WorldWideScience

Sample records for westerbork sings survey

  1. The Westerbork SINGS Survey II. Polarization, Faraday Rotation, and Magnetic Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Heald, G; Edmonds, R

    2009-01-01

    A sample of large northern Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey (SINGS) galaxies has recently been observed with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT). We present observations of the linearly polarized radio continuum emission in this WSRT-SINGS galaxy sample. Of the 28 galaxies treated in this paper, 21 are detected in polarized radio continuum at 18- and 22-cm wavelengths. We utilize the rotation measure synthesis (RM-Synthesis) method, as implemented by Brentjens & de Bruyn, to coherently detect polarized emission from a large fractional bandwidth, while simultaneously assessing the degree of Faraday rotation experienced by the radiation along each line-of-sight. This represents the first time that the polarized emission and its Faraday rotation have been systematically probed down to ~10 microJy/beam RMS for a large sample of galaxies. Non-zero Faraday rotation is found to be ubiquitous in all of the target fields, from both the Galactic foreground and the target galaxies themselves. In t...

  2. The Westerbork Hydrogen Accretion in Local Galaxies (HALOGAS) Survey I. Survey Description and Pilot Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Heald, George; Serra, Paolo; Zschaechner, Laura; Rand, Richard; Fraternali, Filippo; Oosterloo, Tom; Walterbos, Rene; Juette, Eva; Gentile, Gianfranco

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a new, very deep neutral hydrogen (HI) survey being performed with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT). The Westerbork Hydrogen Accretion in LOcal GAlaxieS (HALOGAS) Survey is producing an archive of some of the most sensitive HI observations available, on the angular scales which are most useful for studying faint, diffuse gas in and around nearby galaxies. The survey data are being used to perform careful modeling of the galaxies, characterizing their gas content, morphology, and kinematics, with the primary goal of revealing the global characteristics of cold gas accretion onto spiral galaxies in the local Universe. In this paper, we describe the survey sample selection, the data acquisition, reduction, and analysis, and present the data products obtained during our pilot program, which consists of UGC 2082, NGC 672, NGC 925, and NGC 4565. The observations reveal a first glimpse of the picture that the full HALOGAS project aims to illuminate: the properties of accreting HI in diffe...

  3. A sample of ultra steep spectrum sources selected from the Westerbork In the Southern Hemisphere (WISH) survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breuck, C de; Tang, Y.; Bruyn, A. G. de; Röttgering, H. J. A.; Breugel, W.van

    2002-01-01

    The 352 MHz Westerbork In the Southern Hemisphere (WISH) survey is the southern extension of the WENSS, covering 1.60 sr between -9degrees <δ <-26degrees to a limiting flux density of similar to18 mJy (5sigma). Due to the very low elevation of the observations, the survey has a much lower resolution

  4. American Woodcock Singing-ground Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The American Woodcock Singing-Ground Survey, conducted by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, exploits the conspicuous courtship display of the male woodcock. The...

  5. 76 FR 38203 - Proposed Information Collection; North American Woodcock Singing Ground Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Proposed Information Collection; North American Woodcock Singing Ground... migratory bird populations. The North American Woodcock Singing Ground Survey is an essential part of the... Woodcock Singing Ground Survey. Service Form Number(s): 3-156. Type of Request: Extension of currently...

  6. Choral Singing and Wellbeing: Findings from a Survey of the Mixed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Findings from a Survey of the Mixed-Chorus Experience from Music Students of ... an integral part of the academic activities of the Department of Music Education, ... singing in terms of emotional, psychological, social and physical wellbeing.

  7. Seismic surveys negatively affect humpback whale singing activity off northern Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerchio, Salvatore; Strindberg, Samantha; Collins, Tim; Bennett, Chanda; Rosenbaum, Howard

    2014-01-01

    Passive acoustic monitoring was used to document the presence of singing humpback whales off the coast of Northern Angola, and opportunistically test for the effect of seismic survey activity in the vicinity on the number of singing whales. Two Marine Autonomous Recording Units (MARUs) were deployed between March and December 2008 in the offshore environment. Song was first heard in mid June and continued through the remaining duration of the study. Seismic survey activity was heard regularly during two separate periods, consistently throughout July and intermittently in mid-October/November. Numbers of singers were counted during the first ten minutes of every hour for the period from 24 May to 1 December, and Generalized Additive Mixed Models (GAMMs) were used to assess the effect of survey day (seasonality), hour (diel variation), moon phase and received levels of seismic survey pulses (measured from a single pulse during each ten-minute sampled period) on singer number. Application of GAMMs indicated significant seasonal variation, which was the most pronounced effect when assessing the full dataset across the entire season (p<0.001); however seasonality almost entirely dropped out of top-ranked models when applied to a reduced dataset during the July period of seismic survey activity. Diel variation was significant in both the full and reduced datasets (from p<0.01 to p<0.05) and often included in the top-ranked models. The number of singers significantly decreased with increasing received level of seismic survey pulses (from p<0.01 to p<0.05); this explanatory variable was included among the top ranked models for one MARU in the full dataset and both MARUs in the reduced dataset. This suggests that the breeding display of humpback whales is disrupted by seismic survey activity, and thus merits further attention and study, and potentially conservation action in the case of sensitive breeding populations.

  8. Do singing-ground surveys reflect american woodcock abundance in the western Great Lakes region?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew R. Nelson,; Andersen, David E.

    2013-01-01

    The Singing-ground Survey (SGS) is the primary monitoring tool used to assess population status and trends of American woodcock (Scolopax minor). Like most broad-scale surveys, the SGS cannot be directly validated because there are no independent estimates of abundance of displaying male American woodcock at an appropriate spatial scale. Furthermore, because locations of individual SGS routes have generally remained stationary since the SGS was standardized in 1968, it is not known whether routes adequately represent the landscapes they were intended to represent. To indirectly validate the SGS, we evaluated whether 1) counts of displaying male American woodcock on SGS routes related to land-cover types known to be related to American woodcock abundance, 2) changes in counts of displaying male American woodcock through time were related to changes in land cover along SGS routes, and 3) land-cover type composition along SGS routes was similar to land-cover type composition of the surrounding landscape. In Wisconsin and Minnesota, USA, counts along SGS routes reflected known American woodcock-habitat relations. Increases in the number of woodcock heard along SGS routes over a 13-year period in Wisconsin were related to increasing amounts of early successional forest, decreasing amounts of mature forest, and increasing dispersion and interspersion of cover types. Finally, the cover types most strongly associated with American woodcock abundance were represented along SGS routes in proportion to their composition of the broader landscape. Taken together, these results suggest that in the western Great Lakes region, the SGS likely provides a reliable tool for monitoring relative abundance and population trends of breeding, male American woodcock.

  9. WESTERBORK OBSERVATIONS OF HIGH-VELOCITY CLOUDS - THE DATA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WAKKER, BP

    1991-01-01

    The results of Westerbork * observations of small-scale structure in high-velocity clouds (HVCs) at 1' angular and 1 km s-1 velocity resolution are presented in the form of a table of observational parameters, maps of hydrogen column density, velocity-right ascension cuts, and histograms of the line

  10. WESTERBORK OBSERVATIONS OF HIGH-VELOCITY CLOUDS - DISCUSSION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WAKKER, BP; SCHWARZ, UJ

    1991-01-01

    Six high-velocity cloud fields were observed with 1' and 1 km s-1 resolution, using the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope. The structures seen in earlier observations at 10' resolution break up into a disorderly collection of concentrations. The presence of much substructure has important implica

  11. Westerbork HI observations of two High-Velocity Clouds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoppelenburg, PS; Schwarz, UJ; van Woerden, H

    1998-01-01

    Westerbork HI synthesis observations are presented for the directions of the stars 4 Lac and HD 135485. Interstellar absorption lines at high velocities had been reported in the UV spectrum of 4 Lac, setting an upper limit of 1.2 kpc on the distance of the associated, small HI cloud (Bates et al. 19

  12. NEW WESTERBORK OBSERVATIONS OF THE HI CLOUD NEAR NGC-4472

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HENNING, PA; SANCISI, R; MCNAMARA, BR

    1993-01-01

    The H I gas which hes between the giant Virgo elliptical NGC 4472 and the gas-deficient dwarf irregular UGC 7636 has been observed at high resolution and sensitivity with the Westerbork radio telescope. It is a concentration of gas at a projected distance halfway between the two galaxies, and at an

  13. Self-reported changes in the professional singing voice after surgical intervention treatment for breast cancer: a survey pilot study of female professional singers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroody, Margaret M; Barnes-Burroughs, Kathryn; Rodriguez, Michael C; Sataloff, Dahlia M; Sataloff, Robert Thayer

    2013-03-01

    The effects of breast cancer surgical treatment on the professional singing voice are unknown. The purpose of this study was to discover whether there are self-perceived changes in the quality and/or process of singing experienced by professional female singers who have undergone surgical intervention for the treatment of diagnosed breast cancer-including any changes perceived from the use of radiation, chemotherapy, and other drug treatments related to those surgeries. A voluntary subject pool comprised female professional singers who have undergone surgery for breast cancer was recruited from professional singing networks. Participants underwent evaluation through an anonymous online survey, psychometrically vetted for content and instrument reliability/validity before administration. Valid participants (N=56) responded to 45 questions regarding surgical procedures, related therapies, and self-perceived vocal effects. Analysis of results produced a preliminary description of types of voice change, duration of changes, and qualitative self-perceptions. This initial report reveals that there are self-perceived singing voice changes experienced by professional singers treated for breast cancer. However, additional research is needed to determine the degree of vocal impact perceived to be attributable to individual surgical interventions and related therapies. Copyright © 2013 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Listen to Birds' Singing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖明娟; 曾海泉

    2002-01-01

    Every early morning, birds' singing happily wakes me up. I get dressed quickly and wash myself, then watch birds and listen to them singing in the trees. The singing of different kinds of birds sounds like a piece of beautiful symphonic music. Birds' singing makes me relaxed and happy. It also makes me think of something in the past.

  15. Singing across the Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bintz, William P.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes one attempt to use singing as an instructional strategy to help all students learn across the curriculum. It begins with background on the author's early experiences with singing. Then, it shares professional literature on the relationship between singing, song, and literacy development. Next, it describes singing as an…

  16. PuMa-II: A wide band pulsar machine for the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karuppusamy, R.; Stappers, B.; van Straten, W.

    2008-01-01

    The Pulsar Machine II (PuMa-II) is the new flexible pulsar processing back-end system at the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT), specifically designed to take advantage of the upgraded WSRT. The instrument is based on a computer cluster running the Linux operating system, with minimal custo

  17. Singing voice outcomes following singing voice therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastolfo-Hromack, Christina; Thomas, Tracey L; Rosen, Clark A; Gartner-Schmidt, Jackie

    2016-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe singing voice therapy (SVT), describe referred patient characteristics, and document the outcomes of SVT. Retrospective. Records of patients receiving SVT between June 2008 and June 2013 were reviewed (n = 51). All diagnoses were included. Demographic information, number of SVT sessions, and symptom severity were retrieved from the medical record. Symptom severity was measured via the 10-item Singing Voice Handicap Index (SVHI-10). Treatment outcome was analyzed by diagnosis, history of previous training, and SVHI-10. SVHI-10 scores decreased following SVT (mean change = 11, 40% decrease) (P singing lessons (n = 10) also completed an average of three SVT sessions. Primary muscle tension dysphonia (MTD1) and benign vocal fold lesion (lesion) were the most common diagnoses. Most patients (60%) had previous vocal training. SVHI-10 decrease was not significantly different between MTD and lesion. This is the first outcome-based study of SVT in a disordered population. Diagnosis of MTD or lesion did not influence treatment outcomes. Duration of SVT was short (approximately three sessions). Voice care providers are encouraged to partner with a singing voice therapist to provide optimal care for the singing voice. This study supports the use of SVT as a tool for the treatment of singing voice disorders. 4 Laryngoscope, 126:2546-2551, 2016. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  18. Singing in Shakespeare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovmand, Michael

      Abstract: Singing in Shakespeare Songs in Shakespeare's plays are just one element of a whole array of discourses at the playwright's disposal In the title of this essay I've chosen the gerund form ‘singing' rather than the noun ‘songs', because  whereas most  studies  focuses on the provenance...... of dramatic uses of singing found in Shakespeare's plays....

  19. Scene & Heard : 'Singing' praises

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Ameerikas edukalt linastunud dokumentaalfilmi "Laulev revolutsioon" ("The Singing Revolution") autorid James ja Maureen Tusty pälvivad president Toomas Hendrik Ilveselt Maarjamaa Risti IV klassi ordeni

  20. The Way We Do the Things We Do: A Survey of Middle-School Choral Educators' Sight-Singing Attitudes and Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Bryan

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the rationale for sight-singing instructional choices of chorus teachers at the middle school level and sought to determine teachers' commitment to teaching music literacy. Three research questions formed the basis of the study: (1) what is the prevalence of sight-singing instruction in choral music classes, (2) what is…

  1. The Tibetan Singing Bowl

    CERN Document Server

    Terwagne, Denis

    2010-01-01

    The Tibetan singing bowl is a type of standing bell. Originating from Himalayan fire cults as early as the 5th century BC, they have since been used in religious ceremonies, for shamanic journeying, exorcism, meditation and shakra adjustment. A singing bowl is played by striking or rubbing its rim with a wooden or leather-wrapped mallet. The sides and rim of the bowl then vibrate to produce a rich sound. When the bowl is filled with water, this excitation can cause crispation of the water surface that can be followed by more complicated surface wave patterns and ultimately the creation of droplets. We here demonstrate the means by which the Tibetan singing bowl can levitate droplets. This is a sample arXiv article illustrating the use of fluid dynamics videos.

  2. Singing and social inclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Frederick Welch

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing body of neurological, cognitive and social psychological research to suggest the possibility of positive transfer effects from structured musical engagement. In particular, there is evidence to suggest that engagement in musical activities may impact on social inclusion (sense of self and of being socially integrated. Tackling social exclusion and promoting social inclusion are common concerns internationally, such as in the UK and the EC, and there are many diverse Government ministries and agencies globally that see the arts in general and music in particular as a key means by which social needs can be addressed. As part of a wider evaluation of a national, Government-sponsored music education initiative for Primary-aged children in England (‘Sing Up’, opportunity was taken by the authors, at the request of the funders, to assess any possible relationship between (a children’s developing singing behaviour and development and (b their social inclusion (sense of self and of being socially integrated. Subsequently, it was possible to match data from n=6087 participants, drawn from the final three years of data collection (2008-2011, in terms of each child’s individually assessed singing ability (based on their singing behaviour of two well-known songs to create a 'normalised singing score' and their written responses to a specially-designed questionnaire that included a set of statements related to children’s sense of being socially included to which the children indicated their level of agreement on a seven-point Likert scale. Data analyses suggested that the higher the normalized singing development rating, the more positive the child’s self-concept and sense of being socially included, irrespective of singer age, sex and ethnicity.

  3. Singing and social inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Graham F.; Himonides, Evangelos; Saunders, Jo; Papageorgi, Ioulia; Sarazin, Marc

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing body of neurological, cognitive, and social psychological research to suggest the possibility of positive transfer effects from structured musical engagement. In particular, there is evidence to suggest that engagement in musical activities may impact on social inclusion (sense of self and of being socially integrated). Tackling social exclusion and promoting social inclusion are common concerns internationally, such as in the UK and the EC, and there are many diverse Government ministries and agencies globally that see the arts in general and music in particular as a key means by which social needs can be addressed. As part of a wider evaluation of a national, Government-sponsored music education initiative for Primary-aged children in England (“Sing Up”), opportunity was taken by the authors, at the request of the funders, to assess any possible relationship between (a) children's developing singing behavior and development and (b) their social inclusion (sense of self and of being socially integrated). Subsequently, it was possible to match data from n = 6087 participants, drawn from the final 3 years of data collection (2008–2011), in terms of each child's individually assessed singing ability (based on their singing behavior of two well-known songs to create a “normalized singing score”) and their written responses to a specially-designed questionnaire that included a set of statements related to children's sense of being socially included to which the children indicated their level of agreement on a seven-point Likert scale. Data analyses suggested that the higher the normalized singing development rating, the more positive the child's self-concept and sense of being socially included, irrespective of singer age, sex and ethnicity. PMID:25120514

  4. Singing and social inclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Graham F; Himonides, Evangelos; Saunders, Jo; Papageorgi, Ioulia; Sarazin, Marc

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing body of neurological, cognitive, and social psychological research to suggest the possibility of positive transfer effects from structured musical engagement. In particular, there is evidence to suggest that engagement in musical activities may impact on social inclusion (sense of self and of being socially integrated). Tackling social exclusion and promoting social inclusion are common concerns internationally, such as in the UK and the EC, and there are many diverse Government ministries and agencies globally that see the arts in general and music in particular as a key means by which social needs can be addressed. As part of a wider evaluation of a national, Government-sponsored music education initiative for Primary-aged children in England ("Sing Up"), opportunity was taken by the authors, at the request of the funders, to assess any possible relationship between (a) children's developing singing behavior and development and (b) their social inclusion (sense of self and of being socially integrated). Subsequently, it was possible to match data from n = 6087 participants, drawn from the final 3 years of data collection (2008-2011), in terms of each child's individually assessed singing ability (based on their singing behavior of two well-known songs to create a "normalized singing score") and their written responses to a specially-designed questionnaire that included a set of statements related to children's sense of being socially included to which the children indicated their level of agreement on a seven-point Likert scale. Data analyses suggested that the higher the normalized singing development rating, the more positive the child's self-concept and sense of being socially included, irrespective of singer age, sex and ethnicity.

  5. Singing Smoothes Classroom Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Sarah E.

    2012-01-01

    Just as humming a merry tune helped Snow White and her furry animal friends to quickly clean a filthy cottage in the movie "Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs" (Disney & Cottrell, 1937), singing can be an effective way to help keep young children fully engaged during classroom transitions. The purposes of this article are to: (1) consider why…

  6. The neural control of singing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarate, Jean Mary

    2013-01-01

    Singing provides a unique opportunity to examine music performance—the musical instrument is contained wholly within the body, thus eliminating the need for creating artificial instruments or tasks in neuroimaging experiments. Here, more than two decades of voice and singing research will be reviewed to give an overview of the sensory-motor control of the singing voice, starting from the vocal tract and leading up to the brain regions involved in singing. Additionally, to demonstrate how sensory feedback is integrated with vocal motor control, recent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) research on somatosensory and auditory feedback processing during singing will be presented. The relationship between the brain and singing behavior will be explored also by examining: (1) neuroplasticity as a function of various lengths and types of training, (2) vocal amusia due to a compromised singing network, and (3) singing performance in individuals with congenital amusia. Finally, the auditory-motor control network for singing will be considered alongside dual-stream models of auditory processing in music and speech to refine both these theoretical models and the singing network itself. PMID:23761746

  7. The neural control of singing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Mary eZarate

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Singing provides a unique opportunity to examine music performance—the musical instrument is contained wholly within the body, thus eliminating the need for creating artificial instruments or tasks in neuroimaging experiments. Here, more than two decades of voice and singing research will be reviewed to give an overview of the sensory-motor control of the singing voice, starting from the vocal tract and leading up to the brain regions involved in singing. Additionally, to demonstrate how sensory feedback is integrated with vocal motor control, recent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI research on somatosensory and auditory feedback processing during singing will be presented. The relationship between the brain and singing behavior will be explored also by examining: 1 neuroplasticity as a function of various lengths and types of training, 2 vocal amusia due to a compromised singing network, and 3 singing performance in individuals with congenital amusia. Finally, the auditory-motor control network for singing will be considered alongside dual-stream models of auditory processing in music and speech to refine both these theoretical models and the singing network itself.

  8. Imprecise singing is widespread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfordresher, Peter Q; Brown, Steven; Meier, Kimberly M; Belyk, Michel; Liotti, Mario

    2010-10-01

    There has been a recent surge of research on the topic of poor-pitch singing. However, this research has not addressed an important distinction in measurement: that between accuracy and precision. With respect to singing, accuracy refers to the average difference between sung and target pitches. Precision, by contrast, refers to the consistency of repeated attempts to produce a pitch. A group of 45 non-musician participants was asked to vocally imitate unfamiliar 5-note melodies, as well as to sing a series of familiar melodies from memory (e.g., Happy Birthday). The results showed that singers were more accurate than they were precise, and that a majority of participants could justifiably be categorized as imprecise singers. Accuracy and precision measures were correlated with one another, and conditional-probability analyses suggested that accuracy predicted precision more so than the converse. Finally, performance differences across groups of singers were greater for the imitation of unfamiliar tone sequences than for the recall of familiar melodies.

  9. Singing with Infants and Toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    1995-01-01

    Examines singing as a tool for managing children's behaviors. Suggests that singing can be a powerful tool to soothe a baby, promote learning daily routines and cooperativeness, ease separation troubles, build trust and self-esteem, awake a love for poetry and imagery, stretch memorizing power, help develop humor, and build motor skills. Proposes…

  10. Les Singes. Simiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlegel, H.

    1876-01-01

    L’origine de l’aperçu monographique des Singes que je présente aujourd’hui au public date de plus de cinquante ans, c’est-à-dire de l’époque où je fus attaché au Musée des Pays-Bas. J’avais même commencé d’élaborer, avec feu I. B. Fischer, l’auteur du Synopsis Mammalium, une histoire détaillée des

  11. Les Singes. Simiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlegel, H.

    1876-01-01

    L’origine de l’aperçu monographique des Singes que je présente aujourd’hui au public date de plus de cinquante ans, c’est-à-dire de l’époque où je fus attaché au Musée des Pays-Bas. J’avais même commencé d’élaborer, avec feu I. B. Fischer, l’auteur du Synopsis Mammalium, une histoire détaillée des M

  12. The Role of Choral Singing in the Lives of Amateur Choral Singers in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einarsdottir, Sigrun Lilja; Gudmundsdottir, Helga Rut

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate what motivates people to sing in choirs as a leisure activity. Subjects were retrieved from members of 10 amateur choirs of various types in Iceland through a paper-based survey. Results indicated that participants gain both personal and social benefits from singing in a choir. Findings revealed…

  13. I LIKE LISTENING TO BIRDS SINGING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘向勤; 廖明娟

    2002-01-01

    Every early morning, birds' happy singing wakes me up. I get dressed quickly and have a wash and brush up, then watch birds and listen to them singing happily in the trees. The singing of different kinds of birds sounds like a piece of beautiful symphonic music. Birds’singing makes me relaxed and happy and it also recalls me something of the Past.

  14. Tibetan Singing Bowls

    CERN Document Server

    Terwagne, Denis

    2011-01-01

    We present the results of an experimental investigation of the acoustics and fluid dynamics of Tibetan singing bowls. Their acoustic behavior is rationalized in terms of the related dynamics of standing bells and wine glasses. Striking or rubbing a fluid-filled bowl excites wall vibrations, and concomitant waves at the fluid surface. Acoustic excitation of the bowl's natural vibrational modes allows for a controlled study in which the evolution of the surface waves with increasing forcing amplitude is detailed. Particular attention is given to rationalizing the observed criteria for the onset of edge-induced Faraday waves and droplet generation via surface fracture. Our study indicates that drops may be levitated on the fluid surface, induced to bounce on or skip across the vibrating fluid surface.

  15. Tibetan singing bowls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terwagne, Denis; Bush, John W. M.

    2011-08-01

    We present the results of an experimental investigation of the acoustics and fluid dynamics of Tibetan singing bowls. Their acoustic behaviour is rationalized in terms of the related dynamics of standing bells and wine glasses. Striking or rubbing a fluid-filled bowl excites wall vibrations, and concomitant waves at the fluid surface. Acoustic excitation of the bowl's natural vibrational modes allows for a controlled study in which the evolution of the surface waves with increasing forcing amplitude is detailed. Particular attention is given to rationalizing the observed criteria for the onset of edge-induced Faraday waves and droplet generation via surface fracture. Our study indicates that drops may be levitated on the fluid surface, induced to bounce on or skip across the vibrating fluid surface.

  16. Liturgical singing as ritual symbol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coenie Calitz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Liturgical singing is more than text and melody; it is also symbol and ritual. It is part of the ensemble of rituals within the worship service. As a ritual symbol, it is closely connected to the culture or subculture where it is conducted. Meaning is not only immanent in the text (lyrics, but assigned on a continuous base and differs from culture to culture. As a ritual symbol, liturgical singing does not only point to another reality, but presents the other reality within the cultural context of the worship service; within ritual the music and melody are more important than text and lyrics. Liturgical singing as a ritual symbol is never static, but in a continuous process of change.

  17. Chaotic dynamics of propeller singing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Dapeng; ZHAO Deyou; WANG Yu

    2012-01-01

    The system of propeller singing is proved for the first time to have the character of chaotic dynamics through the study of the signal time series. The estimation of the topolog- ical dimension, the confirmation of the number of independent variable and the description of the character of attractor trajectory in reconstructed phase space are implemented during the analysis of the system. The result indicates that the system of propeller singing can be recon- structed by the optional delay time tD = 1, the minimal embedding dimension dE = 8, and the reconstructed topological parameter with the fractional correlation dimension D2 = 5.1579 and the positive maximum Lyapunov exponent λtD=0.0771. The results provide a new approach to the further study of the propeller singing phenomenon.

  18. The JCMT Nearby Galaxies Legacy Survey : VIII. CO data and the LCO(3-2)-LFIR correlation in the SINGS sample

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilson, C. D.; Warren, B. E.; Israel, F. P.; Serjeant, S.; Attewell, D.; Bendo, G. J.; Butner, H. M.; Chanial, P.; Clements, D. L.; Golding, J.; Heesen, V.; Irwin, J.; Leech, J.; Matthews, H. E.; Mühle, S.; Mortier, A. M. J.; Petitpas, G.; Sánchez-Gallego, J. R.; Sinukoff, E.; Shorten, K.; Tan, B. K.; Tilanus, R. P. J.; Usero, A.; Vaccari, M.; Wiegert, T.; Zhu, M.; Alexander, D. M.; Alexander, P.; Azimlu, M.; Barmby, P.; Brar, R.; Bridge, C.; Brinks, E.; Brooks, S.; Coppin, K.; Côté, S.; Côté, P.; Courteau, S.; Davies, J.; Eales, S.; Fich, M.; Hudson, M.; Hughes, D. H.; Ivison, R. J.; Knapen, J. H.; Page, M.; Parkin, T. J.; Rigopoulou, D.; Rosolowsky, E.; Seaquist, E. R.; Spekkens, K.; Tanvir, N.; van der Hulst, J. M.; van der Werf, P.; Vlahakis, C.; Webb, T. M.; Weferling, B.; White, G. J.

    2012-01-01

    The James Clerk Maxwell Telescope Nearby Galaxies Legacy Survey (NGLS) comprises an H I-selected sample of 155 galaxies spanning all morphological types with distances less than 25 Mpc. We describe the scientific goals of the survey, the sample selection and the observing strategy. We also present a

  19. Constructing Singing Assessments for the Music Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Bryan E.

    2017-01-01

    As teachers are increasingly asked to respond to assessment and evaluation demands in their schools, the aim of this article is to provide suggestions and scales for singing accuracy. A description of each step in the assessment design process is provided, along with specific suggestions for a singing development scale and a singing accuracy scale.

  20. 67P, Singing Comet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, Ekaterina

    2017-04-01

    I would like to propose to present a short science-art-music collaboration film called "67P, Singing Comet" (5:27 min). If time of the session will allow, prior to the film I would like to make a slide show introduction to this project, highlighting the inspiration - the mission Rosetta by the European Space Agency (ESA) - and the artistic collaboration that took place in creating this piece. 
 Inspired by the ESA Rosetta mission to the comet 67P, Ekaterina Smirnova (artist and project director, New York), Lee Mottram (clarinetist, Wales), Takuto Fukuda (composer, Japan) and Brian Hekker (video editor, New York) collaborated to create a unique atmospheric piece.
 Water and the origins of life throughout the Universe (specifically the Earth) is an element of the mission and the focus of Ekaterina's artistic vision. Ekaterina literally and figuratively paints a sensory assemblage using a combination of synthetic and natural elements to shape this artistic creation. To paint her watercolor works she is using a replica of the water found on the comet and implementing her own heartbeat into the music to create a recognizable inward sound of life.
 The Electro-Acoustic composition by Takuto Fukuda features an electronically manipulated performance by clarinetist Lee Mottram. The piece ceremoniously begins with reverberant bursts of low-register atonal bells transporting the listener to their ethereal inner origins of body and mind. The imagination takes the experience to an unknown destination as it gains speed gliding through the visual and audible textures of space and time. 
The comet's water similarly reacts with an ebb and flow thawing ice to potentially give life a chance as it is thrust along an orbit around the Sun. Near then far from the heat the comet forms frozen particles from vapors as it reaches it's furthest stretches creating an aerodynamic tail of icicles that slowly dissipate in a cycle that repeats itself until the comet's ultimate collision

  1. Singing Polyphony: An Asian Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jui-Ching

    2015-01-01

    Polyphony, often used to describe a type of composition in early European music, is also practiced in other parts of the world, not only for aesthetic enjoyment but also to strengthen a society's cohesiveness. Examples of such musical traditions are found in sub-Saharan Africa and many mountainous regions of Europe, where group singing or…

  2. Whoever Can Speak, Can Sing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargeant, Lynn M.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the rhetoric of failure inherent in the long-lasting debates over school music instruction in Russia, the practice of school singing teaching in Russian schools, especially those serving peasants and the urban lower classes, satisfied to a large degree the needs of the community. However, the limited role for school music and singing…

  3. The JCMT Nearby Galaxies Legacy Survey VIII. CO data and the L(CO3-2)-L(FIR) correlation in the SINGS sample

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, C D; Israel, F P; Serjeant, S; Attewell, D; Bendo, G J; Butner, H M; Chanial, P; Clements, D L; Golding, J; Heesen, V; Irwin, J; Leech, J; Matthews, H E; Muhle, S; Mortier, A M J; Petitpas, G; Sanchez-Gallego, J R; Sinukoff, E; Shorten, K; Tan, B K; Tilanus, R P J; Usero, A; Vaccari, M; Wiegert, T; Zhu, M; Alexander, D M; Alexander, P; Azimlu, M; Barmby, P; Borys, C; Brar, R; Bridge, C; Brinks, E; Brooks, S; Coppin, K; Cote, S; Cote, P; Courteau, S; Davies, J; Eales, S; Fich, M; Hudson, M; Hughes, D H; Ivison, R J; Knapen, J H; Page, M; Parkin, T J; Pope, A; Rigopoulou, D; Rosolowsky, E; Seaquist, E R; Spekkens, K; Tanvir, N; van der Hulst, J M; van der Werf, P; Vlahakis, C; Webb, T M; Weferling, B; White, G J

    2012-01-01

    The James Clerk Maxwell Telescope Nearby Galaxies Legacy Survey (NGLS) comprises an HI-selected sample of 155 galaxies spanning all morphological types with distances less than 25 Mpc. We describe the scientific goals of the survey, the sample selection, and the observing strategy. We also present an atlas and analysis of the CO J=3-2 maps for the 47 galaxies in the NGLS which are also part of the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey. We find a wide range of molecular gas mass fractions in the galaxies in this sample and explore the correlation of the far-infrared luminosity, which traces star formation, with the CO luminosity, which traces the molecular gas mass. By comparing the NGLS data with merging galaxies at low and high redshift which have also been observed in the CO J=3-2 line, we show that the correlation of far-infrared and CO luminosity shows a significant trend with luminosity. This trend is consistent with a molecular gas depletion time which is more than an order of magnitude faster in the ...

  4. Vocal Hygiene Habits and Vocal Handicap Among Conservatory Students of Classical Singing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achey, Meredith A; He, Mike Z; Akst, Lee M

    2016-03-01

    This study sought to assess classical singing students' compliance with vocal hygiene practices identified in the literature and to explore the relationship between self-reported vocal hygiene practice and self-reported singing voice handicap in this population. The primary hypothesis was that increased attention to commonly recommended vocal hygiene practices would correlate with reduced singing voice handicap. This is a cross-sectional, survey-based study. An anonymous survey assessing demographics, attention to 11 common vocal hygiene recommendations in both performance and nonperformance periods, and the Singing Voice Handicap Index 10 (SVHI-10) was distributed to classical singing teachers to be administered to their students at two major schools of music. Of the 215 surveys distributed, 108 were returned (50.2%), of which 4 were incomplete and discarded from analysis. Conservatory students of classical singing reported a moderate degree of vocal handicap (mean SVHI-10, 12; range, 0-29). Singers reported considering all 11 vocal hygiene factors more frequently when preparing for performances than when not preparing for performances. Of these, significant correlations with increased handicap were identified for consideration of stress reduction in nonperformance (P = 0.01) and performance periods (P = 0.02) and with decreased handicap for consideration of singing voice use in performance periods alone (P = 0.02). Conservatory students of classical singing report more assiduous attention to vocal hygiene practices when preparing for performances and report moderate degrees of vocal handicap overall. These students may have elevated risk for dysphonia and voice disorders which is not effectively addressed through common vocal hygiene recommendations alone. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Professor Ken Sing: A Festschrift

    OpenAIRE

    Carrott, Peter; Branton, Peter; Llewellyn, Philip; Muller, Erich

    2013-01-01

    It is with great pleasure that we dedicate this double issue of Adsorption Science & Technology to Professor K.S.W. Sing in honour of his 65th year of active work and research in the area of adsorption and to coincide with his 88th birthday. This special volume brings together a dozen invited academic and industrial contributions from his former doctoral students and colleagues. The papers come from all corners of the globe, including Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Egypt, Japan, Mexico...

  6. Singing can facilitate foreign language learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludke, Karen M; Ferreira, Fernanda; Overy, Katie

    2014-01-01

    This study presents the first experimental evidence that singing can facilitate short-term paired-associate phrase learning in an unfamiliar language (Hungarian). Sixty adult participants were randomly assigned to one of three "listen-and-repeat" learning conditions: speaking, rhythmic speaking, or singing. Participants in the singing condition showed superior overall performance on a collection of Hungarian language tests after a 15-min learning period, as compared with participants in the speaking and rhythmic speaking conditions. This superior performance was statistically significant (p sing" learning method can facilitate verbatim memory for spoken foreign language phrases.

  7. [Singing as an aid in neonatology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medrano Poullain, Chrystelle; Milou, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Health professionals expect the beneficial effects of singing in neonatology, but remain reluctant to use it. The sensorimotor behaviour of newborns has been analysed when a professional or a mother sings. The results of a qualitative study show that singing before performing a care procedure can modify alertness by favouring interaction and have a positive impact on the behavioural assessment score. During the procedure, singing can help the baby's stability. A factor of well-being for the newborn, this practice could be developed on a wider scale. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Magnetic fields in nearby galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heald, G.; Braun, R.

    2009-01-01

    We describe a recent full-polarization radio continuum survey, performed using the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT), of several nearby galaxies in the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey (SINGS) sample. The WSRT-SINGS survey has been utilized to study the polarized emission and

  9. Bipolar patients sing more in singapore: singing as a signal for mania in psychotic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Leslie; Leow, Me Lye; Soh, Bee Leng; Chan, Yiong Huak; Parker, Gordon

    2013-10-01

    Singing in psychotic patients has received little attention in the psychiatric literature. In this preliminary study, we test the hypothesis that manic patients sing more than schizophrenic patients (SPs). Manic patients and SP inpatients and outpatients were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire which included questions on musical interests, and how much they felt like singing prior to their most recent admission to hospital. They were asked if they were willing to sing during the interview and responses were observed. Of the 69 manic patients and 68 SPs interviewed, manic patients were more likely to report singing than SPs (76% vs 24%) prior to their most recent admission to hospital. There was a trend for manic inpatients to be more willing to sing during the interview. Increased singing is suggested as a useful symptom and sign in patients suffering from a manic illness.

  10. Masculinity and Choral Singing: An Australian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Sarah J.

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on the perceptions of masculinity amongst male participants in choral singing, drawing on data that form part of a larger project where the overarching aim was to explore how these perceptions influenced male participation in choir. Masculinity was considered in terms of the stereotypes associated with being a male singing in…

  11. Masculinity and Choral Singing: An Australian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Sarah J.

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on the perceptions of masculinity amongst male participants in choral singing, drawing on data that form part of a larger project where the overarching aim was to explore how these perceptions influenced male participation in choir. Masculinity was considered in terms of the stereotypes associated with being a male singing in…

  12. Orff Schulwerk Teacher Educators Beliefs about Singing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Julia Kay

    2010-01-01

    Orff Schulwerk is defined by its practitioners as an approach to teaching music to children through the Orff media: speech, singing, movement, and playing instruments. The approach is often best known for use of the "Orff instruments," and some music educators criticize Orff-based instruction, claiming that singing is overlooked or…

  13. Orff Schulwerk Teacher Educators Beliefs about Singing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Julia Kay

    2010-01-01

    Orff Schulwerk is defined by its practitioners as an approach to teaching music to children through the Orff media: speech, singing, movement, and playing instruments. The approach is often best known for use of the "Orff instruments," and some music educators criticize Orff-based instruction, claiming that singing is overlooked or…

  14. A blind H i survey in the Canes Venatici region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kovac, K.; Oosterloo, T. A.; van der Hulst, J. M.

    2009-01-01

    We have carried out a blind H i survey using the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope to make an inventory of objects with small H i masses (between 106 and 108 M(circle dot)) and to constrain the low-mass end of the H i mass function. The survey has been conducted in a part of the volume containing

  15. Automatic burner adjustment in a singeing oven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aabo, P.

    1984-07-01

    The expected energy savings of 10-15% of the actual fuel consumption in the singeing oven was reduced because of the change in the design of the singeing oven itself. The socalled optimized singeing oven hereafter includes: ceramic fibres, combustion air from the ceiling, fireproof oven bottom, automatic adjustment of air and fuel, rapid opening and closing, change over to pilot flame during stops and the slaughter line, and sealing between the oven's two parts and bottom. This optimization of the design of the singeing oven reduces the oil consumption from 0.8 litre to 0.45 litre fuel per pig carcass. The described optimization of the oven is partly carried out during this project. Thus the starting point for further reduction of the energy consumption is changed rather much. Neverthless a calculation of prospective profits proves that it is still profitable to invest in equipment for adjusting the burner in the singeing oven. It has been proved that the degree of singeing can be controlled by the parameters singeing period and oven temperature. A control device for controlling of the oil consumption on the basis of the temperature of the waste gas has succesfully been installed and it has been proved that the pay back period for this control device is approximately 2 years.

  16. Vocal tract shapes in different singing functions used in musical theater singing-a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echternach, Matthias; Popeil, Lisa; Traser, Louisa; Wienhausen, Sascha; Richter, Bernhard

    2014-09-01

    Singing styles in Musical Theater singing might differ in many ways from Western Classical singing. However, vocal tract adjustments are not understood in detail. Vocal tract shapes of a single professional Music Theater female subject were analyzed concerning different aspects of singing styles using dynamic real-time magnetic resonance imaging technology with a frame rate of 8 fps. The different tasks include register differences, belting, and vibrato strategies. Articulatory differences were found between head register, modal register, and belting. Also, some vibrato strategies ("jazzy" vibrato) do involve vocal tract adjustments, whereas others (classical vibrato) do not. Vocal tract shaping might contribute to the establishment of different singing functions in Musical Theater singing. Copyright © 2014 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Church Singing as a Social Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Анатолий Ненартович

    2016-12-01

    process linking cognitive experience, value orientations and social practical activity. Church singing integrates phonetic symbols, singing and music into a structure of the norms and principles with intrinsic relation and semantic interpretation. Church singing as social communication, is the dynamic of personal acceptance of doctrinal elements, social experience in the form of knowledge about the surrounding world accumulated by Christian culture, principles and skills of community life, socially meaningful productive activity, and criteria of self-determination in a community. In turn, a person not only transmits Christian culture, but also creates and reproduces a tradition, varying it or inventing cultural innovations.

  18. Laryngeal biomechanics of the singing voice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koufman, J A; Radomski, T A; Joharji, G M; Russell, G B; Pillsbury, D C

    1996-12-01

    By transnasal fiberoptic laryngoscopy, patients with functional voice often demonstrate abnormal laryngeal biomechanics, commonly supraglottic contraction. Appropriately, such conditions are sometimes termed muscle tension dysphonias. Singers working at the limits of their voice may also transiently demonstrate comparable tension patterns. However, the biomechanics of normal singing, particularly for different singing styles, have not been previously well characterized. We used transnasal fiberoptic laryngoscopy to study 100 healthy singers to assess patterns of laryngeal tension during normal singing and to determine whether factors such as sex, occupation, and style of singing influence laryngeal muscle tension. Thirty-nine male and 61 female singers were studied; 48 were professional singers, and 52 were amateurs. Examinations of study subjects performing standardized and nonstandardized singing tasks were recorded on a laser disk and subsequently analyzed in a frame-by-frame fashion by a blinded otolaryngologist. Each vocal task was graded for muscle tension by previously established criteria, and objective muscle tension scores were computed. The muscle tension score was expressed as a percentage of frames for each task with one of the laryngeal muscle tension patterns shown. The lowest muscle tension scores were seen in female professional singers, and the highest muscle tension scores were seen in amateur female singers. Male singers (professional and amateur) had intermediate muscle tension scores. Classical singers had lower muscle tension scores than nonclassical singers, with the lowest muscle tension scores being seen in those singing choral music (41%), art song (47%), and opera (57%), and the highest being seen in those singing jazz/pop (65%), musical theater (74%), bluegrass/country and western (86%), and rock/gospel (94%). Analyzed also were the influences of vocal nodules, prior vocal training, number of performance and practice hours per week

  19. Metacognitive strategies in learning sight-singing

    OpenAIRE

    Bogunović Blanka; Vujović Ida

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a part of a wider study that is based on interdisciplinary research of sight-singing (psychology and music education). Our intention was to join the psychological knowledge of cognitive processes on the one hand, and the practical approach of music teachers, based on methods, techniques and procedures of mastering sight-reading-singing skills on the other. We aimed: 1. to determine the kinds and levels of strategies that music students use in the cognitive processes involv...

  20. Singing teaching as a therapy for chronic respiratory disease - a randomised controlled trial and qualitative evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Julia L

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite optimal pharmacological therapy and pulmonary rehabilitation, patients with COPD continue to be breathless. There is a need to develop additional strategies to alleviate symptoms. Learning to sing requires control of breathing and posture and might have benefits that translate into daily life. Methods To test this hypothesis we performed a randomised controlled trial, comparing a six week course of twice weekly singing classes to usual care, in 28 COPD patients. The experience of singing was assessed in a qualitative fashion, through interviews with a psychologist. In addition, we surveyed patients with chronic respiratory conditions who participated in a series of open singing workshops. Results In the RCT, the physical component score of the SF36 improved in the singers (n = 15 compared to the controls (n = 13; +7.5(14.6 vs. -3.8(8.4 p = 0.02. Singers also had a significant fall in HAD anxiety score; -1.1(2.7 vs. +0.8(1.7 p = 0.03. Singing did not improve single breath counting, breath hold time or shuttle walk distance. In the qualitative element, 8 patients from the singing group were interviewed. Positive effects on physical sensation, general well-being, community/social support and achievement/efficacy emerged as common themes. 150 participants in open workshops completed a questionnaire. 96% rated the workshops as "very enjoyable" and 98% thought the workshop had taught them something about breathing in a different way. 81% of attendees felt a "marked physical difference" after the workshop. Conclusion Singing classes can improve quality of life measures and anxiety and are viewed as a very positive experience by patients with respiratory disease; no adverse consequences of participation were observed. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials - ISRCTN17544114.

  1. BUDHIES: a Blind Ultra Deep HI Environmental Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaffé, Y. L.; Verheijen, M. A.; Poggianti, B. M.; van Gorkom, J. H.; Deshev, B. Z.

    2014-01-01

    We present recent results from the Blind Ultra Deep HI Environmental Survey (BUDHIES), that has detected over 150 galaxies at z˜ 0.2 with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT). Our multi-wavelength study is the first where optical properties and HI content are combined at a redshift where

  2. BUDHIES: a Blind Ultra Deep HI Environmental Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaffé, Y. L.; Verheijen, M. A.; Poggianti, B. M.; van Gorkom, J. H.; Deshev, B. Z.

    2014-01-01

    We present recent results from the Blind Ultra Deep HI Environmental Survey (BUDHIES), that has detected over 150 galaxies at z˜ 0.2 with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT). Our multi-wavelength study is the first where optical properties and HI content are combined at a redshift where

  3. Singing and Cultural Understanding: A Music Education Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilari, Beatriz; Chen-Hafteck, Lily; Crawford, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between singing and cultural understanding. Singing emerges in infancy and develops through processes of enculturation and socialization. When we sing songs from diverse cultures, we are granted with opportunities to learn about the cultures of others, and gain a better understanding of our own. Thus, singing…

  4. Sight-Singing: Ten Years of Published Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehne, Jane M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to review published research on sight-singing from the past 10 years, 1998-2008. Several authors published research in various areas in sight-singing. These included festival availability and participation, time use in sight-singing adjudication, method and materials, strategies of successful students, assessing…

  5. Pronunciation and Articulation for Singing Chinese Works

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑菲菲

    2013-01-01

    For singing Chinese works, pronunciation and articulation are the most essential and the most crucial factors. Their beginning should be brief, middle should be melodious and long-lasting, and end should be as clear and crisp as crystal. Considering from pronunciations, Chinese works can be divided into two categories:one is comprehensive style emphasizing clear enunciation; the other is local folk song that should be sung based on corresponding local accent of the works. Besides, based on correct pronunciation and articulation, balance between pro-nunciation and articulation should be achieved, both the essence of western traditional mode of singing and Chinese traditional music should be followed and inherited.

  6. Development and preliminary validation of the EASE: a tool to measure perceived singing voice function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phyland, Debra J; Pallant, Julie F; Benninger, Michael S; Thibeault, Susan L; Greenwood, Ken M; Smith, Julian A; Vallance, Neil

    2013-07-01

    Most voice self-rating tools are disease-specific measures and are not suitable for use with healthy voice users. There is a need for a tool that is sensitive to the subtleties of a singer's voice and to perceived physical changes in the singing voice mechanism as a function of load. The aim of this study was to devise and validate a scale to assess singer's perceptions of the current status of their singing voice. Ninety-five vocal health descriptors were collected from focus group interviews of singers. These were reviewed by 25 currently performing music theater (MT) singers. Based on a consensus technique, the number of descriptors was decreased to 42 items. These were administered to a sample of 284 professional MT singers using an online survey to evaluate their perception of current singing voice status. Principal component analysis identified two subsets of items. Rasch analysis was used to evaluate and refine these sets of items to form two 10-item subscales. Both subscales demonstrated good overall fit to the Rasch model, no differential item functioning by sex or age, and good internal consistency reliability. The two subscales were strongly correlated and subsequent Rasch analysis supported their combination to form a single 20-item scale with good psychometric properties. The Evaluation of the Ability to Sing Easily (EASE) is a concise clinical tool to assess singer's perceptions of the current status of their singing voice with good measurement properties. EASE may prove a useful tool to measure changes in the singing voice as indicators of the effect of vocal load. Furthermore, it may offer a valuable means for the prediction or screening of singers "at risk" of developing voice disorders. Copyright © 2013 The Voice Foundation. All rights reserved.

  7. "I Can't Sing!" the Concept of Teacher Confidence in Singing and the Use within Their Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyning, Lyndell

    2011-01-01

    When teachers become more confident and competent in relation to singing, then they are more likely to use singing and to use it successfully. Teachers are expected to gain such skills in pre-service teacher education, to enhance their capability in teaching music, so that singing can be utilised and supported in schools. Confidence is definitely…

  8. A deep survey of the AKARI north ecliptic pole field : I. WSRT 20 cm radio survey description, observations and data reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    White, G. J.; Pearson, C.; Braun, R.; Serjeant, S.; Matsuhara, H.; Takagi, T.; Nakagawa, T.; Shipman, R.; Barthel, P.; Hwang, N.; Lee, H. M.; Lee, M. G.; Im, M.; Wada, T.; Oyabu, S.; Pak, S.; Chun, M. -Y.; Hanami, H.; Goto, T.; Oliver, S.

    2010-01-01

    Aims. The Westerbork Radio Synthesis Telescope, WSRT, has been used to make a deep radio survey of an similar to 1.7 degree(2) field coinciding with the AKARI north ecliptic pole deep field. The observations, data reduction and source count analysis are presented, along with a description of the ove

  9. A deep survey of the AKARI north ecliptic pole field . I. WSRT 20 cm radio survey description, observations and data reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    White, G. J.; Pearson, C.; Braun, R.; Serjeant, S.; Matsuhara, H.; Takagi, T.; Nakagawa, T.; Shipman, R.; Barthel, P.; Hwang, N.; Lee, H. M.; Lee, M. G.; Im, M.; Wada, T.; Oyabu, S.; Pak, S.; Chun, M.-Y.; Hanami, H.; Goto, T.; Oliver, S.

    2010-01-01

    Aims: The Westerbork Radio Synthesis Telescope, WSRT, has been used to make a deep radio survey of an ~1.7 degree2 field coinciding with the AKARI north ecliptic pole deep field. The observations, data reduction and source count analysis are presented, along with a description of the overall scienti

  10. Spectral Envelope Transformation in Singing Voice for Advanced Pitch Shifting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L. Santacruz

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work is to perform a step towards more natural pitch shifting techniques in singing voice for its application in music production and entertainment systems. In this paper, we present an advanced method to achieve natural modifications when applying a pitch shifting process to singing voice by modifying the spectral envelope of the audio excerpt. To this end, an all-pole model has been selected to model the spectral envelope, which is estimated using a constrained non-linear optimization. The analysis of the global variations of the spectral envelope was carried out by identifying changes of the parameters of the model along with the changes of the pitch. With the obtained spectral envelope transformation functions, we applied our pitch shifting scheme to some sustained vowels in order to compare results with the same transformation made by using the Flex Pitch plugin of Logic Pro X and pitch synchronous overlap and add technique (PSOLA. This comparison has been carried out by means of both an objective and a subjective evaluation. The latter was done with a survey open to volunteers on our website.

  11. Speech versus singing: Infants choose happier sounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieve eCorbeil

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Infants prefer speech to non-vocal sounds and to non-human vocalizations, and they prefer happy-sounding speech to neutral speech. They also exhibit an interest in singing, but there is little knowledge of their relative interest in speech and singing. The present study explored infants’ attention to unfamiliar audio samples of speech and singing. In Experiment 1, infants 4-13 months of age were exposed to happy-sounding infant-directed speech versus hummed lullabies by the same woman. They listened significantly longer to the speech, which had considerably greater acoustic variability and expressiveness, than to the lullabies. In Experiment 2, infants of comparable age who heard the lyrics of a Turkish children’s song spoken versus sung in a joyful/happy manner did not exhibit differential listening. Infants in Experiment 3 heard the happily sung lyrics of the Turkish children’s song versus a version that was spoken in an adult-directed or affectively neutral manner. They listened significantly longer to the sung version. Overall, happy voice quality rather than vocal mode (speech or singing was the principal contributor to infant attention, regardless of age.

  12. Analysis and enhancement of country singing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Matthew; Smith, Mark J. T.

    2003-04-01

    The study of human singing has focused extensively on the analysis of voice characteristics. At the same time, a substantial body of work has been under study aimed at modeling and synthesizing the human voice. The work on which we report brings together some key analysis and synthesis principles to create a new model for digitally improving the perceived quality of an average singing voice. The model presented employs an analysis-by-synthesis overlap-add (ABS-OLA) sinusoidal model, which in the past has been used for the analysis and synthesis of speech, in combination with a spectral model of the vocal tract. The ABS-OLA sinusoidal model for speech has been shown to be a flexible, accurate, and computationally efficient representation capable of producing a natural-sounding singing voice [E. B. George and M. J. T. Smith, Trans. Speech Audio Processing 5, 389-406 (1997)]. A spectral model infused in the ABS-OLA uses Generalized Gaussian functions to provide a simple framework which enables the precise modification of spectral characteristics while maintaining the quality and naturalness of the original voice. Furthermore, it is shown that the parameters of the new ABS-OLA can accommodate pitch corrections and vocal quality enhancements while preserving naturalness and singer identity. Examples of enhanced country singing will be presented.

  13. The Brain in Singing and Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trollinger, Valerie L.

    2010-01-01

    This article summarizes currently available brain research concerning relationships between singing and language development. Although this is a new field of investigation, there are findings that are applicable to general music teaching classroom. These findings are presented along with suggestions about how to apply them to teaching music.

  14. Making the Move into Madrigal Singing

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGroot, Joanna

    2009-01-01

    The madrigal is a type of song that was especially popular in the 16th and 17th centuries in Western Europe. Usually unaccompanied, madrigals often relate to secular subjects and comprise three to six vocal lines. Tom Carter, choral clinician and author of Choral CHARISMA: Singing with Expression, has enjoyed madrigals since high school. He states…

  15. Change in singing voice production, objectively measured

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutte, HK; Stark, JA; Miller, DG

    2003-01-01

    Although subglottal pressures in conversational speech are relatively easily measured and thus known, the higher values that sometimes occur in singing (especially in tenors) have received little attention in the literature. Still more unusual is the opportunity to measure a large-scale change over

  16. Speech vs. singing: infants choose happier sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbeil, Marieve; Trehub, Sandra E.; Peretz, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    Infants prefer speech to non-vocal sounds and to non-human vocalizations, and they prefer happy-sounding speech to neutral speech. They also exhibit an interest in singing, but there is little knowledge of their relative interest in speech and singing. The present study explored infants' attention to unfamiliar audio samples of speech and singing. In Experiment 1, infants 4–13 months of age were exposed to happy-sounding infant-directed speech vs. hummed lullabies by the same woman. They listened significantly longer to the speech, which had considerably greater acoustic variability and expressiveness, than to the lullabies. In Experiment 2, infants of comparable age who heard the lyrics of a Turkish children's song spoken vs. sung in a joyful/happy manner did not exhibit differential listening. Infants in Experiment 3 heard the happily sung lyrics of the Turkish children's song vs. a version that was spoken in an adult-directed or affectively neutral manner. They listened significantly longer to the sung version. Overall, happy voice quality rather than vocal mode (speech or singing) was the principal contributor to infant attention, regardless of age. PMID:23805119

  17. The Brain in Singing and Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trollinger, Valerie L.

    2010-01-01

    This article summarizes currently available brain research concerning relationships between singing and language development. Although this is a new field of investigation, there are findings that are applicable to general music teaching classroom. These findings are presented along with suggestions about how to apply them to teaching music.

  18. Rock `n' Roll Physics Sing-Along

    Science.gov (United States)

    Like to learn new favorites? Wish you had some snappy songs that teach physics? Just want to sing and laugh or listen and laugh? Join us for an evening of fun physics tunes set to familiar rock, blues, and swing tunes. Light refreshments will be served.

  19. Metacognitive strategies in learning sight-singing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogunović Blanka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a part of a wider study that is based on interdisciplinary research of sight-singing (psychology and music education. Our intention was to join the psychological knowledge of cognitive processes on the one hand, and the practical approach of music teachers, based on methods, techniques and procedures of mastering sight-reading-singing skills on the other. We aimed: 1. to determine the kinds and levels of strategies that music students use in the cognitive processes involved during sight-singing; 2. to explore strategies of problem solving when difficulties appear; 3. to investigate the self-evaluation perspectives of students; and 4. to relate students' learning experience to the strategies used. The sample consisted of 89 music students from higher music education in Belgrade and The Hague. They filled in the questionnaire based on self-reports, covering general data about their music education background, different issues of sight-singing, such as planning, problem solving, monitoring and evaluation of outcomes, and three melodic examples written in different musical styles. Results showed that strategies used during sight-singing can be roughly sorted into three groups that differ according to the 'key accent' given: cognitive, intuitive and no-strategy. The music cognitive strategies involved cover three levels of musical organization and representation: a relying on smaller chunks of the musical piece, referring to existing knowledge and learning experience; b leaning on a slightly 'bigger picture' of familiar patterns; and c mental representation of melodic/rhythmic/harmonic structures. When faced with a problem, half of the students employed analytic approaches. Comparisons between sub-samples showed, for example, that future performing musicians more often used 'tone-to-tone' thinking and 'bottom-up' strategies in approaching musical structure, while music theory students had better insight into the whole and used

  20. WN 1626+5153 : A giant radio galaxy from the WENSS survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rottgering, HJA; Tang, Y; de Bruyn, A. G.; Miley, GK; Rengelink, RB; Bremer, M.

    1996-01-01

    A Fanaroff-Riley II (FR II) radio source with an angular extension of 18.4 arcmin has been discovered in the Westerbork Northern Sky Survey that is being carried out at 325 MHz. This source is identified with Mrk 1498 at z = 0.056, indicating that its projected extension is 1.6 h(50) Mpc, The optica

  1. VizieR Online Data Catalog: 1415MHz Survey of Bright Galaxies (Hummel, 1980)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, E.

    2003-11-01

    The radio continuum radiation at 1415MHz of 450 galaxies was observed with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope. 190 galaxies were detected. The survey provides data on the total intensity and on the structure of the radiation. The detection limit for point sources is 10mJy and the resolution is about 23" on average. (2 data files).

  2. The Void Galaxy Survey : Optical Properties and H I Morphology and Kinematics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreckel, K.; Platen, E.; Aragón-Calvo, M. A.; van Gorkom, J. H.; van de Weygaert, R.; van der Hulst, J. M.; Beygu, B.

    2012-01-01

    We have carefully selected a sample of 60 galaxies that reside in the deepest underdensities of geometrically identified voids within the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. HI imaging of 55 galaxies with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope reveals morphological and kinematic signatures of ongoing intera

  3. The singer or the singing: who sings individually to persons with dementia and what are the effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterton, Wendy; Baker, Felicity; Morgan, Kylie

    2010-12-01

    ''Live'' singing to persons with dementia (PWDs) may be an underused but highly accessible resource for their caregivers, regardless of qualifications. A systematic literature review sought to illuminate who sings to PWDs, and with what objectives and effects, to address the question of whether it is the singer or the singing which is effective. The literature revealed that music therapists seek to address cognitive, behavioral, physiological, and social factors through one-to-one singing, whereas other caregivers are more broadly concerned with quality of life, often through facilitating activities of daily living. All included studies concurred that individual singing to PWDs can be effective in a variety of ways, depending on contexts and goals. PWD's perceptions of situations may influence the effectiveness of singing interventions. Music therapists are urged to empower professional caregivers to sing sensitively to PWDs during caregiving activities.

  4. The National Singing Programme for Primary Schools in England: An Initial Baseline Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, G. F.; Himonides, E.; Papageorgi, I.; Saunders, J.; Rinta, T.; Stewart, C.; Preti, C.; Lani, J.; Vraka, M.; Hill, J.

    2009-01-01

    The "Sing Up" National Singing Programme for primary schools in England was launched in November 2007 under the UK government's "Music Manifesto". "Sing Up" is a four-year programme whose overall aim is to raise the status of singing and increase opportunities for children throughout the country to enjoy singing as…

  5. A Case Study: Middle School Boys' Perceptions of Singing and Participation in Choir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Bridget

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this intrinsic case study was to learn about the perceptions of singing and participation in choir of the author's eighth grade choir students. Specific areas of focus included insight on why the eighth grade boys sing and enjoy singing, perceptions of singing in a daily choir class, and perceptions of singing in an auditioned…

  6. The opaque nascent starburst in NGC 1377: Spitzer SINGS observations

    CERN Document Server

    Roussel, H; Bendo, G J; Dale, D A; Draine, B T; Engelbracht, C W; Gordon, K D; Helou, G; Hollenbach, D J; Kennicutt, R C; Meyer, M J; Moustakas, J; Murphy, E J; Regan, M W; Rieke, G H; Sheth, K; Smith, J D; Spoon, H W; Walter, F

    2006-01-01

    We analyze extensive data on NGC1377 from the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey (SINGS). Within the category of nascent starbursts, that we previously selected by their infrared to radio continuum ratios in large excess of the average and their hot dust, NGC1377 has the largest infrared excess yet measured. Optical imaging reveals a morphological distortion suggestive of a recent accretion event. Infrared spectroscopy reveals a compact and opaque source dominated by a hot, self-absorbed continuum (tau ~ 20 in the 10 micron silicate band). We provide physical evidence against non-stellar activity being the heating source. HII regions are detected through the single [NeII] line, probing 85% of ionizing photons are suppressed by dust. The only other detected emission features are molecular hydrogen lines, arguably excited mainly by shocks, besides photodissociation regions, and weak aromatic bands. The new observations support our interpretation in terms of an extremely young starburst (<1 Myr). More ge...

  7. The singing arc: the oldest memristor?

    CERN Document Server

    Ginoux, Jean-Marc

    2014-01-01

    On April 30th 2008, the journal Nature announced that the missing circuit element, postulated thirty-seven years before by Professor Leon O. Chua has been found. Thus, after the capacitor, the resistor and the inductor, the existence of a fourth fundamental element of electronic circuits called "memristor" was established. In order to point out the importance of such a discovery, the aim of this article is first to propose an overview of the manner with which the three others have been invented during the past centuries. Then, a comparison between the main properties of the singing arc, i.e. a forerunner device of the triode used in Wireless Telegraphy, and that of the memristor will enable to state that the singing arc could be considered as the oldest memristor.

  8. The Songs We Used to Sing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    TO most of us, the memory of ourchildhood is the songs we used to sing,the heroes/heroines in the films we used towatch or in the books or comics that we usedto read. It is no exaggeration to say that thosematerials created for children - songs, filmsand literature - have accompanied the growthof children one generation to another. To reveal this treasure chest of children’s

  9. Separation of Singing Voice from Music Accompaniment for Monaural Recordings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-09-01

    singing voice is a key step for applications such as karaoke [43] and currently it remains labor-intensive work. Automating this process therefore will be...copyright issues. On the other hand some modern commercial karaoke compact disks (CDs) are recorded with multiplex technology in which singing voice...extracted. We extracted 10 songs from karaoke CDs obtained from [1] to construct a database for singing voice detection. These songs are sampled at 16

  10. Updated 34-band Photometry for the Sings/KINGFISH Samples of Nearby Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, D. A.; Cook, D. O.; Roussel, H.; Turner, J. A.; Armus, L.; Bolatto, A. D.; Boquien, M.; Brown, M. J. I.; Calzetti, D.; De Looze, I.; Galametz, M.; Gordon, K. D.; Groves, B. A.; Jarrett, T. H.; Helou, G.; Herrera-Camus, R.; Hinz, J. L.; Hunt, L. K.; Kennicutt, R. C.; Murphy, E. J.; Rest, A.; Sandstrom, K. M.; Smith, J.-D. T.; Tabatabaei, F. S.; Wilson, C. D.

    2017-03-01

    We present an update to the ultraviolet-to-radio database of global broadband photometry for the 79 nearby galaxies that comprise the union of the KINGFISH (Key Insights on Nearby Galaxies: A Far-Infrared Survey with Herschel) and SINGS (Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey) samples. The 34-band data set presented here includes contributions from observational work carried out with a variety of facilities including GALEX, SDSS, Pan-STARRS1, NOAO, 2MASS, Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer, Spitzer, Herschel, Planck, JCMT, and the VLA. Improvements of note include recalibrations of previously published SINGS BVR C I C and KINGFISH far-infrared/submillimeter photometry. Similar to previous results in the literature, an excess of submillimeter emission above model predictions is seen primarily for low-metallicity dwarf or irregular galaxies. This 33-band photometric data set for the combined KINGFISH+SINGS sample serves as an important multiwavelength reference for the variety of galaxies observed at low redshift. A thorough analysis of the observed spectral energy distributions is carried out in a companion paper.

  11. Foregrounds for observations of the cosmological 21 cm line: II. Westerbork observations of the fields around 3C196 and the North Celestial Pole

    CERN Document Server

    Bernardi, G; Brentjens, M A; Ciardi, B; Jelić, V; Koopmans, L V E; Labropoulos, P; Offringa, A; Pandey, V N; Schaye, J; Thomas, R M; Yatawatta, S; Zaroubi, S

    2010-01-01

    In the coming years a new insight into galaxy formation and the thermal history of the Universe is expected to come from the detection of the highly redshifted cosmological 21 cm line. The cosmological 21 cm line signal is buried under Galactic and extragalactic foregrounds which are likely to be a few orders of magnitude brighter. Strategies and techniques for effective subtraction of these foreground sources require a detailed knowledge of their structure in both intensity and polarization on the relevant angular scales of 1-30 arcmin. We present results from observations conducted with the Westerbork telescope in the 140-160 MHz range with 2 arcmin resolution in two fields located at intermediate Galactic latitude, centred around the bright quasar 3C196 and the North Celestial Pole. They were observed with the purpose of characterizing the foreground properties in sky areas where actual observations of the cosmological 21 cm line could be carried out. The polarization data were analysed through the rotatio...

  12. H I observations of galaxies in the southern filament of the Virgo Cluster with the Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder KAT-7 and the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorgho, A.; Hess, K.; Carignan, C.; Oosterloo, T. A.

    2017-01-01

    We map the H I distribution of galaxies in a ˜1.5 × 2.5° region located at the virial radius south of the Virgo Cluster using the KAT-7 and the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope interferometers. Because of the different beam sizes of the two telescopes, a similar column density sensitivity of NH I ˜ 1 × 1018 atoms cm- 2 was reached with the two observations over 16.5 km s-1. We pioneer a new approach to combine the observations and take advantage of their sensitivity to both the large- and small-scale structures. Out to an unprecedented extent, we detect an H I tail of ˜60 kpc being stripped off NGC 4424, a peculiar spiral galaxy. The properties of the galaxy, together with the shape of the tail, suggest that NGC 4424 is a post-merger galaxy undergoing ram pressure stripping as it falls towards the centre of the Virgo Cluster. We detect a total of 14 galaxies and three H I clouds lacking optical counterparts. One of the clouds is a new detection with an H I mass of 7 × 107 M⊙ and a strong H I profile with W50 = 73 km s-1. We find that 10 out of the 14 galaxies present H I deficiencies not higher than those of the cluster's late spirals, suggesting that the environmental effects are not more pronounced in the region than elsewhere in the cluster.

  13. The neurochemistry and social flow of singing: bonding and oxytocin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeler, Jason R; Roth, Edward A; Neuser, Brittany L; Spitsbergen, John M; Waters, Daniel J M; Vianney, John-Mary

    2015-01-01

    Music is used in healthcare to promote physical and psychological well-being. As clinical applications of music continue to expand, there is a growing need to understand the biological mechanisms by which music influences health. Here we explore the neurochemistry and social flow of group singing. Four participants from a vocal jazz ensemble were conveniently sampled to sing together in two separate performances: pre-composed and improvised. Concentrations of plasma oxytocin and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) were measured before and after each singing condition to assess levels of social affiliation, engagement and arousal. A validated assessment of flow state was administered after each singing condition to assess participants' absorption in the task. The feasibility of the research methods were assessed and initial neurochemical data was generated on group singing. Mean scores of the flow state scale indicated that participants experienced flow in both the pre-composed (M = 37.06) and improvised singing conditions (M = 34.25), with no significant difference between conditions. ACTH concentrations decreased in both conditions, significantly so in the pre-composed singing condition, which may have contributed to the social flow experience. Mean plasma oxytocin levels increased only in response to improvised singing, with no significant difference between improvised and pre-composed singing conditions observed. The results indicate that group singing reduces stress and arousal, as measured by ACTH, and induces social flow in participants. The effects of pre-composed and improvised group singing on oxytocin are less clear. Higher levels of plasma oxytocin in the improvised condition may perhaps be attributed to the social effects of improvising musically with others. Further research with a larger sample size is warranted.

  14. The Neurochemistry and Social Flow of Singing: Bonding and Oxytocin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason R. Keeler

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Music is used in healthcare to promote physical and psychological well-being. As clinical applications of music continue to expand, there is a growing need to understand the biological mechanisms by which music influences health. Here we explore the neurochemistry and social flow of group singing. 4 participants from a vocal jazz ensemble were conveniently sampled to sing together in two separate performances: pre-composed and improvised. Concentrations of plasma oxytocin and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH were measured before and after each singing condition to assess levels of social affiliation, engagement and arousal. A validated assessment of flow state was administered after each singing condition to assess participants’ absorption in the task. The feasibility of the research methods were assessed and initial neurochemical data was generated on group singing. Mean scores of the flow state scale indicated that participants experienced flow in both the pre-composed (M=37.06 and improvised singing conditions (M=34.25, with no significant difference between conditions. ACTH concentrations decreased in both conditions, significantly so in the pre-composed singing condition, which may have contributed to the social flow experience. Mean plasma oxytocin levels increased only in response to improvised singing, with no significant difference between improvised and pre-composed singing conditions observed. The results indicate that group singing reduces stress and arousal, as measured by ACTH, and induces social flow in participants. The effects of pre-composed and improvised group singing on oxytocin are less clear. Higher levels of plasma oxytocin in the improvised condition may perhaps be attributed to the social effects of improvising musically with others. Further research with a larger sample size is warranted.

  15. An Overview of Existing Research about Children's Singing and the Implications for Teaching Children to Sing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedden, Debra

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to identify the findings of the studies devoted to the child voice, most of which have occurred in the past 25 years, and to present a synthesis of these findings with respect to the pedagogy, or art and science, of teaching children to sing. The data suggest that a philosophical disparity exists about…

  16. Singing with yourself: evidence for an inverse modeling account of poor-pitch singing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfordresher, Peter Q; Mantell, James T

    2014-05-01

    Singing is a ubiquitous and culturally significant activity that humans engage in from an early age. Nevertheless, some individuals - termed poor-pitch singers - are unable to match target pitches within a musical semitone while singing. In the experiments reported here, we tested whether poor-pitch singing deficits would be reduced when individuals imitate recordings of themselves as opposed to recordings of other individuals. This prediction was based on the hypothesis that poor-pitch singers have not developed an abstract "inverse model" of the auditory-vocal system and instead must rely on sensorimotor associations that they have experienced directly, which is true for sequences an individual has already produced. In three experiments, participants, both accurate and poor-pitch singers, were better able to imitate sung recordings of themselves than sung recordings of other singers. However, this self-advantage was enhanced for poor-pitch singers. These effects were not a byproduct of self-recognition (Experiment 1), vocal timbre (Experiment 2), or the absolute pitch of target recordings (i.e., the advantage remains when recordings are transposed, Experiment 3). Results support the conceptualization of poor-pitch singing as an imitative deficit resulting from a deficient inverse model of the auditory-vocal system with respect to pitch. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Teaching Young Children How to Sing: One School's Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Susan

    2011-01-01

    In many schools, classroom teachers are responsible for the music experiences of young children. Children may learn songs, but may not learn "how" to sing. This article outlines simple teaching strategies to help young children develop listening and vocal habits leading to beautiful singing. The article discusses how the kindergarten classes at…

  18. Singing Video Games May Help Improve Pitch-Matching Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paney, Andrew S.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of singing video games on the pitch-matching skills of undergraduate students. Popular games like "Rock Band" and "Karaoke Revolutions" rate players' singing based on the correctness of the frequency of their sung response. Players are motivated to improve their…

  19. Read, Sing, Play, and Create a Musical Storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardany, Audrey Berger

    2012-01-01

    Dayle Ann Dodds and Rosanne Litzinger's children's book, "Sing, Sophie!" provides the elementary general music teacher with an opportunity to read a captivating children's story, sing the main character's song and play her guitar, and create a song as well as instrumental music. Lessons outlined in this article may culminate in a veritable musical…

  20. Singing Video Games May Help Improve Pitch-Matching Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paney, Andrew S.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of singing video games on the pitch-matching skills of undergraduate students. Popular games like "Rock Band" and "Karaoke Revolutions" rate players' singing based on the correctness of the frequency of their sung response. Players are motivated to improve their…

  1. Vocal ontogeny in neotropical singing mice (Scotinomys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polly Campbell

    Full Text Available Isolation calls produced by dependent young are a fundamental form of communication. For species in which vocal signals remain important to adult communication, the function and social context of vocal behavior changes dramatically with the onset of sexual maturity. The ontogenetic relationship between these distinct forms of acoustic communication is surprisingly under-studied. We conducted a detailed analysis of vocal development in sister species of Neotropical singing mice, Scotinomys teguina and S. xerampelinus. Adult singing mice are remarkable for their advertisement songs, rapidly articulated trills used in long-distance communication; the vocal behavior of pups was previously undescribed. We recorded 30 S. teguina and 15 S. xerampelinus pups daily, from birth to weaning; 23 S. teguina and 11 S. xerampelinus were recorded until sexual maturity. Like other rodent species with poikilothermic young, singing mice were highly vocal during the first weeks of life and stopped vocalizing before weaning. Production of first advertisement songs coincided with the onset of sexual maturity after a silent period of ≧2 weeks. Species differences in vocal behavior emerged early in ontogeny and notes that comprise adult song were produced from birth. However, the organization and relative abundance of distinct note types was very different between pups and adults. Notably, the structure, note repetition rate, and intra-individual repeatability of pup vocalizations did not become more adult-like with age; the highly stereotyped structure of adult song appeared de novo in the first songs of young adults. We conclude that, while the basic elements of adult song are available from birth, distinct selection pressures during maternal dependency, dispersal, and territorial establishment favor major shifts in the structure and prevalence of acoustic signals. This study provides insight into how an evolutionarily conserved form of acoustic signaling provides

  2. The Human Voice in Speech and Singing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindblom, Björn; Sundberg, Johan

    This chapter speech describes various aspects of the human voice as a means of communication in speech and singing. From the point of view of function, vocal sounds can be regarded as the end result of a three stage process: (1) the compression of air in the respiratory system, which produces an exhalatory airstream, (2) the vibrating vocal folds' transformation of this air stream to an intermittent or pulsating air stream, which is a complex tone, referred to as the voice source, and (3) the filtering of this complex tone in the vocal tract resonator. The main function of the respiratory system is to generate an overpressure of air under the glottis, or a subglottal pressure. Section 16.1 describes different aspects of the respiratory system of significance to speech and singing, including lung volume ranges, subglottal pressures, and how this pressure is affected by the ever-varying recoil forces. The complex tone generated when the air stream from the lungs passes the vibrating vocal folds can be varied in at least three dimensions: fundamental frequency, amplitude and spectrum. Section 16.2 describes how these properties of the voice source are affected by the subglottal pressure, the length and stiffness of the vocal folds and how firmly the vocal folds are adducted. Section 16.3 gives an account of the vocal tract filter, how its form determines the frequencies of its resonances, and Sect. 16.4 gives an account for how these resonance frequencies or formants shape the vocal sounds by imposing spectrum peaks separated by spectrum valleys, and how the frequencies of these peaks determine vowel and voice qualities. The remaining sections of the chapter describe various aspects of the acoustic signals used for vocal communication in speech and singing. The syllable structure is discussed in Sect. 16.5, the closely related aspects of rhythmicity and timing in speech and singing is described in Sect. 16.6, and pitch and rhythm aspects in Sect. 16.7. The impressive

  3. Singing, music and dance in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-28

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a long-term neurological condition that can affect profoundly physical, psychological and social function. It becomes more prevalent with age, affecting 1.6% of the population over the age of 65. Motor symptoms can include slowness, tremor, stiffness and impaired balance; non-motor symptoms can include changed mood and cognition, as well as a wide range of physical, emotional and social functions. There is emerging research into the value of non-pharmacological approaches, such as music, singing and dance. Three reviews of the evidence are summarised.

  4. A Pilot Study: The Effect of Singing and Non-Singing--Instructional Strategies on Harmonic Listening Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Cynthia I.; Brinckmeyer, Lynn; Beckman, Amy A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to examine the effects of singing and non-singing experiences when students develop harmonic listening skills. Participants were children and adolescents who participate in a community youth choir (N = 21). Ages ranged from 9-16 years. The subjects were organized into four separate groups. All subjects attended…

  5. Developing Singing Confidence in Early Childhood Teachers Using Acceptance and Commitment Therapy and Group Singing: A Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Nicola; Bodkin-Allen, Sally

    2017-01-01

    Early childhood teachers are often required to sing, which requires confidence. The purpose of the present study was to treat early childhood teachers who self-identified as uncertain singers using either a group singing (GS) approach, or a talking approach, based on Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT). The aim of the study was to increase…

  6. The Effectiveness of Individual/Small Group Singing Activities on Kindergartners' Use of Singing Voice and Developmental Music Aptitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowski, Joanne

    1996-01-01

    Investigates the comparative effectiveness of two teaching strategies, large-group and individual/small group singing activities, on kindergartners' developmental music aptitude. Examines improvements in children's singing and musical aptitude in order to ascertain length of time and types of instruction necessary to affect improvement. (MJP)

  7. Acoustical study of classical Peking Opera singing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundberg, Johan; Gu, Lide; Huang, Qiang; Huang, Ping

    2012-03-01

    Acoustic characteristics of classical opera singing differ considerably between the Western and the Chinese cultures. Singers in the classical Peking opera tradition specialize on one out of a limited number of standard roles. Audio and electroglottograph signals were recorded for four performers of the Old Man role and three performers of the Colorful Face role. Recordings were made of the singers' speech and when they sang recitatives and songs from their roles. Sound pressure level, fundamental frequency, and spectrum characteristics were analyzed. Histograms showing the distribution of fundamental frequency showed marked peaks for the songs, suggesting a scale tone structure. Some of the intervals between these peaks were similar to those used in Western music. Vibrato rate was about 3.5Hz, that is, considerably slower than in Western classical singing. Spectra of vibrato-free tones contained unbroken series of harmonic partials sometimes reaching up to 17 000Hz. Long-term-average spectrum (LTAS) curves showed no trace of a singer's formant cluster. However, the Colorful Face role singers' LTAS showed a marked peak near 3300Hz, somewhat similar to that found in Western pop music singers. The mean LTAS spectrum slope between 700 and 6000Hz decreased by about 0.2dB/octave per dB of equivalent sound level.

  8. Factors associated with singers' perceptions of choral singing well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsh, Elliana R; van Leer, Eva; Phero, Heidi J; Xie, Changchun; Khosla, Sid

    2013-11-01

    Choral singing is a popular vocational pastime across cultures. The potential health benefits associated with choral singing, including positive effect on well-being, are a topic of interest in health research. However, anecdotal reports from voice professionals suggest that the unique demands of choral singing may enforce unhealthy singing habits. This study explores suboptimal vocal behaviors that are sometimes associated with choral singing, which include singing outside comfortable pitch range, singing too loudly, and singing too softly for blend. The relationships between suboptimal choral singing habits, vocal warm-ups (WUs), vocal fatigue, and singing-related well-being were assessed via a 14-item Likert-based response format questionnaire. Participants consisted of 196 attendees of the international World Choir Games. The final study group consisted of 53 male and 143 female international amateur singers aged 10-70. Results indicated a positive correlation between vocal fatigue and suboptimal singing behaviors (r = 0.34, P singing behavior experienced increased singing-related well-being (r = -0.32, P singing well-being. Substantially, more participants from this demographic preferred choir over solo singing (X²[1, N = 196] = 22.93, P singing behaviors may result in vocal fatigue and reduction of choral singing well-being and should therefore be considered when examining the effect of choral singing on singing-related well-being and health. Future research will compare the amateurs' perceptions of choral singing with perceptions from professional singers and will look at determinants of choral singing well-being. Copyright © 2013 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. An Investigation of Singing, Health and Well-Being as a Group Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, Liz

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore perceptions of singing as a group process deriving from two research studies: (i) Study 1: CETL (Centre for Excellence in Teaching and Learning): C4C (Collaboration for Creativity) Research Project called Singing, Health and Well-being and (ii) Study 2: iSING. The studies consider singing in relation to health…

  10. Singing and Vocal Instruction in Primary Schools: An Analysis from Six Case Studies in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuadrado, Albina; Rusinek, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    This is an analysis of how specialist music teachers sing and teach how to sing, based on data collected from six case studies carried out in Spanish primary schools. The study aimed at understanding classroom singing practices, and in particular the provision or absence of vocal instruction in relation with teachers' singing models. The findings…

  11. Predictors of continued playing or singing--from childhood and adolescence to adult years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theorell, T; Lennartsson, A-K; Madison, G; Mosing, M A; Ullén, F

    2015-03-01

    Many individuals play an instrument or sing during childhood, but they often stop later in life. This study surveyed adults representative of the Swedish population about musical activities during childhood. We asked 3820 adults (65% women) aged from 27 to 54 from the Swedish Twin Registry, who took extra music lessons to those provided at school, to fill in a web-based questionnaire. Factors analysed were the age they started studying music, the instrument they played, kind of teaching, institution and educational content, number of lessons and perceived characteristics of the lessons, the music environment during their childhood years and their preferred music genre. All variables were dichotomised. Factors strongly associated with continued playing or singing were male sex, young starting age, cultural family background, self-selected instrument, attending music classes and more than once a week, church-related or private education, pop, rock or classical music, playing by ear and improvisation. Several significant predictors determined whether a child continued to sing or play an instrument as an adult and many could be externally influenced, such as starting at a young age, taking music classes more than once a week, improvisation and the type of music they played. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Influence of complaints and singing style in singers voice handicap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreti, Felipe; Ávila, Maria Emília Barros de; Rocha, Clara; Borrego, Maria Cristina de Menezes; Oliveira, Gisele; Behlau, Mara

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research was to verify whether the difference of singing styles and the presence of vocal complaints influence the perception of voice handicap of singers. One hundred eighteen singing voice handicap self-assessment protocols were selected: 17 popular singers with vocal complaints, 42 popular singers without complaints, 17 classic singers with complaints, and 42 classic singers without complaints. The groups were similar regarding age, gender and voice types. Both protocols used--Modern Singing Handicap Index (MSHI) and Classical Singing Handicap Index (CSHI)--have specific questions to their respective singing styles, and consist of 30 items equally divided into three subscales: disability (functional domain), handicap (emotional domain) and impairment (organic domain), answered according to the frequency of occurrence. Each subscale has a maximum of 40 points, and the total score is 120 points. The higher the score, the higher the singing voice handicap perceived. For statistical analysis, we used the ANOVA test, with 5% of significance. Classical and popular singers referred higher impairment, followed by disability and handicap. However, the degree of this perception varied according to the singing style and the presence of vocal complaints. The classical singers with vocal complaints showed higher voice handicap than popular singers with vocal complaints, while the classic singers without complaints reported lower handicap than popular singers without complaints. This evidences that classical singers have higher perception of their own voice, and that vocal disturbances in this group may cause greater voice handicap when compared to popular singers.

  13. Singing voice handicap mapped by different self-assessment instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoliello, Karla; Oliveira, Gisele; Behlau, Mara

    2013-01-01

    To map voice handicap of popular singers with a general voice and two singing voice self-assessment questionnaires. Fifty singers, 25 male and 25 female, 23 with vocal complaint and 27 without vocal complaint answered randomly the questionnaires. For the comparison of data, the following statistical tests were performed: Mann-Whitney, Friedman, Wilcoxon, Spearman and Correlation. Data showed that the VHI yielded a smaller handicap when compared to the other two questionnaires (VHI x S-VHI - p=0.001; VHI x MSVH - p=0.004). The S-VHI and MSVH produced similar results (p=0.723). Singers with vocal complaint had a VHI total score of 17.5. The other two instruments showed more deviated scores (S-VHI - 24.9; MSVH - 25.2). There was no relationship between gender and singing style with the handicap perceived. A weak negative correlation between the perceived handicap and the time of singing experience was found (-37.7 to -13.10%), that is, the smaller the time of singing experience, the greater the handicap is. The questionnaires developed for the assessment of singing voice, S-VHI and MSVH, showed to be more specific and correspondent to each other for the evaluation of vocal handicap in singers. Findings showed that the more the time of singer's singing experience, the smaller the handicap is. Gender and singing styles did not influence the perception of the handicap.

  14. The effects of mothers' singing on full-term and preterm infants and maternal emotional responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevasco, Andrea M

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine the effects of mothers' singing on their adjustment to and bonding with their new infants as well as use of music in the home environment in the first 2 weeks after their infants' birth. Preterm mothers were assessed for coping with their infants' NICU stay, and premature infants' length of hospitalization was evaluated. Fifty-four full-term infants and mothers and 20 premature infants and 16 mothers were randomly assigned to experimental or control conditions. Mothers in both experimental groups were recorded singing songs of their choice for use at home. Recordings of each preterm mother's voice were played 20 minutes per day, 3 to 5 times per week, at a time when she was not able to visit her infant in the NICU. All full-term and preterm mothers in experimental and control groups completed a posttest survey 2 weeks after infants were discharged. Comparisons revealed that experimental preterm and full-term mothers indicated less adjustment to their baby and lifestyle changes and less bonding compared to control mothers, though this difference was not significant. Preterm and full-term experimental mothers reported the greatest number of postpartum medical complications, which might explain their poor adjustment and bonding scores. There was a significant difference between mothers' value of music, with preterm experimental valuing music more. Preterm and full-term experimental mothers used music with and sang to infants more compared to preterm and full-term control mothers, but not to a significant degree. Preterm mothers reported a mean score of 4.75 (with a 5 indicating that they strongly agreed) for the following item: knowing my infant listened to my singing helped me to cope with my infant's stay in the NICU. Furthermore, preterm infants who listened to the CD recording of their mothers' singing left the hospital an average of 2 days sooner than those in the control group, though this difference was not

  15. A singing voices synthesis system to characterize vocal registers using ARX-LF model

    OpenAIRE

    Motoda, Hiroki; Akagi, Masato

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a singing voices synthesis system to synthesize singing voices having characteristics of vocal registers, such as vocal fly, modal and falsetto. Human can sing songs naturally in wide range of frequency by training how to use vocal fold vibrations to represent vocal registers. However, even state-of-the-art singing voices synthesis systems cannot produce vocal registers appropriately. Naturalness of the synthesized singing voices using these systems is reduced in low and h...

  16. Validation and Adaptation of the Singing Voice Handicap Index for Egyptian Singing Voice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Elsaad, Tamer; Baz, Hemmat; Afsah, Omayma; Abo-Elsoud, Hend

    2017-01-01

    Measuring the severity of a voice disorder is difficult. This can be achieved by both subjective and objective measures. The Voice Handicap Index is the most known and used self-rating tool for voice disorders. The Classical Singing Handicap Index (CSHI) is a self-administered questionnaire measuring the impact of vocal deviation on the quality of life of singers. The objective of this study was to develop an Arabic version of the CSHI and to test its validity and reliability in Egyptian singers with different singing styles with normal voice and with voice disorders. The interpreted version was administered to 70 Egyptian singers including artistic singers (classical and popular) and specialized singers (Quran reciters and priests) who were divided into 40 asymptomatic singers (control group) and 30 singers with voice disorders. Participants' responses were statistically analyzed to assess the validity and reliability, and to compare the patient group with the control group. Quran reciters, patients with no previous professional training, and patients with vocal fold lesions demonstrated the highest scores. The Arabic version of CSHI is found to be a reliable, valid, and sensitive self-assessment tool that can be used in the clinical practice for the evaluation of the impact of voice disorders on singing voice. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. An Ecofeminist Approach to The Grass Is Singing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张娜

    2014-01-01

    The article intends to interpret The Grass Is Singing from the perspective of ecofeminism and analyze the unequal rela-tionships between man and nature, man and woman, the white race and the black race.

  18. Cardiac and Respiratory Patterns Synchronize between Persons during Choir Singing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Viktor; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2011-01-01

    Dyadic and collective activities requiring temporally coordinated action are likely to be associated with cardiac and respiratory patterns that synchronize within and between people. However, the extent and functional significance of cardiac and respiratory between-person couplings have not been investigated thus far. Here, we report interpersonal oscillatory couplings among eleven singers and one conductor engaged in choir singing. We find that: (a) phase synchronization both in respiration and heart rate variability increase significantly during singing relative to a rest condition; (b) phase synchronization is higher when singing in unison than when singing pieces with multiple voice parts; (c) directed coupling measures are consistent with the presence of causal effects of the conductor on the singers at high modulation frequencies; (d) the different voices of the choir are reflected in network analyses of cardiac and respiratory activity based on graph theory. Our results suggest that oscillatory coupling of cardiac and respiratory patterns provide a physiological basis for interpersonal action coordination. PMID:21957466

  19. Singing modulates parvalbumin interneurons throughout songbird forebrain vocal control circuitry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zengin-Toktas, Yildiz

    2017-01-01

    Across species, the performance of vocal signals can be modulated by the social environment. Zebra finches, for example, adjust their song performance when singing to females (‘female-directed’ or FD song) compared to when singing in isolation (‘undirected’ or UD song). These changes are salient, as females prefer the FD song over the UD song. Despite the importance of these performance changes, the neural mechanisms underlying this social modulation remain poorly understood. Previous work in finches has established that expression of the immediate early gene EGR1 is increased during singing and modulated by social context within the vocal control circuitry. Here, we examined whether particular neural subpopulations within those vocal control regions exhibit similar modulations of EGR1 expression. We compared EGR1 expression in neurons expressing parvalbumin (PV), a calcium buffer that modulates network plasticity and homeostasis, among males that performed FD song, males that produced UD song, or males that did not sing. We found that, overall, singing but not social context significantly affected EGR1 expression in PV neurons throughout the vocal control nuclei. We observed differences in EGR1 expression between two classes of PV interneurons in the basal ganglia nucleus Area X. Additionally, we found that singing altered the amount of PV expression in neurons in HVC and Area X and that distinct PV interneuron types in Area X exhibited different patterns of modulation by singing. These data indicate that throughout the vocal control circuitry the singing-related regulation of EGR1 expression in PV neurons may be less influenced by social context than in other neuron types and raise the possibility of cell-type specific differences in plasticity and calcium buffering. PMID:28235074

  20. "I'm Not Sure if I Can...But I Want to Sing!" Research on Singing as a Soloist through the Art of Improvising Verses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casals, Albert; Vilar, Merce; Ayats, Jaume

    2011-01-01

    Singing individually is both a necessary activity within the music class and an essential part of the cultural activity of improvising verses through singing. In this article we show how the introduction of this activity in the educational system of Catalonia has made it possible to obtain positive results with regard to participation in singing,…

  1. Singing for respiratory health: theory, evidence and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gick, Mary L; Nicol, Jennifer J

    2016-09-01

    The premise that singing is a health promoting activity for people with respiratory conditions of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma is a growing area of interest being investigated by researchers from various disciplines. The preliminary evidence, a theoretical framework and identification of methodological challenges are discussed in this perspective article with an eye to recommendations for further research to advance knowledge. After a brief summary of main research findings on singing in healthy people to provide background context, research is reviewed on singing in people with COPD and asthma. Studies include published research and as yet unpublished work by the authors. Methodological challenges arising from the reviewed studies are identified such as attrition from singing or control groups based on weak and strong, respectively, beliefs about singing's effectiveness. Potential solutions for these problems are considered with further recommendations made for other singing research. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Sing Your Lungs Out: a qualitative study of a community singing group for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNaughton, Amanda; Aldington, Sarah; Williams, Gayle; Levack, William M M

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the ways in which participation in a community singing group contributed to the health and well-being of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Design Qualitative description, based on transcripts from individual interviews and a focus group meeting with people with COPD participating in the singing group, regarding their experience. Setting Urban community, Wellington, New Zealand. Participants 23 people (13 women and 10 men), 51–91 years with COPD (21) or interstitial lung disease (2). Results The weekly singing group was a well-attended activity, with self-reported benefits to health and well-being. 4 key themes were identified: being in the ‘right space’, connection, purpose and growth, and participation in a meaningful physical activity. Conclusions This study helps us to better understand how participation in a community singing group can benefit the health and well-being of patients with COPD. Trial registration number ACTRN12615000736549; Results. PMID:27650768

  3. Tuning in to others: Exploring relational and collective bonding in singing and non-singing groups over time

    OpenAIRE

    Pearce, E; Mac Carron, P.; Launay, J.; Dunbar, RIM

    2016-01-01

    Evidence demonstrates that group singing improves health and well-being, but the precise mechanisms remain unknown. Given that cohesive social networks also positively influence health, we focus on the social aspects of singing, exploring whether improvements in health and well-being are mediated by stronger social bonds, both to the group as a whole (collective-bonding) and to individual classmates (relational-bonding). To do so, seven newly-formed community-based adult education classes (fo...

  4. Radial Distribution of Stars, Gas, and Dust in SINGS Galaxies. I. Surface Photometry and Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Mateos, J. C.; Gil de Paz, A.; Zamorano, J.; Boissier, S.; Dale, D. A.; Pérez-González, P. G.; Gallego, J.; Madore, B. F.; Bendo, G.; Boselli, A.; Buat, V.; Calzetti, D.; Moustakas, J.; Kennicutt, R. C., Jr.

    2009-10-01

    We present ultraviolet through far-infrared (FIR) surface brightness profiles for the 75 galaxies in the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey (SINGS). The imagery used to measure the profiles includes Galaxy Evolution Explorer UV data, optical images from Kitt Peak National Observatory, Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, and Sloan Digital Sky Survey, near-IR data from Two Micron All Sky Survey, and mid- and FIR images from Spitzer. Along with the radial profiles, we also provide multi-wavelength asymptotic magnitudes and several nonparametric indicators of galaxy morphology: the concentration index (C 42), the asymmetry (A), the Gini coefficient (G), and the normalized second-order moment of the brightest 20% of the galaxy's flux (\\overline{M}_{20}). In this paper, the first of a series, we describe the technical aspects regarding the surface photometry, and present a basic analysis of the global and structural properties of the SINGS galaxies at different wavelengths. The homogeneity in the acquisition, reduction, and analysis of the results presented here makes these data ideal for multiple unanticipated studies on the radial distribution of the properties of stars, dust, and gas in galaxies. Our radial profiles show a wide range of morphologies and multiple components (bulges, exponential disks, inner and outer disk truncations, etc.) that vary not only from galaxy to galaxy but also with wavelength for a given object. In the optical and near-IR, the SINGS galaxies occupy the same regions in the C 42-A-G-\\overline{M}_{20} parameter space as other normal galaxies in previous studies. However, they appear much less centrally concentrated, more asymmetric, and with larger values of G when viewed in the UV (due to star-forming clumps scattered across the disk) and in the mid-IR (due to the emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at 8.0 μm and very hot dust at 24 μm). In an accompanying paper by Muñoz-Mateos et al., we focus on the radial

  5. Singing together or apart: The effect of competitive and cooperative singing on social bonding within and between sub-groups of a university Fraternity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Eiluned; Launay, Jacques; van Duijn, Max; Rotkirch, Anna; David-Barrett, Tamas; Dunbar, Robin I M

    2016-11-01

    Singing together seems to facilitate social bonding, but it is unclear whether this is true in all contexts. Here we examine the social bonding outcomes of naturalistic singing behaviour in a European university Fraternity composed of exclusive 'Cliques': recognised sub-groups of 5-20 friends who adopt a special name and identity. Singing occurs frequently in this Fraternity, both 'competitively' (contests between Cliques) and 'cooperatively' (multiple Cliques singing together). Both situations were re-created experimentally in order to explore how competitive and cooperative singing affects feelings of closeness towards others. Participants were assigned to teams of four and were asked to sing together with another team either from the same Clique or from a different Clique. Participants (N = 88) felt significantly closer to teams from different Cliques after singing with them compared to before, regardless of whether they cooperated with (singing loudly together) or competed against (trying to singing louder than) the other team. In contrast, participants reported reduced closeness with other teams from their own Clique after competing with them. These results indicate that group singing can increase closeness to less familiar individuals regardless of whether they share a common motivation, but that singing competitively may reduce closeness within a very tight-knit group.

  6. Singing together or apart: The effect of competitive and cooperative singing on social bonding within and between sub-groups of a university Fraternity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Eiluned; Launay, Jacques; van Duijn, Max; Rotkirch, Anna; David-Barrett, Tamas; Dunbar, Robin I M

    2016-01-01

    Singing together seems to facilitate social bonding, but it is unclear whether this is true in all contexts. Here we examine the social bonding outcomes of naturalistic singing behaviour in a European university Fraternity composed of exclusive ‘Cliques’: recognised sub-groups of 5-20 friends who adopt a special name and identity. Singing occurs frequently in this Fraternity, both ‘competitively’ (contests between Cliques) and ‘cooperatively’ (multiple Cliques singing together). Both situations were re-created experimentally in order to explore how competitive and cooperative singing affects feelings of closeness towards others. Participants were assigned to teams of four and were asked to sing together with another team either from the same Clique or from a different Clique. Participants (N = 88) felt significantly closer to teams from different Cliques after singing with them compared to before, regardless of whether they cooperated with (singing loudly together) or competed against (trying to singing louder than) the other team. In contrast, participants reported reduced closeness with other teams from their own Clique after competing with them. These results indicate that group singing can increase closeness to less familiar individuals regardless of whether they share a common motivation, but that singing competitively may reduce closeness within a very tight-knit group. PMID:27777494

  7. Velum behavior in professional classic operatic singing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Peer; Gümoes, Bodil; Stavad, Hanne; Prytz, Svend; Björkner, Eva; Sundberg, Johan

    2002-03-01

    The velopharyngeal opening (VPO) is analyzed in 17 professional operatic singers, 3 high sopranos, 3 sopranos, 2 mezzo-sopranos, 3 tenors, 2 baritones, 2 bass-baritones, and 2 basses singing the vowels [a, i, u] at middle degree of vocal loudness at different pitches throughout their pitch range. Three methods were used for detection of a VPO. One was nasofiberscopy, which revealed VPO of various shapes in several singers. Another method was recording nasal and oral airflow by means of a divided flow mask. These measurements showed a nasal DC airflow at least at some pitches in a majority of the singers. A third method was a comparison of the level of the fundamental in the nasal and oral airflow signals; this level difference was less than 15 dB in cases where a nasal DC airflow was observed. Values less than 15 dB were observed in some cases, thus suggesting the presence of a VPO. The tokens produced by the singers were assessed by an expert panel with respect to nasal quality of the vowel timbre; no correlation was found between rated nasal quality and the presence of a VPO.

  8. Singing voice detection for karaoke application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoy, Arun; Wu, Yuansheng; Wang, Ye

    2005-07-01

    We present a framework to detect the regions of singing voice in musical audio signals. This work is oriented towards the development of a robust transcriber of lyrics for karaoke applications. The technique leverages on a combination of low-level audio features and higher level musical knowledge of rhythm and tonality. Musical knowledge of the key is used to create a song-specific filterbank to attenuate the presence of the pitched musical instruments. This is followed by subband processing of the audio to detect the musical octaves in which the vocals are present. Text processing is employed to approximate the duration of the sung passages using freely available lyrics. This is used to obtain a dynamic threshold for vocal/ non-vocal segmentation. This pairing of audio and text processing helps create a more accurate system. Experimental evaluation on a small database of popular songs shows the validity of the proposed approach. Holistic and per-component evaluation of the system is conducted and various improvements are discussed.

  9. Birds reveal their personality when singing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    László Zsolt Garamszegi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Individual differences in social behaviour may have consequences for mate choice and sexual signalling, because partners should develop preferences for personalities that maximize reproductive output. Here we propose that behavioural traits involved in sexual advertisement may serve as good indicators of personality, which is fundamental for sexual selection to operate on temperament. Bird song has a prominent and well-established role in sexual selection, and it displays considerable variation among individuals with a potentially strong personality component. Therefore, we predicted that features of song would correlate with estimates of personality. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a field study of free-living male collared flycatchers, Ficedula albicollis, we characterised personality based on the exploration of an altered breeding environment, and based on the risk taken when a potential predator was approaching during a simulated territorial interaction. We found that explorative and risk-taker individuals consistently sang at lower song posts than shy individuals in the presence of a human observer. Moreover, males from lower posts established pair-bonds relatively faster than males from higher posts. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results may demonstrate that risk taking during singing correlates with risk taking during aggression and with exploration, thus personality may be manifested in different contexts involving sexual advertisement. These findings are in accordance with the hypothesis that the male's balance between investment in reproduction and risk taking is reflected in sexual displays, and it may be important information for choosy females that seek partners with personality traits enhancing breeding success.

  10. Effect of Spinal Manipulative Therapy on the Singing Voice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fachinatto, Ana Paula A; Duprat, André de Campos; Silva, Marta Andrada E; Bracher, Eduardo Sawaya Botelho; Benedicto, Camila de Carvalho; Luz, Victor Botta Colangelo; Nogueira, Maruan Nogueira; Fonseca, Beatriz Suster Gomes

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated the effect of spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) on the singing voice of male individuals. Randomized, controlled, case-crossover trial. Twenty-nine subjects were selected among male members of the Heralds of the Gospel. This association was chosen because it is a group of persons with similar singing activities. Participants were randomly assigned to two groups: (A) chiropractic SMT procedure and (B) nontherapeutic transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) procedure. Recordings of the singing voice of each participant were taken immediately before and after the procedures. After a 14-day period, procedures were switched between groups: participants who underwent SMT on the first day were subjected to TENS and vice versa. Recordings were subjected to perceptual audio and acoustic evaluations. The same recording segment of each participant was selected. Perceptual audio evaluation was performed by a specialist panel (SP). Recordings of each participant were randomly presented thus making the SP blind to intervention type and recording session (before/after intervention). Recordings compiled in a randomized order were also subjected to acoustic evaluation. No differences in the quality of the singing on perceptual audio evaluation were observed between TENS and SMT. No differences in the quality of the singing voice of asymptomatic male singers were observed on perceptual audio evaluation or acoustic evaluation after a single spinal manipulative intervention of the thoracic and cervical spine. Copyright © 2015 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Qualitative and quantitative measurement of the singing voice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesari, U; Iengo, M; Apisa, P

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to clarify the mechanisms underlying the singing voice. Forty-eight professional opera singers underwent flexible and rigid endoscopy, spectrographic analysis and perceptual evaluation. The data provided by voice analysis were not as clear and relevant to the aim of our study as those commonly obtained for speech evaluation. Laryngoscopy with rigid and flexible fiber optics and the singing power ratio (SPR) measurement provided more applicable data. Indeed, the former allowed us to assess laryngeal position, the glottic pattern and vocal tract modifications during the actual singing performance. The latter, already recommended by other authors as a reliable vocal emission index, also yielded more relevant information in comparison with the assessment of voice quality. Specifically, SPR provided data directly correlated to both the years of singing activity and the vocal category of each singer (the higher the singing pitch, the wider the vocal extension). More importantly, the data fully reflected the subjective assessment of each phoniatrician. We suggest that the SPR indices can be used as the electroacoustic equivalent of the subjective judgment of vocal focus. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Some early cases of aphasia and the capacity to sing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Julene K; Graziano, Amy B

    2015-01-01

    This chapter examines early cases of aphasia that include observations of the capacity to sing. Although the majority of these cases were published in the late nineteenth century, earlier reports exist and provide insights into the early thinking about the capacity to sing in aphasia, a topic that continues to the present day. The observation that some patients with aphasia and limited speech output were able to sing the texts of songs inspired scholars to examine the relationship between music and language. Early ideas about the capacity to sing were provided by well-known neurologists, such as John Hughlings Jackson and Adolf Kussmaul. The work of Herbert Spencer about the origins and function of music heavily influenced Jackson and others in their thinking about aphasia. This work also led to an increased interest in understanding music abilities in persons with aphasia and, later, in the brain mechanisms of music. The chapter provides a background as to why there was an interest in the capacity to sing in persons with aphasia and what influenced early thinking on this topic.

  13. Matching Speaking to Singing Voices and the Influence of Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peynircioğlu, Zehra F; Rabinovitz, Brian E; Repice, Juliana

    2017-03-01

    We tested whether speaking voices of unfamiliar people could be matched to their singing voices, and, if so, whether the content of the utterances would influence this matching performance. Our hypothesis was that enough acoustic features would remain the same between speaking and singing voices such that their identification as belonging to the same or different individuals would be possible even upon a single hearing. We also hypothesized that the contents of the utterances would influence this identification process such that voices uttering words would be easier to match than those uttering vowels. We used a within-participant design with blocked stimuli that were counterbalanced using a Latin square design. In one block, mode (speaking vs singing) was manipulated while content was held constant; in another block, content (word vs syllable) was manipulated while mode was held constant, and in the control block, both mode and content were held constant. Participants indicated whether the voices in any given pair of utterances belonged to the same person or to different people. Cross-mode matching was above chance level, although mode-congruent performance was better. Further, only speaking voices were easier to match when uttering words. We can identify speaking and singing voices as the same or different even on just a single hearing. However, content interacts with mode such that words benefit matching of speaking voices but not of singing voices. Results are discussed within an attentional framework. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. "Ring" in the solo child singing voice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, David M; Williams, Jenevora; Herbst, Christian T

    2014-03-01

    Listeners often describe the voices of solo child singers as being "pure" or "clear"; these terms would suggest that the voice is not only pleasant but also clearly audible. The audibility or clarity could be attributed to the presence of high-frequency partials in the sound: a "brightness" or "ring." This article aims to investigate spectrally the acoustic nature of this ring phenomenon in children's solo voices, and in particular, relating it to their "nonring" production. Additionally, this is set in the context of establishing to what extent, if any, the spectral characteristics of ring are shared with those of the singer's formant cluster associated with professional adult opera singers in the 2.5-3.5kHz region. A group of child solo singers, acknowledged as outstanding by a singing teacher who specializes in teaching professional child singers, were recorded in a major UK concert hall performing Come unto him, all ye that labour, from the aria He shall feed his flock from The Messiah by GF Handel. Their singing was accompanied by a recording of a piano played through in-ear headphones. Sound pressure recordings were made from well within the critical distance in the hall. The singers were observed to produce notes with and without ring, and these recordings were analyzed in the frequency domain to investigate their spectra. The results indicate that there is evidence to suggest that ring in child solo singers is carried in two areas of the output spectrum: first in the singer's formant cluster region, centered around 4kHz, which is more than 1000Hz higher than what is observed in adults; and second in the region around 7.5-11kHz where a significant strengthening of harmonic presence is observed. A perceptual test has been carried out demonstrating that 94% of 62 listeners label a synthesized version of the calculated overall average ring spectrum for all subjects as having ring when compared with a synthesized version of the calculated overall average nonring

  15. Glottal Adduction and Subglottal Pressure in Singing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Christian T; Hess, Markus; Müller, Frank; Švec, Jan G; Sundberg, Johan

    2015-07-01

    Previous research suggests that independent variation of vocal loudness and glottal configuration (type and degree of vocal fold adduction) does not occur in untrained speech production. This study investigated whether these factors can be varied independently in trained singing and how subglottal pressure is related to average glottal airflow, voice source properties, and sound level under these conditions. A classically trained baritone produced sustained phonations on the endoscopic vowel [i:] at pitch D4 (approximately 294 Hz), exclusively varying either (a) vocal register; (b) phonation type (from "breathy" to "pressed" via cartilaginous adduction); or (c) vocal loudness, while keeping the others constant. Phonation was documented by simultaneous recording of videokymographic, electroglottographic, airflow and voice source data, and by percutaneous measurement of relative subglottal pressure. Register shifts were clearly marked in the electroglottographic wavegram display. Compared with chest register, falsetto was produced with greater pulse amplitude of the glottal flow, H1-H2, mean airflow, and with lower maximum flow declination rate (MFDR), subglottal pressure, and sound pressure. Shifts of phonation type (breathy/flow/neutral/pressed) induced comparable systematic changes. Increase of vocal loudness resulted in increased subglottal pressure, average flow, sound pressure, MFDR, glottal flow pulse amplitude, and H1-H2. When changing either vocal register or phonation type, subglottal pressure and mean airflow showed an inverse relationship, that is, variation of glottal flow resistance. The direct relation between subglottal pressure and airflow when varying only vocal loudness demonstrated independent control of vocal loudness and glottal configuration. Achieving such independent control of phonatory control parameters would be an important target in vocal pedagogy and in voice therapy. Copyright © 2015 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc

  16. Acoustic Analyses of the Singing Vibrato in Traditional Peking Opera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qichao; Zhang, Ruifeng

    2017-01-16

    China's traditional Peking Opera has four standard categories of roles: Sheng, Dan, Jing, and Chou, the singing vibrato of each displaying a different auditory effect. The audio and respiratory signals were recorded for two performers of the Qing Yi role, one of the Jing role, one of the Chou role, one of the Lao Sheng role, one of the Xiao Sheng role, and one of the Lao Dan role. The recordings gained eventually consisted of 24 representative songs from six roles. The rates and extents of vibrato, fundamental frequency, and rib cage signals were analyzed. Two findings were obtained: (1) the classical opera singing vibratos of China and Western countries are acoustically different from each other; and (2) in Peking Opera, the singing vibratos of different roles show significant acoustic differences.

  17. Upper Elementary Boys' Participation during Group Singing Activities in Single-Sex and Coeducational Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzy, Zadda M.

    2010-01-01

    As boys in the upper elementary grades become increasingly influenced by peer pressure, many are less likely to participate in singing activities because singing is considered a "feminine" activity. The purpose of this research was to explore if there was an effect on upper elementary boys' level of participation during group singing activities…

  18. Sight-Singing Pedagogy: A Content Analysis of Choral Methods Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Eva G.; Haning, Marshall A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the sight-singing pedagogy content of choral methods textbooks, with the intent of determining what elements of sight-singing pedagogy are most commonly included in these resources. A content analysis was conducted to analyze information related to sight-singing pedagogy in 10 textbooks that are commonly…

  19. Boys' Perceptions of Singing: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warzecha, Megan

    2013-01-01

    Boys seem to progress through phases in which they like to sing in early elementary school, they think that singing is for girls and, thus, unacceptable in late elementary school, and then, gradually, singing again becomes acceptable later in life. Studies speak to the difficulty that choir directors have in recruiting boys. Research shows that…

  20. Sight-Singing Pedagogy: A Content Analysis of Choral Methods Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Eva G.; Haning, Marshall A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the sight-singing pedagogy content of choral methods textbooks, with the intent of determining what elements of sight-singing pedagogy are most commonly included in these resources. A content analysis was conducted to analyze information related to sight-singing pedagogy in 10 textbooks that are commonly…

  1. Evaluation of Singing Vocal Health in Yakshagana Singers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunjawate, Dhanshree R; Aithal, Venkataraja U; Devadas, Usha; Guddattu, Vasudeva

    2017-03-01

    Yakshagana, a popular traditional folk art from Karnataka, India, includes singing and dancing. Yakshagana singer or Bhagavata plays an important role in singing and conducting the performance. The present study aims to assess the singing vocal health using Singing Voice Handicap Index-10 (SVHI-10) in these singers and to compare between those who report voice problem and those who do not. A cross-sectional study was carried out on 26 Bhagavata using demographic questionnaire and SVHI-10 in the Kannada language. Descriptive statistics was used to summarize the data. Independent sample t test was used to compare the responses for demographic variables between the two groups of singers with and without voice problems. The difference in scores of SVHI-10 between the two groups was analyzed using Pearson's chi-square test. Of the Bhagavata, 38% reported to have experienced voice problems, which affected their singing, with higher total SVHI-10 score (31.2 ± 5.7) compared with those who did not report any problems (16.81 ± 9.56). A statistically significant difference between the groups was noted in the emotional domain and total scores. The present study provides preliminary information on the voice handicap reported by Bhagavata. The singers reporting voice problems scored higher on SVHI-10. A healthy singing voice is essential for Yakshagana singers, and voice problems can have a significant impact on their performance and livelihood. Hence, results of the present study indicate the need to understand these singers' voice problems and their impact more comprehensively, and educate them about voice care. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Singing abilities in children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain eCLEMENT

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Specific Language impairment (SLI is a heritable neurodevelopmental disorder diagnosed when a child has difficulties learning to produce and/or understand speech for no apparent reason (Bishop et al., 2012. The verbal difficulties of children with SLI have been largely documented, and a growing number of studies suggest that these children may also have difficulties in processing non-verbal complex auditory stimuli (Brandt et al., 2012; Corriveau et al., 2007. In a recent study, we reported that a large proportion of children with SLI present deficits in music perception (Planchou et al, submitted. Little is known, however, about the singing abilities of children with SLI. In order to investigate whether or not the impairments in expressive language extend to the musical domain, we assessed singing abilities in 8 children with SLI and 15 children with Typical Language Development (TLD matched for age and non-verbal intelligence. To this aim, we designed a ludic activity consisting of two singing tasks: a pitch-matching and a melodic reproduction task. In the pitch-matching task, the children were requested to sing single notes. In the melodic reproduction task, children were asked to sing short melodies that were either familiar (FAM-SONG and FAM-TUNE conditions or unfamiliar (UNFAM-TUNE condition. The analysis showed that children with SLI were impaired in the pitch-matching task, with a mean pitch error of 250 cents (mean pitch error for children with TLD: 154 cents. In the melodic reproduction task, we asked 30 healthy adults to rate the quality of the sung productions of the children on a continuous rating scale. The results revealed that singing of children with SLI received lower mean ratings than the children with TLD. Our findings thus indicate that children with SLI showed impairments in musical production and are discussed in light of a general auditory-motor dysfunction in children with SLI.

  3. Conceptualizing how group singing may enhance quality of life with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buetow, Stephen A; Talmage, Alison; McCann, Clare; Fogg, Laura; Purdy, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Group singing could be a promising component of neurorehabilitative care. This article aims to conceptualize how group singing may enable people with Parkinson's disease (PD) to synchronize their movement patterns to musical rhythm and enhance quality of life. Spanning the medical and social sciences, the article draws conceptually on literature on PD, group singing and rhythm in music; personal experience; and reasoning. Conceptualizing PD in terms of disruptions to social and biological rhythms, we hypothesize how group singing may produce two socio-psychological states - connectedness and flow - that may entrain rhythm in people with PD. The states connect during group singing to elicit and enhance motor processes but may also reawaken after the group singing, through the recall and reactivation of the musical rhythms encoded during group singing. In people with PD, this continuity of flow is hypothesized to be conducive to rhythmic entrainment during and after group singing and in turn to reduced deficits in motor timing and emotional processing, and improvements in quality of life. Empirical studies are needed to test this hypothesis in people with movement disorders such as PD. Implications for Rehabilitation Musical rhythm in group singing may enhance quality of life, and rehabilitation, in people with PD. Use group singing to produce two socio-psychological states - connectedness and flow - that may yield these health benefits. Include people with PD in singing groups to facilitate perceptual exposure to familiar music with melodic distinctiveness and a regular beat.

  4. Singing mitigation in corrugated tubes with liquid injection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belfroid, S.P.C.; Golliard, J.; Vijlbrief, O.

    2013-01-01

    Pipes with a corrugated inner surface, as used in flexible pipes for gas production and transport, can generate a high amplitude tonal sound (singing). Small quantities of liquid can result in a significant amplitude reduction or total mitigation of this sound production. To evaluate different poten

  5. A Critic on Mockingbird Don’t Sing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Min-xuan

    2016-01-01

    Based on the haunting film Mockingbird Don’t Sing, this paper claims the legitimacy of the Critical Period Hypothesis with a close scrutiny of the original linguistic data collected from Katie( the heroine),as well as the important role that neuroplas-ticity plays in language acquisition.

  6. The Singing Wineglass: An Exercise in Mathematical Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voges, E. L.; Joubert, S. V.

    2008-01-01

    Lecturers in mathematical modelling courses are always on the lookout for new examples to illustrate the modelling process. A physical phenomenon, documented as early as the nineteenth century, was recalled: when a wineglass "sings", waves are visible on the surface of the wine. These surface waves are used as an exercise in mathematical…

  7. Respiratory Belt Transducer Constructed Using a Singing Greeting Card Beeper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskar, Anand; Subramani, Selvam; Ojha, Rajdeep

    2013-01-01

    An article by Belusic and Zupancic described the construction of a finger pulse sensor using a singing greeting card beeper. These authors felt that this beeper made of piezoelectric material could be easily modified to function as a respiratory belt transducer to monitor respiratory movements. Commercially available respiratory belt transducers,…

  8. Singing Greeting Card Beeper as a Finger Pulse Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belusic, Gregor; Zupancic, Gregor

    2010-01-01

    We constructed a robust and low-priced finger pulse sensor from a singing greeting card beeper. The beeper outputs the plethysmographic signal, which is indistinguishable from that of commercial grade sensors. The sensor can be used in school for a number of experiments in human cardiovascular physiology.

  9. Using singing to nurture children's hearing? A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Graham F; Saunders, Jo; Edwards, Sian; Palmer, Zoe; Himonides, Evangelos; Knight, Julian; Mahon, Merle; Griffin, Susanna; Vickers, Deborah A

    2015-09-01

    This article reports a pilot study of the potential benefits of a sustained programme of singing activities on the musical behaviours and hearing acuity of young children with hearing impairment (HI). Twenty-nine children (n=12 HI and n=17 NH) aged between 5 and 7 years from an inner-city primary school in London participated, following appropriate ethical approval. The predominantly classroom-based programme was designed by colleagues from the UCL Institute of Education and UCL Ear Institute in collaboration with a multi-arts charity Creative Futures and delivered by an experienced early years music specialist weekly across two school terms. There was a particular emphasis on building a repertoire of simple songs with actions and allied vocal exploration. Musical learning was also supported by activities that drew on visual imagery for sound and that included simple notation and physical gesture. An overall impact assessment of the pilot programme embraced pre- and post-intervention measures of pitch discrimination, speech perception in noise and singing competency. Subsequent statistical data analyses suggest that the programme had a positive impact on participant children's singing range, particularly (but not only) for HI children with hearing aids, and also in their singing skills. HI children's pitch perception also improved measurably over time. Findings imply that all children, including those with HI, can benefit from regular and sustained access to age-appropriate musical activities.

  10. Singing Ability, Musical Self-Concept, and Future Music Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demorest, Steven M.; Kelley, Jamey; Pfordresher, Peter Q.

    2017-01-01

    Research on adults who identify as "tone deaf" suggest that their poor musical self-concept is shaped by a view of themselves as nonsingers even when their perceptual skills and singing ability are not significantly worse than the general population. Many of these adults self-selected out of further participation as children but…

  11. Effects of a Preparatory Singing Pattern on Melodic Dictation Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonviri, Nathan O.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate effects of a preparatory contextual singing pattern on melodic dictation test scores. Forty-nine undergraduate music education majors took melodic dictations under three conditions. After hearing an orienting chord sequence, they (1) sang a preparatory solfége pattern in the key, meter, and tempo of the…

  12. Infants' Discrimination of Female Singing Voices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Giomi, Eugenia; Davila, Yvonne

    2014-01-01

    There's extensive research on infant's discrimination of speaking voices but few studies have focused on infant's discrimination of singing voices. Most investigations on infants' perception of timbre in music have been based on instrumental sounds. We completed an experiment with 7-and 13-month-olds (n = 16 and n = 17…

  13. Comparison of vocal tract formants in singing and nonperiodic phonation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miller, DG; Sulter, AM; Schutte, HK; Wolf, RF

    The skilled use of nonperiodic phonation techniques in combination with spectrum analysis has been proposed here as a practical method for locating formant frequencies in the singing voice. The study addresses the question of the degree of similarity between sung phonations and their nonperiodic

  14. Respiratory Belt Transducer Constructed Using a Singing Greeting Card Beeper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskar, Anand; Subramani, Selvam; Ojha, Rajdeep

    2013-01-01

    An article by Belusic and Zupancic described the construction of a finger pulse sensor using a singing greeting card beeper. These authors felt that this beeper made of piezoelectric material could be easily modified to function as a respiratory belt transducer to monitor respiratory movements. Commercially available respiratory belt transducers,…

  15. Lisu-A People Who Love to Sing and Dance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    THE Lisu people live in theNujiang River area of Chi-na’s Yunnan Province. Mostof the Lisus believe in ancient fetish-ism and rely on hunting and agricul-ture for a living. The Lisu national-ity is well known for its singing anddancing. Just as salt is indispensable

  16. Singing Greeting Card Beeper as a Finger Pulse Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belusic, Gregor; Zupancic, Gregor

    2010-01-01

    We constructed a robust and low-priced finger pulse sensor from a singing greeting card beeper. The beeper outputs the plethysmographic signal, which is indistinguishable from that of commercial grade sensors. The sensor can be used in school for a number of experiments in human cardiovascular physiology.

  17. Singing Well-Becoming: Student Musical Therapy Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphey, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Much research supports the everyday therapeutic and deeper social-neurophysiological influence of singing songs alone and in groups (Austin, 2008; Cozolino, 2013; Sacks, 2007). This study looks at what happens when Japanese students teach short English affirmation songlet-routines to others out of the classroom (clandestine folk music therapy). I…

  18. Singing in groups for Parkinson's disease (SING-PD): a pilot study of group singing therapy for PD-related voice/speech disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Ludy C; Piel, Jordan; Warren, Amanda; Kraics, Lauren; Silver, Althea; Vanderhorst, Veronique; Simon, David K; Tarsy, Daniel

    2012-06-01

    Parkinson's disease related speech and voice impairment have significant impact on quality of life measures. LSVT(®)LOUD voice and speech therapy (Lee Silverman Voice Therapy) has demonstrated scientific efficacy and clinical effectiveness, but musically based voice and speech therapy has been underexplored as a potentially useful method of rehabilitation. We undertook a pilot, open-label study of a group-based singing intervention, consisting of twelve 90-min weekly sessions led by a voice and speech therapist/singing instructor. The primary outcome measure of vocal loudness as measured by sound pressure level (SPL) at 50 cm during connected speech was not significantly different one week after the intervention or at 13 weeks after the intervention. A number of secondary measures reflecting pitch range, phonation time and maximum loudness also were unchanged. Voice related quality of life (VRQOL) and voice handicap index (VHI) also were unchanged. This study suggests that a group singing therapy intervention at this intensity and frequency does not result in significant improvement in objective and subject-rated measures of voice and speech impairment.

  19. Human melody singing by bullfinches (Pyrrhula pyrrula) gives hints about a cognitive note sequence processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolai, Jürgen; Gundacker, Christina; Teeselink, Katharina; Güttinger, Hans Rudolf

    2014-01-01

    We studied human melody perception and production in a songbird in the light of current concepts from the cognitive neuroscience of music. Bullfinches are the species best known for learning melodies from human teachers. The study is based on the historical data of 15 bullfinches, raised by 3 different human tutors and studied later by Jürgen Nicolai (JN) in the period 1967-1975. These hand-raised bullfinches learned human folk melodies (sequences of 20-50 notes) accurately. The tutoring was interactive and variable, starting before fledging and JN continued it later throughout the birds' lives. All 15 bullfinches learned to sing alternately melody modules with JN (alternate singing). We focus on the aspects of note sequencing and timing studying song variability when singing the learned melody alone and the accuracy of listening-singing interactions during alternatively singing with JN by analyzing song recordings of 5 different males. The following results were obtained as follows: (1) Sequencing: The note sequence variability when singing alone suggests that the bullfinches retrieve the note sequence from the memory as different sets of note groups (=modules), as chunks (sensu Miller in Psychol Rev 63:81-87, 1956). (2) Auditory-motor interactions, the coupling of listening and singing the human melody: Alternate singing provides insights into the bird's brain melody processing from listening to the actually whistled part of the human melody by JN to the bird's own accurately singing the consecutive parts. We document how variable and correctly bullfinches and JN alternated in their singing the note sequences. Alternate singing demonstrates that melody-singing bullfinches did not only follow attentively the just whistled note contribution of the human by auditory feedback, but also could synchronously anticipate singing the consecutive part of the learned melody. These data suggest that both listening and singing may depend on a single learned human melody

  20. Aiming for the Singing Teacher: An Applied Study on Preservice Kindergarten Teachers' Singing Skills Development within a Music Methods Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neokleous, Rania

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a music methods course offered at a Cypriot university on the singing skills of 33 female preservice kindergarten teachers. To systematically measure and analyze student progress, the research design was both experimental and descriptive. As an applied study which was carried out "in situ," the normal…

  1. Psalm 98: Sing ’n nuwe lied tot lof van die Koning, Jahwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. S. Prinsloo

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Sing a new song in praise of the king, Yahweh This article surveys the problems of interpreting Psalm 98. The chief problems are those concerned with determining the Gattung, the redactional history, strophic division and the dating of the Psalm. A textimmanent reading of the Psalm is used in an effort to make a significant contribution to the debate. The conclusion arrived at is that the Psalm forms a coherent, artistic whole and that a variety of poetic techniques is used in its composition. The poetic function of the Psalm can be described as persuasive. That is to say, the Psalm is intended to persuade the reader/auditor that Yahweh is worthy of praise and that his dependability is manifest in his acts of salvation.

  2. Optical Spectroscopy and Nebular Oxygen Abundances of the Spitzer/SINGS Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Moustakas, John; Jr.,; Tremonti, Christy A; Dale, Daniel A; Smith, John-David T; Calzetti, Daniela

    2010-01-01

    We present intermediate-resolution optical spectrophotometry of 65 galaxies obtained in support of the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey (SINGS). For each galaxy we obtain a nuclear, circumnuclear, and semi-integrated optical spectrum designed to coincide spatially with mid- and far-infrared spectroscopy from the Spitzer Space Telescope. We make the reduced, spectrophotometrically calibrated one-dimensional spectra, as well as measurements of the fluxes and equivalent widths of the strong nebular emission lines, publically available. We use optical emission-line ratios measured on all three spatial scales to classify the sample into star-forming, active galactic nuclei (AGN), and galaxies with a mixture of star formation and nuclear activity. We find that the relative fraction of the sample classified as star-forming versus AGN is a strong function of the integrated light enclosed by the spectroscopic aperture. We supplement our observations with a large database of nebular emission-line measurements of...

  3. Living, Breathing Songs: Singing Along with Bob Dylan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Negus

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Taking issue with approaches to Bob Dylan’s art that are preoccupied with his lyrics, this article suggests a route into thinking about his music by focusing on how Dylan’s vocal melodies work at the intersection of speech and singing. Drawing on Gino Stefani’s work on popular melodies, this article explores this issue through a discussion of how people sing along with Dylan’s songs at concerts. The discussion focuses on the song “It Ain’t Me Babe,” and examines more general points about the ways in which Dylan’s melodies connect with the everyday lives of his listeners.

  4. The Tragedy of the Female Protagonist in The Singing Lesson

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhi-yue

    2016-01-01

    The Singing Lesson is one of Katherine Mansfield’s excellent short stories. Same with her other love stories, Mans-field still adds a pessimistic tone to love in this work. The heroine does not hold an equal status in the relationship with her fi-ancé, and her blind choice will bring her inevitably a failing marriage. However, the essential cause of her tragic fate is not her shallow and foolishness, but the heavy oppression of a patriarchal society. Via the analysis of the heroine’s dramatic perfor-mance in the singing lesson, this paper reveals the misfortune of the heroine in love and her coming marriage, and the deep harm the patriarchy society did to females’existence and their spirits.

  5. Nursing problem-based learning activity: song writing and singing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Zenobia C Y

    2014-08-01

    The function of song is not only to deliver individual's messages, but also to serve as a learning approach to facilitate students' learning. To observe the effectiveness of songs in facilitating students' learning, a Problem-based Learning (PBL) class with twenty students was divided into four groups with five students per group. Each group was asked to write a song based on two given scenarios, to sing the song out loud, and to participate in a follow-up focus group interview afterwards. The four songs reflected the students' understanding of academic knowledge and their perspectives toward the protagonists in the presented scenarios. Two songs are presented in this paper to demonstrate how the approach was carried out in the nursing PBL class. This paper aims to show the implication of song writing and singing in PBL and shed some light on teaching and learning.

  6. Memorizing of Singing%歌唱的记忆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜勇

    2012-01-01

    Memorizing is a psychological process which accumulates and preserves individual experience in the human mind through cognizing,maintaining and reappearing.It consists of two aspects – remembering and recalling.Singing memory is an important process of psychological activities in singing psychology.Music belongs to the art of hearing sense.The core of singing memory is the art of hearing sense and sense perception.To deepen the impression on works and absorb outside knowledge,memorizing is reliable.Memorizing can help singers master the professional knowledge and skills.It plays an active role in promoting singers' singing art.%记忆是通过识记,保持,再现等方式在人的头脑中积累和保存个体经验的心理过程。记忆包括"记与忆"两方面,歌唱记忆是歌唱心理学中一个重要的心理活动过程,音乐属于听觉艺术,歌唱记忆的核心是听觉记忆和感觉记忆,要加深对作品的印象,接受外来的知识都是靠记忆完成的,它可以帮助歌唱家掌握专业知识及技能、技巧,促进他们在歌唱艺术方面得到全面的发展起着积极的作用。

  7. Breathtaking Songs: Coordinating the Neural Circuits for Breathing and Singing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Marc F; Goller, Franz

    2016-11-01

    The vocal behavior of birds is remarkable for its diversity, and songs can feature elaborate characteristics such as long duration, rapid temporal pattern, and broad frequency range. The respiratory system plays a central role in generating the complex song patterns that must be integrated with its life-sustaining functions. Here, we explore how precise coordination between the neural circuits for breathing and singing is fundamental to production of these remarkable behaviors. ©2016 Int. Union Physiol. Sci./Am. Physiol. Soc.

  8. The Moderating Effect of Frequent Singing on Voice Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lortie, Catherine L; Rivard, Julie; Thibeault, Mélanie; Tremblay, Pascale

    2017-01-01

    The effects of aging on voice production are well documented, including changes in loudness, pitch, and voice quality. However, one important and clinically relevant question that remains concerns the possibility that the aging of voice can be prevented or at least delayed through noninvasive methods. Indeed, discovering natural means to preserve the integrity of the human voice throughout aging could have a major impact on the quality of life of elderly adults. The objective of this study was therefore to examine the potentially positive effect of singing on voice production. To this aim, a group of 72 healthy nonsmoking adults (20-93 years old) was recruited and separated into three groups based on their singing habits. Several voice parameters were assessed (fundamental frequency [f0] mean, f0 standard deviation [SD], f0 minimum and f0 maximum, mean amplitude and amplitude SD, jitter, shimmer, and harmonic-to-noise ratio) during the sustained production of vowel /a/. Other parameters were assessed during standardized reading passage (speaking f0, speaking f0 SD). As was expected, age effects were found on most acoustic parameters with significant sex differences. Importantly, moderation analyses revealed that frequent singing moderates the effect of aging on most acoustic parameters. Specifically, in frequent singers, there was no decrease in the stability of pitch and amplitude with age, suggesting that the voice of frequent singers remains more stable in aging than the voice of non-singers, and more generally, providing empirical evidence for a positive effect of singing on voice in aging. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Increasing fluency in L2 writing with singing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenni Alisaari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Fluency is an essential part of a language learner’s skills. Despite various studies on fluency, little is known about the effects of different pedagogical methods on the development of written fluency. In this paper, we examine how different pedagogical methods affect the development of second language learners’ written fluency. Participants in this study were 51 language learners enrolled in two intensive Finnish courses. The pedagogical methods investigated in the study were singing, listening to songs, and reciting lyrics of songs. Written stories based on cartoon strips were used as a pretest and a posttest. The fluency of written stories was analyzed based on the number of words used in the texts. Differences between the groups taught by different pedagogical methods were analyzed. The results seem to indicate that fluency increased the most in the singing groups compared to the other groups. There was also a statistically significant difference between the singing group and the group reciting lyrics, as well as between the group listening to songs and the group reciting lyrics.

  10. Moving to the beat and singing are linked in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone eDalla Bella

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The abilities to sing and to move to the beat of a rhythmic auditory stimulus emerge early during development, and both engage perceptual, motor, and sensorimotor processes. These similarities between singing and synchronization to a beat may be rooted in biology. Patel (2008 has suggested that motor synchronization to auditory rhythms may have emerged during evolution as a byproduct of selection for vocal learning (vocal learning and synchronization hypothesis. This view predicts a strong link between vocal performance and synchronization skills in humans. Here we tested this prediction by asking occasional singers to tap along with auditory pulse trains and to imitate familiar melodies. Both vocal imitation and synchronization skills were measured in terms of accuracy and precision or consistency. Accurate and precise singers tapped more in the vicinity of the pacing stimuli (i.e., they were more accurate than inaccurate and imprecise singers. Moreover, accurate singers were more consistent when tapping to the beat. These differences cannot be ascribed to basic motor skills or to motivational factors. Individual differences in terms of singing proficiency and synchronization skills may reflect the variability of a shared sensorimotor translation mechanism.

  11. Moving to the Beat and Singing are Linked in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla Bella, Simone; Berkowska, Magdalena; Sowiński, Jakub

    2015-01-01

    The abilities to sing and to move to the beat of a rhythmic auditory stimulus emerge early during development, and both engage perceptual, motor, and sensorimotor processes. These similarities between singing and synchronization to a beat may be rooted in biology. Patel (2008) has suggested that motor synchronization to auditory rhythms may have emerged during evolution as a byproduct of selection for vocal learning (“vocal learning and synchronization hypothesis”). This view predicts a strong link between vocal performance and synchronization skills in humans. Here, we tested this prediction by asking occasional singers to tap along with auditory pulse trains and to imitate familiar melodies. Both vocal imitation and synchronization skills were measured in terms of accuracy and precision or consistency. Accurate and precise singers tapped more in the vicinity of the pacing stimuli (i.e., they were more accurate) than less accurate and less precise singers. Moreover, accurate singers were more consistent when tapping to the beat. These differences cannot be ascribed to basic motor skills or to motivational factors. Individual differences in terms of singing proficiency and synchronization skills may reflect the variability of a shared sensorimotor translation mechanism. PMID:26733370

  12. Why Do Migratory Birds Sing on Their Tropical Wintering Grounds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Marjorie C; Jenni-Eiermann, Susanne; Spottiswoode, Claire N

    2016-03-01

    Many long-distance migratory birds sing extensively on their tropical African wintering grounds, but the function of this costly behavior remains unknown. In this study, we carry out a first empirical test of three competing hypotheses, combining a field study of great reed warblers (Acrocephalus arundinaceus) wintering in Africa with a comparative analysis across Palearctic-African migratory songbird species. We asked whether winter song (i) functions to defend nonbreeding territories, (ii) functions as practice to improve complex songs for subsequent breeding, or (iii) is a nonadaptive consequence of elevated testosterone carryover. We found support for neither the long-assumed territory-defense hypothesis (great reed warblers had widely overlapping home ranges and showed no conspecific aggression) nor the testosterone-carryover hypothesis (winter singing in great reed warblers was unrelated to plasma testosterone concentration). Instead, we found strongest support for the song-improvement hypothesis, since great reed warblers sang a mate attraction song type rather than a territorial song type in Africa, and species that sing most intensely in Africa were those in which sexual selection acts most strongly on song characteristics; they had more complex songs and were more likely to be sexually monochromatic. This study underlines how sexual selection can have far-reaching effects on animal ecology throughout the annual cycle.

  13. Acoustic monitoring on a humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) feeding ground shows continual singing into late Spring.

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Christopher W.; Clapham, Phillip J.

    2004-01-01

    Singing by males is a major feature of the mating system of humpback whales, Megaptera novaeangliae (Borowski). Although a few songs have been opportunistically recorded on the whales' high-latitude feeding grounds, singing in these regions was thought to be only sporadic. We report results from the first continuous acoustic monitoring of a humpback whale feeding ground (off Cape Cod, MA, USA) in spring. Using autonomous sea-floor recording systems, we found singing on a daily basis over the ...

  14. Engaging College Students by Singing the Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard H. Heineman

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Setting scientific ideas to music can increase student engagement and help with memorization. However, some instructors may be intimidated by the thought of performing educational music for their STEM students, or concerned that it is frivolous. To address this issue, I spell out step by step protocols for either writing one’s own parody songs to teach specific concepts, or finding songs online (which can be used directly or modified. I also discuss presentation techniques that help students, such as showing lyrics and adding annotations that clarify or emphasize ideas. A survey suggests that this approach is appreciated and effective.

  15. Impact of cercal air currents on singing motor pattern generation in the cricket (Gryllus bimaculatus DeGeer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The cercal system of crickets detects low-frequency air currents produced by approaching predators and self-generated air currents during singing, which may provide sensory feedback to the singing motor network. We analyzed the effect of cercal stimulation on singing motor pattern generation to reveal the response of a singing interneuron to predator-like signals and to elucidate the possible role of self-generated air currents during singing. In fictive singing males, we recorded an interneuron of the singing network while applying air currents to the cerci; additionally, we analyzed the effect of abolishing the cercal system in freely singing males. In fictively singing crickets, the effect of short air stimuli is either to terminate prematurely or to lengthen the interchirp interval, depending on their phase in the chirp cycle. Within our stimulation paradigm, air stimuli of different velocities and durations always elicited an inhibitory postsynaptic potential in the singing interneuron. Current injection in the singing interneuron elicited singing motor activity, even during the air current-evoked inhibitory input from the cercal pathway. The disruptive effects of air stimuli on the fictive singing pattern and the inhibitory response of the singing interneuron point toward the cercal system being involved in initiating avoidance responses in singing crickets, according to the established role of cerci in a predator escape pathway. After abolishing the activity of the cercal system, the timing of natural singing activity was not significantly altered. Our study provides no evidence that self-generated cercal sensory activity has a feedback function for singing motor pattern generation. PMID:26334014

  16. Sing Your Lungs Out—a community singing group for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a 1-year pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNaughton, Amanda; Weatherall, Mark; Williams, Mathew; McNaughton, Harry; Aldington, Sarah; Williams, Gayle; Beasley, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Objective Singing group participation may benefit patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Previous studies are limited by small numbers of participants and short duration of generally hospital-based singing group intervention. This study examines the feasibility of long-term participation in a community singing group for patients with COPD who had completed pulmonary rehabilitation (PR). Methods This was a feasibility cohort study. Patients with COPD who had completed PR and were enrolled in a weekly community exercise group were recruited to a new community-based singing group which met weekly for over 1 year. Measurements at baseline, 4 months and 1 year comprised comprehensive pulmonary function tests including lung volumes, 6 min walk test (6MWT), Clinical COPD Questionnaire (CCQ), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and hospital admission days for acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD) for 1 year before and after the first singing group session. Findings There were 28 participants with chronic lung disease recruited from 140 people approached. Five withdrew in the first month. 21 participants meeting Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease criteria for COPD completed 4-month and 18 completed 1-year assessments. The mean attendance was 85%. For the prespecified primary outcome measure, total HADS score, difference between baseline and 12 months was −0.9, 95% CI −3.0 to 1.2, p=0.37. Of the secondary measures, a significant reduction was observed for HADS anxiety score after 1 year of −0.9 (95% CI −1.8 to −0.1) points, p=0.038 and an increase in the 6MWT at 1 year, of 65 (95% CI 35 to 99) m compared with baseline psinging group for adults with COPD who have completed PR and are enrolled in a weekly community exercise group and provide evidence of improved exercise capacity and a reduction in anxiety. Trial registration number ACTRN12615000736549; Results. PMID:28119393

  17. Uncovering phenotypes of poor-pitch singing: The Sung Performance Battery (SPB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena eBerkowska

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Singing is as natural as speaking for humans. Increasing evidence shows that the layman can carry a tune (e.g., when asked to sing a well-known song or to imitate single pitches, intervals and short melodies. Yet, important individual differences exist in the general population with regard to singing proficiency. Some individuals are particularly inaccurate or imprecise in producing or imitating pitch information (poor-pitch singers, thus showing a variety of singing phenotypes. Unfortunately, so far there is not a standard set of tasks for assessing singing proficiency in the general population, allowing to uncover and characterize individual profiles of poor-pitch singing. Different tasks and analysis methods are typically used in various experiments, making the comparison of the results across studies arduous. To fill this gap we propose here a new tool for assessing singing proficiency (the Sung Performance Battery, SPB. The SPB starts from the assessment of participants’ vocal range followed by five tasks: 1 single-pitch matching, 2 pitch-interval matching, 3 novel-melody matching, 4 singing from memory of familiar melodies (with lyrics and on a syllable, and 5 singing of familiar melodies (with lyrics and on a syllable at a slow tempo indicated by a metronome. Data analysis via acoustical methods provides objective measures of pitch accuracy and precision in terms of absolute and relative pitch. The SPB has been tested in a group of 50 occasional singers. The results indicate that the battery is useful for characterizing proficient singing and for detecting cases of inaccurate and/or imprecise singing.

  18. Uncovering phenotypes of poor-pitch singing: the Sung Performance Battery (SPB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowska, Magdalena; Dalla Bella, Simone

    2013-01-01

    Singing is as natural as speaking for humans. Increasing evidence shows that the layman can carry a tune (e.g., when asked to sing a well-known song or to imitate single pitches, intervals and short melodies). Yet, important individual differences exist in the general population with regard to singing proficiency. Some individuals are particularly inaccurate or imprecise in producing or imitating pitch information (poor-pitch singers), thus showing a variety of singing phenotypes. Unfortunately, so far there is not a standard set of tasks for assessing singing proficiency in the general population, allowing to uncover and characterize individual profiles of poor-pitch singing. Different tasks and analysis methods are typically used in various experiments, making the comparison of the results across studies arduous. To fill this gap we propose here a new tool for assessing singing proficiency (the Sung Performance Battery, SPB). The SPB starts from the assessment of participants' vocal range followed by five tasks: (1) single-pitch matching, (2) pitch-interval matching, (3) novel-melody matching, (4) singing from memory of familiar melodies (with lyrics and on a syllable), and (5) singing of familiar melodies (with lyrics and on a syllable) at a slow tempo indicated by a metronome. Data analysis via acoustical methods provides objective measures of pitch accuracy and precision in terms of absolute and relative pitch. The SPB has been tested in a group of 50 occasional singers. The results indicate that the battery is useful for characterizing proficient singing and for detecting cases of inaccurate and/or imprecise singing. PMID:24151475

  19. Changes in singing performance and fMRI activation following right temporal lobe surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Sarah J; Abbott, David F; Tailby, Chris; Gentle, Ellen C; Merrett, Dawn L; Jackson, Graeme D

    2013-10-01

    This study arose in the context of having to estimate risk to the musical abilities of a trained singer (patient A.M.) recommended for right anterior temporal lobectomy (RATL) to ameliorate medically intractable seizures. To date there has been no systematic investigation of reorganisation of musical functions in the presence of epileptogenic lesions, although it is well established that RATL can impair pitch processing in nonmusicians. Using fMRI, we compared the network activated by covert singing with lyrics in A.M. before and after surgery, while taking language activation and singing expertise into consideration. Before surgery, A.M. showed lower pitch accuracy of singing relative to individuals of similar experience (experts), thus we compared her to 12 healthy controls matched for singing pitch accuracy. We found atypical organisation of A.M.'s singing network before surgery in the presence of a malformation of cortical development, including partial activation of the singing network of pitch-matched controls, and diffuse activation along the midline spreading laterally into association cortex, typical of generalised cortical hyperexcitability in intractable epilepsy. After tailored RATL, A.M. showed striking behavioural and neuroimaging changes, including significant improvement in pitch accuracy of singing relative to controls (p = .026) and the subjective experience of being a more technically proficient singer. This was accompanied by a significant reduction in cortical activation (p singing activation emerging, including decreased involvement of frontal language regions. These changes were largely specific to singing, with A.M. showing language activation and performance similar to controls. This case provides evidence for selective disruption of the singing network that reorganised after successful resection of an epileptogenic lesion and likely occurred through decoupling of the singing and language networks. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by

  20. Singing Therapy Can Be Effective for a Patient with Severe Nonfluent Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Akanuma, Kyoko; Hatayama, Yuka; Otera, Masako; Meguro, Kenichi

    2012-01-01

    Patients with severe aphasia are rarely treated using speech therapy. We used music therapy to continue to treat a 79-year-old patient with chronic severe aphasia. Interventions 1, 2, and 3 were to practice singing a song that the patient knew, to practice singing a song with a therapist, and to practice saying a greeting using a song with lyrics,…

  1. A Telepresence Learning Environment for Opera Singing: Distance Lessons Implementations over Internet2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpiste Penalba, Francisco; Rojas-Rajs, Teresa; Lorente, Pedro; Iglesias, Francisco; Fernández, Joaquín; Monguet, Josep

    2013-01-01

    The Opera eLearning project developed a solution for opera singing distance lessons at the graduate level, using high bandwidth to deliver a quality audio and video experience that has been evaluated by singing teachers, chorus and orchestra directors, singers and other professional musicians. Prior to finding a technological model that suits the…

  2. A Telepresence Learning Environment for Opera Singing: Distance Lessons Implementations over Internet2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpiste Penalba, Francisco; Rojas-Rajs, Teresa; Lorente, Pedro; Iglesias, Francisco; Fernández, Joaquín; Monguet, Josep

    2013-01-01

    The Opera eLearning project developed a solution for opera singing distance lessons at the graduate level, using high bandwidth to deliver a quality audio and video experience that has been evaluated by singing teachers, chorus and orchestra directors, singers and other professional musicians. Prior to finding a technological model that suits the…

  3. Tracking Preservice Kindergarten Teachers' Development of Singing Skills and Confidence: An Applied Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neokleous, Rania

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to (a) examine the effects of a music methods course on the singing skills of preservice kindergarten teachers, (b) document the nature and development of their skills during the course, and (c) trace any changes in their confidence levels toward singing as a result of the course. As an applied study which was carried…

  4. Performing Thyself: Sparking Imagination and Exploring Ethnic Identity through Singing and Dancing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsetsura, Katerina

    2010-01-01

    This essay discusses two sets of creative teaching methods: live singing and dancing. The performance by an instructor can set a mode for students to achieve intellectual transformation by exploring issues of identity. The role of music, especially folk singing and dancing, is specifically examined within the intercultural context of…

  5. Children's Attitudes toward Singing and Song Recordings Related to Gender, Ethnicity, and Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebenaler, Dennis

    2008-01-01

    This study examines students' attitudes toward singing and choir participation related to gender, age, and ethnic background. It also looks at attitudes toward recordings from basal music series that are designed to provide an appropriate model and to encourage singing. Participants (N = 249) were third to fifth graders enrolled in two public…

  6. Effect of singing training on total laryngectomees wearing a tracheoesophageal voice prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onofre, Fernanda; Ricz, Hilton Marcos Alves; Takeshita-Monaretti, Telma Kioko; Prado, Maria Yuka de Almeida; Aguiar-Ricz, Lílian Neto

    2013-02-01

    To assess the effect of a program of singing training on the voice of total laryngectomees wearing tracheoesophageal voice prosthesis, considering the quality of alaryngeal phonation, vocal extension and the musical elements of tunning and legato. Five laryngectomees wearing tracheoesophageal voice prosthesis completed the singing training program over a period of three months, with exploration of the strengthening of the respiratory muscles and vocalization and with evaluation of perceptive-auditory and singing voice being performed before and after 12 sessions of singing therapy. After the program of singing voice training, the quality of tracheoesophageal voice showed improvement or the persistence of the general degree of dysphonia for the emitted vowels and for the parameters of roughness and breathiness. For the vowel "a", the pitch was displaced to grave in two participants and to acute in one, and remained adequate in the others. A similar situation was observed also for the vowel "i". After the singing program, all participants presented tunning and most of them showed a greater presence of legato. The vocal extension improved in all participants. Singing training seems to have a favorable effect on the quality of tracheoesophageal phonation and on singing voice.

  7. Expressive timing in infant-directed singing between 3 and 6 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delavenne, Anne; Gratier, Maya; Devouche, Emmanuel

    2013-02-01

    This longitudinal study compared the temporal characteristics of maternal singing at 3 and then at 6 months. Infant-directed (ID) singing is claimed to have different functions in preverbal communication. However few studies have focused on the specific characteristics of ID singing that change across the first months of life. We aimed to explore these changes between 3 and 6 months because musical routines become prominent in the repertoire of games parents and infants spontaneously play during a period referred to as 'the period of games'. We focused specifically on expressive timing because it reflects how mothers dynamically adapt their singing to their infant's states of attention and involvement. We aimed to determine whether the expressive timing cues of maternal singing would be different at 3 and then at 6 months. To this end, the interactions of 18 mother-infant dyads were recorded while mothers were singing a popular French playsong for their infant at 3 and then at 6 months. Acoustic analyses revealed that mothers showed final-lengthening and tempo slowing for both age groups, but marked the ends of the hierarchical structural units of the song more saliently with their 6-month-olds. Unexpectedly, infant sex was also found to affect maternal singing: more exaggerated phrase-lengthening patterns were observed in singing to girls. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Singing, Sissies, and Sexual Identity: How LGBTQ Choral Directors Negotiate Gender Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Nicholas R.

    2016-01-01

    This article explores how choral directors negotiate personal and professional identity in relation to gender discourse. Many music teachers have tried hypermasculine messages, such as "Real men sing," used as recruitment tools for getting adolescent boys to join choir. Designed to counter the perception that "singing is for…

  9. Singing voice handicap and videostrobolaryngoscopy in healthy professional singers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelblanco, Liliana; Habib, Michael; Stein, Daniel J; de Quadros, André; Cohen, Seth M; Noordzij, Jacob Pieter

    2014-09-01

    This study correlates the Singing Voice Handicap Index (SVHI) scores with videostrobolaryngoscopy in healthy professional singers as a measure of self-perceived vocal health versus actual pathology seen on examination. The objective was to measure the strength of self-assessment among professional singers and determine if there is a benefit of combining SVHI and videostrobolaryngoscopy for routine assessment of singers without an obvious singing voice problem. Prospective cross-sectional study. Forty-seven singers were included in the study. Singers produced spoken and sung pitches during videostrobolaryngoscopy. Examinations were blindly rated by two independent fellowship-trained laryngologists who assessed vocal fold appearance and function. The correlation between SVHI scores and total pathologic findings seen on videostrobolaryngoscopy was analyzed using linear regression and serial t tests. SVHI scores (mean of 22.45/144) were as expected for healthy singers. However, although all singers self-identified as healthy, laryngeal abnormalities were relatively common. The interrater reliability of total pathologic findings between two laryngologists was 71% (P = 0.006). Linear regression found no significant correlation (P = 0.9602) between SVHI scores and videostrobolaryngoscopy findings. Greater than expected laryngeal pathology was seen in these professional singers, who identified themselves as healthy, which possibly indicates a minimal impact on their singing voice and/or perception of vocal health. These findings demonstrate that laryngeal appearance alone does not dictate nor fully explain the sound or apparent health of a professional singer. Sustaining good vocal health is complex, and even experienced singers may not reliably assess the presence of pathology. Copyright © 2014 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. High-frequency energy in singing and speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monson, Brian Bruce

    While human speech and the human voice generate acoustical energy up to (and beyond) 20 kHz, the energy above approximately 5 kHz has been largely neglected. Evidence is accruing that this high-frequency energy contains perceptual information relevant to speech and voice, including percepts of quality, localization, and intelligibility. The present research was an initial step in the long-range goal of characterizing high-frequency energy in singing voice and speech, with particular regard for its perceptual role and its potential for modification during voice and speech production. In this study, a database of high-fidelity recordings of talkers was created and used for a broad acoustical analysis and general characterization of high-frequency energy, as well as specific characterization of phoneme category, voice and speech intensity level, and mode of production (speech versus singing) by high-frequency energy content. Directionality of radiation of high-frequency energy from the mouth was also examined. The recordings were used for perceptual experiments wherein listeners were asked to discriminate between speech and voice samples that differed only in high-frequency energy content. Listeners were also subjected to gender discrimination tasks, mode-of-production discrimination tasks, and transcription tasks with samples of speech and singing that contained only high-frequency content. The combination of these experiments has revealed that (1) human listeners are able to detect very subtle level changes in high-frequency energy, and (2) human listeners are able to extract significant perceptual information from high-frequency energy.

  11. Mengangkat "Sing Liyan" Untuk Formulasi Nilai Tambah Syari'ah

    OpenAIRE

    Iwan Triyuwono

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Making Use “Sing Liyan”/ “The Other” to Formulate Shari’ah Value Added: This study attempts to formulate Shari’ah value-added as consequence of adopting Shari’ah Enterprise Theory (SET) as a basic theory of Shari’ah Accounting. The issue emerges as a result of a conflicting idea of whether Shari’ah accounting utilizes SET or Entity Theory (ET). For some reasons, this study implicitly prefers to SET than ET. Hence, the study is only concerned with value-added instead of income in the...

  12. Having Their Song Heard: Tracking Pre-Service Kindergarten Teachers' Perceptions and Confidence in Their Singing Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neokleous, Rania

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports a study investigating pre-service kindergarten teachers' confidence levels and perceptions regarding their singing skills, and the impact of a music methods course on these self-perceptions. The course incorporated singing instruction in 24 lectures and two 10-minute private singing tutorials at the beginning and middle of the…

  13. Ictal singing due to right mesial temporal lobe epilepsy involving a bihemispheric network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Mi; Kang, Joong Koo; Park, Ga Young; Oh, Jung Su; Kim, Jae Seung

    2013-01-01

    Singing is a rare ictal symptom of focal epilepsy. Here, we report a case of a right-handed patient who demonstrated ictal singing due to right mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Subtraction ictal SPECT coregistered to MRI (SISCOM) performed during ictal singing demonstrated areas of hyperperfusion in the bilateral frontal regions (more prominent in the left frontal lobe), bilateral subcortical regions, insular cortices, and bilateral cerebellum in addition to the right temporal area. An intracranial EEG revealed that an ictal singing episode commenced after an ictal rhythm from the right temporal area was propagated to the contralateral side of the left hemisphere. These findings suggest that the symptomatogenic zone for ictal singing includes neural networks from the frontal and temporal regions of both hemispheres rather than specific cortical areas even when the epileptogenic zone is located in the right mesial temporal area, as evidenced in this patient.

  14. Movement of the velum during speech and singing in classically trained singers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, S F

    1997-06-01

    The present study addresses two questions: (a) Is the action and/or posture of the velopharyngeal valve conducive to allow significant resonance during Western tradition classical singing? (b) How do the actions of the velopharyngeal valve observed in this style of singing compare with normal speech? A photodetector system was used to observe the area function of the velopharyngeal port during speech and classical style singing. Identical speech samples were produced by each subject in a normal speaking voice and then in the low, medium, and high singing ranges. Results indicate that in these four singers the velopharyngeal port was closed significantly longer in singing than in speaking samples. The amount of time the velopharyngeal port was opened was greatest in speech and diminished as the singer ascended in pitch. In the high voice condition, little or no opening of the velopharyngeal port was measured.

  15. Is Group Singing Special? Health, Well-Being and Social Bonds in Community-Based Adult Education Classes Group singing, well-being and social bonds

    OpenAIRE

    Pearce, E; Launay, J.; A. Machin; Dunbar, RIM

    2016-01-01

    Evidence demonstrates that group singing improves health and well-being, but the precise mechanisms remain unknown. Given that cohesive social networks also positively influence health, we focus on the social aspects of singing, exploring whether improvements in health and well-being are mediated by stronger social bonds, both to the group as a whole (collective-bonding) and to individual classmates (relational-bonding). To do so, seven newly-formed community-based adult education classes (fo...

  16. Singing by male and female Kloss gibbons (Hylobates klossii) in the Peleonan Forest, Siberut Island, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, Helen M; Judge, Debra S; Schmitt, Lincoln H

    2013-01-01

    Kloss gibbons (Hylobates klossii) are endemic to the Mentawai Islands in Indonesia and are one of only two gibbon species in which mated pairs do not sing duets. This is the first long-term study of the factors influencing the singing activity of Kloss gibbons within a northern Siberut Island population and follows two previous studies in central Siberut nearly 30 years ago. We collected data on the presence/absence of male and female singing within the study area on 198 days and within a focal group on 47 days. Rainfall during the time period in which they normally sing inhibits singing in both males and females. Our study supports the hypothesis that male and female songs function in intrasexual resource defence, as singing is associated with singing by same-sex neighbours, and same-sex choruses are more likely to occur after one or more days of silence (from that sex), suggesting there is pressure for individuals to communicate with same-sex neighbours regularly. Singing was not coordinated within a mated pair, suggesting that vocal coordination of the pair has been lost with the loss of the duet and that Kloss gibbon songs do not convey information to neighbours about the strength of the pair bond. On days when males sang predawn, females were more likely to sing after dawn and earlier in the morning. Additionally, the number of groups singing in female choruses was positively associated with the number of males that had sung in the predawn male chorus. We suggest that female songs have an intersexual territory defence as well as an intrasexual function.

  17. Geographic variation in onset of singing among populations of two migratory birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordo, Oscar; Sanz, Juan José; Lobo, Jorge M.

    2008-07-01

    Even though singing plays a major role in bird communication, environmental variables affecting the geographic patterns observed in the variation of singing onset within large areas have not previously been studied. The singing phenology of two long-distance migrants, the Cuckoo Cuculus canorus and the Nightingale Luscinia megarhynchos, recorded in thousands of sites throughout Spain, was related to a set of 51 explanatory variables by partial least squares regression. Observed variability in singing onset among localities follows spatial trends on an Iberian scale at 10 × 10 km resolution, and was well modelled by some environmental variables. Of these variables, climate was the most influential. Males of both species sang earlier in warmer and drier sites. Males who were near the Straits of Gibraltar and in the southern Iberian basins, which are geographic gradients closely related with climate in the Iberian Peninsula, were also heard earlier. Most environmental variables affected the singing activity of both species equally, i.e., the same environmental gradients are linked to singing onset. However, the models' predictions indicated differences in the geographical pattern in singing onset between both species, mainly related to their rates of progression during spring migration through Spain. Local variables, such as land uses, vegetation productivity or species abundance, played a minor role on singing onset spatial patterns. Therefore, models' composition supports the hypothesis that singing onset is a good proxy of arrival dates in migratory species, since those variables related to indirect effects on singing onset phenology through migratory progression and arrival to the breeding grounds showed the highest influence.

  18. The effects of stress on singing voice accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrouy-Maestri, Pauline; Morsomme, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    The quality of a music performance can be lessened or enhanced if the performer experiences stressful conditions. In addition, the quality of a sung performance requires control of the fundamental frequency of the voice, which is particularly sensitive to stress. The present study aimed to clarify the effects of stress on singing voice accuracy. Thirty-one music students were recorded in a stressful condition (ie, a music examination) and a nonstressful condition. Two groups were defined according to the challenge level of the music examination (first and second music levels). Measurements were made by self-reported state anxiety (CSAI-2R questionnaire) and by observing heart rate activity (electrocardiogram) during each performance. In addition, the vocal accuracy of the sung performances was objectively analyzed. As expected, state anxiety and heart rate were significantly higher on the day of the music examination than in the nonstressful condition for all the music students. However, the effect of stress was positive for the first-year students but negative for the second-year students, for whom the music examination was particularly challenging. In addition, highly significant correlations were found between the intensity of cognitive symptoms and the vocal accuracy criteria. This study highlights the contrasting effects of stress on singing voice accuracy but also the need to consider the challenge level and perception of the symptoms in experimental and pedagogical settings. Copyright © 2014 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Vocal tract resonances in speech, singing, and playing musical instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Joe; Garnier, Maëva; Smith, John

    2009-01-01

    IN BOTH THE VOICE AND MUSICAL WIND INSTRUMENTS, A VALVE (VOCAL FOLDS, LIPS, OR REED) LIES BETWEEN AN UPSTREAM AND DOWNSTREAM DUCT: trachea and vocal tract for the voice; vocal tract and bore for the instrument. Examining the structural similarities and functional differences gives insight into their operation and the duct-valve interactions. In speech and singing, vocal tract resonances usually determine the spectral envelope and usually have a smaller influence on the operating frequency. The resonances are important not only for the phonemic information they produce, but also because of their contribution to voice timbre, loudness, and efficiency. The role of the tract resonances is usually different in brass and some woodwind instruments, where they modify and to some extent compete or collaborate with resonances of the instrument to control the vibration of a reed or the player's lips, andor the spectrum of air flow into the instrument. We give a brief overview of oscillator mechanisms and vocal tract acoustics. We discuss recent and current research on how the acoustical resonances of the vocal tract are involved in singing and the playing of musical wind instruments. Finally, we compare techniques used in determining tract resonances and suggest some future developments.

  20. Automatic computational models of acoustical category features: Talking versus singing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhard, David

    2003-10-01

    The automatic discrimination between acoustical categories has been an increasingly interesting problem in the fields of computer listening, multimedia databases, and music information retrieval. A system is presented which automatically generates classification models, given a set of destination classes and a set of a priori labeled acoustic events. Computational models are created using comparative probability density estimations. For the specific example presented, the destination classes are talking and singing. Individual feature models are evaluated using two measures: The Kologorov-Smirnov distance measures feature separation, and accuracy is measured using absolute and relative metrics. The system automatically segments the event set into a user-defined number (n) of development subsets, and runs a development cycle for each set, generating n separate systems, each of which is evaluated using the above metrics to improve overall system accuracy and to reduce inherent data skew from any one development subset. Multiple features for the same acoustical categories are then compared for underlying feature overlap using cross-correlation. Advantages of automated computational models include improved system development and testing, shortened development cycle, and automation of common system evaluation tasks. Numerical results are presented relating to the talking/singing classification problem.

  1. Acoustic detections of singing humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) in the eastern North Pacific during their northbound migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, T F; McDonald, M; Barlow, J

    1999-07-01

    Numerous (84) acoustic detections of singing humpback whales were made during a spring (08 March-09 June 1997) research cruise to study sperm whales in the central and eastern North Pacific. Over 15,000 km of track-line was surveyed acoustically using a towed hydrophone array. Additionally, 83 sonobuoys were deployed throughout the study area. Detection rates were greatest in late March, near the Hawaiian Islands, and in early April, northeast of the islands. Only one detection was made after April. Detection rates for sonobuoys were unequal in three equally divided longitudinal regions of the study area. Two high density clusters of detections occurred approximately 1200-2000 km northeast of the Hawaiian Islands and were attributed to a large aggregation of migrating animals. The distribution of these detections corroborates findings of previous studies. It is possible that these animals were maintaining acoustic contact during migration. Two unexpected clusters of singing whales were detected approximately 900 to 1000 km west of central and southern California. The location of these detections may indicate a previously undocumented migration route between an offshore breeding area, such as the Revillagigedo Islands, Mexico, and possible feeding areas in the western North Pacific or Bering Sea.

  2. SURVEY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SURVEY er en udbredt metode og benyttes inden for bl.a. samfundsvidenskab, humaniora, psykologi og sundhedsforskning. Også uden for forskningsverdenen er der mange organisationer som f.eks. konsulentfirmaer og offentlige institutioner samt marketingsafdelinger i private virksomheder, der arbejder...... med surveys. Denne bog gennemgår alle surveyarbejdets faser og giver en praktisk indføring i: • design af undersøgelsen og udvælgelse af stikprøver, • formulering af spørgeskemaer samt indsamling og kodning af data, • metoder til at analysere resultaterne...

  3. Singing classes for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lord Victoria M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is some evidence that singing lessons may be of benefit to patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. It is not clear how much of this benefit is specific to singing and how much relates to the classes being a group activity that addresses social isolation. Methods Patients were randomised to either singing classes or a film club for eight weeks. Response was assessed quantitatively through health status questionnaires, measures of breathing control, exercise capacity and physical activity and qualitatively, through structured interviews with a clinical psychologist. Results The singing group (n=13 mean(SD FEV1 44.4(14.4% predicted and film group (n=11 FEV1 63.5(25.5%predicted did not differ significantly at baseline. There was a significant difference between the response of the physical component score of the SF-36, favouring the singing group +12.9(19.0 vs -0.25(11.9 (p=0.02, but no difference in response of the mental component score of the SF-36, breathing control measures, exercise capacity or daily physical activity. In the qualitative element, positive effects on physical well-being were reported in the singing group but not the film group. Conclusion Singing classes have an impact on health status distinct from that achieved simply by taking part in a group activity. Trials registration Registration Current Controlled Trials - ISRCTN17544114

  4. Maternal singing during kangaroo care led to autonomic stability in preterm infants and reduced maternal anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnon, Shmuel; Diamant, Chagit; Bauer, Sofia; Regev, Rivka; Sirota, Gisela; Litmanovitz, Ita

    2014-10-01

    Kangaroo care (KC) and maternal singing benefit preterm infants, and we investigated whether combining these benefitted infants and mothers. A prospective randomised, within-subject, crossover, repeated-measures study design was used, with participants acting as their own controls. We evaluated the heart rate variability (HRV) of stable preterm infants receiving KC, with and without maternal singing. This included low frequency (LF), high frequency (HF) and the LF/HF ratio during baseline (10 min), singing or quiet phases (20 min) and recovery (10 min). Physiological parameters, maternal anxiety and the infants' behavioural state were measured. We included 86 stable preterm infants, with a postmenstrual age of 32-36 weeks. A significant change in LF and HF, and lower LF/HF ratio, was observed during KC with maternal singing during the intervention and recovery phases, compared with just KC and baseline (all p-values singing than just KC (p = 0.04). No differences in the infants' behavioural states or physiological parameters were found, with or without singing. Maternal singing during KC reduces maternal anxiety and leads to autonomic stability in stable preterm infants. This effect is not detected in behavioural state or physiological parameters commonly used to monitor preterm infants. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Singing for Lung Health—a systematic review of the literature and consensus statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Adam; Cave, Phoene; Stern, Myra; Welch, Lindsay; Taylor, Karen; Russell, Juliet; Doyle, Anne-Marie; Russell, Anne-Marie; McKee, Heather; Clift, Stephen; Bott, Julia; Hopkinson, Nicholas S

    2016-01-01

    There is growing interest in Singing for Lung Health (SLH), an approach where patients with respiratory disease take part in singing groups, intended to improve their condition. A consensus group was convened in early 2016 to address issues including: the specific features that make SLH distinct from other forms of participation in singing; the existing evidence base via a systematic review; gaps in the evidence base including the need to define value-based outcome measures for sustainable commissioning of SLH; defining the measures needed to evaluate both individuals' responses to SLH and the quality of singing programmes. and core training, expertise and competencies required by singing group leaders to deliver high-quality programmes. A systematic review to establish the extent of the evidence base for SLH was undertaken. Electronic databases, including Pubmed, OVID Medline and Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane central register of controlled trials and PEDro, were used. Six studies were included in the final review. Quantitative data suggest that singing has the potential to improve health-related quality of life, particularly related to physical health, and levels of anxiety without causing significant side effects. There is a significant risk of bias in many of the existing studies with small numbers of subjects overall. Little comparison can be made between studies owing to their heterogeneity in design. Qualitative data indicate that singing is an enjoyable experience for patients, who consistently report that it helps them to cope with their condition better. Larger and longer-term trials are needed. PMID:27906158

  6. Possible benefits of singing to the mental and physical condition of the elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The evaluation and management of stress are important for the prevention of both depression and cardiovascular disease. In addition, the maintenance of the oral condition of the elderly is essential to enable them to stay healthy, especially to prevent aspiration pneumonia and improve mental health in an aging society. Therefore, we examined the efficacy of singing on the oral condition, mental health status, and immunity of the elderly to determine if singing could contribute to the improvement of their physical condition. Methods Forty-four subjects (10 men, 34 women), aged 60 years or older, participated in this study. The efficacy of singing on mental health status and immunocompetence was examined by swallowing function, oral condition, blood, and saliva tests, as well as through questionnaires taken before and after singing. Results The results showed that the amount of saliva increased and the level of cortisol, a salivary stress marker, decreased after singing. The Visual Analog Scale (VAS) scores for feeling refreshed, comfortable, pleasurable, light-hearted, relieved, and relaxed; the tension and confusion subscale score; and the total mood disturbance (TMD) score of the Profile of Mood States (POMS) all showed improvements. Furthermore, the same tendencies were shown regardless of whether or not the subjects liked singing. Conclusions Our results suggest that singing can be effective in improving the mental health and oral condition of the elderly. PMID:24864162

  7. Group Singing as a Therapy during Diabetes Training--A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groener, J B; Neus, I; Kopf, S; Hartmann, M; Schanz, J; Kliemank, E; Wetekam, B; Kihm, L; Fleming, T; Herzog, W; Nawroth, P P

    2015-11-01

    Comprehensive diabetes treatment has been shown to reduce quality of life in diabetic patients. However, there is evidence to suggest that group singing can have positive effects on quality of life in various clinical settings. In this randomized controlled pilot study, the effect of singing as a therapy to reduce stress and improve quality of life was investigated in insulin-dependent diabetic patients, undergoing a lifestyle intervention program. Patients from the singing group felt less discontented following treatment. This effect, however, was lost after 3 months. No effect on serum cortisol and plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels could be seen when comparing the singing group with the control group, although reduced levels of ACTH and cortisol 3 days after treatment could be found and were still present after 3 months within the group of patients who undertook singing as a therapy. Singing led to an increase in bodyweight, which interestingly had no effect on glucose control or methylglyoxal levels. Therefore, singing during a lifestyle intervention program for insulin-dependent diabetic patients had a short lasting and weak effect on patients' mood without affecting glucose control, but no significant effect on stress related hormones. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. A simulator study of the effects of singing on driving performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Genevieve M; Rudin-Brown, Christina M; Young, Kristie L

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate how singing while driving affects driver performance. Twenty-one participants completed three trials of a simulated drive concurrently while performing a peripheral detection task (PDT); each trial was conducted either without music, with participants listening to music, or with participants singing along to music. It was hypothesised that driving performance and PDT response times would be impaired, and that driver subjective workload ratings would be higher, when participants were singing to music compared to when there was no music or when participants were listening to music. As expected, singing while driving was rated as more mentally demanding, and resulted in slower and more variable speeds, than driving without music. Listening to music was associated with the slowest speeds overall, and fewer lane excursions than the no music condition. Interestingly, both music conditions were associated with slower speed-adjusted PDT response times and significantly less deviation within the lane than was driving without music. Collectively, results suggest that singing while driving alters driving performance and impairs hazard perception while at the same time increasing subjective mental workload. However, singing while driving does not appear to affect driving performance more than simply listening to music. Further, drivers' efforts to compensate for the increased mental workload associated with singing and listening to music by slowing down appear to be insufficient, as evidenced by relative increases in PDT response times in these two conditions compared to baseline. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Singing classes for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Victoria M; Hume, Victoria J; Kelly, Julia L; Cave, Phoene; Silver, Judith; Waldman, Maya; White, Chris; Smith, Cayley; Tanner, Rebecca; Sanchez, Melissa; Man, William D-C; Polkey, Michael I; Hopkinson, Nicholas S

    2012-11-13

    There is some evidence that singing lessons may be of benefit to patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It is not clear how much of this benefit is specific to singing and how much relates to the classes being a group activity that addresses social isolation. Patients were randomised to either singing classes or a film club for eight weeks. Response was assessed quantitatively through health status questionnaires, measures of breathing control, exercise capacity and physical activity and qualitatively, through structured interviews with a clinical psychologist. The singing group (n=13 mean(SD) FEV1 44.4(14.4)% predicted) and film group (n=11 FEV1 63.5(25.5)%predicted) did not differ significantly at baseline. There was a significant difference between the response of the physical component score of the SF-36, favouring the singing group +12.9(19.0) vs -0.25(11.9) (p=0.02), but no difference in response of the mental component score of the SF-36, breathing control measures, exercise capacity or daily physical activity. In the qualitative element, positive effects on physical well-being were reported in the singing group but not the film group. Singing classes have an impact on health status distinct from that achieved simply by taking part in a group activity. Registration Current Controlled Trials - ISRCTN17544114.

  10. Brain Activation During Singing: "Clef de Sol Activation" Is the "Concert" of the Human Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavridis, Ioannis N; Pyrgelis, Efstratios-Stylianos

    2016-03-01

    Humans are the most complex singers in nature, and the human voice is thought by many to be the most beautiful musical instrument. Aside from spoken language, singing represents a second mode of acoustic communication in humans. The purpose of this review article is to explore the functional anatomy of the "singing" brain. Methodologically, the existing literature regarding activation of the human brain during singing was carefully reviewed, with emphasis on the anatomic localization of such activation. Relevant human studies are mainly neuroimaging studies, namely functional magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography studies. Singing necessitates activation of several cortical, subcortical, cerebellar, and brainstem areas, served and coordinated by multiple neural networks. Functionally vital cortical areas of the frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes bilaterally participate in the brain's activation process during singing, confirming the latter's role in human communication. Perisylvian cortical activity of the right hemisphere seems to be the most crucial component of this activation. This also explains why aphasic patients due to left hemispheric lesions are able to sing but not speak the same words. The term clef de sol activation is proposed for this crucial perisylvian cortical activation due to the clef de sol shape of the topographical distribution of these cortical areas around the sylvian fissure. Further research is needed to explore the connectivity and sequence of how the human brain activates to sing.

  11. Effects of meteorology, astronomical variables, location and human disturbance on the singing apes: Hylobates albibarbis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheyne, Susan M

    2008-04-01

    Gibbons are characterized by their species-specific calls. The frequency of singing is known to be affected by rainfall, with singing occurring less in the wet season. I investigate the hypothesis that gibbon singing is also affected by the natural light-dark cycle, and by the changing light intensity and air quality resulting from the smoke haze which blankets the Indonesian island of Borneo on a yearly basis. I compare three singing variables-onset of singing, average duration of singing bout and number of female great calls produced during the dry season of 2006 when there was no smoke haze (June-August) and when there was smoke haze present (September-November). I present evidence which indicates that the changes in singing behavior are affected by changes in rainfall and smoke intensity but not by other meteorological factors (i.e. wind and light intensity) or changing astronomical cues (light intensity, month, time of sunrise, time of moonrise, nocturnal illumination index, day length and night length). The possible long-term effects of this on gibbon behavior and territoriality are discussed. The need to carry out more research on the long-term effects of the smoke haze on wildlife behavior and possible solutions to the problem are discussed.

  12. The acoustic and perceptual differences to the non-singer's singing voice before and after a singing vocal warm-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRosa, Angela

    The present study analyzed the acoustic and perceptual differences in non-singer's singing voice before and after a vocal warm-up. Experiments were conducted with 12 females who had no singing experience and considered themselves to be non-singers. Participants were recorded performing 3 tasks: a musical scale stretching to their most comfortable high and low pitches, sustained productions of the vowels /a/ and /i/, and singing performance of the "Star Spangled Banner." Participants were recorded performing these three tasks before a vocal warm-up, after a vocal warm-up, and then again 2-3 weeks later after 2-3 weeks of practice. Acoustical analysis consisted of formant frequency analysis, singer's formant/singing power ratio analysis, maximum phonation frequency range analysis, and an analysis of jitter, noise to harmonic ratio (NHR), relative average perturbation (RAP), and voice turbulence index (VTI). A perceptual analysis was also conducted with 12 listeners rating comparison performances of before vs. after the vocal warm-up, before vs. after the second vocal warm-up, and after both vocal warm-ups. There were no significant findings for the formant frequency analysis of the vowel /a/, but there was significance for the 1st formant frequency analysis of the vowel /i/. Singer's formant analyzed via Singing Power Ratio analysis showed significance only for the vowel /i/. Maximum phonation frequency range analysis showed a significant increase after the vocal warm-ups. There were no significant findings for the acoustic measures of jitter, NHR, RAP, and VTI. Perceptual analysis showed a significant difference after a vocal warm-up. The results indicate that a singing vocal warm-up can have a significant positive influence on the singing voice of non-singers.

  13. Song and speech: examining the link between singing talent and speech imitation ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiner, Markus; Reiterer, Susanne M

    2013-01-01

    In previous research on speech imitation, musicality, and an ability to sing were isolated as the strongest indicators of good pronunciation skills in foreign languages. We, therefore, wanted to take a closer look at the nature of the ability to sing, which shares a common ground with the ability to imitate speech. This study focuses on whether good singing performance predicts good speech imitation. Forty-one singers of different levels of proficiency were selected for the study and their ability to sing, to imitate speech, their musical talent and working memory were tested. Results indicated that singing performance is a better indicator of the ability to imitate speech than the playing of a musical instrument. A multiple regression revealed that 64% of the speech imitation score variance could be explained by working memory together with educational background and singing performance. A second multiple regression showed that 66% of the speech imitation variance of completely unintelligible and unfamiliar language stimuli (Hindi) could be explained by working memory together with a singer's sense of rhythm and quality of voice. This supports the idea that both vocal behaviors have a common grounding in terms of vocal and motor flexibility, ontogenetic and phylogenetic development, neural orchestration and auditory memory with singing fitting better into the category of "speech" on the productive level and "music" on the acoustic level. As a result, good singers benefit from vocal and motor flexibility, productively and cognitively, in three ways. (1) Motor flexibility and the ability to sing improve language and musical function. (2) Good singers retain a certain plasticity and are open to new and unusual sound combinations during adulthood both perceptually and productively. (3) The ability to sing improves the memory span of the auditory working memory.

  14. Song and speech: examining the link between singing talent and speech imitation ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus eChristiner

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In previous research on speech imitation, musicality and an ability to sing were isolated as the strongest indicators of good pronunciation skills in foreign languages. We, therefore, wanted to take a closer look at the nature of the ability to sing, which shares a common ground with the ability to imitate speech. This study focuses on whether good singing performance predicts good speech imitation. Fourty-one singers of different levels of proficiency were selected for the study and their ability to sing, to imitate speech, their musical talent and working memory were tested. Results indicated that singing performance is a better indicator of the ability to imitate speech than the playing of a musical instrument. A multiple regression revealed that 64 % of the speech imitation score variance could be explained by working memory together with educational background and singing performance. A second multiple regression showed that 66 % of the speech imitation variance of completely unintelligible and unfamiliar language stimuli (Hindi could be explained by working memory together with a singer’s sense of rhythm and quality of voice. This supports the idea that both vocal behaviors have a common grounding in terms of vocal and motor flexibility, ontogenetic and phylogenetic development, neural orchestration and sound memory with singing fitting better into the category of "speech" on the productive level and "music" on the acoustic level. As a result, good singers benefit from vocal and motor flexibility, productively and cognitively, in three ways. 1. Motor flexibility and the ability to sing improve language and musical function. 2. Good singers retain a certain plasticity and are open to new and unusual sound combinations during adulthood both perceptually and productively. 3. The ability to sing improves the memory span of the auditory short term memory.

  15. Song and speech: examining the link between singing talent and speech imitation ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiner, Markus; Reiterer, Susanne M.

    2013-01-01

    In previous research on speech imitation, musicality, and an ability to sing were isolated as the strongest indicators of good pronunciation skills in foreign languages. We, therefore, wanted to take a closer look at the nature of the ability to sing, which shares a common ground with the ability to imitate speech. This study focuses on whether good singing performance predicts good speech imitation. Forty-one singers of different levels of proficiency were selected for the study and their ability to sing, to imitate speech, their musical talent and working memory were tested. Results indicated that singing performance is a better indicator of the ability to imitate speech than the playing of a musical instrument. A multiple regression revealed that 64% of the speech imitation score variance could be explained by working memory together with educational background and singing performance. A second multiple regression showed that 66% of the speech imitation variance of completely unintelligible and unfamiliar language stimuli (Hindi) could be explained by working memory together with a singer's sense of rhythm and quality of voice. This supports the idea that both vocal behaviors have a common grounding in terms of vocal and motor flexibility, ontogenetic and phylogenetic development, neural orchestration and auditory memory with singing fitting better into the category of “speech” on the productive level and “music” on the acoustic level. As a result, good singers benefit from vocal and motor flexibility, productively and cognitively, in three ways. (1) Motor flexibility and the ability to sing improve language and musical function. (2) Good singers retain a certain plasticity and are open to new and unusual sound combinations during adulthood both perceptually and productively. (3) The ability to sing improves the memory span of the auditory working memory. PMID:24319438

  16. A Pitch Extraction Method with High Frequency Resolution for Singing Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Hideyo; Hoguro, Masahiro; Umezaki, Taizo

    This paper proposes a pitch estimation method suitable for singing evaluation incorporable in KARAOKE machines. Professional singers and musicians have sharp hearing for music and singing voice. They recognize that singer's voice pitch is “a little off key” or “be in tune”. In the same way, the pitch estimation method that has high frequency resolution is necessary in order to evaluate singing. This paper proposes a pitch estimation method with high frequency resolution utilizing harmonic characteristic of autocorrelation function. The proposed method can estimate a fundamental frequency in the range 50 ∼ 1700[Hz] with resolution less than 3.6 cents in light processing.

  17. The Tibetan singing bowl : an acoustics and fluid dynamics investigation

    CERN Document Server

    Terwagne, Denis

    2011-01-01

    We present the results of an experimental investigation of the acoustics and fluid dynamics of Tibetan singing bowls. Their acoustic behavior is rationalized in terms of the related dynamics of standing bells and wine glasses. Striking or rubbing a fluid-filled bowl excites wall vibrations, and concomitant waves at the fluid surface. Acoustic excitation of the bowl's natural vibrational modes allows for a controlled study in which the evolution of the surface waves with increasing forcing amplitude is detailed. Particular attention is given to rationalizing the observed criteria for the onset of edge-induced Faraday waves and droplet generation via surface fracture. Our study indicates that drops may be levitated on the fluid surface, induced to bounce on or skip across the vibrating fluid surface.

  18. Singing can improve speech function in aphasics associated with intact right basal ganglia and preserve right temporal glucose metabolism: Implications for singing therapy indication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akanuma, Kyoko; Meguro, Kenichi; Satoh, Masayuki; Tashiro, Manabu; Itoh, Masatoshi

    2016-01-01

    Clinically, we know that some aphasic patients can sing well despite their speech disturbances. Herein, we report 10 patients with non-fluent aphasia, of which half of the patients improved their speech function after singing training. We studied ten patients with non-fluent aphasia complaining of difficulty finding words. All had lesions in the left basal ganglia or temporal lobe. They selected the melodies they knew well, but which they could not sing. We made a new lyric with a familiar melody using words they could not name. The singing training using these new lyrics was performed for 30 minutes once a week for 10 weeks. Before and after the training, their speech functions were assessed by language tests. At baseline, 6 of them received positron emission tomography to evaluate glucose metabolism. Five patients exhibited improvements after intervention; all but one exhibited intact right basal ganglia and left temporal lobes, but all exhibited left basal ganglia lesions. Among them, three subjects exhibited preserved glucose metabolism in the right temporal lobe. We considered that patients who exhibit intact right basal ganglia and left temporal lobes, together with preserved right hemispheric glucose metabolism, might be an indication of the effectiveness of singing therapy.

  19. Dust Masses, PAH Abundances, and Starlight Intensities in the SINGS Galaxy Sample

    CERN Document Server

    Draine, B T; Bendo, G; Gordon, K D; Smith, J D T; Armus, L; Engelbracht, C W; Helou, G; Kennicutt, R C; Li, A; Roussel, H; Walter, F; Calzetti, D; Moustakas, J; Murphy, E J; Rieke, G H; Bot, C; Hollenbach, D J; Sheth, K; Teplitz, H I

    2007-01-01

    Physical dust models are presented for 65 galaxies in the SINGS survey that are strongly detected in the four IRAC bands and three MIPS bands. For each galaxy we estimate (1) the total dust mass, (2) the fraction of the dust mass contributed by PAHs, and (3) the intensity of the starlight heating the dust grains. We find that spiral galaxies have dust properties resembling the dust in the local region of the Milky Way, with similar dust-to-gas ratio, and similar PAH abundance. The observed SEDs, including galaxies with SCUBA photometry, can be reproduced by dust models that do not require "cold" (T8.1, grains contain a substantial fraction of interstellar Mg, Si and Fe. Galaxies with A_O8.1 have a median q_PAH=3.55%. The derived dust masses favor a value X_CO approx 4e20 cm^{-2}(K kms)^{-1} for the CO to H_2 conversion factor. Except for some starbursting systems (Mrk33, Tolo89, NGC3049), dust in the diffuse ISM dominates the IR power.

  20. The Incidence of Highly-Obscured Star-Forming Regions in SINGS Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Prescott, Moire K M; Bendo, George J; Buckalew, Brent A; Calzetti, Daniela; Engelbracht, Charles W; Gordon, Karl D; Hollenbach, David J; Lee, Janice C; Moustakas, John; Dale, Daniel A; Helou, George; Jarrett, Thomas H; Murphy, Eric J; Smith, John David T; Akiyama, Sanae; Sosey, Megan L; George J. Bendo Astrophysics Group, Imperial College

    2007-01-01

    Using the new capabilities of the Spitzer Space Telescope and extensive multiwavelength data from the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey (SINGS), it is now possible to study the infrared properties of star formation in nearby galaxies down to scales equivalent to large HII regions. We are therefore able to determine what fraction of large, infrared-selected star-forming regions in normal galaxies are highly obscured and address how much of the star formation we miss by relying solely on the optical portion of the spectrum. Employing a new empirical method for deriving attenuations of infrared-selected star-forming regions we investigate the statistics of obscured star formation on 500pc scales in a sample of 38 nearby galaxies. We find that the median attenuation is 1.4 magnitudes in H-alpha and that there is no evidence for a substantial sub-population of uniformly highly-obscured star-forming regions. The regions in the highly-obscured tail of the attenuation distribution (A_H-alpha > 3) make up only ~...

  1. The Radio Continuum-Star Formation Rate Relation in WSRT SINGS Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Heesen, Volker; Leroy, Adam K; Heald, George; Braun, Robert; Bigiel, Frank; Beck, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    We study the spatially resolved Radio Continuum-Star Formation Rate (RC-SFR) relation using state-of-the-art star-formation (SF) tracers in a sample of 17 THINGS galaxies. We use hybrid Sigma_SFR maps (GALEX FUV plus Spitzer 24 mu), RC maps at 22/18 cm from the WSRT SINGS survey, and H-alpha maps to correct for thermal RC emission. We compare azimuthally averaged radial profiles of the RC and FUV/MIR-based Sigma_SFR maps and study pixel-by-pixel correlations at fixed linear scales of 1.2 and 0.7 kpc. The ratio of the integrated SFRs from the RC emission to that of the FUV/MIR-based SF tracers is R_int = 0.78 +/- 0.38, consistent with Condon's relation. We find a tight correlation between the radial profiles of the radio and FUV/MIR-based Sigma_SFR for the entire extent of the disk. The ratio R of the azimuthally averaged radio to FUV/MIR-based Sigma_SFR agrees with the integrated ratio with only small quasi-random fluctuations as function of radius. Pixel-by-pixel plots show a tight correlation in log-log dia...

  2. Analysis of the Signal of Singing Using the Vibrato Parameter in the Context of Choir Singers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Edward Półrolniczak; MichałKramarczyk

    2013-01-01

    Evaluation of quality of singing is an issue subjectively realized by the experts. This paper presents the results of the analysis of the vibrato parameter in the singing. The well-known fact is the existence of vibrato of sufficient quality in the voices of professional singers. The authors focus here on the choral voices to assess the quality of their singing from the point of view of the vibrato parameter. The method presented here is developed to evaluate the vibrato while singing under conditions close to the real ones. The study was carried out on the recordings of the members of an academic choir. As a result of tests it was found that not all singers present the same quality of vibrato in terms of deviation of vibrato confidence (STDCV).

  3. Intonation in unaccompanied singing: accuracy, drift, and a model of reference pitch memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauch, Matthias; Frieler, Klaus; Dixon, Simon

    2014-07-01

    This paper presents a study on intonation and intonation drift in unaccompanied singing, and proposes a simple model of reference pitch memory that accounts for many of the effects observed. Singing experiments were conducted with 24 singers of varying ability under three conditions (Normal, Masked, Imagined). Over the duration of a recording, ∼50 s, a median absolute intonation drift of 11 cents was observed. While smaller than the median note error (19 cents), drift was significant in 22% of recordings. Drift magnitude did not correlate with other measures of singing accuracy, singing experience, or the presence of conditions tested. Furthermore, it is shown that neither a static intonation memory model nor a memoryless interval-based intonation model can account for the accuracy and drift behavior observed. The proposed causal model provides a better explanation as it treats the reference pitch as a changing latent variable.

  4. Singing for Lung Health: a qualitative assessment of a British Lung Foundation programme for group leaders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adam Lewis; Phoene Cave; Nicholas S Hopkinson

    2017-01-01

    .... There are limited data as to how these groups should be developed and run. We aimed to evaluate the experience of singing leaders both to assess the training provided by the British Lung Foundation (BLF...

  5. Let me sing your songs: how Finns found xöömei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sauli Heikkilä

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The author of this essay, musician and founder of the Throat Singing Association of Finland (1997, tells the story of how an association of throat singing practitioners came to be in Finland, and how to teach this art to those wishing to learn it. The story also covers the author’s own musical preferences and his life-changing visit to a week-long workshop led by Boris Salchak from Tuva in 1995. Two years later, the author and other aficionados of Tuvan xöömei founded the Throat Singing Association and started holding festivals featuring invited Tuvan singers and throat singing courses. The author describes his collaboration with renowned Tuvan performers, as well as throat singing scholars from the USA, the Netherlands, UK, Italy, etc. The author holds that throat (or overtone singing is a special sound practice. Tuvan practices can be compared with similar techniques developed by indigenous peoples of Africa, North America, Japan and Tibet. Throat singing as a practice is closely linked to specific ancient worldviews of peoples and cultures living close to nature. Finns are also considered living in close proximity to nature, which may explain their partiality to throat signing. Dozens actively practice xöömei and hundreds have experienced it, which is a much larger percentage than in other European states. In the essay, the author also focuses on the throat singing courses he has been giving for a while and shares his observations of his students, their motivation, specific training techniques and adapting them to the desires and intentions of his students. He believes that almost everybody can learn singing, and most people can have a command of throat singing. The essay also covers the main problems that aspiring throat singers can face, as well as specific styles of the xöömei, concluding with the idea that it is impossible to master throat singing in a short period of time. The key to success is only found in regular and extensive

  6. 'Singing for the Brain': A qualitative study exploring the health and well-being benefits of singing for people with dementia and their carers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Sara Eldirdiry; Tischler, Victoria; Schneider, Justine

    2016-11-01

    Dementia has detrimental effects on cognitive, psychological and behavioural functioning, as well as significant impact on those who provide care. There is a need to find suitable psychosocial interventions to help manage the condition, enhance well-being, and to provide support for caregivers. This study explored the impact of Singing for the Brain™, an intervention based on group singing activities developed by The Alzheimer's Society for people with dementia and their carers. This qualitative study used semi-structured interviews with people with dementia and their carers. Ten interviews involving 20 participants were analysed thematically. Social inclusiveness and improvements in relationships, memory and mood were found to be especially important to participants. As well as enjoying the sessions, participants found that attending Singing for the Brain™ helped in accepting and coping with dementia.

  7. Group singing and health-related quality of life in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, Romane V; Baird, Amee D; Chalmers, Kerry A

    2017-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) has a negative impact on health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Previous studies have shown that participating in group singing activities can improve quality of life in some patient populations (e.g., people with chronic mental health or neurological conditions). The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of group singing on HRQoL for people diagnosed with PD. Eleven participants (mean age 70.6 years) with a formal diagnosis of PD between Hoehn and Yahr Stages I-III were recruited from a community singing group for people with PD, their family and their carers. Participants' perceptions of the effect of group singing on their quality of life were captured in a semistructured interview. Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis (IPA), a qualitative methodology, informed data collection and analysis. The IPA analysis revealed 6 categories that characterized the effects of group singing: physical, mood, cognitive functioning, social connectedness, "flow-on" effects, and sense-of-self. All participants reported positive effects across at least 4 of these categories. Three participants reported a negative effect in 1 category (physical, mood, or sense-of-self). The results suggest that group singing improved HRQoL with all participants reporting positive effects regardless of PD stage or symptom severity. Weekly engagement in group singing resulted in multiple benefits for the participants and counteracted some of the negative effects of PD. These findings suggest that group singing "gives back" some of what PD "takes away." (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Corollary discharge inhibition of wind-sensitive cercal giant interneurons in the singing field cricket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedwig, Berthold

    2014-01-01

    Crickets carry wind-sensitive mechanoreceptors on their cerci, which, in response to the airflow produced by approaching predators, triggers escape reactions via ascending giant interneurons (GIs). Males also activate their cercal system by air currents generated due to the wing movements underlying sound production. Singing males still respond to external wind stimulation, but are not startled by the self-generated airflow. To investigate how the nervous system discriminates sensory responses to self-generated and external airflow, we intracellularly recorded wind-sensitive afferents and ventral GIs of the cercal escape pathway in fictively singing crickets, a situation lacking any self-stimulation. GI spiking was reduced whenever cercal wind stimulation coincided with singing motor activity. The axonal terminals of cercal afferents showed no indication of presynaptic inhibition during singing. In two ventral GIs, however, a corollary discharge inhibition occurred strictly in phase with the singing motor pattern. Paired intracellular recordings revealed that this inhibition was not mediated by the activity of the previously identified corollary discharge interneuron (CDI) that rhythmically inhibits the auditory pathway during singing. Cercal wind stimulation, however, reduced the spike activity of this CDI by postsynaptic inhibition. Our study reveals how precisely timed corollary discharge inhibition of ventral GIs can prevent self-generated airflow from triggering inadvertent escape responses in singing crickets. The results indicate that the responsiveness of the auditory and wind-sensitive pathway is modulated by distinct CDIs in singing crickets and that the corollary discharge inhibition in the auditory pathway can be attenuated by cercal wind stimulation. PMID:25318763

  9. Cellular basis for singing motor pattern generation in the field cricket (Gryllus bimaculatus DeGeer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöneich, Stefan; Hedwig, Berthold

    2012-01-01

    The singing behavior of male crickets allows analyzing a central pattern generator (CPG) that was shaped by sexual selection for reliable production of species-specific communication signals. After localizing the essential ganglia for singing in Gryllus bimaculatus, we now studied the calling song CPG at the cellular level. Fictive singing was initiated by pharmacological brain stimulation. The motor pattern underlying syllables and chirps was recorded as alternating spike bursts of wing-opener and wing-closer motoneurons in a truncated wing nerve; it precisely reflected the natural calling song. During fictive singing, we intracellularly recorded and stained interneurons in thoracic and abdominal ganglia and tested their impact on the song pattern by intracellular current injections. We identified three interneurons of the metathoracic and first unfused abdominal ganglion that rhythmically de- and hyperpolarized in phase with the syllable pattern and spiked strictly before the wing-opener motoneurons. Depolarizing current injection in two of these opener interneurons caused additional rhythmic singing activity, which reliably reset the ongoing chirp rhythm. The closely intermeshing arborizations of the singing interneurons revealed the dorsal midline neuropiles of the metathoracic and three most anterior abdominal neuromeres as the anatomical location of singing pattern generation. In the same neuropiles, we also recorded several closer interneurons that rhythmically hyper- and depolarized in the syllable rhythm and spiked strictly before the wing-closer motoneurons. Some of them received pronounced inhibition at the beginning of each chirp. Hyperpolarizing current injection in the dendrite revealed postinhibitory rebound depolarization as one functional mechanism of central pattern generation in singing crickets. PMID:23170234

  10. Task-specific singing dystonia: vocal instability that technique cannot fix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halstead, Lucinda A; McBroom, Deanna M; Bonilha, Heather Shaw

    2015-01-01

    Singer's dystonia is a rare variation of focal laryngeal dystonia presenting only during specific tasks in the singing voice. It is underdiagnosed since it is commonly attributed to technique problems including increased muscle tension, register transition, or wobble. Singer's dystonia differs from technique-related issues in that it is task- and/or pitch-specific, reproducible and occurs independently from the previously mentioned technical issues.This case series compares and contrasts profiles of four patients with singer's dystonia to increase our knowledge of this disorder. This retrospective case series includes a detailed case history, results of singing evaluations from individual voice teachers, review of singing voice samples by a singing voice specialist, evaluation by a laryngologist with endoscopy and laryngeal electromyography (LEMG), and spectral analysis of the voice samples by a speech-language pathologist. Results demonstrate the similarities and unique differences of individuals with singer's dystonia. Response to treatment and singing status varied from nearly complete relief of symptoms with botulinum toxin injections to minor relief of symptoms and discontinuation of singing. The following are the conclusions from this case series: (1) singer's dystonia exists as a separate entity from technique issues, (2) singer's dystonia is consistent with other focal task-specific dystonias found in musicians, (3) correctly diagnosing singer's dystonia allows singer's access to medical treatment of dystonia and an opportunity to modify their singing repertoire to continue singing with the voice they have, and (4) diagnosis of singer's dystonia requires careful sequential multidisciplinary evaluation to isolate the instability and confirm dystonia by LEMG and spectral voice analysis. Copyright © 2015 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The demands of professional opera singing on cranio-cervical posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Gillian; Skinner, Margot

    2009-04-01

    Difficulty with singing is a rare but important complication following cervical spine surgery but there is little objective information regarding the cervical and head postural changes taking place during singing. The aim of this study was to identify postural changes in the cranio-cervical region associated with the demands of voice production in professional opera singing. The two Roentgen-cephalograms, one of which are taken whilst performing a specified singing task were taken from 18 professional opera students, 12 females (mean age 20.86 +/- 3.07 years) and six males (18.66 +/- 1.36 years). A paired t test compared mean cranio-cervical postural and pharyngeal/hyoid variables between the two registrations (P = 0.05). The association between the cranio-cervical postural variables and the pharyngeal/hyoid region in each registration position was examined using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. In singing, the position of the atlas with respect to the true vertical (P opera singing has relevance to the potential impact on voice quality in professional opera singers should they undergo cervical spine surgery.

  12. Singing ability is rooted in vocal-motor control of pitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, Sean; Larrouy-Maestri, Pauline; Peretz, Isabelle

    2014-11-01

    The inability to vocally match a pitch can be caused by poor pitch perception or by poor vocal-motor control. Although previous studies have tried to examine the relationship between pitch perception and vocal production, they have failed to control for the timbre of the target to be matched. In the present study, we compare pitch-matching accuracy with an unfamiliar instrument (the slider) and with the voice, designed such that the slider plays back recordings of the participant's own voice. We also measured pitch accuracy in singing a familiar melody ("Happy Birthday") to assess the relationship between single-pitch-matching tasks and melodic singing. Our results showed that participants (all nonmusicians) were significantly better at matching recordings of their own voices with the slider than with their voice, indicating that vocal-motor control is an important limiting factor on singing ability. We also found significant correlations between the ability to sing a melody in tune and vocal pitch matching, but not pitch matching on the slider. Better melodic singers also tended to have higher quality voices (as measured by acoustic variables). These results provide important evidence about the role of vocal-motor control in poor singing ability and demonstrate that single-pitch-matching tasks can be useful in measuring general singing abilities.

  13. Lower Vocal Tract Morphologic Adjustments Are Relevant for Voice Timbre in Singing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainka, Alexander; Poznyakovskiy, Anton; Platzek, Ivan; Fleischer, Mario; Sundberg, Johan; Mürbe, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    The vocal tract shape is crucial to voice production. Its lower part seems particularly relevant for voice timbre. This study analyzes the detailed morphology of parts of the epilaryngeal tube and the hypopharynx for the sustained German vowels /a/, /e/, /i/, /o/, and /u/ by thirteen male singer subjects who were at the beginning of their academic singing studies. Analysis was based on two different phonatory conditions: a natural, speech-like phonation and a singing phonation, like in classical singing. 3D models of the vocal tract were derived from magnetic resonance imaging and compared with long-term average spectrum analysis of audio recordings from the same subjects. Comparison of singing to the speech-like phonation, which served as reference, showed significant adjustments of the lower vocal tract: an average lowering of the larynx by 8 mm and an increase of the hypopharyngeal cross-sectional area (+ 21:9%) and volume (+ 16:8%). Changes in the analyzed epilaryngeal portion of the vocal tract were not significant. Consequently, lower larynx-to-hypopharynx area and volume ratios were found in singing compared to the speech-like phonation. All evaluated measures of the lower vocal tract varied significantly with vowel quality. Acoustically, an increase of high frequency energy in singing correlated with a wider hypopharyngeal area. The findings offer an explanation how classical male singers might succeed in producing a voice timbre with increased high frequency energy, creating a singer`s formant cluster.

  14. Lower Vocal Tract Morphologic Adjustments Are Relevant for Voice Timbre in Singing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Mainka

    Full Text Available The vocal tract shape is crucial to voice production. Its lower part seems particularly relevant for voice timbre. This study analyzes the detailed morphology of parts of the epilaryngeal tube and the hypopharynx for the sustained German vowels /a/, /e/, /i/, /o/, and /u/ by thirteen male singer subjects who were at the beginning of their academic singing studies. Analysis was based on two different phonatory conditions: a natural, speech-like phonation and a singing phonation, like in classical singing. 3D models of the vocal tract were derived from magnetic resonance imaging and compared with long-term average spectrum analysis of audio recordings from the same subjects. Comparison of singing to the speech-like phonation, which served as reference, showed significant adjustments of the lower vocal tract: an average lowering of the larynx by 8 mm and an increase of the hypopharyngeal cross-sectional area (+ 21:9% and volume (+ 16:8%. Changes in the analyzed epilaryngeal portion of the vocal tract were not significant. Consequently, lower larynx-to-hypopharynx area and volume ratios were found in singing compared to the speech-like phonation. All evaluated measures of the lower vocal tract varied significantly with vowel quality. Acoustically, an increase of high frequency energy in singing correlated with a wider hypopharyngeal area. The findings offer an explanation how classical male singers might succeed in producing a voice timbre with increased high frequency energy, creating a singer`s formant cluster.

  15. Singing modulates mood, stress, cortisol, cytokine and neuropeptide activity in cancer patients and carers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fancourt, Daisy; Williamon, Aaron; Carvalho, Livia A; Steptoe, Andrew; Dow, Rosie; Lewis, Ian

    2016-01-01

    There is growing evidence that psychosocial interventions can have psychological benefits for people affected by cancer, including improved symptoms of mental health and wellbeing and optimised immune responses. However, despite growing numbers of music interventions, particularly singing, in cancer care, there is less research into their impact. We carried out a multicentre single-arm preliminary study to assess the impact of singing on mood, stress and immune response in three populations affected by cancer: carers (n = 72), bereaved carers (n = 66) and patients (n = 55). Participants were excluded if pregnant or if they were currently being treated with chemotherapy, radiotherapy or oral immunosuppressive drugs. Participants were regular participants in five choirs across South Wales and took part in one hour of group singing. Before and after singing, visual analogue mood scales, stress scales and saliva samples testing for cortisol, beta-endorphin, oxytocin and ten cytokines were taken. Across all five centres and in all four participant groups, singing was associated with significant reductions in negative affect and increases in positive affect (p < .01) alongside significant increases in cytokines including GM-CSF, IL17, IL2, IL4 and sIL-2rα (all p < .01). In addition, singing was associated with reductions in cortisol, beta-endorphin and oxytocin levels. This study provides preliminary evidence that singing improves mood state and modulates components of the immune system. Further work is needed to ascertain how this differs for more specific patient groups and whether repeat exposure could lead to meaningful, longitudinal effects.

  16. Acoustic properties of vocal singing in prelingually-deafened children with cochlear implants or hearing aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yitao; Zhang, Mengchao; Nutter, Heather; Zhang, Yijing; Zhou, Qixin; Liu, Qiaoyun; Wu, Weijing; Xie, Dinghua; Xu, Li

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate vocal singing performance of hearing-impaired children with cochlear implants (CI) and hearing aids (HA) as well as to evaluate the relationship between demographic factors of those hearing-impaired children and their singing ability. Thirty-seven prelingually-deafened children with CIs and 31 prelingually-deafened children with HAs, and 37 normal-hearing (NH) children participated in the study. The fundamental frequencies (F0) of each note in the recorded songs were extracted and the duration of each sung note was measured. Five metrics were used to evaluate the pitch-related and rhythm-based aspects of singing accuracy. Children with CIs and HAs showed significantly poorer performance in either the pitch-based assessments or the rhythm-based measure than the NH children. No significant differences were seen between the CI and HA groups in all of these measures except for the mean deviation of the pitch intervals. For both hearing-impaired groups, length of device use was significantly correlated with singing accuracy. There is a marked deficit in vocal singing ability either in pitch or rhythm accuracy in a majority of prelingually-deafened children who have received CIs or fitted with HAs. Although an increased length of device use might facilitate singing performance to some extent, the chance for the hearing-impaired children fitted with either HAs or CIs to reach high proficiency in singing is quite slim. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Objective Identification of Prepubertal Female Singers and Non-singers by Singing Power Ratio Using Matlab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usha, M; Geetha, Y V; Darshan, Y S

    2017-03-01

    The field of music is increasingly gaining scope and attracting researchers from varied fields in terms of improvising the art of voice modulation in singing. There has been a lot of competition, and young budding singers are emerging with more talent. This study is aimed to develop software to differentiate a prepubertal voice as that of a singer or a non-singer using an objective tool-singing power ratio (SPR)-as an objective measure to quantify the resonant voice quality. Recordings of singing and phonation were obtained from 30 singers and 30 non-singer girls (8-10 years). Three professional singers perceptually evaluated all samples using a rating scale and categorized them as singers or non-singers. Using Matlab, a program was developed to automatically calculate the SPR of a particular sample and classify it into either of two groups based on the normative values of SPR developed manually. Positive correlation for SPR of phonation or singing was found between perceptual and manual ratings, and objective values of SPR. Software could automatically give the SPR values for samples that are fed and could further differentiate them as singer or non-singer. Researchers need not depend on professional singers or musicians for the judgment of voice for research purposes. This software uses an objective tool, which serves as an instrument to judge singing talent using singing and phonation samples of children. Also, it can be used as a first line of judgment in any singing audition process, which could ease the work of professionals. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. All rights reserved.

  18. Singing of the Bird, Ideal of the Poet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄春英

    2001-01-01

    威廉·华兹华斯是英国著名的湖畔派诗人,早年受法国革命和启蒙主义的思想影响,同情革命和社会改革,后来背离了进步思想,转向保守消极,赞美宗法制与小生产的田园式生活幻想.是他有名的短篇代表作之一,本文通过对诗歌的简要分析,指出了诗中那动人的布谷鸟所蕴含的神奇意象:它是飘荡的声音,迷人的希望,又是童年的梦想,更是诗人理想的化身.%William wordsworth was a famous English poet, a poet of nature. To the Cuckoo is a nature poem. Wordsworth made use of his past experience and wrote the poem through the mind' s eyethe imagination. At the tip of his pen, the lovely bird, cuckoo, is a mysterious image. It is a wandering voice, enchanting hope and dream of childhood. The bird's singing stands for the ideal of the poet.

  19. Die sing van psalms in die erediens: Twintig jaar later

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacoba H. van Rooy

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available About 20 years ago the HSRC (Human Sciences Research Council conducted an empirical investigation on the singing of psalms in three Afrikaans reformed churches. Vos and M�ller (1990 dealt with different aspects of this investigation, especially the questions of which melodies are sung in the churches, what the frequency of the use of the different psalms is, the way in which new songs are introduced, the situation in the different churches and the influence of church attendance on the love of the psalms. In an investigation undertaken in 2008 (Van Rooy 2009 these matters were investigated in the Reformed Churches in South Africa, a denomiation that introduced a new hymnal in 2003. The comparison of the two investigations revealed that the number of favourite psalms and the same psalms remained fairly constant. The acceptance of new hymns is related to a number of factors, especially the melody and the liturgical usefulness of the new hymns. The new metrical version of the psalms is still not used very frequently in the Reformed Churches in South Africa. This can partly be ascribed to the lack of structured programmes to learn the new hymns.

  20. Singing well-becoming: Student musical therapy case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Murphey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Much research supports the everyday therapeutic and deeper socialneurophysiological influence of singing songs alone and in groups (Austin, 2008; Cozolino, 2013; Sacks, 2007. This study looks at what happens when Japanese students teach short English affirmation songlet-routines to others out of the classroom (clandestine folk music therapy. I investigate 155 student-conducted musical case studies from 7 semester-long classes (18 to 29 students per class over a 4-year period. The assignments, their in-class training, and their results are introduced, with examples directly from their case studies. Each class published their own booklet of case studies (a class publication, available to readers online for research replication and modeling. Results show that most primary participants enjoyed spreading these positive songlets as they became “well-becoming agents of change” in their own social networks. “Well-becoming” emphasizes an agentive action or activity that creates better well-being in others, an action such as the sharing or teaching of a songlet. The qualitative data reveals a number of types of well-becoming such as social and familial bonding, meaning-making, teaching-rushes, and experiencing embodied cognition. The project also stimulated wider network dissemination of these well-becoming possibilities and pedagogical insights.

  1. Modulation of the motor cortex during singing-voice perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lévêque, Yohana; Schön, Daniele

    2015-04-01

    Several studies on action observation have shown that the biological dimension of movement modulates sensorimotor interactions in perception. In the present fMRI study, we tested the hypothesis that the biological dimension of sound modulates the involvement of the motor system in human auditory perception, using musical tasks. We first localized the vocal motor cortex in each participant. Then we compared the BOLD response to vocal, semi-vocal and non-vocal melody perception, and found greater activity for voice perception in the right sensorimotor cortex. We additionally ran a psychophysiological interaction analysis with the right sensorimotor as a seed, showing that the vocal dimension of the stimuli enhanced the connectivity between the seed region and other important nodes of the auditory dorsal stream. Finally, the participants' vocal ability was negatively correlated to the voice effect in the Inferior Parietal Lobule. These results suggest that the biological dimension of singing-voice impacts the activity within the auditory dorsal stream, probably via a facilitated matching between the perceived sound and the participant motor representations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Revisiting the dissociation between singing and speaking in expressive aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hébert, Sylvie; Racette, Amélie; Gagnon, Lise; Peretz, Isabelle

    2003-08-01

    We investigated the production of sung and spoken utterances in a non-fluent patient, C.C., who had a severe expressive aphasia following a right-hemisphere stroke, but whose language comprehension and memory were relatively preserved. In experiment 1, C.C. repeated familiar song excerpts under four different conditions: spoken lyrics, sung lyrics on original melody, lyrics sung on new but familiar melody and melody sung to a neutral syllable "la". In experiment 2, C.C. repeated novel song excerpts under three different conditions: spoken lyrics, sung lyrics and sung-to-la melody. The mean number of words produced under the spoken and sung conditions did not differ significantly in either experiment. The mean number of notes produced was not different either in the sung-to-la and sung conditions, but was higher than the words produced, hence showing a dissociation between C.C.'s musical and verbal productions. Therefore, our findings do not support the claim that singing helps word production in non-fluent aphasic patients. Rather, they are consistent with the idea that verbal production, be it sung or spoken, result from the operation of same mechanisms.

  3. [Singing for preterm born infants music therapy in neonatology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desquiotz-Sunnen, N

    2008-01-01

    The use of music as part of a stress reduction therapy has been applied both to premature infants and their parents in the Neonatal Reanimation Service. This aim of music therapy amounts to an attempt to help the premature infant regaining its physical and neurological balance, so important to its psychological and physical development, mainly by masking the sometimes excessive noise present in the intensive care unit and/or in the incubator. Studies have demonstrated the positive impact of music therapy on oxygen saturation, heartbeat, and on the general level of relaxation experienced by premature infants. In this project, the palliative technique used was that of live singing, directly to the infant, accompanied by a pentatonic harp. The aim was to improve the state of health, both physical and psychological, of a group of premature infants, whose gestation period varied between 23 and 36 weeks. The technique used was to apply what amounts to a protective cocoon of sounds to a premature infant in the neonatal unit, which measurably reduced the level of stress as indicated by the babies' increasingly relaxed demeanour and induced a measurable increase on the level of oxygen saturation and a reduction of heart rate.

  4. Light pollution alters the phenology of dawn and dusk singing in common European songbirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, Arnaud; Valcu, Mihai; Kempenaers, Bart

    2015-01-01

    Artificial night lighting is expanding globally, but its ecological consequences remain little understood. Animals often use changes in day length as a cue to time seasonal behaviour. Artificial night lighting may influence the perception of day length, and may thus affect both circadian and circannual rhythms. Over a 3.5 month period, from winter to breeding, we recorded daily singing activity of six common songbird species in 12 woodland sites, half of which were affected by street lighting. We previously reported on analyses suggesting that artificial night lighting affects the daily timing of singing in five species. The main aim of this study was to investigate whether the presence of artificial night lighting is also associated with the seasonal occurrence of dawn and dusk singing. We found that in four species dawn and dusk singing developed earlier in the year at sites exposed to light pollution. We also examined the effects of weather conditions and found that rain and low temperatures negatively affected the occurrence of dawn and dusk singing. Our results support the hypothesis that artificial night lighting alters natural seasonal rhythms, independently of other effects of urbanization. The fitness consequences of the observed changes in seasonal timing of behaviour remain unknown. PMID:25780238

  5. Four-part choral synthesis system for investigating intonation in a cappella choral singing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, David M; Daffern, Helena; Brereton, Jude

    2013-10-01

    Accurate tuning is an important aspect of singing in harmony in the context of a choir or vocal ensemble. Tuning and 'pitch drift' are concerning factors in performance for even the most accomplished professional choirs when singing a cappella (unaccompanied). In less experienced choirs tuning often lacks precision, typically because individual singers have not developed appropriate listening skills. In order to investigate accuracy of tuning in ensemble singing situations, a chorally appropriate reference is required against which frequency measurements can be made. Since most basic choral singing involves chords in four parts, a four-part reference template is used in which the fundamental frequencies of the notes in each chord can be accurately set. This template can now be used in experiments where three of the reference parts are tuned in any musical temperament (tuning system), in this case equal and just temperaments, and played over headphones to a singer to allow her/his tuning strategy to be investigated. This paper describes a practical implementation of a four-part choral synthesis system in Pure Data (Pd) and its use in an investigation of tuning of notes by individual singers using an exercise originally written to explore pitch drift in a cappella choral singing.

  6. Evaluating the potential of group singing to enhance the well-being of older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Jane W; McNamara, Beverley; Rosenwax, Lorna; Lange, Andrea; Jenkins, Sue; Lewin, Gill

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of a singing program developed specifically for older community-dwelling people on measures of health and well-being. An eight-week singing program was developed and evaluated using standardised measures of health and well-being, measures designed to examine specific singing program outcomes, and semi-structured interviews. Participants aged 70 years and older were recruited through a home care service provider (n = 17) and an advertisement in a community newspaper (n = 19). Standard outcome measures indicated that the program had little effect on health and well-being. However, study-specific measures indicated that many participants had positive gains. Those in the home care group required more assistance to attend and continue in the program than those in the general community. Participants reported that the community-based singing facilitator was essential to the program's success. Well-structured community-based singing programs have the potential to impact positively upon the well-being of older people, but program viability depends on support with recruitment, transport and funding. © 2013 The Authors. Australasian Journal on Ageing © 2013 ACOTA.

  7. Effects of melody and technique on acoustical and musical features of western operatic singing voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrouy-Maestri, Pauline; Magis, David; Morsomme, Dominique

    2014-05-01

    The operatic singing technique is frequently used in classical music. Several acoustical parameters of this specific technique have been studied but how these parameters combine remains unclear. This study aims to further characterize the Western operatic singing technique by observing the effects of melody and technique on acoustical and musical parameters of the singing voice. Fifty professional singers performed two contrasting melodies (popular song and romantic melody) with two vocal techniques (with and without operatic singing technique). The common quality parameters (energy distribution, vibrato rate, and extent), perturbation parameters (standard deviation of the fundamental frequency, signal-to-noise ratio, jitter, and shimmer), and musical features (fundamental frequency of the starting note, average tempo, and sound pressure level) of the 200 sung performances were analyzed. The results regarding the effect of melody and technique on the acoustical and musical parameters show that the choice of melody had a limited impact on the parameters observed, whereas a particular vocal profile appeared depending on the vocal technique used. This study confirms that vocal technique affects most of the parameters examined. In addition, the observation of quality, perturbation, and musical parameters contributes to a better understanding of the Western operatic singing technique. Copyright © 2014 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Therapeutic singing as an early intervention for swallowing in persons with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegemöller, E L; Hibbing, P; Radig, H; Wingate, J

    2017-04-01

    For persons with Parkinson's disease (PD), secondary motor symptoms such as swallow impairment impact the quality of life and are major contributors to mortality. There is a present need for therapeutic interventions aimed at improving swallow function during the early stages of PD. The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the effects of a group therapeutic singing intervention on swallowing in persons with PD with no significant dysphagia symptoms. Cohort study. University in the United States. Twenty-four participants with PD. Eight weeks of group therapeutic singing. Electromyography (EMG) was used to assess muscle activity associated with swallow pre and post the group singing intervention. Swallow quality of life (SWAL-QOL) and the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) were also obtained pre- and post-intervention. Participants reported minimal difficulty with swallowing, yet results revealed a significant increase in EMG outcome measures, as well as significant improvement in UPDRS total and UPDRS motor scores. No significant differences were revealed for SWAL-QOL. Increases in EMG timing measures may suggest that group singing results in the prolongation of laryngeal elevation, protecting the airway from foreign material for longer periods of time during swallow. Combined with the improvement in UPDRS clinical measures, therapeutic singing may be an engaging early intervention strategy to address oropharyngeal dysphagia while also benefiting additional clinical symptoms of PD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Measurement of Airflow Using Singing Helmet That Allows Free Movement of the Jaw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jack J; Hanna, Rewais B; Willey, Malachi V; Rieves, Adam

    2016-11-01

    Airflow measurement is a useful method of evaluating laryngeal physiology. We introduce a noninvasive device that measures airflow without restricting jaw movement or requiring phonation into a mouthpiece, thus facilitating measurement during singing and connected speech. Validation and human subject trials were conducted. Airflow measurements were obtained from 16 male and 16 female subjects during singing, speech, and constant vowel production tasks. A similar helmet was designed by Stevens and Mead in 1968. The new device validity was evaluated by comparing the measured volume of air to a known volume of administered air using a calibration syringe. Subjects were asked to voice sustained vowels at low, medium, and high vocal intensity, read two sentences at a conversational volume, and perform different singing exercises while airflow was recorded. The device accurately and reliably measured airflow with mean airflow values falling within previously published ranges. There was an experimentally determined response time of 0.173 ± 0.014 seconds. Subjects were able to comfortably perform speech and singing exercises. Male subjects had higher airflow for all sustained vowels (P speech while allowing for free movement of the jaw. This device provides a more natural environment to measure airflow that could be used to help evaluate laryngeal function and aid in singing training. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Effect of Menstrual Cycle on Singing Voice: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunjawate, Dhanshree R; Aithal, Venkataraja U; Ravi, Rohit; Venkatesh, Bhumika T

    2017-03-01

    Research has reported the difference in a woman's voice across the different stages of the menstrual cycle. A review of the studies in singers on the influence of menstruation on the singing voice will enable a better understanding of these changes. A systematic literature search was carried out on PubMed, CINAHL, Scopus, Cochrane, and regional electronic databases. The keywords "menstrual cycle," "voice change," and "singer" were used in different combinations. Only those articles that discussed the effect of menstrual cycle on the singing voice were included in the final review. Six studies in the English language were identified and included in the review. Hormonal variations occur to a great extent during menstrual cycle, and these variations can influence the voice of singers. A great variability was found in the included studies. There are limited studies that have been carried out exploring the relationship between menstrual cycle and the singing voice. Even though the studies included in the review point out toward the changes in the singing voice associated with menstrual cycle, there is a need for more studies to be carried out in diverse singing populations and in different outcome measures. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Seto Singing Tradition in Siberia: Songs and ‘Non-Songs’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Kalkun

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The article is based on fieldwork carried out in the 2000s among diasporic Setos living in Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia, and discusses issues related to the singing tradition and identity of the Setos in this area. The article explores the ambivalent attitudes of the local singers towards their singing tradition and proposes a systematisation of the song tradition in the area into three groups – Estonian songs, Russian songs, and Seto songs. The latter of the three represents the most archaic part of the Seto tradition, even though singers today no longer regard this part of the tradition as ‘proper’ songs, because of their improvisational and spontaneous nature. In addition to the ambivalence and confusion related to the identity and singing tradition, one can see conscious efforts in shaping identity politics and representing culture in Seto villages in Siberia. The best example of this is the Seto Museum and the choir active in Khaidak village. The generation of singers who are members of the choir today have discovered the old tradition in advanced age, but nevertheless find the singing of traditional songs highly significant. An important part of the contemporary identity politics of this tiny diasporic group is performing their exotic singing culture.

  12. A new paradigm to induce mental stress: The Sing-a-Song Stress Test (SSST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Marie eBrouwer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We here introduce a new experimental paradigm to induce mental stress in a quick and easy way while adhering to ethical standards and controlling for potential confounds resulting from sensory input and body movements. In our Sing-a-Song Stress Test, participants are presented with neutral messages on a screen, interleaved with 1-minute time intervals. The final message is that the participant should sing a song aloud after the interval has elapsed. Participants sit still during the whole procedure. We found that heart rate and skin conductance during the 1-minute intervals following the sing-a-song stress message are substantially higher than during intervals following neutral messages. The order of magnitude of the rise is comparable to that achieved by the Trier Social Stress Test. Skin conductance increase correlates positively with experienced stress level as reported by participants. We also simulated stress detection in real time. When using both skin conductance and heart rate, stress is detected for 18 out of 20 participants, approximately 10s after onset of the sing-a-song message. In conclusion, the Sing-a-Song Stress Test provides a quick, easy, controlled and potent way to induce mental stress and could be helpful in studies ranging from examining physiological effects of mental stress to evaluating interventions to reduce stress.

  13. Modeling X-Ray Binary Evolution in Normal Galaxies: Insights from SINGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzanavaris, P.; Fragos, T.; Tremmel, M.; Jenkins, L.; Zezas, A.; Lehmer, B. D.; Hornschemeier, A.; Kalogera, V.; Ptak, A; Basu-Zych, A.

    2013-01-01

    We present the largest-scale comparison to date between observed extragalactic X-ray binary (XRB) populations and theoretical models of their production. We construct observational X-ray luminosity functions (oXLFs) using Chandra observations of 12 late-type galaxies from the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxy Survey (SINGS). For each galaxy, we obtain theoretical XLFs (tXLFs) by combining XRB synthetic models, constructed with the population synthesis code StarTrack, with observational star formation histories (SFHs). We identify highest-likelihood models both for individual galaxies and globally, averaged over the full galaxy sample. Individual tXLFs successfully reproduce about half of oXLFs, but for some galaxies we are unable to find underlying source populations, indicating that galaxy SFHs and metallicities are not well matched and/or XRB modeling requires calibration on larger observational samples. Given these limitations, we find that best models are consistent with a product of common envelope ejection efficiency and central donor concentration approx.. = 0.1, and a 50% uniform - 50% "twins" initial mass-ratio distribution. We present and discuss constituent subpopulations of tXLFs according to donor, accretor and stellar population characteristics. The galaxy-wide X-ray luminosity due to low-mass and high-mass XRBs, estimated via our best global model tXLF, follows the general trend expected from the L(sub X) - star formation rate and L(sub X) - stellar mass relations of Lehmer et al. Our best models are also in agreement with modeling of the evolution both of XRBs over cosmic time and of the galaxy X-ray luminosity with redshift.

  14. Relationships of a Circular Singer Arm Gesture to Acoustical and Perceptual Measures of Singing: A Motion Capture Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunkan, Melissa C.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate previous research that suggests using movement in conjunction with singing tasks can affect intonation and perception of the task. Singers (N = 49) were video and audio recorded, using a motion capture system, while singing a phrase from a familiar song, first with no motion, and then while doing a low,…

  15. Potential Use of Singing in Educational Settings with Pre-Pubertal Children Possessing Speech and Voice Disorders: A Psychological Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinta, Tiija

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate whether children who possess speech and voice disorders could benefit from engaging in singing activities in educational settings, based on the psychological benefits of such activities. The impact of singing on children's psychological state and well-being was investigated with a participant population…

  16. Singing-Related Activity in Anterior Forebrain of Male Zebra Finches Reflects Courtship Motivation for Target Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Mai; Poulsen, Thomas M.; Oka, Kotaro; Hessler, Neal A.

    2013-01-01

    A critical function of singing by male songbirds is to attract a female mate. Previous studies have suggested that the anterior forebrain system is involved in this courtship behavior. Neural activity in this system, including the striatal Area X, is strikingly dependent on the function of male singing. When males sing to attract a female bird rather than while alone, less variable neural activity results in less variable song spectral features, which may be attractive to the female. These characteristics of neural activity and singing thus may reflect a male's motivation for courtship. Here, we compared the variability of neural activity and song features between courtship singing directed to a female with whom a male had previously formed a pair-bond or to other females. Surprisingly, across all units, there was no clear tendency for a difference in variability of neural activity or song features between courtship of paired females, nonpaired females, or dummy females. However, across the population of recordings, there was a significant relationship between the relative variability of syllable frequency and neural activity: when syllable frequency was less variable to paired than nonpaired females, neural activity was also less variable (and vice-versa). These results show that the lower variability of neural activity and syllable frequency during directed singing is not a binary distinction from undirected singing, but can vary in intensity, possibly related to the relative preference of a male for his singing target. PMID:24312344

  17. A Study of the Relationship between Observed and Reported Use of a Cappella Singing in the Elementary General Music Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Valerie Anne

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate any relationship between observed and reported use of a cappella singing in the elementary general music classroom. A secondary purpose of this study was to examine teachers' practical perspectives influencing the use of a cappella singing in the elementary general music classroom. From a total of 50…

  18. Long-term-average spectrum characteristics of Kunqu Opera singers' speaking, singing and stage speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Li; Kong, Jiangping; Sundberg, Johan

    2014-07-01

    Long-term-average spectrum (LTAS) characteristics were analyzed for ten Kunqu Opera singers, two in each of five roles. Each singer performed singing, stage speech, and conversational speech. Differences between the roles and between their performances of these three conditions are examined. After compensating for Leq difference LTAS characteristics still differ between the roles but are similar for the three conditions, especially for Colorful face (CF) and Old man roles, and especially between reading and singing. The curves show no evidence of a singer's formant cluster peak, but the CF role demonstrates a speaker's formant peak near 3 kHz. The LTAS characteristics deviate markedly from non-singers' standard conversational speech as well as from those of Western opera singing.

  19. Segment-based Melody Matching for Query By Singing/Humming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai Wen-Hsing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Segment-based melody matching approaches are proposed to solve the problems of pitch instability, tempo inconsistency, and puff noise of singing/humming in Query By Singing/Humming system. Instead of comparing frame by frame from the beginning and trying different scaling ratio, our segment-based approaches reduce the computation complexity by jumping to the possible segment boundary and using the segment ratio as scaling ratio. Our methods predict segment boundary candidates in query singing/humming and songs in database by detecting the abrupt change of pitch curve, match segment pair, scale each segment linearly and calculate the distance. The top 10 recognition rate of our method can reach 70.6%. Our method reduce computational load and performs better in situations of puff noise and inconsistent tempo than popular global Linear Scaling method.

  20. The effect of mate removal on dawn singing behaviour in male pied bush chats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vinaya Kumar SETHI; Dinesh BHATT; Amit KUMAR

    2011-01-01

    To determine the influence of pairing status on dawn singing behaviour in pied bush chats Saxicola caprata, we conducted mate removal experiments across eight territories. The experiment was divided into three stages: pre-removal (pairs were present on theit respective territories), removal (females were experimentally removed), and returned (females were released into the focal pairs' territories). Dawn bout length, song rate, song complexity, percentage performance time, song perch height, and distance of singing location to territory boundary were measured for each male during each experimental stage. We did not find an effect of mate removal on any dawn song characteristics of male pied bush chats suggesting that the presence or absence of a mate does not influence male dawn singing behaviour. Our findings further suggest that males use dawn chorus to mediate social relationships with neighbouring males to proclaim an established territory.

  1. Choir singing in Subsaharan Africa: Acoustic factors of a regional style in southern Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeiro de Carvalho, Joao

    2005-09-01

    Choir singing is a most prominent form of expressive behavior in Subsaharan Africa. A vast majority of expressive modes involves multipart singing, both within the framework of European tonal system as well as other structured ways of combining vocal sounds of different frequencies. Vocal improvisation stands as an important process for the course of performance; individual voice ranges, as well as issues of social status and musical competence, determine the ways musicians participate in performance. Aesthetic validation is often expressed by the use of a nonverbal expressive mode, ``kulungwani,'' a vocal technique involving the action of the lower maxillae and tongue in order to produce a low-frequency interruption of sound emission. Choral singing intonation processes seem to rely on harmonic results, rather than melodic. A regional choral style in southern Africa seems to have developed, where a particular distribution of formant frequencies and an emphasis on low-frequency energy play a significant role.

  2. Low-stress and high-stress singing have contrasting effects on glucocorticoid response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisy eFancourt

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Performing music in public is widely recognised as a potentially stress-inducing activity. However, despite the interest in music performance as an acute psychosocial stressor, there has been relatively little research on the effects of public performance on the endocrine system. This study examined the impact of singing in a low-stress performance situation and a high-stress live concert on levels of glucocorticoids (cortisol and cortisone in 15 professional singers. The results showed a significant decrease in both cortisol and cortisone across the low-stress condition, suggesting that singing in itself is a stress-reducing (and possibly health-promoting activity, but significant increases across the high-stress condition. This is the first study to demonstrate that singing affects glucocorticoid responses and that these responses are modulated by the conditions of performance.

  3. Fa-fa-fa-fa, de doo doo doo, de da da da, sha la la la lee : What is the optimal syllable in improvised singing?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eerten, Laura; Gilbers, Dicky; Lowie, Wander; Kager, René; Grijzenhout, Janet; Sebregts, Koen

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe and account for the optimal syllable structure in improvised singing without lyrics. Improvised singing has an overall relaxed character and it is abstracted from meaning. Furthermore, singing in general involves an exaggerated articulation of speech sounds.

  4. Tuning Features of Chinese Folk Song Singing: A Case Study of Hua'er Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Welch, Graham; Sundberg, Johan; Himonides, Evangelos

    2015-07-01

    The learning and teaching of different singing styles, such as operatic and Chinese folk singing, was often found to be very challenging in professional music education because of the complexity of varied musical properties and vocalizations. By studying the acoustical and musical parameters of the singing voice, this study identified distinctive tuning characteristics of a particular folk music in China-Hua'er music-to inform the ineffective folk singing practices, which were hampered by the neglect of inherent tuning issues in music. Thirteen unaccompanied folk song examples from four folk singers were digitally audio recorded in a sound studio. Using an analyzing toolkit consisting of Praat, PeakFit, and MS Excel, the fundamental frequencies (F0) of these song examples were extracted into sets of "anchor pitches" mostly used, which were further divided into 253 F0 clusters. The interval structures of anchor pitches within each song were analyzed and then compared across 13 examples providing parameters that indicate the tuning preference of this particular singing style. The data analyses demonstrated that all singers used a tuning pattern consisting of five major anchor pitches suggesting a nonequal-tempered bias in singing. This partly verified the pentatonic scale proposed in previous empirical research but also argued a potential misunderstanding of the studied folk music scale that failed to take intrinsic tuning issues into consideration. This study suggests that, in professional music training, any tuning strategy should be considered in terms of the reference pitch and likely tuning systems. Any accompanying instruments would need to be tuned to match the underlying tuning bias. Copyright © 2015 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Excitability of the motor system: A transcranial magnetic stimulation study on singing and speaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royal, Isabelle; Lidji, Pascale; Théoret, Hugo; Russo, Frank A; Peretz, Isabelle

    2015-08-01

    The perception of movements is associated with increased activity in the human motor cortex, which in turn may underlie our ability to understand actions, as it may be implicated in the recognition, understanding and imitation of actions. Here, we investigated the involvement and lateralization of the primary motor cortex (M1) in the perception of singing and speech. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was applied independently for both hemispheres over the mouth representation of the motor cortex in healthy participants while they watched 4-s audiovisual excerpts of singers producing a 2-note ascending interval (singing condition) or 4-s audiovisual excerpts of a person explaining a proverb (speech condition). Subjects were instructed to determine whether a sung interval/written proverb, matched a written interval/proverb. During both tasks, motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were recorded from the contralateral mouth muscle (orbicularis oris) of the stimulated motor cortex compared to a control task. Moreover, to investigate the time course of motor activation, TMS pulses were randomly delivered at 7 different time points (ranging from 500 to 3500 ms after stimulus onset). Results show that stimulation of the right hemisphere had a similar effect on the MEPs for both the singing and speech perception tasks, whereas stimulation of the left hemisphere significantly differed in the speech perception task compared to the singing perception task. Furthermore, analysis of the MEPs in the singing task revealed that they decreased for small musical intervals, but increased for large musical intervals, regardless of which hemisphere was stimulated. Overall, these results suggest a dissociation between the lateralization of M1 activity for speech perception and for singing perception, and that in the latter case its activity can be modulated by musical parameters such as the size of a musical interval. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Research Advance on Pleurotus citrinipileatus Sing%榆黄蘑研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨蒙

    2013-01-01

    The current situation about the Pleurotus citrinipileatus Sing of the cultivation,nutrient composition,chemical constituents,medicinal value were summarized.And some suggestions for future research were put forward so as to provide the reference for the study of Pleurotus citrinipileatus Sing.%综述了榆黄蘑的栽培、营养成分、化学成分、药用价值等方面的研究现状,并提出今后研究的建议,以期为榆黄蘑的研究提供参考。

  7. A KARAOKE System Singing Evaluation Method that More Closely Matches Human Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Hideyo; Hoguro, Masahiro; Umezaki, Taizo

    KARAOKE is a popular amusement for old and young. Many KARAOKE machines have singing evaluation function. However, it is often said that the scores given by KARAOKE machines do not match human evaluation. In this paper a KARAOKE scoring method strongly correlated with human evaluation is proposed. This paper proposes a way to evaluate songs based on the distance between singing pitch and musical scale, employing a vibrato extraction method based on template matching of spectrum. The results show that correlation coefficients between scores given by the proposed system and human evaluation are -0.76∼-0.89.

  8. Singing in individual music therapy with elderly persons suffering from dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    2001-01-01

    The focus of this research in progress is my clinical work with persons suffering from dementia, where we sing familiar songs from long ago in the music therapy. In an exploratory case study approach I have made systematic observations of 6 individual residents living in a gerontopsychological unit....... My hopotheses are - that singing has an influence on persons with dementia - that this influence can be defined upon communicative characteristics - that persons with dementia in an advanced stage communicate musically, and that this musical communication can be recognised by a system...

  9. Does Singing a Low-Pitch Tone Make You Look Angrier?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrendt, Peter; Bach, Christian; Dahl, Sofia

    2017-01-01

    While many studies have shown that auditory and visual information influence each other, the link between some intermodal associations are less clear. We here replicate and extend an earlier experiment with ratings of pictures of people singing high and low-pitched tones. To this aim, we video...... recorded 19 participants singing high and low pitches and combined these into picture pairs. In a two-alternative forced choice test, two groups of six assessors were then asked to view the 19 picture pairs and select the "friendlier", and "angrier" expression respectively. The result is that assessors...

  10. Singing in individual music therapy with elderly persons suffering from dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    2001-01-01

    The focus of this research in progress is my clinical work with persons suffering from dementia, where we sing long familiar songs in the music therapy. In an exploratory case study approach I have made systematic observations of 6 individual residents living in a gerontopsychological unit. My...... hypotheses are …  … that singing has an influence on persons with dementia, and that this influence can be defined upon communicative characteristics.  … that persons with dementia in an advanced stage communicate musically, and that this musical communication can be recognised by a system of communicative...

  11. Investigation of four distinct glottal configurations in classical singing--a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Christian T; Ternström, Sten; Svec, Jan G

    2009-03-01

    This study investigates four qualities of singing voice in a classically trained baritone: "naive falsetto," "countertenor falsetto," "lyrical chest" and "full chest." Laryngeal configuration and vocal fold behavior in these qualities were studied using laryngeal videostroboscopy, videokymography, electroglottography, and sound spectrography. The data suggest that the four voice qualities were produced by independently manipulating mainly two laryngeal parameters: (1) the adduction of the arytenoid cartilages and (2) the thickening of the vocal folds. An independent control of the posterior adductory muscles versus the vocalis muscle is considered to be the physiological basis for achieving these singing voice qualities.

  12. LOFAR and APERTIF surveys of the radio sky: probing shocks and magnetic fields in galaxy clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Rottgering, Huub; Barthel, Peter; Batejat, Fabien; Best, Philip; Bonafede, Annalisa; Bruggen, Marcus; Brunetti, Gianfranco; Chyzy, Krzysztof; Conway, John; De Gasperin, Francesco; Ferrari, Chiara; Haverkorn, Marijke; Heald, George; Hoeft, Matthias; Jackson, Neal; Jarvis, Matt; Ker, Louise; Lehnert, Matt; Macario, Giulia; McKean, John; Miley, George; Morganti, Raffaella; Oosterloo, Tom; Orru, Emanuela; Pizzo, Roberto; Rafferty, David; Shulevski, Alexander; Tasse, Cyril; van Bemmel, Ilse; van der Tol, Bas; van Weeren, Reinout; Verheijen, Marc; White, Glenn; Wise, Michael

    2011-01-01

    At very low frequencies, the new pan-European radio telescope LOFAR is opening the last unexplored window of the electromagnetic spectrum for astrophysical studies. The revolutionary APERTIF phased arrays that are about to be installed on the Westerbork radio telescope (WSRT) will dramatically increase the survey speed for the WSRT. Combined surveys with these two facilities will deeply chart the northern sky over almost two decades in radio frequency from \\sim 15 up to 1400 MHz. Here we briefly describe some of the capabilities of these new facilities and what radio surveys are planned to study fundamental issues related the formation and evolution of galaxies and clusters of galaxies. In the second part we briefly review some recent observational results directly showing that diffuse radio emission in clusters traces shocks due to cluster mergers. As these diffuse radio sources are relatively bright at low frequencies, LOFAR should be able to detect thousands of such sources up to the epoch of cluster forma...

  13. "Row, Row, Row Your Boat": Singing, Identity and Belonging in a Nursery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niland, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    The concept of belonging is widely recognised as a fundamental part of human development and a key element of early childhood curricula. The research presented here explores the role of singing in the development of children's sense of belonging in a day nursery for children aged from six months to two years. The research design incorporated…

  14. A new paradigm to induce mental stress : the Sing-a-Song Stress Test(SSST)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, A.M.; Hogervorst, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    We here introduce a new experimental paradigm to induce mental stress in a quick and easy way while adhering to ethical standards and controlling for potential confounds resulting from sensory input and body movements. In our Sing-a-Song Stress Test, participants are presented with neutral messages

  15. Eesti talendid raadiokonkurssidel "New Talent" ja "Let the Peoples Sing" / Karin Kopra

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kopra, Karin

    2005-01-01

    Bratislavas toimunud noorte interpreetide võistlusest "New Talent", kus osales ka pianist Mihkel Poll ning rahvusvahelisest amatöörkooride konkursist "Let the Peoples Sing" Kölnis, kus osalesid Eesti Televisiooni tütarlastekoor ja Tallinna Muusikakeskkooli lastekoor

  16. Female conspecifics restore rhythmic singing behaviour in arrhythmic male zebra finches

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    NEELU ANAND JHA; VINOD KUMAR

    2017-03-01

    The present study investigated whether pairing with a conspecific female would restore rhythmicity in the singingbehaviour of arrhythmic male songbirds. We recorded the singing and, as the circadian response indicator, monitoredthe activity–rest pattern in male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) housed without or with a conspecific femaleunder 12 h light: 12 h darkness (12L:12D) or constant bright light (LLbright). Both unpaired and paired birds exhibiteda significant daily rhythm in the singing and activity behaviour, but paired birds, under 12L:12D, showed a ~2 hextension in the evening. Exposure to LLbright decayed rhythmicity, but the female presence restored rhythmic patternswithout affecting the 24 h song output. In the acoustic features, we found a significant difference in the motif durationbetween unpaired and paired male songs. Overall, these results demonstrated for the first time the role of the female inrestoring the circadian phenotype of singing behaviour in male songbirds with disrupted circadian functions, althoughhow interaction between sexes affects the circadian timing of male singing is not understood yet. It is suggested thatsocial cues rendered by a conspecific female could improve the circadian performance by restoring rhythmicity in thebiological functions of the cohabiting arrhythmic male partner.

  17. A new paradigm to induce mental stress : the Sing-a-Song Stress Test(SSST)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, A.M.; Hogervorst, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    We here introduce a new experimental paradigm to induce mental stress in a quick and easy way while adhering to ethical standards and controlling for potential confounds resulting from sensory input and body movements. In our Sing-a-Song Stress Test, participants are presented with neutral messages

  18. Acoustic monitoring on a humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) feeding ground shows continual singing into late Spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Christopher W; Clapham, Phillip J

    2004-05-22

    Singing by males is a major feature of the mating system of humpback whales, Megaptera novaeangliae (Borowski). Although a few songs have been opportunistically recorded on the whales' high-latitude feeding grounds, singing in these regions was thought to be only sporadic. We report results from the first continuous acoustic monitoring of a humpback whale feeding ground (off Cape Cod, MA, USA) in spring. Using autonomous sea-floor recording systems, we found singing on a daily basis over the entire 25 day monitoring period, from 14 May to 7 June 2000. For much of the period, song was recorded 24 h per day. These results, combined with evidence for aseasonal conceptions in whaling catch data, suggest that the humpback whale breeding season should no longer be considered as confined to lower-latitude regions in winter. Rather, we suggest breeding extends geographically and temporally onto feeding grounds into at least spring and early summer. Singing at these times represents either low-cost opportunistic advertising by (perhaps relatively few) males to court females that failed to conceive during the winter, and/or possibly an intrasexual display.

  19. The Singing Teacher's Role in Educating Children's Abilities, Sensibilities and Sensitivities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akuno, Emily Achieng'

    2015-01-01

    In the Republic of Kenya, song is widely used to enhance the whole curriculum in lower primary classes. Song is used especially to aid recall and therefore teachers adapt tunes that children already know, inserting relevant words from the subject at hand. Despite this widespread practice, this form of singing in schools is not recognised by the…

  20. Sing It, Hear It, Play It! Ear Training for Middle School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huenink, Jeffrey S.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how to increase student skills in ear training. Offers suggestions used with fifth through eighth grade band students, such as sing with your bands or teach the band solfege syllables. Includes a list of songs, research resources, and tonal patterns. (CMK)

  1. The attitude of the state sphere towards singing associations in Serbia and Kingdom of Yugoslavia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanović Biljana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Financial dependence of singing societies in the state of Serbia and Kingdom of Yugoslavia is particularly analyzed in the paper, with a view to pointing to problems which hindered the advancement of music culture in the civil society. As other similar institutions of civic type, choirs did not have at their disposal sufficient financial, social and symbolic capital independent of the state, so they did not possess the power to influence on the government authorities. Although the period between World Wars brought evident improvement in the state treatment of music institutions, it could not be interpreted as a fundamental shift. The treatment of the Yugoslav singing union (Južnoslovenski pevački savez, which fought for promotion of music culture in the Yugoslav society, is particularly indicative. This largest music organization in the country, fostering ideology of integral Yugoslavism, strived to contribute to ethnic and social cohesion of different regions through singing. In its plans for improving singing practice this organization exhibited a clear vision for activism in favor of the nation and state, but the state authorities did not know how or did not desire to make use of it. Certain information suggests indolent and at times negative, discouraging attitude of authorities towards different ways of improvement of music practice, both art and society wise, which opens a new horizon for future studies and for better comprehension of contemporary problems as well.

  2. "Row, Row, Row Your Boat": Singing, Identity and Belonging in a Nursery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niland, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    The concept of belonging is widely recognised as a fundamental part of human development and a key element of early childhood curricula. The research presented here explores the role of singing in the development of children's sense of belonging in a day nursery for children aged from six months to two years. The research design incorporated…

  3. The effect of singing training on voice quality for people with quadriplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamplin, Jeanette; Baker, Felicity A; Buttifant, Mary; Berlowitz, David J

    2014-01-01

    Despite anecdotal reports of voice impairment in quadriplegia, the exact nature of these impairments is not well described in the literature. This article details objective and subjective voice assessments for people with quadriplegia at baseline and after a respiratory-targeted singing intervention. Randomized controlled trial. Twenty-four participants with quadriplegia were randomly assigned to a 12-week program of either a singing intervention or active music therapy control. Recordings of singing and speech were made at baseline, 6 weeks, 12 weeks, and 6 months postintervention. These deidentified recordings were used to measure sound pressure levels and assess voice quality using the Multidimensional Voice Profile and the Perceptual Voice Profile. Baseline voice quality data indicated deviation from normality in the areas of breathiness, strain, and roughness. A greater percentage of intervention participants moved toward more normal voice quality in terms of jitter, shimmer, and noise-to-harmonic ratio; however, the improvements failed to achieve statistical significance. Subjective and objective assessments of voice quality indicate that quadriplegia may have a detrimental effect on voice quality; in particular, causing a perception of roughness and breathiness in the voice. The results of this study suggest that singing training may have a role in ameliorating these voice impairments. Copyright © 2014 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Gesture as a Tool of Communication in the Teaching of Singing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafsi, Julia

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates the use of gesture as a pedagogic tool in the one-to-one singing lesson. A brief overview of the main approaches of vocal pedagogy exhibits the longstanding dispute between advocates of a purely factual teaching style and defenders of a more imaginative one and shows that imagery and metaphors have long played a role in…

  5. Detection of high-frequency energy level changes in speech and singing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monson, Brian B; Lotto, Andrew J; Story, Brad H

    2014-01-01

    Previous work has shown that human listeners are sensitive to level differences in high-frequency energy (HFE) in isolated vowel sounds produced by male singers. Results indicated that sensitivity to HFE level changes increased with overall HFE level, suggesting that listeners would be more "tuned" to HFE in vocal production exhibiting higher levels of HFE. It follows that sensitivity to HFE level changes should be higher (1) for female vocal production than for male vocal production and (2) for singing than for speech. To test this hypothesis, difference limens for HFE level changes in male and female speech and singing were obtained. Listeners showed significantly greater ability to detect level changes in singing vs speech but not in female vs male speech. Mean differences limen scores for speech and singing were about 5 dB in the 8-kHz octave (5.6-11.3 kHz) but 8-10 dB in the 16-kHz octave (11.3-22 kHz). These scores are lower (better) than those previously reported for isolated vowels and some musical instruments.

  6. Adapting Choral Singing Experiences for Older Adults: The Implications of Sensory, Perceptual, and Cognitive Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yinger, Olivia Swedberg

    2014-01-01

    As people age, they naturally experience sensory, perceptual, and cognitive changes. Many of these changes necessitate adaptations in designing programs for older adults. Choral singing is an activity that has many potential benefits for older adults, yet the rehearsal environment, presentation style, and content of material presented may need to…

  7. Choral singing therapy following stroke or Parkinson's disease: an exploration of participants' experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogg-Rogers, Laura; Buetow, Stephen; Talmage, Alison; McCann, Clare M; Leão, Sylvia H S; Tippett, Lynette; Leung, Joan; McPherson, Kathryn M; Purdy, Suzanne C

    2016-01-01

    People with stroke or Parkinson's disease (PD) live with reduced mood, social participation and quality of life (QOL). Communication difficulties affect 90% of people with PD (dysarthria) and over 33% of people with stroke (aphasia). These consequences are disabling in many ways. However, as singing is typically still possible, its therapeutic use is of increasing interest. This article explores the experiences of and factors influencing participation in choral singing therapy (CST) by people with stroke or PD and their significant others. Participants (eight people with stroke, six with PD) were recruited from a community music therapy choir running CST. Significant others (seven for stroke, two for PD) were also recruited. Supported communication methods were used as needed to undertake semi-structured interviews (total N = 23). Thematic analysis indicated participants had many unmet needs associated with their condition, which motivated them to explore self-management options. CST participation was described as an enjoyable social activity, and participation was perceived as improving mood, language, breathing and voice. Choral singing was perceived by people with stroke and PD to help them self-manage some of the consequences of their condition, including social isolation, low mood and communication difficulties. Choral singing therapy (CST) is sought out by people with stroke and PD to help self-manage symptoms of their condition. Participation is perceived as an enjoyable activity which improves mood, voice and language symptoms. CST may enable access to specialist music therapy and speech language therapy protocols within community frameworks.

  8. Live maternal speech and singing have beneficial effects on hospitalized preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippa, Manuela; Devouche, Emmanuel; Arioni, Cesare; Imberty, Michel; Gratier, Maya

    2013-10-01

    To study the effects of live maternal speaking and singing on physiological parameters of preterm infants in the NICU and to test the hypothesis that vocal stimulation can have differential effects on preterm infants at a behavioural level. Eighteen mothers spoke and sang to their medically stable preterm infants in their incubators over 6 days, between 1 and 2 pm. Heart rate (HR), oxygen saturation (OxSat), number of critical events (hypoxemia, bradycardia and apnoea) and change in behavioural state were measured. Comparisons of periods with and without maternal vocal stimulation revealed significantly greater oxygen saturation level and heart rate and significantly fewer negative critical events (p singing. Unexpected findings were the comparable effects of maternal talk and singing on infant physiological parameters and the differential ones on infant behavioural state. A renewed connection to the mother's voice can be an important and significant experience for preterm infants. Exposure to maternal speech and singing shows significant early beneficial effects on physiological state, such as oxygen saturation levels, number of critical events and prevalence of calm alert state. These findings have implications for NICU interventions, encouraging maternal interaction with their medically stable preterm infants. ©2013 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. The Singing Teacher's Role in Educating Children's Abilities, Sensibilities and Sensitivities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akuno, Emily Achieng'

    2015-01-01

    In the Republic of Kenya, song is widely used to enhance the whole curriculum in lower primary classes. Song is used especially to aid recall and therefore teachers adapt tunes that children already know, inserting relevant words from the subject at hand. Despite this widespread practice, this form of singing in schools is not recognised by the…

  10. Singing as Language Learning Activity in Multilingual Toddler Groups in Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kultti, Anne

    2013-01-01

    This research focused on learning conditions in preschool that support multilingual children's linguistic development. The aim of this paper was to study singing activities through the experiences of ten multilingual children in toddler groups (one to three years of age) in eight Swedish preschools. A sociocultural theoretical approach is used to…

  11. Singing in Primary Schools: Case Studies of Good Practice in Whole Class Vocal Tuition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamont, Alexandra; Daubney, Alison; Spruce, Gary

    2012-01-01

    Within the context of British initiatives in music education such as the Wider Opportunities programme in England and the recommendations of the Music Manifesto emphasising the importance of singing in primary schools, the current paper explores examples of good practice in whole-class vocal tuition. The research included seven different primary…

  12. Supporting English Language Arts Standards within the Context of Early Singing Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordquist, Alice L.

    2015-01-01

    Music teachers may integrate a variety of English language arts content standards into their curriculum to enhance students' music experiences while also supporting their language development. John M. Feierabend and Melanie Champagne's picture book adaptation of "My Aunt Came Back" lends itself to multiple singing and discussion…

  13. Scientific Concepts in Singing: Do They Belong in a Student Toolbox of Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latukefu, Lotte; Verenikina, Irina

    2011-01-01

    This article presents part of a five-year Australian study, the purpose of which was to look at learning singing in a pedagogical environment designed using sociocultural theory. The classroom environment was transformed over 5 years in consultation with other staff members and used the reflective journals that students wrote during that time as a…

  14. Singing Dialogue : Music therapy with persons in advanced stages of dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    of communication. The results show that; 1) Singing has a positive influence on the 6 participants, defined by degree of compliance, by changes in heart rate levels, and by various ways of taking part in the music therapy; 2) The six participants communicate responsively, and this communication can be recognised...

  15. Effects of Movement Instruction on Children's Singing Achievement Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Mary Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of movement instruction on children's singing achievement scores. When controlling for age, four overarching questions and nine sub-questions were asked. First, when controlling for age, how do pitch achievement scores at the outset compare to pitch achievement scores after movement…

  16. Effects of Music Instruction with Bamboo Xylophone Accompaniment on Singing Achievement among Second-Grade Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeon, Jinky Jane C.; Ku, Agnes Chun Moi

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is to determine the effect of music instruction with bamboo xylophone as harmonic accompaniment on the singing achievement of second-grade children. Eighty children (N = 80) from four randomly selected classes in two different public schools in the city of Kota Kinabalu participated in this study and they were assigned to…

  17. Eesti talendid raadiokonkurssidel "New Talent" ja "Let the Peoples Sing" / Karin Kopra

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kopra, Karin

    2005-01-01

    Bratislavas toimunud noorte interpreetide võistlusest "New Talent", kus osales ka pianist Mihkel Poll ning rahvusvahelisest amatöörkooride konkursist "Let the Peoples Sing" Kölnis, kus osalesid Eesti Televisiooni tütarlastekoor ja Tallinna Muusikakeskkooli lastekoor

  18. Adapting Choral Singing Experiences for Older Adults: The Implications of Sensory, Perceptual, and Cognitive Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yinger, Olivia Swedberg

    2014-01-01

    As people age, they naturally experience sensory, perceptual, and cognitive changes. Many of these changes necessitate adaptations in designing programs for older adults. Choral singing is an activity that has many potential benefits for older adults, yet the rehearsal environment, presentation style, and content of material presented may need to…

  19. The Tunebook That Roars: The Sound and Style of Sacred Harp Singing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholten, James

    1980-01-01

    The Chattahoochee, Georgia, Sacred Harp Musical Convention has been held annually since 1852. Its tunebook uses a shape-note solmization system introduced to America in the seventeenth century. This article describes the history of shape-note tunebooks; some Sacred Harp songs, modern singing events, and teaching techniques. Resources are listed.…

  20. Let the Caged Bird Sing: Using Literature to Teach Developmental Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyatzis, Chris J.

    1992-01-01

    Describes the use of fictional literature in a college-level developmental psychology class. Focuses specifically on Maya Angelou's "I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings" and its relation to several child development topics. Contends that literature should be used more often as part of instruction, especially in the sciences. (CFR)

  1. Effects of Music Instruction with Bamboo Xylophone Accompaniment on Singing Achievement among Second-Grade Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeon, Jinky Jane C.; Ku, Agnes Chun Moi

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is to determine the effect of music instruction with bamboo xylophone as harmonic accompaniment on the singing achievement of second-grade children. Eighty children (N = 80) from four randomly selected classes in two different public schools in the city of Kota Kinabalu participated in this study and they were assigned to…

  2. Aural Dictation Affects High Achievement in Sight Singing, Performance and Composition Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    The nature of skill acquisition has long been of interest to music educators. This study considers the research context for relationships between aural dictation, sight singing, performance and composition skills. Then, relationships between these skill areas are quantitatively investigated using data from the Australian New South Wales Music 2…

  3. The Effect of Pattern Recognition and Tonal Predictability on Sight-Singing Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Philip; Berry, Anna; Rosner, Burton

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the role of concurrent musical parts in pitching ability in sight-singing, concentrating on the effects of melodic and harmonic coherence. Twenty-two experienced singers sang their part twice in each of four novel chorales. The chorales contained either original or altered melody and original (tonal) or altered (atonal)…

  4. Rock'n Roll Physics Sing Along (Listening-Along Encouraged)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Like to learn new favorites? Wish you had some snappy songs that teach physics? Just want to sing and laugh or listen and laugh? Join us for an evening of fun physics tunes set to familiar rock, blues, and swing tunes. Light refreshments will be served.

  5. Let the Caged Bird Sing: Using Literature to Teach Developmental Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyatzis, Chris J.

    1992-01-01

    Describes the use of fictional literature in a college-level developmental psychology class. Focuses specifically on Maya Angelou's "I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings" and its relation to several child development topics. Contends that literature should be used more often as part of instruction, especially in the sciences. (CFR)

  6. Effect of singing on respiratory function, voice, and mood after quadriplegia: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamplin, Jeanette; Baker, Felicity A; Grocke, Denise; Brazzale, Danny J; Pretto, Jeffrey J; Ruehland, Warren R; Buttifant, Mary; Brown, Douglas J; Berlowitz, David J

    2013-03-01

    To explore the effects of singing training on respiratory function, voice, mood, and quality of life for people with quadriplegia. Randomized controlled trial. Large, university-affiliated public hospital, Victoria, Australia. Participants (N=24) with chronic quadriplegia (C4-8, American Spinal Injury Association grades A and B). The experimental group (n=13) received group singing training 3 times weekly for 12 weeks. The control group (n=11) received group music appreciation and relaxation for 12 weeks. Assessments were conducted pre, mid-, immediately post-, and 6-months postintervention. Standard respiratory function testing, surface electromyographic activity from accessory respiratory muscles, sound pressure levels during vocal tasks, assessments of voice quality (Perceptual Voice Profile, Multidimensional Voice Profile), and Voice Handicap Index, Profile of Mood States, and Assessment of Quality of Life instruments. The singing group increased projected speech intensity (P=.028) and maximum phonation length (P=.007) significantly more than the control group. Trends for improvements in respiratory function, muscle strength, and recruitment were also evident for the singing group. These effects were limited by small sample sizes with large intersubject variability. Both groups demonstrated an improvement in mood (P=.002), which was maintained in the music appreciation and relaxation group after 6 months (P=.017). Group music therapy can have a positive effect on not only physical outcomes, but also can improve mood, energy, social participation, and quality of life for an at-risk population, such as those with quadriplegia. Specific singing therapy can augment these general improvements by improving vocal intensity. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Laryngoscopic and spectral analysis of laryngeal and pharyngeal configuration in non-classical singing styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Marco; Lanas, Andres; Olavarria, Christian; Azocar, Maria Josefina; Muñoz, Daniel; Madrid, Sofia; Monsalve, Sebastian; Martinez, Francisca; Vargas, Sindy; Cortez, Pedro; Mayerhoff, Ross M

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to assess three different singing styles (pop, rock, and jazz) with laryngoscopic, acoustic, and perceptual analysis in healthy singers at different loudness levels. Special emphasis was given to the degree of anterior-posterior (A-P) laryngeal compression, medial laryngeal compression, vertical laryngeal position (VLP), and pharyngeal compression. Prospective study. Twelve female trained singers with at least 5 years of voice training and absence of any voice pathology were included. Flexible and rigid laryngeal endoscopic examinations were performed. Voice recording was also carried out. Four blinded judges were asked to assess laryngoscopic and auditory perceptual variables using a visual analog scale. All laryngoscopic parameters showed significant differences for all singing styles. Rock showed the greatest degree for all of them. Overall A-P laryngeal compression scores demonstrated significantly higher values than overall medial compression and VLP. High loudness level produced the highest degree of A-P compression, medial compression, pharyngeal compression, and the lowest VLP for all singing styles. Additionally, rock demonstrated the highest values for alpha ratio (less steep spectral slope), L1-L0 ratio (more glottal adduction), and Leq (more vocal intensity). Statistically significant differences between the three loudness levels were also found for these acoustic parameters. Rock singing seems to be the style with the highest degree of both laryngeal and pharyngeal activity in healthy singers. Although, supraglottic activity during singing could be labeled as hyperfunctional vocal behavior, it may not necessarily be harmful, but a strategy to avoid vocal fold damage. Copyright © 2015 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Self-Regulation and Infant-Directed Singing in Infants with Down Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de l'Etoile, Shannon K

    2015-01-01

    Infants learn how to regulate internal states and subsequent behavior through dyadic interactions with caregivers. During infant-directed (ID) singing, mothers help infants practice attentional control and arousal modulation, thus providing critical experience in self-regulation. Infants with Down syndrome are known to have attention deficits and delayed information processing as well as difficulty managing arousability, factors that may disrupt their efforts at self-regulation. The researcher explored responses to ID singing in infants with Down syndrome (DS) and compared them with those of typically developing (TD) infants. Behaviors measured included infant gaze and affect as indicators of self-regulation. Participants included 3- to 9-month-old infants with and without DS who were videotaped throughout a 2-minute face-to-face interaction during which their mothers sang to them any song(s) of their choosing. Infant behavior was then coded for percentage of time spent demonstrating a specific gaze or affect type. All infants displayed sustained gaze more than any other gaze type. TD infants demonstrated intermittent gaze significantly more often than infants with DS. Infant status had no effect on affect type, and all infants showed predominantly neutral affect. Findings suggest that ID singing effectively maintains infant attention for both TD infants and infants with DS. However, infants with DS may have difficulty shifting attention during ID singing as needed to adjust arousal levels and self-regulate. High levels of neutral affect for all infants imply that ID singing is likely to promote a calm, curious state, regardless of infant status. © the American Music Therapy Association 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Interplay between singing and cortical processing of music: A longitudinal study in children with cochlear implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritva eTorppa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Informal music activities such as singing may lead to augmented auditory perception and attention. In order to study the accuracy and development of music-related sound change detection in children with cochlear implants (CIs and normal hearing (NH aged 4-13 years, we recorded their auditory event-related potentials twice (at T1 and T2, 14-17 months apart. We compared their MMN (preattentive discrimination and P3a (attention towards salient sounds to changes in piano tone pitch, timbre, duration, and gaps. Of particular interest was to determine whether singing can facilitate auditory perception and attention of CI children. It was found that, compared to the NH group, the CI group had smaller and later timbre P3a and later pitch P3a, implying degraded discrimination and attention shift. Duration MMN became larger from T1 to T2 only in the NH group. Duration MMN became larger from T1 to T2 only in the NH group. The development of response patterns for duration and gap changes were not similar in the CI and NH groups. Importantly, CI singers had enhanced or rapidly developing P3a or P3a-like responses over all change types. In contrast, CI non-singers had rapidly enlarging pitch MMN without enlargement of P3a, and their timbre P3a became smaller and later over time. These novel results show interplay between MMN, P3a, brain development, cochlear implantation and singing. They imply an augmented development of neural networks for attention and more accurate neural discrimination associated with singing. In future studies, differential development of P3a between CI and NH children should be taken into account in comparisons of these groups. Moreover, further studies are needed to assess whether singing enhances auditory perception and attention of children with CIs.

  10. Interplay between singing and cortical processing of music: a longitudinal study in children with cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torppa, Ritva; Huotilainen, Minna; Leminen, Miika; Lipsanen, Jari; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2014-01-01

    Informal music activities such as singing may lead to augmented auditory perception and attention. In order to study the accuracy and development of music-related sound change detection in children with cochlear implants (CIs) and normal hearing (NH) aged 4-13 years, we recorded their auditory event-related potentials twice (at T1 and T2, 14-17 months apart). We compared their MMN (preattentive discrimination) and P3a (attention toward salient sounds) to changes in piano tone pitch, timbre, duration, and gaps. Of particular interest was to determine whether singing can facilitate auditory perception and attention of CI children. It was found that, compared to the NH group, the CI group had smaller and later timbre P3a and later pitch P3a, implying degraded discrimination and attention shift. Duration MMN became larger from T1 to T2 only in the NH group. The development of response patterns for duration and gap changes were not similar in the CI and NH groups. Importantly, CI singers had enhanced or rapidly developing P3a or P3a-like responses over all change types. In contrast, CI non-singers had rapidly enlarging pitch MMN without enlargement of P3a, and their timbre P3a became smaller and later over time. These novel results show interplay between MMN, P3a, brain development, cochlear implantation, and singing. They imply an augmented development of neural networks for attention and more accurate neural discrimination associated with singing. In future studies, differential development of P3a between CI and NH children should be taken into account in comparisons of these groups. Moreover, further studies are needed to assess whether singing enhances auditory perception and attention of children with CIs.

  11. Choral Singing and Wellbeing: Findings from a Survey of the Mixed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-12-16

    Dec 16, 2016 ... Music provides self-acceptance, sense of purpose or fulfilment ... Some questions then come to mind: Is there any therapeutic effect of the mixed chorus .... port, cognitive stimulation and regular commitment. The discussion in ...

  12. Benefits of Group Singing for People with Eating Disorders: Preliminary Findings from a Non-Clinical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metaxia Pavlakou

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the possible benefits of participation in group singing for people with eating disorders in a non-clinical context. The creation of a group singing workshop for women that exhibited disordered eating provided the opportunity to explore the participants’ experiences as perceived by them. A qualitative approach utilizing a semi-structured interview was employed to explore in depth the women’s perceptions regarding the group singing workshop. A thematic analysis of the data identified four main categories concerning the benefits of group singing for the population under study. The theoretical model of Sears (1968 of the processes in music therapy and its application on anorexic clients (Parente 1989 informed the discussion of the empirical findings.

  13. How to engage the right brain hemisphere in aphasics without even singing: evidence for two paths of speech recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Benjamin; Henseler, Ilona; Turner, Robert; Geyer, Stefan; Kotz, Sonja A.

    2012-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate as to whether singing helps left-hemispheric stroke patients recover from non-fluent aphasia through stimulation of the right hemisphere. According to recent work, it may not be singing itself that aids speech production in non-fluent aphasic patients, but rhythm and lyric type. However, the long-term effects of melody and rhythm on speech recovery are largely unknown. In the current experiment, we tested 15 patients with chronic non-fluent aphasia who underwent either singing therapy, rhythmic therapy, or standard speech therapy. The experiment controlled for phonatory quality, vocal frequency variability, pitch accuracy, syllable duration, phonetic complexity and other influences, such as the acoustic setting and learning effects induced by the testing itself. The results provide the first evidence that singing and rhythmic speech may be similarly effective in the treatment of non-fluent aphasia. This finding may challenge the view that singing causes a transfer of language function from the left to the right hemisphere. Instead, both singing and rhythmic therapy patients made good progress in the production of common, formulaic phrases—known to be supported by right corticostriatal brain areas. This progress occurred at an early stage of both therapies and was stable over time. Conversely, patients receiving standard therapy made less progress in the production of formulaic phrases. They did, however, improve their production of non-formulaic speech, in contrast to singing and rhythmic therapy patients, who did not. In light of these results, it may be worth considering the combined use of standard therapy and the training of formulaic phrases, whether sung or rhythmically spoken. Standard therapy may engage, in particular, left perilesional brain regions, while training of formulaic phrases may open new ways of tapping into right-hemisphere language resources—even without singing. PMID:23450277

  14. How to engage the right brain hemisphere in aphasics without even singing: evidence for two paths of speech recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin eStahl

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available There is an ongoing debate as to whether singing helps left-hemispheric stroke patients recover from non-fluent aphasia through stimulation of the right hemisphere. According to recent work, it may not be singing itself that aids speech production in non-fluent aphasic patients, but rhythm and lyric type. However, the long-term effects of melody and rhythm on speech recovery are largely unknown. In the current experiment, we tested 15 patients with chronic non-fluent aphasia who underwent either singing therapy, rhythmic therapy, or standard speech therapy. The experiment controlled for phonatory quality, vocal frequency variability, pitch accuracy, syllable duration, phonetic complexity and other influences, such as the acoustic setting and learning effects induced by the testing itself. The results provide the first evidence that singing and rhythmic speech may be similarly effective in the treatment of non-fluent aphasia. This finding may challenge the view that singing causes a transfer of language function from the left to the right hemisphere. Instead, both singing and rhythmic therapy patients made good progress in the production of common, formulaic phrases—known to be supported by right corticostriatal brain areas. This progress occurred at an early stage of both therapies and was stable over time. Conversely, patients receiving standard therapy made less progress in the production of formulaic phrases. They did, however, improve their production of non-formulaic speech, in contrast to singing and rhythmic therapy patients, who did not. In light of these results, it may be worth considering the combined use of standard therapy and the training of formulaic phrases, whether sung or rhythmically spoken. Standard therapy may engage, in particular, left perilesional brain regions, while training of formulaic phrases may open new ways of tapping into right-hemisphere language resources—even without singing.

  15. Music Therapy Using Singing Training Improves Psychomotor Speed in Patients with Alzheimer's Disease: A Neuropsychological and fMRI Study

    OpenAIRE

    Masayuki Satoh; Toru Yuba; Ken-ichi Tabei; Yukari Okubo; Hirotaka Kida; Hajime Sakuma; Hidekazu Tomimoto

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims: To investigate the effect of singing training on the cognitive function in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Methods: Ten AD patients (mean age 78.1 years) participated in music therapy using singing training once a week for 6 months (music therapy group). Each session was performed with professional musicians using karaoke and a unique voice training method (the YUBA Method). Before and after the intervention period, each patient was assessed by neuropsychological batteries...

  16. How to engage the right brain hemisphere in aphasics without even singing: evidence for two paths of speech recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Benjamin; Henseler, Ilona; Turner, Robert; Geyer, Stefan; Kotz, Sonja A

    2013-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate as to whether singing helps left-hemispheric stroke patients recover from non-fluent aphasia through stimulation of the right hemisphere. According to recent work, it may not be singing itself that aids speech production in non-fluent aphasic patients, but rhythm and lyric type. However, the long-term effects of melody and rhythm on speech recovery are largely unknown. In the current experiment, we tested 15 patients with chronic non-fluent aphasia who underwent either singing therapy, rhythmic therapy, or standard speech therapy. The experiment controlled for phonatory quality, vocal frequency variability, pitch accuracy, syllable duration, phonetic complexity and other influences, such as the acoustic setting and learning effects induced by the testing itself. The results provide the first evidence that singing and rhythmic speech may be similarly effective in the treatment of non-fluent aphasia. This finding may challenge the view that singing causes a transfer of language function from the left to the right hemisphere. Instead, both singing and rhythmic therapy patients made good progress in the production of common, formulaic phrases-known to be supported by right corticostriatal brain areas. This progress occurred at an early stage of both therapies and was stable over time. Conversely, patients receiving standard therapy made less progress in the production of formulaic phrases. They did, however, improve their production of non-formulaic speech, in contrast to singing and rhythmic therapy patients, who did not. In light of these results, it may be worth considering the combined use of standard therapy and the training of formulaic phrases, whether sung or rhythmically spoken. Standard therapy may engage, in particular, left perilesional brain regions, while training of formulaic phrases may open new ways of tapping into right-hemisphere language resources-even without singing.

  17. The role of singing familiar songs in encouraging conversation among people with middle to late stage Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dassa, Ayelet; Amir, Dorit

    2014-01-01

    Language deficits in people with Alzheimer's disease (AD) manifest, among other things, in a gradual deterioration of spontaneous speech. People with AD tend to speak less as the disease progresses and their speech becomes confused. However, the ability to sing old tunes sometimes remains intact throughout the disease. The purpose of this study was to explore the role of singing familiar songs in encouraging conversation among people with middle to late stage AD. Six participants attended group music therapy sessions over a one-month period. Using content analysis, we qualitatively examined transcriptions of verbal and sung content during 8 group sessions for the purpose of understanding the relationship between specific songs and conversations that occurred during and following group singing. Content analysis revealed that songs from the participants' past-elicited memories, especially songs related to their social and national identity. Analyses also indicated that conversation related to the singing was extensive and the act of group singing encouraged spontaneous responses. After singing, group members expressed positive feelings, a sense of accomplishment, and belonging. Carefully selecting music from the participants' past can encourage conversation. Considering the failure in spontaneous speech in people with middle to late stage AD, it is important to emphasize that group members' responses to each other occurred spontaneously without the researcher's encouragement. © the American Music Therapy Association 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. The influence of caregiver singing and background music on vocally expressed emotions and moods in dementia care: a qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götell, Eva; Brown, Steven; Ekman, Sirkka-Liisa

    2009-04-01

    Music and singing are considered to have a strong impact on human emotions. Such an effect has been demonstrated in caregiving contexts with dementia patients. The aim of the study was to illuminate vocally expressed emotions and moods in the communication between caregivers and persons with severe dementia during morning care sessions. Three types of caring sessions were compared: the "usual" way, with no music; with background music playing; and with the caregiver singing to and/or with the patient. Nine persons with severe dementia living in a nursing home in Sweden and five professional caregivers participated in this study. Qualitative content analysis was used to examine videotaped recordings of morning care sessions, with a focus on vocally expressed emotions and moods during verbal communication. Compared to no music, the presence of background music and caregiver singing improved the mutuality of the communication between caregiver and patient, creating a joint sense of vitality. Positive emotions were enhanced, and aggressiveness was diminished. Whereas background music increased the sense of playfulness, caregiver singing enhanced the sense of sincerity and intimacy in the interaction. Caregiver singing and background music can help the caregiver improve the patient's ability to express positive emotions and moods, and to elicit a sense of vitality on the part of the person with severe dementia. The results further support the value of caregiver singing as a method to improve the quality of dementia care.

  19. Vocal tract dimensional characteristics of professional male and female singers with different types of singing voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Nan; Ng, Manwa L; Man, Mok Ka; To, Tsz Hin

    2013-10-01

    The present study examined the possible relationship between classification of professional singing voices and their vocal tract parameters including vocal tract length and volume, and vowel formant frequencies. Acoustic reflection technology (ART) was used to measure vocal tract length and volume of 107 professional singers: 32 tenors, 25 baritones, 27 sopranos, and 23 mezzo-sopranos. The first three formant frequencies (F1-F3) of the English vowels /a, æ, i/ produced by the professional singers were also obtained. Results indicated significantly shorter oral and vocal tract length, and smaller oral and vocal tract volume associated with sopranos when compared with mezzo-sopranos. Acoustically, sopranos had higher F1, F2, and F3 values than mezzo-sopranos. The present findings suggest that, in addition to vocal tract length, vocal tract volume may also affect formant frequencies, implying the possibility that classifying professional singing voices is based on both vocal tract length and volume information.

  20. The effect of melody and technique on the singing voice accuracy of trained singers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrouy-Maestri, Pauline; Magis, David; Morsomme, Dominique

    2014-10-01

    A previous study highlighted the effect of vocal technique on the singing voice accuracy of trained singers. The intervals' precision between the notes of the tune was altered when the singers used Western operatic singing technique. In order better to understand these results, we have recorded two different melodies sung with two different vocal techniques. A large panel of trained singers (n = 50) participated in the study. The analytical method described in the reference paper has been applied. The results confirm the effect of vocal technique on the vocal accuracy of trained singers. In addition, these results provide an answer about the melodic effect and guide future work on the perception process of operatic voices.

  1. Razdelnorechie and Polyphonic Singing in the Teaching of Russian Old Believers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Sawicki

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article discuses two very important problems concerning liturgical singing in Ruthenia. The first part of the article contains an analysis of the musical and linguistic phenomenon of razdelnorechie (also known as homonia. The author, presenting the issue from the Old Believers’ point of view, tries to prove that elements of homonia in liturgical texts, contained in Old Believers songbooks, have not only been treated as a fillers of melisma (similar to latin tropus. Supporters of ‘the old tradition’ treated homonia and polyphonic services as sacred signs. The author in the second part of the article tries to find out the reasons of the Old Believers’ negative attitude to polyphonic singing.

  2. Singing in individual music therapy with elderly persons suffering from dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    2001-01-01

    . My hopotheses are - that singing has an influence on persons with dementia - that this influence can be defined upon communicative characteristics - that persons with dementia in an advanced stage communicate musically, and that this musical communication can be recognised by a system...... of communicative signs - that music therapy has an influence on aspects in residential daily life for the person with dementia. Data collection has been based on video recording, heart rate measurements, day-to-day questionnaires, case descriptions and music therapist's log.......The focus of this research in progress is my clinical work with persons suffering from dementia, where we sing familiar songs from long ago in the music therapy. In an exploratory case study approach I have made systematic observations of 6 individual residents living in a gerontopsychological unit...

  3. The Development of Cooperation Skills in the Process of Studying Jazz Singing

    OpenAIRE

    Bērziņa, Inga

    2010-01-01

    ANNOTATION The doctoral thesis ‘The Development of Cooperation Skills in the Process of Studying Jazz Singing’ has been done from 2005 to 2009 by Inga Bērziņa, a student of the Department of Pedagogy of the Faculty of Pedagogy and Psychology at the University of Latvia. Research area: The process of studying jazz singing. Research object: Development of students’ cooperation skills. Research aim: To discover the connections underlying the development of students’ cooperation skills in t...

  4. Learning to sing with the accompaniment of the gusle in Serbia in the XXI century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lajić-Mihajlović Danka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, learning to sing with the accompaniment of the gusle is reconsidered within the concept of the preservation of traditional folk music as an intangible cultural heritage, that is, as a specific form of music education. Having dealt with a traditional way of providing continuity in the practice of guslars` (i. e. gusle players - which is learning by observing and imitating more experienced family members or guslars from nearby surrounding - some crucial moments in the history of singing with the accompaniment of the gusle, which also influenced the process of transmitting this skill, are demonstrated. In recent times, singing with the accompaniment of the gusle has been mastered not only within family circles but also in associations of guslars, at private schools of music, and lately there has also been an opportunity to learn this skill at some state schools of music. Accordingly, interviews with the members of an Association of guslars association that is particularly distinguished by the fostering young guslars, and interviews with gusle teachers and pupils who attend schools of music were used as primary sources for this paper, together with the specific experience of the author as a president of the jury in a young guslars’ competition. Since the poetic content of the songs is primarily learnt from printed collections or audio recordings, future guslars in fact master the musical skills of playing and singing along the instrument, that is, the skill of the vocal interpretation of a chosen written poetic text. Concerning these, some programmes and methods are discussed, as well as their effects on young guslars’ competence, principally from the point of style and aesthetics. Attention is particularly drawn to flaws in the teaching concept of future gusle players at state schools of music. In conclusion, the necessity of applying ethnomusicological findings to activities concerning the preservation of an intangible cultural

  5. Effects of population size on singing behavior of a rare duetting songbird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valderrama, Sandra V; Molles, Laura E; Waas, Joseph R

    2013-02-01

    Although the genetic and ecological effects of population declines in endangered species have been well studied, little is known of the social consequences. Changes in signaling behavior may result in disrupted communication and affect both reproductive and conflict-resolution activities. The North Island Kōkako (Callaeas wilsoni) is an endangered, duetting (i.e., alternating, coordinated singing by mated pairs) songbird endemic to New Zealand temperate rain forests. Scattered populations (approximately 1500 individuals in 13 surviving and 11 translocated populations) in isolated conservation areas of different sizes have been rescued from extirpation and are currently recovering. We examined key song attributes of the Kōkako to assess whether population size or growth rate are related to song complexity, the reduction of which may compromise effective communication. We analyzed song repertoire size and phrase-type sharing (i.e., Jaccard index of similarity), vocal performance (singing rates, song switching rates, and diversity of phrase types), and song syntactical characteristics (i.e., unpredictability in sequences of phrase types) in surviving and translocated populations (populations of approximately 19-250 territorial individuals). Population size was positively correlated with a population's song repertoire, song diversity, and switching of song phrase types and negatively correlated with shared phrase types and variation in syntactical structure of songs. Population growth rate correlated positively with pair repertoire size, population repertoire size, and singing rates during song bouts. As for solo-singing species in fragmented landscapes, songs in the fragmented populations of Kōkako appear to be undergoing microevolution as occurs in island colonization events. Our results suggest that vocal changes in small populations could affect population establishment and growth, particularly in multiple-source translocations. We believe measurement of vocal

  6. [Reliability and Validity of the "Voice Handicap Index (VHI) Adapted to the Singing Voice"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsties, B; Kropp, J; Dicks, P; Grzondziel, V; Morsomme, D

    2015-07-01

    The Voice Handicap Index (i. e., VHI) is one of the most reliable standardized self-evaluation assessments in diagnosis of voice disorders. That tool is the most used in daily clinic. In 2007, the VHI was adapted to the singing population, called 'VHI adapté aux chanteurs'. The aim of our study was to investigate the reliability and validity of the German version of the VHI adapted to the singing voice. 113 German singers (41 males and 72 females) with diverse singing styles and profession were included in the study. They were divided into 2 groups: a test-group (n=20) with self-perceived vocal complaints and a control-group (n=93) without vocal complaints. Statistical analysis to measure the reliability and validity was conducted with the Cronbach's alpha (i. e., Cron. α), independent t-test and receiver operating characteristics as well likelihood ratio, respectively. Reliability was confirmed by acceptable Cron. α (0.713-0.850) for each of the sub-scales and total score. The validity between the 2 groups showed high significant differences for each of the sub-scales and total score by which the test-group indicated higher scores than the control-group. Only the construct validity revealed no clear results. The VHI adapted to the singing voice is suited as reliable and valid standardized evaluation tool, but the diagnostic accuracy has to be investigated again because of too high inaccuracy in the interpretation of the outcome of the present data. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Effect of mother singing on adaptation of preemies to extra-uterine life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiko Lúcia Hagi Pedro

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sounds are part of our life and are able to produce effects on physical and emotional balance of people. Objective: To evaluate the effects of mother’s singing on the preemie using as parameters the heart and respiratory frequency and blood oxygen concentration of preemies, and also the mother perception related to baby behavior during the exposition to her singing. Methods: It is an exploratory investigation with quantitative and qualitative analyzes. Twenty preemies babies were observed during three consecutive days. Each child was exposed to the mother singing during ten minutes for three periods. The data were collected before and immediately after the music exposition. The heart and respiratory frequency and blood oxygen concentration of the baby were registered in two moments: pre and post- music exposition; the two measures were analyzed and compared. In the third day, the mother was interviewed to know her perception related to baby behavior during the singing exposition. The assessment of data was performed from March to July 2015 in two public hospitals in Sorocaba, São Paulo, Brazil. For the statistical analysis, Wilcoxon, Mc Nemar and variance test of Friedman were applied. Results and Conclusion: Statistics showed no significant results, however the qualitative analyzes showed positive results from the mother’s speech, such as benefic changes on babies behavior, recognition of mother’s voice and in helping to consolidate the bond between mother and her baby. s positivos nos discursos obtidos das mães, tais como alterações comportamentais benéficas, reconhecimento da voz materna e auxílio na consolidação do vínculo mãe-bebê. Palavras-chave: musicoterapia; cuidados de enfermagem; prematuro; adaptação fisiológica; humanização da assistência.

  8. 'Cantavan tutti insieme ad una voce': Singing and Community in the Commedia

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips-Robins, H. C.

    2016-01-01

    This is the author accepted manuscript. It is currently under an indefinite embargo pending publication by Taylor & Francis. This essay argues that in the Commedia song becomes a key means of shaping and expressing modes of communal being. The singing of In exitu Israel that marks the souls’ arrival in Purgatorio and the performance of the Gloria that marks each soul’s departure create multiple communities that stretch across time and space to encompass the purgatorial souls, the angelic h...

  9. Signal interactions and interference in insect choruses: singing and listening in the social environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Michael D

    2015-01-01

    Acoustic insects usually sing amidst conspecifics, thereby creating a social environment-the chorus-in which individuals communicate, find mates, and avoid predation. A temporal structure may arise in a chorus because of competitive and cooperative factors that favor certain signal interactions between neighbors. This temporal structure can generate significant acoustic interference among singers that pose problems for communication, mate finding, and predator detection. Acoustic insects can reduce interference by means of selective attention to only their nearest neighbors and by alternating calls with neighbors. Alternatively, they may synchronize, allowing them to preserve call rhythm and also to listen for predators during the silent intervals between calls. Moreover, males singing in choruses may benefit from reduced per capita predation risk as well as enhanced vigilance. They may also enjoy greater per capita attractiveness to females, particularly in the case of synchronous choruses. In many cases, however, the overall temporal structure of the chorus is only an emergent property of simple, pairwise interactions between neighbors. Nonetheless, the chorus that emerges can impose significant selection pressure on the singing of those individual males. Thus, feedback loops may occur and potentially influence traits at both individual and group levels in a chorus.

  10. Long-term horizontal vocal directivity of opera singers: effects of singing projection and acoustic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Densil; Davis, Pamela J; Connolly, Anna

    2011-11-01

    Vocal directivity refers to how directional the sound is that comes from a singer's mouth, that is, whether the sound is focused into a narrow stream of sound projecting in front of the singers or whether it is spread out all around the singer. This study investigates the long-term vocal directivity and acoustic power of professional opera singers and how these vary among subjects, among singing projections, and among vastly different acoustic environments. The vocal sound of eight professional opera singers (six females and two males) was measured in anechoic and reverberant rooms and in a recital hall. Subjects sang in four different ways: (1) paying great attention to intonation; (2) singing as in performance, with all the emotional connection intended by the composer; (3) imagining a large auditorium; and (4) imagining a small theatre. The same song was sung by all singers in all conditions. A head and torso simulator (HATS), radiating sound from its mouth, was used for comparison in all situations. Results show that individual singers have quite consistent long-term average directivity, even across conditions. Directivity varies substantially among singers. Singers are more directional than the standard HATS (which is a physical model of a talking person). The singer's formant region of the spectrum exhibits greater directivity than the lower-frequency range, and results indicate that singers control directivity (at least, incidentally) for different singing conditions as they adjust the spectral emphasis of their voices through their formants.

  11. Singing as a Strategy to Enhance the Ability to Speak for Early Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidya Ndaru Kristyana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Song is one form of typical communication. Therefore, singing is implemented in this study as a strategy to enhance the ability to speak. This study is aimed to find out the role of songs in enhancing the ability to speak for children in early childhood. This classroom action research is conducted in two cycles, there are: planning, acting out and observing, as well as reflecting. Data were collected by conducting observation technique, documentation, and test. It is shown from the results of the study that the ability of children to speak is increasing for every cycle. In the beginning, the cycle reached by only 56% or in the average 51, cycle I reached 60% with mean score 68,08 and cycle 2 reached 97% with the average score 83. From the percentage, it is shown that results of cycle II has passed the minimum score for students in Kindergarten level. In other words, it is proven that singing has been successfully implemented as a strategy in teaching speaking. It has enhanced the ability of children to speak. It is suggested for teachers in Kindergarten level to implement singing as a teaching strategy to bridge the need to teach Kindergarten students to speak during the learning process.

  12. Lack of musicality? Explaining anomalies in some senior Korean Christians’ hymn singing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jee-Weon Cha

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article launches an inquiry into the ways in which some senior Korean Christians sing Protestant hymns at a Korean church in Cleveland, OH. The majority of the church members sing hymns as they are written; several older members (aged 65 or over born in rural Korea, however, systematically transform them. The older singers tend to turn any diatonic hymn into a pentatonic melody, lowering fa down to mi and pulling ti up to do. Drawing on a variety of disciplines such as music theory, psychology, ethnography, and cultural history, I propose categorical perception as a key to understanding melodic transformation. Even though the piano accompanist at the church—who is rigidly Western music oriented—criticizes the older singers for their lack of musicality, numerous psychological studies suggest that the older Korean singers transform the hymns, precisely because they are musically trained, albeit in regional Korean folk singing practices. My fieldwork at the Annual Hymn Competition and my interview with the preacher of the church reinforce the idea that categorical perception is not only existent but also strongly cultural.

  13. Respiratory and Acoustical Differences Between Belt and Neutral Style of Singing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundberg, Johan; Thalén, Margareta

    2015-07-01

    Belt is a style of singing commonly used in nonclassical genres. Its respiratory, phonatory, and resonatory characteristics are unclear. Basic research. Six female singers, professionally performing in the belt styles since many years, sang an excerpt of a song in belt and nonbelt/neutral style, two times with the lyrics and two times replacing the lyrics with /pae/ syllables. On separate channels, recordings were made of audio, oral pressure, and rib cage and abdominal wall movements, as picked up by respiratory inductive plethysmography. Lung volume and breathing patterns during inhalation and phonation were normalized with respect to duration and averaged. Voice source was analyzed in terms of flow glottograms derived from the audio signal by inverse filtering. Belt was produced with higher pressures and yielded higher sound levels, but no consistent breathing pattern was observed, neither for the belt, nor for the neutral style. Voice source differences suggested that belt was produced with firmer glottal adduction than neutral. Also, in four of the singers, the first formant was closer to a spectrum harmonic in belt than in neutral. Belt style of singing is not associated with a characteristic breathing behavior but is produced with higher subglottal pressures, higher sound levels, and firmer glottal adduction than a neutral style of singing. Copyright © 2015 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Core and region-enriched networks of behaviorally regulated genes and the singing genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Osceola; Pfenning, Andreas R.; Howard, Jason T.; Blatti, Charles A; Liu, Fang; Ward, James M.; Wang, Rui; Audet, Jean-Nicolas; Kellis, Manolis; Mukherjee, Sayan; Sinha, Saurabh; Hartemink, Alexander J.; West, Anne E.; Jarvis, Erich D.

    2015-01-01

    Songbirds represent an important model organism for elucidating molecular mechanisms that link genes with complex behaviors, in part because they have discrete vocal learning circuits that have parallels with those that mediate human speech. We found that ~10% of the genes in the avian genome were regulated by singing, and we found a striking regional diversity of both basal and singing-induced programs in the four key song nuclei of the zebra finch, a vocal learning songbird. The region-enriched patterns were a result of distinct combinations of region-enriched transcription factors (TFs), their binding motifs, and presinging acetylation of histone 3 at lysine 27 (H3K27ac) enhancer activity in the regulatory regions of the associated genes. RNA interference manipulations validated the role of the calcium-response transcription factor (CaRF) in regulating genes preferentially expressed in specific song nuclei in response to singing. Thus, differential combinatorial binding of a small group of activity-regulated TFs and predefined epigenetic enhancer activity influences the anatomical diversity of behaviorally regulated gene networks. PMID:25504732

  15. Effects of Bel Canto Training on Acoustic and Aerodynamic Characteristics of the Singing Voice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHenry, Monica A; Evans, Joseph; Powitzky, Eric

    2016-03-01

    This study was designed to assess the impact of 2 years of operatic training on acoustic and aerodynamic characteristics of the singing voice. This is a longitudinal study. Participants were 21 graduate students and 16 undergraduate students. They completed a variety of tasks, including laryngeal videostroboscopy, audio recording of pitch range, and singing of syllable trains at full voice in chest, passaggio, and head registers. Inspiration, intraoral pressure, airflow, and sound pressure level (SPL) were captured during the syllable productions. Both graduate and undergraduate students significantly increased semitone range and SPL. The contributions to increased SPL were typically increased inspiration, increased airflow, and reduced laryngeal resistance, although there were individual differences. Two graduate students increased SPL without increased airflow and likely used supraglottal strategies to do so. Students demonstrated improvements in both acoustic and aerodynamic components of singing. Increasing SPL primarily through respiratory drive is a healthy strategy and results from intensive training. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Singing as Social Life: Three Perspectives on Kwv Txhiaj from Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lonán Ó Briain

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the recent influx of predominantly foreign-produced recordings of Hmong popular music, the vocal art form of kwv txhiaj still plays an important role in the daily lives of manyVietnamese-Hmong people. While previous studies of Vietnamese-Hmong music have tended to focus solely on the musical sounds, this article attempts to illustrate how kwv txhiaj is made meaningful in live performance by contextualizing the musical examples with ethnographic data. Using Timothy Rice’s Time, Place, and Metaphor model (2003 as a theoretical basis, three contrasting case studies of singers and their songs are examined: an elderly woman sings a song she learned at the time of her marriage at the age of nine, a younger woman sings while planting rice in her fields, and another sings about the importance of education at the local government cultural center. Based on fifteen months of fieldwork in northern Vietnam, this study examines a representative sample of performances from the Sa Pa district of Lào Cai province in an attempt to uncover what makes kwv txhiaj a vital aspect of Vietnamese-Hmong culture.

  17. Evidence-based Frameworks for Teaching and Learning in Classical Singing Training: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocco, Laura; Madill, Catherine J; McCabe, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    The study systematically reviews evidence-based frameworks for teaching and learning of classical singing training. This is a systematic review. A systematic literature search of 15 electronic databases following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews (PRISMA) guidelines was conducted. Eligibility criteria included type of publication, participant characteristics, intervention, and report of outcomes. Quality rating scales were applied to support assessment of the included literature. Data analysis was conducted using meta-aggregation. Nine papers met the inclusion criteria. No complete evidence-based teaching and learning framework was found. Thematic content analysis showed that studies either (1) identified teaching practices in one-to-one lessons, (2) identified student learning strategies in one-to-one lessons or personal practice sessions, and (3) implemented a tool to enhance one specific area of teaching and learning in lessons. The included studies showed that research in music education is not always specific to musical genre or instrumental group, with four of the nine studies including participant teachers and students of classical voice training only. The overall methodological quality ratings were low. Research in classical singing training has not yet developed an evidence-based framework for classical singing training. This review has found that introductory information on teaching and learning practices has been provided, and tools have been suggested for use in the evaluation of the teaching-learning process. High-quality methodological research designs are needed. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. PRAYER IN ALEXANDER BLOK'S LYRIC POETRY ("A GIRL WAS SINGING IN THE CHURCH CHOIR..."

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Aleksandrovna Spiridonova

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the genre clash of a prayer and stanzas in Alexander Blok’s poem A girl was singing in the church choir... (1905. Prayer is the main ecclesiastical source, shaping the poem’s lyric model. The genre canon of stanzas with the strophes detached substantially and compositionally, transforms the central musical theme into four scene-developments linked by dissonance. Each of the strophes in A girl was singing in the church choir... has its own semantic point (prayer – singings – illusion – enlightenment and reveals a different content of the event, intensifies and develops the tragic theme of two worlds, intended and unintended substitutions, spiritual quest and time losses. Blok’s stanzas are poetic evidence of a modern man’s exit from a prayerful concentration. The model of “conflicting synthesis” of ecclesiastical and literary genres reflects the religious/mystical opposition in symbolism aesthetics and strengthens the tragic pathos of Blok’s lyric poetry.

  19. Effects of altered auditory feedback across effector systems: production of melodies by keyboard and singing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfordresher, Peter Q; Mantell, James T

    2012-01-01

    We report an experiment that tested whether effects of altered auditory feedback (AAF) during piano performance differ from its effects during singing. These effector systems differ with respect to the mapping between motor gestures and pitch content of auditory feedback. Whereas this action-effect mapping is highly reliable during phonation in any vocal motor task (singing or speaking), mapping between finger movements and pitch occurs only in limited situations, such as piano playing. Effects of AAF in both tasks replicated results previously found for keyboard performance (Pfordresher, 2003), in that asynchronous (delayed) feedback slowed timing whereas alterations to feedback pitch increased error rates, and the effect of asynchronous feedback was similar in magnitude across tasks. However, manipulations of feedback pitch had larger effects on singing than on keyboard production, suggesting effector-specific differences in sensitivity to action-effect mapping with respect to feedback content. These results support the view that disruption from AAF is based on abstract, effector independent, response-effect associations but that the strength of associations differs across effector systems.

  20. Social and cognitive functions of music based on the example of Tuvan throat singing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen-Mou Hsu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Music is pervasive across human cultures and throughout times. Particularly, music serves great importance at social functions. Like many cultures’ use of music, throat singing or khöömei, the most distinguished aspect of Tuva’s music, contributes significantly to social communication, emotional expression, social bonding and religious rituals. Acknowledgment and consideration of current social cognitive findings of music may thus provide a better insight into the nature of throat singing. To date, evidence has indicated that similar to language, music is a fundamental channel of communication, and these two constructs may have common origins in a single communicative system. Moreover, music may modulate neural activity in the brain structures associated with emotions and alter our autonomic responses. In addition to information sharing, music thus has the capacity to convey emotions. This ability may further render music a powerful mechanism to facilitate social bonding and ritual practice, as individuals’ internal states during these social events become synchronized through musical engagement. In conclusion, I suggest that those social cognitive perspectives may point toward new directions for a continuing discourse on our understanding of throat singing.

  1. Exercise Science Principles and the Vocal Warm-up: Implications for Singing Voice Pedagogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoch, Matthew; Sandage, Mary J

    2017-05-19

    Principles from exercise science literature were applied to singing warm-up pedagogy as a method for examining parallels between athletic and voice training. Analysis of the use of exercise principles in vocal warm-up should illuminate aspects of voice training that may be further developed in the future. A selected canon of standard voice pedagogy texts and well-regarded warm-up methods were evaluated for use of exercise science principles for skill acquisition and fatigue resistance. Exercises were then categorized according to whether they were used for the purpose of skill acquisition (specificity), training up to tasks (overload), or detraining (reversibility). A preliminary review of well-established voice pedagogy programs reveals a strong bias toward the skill acquisition aspects of vocal warm-up, with little commentary on the fatigue management aspects. Further, the small number of vocalises examined that are not skill-acquisition oriented fall into a third "habilitative" category that likewise does not relate to overload but may play a role in offsetting reversibility. Although a systematic pedagogy for skill acquisition has emerged in the literature and practice of voice pedagogy, a parallel pedagogy for fatigue management has yet to be established. Identification of a systematic pedagogy for training up to specific singing genres and development of a singing maintenance program to avoid detraining may help the singer avoid injury. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Closed quotient and spectral measures of female adolescent singers in different singing styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Christopher; Lovetri, Jeannette

    2010-05-01

    Although quantifiable assessment of the singing voice is now commonplace, research on young (child and adolescent) voices is still in its infancy. There is still insufficient data on young people's voices based on which, "norms" in behavior could be modeled, particularly for contemporary commercial music (CCM), such as musical theater (MT). The objective of this study was to assess if quantifiable differences in vocal production and acoustic output of young singers exist between "classical" and "MT" styles. The study was a prospective cohort study of 20 adolescent female singers aged 12-17 years training their voices using a system, which includes both "classical" and "MT" styles. The study examined laryngographically derived closed quotient (CQ), average vowel spectra (AVS) and long-term average spectra (LTAS) measures of the sung voices of singers in "classical" and "MT" styles. The spectral slope was shallower for the MT voice, and the mean CQ was significantly higher across the pitch range when singing in an MT style than in a "classical" style. The second to fifth harmonics were stronger in the MT style than in classical, with a significant difference between the two styles. The increase in relative intensity in the first five harmonics was disproportionately higher than the increase in CQ. Results, therefore, suggested that MT singing primarily uses change in resonance strategy rather than raised vocal tension to achieve the tonal changes associated with the genre.

  3. 高校音乐教学中美声唱法与民族唱法的关系%The Relationship between Bel Canto Singing and National Singing in College Music Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管成锋; 栾珍珍

    2014-01-01

    民族唱法和美声唱法作为我国声乐界的两大主要唱法,是高校音乐教学的重要组成部分。伴随着我国音乐教学的改革,对如何科学辩证的认识民族唱法与美声唱法的联系与区别,将是我们研究高校声乐教学改革可持续发展的中心环节。因此,本文就声乐界一直研究和探讨的关于美声与民族唱法的关系为切入点,从美声唱法与民族唱法的审美特点、歌唱表演、题材曲目几个方面进行对比,以探究美声唱法与民族唱法在高校声乐教学改革中的对立统一的关系。%National singing and bel canto as two main singing methods in vocal circles in China, are important part of college music teach-ing. Along with the reform of music teaching in our country, how to scientifically understand the links and differences between national singing and bel canto, will be the center of our research on the sustainable development of vocal music teaching reform in university. Therefore, based on the relationship between bel canto and national singing in vocal music circles have been studied and discussed for years, this paper has some comparison with the aesthetic characters of national singing and bel canto , singing performance and subjects , in order to analyzes the relation of unity and opposites in national singing and bel canto in college vocal teaching reform.

  4. On the Singing Skills and Artistic Expression%刍议歌唱的技巧与艺术表现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓晴

    2015-01-01

    In the colorful art world,singing is one of the earliest art form of the birth of human society.As the change of the times,all kinds of singing skills emerge endlessly,serve to singing art,also serve to a wide audience.A very good singer should not only have a first-class voice,also requires to have a solid foundation of singing skills and art forms,so that the singing is touching enough to reach a superb realm,gradually grows up to be a popular and favorite singer with the audience. This paper studies the importance of singing skills first,and then puts forward strategies to raise the singing skills and artistic performance,which has certain reference significance and practical value.%在缤纷多彩的艺术世界中,歌唱是人类社会最早诞生的艺术形式之一。随着时代的变迁,各种歌唱技巧层出不穷,为歌唱艺术所服务,也为广大听众所服务。一位优秀的歌唱者不仅要具备一流的嗓音,也要具备扎实的歌唱技巧,并用艺术形式表现出来,这样才能使歌唱达到感人肺腑、出神入化的境界,逐渐成长为一名广受听众喜爱的歌手。本文先研究歌唱技巧的重要性,接着提出提高歌唱技巧及其艺术表现的策略,具有一定的参考意义和实践价值。

  5. How Two Brains Make One Synchronized Mind in the Inferior Frontal Cortex: fNIRS-Based Hyperscanning During Cooperative Singing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaka, Naoyuki; Minamoto, Takehiro; Yaoi, Ken; Azuma, Miyuki; Shimada, Yohko Minamoto; Osaka, Mariko

    2015-01-01

    One form of communication that is common in all cultures is people singing together. Singing together reflects an index of cognitive synchronization and cooperation of human brains. Little is known about the neural synchronization mechanism, however. Here, we examined how two brains make one synchronized behavior using cooperated singing/humming between two people and hyperscanning, a new brain scanning technique. Hyperscanning allowed us to observe dynamic cooperation between interacting participants. We used functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to simultaneously record the brain activity of two people while they cooperatively sang or hummed a song in face-to-face (FtF) or face-to-wall (FtW) conditions. By calculating the inter-brain wavelet transform coherence between two interacting brains, we found a significant increase in the neural synchronization of the left inferior frontal cortex (IFC) for cooperative singing or humming regardless of FtF or FtW compared with singing or humming alone. On the other hand, the right IFC showed an increase in neural synchronization for humming only, possibly due to more dependence on musical processing. PMID:26635703

  6. How two brains make one synchronized mind in the inferior frontal corex: fNIRS-based hyperscanning during cooperative singing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoyuki eOsaka

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available One form of communication that is common in all cultures is people singing together. Singing together reflects an index of cognitive synchronization and cooperation of human brains. Little is known about the neural synchronization mechanism, however. Here, we examined how two brains make one synchronized behavior using cooperated singing/humming between two people and hyperscanning, a new brain scanning technique. Hyperscanning allowed us to observe dynamic cooperation between interacting participants. We used functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS to simultaneously record the brain activity of two people while they cooperatively sang or hummed a song in face-to-face (FtF or face-to-wall (FtW conditions. By calculating the inter-brain wavelet transform coherence between two interacting brains, we found a significant increase in the neural synchronization of the left inferior frontal cortex (IFC for cooperative singing or humming regardless of FtF or FtW compared with singing or humming alone. On the other hand, the right IFC showed an increase in neural synchronization for humming only, possibly due to more dependence on musical processing.

  7. Words in melody: an H(2)15O PET study of brain activation during singing and speaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffries, K J; Fritz, J B; Braun, A R

    2003-04-15

    We used H(2)15O PET to characterize the interaction of words and melody by comparing brain activity measured while subjects spoke or sang the words to a familiar song. Relative increases in activity during speaking vs singing were observed in the left hemisphere, in classical perisylvian language areas including the posterior superior temporal gyrus, supramarginal gyrus, and frontal operculum, as well as in Rolandic cortices and putamen. Relative increases in activity during singing were observed in the right hemisphere: these were maximal in the right anterior superior temporal gyrus and contiguous portions of the insula; relative increases associated with singing were also detected in the right anterior middle temporal gyrus and superior temporal sulcus, medial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices, mesial temporal cortices and cerebellum, as well as in Rolandic cortices and nucleus accumbens. These results indicate that the production of words in song is associated with activation of regions within right hemisphere areas that are not mirror-image homologues of left hemisphere perisylvian language areas, and suggest that multiple neural networks may be involved in different aspects of singing. Right hemisphere mechanisms may support the fluency-evoking effects of singing in neurological disorders such as stuttering or aphasia.

  8. The radio continuum-star formation rate relation in WSRT sings galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heesen, Volker; Brinks, Elias [Centre for Astrophysics Research, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Leroy, Adam K. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903-2475 (United States); Heald, George [Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON), Postbus 2, 7990 AA Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Braun, Robert [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, P.O. Box 76, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); Bigiel, Frank [Institut für theoretische Astrophysik, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Albert-Ueberle-Str. 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Beck, Rainer, E-mail: e.brinks@herts.ac.uk, E-mail: v.heesen@soton.ac.uk, E-mail: aleroy@nrao.edu, E-mail: heald@astron.nl, E-mail: Robert.Braun@csiro.au, E-mail: bigiel@uni-heidelberg.de, E-mail: rbeck@mpifr-bonn.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany)

    2014-05-01

    We present a study of the spatially resolved radio continuum-star formation rate (RC-SFR) relation using state-of-the-art star formation tracers in a sample of 17 THINGS galaxies. We use SFR surface density (Σ{sub SFR}) maps created by a linear combination of GALEX far-UV (FUV) and Spitzer 24 μm maps. We use RC maps at λλ22 and 18 cm from the WSRT SINGS survey and Hα emission maps to correct for thermal RC emission. We compare azimuthally averaged radial profiles of the RC and FUV/mid-IR (MIR) based Σ{sub SFR} maps and study pixel-by-pixel correlations at fixed linear scales of 1.2 and 0.7 kpc. The ratio of the integrated SFRs from the RC emission to that of the FUV/MIR-based SF tracers is R{sub int}=0.78±0.38, consistent with the relation by Condon. We find a tight correlation between the radial profiles of the radio and FUV/MIR-based Σ{sub SFR} for the entire extent of the disk. The ratio R of the azimuthally averaged radio to FUV/MIR-based Σ{sub SFR} agrees with the integrated ratio and has only quasi-random fluctuations with galactocentric radius that are relatively small (25%). Pixel-by-pixel plots show a tight correlation in log-log diagrams of radio to FUV/MIR-based Σ{sub SFR}, with a typical standard deviation of a factor of two. Averaged over our sample we find (Σ{sub SFR}){sub RC}∝(Σ{sub SFR}){sub hyb}{sup 0.63±0.25}, implying that data points with high Σ{sub SFR} are relatively radio dim, whereas the reverse is true for low Σ{sub SFR}. We interpret this as a result of spectral aging of cosmic-ray electrons (CREs), which are diffusing away from the star formation sites where they are injected into the interstellar medium. This is supported by our finding that the radio spectral index is a second parameter in pixel-by-pixel plots: those data points dominated by young CREs are relatively radio dim, while those dominated by old CREs are slightly more RC bright than what would be expected from a linear extrapolation. We studied the ratio R of

  9. The Acquisition of Sight-Singing Skills in Second-Grade General Music: Effects of Using Solfege and of Relating Tonal Patterns to Songs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reifinger, James L., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to examine two aspects of sight-singing instruction: (1) solfege syllables versus the syllable "loo" for singing patterns and (2) the use of related songs (songs that began with tonal patterns being studied) as compared with unrelated songs. Second-grade students (N = 193) enrolled in general music classes…

  10. Common Features of Neural Activity during Singing and Sleep Periods in a Basal Ganglia Nucleus Critical for Vocal Learning in a Juvenile Songbird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagihara, Shin; Hessler, Neal A.

    2011-01-01

    Reactivations of waking experiences during sleep have been considered fundamental neural processes for memory consolidation. In songbirds, evidence suggests the importance of sleep-related neuronal activity in song system motor pathway nuclei for both juvenile vocal learning and maintenance of adult song. Like those in singing motor nuclei, neurons in the basal ganglia nucleus Area X, part of the basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuit essential for vocal plasticity, exhibit singing-related activity. It is unclear, however, whether Area X neurons show any distinctive spiking activity during sleep similar to that during singing. Here we demonstrate that, during sleep, Area X pallidal neurons exhibit phasic spiking activity, which shares some firing properties with activity during singing. Shorter interspike intervals that almost exclusively occurred during singing in awake periods were also observed during sleep. The level of firing variability was consistently higher during singing and sleep than during awake non-singing states. Moreover, deceleration of firing rate, which is considered to be an important firing property for transmitting signals from Area X to the thalamic nucleus DLM, was observed mainly during sleep as well as during singing. These results suggest that songbird basal ganglia circuitry may be involved in the off-line processing potentially critical for vocal learning during sensorimotor learning phase. PMID:21991379

  11. Developing Singing in Third-Grade Music Classrooms: The Effect of a Concurrent-Feedback Computer Game on Pitch-Matching Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paney, Andrew S.; Kay, Ann C.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the effect of concurrent visual feedback on pitch-matching skill development in third-grade students. Participants played a computer game, "SingingCoach," which scored the accuracy of their singing of the song "America." They followed the contour of the melody on the screen as the…

  12. Reading Fluency through Alternative Text: Rereading with an Interact Sing-to-Read Program Embedded within a Middle School Music Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, Marie C.; Watkins, Nancy A.

    2008-01-01

    Singing exaggerates the language of reading. The students find their voices in the rhythm and bounce of language by using music as an alternative technological approach to reading. A concurrent mixed methods study was conducted to investigate the use of an interactive sing-to-read program Tune Into Reading (Electronic Learning Products, 2006)…

  13. Common features of neural activity during singing and sleep periods in a basal ganglia nucleus critical for vocal learning in a juvenile songbird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Yanagihara

    Full Text Available Reactivations of waking experiences during sleep have been considered fundamental neural processes for memory consolidation. In songbirds, evidence suggests the importance of sleep-related neuronal activity in song system motor pathway nuclei for both juvenile vocal learning and maintenance of adult song. Like those in singing motor nuclei, neurons in the basal ganglia nucleus Area X, part of the basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuit essential for vocal plasticity, exhibit singing-related activity. It is unclear, however, whether Area X neurons show any distinctive spiking activity during sleep similar to that during singing. Here we demonstrate that, during sleep, Area X pallidal neurons exhibit phasic spiking activity, which shares some firing properties with activity during singing. Shorter interspike intervals that almost exclusively occurred during singing in awake periods were also observed during sleep. The level of firing variability was consistently higher during singing and sleep than during awake non-singing states. Moreover, deceleration of firing rate, which is considered to be an important firing property for transmitting signals from Area X to the thalamic nucleus DLM, was observed mainly during sleep as well as during singing. These results suggest that songbird basal ganglia circuitry may be involved in the off-line processing potentially critical for vocal learning during sensorimotor learning phase.

  14. The Acquisition of Sight-Singing Skills in Second-Grade General Music: Effects of Using Solfege and of Relating Tonal Patterns to Songs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reifinger, James L., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to examine two aspects of sight-singing instruction: (1) solfege syllables versus the syllable "loo" for singing patterns and (2) the use of related songs (songs that began with tonal patterns being studied) as compared with unrelated songs. Second-grade students (N = 193) enrolled in general music classes participated in…

  15. Distinct neurogenomic states in basal ganglia subregions relate differently to singing behavior in songbirds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austin T Hilliard

    Full Text Available Both avian and mammalian basal ganglia are involved in voluntary motor control. In birds, such movements include hopping, perching and flying. Two organizational features that distinguish the songbird basal ganglia are that striatal and pallidal neurons are intermingled, and that neurons dedicated to vocal-motor function are clustered together in a dense cell group known as area X that sits within the surrounding striato-pallidum. This specification allowed us to perform molecular profiling of two striato-pallidal subregions, comparing transcriptional patterns in tissue dedicated to vocal-motor function (area X to those in tissue that contains similar cell types but supports non-vocal behaviors: the striato-pallidum ventral to area X (VSP, our focus here. Since any behavior is likely underpinned by the coordinated actions of many molecules, we constructed gene co-expression networks from microarray data to study large-scale transcriptional patterns in both subregions. Our goal was to investigate any relationship between VSP network structure and singing and identify gene co-expression groups, or modules, found in the VSP but not area X. We observed mild, but surprising, relationships between VSP modules and song spectral features, and found a group of four VSP modules that were highly specific to the region. These modules were unrelated to singing, but were composed of genes involved in many of the same biological processes as those we previously observed in area X-specific singing-related modules. The VSP-specific modules were also enriched for processes disrupted in Parkinson's and Huntington's Diseases. Our results suggest that the activation/inhibition of a single pathway is not sufficient to functionally specify area X versus the VSP and support the notion that molecular processes are not in and of themselves specialized for behavior. Instead, unique interactions between molecular pathways create functional specificity in particular brain

  16. Perceptions of Voice Teachers Regarding Students' Vocal Behaviors During Singing and Speaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeman, Shellie A

    2017-01-01

    This study examined voice teachers' perceptions of their instruction of healthy singing and speaking voice techniques. An online, researcher-generated questionnaire based on the McClosky technique was administered to college/university voice teachers listed as members in the 2012-2013 College Music Society directory. A majority of participants believed there to be a relationship between the health of the singing voice and the health of the speaking voice. Participants' perception scores were the most positive for variable MBSi, the monitoring of students' vocal behaviors during singing. Perception scores for variable TVB, the teaching of healthy vocal behaviors, and variable MBSp, the monitoring of students' vocal behaviors while speaking, ranked second and third, respectively. Perception scores for variable TVB were primarily associated with participants' familiarity with voice rehabilitation techniques, gender, and familiarity with the McClosky technique. Perception scores for variable MBSi were primarily associated with participants' familiarity with voice rehabilitation techniques, gender, type of student taught, and instruction of a student with a voice disorder. Perception scores for variable MBSp were correlated with the greatest number of characteristics, including participants' familiarity with voice rehabilitation techniques, familiarity with the McClosky technique, type of student taught, years of teaching experience, and instruction of a student with a voice disorder. Voice teachers are purportedly working with injured voices and attempting to include vocal health in their instruction. Although a voice teacher is not obligated to pursue further rehabilitative training, the current study revealed a positive relationship between familiarity with specific rehabilitation techniques and vocal health. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects on vocal range and voice quality of singing voice training: the classically trained female voice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabon, Peter; Stallinga, Rob; Södersten, Maria; Ternström, Sten

    2014-01-01

    A longitudinal study was performed on the acoustical effects of singing voice training under a given study program, using the voice range profile (VRP). Pretraining and posttraining recordings were made of students who participated in a 3-year bachelor singing study program. A questionnaire that included questions on optimal range, register use, classification, vocal health and hygiene, mixing technique, and training goals was used to rate and categorize self-assessed voice changes. Based on the responses, a subgroup of 10 classically trained female voices was selected, which was homogeneous enough for effects of training to be identified. The VRP perimeter contour was analyzed for effects of voice training. Also, a mapping within the VRP of voice quality, as expressed by the crest factor, was used to indicate the register boundaries and to monitor the acoustical consequences of the newly learned vocal technique of "mixed voice." VRPs were averaged across subjects. Findings were compared with the self-assessed vocal changes. Pre/post comparison of the average VRPs showed, in the midrange, (1) a decrease in the VRP area that was associated with the loud chest voice, (2) a reduction of the crest factor values, and (3) a reduction of maximum sound pressure level values. The students' self-evaluations of the voice changes appeared in some cases to contradict the VRP findings. VRPs of individual voices were seen to change over the course of a singing education. These changes were manifest also in the average group. High-resolution computerized recording, complemented with an acoustic register marker, allows a meaningful assessment of some effects of training, on an individual basis and for groups that comprise singers of a specific genre. It is argued that this kind of investigation is possible only within a focused training program, given by a faculty who has agreed on the goals. Copyright © 2014 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Investigation on the Degradation of Natural Heritage of Singing Sand Mountain and Crescent Moon Spring at Dunhuang City, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Jihong

    2007-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to put forward a reasonable idea of the general protection for Singing Sand Mountain and Crescent Moon Spring,a rare and unique desert wonder,and of sustainable tourism development based on the research on the ecological environment around.Methods of documentation,case study and comparison were employed.Finally,aiming at solving the problems of natural environment and those existing after the exploitation of Singing Sand Mountain and Crescent Moon Spring the author puts forward three measures;the comprehensive treatment for Crescent Moon Spring(broadening resources of water and reducing expenditures,checking the decreasing depth of Crescent Moon Spring,and improving the geographical envkonment),the general protection envisions for Singing Sand Mountain and Crescent Moon Spring and establishing a dynamic monitoring and early-warning system of regional ecosystem.

  19. A Critique on Katie's Language in Mockingbird Don't Sing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭巧兰; 闵家顺

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims at critiquing Katie's language in the famous film, Mockingbird Don't Sing, which is a 2001 American independent film based on the true story of Genie, a modern-day feral child, discovered in California in 1970. The analyses of Katie's language are based on Katie's language by the stimulation of some people around her after she escaped from her home according to the theories of the interactionist position, Behaviorism, the affective filter hypothesis, Innatism, the stages of lan-guage development and the critical period hypothesis. Katie's abnormal language bitterly proves the importance of critical peri-od for language acquisition and language learning.

  20. Singing of Neoconocephalus robustus as an example of deterministic chaos in insects

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tina P Benko; Matjaž Perc

    2007-06-01

    We use nonlinear time series analysis methods to analyse the dynamics of the sound-producing apparatus of the katydid Neoconocephalus robustus. We capture the dynamics by analysing a recording of the singing activity. First, we reconstruct the phase space from the sound recording and test it against determinism and stationarity. After confirming determinism and stationarity, we show that the maximal Lyapunov exponent of the series is positive, which is a strong indicator for the chaotic behaviour of the system. We discuss that methods of nonlinear time series analysis can yield instructive insights and foster the understanding of acoustic communication among insects.

  1. Communion songs not regulated by the typicon in the recent tradition of Serbian church singing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peno Vesna M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In notated collections of Serbian church hymns from the 19th and 20th century there are, among others, communion songs with texts that were not regulated by the Typicon. These so-called "arbitrary communion songs" have been very popular in the recent tradition of Serbian church chanting. They have been gradually pushing out the hymns that are regulated for singing on concrete days and feasts during the church year. Analysis of possible influences that determined the way texts and the melodies delved into the recent Serbian church chanting follows two possible directions. The first commenced from late-Byzantine singing tradition; more specifically, from a group of songs that although based on liturgical texts, were performed in extra-liturgical occasions. These are calophonic irmoi which were composed by a great number of known late-Byzantine masters of singing. The second direction had its beginning in Russian spiritual music that generated a new melodic genre kant, based on western models. The majority of those compositions have freely written spiritual texts, too, and not part of the liturgy. Kanti were, namely, singing numbers in liturgical dramas - theatrical pieces with Christian historical themes. The majority of arbitrary communion hymns from Serbian collections have texts from the psalms or use texts for irmoi of specific canons. There is only one text that does not belong to the output of church hymnography. In spite of that, the melodies of the analyzed hymns reflect the presence of traditional compositional procedures characteristic of late-Byzantine and Serbian traditions. On either side, they possess atypical musical phrases that relate them to the the kanti. The usage of paraliturgical songs instead of communion hymns is commentated upon from the liturgic aspect also. That song belongs to the central part of the Liturgy and most fundamental during the service of the Orthodox church. Therefore the deviation in Serbian practice from

  2. The influence of singing on social engagement for persons with severe frontotemporal dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    2010-01-01

    Panksepp (2010) describes how the pain of social loss opens the gateway to depression, and how the chronic sense of aloneness pervades many mental health illnesses and pathologies. In relation to this, psychological and behavioural symptoms of neurodegenerative diseases like dementia are reported...... and behavioural symptoms of dementia. Based on evidence from clinical research (Ridder 2003; Ridder, Wigram & Ottesen 2009) the method of intervention utilises the musical and communicative aspects of therapeutic singing in order to focus attention, retrieve memory, regulate arousal and engage in social...

  3. Optimization of Drying Technique of Lentinus Edodes (Berk. Sing with Microwave Vacuum Equipment via Response Surface Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, microwave vacuum equipment was employed to dry lentinus edodes (Berk. Sing. Response Surface Methodology was used to determine the optimal drying conditions. The significant levels were obtained by the equations. The optimal conditions for drying lentinus edodes (Berk. Sing with microwave vacuum equipment were obtained as following: microwave power 2650W, lentinus edodes load 171 g. Under these optimum conditions, lentinus edodes sensory evaluation, lentinan content and drying time were 80, 4.33% and 11 min, respectively.

  4. Non-contact measurement of facial surface vibration patterns during singing by scanning laser Doppler vibrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Tatsuya; Ohtani, Keisuke

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a method of measuring the vibration patterns on facial surfaces by using a scanning laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV). The surfaces of the face, neck, and body vibrate during phonation and, according to Titze (2001), these vibrations occur when aerodynamic energy is efficiently converted into acoustic energy at the glottis. A vocalist's vibration velocity patterns may therefore indicate his or her phonatory status or singing skills. LDVs enable laser-based non-contact measurement of the vibration velocity and displacement of a certain point on a vibrating object, and scanning LDVs permit multipoint measurements. The benefits of scanning LDVs originate from the facts that they do not affect the vibrations of measured objects and that they can rapidly measure the vibration patterns across planes. A case study is presented herein to demonstrate the method of measuring vibration velocity patterns with a scanning LDV. The objective of the experiment was to measure the vibration velocity differences between the modal and falsetto registers while three professional soprano singers sang sustained vowels at four pitch frequencies. The results suggest that there is a possibility that pitch frequency are correlated with vibration velocity. However, further investigations are necessary to clarify the relationships between vibration velocity patterns and phonation status and singing skills.

  5. Castration modulates singing patterns and electrophysiological properties of RA projection neurons in adult male zebra finches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songhua Wang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Castration can change levels of plasma testosterone. Androgens such as testosterone play an important role in stabilizing birdsong. The robust nucleus of the arcopallium (RA is an important premotor nucleus critical for singing. In this study, we investigated the effect of castration on singing patterns and electrophysiological properties of projection neurons (PNs in the RA of adult male zebra finches. Adult male zebra finches were castrated and the changes in bird song assessed. We also recorded the electrophysiological changes from RA PNs using patch clamp recording. We found that the plasma levels of testosterone were significantly decreased, song syllable’s entropy was increased and the similarity of motif was decreased after castration. Spontaneous and evoked firing rates, membrane time constants, and membrane capacitance of RA PNs in the castration group were lower than those of the control and the sham groups. Afterhyperpolarization AHP time to peak of spontaneous action potential (AP was prolonged after castration.These findings suggest that castration decreases song stereotypy and excitability of RA PNs in male zebra finches.

  6. Multi-Classifier Based on a Query-by-Singing/Humming System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gi Pyo Nam

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available With the increase in the number of music files on various devices, it can be difficult to locate a desired file, especially when the title of the song or the name of the singer is not known. We propose a new query-by-singing/humming (QbSH system that can find music files that match what the user is singing or humming. This research is novel in the following three ways: first, the Fourier descriptor (FD method is proposed as the first classifier; it transforms the humming or music waveform into the frequency domain. Second, quantized dynamic time warping (QDTW using symmetrical search space and quantized linear scaling (QLS are used as the second and third classifiers, respectively, which increase the accuracy of the QbSH system compared to the conventional DTW and LS methods. Third, five classifiers, which include the three already mentioned along with the conventional DTW using symmetrical search space and LS methods, are combined using score level fusion, which further enhances performance. Experimental results with the 2009 MIR-QbSH corpus and the AFA MIDI 100 databases show that the proposed method outperforms those using a single classifier and other fusion methods.

  7. Evaluación mediante enumeración de estados de la confiabilidad del Sistema Interconectado del Norte Grande de Chile (SING State enumeration approach in reliability assessment of the Chilean far north power system (SING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Fuentes Morales

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presenta una evaluación de la confiabilidad del SING* chilen, mediante el método probabilístico analítico enumeración de estados que permite determinar el índice de indisponibilidad del sistema de transmisión y el factor de sobrecosto asociado. Esta evaluación posibilita un análisis comparativo con el índice de indisponibilidad y el factor de sobrecosto asociado que el agente regulador chileno, CNE**, entrega para este sistema en los informes técnicos de precios de nudo. De esta manera, los resultados propuestos sugieren una solución a las reiteradas observaciones que realizan las empresas eléctricas del SING en los informes técnicos de precios de nudo, con respecto a los criterios utilizados para modelar y determinar la indisponibilidad de transmisión y los sobrecostos asociados. La evaluación de la confiabilidad se realiza abordando al SING en forma compuesta, es decir, considerando tanto las instalaciones de generación como de transmisión en conjunto. * SING: Sistema Interconectado del Norte Grande. Sistema de transmisión de energía eléctrica de alto voltaje del norte de Chile. ** CNE: Comisión Nacional de Energía. Organismo gubernamental chileno que fiscaliza los sistemas de transmisión de energía eléctrica.This paper presents a reliability evaluation of the Chilean SING* by means of an analytical and probabilistic method for the enumeration of states, which permits to determine the unavailability index and the associated overcharge factor. This evaluation allows a comparative analysis between the unavailability index and the associated overcharge factor, the CNE**, provides in its technical reports of local the nodal price. Hereby, the proposed results suggest a solution for continuous observations made by SING electric companies in the technical reports of nodal price, with respect to the criteria used for modeling and determining the unavailability of transmition and associated overcharge

  8. The Impacts of the Voice Change, Grade Level, and Experience on the Singing Self-Efficacy of Emerging Adolescent Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Ryan A.

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of the study are to describe characteristics of the voice change in sixth-, seventh-, and eighth-grade choir students using Cooksey's voice-change classification system and to determine if the singing self-efficacy of adolescent males is affected by the voice change, grade level, and experience. Participants (N = 80) consisted of…

  9. Perspectives of European Boys about Their Voice Change and School Choral Singing: Developing the Possible Selves of Adolescent Male Singers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freer, Patrick K.

    2015-01-01

    This article reports analysis of interviews with 85 boys from England, Greece, Ireland and Spain about the voice change, school singing and choral music instruction. Consistent, former and self-described non-singers were included. Data suggest consistency with much of the existing narrative literature about the experience of voice change. Unique…

  10. The Influence of Fundamental Frequency and Sound Pressure Level Range on Breathing Patterns in Female Classical Singing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collyer, Sally; Thorpe, C. William; Callaghan, Jean; Davis, Pamela J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the influence of fundamental frequency (F0) and sound pressure level (SPL) range on respiratory behavior in classical singing. Method: Five trained female singers performed an 8-s messa di voce (a crescendo and decrescendo on one F0) across their musical F0 range. Lung volume (LV) change was estimated, and…

  11. Sight-Singing Assessment: A Study of Current Beliefs and Practices of Georgia Middle and High School Choral Directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss, Douglass Anthony

    2010-01-01

    This study sought to ascertain the specific assessment strategies used by middle- and high-school choral directors in Georgia to evaluate sight-singing. Data was further gathered to determine which assessment practices choral directors considered to be the most effective. Although there had been previous studies that attempted to determine the…

  12. Analysis of high-frequency energy in long-term average spectra of singing, speech, and voiceless fricatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monson, Brian B; Lotto, Andrew J; Story, Brad H

    2012-09-01

    The human singing and speech spectrum includes energy above 5 kHz. To begin an in-depth exploration of this high-frequency energy (HFE), a database of anechoic high-fidelity recordings of singers and talkers was created and analyzed. Third-octave band analysis from the long-term average spectra showed that production level (soft vs normal vs loud), production mode (singing vs speech), and phoneme (for voiceless fricatives) all significantly affected HFE characteristics. Specifically, increased production level caused an increase in absolute HFE level, but a decrease in relative HFE level. Singing exhibited higher levels of HFE than speech in the soft and normal conditions, but not in the loud condition. Third-octave band levels distinguished phoneme class of voiceless fricatives. Female HFE levels were significantly greater than male levels only above 11 kHz. This information is pertinent to various areas of acoustics, including vocal tract modeling, voice synthesis, augmentative hearing technology (hearing aids and cochlear implants), and training/therapy for singing and speech.

  13. Mother-Infant Face-to-Face Interaction: The Communicative Value of Infant-Directed Talking and Singing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Diana; Peña, Marcela

    Across culture, healthy infants show a high interest in infant-directed (ID) talking and singing. Despite ID talking and ID singing being very similar in physical properties, infants differentially respond to each of them. The mechanisms underpinning these different responses are still under discussion. This study explored the behavioral (n = 26) and brain (n = 14) responses from 6- to 8-month-old infants to ID talking and ID singing during a face-to-face mother-infant interaction with their own mother. Behavioral response was analyzed from offline video coding, and brain response was estimated from the analysis of electrophysiological recordings. We found that during ID talking, infants displayed a significantly higher number of visual contacts, vocalizations, and body movements than during ID singing. Moreover, only during ID talking were the number of visual contacts and vocalizations positively correlated with the number of questions and pauses in the mother's speech. Our results suggest that ID talking provides infants with specific cues that allow them not only to react to mother stimulation, but also to act toward them, displaying a rudimentary version of turn-taking behavior. Brain activity partially supported that interpretation. The relevance of our results for bonding is discussed. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Muusikamaailm : "Let the Peoples Sing 1999". Bruckneri päevad Viinis. Festival Huddersfieldis. Kolmelt pianistide konkursilt / Priit Kuusk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuusk, Priit, 1938-

    1999-01-01

    Rahvusvahelise raadiokonkursi "Let the Peoples Sing" võitjatest. A. Bruckneri 175. sünniaastapäeva puhul toimunud Bruckneri päevadest Viinis. Kaasaegse muusika festivalist Huddersfieldist. Pianistide konkurssidest - Dino Ciani nim. konkursist Milanos, 7. Schuberti-nim. konkursist Dortmundis ja Ferruccio Busoni nim. konkursist Itaalias Bolzanos

  15. Muusikamaailm : "Let the Peoples Sing 1999". Bruckneri päevad Viinis. Festival Huddersfieldis. Kolmelt pianistide konkursilt / Priit Kuusk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuusk, Priit, 1938-

    1999-01-01

    Rahvusvahelise raadiokonkursi "Let the Peoples Sing" võitjatest. A. Bruckneri 175. sünniaastapäeva puhul toimunud Bruckneri päevadest Viinis. Kaasaegse muusika festivalist Huddersfieldist. Pianistide konkurssidest - Dino Ciani nim. konkursist Milanos, 7. Schuberti-nim. konkursist Dortmundis ja Ferruccio Busoni nim. konkursist Itaalias Bolzanos

  16. The Influence of Fundamental Frequency and Sound Pressure Level Range on Breathing Patterns in Female Classical Singing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collyer, Sally; Thorpe, C. William; Callaghan, Jean; Davis, Pamela J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the influence of fundamental frequency (F0) and sound pressure level (SPL) range on respiratory behavior in classical singing. Method: Five trained female singers performed an 8-s messa di voce (a crescendo and decrescendo on one F0) across their musical F0 range. Lung volume (LV) change was estimated, and…

  17. The WSRT Virgo HI filament survey I; Total Power Data

    CERN Document Server

    Popping, Attila

    2010-01-01

    Observations of neutral hydrogen can provide a wealth of information about the kinematics of galaxies. To learn more about the large scale structures and accretion processes, the extended environment of galaxies have to be observed. Numerical simulations predict a cosmic web of extended structures and gaseous filaments. To observe the direct vicinity of galaxies, column densities have to be achieved that probe the regime of Lyman limit systems. Typically HI observations are limited to a brightness sensitivity of NHI ~ 10^19 cm-2 but this has to be improved by ~2 orders of magnitude. With the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT) we map the galaxy filament connecting the Virgo Cluster with the Local Group. About 1500 square degrees on the sky is surveyed, with Nyquist sampled pointings. By using the WSRT antennas as single dish telescopes instead of the more conventional interferometer we are very sensitive to extended emission. The survey consists of a total of 22,000 pointings and each pointing has bee...

  18. The WSRT Virgo Hi filament survey II; Cross Correlation Data

    CERN Document Server

    Popping, Attila

    2011-01-01

    The extended environment of galaxies contains a wealth of information about the formation and life cycle of galaxies which are regulated by accretion and feedback processes. Observations of neutral hydrogen are routinely used to image the high brightness disks of galaxies and to study their kinematics. Deeper observations will give more insight into the distribution of diffuse gas in the extended halo of the galaxies and the IGM, where numerical simulations predict a cosmic web of extended structures and gaseous filaments. To observe the extended environment of galaxies, column density sensitivities have to be achieved that probe the regime of Lyman limit systems. HI observations are typically limited to a brightness sensitivity of NHI~10^19 cm-2, but this must be improved upon by ~2 orders of magnitude. In this paper we present the interferometric data of the Westerbork Virgo HI Filament Survey (WVFS) - the total power product of this survey has been published in an earlier paper. By observing at extreme hou...

  19. Music Information Retrieval from a Singing Voice Using Lyrics and Melody Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shozo Makino

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, several music information retrieval (MIR systems which retrieve musical pieces by the user's singing voice have been developed. All of these systems use only melody information for retrieval, although lyrics information is also useful for retrieval. In this paper, we propose a new MIR system that uses both lyrics and melody information. First, we propose a new lyrics recognition method. A finite state automaton (FSA is used as recognition grammar, and about 86% retrieval accuracy was obtained. We also develop an algorithm for verifying a hypothesis output by a lyrics recognizer. Melody information is extracted from an input song using several pieces of information of the hypothesis, and a total score is calculated from the recognition score and the verification score. From the experimental results, 95.0% retrieval accuracy was obtained with a query consisting of five words.

  20. Music Information Retrieval from a Singing Voice Using Lyrics and Melody Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzuki Motoyuki

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, several music information retrieval (MIR systems which retrieve musical pieces by the user's singing voice have been developed. All of these systems use only melody information for retrieval, although lyrics information is also useful for retrieval. In this paper, we propose a new MIR system that uses both lyrics and melody information. First, we propose a new lyrics recognition method. A finite state automaton (FSA is used as recognition grammar, and about retrieval accuracy was obtained. We also develop an algorithm for verifying a hypothesis output by a lyrics recognizer. Melody information is extracted from an input song using several pieces of information of the hypothesis, and a total score is calculated from the recognition score and the verification score. From the experimental results, 95.0 retrieval accuracy was obtained with a query consisting of five words.

  1. Generation of abnormal acoustic noise: Singing of a cavitating tip vortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xiaoxing; Wang, Benlong; Li, Haoyu; Xu, Lianghao; Song, Mingtai

    2017-05-01

    We present experimental results and a theoretical analysis for the singing of a cavitating tip vortex (SCTV), which has been occasionally observed under special conditions in a few experimental facilities around the world since the 1990s. Due to lack of repeatability, little is known about the generation mechanism of SCTV [R. E. A. Arndt, Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 34, 143 (2002), 10.1146/annurev.fluid.34.082301.114957]. In the present work we propose an experimental procedure to produce the SCTV phenomenon at selected flow conditions in the China Ship Scientific Research Center cavitation mechanism tunnel. By analyzing the frequency characteristics of the acoustical signal and the bubble dynamics, it is found that the tone of SCTV matches the natural frequency of radial oscillation of the cylinder bubble and a formulation to predict SCTV is developed. Good agreement is obtained between the proposed formulation and the experimental data from different facilities.

  2. How can singing in music therapy influence social engagement for people with dementia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    2011-01-01

    /hospitalization, prescription of antidepressive and antipsychotic medication, and increased mortality (Wright 1994). Panksepp indicates that the pain of social loss, whether this is the loss of a parent, a partner, or social status, “opens the gateway to depression” (2009, p.15), and many psychiatric syndromes are marked...... by a “chronic sense of aloneness” (2009, p.15) caused by loss of social bonds. In this chapter I focus on how to engage persons with dementia in social communication via the use of integrative therapeutic singing in music therapy. This approach is described elsewhere (Ridder 2003, 2005, 2007; Ridder, Wigram...... and Ottesen 2009) but in this chapter it is presented using the “polyvagal theory” perspective (Porges 2001). Steven Porges’ neuroaffective theory is relevant to music therapy as it gives an insight both into the various ways of interacting with the client in therapy and into the importance and influence...

  3. The influence of singing on social engagement for persons with severe frontotemporal dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    2010-01-01

    Panksepp (2010) describes how the pain of social loss opens the gateway to depression, and how the chronic sense of aloneness pervades many mental health illnesses and pathologies. In relation to this, psychological and behavioural symptoms of neurodegenerative diseases like dementia are reported...... functioning (e.g. the lost ability to process language, to focus attention, to remember and to act in what is defined as a socially appropriate manner) makes it very challenging to engage in social interaction, especially in groups. Music therapy is applied as a non-pharmacological treatment of psychological...... and behavioural symptoms of dementia. Based on evidence from clinical research (Ridder 2003; Ridder, Wigram & Ottesen 2009) the method of intervention utilises the musical and communicative aspects of therapeutic singing in order to focus attention, retrieve memory, regulate arousal and engage in social...

  4. Singing in the moonlight: dawn song performance of a diurnal bird varies with lunar phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Jennifer E.; Young, Andrew J.; Radford, Andrew N.

    2014-01-01

    It is well established that the lunar cycle can affect the behaviour of nocturnal animals, but its potential to have a similar influence on diurnal species has received less research attention. Here, we demonstrate that the dawn song of a cooperative songbird, the white-browed sparrow weaver (Plocepasser mahali), varies with moon phase. When the moon was above the horizon at dawn, males began singing on average 10 min earlier, if there was a full moon compared with a new moon, resulting in a 67% mean increase in performance period and greater total song output. The lack of a difference between full and new moon dawns when the moon was below the horizon suggests that the observed effects were driven by light intensity, rather than driven by other factors associated with moon phase. Effects of the lunar cycle on twilight signalling behaviour have implications for both pure and applied animal communication research. PMID:24429683

  5. The Poet Sings: “Resonance” in Paul Valéry’s Poietics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Parker Dixon

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses Paul Valéry’s theories relating to his stated goal of poetic production: the attainment of “resonance” and a “singing-state”. My intention is to defend Valéry’s theory as a valid and consistent model of the creative process in poetry. To that end, I will draw support from T. W. Adorno’s claim that Valéry’s manner of reflective journalising in his Notebooks can furnish us with what he calls “aesthetic insight”. The consistency of Valéry’s theory will be supported by comparisons with the inferentialist understanding of semantics. Valéry proves to be a reliable exemplar of what might be called a “practice-led” aesthetics.

  6. How can singing in music therapy influence social engagement for people with dementia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    2011-01-01

    /hospitalization, prescription of antidepressive and antipsychotic medication, and increased mortality (Wright 1994). Panksepp indicates that the pain of social loss, whether this is the loss of a parent, a partner, or social status, “opens the gateway to depression” (2009, p.15), and many psychiatric syndromes are marked...... by a “chronic sense of aloneness” (2009, p.15) caused by loss of social bonds. In this chapter I focus on how to engage persons with dementia in social communication via the use of integrative therapeutic singing in music therapy. This approach is described elsewhere (Ridder 2003, 2005, 2007; Ridder, Wigram...... and Ottesen 2009) but in this chapter it is presented using the “polyvagal theory” perspective (Porges 2001). Steven Porges’ neuroaffective theory is relevant to music therapy as it gives an insight both into the various ways of interacting with the client in therapy and into the importance and influence...

  7. Passive acoustic tracking of singing humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) on a northwest Atlantic feeding ground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanistreet, Joy E; Risch, Denise; Van Parijs, Sofie M

    2013-01-01

    Passive acoustic tracking provides an unobtrusive method of studying the movement of sound-producing animals in the marine environment where traditional tracking methods may be costly or infeasible. We used passive acoustic tracking to characterize the fine-scale movements of singing humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) on a northwest Atlantic feeding ground. Male humpback whales produce complex songs, a phenomenon that is well documented in tropical regions during the winter breeding season, but also occurs at higher latitudes during other times of year. Acoustic recordings were made throughout 2009 using an array of autonomous recording units deployed in the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary. Song was recorded during spring and fall, and individual singing whales were localized and tracked throughout the array using a correlation sum estimation method on the time-synchronized recordings. Tracks were constructed for forty-three song sessions, revealing a high level of variation in movement patterns in both the spring and fall seasons, ranging from slow meandering to faster directional movement. Tracks were 30 min to 8 h in duration, and singers traveled distances ranging from 0.9 to 20.1 km. Mean swimming speed was 2.06 km/h (SD 0.95). Patterns and rates of movement indicated that most singers were actively swimming. In one case, two singers were tracked simultaneously, revealing a potential acoustic interaction. Our results provide a first description of the movements of singers on a northwest Atlantic feeding ground, and demonstrate the utility of passive acoustic tracking for studying the fine-scale movements of cetaceans within the behavioral context of their calls. These methods have further applications for conservation and management purposes, particularly by enhancing our ability to estimate cetacean densities using passive acoustic monitoring.

  8. Integration of cortical and pallidal inputs in the basal ganglia-recipient thalamus of singing birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Jesse H.; Farries, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    The basal ganglia-recipient thalamus receives inhibitory inputs from the pallidum and excitatory inputs from cortex, but it is unclear how these inputs interact during behavior. We recorded simultaneously from thalamic neurons and their putative synaptically connected pallidal inputs in singing zebra finches. We find, first, that each pallidal spike produces an extremely brief (∼5 ms) pulse of inhibition that completely suppresses thalamic spiking. As a result, thalamic spikes are entrained to pallidal spikes with submillisecond precision. Second, we find that the number of thalamic spikes that discharge within a single pallidal interspike interval (ISI) depends linearly on the duration of that interval but does not depend on pallidal activity prior to the interval. In a detailed biophysical model, our results were not easily explained by the postinhibitory “rebound” mechanism previously observed in anesthetized birds and in brain slices, nor could most of our data be characterized as “gating” of excitatory transmission by inhibitory pallidal input. Instead, we propose a novel “entrainment” mechanism of pallidothalamic transmission that highlights the importance of an excitatory conductance that drives spiking, interacting with brief pulses of pallidal inhibition. Building on our recent finding that cortical inputs can drive syllable-locked rate modulations in thalamic neurons during singing, we report here that excitatory inputs affect thalamic spiking in two ways: by shortening the latency of a thalamic spike after a pallidal spike and by increasing thalamic firing rates within individual pallidal ISIs. We present a unifying biophysical model that can reproduce all known modes of pallidothalamic transmission—rebound, gating, and entrainment—depending on the amount of excitation the thalamic neuron receives. PMID:22673333

  9. Aerobic Exercise as a Warm-Up for Singing: Aerodynamic Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHenry, Monica; Evans, Joseph

    2016-11-01

    This study was designed to determine the impact of aerobic exercise on vocal warm-up. This is a cohort experimental study. Sixteen graduate and six undergraduate students in an academic vocal performance program participated. They completed a 30-minute treadmill workout in their target aerobic heart range. Aerodynamic data during singing were acquired before and after the treadmill workout. In full voice, participants sang the first seven notes of the Star Spangled Banner on "pah," repeating the seventh note seven times, at 1.5 syllables/s after an inhalation. The key was determined by voice type, with the target note within the range of passaggio for men, and in head voice for women. Paired t tests were performed on the data from 17 singers who maintained or increased sound pressure level (SPL) after exercise. Significant pre- to post-exercise increases were found for mean SPL and mean airflow during voicing, although increased estimated subglottal pressure approached significance. These measures were essentially unchanged in individuals who decreased SPL after exercise. There was no significant difference in vocal efficiency after the aerobic exercise, primarily due to large standard deviations within the pre- and post-exercise conditions. Most participants demonstrated favorable aerodynamic changes during singing after aerobic exercise. It is possible that in certain situations, a general aerobic warm-up could set the stage for a less-demanding vocal-specific warm-up, especially for a high voice performing early in the morning. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Communicating through caregiver singing during morning care situations in dementia care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammar, Lena Marmstål; Emami, Azita; Engström, Gabriella; Götell, Eva

    2011-03-01

    It is well known that persons with dementia (PWD) have problems expressing and interpreting communication, making interaction with others difficult. Interaction between PWD and their caregivers is crucial, and several strategies have been investigated to facilitate communication during caregiving. Music therapeutic caregiving (MTC)--when caregivers sing for or together with PWD during caregiving activities--has been shown to enhance communication for PWD, evoking more vitality and positive emotions. The aim of this study was to describe how PWD and their caregivers express verbal and nonverbal communication and make eye contact during the care activity 'getting dressed', during morning care situations without and with MTC. Findings revealed that during the situations without MTC, the caregivers led the dressing procedure with verbal instructions and body movements and seldom invited the PWD to communicate or participate in getting dressed. Patterns in responses to caregivers' instructions included both active and compliant responses and reactions that were resistant and aggressive, confused, and disruptive. In contrast to the 'ordinary' morning care situation, during MTC, the caregivers seemed interested in communicating with the PWD and solicited their mutual engagement. Although verbal communication consisted of singing about things other than getting dressed, e.g. dancing, love, sailing, God, the PWD mostly responded to caregivers in a composed manner, by being active, compliant, and relaxed, though some were also resistant or incongruent. The authors conclude that MTC could be a way for PWD and their caregivers to successfully interact and co-operate during caring situations, as it seems to evoke enhanced communication for both partners in this context.

  11. On Singing Ci with the Tune of Kunqu Opera:Centered on Xue-Shaohui's Viewpoint on Singing Ci%论以昆曲唱词——以薛绍徽唱词观为中心

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘荣平

    2009-01-01

    薛绍徽用昆曲唱唐宋词是逼近唐音宋调的有效手段,她提出的"无词不可唱,无词不合乐"的观点,对于我们今天唱唐宋词颇具参考价值和启示意义.具体到唱词,她提出的"长音使短,短音使长"的方法即是昆唱中的"依字声行腔";她认为词之唱"不在于谱",通过分析,可知其原因实在于腔;她由词唱的角度去看待词之韵脚平仄,这是注意到了音乐对歌词的重构作用.其唱词方法和观点与当今词乐专家洛地、刘崇德主张的唱词方法和观点在学理上相通.可以说用昆曲唱唐宋词是目前最好的方法之一.%Xue Shaohui singing of ci-poem of the Tang and Song dynasties with the tune of Kunqu opera effectively approaches the original tunes. Her viewpoint that any ci can be sung and every ci is in rhyme has shedded light on today's ci singing. Her advocation of "making the long sound short and the short one long" is actually " singing the tunes according to the lyric" in Kunqu and she also said that singing ci is "not confined to music score". When she looked on the level and oblique tones and rhyme through the angle of singing, she noticed the reconstruction role of music to lyrics. Her viewpoint is in line with Luo-Di's and Liu Chongde's professioanal ideas. It may be said that that singing ci of the Tang and Song dynasties with the tune of Kunqu opera is one of the best ways today.

  12. Discussion on the Major Singing Skills and Emotional Processing of Bel Canto%浅谈美声演唱主要技巧及情感处理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄蔢

    2015-01-01

    美声演唱是在声乐中占有重要地位的一种唱法,要想取得优美动人的演唱效果,既要掌握高超的演唱技巧,又要恰当地把握和表达作品蕴含的情感。本文总结了美声演唱的主要技巧,并提出了进行情感处理的有效方法。%Bel canto singing is vocal music,which plays an important role in singing in order to achieve a beautiful and moving effect.It is necessary to grasp the superb singing skills,but also to properly grasp and express emotion works contained.This paper summarizes the major bel canto singing skills and proposes an effective method for emotional processing.

  13. Mismatch in sexual dimorphism of developing song and song control system in blue-capped cordon-bleus, a songbird species with singing females and males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lobato, M; Vellema, Michiel; Gahr, C;

    2015-01-01

    Brain song control regions of adult passerine birds are sexually dimorphic in species such as the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) in which males sing whereas females do not. In many tropical bird species, however, females sing as well. Here we study for the first time the ontogeny of the song...... control system and the song in a species in which both male and female sing regularly. In blue-capped cordon-bleus (Uraeginthus cyanocephalus), a distant relative of the zebra finch, both males and females start singing at around 30–40 day post-hatching (dph). First we quantified that sex......-specific differences in song features emerged only in adulthood, after 250 dph of age: Adult females sang complex songs, which were slightly shorter and contained fewer syllables as compared to the males. Second, the development of forebrain song control regions HVC (proper name) and RA (nucleus robustus arcopallii...

  14. Context-Related Melodies in Oral Culture: An Attempt to Describe Words-and-Music Relationships in Local Singing Tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taive Särg

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In oral folk song traditions we often find many lyrics, but not nearly as many melodies. The terms “polyfunctionalism”, “group melodies” or “general melodies” have been used by Estonian researches to indicate the phenomenon that many lyrics were sung to only one, or a small handful, of tunes. The scarcity of melodies is supposed to be one of several related phenomena characteristic to an oral, text-centred singing culture.In this article the Estonian folk song tradition will be analysed against a quantity of melodies and their usage in the following aspects: word-and-melody relationships and context-and-melody relationships in Karksi parish (south Estonia; a singer; and native musical terms and the process of singing and (recreation.

  15. Efficiency of the application of an increasing hydrogel dose in bispore mushrooms cultivation. Agaricus bisporus (Lange Sing. Imbach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Koc

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The economical efficiency of the application of an increasing hydrogel dose in bispore mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus (Lange Sing. Imbach SYLVAN 737 has been experimented in controlled weather conditions. It was found that the application of a 50 and 150 g•m-2 hydrogel dose is not economically proved due to the lack of harvest significant increase. In the cultivation of this particular variety of mushrooms, the optimal hydrogel dose should not be 100 g•m-2 of subsoil.

  16. Meat Characteristics and Quality Changes during Storage of Boer Crossbred Goat Dressed via Conventional-Skinning and Singeing Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aronal Arief PUTRA

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of carcass dressing via conventional-skinning and singeing on samples from legs and shoulders of the Boer crossbred goat was examined. After deboning and resizing from its primary cuts, proximate composition, total collagen, and some physicochemical characteristics of the samples were determined. Storage study was then conducted to evaluate the physicochemical stability of samples over 5 days of refrigerated storage. Meat samples prepared by the singeing method generated significant lower moisture, ash, myoglobin, and redness (a* as compared to those prepared by the skinning method (P < 0.05, while significant higher pH, cook loss, lightness (L*, and yellowness (b* were noted (P < 0.05. Samples from the leg cut revealed lower protein and ash content, tender texture, and higher cook loss compared to samples from the shoulder cut (P < 0.05. During storage, samples that were subjected to singeing exhibited higher cook loss, discoloration, lipid oxidation (PV and TBARS, and metmyoglobin percentage compared to samples that were exposed to skinning (P < 0.05. Nevertheless, the lower oxymyoglobin percentage was obtained (P < 0.05 in those prepared from by than by skinning. Samples from the leg cut had higher cook loss, tender texture, and oxymoglobin percentage, while lower TBARS formation and metmyoglobin percentage were noted (P < 0.05. Drip loss, cook loss, lightness, and metmyoglobin percentage of samples increased with longer number of storage days, while redness, shear force, and oxymyoglobin decreased (P < 0.05. Discoloration and oxidation products from singeing are 2 substantial characteristics should be concerned when supplying meat for the retail market.

  17. Automatic Assessment of Acoustic Parameters of the Singing Voice: Application to Professional Western Operatic and Jazz Singers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredi, Claudia; Barbagallo, Davide; Baracca, Giovanna; Orlandi, Silvia; Bandini, Andrea; Dejonckere, Philippe H

    2015-07-01

    The obvious perceptual differences between various singing styles like Western operatic and jazz rely on specific dissimilarities in vocal technique. The present study focuses on differences in vibrato acoustics and in singer's formant as analyzed by a novel software tool, named BioVoice, based on robust high-resolution and adaptive techniques that have proven its validity on synthetic voice signals. A total of 48 professional singers were investigated (29 females; 19 males; 29 Western operatic; and 19 jazz). They were asked to sing "a cappella," but with artistic expression, a well-known musical phrase from Gershwin's Porgy and Bess, in their own style: either operatic or jazz. A specific sustained note was extracted for detailed vibrato analysis. Beside rate (s(-1)) and extent (cents), duration (seconds) and regularity were computed. Two new concepts are introduced: vibrato jitter and vibrato shimmer, by analogy with the traditional jitter and shimmer of voice signals. For the singer's formant, on the same sustained tone, the ratio of the acoustic energy in formants 1-2 to the energy in formants 3, 4, and 5 was automatically computed, providing a quality ratio (QR). Vibrato rates did not differ among groups. Extent was significantly larger in operatic singers, particularly females. Vibrato jitter and vibrato shimmer were significantly smaller in operatic singers. Duration of vibrato was also significantly longer in operatic singers. QR was significantly lower in male operatic singers. Some vibrato characteristics (extent, regularity, and duration) very clearly differentiate the Western operatic singing style from the jazz singing style. The singer's formant is typical of male operatic singers. The new software tool is well suited to provide useful feedback in a pedagogical context. Copyright © 2015 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Is group singing special? Health, well-being and social bonds in community-based adult education classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Eiluned; Launay, Jacques; Machin, Anna; Dunbar, Robin I M

    Evidence demonstrates that group singing improves health and well-being, but the precise mechanisms remain unknown. Given that cohesive social networks also positively influence health, we focus on the social aspects of singing, exploring whether improvements in health and well-being are mediated by stronger social bonds, both to the group as a whole (collective-bonding) and to individual classmates (relational-bonding). To do so, seven newly-formed community-based adult education classes (four singing, N=84, and three comparison classes studying creative writing or crafts, N=51) were followed over seven months. Self-report questionnaire data on mental and physical health, well-being, and social bonding were collected at Months 1, 3 and 7. We demonstrate that physical and mental health and satisfaction with life significantly improved over time in both conditions. Path analysis did not show any indirect effects via social bonding of Condition on health and well-being. However, higher collective-bonding at timepoint 3 significantly predicted increased flourishing, reduced anxiety and improved physical health independently of baseline levels. In contrast, relational-bonding showed no such effects, suggesting that it is feeling part of a group that particularly yields health and well-being benefits. Moreover, these results indicate that singing may not improve health and well-being more than other types of activities. Nonetheless, these findings encourage further work to refine our understanding of the social aspects of community-based adult education classes in promoting health, well-being and community cohesion.

  19. Music Therapy Using Singing Training Improves Psychomotor Speed in Patients with Alzheimer's Disease: A Neuropsychological and fMRI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayuki Satoh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: To investigate the effect of singing training on the cognitive function in Alzheimer's disease (AD patients. Methods: Ten AD patients (mean age 78.1 years participated in music therapy using singing training once a week for 6 months (music therapy group. Each session was performed with professional musicians using karaoke and a unique voice training method (the YUBA Method. Before and after the intervention period, each patient was assessed by neuropsychological batteries, and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI was performed while the patients sang familiar songs with a karaoke device. As the control group, another 10 AD patients were recruited (mean age 77.0 years, and neuropsychological assessments were performed twice with an interval of 6 months. Results: In the music therapy group, the time for completion of the Japanese Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices was significantly reduced (p = 0.026, and the results obtained from interviewing the patients' caregivers revealed a significant decrease in the Neuropsychiatric Inventory score (p = 0.042 and a prolongation of the patients' sleep time (p = 0.039. The fMRI study revealed increased activity in the right angular gyrus and the left lingual gyrus in the before-minus-after subtraction analysis of the music therapy intervention. Conclusion: Music therapy intervention using singing training may be useful for dementia patients by improving the neural efficacy of cognitive processing.

  20. Music Therapy Using Singing Training Improves Psychomotor Speed in Patients with Alzheimer's Disease: A Neuropsychological and fMRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Masayuki; Yuba, Toru; Tabei, Ken-ichi; Okubo, Yukari; Kida, Hirotaka; Sakuma, Hajime; Tomimoto, Hidekazu

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims To investigate the effect of singing training on the cognitive function in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Methods Ten AD patients (mean age 78.1 years) participated in music therapy using singing training once a week for 6 months (music therapy group). Each session was performed with professional musicians using karaoke and a unique voice training method (the YUBA Method). Before and after the intervention period, each patient was assessed by neuropsychological batteries, and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed while the patients sang familiar songs with a karaoke device. As the control group, another 10 AD patients were recruited (mean age 77.0 years), and neuropsychological assessments were performed twice with an interval of 6 months. Results In the music therapy group, the time for completion of the Japanese Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices was significantly reduced (p = 0.026), and the results obtained from interviewing the patients' caregivers revealed a significant decrease in the Neuropsychiatric Inventory score (p = 0.042) and a prolongation of the patients' sleep time (p = 0.039). The fMRI study revealed increased activity in the right angular gyrus and the left lingual gyrus in the before-minus-after subtraction analysis of the music therapy intervention. Conclusion Music therapy intervention using singing training may be useful for dementia patients by improving the neural efficacy of cognitive processing. PMID:26483829

  1. 试论声乐演唱中喉头的稳定与喉咙的打开%On the Throat Stability and Opening of the Throat in Vocal Music Singing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王燕丽

    2012-01-01

    歌唱中喉头的位置直接关系到歌唱的音色、音质、音量、力度、音波、音域及声音位置;喉咙的打开也直接影响到歌唱的呼吸以及歌唱的共鸣腔体的使用。%Singing in the throat location is directly related to the singing tone, timbre, volume, intensity, sonic, range and sound location, opening of the throat also directly affects the breathing in singing and the use of singing resonator.

  2. Sing to the Lord a New Song: John Calvin and the Spiritual Discipline of Metrical Psalmody

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon J. Bellanti

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this essay is to evaluate the way that psalmody - specifically metrical psalmody - serves as a sort of spiritual discipline. In other words, this essay seeks to demonstrate how the singing of psalms can be a tool to aid in spiritual growth. Much of the research for this essay focuses on the theological writings of the Protestant reformer John Calvin, as well as the way in which he incorporated metrical psalmody into his liturgical framework. The research also comprises primary writings from Aristotle, Plato, Saint John Chrysostom, Saint Basil, and Saint Augustine - all of whom influenced Calvin’s own philosophy regarding the use of art, music, and psalmody in worship. Additional areas examined in this research include the historical musical development of psalmody and the collection and arrangement of metrical psalms into psalters. For reference, specific examples of metrical psalms and psalters have been added. These additional areas and examples help to give a more holistic understanding of the nature of metrical psalmody, and they help to show how it may accurately be considered a spiritual discipline.

  3. Evaluation of communication behavior in persons with dementia during caregivers’ singing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Engström

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The number of persons with dementia (PWD is increasing rapidly worldwide. Cognitive impairments and communication difficulties are common among PWD. Therefore, gaining mutual togetherness in caring relation between PWD and their caregivers is important. This study was to investigate the effects of music therapeutic care (MTC during morning care situations on improving verbal and nonverbal communication behaviors in people with dementia. An observation study with 10 PWD participating. Videotaped interactions (VIO between PWD and their caregivers were conducted during eight weekly sessions, four recordings consisted of usual morning care and four recordings were of morning care with MTC intervention. The Verbal and Nonverbal Interaction Scale was used to analyze the recorded interactions at a later time. The unsociable verbal variable Cursing decreased significantly (P=.037 during MTC when compared with the baseline measurement. A significant (P=.000 reduction was observed for the unsociable nonverbal variable Does not respond to question. MTC significantly (P=.01 increased the mean score for the sociable nonverbal variable – Calm – relaxed. For sociable verbal communication, significant differences were observed for the variables Use coherent communication (P=.012, Use relevant communication (P=.009, Responds to questions (P=.000, Humming (P=.004, Singing (P=.000. MTC during morning care situations can be an effective non-pharmacological treatment, as well as nursing intervention in order to improve sociable communication behaviors, as well as reduce unsociable communication behaviors of PWDs.

  4. Radial distribution of stars, gas and dust in SINGS galaxies. II. Derived dust properties

    CERN Document Server

    Muñoz-Mateos, J C; Boissier, S; Zamorano, J; Dale, D A; Pérez-González, P G; Gallego, J; Madore, B F; Bendo, G; Thornley, M D; Draine, B T; Boselli, A; Buat, V; Calzetti, D; Moustakas, J; Kennicutt, R C; 10.1088/0004-637X/701/2/1965

    2009-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the radial distribution of dust properties in the SINGS sample, performed on a set of UV, IR and HI surface brightness profiles, combined with published molecular gas profiles and metallicity gradients. The internal extinction, derived from the TIR-to-FUV luminosity ratio, decreases with radius, and is larger in Sb-Sbc galaxies. The TIR-to-FUV ratio correlates with the UV spectral slope beta, following a sequence shifted to redder UV colors with respect to that of starbursts. The star formation history (SFH) is identified as the main driver of this departure. We have also derived radial profiles of the total dust mass surface density, the fraction of the dust mass contributed by PAHs, the fraction of the dust mass heated by very intense starlight and the intensity of the radiation field heating the grains. The dust profiles are exponential, their radial scale-length being constant from Sb to Sd galaxies (only ~10% larger than the stellar scale-length). Many S0/a-Sab galaxies ...

  5. Predictors of phoneme and stress perception in undergraduate students of singing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Susan E; Lauter, Judith L; Dalton, Deborah A

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the relationship between undergraduate vocal music majors' diction acquisition abilities for singing in a nonnative language (as rated both by themselves and by their studio voice teachers) and their scores on an objective test of phonemic and stress perception. Ten students with varying levels of university voice training served as participants. The results showed significant negative correlations between each of the teachers' four ratings and the students' scores on the phonemic awareness subtest. In addition, 20% of the students demonstrated evidence of underdeveloped phonemic awareness skills, as indicated by their below average test performance. Considerable individual differences were also observed in the students' abilities to track phonemes within a sequence of phonemes, count and track syllables within a sequence of syllables, and track combinations of phoneme and syllable changes in sequence, as evidenced by subtest performance scores. These findings corroborate existing reports which indicate that approximately 30% of the population does not fully develop phonemic awareness skills in the absence of special training. The findings support the utility of this objective test of phonemic and stress perception as a means of identifying students who will have difficulty with diction acquisition, and point to possibilities for pretraining to improve their response to diction instruction.

  6. 3D analysis of the movements of the laryngeal cartilages during singing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unteregger, Fabian; Honegger, Flurin; Potthast, Silke; Zwicky, Salome; Schiwowa, Julia; Storck, Claudio

    2017-07-01

    The vocal range of untrained singers rarely exceeds one and a half octaves, but professional singers have a range of at least two and a half octaves. The aim of this study was to better understand the muscle and cartilage movements responsible for the control of vocal pitch in singing. Prospective study. We recruited 49 female professional singers (25 sopranos and 24 altos) and analyzed laryngeal three-dimensional images derived from high-resolution computed tomography scans obtained at the mean speaking fundamental frequency (F0) and at one (F1) and two octaves (F2) above this pitch. From F0 to F1, the only observable movement was a backward cricoid tilting caused by the cricothyroid muscles (CTMs), leading to vocal fold stretching. Above F1, a medial rotation and inward rocking of the arytenoid cartilages was observed, caused by the lateral cricothyroid muscles (LCAMs) and leading to inferior displacement of the vocal process of the arytenoid cartilage, and thus to further vocal fold stretching. Trained singers achieve the first octave of pitch elevation by simple cricothyroid approximation. Further pitch elevation necessitates a complex movement of the arytenoids, first by CTM contraction and second by LCAM contraction. 4. Laryngoscope, 127:1639-1643, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  7. Effect of Training and Level of External Auditory Feedback on the Singing Voice: Pitch Inaccuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottalico, Pasquale; Graetzer, Simone; Hunter, Eric J

    2017-01-01

    One of the most important aspects of singing is the control of fundamental frequency. The effects on pitch inaccuracy, defined as the distance in cents in equally tempered tuning between the reference note and the sung note, of the following conditions were evaluated: (1) level of external feedback, (2) tempo (slow or fast), (3) articulation (legato or staccato), (4) tessitura (low, medium, or high), and (5) semi-phrase direction (ascending or descending). The subjects were 10 nonprofessional singers and 10 classically trained professional or semi-professional singers (10 men and 10 women). Subjects sang one octave and a fifth arpeggi with three different levels of external auditory feedback, two tempi, and two articulations (legato or staccato). It was observed that inaccuracy was greatest in the descending semi-phrase arpeggi produced at a fast tempo and with a staccato articulation, especially for nonprofessional singers. The magnitude of inaccuracy was also relatively large in the high tessitura relative to the low and the medium tessitura for such singers. Contrary to predictions, when external auditory feedback was strongly attenuated by the hearing protectors, nonprofessional singers showed greater pitch accuracy than in the other external feedback conditions. This finding indicates the importance of internal auditory feedback in pitch control. With an increase in training, the singer's pitch inaccuracy decreases. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Woodcock singing-ground counts and habitat changes in the northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, T.J.; McAuley, D.G.; Derleth, E.L.

    1983-01-01

    Aerial photography from the late 1960's and the late 1970's was used to study habitat changes along 78 American woodcock (Scolopax minor) singing-ground routes in 9 northeastern states. The most noticeable changes were declines in the amount of abandoned field, cropland, shrubland, and field/pasture. The amount of land in the urban/industrial type increased 33.4% from the late 1960's to the late 1970's. We examined relationships between the woodcock call-count index and habitat variables using multiple-regression techniques. The abundance of calling male woodcock was positively correlated with the amount of abandoned field and alder (Alnus sp.) and negatively correlated with the amount of urban/industrial type. However, only the change in the urban/industrial type was significantly (P < 0.05) related to the change in the call-count index. Urban/industrial area increased, whereas the call-count index declined on average in our sample of routes by 1.4 birds/route (40.5%).

  9. Precursors of dancing and singing to music in three- to four-months-old infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Shinya; Watanabe, Hama; Oohashi, Hiroki; Hirashima, Masaya; Nozaki, Daichi; Taga, Gentaro

    2014-01-01

    Dancing and singing to music involve auditory-motor coordination and have been essential to our human culture since ancient times. Although scholars have been trying to understand the evolutionary and developmental origin of music, early human developmental manifestations of auditory-motor interactions in music have not been fully investigated. Here we report limb movements and vocalizations in three- to four-months-old infants while they listened to music and were in silence. In the group analysis, we found no significant increase in the amount of movement or in the relative power spectrum density around the musical tempo in the music condition compared to the silent condition. Intriguingly, however, there were two infants who demonstrated striking increases in the rhythmic movements via kicking or arm-waving around the musical tempo during listening to music. Monte-Carlo statistics with phase-randomized surrogate data revealed that the limb movements of these individuals were significantly synchronized to the musical beat. Moreover, we found a clear increase in the formant variability of vocalizations in the group during music perception. These results suggest that infants at this age are already primed with their bodies to interact with music via limb movements and vocalizations.

  10. Gender and vocal production mode discrimination using the high frequencies for speech and singing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monson, Brian B; Lotto, Andrew J; Story, Brad H

    2014-01-01

    Humans routinely produce acoustical energy at frequencies above 6 kHz during vocalization, but this frequency range is often not represented in communication devices and speech perception research. Recent advancements toward high-definition (HD) voice and extended bandwidth hearing aids have increased the interest in the high frequencies. The potential perceptual information provided by high-frequency energy (HFE) is not well characterized. We found that humans can accomplish tasks of gender discrimination and vocal production mode discrimination (speech vs. singing) when presented with acoustic stimuli containing only HFE at both amplified and normal levels. Performance in these tasks was robust in the presence of low-frequency masking noise. No substantial learning effect was observed. Listeners also were able to identify the sung and spoken text (excerpts from "The Star-Spangled Banner") with very few exposures. These results add to the increasing evidence that the high frequencies provide at least redundant information about the vocal signal, suggesting that its representation in communication devices (e.g., cell phones, hearing aids, and cochlear implants) and speech/voice synthesizers could improve these devices and benefit normal-hearing and hearing-impaired listeners.

  11. Glottal open quotient in singing: Measurements and correlation with laryngeal mechanisms, vocal intensity, and fundamental frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrich, Nathalie; D'Alessandro, Christophe; Doval, Boris; Castellengo, Michèle

    2005-03-01

    This article presents the results of glottal open-quotient measurements in the case of singing voice production. It explores the relationship between open quotient and laryngeal mechanisms, vocal intensity, and fundamental frequency. The audio and electroglottographic signals of 18 classically trained male and female singers were recorded and analyzed with regard to vocal intensity, fundamental frequency, and open quotient. Fundamental frequency and open quotient are derived from the differentiated electroglottographic signal, using the DECOM (DEgg Correlation-based Open quotient Measurement) method. As male and female phonation may differ in respect to vocal-fold vibratory properties, a distinction is made between two different glottal configurations, which are called laryngeal mechanisms: mechanism 1 (related to chest, modal, and male head register) and mechanism 2 (related to falsetto for male and head register for female). The results show that open quotient depends on the laryngeal mechanisms. It ranges from 0.3 to 0.8 in mechanism 1 and from 0.5 to 0.95 in mechanism 2. The open quotient is strongly related to vocal intensity in mechanism 1 and to fundamental frequency in mechanism 2. .

  12. Gender and vocal production mode discrimination using the high frequencies for speech and singing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian B Monson

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Humans routinely create acoustical energy at frequencies above 6 kHz during vocalization, but this frequency range is often not represented in communication devices and speech perception research. Recent advancements toward HD voice and extended bandwidth hearing aids have increased the interest in the high frequencies. The potential perceptual information provided by high-frequency energy (HFE is not well characterized. We found that humans can accomplish tasks of gender discrimination and vocal production mode discrimination (speech vs. singing when presented with acoustic stimuli containing only HFE at both amplified and normal levels. Performance in these tasks was robust in the presence of low-frequency masking noise. No substantial learning effect was observed. Listeners also were able to identify the sung and spoken text (excerpts from The Star-Spangled Banner with very few exposures. These results add to the increasing evidence that the high frequencies provide at least redundant information about the vocal signal, suggesting that its representation in communication devices (e.g., cell phones, hearing aids, and cochlear implants and speech/voice synthesizers could improve these devices and benefit normal-hearing and hearing-impaired listeners.

  13. Precursors of Dancing and Singing to Music in Three- to Four-Months-Old Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Shinya; Watanabe, Hama; Oohashi, Hiroki; Hirashima, Masaya; Nozaki, Daichi; Taga, Gentaro

    2014-01-01

    Dancing and singing to music involve auditory-motor coordination and have been essential to our human culture since ancient times. Although scholars have been trying to understand the evolutionary and developmental origin of music, early human developmental manifestations of auditory-motor interactions in music have not been fully investigated. Here we report limb movements and vocalizations in three- to four-months-old infants while they listened to music and were in silence. In the group analysis, we found no significant increase in the amount of movement or in the relative power spectrum density around the musical tempo in the music condition compared to the silent condition. Intriguingly, however, there were two infants who demonstrated striking increases in the rhythmic movements via kicking or arm-waving around the musical tempo during listening to music. Monte-Carlo statistics with phase-randomized surrogate data revealed that the limb movements of these individuals were significantly synchronized to the musical beat. Moreover, we found a clear increase in the formant variability of vocalizations in the group during music perception. These results suggest that infants at this age are already primed with their bodies to interact with music via limb movements and vocalizations. PMID:24837135

  14. LOFAR and APERTIF Surveys of the Radio Sky: Probing Shocks and Magnetic Fields in Galaxy Clusters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Huub Röttgering; Jose Afonso; Peter Barthel; Fabien Batejat; Philip Best; Annalisa Bonafede; Marcus Brüggen; Gianfranco Brunetti; Krzysztof Chyży; John Conway; Francesco De Gasperin; Chiara Ferrari; Marijke Haverkorn; George Heald; Matthias Hoeft; Neal Jackson; Matt Jarvis; Louise Ker; Matt Lehnert; Giulia Macario; John McKean; George Miley; Raffaella Morganti; Tom Oosterloo; Emanuela Orrù; Roberto Pizzo; David Rafferty; Alexander Shulevski; Cyril Tasse; Ilse van Bemmel; Bas van der Tol; Reinout van Weeren; Marc Verheijen; Glenn White; Michael Wise

    2011-12-01

    At very low frequencies, the new pan-European radio telescope LOFAR is opening the last unexplored window of the electromagnetic spectrum for astrophysical studies. The revolutionary APERTIF-phased arrays that are about to be installed on the Westerbork radio telescope (WSRT) will dramatically increase the survey speed for the WSRT. Combined surveys with these two facilities will deeply chart the northern sky over almost two decades in radio frequency from ∼ 15 up to 1400 MHz. Here we briefly describe some of the capabilities of these new facilities and what radio surveys are planned to study fun-damental issues related to the formation and evolution of galaxies and clusters of galaxies. In the second part we briefly review some recent observational results directly showing that diffuse radio emission in clusters traces shocks due to cluster mergers. As these diffuse radio sources are relatively bright at low frequencies, LOFAR should be able to detect thousands of such sources up to the epoch of cluster formation. This will allow addressing many question about the origin and evolution of shocks and magnetic fields in clusters. At the end we briefly review some of the first and very preliminary LOFAR results on clusters.

  15. A corollary discharge mechanism modulates central auditory processing in singing crickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulet, J F A; Hedwig, B

    2003-03-01

    Crickets communicate using loud (100 dB SPL) sound signals that could adversely affect their own auditory system. To examine how they cope with this self-generated acoustic stimulation, intracellular recordings were made from auditory afferent neurons and an identified auditory interneuron-the Omega 1 neuron (ON1)-during pharmacologically elicited singing (stridulation). During sonorous stridulation, the auditory afferents and ON1 responded with bursts of spikes to the crickets' own song. When the crickets were stridulating silently, after one wing had been removed, only a few spikes were recorded in the afferents and ON1. Primary afferent depolarizations (PADs) occurred in the terminals of the auditory afferents, and inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs) were apparent in ON1. The PADs and IPSPs were composed of many summed, small-amplitude potentials that occurred at a rate of about 230 Hz. The PADs and the IPSPs started during the closing wing movement and peaked in amplitude during the subsequent opening wing movement. As a consequence, during silent stridulation, ON1's response to acoustic stimuli was maximally inhibited during wing opening. Inhibition coincides with the time when ON1 would otherwise be most strongly excited by self-generated sounds in a sonorously stridulating cricket. The PADs and the IPSPs persisted in fictively stridulating crickets whose ventral nerve cord had been isolated from muscles and sense organs. This strongly suggests that the inhibition of the auditory pathway is the result of a corollary discharge from the stridulation motor network. The central inhibition was mimicked by hyperpolarizing current injection into ON1 while it was responding to a 100 dB SPL sound pulse. This suppressed its spiking response to the acoustic stimulus and maintained its response to subsequent, quieter stimuli. The corollary discharge therefore prevents auditory desensitization in stridulating crickets and allows the animals to respond to external

  16. Investigating the Voce Faringea: Physiological and Acoustic Characteristics of the Bel Canto Tenor's Forgotten Singing Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, Alexander

    2017-03-01

    Several historical sources from the first half of the 19th century mention a distinct third register mechanism particular to tenor voices of that period. This so-called voce faringea-often described as an "intermediate" register-is a virtually forgotten historical singing practice used to extend the upper range of the voice, where the singer modifies falsetto, typically a weak and often feminine sound, into a more powerful, tenor-like vocal quality. Based on an evaluation of historical voice register theories, training strategies, and the sound ideals of the historical period, an informed discussion of that technique is developed. For this study, acoustic and electroglottographic signals for tones produced on the vowel /a/ by a professional tenor/countertenor in different vocal register mechanisms-voce faringea, falsetto, chest register, and mezza voce-were recorded using the VoceVista system. Analysis of the electroglottography (EGG) and audio data revealed specific characteristics of the voce faringea with regard to both the laryngeal mechanism and the sound spectrum, including high EGG contact quotient and low speed quotient values. EGG pulses were skewed significantly to the left and displayed a distinct knee shape during the de-contacting phase of the vocal folds, which consequently indicates a vibration with a clear mucosal wave. The long-term average spectrum and power spectrum exposed a considerable amplification and dislocation of F2 in the direction of high frequencies, thus boosting the third harmonic and showing a strong concentration of acoustic energy in the area of the singer's formant cluster. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Phonatory Strategies of Male Vocalists in Singing Diatonic Scales With Various Dynamic Shapings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vurma, Allan

    2017-03-01

    This work aimed to investigate glottal adduction in the case of the singing of diatonic D major ascending scales with different dynamic shapings on vowel [a:] by 10 classically trained male singers. The parameters obtained by inverse filtering-closed quotient (CQ), normalized amplitude quotient (NAQ), and the level difference between the first two partials of the glottal flow waveform spectrum (H1-H2)-all indicated statistically significant systematic changes when singers sang (1) with habitual dynamics without intentional dynamic changes; (2) with sempre crescendo from piano to forte; and (3) with sempre diminuendo from forte to piano. Adduction on average was lower if the tone with the same pitch was sung piano compared with when it was sung forte. The piano tones with the limit of one and the same dynamic task were sung with lower adduction on average compared with one octave higher or lower tones sung forte, although here the agreement between different parameters was poorer and the individual variability was greater. There was only a moderate negative correlation between CQ and NAQ (r = -0.41) but a strong negative correlation between CQ and H1-H2 (r = -0.8). CQ showed a moderate positive correlation with sound level but no significant correlation with pitch. NAQ showed a strong and significant positive correlation with pitch but not with sound level (except when it was calculated only at constant pitch). Some of the most experienced singers used quite high glottal adduction levels, questioning the concept of whether flow phonation is always the favorite classical style. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Singing emotionally: A study of pre-production, production, and post-production facial expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Rachel Quinto

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Singing involves vocal production accompanied by a dynamic and meaningful use of facial expressions, which may serve as ancillary gestures that complement, disambiguate, or reinforce the acoustic signal. In this investigation, we examined the use of facial movements to communicate emotion, focusing on movements arising in three epochs: before vocalisation (pre-production, during vocalisation (production, and immediately after vocalisation (post-production. The stimuli were recordings of seven vocalists’ facial movements as they sang short (14 syllable melodic phrases with the intention of communicating happiness, sadness, irritation, or no emotion. Facial movements were presented as point-light displays to 16 observers who judged the emotion conveyed. Experiment 1 revealed that the accuracy of emotional judgement varied with singer, emotion and epoch. Accuracy was highest in the production epoch, however, happiness was well communicated in the pre-production epoch. In Experiment 2, observers judged point-light displays of exaggerated movements. The ratings suggested that the extent of facial and head movements is largely perceived as a gauge of emotional arousal. In Experiment 3, observers rated point-light displays of scrambled movements. Configural information was removed in these stimuli but velocity and acceleration were retained. Exaggerated scrambled movements were likely to be associated with happiness or irritation whereas unexaggerated scrambled movements were more likely to be identified as neutral. An analysis of the motions of singers revealed systematic changes in facial movement as a function of the emotional intentions of singers. The findings confirm the central role of facial expressions in vocal emotional communication, and highlight individual differences between singers in the amount and intelligibility of facial movements made before, during, and after vocalization.

  19. "Singing in the Tube"--audiovisual assay of plant oil repellent activity against mosquitoes (Culex pipiens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Temitope F; Wongchai, Chatchawal; Chaidee, Anchalee; Pfeiffer, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Plant essential oils have been suggested as a promising alternative to the established mosquito repellent DEET (N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide). Searching for an assay with generally available equipment, we designed a new audiovisual assay of repellent activity against mosquitoes "Singing in the Tube," testing single mosquitoes in Drosophila cultivation tubes. Statistics with regression analysis should compensate for limitations of simple hardware. The assay was established with female Culex pipiens mosquitoes in 60 experiments, 120-h audio recording, and 2580 estimations of the distance between mosquito sitting position and the chemical. Correlations between parameters of sitting position, flight activity pattern, and flight tone spectrum were analyzed. Regression analysis of psycho-acoustic data of audio files (dB[A]) used a squared and modified sinus function determining wing beat frequency WBF ± SD (357 ± 47 Hz). Application of logistic regression defined the repelling velocity constant. The repelling velocity constant showed a decreasing order of efficiency of plant essential oils: rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia), citronella (Cymbopogon nardus), tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia), clove (Syzygium aromaticum), lemon (Citrus limon), patchouli (Pogostemon cablin), DEET, cedar wood (Cedrus atlantica). In conclusion, we suggest (1) disease vector control (e.g., impregnation of bed nets) by eight plant essential oils with repelling velocity superior to DEET, (2) simple mosquito repellency testing in Drosophila cultivation tubes, (3) automated approaches and room surveillance by generally available audio equipment (dB[A]: ISO standard 226), and (4) quantification of repellent activity by parameters of the audiovisual assay defined by correlation and regression analyses.

  20. Singing emotionally: a study of pre-production, production, and post-production facial expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinto, Lena R; Thompson, William F; Kroos, Christian; Palmer, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Singing involves vocal production accompanied by a dynamic and meaningful use of facial expressions, which may serve as ancillary gestures that complement, disambiguate, or reinforce the acoustic signal. In this investigation, we examined the use of facial movements to communicate emotion, focusing on movements arising in three epochs: before vocalization (pre-production), during vocalization (production), and immediately after vocalization (post-production). The stimuli were recordings of seven vocalists' facial movements as they sang short (14 syllable) melodic phrases with the intention of communicating happiness, sadness, irritation, or no emotion. Facial movements were presented as point-light displays to 16 observers who judged the emotion conveyed. Experiment 1 revealed that the accuracy of emotional judgment varied with singer, emotion, and epoch. Accuracy was highest in the production epoch, however, happiness was well communicated in the pre-production epoch. In Experiment 2, observers judged point-light displays of exaggerated movements. The ratings suggested that the extent of facial and head movements was largely perceived as a gauge of emotional arousal. In Experiment 3, observers rated point-light displays of scrambled movements. Configural information was removed in these stimuli but velocity and acceleration were retained. Exaggerated scrambled movements were likely to be associated with happiness or irritation whereas unexaggerated scrambled movements were more likely to be identified as "neutral." An analysis of singers' facial movements revealed systematic changes as a function of the emotional intentions of singers. The findings confirm the central role of facial expressions in vocal emotional communication, and highlight individual differences between singers in the amount and intelligibility of facial movements made before, during, and after vocalization.

  1. Effects of a Straw Phonation Protocol on Acoustic Measures of an SATB Chorus Singing Two Contrasting Renaissance Works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manternach, Jeremy N; Clark, Chad; Daugherty, James F

    2017-07-01

    Researchers have found that semi-occluded vocal tract (SOVT) exercises may increase vocal economy by reducing phonation threshold pressure and effort while increasing or maintaining consistent acoustic output. This research has focused solely on individual singers. Much singing instruction, however, takes place in choral settings. Choral singers may use different resonance strategies or unconsciously adjust their singing based on the ability to hear their own sound in relation to others. Results of studies with individual singers, then, may not be directly applicable to choral settings. The purpose of this investigation was to measure the effect of an SOVT protocol (ie, straw phonation) on acoustic changes of conglomerate, choral sound. This is a quasi-experimental, one-group, pretest-posttest design. Participants in this study constituted an intact SATB choir (soprano, alto, tenor, and bass) (N = 15 singers) who performed from memory two unaccompanied pieces of varied tempos from memory, participated in a 4-minute straw phonation protocol with a small stirring straw, and then sang each piece a second time. The long-term average spectrum results indicated small, statistically significant increases in spectral energy for both pieces in the 0-10 kHz (.32 and .20 dB Sound Pressure Level) and 2-4 kHz regions (.46 and .25 dB SPL). These results, although not likely audible to average hearing humans, seem consistent with the assertion that singers enjoy vocal benefits with consistent or increased vocal output. SOVT exercises, therefore, may be useful as a time-efficient way to evoke more efficient and economical singing during choral warm-up and voice building procedures. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Assessing Linearity in the Loudness Envelope of the Messa di Voce Singing Exercise Through Acoustic Signal Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Manuj; Cabrera, Densil; Kenny, Dianna T

    2015-09-01

    Messa di voce (MDV) is a singing exercise that involves sustaining a single pitch with a linear change in loudness from silence to maximum intensity (the crescendo part) and back to silence again (the decrescendo part), with time symmetry between the two parts. Previous studies have used the sound pressure level (SPL, in decibels) of a singer's voice to measure loudness, so as to assess the linearity of each part-an approach that has limitations due to loudness and SPL not being linearly related. This article studies the loudness envelope shapes of MDVs, comparing the SPL approach with approaches that are more closely related to human loudness perception. The MDVs were performed by a cohort of tertiary singing students, recorded six times (once per semester) over a period of 3 years. The loudness envelopes were derived for a typical audience listening position, and for listening to one's own singing, using three models: SPL, Stevens' power law-based model, and a computational loudness model. The effects on the envelope shape due to room acoustics (an important effect) and vibrato (minimal effect) were also considered. The results showed that the SPL model yielded a lower proportion of linear crescendi and decrescendi, compared with other models. The Stevens' power law-based model provided results similar to the more complicated computational loudness model. Longitudinally, there was no consistent trend in the shape of the MDV loudness envelope for the cohort although there were some individual singers who exhibited improvements in linearity. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Reward associated with singing behavior correlates with opioid-related gene expression in the medial preoptic nucleus in male European starlings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren V Riters

    Full Text Available Birdsong consists of species-specific learned vocal sequences that are used primarily to attract mates and to repel competitors during the breeding season. However, many birds continue to sing at times when vocal production has no immediate or obvious impact on conspecific behavior. The mechanisms that ensure that animals produce important behaviors in contexts in which the function of these behaviors is not immediate or obvious are not known. One possibility is that animals engage in such behaviors because they are associated with pleasure. Here we examined the hypothesis that male European starlings sing outside of the breeding season in part because the act of singing in this context is facilitated and/or maintained by opioid-mediated reward. We measured song-associated reward using a conditioned place preference (CPP test in male starlings producing fall, non-breeding season-typical song. We used quantitative real time PCR to measure expression of the enkephalin opioid precursor preproenkephalin (PENK and mu opioid receptors (MOR in the medial preoptic nucleus (POM; a region in which opioids are implicated in both reward and starling fall song and additionally the song control region HVC as a control. Starlings developed a strong preference for a place that had been paired previously with the act of producing fall-typical song, indicating that fall song production was associated with a positive affective state. Both PENK and MOR mRNA expression in the POM, but not HVC, correlated positively with both individual reward state (as reflected in CPP and undirected singing behavior. These results suggest that singing induces opioid receptor and enkephalin expression in the POM and consequent reward, and/or that opioid release in the POM induced by individual or environmental factors (e.g., the presence of food, safety of a flock or the absence of predators induces a positive affective state which then facilitates singing behavior.

  4. The effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a participative community singing programme as a health promotion initiative for older people: protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coulton Simon P

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The growth in numbers of older people represents a considerable cost to health and social care services in the United Kingdom. There is an acknowledged need to address issues of social exclusion and both the physical and mental health of this age group. In recent years there has been much interest in the potential contribution of the arts to the health of communities and individuals. There is some evidence that participative singing may be of benefit to older people, however studies to date are limited in number and have lacked rigour. There is therefore a need to build on this knowledge base to provide more quantifiable evidence of both effectiveness and cost effectiveness of singing as a health intervention for this population group. Methods The proposed study is a pragmatic randomised controlled trial with two parallel arms. The primary hypothesis is that singing groups for older people improve both physical and mental aspects of quality of life when compared to usual activities. Potential participants will be volunteers over 60 years living in the community and recruited through publicity. Eligible and consenting participants will be randomized to either a singing group or a control group. Singing groups will take part in a twelve week planned programme of singing and control groups will continue with usual activities. The primary outcome measure will be the York SF-12, a health related quality of life measure which will be administered at baseline, three and six months after baseline. The study will evaluate both effectiveness and cost-effectiveness. Discussion This study proposes to add to the existing body of evidence on the value of singing for older people by using a rigorous methodological design, which includes a power calculation, a standardised intervention and assessment of cost-effectiveness. It should be regarded as a stage in a progressive programme of studies in this area. If group singing is found to be

  5. Apoio respiratório na voz cantada: perspectiva de professores de canto e fonoaudiólogos Support and singing voice: perspective of singing teachers and speech language pathologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Gava Júnior

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: analisar a definição de apoio respiratório, assim como as estratégias de trabalho e benefícios de sua aplicação, segundo a perspectiva de professores de canto e fonoaudiólogos. MÉTODOS: seis profissionais com experiência em voz cantada foram entrevistados sobre questões relacionadas ao apoio respiratório no canto. As respostas foram submetidas à análise de conteúdo e definidas quatro categorias: definição de apoio respiratório, tipo de apoio, estratégias e benefícios. RESULTADOS: os aspectos mais mencionados pelos entrevistados foram: a definição de apoio está relacionada com a participação do músculo diafragma e dos intercostais; o tipo de apoio mais adequado é o intercostal e diafragmático; dentre as estratégias de trabalho, utilizadas para a adequação do apoio respiratório, as mais citadas foram propriocepção corporal, conscientização da musculatura envolvida, equilíbrio do fluxo aéreo, alívio de tensões e correção da postura. Há discrepâncias com relação à utilização da contração abdominal, do uso de objetos de apoio, de imagens mentais e realização de vocalizes. Para os entrevistados, o maior benefício do apoio respiratório está no alívio das tensões laríngeas e melhoria na coordenação pneumofonoarticulatória. Houve pouca concordância sobre a ação benéfica do apoio, principalmente quanto à sua melhoria na emissão cantada. CONCLUSÃO: os resultados apontam para uma convergência da maioria dos entrevistados quanto à definição, estratégias de trabalho e benefícios do apoio respiratório, porém ainda sem consenso.PURPOSE: to analyze the definition of breath support, as well as the strategies used to achieve it and their benefits according to both singing teachers and Speech Language Pathologists (SLP. METHODS: six professionals experienced in singing voice answered an interview on issues pertaining to singing breath support. The answers were submitted to

  6. Teaching Research on Articulation of Singing%歌唱咬字吐字的教学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹玲玲

    2015-01-01

    清晰的语言是声乐艺术的灵魂。正确的咬字、吐字在声乐演唱中具有重要意义,掌握科学的咬字、吐字的方法和能力,是歌唱表现的有力手段。一位成功的演唱者,必须做到发音和吐字的完美结合,因此在歌唱的过程中既要注重发声的方法,又要重视咬字、吐字在歌唱中的应用。%The correct and clear pronunciation is of great significance in the vocal music.Mastering the scientific method of pronunciation is a powerful means for the singing performance.For a successful singer,it is necessary to achieve the perfect com-bination of pronunciation and enunciation,thus we should not only pay attention to pronunciation,but also pay attention to articu-lation in the application of singing.

  7. In Vitro Antioxidant Activities and in Vivo Anti-Hypoxic Activity of the Edible Mushroom Agaricus bisporus (Lange Sing. Chaidam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Ji Li

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available With the rising awareness of a healthy lifestyle, natural functional foods have gained much interest as promising alternatives to synthetic functional drugs. Recently, wild Agaricus bisporus (Lange Sing. Chaidam has been found and artificially cultivated for its thick fresh body and excellent taste, with its antioxidant and anti-hypoxic abilities unknown. In this work, the antioxidant potential of its methanolic, 55% ethanolic, aqueous extracts and crude polysaccharide was evaluated in different systems. The results showed that polysaccharide was the most effective in scavenging ability on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and hydroxyl radicals, metal chelating activity and reducing power, with EC50 values of 0.02, 2.79, 1.29, and 1.82 mg/mL, respectively. Therefore, we further studied the anti-hypoxic activity of crude polysaccharide. The results turned out that polysaccharide (300 mg/kg prolonged the survival time, decreased the blood urea nitrogen and lactic acid content as well as increased the liver glycogen significantly, compared with the blank control and the commercialized product Hongjingtian (p < 0.05. With such excellent activities, we purified the polysaccharide and analyzed its molecular weight (120 kDa as well as monosaccharide components (glucose, fructose and mannose. This study indicated that wild Agaricus bisporus (Lange Sing. Chaidam had strong potential to be exploited as an effective natural functional food to relieve oxidative and hypoxia stresses

  8. Analysis and Regulation of Tone Color in Singing%歌唱音色的分析与调控

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海坤

    2011-01-01

    Tone color is an important condition on which musical connotation is revealed.This paper analyses different singing,classification of musical part,sound production training and the relations between singing techniques and tone color.It suggests that singers should have a good command of the techniques as for the changes of tone color and skillfully regulate and mold ideal tone color in order to better interpret musical works and add great artistic appeal to them.%音色是表现音乐思想内涵的重要条件。本文对不同唱法、声部分类、发声训练、演唱技巧与音色的关系进行了分析,以期望歌者在声乐学习中掌握音色变化的技巧,调控和塑造理想的音色,从而更好地诠释作品,增强艺术感染力。

  9. Describing different styles of singing: a comparison of a female singer's voice source in "Classical", "Pop", "Jazz" and "Blues".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalén, M; Sundberg, J

    2001-01-01

    The voice is apparently used in quite different manners in different styles of singing. Some of these differences concern the voice source, which varies considerably with loudness, pitch, and mode of phonation. We attempt to describe voice source differences between Classical, Pop, Jazz and Blues styles of singing as produced in a triad melody pattern by a professional female singer in soft, middle and loud phonation. An expert panel was asked to identify these triads as examples of either Classical, Pop, Jazz or Blues. The voice source was analysed by inverse filtering. Subglottal pressure Ps, closed quotient QClosed, glottal compliance (ratio between the air volume contained in a voice pulse and Ps), and the level difference between the two lowest source spectrum partials were analysed in the styles and in four modes of phonation: breathy, flow, neutral, and pressed. The same expert panel rated the degree of pressedness in the entire material. Averages across pitch were calculated for each mode and style and related to their total range of variation in the subject. The glottogram data showed a high correlation with the ratings of pressedness. Based on these correlations a pressedness factor was computed from the glottogram data. A phonation map was constructed with the axes representing mean adduction factor and mean Ps, respectively. In this map Classical was similar to flow phonation, Pop and Jazz to neutral and flow phonation, and Blues to pressed phonation.

  10. In Vitro Antioxidant Activities and in Vivo Anti-Hypoxic Activity of the Edible Mushroom Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Sing. Chaidam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong-Ji; Chen, Hai-Yan; Fan, Lin-Lin; Jiao, Zhi-Hua; Chen, Qi-He; Jiao, Ying-Chun

    2015-09-25

    With the rising awareness of a healthy lifestyle, natural functional foods have gained much interest as promising alternatives to synthetic functional drugs. Recently, wild Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Sing. Chaidam has been found and artificially cultivated for its thick fresh body and excellent taste, with its antioxidant and anti-hypoxic abilities unknown. In this work, the antioxidant potential of its methanolic, 55% ethanolic, aqueous extracts and crude polysaccharide was evaluated in different systems. The results showed that polysaccharide was the most effective in scavenging ability on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl radicals, metal chelating activity and reducing power, with EC50 values of 0.02, 2.79, 1.29, and 1.82 mg/mL, respectively. Therefore, we further studied the anti-hypoxic activity of crude polysaccharide. The results turned out that polysaccharide (300 mg/kg) prolonged the survival time, decreased the blood urea nitrogen and lactic acid content as well as increased the liver glycogen significantly, compared with the blank control and the commercialized product Hongjingtian (p Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Sing. Chaidam had strong potential to be exploited as an effective natural functional food to relieve oxidative and hypoxia stresses.

  11. 声乐演唱中的节奏探析%Analysis of the Rhythm in the Vocal Music Singing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊艳丽

    2015-01-01

    对节奏的合理处理是歌曲富有感染力的重要因素之一。作为二度创作的歌唱艺术则通过节奏的处理来传达歌曲的艺术内涵。本文从节奏的基本定义、节奏在声乐演唱中的处理与运用进行了详细的论述,以期通过实践与理论相结合,得到更好地歌唱艺术效果。%The reasonable processing the rhythm is one of the important factors to make songs infectious. Singing art as the second creation, through the processing rhythm, conveys the essence of the song. The basic definition of rhythm, the processing and application of rhythm are described in detail in order to get better effect of singing art through the combination of practice and theory in this article.

  12. The WSRT ZoA Perseus-Pisces Filament wide-field HI imaging survey I. HI catalogue and atlas

    CERN Document Server

    Ramatsoku, M; Kraan-Korteweg, R C; Józsa, G I G; Schröder, A C; Jarrett, T H; Elson, E C; van Driel, W; de Blok, W J G; Henning, P A

    2016-01-01

    We present results of a blind 21cm HI-line imaging survey of a galaxy overdensity located behind the Milky Way at $\\ell,b$ $\\approx$ 160 deg, 0.5 deg. The overdensity corresponds to a Zone-of-Avoidance crossing of the Perseus-Pisces Supercluster filament. Although it is known that this filament contains an X-ray galaxy cluster (3C129) hosting two strong radio galaxies, little is known about galaxies associated with this potentially rich cluster because of the high Galactic dust extinction. We mapped a sky area of $\\sim$9.6 sq.deg using the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope in a hexagonal mosaic of 35 pointings observed for 12 hours each, in the radial velocity range $cz = 2400 - 16600$ km/s. The survey has a sensitivity of 0.36 mJy/beam rms at a velocity resolution of 16.5 km/s. We detected 211 galaxies, 62% of which have a near-infrared counterpart in the UKIDSS Galactic Plane Survey. We present a catalogue of the HI properties and an HI atlas containing total intensity maps, position-velocity diagrams, g...

  13. Desvantagem vocal no canto: análise do protocolo Índice de Desvantagem para o Canto Moderno - IDCM Voice handicap in singing: analysis of the Modern Singing Handicap Index - MSHI questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Moreti

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar a sensibilidade do protocolo italiano Modern Singing Handicap Index - MSHI, traduzido e culturalmente adaptado para o Português Brasileiro como Índice de Desvantagem para o Canto Moderno - IDCM, comparando os escores de coralistas amadores com e sem queixas vocais e de indivíduos não-cantores, de acordo com gênero, classificação vocal e atividades de canto. MÉTODOS: Duzentos e vinte e seis indivíduos adultos, com idades entre 16 e 66 anos, foram distribuídos em três grupos: 58 cantores com queixas vocais - CCQ; 112 cantores sem queixas vocais - CSQ e 56 indivíduos não cantores e sem queixas vocais - GNC. Os cantores foram selecionados em cinco coros universitários de música popular brasileira, a capella, regidos pelo mesmo maestro. Os indivíduos não cantores foram recrutados nas mesmas instituições dos cantores, com características demográficas semelhantes. Os indivíduos preencheram individualmente o IDCM, questionário com 30 itens divididos em três subescalas: incapacidade (domínio funcional, desvantagem (domínio emocional e defeito (domínio orgânico. Os cantores também realizaram uma auto-avaliação de suas atividades de canto. RESULTADOS: A média dos escores do IDCM do CCQ (26,91 foi maior que a do o CSQ (16,61, e ambas maiores que a do GNC (7,79. Para os três grupos, a subescala defeito apresentou as maiores médias de escores, seguida por incapacidade e desvantagem. Não houve diferenças dos escores em relação ao gênero, classificação vocal e atividades de canto. CONCLUSÃO: O protocolo mostrou-se sensível para cantores modernos com problemas de voz. Coralistas com queixas vocais apresentaram maior desvantagem auto-relatada em relação aos sem queixas e não cantores. Aspectos de natureza orgânica destacaram-se com maiores desvios.PURPOSE: To assess the sensitivity of the Italian self-assessment questionnaire Modern Singing Handicap Index - MSHI, translated and culturally adapted

  14. Supporting the Health of College Solo Singers: The Relationship of Positive Emotions and Stress to Changes in Salivary IgA and Cortisol during Singing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Robert J.; Gottfried, Terry L.; Hall, David J.; Cisler, Caitlin A.; Bozeman, Kenneth W.

    2006-01-01

    Singers appear to experience health benefits from singing, but their art makes physical demands that may leave them prone to health problems. The study sought to measure singers' immunocompetence under practice and performance conditions. Salivary IgA and cortisol measurements were assayed from multiple pre-post saliva samples obtained from 10…

  15. The Effects of Verbal, Vocally Modeled, Kinesthetic, and Audio-Visual Treatment Conditions on Male and Female Middle-School Vocal Music Students' Abilities to Expressively Sing Melodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebie, Brian D.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine whether there were significant differences in male or female middle-school students' ability to appropriately convey the emotions of happiness, sadness, anger, and fear while singing musical passages within the context of four treatment situations. Four treatment methodologies were designed to identify…

  16. The Differences of Singing Voices between Children and Adults%幼儿与成人歌唱发声之差异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国琴

    2015-01-01

    成人和幼儿歌唱时发声的特点不同,表现在:呼吸方法不同、共鸣腔体的运用不同、歌唱位置与运用不同以及歌唱语言不同。找到了成人和幼儿歌唱方式的差异点,能解决幼儿艺术专业教育中的诸多实际问题,能拓展教学思路,优化教学方法。%The characteristics of singing voices between adults and children are different in a few aspects ,such as , the way of breathing ,the utilization of resonant cavities ,places and practice of singing and language of singing .Finding the differences of singing between adults and children can solve a lot of practical problems in children’s art education , expand teaching ideas and optimize teaching methods .

  17. 浅析声乐教学中歌唱曲目的选择%On singing music selection in the teaching of vocal music

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈娟

    2013-01-01

    声乐教学的最终目的是为了通过传授演唱技巧和发声的前提下,让学生能完美的演绎歌曲内容和情感,而声乐教学的主要内容是包括演唱技术和唱曲的选择。因此,如何科学地选择演唱作品,对于体现艺术是至关重要的。因此,本文就声乐教学中如何科学地选择歌唱曲目提出一些笔者个人的看法。%The ultimate goal of vocal music teaching is to teach the premise by singing skills and sound, so that students can perfect interpretation of the song content and emotion, and the main contents of the vocal music teaching is to include singing technique and singing the song selection. Therefore, how to scientifically choose the concert works, the art is to an important. Therefore, this article puts forward some opinions on vocal music teaching in how to sing songs .

  18. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of community singing on mental health-related quality of life of older people: randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulton, Simon; Clift, Stephen; Skingley, Ann; Rodriguez, John

    2015-09-01

    As the population ages, older people account for a greater proportion of the health and social care budget. Whereas some research has been conducted on the use of music therapy for specific clinical populations, little rigorous research has been conducted looking at the value of community singing on the mental health-related quality of life of older people. To evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of community group singing for a population of older people in England. A pilot pragmatic individual randomised controlled trial comparing group singing with usual activities in those aged 60 years or more. A total of 258 participants were recruited across five centres in East Kent. At 6 months post-randomisation, significant differences were observed in terms of mental health-related quality of life measured using the SF12 (mean difference = 2.35; 95% CI = 0.06-4.76) in favour of group singing. In addition, the intervention was found to be marginally more cost-effective than usual activities. At 3 months, significant differences were observed for the mental health components of quality of life (mean difference = 4.77; 2.53-7.01), anxiety (mean difference = -1.78; -2.5 to -1.06) and depression (mean difference = -1.52; -2.13 to -0.92). Community group singing appears to have a significant effect on mental health-related quality of life, anxiety and depression, and it may be a useful intervention to maintain and enhance the mental health of older people. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  19. Overcoming the self-promotion dilemma: interpersonal attraction and extra help as a consequence of who sings one's praises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeffer, Jeffrey; Fong, Christina T; Cialdini, Robert B; Portnoy, Rebecca R

    2006-10-01

    Prior research has shown that positive information presented by a third party shields people from the negative consequences of being perceived as self-promoting. But in many contexts, those third parties are intermediaries with a financial interest in the person being promoted rather than neutral parties. In three experimental studies, the authors demonstrate that even when intermediaries are not neutral, they can be helpful for overcoming the self-promotion dilemma--the need to assert one's competence but not be harmed by the fact that people who self-promote are viewed negatively. The authors find that hiring an agent to sing one's praises results in more favorable perceptions of the client, which contributes, in turn, to a greater willingness to offer that person assistance. It is also shown that even when the intermediary is physically present and seen to be complicit with the client, the positive effects of having someone else speak on one's behalf persist.

  20. 论声乐演唱中的情绪控制%Emotion Control in Singing Performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张世文

    2012-01-01

    Vocal music plays a very important role in people life. It is a kind of needs on spirit level, and it can edify people' s sentiment. In vocal music singing performance, the performer' s emotions change directly influence his performance effect. So it is necessary for the performer to control his emotion in his performance.%声乐演唱由于受表演者现场情绪的影响,会使演唱效果出现千差万别的变化,因此在现场演唱时适当地进行情绪控制是十分必要的。缓解紧张情绪、将情绪融入作品情境中都有助于取得较好的演唱效果。

  1. Singing Making Children Creative%谈唱歌教学中幼儿创造性的培养

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁银儿

    2012-01-01

    Singing is a usual activity for kindergartens children to take part in,but it is not good to develop children's ability if teachers ask them to imitate mechanically.Teachers are necessary to explore actively in teaching by selecting materials close to life,creating good learning environment to illuminate children and cultivate their creativity.%歌唱活动是幼儿园中进行得较多的活动之一。在唱歌教学中幼儿机械模仿的现象,不利于能力的发展。教师应在教学中积极探索,通过选择贴近生活的材料,创设良好的环境,开展启发、帮助等,培养幼儿的创造性。

  2. Unveiling the nature of the unidentified gamma-ray sources VI: gamma-ray blazar candidates in the WISH survey and their radio properties

    CERN Document Server

    Nori, M; Massaro, F; D'Abrusco, R; Paggi, A; Tosti, G; Funk, S

    2015-01-01

    According to the second Fermi LAT Catalog (2FGL), about one third of the gamma-ray sources listed have no assigned counterparts at lower energies. Many statistical methods have been developed to find proper counterparts for these sources. We explore the sky area covered at low radio frequency by Westerbork in the Southern Hemisphere (WISH) survey to search for blazar-like associations among the unidentified gamma-ray sources listed in the 2FGL (UGSs). Searching the WISH and NRAO VLA Sky Survey (NVSS) radio surveys within the positional uncertainty regions of the 2FGL UGSs, we select as gamma-ray blazar candidates the radio sources characterized by flat radio spectra between 352 MHz and 1400 MHz. We propose new gamma-ray blazar associations for eight UGSs and we also discuss their spectral properties at low radio frequencies. We compare the radio flux density distribution of the low radio frequency gamma-ray blazar candidates with that of gamma-ray blazars associated with other methods. We find significant dif...

  3. Coralistas amadores: auto-imagem, dificuldades e sintomas na voz cantada Amateur choir singers: self-image, difficulties and symptoms of the singing voice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina de Castro Coelho

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: conhecer a auto-imagem, dificuldades e presença de sintomas negativos após o canto em coralistas amadores com diferentes classificações vocais, idades e experiência. MÉTODO: cento e vinte e cinco cantores responderam a um questionário que abordou dados de identificação, informações sobre a auto-imagem da voz cantada, dificuldades apresentadas no canto e ocorrência ou não de sintomas vocais após o canto. RESULTADOS: a comparação por naipes evidenciou maior dificuldade na emissão de sons agudos para os contraltos e baixos, maior dificuldade na emissão graves para os sopranos, maior dificuldade na transição de registro grave para agudo para os baixos, e maior cansaço vocal para os contraltos. Na divisão por idade, tanto adultos jovens e adultos referiram maior soprosidade do que os idosos. Os adultos referiram melhor intensidade vocal do que adultos jovens. Os adultos jovens consideraram seu timbre de voz adequado mais frequentemente do que adultos. Em relação à experiência, os cantores menos experientes referiram percepção de voz rouca em maior número do que os cantores mais experientes, que referiram apresentar intensidade adequada durante o canto em maior número do que os demais. Cantores menos experientes referiram maior ocorrência de rouquidão após o canto do que cantores mais experientes. CONCLUSÃO: as dificuldades encontradas no canto estão atreladas ao naipe, e não dependem da idade e nem da experiência. Sintomas estão relacionados ao naipe e ao grau de experiência com o canto. A auto-imagem vocal negativa também está relacionada ao naipe e ao nível de experiência, sendo que a auto-imagem positiva é mais comum em cantores experientes.PURPOSE: to evaluate vocal self-perception, difficulties and presence of negative symptoms after singing of amateur choir singers of different vocal classifications, age and experience. METHOD: one hundred and twenty five singers answered a questionnaire

  4. Persons with dementia “are given a voice” when music and singing are included as part of their everyday life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottesen, Aase Marie

    have when singing and music are used as a communicative form of intervention in everyday life and in their interaction and relationship with caregivers and what impact does it have on their quality of life and well-being? b) What impact does it have, from a professional and an interdisciplinary...... perspective that song and music are used as a communicative form of intervention in rehabilitation and in everyday life for a person with dementia and how does it affects the quality of the intervention? c) Which ideas and suggestions does persons with dementia, relatives and professional have for improvement...... and to the implementation and anchoring-process when singing and music are used as a communicative form of intervention? d) How can we develop a manual that makes it possible to implement and anchor song and music as communicative form of intervention in rehabilitation for persons with dementia? The research project...

  5. 论声乐演唱的音乐心理研究探析%The music psychological research of vocal music singing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张世文

    2012-01-01

      音乐心理是人类对客观音乐现实的反映,音乐心理活动又能调节人的音乐行为。声乐既是表演的艺术,也是情感艺术,在声乐演唱中,调控好自身的心理因素,才能使歌曲的表达更准确,演唱的效果更完美。%  Music psychology is the reflection of human to music objective reality, music psychological activity can adjust the person's music behavior. Vocal music is not only the art of performance, but also emotional art, in vocal music singing, regulation and control good own psychological factors, to make expression of songs more accurate, singing effect more perfect.

  6. An evaluation of a Singing for the Brain pilot with people with a learning disability and memory problems or a dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Alison R; Parkes, Jacqueline

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents the findings from a pilot project introducing Singing for the Brain into care centres with people with a learning disability and a form of dementia or memory problem. Through participant observations, patient and staff feedback, there was strong support for the use of Singing for the Brain with this client group, with participants reporting high levels of enjoyment and engagement in the sessions. The potential for these sessions to support communication, memory, social engagement and choice was reported by staff and participants. Whilst anecdotal reports also suggested the sessions had a positive impact on elevating mood over a sustained period of time. The pilot sessions are discussed in reference to the regular sessions run for people with dementia and comparisons drawn across the two approaches. Further evidence is required to understand the potential impact on participant's well-being from attending these sessions.

  7. Persons with dementia “are given a voice” when music and singing are included as part of their everyday life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottesen, Aase Marie

    During a post-doctoral project person with dementia and their relatives are involved in the research-process. The aim is to explore their experiences and what importance it has for them that singing and music are part of their everyday life and the rehabilitation effort. The research is carried out...... and their relatives, also have focus on an professional and interdisciplinary perspective and an organizational perspective aimed at the conditions for implementation of singing and music in practice. Following research question will be elucidated: a) What experiences does persons with dementia and their relatives...... perspective that song and music are used as a communicative form of intervention in rehabilitation and in everyday life for a person with dementia and how does it affects the quality of the intervention? c) Which ideas and suggestions does persons with dementia, relatives and professional have for improvement...

  8. Weight-bearing MR imaging as an option in the study of gravitational effects on the vocal tract of untrained subjects in singing phonation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traser, Louisa; Burdumy, Michael; Richter, Bernhard; Vicari, Marco; Echternach, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of subjects in a supine position can be used to evaluate the configuration of the vocal tract during phonation. However, studies of speech phonation have shown that gravity can affect vocal tract shape and bias measurements. This is one of the reasons that MRI studies of singing phonation have used professionally trained singers as subjects, because they are generally considered to be less affected by the supine body position and environmental distractions. A study of untrained singers might not only contribute to the understanding of intuitive singing function and aid the evaluation of potential hazards for vocal health, but also provide insights into the effect of the supine position on singers in general. In the present study, an open configuration 0.25 T MRI system with a rotatable examination bed was used to study the effect of body position in 20 vocally untrained subjects. The subjects were asked to sing sustained tones in both supine and upright body positions on different pitches and in different register conditions. Morphometric measurements were taken from the acquired images of a sagittal slice depicting the vocal tract. The analysis concerning the vocal tract configuration in the two body positions revealed differences in 5 out of 10 measured articulatory parameters. In the upright position the jaw was less protruded, the uvula was elongated, the larynx more tilted and the tongue was positioned more to the front of the mouth than in the supine position. The findings presented are in agreement with several studies on gravitational effects in speech phonation, but contrast with the results of a previous study on professional singers of our group where only minor differences between upright and supine body posture were observed. The present study demonstrates that imaging of the vocal tract using weight-bearing MR imaging is a feasible tool for the study of sustained phonation in singing for vocally untrained subjects.

  9. The Effectiveness of Singing or Playing a Wind Instrument in Improving Respiratory Function in Patients with Long-Term Neurological Conditions: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Kexin; Maddocks, Matthew; Xu, Huiying; Higginson, Irene J

    2017-03-01

    Many long-term neurological conditions adversely affect respiratory function. Singing and playing wind instruments are relatively inexpensive interventions with potential for improving respiratory function; however, synthesis of current evidence is needed to inform research and clinical use of music in respiratory care. To critically appraise, analyze, and synthesize published evidence on the effectiveness of singing or playing a wind instrument to improve respiratory function in people with long-term neurological conditions. Systematic review of published randomized controlled trials and observational studies examining singing or playing wind instruments to improve respiratory function in individuals with long-term neurological conditions. Articles meeting specified inclusion criteria were identified through a search of the Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, Web of Science, CAIRSS for Music, WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform Search Portal, and AMED databases as early as 1806 through March 2015. Information on study design, clinical populations, interventions, and outcome measures was extracted and summarized using an electronic standardized coding form. Methodological quality was assessed and summarized across studies descriptively. From screening 584 references, 68 full texts were reviewed and five studies included. These concerned 109 participants. The studies were deemed of low quality, due to evidence of bias, in part due to intervention complexity. No adverse effects were reported. Overall, there was a trend toward improved respiratory function, but only one study on Parkinson's disease had significant between-group differences. The positive trend in respiratory function in people with long-term neurological conditions following singing or wind instrument therapy is of interest, and warrants further investigation.

  10. Automatic single-trial discrimination of mental arithmetic, mental singing and the no-control state from prefrontal activity: toward a three-state NIRS-BCI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Power Sarah D

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS is an optical imaging technology that has recently been investigated for use in a safe, non-invasive brain-computer interface (BCI for individuals with severe motor impairments. To date, most NIRS-BCI studies have attempted to discriminate two mental states (e.g., a mental task and rest, which could potentially lead to a two-choice BCI system. In this study, we attempted to automatically differentiate three mental states - specifically, intentional activity due to 1 a mental arithmetic (MA task and 2 a mental singing (MS task, and 3 an unconstrained, "no-control (NC" state - to investigate the feasibility of a three-choice system-paced NIRS-BCI. Results Deploying a dual-wavelength frequency domain near-infrared spectrometer, we interrogated nine sites around the frontopolar locations while 7 able-bodied adults performed mental arithmetic and mental singing to answer multiple-choice questions within a system-paced paradigm. With a linear classifier trained on a ten-dimensional feature set, an overall classification accuracy of 56.2% was achieved for the MA vs. MS vs. NC classification problem and all individual participant accuracies significantly exceeded chance (i.e., 33%. However, as anticipated based on results of previous work, the three-class discrimination was unsuccessful for three participants due to the ineffectiveness of the mental singing task. Excluding these three participants increases the accuracy rate to 62.5%. Even without training, three of the remaining four participants achieved accuracies approaching 70%, the value often cited as being necessary for effective BCI communication. Conclusions These results are encouraging and demonstrate the potential of a three-state system-paced NIRS-BCI with two intentional control states corresponding to mental arithmetic and mental singing.

  11. O gênero autobiografia e a ascensão da mulher afro-americana em I know why the caged bird sings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel D'Eboux Couto Nunes

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to discuss the autobiography as an expression of the African-American woman in I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings, written by Maya Angelou, and published in 1969. Some reading perspectives are presented, such as female agency and violence, as well as some aspects related to the complexity of the autobiography as a genre due to its positioning on the border between fact and fiction, personal and political agendas, among others.

  12. [Contribution of the study of singing in tune in musically non-expert subjects: importance of short term memory of the pitch (19 to 28 year-old subjects)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belin, S; Peuvergne, A; Sarfati, J

    2005-01-01

    In the singing, which requires precise knowledge of the relevant musical code in use, accuracy of intonation plays a central role. Singing in tune requires to perceive pitch precisely and to memorize it before planning and executing the accurate vocal motion, which allows the exact emission of the correct pitch. Our work investigated the role of short term memory of pitch on singing accuracy. For that purpose, the experimental protocol of Deutsch (1970) was adapted for a perception and a production task. Participants were selected for their singing accuracy and separated into two groups of ten singing in tune and ten out-of-tune. All participants perceived pitch height exactly and were musically non-experts. For the perception and the production tasks, participants had to either compare or reproduce single pitches or two-pitch-sets. For the perception task, participants had to compare either single pitches or two-pitch patterns, all separated by a five seconds delay. For the production task, participants had to reproduce either single pitches or two-pitch patterns after a five seconds delay. The five seconds delay was either filled with intervening numbers, or with intervening tones, or without any disturbing sound. In perception and production task, the presence of intervening tones disturbs deeply the success of the subjects for every trial. Performance of the in-tune singing group is better for all the exercises while the other group had difficulties on single pitches and two-pitch patterns and was more disturbed by the effect of the intervening material. The outcome suggests that short term memory of pitch and accuracy of intonation would be closely linked. Further research needs to specify if that would mean that troubles in singing in tune are a consequence of a low-efficient short term memory of pitch, or if that troubles would hold up the right construction of the short term memory of pitch.

  13. Mountain chickadees from different elevations sing different songs: acoustic adaptation, temporal drift or signal of local adaptation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branch, Carrie L; Pravosudov, Vladimir V

    2015-04-01

    Song in songbirds is widely thought to function in mate choice and male-male competition. Song is also phenotypically plastic and typically learned from local adults; therefore, it varies across geographical space and can serve as a cue for an individual's location of origin, with females commonly preferring males from their respective location. Geographical variation in song dialect may reflect acoustic adaptation to different environments and/or serve as a signal of local adaptation. In montane environments, environmental differences can occur over an elevation gradient, favouring local adaptations across small spatial scales. We tested whether food caching mountain chickadees, known to exhibit elevation-related differences in food caching intensity, spatial memory and the hippocampus, also sing different dialects despite continuous distribution and close proximity. Male songs were collected from high and low elevations at two different mountains (separated by 35 km) to test whether song differs between elevations and/or between adjacent populations at each mountain. Song structure varied significantly between high and low elevation adjacent populations from the same mountain and between populations from different mountains at the same elevations, despite a continuous distribution across each mountain slope. These results suggest that elevation-related differences in song structure in chickadees might serve as a signal for local adaptation.

  14. Biodegradation of softwood lignin and guaiacylglycerol-beta-guiacyl ether by extracellular enzyme in shiitake Lentinus edodes (Berk) Sing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oki, T.; Senba, Y.; Ishikawa, H.

    1982-01-01

    In order to explain the biodegradation of softwood lignin by shiitake (Lentinus edodes Berk. Sing.), akamatsu (Pinus densiflora Sekb. and Zucc.) dioxane lignin (NDL) and guaicylglycerol-beta-guaiacyl ether (I) were degraded by extracellular enzyme from the NDL-contained potato and malt extracts cultures of shiitake TMI-563 and 655 at 25 degrees C for a prolonged period. The main results on the basis of a functional group analysis and gel-filtration of NDL before and after the enzymatic degradation showed that the degraded DL had a higher content of phenolic OH groups than sound lignin, whereas the methoxyl or aromatic aldehyde-yielding group content was lower in the degraded lignin. The main degradation products formed from I in a crude enzyme solution were guaiacol, guaiacylglycerol, guaiacylglycol-beta-guaiacyl ether (II), and guaiacoxyacetoguaiacone (III), although the polymer was formed at pH 4.0, which is the optimum pH of peroxidase and laccase. It also was clarified that the oxidative polymerization of NDL and I occurred preferably in a crude enzyme solution at pH 4.0, and that these compounds were degraded to lower molecular fragments at pH 6.8 under the same conditions. From the above results, it is suggested that softwood lignin is more effectively degraded by the other enzyme than polyphenoloxidase, such as laccase and peroxidase, in a crude enzyme solution of L. edodes. (Refs. 9).

  15. The antioxidative and anti-aging effects of acidic- and alkalic-extractable mycelium polysaccharides by Agrocybe aegerita (Brig.) Sing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Huijuan; Li, Juan; Zhang, Jianjun; Wang, Wenshuai; Li, Shangshang; Ren, Zhenzhen; Gao, Zheng; Song, Xinling; Wang, Xiuxiu; Jia, Le

    2017-08-26

    Two extractable polysaccharides of Ac-MPS and Al-MPS were extracted from the mycelium of Agrocybe aegerita (Brig.) Sing and the in vitro antioxidant activities and in vivo anti-aging activities in a d-gal-induced aging mice were investigated in the present study. The in vitro antioxidant analysis showed that Ac-MPS showed superior scavenging effects on hydroxyl of 68.62±2.59% and DPPH of 85.19±3.26% at the concentration of 4500μg/mL. Biochemical indices and antioxidant analysis in vivo showed that Ac-MPS had better effects in raising hepatic activities of SOD, CAT, GPx and T-AOC, inhibiting hepatic contents of LPO and MDA, as well as improving serum lipid levels of LDL-C, HDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C, TG and TC. Furthermore, HYP measurements suggested that skin collagen in aging mice could be maintained. This study suggested that both Ac-MPS and Al-MPS could be used as potential natural agents or dietary supplements in attenuating aging and its complications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. "Sing and the world sings with you".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimon Jg

    1990-01-01

    Mass media techniques that combine entertainment with health education are particularly effective in producing behavioral changes. The Enter-educate approach is based on the assumption that the power of mainstream popular culture is great enough to generate models for overall social behavior. Enter-education incorporate 5 factors; projects are personal, popular, pervasive, persuasive, and profitable. The importance of personal identification with characters in a film or radio serial is demonstrated by a Filipino television drama that dealt with teenage pregnancy. 27% of the target audience of 17-24-year-old females watched this show, and 98% found it believable and informative. A campaign in Nigeria to support responsible parenthood was boosted by the participation of a popular rock star. 88% of residents in Lagos reported hearing the 2 songs and seeing the music video that featured this star. A project in Mexico and 10 other countries in Latin America recognized the importance of pervasiveness in its combination of music recordings, radio, and television to reach young people with messages about responsible sexuality. The persuasive effect of television was confirmed in a Turkish television campaign that showed a series of portraits of a family as children were added over time and ended with a portrait containing an empty chair for the mother. The health risks to women of too many closely spaced pregnancies could not have been as dramatically portrayed in print. Finally, enter-education campaigns have the potential to attract commercial support. A campaign in the Philippines against adolescent pregnancy received generous support from corporations in the form of purchase of air time, subsidization of printed materials, and provision of hotline counselors.

  17. Gray QB-sing-faced version 2 (SF2) open environment test report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plummer, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Immel, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Bobbitt, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Negron, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-02-16

    This report details the design upgrades incorporated into the new version of the GrayQbTM SF2 device and the characterization testing of this upgraded device. Results from controlled characterization testing in the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) R&D Engineering Imaging and Radiation Lab (IRL) and the Savannah River Site (SRS) Health Physics Instrument Calibration Laboratory (HPICL) is presented, as well as results from the open environment field testing performed in the E-Area Low Level Waste Storage Area. Resultant images presented in this report were generated using the SRNL developed Radiation Analyzer (RAzerTM) software program which overlays the radiation contour images onto the visual image of the location being surveyed.

  18. Singing his praises: Darwin and his theory in song and musical production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smocovitis, Vassiliki Betty

    2009-09-01

    This essay offers a chronological survey of the range of songs and musical productions inspired by Darwin and his theory since they entered the public sphere some 150 years ago.It draws on an unusual set of historical materials, including illustrated sheet music, lyrics and librettos, wax cylinder recordings, vinyl records, and video recordings located in digital and sound archives and on the Internet. It also offers a characterization of the varied genres and a literary analysis of the forms as a way of understanding the diverse audiences engaging, and indeed "entertaining," Darwin and the implications of his theory. It argues that the engagement with Darwin and his celebrated theory is far more creative than has been appreciated and recommends that historians of science further explore Darwin and his theory as embodied ina fuller range of cultural expressions. This will lead to an understanding of Darwin's "iconic"status that draws on a fuller range of human sensory experience and that also enables us to appreciate his--and his theory's-enduring power to engage the human imagination.

  19. "Suntelligence" Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to the American Academy of Dermatology's "Suntelligence" sun-smart survey. Please answer the following questions to measure ... be able to view a ranking of major cities suntelligence based on residents' responses to this survey. ...

  20. 浅析美声歌唱理论的实际运用——蒙古族学生学习美声唱法应注意的几个问题%Analysis of the Practical Application of the Bel Canto Singing Theory —— Several issues needed to be paid attention to by Mongolian students when learning Bel Canto singing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鞠善日

    2011-01-01

    思考和探索蒙古族学生学习美声唱法的理论和实践,引导蒙古族学生将自然质朴的演唱风格发挥到极致,找到蒙古族学生演唱蒙古族歌曲和学习美声唱法的趋同点,并强调气息运用的技巧,是既能演唱好蒙古族民歌也能演唱好美声歌曲的关键点。%This article thinks and explores the theory and practice of the Mongolian students who learn bel canto, and guide students to play the natural simplicity of Mongolian singing style, to find the convergence point between the Mongolian sing- ing and the bel canto singing of Mongolian students, stressing the technique s of the use of breathing not only good for singing Mongolian folk songs but also helpful to bel canto singing.

  1. Survey Says

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Susan K.

    2005-01-01

    Survey Says is a lesson plan designed to teach college students how to access Internet resources for valid data related to the sexual health of young people. Discussion questions based on the most recent available data from two national surveys, the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance-United States, 2003 (CDC, 2004) and the National Survey of…

  2. Typical males and unconventional females: songs and singing behaviors of a tropical, duetting oriole in the breeding and non-breeding season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karan J. Odom

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent research emphasizes that female song is evolutionarily important, yet there are still few species for which we have quantified the similarities and differences between male and female song. Comparing song rates and the structure of female and male song is an important first step to forming hypotheses about functional and evolutionary differences that may exist between females and males, especially in year-round territorial species that may use their songs for breeding and non-breeding activities. We compared female and male singing rates and song structure in a tropical New World oriole, the Venezuelan troupial (Icterus icterus during both the breeding and non-breeding season and between the dawn and day. Males sang solos at particularly high rates during the breeding season before dawn. Females, however, sang at consistent rates year-round, primarily during the day. Females answered 75% of male day songs, producing duets, whereas males overlapped only 42% of female songs. Duets were common year-round, but occurred more often during the non-breeding season. Structurally, female songs were higher pitched and shorter than male songs. We detected no sex differences in the number or order of syllables, however, interestingly, answers were shorter than duet initiations and solos, and, during the breeding season, songs that initiated duets were characterized by higher syllable diversity than were answers or solos. The fact that males sing more during the breeding season supports the classical hypothesis that male song is a sexually selected trait. However, our findings that females sing solos and answer the majority of male songs to create duets year-round suggests that female song may have evolved to serve multiple functions not exclusively tied to breeding.

  3. Reversing song behavior phenotype: Testosterone driven induction of singing and measures of song quality in adult male and female canaries (Serinus canaria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madison, Farrah N; Rouse, Melvin L; Balthazart, Jacques; Ball, Gregory F

    2015-05-01

    In songbirds, such as canaries (Serinus canaria), the song control circuit has been shown to undergo a remarkable change in morphology in response to exogenous testosterone (T). It is also well established that HVC, a telencephalic nucleus involved in song production, is significantly larger in males than in females. T regulates seasonal changes in HVC volume in males, and exposure to exogenous T in adult females increases HVC volume and singing activity such that their song becomes more male-like in frequency and structure. However, whether there are sex differences in the ability of T to modulate changes in the song system and song behavior has not been investigated in canaries. In this study, we compared the effects of increasing doses of T on singing and song control nuclei volumes in adult male and female American Singer canaries exposed to identical environmental conditions. Males were castrated and all birds were placed on short days (8L:16D) for 8 weeks. Males and females were implanted either with a 2, 6 or 12 mm long Silastic™ implant filled with crystalline T or an empty 12 mm implant as control. Birds were then housed individually in sound-attenuated chambers. Brains were collected from six birds from each group after 1 week or 3 weeks of treatment. Testosterone was not equally effective in increasing singing activity in both males and females. Changes in song quality and occurrence rate took place after a shorter latency in males than in females; however, females did undergo marked changes in a number of measures of song behavior if given sufficient time. Males responded with an increase in HVC volume at all three doses. In females, T-induced changes in HVC volume only had limited amplitude and these volumes never reached male-typical levels, suggesting that there are sex differences in the neural substrate that responds to T. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Assessments of Voice Use and Voice Quality Among College/University Singing Students Ages 18-24 Through Ambulatory Monitoring With a Full Accelerometer Signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schloneger, Matthew J; Hunter, Eric J

    2017-01-01

    The multiple social and performance demands placed on college/university singers could put their still-developing voices at risk. Previous ambulatory monitoring studies have analyzed the duration, intensity, and frequency (in Hertz) of voice use among such students. Nevertheless, no studies to date have incorporated the simultaneous acoustic voice quality measures into the acquisition of these measures to allow for direct comparison during the same voicing period. Such data could provide greater insight into how young singers use their voices, as well as identify potential correlations between vocal dose and acoustic changes in voice quality. The purpose of this study was to assess the voice use and the estimated voice quality of college/university singing students (18-24 years old, N = 19). Ambulatory monitoring was conducted over three full, consecutive weekdays measuring voice from an unprocessed accelerometer signal measured at the neck. From this signal, traditional vocal dose metrics such as phonation percentage, dose time, cycle dose, and distance dose were analyzed. Additional acoustic measures included perceived pitch, pitch strength, long-term average spectrum slope, alpha ratio, dB sound pressure level 1-3 kHz, and harmonic-to-noise ratio. Major findings from more than 800 hours of recording indicated that among these students (a) higher vocal doses correlated significantly with greater voice intensity, more vocal clarity and less perturbation; and (b) there were significant differences in some acoustic voice quality metrics between nonsinging, solo singing, and choral singing. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. CURRENT SITUATION OF POP SINGING TEACHING IN COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES%试论高校通俗歌曲演唱教学的培养现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐频频

    2016-01-01

    为满足社会生活需要,大多高校在原有音乐专业教育基础上设置通俗歌曲演唱专业,该专业设置的目的集中体现在提升学生音乐素养,且向社会输送更多通俗歌曲演唱歌手。然而从现行高校通俗歌曲演唱教学现状看,仍存在学生专业技能过于单一且艺术涵养缺失等问题,制约通俗歌手整体素质的提高。对此,本文将对通俗歌曲的相关概述、高校通俗歌手培养现状以及如何提升大学通俗歌曲演唱教学进行有效的探析。%In order to satisfy social needs, most universities set up pop singing major, which is aimed at improving students'mu-sic accomplishment and providing more pop song singers for society. However, according to current situation of pop singing teaching in colleges and universities, there are some problems such as singleness of professional skills and lack of art conser-vation which restrict the improvement of popular singers' overall quality. Therefore, the paper will analyze relevant summary of pop song, current situation of cultivating pop singers in colleges and universities and how to improve pop singing teaching.

  6. 流行音乐演唱教学的合作意识训练%Cooperation Consciousness Training in Teaching of Pop Music Singing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟奇玉

    2011-01-01

    From the training of accord and chorus,the importance of strengthening the cooperation consciousness training of the students of pop music singing is discussed.It points out that,the training should begin with the training of feeling the music with accord to cultivate the basic concept of accord;the students could be divided into small groups to practice,to form the cooperation consciousness and attach importance to the strength of each voice part and emotional expression,and finally have the ability of improvisational accord.Collaboration with band is also an effective way to develop students' awareness of cooperation.Attending the band accompaniment lessons will make the students of singing have a correct attitude toward singing,and improve students' understanding of notes and music.%从和音与合唱训练入手,论述了加强对流行音乐演唱学生的合作意识训练的重要性。指出应从感受带有和音的音乐开始,培养和音的基本概念,给学生分小组进行练习,贯通和音的合作意识,重视合作时各声部的强弱和情感表现,最终达成即兴和音的能力。认为与乐队的合作同样是培养学生合作意识的有效方法,让演唱学生加入到合奏之中,有助于端正学生对演唱的态度,提高演唱学生对音符和音乐功能走向的认识程度。

  7. A Study on the Fore Sighting to Play (Singing)Notes%谈演奏(唱)中的音乐预见性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡军; 蓝婷婷

    2014-01-01

    音乐预见性是对即将演奏(唱)的音符、乐谱具有预见性的能力,也是对即将演奏(唱)的旋律具有预判和前瞻的艺术感觉,这种思维是乐感能力之一。演奏(唱)中音乐预见性思维的欠缺,会影响音乐的表达。对演奏(唱)音乐预见性思维的分析,探究乐感能力培养路径,对于提高演奏(唱)者音乐素养及感受音乐、理解音乐、表达音乐等能力,具有重要意义。音乐预见性需要有意识地进行后天培养与训练,从而形成一种近乎“本能”的、反射性的艺术能力。%The fore sighting to music is not only the ability to foresee playing (singing)notes,but also ar-tistic anticipation and prospective feeling on the upcoming performance (singing)melody.This kind of thinking is one of the musical abilities.Lack of the above thinking can affect the expression of music.Analyzing the above thinking and exploring the musical ability cultivation path have vital significance in improving the performance (singing)of music accomplishment,feeling the music and understanding the music.The fore sighting to music needs predictability to be consciously nurtured and trained,so as to form a sort of reflective ability of“instinct”.

  8. Young and intense: FoxP2 immunoreactivity in Area X varies with age, song stereotypy, and singing in male zebra finches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Kirk Thompson

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available FOXP2 is a transcription factor functionally relevant for learned vocalizations in humans and songbirds. In songbirds, FoxP2 mRNA expression in the medium spiny neurons of the basal ganglia song nucleus Area X is developmentally regulated and varies with singing conditions in different social contexts. How individual neurons in Area X change FoxP2 expression across development and in social contexts is not known, however. Here we address this critical gap in our understanding of FoxP2 as a link between neuronal networks and behavior. We used a statistically unbiased analysis of FoxP2-immunoreactivity (IR on a neuron-by-neuron basis and found a bimodal distribution of FoxP2-IR neurons in Area X: weakly-stained and intensely-stained. The density of intensely-stained FoxP2-IR neurons was 10 times higher in juveniles than in adults, exponentially decreased with age, and was negatively correlated with adult song stability. Three-week old neurons labeled with BrdU were more than five times as likely to be intensely-stained than weakly-stained. The density of FoxP2-IR putative migratory neurons with fusiform-shaped nuclei substantially decreased as birds aged. The density of intensely-stained FoxP2-IR neurons was not affected by singing whereas the density of weakly-stained FoxP2-IR neurons was. Together, these data indicate that young Area X medium spiny neurons express FoxP2 at high levels and decrease expression as they become integrated into existing neural circuits. Once integrated, levels of FoxP2 expression correlate with singing behavior. Together, these findings raise the possibility that FoxP2 levels may orchestrate song learning and song stereotypy in adults by a common mechanism.

  9. 基于声乐演唱中积极与放松关系探讨%Based on the relationship between positive and relaxed in singing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    连雪梅

    2015-01-01

    文章分析了积极与放松在声乐演唱中的内涵及影响因素,深入探讨了两者之间的关系,以帮助演唱者把握好积极与放松的统一,不断提升声乐演唱的技巧.%This paper analyzes the positive and relaxation in connotation and influence factors in vocal music singing, thoroughly discusses the relations between the two, to help the singer hold good positive and relaxed, continuous upgrading of the skills of vocal music.

  10. Study on New Casing Soil Materials for Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Sing.%双孢蘑菇新型覆土材料研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁滨; 张金文; 张志鸿; 柯丽娜; 林德锋

    2012-01-01

    The purpose was to explore the new casing soil materials for Agaricus bisporus(Lange)Sing. , to save peaty soil resources. [Method] Peaty soil was mixed with red loam according to different proportions and used the mixture to cultivate Agaricus bisporus ( Lange) Sing. , then investigated its mycelium growth status, yield and economic benefit. [ Result ] In the treatments adding to peaty soil, the time of mycelium climbing on the soil was early, harvesting time brought forward, and mycelium amount and yield both increased. Thereinto, that the ratio of peaty soil to red loam was 1: 2 appeared the best, compared to control, its yield increased 19.6% and its relatively net income increased 18.0% . [Conclusion] It is feasible of applying peaty soil as casing soil materials to cultivate Agaricus bisporus(Lange)Sing, in south Fujian and has good effects.%[目的]探索新型双孢蘑菇[Agaricus bisporus(Lange)Sing.]覆土材料,以节约泥炭土资源.[方法]将泥炭土与红壤土按不同比例混合后作为覆土材料栽培双孢蘑菇,调查覆土后蘑菇菌丝生长情况、产量及经济效益.[结果]添加泥炭土的处理菌丝上土时间早、覆土层菌丝量增加、出菇时间提前、产量增加.其中泥炭土与红壤土使用比例为1∶2作为覆土材料表现最好,产量比对照高出19.6%,相对纯收入提高了18.0%.[结论]闽南地区应用泥炭土作为覆土材料栽培双孢蘑菇是可行的,并有良好效果的.

  11. Modern bel canto singing room acoustics system construction inquiry%现代美声演唱中室内声学系统建设探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史广义

    2014-01-01

    This paper according to the specific needs of bel canto singing,based on the analysis of indoor reverberation time measurement on to VRAS as an example to explore the feasibility of building and room acoustics systems is important.%本文根据美声演唱的具体需要,在分析了室内混响时间测量方式的基础上,以VRAS(可变室内声学系统)为例探究了室内声学系统建设的可行性及重要意义。

  12. H I 21-cm absorption survey of quasar-galaxy pairs: distribution of cold gas around z < 0.4 galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, R.; Srianand, R.; Gupta, N.; Momjian, E.; Noterdaeme, P.; Petitjean, P.; Rahmani, H.

    2017-02-01

    We present the results from our survey of H I 21-cm absorption, using Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope, Very Large Array and Westerbork Radio Synthesis Telescope, in a sample of 55 z level) between ∫τdv and b, consistent with previous literature results. The covering factor of H I 21-cm absorbers (C21) is estimated to be 0.24^{+0.12}_{-0.08} at b ≤ 15 kpc and 0.06^{+0.09}_{-0.04} at b = 15-35 kpc. ∫τdv and C21 show similar declining trend with radial distance along the galaxy's major axis and distances scaled with the effective H I radius. There is also tentative indication that most of the H I 21-cm absorbers could be co-planar with the extended H I discs. No significant dependence of ∫τdv and C21 on galaxy luminosity, stellar mass, colour and star formation rate is found, though the H I 21-cm absorbing gas cross-section may be larger for the luminous galaxies. The higher detection rate (by a factor of ˜4) of H I 21-cm absorption in z < 1 damped Lyman-α systems compared to the quasar-galaxy pairs indicates towards small covering factor and patchy distribution of cold gas clouds around low-z galaxies.

  13. WSRT Ultra-Deep Neutral Hydrogen Imaging of Galaxy Clusters at z=0.2, a Pilot Survey of Abell 963 and Abell 2192

    CERN Document Server

    Verheijen, Marc A W; Szomoru, A; Dwarakanath, K S; Poggianti, B M; Schiminovich, D

    2007-01-01

    A pilot study with the powerful new backend of the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT) of two galaxy clusters at z=0.2 has revealed neutral hydrogen emission from 42 galaxies. The WSRT probes a total combined volume of 3.4x10^4 Mpc^3 at resolutions of 54x86 kpc^2 and 19.7 km/s, surveying both clusters and the large scale structure in which they are embedded. In Abell 963, a dynamically relaxed, lensing Butcher-Oemler cluster with a high blue fraction, most of the gas-rich galaxies are located between 1 and 3 Mpc in projection, northeast from the cluster core. Their velocities are slightly redshifted with respect to the cluster, and this is likely a background group. None of the blue galaxies in the core of Abell 963 are detected in HI, although they have similar colors and luminosities as the HI detected galaxies in the cluster outskirts and field. Abell 2192 is less massive and more diffuse. Here, the gas-rich galaxies are more uniformly distributed. The detected HI masses range from 5x10^9 to 4x10^1...

  14. 浅析歌曲《望乡词》的演唱技巧%Analysis on the Singing Skills of The Song of Nostalgia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王敏

    2015-01-01

    The musical structure ,the melody variety ,the theme and the motion were analyzed of The Song of Nostalgia in this paper,which provided a comprehensive understanding of it .Meanwhile,based on the analysis of bars of each movement and the research from singing styles of different noted singers ,singing methods were studied to exert the skills and tips for other singers ,which would help to bring the initiative and creativity of the singers into full play ,thus add new life and more emotional charm to the song .%分析了歌曲《望乡词》的曲式结构、旋律变化、乐曲主题和情感等因素以更好地理解歌词,在借鉴其他著名演唱家演唱的基础上,进一步对作品演唱技巧进行分析和总结,以期在演唱此歌曲时,能够有助于充分发挥表演者的主观能动性与创造力,赋予作品新的生命力与更大的情感魅力.

  15. Effects of vocal training on singing and speaking voice characteristics in vocally healthy adults and children based on choral and nonchoral data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siupsinskiene, Nora; Lycke, Hugo

    2011-07-01

    This prospective cross-sectional study examines the effects of voice training on vocal capabilities in vocally healthy age and gender differentiated groups measured by voice range profile (VRP) and speech range profile (SRP). Frequency and intensity measurements of the VRP and SRP using standard singing and speaking voice protocols were derived from 161 trained choir singers (21 males, 59 females, and 81 prepubescent children) and from 188 nonsingers (38 males, 89 females, and 61 children). When compared with nonsingers, both genders of trained adult and child singers exhibited increased mean pitch range, highest frequency, and VRP area in high frequencies (PVRP area. The logistic regression analysis showed that VRP pitch range, highest frequency, maximum voice intensity, and maximum-minimum intensity range, and SRP slope of speaking curve were the key predictors of voice training. Age, gender, and voice training differentiated norms of VRP and SRP parameters are presented. Significant positive effect of voice training on vocal capabilities, mostly singing voice, was confirmed. The presented norms for trained singers, with key parameters differentiated by gender and age, are suggested for clinical practice of otolaryngologists and speech-language pathologists. Copyright © 2011 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. LOFAR and APERTIF Surveys of the Radio Sky : Probing Shocks and Magnetic Fields in Galaxy Clusters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rottgering, Huub; Afonso, Jose; Barthel, Peter; Batejat, Fabien; Best, Philip; Bonafede, Annalisa; Brueggen, Marcus; Brunetti, Gianfranco; Chyzy, Krzysztof; Conway, John; De Gasperin, Francesco; Ferrari, Chiara; Haverkorn, Marijke; Heald, George; Hoeft, Matthias; Jackson, Neal; Jarvis, Matt; Ker, Louise; Lehnert, Matt; Macario, Giulia; McKean, John; Miley, George; Morganti, Raffaella; Oosterloo, Tom; Orru, Emanuela; Pizzo, Roberto; Rafferty, David; Shulevski, Alexander; Tasse, Cyril; van Bemmel, Ilse; van der Tol, Bas; van Weeren, Reinout; Verheijen, Marc; White, Glenn; Wise, Michael

    2011-01-01

    At very low frequencies, the new pan-European radio telescope LOFAR is opening the last unexplored window of the electromagnetic spectrum for astrophysical studies. The revolutionary APERTIF-phased arrays that are about to be installed on the Westerbork radio telescope (WSRT) will dramatically incre

  17. Okul Öncesi Öğretmen Adaylarının Çocuk Şarkılarını Seslendirme Yeterliklerinin İncelenmesi An Investigation Of Prospective Preschool Teachers Proficiency In Singing Songs For Kids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şehriban KOCA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of music education in the early childhood setting is developing emotional, cognitive, linguistic and psycho-motor skills of children through music. Singing is among the music activities used most predominantly by preschool teachers. In preschool music activities singing with children, teaching children to sing and helping to develop a desire are three important things that the researchers expressed (Button & Holden, 2006; Mizener, 2008. Preschool teachers have a big responsibility to perform these tasks.The purpose of this study is to investigate the prospective preschool teachers competencies of singing kid songs and to identify deficiencies. Study group of the study is consisted of 110 students attending preschool teaching program at Mersin University. Of the prospective teachers 90 were female, while 20 were male. In the study, survey model has been used and students' competencies of singing kid songs have been determining by the assessment (observation form prepared by the researcher. The singing performance of students were recorded with video cameras by themselves and these recordings were evaluated by the researcher. The obtained data was analyzed in the SPSS package program and descriptive statistics calculations were used to evaluate the data. According to the findings of the study prospective teachers preparation, rhythmic performance, breath control-intonation and articulation stages levels were found to be moderately and some problems have been identified on melodic performance and interpretation stages. Okul öncesi dönemde müzik eğitiminin amacı, çocuğun duyuşsal, bilişsel, dil ve psiko-motor gelişimlerine yardımcı olmak çocuğun müzikle tanışmasını ve müzik sevgisini kazanmasını sağlamaktır. Okul öncesi müzik eğitiminde öğretmenler tarafından en çok benimsenen müzik etkinliklerden biri şarkı söylemedir. Okul öncesi dönemdeki müzik etkinlikleri içerisinde çocuklarla birlikte

  18. ‘If Ya Wanna End War and Stuff, You Gotta Sing Loud’—A Survey of the Provisional Agreement between FARC and Colombia on Illicit Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Seatzu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although still neglected in legal writings, the 2014 agreement on illicit drugs between the FARC and the Colombian Government deserves attention for a number of reasons, including that it was conceived as an essential part of the broader strategy for peace in Colombia, as well as because of its aim of eradicating illicit crops. Starting with some remarks on the Colombian ‘drug war’ and the policy and legal arguments for classifying the Colombian armed conflict as a non-international armed conflict (NIAC, the paper will then proceed with an analysis of the main reasons behind the drafting of a partial agreement on illicit drugs between the FARC and Colombia in 2014. Next, the paper will address the relevant sections and enforcement mechanisms for putting the provisions of the agreement into effect. An assessment of how the 2014 agreement has addressed the issue of drug trafficking and the issues concerning drug related crimes will also be considered. The paper will conclude with the lessons to be drawn from the new Agreement on illicit drugs.

  19. Engineering surveying

    CERN Document Server

    Schofield, W

    2001-01-01

    The aim of Engineering Surveying has always been to impart and develop a clear understanding of the basic topics of the subject. The author has fully revised the book to make it the most up-to-date and relevant textbook available on the subject.The book also contains the latest information on trigonometric levelling, total stations and one-person measuring systems. A new chapter on satellites ensures a firm grasp of this vitally important topic.The text covers engineering surveying modules for civil engineering students on degree courses and forms a reference for the engineering surveying module in land surveying courses. It will also prove to be a valuable reference for practitioners.* Simple clear introduction to surveying for engineers* Explains key techniques and methods* Details reading systems and satellite position fixing

  20. Choir Singing as a Cross-cutting Focal Point of Knowledge, Attitudes and Values: A Proposal aimed at Students on the Degree in Early Childhood Education and Primary Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Llorenç Gelabert Gual

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Singing in a choir comprises a number of specific musical aspects including the technical part of the singing voice; vocal ensemble; harmonies; aesthetics and musical taste. In practice, however, there are many cross-cutting elements that are not specifically musical but do play an important role in a choir. The preparation and development period for a concert is, in essence, a process of collective growth, where each component becomes an important foundation to enhancing the ensemble performance, and to a greater or lesser extent, offers a wide range of parameters in which to work. This procedure is a recurrent theme in early childhood education and primary teaching, but appears to occur less frequently during the training of music teachers or in higher-grade musical education. In this vein, a group of undergraduate students on the Degree in Early Childhood Education and Primary Education at the University of the Balearic Islands participated voluntarily in a collective singing trial. In consequence, they came to recognise the special psychosocial and attitudinal value of the experience. The opinions in this article are based on existing documents and relevant studies regarding the importance of collective singing. In the process, we also set out the experiment carried out at the University of the Balearic Islands.

  1. The Probe Sings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    All 30 melodies and songs carried on Chang’e-l were beamed back to the Earth on February 21 to express best wishes for the Lantern Festival,the first major traditional celebration after Chinese Lunar New Year. The music was delivered to the me-

  2. Singing Praise for Russia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Younger generations in China and Russia need to learn more about each other Few in China’s younger generations know more Russian than the names of the charismatic Prime Minister Vladimir Putin, the anti-virus software brand Kaspersky or super tenor Vitas. Their

  3. Surveying Humaness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Randi; Gad, Christopher

    Christopher Gad. Ph.d. Dept. of Information and Media Studies Randi Markussen. Associate Professor, Dept. of Information and Media Studies. rmark@imv.au.dk   Abstract:   Surveying humanness -politics of care improvement   For various reasons we both were subjected to a specific survey procedure...... and development of a large collection of biological and psychological symptoms and psycho-social problems. However, the surveys say nothing about how the information will be of use to the people who answer the procedure or how this scientific intervention will be put to use more specifically within the public...... carried out in a Danish county in order to improve treatment of people who have suffered from long-term illnesses. The surveys concern not only feed back on how people experience their present and past interaction with the social services and health care system; they also ask people to indicate the state...

  4. Surveying Humaness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Randi; Gad, Christopher

    Christopher Gad. Ph.d. Dept. of Information and Media Studies Randi Markussen. Associate Professor, Dept. of Information and Media Studies. rmark@imv.au.dk   Abstract:   Surveying humanness -politics of care improvement   For various reasons we both were subjected to a specific survey procedure...... and development of a large collection of biological and psychological symptoms and psycho-social problems. However, the surveys say nothing about how the information will be of use to the people who answer the procedure or how this scientific intervention will be put to use more specifically within the public...... be imagined as a positive end, as ‘making explicit’ (in a popular psychological perspective) is considered to be therapeutic and good in itself? We will discuss those questions from a Foucaultian and ANT perspective, where one does not accept that pre-existing subjects are exposed to survey procedures...

  5. Survey Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Cleaned and QCd data for the Fishing Effort Survey. Questions on fishing and other out are asked on weather and outdoor activity, including fishing trips. Used for...

  6. Analysis of galaxy spectral energy distributions from far-UV to far-IR with CIGALE: studying a SINGS test sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, S.; Burgarella, D.; Giovannoli, E.; Buat, V.; Marcillac, D.; Muñoz-Mateos, J. C.

    2009-12-01

    Aims: Photometric data of galaxies covering the rest-frame wavelength range from far-UV to far-IR make it possible to derive galaxy properties with a high reliability by fitting the attenuated stellar emission and the related dust emission at the same time. Methods: For this purpose we wrote the code CIGALE (Code Investigating GALaxy Emission) that uses model spectra composed of the Maraston (or PEGASE) stellar population models, synthetic attenuation functions based on a modified Calzetti law, spectral line templates, the Dale & Helou dust emission models, and optional spectral templates of obscured AGN. Depending on the input redshifts, filter fluxes were computed for the model set and compared to the galaxy photometry by carrying out a Bayesian-like analysis. CIGALE was tested by analysing 39 nearby galaxies selected from SINGS. The reliability of the different model parameters was evaluated by studying the resulting expectation values and their standard deviations in relation to the input model grid. Moreover, the influence of the filter set and the quality of photometric data on the code results was estimated. Results: For up to 17 filters with effective wavelengths between 0.15 and 160 μm, we find robust results for the mass, star formation rate, effective age of the stellar population at 4000 Å, bolometric luminosity, luminosity absorbed by dust, and attenuation in the far-UV. Details of the star formation history (excepting the burst fraction) and the shape of the attenuation curve are difficult to investigate with the available broad-band UV and optical photometric data. A study of the mutual relations between the reliable properties confirms the dependence of star formation activity on morphology in the local Universe and indicates a significant drop in this activity at about 1011 M⊙ towards higher total stellar masses. The dustiest galaxies in the SINGS sample are present in the same mass range. On the other hand, the far-UV attenuation of our sample

  7. Caractéristiques de l’habitat du singe à ventre rouge (Cercopithecus e. erythrogaster) dans le Sud-Bénin

    OpenAIRE

    Kassa, Barthélémy; Nobimè, Georges; Hanon, Laurence; Assogbadjo, Achille Ephrem; Brice SINSIN

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Le singe à ventre rouge (Cercopithecus erythrogaster erythrogaster) est une sous-espèce de cercopithèque endémique au Bénin (Grubb et al., 1999). Il colonise des habitats résiduels de forêts denses semi-décidues et les anciennes jachères de la vallée de l’Ouémé au sud du Bénin (Sinsin et al. 2002a). L’état de mosaïque qui caractérise la structure spatiale de son habitat et la taille relativement réduite de sa population nous conduisent à prendre en compte le risque de disparition...

  8. In-situ Instrumental Setup for Influence Study of Hard-axis Bias Magnetic Field on MR transfer curves of sing MTJ sensor and MTJs array sensor

    CERN Document Server

    Li, L; Pong, P W T

    2016-01-01

    Establishment of home-made measurement setups for the characterization of MR sensor is proposed and described here. The MR loops of MR sensors can be obtained with the instrument using two-point probe measurement and four-point probe measurement. Two pairs of Helmholtz coils can supply a hard-axis magnetic field and a soft-axis magnetic field for the sensor. The single MTJ sensor and MTJs array sensor in Wheatstone bridge were characterized and compared here. The influence of hard-bias magnetic field on MR transfer curves of sing MTJ sensor and MTJs array sensor are investigated. The corresponding optimal hard-axis magnetic fields were obtained through Helmholtz coils to eliminate the hysteresis for linear response of single MTJ sensor and MTJs array sensor.

  9. The Flexible Use of Illustrative Musical Notations in Singing Teaching%图谱在歌唱教学中的“活用”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱明娟

    2014-01-01

    Illustrative musical notations are pictures which young children can recognize, consisting of symbols, images and lines that are rearranged in accordance with the structures of songs. Il-lustrative musical notations can help young children understand and experience songs, so it is a strategy for kindergarten singing teaching. The practice and research on the design and application of illustrative music notations refers to the practice and research on the design principles and application methods of illustrative musical notations. This paper elaborated the flexible application of illustrative musical notations in singing teaching from pluralis-tic design of illustrative musical notations, flexible use of illustrative notations, and effective manifestation of illustrative musical nota-tions.%图谱是指根据歌曲的结构,运用符号、图画、线条等编辑起来,绘制成幼儿所能认知的图。图谱可以帮助幼儿理解感受歌曲,是幼儿园歌唱教学中常用的一种教学策略。幼儿园歌唱活动中图谱设计与运用的实践研究,是指在幼儿园的歌唱教学活动中,对歌曲教学图谱设计原则及运用方法进行的实践研究。本文从多元化设计图谱、灵活运用图谱、有效体现图谱三个方面阐述图谱在歌唱活动中的灵活运用。

  10. Sex and stress: Men and women show different cortisol responses to psychological stress induced by the Trier social stress test and the Iowa singing social stress test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reschke-Hernández, Alaine E; Okerstrom, Katrina L; Bowles Edwards, Angela; Tranel, Daniel

    2017-01-02

    Acute psychological stress affects each of us in our daily lives and is increasingly a topic of discussion for its role in mental illness, aging, cognition, and overall health. A better understanding of how such stress affects the body and mind could contribute to the development of more effective clinical interventions and prevention practices. Over the past 3 decades, the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) has been widely used to induce acute stress in a laboratory setting based on the principles of social evaluative threat, namely, a judged speech-making task. A comparable alternative task may expand options for examining acute stress in a controlled laboratory setting. This study uses a within-subjects design to examine healthy adult participants' (n = 20 men, n = 20 women) subjective stress and salivary cortisol responses to the standard TSST (involving public speaking and math) and the newly created Iowa Singing Social Stress Test (I-SSST). The I-SSST is similar to the TSST but with a new twist: public singing. Results indicated that men and women reported similarly high levels of subjective stress in response to both tasks. However, men and women demonstrated different cortisol responses; men showed a robust response to both tasks, and women displayed a lesser response. These findings are in line with previous literature and further underscore the importance of examining possible sex differences throughout various phases of research, including design, analysis, and interpretation of results. Furthermore, this nascent examination of the I-SSST suggests a possible alternative for inducing stress in the laboratory. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. The genesis of Jan Steens painting “As the old ones sing, so the young ones pipe” from the Gemäldegalerie Berlin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denker, A.; Kleinert, K.; Laurenze-Landsberg, C.; Reimelt, M.; Schröder-Smeibidl, B.

    2011-09-01

    In collaboration with the research reactor of the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, the Gemäldegalerie Berlin is the only institute worldwide, which systematically employs the method of Neutron-Activation-Autoradiography to analyze paintings and painting techniques. To date more than 70 paintings were investigated with this effective, non-destructive, and exceptional method. It allows the visualization of structures and layers beneath the top surface and, in addition, enables the identification of elements contained in the pigments. The instrument B8 at the research reactor BER II is dedicated to this research. Jan Steen is one of the prolific artists from the 17th century. Like other artists from that time he produced several versions of one specific topic during life-time. The topic "As the old ones sing, so the young ones pipe" was painted by Jan Steen in 13 versions. The painting from the Gemäldegalerie is an exception in this series as it differs in style and content from the other oeuvres. The question arises: why did the artist deviate from his usual scheme? The possible answer is provided by X-ray images and neutron autoradiographs made of the painting, allowing insight into hidden paint layers and, therefore, in the genesis of the painting. Jan Steen did not simply change the composition of the room and the figures. He originally intended an altogether different topic. Assumedly it was supposed to be a so-called merry company, located in a generous, stately room. Many pieces of this sophisticated ambiance have been eliminated from the version visible today; others were modified and integrated into the composition of the new painting. Thus, Jan Steen commenced the topic "As the old ones sing, so the young ones pipe" from a different context.

  12. Using the Westerbork Radio Observatory to detect UHE cosmic particles interacting on the moon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bacelar, J.; Scholten, O.; De Bruyn, A. G.; Falcke, H.

    2006-01-01

    Ultra-High-Energy (UHE) particles of cosmological origin (cosmic-rays and neutrinos), carry information on the most spectacular events known. These extremely energetic (energies larger than 1 ZeV = 10.(21) eV) cosmic-rays or neutrinos initiate in the lunar regolith a cascade of charged particles whi

  13. Using the Westerbork Radio Observatory to Detect UHE Cosmic Particles Interacting on the Moon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bacelar, J.; Scholten, O.; Bruyn, A.G. de; Falcke, H.D.E.

    2006-01-01

    Ultra-High-Energy (UHE) particles of cosmological origin (cosmic-rays and neutrinos), carry information on the most spectacular events known. These extremely energetic (energies larger than 1 ZeV= 1021 eV) cosmic-rays or neutrinos initiate in the lunar regolith a cascade of charged partic

  14. Engineering surveying

    CERN Document Server

    Schofield, W

    2007-01-01

    Engineering surveying involves determining the position of natural and man-made features on or beneath the Earth's surface and utilizing these features in the planning, design and construction of works. It is a critical part of any engineering project. Without an accurate understanding of the size, shape and nature of the site the project risks expensive and time-consuming errors or even catastrophic failure.Engineering Surveying 6th edition covers all the basic principles and practice of this complex subject and the authors bring expertise and clarity. Previous editions of this classic text have given readers a clear understanding of fundamentals such as vertical control, distance, angles and position right through to the most modern technologies, and this fully updated edition continues that tradition.This sixth edition includes:* An introduction to geodesy to facilitate greater understanding of satellite systems* A fully updated chapter on GPS, GLONASS and GALILEO for satellite positioning in surveying* Al...

  15. KINGFISH -- Key Insights on Nearby Galaxies: A Far-Infrared Survey with Herschel: Survey Description and Image Atlas

    CERN Document Server

    Kennicutt, R C; Aniano, G; Appleton, P; Armus, L; Beirao, P; Bolatto, A D; Brandl, B; Crocker, A; Croxall, K; Dale, D A; Meyer, J Dononvan; Draine, B T; Engelbracht, C W; Galametz, M; Gordon, K D; Groves, B; Hao, C -N; Helou, G; Hinz, J; Hunt, L K; Johnson, B; Koda, J; Krause, O; Leroy, A K; Li, Y; Meidt, S; Montiel, E; Murphy, E J; Rahman, N; Rix, H -W; Roussel, H; Sandstrom, K; Sauvage, M; Schinnerer, E; Skibba, R; Smith, J -D T; Srinivasan, S; Vigroux, L; Walter, F; Wilson, C D; Wolfire, M; Zibetti, S

    2011-01-01

    The KINGFISH project (Key Insights on Nearby Galaxies: a Far-Infrared Survey with Herschel) is an imaging and spectroscopic survey of 61 nearby (d < 30 Mpc) galaxies, chosen to cover a wide range of galaxy properties and local interstellar medium (ISM) environments found in the nearby Universe. Its broad goals are to characterize the ISM of present-day galaxies, the heating and cooling of their gaseous and dust components, and to better understand the physical processes linking star formation and the ISM. KINGFISH is a direct descendant of the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey (SINGS), which produced complete Spitzer imaging and spectroscopic mapping and a comprehensive set of multi-wavelength ancillary observations for the sample. The Herschel imaging consists of complete maps for the galaxies at 70, 100, 160, 250, 350, and 500 microns. The spectal line imaging of the principal atomic ISM cooling lines ([OI]63um, [OIII]88um, [NII]122,205um, and [CII]158um) covers the subregions in the centers and di...

  16. Tasting Life and Singing Life--Comment on the Collection of Novelettes Rainy Day Mandala by Guo Xiao-dong%品味生存,咏叹生命──评郭小东中篇小说集《雨天的曼陀罗》

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    连思齐

    2014-01-01

    Guo Xiao-dong is one of most important writers in the contemporary literature circles of Guangdong. Rainy Day Mandala is the only one collection of Guo’s novelettes. Through a general survey to Guo’s seven novelletts in Rainy Day Mandala, the author of this paper finds out that loving life, tasting life, singing life, and pursuing the value of life have been the core themes all along Guo’s creations, fully reflecting Guo’s humanistic feelings.%郭小东是新时期广东省最重要的作家之一。《雨天的曼陀罗》是其迄今为止所有中篇小说的结集,也是新时期文学特别是中篇小说领域的重要作品。综观《雨天的曼陀罗》中的七部中篇小说,热爱生活、品味生存、咏叹生命、追寻价值,始终是作家执着的主题,也是其创作的灵魂与内核,体现出其博大深邃的人文情怀。

  17. Happiness Survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Are Chinese people happy in today’s fast-paced, modern society? What are the sources of their happiness? In today’s rapidly developing economy, is happiness closely related to wealth or not? A recent happiness survey conducted in China gives some answers.

  18. What Are Probability Surveys?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Aquatic Resource Surveys (NARS) use probability-survey designs to assess the condition of the nation’s waters. In probability surveys (also known as sample-surveys or statistical surveys), sampling sites are selected randomly.

  19. 档案袋评定与高师视唱练耳课程评价的改革%Portfolio Assessment and Assessment Reform of Sight Singing and Ear Training Curriculum in Higher Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王德君; 李迅

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to put forward some thoughts to reform the curriculum assessment system of sight singing and ear training practices in higher education.Based on the portfolio assessment theory,the research subsequently investigates the existing teaching assessment system of sight singing and ear training curriculum in China's higher education.%本文在档案袋评定方式的理论综述的基础上,结合我国高师视唱练耳课程教学评价现状进行探讨,对视唱练耳课程评定方式实践方面提出了一些改革思路。

  20. Biological Environmental Acoustics on the Investigations for Birds Sing with Road Traffic Noise%鸟鸣声在声景观环境噪声控制中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张继萍; 叶旭红; 杨乐; 阎浩; 周晞噜; 朱生晖

    2013-01-01

    鸟鸣声在声景观的研究与应用中,普遍受到关注。通过国内外文献,调研了鸟鸣声在声景观研究中作用的进展,包括作用原理,评价方法,将其在声景观保护与设计中的应用。%Birds sing plays an important role in the research and design for soundscape, what has been noted in many references. By reading the references in Chinese and the abroad, this paper comments the birds sing investigatings in soundscape and the applications on protection and design.