal contraception regimen was widespread, the survey population was not well informed about the advantages and the disadvantages regarding the degree of severity of side

  6. Pioneer dendroclimatological research in the Western Turkmenistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdnikova, Alina; Matskovsky, Vladimir; Kurbanov, Redzhep

    2016-04-01

    Turkmenistan is a very special region in Central Asia where the desert covers 80% of the territory. Water supply is a subject of state importance in Turkmenistan. To understand the mechanisms that affect the amount of precipitation in the region on decadal and centennial time scales long records of atmospheric precipitation are necessary. Unfortunately such records are sparse and short in the region. Tree rings are natural archive that store information about environmental conditions of the past. Previously tree rings have been successfully used for hydroclimate reconstructions covering the last millennium. Such reconstructions uncovered possible climatic causes of many social cataclysms in human history. In arid regions tree rings are especially useful for hydroclimate reconstructions, explaining around 60-80% of variability of instrumental records. Paleogeographic reconstructions for the Late Holocene based on dendroclimatology can reveal the climatic characteristics of periods when Aral Sea basin was connected with the Caspian sea. The other possible perspective of our research is revealing the paleoclimate characteristics for Western Turkmenistan describing evaporation and precipitation - the basic indicators for understanding Caspian sea-level change. The aim of this study was to assess the potential of dendroclimatological method in Turkmenistan for the purpose of hydroclimatological reconstructions. These reconstructions may significantly extend the existing instrumental records of atmospheric precipitation in the region. Study region is situated along the southwestern border of the Turkmenistan, in northern piedmont of the Kopetdag range. We sampled several species: turkman juniper (Juniperus turcomanica), black pine (Pinus nigra), oriental plane (Platanus orientalis), paper mulberry (Broussonetia papyrifera) and osage orange (Maclura pomifera), but only juniper chronology has been constructed and analyzed so far. Although old trees are rare in Turkmenistan

  7. SENSITIVITY OF EXTENDED-SPECTRUM β - LACTAMASES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    extract and fractions were tested for antimicrobial activity against confirmed extended spectrum β- lactamases (ESBLs) producing enterobacteriaceae isolates of Escherichia coli, ... oncology and neonatal units (Kohler et al, 1999). Medicinal plants have long been utilized as a source of therapeutic agents worldwide due to ...

  8. Apixaban for Extended Treatment of Venous Thromboembolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agnelli, Giancarlo; Buller, Harry R.; Cohen, Alexander; Curto, Madelyn; Gallus, Alexander S.; Johnson, Margot; Porcari, Anthony; Raskob, Gary E.; Weitz, Jeffrey I.; Gallus, Alexander; Raskob, Gary; Weitz, Jeffrey; Prins, Martin; Brandjes, Dees; Kolbach, Dinanda; Limburg, Martinus; Mac Gillavry, Melvin; Otten, Johannes Martinus; Peters, Ron; Roos, Yvo; Segers, Annelise; Slagboom, Ton; Bounameaux, Henry; Hirsh, Jack; Samama, Meyer Michel; Wedel, Hans; Masiukiewicz, Urszula; Pak, Raphael; Sanders, Paul; Sisson, Melanie; Sullivan, Beth; Thompson, John; Auerbach, Jennifer; Cesario, Lynne; Gamero, Miguel; Gordon, Margot; Griffiths, Angela; Noble, Melanie; Ott, Jana; Pennington, Ann; Peffer, Allison; Reinhold, Peggy; Simmons, Melanie; Urwin, Keri; Ceresetto, Jose; McRae, Simon; Pabinger, Ingrid; Pereira, Adamastor Humberto; Spencer, Fred; Gorican, Karel; Husted, Steen Elkiaer; Mottier, Dominique; Harenberg, Job; Pinjala, Ramakrishna; Zeltser, David; Imberti, Davide; Sandset, Morten; Torbicki, Adam; Fijalkowska, Anna; Albino, Jose Pereira; Kirienko, Alexander; Shvarts, Yury; Monreal, Manuel; Jacobson, Barry; Dolan, Gerry; Gudz, Ivan; Ortel, Tom; Spyropoulos, Alex; Torbicki, A.; Fijalkowska, A.; Skupyy, O.; Beryer-Westendorf, J.; de Pellegrin, A.; Prasol, V.; Schellong, S.; Jacobson, B.; Falvo, N.; Abramov, I.; Cizek, V.; Husted, S.; Desai, S.; Gudz, I.; Barillari, G.; Sergeev, O.; Chetter, I.; Inbal, A.; McCollum, C.; Shvalb, P.; Torp-Pedersen, C.; Vasylyuk, S.; Kraemmer Nielsen, H.; Pernod, G.; Schmidt, J.; Bova, C.; Gerasymov, V.; Pabinger-Fasching, I.; Skalicka, L.; Zaichuk, A.; Achkar, A.; Bremmelgaard, A.; Chochola, J.; Gould, T.; Khalafallah, A.; Jakobsen, T.; Rose, P.; Zhukov, B.; Dedek, V.; Mirete Ferrer, J.; Pesant, Y.; Repin, A.; Salem, H.; Solis Morales, L.; Spacek, R.; Cannon, K.; Grzelakowski, P.; Jindal, R.; Pereira, A.; Zidkova, E.; Ambrosio, G.; Cardozo, M.; Dunaj, M.; Gallus, A.; Gavish, D.; Ghanima, W.; Harenberg, J.; Leduc, J. J.; Mismetti, P.; Panico, M.; Porreca, E.; Riera, A.; Bareford, D.; Chong, B.; Dvoryashina, I.; Gómez Cerezo, J.; Kobza, I.; Nielsen, T.; Pendleton, R.; Pullman, J.; Schiffman, G.; Stanbro, M.; Zwettler, U.; Aquilanti, S.; Bratsch, H.; Cohen, K.; Elias, D.; Gan, E.; Holaj, R.; Klinke, W.; Liu, H. S. Y.; Sandset, P. M.; van Nieuwenhuizen, E.; Álvarez-Sala, L. A.; Basson, M.; Braester, A.; Bura-Riviere, A.; Calvo Vargas, C.; Cohen, A.; Correa, J.; Elias, M.; Frost, L.; Imberti, D.; Landolfi, R.; Marschang, P.; Moreira, R.; Mottier, D.; Natarajan, S.; Pottier, P.; Tosetto, A.; Tuxen, C.; Vöhringer, H. F.; Alexander, A.; Barbarash, O.; Fajardo Campos, P.; Graham, M.; Gubka, O.; Hudcovic, M.; Hussein, O.; Jackson, D.; Katelnitskiy, I.; Lawall, H.; Monreal, M.; Palareti, G.; Poggio, R.; Roos, J.; Simonneau, G.; Smith, S. W.; Szopinski, P.; Ortel, T.; Zimlichman, R.; Bridgers, D.; Colan, D.; Czekalski, P.; de Jong, D.; Fortinez, J. T.; Garcia Bragado, F.; Harrington, D.; Izbicki, G.; Kadr, H.; Koslow, A.; Loftus, I.; Marais, H.; Neumeister, A.; Oliven, A.; Palla, A.; Pop, C.; Prandoni, P.; Puskas, A.; Sanchez Llamas, F.; Shotan, A.; Shvarts, Y.; Singh, P.; Tveit, A.; Baker, R.; Borja, V.; Brenner, B.; Brown, H.; Ceresetto, J.; Cha, T. J.; Cohen, Y.; D'Angelo, A.; Dhar, A.; Friis, E.; Hueur, H.; Jiménez Rodríguez Madridejos, R.; Karl, J.; Karrasch, J.; Lishner, M.; Manenti, E.; McRae, S.; Meneveau, N.; Nguyen, D.; Sanchez-Escalante, L.; Santoscoy Ibarra, J.; Sokurenko, G.; Staroverov, I.; Stein, R.; Abdullah, I.; Agnelli, G.; Alcocer Gamba, M.; Balanda, J.; Bruckner, I.; Calabuig Alborch, J.; Caraco, Y.; Comerota, A.; Cromer, M.; de Araujo Filho, J.; de los Rios Ibarra, M.; Diaz-Castañon, J.; Doshi, A.; Ebrahim, I.; Fessel, W. J.; Fletcher, E.; Fourie, N.; Fu, C.; Gutowski, P.; Haddad, G.; Hoffman, U.; Jardula, M.; Kvasnicka, T.; Lewczuk, J.; Leyden, M.; Livneh, A.; Lodigiani, C.; Lovell, C.; Miekus, P.; Paloma, M. J.; Parakh, R.; Raval, M.; Schmidt-Lucke, J.; Shtutin, O.; Soroka, V.; Stevens, D.; Sulik, P.; Tay, J. C.; Vejby-Christensen, H.; Vinereanu, D.; Baghestanian, M.; Bono, J.; Cerana, S.; Freire, A.; Gibson, K.; Giumelli, C.; Iastrebner, C.; Karpenko, A.; Kelly, A.; Lacroix, P.; LaFata, J.; Lobo, S.; Macik, B. G.; Marchena Yglesias, P.; Nishinari, K.; Pinjala, R.; Podczeck-Schweighofer, A.; Raby, K.; Sirpal, S.; Solymoss, S.; Spencer, F.; van Zyl, L.; Vargas Núñez, J. A.; von Bilderling, P.; Warr, T.; Wronski, J.; Wurster, M.; Albino, J. A.; Albuquerque, L.; Averill, F.; Baek, S. H.; Bello, F.; Bergoeing, M.; Blanc, F. X.; Bloomberg, R.; Bolster, D.; Brockmyre, A.; Calimano, C.; Checketts, D.; Cieplinski, W.; Chervu, A.; Collado, F.; Denaro, C.; Gaciong, Z.; Game, M.; Iskander, A.; Kaatz, S.; Kim, D. I.; Koura, F.; Laguna, F.; Lanas Zanetti, F.; Lindhoff-Last, E.; Melaniuk, M.; Meade, A.; Murphy, T.; Ng, H. J.; Páramo Fernández, J. A.; Patil, C.; Piovella, F.; Prisco, D.; Pruszczyk, P.; Reimers, G.; Rivera, E.; Rodriguez-Cintron, W.; Rosenthal, S.; Salbach, P.; Salvador, D.; Schuller, D.; Siragusa, S.; Staniszewski, R.; Torp, R.; Vora, K.; Yip, G.; Alfieri, A.; Belaji, V.; Bhagavan, N.; Carnovali, M.; Cobos Segarra, J.; Di Todaro, F.; Dowell, A.; Corder, C.; Crispin, P.; Cuadrado, J.; Flippo, G.; Fraiz, J.; Guillaumon, A.; Gvora, T.; Hakki, S.; Harris, L.; Ison, R.; Htun, P. T.; Jasani, R.; Kates, M.; Kaminski, L.; Kamerkar, D.; Kirienko, A.; Kroger, K.; LaPerna, L.; Leiva, J.; Luber, J.; McCann, A.; McKenzie, W.; Menna Barreto, S.; Moran, J.; Nikulnikov, P.; Paliwal, Y.; Patel, M.; Pilger, E.; Renwick, W.; Shevela, A.; Starosiliz, D.; Stringam, S.; Spyropoulos, A.; To, R.; Updegrove, J.; van Bellen, B.; Waintrub, M.; White, J.; Yeo, E.; Zangroniz, P.; Zeltser, D.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Apixaban, an oral factor Xa inhibitor that can be administered in a simple, fixed-dose regimen, may be an option for the extended treatment of venous thromboembolism. METHODS In this randomized, double-blind study, we compared two doses of apixaban (2.5 mg and 5 mg, twice daily) with

  9. Extending and embedding the Python interpreter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. van Rossum (Guido)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractPython is an interpreted, object-oriented programming language. This document describes how to write modules in C or C++ to extend the Python interpreter with new modules. Those modules can define new functions but also new object types and their methods. The document also describes

  10. Observational constraints on extended Chaplygin gas cosmologies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We investigate cosmological models with extended Chaplygin gas (ECG) as a candidate for dark energy and determine the equation of state parameters using observed data namely, observed Hubble data, baryon acousticoscillation data and cosmic microwave background shift data. Cosmological models are investigated ...

  11. The Extended Mind Thesis and Mechanistic Explanations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fazekas, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The Extended Mind Thesis (EMT) is traditionally formulated against the bedrock of functionalism, and ongoing debates are typically bogged down with questions concerning the exact relationship between EMT and different versions of functionalism. In this paper, I offer a novel ally for EMT: the new...

  12. Extended working hours: Impacts on workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Mitchell; T. Gallagher

    2010-01-01

    Some logging business owners are trying to manage their equipment assets by increasing the scheduled machine hours. The intent is to maximize the total tons produced by a set of equipment. This practice is referred to as multi-shifting, double-shifting, or extended working hours. One area often overlooked is the impact that working non-traditional hours can have on...

  13. Extended Resin Composite Restorations: Techniques and Procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loomans, B.A.C.; Hilton, T.

    2016-01-01

    This article gives an overview of the state of the art of different restorative treatment procedures and techniques needed for placing extended posterior resin composite restorations. Clinical aspects related to the procedure are discussed and reviewed based on the current literature, such as the

  14. [Combined hormonal contraception in cycles artificially extended].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustillos-Alamilla, Edgardo; Zepeda-Zaragoza, J; Hernández-Ruiz, M A; Briones-Landa, Carlos Humberto

    2010-01-01

    To compare the bleeding patterns, satisfaction and tolerability of 3 different contraceptive in an extended regimens in the service of Family Planning of the North Central Hospital of PEMEX. Healthy, adult women with desire of contraception for one year (N 120) were randomly assigned to receive oral contraceptive drospirenone/ethinyl E2 (group1), the norelgestromin/ethinyl E2 transdermal patch (group 2) and vaginal ring etonogestrel/ ethinyl E2 (group 3) in an extended regimen (42 consecutive days, 1 hormone-free week). Study assessments were conducted at scheduled visits at the time of initial screening, at baseline after 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. Subjects recorded menstrual associated symptoms bleeding data and completed satisfaction questionnaires. Subjects and investigators provided overall assessments of the regimens. Extended use of 3 different contraceptive resulted in fewer bleeding days in every group (66.6%, 55% and 58.3% P 0.0024), and less mastalgia and menstrual pain. Subjects were highly satisfied with three regimens (93.3%, 96.6% and 91.6% P 0.00421). Although not mayor adverse events were reported with this regimen, there was an increase in spotting days; it decreased with each successive cycle of therapy. Efficacy and safety were similar to those reported for traditional cycle. Extended-contraceptive regimen delays menses and reduces bleeding, a profile that may be preferred by women who seek flexibility with their contraceptive method.

  15. Extending the Instructional Systems Development Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Colin E.

    1993-01-01

    Describes ways that components of Information Engineering (IE) methodology can be used by training system developers to extend Instructional Systems Development (ISD) methodology. Aspects of IE that are useful in ISD are described, including requirements determination, group facilitation, integrated automated tool support, and prototyping.…

  16. Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern of Extended Spectrum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of various bacterial pathogens including extended spectrum betalactamase (ESBL) producers in Kano, Nigeria. Method: A total of 604 consecutive clinical samples obtained from Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital. (AKTH), Kano between January and July 2010 were ...

  17. Q-Method Extended Kalman Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanetti, Renato; Ainscough, Thomas; Christian, John; Spanos, Pol D.

    2012-01-01

    A new algorithm is proposed that smoothly integrates non-linear estimation of the attitude quaternion using Davenport s q-method and estimation of non-attitude states through an extended Kalman filter. The new method is compared to a similar existing algorithm showing its similarities and differences. The validity of the proposed approach is confirmed through numerical simulations.

  18. Some Remarks on the Extended Galilean Transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberger, Daniel M.

    1979-01-01

    The extended Galilean transformation carries an inertial frame into a rigid frame with uniform spatial, but arbitrary translational acceleration. Besides being useful in discussing the equivalence principle, this transformation provides a physical interpretation for the theorem in nonrelativistic quantum mechanics, that we cannot coherently…

  19. Extended plate and beam demonstration home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia Gunderson; Vladimir Kochkin; Xiping Wang

    2018-01-01

    An extended plate and beam (EP&B) design was developed at Home Innovation Research Labs (Upper Marlboro, Maryland) in an effort to provide traditional light-frame wall construction details that are compatible with continuous insulating sheathing. This would encourage wide-spread adoption of high-R walls and promote greater energy efficiency in new houses. The...

  20. Modeling survival data extending the cox model

    CERN Document Server

    Therneau, Terry M

    2000-01-01

    Extending the Cox Model is aimed at researchers, practitioners, and graduate students who have some exposure to traditional methods of survival analysis The emphasis is on semiparametric methods based on the proportional hazards model The inclusion of examples with SAS and S-PLUS code will make the book accessible to most working statisticians

  1. Impact of Divorce on the Extended Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Esther Oshiver, Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Contains 11 articles focusing on psychological, sociological, legal, economic, and clinical aspects of divorce and the extended family. Examines issues including: (1) dynamics of the family kinship system; (2) family life cycle and divorce; (3) kin role in divorce adjustment; and (4) changes in family relationships. (RC)

  2. The inflation sector of extended inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Edward W.

    1991-01-01

    In extended inflation, the inflationary era is brought to a close by the process of percolation of true vacuum bubbles produced in a first-order phase transition. This paper discusses several effects that might obtain if the universe undergoes an inflationary first-order phase transition.

  3. Extended Learning Time: Research and Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelow, Shawn; Holland, Jenifer Gager; Jackson, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    In recent years policymakers have increasingly looked to Extended Learning Time (ELT) as a means of improving student outcomes. As a result, some school districts have increased academic time for students by adding time to the school day or days to the school year. In other communities, schools and community-based organizations have partnered to…

  4. Modelling extended lactations of dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vargas, B.; Koops, W.J.; Herrero, M.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2000-01-01

    Nine mathematical models were compared for their ability to predict daily milk yields (n = 294,986) in standard 305-d and extended lactations of dairy cows of Costa Rica. Lactations were classified by parity (first and later), lactation length (9 to 10, 11 to 12, 13 to 14, 15 to 16, and 16 to 17

  5. Incidence and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of extended ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During the past few years, extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli and other species of Enterobacteriaceae have become a matter of great concern in human and veterinary medicine. Several studies in recent years documented the prevalence and occurrence of ESBLproducing ...

  6. Prevalence of Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamases (ESBL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Resistance to broad spectrum β lactams, mediated by extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESβL) is an increasing problem worldwide. Production of these enzymes in clinical infections can result in treatment failure if one of the second or third generation cephalosporins is used. This study investigates the incidence of ESBL ...

  7. Schedule-extended synchronous dataflow graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damavandpeyma, M.; Stuijk, S.; Basten, T.; Geilen, M.; Corporaal, H.

    2013-01-01

    Synchronous dataflow graphs (SDFGs) are used extensively to model streaming applications. An SDFG can be extended with scheduling decisions, allowing SDFG analysis to obtain properties, such as throughput or buffer sizes for the scheduled graphs. Analysis times depend strongly on the size of the

  8. Short Communication: Production of extended spectrum beta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multidrug resistant strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli constitute a problem in many hospitals. The antibiotic susceptibility profile and the Production of Extended Spetrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL) of the strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli were assessed by the Kirby-Bauer technique and ...

  9. Remarks on the extended characteristic uncertainty relations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trifonov, D.A. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2001-03-09

    Three remarks concerning the form and the range of validity of the state-extended characteristic uncertainty relations (URs) are presented. A more general definition of the uncertainty matrix for pure and mixed states is suggested. Some new URs are provided. (author). Letter-to-the-editor.

  10. Extending the frontiers of employment regulation:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UWC

    legislation will be needed in changing the complex of political, social and economic factors by which that inequality ..... workers is prevalent.57 While SD7 does not deal with discrimination, the EEA extends comprehensive ..... Employer indifference or resistance (active or passive) remains the single greatest barrier to more ...

  11. Diagrammar in an extended theory of gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, David C.; Godwin, John H.; Jehu, Guy R.; Perkins, Warren B.

    2017-08-01

    We show how the S-matrix of an extended theory of gravity defined by its three-point amplitudes can be constructed by demanding factorisation. The resultant S-matrix has tree amplitudes obeying the same soft singularity theorems as Einstein gravity including the sub-sub-leading terms.

  12. Experimental limits on antigravity in extended supergravity

    OpenAIRE

    Bellucci, S.; Faraoni, V.

    1995-01-01

    The available tests of the equivalence principle constrain the mass of the Higgs-like boson appearing in extended supergravity theories. We determine the constraints imposed by the present and future high precision experiments on the antigravity fields arising from $N=2,8$ supergravity.

  13. SENSITIVITY OF EXTENDED-SPECTRUM β - LACTAMASES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    INTRODUCTION. Extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) are plasmid mediated enzymes that confer resistance to bacterial pathogens. The enzymes pose threat to current β- .... Brick-red precipitates at the bottom of the test tubes would denote the presence of reducing sugars in accordance with Brain and. Turner (1975).

  14. Venus: No Breaks from an Extended Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, W. B.; Kankanamge, D. G. J.

    2017-05-01

    High surface temperatures lead to lower heat flow and lower stress as planets transition out of the heat-pipe mode into subsolidus convection. This causes Venus to miss the window for plate tectonics due to an extended heat-pipe childhood.

  15. Horizant: gabapentin enacarbil extended-release tablets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2011-01-01

    ... enacarbil extended-release tablets for the treatment of moderate-to-severe RLS in adults. Gabapentin enacarbil is not recommended for patients required to sleep during the daytime and remain awake at night. Efficacy. Gabapentin enacarbil efficacy was established in two 12-week clinical studies in adults diagnosed with RLS using the International Restless ...

  16. The extended arm of health professionals?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norlyk, Annelise; Martinsen, Bente

    2013-01-01

    responsibility for both the patient's well-being and for the patient's compliance with the daily regimen. Relatives were caught in a conflicting double role. They were the extended arm of the health professionals but also the caring, supporting partner. A tension arose between relatives' desire to help...

  17. 40Ar/39Ar geochronology, elemental and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope geochemistry of the Neogene bimodal volcanism in the Yükselen area, NW Konya (Central Anatolia, Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gençoğlu Korkmaz, Gülin; Asan, Kürşad; Kurt, Hüseyin; Morgan, Ganerød

    2017-05-01

    Bimodal volcanic suites occur in both orogenic and anorogenic geotectonic settings. Although their formation can be attributed to either fractional crystallization from basaltic parents to felsic derivatives or partial melting of different sources, the origin of bimodal suites is still unclear. By reporting mineral chemistry, 40Ar/39Ar geochronology, elemental and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope geochemistry data, this study aims to investigate the genesis of bimodal basalt-dacite association from the Yükselen area located on the northern end of the Sulutas Volcanic Complex (Konya, Central Anatolia). The Yükselen area volcanic rocks are represented by basaltic lava flows, and dacitic dome with enclaves and pyroclastics. Basaltic flows and pyroclastic rocks are interlayered with the Neogene fluvio-lacustrine sedimentary units, while dacitic rocks cut the pre-Neogene basement in the area. A biotite separation from dacites yielded 40Ar/39Ar plateau age of 16.11 ± 0.18 Ma. On the other hand, a whole rock sample from basalts gave two plateau ages of 16.45 ± 0.76 Ma and 22.37 ± 0.65 Ma for the first steps and next steps, respectively. The investigated basalts are sodic alkaline, and characterized by ocean island basalt (OIB)-like anorogenic geochemical signatures. However, dacites are calc-alkaline and metaluminous, and carry geochemical signatures of orogenic adakites. Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic systematics suggest that the basalts were derived from an asthenospheric mantle source enriched by recycled crustal rocks. The dacites show more enriched Sr and Pb ratios and more depleted Nd ones relative to the basalts, which at the first glance might be attributed to crustal contamination of the associated basalts. However, trace element features of the dacites rule out cogenetic relationship between the two rock types, and point to an origin by melting of lower crust. On the other hand, enclaves share several elemental and isotopic characteristics with the dacites, and appear to be fragments

  18. Population structure and group composition of western lowland gorillas in north-western Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magliocca, F; Querouil, S; Gautier-Hion, A

    1999-01-01

    Population studies are an essential part of conservation actions. Under exceptional observation conditions we studied a western lowland gorilla population visiting the Maya salt-clearing (north of the Parc national d'Odzala, P.N.O., Congo) over an 8 month period; 36 groups and 18 solitary individuals (a total of 420 individuals) have been identified visiting the clearing, which suggests a high gorilla density in the region. Ninety-six percent of the gorillas entered the clearing in groups. One-male groups had a mean size of 11.2. Ninety percent of solitary individuals were silver-back males. Compared with other populations of both lowland gorillas and mountain gorillas, the Maya population had the highest immature rate and the highest number of infants per female. Ecological correlates that could explain the attractiveness of the Maya clearing are discussed. The present status and the renewal rate of the Maya population indicate the need for further studies and confirm the importance of developing eco-tourism in this region as part of the sustainable park management activities developed by the ECOFAC programme (European Union). The results also provide arguments to support the proposal for extending the P.N.O. to include this region, which is rich in salt-clearings and attracts many other key-species of mammal such as forest elephants.

  19. Going under the radar in Western Sahara

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Alice

    2016-01-01

    At the level of formal attempts at conflict resolution, the Western Sahara conflict has been locked in a political stalemate for years. One consequence is that the people of Western Sahara are often overlooked in their own conflict – despite the fact that the very case for decolonization in Western Sahara hinges upon the right of the people of the territory to self-determination. This essay examines how, despite the ongoing formal stalemate, under the radar of formal politics in recent years ...

  20. Seabird Colonies in Western Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boertmann, D.; Mosbech, A.; Falk, K.

    colonies in Greenland is compiled in a database maintained by NERI-AE. This report presents data on distribution, population numbers and population trends of 19 species of breeding colonial seabirds in western Greenland. Distributions are depicted on maps in Fig. 18-39. It is apparent that the major...... and range on the basis of the present material, due to too few and incomparable surveys. Only the Brünnich's guillemot is adequately studied to make conclusions on population trends (Kampp et al. 1994). However, our impressions of trends are given in Tab. 5. Species with decreasing populations are common...... eider, Brünnich's guillemot and Arctic tern, while at least great cormorant and great black-backed gull have shown range expansions and probably also population increases in recent years. The most important areas to breeding colonial seabirds are indicated on Fig. 40. Fig. 41 shows coastlines where...

  1. Extended Abstract: Management of Liver Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galle, Peter Robert

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third most common cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. HCC represents more than 90% of primary liver cancers. There is a growing incidence of HCC worldwide. In the Western world, HCC arises in a cirrhotic background in up to 90% of cases, and cirrhosis itself is a progressive disease that affects patient survival. Thus, outcome in patients with HCC and the chances for anti-tumor treatment and its results are dependent not only on tumor-associated factors but also on liver function. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Chinese Managerial Culture Versus Western Style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franck Renand

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available As China is believed to be the market of the twenty-first century, entering China is not an option but a strategic requirement for many organizations. However, numerous Western managers who are well equipped with technical background know almost nothing about the pioneers who are reshaping the world's second largest economy. Consequently, this cross-sectional analysis explores the managerial implication of the Chinese dialectic logic vs. Western formal logic, particularistic Chinese culture vs. universalistic Western culture. Then it investigates the Chinese socialization vs. Western technical expertise and completes the analysis on the Chinese vs. American pattern of management development including a comparison of their respective MBA.

  3. A western boundary current east of New Caledonia: Observed characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparin, Florent; Ganachaud, Alexandre; Maes, Christophe

    2011-09-01

    Waters from the South Equatorial Current (SEC), the northern branch of the South Pacific subtropical gyre, are a major supply of heat to the equatorial warm pool, and have an important contribution to climate variability and ENSO which motivated the Southwest Pacific Ocean and Climate Experiment (SPICE, CLIVAR/WCRP). Initially a broad westward current extending from the equator to 30°S, the SEC splits upon arriving at the major islands and archipelagoes of Fiji (18°S, 180°E), Vanuatu (16°S, 168°E), and New Caledonia (22°S, 165°E), resulting in a complex system of western boundary currents and zonal jets that feed the Coral and Solomon Seas. We focus here on the formation of one specific jet feeding the Coral Sea, the North Caledonian Jet (NCJ). Using a combination of recent oceanographic cruises, we describe the ocean circulation to the northeast of New Caledonia, where the SEC forms a western boundary current that ultimately becomes the NCJ. This current, which we document for the first time and propose to refer to as the East Caledonian Current (ECC), has its core located 10-100 km off the east coast of New Caledonia, and extends vertically to at least 1000 m depth. Water mass properties show continuous westward transports through the ECC, from the SEC to the NCJ in both the South Pacific Tropical Waters in the thermocline and Antarctic Intermediate Waters near 700 m depth. The ECC extends about 100 km horizontally; its average 0-1000 m transport was estimated at 14.5±3 Sv off the north tip of the New Caledonian reef, with a maximum of 20 Sv in May 2010. South of that the upstream branch of the ECC east of the Loyalty is close to 8 Sv suggesting an important additional contribution from central Pacific waters carried by the SEC at 16°S and diverted to our region through the western boundary current system east of Vanuatu.

  4. Thermodynamic Products in the Extended Phase Space

    CERN Document Server

    Pradhan, Parthapratim

    2016-01-01

    We have examined the thermodynamic properties of spherically symmetric charged-AdS black hole, charged AdS BH surrounded by quintessence and charged AdS BH in $f(R)$ gravity in the extended phase-space. Where the cosmological constant should be treated as thermodynamic pressure and its conjugate parameter as thermodynamic volume. Then they should behave as a analog of Van der Waal like systems. In the extended phase space we have calculated the \\emph{entropy product} and \\emph{thermodynamic volume product} of all horizons. The mass(or enthalpy) independent nature of the said products signals they are "universal" quantities. Various types of pictorial diagram of the specific heat is given. The divergence of the specific heat indicates that the second order phase transition occurs under certain condition.

  5. Optimizing Extender Code for NCSX Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Richman, S. Ethier, and N. Pomphrey

    2008-01-22

    Extender is a parallel C++ code for calculating the magnetic field in the vacuum region of a stellarator. The code was optimized for speed and augmented with tools to maintain a specialized NetCDF database. Two parallel algorithms were examined. An even-block work-distribution scheme was comparable in performance to a master-slave scheme. Large speedup factors were achieved by representing the plasma surface with a spline rather than Fourier series. The accuracy of this representation and the resulting calculations relied on the density of the spline mesh. The Fortran 90 module db access was written to make it easy to store Extender output in a manageable database. New or updated data can be added to existing databases. A generalized PBS job script handles the generation of a database from scratch

  6. Junction conditions in extended Teleparallel gravities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De la Cruz-Dombriz, Álvaro [Departamento de Física Teórica I, Ciudad Universitaria, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Dunsby, Peter K.S.; Sáez-Gómez, Diego, E-mail: dombriz@fis.ucm.es, E-mail: peter.dunsby@uct.ac.za, E-mail: diego.saezgomez@uct.ac.za [Astrophysics, Cosmology and Gravity Centre (ACGC), Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701, Cape Town (South Africa)

    2014-12-01

    In the context of extended Teleparallel gravity theories, we address the issue of junction conditions required to guarantee the correct matching of different regions of spacetime. In the absence of shells/branes, these conditions turn out to be more restrictive than their counterparts in General Relativity as in other extended theories of gravity. In fact, the general junction conditions on the matching hypersurfaces depend on the underlying theory and a new condition on the induced tetrads in order to avoid delta-like distributions in the field equations. This result imposes strict consequences on the viability of standard solutions such as the Einstein-Straus-like construction. We find that the continuity of the scalar torsion is required in order to recover the usual General Relativity results.

  7. Does string theory lead to extended inflation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Bruce A.; Linde, Andrei; Olive, Keith A.

    1991-05-01

    We consider the relationship between string theory and currently proposed models of extended inflation. In doing so, we discuss the conformal actions in string theory and in Jordan-Brans-Dicke gravity. We show explicitly the equivalence of pictures in which either gauge or gravitational couplings are changing with time. We demonstrate that the existence of the dilation in string theory does not naturally lead to extended inflation as currently discussed. We also discuss the resolution of the graceful exit problem of old inflation in Einstein gravity using either power-law inflation, or exponential inflation with a changing bubble formation rate. On leave of absence from School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA.

  8. Application of electron closures in extended MHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, Eric; Adair, Brett; Taylor, Trevor

    2017-10-01

    Rigorous closure of the extended MHD equations in plasma fluid codes includes the effects of electron heat conduction along perturbed magnetic fields and contributions of the electron collisional friction and stress to the extended Ohms law. In this work we discuss application of a continuum numerical solution to the Chapman-Enskog-like electron drift kinetic equation using the NIMROD code. The implementation is a tightly-coupled fluid/kinetic system that carefully addresses time-centering in the advance of the fluid variables with their kinetically-computed closures. Comparisons of spatial accuracy, computational efficiency and required velocity space resolution are presented for applications involving growing magnetic islands in cylindrical and toroidal geometry. The reduction in parallel heat conduction due to particle trapping in toroidal geometry is emphasized. Work supported by DOE under Grant Nos. DE-FC02-08ER54973 and DE-FG02-04ER54746.

  9. Extending applicability of bimetric theory: chameleon bigravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Felice, Antonio; Mukohyama, Shinji; Uzan, Jean-Philippe

    2018-02-01

    This article extends bimetric formulations of massive gravity to make the mass of the graviton to depend on its environment. This minimal extension offers a novel way to reconcile massive gravity with local tests of general relativity without invoking the Vainshtein mechanism. On cosmological scales, it is argued that the model is stable and that it circumvents the Higuchi bound, hence relaxing the constraints on the parameter space. Moreover, with this extension the strong coupling scale is also environmentally dependent in such a way that it is kept sufficiently higher than the expansion rate all the way up to the very early universe, while the present graviton mass is low enough to be phenomenologically interesting. In this sense the extended bigravity theory serves as a partial UV completion of the standard bigravity theory. This extension is very generic and robust and a simple specific example is described.

  10. Extended range interferometry based on wavefront shaping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczupak, M. L.; Salbut, L.

    2007-09-01

    There are many cases when absolute measurements of objects with large height differences or height discontinuity is needed. These measurements can not be covered by classical interferometry since the range of non-ambiguity is limited to half the optical wavelength. Several techniques have been already developed for extending of non-ambiguity range. However most of them is based on multi-wavelength methods which demands expensive light sources and special environment conditions. In this work the new interferometric technique for absolute measurements of large steps discontinuities is proposed. Variable wavefront of the illuminating beam and special procedure for calibration of the measurement volume are used for extending of the measurement range without using multispectral sources. Additionally, calibration of the measurement area simplifies fringe processing and quicken measures. Theoretical analysis of this technique, its numerical simulations and experimental verification are presented and discussed.

  11. Lepton flavor violation in an extended MSSM

    CERN Document Server

    Espinosa-Castañeda, R.; Gómez-Bock, M.; Mondragón, M.

    2016-01-01

    In this work we explore a lepton flavor violation effect induced at one loop for a flavor structure in an extended minimal standard supersymmetric model, considering an ansatz for the trilinear term. In particular we find a finite expression which will show the impact of this phenomena in the $h\\to \\mu \\tau$ decay, produced by a mixing in the trilinear coupling of the soft supersymmetric Lagrangian.

  12. Extended Deterministic Mean-Field Games

    KAUST Repository

    Gomes, Diogo A.

    2016-04-21

    In this paper, we consider mean-field games where the interaction of each player with the mean field takes into account not only the states of the players but also their collective behavior. To do so, we develop a random variable framework that is particularly convenient for these problems. We prove an existence result for extended mean-field games and establish uniqueness conditions. In the last section, we consider the Master Equation and discuss properties of its solutions.

  13. Deterministic automata for extended regular expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syzdykov Mirzakhmet

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work we present the algorithms to produce deterministic finite automaton (DFA for extended operators in regular expressions like intersection, subtraction and complement. The method like “overriding” of the source NFA(NFA not defined with subset construction rules is used. The past work described only the algorithm for AND-operator (or intersection of regular languages; in this paper the construction for the MINUS-operator (and complement is shown.

  14. Interacting Holstein and extended-Holstein bipolarons

    OpenAIRE

    Chakraborty, Monodeep; Tezuka, Masaki; Min, B. I.

    2013-01-01

    Employing the recently developed self-consistent variational basis generation scheme, we have investigated the bipolaron-bipolaron interaction within the purview of Holstein-Hubbard and the extended-Holstein-Hubbard (F2H) model on a discrete one-dimensional lattice. The density-matrix renormalization group (DMRG) method has also been used for the Holstein-Hubbard model. We have shown that there exists no bipolaron-bipolaron attraction in the Holstein-Hubbard model. In contrast, we have obtain...

  15. The renewable tradition (extended play remix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Amerika

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Drawing from a network of appropriation artists, process philosophers, performance poets, pla(ygiarists, and other remix provocateurs, this experimental artist essay investigates the act of remixologically inhabiting the body language of others and, in the process, devises an aesthetic theory that situates the contemporary artist as a "postproduction medium" whose methodologies further extend avant-garde practice into the 21st century.

  16. Extending DUNE: The dune-xt modules

    OpenAIRE

    Leibner, Tobias; Milk, René; Schindler, Felix

    2016-01-01

    We present our effort to extend and complement the core modules of the Distributed and Unified Numerics Environment DUNE (http://dune-project.org) by a well tested and structured collection of utilities and concepts. We describe key elements of our four modules dune-xt-common, dune-xt-grid, dune-xt-la and dune-xt-functions, which aim at further enabling the programming of generic algorithms within DUNE as well as adding an extra layer of usability and convenience.

  17. FRW Cosmology with the Extended Chaplygin Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Pourhassan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose extended Chaplygin gas equation of state for which it recovers barotropic fluid with quadratic equation of state. We use numerical method to investigate the behavior of some cosmological parameters such as scale factor, Hubble expansion parameter, energy density, and deceleration parameter. We also discuss the resulting effective equation of state parameter. Using density perturbations we investigate the stability of the theory.

  18. Socially extended intentions-in-action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg, Olle

    2011-01-01

    . Tollefsen’s account is specifically constructed to account for the joint activities of infants and toddlers who lack the capacity to think of others as planning agents and grasp their plan-like intentions (a capacity required by Michael Bratman’s (1992, 1993, 2009a, 2009b) influential account of joint...... activity). At the end of the paper, I raise some doubts regarding the extent to which infants and toddlers have socially extended intentions-in-action....

  19. Fusion Rules for Extended Current Algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Baver, Ernest; Gepner, Doron

    1996-01-01

    The initial classification of fusion rules have shown that rational conformal field theory is very limited. In this paper we study the fusion rules of extend ed current algebras. Explicit formulas are given for the S matrix and the fusion rules, based on the full splitting of the fixed point fields. We find that in s ome cases sensible fusion rules are obtained, while in others this procedure lea ds to fractional fusion constants.

  20. Thermodynamic volume and the extended Smarr relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Seungjoon; Jeong, Jaehoon; Park, Sang-A.; Yi, Sang-Heon

    2017-04-01

    We continue to explore the scaling transformation in the reduced action formalism of gravity models. As an extension of our construction, we consider the extended forms of the Smarr relation for various black holes, adopting the cosmological constant as the bulk pressure as in some literatures on black holes. Firstly, by using the quasi-local formalism for charges, we show that, in a general theory of gravity, the volume in the black hole thermodynamics could be defined as the thermodynamic conjugate variable to the bulk pressure in such a way that the first law can be extended consistently. This, so called, thermodynamic volume can be expressed explicitly in terms of the metric and field variables. Then, by using the scaling transformation allowed in the reduced action formulation, we obtain the extended Smarr relation involving the bulk pressure and the thermodynamic volume. In our approach, we do not resort to Euler's homogeneous scaling of charges while incorporating the would-be hairy contribution without any difficulty.

  1. A GPU-accelerated extended Kalman filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shih-Chieh; Huang, Bormin

    2011-11-01

    The extended Kalman filter is one of the most widely used techniques for state estimation of nonlinear systems. In its two steps of forecast and data assimilation, many matrix operations including multiplication and inversion are involved. As recent graphic processor units (GPU) have shown to provide much speedup in matrix operations, we will explore in this work a GPU-based implementation of the extended Kalman filter. The Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) on the Nvidia GeForce GTX 590 GPU hardware will be used for comparison with a single threaded CPU counterpart. Experiments were conducted on typical large-scale over-determined systems with thousands of components in states and measurements. Within the GPU memory limit, a speedup of 1386x is achieved for a system with measurements having 5000 components and states having 3750 components. The speedup profile for various combinations of measurement and state sizes will serve as good reference for future implementation of extended Kalman filter on real large-scale applications.

  2. Why an extended evolutionary synthesis is necessary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Gerd B

    2017-10-06

    Since the last major theoretical integration in evolutionary biology-the modern synthesis (MS) of the 1940s-the biosciences have made significant advances. The rise of molecular biology and evolutionary developmental biology, the recognition of ecological development, niche construction and multiple inheritance systems, the '-omics' revolution and the science of systems biology, among other developments, have provided a wealth of new knowledge about the factors responsible for evolutionary change. Some of these results are in agreement with the standard theory and others reveal different properties of the evolutionary process. A renewed and extended theoretical synthesis, advocated by several authors in this issue, aims to unite pertinent concepts that emerge from the novel fields with elements of the standard theory. The resulting theoretical framework differs from the latter in its core logic and predictive capacities. Whereas the MS theory and its various amendments concentrate on genetic and adaptive variation in populations, the extended framework emphasizes the role of constructive processes, ecological interactions and systems dynamics in the evolution of organismal complexity as well as its social and cultural conditions. Single-level and unilinear causation is replaced by multilevel and reciprocal causation. Among other consequences, the extended framework overcomes many of the limitations of traditional gene-centric explanation and entails a revised understanding of the role of natural selection in the evolutionary process. All these features stimulate research into new areas of evolutionary biology.

  3. Extended pie menus for immersive virtual environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhardt, Sascha; Pick, Sebastian; Leithold, Franziska; Hentschel, Bernd; Kuhlen, Torsten

    2013-04-01

    Pie menus are a well-known technique for interacting with 2D environments and so far a large body of research documents their usage and optimizations. Yet, comparatively little research has been done on the usability of pie menus in immersive virtual environments (IVEs). In this paper we reduce this gap by presenting an implementation and evaluation of an extended hierarchical pie menu system for IVEs that can be operated with a six-degrees-of-freedom input device. Following an iterative development process, we first developed and evaluated a basic hierarchical pie menu system. To better understand how pie menus should be operated in IVEs, we tested this system in a pilot user study with 24 participants and focus on item selection. Regarding the results of the study, the system was tweaked and elements like check boxes, sliders, and color map editors were added to provide extended functionality. An expert review with five experts was performed with the extended pie menus being integrated into an existing VR application to identify potential design issues. Overall results indicated high performance and efficient design.

  4. Extended Self Similarity in Solar Wind Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlands, G.; Chapman, S. C.; Hnat, B.

    2005-12-01

    The solar wind provides a natural laboratory for observations of MHD turbulence over extended temporal scales. A hallmark of turbulence is scaling- and scaling in the Probability Density Functions (PDF) of fluctuations in certain solar wind in- situ bulk plasma parameters has been established from WIND and ACE observations on `short' timescales up to a few hours. On longer timescales there is a crossover in scaling to uncorrelated behaviour. The intermittency of the system is expressed in these parameters through the non-Gaussian nature of the fluctuations PDF up to this timescale. Here we apply a generic approach to turbulence- that of Extended Self Similarity (ESS)- to the analysis of solar wind observations. We find that ESS can extend the range of scaling and for some parameters reveals two distinct scaling regions for the `short' and long timescales, whereas for others, a single scaling encompasses the behaviour over the full range of timescales. That certain parameters, and conditions, can be distinguished via ESS may provide physical insight into the turbulent solar wind.

  5. Post-Emergence Behavior of Hatchling Western Pond Turtles (Actinemys marmorata) in Western Oregon

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daniel K. Rosenberg; Roberta Swift

    2013-01-01

    .... We investigated post-emergence movements and habitat associations of western pond turtles (Actinemys marmorata) at two study sites in western Oregon using micro-transmitters and harmonic radar methods...

  6. Dark energy and extended dark matter halos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernin, A. D.; Teerikorpi, P.; Valtonen, M. J.; Dolgachev, V. P.; Domozhilova, L. M.; Byrd, G. G.

    2012-03-01

    The cosmological mean matter (dark and baryonic) density measured in the units of the critical density is Ωm = 0.27. Independently, the local mean density is estimated to be Ωloc = 0.08-0.23 from recent data on galaxy groups at redshifts up to z = 0.01-0.03 (as published by Crook et al. 2007, ApJ, 655, 790 and Makarov & Karachentsev 2011, MNRAS, 412, 2498). If the lower values of Ωloc are reliable, as Makarov & Karachentsev and some other observers prefer, does this mean that the Local Universe of 100-300 Mpc across is an underdensity in the cosmic matter distribution? Or could it nevertheless be representative of the mean cosmic density or even be an overdensity due to the Local Supercluster therein. We focus on dark matter halos of groups of galaxies and check how much dark mass the invisible outer layers of the halos are able to host. The outer layers are usually devoid of bright galaxies and cannot be seen at large distances. The key factor which bounds the size of an isolated halo is the local antigravity produced by the omnipresent background of dark energy. A gravitationally bound halo does not extend beyond the zero-gravity surface where the gravity of matter and the antigravity of dark energy balance, thus defining a natural upper size of a system. We use our theory of local dynamical effects of dark energy to estimate the maximal sizes and masses of the extended dark halos. Using data from three recent catalogs of galaxy groups, we show that the calculated mass bounds conform with the assumption that a significant amount of dark matter is located in the invisible outer parts of the extended halos, sufficient to fill the gap between the observed and expected local matter density. Nearby groups of galaxies and the Virgo cluster have dark halos which seem to extend up to their zero-gravity surfaces. If the extended halo is a common feature of gravitationally bound systems on scales of galaxy groups and clusters, the Local Universe could be typical or even

  7. Invertebrates of The H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, Western Cascades, Oregon: I. An annotated checklist of fleas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Lewis; Chris. Maser

    1981-01-01

    During a trapping survey of small mammals (approximately 3,000 individuals), species of fleas (1,632 specimens) were collected in the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, Western Cascades, Oregon. Host mammals were represented by 15 species—6 insectivores and 9 rodents captured from June through September. The collections extend our knowledge of the fauna of Oregon.

  8. Mitochondrial DNA Variation and Range Expansion in Western Bean Cutworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): No Evidence for a Recent Population Bottleneck

    Science.gov (United States)

    The western bean cutworm, Striacosta albicosta (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a pest of both corn and dry bean crops. At the beginning of the 21st century, the species began to extend its range out of the Great Plains, eastward through the Corn Belt. This rapid range expansion is remarkable bec...

  9. 77 FR 69929 - Western Carolina Railway Service Corporation, Steven C. Hawkins and Cheryl R. Hawkins-Continuance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-21

    .... Hawkins--Continuance in Control Exemption--Aiken Railway Company, LLC Western Carolina Railway Service... noncarrier Aiken Railway Company, LLC (AIKR), upon AIKR's becoming a Class III rail carrier. This transaction... near Oakwood, S.C.; and (2) the AB Line extending 6.45 miles between milepost AB 23.75 at or near Aiken...

  10. Organic walled dinoflagellate cysts from the Tarim Basin, western China: Implications for the retreat of the Paratethys Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grothe, A.; Houben, A.J.P.; Bosboom, R.E.; Dupont-Nivet, G.; Brinkhuis, H.

    2011-01-01

    Paleogene sediments of the Tarim basin in western China hold the easternmost extent of the Paratethys Sea, an epicontinental sea that covered a large part of Eurasia and probably extended to the Mediterranean Tethys in the west. The late Cretaceous and Paleogene sedimentary record of the

  11. The Effect of Climate Change on Wetlands and Waterfowl in Western Canada: Incorporating Cropping Decisions into a Bioeconomic Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Withey, P.; Kooten, van G.C.

    2013-01-01

    We extend an earlier bioeconomic model of optimal duck harvest and wetland retention in the Prairie Pothole Region of Western Canada to include cropping decisions. Instead of a single state equation, the model has two state equations representing the population dynamics of ducks and the amount of

  12. Forest fire weather and computed fire occurrence in western Oregon and western Washington in 1960.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen P. Cramer

    1960-01-01

    Fire season severity in 1960 was about average in western Washington but was very high in western Oregon. Severity of the entire season in both States was slightly greater than in 1959. Although spring was less severe, both summer and fall were slightly more severe than comparable parts of the previous fire season. Spring fire danger in western Washington was as low as...

  13. Mantle plume influence on the Neogene uplift and extension of the US western Cordillera?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, T.; Thompson, G.A.; Sleep, Norman H.

    1994-01-01

    Despite its highly extended and thinned crust, much of the western Cordillera in the United States is elevated more than 1km above sea level. Therefore, this region cannot be thought of as thick crust floating isostatically in a uniform mantle; rather, the lithospheric mantle and/or the upper asthenosphere must vary in thickness or density across the region. Utilizing crustal thickness and density constraints, the residual mass defcicit that must occur in the mantle lithosphere and asthenosphere beneath the western Cordillera was modelled. A major hot spot broke out during a complex series of Cenozoic tectonic events that included lithospheric thickening, back-arc extension, and transition from subduction to a transform plate boundary. It is suggested that many of the characteristics that make the western Cordillera unique among extensional provinces can be attributed to the mantle plume that created the Yellowstone hot spot. -Authors

  14. Integrated traditional Chinese and western medicine for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Compared to a regular treatment with western medicine alone, the therapeutic approach that utilizes integration of Chinese with western medicine can effectively improve the clinical efficacy and serum hormone levels in patients with menopausal syndrome. However, the evidence was not very strong due to the ...

  15. Body image in non-western societies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edmonds, A.; Cash, T.

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses a range of body modification and conceptions of the body in non-Western societies. It also analyzes difficulties in applying the primarily Western psychological notion of body image to different societies. Body modification is a near human universal, but has many meanings and

  16. Expert Western Classical Music Improvisers' Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Després, Jean-Philippe; Burnard, Pamela; Dubé, Francis; Stévance, Sophie

    2017-01-01

    The growing interest in musical improvisation is exemplified by the body of literatures evidencing the positive impacts of improvisation learning on the musical apprentice's aptitudes and the increasing presence of improvisation in Western classical concert halls and competitions. However, high-level Western classical music improvisers' thinking…

  17. Crossing the western pines at Placerville, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. B. Critchfield; S. L. Krugman

    1967-01-01

    The results of hybridizing the western pine species by the Institute of Forest Genetics are described and discussed. It has been found that the hard, (yellow) pines can generally be crossed successfully only with similar species native to the same part of the world. In contrast, the soft (white) pines of the Western Hemisphere have been crossed successfully with soft...

  18. Management strategies for sustainable western water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott Tyler; Sudeep Chandra; Gordon Grant

    2017-01-01

    With the effects of the dramatic western US drought still reverberating through the landscape, researchers gathered in advance of the 20th annual Lake Tahoe Summit to discuss western US water issues in the 21st century. This two-day workshop brought together ~40 researchers from universities and agencies (federal and state) to discuss the prospects that...

  19. Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science (WIOJMS) provides an avenue for the wide dissemination of high quality research generated in the Western Indian Ocean (WIO) region, in particular on the sustainable use of coastal and marine resources. Topics include, but are not limited to: theoretical studies, ...

  20. 108 WESTERN INFLUENCE ON CHINESE AND NIGERIAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ike Odimegwu

    American style skyscrapers with western modern architecture which signifies that they have followed the trend of modernity. Today, many cities in China could boast of city skyline with modern designs for comfort. b) Chinese Weddings: Many Chinese have adopted the western form of white wedding ceremony. They see the.

  1. Basic Western Lviv Region Conversational Ukrainian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petryshyn, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To present the first complete Guide for studying the Western-Ukrainian Dialect and its scientific description of Phonology. Methodology: descriptive, contrastive and analytical methods of defining the peculiarities of the Dialect. Results: the regularities and the laws have been defined as to the specifics of the Western-Ukrainian Dialect…

  2. Ancient Israel in Western Civ Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cargill, Jack

    2001-01-01

    The author frequently teaches introductory courses in what was once generally called "Western Civilization" and has often been called upon to referee all or parts of the manuscripts of new editions of "Western Civ" textbooks. Through his own reading, he has become aware that much current scholarship on ancient Israel and Judah…

  3. Western Australian food security project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maycock Bruce

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the Western Australian (WA Food Security Project was to conduct a preliminary investigation into issues relating to food security in one region within the Perth metropolitan area in Western Australia. The first phase of the project involved a food audit in one lower income area that was typical of the region, to identify the range, variety and availability of foods in the region. Methods A comprehensive food audit survey was provided to all food outlet owners/operators in one lower socio-economic region within the City of Mandurah (n = 132 outlets. The purpose of the survey was to investigate the range, variety and availability of foods in the Mandurah region as well as examining specific in-store characteristics such as the types of clientele and in-store promotions offered. Surveys were competed for 99 outlets (response rate = 75%. Results The range of foods available were predominantly pre-prepared with more than half of the outlets pre-preparing the majority of their food. Sandwiches and rolls were the most popular items sold in the outlets surveyed (n = 51 outlets followed by pastries such as pies, sausage rolls and pasties (n = 33 outlets. Outlets considered their healthiest food options were sandwiches or rolls (n = 51 outlets, salads (n- = 50 outlets, fruit and vegetables (n = 40 outlets, seafood (n = 27 outlets, meats such as chicken (n = 26 outlets and hot foods such as curries, soups or quiches (n = 23 outlets. The majority of outlets surveyed considered pre-prepared food including sandwiches, rolls and salads, as healthy food options regardless of the content of the filling or dressings used. Few outlets (n = 28% offered a choice of bread type other than white or wholemeal. High fat pastries and dressings were popular client choices (n = 77% as were carbonated drinks (n = 88% and flavoured milks (n = 46%. Conclusion These findings clearly indicate the need for further investigation of the impact of

  4. Fault activation by hydraulic fracturing in western Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Xuewei; Eaton, David W

    2016-12-16

    Hydraulic fracturing has been inferred to trigger the majority of injection-induced earthquakes in western Canada, in contrast to the Midwestern United States, where massive saltwater disposal is the dominant triggering mechanism. A template-based earthquake catalog from a seismically active Canadian shale play, combined with comprehensive injection data during a 4-month interval, shows that earthquakes are tightly clustered in space and time near hydraulic fracturing sites. The largest event [moment magnitude (MW) 3.9] occurred several weeks after injection along a fault that appears to extend from the injection zone into crystalline basement. Patterns of seismicity indicate that stress changes during operations can activate fault slip to an offset distance of >1 km, whereas pressurization by hydraulic fracturing into a fault yields episodic seismicity that can persist for months. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  5. 20 CFR 336.15 - How to claim extended benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How to claim extended benefits. 336.15 Section 336.15 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT DURATION OF NORMAL AND EXTENDED BENEFITS Extended Benefits § 336.15 How to claim extended...

  6. 20 CFR 336.14 - Extended benefit period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Extended benefit period. 336.14 Section 336.14 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT DURATION OF NORMAL AND EXTENDED BENEFITS Extended Benefits § 336.14 Extended benefit period...

  7. Comparison of different extenders and storage temperature on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Semen was pooled and randomly allocated to four groups and diluted at a ratio of 1:1 (v/v) with Beltsville thawing solution (BTS), Kobidil+, egg yolk citrate (EYC) and non-extended semen (Control). Each extender had two similar semen samples, making a total of eight samples. Extended and non-extended semen were ...

  8. Talipes equinovarus in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Mary; Bower, Caroline; Mylvaganam, Arul; Rouse, Ian

    2003-04-01

    In Western Australia (WA), talipes equinovarus is a notifiable birth defect and, since 1980, has been ascertained by the population-based Birth Defects Registry (BDR). Talipes equinovarus deformities were classified as two distinct and distinguishable types, viz. isolated talipes equinovarus (no other birth defects present) and associated talipes equinovarus (other birth defects present). The birth prevalence of associated talipes in WA between 1980 and 1994 was 0.90 per 1000 births, and of isolated talipes was 1.25 per 1000 births. The rate of the isolated deformity was higher in Aboriginal infants (3.49 per 1000 births) than in Caucasian infants (1.11 per 1000 births) and non-Aboriginal non-Caucasian infants (0.73 per 1000 births). The sex differential in the rate of the isolated deformity was greatest among Aboriginal infants, with the rate in males being almost four times that in females. The birth prevalence of both types of the deformity remained stable over the 15-year study period. The rate of caesarean and breech deliveries and the proportion of bilaterally affected feet was greater among infants with associated talipes equinovarus deformity. An accurate and complete identification of cases of isolated talipes equinovarus in the 1980-94 WA birth cohort provides a basis for furthering the understanding of the epidemiology and hence the aetiology of the deformity.

  9. Western water and climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettinger, Michael; Udall, Bradley; Georgakakos, Aris P.

    2015-01-01

    The western United States is a region long defined by water challenges. Climate change adds to those historical challenges, but does not, for the most part, introduce entirely new challenges; rather climate change is likely to stress water supplies and resources already in many cases stretched to, or beyond, natural limits. Projections are for continued and, likely, increased warming trends across the region, with a near certainty of continuing changes in seasonality of snowmelt and streamflows, and a strong potential for attendant increases in evaporative demands. Projections of future precipitation are less conclusive, although likely the northernmost West will see precipitation increases while the southernmost West sees declines. However, most of the region lies in a broad area where some climate models project precipitation increases while others project declines, so that only increases in precipitation uncertainties can be projected with any confidence. Changes in annual and seasonal hydrographs are likely to challenge water managers, users, and attempts to protect or restore environmental flows, even where annual volumes change little. Other impacts from climate change (e.g., floods and water-quality changes) are poorly understood and will likely be location dependent.

  10. Pottery ethnoarchaeology in Western Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González Ruibal, Alfredo

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of three ethnoarchaeological field seasons carried out among the Berta, Gumuz, Mao and Kwama of western Ethiopia are presented here. Fieldwork focused on the gathering of general data on the material culture of Benishangul- Gumuz, and particularly on pottery and vernacular architecture. The data relating to production, distribution and consumption of pottery are addressed in this article. The peoples studied are organised on egalitarian lines and practise a slash-and-burn agriculture.

    Se presentan los resultados de tres campañas etnoarqueológicas llevadas a cabo entre los Berta, Gumuz, Mao y Kwama de Etiopía. El trabajo se centró en la recogida de datos generales sobre la cultura material de la región de Benishangul-Gumuz y en particular en la cerámica y la arquitectura vernácula. Aquí se tratan los datos relativos a la producción, distribución y consumo de cerámica. Los pueblos estudiados se organizan en comunidades igualitarias y practican una agricultura de roza y quema.

  11. Schistosoma bovis in western Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stothard, J R; Lockyer, A E; Kabatereine, N B; Tukahebwa, E M; Kazibwe, F; Rollinson, D; Fenwick, A

    2004-09-01

    During routine parasitological surveillance and monitoring activities within a National Control Programme for control of human schistosomiasis in Uganda, it was noted that cattle grazing in a water meadow immediately adjacent to Tonya primary school, where the prevalence of intestinal schistosomiasis in children was in excess of 90%, were unusually emaciated. To test the hypothesis that there may have been an anthropozoonotic focus of Schistosoma mansoni within the local herd, a young female heifer, clearly emaciated and c. 8 months old, was slaughtered from which schistosome worms were later recovered by dissection. As female worms inspected by microscopy were not gravid, morphological identification proved inconclusive but analysis of cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and small subunit (SSU) ribosomal DNA sequences from these worms identified them as Schistosoma bovis Sonsino, 1876. This is the first substantiated report of S. bovis from Lake Albert, western Uganda. Further epidemiological surveys are needed to clarify the extent of bovine schistosomiasis within this region, particularly so since this lakeside plain has been earmarked as a future game reserve.

  12. Extending the applicability of multigrid methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brannick, J; Brezina, M; Falgout, R; Manteuffel, T; McCormick, S; Ruge, J; Sheehan, B; Xu, J; Zikatanov, L

    2006-09-25

    Multigrid methods are ideal for solving the increasingly large-scale problems that arise in numerical simulations of physical phenomena because of their potential for computational costs and memory requirements that scale linearly with the degrees of freedom. Unfortunately, they have been historically limited by their applicability to elliptic-type problems and the need for special handling in their implementation. In this paper, we present an overview of several recent theoretical and algorithmic advances made by the TOPS multigrid partners and their collaborators in extending applicability of multigrid methods. Specific examples that are presented include quantum chromodynamics, radiation transport, and electromagnetics.

  13. Extending the applicability of multigrid methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brannick, J [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, 80309 (United States); Brezina, M [Center for Applied and Scientific Computing, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Falgout, R [Center for Applied and Scientific Computing, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Manteuffel, T [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, 80309 (United States); McCormick, S [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, 80309 (United States); Ruge, J [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, 80309 (United States); Sheehan, B [Center for Applied and Scientific Computing, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Xu, J [Department of Mathematics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, 16802 (United States); Zikatanov, L [Department of Mathematics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, 16802 (United States)

    2006-09-15

    Multigrid methods are ideal for solving the increasingly large-scale problems that arise in numerical simulations of physical phenomena because of their potential for computational costs and memory requirements that scale linearly with the degrees of freedom. Unfortunately, they have been historically limited by their applicability to elliptic-type problems and the need for special handling in their implementation. In this paper, we present an overview of several recent theoretical and algorithmic advances made by the TOPS multigrid partners and their collaborators in extending applicability of multigrid methods. specific examples that are presented include quantum chromodynamics, radiation transport, and electromagnetics.

  14. Cambridge IGCSE mathematics core and extended

    CERN Document Server

    Pimentel, Ric

    2013-01-01

    The most cost effective and straightforward way to teach the revised syllabus, with all the core and extended content covered by a single book and accompanying free digital resources.  . This title has been written for the revised Cambridge IGCSE Mathematics (0580) syllabus, for first teaching from 2013.  . ·         Gives students the practice they require to deepen their understanding through plenty of questions. ·         Consolidates learning with unique digital resources on the CD, included free with every Student's Book.  . We are working with Cambridge International Examinations to gain

  15. Extended Carbon Cognition as a Machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert, Ingmar

    2011-01-01

    . As a result of this analysis carbon accounting emerges as enabled through an extended system of cognition. The paper concludes by tentatively suggesting a view on this machinery as co-constituting a wider -- to borrow Guattari's term -- Universe: A Universe of references to carbon. Following these relations...... of thinking allows to question the conceptualisa- tions of the actors involved and how their practical interactions render carbon, nature and our society (un)sustainable. This, I hope, provides a chance to better conceptualise individuals, their social and material contexts, and through that, corresponding...

  16. Exploring Social Structures in Extended Team Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zahedi, Mansooreh; Ali Babar, Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    Extended Team Model (ETM) as a type of offshore outsourcing is increasingly becoming popular mode of Global Software Development (GSD). There is little knowledge about the social structures in ETM and their impact on collaboration. Within a large interdisciplinary project to develop the next...... generation of GSD technologies, we are exploring the role of social structures to support collaboration. This paper reports some details of our research design and initial findings about the mechanisms to support social structures and their impact on collaboration in an ETM....

  17. Extended solutions for the biadjoint scalar field

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Smet, Pieter-Jan; White, Chris D.

    2017-12-01

    Biadjoint scalar field theories are increasingly important in the study of scattering amplitudes in various string and field theories. Recently, some first exact nonperturbative solutions of biadjoint scalar theory were presented, with a pure power-like form corresponding to isolated monopole-like objects located at the origin of space. In this paper, we find a novel family of extended solutions, involving non-trivial form factors that partially screen the divergent field at the origin. All previous solutions emerge as special cases.

  18. The eighth national electromagnetics meeting. Extended abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eloranta, E.; Jokela, K. [eds.

    1998-09-01

    The National Electromagnetics Meeting has been arranged annually since 1991 in Finland. The purpose of the meeting is to convene the persons working with problems of electromagnetics and to enhance the interaction between different research groups in different disciplines. The eighth meeting was held at the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) August 27, 1998. The meeting is also the national meeting of the URSI (L`Union Radio-Scientifique Internationals)(Commission B: Fields and Waves) and the IEEE MTT/AP/ED Finland Chapter (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.). The report includes the extended abstracts of the presentations given in the National Electromagnetics Meeting at STUK. (orig.)

  19. An extended Farm Site Development Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Hanekom

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The inefficient and ineffective use of arable land in South Africa is one of the numerous challenges within its agricultural sector. Previous research has indicated that a method, the Farm Site Development Method (FSDM, could increase the effective and efficient use of arable land by providing a roadmap to the farm owner for incrementally transforming the current state facilities and resources of a farm towards a future saturation state. The FSDM was then demonstrated at a crop-producing farm and several opportunities existed to extend its utility. Here we suggest its extension for application to a livestock farm, and also include optimisation techniques, demand planning and financial planning.

  20. Extending matchgates into universal quantum computation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brod, Daniel J.; Galvao, Ernesto F. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza s/n, Gragoata, Niteroi, RJ, 24210-340 (Brazil)

    2011-08-15

    Matchgates are a family of two-qubit gates associated with noninteracting fermions. They are classically simulatable if acting only on nearest neighbors but become universal for quantum computation if we relax this restriction or use swap gates [Jozsa and Miyake, Proc. R. Soc. A 464, 3089 (2008)]. We generalize this result by proving that any nonmatchgate parity-preserving unitary is capable of extending the computational power of matchgates into universal quantum computation. We identify the single local invariant of parity-preserving unitaries responsible for this, and discuss related results in the context of fermionic systems.

  1. Dislocation models of interseismic deformation in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollitz, F.F.; McCrory, P.; Svarc, J.; Murray, J.

    2008-01-01

    The GPS-derived crustal velocity field of the western United States is used to construct dislocation models in a viscoelastic medium of interseismic crustal deformation. The interseismic velocity field is constrained by 1052 GPS velocity vectors spanning the ???2500-km-long plate boundary zone adjacent to the San Andreas fault and Cascadia subduction zone and extending ???1000 km into the plate interior. The GPS data set is compiled from U.S. Geological Survey campaign data, Plate Boundary Observatory data, and the Western U.S. Cordillera velocity field of Bennett et al. (1999). In the context of viscoelastic cycle models of postearthquake deformation, the interseismic velocity field is modeled with a combination of earthquake sources on ???100 known faults plus broadly distributed sources. Models that best explain the observed interseismic velocity field include the contributions of viscoelastic relaxation from faulting near the major plate margins, viscoelastic relaxation from distributed faulting in the plate interior, as well as lateral variations in depth-averaged rigidity in the elastic lithosphere. Resulting rigidity variations are consistent with reduced effective elastic plate thickness in a zone a few tens of kilometers wide surrounding the San Andreas fault (SAF) system. Primary deformation characteristics are captured along the entire SAF system, Eastern California Shear Zone, Walker Lane, the Mendocino triple junction, the Cascadia margin, and the plate interior up to ???1000 km from the major plate boundaries.

  2. The annual migration cycle of emperor geese in Western Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hupp, J.W.; Schmutz, J.A.; Ely, C.R.

    2008-01-01

    Most emperor geese (Chen canagica) nest in a narrow coastal region of the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta (YKD) in western Alaska, but their winter distribution extends more than 3000 km from Kodiak Island, Alaska, to the Commander Islands, Russia. We marked 53 adult female emperor geese with satellite transmitters on the YKD in 1999, 2002, and 2003 to examine whether chronology of migration or use of seasonal habitats differed among birds that wintered in different regions. Females that migrated relatively short distances (650-1010 km) between the YKD and winter sites on the south side of the Alaska Peninsula bypassed autumn staging areas on the Bering Sea coast of the Alaska Peninsula or used them for shorter periods (mean = 57 days) than birds that made longer migrations (1600-2640 km) to the western Aleutian Islands (mean = 97 days). Alaska Peninsula migrants spent more days at winter sites (mean =172 days, 95% CI: 129-214 days) than western Aleutian Island migrants (mean = 91 days, 95% CI: 83-99 days). Birds that migrated 930-1610 km to the eastern Aleutian Islands spent intermediate intervals at fall staging (mean = 77 days) and wintering areas (mean = 108 days, 95% CI: 95-119 days). Return dates to the YKD did not differ among birds that wintered in different regions. Coastal staging areas on the Alaska Peninsula may be especially important in autumn to prepare Aleutian migrants physiologically for long-distance migration to winter sites, and in spring to enable emperor geese that migrate different distances to reach comparable levels of condition before nesting. ?? The Arctic Institute of North America.

  3. Extended Long Wave Hindcast inside Port Solutions to Minimize Resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Diaz-Hernandez

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study shows a methodology to carry out a comprehensive study of port agitation and resonance analysis in Geraldton Harbor (Western Australia. The methodology described and applied here extends the short and long wave hindcast outside the harbor and towards the main basin. To perform such an analysis, and as the first stage of the methodology, it is necessary to determine, in detail, both the long and short wave characteristics, through a comprehensive methodology to obtain and to hindcast the full spectral data (short waves + long waves, for frequencies between 0.005 and 1 Hz. Twelve-year spectral hindcast wave data, at a location before the reef, have been modified analytically to include the energy input associated with infragravity waves. A decomposition technique based on the energy balance of the radiation stress of short waves is followed. Predictions for long wave heights and periods at different harbor locations are predicted and validated with data recorded during 2004 to 2009. This new database will ensure an accurate and reliable assessment of long wave hourly data (height, period and currents in any area within the main basin of the Port of Geraldton, for its present geometry. With this information, two main task will be completed: (1 undertake a forensic diagnosis of the present response of the harbor, identifying those forcing characteristics related to inoperability events; and (2 propose any layout solutions to minimize, change, dissipate/fade/vanish or positively modify the effects of long waves in the harbor, proposing different harbor geometry modifications. The goal is to identify all possible combinations of solutions that would minimize the current inoperability in the harbor. Different pre-designs are assessed in this preliminary study in order to exemplify the potential of the methodology.

  4. Intramuscular extended-release naltrexone: current evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastfriend, David R

    2011-01-01

    Extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX; Vivitrol), developed to address poor adherence in addictive disorders, is approved for use in alcohol and opioid-dependence disorders. In alcohol-dependent adults with ≥ 4-day initial abstinence, XR-NTX increased initial and 6-month abstinence. An fMRI study found that XR-NTX attenuated the salience of alcohol visual and olfactory cues in the absence of alcohol, and post hoc analyses demonstrated efficacy even during high cue-exposure holiday periods. Safety and tolerability have generally been good, without adverse hepatic impact or intractable acute pain management. XR-NTX use appears feasible in primary care and public systems, and retrospective claims analyses have found cost savings and decreased intensive service utilization relative to oral agents. In opioid dependence, following detoxification, XR-NTX shows efficacy for maintaining abstinence, improving retention, decreasing craving, and preventing relapse. Trials are also exploring its use for the treatment of stimulant dependence. XR-NTX appears compatible with counseling and self-help attendance. While more research is needed, current findings suggest that a formulation of naltrexone that was sought beginning over three decades ago is fulfilling its promise as an extended-release pharmacotherapeutic. © 2011 New York Academy of Sciences.

  5. Extending Teach and Repeat to Pivoting Wheelchairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Del Castillo

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper extends the teach-and-repeat paradigm that has been successful for the control of holonomic robots to nonholonomic wheelchairs which may undergo pivoting action over the course of their taught movement. Due to the nonholonomic nature of the vehicle kinematics, estimation is required -- in the example given herein, based upon video detection of wall-mounted cues -- both in the teaching and the tracking events. In order to accommodate motion that approaches pivoting action as well as motion that approaches straight-line action, the estimation equations of the Extended Kalman Filter and the control equations are formulated using two different definitions of a nontemporal independent variable. The paper motivates the need for pivoting action in real-life settings by reporting extensively on the abilities and limitations of estimation-based teach-and-repeat action where pivoting and near-pivoting action is disallowed. Following formulation of the equations in the near-pivot mode, the paper reports upon experiments where taught trajectories which entail a seamless mix of near-straight and near-pivot action are tracked.

  6. Thermoplastic Polyurethanes with Isosorbide Chain Extender

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javni, Ivan; Bilic, Olivera; Bilic, Nikola; Petrovic, Zoran; Eastwood, Eric; Zhang, Fan; Ilavsky, Jan

    2015-12-15

    Isosorbide, a renewable diol derived from starch, was used alone or in combination with butane diol (BD) as the chain extender in two series of thermoplastic polyurethanes (TPU) with 50 and 70% polytetramethylene ether glycol (PTMEG) soft segment concentration (SSC), respectively. In the synthesized TPUs, the hard segment composition was systematically varied in both series following BD/isosorbide molar ratios of 100 : 0; 75 : 25; 50 : 50; 25 : 75, and 0 : 100 to examine in detail the effect of chain extenders on properties of segmented polyurethane elastomers with different morphologies. We found that polyurethanes with 50% SSC were hard elastomers with Shore D hardness of around 50, which is consistent with assumed co-continuous morphology. Polymers with 70% SSC displayed lower Shore A hardness of 74–79 (Shore D around 25) as a result of globular hard domains dispersed in the soft matrix. Insertion of isosorbide increased rigidity, melting point and glass transition temperature of hard segments and tensile strength of elastomers with 50% SSC. These effects were weaker or non-existent in 70% SSC series due to the short hard segments and low content of isosorbide. We also found that the thermal stability was lowered by increasing isosorbide content in both series.

  7. Extending Conceptual Schemas with Business Process Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Brambilla

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The specification of business processes is becoming a more and more critical aspect for organizations. Such processes are specified as workflow models expressing the logical precedence among the different business activities (i.e., the units of work. Typically, workflow models are managed through specific subsystems, called workflow management systems, to ensure a consistent behavior of the applications with respect to the organization business process. However, for small organizations and/or simple business processes, the complexity and capabilities of these dedicated workflow engines may be overwhelming. In this paper, we therefore, advocate for a different and lightweight approach, consisting in the integration of the business process specification within the system conceptual schema. We show how a workflow-extended conceptual schema can be automatically obtained, which serves both to enforce the organization business process and to manage all its relevant domain data in a unified way. This extended model can be directly processed with current CASE tools, for instance, to generate an implementation of the system (including its business process in any technological platform.

  8. Extending the viability of sea urchin gametes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegler, M A; Oppenheimer, S B

    1995-04-01

    The sea urchin is the material of choice for studying many early developmental events. Methods to extend the viability of sea urchin gametes have not received much attention, but it is well known that the eggs are easily damaged by freezing. This study was designed to extend the viability of Lytechinus pictus eggs and sperm without freezing. Gamete viability measurements were based on relative numbers of fertilized vs unfertilized eggs, percentage fertilization, and on observations of embryonic development. Results indicate that gametes can be stored longer and at lower temperatures than previously described. Sperm were consistently kept viable for at least 12 days with little decrease in viability when stored in glass test tubes or plastic petri dishes and submerged in ice inside a refrigerator at 0 +/- 1 degree C. In one experiment, sperm stored in glass test tubes on ice remained viable up to 20 days after extraction. Eggs were maintained from 1 to 7 days, rather than the 1 day or so previously reported, when stored in glass test tubes submerged in ice in a refrigerator at 0 +/- 1 degree C. Results of egg and sperm experiments varied at different times in the season. Such variations may be caused by seasonal cytoplasmic changes, population differences, or the time mature individuals were maintained unfed in aquaria prior to use. Results from this study should be useful for a variety of research, mariculture, and teaching applications in which sea urchin supplies are limited or when the same gamete population is required for subsequent experiments.

  9. Extended kinetic theory applied to snow avalanches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauter, Matthias; Fischer, Jan-Thomas; Fellin, Wolfgang; Kofler, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    In this work we apply the extended kinetic theory, a three-dimensional rheological model for rapid granular flows, to the two-dimensional, depth-averaged shallow water framework, used in snow avalanche simulations. Usually, empirical relations are used to determine the basal friction, which represents the material behavior in the avalanche. Here we present an energy equivalent basal friction relation which accounts for energy dissipating processes in the avalanche body as predicted by the extended kinetic theory. The obtained relation is compared to traditional basal friction relations, e.g. the Voellmy model by conducting numerical simulations with both approaches. As reference, field measurements of runout, affected area and velocity are compared to the simulation results. Two avalanche events, that occurred at the Vallée de la Sionne and Ryggfonn test sites, are evaluated with this method. It is shown that the kinetic theory delivers a physically based explanation for the structure of phenomenological friction relations. However, the new form of the frictional terms explicitly takes the flow depth into account. As consequence, improvements in finding unified parameter sets for various observation variables and events of different sizes could be achieved.

  10. An extended synthesis for evolutionary biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigliucci, Massimo

    2009-06-01

    Evolutionary theory is undergoing an intense period of discussion and reevaluation. This, contrary to the misleading claims of creationists and other pseudoscientists, is no harbinger of a crisis but rather the opposite: the field is expanding dramatically in terms of both empirical discoveries and new ideas. In this essay I briefly trace the conceptual history of evolutionary theory from Darwinism to neo-Darwinism, and from the Modern Synthesis to what I refer to as the Extended Synthesis, a more inclusive conceptual framework containing among others evo-devo, an expanded theory of heredity, elements of complexity theory, ideas about evolvability, and a reevaluation of levels of selection. I argue that evolutionary biology has never seen a paradigm shift, in the philosophical sense of the term, except when it moved from natural theology to empirical science in the middle of the 19th century. The Extended Synthesis, accordingly, is an expansion of the Modern Synthesis of the 1930s and 1940s, and one that--like its predecessor--will probably take decades to complete.

  11. Continuum balances from extended Hamiltonian dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giusteri, Giulio G; Podio-Guidugli, Paolo; Fried, Eliot

    2017-06-14

    The classical procedure devised by Irving and Kirkwood in 1950 and completed slightly later by Noll produces counterparts of the basic balance laws of standard continuum mechanics starting from an ordinary Hamiltonian description of the dynamics of a system of material points. Post-1980 molecular dynamics simulations of the time evolution of such systems use extended Hamiltonians such as those introduced by Andersen, Nosé, and Parrinello and Rahman. The additional terms present in these extensions affect the statistical properties of the system so as to capture certain target phenomenologies that would otherwise be beyond reach. We here propose a physically consistent application of the Irving-Kirkwood-Noll procedure to the extended Hamiltonian systems of material points. Our procedure produces balance equations at the continuum level featuring non-standard terms because the presence of auxiliary degrees of freedom gives rise to additional fluxes and sources that influence the thermodynamic and transport properties of the continuum model. Being aware of the additional contributions may prove crucial when designing multiscale computational schemes in which information is exchanged between the atomistic and continuum levels.

  12. Applying SPAM to the extended MWA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley-Walker, N.; Intema, H.

    2017-01-01

    The extended baselines of the MWA move the instrument into a more difficult calibration and imaging regime, where the more widely-separated antennas are more likely to view the sky through different ionospheric conditions, leading to differential refractive effects over the array. Current extrapolations by Trott, Jordan, and Hurley-Walker imply that the diffractive scale will remain larger than the longest baseline for 50-70% of observations, but these are extrapolations only. Other instruments have performed observations with baselines longer than the diffractive scale, and used software techniques to mitigate the ionospheric distortions. One such survey is the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope Sky Survey (TGSS) at 150 MHz. Intema et al. (2016) used the Source Peeling & Atmospheric Modeling (SPAM) software to produce a catalogue of over 600,000 sources from data that had previously been slow and difficult to process. This proposal is for a short series of observations to test the usage of the SPAM software on the extended MWA, and to find the optimal observing parameters for its use. If successful, this could assist other groups in effectively utilising the long baselines.

  13. EXTENDED LUCAS TUBE: GRAF HAMILTONIAN BARU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernastuti .

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A Hamiltonian cycle in a connected graph G is defined as a closed walk that traverses every vertex of G exactly once, except the starting vertex at which the walk also terminates. If an edge from a Hamiltonian cycle is removed, it forms a path calleda Hamiltonian path. A graph G is called Hamiltonian if there is a Hamiltonian cyclein G. It is known that every hypercube graph is Hamiltonian. But when one or more vertices are removed from a hypercube graph, will it still be Hamiltonian? Some induced subgraphs of a hypercube graph such as the Fibonacci cube (FC, the extended Fibonaccicube (EFC, and the Lucas cube (LC have been introduced and their Hamiltonicities have been investigated. Research results showed that less than a third of FC graphs are Hamiltonian although all of them have Hamiltonian path. All EFC graphs are Hamiltonian and none of LC graphs is Hamiltonian although some still have Hamiltonian paths.This paper introduces another subgraph of a hypercube graph called the Extended Lucas Cube (ELC. The ELC is shown to be Hamiltonian by using the approach of k-Gray Code and Bipartition Property.

  14. Tectonic block rotation, arc curvature, and back-arc rifting: Insights into these processes in the Mediterranean and the western Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, L M; Ellis, S [GNS Science, PO Box 30368, Lower Hutt (New Zealand); Mann, P [Institute for Geophysics, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas (United States)], E-mail: l.wallace@gns.cri.nz

    2008-07-01

    mechanism for large-scale anticlockwise tectonic rotation of Anatolia and the opposing clockwise rotation of western Greece documented from paleomagnetic studies. The recognition of several global analogues for Mediterranean active tectonics may lead to new insights into the dominant forces behind tectonic processes there.

  15. A Novel Biped Pattern Generator Based on Extended ZMP and Extended Cart-Table Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangbin Sun

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on planning patterns for biped walking on complex terrains. Two problems are solved: ZMP (zero moment point cannot be used on uneven terrain, and the conventional cart-table model does not allow vertical CM (centre of mass motion. For the ZMP definition problem, we propose the extended ZMP (EZMP concept as an extension of ZMP to uneven terrains. It can be used to judge dynamic balance on universal terrains. We achieve a deeper insight into the connection and difference between ZMP and EZMP by adding different constraints. For the model problem, we extend the cart-table model by using a dynamic constraint instead of constant height constraint, which results in a mathematically symmetric set of three equations. In this way, the vertical motion is enabled and the resultant equations are still linear. Based on the extended ZMP concept and extended cart-table model, a biped pattern generator using triple preview controllers is constructed and implemented simultaneously to three dimensions. Using the proposed pattern generator, the Atlas robot is simulated. The simulation results show the robot can walk stably on rather complex terrains by accurately tracking extended ZMP.

  16. Preparation for upgrading western subbituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimes, R.W.; Cha, C.Y.; Sheesley, D.C.

    1990-11-01

    The objective of this project was to establish the physical and chemical characteristics of western coal and determine the best preparation technologies for upgrading this resource. Western coal was characterized as an abundant, easily mineable, clean, low-sulfur coal with low heating value, high moisture, susceptibility to spontaneous ignition, and considerable transit distances from major markets. Project support was provided by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The research was conducted by the Western Research Institute, (WRI) in Laramie, Wyoming. The project scope of work required the completion of four tasks: (1) project planning, (2) literature searches and verbal contacts with consumers and producers of western coal, (3) selection of the best technologies to upgrade western coal, and (4) identification of research needed to develop the best technologies for upgrading western coals. The results of this research suggest that thermal drying is the best technology for upgrading western coals. There is a significant need for further research in areas involving physical and chemical stabilization of the dried coal product. Excessive particle-size degradation and resulting dustiness, moisture reabsorption, and high susceptibility to spontaneous combustion are key areas requiring further research. Improved testing methods for the determination of equilibrium moisture and susceptibility to spontaneous ignition under various ambient conditions are recommended.

  17. Source mechanisms and faulting analysis of the aftershocks in the Lake Erçek area (Eastern Anatolia, Turkey) during the 2011 Van event (Mw 7.1): Implications for the regional stress field and ongoing deformation processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toker, M.; Pınar, A.; Tur, H.

    2017-12-01

    In this study, we analysed the source mechanisms and faulting pattern of the aftershocks in the Lake Erçek area, Eastern Anatolia, during the 2011 Van event (Mw 7.1). The fault plane solutions of the aftershocks were used to derive a stress tensor acting around Lake Erçek. The estimated seismological parameters (focal mechanism solutions, stress tensor, and fault focal analyses) were integrated with field surveys and high resolution seismic reflection data so as to better understand the main faulting patterns and deformational features which are the causatives of the observed geomorphological features within and around Lake Erçek. The focal parameters of the 56 aftershocks with magnitude range 3.5 ≤ Mw ≤ 5.5 were obtained using the regional broadband seismic data from the network of Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute (KOERI) through the Centroid Moment Tensor (CMT) inversion of locally observed broadband-waves. The implications for the lateral variation of the stress field in the lake area were based on information derived from integration of seismicity and stress tensor inversion results. The major outcomes of our analyses were as follows: (a) The maximum principal stress axis is close to horizontal and aligned in NNW-SSE direction, the minimum compressional stress axis is close to vertical and aligned in an ENE-WSW direction, the intermediate stress axis is close to horizontal and is parallel to the strike of the ruptured fault plane, while the stress ratio is (R = 0.6); (b) the lake basin is mostly deformed by dip-slip faults (dips ≥ 45-60°) in and along its margins where the various folds, basement highs with eroded surfaces and several low-angle normal faults are evident; (c) the majority of the aftershocks have reverse-thrust mechanism with some strike-slip components in the Lake Erçek area (N- and S-margins). Strike-slip and normal faulting events are also evident (E- and W-margins, respectively); (d) the normal and reverse

  18. Drought variation of western Chinese Loess Plateau since 1568 and its linkages with droughts in western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Keyan; Guo, Zhengtang; Chen, Deliang; Linderholm, Hans W.; Li, Jinbao; Zhou, Feifei; Guo, Guoyang; Dong, Zhipeng; Li, Yingjun

    2017-12-01

    Understanding long-term drought variations in the past can help to evaluate ongoing and future hydroclimate change in the arid western Chinese Loess Plateau (WCLP), a region with increasing demand for water resources due to the increasing population and socioeconomic activities. Here we present a new tree-ring chronology inform the WCLP, which shows coherent interannual variations with tree-ring chronologies from 7 neighboring areas across the WCLP, suggesting a common regional climate control over tree growth. However, considerable differences are observed among their interdecadal variations, which are likely due to growth disturbances at interdecadal timescales. To deal with this issue, we use a frequency based method to develop a composite tree-ring chronology from 401 tree-ring series from these 8 sites, which shows more pronounced interdecadal variability than a chronology developed using traditional methods. The composite tree-ring chronology is used to reconstruct the annual precipitation from previous August to current July from 1568 to 2012, extending about 50 years longer than the previous longest tree-ring reconstruction from the region. The driest epoch of our reconstruction is found in the 1920s-1930s, which matches well with droughts recorded in historical documents. Over the past four centuries, a strong resemblance between drought variability in the WCLP and western North America (WNA) is evident on multidecadal timescales, but this relationship breaks down on timescales shorter than about 50 years.

  19. Cutaneous anthrax in Southeast Anatolia of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekin, Recep; Sula, Bilal; Devecı, Ozcan; Tekin, Alicem; Bozkurt, Fatma; Ucmak, Derya; Kaya, Şafak; Bekcibasi, Muhammed; Erkan, Mehmet Emin; Ayaz, Celal; Hosoglu, Salih

    2015-03-01

    Anthrax is a rare disease cause by Bacillus anthracis, a Gram-positive, rod-shaped endospore-forming capsuled bacterium. Anthrax is manifest in three primary forms: cutaneous, respiratory, and gastrointestinal. Cutaneous anthrax accounts for approximately 95% of all cases of anthrax in humans. In the present study, we evaluated the clinical diagnosis and treatment of cutaneous anthrax, a rare disease that nonetheless remains a serious healthcare problem in developing countries. The complete medical records of patients diagnosed with cutaneous anthrax between January 2001 and December 2012 were examined in a retrospective manner. Cutaneous anthrax was diagnosed by the identification of typical anthrax lesions and/or the presence of Gram-positive-capsuled bacillus after staining with Gram stain and methylen blue in pathology samples obtained from these lesions and the presence of characteristic scarring with a history of severe swelling, black eschar, and positive response to treatment form the basis of diagnosis in cases where cultures were negative for the presence of bacillus. A total of 58 patients were admitted to the hospital with cutaneous anthrax between January 2001 and December 2012. This included 32 (55.2%) males and 26 (44.8%) females, with an age range of 15-82 years and a mean age of 38 ± 13.8 years. The incubation period for the infection ranged between 1 and 20 d (mean 3.7 ± 1.4 d). The most common symptoms at the time of hospital referral were swelling, redness, and black eschar of the skin. The most common lesion site was the hand and fingers (41.3%). Isolated of bacteria was used to diagnose the disease in six cases (23.8%), detection of Gram-positive bacillus in samples of characteristic lesion material was used in seven (28.5%) cases, and the presence of a characteristic lesion was the sole diagnostic criteria in 45 (77.6%) cases. Treatment consisted of penicillin G (12 cases), ampicillin-sulbactam (30 cases), Cefazolin (12 cases), or ciprofloxacin (4 cases). Although the prevalence of anthrax is a decreasing worldwide, it remains a significant problem in developing countries. Rapid identification of the signs and symptoms of cutaneous anthrax is essential for effective treatment. Early supportive treatment and appropriate antimicrobial measures are necessary to address this potentially life-threatening disease.

  20. The Western Denmark Cardiac Computed Tomography Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lene Hüche; Nørgaard, Bjarne Linde; Tilsted, Hans-Henrik

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As a subregistry to the Western Denmark Heart Registry (WDHR), the Western Denmark Cardiac Computed Tomography Registry (WDHR-CCTR) is a clinical database established in 2008 to monitor and improve the quality of cardiac computed tomography (CT) in Western Denmark. OBJECTIVE: We......-CCTR, showed that coronary CT angiographies accounted for only 23% of all nonregistered cardiac CTs, indicating >90% completeness of coronary CT angiographies in the WDHR-CCTR. The completeness of individual variables varied substantially (range: 0%-100%), but was >85% for more than 70% of all variables. Using......, making it a valuable tool for clinical epidemiological research....

  1. Western blot: technique, theory, and trouble shooting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Tahrin; Yang, Ping-Chang

    2012-09-01

    Western blotting is an important technique used in cell and molecular biology. By using a western blot, researchers are able to identify specific proteins from a complex mixture of proteins extracted from cells. The technique uses three elements to accomplish this task: (1) separation by size, (2) transfer to a solid support, and (3) marking target protein using a proper primary and secondary antibody to visualize. This paper will attempt to explain the technique and theory behind western blot, and offer some ways to troubleshoot.

  2. Extended MRI findings of intersection syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Roger P.; Hatem, Stephen F.; Recht, Michael P. [Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2009-02-15

    The symptoms and physical findings of intersection syndrome have been well described in the clinical medical literature. However, the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in patients with intersection syndrome of the forearm have only recently been described in a small number of patients. We review our experience with imaging of intersection syndrome, describe previously unreported MRI findings, and emphasize modifications to MRI protocols for its evaluation. Institutional review board approval was obtained for this retrospective review of patients with MRI findings consistent with intersection syndrome of the forearm during the period from January 2004 to September 2006. Six patients were identified, three males and three females, with an average age of 39.3 years. The MRI examinations were reviewed to assess signal abnormalities within and adjacent to the first and second dorsal extensor tendon compartments (DETC): tendinosis, peritendinous edema or fluid, muscle edema, subcutaneous edema, and juxtacortical edema. The overall longitudinal extent of signal alterations was measured as well as the distance from Lister's tubercle to the crossover of the first and second DETC. Review of the MRIs showed increased intrasubstance tendon signal suggesting tendinosis in two of the six patients, peritendinous edema or fluid in all six patients, muscle edema in five of the six patients, and subcutaneous edema in three of the six patients. Juxtacortical edema was seen in one patient. Peritendinous edema or fluid extended distally beyond the radiocarpal joint in three of the six patients. The average distance from Lister's tubercle to the crossover of the first and second DETC was 3.95 cm, in keeping with recently published data. Intersection syndrome is an uncommon MRI diagnosis. In addition to the previously described MRI findings of edema adjacent to the first or second DETC, possibly with proximal extension and subcutaneous edema, we have identified

  3. Complete Solutions to Extended Stokes' Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Min Liu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The main object of the present study is to theoretically solve the viscous flow of either a finite or infinite depth, which is driven by moving plane(s. Such a viscous flow is usually named as Stokes' first or second problems, which indicates the fluid motion driven by the impulsive or oscillating motion of the boundary, respectively. Traditional Stokes' problems are firstly revisited, and three extended problems are subsequently examined. Using some mathematical techniques and integral transforms, complete solutions which can exactly capture the flow characteristics at any time are derived. The corresponding steady-state and transient solutions are readily determined on the basis of complete solutions. Current results have wide applications in academic researches and are of significance for future studies taking more boundary conditions and non-Newtonian fluids into account.

  4. Autopoiesis + extended cognition + nature = can buildings think?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollens, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    To incorporate metabolic, bioremedial functions into the performance of buildings and to balance generative architecture's dominant focus on computational programming and digital fabrication, this text first discusses hybridizing Maturana and Varela's biological theory of autopoiesis with Andy Clark's hypothesis of extended cognition. Doing so establishes a procedural protocol to research biological domains from which design could source data/insight from biosemiotics, sensory plants, and biocomputation. I trace computation and botanic simulations back to Alan Turing's little-known 1950s Morphogenetic drawings, reaction-diffusion algorithms, and pioneering artificial intelligence (AI) in order to establish bioarchitecture's generative point of origin. I ask provocatively, Can buildings think? as a question echoing Turing's own, "Can machines think?"

  5. The Extended Relativity Theory in Clifford Spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Castro, C

    2004-01-01

    A brief review of some of the most important features of the Extended Relativity theory in Clifford-spaces ( $C$-spaces) is presented whose " point" coordinates are noncommuting Clifford-valued quantities and which incoporate the lines, areas, volumes, .... degrees of freedom associated with the collective particle, string, membrane, ... dynamics of the $p$-loop histories (closed p-branes) living in target $D$-dimensional spacetime backgrounds. $C$-space Relativity naturally incoporates the ideas of an invariant length (Planck scale), maximal acceleration, noncommuting coordinates, supersymmetry, holography, superluminal propagation, higher derivative gravity with torsion and variable dimensions/signatures that allows to study the dynamics of all (closed ) p-branes, for all values of $ p $, in a unified footing. It resolves the ordering ambiguities in QFT and the problem of time in Cosmology. A discussion of the maximal-acceleration Relativity principle in phase-spaces follows along with the study of the inva...

  6. The Extended Relativity Theory in Clifford Spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Castro, C

    2004-01-01

    A brief review of some of the most important features of the Extended Relativity theory in Clifford-spaces ($C$-spaces) is presented whose " point" coordinates are noncommuting Clifford-valued quantities and which incorporate the lines, areas, volumes,.... degrees of freedom associated with the collective particle, string, membrane,... dynamics of $p$-loops (closed p-branes) living in target $D$-dimensional spacetime backgrounds. $C$-space Relativity naturally incorporates the ideas of an invariant length (Planck scale), maximal acceleration, noncommuting coordinates, supersymmetry, holography, higher derivative gravity with torsion and variable dimensions/signatures that allows to study the dynamics of all (closed) p-branes, for all values of $ p $, on a unified footing. It resolves the ordering ambiguities in QFT and the problem of time in Cosmology. A discussion of the maximal-acceleration Relativity principle in phase-spaces follows along with the study of the invariance group of symmetry transformations ...

  7. Extended Analysis of the Casimir Force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehnert B.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available There are several arguments for the conventional form of the Zero Point Energy fre- quency spectrum to be put in doubt. It has thus to be revised in to that of a self-consistent system in statistical equilibrium where the total energy de nsity and the equivalent pres- sure become finite. An extended form of the Casimir force is th ereby proposed to be used as a tool for determining the local magnitude of the same pressure. This can be done in terms of measurements on the force between a pair po lished plane plates consisting of different metals, the plates having very small or zero air gaps. T his corre- sponds to the largest possible Casimir force. Even then, the re may arise problems with other adhering forces, possibly to be clarified in further experiments.

  8. Extended Higgs sectors in radiative neutrino models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Antipin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Testable Higgs partners may be sought within the extensions of the SM Higgs sector aimed at generating neutrino masses at the loop level. We study a viability of extended Higgs sectors for two selected models of radiative neutrino masses: a one-loop mass model, providing the Higgs partner within a real triplet scalar representation, and a three-loop mass model, providing it within its two-Higgs-doublet sector. The Higgs sector in the one-loop model may remain stable and perturbative up to the Planck scale, whereas the three-loop model calls for a UV completion around 106 GeV. Additional vector-like lepton and exotic scalar fields, which are required to close one- and three-loop neutrino-mass diagrams, play a decisive role for the testability of the respective models. We constrain the parameter space of these models using LHC bounds on diboson resonances.

  9. Optical flow computation using extended constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Bimbo, A; Nesi, P; Sanz, J C

    1996-01-01

    Several approaches for optical flow estimation use partial differential equations to model changes in image brightness throughout time. A commonly used equation is the so-called optical flow constraint (OFC), which assumes that the image brightness is stationary with respect to time. More recently, a different constraint referred to as the extended optical flow constraint (EOFC) has been introduced, which also contains the divergence of the flow field of image brightness. There is no agreement in the literature about which of these constraints provides the best estimation of the velocity field. Two new solutions for optical flow computation are proposed, which are based on an approximation of the constraint equations. The two techniques have been used with both EOFC and OFC constraint equations. Results achieved by using these solutions have been compared with several well-known computational methods for optical flow estimation in different motion conditions. Estimation errors have also been measured and compared for different types of motion.

  10. Affordances and the musically extended mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Joel

    2014-01-06

    I defend a model of the musically extended mind. I consider how acts of "musicking" grant access to novel emotional experiences otherwise inaccessible. First, I discuss the idea of "musical affordances" and specify both what musical affordances are and how they invite different forms of entrainment. Next, I argue that musical affordances - via soliciting different forms of entrainment - enhance the functionality of various endogenous, emotion-granting regulative processes, drawing novel experiences out of us with an expanded complexity and phenomenal character. I argue that music therefore ought to be thought of as part of the vehicle needed to realize these emotional experiences. I appeal to different sources of empirical work to develop this idea.

  11. Affordances and the musically extended mind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel eKrueger

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available I defend a model of the musically extended mind. I consider how acts of musicking grant access to novel emotional experiences otherwise inaccessible. First, I discuss the idea of musical affordances and specify both what musical affordances are and how they invite different forms of entrainment. Next, I argue that musical affordances—via soliciting different forms of entrainment—enhance the functionality of various endogenous, emotion-granting regulative processes, drawing novel experiences out of us with an expanded complexity and phenomenal character. I suggest that music therefore ought to be thought of as part of the vehicle needed to realize these emotional experiences. I appeal to different sources of empirical work to develop this idea.

  12. Generalized extended Navier-Stokes theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J. S.; Daivis, Peter J.; Dyre, Jeppe C.

    2013-01-01

    and for molecular fluids with small moment of inertia like chlorine, the theory predicts that the longitudinal and transverse intrinsic angular velocity correlation functions are almost identical, which is also seen in the molecular dynamics simulations. However, the theory fails at large wavevector and frequencies......The extended Navier-Stokes theory accounts for the coupling between the translational and rotational molecular degrees of freedom. In this paper, we generalize this theory to non-zero frequencies and wavevectors, which enables a new study of spatio-temporal correlation phenomena present...... in molecular fluids. To discuss these phenomena in detail, molecular dynamics simulations of molecular chlorine are performed for three different state points. In general, the theory captures the behavior for small wavevector and frequencies as expected. For example, in the hydrodynamic regime...

  13. Topological Characterization of Extended Quantum Ising Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, G; Song, Z

    2015-10-23

    We show that a class of exactly solvable quantum Ising models, including the transverse-field Ising model and anisotropic XY model, can be characterized as the loops in a two-dimensional auxiliary space. The transverse-field Ising model corresponds to a circle and the XY model corresponds to an ellipse, while other models yield cardioid, limacon, hypocycloid, and Lissajous curves etc. It is shown that the variation of the ground state energy density, which is a function of the loop, experiences a nonanalytical point when the winding number of the corresponding loop changes. The winding number can serve as a topological quantum number of the quantum phases in the extended quantum Ising model, which sheds some light upon the relation between quantum phase transition and the geometrical order parameter characterizing the phase diagram.

  14. Self-Gravitating Systems in Extended Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Stabile

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the weak field limit, we discuss astrophysical applications of Extended Theories of Gravity where higher order curvature invariants and scalar fields are considered by generalizing the Hilbert-Einstein action linear in the Ricci curvature scalar R. Results are compared to General Relativity in the hypothesis that Dark Matter contributions to the dynamics can be neglected thanks to modified gravity. In particular, we consider stellar hydrostatic equilibrium, galactic rotation curves, and gravitational lensing. Finally, we discuss the weak field limit in the Jordan and Einstein frames pointing out how effective quantities, as gravitational potentials, transform from one frame to the other and the interpretation of results can completely change accordingly.

  15. Extending the Body for Interaction with Reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feuchtner, Tiare; Müller, Jörg

    2017-01-01

    access to devices that are out of reach. Thus, we allow users to directly manipulate real-world objects from a distance using their bare hands. A core difficulty we focus on is how to maintain ownership for the unnaturally long virtual arm, which is the strong feeling that one’s limbs are actually part......In this paper, we explore how users can control remote devices with a virtual long arm, while preserving the perception that the artificial arm is actually part of their own body. Instead of using pointing, speech, or a remote control, the users’ arm is extended in augmented reality, allowing...... of the own body. Fortunately, what the human brain experiences as being part of the own body is very malleable and we find that during interaction the user’s virtual arm can be stretched to more than twice its real length, without breaking the user’s sense of ownership for the virtual limb....

  16. Extending OLAP Querying to External Object

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Torben Bach; Shoshani, Arie; Gu, Junmin

    inherent in data in nonstandard applications are not accommodated well by OLAP systems. In contrast, object database systems are built to handle such complexity, but do not support OLAP-type querying well. This paper presents the concepts and techniques underlying a flexible, multi-model federated system...... that enables OLAP users to exploit simultaneously the features of OLAP and object systems. The system allows data to be handled using the most appropriate data model and technology: OLAP systems for dimensional data and object database systems for more complex, general data. Additionally, physical data...... integration can be avoided. As a vehicle for demonstrating the capabilities of the system, a prototypical OLAP language is defined and extended to naturally support queries that involve data in object databases. The language permits selection criteria that reference object data, queries that return...

  17. Extended Lagrange interpolation in L1 spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occorsio, Donatella; Russo, Maria Grazia

    2016-10-01

    Let w (x )=e-xβxα , w ¯(x )=x w (x ) and denote by {pm(w)}m,{pn(w¯)}n the corresponding sequences of orthonormal polynomials. The zeros of the polynomial Q2 m +1=pm +1(w )pm(w ¯) are simple and are sufficiently far among them. Therefore it is possible to construct an interpolation process essentially based on the zeros of Q2m+1, which is called "Extended Lagrange Interpolation". Here we study the convergence of this interpolation process in suitable weighted L1 spaces. This study completes the results given by the authors in previous papers in weighted Lup((0 ,+∞ )) , for 1≤p≤∞. Moreover an application of the proposed interpolation process in order to construct an e cient product quadrature scheme for weakly singular integrals is given.

  18. Properties of sulfur-extended asphalt concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladkikh Vitaliy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, increased functional reliability of asphalt concrete coatings associated with various modifying additives that improve the durability of pavements. Promising builder is a technical sulfur. Asphalt concrete, made using a complex binder consisting of petroleum bitumen and technical sulfur, were calledsSulfur-Extended Asphalt Concrete. Such asphalt concrete, due to changes in the chemical composition of particulate and bitumen, changes the intensity of the interaction at the interface have increased rates of physical and mechanical properties. There was a lack of essential knowledge concerning mechanical properties of the sulfur-bituminous concrete with such an admixture; therefore, we had carried out the necessary examination. It is revealed that a new material satisfies local regulations in terms of compressive and tensile strength, shear resistance, and internal friction.

  19. Extending Stochastic Network Calculus to Loss Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Luo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Loss is an important parameter of Quality of Service (QoS. Though stochastic network calculus is a very useful tool for performance evaluation of computer networks, existing studies on stochastic service guarantees mainly focused on the delay and backlog. Some efforts have been made to analyse loss by deterministic network calculus, but there are few results to extend stochastic network calculus for loss analysis. In this paper, we introduce a new parameter named loss factor into stochastic network calculus and then derive the loss bound through the existing arrival curve and service curve via this parameter. We then prove that our result is suitable for the networks with multiple input flows. Simulations show the impact of buffer size, arrival traffic, and service on the loss factor.

  20. Extended constitutive laws for lamellar phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Deuk Yoo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Classically, stress and strain rate in linear viscoelastic materials are related by a constitutive relationship involving the viscoelastic modulus G(t. The same constitutive law, within Linear Response Theory, relates currents of conserved quantities and gradients of existing conjugate variables, and it involves the autocorrelation functions of the currents in equilibrium. We explore the consequences of the latter relationship in the case of a mesoscale model of a block copolymer, and derive the resulting relationship between viscous friction and order parameter diffusion that would result in a lamellar phase. We also explicitly consider in our derivation the fact that the dissipative part of the stress tensor must be consistent with the uniaxial symmetry of the phase. We then obtain a relationship between the stress and order parameter autocorrelation functions that can be interpreted as an extended constitutive law, one that offers a way to determine them from microscopic experiment or numerical simulation.

  1. The Physics Case for Extended Tevatron Running

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Darien R.

    2010-11-01

    Run II of the Tevatron collider at Fermilab is currently scheduled to end late in 2011. Given the current performance of the collider and of the CDF and D0 detectors, it is estimated that the current data set could be approximately doubled with a run extended into 2014. A few examples are presented of the physics potential of these additional statistics. These are discussed in the context of the expected reach of the LHC 7 TeV data and the existing Tevatron data. In particular, an extraordinary opportunity is described which could probe the existence of a standard model Higgs boson with mass in the currently preferred region between 115 GeV and 150 GeV.

  2. Magnetohydrodynamics within the extended thermodynamics context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, J.A.S.; Carvalho, J.C.; Jafelice, L.C. [Rio Grande do Norte Univ., Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica Teorica e Experimental

    1994-12-31

    The equations of the magnetohydrodynamics are discussed in the framework of the extended thermodynamics. It is shown that such an approach is equivalent to consider the Ohm`s law when the inertial current (J) is included in it. Under certain conditions this new term implies that the magnetic field (B) diffusion is described by a telegrapher type equation (i.e., t{sub pl}{delta}{sup 2} B/{delta}t{sup 2} + {delta}B/{delta}t - n{nabla}{sup 2} B = 0: in the case the plasma velocity v = 0), instead of the usual hydromagnetic diffusion equation. As in the case of the temperature, the causality requirements are naturally obeyed since the propagation of the magnetic field is governed by a hyperbolic type equation. (author). 8 refs.

  3. Angle-resolved photoemission extended fine structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barton, J.J.

    1985-03-01

    Measurements of the Angle-Resolved Photoemission Extended Fine Structure (ARPEFS) from the S(1s) core level of a c(2 x 2)S/Ni(001) are analyzed to determine the spacing between the S overlayer and the first and second Ni layers. ARPEFS is a type of photoelectron diffraction measurement in which the photoelectron kinetic energy is swept typically from 100 to 600 eV. By using this wide range of intermediate energies we add high precision and theoretical simplification to the advantages of the photoelectron diffraction technique for determining surface structures. We report developments in the theory of photoelectron scattering in the intermediate energy range, measurement of the experimental photoemission spectra, their reduction to ARPEFS, and the surface structure determination from the ARPEFS by combined Fourier and multiple-scattering analyses. 202 refs., 67 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Extended equal areas criterion: foundations and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yusheng, Xue [Nanjim Automation Research Institute, Nanjim (China)

    1994-12-31

    The extended equal area criterion (EEAC) provides analytical expressions for ultra fast transient stability assessment, flexible sensitivity analysis, and means to preventive and emergency controls. Its outstanding performances have been demonstrated by thousands upon thousands simulations on more than 50 real power systems and by on-line operation records in an EMS environment of Northeast China Power System since September 1992. However, the researchers have mainly based on heuristics and simulations. This paper lays a theoretical foundation of EEAC and brings to light the mechanism of transient stability. It proves true that the dynamic EEAC furnishes a necessary and sufficient condition for stability of multi machine systems with any detailed models, in the sense of the integration accuracy. This establishes a new platform for further advancing EEAC and better understanding of problems. An overview of EEAC applications in China is also given in this paper. (author) 30 refs.

  5. Extended driving impairs nocturnal driving performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagaspe, Patricia; Taillard, Jacques; Akerstedt, Torbjorn; Bayon, Virginie; Espié, Stéphane; Chaumet, Guillaume; Bioulac, Bernard; Philip, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    Though fatigue and sleepiness at the wheel are well-known risk factors for traffic accidents, many drivers combine extended driving and sleep deprivation. Fatigue-related accidents occur mainly at night but there is no experimental data available to determine if the duration of prior driving affects driving performance at night. Participants drove in 3 nocturnal driving sessions (3-5 am, 1-5 am and 9 pm-5 am) on open highway. Fourteen young healthy men (mean age [+/-SD] = 23.4 [+/-1.7] years) participated Inappropriate line crossings (ILC) in the last hour of driving of each session, sleep variables, self-perceived fatigue and sleepiness were measured. Compared to the short (3-5 am) driving session, the incidence rate ratio of inappropriate line crossings increased by 2.6 (95% CI, 1.1 to 6.0; P<.05) for the intermediate (1-5 am) driving session and by 4.0 (CI, 1.7 to 9.4; P<.001) for the long (9 pm-5 am) driving session. Compared to the reference session (9-10 pm), the incidence rate ratio of inappropriate line crossings were 6.0 (95% CI, 2.3 to 15.5; P<.001), 15.4 (CI, 4.6 to 51.5; P<.001) and 24.3 (CI, 7.4 to 79.5; P<.001), respectively, for the three different durations of driving. Self-rated fatigue and sleepiness scores were both positively correlated to driving impairment in the intermediate and long duration sessions (P<.05) and increased significantly during the nocturnal driving sessions compared to the reference session (P<.01). At night, extended driving impairs driving performances and therefore should be limited.

  6. Extended driving impairs nocturnal driving performances.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Sagaspe

    Full Text Available Though fatigue and sleepiness at the wheel are well-known risk factors for traffic accidents, many drivers combine extended driving and sleep deprivation. Fatigue-related accidents occur mainly at night but there is no experimental data available to determine if the duration of prior driving affects driving performance at night. Participants drove in 3 nocturnal driving sessions (3-5 am, 1-5 am and 9 pm-5 am on open highway. Fourteen young healthy men (mean age [+/-SD] = 23.4 [+/-1.7] years participated Inappropriate line crossings (ILC in the last hour of driving of each session, sleep variables, self-perceived fatigue and sleepiness were measured. Compared to the short (3-5 am driving session, the incidence rate ratio of inappropriate line crossings increased by 2.6 (95% CI, 1.1 to 6.0; P<.05 for the intermediate (1-5 am driving session and by 4.0 (CI, 1.7 to 9.4; P<.001 for the long (9 pm-5 am driving session. Compared to the reference session (9-10 pm, the incidence rate ratio of inappropriate line crossings were 6.0 (95% CI, 2.3 to 15.5; P<.001, 15.4 (CI, 4.6 to 51.5; P<.001 and 24.3 (CI, 7.4 to 79.5; P<.001, respectively, for the three different durations of driving. Self-rated fatigue and sleepiness scores were both positively correlated to driving impairment in the intermediate and long duration sessions (P<.05 and increased significantly during the nocturnal driving sessions compared to the reference session (P<.01. At night, extended driving impairs driving performances and therefore should be limited.

  7. The Extended Relativity Theory in Clifford Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castro C.

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available An introduction to some of the most important features of the Extended Relativity theory in Clifford-spaces (C-spaces is presented whose “point” coordinates are non-commuting Clifford-valued quantities which incorporate lines, areas, volumes, hyper-volumes. . . degrees of freedom associated with the collective particle, string, membrane, p-brane. . . dynamics of p-loops (closed p-branes in target D-dimensional spacetime backgrounds. C-space Relativity naturally incorporates the ideas of an invariant length (Planck scale, maximal acceleration, non-commuting coordinates, supersymmetry, holography, higher derivative gravity with torsion and variable dimensions/signatures. It permits to study the dynamics of all (closed p-branes, for all values of p, on a unified footing. It resolves the ordering ambiguities in QFT, the problem of time in Cosmology and admits superluminal propagation (tachyons without violations of causality. A discussion of the maximal-acceleration Relativity principle in phase-spaces follows and the study of the invariance group of symmetry transformations in phase-space allows to show why Planck areas are invariant under acceleration-boosts transformations. This invariance feature suggests that a maximal-string tension principle may be operating in Nature. We continue by pointing out how the relativity of signatures of the underlying n-dimensional spacetime results from taking different n-dimensional slices through C-space. The conformal group in spacetime emerges as a natural subgroup of the Clifford group and Relativity in C-spaces involves natural scale changes in the sizes of physical objects without the introduction of forces nor Weyl’s gauge field of dilations. We finalize by constructing the generalization of Maxwell theory of Electrodynamics of point charges to a theory in C-spaces that involves extended charges coupled to antisymmetric tensor fields of arbitrary rank. In the concluding remarks we outline briefly

  8. Extended distribution functions for our Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Jason L.; Binney, James

    2015-06-01

    We extend models of our Galaxy based on distribution functions that are analytic functions of the action integrals to extended distribution functions (EDFs), which have an analytic dependence on metallicity as well. We use a simple, but physically motivated, functional forms for the metallicity of the interstellar medium as a function of radius and time and for the star formation rate, and a model for the diffusion of stars through phase space to suggest the required functional form of an EDF. We introduce a simple prescription for radial migration that preserves the overall profile of the disc while allowing individual stars to migrate throughout the disc. Our models explicitly consider the thin and thick discs as two distinct components separated in age. We show how an EDF can be used to incorporate realistic selection functions in models, and to construct mock catalogues of observed samples. We show that the selection function of the Geneva-Copenhagen Survey (GCS) biases in favour of young stars, which have atypically small random velocities. With the selection function taken into account our models produce good fits of the GCS data in chemo-dynamical space and the Gilmore & Reid (1983) density data. From our EDF, we predict the structure of the Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration G-dwarf sample. The kinematics are successfully predicted. The predicted metallicity distribution has too few stars with [Fe/H] ≃ -0.5 dex and too many metal-rich stars. A significant problem may be the lack of any chemical-kinematic correlations in our thick disc. We argue that EDFs will prove essential tools for the analysis of both observational data and sophisticated models of Galaxy formation and evolution.

  9. Building an Archive Backbone Extending TAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinaro, M.; Apollo, P.; Knapic, C.; Smareglia, R.

    2014-05-01

    A data center (DC) willing to add VO (Virtual Observatory) capabilities to existing archival resources, or new ones, will probably face some issues regarding the constraints on the existing structure of the datasets. On the opposite direction a DC may want to give priority to VO flavored data access but maintain flexibility on proprietary or dedicated access solutions. This contribution tries to delineate a solution, feasible for both approaches, taking advantage of the IVOA (International Virtual Observatory Alliance) existing standards and, at the same time, forcing no constraint at archive generation or ingestion level. The IVOA TAP (Table Access Protocol) specification generalizes the way a set of database schemas and tables, related or not, can be deployed as a queryable resource in the framewok of the Virtual Observatory. The TAP protocol itself has, at its core, a DB schema, named TAP_SCHEMA, that actually acts as an attribute-extended information schema for the exposed set of tables; the TAP_SCHEMA, in short, describes the content of the schemas and tables, and their connections, in a VO aware flavour. It seems then quite immediate to think about pushing the generalization step a little further, i.e. to extend the TAP_SCHEMA itself to provide a more general description of an astrophysical archive (or part of it). Here we discuss on how, adding optional tables and columns to the TAP_SCHEMA, it would be possible to create an archive thin layer solution in terms of this DB schema alongside with a content manager application for it. The goal is to provide a re-usable, configurable connection between an archive's back end and front end, having the benefit of creating a VO translation layer to ease VO resource and service deployment and preserving custom data access and publishing.

  10. Hyperuniformity disorder length spectroscopy for extended particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durian, D. J.

    2017-09-01

    The concept of a hyperuniformity disorder length h was recently introduced for analyzing volume fraction fluctuations for a set of measuring windows [Chieco et al., Phys. Rev. E 96, 032909 (2017)., 10.1103/PhysRevE.96.032909]. This length permits a direct connection to the nature of disorder in the spatial configuration of the particles and provides a way to diagnose the degree of hyperuniformity in terms of the scaling of h and its value in comparison with established bounds. Here, this approach is generalized for extended particles, which are larger than the image resolution and can lie partially inside and partially outside the measuring windows. The starting point is an expression for the relative volume fraction variance in terms of four distinct volumes: that of the particle, the measuring window, the mean-squared overlap between particle and region, and the region over which particles have nonzero overlap with the measuring window. After establishing limiting behaviors for the relative variance, computational methods are developed for both continuum and pixelated particles. Exact results are presented for particles of special shape and for measuring windows of special shape, for which the equations are tractable. Comparison is made for other particle shapes, using simulated Poisson patterns. And the effects of polydispersity and image errors are discussed. For small measuring windows, both particle shape and spatial arrangement affect the form of the variance. For large regions, the variance scaling depends only on arrangement but particle shape sets the numerical proportionality. The combined understanding permit the measured variance to be translated to the spectrum of hyperuniformity lengths versus region size, as the quantifier of spatial arrangement. This program is demonstrated for a system of nonoverlapping particles at a series of increasing packing fractions as well as for an Einstein pattern of particles with several different extended shapes.

  11. Western water and climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettinger, Michael; Udall, Bradley; Georgakakos, Aris

    2015-12-01

    The western United States is a region long defined by water challenges. Climate change adds to those historical challenges, but does not, for the most part, introduce entirely new challenges; rather climate change is likely to stress water supplies and resources already in many cases stretched to, or beyond, natural limits. Projections are for continued and, likely, increased warming trends across the region, with a near certainty of continuing changes in seasonality of snowmelt and streamflows, and a strong potential for attendant increases in evaporative demands. Projections of future precipitation are less conclusive, although likely the northern-most West will see precipitation increases while the southernmost West sees declines. However, most of the region lies in a broad area where some climate models project precipitation increases while others project declines, so that only increases in precipitation uncertainties can be projected with any confidence. Changes in annual and seasonal hydrographs are likely to challenge water managers, users, and attempts to protect or restore environmental flows, even where annual volumes change little. Other impacts from climate change (e.g., floods and water-quality changes) are poorly understood and will likely be location dependent. In this context, four iconic river basins offer glimpses into specific challenges that climate change may bring to the West. The Colorado River is a system in which overuse and growing demands are projected to be even more challenging than climate-change-induced flow reductions. The Rio Grande offers the best example of how climate-change-induced flow declines might sink a major system into permanent drought. The Klamath is currently projected to face the more benign precipitation future, but fisheries and irrigation management may face dire straits due to warming air temperatures, rising irrigation demands, and warming waters in a basin already hobbled by tensions between endangered fisheries

  12. Western Alaska ESI: FISHL (Fish Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for anadromous fish species in Western Alaska. Vector lines in this data set represent species occurrences...

  13. Western Alaska ESI: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine and estuarine invertebrate species in Western Alaska. Vector polygons in this data set represent...

  14. Western Lake Erie Restoration Assessment Degree Flowlines

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This represents the flowline network in Western Lale Erie Restoration Assessment (WLERA). It is attributed with the number of disconnections between the reach and...

  15. Rock glaciers, Western Andes, Chile, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The research area is located along a transect from 18 deg S to 29 deg S in the Chilean Altiplano, the western part of the high intramontane plateau in the Central...

  16. Agricultural Land in the Western United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Agricultural land cover for the western United States. This dataset was developed from Sagestitch, the Eastern Washington Shrubsteppe Mapping Project, and several...

  17. Western Alaska ESI: HABITATS (Habitat Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) in Western Alaska. Vector polygons in this data set represent...

  18. Western Alaska ESI: LAKES (Lake Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing lakes and land masses used in the creation of the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) for Western Alaska. The...

  19. Improving Security Cooperation in the Western Balkans

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Simonson, Timothy L

    2007-01-01

    ... than it is to allow them to fail. After more than two centuries of ethnic violence and a decade and a half of genocide and civil war, the western Balkans remain at risk of becoming failed states...

  20. Opportunities for silvicultural treatment in western Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colin D. MacLean

    1980-01-01

    A recent Forest Survey inventory of western Oregon has been analyzed to determine the extent of physical opportunities to increase wood production through silvicultural treatment. Results are presented by owner group and by geographic unit.