WorldWideScience

Sample records for west virginia

  1. West Virginia Community Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Eldon L.; Dziagwa, Constance E.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses efforts over the past 25 years to formalize the role of West Virginia's community colleges in the context of the state's rural character and low college graduation rates. Describes a reorganization following a 1987 study by the Carnegie Foundation and state legislation designed to fine tune the colleges' mission. (10 citations) (AJL)

  2. Team West Virginia/Rome Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korakakis, Dimitris [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2017-04-10

    Overall, the team, West Virginia University (WVU) and University of Rome Tor Vergata (UTV), has a goal of building an attractive, low-cost, energy-efficient solar-powered home that represents both the West Virginian and Italian cultures.

  3. Libraries in West Virginia: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/westvirginia.html Libraries in West Virginia To use the sharing features ... enable JavaScript. Bridgeport United Hospital Center Health Sciences Library 327 Medical Park Dr Bridgeport, WV 26330 681- ...

  4. DOLLY SODS WILDERNESS, WEST VIRGINIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englund, Kenneth J.; Hill, James J.

    1984-01-01

    Coal, the principal mineral resource of the Dolly Sods Wilderness, West Virginia is in at least seven beds of low- to medium-volatile bituminous rank. Of these beds, four are of sufficient thickness, quality, and extent to contain demonstrated coal resources which are estimated to total about 15. 5 million short tons in areas of substantiated coal resource potential. A Small-scale development of the coal resources of the Dolly Sods Wilderness has been by several shallow adits which provided fuel for locomotives during early logging operations and by a one truck mine. All mine entries are now abandoned. Peat, shale, clay, and sandstone, occur in the area but because of remoteness of markets and inaccessability they are not classified as resources in this report. Natural gas may occur in rocks underlying the area, but because of a lack of subsurface information an estimate of resource potential has not been made. No evidence of metallic-mineral resources was found during this investigation.

  5. West Virginia Interpretive Guide Training: A Collaborative Effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcarczyk, Kelly; McKenney, Kathryn; Smaldone, Dave; Arborgast, Doug

    2013-01-01

    West Virginia University's Extension Service partnered with the Recreation, Parks, and Tourism Resources Program to improve guide performance in West Virginia's tourism industry. The result of this partnership is a West Virginia Interpretive Guide Training program aimed at providing low-cost, widely available training to guides…

  6. 75 FR 39560 - West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-09

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations... Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of West Virginia (FEMA-1918-DR), dated June 24, 2010... follows: I have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of West Virginia resulting...

  7. 77 FR 76061 - West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations... Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of West Virginia (FEMA-4093-DR), dated November 27... West Virginia resulting from Hurricane Sandy during the period of October 29 to November 8, 2012, is...

  8. 75 FR 11902 - West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations... Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of West Virginia (FEMA-1881-DR), dated March 2, 2010... follows: I have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of West Virginia resulting from...

  9. 78 FR 59841 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; West Virginia's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ..., disproportionate human health or environmental effects, using practicable and legally permissible methods, under... Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by reference, Nitrogen dioxide, Particulate... Environmental Protection, Division of Air Quality, 601 57th Street SE., Charleston, West Virginia 25304....

  10. West Virginia State Budgeting for Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meckley, Richard

    County school districts in West Virginia are facing a funding crisis. Significant outmigration resulting in decreased school enrollment has caused the state legislature to change the state school aid formula, forcing school districts to lay off large numbers of low-seniority employees. The state legislature's perception that public schools are…

  11. 78 FR 51199 - West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations... Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of West Virginia (FEMA-4132-DR), dated July 26, 2013...''), as follows: I have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of West...

  12. 75 FR 18517 - West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-12

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations... Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of West Virginia (FEMA-1893-DR), dated March 29... Act''), as follows: I have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of West...

  13. 75 FR 25873 - West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-10

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations... Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of West Virginia (FEMA-1903-DR), dated April 23... Act''), as follows: I have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of West...

  14. 77 FR 46103 - West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-02

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations... Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of West Virginia (FEMA-4071-DR), dated July 23, 2012...''), as follows: I have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of West...

  15. West Virginia Digital Learning: Report to the Governor, Legislature, and West Virginia Board of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Accomplishing personalized, deeper learning through anywhere, anytime digital learning requires a redesign of the K-12 education system. This report looks at readiness for digital learning at two levels in West Virginia: the district capacity building to ready the system for digital learning and school implementation of digital learning. The…

  16. West Virginia's Lost Youth: Appalachian Stereotypes and Residential Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towers, George

    2005-01-01

    This study uses a cognitive mapping survey to examine the effect of Appalachian stereotypes on West Virginia high school students' residential preferences. The research addresses the popularly held hypothesis that West Virginia is suffering out-migration of its young people in part because of negative regional imagery. Survey results provide some…

  17. West Virginia's Lost Youth: Appalachian Stereotypes and Residential Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towers, George

    2005-01-01

    This study uses a cognitive mapping survey to examine the effect of Appalachian stereotypes on West Virginia high school students' residential preferences. The research addresses the popularly held hypothesis that West Virginia is suffering out-migration of its young people in part because of negative regional imagery. Survey results provide some…

  18. 77 FR 20044 - West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-03

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations... Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of West Virginia (FEMA-4059-DR), dated March 16... ``Stafford Act''), as follows: I have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of...

  19. 77 FR 20042 - West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-03

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations... Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of West Virginia (FEMA-4061-DR), dated March 22... ``Stafford Act''), as follows: I have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of...

  20. Salmonellosis in passerine birds in Maryland and West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, L.N.; Shillinger, R.B.; Jareed, T.

    1973-01-01

    Salmonella typhimurium was responsible for a die-off of evening grosbeaks (Hesperiphona vespertina) at Elkins, West Virginia, and was isolated from a pine siskin (Spinus pinus) collected at the site of a die-off near Baltimore, Maryland.

  1. The Limestone Glades And Barrens Of West Virginia

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Cedar glade, limestone barren, and glade woodland communities are reported from limestone terranes in the Ridge and Valley of northeastern West Virginia. The cedar...

  2. 77 FR 56125 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; Amendments to West...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    ..., EPA published a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPR) for West Virginia. 77 FR 10423. The ] NPR proposed... adopted a PSD program under 45 CSR 14, and the program became part of the West Virginia SIP. See 51 FR... review by the Office of Management and Budget under Executive Order 12866 (58 FR 51735, October 4,...

  3. U.S. Geological Survey Virginia and West Virginia Water Science Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastram, John D.

    2017-08-22

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) serves the Nation by providing reliable scientific information to describe and understand the Earth; minimize loss of life and property from natural disasters; manage water, biological, energy, and mineral resources; and enhance and protect our quality of life. In support of this mission, the USGS Virginia and West Virginia Water Science Center works in cooperation with many entities to provide reliable, impartial scientific information to resource managers, planners, and the public.

  4. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in West Virginia. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in West Virginia.

  5. West Virginia Diesel Study, CRADA MC96-034, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Gautam

    1998-08-05

    The global objective of the recently completed Phase 1 of the West Virginia Diesel Study, at West Virginia University, was to evaluate mass emission rates of exhaust emissions from diesel powered equipment specified by the West Virginia Diesel Equipment Commission. The experimental data generated in this study has been utilized by the West Virginia Diesel Equipment Commission to promulgate initial rules, requirements and standards governing the operation of diesel equipment in underground coal mines.

  6. 77 FR 10423 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; Amendments to West...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... address, as appropriate, disproportionate human health or environmental effects, using practicable and... preempt tribal law. List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control...; Amendments to West Virginia's Ambient Air Quality Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency...

  7. 76 FR 37996 - West Virginia Regulatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ... significant economic impact on a substantial number of small entities under the Regulatory Flexibility Act (5... making the determination as to whether this rule would have a significant economic impact, the Department... Virginia is amending its Code of State Regulations (CSR) to provide for the establishment of a minimum...

  8. 76 FR 67637 - West Virginia Regulatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-02

    ... non- Federal and non-Indian lands within its borders by demonstrating that its program includes, among... Virginia program in the January 21, 1981, Federal Register (46 FR 5915). You can also find later actions... The State is proposing to add the language ``either in the application or in an electronic...

  9. Argus Energy WV, LLC wins 2007 Wetlands West Virginia Award

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-15

    Argus Energy's Kiah Creek Operation has received the 2007 Wetlands West Virginia Award presented by the West Virginian Coal Association. The operation was originally a 1267 acre underground mine in the Coalburg seam. Underground mining commenced in 2000 until the end of 2003 with more than two million tons of coal being produced. The creation of the wetlands was achieved during the operations. 8 photos.

  10. Tourism package preferences of West Virginia state park visitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    William Gravley; John Dengler; Roy Ramthun; Chad Pierskalla

    2009-01-01

    This study was a preliminary examination of the activity and spending behavior of visitors to Pipestem State Park in West Virginia. This state park is being used as a case study area to determine whether a new fish stocking program accompanied by appropriate marketing activities can increase park visitation by anglers and other sports-oriented people. The research was...

  11. Abiotic factors influencing deer browsing in West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler A. Campbell; Benjamin R. Laseter; W. Mark Ford; Richard H. Odom; Karl V. Miller

    2006-01-01

    We present a comparison of woody browse availability and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) use among clearcut interiors, skidder trail edges, and mature forest and an evaluation of the relative importance of aboitic factors in predicting browsing pressure within regenerating clearcuts in the central Appalachians of West Virginia. We sampled...

  12. Visitors' perceptions of tourism development in West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinyang Deng; Maureen Young Bender

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that tourists' destination choices are increasingly influenced by perceptions of sustainability but research into tourists' insights and sensitivities about sustainability is lacking. This study examines how visitors to West Virginia perceive tourism development in the state. Findings indicate that visitors' perceptions are...

  13. Raccoon roundworm in raccoons in central West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon F. Owen; John W. Edwards; W. Mark Ford; James M. Crum; Petra Bohall. Wood

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the occurrence of raccoon roundworm (Baylisascaris procyonis) in common raccoons (Procyon lotor) in the Allegheny Mountains of West Virginia during spring (n = 9, April-June) and fall (n = 5, August-October) 2001 and spring (n = 1) and fall (n = 4) 2002. We found no evidence of B. procyonis...

  14. DIOXINS AND ENDOMETRIOSIS: COHORT STUDY OF WOMEN IN WEST VIRGINIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanawha Valley of West Virginia has a history of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin contamination (dioxin, TCDD). The bulk of the dioxin found in this area appears to be derived from the production of 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) and the disposal of associated wa...

  15. Economic Development in West Virginia. Information Series 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeller, Frederick A.; Smith, Wil J.

    Excessive unemployment, serious deficiencies in education, housing, welfare, transportation, and government systems are major problems in West Virginia. A historical contributor to the present condition is the decline of the coal industry. Also a contributor is the general apathy of the citizens toward change and economic progress. The state's…

  16. Funding Impediments to Education Reform in West Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meckley, Richard

    1986-01-01

    Prospects for financing educational reform in West Virginia are grim. Added to the state's high unemployment rate are the following problems: declining sales, income, and property tax revenues and erosion of federal support due to Gramm-Rudman-Hollings. Residents have set other priorities for public funding. Includes five references. (MLH)

  17. West Virginia University's Health Sciences and Technology Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester, Ann; Dooley, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the Health Sciences and Technology Academy, an outreach and engagement program by West Virginia University to encourage higher education faculty members and administrators, public school teachers, and community leaders to assume the responsibility of mentoring high school students. The primary goal is to increase the college…

  18. Evaluation Report of the West Virginia Right to Read Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berty, Ernst

    Results of a recently conducted evaluation of a pioneer reading program in West Virginia during the 1973-1974 school year are included in this document. Emphasis in this federally funded program was placed on an individualized, diagnostic-prescriptive approach to reading instruction. Contents consist of an introduction; sections discussing the…

  19. Population Change in West Virginia 1950-1970. West Virginia University Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station Bulletin 658.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizer, Leonard M.

    Growth patterns of the national economy during the 1950's and 1960's have not been shared by the state of West Virginia; towns and rural areas have lost population and job opportunities have declined. The switch to petroleum products and advanced mining technology displaced many coal mine workers. A national food surplus and the difficulty in…

  20. Physicians' perceptions of doctor shopping in West Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, E Gail; Moss, Alvin H

    2010-01-01

    Prescription drug abuse and diversion continue to be serious problems in West Virginia and nationwide. Doctor shopping (visiting multiple doctors in a short time frame with the intent to deceive them to obtain controlled substances) is illegal and one way that patients gain access to prescription drugs. We surveyed West Virginia physicians in emergency medicine, family medicine, and internal medicine to determine their experience with and attitudes toward doctor shopping, and to assess attitudes toward proposed legislation to protect physicians who report doctor shoppers to law enforcement officials. Of 452 physicians surveyed, 258 responded (57%). Emergency medicine physicians had the highest response rate (61%) and most frequent encounters (once a week or more often) with doctor shoppers compared to family medicine and internal medicine physicians (88% vs 25% vs 14%, P doctor shoppers. If the law protected them, 85 percent of all physicians reported they would be likely to report doctor shoppers.

  1. Geologic map of the White Hall quadrangle, Frederick County, Virginia, and Berkeley County, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doctor, Daniel H.; Orndorff, Randall C.; Parker, Ronald A.; Weary, David J.; Repetski, John E.

    2010-01-01

    The White Hall 7.5-minute quadrangle is located within the Valley and Ridge province of northern Virginia and the eastern panhandle of West Virginia. The quadrangle is one of several being mapped to investigate the geologic framework and groundwater resources of Frederick County, Va., as well as other areas in the northern Shenandoah Valley of Virginia and West Virginia. All exposed bedrock outcrops are clastic and carbonate strata of Paleozoic age ranging from Middle Cambrian to Late Devonian. Surficial materials include unconsolidated alluvium, colluvium, and terrace deposits of Quaternary age, and local paleo-terrace deposits possibly of Tertiary age. The quadrangle lies across the northeast plunge of the Great North Mountain anticlinorium and includes several other regional folds. The North Mountain fault zone cuts through the eastern part of the quadrangle; it is a series of thrust faults generally oriented northeast-southwest that separate the Silurian and Devonian clastic rocks from the Cambrian and Ordovician carbonate rocks and shales. Karst development in the quadrangle occurs in all of the carbonate rocks. Springs occur mainly near or on faults. Sinkholes occur within all of the carbonate rock units, especially where the rocks have undergone locally intensified deformation through folding, faulting, or some combination.

  2. Digital Mapping Techniques '09-Workshop Proceedings, Morgantown, West Virginia, May 10-13, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soller, David R.

    2011-01-01

    The Digital Mapping Techniques '09 (DMT'09) workshop was attended by 90 technical experts from 42 agencies, universities, and private companies, including representatives from 24 State geological surveys. This workshop, the thirteenth in the annual series, was hosted by the West Virginia Geological and Economic Survey, May 10-13, 2009, on the West Virginia University campus in Morgantown, West Virginia. Each DMT workshop has been coordinated by the National Geologic Map Database project and the Association of American State Geologists (AASG).

  3. 20% Wind by 2030: Overcoming the Challenges in West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick Mann; Christine Risch

    2012-02-15

    Final Report for '20% Wind by 2030: Overcoming the Challenges in West Virginia'. The objective of this project was to examine the obstacles and constraints to the development of wind energy in West Virginia as well as the obstacles and constraints to the achievement of the national goal of 20% wind by 2030. For the portion contracted with WVU, there were four tasks in this examination of obstacles and constraints. Task 1 involved the establishment of a Wind Resource Council. Task 2 involved conducting limited research activities. These activities involved an ongoing review of wind energy documents including documents regarding the potential for wind farms being located on reclaimed surface mining sites as well as other brownfield sites. The Principal Investigator also examined the results of the Marshall University SODAR assessment of the potential for placing wind farms on reclaimed surface mining sites. Task 3 involved the conducting of outreach activities. These activities involved working with the members of the Wind Resource Council, the staff of the Regional Wind Energy Institute, and the staff of Penn Future. This task also involved the examination of the importance of transmission for wind energy development. The Principal Investigator kept informed as to transmission developments in the Eastern United States. The Principal Investigator coordinated outreach activities with the activities at the Center for Business and Economic Research at Marshall University. Task 4 involved providing technical assistance. This task involved the provision of information to various parties interested in wind energy development. The Principal Investigator was available to answer requests from interested parties regarding in formation regarding both utility scale as well as small wind development in West Virginia. Most of the information requested regarded either the permitting process for wind facilities of various sizes in the state or information regarding the

  4. Retention, Attrition, and Mobility among Teachers and Administrators in West Virginia. REL 2016-161

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochmiller, Chad R.; Adachi, Eishi; Chesnut, Colleen E.; Johnson, Jerry

    2016-01-01

    Members of the West Virginia School Leadership Research Alliance partnered with Regional Educational Laboratory Appalachia to study the average retention, attrition, and mobility rates among teachers and administrators in the West Virginia public school system. There is increasing evidence nationwide that low teacher and administrator retention…

  5. 76 FR 9351 - Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Delisting From West Virginia Center for Patient Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Delisting From West Virginia Center for Patient Safety AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), HHS. ACTION: Notice of Delisting. SUMMARY West Virginia Center for Patient Safety: AHRQ...

  6. 78 FR 70255 - West Virginia: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 271 West Virginia: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program... applied to EPA for final authorization of revisions to its hazardous waste program under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). EPA proposes to grant final authorization to West Virginia. In the...

  7. The economics of fragility fractures in West Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, Alfred K; Sale, William G; Shaukat, Salman

    2009-01-01

    Compared to the United States, West Virginia has a higher proportion of residents aged 60 or older. This situation creates a stronger risk factor for osteoporosis and subsequent fragility fractures. The widespread availability of bone densitometry screening to identify osteoporosis and the marketing of effective agents to reduce fractures in the past decade has resulted in cost savings. We estimated the absolute number of fragility fractures associated with osteoporosis in West Virginia and projected their costs over a 5-year period. Cost savings were based on the variables of the proportion of osteoporotic patients identified and their long-term adherence to prescribed calcium,vitamin D, and bisphosphonate therapy. Our results indicate that only a small amount of potential cost savings (varying between less than 0.5% to 3.0%) is currently realized through diagnosis and adherence to prescribed treatment. We conclude that increased screening and recognition of osteoporosis by the primary care provider is a more feasible strategy to improve cost savings and fracture reduction rather than attempts to improve treatment adherence.

  8. Groundwater quality in West Virginia, 1993-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Douglas B.; Kozar, Mark D.; White, Jeremy S.; Paybins, Katherine S.

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 42 percent of all West Virginians rely on groundwater for their domestic water supply. However, prior to 2008, the quality of the West Virginia’s groundwater resource was largely unknown. The need for a statewide assessment of groundwater quality prompted the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with West Virginia Department of Environmental Protection (WVDEP), Division of Water and Waste Management, to develop an ambient groundwater-quality monitoring program. The USGS West Virginia Water Science Center sampled 300 wells, of which 80 percent were public-supply wells, over a 10-year period, 1999–2008. Sites for this statewide ambient groundwater-quality monitoring program were selected to provide wide areal coverage and to represent a variety of environmental settings. The resulting 300 samples were supplemented with data from a related monitoring network of 24 wells and springs. All samples were analyzed for field measurements (water temperature, pH, specific conductance, and dissolved oxygen), major ions, trace elements, nutrients, volatile organic compounds, fecal indicator bacteria, and radon-222. Sub-sets of samples were analyzed for pesticides or semi-volatile organic compounds; site selection was based on local land use. Samples were grouped for comparison by geologic age of the aquifer, Groups included Cambrian, Ordovician, Silurian, Devonian, Pennsylvanian, Permian, and Quaternary aquifers. A comparison of samples indicated that geologic age of the aquifer was the largest contributor to variability in groundwater quality. This study did not attempt to characterize drinking water provided through public water systems. All samples were of raw, untreated groundwater. Drinking-water criteria apply to water that is served to the public, not to raw water. However, drinking water criteria, including U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL), non-enforceable secondary maximum contaminant level (SMCL

  9. Shale engineering application: the MAL-145 project in West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vassilellis, George D.; Li, Charles; Bust, Vivian K. [Gaffney, Cline and Associates (United States); Moos, Daniel; Cade, Randal [Baker Hughes Inc (United States)

    2011-07-01

    With the depletion of conventional fossil fuels and the rising energy demand, oil shale and shale gas are becoming an important component of the oil and gas markets in North America. The aim of this paper is to present a novel methodology for predicting production in shale and tight formations. This method, known as the shale engineering approach and modeling, provides reservoir simulations based on modeling the propagation of the simulated rock volume. This technique was applied to an Upper Devonian shale formation in West Virginia, United States, and was compared to available data such as production logs and downhole microseismic data. Results showed a good match between the shale engineering approach data and early well performance. This paper presented a new reservoir simulation methodology which is successful in forecasting production and which can also be used for field development design and optimization.

  10. 77 FR 73560 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; Redesignation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-11

    ..., redundant reductions on top of those achieved by CAIR. EPA believes this is precisely the type of irrational..., West Virginia currently has an approved NSR program, codified in 45 CSR 19. See 71 FR 64468 (November...

  11. Dioxins and endometriosis: cohort study of women in West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diliberto, J.; Birnbaum, L. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, NHEERL, ETD, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Staats, D.A. [West Virginia Dept. of Environmental Protection, Charleston, WV (United States); Staats, D.A.; Becker, J.; Jude, D.; Chouinard, S.C.; Smith, T. [Marshall Univ. Medical Center, Huntington, WV (United States); Sirinek, L. [West Virginia Dept. of Environmental Protection, Wheeling, WV (United States); Clark, G. [Xenobiotic Detection Systems Inc., Durham, NC (United States); Landy, R. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 3, ESC, Ft. Meade, MD (United States)

    2004-09-15

    The women in this endometriosis/dioxin health study reside in the Kanawha/Ohio River Valley area of West Virginia and comprise a potential cluster (cohort) of individuals who have been exposed to dioxins (dioxin and dioxin-like chemicals) at background levels higher than those seen in other areas of the United States. The emissions from an unique constellation of chemical industries appear to have led to high levels of environmental dioxin contaminants. In addition, this area has a high incidence of endometriosis. Previous animal studies, both in nonhuman primates and rodents, have demonstrated a correlation between dioxin exposure and endometriosis. Human epidemiology studies have suggested an association but have not demonstrated a statistically significant correlation, possibly due to limitations in study design such as insufficient numbers, measurement of only TCDD rather than total equivalents to TCDD (TEQs), and/or lack of surgical ascertainment of endometriosis. The present study is addressing these issues. Thus, we have the unusual congruence of identified emission sources and high background levels of dioxins and a potentially related elevation of endometriosis. Endometriosis is a condition suffered by women in which the endometrial tissue, that usually lines the uterus, migrates to other areas. Most commonly it is found in the abdomen, bladder, ovaries or bowel. Patients with endometriosis experience pelvic pain, irregular bleeding, infertility and other problems. Immune suppression has been associated with severe endometriosis. This debilitating condition is a poorly understood disease. In the United States, this condition affects millions of women in their reproductive years and is showing up more frequently in very young women. Endometriosis will seriously impact future fertility and health care utilization. Data suggest that the rate of endometriosis in the Kanawha and Ohio River valleys is higher than is seen in other regions of the United States.

  12. 76 FR 28433 - Delegation of Authority to the State of West Virginia To Implement and Enforce Additional or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    .../airregulations/delegate/wvdelegation.htm . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ray Chalmers, (215) 814-2061, or by e- mail at chalmers.ray@epa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: West Virginia notified EPA that West...

  13. Developing a dissemination model to improve intervention reach among West Virginia youth smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly eHorn

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Not-On-Tobacco program is an evidence-based teen smoking cessation program adopted by the American Lung Association (ALA. Although widely disseminated nationally via ALA Master Trainers, in recent years, adoption and implementation of the N-O-T program in West Virginia has slowed. West Virginia, unfortunately, has one of the highest smoking rates in the US. Although it is a goal of public health science, dissemination of evidence-based interventions is woefully understudied. The present manuscript reviews a theoretical model of dissemination of the Not-On-Tobacco program in West Virginia. Based on social marketing, diffusion of innovations, and social cognitive theories, the nine-phase model incorporates elements of infrastructure development, accountability, training, delivery, incentives, and communication. The model components as well as preliminary lessons learned from initial implementation are discussed.

  14. Descriptive Analyses of English Language Learner Student Enrollment Data in Kentucky, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia. REL Technical Brief. REL 2012-No. 024

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehler, Annette M.; Yin, Chengbin; Donovan, Anne

    2012-01-01

    State administrators in the Regional Educational Laboratory Appalachia Region (Kentucky, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia) are responding to increased enrollment of English language learner (ELL) students in grades K-12, including in school districts that previously did not enroll ELL students or enrolled only a small number of them. ELL…

  15. The Possible Effects of Nutritional Status and Growth of Children on the Economic Potential of West Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Barbara K.

    Meeting nutritional needs of children in West Virginia is vital to the state's economic development. A malnourished, uneducable population will be unemployable in a high tech society and the state cannot afford custodial and welfare costs resulting from childhood malnutrition. Evidence of nutritional need in West Virginia includes low rate of…

  16. A Union Voice for Racial Equality: Miles Stanley and Civil Rights in West Virginia, 1957-68

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fones-Wolf, Colin T.

    2004-01-01

    On October 15, 1959, union delegates from across West Virginia converged upon the Daniel Boone Hotel in the capital city of Charleston to participate in the West Virginia Labor Federation, AFL-CIO's second statewide constitutional convention. Charleston, at this time, remained a segregated city. So when G. William Dunn, an African-American…

  17. The "Space Weather" Exhibit at the Children's Discovery Museum of West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassak, P.; Bryan, J.; Carver, J.

    2014-12-01

    An exhibit on space weather has been developed in a partnership between the the Children's Discovery Museum of West Virginia and the Department of Physics and Astronomy and Curriculum & Instruction/Literacy Studies Department at West Virginia University. The exhibit includes hands-on activities that explore plasmas, magnets, and electromagnetic induction. There is also text about solar eruptions, aurora, and the harmful effects of space weather on Earth's technological infrastructure. In this poster, we discuss the production of the exhibit and results of its implementation.

  18. Hydrogeology and water quality of the Leetown area, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozar, Mark D.; McCoy, Kurt J.; Weary, David J.; Field, Malcolm S.; Pierce, Herbert A.; Schill, William Bane; Young, John A.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey’s Leetown Science Center and the co-located U.S. Department of Agriculture’s National Center for Cool and Cold Water Aquaculture both depend on large volumes of cold clean ground water to support research operations at their facilities. Currently, ground-water demands are provided by three springs and two standby production wells used to augment supplies during periods of low spring flow. Future expansion of research operations at the Leetown Science Center is dependent on assessing the availability and quality of water to the facilities and in locating prospective sites for additional wells to augment existing water supplies. The hydrogeology of the Leetown area, West Virginia, is a structurally complex karst aquifer. Although the aquifer is a karst system, it is not typical of most highly cavernous karst systems, but is dominated by broad areas of fractured rock drained by a relatively small number of solution conduits. Characterization of the aquifer by use of fluorometric tracer tests, a common approach in most karst terranes, therefore only partly defines the hydrogeologic setting of the area. In order to fully assess the hydrogeology and water quality in the vicinity of Leetown, a multi-disciplinary approach that included both fractured rock and karst research components was needed. The U.S. Geological Survey developed this multi-disciplinary research effort to include geologic, hydrologic, geophysical, geographic, water-quality, and microbiological investigations in order to fully characterize the hydrogeology and water quality of the Leetown area, West Virginia. Detailed geologic and karst mapping provided the framework on which hydrologic investigations were based. Fracture trace and lineament analysis helped locate potential water-bearing fractures and guided installation of monitoring wells. Monitoring wells were drilled for borehole geophysical surveys, water-quality sampling, water-level measurements, and aquifer tests to

  19. Modeling forest ecosystem changes resulting from surface coal mining in West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Brown; Andrew J. Lister; Mary Ann Fajvan; Bonnie Ruefenacht; Christine Mazzarella

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this project is to assess the effects of surface coal mining on forest ecosystem disturbance and restoration in the Coal River Subbasin in southern West Virginia. Our approach is to develop disturbance impact models for this subbasin that will serve as a case study for testing the feasibility of integrating currently available GIS data layers, remote...

  20. Roots, Branches, Blossoms, and Briars: Cultural Colonialism of the Mountain Arts in West Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Christine Marie

    This ethnographic study examines the process of cultural colonialism and the effects of cultural colonialist institutions in West Virginia on the mountain culture arts and artists. Interviews, observations, written material, and video recordings were used to substantiate interviews with artists and institutional administrators. Interpretation of…

  1. 78 FR 44884 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; Update to Materials...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-25

    ... Reduction Act (44 U.S.C. 3501 et seq.); is certified as not having a significant economic impact on a... following regulatory changes to the following West Virginia regulations: ] A. Added Regulations 1. 45 CSR 35... Plans (General Conformity)), 45 CSR 35-5 (Inconsistency Between Rules). B. Revised Regulations 1. 45 CSR...

  2. Tourism marketing: the best there is--a study of West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephanie L. Thorn; Roy Ramthun

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand and define the "best" marketing practices in the tourism industry for destination marketing organizations and to identify what convention and visitors bureaus in West Virginia are doing to meet these standards. Little research has been conducted on tourism marketing practices; therefore, a standardized list of...

  3. West Virginia's Progress toward Universal Prekindergarten. Issues & Answers. REL 2009-No. 070

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalluzzo, Linda; Clinton, Yvette; Holian, Laura; Marr, Linda; Taylor, Lydotta

    2009-01-01

    The report examines rates of participation in West Virginia's universal, voluntary prekindergarten (PreK) program from 2002-03 to 2006-07. It describes the share of seats provided by collaborative partners and public school systems and analyzes participation rates by demographic and socioeconomic subgroup and county characteristics. Reported…

  4. Survival of the Fittest? The Re-Branding of West Virginia Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owston, James M.

    2009-01-01

    From 1996 to 2005, West Virginia produced the greatest percentage (56.25 percent) of institutional re-brandings in the country. In addition, the state experienced the largest proportion (25 percent) of "college-to-university" re-brandings than any other state. This study embarked on discovering possible reasons for this phenomenon and…

  5. 78 FR 73769 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; Approval of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-09

    ..., RFP, emissions inventories, and contingency measures. \\3\\ PM 10 refers to particulates nominally 10... emissions inventory for the West Virginia portion of the Area for the 2006 24-hour PM 2.5 NAAQS. In this... established on July 16, 1997 (62 FR 38652, July 18, 1997). EPA promulgated an annual standard at a level of 15...

  6. Civic Education in West Virginia: Guidelines and State Standards in a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brejwo, Carolyn Jackson

    2012-01-01

    Civic teachers are members of their community and are responsible for preparing their students to be future citizens. West Virginia is one of nine states that requires students to pass a class whose title includes the word "civic." All 12th grade students in the state must take a year long civic education course. The goal for the course…

  7. Efficacy of stem injection treatments on striped maple in central West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey D. Kochenderfer; James N. Kochenderfer

    2008-01-01

    Hack-and-squirt injection treatments were applied to individual striped maple (Acer pennsylvanicum L.) stems and to the largest stem in sprout clumps in a 25-year-old clearcut in central West Virginia to evaluate seasonal efficacy of imazapyr as Arsenal (28.7%) and glyphosate as Glypro Plus (41.0%) in water carriers. Complete control of injected...

  8. The Causal Effect of Federal Work-Study Participation: Quasi-Experimental Evidence from West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott-Clayton, Judith

    2011-01-01

    Since 1964, the Federal Work-Study (FWS) program has provided funds to subsidize the wages of student employees, but it has never been studied directly. I use an instrumental variables difference-in-difference framework with administrative data from West Virginia to identify causal effects, comparing eligible and ineligible students across…

  9. Survival of the Fittest? The Re-Branding of West Virginia Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owston, James M.

    2009-01-01

    From 1996 to 2005, West Virginia produced the greatest percentage (56.25 percent) of institutional re-brandings in the country. In addition, the state experienced the largest proportion (25 percent) of "college-to-university" re-brandings than any other state. This study embarked on discovering possible reasons for this phenomenon and the results…

  10. Impact of Market-Based Disturbance on the Composition of West Virginia's Forest Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    William G. Luppold; John E. Baumgras; John E. Baumgras

    2000-01-01

    The eastern hardwood resource has been shaped by a combination of human and natural disturbances. This impact on the forest resources of West Virginia has been especially dramatic. This resource has changed from a virgin forest dominated white oak, chestnut, spruce, white pine, and hemlock in the late 19th century, to one dominated by red oak in the 1950's, to...

  11. Survival of the Fittest? The Re-Branding of West Virginia Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owston, James M.

    2009-01-01

    From 1996 to 2005, West Virginia produced the greatest percentage (56.25 percent) of institutional re-brandings in the country. In addition, the state experienced the largest proportion (25 percent) of "college-to-university" re-brandings than any other state. This study embarked on discovering possible reasons for this phenomenon and…

  12. 75 FR 44964 - Filing Dates for the West Virginia Senate Special Election

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-30

    ... Doc No: 2010-18704] FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION [Notice 2010-15] Filing Dates for the West Virginia Senate Special Election AGENCY: Federal Election Commission. ACTION: Notice of filing dates for special..., 2010; and a 30-day Post-General Report on December 2, 2010. (See chart below for the closing date...

  13. Felling and skidding costs associated with thinning a commercial Appalachian hardwood stand in northern West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel M. Brock; Kenneth D. Jones; Gary W. Miller

    1986-01-01

    Detailed cost information on thinning operations is needed to develop economic guidelines for managing immature central Appalachian hardwood stands. Three thinning treatments were applied in a 50-yr-old mixed-oak, cove hardwood stand in northern West Virginia. A commercial logging contractor using chain saws and a rubber-tired skidder conducted the logging operations....

  14. The Voluntary Remediation and Redevelopment Act - West Virginia restructures environmental liability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, M.A.; Yaussy, D.L. [Robinson & McElwee, Charleston, West Virginia (United States)

    1997-11-01

    The Act provides the skeleton of the voluntary remediation program; the rules are the muscles and sinew necessary to make the program work. The Act sets an ambitious schedule of one year for developing all the rules needed to implement the program. Recognizing the difficulty of putting together a complex program, especially the technical standards, in such a short period of time, the Director convened a Steering Committee consisting of representatives of industry, government and environmental groups, and the general public, to develop an initial set of draft rules. The rules were proposed shortly before the 1997 Regular Session of the West Virginia Legislature convened. The ultimate impact of West Virginia`s new voluntary remediation program must await the adoption of implementing rules and experience under the program. The Act contains the essential components for an effective program, including protection from liability, certainty in remediation cleanup standards and recognition of the concept of relative risk in developing those standards. With a cohesive set of rules and an aggressive posture by the Director in implementing the program consistent with the goals of the Act, West Virginia could be a leader in the country in voluntary remediation programs.

  15. 76 FR 69268 - Delegation of Authority to the State of West Virginia To Implement and Enforce Additional or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    .../reg3artd/airregulations/delegate/wvdelegation.htm . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ray Chalmers, (215) 814-2061, or by email at chalmers.ray@epa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: West Virginia notified...

  16. ATV Accidents continue to be a major public health issue in West Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, William D; Helmpkamp, James C

    2005-01-01

    All-terrain vehicle (ATV) riding continues to be a major public health problem in West Virginia because the state leads the nation in the rate of deaths from ATV incidents and has significantly higher death rates than all five of the bordering states. Annually, there are 24 deaths a year in West Virginia due to ATV accidents and thousands of nonfatal injuries. Sporting events using ATVs such as motocross racing have added to the burden of caring for patients who are injured in recreational activities. We report a case study of 10 patients treated over an 18-hour period in a state trauma center for injuries received while riding ATVs casually and in competition. The addition of these 10 patients to the other 108 patients seen in the ED during this period totally disrupted patient flow, caused significant delays in care of the non-trauma patients, and tied up the Radiology Department and operating rooms for an extended period.

  17. Assessment of contamination from arsenical pesticide use on orchards in the great valley region, Virginia and West Virginia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, G.R.; Larkin, S.P.; Boughton, C.J.; Reed, B.W.; Sibrell, P.L.

    2007-01-01

    Lead arsenate pesticides were widely used in apple orchards from 1925 to 1955. Soils from historic orchards in four counties in Virginia and West Virginia contained elevated concentrations of As and Pb, consistent with an arsenical pesticide source. Arsenic concentrations in approximately 50% of the orchard site soils and approximately 1% of reference site soils exceed the USEPA Preliminary Remediation Goal (PRG) screening guideline of 22 mg kg-1 for As in residential soi, defined on the basis of combined chronic exposure risk. Approximately 5% of orchard site soils exceed the USEPA PRG for Pb of 400 mg kg-1 in residential soil; no reference site soils sampled exceed this value. A variety of statistical methods were used to characterize the occurrence, distribution, and dispersion of arsenical pesticide residues in soils, stream sediments, and ground waters relative to landscape features and likely background conditions. Concentrations of Zn, Pb, and Cu were most strongly associated with high developed land density and population density, whereas elevated concentrations of As were weakly correlated with high orchard density, consistent with a pesticide residue source. Arsenic concentrations in ground water wells in the region are generally soils contaminated with arsenical pesticide residues at concentrations typically found in orchards. ?? ASA, CSSA, SSSA.

  18. Perceived Professional Development Needs of Business Education Teachers in West Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Robinett, Susan Kirby

    2001-01-01

    This study identified the perceived professional development needs of secondary business educators in West Virginia related to professional and business education content competency areas. A population of 408 secondary business educators was randomly assigned to two groups to evaluate their perceived professional development needs. A total of 104 (51.40% of 202) respondents reported their perceived need for professional development for professional competencies based on Policy 5310: Perfor...

  19. Mississippian and Pennsylvanian (carboniferous) systems in the United States: West Virginia and Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arkle, T. Jr. (West Virginia Geological and Economic Survey, Morgantown); Beissel, D.R.; Larese, R.E.; Nuhfer, E.B.; Patchen, D.G.; Smosna, R.A.; Gillespie, W.H.; Lund, R.; Norton, C.W.; Pfefferkorn, H.W.

    1979-01-01

    Early geologic work, physiography, structure, and mineral resources of the upper Paleozoic rocks underlying 81% of western and south West Virginia and much of Garrett County, smaller areas of Allegany County, and a few hilltops of Washington County in Maryland are reviewed. The paper focuses upon the lithostratigraphy and biostratigraphy of the formations. These formations include deposits of coal, oil, and natural gas that are very important to the two states. The development of these resources is briefly surveyed. 137 references. (BLM)

  20. Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric power in West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric in West Virginia at the state level are described. The Federal government also exercises extensive regulatory authority in the area. The introductory section examines the dual regulatory system from the standpoint of the appropriate legal doctrine, the law of pre-emption, application of the law to the case of hydroelectric development, and concludes with an inquiry into the practical use of the doctrine by FERC. The development of small-scale hydroelectric energy depends on the selection of a site which will produce sufficient water power capacity to make the project economically attractive to a developer. In West Virginia, the right to use the flowing waters of a stream, creek, or river is appurtenant to the ownership of the lands bordering the watercourse. The lands are known as riparian lands. The water rights are known as riparian rights. Thus, the first obstacle a developer faces involves the acquisition of riparian lands and the subsequent right to the use of the water. The water law in West Virginia is discussed in detail followed by discussions on direct and indirect regulations; continuing obligations; financial considerations; and interstate organizations.

  1. HIV/AIDS patient migration in North-Central West Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutsen, Dorothy A; Roidad, Nasira; Sarwari, Arif R; Coombs, Tabatha; Fisher, Melanie A

    2013-01-01

    Many HIV/AIDS patients rely on the Ryan White CARE Act, a federally-funded program to cover the costs of their medical care. The dispersal of this funding is dependent on a complex algorithm, which factors in the number of people that test positive for HIV in each state. However, demographic and migration studies have suggested that HIV/AIDS patients in rural America are first diagnosed in urban areas and then later moved to more rural areas. The participant pool was identified from adult patients who have received care from the West Virginia University (WVU) Positive Health Clinic from January 1, 2004 to July 26, 2012 and knew the location where they had initially tested positive for HIV. The place of initial HIV diagnosis could be determined for 398 out of 433 patients and fewer than half (48%) were initially diagnosed in West Virginia. Because over half of the patients who are treated at WVU were initially tested outside of West Virginia, this could negatively impact the federal funding opportunities for our state through the Ryan White CARE Act using the current algorithm.

  2. Summary of West Virginia Water-Resource Data through September 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evaldi, R.D.; Ward, S.M.; White, J.S.

    2009-01-01

    The West Virginia Water Science Center of the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with State and Federal agencies, obtains a large amount of data pertaining to the water resources of West Virginia each water year. A water year is the 12-month period beginning October 1 and ending September 30. These data, accumulated during many years, constitute a valuable database for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the State. These data are maintained in the National Water Information System (NWIS) and are available through its World-Wide Web interface, NWISWeb, at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/wv/nwis. Data can be retrieved in a variety of common formats, and a tutorial is available at http://nwis.waterdata.usgs.gov/tutorial. Location information for all continuous-record gaging stations operated in West Virginia through September 2008 is provided in this report, as well as statistical summaries of the available daily records. This report can serve as an index to the daily records data available on the World-Wide Web. Hydrologic data for nearly all of the gaging stations identified in this report are also available in the annual publication series titled Water-Resources Data - West Virginia. This series of annual reports for West Virginia began with the 1961 water year with a report that contained only data relating to quantities of surface water. For the 1964 water year, a similar report was introduced that contained only data relating to water quality. Beginning with the 1975 water year, the report format was changed to include data on quantities of surface water, quality of surface water and groundwater, and groundwater levels. Prior to the introduction of the Water-Resources Data - West Virginia series and for several water years concurrent with it, water-resources data for West Virginia were published in U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Papers. Data on stream discharge and stage and on lake or reservoir contents and stage through September

  3. Acute Health Effects After the Elk River Chemical Spill, West Virginia, January 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomasson, Erica D; Scharman, Elizabeth; Fechter-Leggett, Ethan; Bixler, Danae; Ibrahim, Sheri'f; Duncan, Mary Anne; Hsu, Joy; Scott, Melissa; Wilson, Suzanne; Haddy, Loretta; Pizon, Anthony; L Burrer, Sherry; Wolkin, Amy; Lewis, Lauren

    On January 9, 2014, approximately 10 000 gallons of a mixture of 4-methylcyclohexanemethanol and propylene glycol phenyl ether spilled into West Virginia's Elk River, contaminating the potable water supply of about 300 000 West Virginia residents. This study sought to describe acute health effects after the chemical spill. We conducted a descriptive analysis using 3 complementary data sources: (1) medical records of patients who visited an emergency department during January 9-23, 2014, with illness potentially related to the spill; (2) West Virginia Poison Center caller records coded as "contaminated water" during January 9-23, 2014; and (3) answers to household surveys about health effects from a Community Assessment for Public Health Emergency Response (CASPER) questionnaire administered 3 months after the spill. In the 2 weeks after the spill, 2000 people called the poison center reporting exposure to contaminated water, and 369 people visited emergency departments in the affected area with reports of exposure and symptoms potentially related to the spill. According to CASPER weighted cluster analyses, an estimated 25 623 households (21.7%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 14.4%-28.9%) had ≥1 person with symptoms who felt that they were related to the spill in the 3 months after it. Reported health effects across all 3 data sources included mild skin, respiratory, and gastrointestinal symptoms that resolved with no or minimal treatment. Medical records, poison center data, and CASPER household surveys were inexact but useful data sources to describe overall community health effects after a large-scale chemical spill. Analyzing multiple data sources could inform epidemiologic investigations of similar events.

  4. Allegheny woodrat (Neotoma magister) use of rock drainage channels on reclaimed mines in southern West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamblin, H.D.; Wood, P.B.; Edwards, J.W. [West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2004-04-01

    Allegheny woodrats (Neotoma magister) currently receive protected status throughout their range due to population declines. Threats associated with habitat fragmentation (e.g., introduced predators, disease, and habitat loss) may explain why Allegheny woodrats are no longer found in many areas where they existed just 25 y ago. In southern West Virginia, surface coal mining is a major cause of forest fragmentation. Furthermore, mountaintop mining, the prevalent method in the region, results in a loss of rock outcrops and cliffs within forested areas, typical habitat of the Allegheny woodrat. To determine the extent that Allegheny woodrats make use of reclaimed mine land, particularly rock drainages built during reclamation, we sampled 24 drainage channels on reclaimed surface mines in southern West Virginia, collected habitat data at each site and used logistic regression to identify habitat variables related to Allegheny woodrat presence. During 187 trap nights, 13 adult, 2 subadult and 8 juvenile Allegheny woodrats were captured at 13 of the 24 sites. Percent of rock as a groundcover and density of stems {gt} 15 cm diameter-at-breast-height (DBH) were related to Allegheny woodrat presence and were significantly greater at sites where Allegheny woodrats were present than absent. Sites where Allegheny woodrats were present differed substantially from other described habitats in West Virginia, though they may simulate boulder piles that occur naturally. Our findings suggest the need for additional research to examine the dynamics between Allegheny woodrat populations inhabiting rock outcrops in forests adjacent to mines and populations inhabiting constructed drainage channels on reclaimed mines. However, if Allegheny woodrats can use human-created habitat, our results will be useful to surface mine reclamation and to other mitigation efforts where rocky habitats are lost or disturbed.

  5. Coal-Mac, Inc. Phoenix No. 1 mine provides wildlife haven. 2007 Wildlife West Virginia Award

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skinner, A.

    2007-07-15

    Coal Mac, Inc.'s Harless Wood Industrial Park off Holden 22 Mines Road in Logan Country, West Virginia is an award-winning reclamation site in the mountains frequented by geese, wild turkey, deer and black bears. Orchard grass and rye is a temporary cover for the timothy, clover and other seedlings. The area was mined several years ago. Some 40,000-50,000 tons of coal per month are surfaced mined with the current permit that takes in 1,500-2,000 acres. After removing the coal, valleys are backfilled as part of the mining and reclamation plan. 10 photos.

  6. Preliminary effects of Marcellus shale drilling on Louisiana waterthrush in West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, D.; Sheehan, J.; Wood, P.B.; Edenborn, H.M.

    2011-01-01

    Preliminary effects of Marcellus shale drilling on Louisiana Waterthrush in West Virginia Page 1 of 1 Doug Becker and James Sheehan, WV Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV 26506, USA; Petra Bohall Wood, U.S. Geological Survey, WV Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV 26506, USA; Harry Edenborn, National Energy Technology Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA 15236, USA. Spurred by technological advances and high energy prices, extraction of natural gas from Marcellus shale is increasing in the Appalachian Region. Because little is known about effects on wildlife populations, we studied immediate impacts of oil and gas CO&G) extraction on demographics and relative abundance of Louisiana Waterthrush'CLOWA), a riparian obligate species, to establish a baseline for potential future changes. Annually in 2008-2010, we conducted point counts, monitored Mayfield nesting success, spotted-mapped territories, and measured habitat quality using the EPA Rapid Bioassessment protocol for high gradient streams and a LOWA Habitat Suitability Index CHSI) on a 4,100 ha study area in northern West Virginia. On 11 streams, the stream length affected by O&G activities was 0-58%. Relative abundance, territory denSity, and nest success varied annually but were not significantly different across years. Success did not differ between impacted and unimpacted nests, but territory density had minimal correlation with percent of stream impacted by O&G activities. Impacted nests had lower HSI values in 2010 and lower EPA indices in 2009. High site fidelity could mask the immediate impacts of habitat disturbance from drilling as we measured return rates of 57%. All returning individuals were on the same stream they were banded and 88% were within 250 m of their territory from the previous year. We also observed a spatial shift in LOWA territories, perhaps in response to drilling activities

  7. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics in Nitro, West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisell, L.; Mosey, G.

    2010-08-01

    The study described in this report assessed brownfield sites designated by the City of Nitro, West Virginia for solar photovoltaic (PV) installations. The study analyzed three different types of PV systems for eight sites. The report estimates the cost, performance, and site impacts of thin film technology and crystalline silicon panels (both fixed-axis tracking and single-axis tracking systems). Potential job creation and electrical rate increases were also considered, and the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a system.

  8. Employment, race and poverty in West Virginia: implications for practicing physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frumkin, R M

    1994-02-01

    Since West Virginia became a state in 1863 and slavery was abolished, poverty has been a persistent problem for black Americans. Although blacks have become increasingly a part of the total workforce, moving from the lowest level, lowest paid jobs to higher level, better paying ones, unemployment, poverty, and their common sequelae still persist and significantly differentiate black from white Americans. While racial discrimination has been a factor in black poverty for many decades, another critical factor responsible for black poverty today and in the past, is something which both blacks and physicians can help to change--unplanned parenthood.

  9. Geologic Controls of Hydrocarbon Occurrence in the Appalachian Basin in Eastern Tennessee, Southwestern Virginia, Eastern Kentucky, and Southern West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatcher, Robert D

    2005-11-30

    This report summarizes the accomplishments of a three-year program to investigate the geologic controls of hydrocarbon occurrence in the southern Appalachian basin in eastern Tennessee, southwestern Virginia, eastern Kentucky, and southern West Virginia. The project: (1) employed the petroleum system approach to understand the geologic controls of hydrocarbons; (2) attempted to characterize the P-T parameters driving petroleum evolution; (3) attempted to obtain more quantitative definitions of reservoir architecture and identify new traps; (4) is worked with USGS and industry partners to develop new play concepts and geophysical log standards for subsurface correlation; and (5) geochemically characterized the hydrocarbons (cooperatively with USGS). Third-year results include: All project milestones have been met and addressed. We also have disseminated this research and related information through presentations at professional meetings, convening a major workshop in August 2003, and the publication of results. Our work in geophysical log correlation in the Middle Ordovician units is bearing fruit in recognition that the criteria developed locally in Tennessee and southern Kentucky are more extendible than anticipated earlier. We have identified a major 60 mi-long structure in the western part of the Valley and Ridge thrust belt that has been successfully tested by a local independent and is now producing commercial amounts of hydrocarbons. If this structure is productive along strike, it will be one of the largest producing structures in the Appalachians. We are completing a more quantitative structural reconstruction of the Valley and Ridge and Cumberland Plateau than has been made before. This should yield major dividends in future exploration in the southern Appalachian basin. Our work in mapping, retrodeformation, and modeling of the Sevier basin is a major component of the understanding of the Ordovician petroleum system in this region. Prior to our

  10. Encouraging smoking cessation during pregnancy in West Virginia: using Fax-to-Quit as a cessation strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tworek, Cindy; Horn, Kimberly A; Anderson, Robert H; Chertok, Ilana; Danek, Robin L; Holmes, Alan; Adkins, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Despite known dangers of smoking, a majority of pregnant women continue to smoke or relapse following delivery. West Virginia women have high unmet needs for smoking cessation, and the prenatal period presents a critical and unique opportunity for education and quitting assistance. West Virginia's Fax-to-Quit program uses provider-faxed referrals to the Quitline to engage smokers and connect them with cessation services. A 12-month feasibility evaluation of this Fax-to-Quit program for pregnant women was conducted. In February 2009, providers and staff from three OB/GYN clinics in three adjoining West Virginia counties were recruited. All participating sites received an intensive half-day training program. Adult pregnant smokers receiving prenatal care in these OB/GYN clinic sites were eligible to participate. Recruitment sites screened pregnant women for smoking; assessed readiness-to-quit; and enrolled consenting participants in the Fax-to-Quit Program. The Quitline measured cessation attempts with six-month follow-up of enrolled participants. Between March-December 2009, 58 referrals were made at these OB/GYN clinic sites, with 15 women (25.9%) enrolling in Quitline services. These enrolled women account for approximately one-quarter of calls from pregnant smokers to the West Virginia Quitline in the past 12 months. Contact, communication, and cooperation with office staff were relevant and important to successful project implementation. Findings indicate that Fax-to-Quit is feasible to engage providers and pregnant smokers with the West Virginia Quitline. Successful referrals and enrollment demonstrate Fax-to-Quit may support cessation by increasing Quitline use and connecting pregnant women who smoke with quitting services through provider-faxed referrals to the West Virginia Quitline.

  11. West Nile virus in raptors from Virginia during 2003: clinical, diagnostic, and epidemiologic findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyner, Priscilla H; Kelly, Sean; Shreve, Allison A; Snead, Sarah E; Sleeman, Jonathan M; Pettit, Denise A

    2006-04-01

    Sixty-one birds of prey admitted to The Wildlife Center of Virginia (WCV; Waynesboro, Virginia, USA) from June to November 2003 were tested for West Nile virus (WNV) infection. Choanal and/or cloacal swabs were obtained and submitted to Virginia's Division of Consolidated Laboratory Services (Richmond, Virginia, USA) for analysis with real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Forty birds of prey were positive for WNV by RT-PCR. Five avian families and nine species of raptors were represented, with great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) and red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) most frequently affected. Presenting clinical signs were consistent with previous reports of WNV infection in raptors; however, these differed between species. Of WNV positive birds, nonspecific signs of illness were the most common clinical findings, particularly in red-tailed hawks; signs included dehydration (n = 20), emaciation (n = 18), and depression (n = 15). Neurologic abnormalities were frequently identified, especially in great horned owls, and included head tremors (n = 17), ataxia (n = 13), head incoordination (n = 7), torticollis (n = 3), nystagmus (n = 3), and head tilt (n = 3). Great horned owls exhibited anemia and leukocytosis with heterophilia, eosinophilia, and monocytosis consistent with chronic inflammation. Red-tailed hawks were anemic with a heterophilic leukocytosis and regenerative left shift. The majority of WNV cases occurred during August and September; there was a marked increase in the number of raptors admitted to WCV during these months followed by a marked decrease during October, November, and December. This pattern differed from mean monthly admissions during the previous 10 years and suggests a negative impact on local raptor populations. The effects of WNV on avian populations are largely unknown; however, because of their ecological importance, further investigation of the effects of WNV on raptor populations is warranted.

  12. A Tale Of Two States: Mississippi, West Virginia, And Exemptions To Compulsory School Vaccination Laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colgrove, James; Lowin, Abigail

    2016-02-01

    School-based compulsory vaccination laws have provoked debates over the legitimacy of government coercion versus the scope of parental rights. A key point of contention in these school vaccination laws are provisions known as exemption clauses that allow some parents to enroll their children in school unimmunized for reasons other than medical conditions. For more than three decades Mississippi and West Virginia stood apart as the only two US states that did not offer nonmedical exemptions to school vaccination laws. But other states seem to be moving in this direction, such as California, which in 2015 eliminated nonmedical exemptions following the Disneyland measles outbreak. The apparent shift creates an opportune moment to look at the experiences of Mississippi and West Virginia. Through a review of legislative histories, legal rulings, media accounts, and interviews with health officials in the two states, we consider the reasons for and consequences of their allowing only medical exemptions and the prospects their approach holds out for other states that may wish to emulate it. The experiences of these two states suggest that contrary to conventional wisdom, it may be politically tenable to limit exemptions to only medical reasons without damaging either the stature of public health or the immunization system.

  13. Occurrence of oil and gas in Devonian shales and equivalents in West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwietering, J. F.

    1981-03-01

    During the Devonian, an epicontinental sea was present in the Appalachian basin. The Catskill Clastic Wedge was formed in the eastern part of the basin by sediments derived from land along the margin of the continent. Three facies are recognized in the Catskill Clastic Wedge: (1) a red-bed facies deposited in terrestrial and nearshore marine environments; (2) a gray shale and sandstone facies deposited in a shallow- to moderately-deep marine environment; and (3) a dark-gray shale and siltstone facies deposited in the deepest part of the epicontinental sea. Oil and natural gas are being produced from Devonian shales in the western part of West Virginia and from upper Devonian sandstones and siltstones in the north-central part of the state. It is suggested that in addition to extending known areas of gas production, that drilling for natural gas be conducted in areas underlain by organic-rich shales and thick zones of interbedded siltstone and shale in the Devonian section in central, southern, and western West Virginia. The most promising areas for exploration are those areas where fractures are associated with folds, faults, and lineaments. 60 references.

  14. Selection of area and specific site for drilling a horizontal well in Calhoun County, West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeves, T.K.; Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Salamy, S.P.; Locke, C.D.

    1992-03-01

    This report discusses the data collection and analysis procedures used to establish criteria for geologic and engineering studies conducted by BDM to select a general area for more detailed study and a specific site for the drilling of a cooperative well with an industry partner, the Consolidated Natural Gas Development Company (CNGD). The results of detailed geologic studies are presented for two areas in Calhoun County, West Virginia, and one area along the Logan-Boone County line in West Virginia. The effects of Appalachian Basin tectonics and the Rome Trough Rift system were identified on seismic lines made available by (CNGD). These helped to identify and define the trapping mechanisms which had been effective in each area. Engineering analyses of past production histories provided data to support selection of target areas and then to select a specific site that met the project requirements for production, reservoir pressure, and risk. A final site was selected in Lee District at the southwestern margin of the Sand Ridge gas field based on the combination of a geologic trapping mechanism and reservoir pressures which were projected as 580 psi with a stress ratio of 0.53.

  15. Acid soil indicators in forest soils of the Cherry River Watershed, West Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, C; Skousen, J; Edwards, P; Connolly, S; Sencindiver, J

    2009-11-01

    Declining forest health has been observed during the past several decades in several areas of the eastern USA, and some of this decline is attributed to acid deposition. Decreases in soil pH and increases in soil acidity are indicators of potential impacts on tree growth due to acid inputs and Al toxicity. The Cherry River watershed, which lies within the Monongahela National Forest in West Virginia, has some of the highest rates of acid deposition in Appalachia. East and West areas within the watershed, which showed differences in precipitation, stream chemistry, and vegetation composition, were compared to evaluate soil acidity conditions and to assess their degree of risk on tree growth. Thirty-one soil pits in the West area and 36 pits in the East area were dug and described, and soil samples from each horizon were analyzed for chemical parameters. In A horizons, East area soils averaged 3.7 pH with 9.4 cmol(c) kg(-1) of acidity compared to pH 4.0 and 6.2 cmol(c) kg(-1) of acidity in West area soils. Extractable cations (Ca, Mg, and Al) were significantly higher in the A, transition, and upper B horizons of East versus West soils. However, even with differences in cation concentrations, Ca/Al molar ratios were similar for East and West soils. For both sites using the Ca/Al ratio, a 50% risk of impaired tree growth was found for A horizons, while a 75% risk was found for deeper horizons. Low concentrations of base cations and high extractable Al in these soils translate into a high degree of risk for forest regeneration and tree growth after conventional tree harvesting.

  16. Perspectives on Obesity and Its Treatment: Health Care Providers and the General Public in Rural West Virginia and Urban Baltimore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menez, Steven; Cheskin, Lawrence; Geller, Gail

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine and compare the perspectives of the general public and health care providers (HCPs) on obesity and its treatment in rural West Virginia (WV) and Baltimore, MD. Method: Surveys were completed in both locations by the general public (WV: "n" = 200; Baltimore: "n" = 171) and HCPs (WV: "n" = 25;…

  17. Perceptions of Asthma Quality of Life in Children and Parent Dyads in Two Rural Counties in West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Susan; McCrone, Susan; Shapiro, April L.

    2016-01-01

    This study examines perceived quality of life (QOL) in a convenience sample of children (aged 7-11) with asthma and their parents from two schools in rural West Virginia. Forty-nine child-parent dyads representing 25 males and 24 females completed the study. The PedsQL™ 3.0 Asthma Module was utilized to separately measure child and parent…

  18. Social factors shaping the formation of a multi-stakeholder trails network group for the Monongahela National Forest, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karen Robinson; Steven Selin; Chad Pierskalla

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the results and management implications of a longitudinal research study examining the social factors affecting the formation of a trails network advisory group for the Monongahela National Forest (MNF) in West Virginia. A collaborative process of creating an MNF trails network with input from local users and stakeholders has been largely...

  19. Perceptions of Asthma Quality of Life in Children and Parent Dyads in Two Rural Counties in West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Susan; McCrone, Susan; Shapiro, April L.

    2016-01-01

    This study examines perceived quality of life (QOL) in a convenience sample of children (aged 7-11) with asthma and their parents from two schools in rural West Virginia. Forty-nine child-parent dyads representing 25 males and 24 females completed the study. The PedsQL™ 3.0 Asthma Module was utilized to separately measure child and parent…

  20. Forty years of hydrometeorological data from the Fernow experimental forest, West Virginia. Forest Service general technical report (Final)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, M.B.; Kochenderfer, J.N.; Wood, F.; Angradi, T.R.; Edwards, P.

    1994-03-01

    Hydrometeorological data have been collected on the Fernow Experimental Forest in West Virginia since 1951. The publication summarizes these data, describes their collection, and provides other information that characterizes the Fernow. The value and utility of long-term data sets are discussed.

  1. Respect for Life: Report of a Conference at Harper's Ferry, West Virginia on The Traditional Upbringing of American Indian Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morey, Sylvester M., Ed.; Gilliam, Olivia L., Ed.

    In recognition of the past and potential contributions of American Indian philosophy, this book presents discussions which came out of a week long conference at Harper's Ferry, West Virginia. Conference participants included Native American elders (representatives from the Navajo, Mohawk, Crow, Kiowa, Pueblo, and Arapaho tribes) and officials of…

  2. Final Comparison of TM and MSS Data for Surface Mine Assessment in Logan County, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, R. G.; Blodget, H. W.; Marcell, R. M.

    1984-01-01

    A variety of classifications during both raw and transformed MSS and TM data sets from 4 September 1982 were performed for the Logan County, West Virginia study area. The object was to compare the utility of TM and MSS data for delineating small, irregular ground features, particularly surface mines, and also to test data reduction/transformation techniques (band selection, canonical analysis, and principal components) in relation to a traditional means of unsupervised classification. Statistical results demonstrate that, on the average, the TM classifications yielded an overall .53 factor of improvement relative to the MSS classifications. When the accuracies for only three minor (in terms of areal extent) land use categories are examined, the factor of improvement for TM over MSS increases to 1.48; i.e., the TM is nearly one and one-half times better than the MSS for delineating small and irregular ground features such as contour strip mines.

  3. The 2014 crude 4-methylcyclohexanemethanol chemical release and birth outcomes in West Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Stacey M; Ruestow, Peter; Keeton, Kara A; Novick, Rachel M; Marsh, Gary M; Paustenbach, Dennis J

    2017-07-10

    Approximately 10,000 gallons of crude 4-methylcyclohexanemethanol and propylene glycol phenyl ether were accidentally released into the Elk River upstream from a water treatment facility in West Virginia. The objective of this study was to use logistic and Poisson regression analyses to determine the effect potential exposures had on adverse birth outcomes (birth weight, small for gestational age, and abnormal Apgar score). We adjusted for confounding factors and assessed prevalence of adverse birth outcomes by residential location and timing of the pregnancy. There were no statistically significant interactions between residential location and timing of the pregnancy (range of p values: .157-.806). Changes in the prevalence of birth outcomes were consistent before and after the spill regardless of residential location. There was no evidence of an association between adverse birth outcomes and potential exposure to the released chemicals.

  4. Aerial gamma ray and magnetic survey, Huntington quadrangle: Ohio, West Virginia and Kentucky. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-04-01

    The Huntington quadrangle of Kentucky, Ohio, and West Virginia covers 7250 square miles of the easternmost Midwestern Physiographic Province. Paleozoic exposures dominate the surface. These Paleozoics deepen toward the east from approximately 500 feet to a maximum depth of 8000 feet. Precambrian basement is thought to underlie the entire area. No known uranium deposits exist in the area. One hundred anomalies were found using the standard statistical analysis. Some high uranium concentration anomalies that may overlie the stratigraphic equivalent of the Devonian-Mississippian New Albany or Chattanooga Shales may represent significant levels of naturally occurring uranium. Future studies should concentrate on this unit. Magnetic data are largely in concurrence with existing structural interpretations but suggest some complexities in the underlying Precambrian.

  5. Developing a Dissemination Model to Improve Intervention Reach among West Virginia Youth Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Kimberly; Jarrett, Traci; Anesetti-Rothermel, Andrew; O'Hara Tompkins, Nancy; Dino, Geri

    2014-01-01

    The not-on-tobacco program is an evidence-based teen smoking cessation program adopted by the American Lung Association (ALA). Although widely disseminated nationally via ALA Master Trainers, in recent years, adoption and implementation of the N-O-T program in West Virginia (WV) has slowed. WV, unfortunately, has one of the highest smoking rates in the US. Although it is a goal of public health science, dissemination of evidence-based interventions is woefully understudied. The present manuscript reviews a theoretical model of dissemination of the not-on-tobacco program in WV. Based on social marketing, diffusion of innovations, and social cognitive theories, the nine-phase model incorporates elements of infrastructure development, accountability, training, delivery, incentives, and communication. The model components as well as preliminary lessons learned from initial implementation are discussed.

  6. A comparative ecological study of selected cancers in Kanawha County, West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, R.; Talbott, E.O.; Marsh, G.M.; Case, B.W. (Department of Biostatistics, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States))

    1992-01-01

    This study compares mortality rates for selected causes of death in Kanawha County, West Virginia, to rates reported in a number of geographically defined populations for 1950-1984. Specific conditions selected for study included cancers of the biliary passages and liver, the bladder and other urinary organs, and the central nervous system (CNS), as well as leukemia and aleukemia, lymphosarcoma and reticulosarcoma, Hodgkin's disease, and cancer of all other lymphopoietic tissue. The analysis made use of several techniques for the investigation of ecological data, including the modeling of rates using Poission regression. The primary findings of this study concern two subgroups of cancers of the lymphatic and hematopoietic tissue: (1) leukemia and aleukemia, and (2) lymphosarcoma and reticulosarcoma. For both subgroups of cancers, white male residents of Kanawha County show evidence of significantly elevated mortality rates over the 35-year period of this study.

  7. Spatial analysis of geologic and hydrologic features relating to sinkhole occurrence in Jefferson County, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doctor, Daniel H.; Doctor, Katarina Z.

    2012-01-01

    In this study the influence of geologic features related to sinkhole susceptibility was analyzed and the results were mapped for the region of Jefferson County, West Virginia. A model of sinkhole density was constructed using Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) that estimated the relations among discrete geologic or hydrologic features and sinkhole density at each sinkhole location. Nine conditioning factors on sinkhole occurrence were considered as independent variables: distance to faults, fold axes, fracture traces oriented along bedrock strike, fracture traces oriented across bedrock strike, ponds, streams, springs, quarries, and interpolated depth to groundwater. GWR model parameter estimates for each variable were evaluated for significance, and the results were mapped. The results provide visual insight into the influence of these variables on localized sinkhole density, and can be used to provide an objective means of weighting conditioning factors in models of sinkhole susceptibility or hazard risk.

  8. Winter Waterbird Community Composition and Use at Created Wetlands in West Virginia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Michael L.

    2017-01-01

    Information on nonbreeding waterbirds using created wetlands in the Central Appalachian region of the United States is limited. We compared waterbird communities of two managed wetlands, created in 2013 and 2001, in West Virginia. We observed 27 species of waterbirds. Species richness and diversity were generally similar between the wetlands, but species composition and use differed. Branta canadensis (Canada Geese), Anas strepera (Gadwall), Bucephala albeola (Buffleheads), Aythya affinis (Lesser Scaup), and Aythya collaris (Ring-Necked Ducks) used the older wetland most frequently. Disparities in species use were the highest in March. The older wetland differed from the younger in supporting species such as diving ducks, possibly due to differences in size, vegetation, water depth, and microtopography. However, the ability to provide habitat for waterbirds during the winter was determined to be comparable between wetlands, despite their age difference. PMID:28386513

  9. Combating Youth Violence Through Anti-Violence Coalitions in Three West Virginia Counties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronda Sturgill

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Kids Win was funded by SAMHSA (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration for Cabell, Mason and Wayne Counties in West Virginia. The goal of the project was to develop anti-violence coalitions in the three counties and to develop a strategic plan for a pilot program combating youth violence. The pilot program was designed to use the Second Step and Hazelden Anti-Bullying curricula at the three middle schools. Evaluation methods included a survey of teachers, a survey of students, and a comparison of results of a state mandated school discipline report. All three data sources support the conclusion that violence was reduced significantly because of the Kids Win Program. Kids Win has demonstrated what can be accomplished by teaching students the behavioral skills needed to resolve problems without escalating violence. This program merits replication and expansion and can serve as a model for other programs.

  10. Health-hazard evaluation report MHETA 87-193-1865, Clarksburg Publishing Company, Clarksburg, West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kullman, G.J.

    1987-12-01

    In response to a request from employees at the Clarksburg Publishing Company, Clarksburg, West Virginia, a study was made of work related health complaints at their Exponet Telegram Building (ETB). Particular attention was given to employees reporting symptoms of headache, sinus trouble, nasal irritation, blurred vision, dizziness, diarrhea, memory loss, muscle weakness/cramping, nausea, confusion, and chills. Of the 124 workers in the ETB, 46% completed an indoor air quality survey. Discomfort related to work was reported by about 16%, and about 5% reported work related illness. The most-prevalent medical symptom was discomfort/irritation related to cigarette smoke. Air samples indicated no contaminants present at levels above those recommended for working environments. The ventilation system for the facility was suboptimal and recommendations were offered for its improvement and routine maintenance, along with a recommendation for a restriction or ban on smoking. The author concludes that symptoms in ETB workers are consistent with tight building syndrome.

  11. Keeping the books for environmental systems: an emergy analysis of West Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Daniel; Meisch, Maria; Demoss, Thomas; Pomponio, John; Bradley, M Patricia

    2004-06-01

    Emergy provides a general accounting mechanism that allows us to view the economy and the environment on the same income statement and balance sheet. This allows an auditor to verify the economic picture by checking it against a more complete representation of the flows and storages of real wealth as measured by emergy. In this study, we constructed emergy accounts for the state of West Virginia in 1997. The income statement showed annual production, consumption, and flows of emergy and dollars into and out of the state. The balance sheet evaluated the storage of emergy in some of the state's assets. Emergy indices were used to answer questions posed by managers and gain insight into the state's economic and environmental strengths and weaknesses. West Virginia has great wealth in nonrenewable resources (9E14 sej m-2 or 17 times the U.S. average). The investment ratio of emergy purchased outside to indigenous renewable and nonrenewable emergy was 2.2:1, which indicates a high potential for future development. However, the environmental loading ratio (14:1) was already 1.5 times higher than that found at an average location in the U.S. Twice as much emergy was exported as received and standard of living indicators showed that people have largely failed to benefit from their state's wealth. We propose that, just as in business, where decisions made using financial accounts ensure solvency; decisions governing the environment should be made based on an emergy accounting of activities, assets, and liabilities for the combined system of humanity and nature.

  12. Local socioeconomic changes and public fiscal implications of coal development in Wayne County, West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzger, J. E.; Mosena, P. W.; Stenehjem, E. J.

    1978-09-01

    This report attempts to characterize the economic and societal effects likely to accompany increased coal mining in and around Wayne County, West Virginia. The study concludes that population growth and increased demands for public services, with the exceptions of requirements for new roads, water, and sewer services, will be minimal as a result of the two new 2-million-tons-per-year deep mines planned for the area. The study estimates that both the County and the school district will experience positive new fiscal balances; i.e., more incremental annual revenue than additional mine-related annual expenditures. However, the town of Wayne is expected to experience a negative fiscal balance throughout the period of mine production. The study and its findings are each unique in several ways. First, the findings are somewhat unique in that major impacts (rapid population in-migration, shortages in housing and public services, and fiscal imbalances) are not projected to occur. In the heart of the coal mining district of Southern West Virginia similar levels of new mining may well have much different results. In areas, for example, where there are greater shortages of developable land, less adequate public and private infrastructure, and/or fewer available trained workers, the coal-related impacts would be dramatically different than those found for Wayne County. A second unique feature of this study concerns the manner in which it was originated and conducted. This study presents estimates of impacts for Wayne County and its associated jurisdictions which represent the combined knowledge and expertise of all parties involved: the citizens ofWayne County, the County Commission, the Advisory Board, the representatives from the Governor's Office, and the Argonne staff.

  13. Energy Efficiency, Water Efficiency, and Renewable Energy Site Assessment: Seneca Rocks Discovery Center, Seneca Rocks, West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiatreungwattana, Kosol [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Salasovich, James [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kandt, Alicen [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-03-22

    As part of ongoing efforts by the U.S. Forest Service to reduce energy use and incorporate renewable energy technologies into its facilities, the Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory performed an energy efficiency and renewable energy site assessment of the Seneca Rocks Discovery Center in Seneca Rocks, West Virginia. This report documents the findings of this assessment, and provides site-specific information for the implementation of energy and water conservation measures, and renewable energy measures.

  14. Connecting West Virginia fee-fishing businesses with the larger tourism market through the development of tourism package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zongxiang Mei; Chad Pierskalla; Michael Shuett

    2007-01-01

    Thirty-five or more fee-fishing businesses in West Virginia are often characterized as small businesses, and they could benefit from connecting with larger travel packages that are more likely to attract out-of state anglers. The objectives of this study are to: (1) identify mini-market segments based on fee-fishing experiences; (2) examine how fee-fishing mini-markets...

  15. Physical education in West Virginia schools: are we doing enough to generate peak bone mass and promote skeletal health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuler, Franklin D; Lycans, Dana; Gill, Thomas; Oliashirazi, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Peak bone mass (PBM) is attained at 25-35 years of age, followed by a lifelong decline in bone strength. The most rapid increase in bone mass occurs between the ages of 12-17. Daily school physical education (PE) programs have been shown to produce measurable increases in PBM, but are not federally mandated. Increases in PBM can decrease the lifelong risk of osteoporosis and fractures; critical for West Virginia prevention programs. Nationally only 1 in 6 schools require PE three days per week, with 4% of elementary schools, 8% of middle schools and 2% of high schools providing daily PE. In 2005, West Virginia passed the Healthy Lifestyles Act that returned physical education to the K-12 curriculum. This law requires only one credit of PE from grades 9-12 and provides only 35% of the recommended PE for grades K-12. This article highlights the relationship of PE to PBM and discusses the potential impact on West Virginia skeletal health.

  16. Probablilistic evaluation of earthquake detection and location capability for Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Ohio, and West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauk, F.J.; Christensen, D.H.

    1980-09-01

    Probabilistic estimations of earthquake detection and location capabilities for the states of Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Ohio and West Virginia are presented in this document. The algorithm used in these epicentrality and minimum-magnitude estimations is a version of the program NETWORTH by Wirth, Blandford, and Husted (DARPA Order No. 2551, 1978) which was modified for local array evaluation at the University of Michigan Seismological Observatory. Estimations of earthquake detection capability for the years 1970 and 1980 are presented in four regional minimum m/sub b/ magnitude contour maps. Regional 90% confidence error ellipsoids are included for m/sub b/ magnitude events from 2.0 through 5.0 at 0.5 m/sub b/ unit increments. The close agreement between these predicted epicentral 90% confidence estimates and the calculated error ellipses associated with actual earthquakes within the studied region suggest that these error determinations can be used to estimate the reliability of epicenter location. 8 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Depositional Model of the Marcellus Shale in West Virginia Based on Facies Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruner, Kathy

    2011-11-14

    A lithologic analysis of well exposed Marcellus outcrops has identified six different facies in West Virginia and neighboring states: (1) light gray calcareous shale, (2) fossiliferous limestone, (3) black calcareous shale, (4) black noncalcareous shale, (5) dark gray noncalcareous shale, and (6) K-bentonite. Close interbedding of these rock types attests to a complex, ever-changing environment on the eastern foreland ramp of the Appalachian Basin. The environmental setting was clearly not a deep trough, permanently anoxic, salinity stratified, sediment starved, and populated exclusively by phytoplankton—the traditional depositional model. To the contrary, our sedimentary data suggest a rather shallow water depth, intermittent anoxia, normal-marine salinity, a fluctuating input of siliciclastic mud, and faunal communities of low and moderate diversity. Interbedding of the shale and limestone lithofacies as well as the vertical stacking of facies associations is explained most simply by fluctuations in water depth coupled with fluctuations in sediment supply. The sea floor was, at times, immediately below wave base (Facies 1 and 2), around the depth of the thermocline (Facies 2 and 3), or below the thermocline (Facies 4 and 5), relative sea level changing through two sequences of lowstand, transgression, and highstand. Simultaneously the supply of siliciclastic mud was greater at times of lowstand (increased erosion) and highstand (prograding shoreline), and the supply smaller during transgression (sediment stored in distant coastal plain).

  18. Results of coal bed methane drilling, Mylan Park, Monongalia County, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, Leslie F.; Fedorko, Nick; Warwick, Peter D.; Grady, William C.; Crangle, Robert D.; Britton, James Q.

    2004-01-01

    The Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory funded drilling of a borehole (39.64378 deg E , -80.04376 deg N) to evaluate the potential for coal bed methane and carbon dioxide sequestration at Mylan Park, Monongalia County, West Virginia. The drilling commenced on September 23, 2002 and was completed on November 14, 2002. The 2,525 ft deep hole contained 1,483.41 ft of Pennsylvanian coal-bearing strata, 739.67 feet of Mississippian strata, and 301.93 ft. of Devonian strata. The drill site was located directly over abandoned Pittsburgh and Sewickley coal mines. Coal cores from remaining mine pillars were cut and retrieved for desorption from both mines. In addition, coals were cored and desorbed from the Pittsburgh Roof, Little Pittsburgh, Elk Lick, Brush Creek, Upper Kittanning, Middle Kittanning, Clarion, Upper Mercer, Lower Mercer, and Quakertown coal beds. All coals are Pennsylvanian in age and are high-volatile-A bituminous in rank. A total of 34.75 ft of coal was desorbed over a maximum period of 662 days, although most of the coal was desorbed for about 275 days. This report is provided in Adobe Acrobat format. Appendix 3 is provided in Excel format.

  19. Impact of valley fills on streamside salamanders in southern West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Petra Bohall; Williams, Jennifer M.

    2013-01-01

    Valley fills associated with mountaintop-removal mining bury stream headwaters and affect water quality and ecological function of reaches below fills. We quantified relative abundance of streamside salamanders in southern West Virginia during 2002 in three streams below valley fills (VFS) and in three reference streams (RS). We surveyed 36 10- × 2-m stream transects, once in summer and fall, paired by order and structure. Of 2,343 salamanders captured, 66.7% were from RS. Total salamanders (adults plus larvae) were more abundant in RS than VFS for first-order and second-order reaches. Adult salamanders had greater abundance in first-order reaches of RS than VFS. Larval salamanders were more abundant in second-order reaches of RS than VFS. No stream width or mesohabitat variables differed between VFS and RS. Only two cover variables differed. Silt cover, greater in VFS than RS first-order reaches, is a likely contributor to reduced abundance of salamanders in VFS. Second-order RS had more boulder cover than second-order VFS, which may have contributed to the higher total and larval salamander abundance in RS. Water chemistry assessments of our VFS and RS reported elevated levels of metal and ion concentrations in VFS, which can depress macroinvertebrate populations and likely affect salamander abundance. Valley fills appear to have significant negative effects on stream salamander abundance due to alterations in habitat structure, water quality and chemistry, and macroinvertebrate communities in streams below fills.

  20. Raccoon (Procyon lotor) diurnal den use within an intensively managed forest in central West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Sheldon F.; Berl, Jacob L.; Edwards, John W.; Ford, W. Mark; Wood, Petra Bohall

    2015-01-01

    Intensive forest management may influence the availability of suitable den sites for large den-seeking species, such as Procyon lotor (Raccoon). As part of a Raccoon ecology study on an industrial forest in the Allegheny Mountains of central West Virginia, we radio-tracked 32 Raccoons to 175 diurnal den sites to determine relative use of dens that included cavity trees, rock dens, log piles, slash piles, and exposed limbs. Patterns of den use significantly differed between sexes and among seasons. Overall, we recorded 58 cavity dens in 12 tree species with 7 maternal dens found in 5 tree species. Raccoons selected larger-diameter den trees than available cavity trees and non-cavity trees. Because the abundance of suitable tree cavities is known to influence Raccoon densities and recruitment at fine spatial scales and female Raccoons in this study used tree cavities as maternal den sites, the continued harvest of large-diameter trees (i.e., those capable of developing den cavities) without replacement may impact Raccoon recruitment within intensively managed forests throughout the central Appalachians.

  1. An Evaluation of Naloxone Use for Opioid Overdoses in West Virginia: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beheshti, Annahita; Lucas, Landyn; Dunz, Tanika; Haydash, Maryna; Chiodi, Hope; Edmiston, Breanna; Ford, Chad; Bohn, Natalie; Stein, John Hunter; Berrett, Anthony; Sobota, Brittney; Horzempa, Joseph

    2015-07-09

    Naloxone is a common treatment option for the reversal of an opioid overdose. The law regulating naloxone varies from state to state and therefore so does the drug's availability. The state of Rhode Island has legalized naloxone for over-the-counter use while a number of states allow prescriptions to opioid abusers and family members. The medical community as a whole appears to be divided on the issue of availability to lay persons. This is largely due to a lack of information on this relatively new subject, as well as discrepancies within the existing naloxone research in regard to the use of naloxone among the general public. This literature review provides an objective examination of the pros and cons of increasing the availability of naloxone to the public, with an emphasis on the state of West Virginia (WV). Due to WV's high rates of opioid abuse and overdose, the implications of increasing public accessibility to naloxone could be invaluable in the effort to reduce opioid related deaths. To this end, a WV law that has recently gone into effect allows emergency personnel and family members of opioid addicts to carry naloxone. Ongoing research investigations will determine the impact of this law in regard to the overall wellbeing of the residents of WV and the implications on future laws regulating naloxone use.

  2. Water quality and processes affecting dissolved oxygen concentrations in the Blackwater River, Canaan Valley, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, M.C.; Wiley, J.B.

    1996-01-01

    The water quality and environmental processes affecting dissolved oxygen were determined for the Blackwater River in Canaan Valley, West Virginia. Canaan Valley is oval-shaped (14 miles by 5 miles) and is located in the Allegheny Mountains at an average elevation of 3,200 feet above sea level. Tourism, population, and real estate development have increased in the past two decades. Most streams in Canaan Valley are a dilute calcium magnesium bicarbonate-type water. Streamwater typicaly was soft and low in alkalinity and dissolved solids. Maximum values for specific conductance, hardness, alkalinity, and dissolved solids occurred during low-flow periods when streamflow was at or near baseflow. Dissolved oxygen concentrations are most sensitive to processes affecting the rate of reaeration. The reaeration is affected by solubility (atmospheric pressure, water temperature, humidity, and cloud cover) and processes that determine stream turbulence (stream depth, width, velocity, and roughness). In the headwaters, photosynthetic dissolved oxygen production by benthic algae can result in supersaturated dissolved oxygen concentrations. In beaver pools, dissolved oxygen consumption from sediment oxygen demand and carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand can result in dissolved oxygen deficits.

  3. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Fifty. West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of West Virginia governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  4. Selection of overburden surface mining method in West Virginia by analytical hierarchy process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Timothy A.Nolan; Vladislav Kecojevic

    2014-01-01

    The broad objective of this research was to improve current surface mining practices and reduce negative environmental impact of overburden removal in West Virginia (WV). The specific objectives were to (i) compare con-ventional surface mining method (drilling, blasting, digging, and loading) to a surface miner (SM) method, and (ii) apply the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) to help select the optimal mining method based on production, cost and envi-ronmental criteria. The design and the procedures used in this research involve five interrelated modules:(i) rock properties of overburden in WV, (ii) drilling and blasting, (iii) digging and loading, (iv) SM method, and (v) comparative analysis and selection of the optimal mining method by AHP. Results of this research indicate that application of SM method would yield higher cost of overburden removal than conventional mining methods in rocks with a high unconfined compressive strength and abrasivity. A significant advantage of SM method, where applicable, is the elimination of the negative environmental impacts associated with blasting.

  5. Lyme Disease in West Virginia: An Assessment of Distribution and Clinicians' Knowledge of Disease and Surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sarah; Parker, David; Mark-Carew, Miguella; White, Robert; Fisher, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    Lyme disease case misclassification, a top public health concern, may be attributed to the current disconnect between clinical diagnosis and surveillance. This study examines Lyme disease distribution in West Virginia (WV) and determines clinicians' knowledge of both disease and surveillance. Lyme disease surveillance data for 2013 were obtained from the WV Bureau for Public Health. A validated survey, distributed to clinicians at an academic medical center, assessed clinicians' knowledge of disease diagnosis and surveillance. There were 297 adult Lyme disease cases of which 83 were confirmed. Clinician survey responses resulted in a correct response rate of 70% for Lyme disease knowledge questions. Fewer than half of all clinicians were aware of the surveillance criteria for confirming Lyme disease cases. Neither medical specialty nor previous treatment of patients with Lyme disease were significantly associated with clinicians' knowledge of the disease. Clinicians in WV are familiar with symptoms and clinical management of Lyme disease. However, they are less knowledgeable about diagnosis and public health surveillance comprising reporting and confirming cases of the disease. Clinicians and public health authorities should collaborate more closely to promote education and awareness as a key step to successfully reducing the burden of Lymne disease.

  6. What do consumers and healthcare providers in West Virginia think of long-term care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Ashish; Smith, Lisa A; Paul, David P

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, the media has portrayed long-term care in a negative light, with exposè news stories on skilled nursing facilities, personal care homes, and hospitals that provide long-term care. There have been few positive news stories to counter the negative ones, and there is concern that the public perception of long-term care is inaccurate. The authors conducted the following study to evaluate how the West Virginia consumer perceives and defines long-term care and if there is a difference in that perception as compared with healthcare workers' perceptions and definitions of long-term care. The results of the study indicate that the respondents' education level, not occupation, has the most significant influence on respondents' definitions and perceptions of long-term care. Respondents felt that although media articles are informative, they are not accurate, and that long-term care is a needed service they would consider both for themselves and for a loved one. The results of the study suggest that current marketing strategies employed by nursing homes are working, as respondents largely believe that long-term care is provided in nursing homes and that they would likely seek care there if needed.

  7. Cost Effectiveness of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 for the State of West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Athalye, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xie, YuLong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhuge, Jing Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Halverson, Mark A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Loper, Susan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Richman, Eric E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Moving to the ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 (ASHRAE 2013) edition from Standard 90.1-2010 (ASHRAE 2010) is cost-effective for the State of West Virginia. The table below shows the state-wide economic impact of upgrading to Standard 90.1-2013 in terms of the annual energy cost savings in dollars per square foot, additional construction cost per square foot required by the upgrade, and life-cycle cost (LCC) per square foot. These results are weighted averages for all building types in all climate zones in the state, based on weightings shown in Table 4. The methodology used for this analysis is consistent with the methodology used in the national cost-effectiveness analysis. Additional results and details on the methodology are presented in the following sections. The report provides analysis of two LCC scenarios: Scenario 1, representing publicly-owned buildings, considers initial costs, energy costs, maintenance costs, and replacement costs—without borrowing or taxes. Scenario 2, representing privately-owned buildings, adds borrowing costs and tax impacts.

  8. The counseling role of Baptist ministers in rural and urban West Virginia counties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangler, P R

    2001-01-01

    It is well established that about half of Americans suffering with a broad range of psychiatric diseases seek ministerial counseling instead of help from the medical community. Less well established is the influence of demographics, such as population density, on the mental health work of ministers. This study compares the counseling activities of Baptist ministers in rural and urban counties of West Virginia. Ministers responded to a questionnaire that assessed basic demographic data as well as attitudes regarding mental illness and counseling activity. County population density was then used to rank respondents. The respondents, who were almost exclusively male, were middle-aged and averaged greater than 20 years of experience in the ministry. They had an average church size of over 200 people. Although greater than 70% reported recent training in ministerial counseling, 85% indicated interest in a workshop focusing on common mental illnesses. No minister reported charging fees for their counseling. Significantly more counseling was reported by ministers from more urban areas with higher per capita incomes and larger congregations.

  9. Uncharted Waters: Communicating Health Risks During the 2014 West Virginia Water Crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Tracey L; Friedman, Daniela B; Brandt, Heather M; Spencer, S Melinda; Tanner, Andrea

    2016-09-01

    This study is among the first to examine how health risks are communicated through traditional and social media during a public health crisis. Using an innovative research approach, the study combined a content analysis with in-depth interviews to examine and understand how stakeholders involved in crisis response perceived media coverage after a chemical spill contaminated the drinking water of 300,000 West Virginia residents. A content analysis of print, television, and online media stories and tweets revealed that health risk information was largely absent from crisis coverage. Although traditional media stories were significantly more likely to include health information compared to tweets, public health sources were underutilized in traditional media coverage. Instead, traditional media favored the use of government sources outside the public health field, which stakeholders suggested was problematic because of a public distrust of officials and official information during the crisis. Results also indicated that Twitter was not a common or reliable source for health information but was important in the spread of other types of information. Ultimately, the study highlights a need for more deliberate media coverage of health risks and provides insight into how Twitter is used to spread crisis information.

  10. Groundwater lowering and stream incision rates in the Central Appalachian Mountains of West Virginia, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory S. Springer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface channel incision rates are of broad geomorphological interest because they set the boundary conditions for landscape change by affecting changes in local relief and hillslope angles. We report groundwater table lowering rates associated with subsurface Buckeye Creek and the surface channel of Spring Creek in southeastern West Virginia, USA. The mountainous watersheds have drainage areas of 14 km2 and 171 km2, respectively. The lowering rates are derived from U/Th-dating of stalagmites and the paleomagnetostratigraphy of clastic sediments in Buckeye Creek Cave. The oldest stalagmites have a minimum age of 0.54 Ma and we use a minimum age of 0.778 Ma for clastic cave sediments deposited during a period of reversed magnetic polarity. The water table at Buckeye Creek has lowered at a rate of ≤40 m Ma-1. Based on the relative elevations of Buckeye and Spring creeks, the water table at Spring Creek has lowered at a rate of ≤47 m Ma-1. These values are consistent with previously published rates obtained from caves in the region, although those rates were reported as surface channel incision rates, based on the assumption local groundwaters drained to the surface channel of interest. However, the rates we report are almost certainly not simple bedrock incision rates because of autogenic processes within the cave and surrounding, well-developed fluviokarst. Caveats aside, incision rates of ≤47 m Ma-1 now appear typical of landscapes of the Appalachian Mountains and Plateau.

  11. BioMEMS and Lab-on-a-Chip Course Education at West Virginia University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxin Liu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid growth of Biological/Biomedical MicroElectroMechanical Systems (BioMEMS and microfluidic-based lab-on-a-chip (LOC technology to biological and biomedical research and applications, demands for educated and trained researchers and technicians in these fields are rapidly expanding. Universities are expected to develop educational plans to address these specialized needs in BioMEMS, microfluidic and LOC science and technology. A course entitled BioMEMS and Lab-on-a-Chip was taught recently at the senior undergraduate and graduate levels in the Department of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering at West Virginia University (WVU. The course focused on the basic principles and applications of BioMEMS and LOC technology to the areas of biomedicine, biology, and biotechnology. The course was well received and the enrolled students had diverse backgrounds in electrical engineering, material science, biology, mechanical engineering, and chemistry. Student feedback and a review of the course evaluations indicated that the course was effective in achieving its objectives. Student presentations at the end of the course were a highlight and a valuable experience for all involved. The course proved successful and will continue to be offered regularly. This paper provides an overview of the course as well as some development and future improvements.

  12. Fold-to-fault progression of a major thrust zone revealed in horses of the North Mountain fault zone, Virginia and West Virginia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orndorff, Randall C.

    2012-01-01

    The method of emplacement and sequential deformation of major thrust zones may be deciphered by detailed geologic mapping of these important structures. Thrust fault zones may have added complexity when horse blocks are contained within them. However, these horses can be an important indicator of the fault development holding information on fault-propagation folding or fold-to-fault progression. The North Mountain fault zone of the Central Appalachians, USA, was studied in order to better understand the relationships of horse blocks to hanging wall and footwall structures. The North Mountain fault zone in northwestern Virginia and eastern panhandle of West Virginia is the Late Mississippian to Permian Alleghanian structure that developed after regional-scale folding. Evidence for this deformation sequence is a consistent progression of right-side up to overturned strata in horses within the fault zone. Rocks on the southeast side (hinterland) of the zone are almost exclusively right-side up, whereas rocks on the northwest side (foreland) of the zone are almost exclusively overturned. This suggests that the fault zone developed along the overturned southeast limb of a syncline to the northwest and the adjacent upright limb of a faulted anticline to the southeast.

  13. Fold-to-Fault Progression of a Major Thrust Zone Revealed in Horses of the North Mountain Fault Zone, Virginia and West Virginia, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randall C. Orndorff

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The method of emplacement and sequential deformation of major thrust zones may be deciphered by detailed geologic mapping of these important structures. Thrust fault zones may have added complexity when horse blocks are contained within them. However, these horses can be an important indicator of the fault development holding information on fault-propagation folding or fold-to-fault progression. The North Mountain fault zone of the Central Appalachians, USA, was studied in order to better understand the relationships of horse blocks to hanging wall and footwall structures. The North Mountain fault zone in northwestern Virginia and eastern panhandle of West Virginia is the Late Mississippian to Permian Alleghanian structure that developed after regional-scale folding. Evidence for this deformation sequence is a consistent progression of right-side up to overturned strata in horses within the fault zone. Rocks on the southeast side (hinterland of the zone are almost exclusively right-side up, whereas rocks on the northwest side (foreland of the zone are almost exclusively overturned. This suggests that the fault zone developed along the overturned southeast limb of a syncline to the northwest and the adjacent upright limb of a faulted anticline to the southeast.

  14. Vector contact rates on Eastern bluebird nestlings do not indicate West Nile virus transmission in Henrico County, Virginia, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caillouët, Kevin A; Robertson, Charles W; Wheeler, David C; Komar, Nicholas; Bulluck, Lesley P

    2013-11-27

    Sensitive indicators of spatial and temporal variation in vector-host contact rates are critical to understanding the transmission and eventual prevention of arboviruses such as West Nile virus (WNV). Monitoring vector contact rates on particularly susceptible and perhaps more exposed avian nestlings may provide an advanced indication of local WNV amplification. To test this hypothesis we monitored WNV infection and vector contact rates among nestlings occupying nest boxes (primarily Eastern bluebirds; Sialia sialis, Turdidae) across Henrico County, Virginia, USA, from May to August 2012. Observed host-seeking rates were temporally variable and associated with absolute vector and host abundances. Despite substantial effort to monitor WNV among nestlings and mosquitoes, we did not detect the presence of WNV in these populations. Generally low vector-nestling host contact rates combined with the negative WNV infection data suggest that monitoring transmission parameters among nestling Eastern bluebirds in Henrico County, Virginia, USA may not be a sensitive indicator of WNV activity.

  15. Vector Contact Rates on Eastern Bluebird Nestlings Do Not Indicate West Nile Virus Transmission in Henrico County, Virginia, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin A. Caillouët

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Sensitive indicators of spatial and temporal variation in vector-host contact rates are critical to understanding the transmission and eventual prevention of arboviruses such as West Nile virus (WNV. Monitoring vector contact rates on particularly susceptible and perhaps more exposed avian nestlings may provide an advanced indication of local WNV amplification. To test this hypothesis we monitored WNV infection and vector contact rates among nestlings occupying nest boxes (primarily Eastern bluebirds; Sialia sialis, Turdidae across Henrico County, Virginia, USA, from May to August 2012. Observed host-seeking rates were temporally variable and associated with absolute vector and host abundances. Despite substantial effort to monitor WNV among nestlings and mosquitoes, we did not detect the presence of WNV in these populations. Generally low vector-nestling host contact rates combined with the negative WNV infection data suggest that monitoring transmission parameters among nestling Eastern bluebirds in Henrico County, Virginia, USA may not be a sensitive indicator of WNV activity.

  16. Physical, chemical, and biological data for four wetland habitats in Canaan Valley, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, D.B.

    1996-01-01

    This report contains data collected during 1992 as part of a project designed to identify microenvironmental factors affecting rates of denitrification in wetlands in Canaan Valley, West Virginia. Four wetland habitats were selected for the study--a moss-lichen wetland, a persistent emergent wetland, a scrub-shrub wetland, and a riverine wetland. Physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of each habitat were determined by field measurements and laboratory analyses. Samples were collected in March, June, August, and October. Sediment pH, temperature, and oxidation-reduction potential were measured in the field. Sediment samples were analyzed for concentrations of calcium, sodium, magnesium, potassium, nitrate and nitrite, ammonia, ammonia plus organic nitrogen, phosphorus, inorganic carbon, and total carbon. The most probable number of denitrifying bacteria was determined by a multiple-tube test. The dominant plant species were identified by plant-community analysis. The moss-lichen wetland was characterized by low pH (3.4 to 5.0) and small populations of denitrifying bacteria (70 to 400 per gram of wet soil). The scrub-shrub wetland was also acidic (pH 4.0 to 5.0), but supported larger numbers of denitrifying bacteria (510 to 11,000 per gram of wet soil). The number of denitrifying bacteria in the persistent emergent wetland exceeded 1,000,000 per gram of wet soil in early summer and pH in this habitat was higher (5.1 to 6.6) than in the bogs. Riverine wetland pH ranged from 5.4 to 6.9, and the number of denitrifying bacteria ranged from 200 to 11,000 per gram of wet soil.

  17. A retrospective tiered environmental assessment of the Mount Storm Wind Energy Facility, West Virginia,USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Efroymson, Rebecca Ann [ORNL; Day, Robin [No Affiliation; Strickland, M. Dale [Western EcoSystems Technology

    2012-11-01

    Bird and bat fatalities from wind energy projects are an environmental and public concern, with post-construction fatalities sometimes differing from predictions. Siting facilities in this context can be a challenge. In March 2012 the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) released Land-based Wind Energy Guidelines to assess collision fatalities and other potential impacts to species of concern and their habitats to aid in siting and management. The Guidelines recommend a tiered approach for assessing risk to wildlife, including a preliminary site evaluation that may evaluate alternative sites, a site characterization, field studies to document wildlife and habitat and to predict project impacts, post construction studies to estimate impacts, and other post construction studies. We applied the tiered assessment framework to a case study site, the Mount Storm Wind Energy Facility in Grant County, West Virginia, USA, to demonstrate the use of the USFWS assessment approach, to indicate how the use of a tiered assessment framework might have altered outputs of wildlife assessments previously undertaken for the case study site, and to assess benefits of a tiered ecological assessment framework for siting wind energy facilities. The conclusions of this tiered assessment for birds are similar to those of previous environmental assessments for Mount Storm. This assessment found risk to individual migratory tree-roosting bats that was not emphasized in previous preconstruction assessments. Differences compared to previous environmental assessments are more related to knowledge accrued in the past 10 years rather than to the tiered structure of the Guidelines. Benefits of the tiered assessment framework include good communication among stakeholders, clear decision points, a standard assessment trajectory, narrowing the list of species of concern, improving study protocols, promoting consideration of population-level effects, promoting adaptive management through post

  18. Soil biochemical properties after six years in amended brown and gray mine soils in West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, C.; Sexstone, A.; Skousen, J.

    2015-06-01

    Surface coal mining in the eastern USA disturbs hundreds of hectares of land every year and removes valuable and ecologically diverse eastern deciduous forests. Reclamation involves restoring the landscape to approximate original contour, replacing the topsoil, and revegetating the site with trees and herbaceous species to a designated post-mining land use. Re-establishing an ecosystem of ecological and economic value as well as restoring soil quality on disturbed sites are the goals of land reclamation, and microbial properties of mine soils can be indicators of restoration success. Reforestation plots were constructed in 2007 using weathered brown sandstone or unweathered gray sandstone as topsoil substitutes to evaluate tree growth and soil properties at Arch Coal's Birch River Mine in West Virginia, USA. All plots were planted with 12 hardwood tree species and subplots were hydroseeded with an herbaceous seed mix and fertilizer. After six years, average tree volume index was nearly ten times greater for trees grown in brown (3853 cm3) compared to gray mine soils (407 cm3). Average pH of brown mine soils increased from 4.7 to 5.0, while gray mine soils declined from 7.9 to 7.0. Hydroseeding doubled tree volume index and ground cover on both mine soils. Hydroseeding doubled microbial biomass carbon (MBC) on brown mine soils (8.7 vs. 17.5 mg kg-1), but showed no effect on gray (13.3 vs. 12.8 mg kg-1). Hydroseeding also increased the ratio of MBC to soil organic C in both soils and more than tripled the ratio for potentially mineralizable nitrogen (PMN) to total N. Brown mine soils were a better growth medium than gray mine soils and hydroseeding was an important component of reclamation due to improved biochemical properties and microbial activity in mine soils.

  19. A qualitative assessment of West Virginia pharmacist activities and attitude in diabetes management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatnawi, Aymen; Latif, David A

    2017-06-01

    The role of pharmacists in chronic disease state management has been shown to significantly improve patient health outcomes and reduce overall health care costs. The current study is designed to assess the roles and attitudes of West Virginia (WV) pharmacists toward diabetes, evaluate services provided, address pharmacist clinical understanding and training, and demonstrate the challenges that limit pharmacists ability to deliver an efficient disease state management. We invited 435 preceptors affiliated with the University of Charleston School of Pharmacy to participate in the study using Qualtrics online survey software. The survey was divided into sections related to pharmacists, practice environment, pharmacist's roles in diabetes management, and challenges faced that limit their ability to deliver effective care to diabetic patients. Data were analyzed using 1-way analysis of variance, and a P value ≤.05 was considered statistically significant. Of all eligible invited preceptors, 104 accessed the online survey based on the Qualtrics tracking tool, while 58 participated in the survey with a 56% response rate. Generally, WV pharmacists have positive attitudes regarding the provision of primary activities related to drug use and its associated problems. However, we report that WV pharmacists are less involved in providing education or recommendations regarding diabetes-associated risk factors such as nephropathy, retinopathy, foot care, and gastroparesis. In addition, the majority of pharmacists indicated that they face many challenges related to patient and the practice site environment that limit their ability to provide optimum diabetes patient care services. Despite the mounting evidence that pharmacists can improve diabetic patient outcomes while significantly reducing overall costs, WV pharmacists are less involved in providing education or counseling in a variety of areas related to disease state management. In addition, identifying pharmacist

  20. Assessment of Impact and Recovery Needs in Communities Affected by the Elk River Chemical Spill, West Virginia, April 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrer, Sherry L; Fechter-Leggett, Ethan; Bayleyegn, Tesfaye; Mark-Carew, Miguella; Thomas, Carrie; Bixler, Danae; Noe, Rebecca S; Hsu, Joy; Haddy, Loretta; Wolkin, Amy

    In January 2014, 4-methylcyclohexanemethanol spilled into the Elk River near Charleston, West Virginia, contaminating the water supply for about 120 000 households. The West Virginia American Water Company (WVAWC) issued a "do not use" water order for 9 counties. After the order was lifted (10 days after the spill), the communities' use of public water systems, information sources, alternative sources of water, and perceived impact of the spill on households were unclear to public health officials. To assist in recovery efforts, the West Virginia Bureau for Public Health and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention conducted a Community Assessment for Public Health Emergency Response (CASPER). We used the CASPER 2-stage cluster sampling design to select a representative sample of households to interview, and we conducted interviews in 171 households in April 2014. We used a weighted cluster analysis to generate population estimates in the sampling frame. Before the spill, 74.4% of households did not have a 3-day alternative water supply for each household member and pet. Although 83.6% of households obtained an alternative water source within 1 day of the "do not use" order, 37.4% of households reportedly used WVAWC water for any purpose. Nearly 3 months after the spill, 36.1% of households believed that their WVAWC water was safe, and 33.5% reported using their household water for drinking. CASPER results identified the need to focus on basic public health messaging and household preparedness efforts. Recommendations included (1) encouraging households to maintain a 3-day emergency water supply, (2) identifying additional alternative sources of water for future emergencies, and (3) increasing community education to address ongoing concerns about water.

  1. Factors Affecting the Implementation of Policy 2450, Distance Education and the West Virginia Virtual School, as Perceived by Principals/Assistant Principals, Counselors, and Distance Learning Contacts and/or Course Facilitators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdette, Keith R.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the factors important to the implementation of West Virginia Board of Education Policy 2450, Distance Learning and the West Virginia Virtual School. The purpose of this study was to determine the factors that facilitated and impeded implementation of the policy, as perceived by principals/assistant principals, counselors, and…

  2. Cambarus (C.) hatfieldi, a new species of crayfish (Decapoda:Cambaridae) from the Tug Fork River Basin of Kentucky, Virginia and West Virginia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughman, Zachary J.; Fagundo, Raquel A.; Lau, Evan; Welsh, Stuart; Thoma, Roger F.

    2013-01-01

    Cambarus (Cambarus) hatfieldi is a stream-dwelling crayfish that appears to be endemic to the Tug Fork River system of West Virginia, Virginia, and Kentucky. Within this region, it is prevalent in all major tributaries in the basin as well as the Tug Fork River’s mainstem. The new species is morphologically most similar to Cambarus sciotensis and Cambarus angularis. It can be differentiated from C. sciotensis by its squamous, subtrinagular chelae compared to the elongate triangular chelae of C. sciotensis; its shorter palm length/palm depth ratio (1.9) compared to C. sciotensis (2.3); and a smaller areola length/total carapace length ratio (30.4% vs.36.5% respectively). Cambarus hatfieldican be differentiated from C. angularis by its smaller areola length/total carapace length ratio (30.4% vs. 36.7% respectively); a smaller rostrum width/rostral length ratio (59.4% vs. 67.2% respectively); its rounded abdominal pleura as compared to the subtruncated pleura of C. angularis; the length of the central projection and mesial process of C. hatfieldi which both extend to the margin of the gonopod shaft or slightly beyond the margin compared to the central projection of C. sciotensis and C. angulariswhere both extend well beyond the margin of the gonopod shaft.

  3. Characterization of the Marcellus Shale based on computer-assisted correlation of wireline logs in Virginia and West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enomoto, Catherine B.; Olea, Ricardo A.; Coleman, James L.

    2014-01-01

    The Middle Devonian Marcellus Shale in the Appalachian basin extends from central Ohio on the west to eastern New York on the east, and from north-central New York on the north to northern Tennessee on the south. Its thickness ranges from 0 feet (ft) where it pinches out to the west to as much as 700 ft in its eastern extent. Within the Broadtop synclinorium, the thickness of the Marcellus Shale ranges from 250 to 565 ft. Although stratigraphic complexities have been documented, a significant range in thickness most likely is because of tectonic thickening from folds and thrust faults. Outcrop studies in the Valley and Ridge and Appalachian Plateaus provinces illustrate the challenges of interpreting the relation of third-order faults, folds, and “disturbed” zones to the regional tectonic framework. Recent field work within the Valley and Ridge province determined that significant faulting and intraformational deformation are present within the Marcellus Shale at the outcrop scale. In an attempt to determine if this scale of deformation is detectable with conventional wireline logs, petrophysical properties (primarily mineralogy and porosity) were measured by interpretation of gamma-ray and bulk-density logs. The results of performing a statistical correlation of wireline logs from nine wells indicated that there are discontinuities within the Millboro Shale (undifferentiated Marcellus Shale and Mahantango Formation) where there are significant thickness differences between wells. Also, some intervals likely contain mineralogy that makes these zones more prone to layer-shortening cleavage duplexes. The Correlator program proved to be a useful tool in a region of contractional deformation.

  4. Digital Data Set of Orchards Where Arsenical Pesticides Were Likely Used in Clarke and Frederick Counties, Virginia, and Berkeley and Jefferson Counties, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Bradley W.; Larkins, Peter; Robinson,, Gilpin R.

    2006-01-01

    This data set shows orchard locations in Clarke and Frederick Counties, Virginia and Berkeley and Jefferson Counties, West Virginia where arsenical pesticides were likely used. The orchard locations are based on air photos and topographic maps prepared using information from the time period of extensive use of arsenical pesticides between the 1920s and 1960s. An orchard's presence in this data set does not necessarily indicate the use of arsenical pesticides on the site or that elevated arsenic and metal concentrations are present. Arsenical pesticides may have been used on part, or none, of the land and, under current land use, the land may have been remediated and no longer contain elevated arsenic and metal concentrations in soil. The data set was created to be used in an assessment of soil contamination related to past use of arsenical pesticides in orchards in the northern part of the Great Valley region, Virginia and West Virginia. Previous studies have documented that elevated concentrations of arsenic, lead, and sometimes copper occur in the soils of former apple orchards (Veneman et al., 1983; Jones and Hatch, 1937). Arsenical pesticide use was most extensive and widespread in agricultural applications from the 1920s to the late 1950s, and largely ceased agricultural use by the early 1960s in the nation. During this time period, lead arsenate was the most extensively used arsenical pesticide (Peryea, 1998), particularly in apple orchards. Other metal-bearing pesticides, such as copper acetoarsenite (Paris Green), Bordeaux Blue (a mixture of copper sulfate and calcium hydroxide), and organic mercury fumigants were used to a lesser degree in orchards (Peryea, 1998; Shepard, 1939; Veneman et al., 1983). During the time arsenical pesticides were extensively used, federal and state pesticide laws did not require farmers to keep accurate records of the quantity, location, and type of arsenical pesticides used on their property, thus the quantity and distribution

  5. The Impact of Location and Proximity on Consumers' Willingness to Pay for Green Electricity: The Case of West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkansah, Kofi

    During the 2015 legislative session, West Virginia lawmakers passed a bill to repeal the Renewable and Alternative Energy Portfolio Standards Act of 2009 (ARPS). Legislators stated concerns about ARPS's impacts on coal industry related jobs in the state as the major factor driving this repeal. However, no comprehensive study on public acceptance, opinions, or willingness to pay (WTP) for renewable/and or alternative sources of electricity within West Virginia was used to inform this repeal decision. As the state of West Virginia struggles to find the right path to expand its renewable energy portfolio, public acceptance of renewable electricity is crucial to establishing a viable market for these forms of energy and also ensure the long-term sustainability of any RPS policy that may be enacted in the future. This study sought to assess consumers' preferences, attitudes and WTP for renewable and alternative electricity in West Virginia. The monetary values that consumers placed on proximity as an attribute of a renewable and alternative electricity generation source were also estimated. Two counties in West Virginia were selected as study areas based on the types of electricity generation facility that already exist in each county -one county with coal-fired power plants (Monongalia County) and another with both a coal-fired power plant and a wind farm (Grant County). A forced choice experiment survey was used with attributes that varied in source of energy (wind versus natural gas), proximity of the generation source relative to the respondent's residence (near, moderate or far) and an additional premium per month on the electric bill (varying from 1 to 15). Respondents were asked to choose between generating 10% of the electricity supplied to them from wind or natural gas. Random samples of 1500 residents from each county were sent surveys and response rates were 27.0% (Monongalia) and 35.3% (Grant). A Mixed logit econometric models were used to analyze consumer

  6. New Book Recounts Exciting, Colorful History Of Radio Astronomy in Green Bank, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    A new book published by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) tells the story of the founding and early years of the Observatory at Green Bank, West Virginia. But it was Fun: the first forty years of radio astronomy at Green Bank, is not a formal history, but rather a scrapbook of early memos, recollections, anecdotes and reports. But it was Fun... is liberally illustrated with archival photographs. It includes historical and scientific papers from symposia held in 1987 and 1995 to celebrate the birthdays of two of the radio telescopes at the Observatory. Book cover The National Radio Astronomy Observatory was formed in 1956 after the National Science Foundation decided to establish an observatory in the eastern United States for the study of faint radio signals from distant objects in the Universe. But it was Fun... reprints early memos from the group of scientists who searched the mountains for a suitable site -- an area free from radio transmitters and other sources of radio interference -- "in a valley surrounded by as many ranges of high mountains in as many directions as possible," which was "at least 50 miles distant from any city or other concentration of people." The committee settled on Green Bank, a small village in West Virginia, and the book documents the struggles that followed to create a world-class scientific facility in an isolated area more accustomed to cows than computers. Groundbreaking at the Observatory, then a patchwork of farms and fields, took place in October 1957, only a few days after the launch of Sputnik by the Soviet Union. A year later, Green Bank's first telescope was dedicated, and the book contains a transcription of speeches given at that ceremony, when the Cold War, the space race and America's scientific stature were issues of the hour. The centerpiece of the new Observatory was to be a highly-precise radio telescope 140 feet in diameter, but it was expected that it would soon be surpassed by dishes of much greater

  7. Water quality of groundwater and stream base flow in the Marcellus Shale Gas Field of the Monongahela River Basin, West Virginia, 2011-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Douglas B.; Kozar, Mark D.; Messinger, Terence; Mulder, Michon L.; Pelak, Adam J.; White, Jeremy S.

    2015-01-01

    The Marcellus Shale gas field underlies portions of New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Virginia, Maryland, Tennessee, and West Virginia. Development of hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling technology led to extensive development of gas from the Marcellus Shale beginning about 2007. The need to identify and monitor changes in water-quality conditions related to development of the Marcellus Shale gas field prompted the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the West Virginia Department of Environmental Protection, Division of Water and Waste Management, to document water quality for comparison with water quality in samples collected at a future date. The identification of change in water-quality conditions over time is more difficult if baseline water-quality conditions have not been documented.

  8. Feasibilities of a Coal-Biomass to Liquids Plant in Southern West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyya, Debangsu [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); DVallance, David [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); Henthorn, Greg [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); Grushecky, Shawn [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2016-09-30

    This project has generated comprehensive and realistic results of feasibilities for a coal-biomass to liquids (CBTL) plant in southern West Virginia; and evaluated the sensitivity of the analyses to various anticipated scenarios and parametric uncertainties. Specifically the project has addressed economic feasibility, technical feasibility, market feasibility, and financial feasibility. In the economic feasibility study, a multi-objective siting model was developed and was then used to identify and rank the suitable facility sites. Spatial models were also developed to assess the biomass and coal feedstock availabilities and economics. Environmental impact analysis was conducted mainly to assess life cycle analysis and greenhouse gas emission. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis were also investigated in this study. Sensitivity analyses on required selling price (RSP) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of CBTL fuels were conducted according to feedstock availability and price, biomass to coal mix ratio, conversion rate, internal rate of return (IRR), capital cost, operational and maintenance cost. The study of siting and capacity showed that feedstock mixed ratio limited the CBTL production. The price of coal had a more dominant effect on RSP than that of biomass. Different mix ratios in the feedstock and conversion rates led to RSP ranging from $104.3 - $157.9/bbl. LCA results indicated that GHG emissions ranged from 80.62 kg CO2 eq to 101.46 kg CO2 eq/1,000 MJ of liquid fuel at various biomass to coal mix ratios and conversion rates if carbon capture and storage (CCS) was applied. Most of water and fossil energy were consumed in conversion process. Compared to petroleum-derived-liquid fuels, the reduction in GHG emissions could be between -2.7% and 16.2% with CBTL substitution. As for the technical study, three approaches of coal and biomass to liquids, direct, indirect and hybrid, were considered in the analysis. The process models including

  9. Hydrogeologic Setting and Ground-Water Flow in the Leetown Area, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozar, Mark D.; Weary, David J.; Paybins, Katherine S.; Pierce, Herbert A.

    2007-01-01

    The Leetown Science Center is a research facility operated by the U.S. Geological Survey that occupies approximately 455-acres near Kearneysville, Jefferson County, West Virginia. Aquatic and fish research conducted at the Center requires adequate supplies of high-quality, cold ground water. Three large springs and three production wells currently (in 2006) supply water to the Center. The recent construction of a second research facility (National Center for Cool and Cold Water Aquaculture) operated by the U.S. Department of Agriculture and co-located on Center property has placed additional demands on available water resources in the area. A three-dimensional steady-state finite-difference ground-water flow model was developed to simulate ground-water flow in the Leetown area and was used to assess the availability of ground water to sustain current and anticipated future demands. The model also was developed to test a conceptual model of ground-water flow in the complex karst aquifer system in the Leetown area. Due to the complexity of the karst aquifer system, a multidisciplinary research study was required to define the hydrogeologic setting. Geologic mapping, surface- and borehole-geophysical surveys, stream base-flow surveys, and aquifer tests were conducted to provide the hydrogeologic data necessary to develop and calibrate the model. It would not have been possible to develop a numerical model of the study area without the intensive data collection and methods developments components of the larger, more comprehensive hydrogeologic investigation. Results of geologic mapping and surface-geophysical surveys verified the presence of several prominent thrust faults and identified additional faults and other complex geologic structures (including overturned anticlines and synclines) in the area. These geologic structures are known to control ground-water flow in the region. Results of this study indicate that cross-strike faults and fracture zones are major

  10. Switchgrass potential on reclaimed surface mines for biofuel production in West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Michael A.

    The high cost and environmental risks associated with non-renewable energy sources has caused an increased interest in, and development of renewable biofuels. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), a warm season perennial grass, has been investigated as a source of biofuel feedstock due to its high biomass production on marginal soils, its tolerance of harsh growing conditions, and its ability to provide habitat for wildlife and soil conservation cover. West Virginia contains vast expanses of reclaimed surface mine lands and could potentially benefit from the production of switchgrass as a biofuel feedstock. Furthermore, switchgrass production could satisfy Surface Mining Reclamation and Control Act of 1977 (SMCRA) requirements for reclamation bond release to mine operators. Three separate studies will be discussed in this thesis to determine if switchgrass grown on reclaimed surface mines can produce yields similar to yields from stands grown under normal agronomic conditions and what common surface mining reclamation practices may be most appropriate for growing switchgrass. The first study examined yield production of three commercially-available, upland switchgrass varieties grown on two reclaimed surface mines in production years two, three and four. The Hampshire Hill mine site, which was reclaimed in the late 1990s using top soil and treated municipal sludge, averaged 5,800 kg (ha-yr)-1 of switchgrass compared to 803 kg (ha-yr)-1 at the Hobet 21 site which was reclaimed with crushed, unweathered rock over compacted overburden. Site and variety interacted with Cave-in-Rock as the top performer at the more fertile Hampshire Hill site and Shawnee produced the highest yields at Hobet 21 (7,853 kg ha-1 and 1,086 kg ha-1 averaged across years, respectively). Switchgrass yields increased from 2009 to 2010, but declined from 2010 to 2011. Switchgrass yields from farmlands in this region averaged about 15000 kg (ha-yr)-1 in the research literature, so switchgrass grown

  11. Development of the West Virginia University Small Microgravity Research Facility (WVU SMiRF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Kyle G.

    West Virginia University (WVU) has created the Small Microgravity Research Facility (SMiRF) drop tower through a WVU Research Corporation Program to Stimulate Competitive Research (PSCoR) grant on its campus to increase direct access to inexpensive and repeatable reduced gravity research. In short, a drop tower is a tall structure from which experimental payloads are dropped, in a controlled environment, and experience reduced gravity or microgravity (i.e. "weightlessness") during free fall. Currently, there are several methods for conducting scientific research in microgravity including drop towers, parabolic flights, sounding rockets, suborbital flights, NanoSats, CubeSats, full-sized satellites, manned orbital flight, and the International Space Station (ISS). However, none of the aforementioned techniques is more inexpensive or has the capability of frequent experimentation repeatability as drop tower research. These advantages are conducive to a wide variety of experiments that can be inexpensively validated, and potentially accredited, through repeated, reliable research that permits frequent experiment modification and re-testing. Development of the WVU SMiRF, or any drop tower, must take a systems engineering approach that may include the detailed design of several main components, namely: the payload release system, the payload deceleration system, the payload lifting and transfer system, the drop tower structure, and the instrumentation and controls system, as well as a standardized drop tower payload frame for use by those researchers who cannot afford to spend money on a data acquisition system or frame. In addition to detailed technical development, a budgetary model by which development took place is also presented throughout, summarized, and detailed in an appendix. After design and construction of the WVU SMiRF was complete, initial calibration provided performance characteristics at various payload weights, and full-scale checkout via

  12. Reform Theory into Practice: A Case Study Examination of West Virginia's Efforts To Promote Inclusive Schooling through Site-Based Partnership Decision-Making Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pae, Holly

    A study examined the extent to which faculty senate involvement in strategic planning for inclusion influenced the implementation of inclusive practices in schools. Case studies in four West Virginia middle schools included examination of school strategic plans, observation, and teacher surveys and interviews. Analysis of findings across cases…

  13. General Robert E. Lee (1807-70) and Philanthropist George Peabody (1795-1869) at White Sulphur Springs, West Virginia, July 23-Aug. 30, 1869.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Franklin; Parker, Betty J.

    This paper discusses the chance meeting at White Sulphur Springs (West Virginia) of two important public figures, Robert E. Lee and George Peabody, whose rare encounter marked a symbolic turn from Civil War bitterness toward reconciliation and the lifting power of education. The paper presents an overview of Lee's life and professional and…

  14. A West Virginia case study: does erosion differ between streambanks clustered by the bank assessment of nonpoint source consequences of sediment (BANCS) model parameters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abby L. McQueen; Nicolas P. Zegre; Danny L. Welsch

    2013-01-01

    The integration of factors and processes responsible for streambank erosion is complex. To explore the influence of physical variables on streambank erosion, parameters for the bank assessment of nonpoint source consequences of sediment (BANCS) model were collected on a 1-km reach of Horseshoe Run in Tucker County, West Virginia. Cluster analysis was used to establish...

  15. The spatial epidemiology and clinical features of reported cases of La Crosse Virus infection in West Virginia from 2003 to 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bixler Danae

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background La Crosse virus (LACV is a major cause of pediatric encephalitis in the United States. Since the mid-1980s, the number of reported cases of LACV infection in West Virginia has continued to rise and the state currently reports the most cases in the United States. The purpose of this study was to investigate and describe the spatial epidemiology and clinical presentation of LACV infection cases reported in West Virginia, as well as to provide a description of the environmental conditions present at the residences of the LACV infection cases. Methods Descriptive and spatial analyses were performed on LACV infection cases reported to the West Virginia Department of Health from 2003 to 2007. Clinical and environmental variables were available for 96 cases and residence data were available for 68 of these cases. Spatial analyses using the global Moran's I and Kulldorff's spatial scan statistic were performed using the population 15 years and younger at both the county and census tract levels to identify those geographic areas at the highest risk of infection. Results Two statistically significant (p Conclusions The cumulative incidences of LACV infection from 2003 to 2007 were considerably higher than previously reported for West Virginia, and statistically significant high-risk clusters for LACV infection were detected at both the county and census tract levels. The finding of a high CFR and the identification of those areas at highest risk for infection will be useful for guiding future research and intervention efforts.

  16. Vulnerability of oak-dominated forests in West Virginia to invasive exotic plants: temporal and spatial patterns of nine exotic species using herbarium records and land classification data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cynthia D. Huebner

    2003-01-01

    Are oak-dominated forests immune to invasive exotic plants? Herbarium and land classification data were used to evaluate the extent of spread of nine invasive exotic plants and to relate their distributions to remotely-sensed land use types in West Virginia. Collector-defined habitats indicated that the most common habitat was roadsides, but seven of the nine species...

  17. Geologic Controls of Hydrocarbon Occurrence in the Southern Appalachian Basin in Eastern Tennessee, Southwestern Virginia, Eastern Kentucky, and Southern West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert D. Hatcher

    2004-05-31

    This report summarizes the second-year accomplishments of a three-year program to investigate the geologic controls of hydrocarbon occurrence in the southern Appalachian basin in eastern Tennessee, southwestern Virginia, eastern Kentucky, and southern West Virginia. The project: (1) employs the petroleum system approach to understand the geologic controls of hydrocarbons; (2) attempts to characterize the T-P parameters driving petroleum evolution; (3) attempts to obtain more quantitative definitions of reservoir architecture and identify new traps; (4) is working with USGS and industry partners to develop new play concepts and geophysical log standards for subsurface correlation; and (5) is geochemically characterizing the hydrocarbons (cooperatively with USGS). Second-year results include: All current milestones have been met and other components of the project have been functioning in parallel toward satisfaction of year-3 milestones. We also have been effecting the ultimate goal of the project in the dissemination of information through presentations at professional meetings, convening a major workshop in August 2003, and the publication of results. Our work in geophysical log correlation in the Middle Ordovician units is bearing fruit in recognition that the criteria developed locally in Tennessee and southern Kentucky have much greater extensibility than anticipated earlier. We have identified a major 60 mi-long structure in the western part of the Valley and Ridge thrust belt that is generating considerable exploration interest. If this structure is productive, it will be one of the largest structures in the Appalachians. We are completing a more quantitative structural reconstruction of the Valley and Ridge than has been made before. This should yield major dividends in future exploration in the southern Appalachian basin. Our work in mapping, retrodeformation, and modeling of the Sevier basin is a major component of the understanding of the Ordovician

  18. Geologic remote sensing over the Cottageville, West Virginia, gas field. Final report, August 15, 1977-February 15, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, P. L.; Wagner, H. L.; Shuchman, R. A.

    1979-02-01

    Remote sensing of geologic features was investigated for the purpose of exploration for gas reserves in the eastern Mississippian-Devonian Shales. The Cottageville gas field in Jackson and Mason Counties, West Virginia, was used as a test site for this purpose. Available photographic and multispectral (MSS) images from Landsat were obtained; also 4-channel synthetic aperture radar and 12-channel MSS in the range between ultraviolet and far infrared were gathered by the Environmental Research Institute of Michigan over the test site. The images were first interpreted visually for lineaments. Then the images were enhanced by many different digital computation techniques in addition to analysis and enhancement by optical techniques. Subtle, interpretative lineaments were found which could not be enhanced to an obvious level by the procedures used. Two new spatial enhancement procedures were developed.

  19. Crystallaria cincotta, a new species of darter (Teleostei: Percidae) from the Elk River of the Ohio River drainage, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, S.A.; Wood, R.M.

    2008-01-01

    A new species of percid, Crystallaria cincotta, is described from the Cumberland, Elk, Green, and Muskingum river drainages of the Ohio River basin, USA. It differs from populations of Crystallaria asprella of the Gulf Coast, lower Mississippi River, middle Mississippi River, upper Mississippi River, and Wabash River drainages by having a reduced number of cheek scale rows restricted to the post-orbital region, a falcate margin on the pelvic fins, a preorbital blotch distinctly separate from the anterior orbital rim, and a wide mouth gape. The Elk River population is also divergent genetically from populations of the Gulf Coast, lower Mississippi River, and upper Mississippi River drainages. Crystallaria cincotta, discovered in the Elk River of the Ohio River drainage in 1980, is a rare species with the only extant population represented by 12 individuals collected from 1980-2005 from the lower 36 km section of the Elk River, West Virginia. Copyright ?? 2008 Magnolia Press.

  20. Geologic Controls of Hydrocarbon Occurrence in the Southern Appalachian Basin in Eastern Tennessee, Southwestern Virginia, Eastern Kentucky, and Southern West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert D. Hatcher

    2003-05-31

    This report summarizes the first-year accomplishments of a three-year program to investigate the geologic controls of hydrocarbon occurrence in the southern Appalachian basin in eastern Tennessee, southwestern Virginia, eastern Kentucky, and southern West Virginia. The project: (1) employs the petroleum system approach to understand the geologic controls of hydrocarbons; (2) attempts to characterize the T-P parameters driving petroleum evolution; (3) attempts to obtain more quantitative definitions of reservoir architecture and identify new traps; (4) is working with USGS and industry partners to develop new play concepts and geophysical log standards for subsurface correlation; and (5) is geochemically characterizing the hydrocarbons (cooperatively with USGS). First-year results include: (1) meeting specific milestones (determination of thrust movement vectors, fracture analysis, and communicating results at professional meetings and through publication). All milestones were met. Movement vectors for Valley and Ridge thrusts were confirmed to be west-directed and derived from pushing by the Blue Ridge thrust sheet, and fan about the Tennessee salient. Fracture systems developed during Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic to Holocene compressional and extensional tectonic events, and are more intense near faults. Presentations of first-year results were made at the Tennessee Oil and Gas Association meeting (invited) in June, 2003, at a workshop in August 2003 on geophysical logs in Ordovician rocks, and at the Eastern Section AAPG meeting in September 2003. Papers on thrust tectonics and a major prospect discovered during the first year are in press in an AAPG Memoir and published in the July 28, 2003, issue of the Oil and Gas Journal. (2) collaboration with industry and USGS partners. Several Middle Ordovician black shale samples were sent to USGS for organic carbon analysis. Mississippian and Middle Ordovician rock samples were collected by John Repetski (USGS) and

  1. The Impact of Location and Proximity on Consumers’ Willingness to Pay for Renewable and Alternative Electricity: The Case of West Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Nkansah, Kofi; Collins, Alan

    2014-01-01

    In 2015, West Virginia will implement a Renewable and Alternative Energy Portfolio Standards Act. Meeting these standards with either natural gas or wind power will generate different welfare impacts across society. In particular, this study examined how energy source and generation proximity influence consumers’ willingness-to-pay (WTP) for electricity. Using choice modelling, residents within two counties with distinct location characteristics (existing coal power plant or wind farm) were a...

  2. A geographical information system-based analysis of cancer mortality and population exposure to coal mining activities in West Virginia, United States of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendryx, Michael; Fedorko, Evan; Anesetti-Rothermel, Andrew

    2010-05-01

    Cancer incidence and mortality rates are high in West Virginia compared to the rest of the United States of America. Previous research has suggested that exposure to activities of the coal mining industry may contribute to elevated cancer mortality, although exposure measures have been limited. This study tests alternative specifications of exposure to mining activity to determine whether a measure based on location of mines, processing plants, coal slurry impoundments and underground slurry injection sites relative to population levels is superior to a previously-reported measure of exposure based on tons mined at the county level, in the prediction of age-adjusted cancer mortality rates. To this end, we utilize two geographical information system (GIS) techniques--exploratory spatial data analysis and inverse distance mapping--to construct new statistical analyses. Total, respiratory and "other" age-adjusted cancer mortality rates in West Virginia were found to be more highly associated with the GIS-exposure measure than the tonnage measure, before and after statistical control for smoking rates. The superior performance of the GIS measure, based on where people in the state live relative to mining activity, suggests that activities of the industry contribute to cancer mortality. Further confirmation of observed phenomena is necessary with person-level studies, but the results add to the body of evidence that coal mining poses environmental risks to population health in West Virginia.

  3. Measuring and predicting reservoir heterogeneity in complex deposystems. The fluvial-deltaic Big Injun Sandstone in West Virginia. Final report, September 20, 1991--October 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohn, M.E.; Patchen, D.G.; Heald, M.; Aminian, K.; Donaldson, A.; Shumaker, R.; Wilson, T.

    1994-05-01

    Non-uniform composition and permeability of a reservoir, commonly referred to as reservoir heterogeneity, is recognized as a major factor in the efficient recovery of oil during primary production and enhanced recovery operations. Heterogeneities are present at various scales and are caused by various factors, including folding and faulting, fractures, diagenesis and depositional environments. Thus, a reservoir consists of a complex flow system, or series of flow systems, dependent on lithology, sandstone genesis, and structural and thermal history. Ultimately, however, fundamental flow units are controlled by the distribution and type of depositional environments. Reservoir heterogeneity is difficult to measure and predict, especially in more complex reservoirs such as fluvial-deltaic sandstones. The Appalachian Oil and Natural Gas Research Consortium (AONGRC), a partnership of Appalachian basin state geological surveys in Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia, and West Virginia University, studied the Lower Mississippian Big Injun sandstone in West Virginia. The Big Injun research was multidisciplinary and designed to measure and map heterogeneity in existing fields and undrilled areas. The main goal was to develop an understanding of the reservoir sufficient to predict, in a given reservoir, optimum drilling locations versus high-risk locations for infill, outpost, or deeper-pool tests.

  4. A geographical information system-based analysis of cancer mortality and population exposure to coal mining activities in West Virginia, United States of America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Hendryx

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Cancer incidence and mortality rates are high in West Virginia compared to the rest of the United States of America. Previous research has suggested that exposure to activities of the coal mining industry may contribute to elevated cancer mortality, although exposure measures have been limited. This study tests alternative specifications of exposure to mining activity to determine whether a measure based on location of mines, processing plants, coal slurry impoundments and underground slurry injection sites relative to population levels is superior to a previously-reported measure of exposure based on tons mined at the county level, in the prediction of age-adjusted cancer mortality rates. To this end, we utilize two geographical information system (GIS techniques – exploratory spatial data analysis and inverse distance mapping – to construct new statistical analyses. Total, respiratory and “other” age-adjusted cancer mortality rates in West Virginia were found to be more highly associated with the GIS-exposure measure than the tonnage measure, before and after statistical control for smoking rates. The superior performance of the GIS measure, based on where people in the state live relative to mining activity, suggests that activities of the industry contribute to cancer mortality. Further confirmation of observed phenomena is necessary with person-level studies, but the results add to the body of evidence that coal mining poses environmental risks to population health in West Virginia.

  5. Optimal water resources management and system benefit for the Marcellus shale-gas reservoir in Pennsylvania and West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xi; He, Li; Lu, Hongwei; Chen, Yizhong; Ren, Lixia

    2016-09-01

    A major concern associated with current shale-gas extraction is high consumption of water resources. However, decision-making problems regarding water consumption and shale-gas extraction have not yet been solved through systematic approaches. This study develops a new bilevel optimization problem based on goals at two different levels: minimization of water demands at the lower level and maximization of system benefit at the upper level. The model is used to solve a real-world case across Pennsylvania and West Virginia. Results show that surface water would be the largest contributor to gas production (with over 80.00% from 2015 to 2030) and groundwater occupies for the least proportion (with less than 2.00% from 2015 to 2030) in both districts over the planning span. Comparative analysis between the proposed model and conventional single-level models indicates that the bilevel model could provide coordinated schemes to comprehensively attain the goals from both water resources authorities and energy sectors. Sensitivity analysis shows that the change of water use of per unit gas production (WU) has significant effects upon system benefit, gas production and pollutants (i.e., barium, chloride and bromide) discharge, but not significantly changes water demands.

  6. In vitro cytotoxicity assessment of a West Virginia chemical spill mixture involving 4-methylcyclohexanemethanol and propylene glycol phenyl ether.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Alice A; Fabyanic, Emily B; Miller, Julie V; Prediger, Maren S; Prince, Nicole; Mouch, Julia A; Boyd, Jonathan

    2017-04-01

    Thousands of gallons of industrial chemicals, crude 4-methylcyclohexanemethanol (MCHM) and propylene glycol phenyl ether (PPh), leaked from industrial tanks into the Elk River in Charleston, West Virginia, USA, on January 9, 2014. A considerable number of people were reported to exhibit symptoms of chemical exposure and an estimated 300,000 residents were advised not to use or drink tap water. At the time of the spill, the existing toxicological data of the chemicals were limited for a full evaluation of the health risks, resulting in concern among those in the impacted regions. In this preliminary study, we assessed cell viability and plasma membrane degradation following a 24-h exposure to varying concentrations (0-1000 μM) of the two compounds, alone and in combination. Evaluation of different cell lines, HEK-293 (kidney), HepG2 (liver), H9c2 (heart), and GT1-7 (brain), provided insight regarding altered cellular responses in varying organ systems. Single exposure to MCHM or PPh did not affect cell viability, except at doses much higher than the estimated exposure levels. Certain co-exposures significantly reduced metabolic activity and increased plasma membrane degradation in GT1-7, HepG2, and H9c2 cells. These findings highlight the importance of examining co-exposures to fully understand the potential toxic effects.

  7. Groundwater response to serial stream stage fluctuations in shallow unconfined alluvial aquifers along a regulated stream (West Virginia, USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharjan, Madan; Donovan, Joseph J.

    2016-12-01

    Groundwater response to stream stage fluctuations was studied in two unconfined alluvial aquifers using a year-long time series of stream stages from two pools along a regulated stream in West Virginia, USA. The purpose was to analyze spatial and temporal variations in groundwater/surface-water interaction and to estimate induced infiltration rate and cumulative bank storage during an annual cycle of stream stage fluctuation. A convolution-integral method was used to simulate aquifer head at different distances from the stream caused by stream stage fluctuations and to estimate fluxes across the stream-aquifer boundary. Aquifer diffusivities were estimated by wiggle-matching time and amplitude of modeled response to multiple observed storm events. The peak lag time between observed stream and aquifer stage peaks ranged between 14 and 95 hour. Transient modeled diffusivity ranged from 1,000 to 7,500 m2/day and deviated from the measured and calculated single-peak stage-ratio diffusivity by 14-82 %. Stream stage fluctuation displayed more primary control over groundwater levels than recharge, especially during high-flow periods. Dam operations locally altered groundwater flow paths and velocity. The aquifer is more prone to surface-water control in the upper reaches of the pools where stream stage fluctuations are more pronounced than in the lower reaches. This method could be a useful tool for quick assessment of induced infiltration rate and bank storage related to contamination investigations or well-field management.

  8. Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Program: Center of Automotive Technology Excellence in Advanced Hybrid Vehicle Technology at West Virginia University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigle N. Clark

    2006-12-31

    This report summarizes the technical and educational achievements of the Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Center at West Virginia University (WVU), which was created to emphasize Advanced Hybrid Vehicle Technology. The Center has supported the graduate studies of 17 students in the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering and the Lane Department of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering. These students have addressed topics such as hybrid modeling, construction of a hybrid sport utility vehicle (in conjunction with the FutureTruck program), a MEMS-based sensor, on-board data acquisition for hybrid design optimization, linear engine design and engine emissions. Courses have been developed in Hybrid Vehicle Design, Mobile Source Powerplants, Advanced Vehicle Propulsion, Power Electronics for Automotive Applications and Sensors for Automotive Applications, and have been responsible for 396 hours of graduate student coursework. The GATE program also enhanced the WVU participation in the U.S. Department of Energy Student Design Competitions, in particular FutureTruck and Challenge X. The GATE support for hybrid vehicle technology enhanced understanding of hybrid vehicle design and testing at WVU and encouraged the development of a research agenda in heavy-duty hybrid vehicles. As a result, WVU has now completed three programs in hybrid transit bus emissions characterization, and WVU faculty are leading the Transportation Research Board effort to define life cycle costs for hybrid transit buses. Research and enrollment records show that approximately 100 graduate students have benefited substantially from the hybrid vehicle GATE program at WVU.

  9. The Health Sciences and Technology Academy: an educational pipeline to address health care disparities in West Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKendall, Sherron Benson; Kasten, Kasandra; Hanks, Sara; Chester, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Health and educational disparities are national issues in the United States. Research has shown that health care professionals from underserved backgrounds are more likely than others to work in underserved areas. The Association of American Medical Colleges' Project 3000 by 2000, to increase the number of underrepresented minorities in medical schools, spurred the West Virginia School of Medicine to start the Health Sciences and Technology Academy (HSTA) in 1994 with the goal of supporting interested underrepresented high school students in pursuing college and health professions careers. The program was based on three beliefs: (1) if underrepresented high school students have potential and the desire to pursue a health professions career and are given the support, they can reach their goals, including obtaining a health professions degree; (2) underserved high school students are able to predict their own success if given the right resources; and (3) community engagement would be key to the program's success.In this Perspective, the authors describe the HSTA and its framework and philosophy, including the underlying theories and pedagogy from research in the fields of education and the behavioral/social sciences. They then offer evidence of the program's success, specifically for African American students, including graduates' high college-going rate and overwhelming intention to choose a health professions major. Finally, the authors describe the benefits of the HSTA's community partnerships, including providing mentors to students, adding legislative language providing tuition waivers and a budgetary line item devoted to the program, and securing program funding from outside sources.

  10. Drilling, completion, stimulation, and testing of BDM/CNGD Well 3997, Lee District, Calhoun County, West Virginia. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Carden, R.S.; Salamy, S.P.; Locke, C.D.; Johnson, H.R.

    1992-03-01

    This report discusses the detailed field operations in drilling, casing, completing, and stimulating the Hunter Bennett No. 3997 well located in Lee District, Calhoun County West Virginia. The project was designed and managed by BDM in cooperation with CNG Development Company. The well was spudded on November 9, 1990, and drilling was completed on December 14, 1990. The well was drilled on an average asmuth of 312 degrees with a total horizontal displacement of 2459 feet. The well was turned to a 90 degree inclination from the vertical over a measured course length of 1216 feet. Approximately 1381 feet of the well had an inclination higher than 86 degrees, while 2179 feet had an inclination greater than 62 degrees. The well was partitioned into five zones for stimulation purposes. Each zone is a little more than 300 feet long. The well was stimulated with nitrogen gas in zones one and two. Early production results are encouraging. The BDM/CNGD horizontal well averaged 147 mcfd of gas over the first week of production and, in week five, began to produce oil at a rate of about 2 bbl/day.

  11. Drilling, completion, stimulation, and testing of BDM/CNGD Well 3997, Lee District, Calhoun County, West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Carden, R.S.; Salamy, S.P.; Locke, C.D.; Johnson, H.R.

    1992-03-01

    This report discusses the detailed field operations in drilling, casing, completing, and stimulating the Hunter Bennett No. 3997 well located in Lee District, Calhoun County West Virginia. The project was designed and managed by BDM in cooperation with CNG Development Company. The well was spudded on November 9, 1990, and drilling was completed on December 14, 1990. The well was drilled on an average asmuth of 312 degrees with a total horizontal displacement of 2459 feet. The well was turned to a 90 degree inclination from the vertical over a measured course length of 1216 feet. Approximately 1381 feet of the well had an inclination higher than 86 degrees, while 2179 feet had an inclination greater than 62 degrees. The well was partitioned into five zones for stimulation purposes. Each zone is a little more than 300 feet long. The well was stimulated with nitrogen gas in zones one and two. Early production results are encouraging. The BDM/CNGD horizontal well averaged 147 mcfd of gas over the first week of production and, in week five, began to produce oil at a rate of about 2 bbl/day.

  12. Endocrine disrupting activities of surface water associated with a West Virginia oil and gas industry wastewater disposal site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassotis, Christopher D.; Iwanowicz, Luke; Akob, Denise M.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; Mumford, Adam; Orem, William H.; Nagel, Susan C.

    2016-01-01

    Currently, >95% of end disposal of hydraulic fracturing wastewater from unconventional oil and gas operations in the US occurs via injection wells. Key data gaps exist in understanding the potential impact of underground injection on surface water quality and environmental health. The goal of this study was to assess endocrine disrupting activity in surface water at a West Virginia injection well disposal site. Water samples were collected from a background site in the area and upstream, on, and downstream of the disposal facility. Samples were solid-phase extracted, and extracts assessed for agonist and antagonist hormonal activities for five hormone receptors in mammalian and yeast reporter gene assays. Compared to reference water extracts upstream and distal to the disposal well, samples collected adjacent and downstream exhibited considerably higher antagonist activity for the estrogen, androgen, progesterone, glucocorticoid and thyroid hormone receptors. In contrast, low levels of agonist activity were measured in upstream/distal sites, and were inhibited or absent at downstream sites with significant antagonism. Concurrent analyses by partner laboratories (published separately) describe the analytical and geochemical profiling of the water; elevated conductivity as well as high sodium, chloride, strontium, and barium concentrations indicate impacts due to handling of unconventional oil and gas wastewater. Notably, antagonist activities in downstream samples were at equivalent authentic standard concentrations known to disrupt reproduction and/or development in aquatic animals. Given the widespread use of injection wells for end-disposal of hydraulic fracturing wastewater, these data raise concerns for human and animal health nearby.

  13. Drilling, completion, stimulation, and testing of Hardy HW{number_sign}1 well, Putnam County, West Virginia. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Carden, R.S.; Locke, C.D.; Salamy, S.P.

    1992-03-01

    This report discusses the detailed field operations in drilling, logging, casing, completing, stimulating and testing the Hardy HW No. l well located in Union District, Putnam County, West Virginia. The project was designed and managed by BDM in cooperation with Cabot Oil and Gas Corporation. The well was spudded on November 29, 1989 and was completed at a total measured depth of 6406 feet on December 29, 1989. The well was drilled on an average azimuth of 335 degrees with a total horizontal displacement of 2618 feet. Approximately 1035 feet of the well had an inclination higher than 86 degrees, while 2212 feet of the well had an inclination greater than 62 degrees. The well was partitioned into five zones for stimulation purposes. Four zones were stimulated during three stimulation operations (Zones 3 and 4 were stimulated together). Zone 1 stimulation was a successful foam frac while the stimulations on Zones 2, 3-4 were Partially successful. Initial gas production rates were 4.5 times greater than the natural production rate. After 21 months, gas produced from the BDM/Cabot well has declined at a rate about one-half that of a conventional vertical well in the area. This horizontal well is projected to produce 475 million cubic feet of gas over a 30-year period.

  14. Drilling, completion, stimulation, and testing of Hardy HW[number sign]1 well, Putnam County, West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Carden, R.S.; Locke, C.D.; Salamy, S.P.

    1992-03-01

    This report discusses the detailed field operations in drilling, logging, casing, completing, stimulating and testing the Hardy HW No. l well located in Union District, Putnam County, West Virginia. The project was designed and managed by BDM in cooperation with Cabot Oil and Gas Corporation. The well was spudded on November 29, 1989 and was completed at a total measured depth of 6406 feet on December 29, 1989. The well was drilled on an average azimuth of 335 degrees with a total horizontal displacement of 2618 feet. Approximately 1035 feet of the well had an inclination higher than 86 degrees, while 2212 feet of the well had an inclination greater than 62 degrees. The well was partitioned into five zones for stimulation purposes. Four zones were stimulated during three stimulation operations (Zones 3 and 4 were stimulated together). Zone 1 stimulation was a successful foam frac while the stimulations on Zones 2, 3-4 were Partially successful. Initial gas production rates were 4.5 times greater than the natural production rate. After 21 months, gas produced from the BDM/Cabot well has declined at a rate about one-half that of a conventional vertical well in the area. This horizontal well is projected to produce 475 million cubic feet of gas over a 30-year period.

  15. Wastewater disposal from unconventional oil and gas development degrades stream quality at a West Virginia injection facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akob, Denise M.; Mumford, Adam; Orem, William H.; Engle, Mark A.; Klinges, Julia (Grace); Kent, Douglas B.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.

    2016-01-01

    The development of unconventional oil and gas (UOG) resources has rapidly increased in recent years; however, the environmental impacts and risks are poorly understood. A single well can generate millions of liters of wastewater, representing a mixture of formation brine and injected hydraulic fracturing fluids. One of the most common methods for wastewater disposal is underground injection; we are assessing potential risks of this method through an intensive, interdisciplinary study at an injection disposal facility in West Virginia. In June 2014, waters collected downstream from the site had elevated specific conductance (416 μS/cm) and Na, Cl, Ba, Br, Sr, and Li concentrations, compared to upstream, background waters (conductivity, 74 μS/cm). Elevated TDS, a marker of UOG wastewater, provided an early indication of impacts in the stream. Wastewater inputs are also evident by changes in 87Sr/86Sr in streamwater adjacent to the disposal facility. Sediments downstream from the facility were enriched in Ra and had high bioavailable Fe(III) concentrations relative to upstream sediments. Microbial communities in downstream sediments had lower diversity and shifts in composition. Although the hydrologic pathways were not able to be assessed, these data provide evidence demonstrating that activities at the disposal facility are impacting a nearby stream and altering the biogeochemistry of nearby ecosystems.

  16. Endocrine disrupting activities of surface water associated with a West Virginia oil and gas industry wastewater disposal site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassotis, Christopher D; Iwanowicz, Luke R; Akob, Denise M; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M; Mumford, Adam C; Orem, William H; Nagel, Susan C

    2016-07-01

    Currently, >95% of end disposal of hydraulic fracturing wastewater from unconventional oil and gas operations in the US occurs via injection wells. Key data gaps exist in understanding the potential impact of underground injection on surface water quality and environmental health. The goal of this study was to assess endocrine disrupting activity in surface water at a West Virginia injection well disposal site. Water samples were collected from a background site in the area and upstream, on, and downstream of the disposal facility. Samples were solid-phase extracted, and extracts assessed for agonist and antagonist hormonal activities for five hormone receptors in mammalian and yeast reporter gene assays. Compared to reference water extracts upstream and distal to the disposal well, samples collected adjacent and downstream exhibited considerably higher antagonist activity for the estrogen, androgen, progesterone, glucocorticoid and thyroid hormone receptors. In contrast, low levels of agonist activity were measured in upstream/distal sites, and were inhibited or absent at downstream sites with significant antagonism. Concurrent analyses by partner laboratories (published separately) describe the analytical and geochemical profiling of the water; elevated conductivity as well as high sodium, chloride, strontium, and barium concentrations indicate impacts due to handling of unconventional oil and gas wastewater. Notably, antagonist activities in downstream samples were at equivalent authentic standard concentrations known to disrupt reproduction and/or development in aquatic animals. Given the widespread use of injection wells for end-disposal of hydraulic fracturing wastewater, these data raise concerns for human and animal health nearby.

  17. Wastewater Disposal from Unconventional Oil and Gas Development Degrades Stream Quality at a West Virginia Injection Facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akob, Denise M; Mumford, Adam C; Orem, William; Engle, Mark A; Klinges, J Grace; Kent, Douglas B; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M

    2016-06-07

    The development of unconventional oil and gas (UOG) resources has rapidly increased in recent years; however, the environmental impacts and risks are poorly understood. A single well can generate millions of liters of wastewater, representing a mixture of formation brine and injected hydraulic fracturing fluids. One of the most common methods for wastewater disposal is underground injection; we are assessing potential risks of this method through an intensive, interdisciplinary study at an injection disposal facility in West Virginia. In June 2014, waters collected downstream from the site had elevated specific conductance (416 μS/cm) and Na, Cl, Ba, Br, Sr, and Li concentrations, compared to upstream, background waters (conductivity, 74 μS/cm). Elevated TDS, a marker of UOG wastewater, provided an early indication of impacts in the stream. Wastewater inputs are also evident by changes in (87)Sr/(86)Sr in streamwater adjacent to the disposal facility. Sediments downstream from the facility were enriched in Ra and had high bioavailable Fe(III) concentrations relative to upstream sediments. Microbial communities in downstream sediments had lower diversity and shifts in composition. Although the hydrologic pathways were not able to be assessed, these data provide evidence demonstrating that activities at the disposal facility are impacting a nearby stream and altering the biogeochemistry of nearby ecosystems.

  18. Overweight and obesity among low-income women in rural West Virginia and urban Los Angeles County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Brenda; Frost, Stephanie; Moore, Lucas; Harris, Carole V; Bradlyn, Andrew S; Kuo, Tony

    2014-10-01

    We described the prevalence of overweight and obesity among low-income women in rural West Virginia (WV) and urban Los Angeles County (LA County). Both communities participated in the national Communities Putting Prevention to Work program during 2010-2012. In each community, we completed health assessments on adult women recruited from public-sector clinics serving low-income populations. All participants answered survey questions regarding socio-demographics and diets. In both jurisdictions, we assessed obesity using objectively measured height and weight (calculated BMI). As part of each community case study, we performed multivariable regression analyses to describe the relationships between overweight and obesity and selected covariates (e.g., dietary behaviors). Overweight and obesity were prevalent among low-income women from WV (73%, combined) and LA County (67%, combined). In both communities, race and ethnicity appeared to predict the two conditions; however, the associations were not robust. In LA County, for example, African American and Hispanic women were 1.4 times (95% CI=1.12, 1.81) more likely than white women to be overweight and obese. Collectively, these subpopulation health data served as an important guide for further planning of obesity prevention efforts in both communities. These efforts became a part of the subsequent Community Transformation Grants portfolio.

  19. Charbeckia macrophylla gen. et sp. nov. from the Lower Mississippian Price (Pocono) Formation of southeastern West Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaus; Upchurch; Gillespie

    2000-08-01

    A fossil plant discovery from the Price (Pocono) Formation of southeastern West Virginia provides new information on the poorly known compression floras of the Lower Mississippian of North America. The new plant described herein consists of long tapering bipinnate fronds with imbricate basal pinnae, planate apical pinnae, and unlobed, elliptical to obovate pinnules with open dichotomous venation. Veins concentrated in the medial region of the pinnule curve toward the lateral margin, suggestive of an early stage in the evolution of a midrib. Pinnules exhibit a distinctly revolute or otherwise reinforced margin. The exceptional length of some fronds (over 1m) and pinnule size (some over 3cm by 2cm) strongly contrast with the generally diffusely branched fronds and small or highly dissected pinnule morphology that typify Early Mississippian leaf taxa. A new generic assignment, Charbeckia macrophylla, is thereby justified. The rigid appearance of the tapering rachis, the imbricate pinnae that appear to have resisted compression, and the reinforced pinnule margins imply thick evergreen leaves, perhaps adapted for drought tolerance. A possible Calamopityalean affinity is indicated by the size of the fronds and the stout petioles, which fall within the expected size range of the Kalymma-type petiole bases described from the nearby New Albany Shale of Tournaisian age.

  20. Relations between health indicators and residential proximity to coal mining in West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendryx, M.; Ahern, M.M. [West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States). Dept. for Community Medicine

    2008-04-15

    We used data from a survey of 16493 West Virginians merged with county-level coal production and other covariates to investigate the relations between health indicators and residential proximity to coal mining. Results of hierarchical analyses indicated that high levels of coal production were associated with worse adjusted health status and with higher rates of cardiopulmonary disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, hypertension, lung disease, and kidney disease. Research is recommended to ascertain the mechanisms, magnitude, and consequences of a community coal-mining exposure effect.

  1. The Ohio River Valley CO2 Storage Project AEP Mountaineer Plant, West Virginia Numerical Simulation and Risk Assessment Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neeraj Gupta

    2008-03-31

    A series of numerical simulations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) injection were conducted as part of a program to assess the potential for geologic sequestration in deep geologic reservoirs (the Rose Run and Copper Ridge formations), at the American Electric Power (AEP) Mountaineer Power Plant outside of New Haven, West Virginia. The simulations were executed using the H{sub 2}O-CO{sub 2}-NaCl operational mode of the Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases (STOMP) simulator (White and Oostrom, 2006). The objective of the Rose Run formation modeling was to predict CO{sub 2} injection rates using data from the core analysis conducted on the samples. A systematic screening procedure was applied to the Ohio River Valley CO{sub 2} storage site utilizing the Features, Elements, and Processes (FEP) database for geological storage of CO{sub 2} (Savage et al., 2004). The objective of the screening was to identify potential risk categories for the long-term geological storage of CO{sub 2} at the Mountaineer Power Plant in New Haven, West Virginia. Over 130 FEPs in seven main classes were assessed for the project based on site characterization information gathered in a geological background study, testing in a deep well drilled on the site, and general site conditions. In evaluating the database, it was apparent that many of the items were not applicable to the Mountaineer site based its geologic framework and environmental setting. Nine FEPs were identified for further consideration for the site. These FEPs generally fell into categories related to variations in subsurface geology, well completion materials, and the behavior of CO{sub 2} in the subsurface. Results from the screening were used to provide guidance on injection system design, developing a monitoring program, performing reservoir simulations, and other risk assessment efforts. Initial work indicates that the significant FEPs may be accounted for by focusing the storage program on these potential issues. The

  2. Self-reported household impacts of large-scale chemical contamination of the public water supply, Charleston, West Virginia, USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles P Schade

    Full Text Available A January 2014 industrial accident contaminated the public water supply of approximately 300,000 homes in and near Charleston, West Virginia (USA with low levels of a strongly-smelling substance consisting principally of 4-methylcyclohexane methanol (MCHM. The ensuing state of emergency closed schools and businesses. Hundreds of people sought medical care for symptoms they related to the incident. We surveyed 498 households by telephone to assess the episode's health and economic impact as well as public perception of risk communication by responsible officials. Thirty two percent of households (159/498 reported someone with illness believed to be related to the chemical spill, chiefly dermatological or gastrointestinal symptoms. Respondents experienced more frequent symptoms of psychological distress during and within 30 days of the emergency than 90 days later. Sixty-seven respondent households (13% had someone miss work because of the crisis, missing a median of 3 days of work. Of 443 households reporting extra expenses due to the crisis, 46% spent less than $100, while 10% spent over $500 (estimated average about $206. More than 80% (401/485 households learned of the spill the same day it occurred. More than 2/3 of households complied fully with "do not use" orders that were issued; only 8% reported drinking water against advice. Household assessments of official communications varied by source, with local officials receiving an average "B" rating, whereas some federal and water company communication received a "D" grade. More than 90% of households obtained safe water from distribution centers or stores during the emergency. We conclude that the spill had major economic impact with substantial numbers of individuals reporting incident-related illnesses and psychological distress. Authorities were successful supplying emergency drinking water, but less so with risk communication.

  3. Measuring and predicting reservoir heterogeneity in complex deposystems: The fluvial-deltaic Big Injun sandstone in West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patchen, D.G.; Hohn, M.E.; Aminian, K.; Donaldson, A.; Shumaker, R.; Wilson, T.

    1993-04-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop techniques to measure and predict heterogeneities in oil reservoirs that are the products of complex deposystems. The unit chosen for study is the Lower Mississippian Big Injun sandstone, a prolific oil producer (nearly 60 fields) in West Virginia. This research effort has been designed and is being implemented as an integrated effort involving stratigraphy, structural geology, petrology, seismic study, petroleum engineering, modeling and geostatistics. Sandstone bodies are being mapped within their regional depositional systems, and then sandstone bodies are being classified in a scheme of relative heterogeneity to determine heterogeneity across depositional systems. Facies changes are being mapped within given reservoirs, and the environments of deposition responsible for each facies are being interpreted to predict the inherent relative heterogeneity of each facies. Structural variations will be correlated both with production, where the availability of production data will permit, and with variations in geologic and engineering parameters that affect production. A reliable seismic model of the Big Injun reservoirs in Granny Creek field is being developed to help interpret physical heterogeneity in that field. Pore types are being described and related to permeability, fluid flow and diagenesis, and petrographic data are being integrated with facies and depositional environments to develop a technique to use diagenesis as a predictive tool in future reservoir development. Another objective in the Big Injun study is to determine the effect of heterogeneity on fluid flow and efficient hydrocarbon recovery in order to improve reservoir management. Graphical methods will be applied to Big Injun production data and new geostatistical methods will be developed to detect regional trends in heterogeneity.

  4. Self-reported household impacts of large-scale chemical contamination of the public water supply, Charleston, West Virginia, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schade, Charles P; Wright, Nasandra; Gupta, Rahul; Latif, David A; Jha, Ayan; Robinson, John

    2015-01-01

    A January 2014 industrial accident contaminated the public water supply of approximately 300,000 homes in and near Charleston, West Virginia (USA) with low levels of a strongly-smelling substance consisting principally of 4-methylcyclohexane methanol (MCHM). The ensuing state of emergency closed schools and businesses. Hundreds of people sought medical care for symptoms they related to the incident. We surveyed 498 households by telephone to assess the episode's health and economic impact as well as public perception of risk communication by responsible officials. Thirty two percent of households (159/498) reported someone with illness believed to be related to the chemical spill, chiefly dermatological or gastrointestinal symptoms. Respondents experienced more frequent symptoms of psychological distress during and within 30 days of the emergency than 90 days later. Sixty-seven respondent households (13%) had someone miss work because of the crisis, missing a median of 3 days of work. Of 443 households reporting extra expenses due to the crisis, 46% spent less than $100, while 10% spent over $500 (estimated average about $206). More than 80% (401/485) households learned of the spill the same day it occurred. More than 2/3 of households complied fully with "do not use" orders that were issued; only 8% reported drinking water against advice. Household assessments of official communications varied by source, with local officials receiving an average "B" rating, whereas some federal and water company communication received a "D" grade. More than 90% of households obtained safe water from distribution centers or stores during the emergency. We conclude that the spill had major economic impact with substantial numbers of individuals reporting incident-related illnesses and psychological distress. Authorities were successful supplying emergency drinking water, but less so with risk communication.

  5. The demographic and socioeconomic factors predictive for populations at high-risk for La Crosse virus infection in West Virginia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D Haddow

    Full Text Available Although a large body of literature exists for the environmental risk factors for La Crosse virus (LACV transmission, the demographic and socioeconomic risk factors for developing LACV infection have not been investigated. Therefore, this study investigated the demographic and socioeconomic risk factors for LACV infection in West Virginia from 2003 to 2007, using two forward stepwise discriminant analyses. The discriminant analyses were used to evaluate a number of demographic and socioeconomic factors for their ability to predict: 1 those census tracts with at least one reported case of LACV infection versus those census tracts with no reported cases of LACV infection and 2 to evaluate significantly high-risk clusters for LACV infection versus significantly low-risk clusters for LACV infection. In the first model, a high school education diploma or a general education diploma or less and a lower housing densitywere found to be predictive of those census tracts with at least one case of LACV infection. A high school or a general education diploma or less, lower housing density, and housing built in 1969 and earlier were all found to be predictive of those census tracts displaying high-risk clusters versus census tracts displaying low-risk clusters in the second model. The cluster discriminant analysis was found to be more predictive than the census tract discriminant analysis as indicated by the Eigenvalues, canonical correlation, and grouping accuracy. The results of this study indicate that socioeconomically disadvantaged populations are at the highest risk for LACV infection and should be a focus of LACV infection prevention efforts.

  6. Endocrine disrupting activities of surface water associated with a West Virginia oil and gas industry wastewater disposal site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassotis, Christopher D., E-mail: christopher.kassotis@duke.edu [Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Iwanowicz, Luke R. [U.S. Geological Survey, Leetown Science Center, Fish Health Branch, 11649 Leetown Road, Kearneysville, WV 25430 (United States); Akob, Denise M.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; Mumford, Adam C. [U.S. Geological Survey, National Research Program, 12201 Sunrise Valley Drive, MS 430, Reston, VA 20192 (United States); Orem, William H. [U.S. Geological Survey, Eastern Energy Resources Science Center, 12201 Sunrise Valley Drive, MS 956, Reston, VA 20192 (United States); Nagel, Susan C., E-mail: nagels@health.missouri.edu [Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Women' s Health, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Currently, > 95% of end disposal of hydraulic fracturing wastewater from unconventional oil and gas operations in the US occurs via injection wells. Key data gaps exist in understanding the potential impact of underground injection on surface water quality and environmental health. The goal of this study was to assess endocrine disrupting activity in surface water at a West Virginia injection well disposal site. Water samples were collected from a background site in the area and upstream, on, and downstream of the disposal facility. Samples were solid-phase extracted, and extracts assessed for agonist and antagonist hormonal activities for five hormone receptors in mammalian and yeast reporter gene assays. Compared to reference water extracts upstream and distal to the disposal well, samples collected adjacent and downstream exhibited considerably higher antagonist activity for the estrogen, androgen, progesterone, glucocorticoid and thyroid hormone receptors. In contrast, low levels of agonist activity were measured in upstream/distal sites, and were inhibited or absent at downstream sites with significant antagonism. Concurrent analyses by partner laboratories (published separately) describe the analytical and geochemical profiling of the water; elevated conductivity as well as high sodium, chloride, strontium, and barium concentrations indicate impacts due to handling of unconventional oil and gas wastewater. Notably, antagonist activities in downstream samples were at equivalent authentic standard concentrations known to disrupt reproduction and/or development in aquatic animals. Given the widespread use of injection wells for end-disposal of hydraulic fracturing wastewater, these data raise concerns for human and animal health nearby. - Highlights: • Oil and gas wastewater disposal may increase endocrine disrupting activity in water. • Tested EDC activity in surface water near oil and gas wastewater injection site. • Water downstream had significantly

  7. Hydrogeology, groundwater flow, and groundwater quality of an abandoned underground coal-mine aquifer, Elkhorn Area, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozar, Mark D.; McCoy, Kurt J.; Britton, James Q.; Blake, B.M.

    2017-01-01

    The Pocahontas No. 3 coal seam in southern West Virginia has been extensively mined by underground methods since the 1880’s. An extensive network of abandoned mine entries in the Pocahontas No. 3 has since filled with good-quality water, which is pumped from wells or springs discharging from mine portals (adits), and used as a source of water for public supplies. This report presents results of a three-year investigation of the geology, hydrology, geochemistry, and groundwater flow processes within abandoned underground coal mines used as a source of water for public supply in the Elkhorn area, McDowell County, West Virginia. This study focused on large (> 500 gallon per minute) discharges from the abandoned mines used as public supplies near Elkhorn, West Virginia. Median recharge calculated from base-flow recession of streamflow at Johns Knob Branch and 12 other streamflow gaging stations in McDowell County was 9.1 inches per year. Using drainage area versus mean streamflow relationships from mined and unmined watersheds in McDowell County, the subsurface area along dip of the Pocahontas No. 3 coal-mine aquifer contributing flow to the Turkey Gap mine discharge was determined to be 7.62 square miles (mi2), almost 10 times larger than the 0.81 mi2 surface watershed. Results of this investigation indicate that groundwater flows down dip beneath surface drainage divides from areas up to six miles east in the adjacent Bluestone River watershed. A conceptual model was developed that consisted of a stacked sequence of perched aquifers, controlled by stress-relief and subsidence fractures, overlying a highly permeable abandoned underground coal-mine aquifer, capable of substantial interbasin transfer of water. Groundwater-flow directions are controlled by the dip of the Pocahontas No. 3 coal seam, the geometry of abandoned mine workings, and location of unmined barriers within that seam, rather than surface topography. Seven boreholes were drilled to intersect

  8. A study of the continuum of integration of mathematics content with science concepts at the middle school level in West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisel, Edna Marie

    The purpose of this study was to examine the practices and perceptions of regular education seventh grade middle school mathematics teachers in West Virginia concerning the integration of mathematics objectives with science concepts. In addition, this study also emphasized the use of integrated curriculum continuum models to study mathematics teachers' practices and perceptions for teaching mathematics objectives in connection with science concepts. It was argued that the integrated curriculum continuum model can be used to help educators begin to form a common definition of integrated curriculum. The population was described as the regular education seventh grade middle school mathematics teachers in West Virginia. The entire population (N = 173) was used as the participants in this study. Data was collected using an integrated curriculum practices and perceptions survey constructed by the researcher. This was a descriptive study that incorporated the Chi Square statistic to show trends in teacher practices and perceptions. Also, an ex post facto design, that incorporated the Mann-Whitney U statistic, was used to compare practices and perceptions between teachers grouped according to factors that influence teaching practices and perceptions. These factors included teaching certificate endorsement and teacher professional preparation. Results showed that the regular education seventh grade middle school mathematics teachers of West Virginia are teaching mathematics objectives mainly at a discipline-based level with no formal attempt for integration with science concepts. However, these teachers perceived that many of the mathematics objectives should be taught at varying levels of integration with science concepts. It was also shown that teachers who experienced professional preparation courses that emphasized integrated curriculum courses did teach many of the mathematics objectives at higher levels of integration with science than those teachers who did not

  9. Data Report for Monitoring at Six West Virginia Marcellus Shale Development Sites using NETL’s Mobile Air Monitoring Laboratory (July–November 2012)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pekney, Natalie J. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Reeder, Matthew [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United Stat; Veloski, Garret A. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Diehl, J. Rodney [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States)

    2016-06-16

    The West Virginia Department of Environmental Protection’s Office of Oil and Gas was directed according to the Natural Gas Horizontal Well Control Act of December 14, 2011 (West Virginia Code §22-6A) to conduct studies of horizontal well drilling activities related to air quality. The planned study, “Noise, Light, Dust, Volatile Organic Compounds Related to Well Location Restrictions,” required determination of the effectiveness of a 625 ft minimum set-back from the center of the pad of a horizontal well drilling site to the nearest occupied dwelling. An investigation was conducted at seven drilling sites by West Virginia University (WVU) and the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to collect data on dust, hydrocarbon compounds and on noise, radiation, and light levels. NETL’s role in this study was to collect measurements of ambient pollutant concentrations at six of the seven selected sites using NETL’s Mobile Air Monitoring Laboratory. The trailer-based laboratory was situated a distance of 492–1,312 ft from each well pad, on which activities included well pad construction, vertical drilling, horizontal drilling, hydraulic fracturing, and flaring, with the objective of evaluating the air quality impact of each activity for 1–4 weeks per site. Measured pollutants included volatile organic compounds (VOCs), coarse and fine particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5, respectively), ozone, methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon isotopes of CH4 and CO2, organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), and sulfur dioxide (SO2).

  10. Assessment of hydrogeologic terrains, well-construction characteristics, groundwater hydraulics, and water-quality and microbial data for determination of surface-water-influenced groundwater supplies in West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozar, Mark D.; Paybins, Katherine S.

    2016-08-30

    In January 2014, a storage tank leaked, spilling a large quantity of 4-methylcyclohexane methanol into the Elk River in West Virginia and contaminating the water supply for more than 300,000 people. In response, the West Virginia Legislature passed Senate Bill 373, which requires the West Virginia Department of Health and Human Resources (WVDHHR) to assess the susceptibility and vulnerability of public surface-water-influenced groundwater supply sources (SWIGS) and surface-water intakes statewide. In response to this mandate for reassessing SWIGS statewide, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the WVDHHR, Bureau of Public Health, Office of Environmental Health Services, compiled available data and summarized the results of previous groundwater studies to provide the WVDHHR with data that could be used as part of the process for assessing and determining SWIGS.

  11. Capture and reproductive trends in summer bat communities in West Virginia: Assessing the impact of white-nose syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francl, Karen E.; Ford, W. Mark; Sparks, Dale W.; Brack, Virgil

    2012-01-01

    Although it has been widely documented that populations of cave-roosting bats rapidly decline following the arrival of white-nose syndrome (WNS), longer term reproductive effects are less well-known and essentially unexplored at the community scale. In West Virginia, WNS was first detected in the eastern portion of the state in 2009 and winter mortality was documented in 2009 and 2010. However, quantitative impacts on summer bat communities remained unknown. We compared “historical” (pre-WNS) capture records and reproductive rates from 11,734 bats captured during summer (15 May to 15 August) of 1997–2008 and 1,304 captures during 2010. We predicted that capture rates (number of individuals captured/net-night) would decrease in 2010. We also expected the energetic strain of WNS would cause delayed or reduced reproduction, as denoted by a greater proportion of pregnant or lactating females later in the summer and a lower relative proportion of juvenile captures in the mid–late summer. We found a dramatic decline in capture rates of little brown Myotis lucifugus, northern long-eared M. septentrionalis, small-footed M. leibii, Indiana M. sodalis, tri-colored Perimyotis subflavus, and hoary Lasiurus cinereus bats after detection of WNS in 2009. For these six species, 2010 capture rates were 10–37% of pre-WNS rates. Conversely, capture rates of big brown bats Eptesicus fuscus increased by 17% in 2010, whereas capture rates of eastern red bats Lasiurus borealis did not change. Together, big brown and eastern red bats were 58% of all 2010 captures but only 11% of pre-WNS captures. Reproductive data from 12,314 bats showed shifts in pregnancy and lactation dates, and an overall narrowing in the windows of time of each reproductive event, for northern-long-eared and little brown bats. Additionally, the proportion of juvenile captures declined in 2010 for these species. In contrast, lactation and pregnancy rates of big brown and eastern red bats, and the

  12. Estimating the magnitude of annual peak discharges with recurrence intervals between 1.1 and 3.0 years for rural, unregulated streams in West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Jeffrey B.; Atkins, John T.; Newell, Dawn A.

    2002-01-01

    Multiple and simple least-squares regression models for the log10-transformed 1.5- and 2-year recurrence intervals of peak discharges with independent variables describing the basin characteristics (log10-transformed and untransformed) for 236 streamflow-gaging stations were evaluated, and the regression residuals were plotted as areal distributions that defined three regions in West Virginia designated as East, North, and South. Regional equations for the 1.1-, 1.2-, 1.3-, 1.4-, 1.5-, 1.6-, 1.7-, 1.8-, 1.9-, 2.0-, 2.5-, and 3-year recurrence intervals of peak discharges were determined by generalized least-squares regression. Log10-transformed drainage area was the most significant independent variable for all regions. Equations developed in this study are applicable only to rural, unregulated streams within the boundaries of West Virginia. The accuracies of estimating equations are quantified by measuring the average prediction error (from 27.4 to 52.4 percent) and equivalent years of record (from 1.1 to 3.4 years).

  13. COHORT OF WOMEN LIVING IN OR NEAR A HIGHLY INDUSTRIALIZED AREA OF KANAWHA RIVER VALLEY IN WEST VIRGINIA: ENDOMETRIOSIS AND BLOOD LEVELS OF DIOXIN AND DIOXIN-LIKE CHEMICALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction Historical releases of dioxin and dioxin-like chemicals with subsequent impacts to environmental media in the Kanawha River Valley (KRV) of West Virginia have been well documented.' The bulk of dioxin found in this area appears to be derived from the production of 2,...

  14. Spinal Cord Injury Project: A Project to Improve and Expand Spinal Cord Injury Services at the West Virginia Rehabilitation Center. Final Report. July 1, 1979 to June 30, 1982.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West Virginia State Dept. of Education, Charleston. Div. of Vocational Rehabilitation.

    The primary purpose of this project was to establish a structured multi-disciplinary and interdisciplinary program of services for the traumatically spinal cord injured (SCI) clients at the West Virginia Rehabilitation Center. The program, conducted from July 1, 1979 to June 30, 1982, included services ranging from physical and mental restoration…

  15. Evaluation of Years 1 and 2 of the McKelvey Foundation Program To Distribute Scholarships to Entrepreneurial Rural Students in the States of Pennsylvania, New York, and West Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, Kimberly S.; Finch, Nicole L.; Meehan, Merrill L.

    The purpose of this report is to provide a formative evaluation of the McKelvey Foundation Program to Distribute Scholarships to Entrepreneurial Rural Students in the States of Pennsylvania, New York, and West Virginia. This evaluation provides databased recommendations for making program adjustments to improve delivery of services and/or other…

  16. ENDOMETRIOSIS IN A COHORT OF WOMEN LIVING IN THE KANAWHA RIVER VALLEY IN WEST VIRGINIA: BLOOD LEVELS OF NON-DIOXIN-LIKE PCBs AND RELATIONSHIP WITH BMI AND AGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Industrial activities, specifically from petroleum and chemical manufacturing facilities, in the Kanawha River Valley (KRV) of West Virginia have resulted in releases of dioxin and dioxin-like chemicals (DLCs). I Most of the dioxin found in this region has resulted from the produ...

  17. COHORT OF WOMEN LIVING IN OR NEAR A HIGHLY INDUSTRIALIZED AREA OF KANAWHA RIVER VALLEY IN WEST VIRGINIA: ENDOMETRIOSIS AND BLOOD LEVELS OF DIOXIN AND DIOXIN-LIKE CHEMICALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction Historical releases of dioxin and dioxin-like chemicals with subsequent impacts to environmental media in the Kanawha River Valley (KRV) of West Virginia have been well documented.' The bulk of dioxin found in this area appears to be derived from the production of 2,...

  18. ENDOMETRIOSIS IN A COHORT OF WOMEN LIVING IN THE KANAWHA RIVER VALLEY IN WEST VIRGINIA: BLOOD LEVELS OF NON-DIOXIN-LIKE PCBs AND RELATIONSHIP WITH BMI AND AGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Industrial activities, specifically from petroleum and chemical manufacturing facilities, in the Kanawha River Valley (KRV) of West Virginia have resulted in releases of dioxin and dioxin-like chemicals (DLCs). I Most of the dioxin found in this region has resulted from the produ...

  19. Low-flow analysis and selected flow statistics representative of 1930-2002 for streamflow-gaging stations in or near West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Jeffrey B.

    2006-01-01

    Five time periods between 1930 and 2002 are identified as having distinct patterns of annual minimum daily mean flows (minimum flows). Average minimum flows increased around 1970 at many streamflow-gaging stations in West Virginia. Before 1930, however, there might have been a period of minimum flows greater than any period identified between 1930 and 2002. The effects of climate variability are probably the principal causes of the differences among the five time periods. Comparisons of selected streamflow statistics are made between values computed for the five identified time periods and values computed for the 1930-2002 interval for 15 streamflow-gaging stations. The average difference between statistics computed for the five time periods and the 1930-2002 interval decreases with increasing magnitude of the low-flow statistic. The greatest individual-station absolute difference was 582.5 percent greater for the 7-day 10-year low flow computed for 1970-1979 compared to the value computed for 1930-2002. The hydrologically based low flows indicate approximately equal or smaller absolute differences than biologically based low flows. The average 1-day 3-year biologically based low flow (1B3) and 4-day 3-year biologically based low flow (4B3) are less than the average 1-day 10-year hydrologically based low flow (1Q10) and 7-day 10-year hydrologic-based low flow (7Q10) respectively, and range between 28.5 percent less and 13.6 percent greater. Seasonally, the average difference between low-flow statistics computed for the five time periods and 1930-2002 is not consistent between magnitudes of low-flow statistics, and the greatest difference is for the summer (July 1-September 30) and fall (October 1-December 31) for the same time period as the greatest difference determined in the annual analysis. The greatest average difference between 1B3 and 4B3 compared to 1Q10 and 7Q10, respectively, is in the spring (April 1-June 30), ranging between 11.6 and 102.3 percent

  20. Selenium in ecosystems within the mountaintop coal mining and valley-fill region of southern West Virginia-assessment and ecosystem-scale modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presser, Theresa S.

    2013-01-01

    Coal and associated waste rock are among environmental selenium (Se) sources that have the potential to affect reproduction in fish and aquatic birds. Ecosystems of southern West Virginia that are affected by drainage from mountaintop coal mines and valleys filled with waste rock in the Coal, Gauley, and Lower Guyandotte watersheds were assessed during 2010 and 2011. Sampling data from earlier studies in these watersheds (for example, Upper Mud River Reservoir) and other mining-affected watersheds also are included to assess additional hydrologic settings and food webs for comparison. Basin schematics give a comprehensive view of sampled species and Se concentration data specific to location and date. Food-web diagrams document the progression of Se trophic transfer across suspended particulate material, invertebrates, and fish for each site to serve as the basis for developing an ecosystem-scale model to predict Se exposure within the hydrologic conditions and food webs of southern West Virginia. This approach integrates a site-specific predator’s dietary exposure pathway into modeling to ensure an adequate link to Se toxicity and, thus, to species vulnerability. Site-specific fish abundance and richness data in streams documented various species of chub, shiner, dace, darters, bass, minnow, sunfish, sucker, catfish, and central stoneroller (Campostoma anomalum), mottled sculpin (Cottus bairdii), and least brook lamprey (Lampetra aepyptera). However, Se assessment species for streams, and hence, model species for streams, were limited to creek chub (Semotilus atromaculatus) and central stoneroller. Both of these species of fish are generally considered to have a high tolerance for environmental stress based on traditional comparative fish community assessment, with creek chub being present at all sites. Aquatic insects (mayfly, caddisfly, stonefly, dobsonfly, chironomid) were the main invertebrates sampled in streams. Collection of suspended particulate material

  1. A Reconnaissance for Emerging Contaminants in the South Branch Potomac River, Cacapon River, and Williams River Basins, West Virginia, April-October 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Douglas B.; Leiker, Thomas J.

    2006-01-01

    In 2003 a team of scientists from West Virginia Division of Natural Resources and the U. S. Geological Survey found a high incidence of an intersex condition, oocytes in the testes, among smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) in the South Branch Potomac River and the Cacapon River of West Virginia, indicating the possible presence of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs). Possible sources of EDCs include municipal and domestic wastewater, and agricultural and industrial activities. Several sampling strategies were used to identify emerging contaminants, including potential EDCs, and their possible sources in these river basins and at an out-of-basin reference site. Passive water-sampling devices, which accumulate in-stream organic chemical compounds, were deployed for 40-41 days at 8 sampling sites. Sampler extracts were analyzed for a broad range of polar and non-polar organic compounds including pesticides, flame retardants, pharmaceuticals, and personal-care products. Analysis of passive-sampler extracts found 4 compounds; hexachloro-benzene; pentachloroanisole; 2,2',4,4',5-penta-bromo-diphenyl ether (BDE 47); and 2,2',4,4',6-penta-bromo-diphenyl ether (BDE 99) to be present at every sampled site, including the reference site, and several sites had detectable quantities of other compounds. No detectable quantity of any antibiotics was found in any passive-sampler extract. Effluent samples were analyzed for 39 antibiotics as tracers of human and agricultural waste. Additionally, poultry-processing plant effluent was sampled for roxarsone, an organoarsenic compound used as a poultry-feed additive, and other arsenic species as tracers of poultry waste. Antibiotics were detected in municipal wastewater, aquaculture, and poultry-processing effluent, with the highest number of antibiotics and the greatest concentrations found in municipal effluent. Arsenate was the only arsenic species detected in the poultry-processing plant effluent, at a concentration of 1.0 ?g

  2. High Throughput Sequencing to Detect Differences in Methanotrophic Methylococcaceae and Methylocystaceae in Surface Peat, Forest Soil, and Sphagnum Moss in Cranesville Swamp Preserve, West Virginia, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan Lau

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Northern temperate forest soils and Sphagnum-dominated peatlands are a major source and sink of methane. In these ecosystems, methane is mainly oxidized by aerobic methanotrophic bacteria, which are typically found in aerated forest soils, surface peat, and Sphagnum moss. We contrasted methanotrophic bacterial diversity and abundances from the (i organic horizon of forest soil; (ii surface peat; and (iii submerged Sphagnum moss from Cranesville Swamp Preserve, West Virginia, using multiplex sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA (V3 region gene amplicons. From ~1 million reads, >50,000 unique OTUs (Operational Taxonomic Units, 29 and 34 unique sequences were detected in the Methylococcaceae and Methylocystaceae, respectively, and 24 potential methanotrophs in the Beijerinckiaceae were also identified. Methylacidiphilum-like methanotrophs were not detected. Proteobacterial methanotrophic bacteria constitute <2% of microbiota in these environments, with the Methylocystaceae one to two orders of magnitude more abundant than the Methylococcaceae in all environments sampled. The Methylococcaceae are also less diverse in forest soil compared to the other two habitats. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling analyses indicated that the majority of methanotrophs from the Methylococcaceae and Methylocystaceae tend to occur in one habitat only (peat or Sphagnum moss or co-occurred in both Sphagnum moss and peat. This study provides insights into the structure of methanotrophic communities in relationship to habitat type, and suggests that peat and Sphagnum moss can influence methanotroph community structure and biogeography.

  3. Correlations of daily flows at streamgages in and near West Virginia, 1930-2011, and streamflow characteristics relevant to the use of index streamgages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messinger, Terence; Paybins, Katherine S.

    2014-01-01

    Correlation of flows at pairs of streamgages were evaluated using a Spearman’s rho correlation coefficient to better identify gages that can be used as index gages to estimate daily flow at ungaged stream sites in West Virginia. Much of West Virginia (77 percent) is within areas where Spearman’s rho for daily streamflow between streamgages on unregulated streams (unregulated streamgages) is greater than 0.9; most withdrawals from ungaged streams for shale gas well hydraulic fracturing are being made in these areas. Most of West Virginia (>99 percent) is within zones where Spearman’s rho between streamgages on unregulated streams is greater than 0.85. Withdrawals for hydraulic fracturing are made from ungaged streams in areas where Spearman’s rho between streamgages on unregulated streams is less than 0.9, but because spatial correlation is partly a function of the density of the streamgaging network, adding or reactivating several streamgages would be likely to result in correlations of 0.90 or higher in these areas. Seasonal differences in the strength and spatial extent of correlations of daily streamflows are great. The strongest correlations among streamgages are for fall, followed by spring, then winter. One possible explanation for the weak correlations for summer may be that precipitation and runoff associated with convective storms affect one basin and miss nearby basins. A comparison of correlation patterns during previously identified climatic periods shows that the strongest correlations occurred during 1963–69, a period of drought, and the weakest during 1970–79, a wet period. The apparent effect of frequent rain during 1970–79 overshadowed streamgage-network density, which was at its historic maximum in West Virginia at that time, so that the extent of areas with high correlation to at least one streamgage was smaller during 1970–79 than during 1963–69. Correlations for 1992 to 2011 were slightly weaker than those for 1963 to 1969

  4. Monitoring land cover change in the historic range of Cambarus veteranus in West Virginia using a 1973-2013 Landsat time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arneson, Emma Martha

    The crayfish Cambarus veteranus is near extinction in its historic range of the Upper Guyandotte River watershed. The biggest threats to C. veteranus are mining and road construction. Mining has been a continuous activity in the southern coalfields where the crayfish has historically been found, yet little is known about how much land cover change the practice has done to the region. Crayfish act as important organisms within aquatic ecosystems and without them, those systems are often degraded. Quantifying the change in land cover is important to understanding threats to C. veteranus for future protection of the crayfish and its habitat. Using twelve Landsat satellite images from 1973--2013, I performed a supervised land cover classification to track land cover change within the Upper Guyandotte River watershed. There was an overall 5.5% change in land cover with a significant decreasing trend in forested area over time. In addition to overall land cover changing, three, out of seven, subwatersheds where C. veteranus was historically found saw significant decreasing trends in forested area as well. The last known location of C. veteranus is within one of those three watersheds. This increased disturbance from mining likely explains the near extinction of Cambarus veteranus. Without further protection and monitoring the land cover, the crayfish is likely to go extinct within its native West Virginia range.

  5. Physical Condition, Sex, and Age-Class of Eastern Red-Backed Salamanders (Plethodon cinereus in Forested and Open Habitats of West Virginia, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breanna L. Riedel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonforested habitats such as open fields and pastures have been considered unsuitable for desiccation-prone woodland salamanders such as the Eastern Red-backed Salamander (Plethodon cinereus. Recent research has suggested that Plethodon cinereus may not only disperse across but also reside within open habitats including fields, meadows, and pastures. However, presence and high densities of P. cinereus within agriculturally disturbed habitats may be misleading if these populations exhibit atypical demographic characteristics or decreased physical condition relative to forest populations. We surveyed artificial cover boards from 2004-2005 to compare physical condition, sex ratios, and age-class structure of P. cinereus among woodland, woodland-meadow edge, silvopasture, and meadow sites in the central Appalachian Mountains of southern West Virginia. Physical condition of salamanders was not significantly different among the four habitats. Furthermore, adult sex ratios of P. cinereus typically were not significantly different from 1 : 1 and were similar between forested and non-forested sites, although populations within silvopastures were biased towards females. However, adult salamanders were significantly more abundant than juveniles in all habitat types, with differences most pronounced within meadow habitats. Our study indicates that relatively small, non-forested habitats such as silvopastures and meadows may not adversely affect the overall physical condition or sex ratios of Plethodon cinereus. However, the paucity of juveniles within disturbed meadows indicates that these agriculturally modified habitats may negatively impact reproduction or that immature salamanders are at a physiological or competitive disadvantage in comparison to adults, particularly when surface cover is limited.

  6. Geographic incidence of human West Nile virus in northern Virginia, USA, in relation to incidence in birds and variations in urban environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hua; Weng, Qihao; Gaines, David

    2011-09-15

    Previous studies have analyzed the number and location of bird infections with human incidence of West Nile virus (WNV) as well as the effects of environmental and socioeconomic factors on WNV propagation. However, such associations require more quantitative analyses. This study is intended to quantitatively analyze the relationship in eight counties/independent cities in the northern Virginia, based on an integrated analysis of spatially explicit information on precipitation, land cover, infrastructure, and demographic data using Geographical Information Systems, remote sensing, and statistics. Results show that bird infections in years 2002-2003 were closely associated with low to medium level of impervious surface with certain percentage of canopy and precipitation. Environmental and socioeconomic factors such as percentages of impervious surface, canopy, senior population (65 and older), old houses, bird risk areas, and low-income population were important indicators of human WNV risk in 2002. Limited impervious surface with some canopy provides suitable habitats for WNV transmission, where bird-feeding mosquitoes can forage for blood meals from nesting/roosting birds. Certain socioeconomic conditions such as old houses were linked with human infections by providing favorable environmental conditions, i.e., mature trees with abundant canopy and settled storm sewer systems. It should be noted that the current results may be biased toward urban environments, where dead birds were more likely found, and because the sampling efforts for the bird mortality were rather based on local residents' reports than a designed random sampling method. This geospatial study contributes toward better targeting of WNV prevention within the study area. It also provides an example of how geospatial methods and variables may be used in understanding the ecology of human WNV risk for other areas.

  7. Simulation of Linear-Flow Behavior Surrounding Large-Discharge Springs in the Great Valley Cambro-Ordovician Aquifer, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early, J. S.; Donovan, J. J.

    2002-05-01

    The Cambro-Ordovician carbonate aquifer in the Great Valley Region of Berkeley and Jefferson counties, West Virginia, is highly productive but threatened by acute water quality degradation as a result of rapid population growth. A regional-scale equivalent porous medium (EPM) model was developed using MODFLOW and MODPATH to simulate flow in the vicinity of high-discharge springs and community wells. The simulation approach was to develop an initial simplistic steady-state EPM solution using uniform K values distributed by surface-exposed geologic formation, consistent with a large calibration dataset; then this calibrated solution would be adjusted to address local issues involving large-scale heterogeneity, inferred in past studies. The initial simulation employed no anisotropy although its sensitivity was evaluated. A large database of springflows, surface-water baseflow, and target wells was available for calibration. The simulations were calibrated using two independent datasets: 1) hydraulic heads in wells, specifying flows at springs, and 2) estimated long-term average spring flows, specifying heads at springs. These calibrations did not agree; the first method produced excessive drawdowns around springs, while the second yielded very high K values and extremely low hydraulic gradients. The constant-flux method for springs was deemed more consistent with field reality but required implementation of high-contrast heterogeneity in the vicinity of springs, but not wells, to eliminate anomalous drawdown. A linear series of high-K zones was added to simulate suspected karst fracture zones and/or conduits; however, the orientation, style, and location of linear-flow zones are unknown. Simulation of variations in position and orientation of high-K karst zones shows that distinctive head patterns and transient discharge behavior may result from size, length, and relative K contrast of such zones.

  8. Determination of (4-methylcyclohexyl)methanol isomers by heated purge-and-trap GC/MS in water samples from the 2014 Elk River, West Virginia, chemical spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, William T; Rose, Donna L; Chambers, Douglas B; Crain, Angela S; Murtagh, Lucinda K; Thakellapalli, Haresh; Wang, Kung K

    2015-07-01

    A heated purge-and-trap gas chromatography/mass spectrometry method was used to determine the cis- and trans-isomers of (4-methylcyclohexyl)methanol (4-MCHM), the reported major component of the Crude MCHM/Dowanol™ PPh glycol ether material spilled into the Elk River upriver from Charleston, West Virginia, on January 9, 2014. The trans-isomer eluted first and method detection limits were 0.16-μg L(-1)trans-, 0.28-μg L(-1)cis-, and 0.4-μg L(-1) Total (total response of isomers) 4-MCHM. Estimated concentrations in the spill source material were 491-g L(-1)trans- and 277-g L(-1)cis-4-MCHM, the sum constituting 84% of the source material assuming its density equaled 4-MCHM. Elk River samples collected⩽3.2 km downriver from the spill on January 15 had low (⩽2.9 μg L(-1) Total) 4-MCHM concentrations, whereas the isomers were not detected in samples collected 2 d earlier at the same sites. Similar 4-MCHM concentrations (range 4.2-5.5 μg L(-1) Total) occurred for samples of the Ohio River at Louisville, Kentucky, on January 17, ∼630 km downriver from the spill. Total 4-MCHM concentrations in Charleston, WV, office tap water decreased from 129 μg L(-1) on January 27 to 2.2 μg L(-1) on February 3, but remained detectable in tap samples through final collection on February 25 indicating some persistence of 4-MCHM within the water distribution system. One isomer of methyl 4-methylcyclohexanecarboxylate was detected in all Ohio River and tap water samples, and both isomers were detected in the source material spilled.

  9. Selenium in ecosystems within the mountaintop coal mining and valley-fill region of southern West Virginia-assessment and ecosystem-scale modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presser, Theresa S.

    2013-01-01

    Coal and associated waste rock are among environmental selenium (Se) sources that have the potential to affect reproduction in fish and aquatic birds. Ecosystems of southern West Virginia that are affected by drainage from mountaintop coal mines and valleys filled with waste rock in the Coal, Gauley, and Lower Guyandotte watersheds were assessed during 2010 and 2011. Sampling data from earlier studies in these watersheds (for example, Upper Mud River Reservoir) and other mining-affected watersheds also are included to assess additional hydrologic settings and food webs for comparison. Basin schematics give a comprehensive view of sampled species and Se concentration data specific to location and date. Food-web diagrams document the progression of Se trophic transfer across suspended particulate material, invertebrates, and fish for each site to serve as the basis for developing an ecosystem-scale model to predict Se exposure within the hydrologic conditions and food webs of southern West Virginia. This approach integrates a site-specific predator’s dietary exposure pathway into modeling to ensure an adequate link to Se toxicity and, thus, to species vulnerability. Site-specific fish abundance and richness data in streams documented various species of chub, shiner, dace, darters, bass, minnow, sunfish, sucker, catfish, and central stoneroller (Campostoma anomalum), mottled sculpin (Cottus bairdii), and least brook lamprey (Lampetra aepyptera). However, Se assessment species for streams, and hence, model species for streams, were limited to creek chub (Semotilus atromaculatus) and central stoneroller. Both of these species of fish are generally considered to have a high tolerance for environmental stress based on traditional comparative fish community assessment, with creek chub being present at all sites. Aquatic insects (mayfly, caddisfly, stonefly, dobsonfly, chironomid) were the main invertebrates sampled in streams. Collection of suspended particulate material

  10. Baseline groundwater quality in national park units within the Marcellus and Utica Shale gas plays, New York, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhardt, David A.V.; Sloto, Ronald A.

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater samples were collected from 15 production wells and 1 spring at 9 national park units in New York, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia in July and August 2011 and analyzed to characterize the quality of these water supplies. The sample sites generally were selected to represent areas of potential effects on water quality by drilling and development of gas wells in Marcellus Shale and Utica Shale areas of the northeastern United States. The groundwater samples were analyzed for 53 constituents, including nutrients, major inorganic constituents, trace elements, chemical oxygen demand, radioactivity, and dissolved gases, including methane and radon-222. Results indicated that the groundwater used for water supply at the selected national park units is generally of acceptable quality, although concentrations of some constituents exceeded at least one drinking-water guideline at several wells. Nine analytes were detected in concentrations that exceeded Federal drinking-water standards, mostly secondary standards that define aesthetic properties of water, such as taste and odor. One sample had an arsenic concentration that exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 10 micrograms per liter (μg/L). The pH, which is a measure of acidity (hydrogen ion activity), ranged from 4.8 to 8.4, and in 5 of the 16 samples, the pH values were outside the accepted U.S. Environmental Protection Agency secondary maximum contaminant level (SMCL) range of 6.5 to 8.5. The concentration of total dissolved solids exceeded the SMCL of 500 milligrams per liter (mg/L) at four sites. The sulfate concentration exceeded the SMCL of 250 mg/L concentration in one sample, and the fluoride concentration exceeded the SMCL of 2 mg/L in one sample. Sodium concentrations exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking water health advisory of 60 mg/L at four sites. Iron concentrations exceeded the SMCL of 300 μg/L in two samples, and manganese

  11. Testing for reach-scale adjustments of hydraulic variables to soluble and insoluble strata: Buckeye Creek and Greenbrier River, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Gregory S.; Wohl, Ellen E.; Foster, Julie A.; Boyer, Douglas G.

    2003-11-01

    An open question exists as to whether channel geometries and hydraulics are adjusted in bedrock streams with stable, concave profiles in a manner analogous to alluvial rivers. As a test of this problem, a comparison was undertaken of channel geometries and hydraulics among reaches with substrates that are of high mechanical resistance, but of variable chemical resistance. Reaches were selected from Buckeye Creek and Greenbrier River, West Virginia, USA because these streams flow over sandstones, limestones, and shales. The limestones have Selby rock resistance scores similar to those of the sandstones. A total of 13 reaches consisting of between 6 and 26 cross sections were surveyed in the streams. HEC-RAS was used to estimate unit stream power ( ω) and shear stress ( τ) for each reach. The reaches were selected to evaluate the null hypothesis that that ω and τ are equal atop soluble versus insoluble bedrock. Hypothesis tests consisted of paired t-tests and simultaneous, multiple comparisons. Geomorphic setting was included for Greenbrier River because previous studies have suggested that bedrock streams are intimately coupled with hillslopes. Holding geomorphic setting constant, three separate comparisons of ω and τ reveal that these variables are lowest atop soluble substrates in Greenbrier River (significance ≤0.05) and that changes in ω and τ are mediated by changes in channel geometry. Similarly, headwater reaches of Buckeye Creek developed atop shale and sandstone boulders are statistically distinguishable from downstream reaches wherein corrosion of limestone is the primary means of incision. However, comparisons in each stream reveal that channel geometries, ω and τ, are not strictly controlled by bed solubility. For constant substrate solubility along the Greenbrier River, ω and τ are consistently higher where a bedrock cutbank is present or coarse, insoluble sediment enters the channel. The latter is also associated with locally high values

  12. Comprehensive Lifecycle Planning and Management System For Addressing Water Issues Associated With Shale Gas Development In New York, Pennsylvania, And West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, J. Daniel [Arthur Langhus Layne, LLC, Tulsa, OK (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a modeling system to allow operators and regulators to plan all aspects of water management activities associated with shale gas development in the target project area of New York, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia (target area ), including water supply, transport, storage, use, recycling, and disposal and which can be used for planning, managing, forecasting, permit tracking, and compliance monitoring. The proposed project is a breakthrough approach to represent the entire shale gas water lifecycle in one comprehensive system with the capability to analyze impacts and options for operational efficiency and regulatory tracking and compliance, and to plan for future water use and disposition. It will address all of the major water-related issues of concern associated with shale gas development in the target area, including water withdrawal, transport, storage, use, treatment, recycling, and disposal. It will analyze the costs, water use, and wastes associated with the available options, and incorporate constraints presented by permit requirements, agreements, local and state regulations, equipment and material availability, etc. By using the system to examine the water lifecycle from withdrawals through disposal, users will be able to perform scenario analysis to answer "what if" questions for various situations. The system will include regulatory requirements of the appropriate state and regional agencies and facilitate reporting and permit applications and tracking. These features will allow operators to plan for more cost effective resource production. Regulators will be able to analyze impacts of development over an entire area. Regulators can then make informed decisions about the protections and practices that should be required as development proceeds. This modeling system will have myriad benefits for industry, government, and the public. For industry, it will allow planning all water management operations for a

  13. Atmospheric Gas Concentrations in the pre- and post-production Phases of an Unconventional Oil and Gas Recovery Operation at the MSEEL Test Site, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J. P.; Reeder, M.; Pekney, N.; Osborne, J.; Risk, D. A.; McCawley, M.

    2016-12-01

    The Marcellus Shale Energy and Environment Laboratory (MSEEL) in West Virginia provides a unique opportunity in the field of unconventional energy research. By studying near-surface atmospheric chemistry over several phases of a hydraulic fracturing event, the project will help evaluate the impact of current practices, as well as new techniques and mitigation technologies. A total of 10 mobile surveys were conducted around the MSEEL site that contains 3 test wells (1 science well and 2 natural gas producing wells) and over several miles of nearby regional routes. Our surveying technique involved using a vehicle-mounted Los Gatos Research Ultraportable Methane/Acetylene Analyzer that provided geo-located measurements of methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2). The ratios of super-ambient concentrations of CO2 and CH4 were used to separate drilling- and fracturing-related observations from the natural background concentrations over the various well pad developmental stages. We found that regional background methane concentrations were elevated in all surveys, with a mean concentration of 3.21ppm (n = 99376), which simply reflected the mix of anthropogenic and natural CH4 sources in this riverine urban location. Over time and through successive stages of well development, we noted a progressive rise in the occurrence of enriched methane in the vicinity of the developed wells. While there was a moderate degree of variability over time, we did observe a higher occurrence of CH4-enriched observations during and after production began at the test site ( 25% of measurements within 500 meters of the test wells) compared to the baseline surveys (>10% of measurements). This change was expected, as we anticipated some level of increased emissions from the well pads as production began. However, we did not expect the rise to be so noticeable. The results of this study show that there is a statistically significant increase in the occurrence of enriched methane values in the

  14. Tracing groundwater with low-level detections of halogenated VOCs in a fractured carbonate-rock aquifer, Leetown Science Center, West Virginia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, L. Niel; Sibrell, Philip L.; Casile, Gerolamo C.; Busenberg, Eurybiades; Hunt, Andrew G.; Schlosser, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Measurements of low-level concentrations of halogenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and estimates of groundwater age interpreted from 3H/3He and SF6 data have led to an improved understanding of groundwater flow, water sources, and transit times in a karstic, fractured, carbonate-rock aquifer at the Leetown Science Center (LSC), West Virginia. The sum of the concentrations of a set of 16 predominant halogenated VOCs (TDVOC) determined by gas chromatography with electron-capture detector (GC–ECD) exceeded that possible for air–water equilibrium in 34 of the 47 samples (median TDVOC of 24,800 pg kg−1), indicating that nearly all the water sampled in the vicinity of the LSC has been affected by addition of halogenated VOCs from non-atmospheric source(s). Leakage from a landfill that was closed and sealed nearly 20 a prior to sampling was recognized and traced to areas east of the LSC using low-level detection of tetrachloroethene (PCE), methyl chloride (MeCl), methyl chloroform (MC), dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC-12), and cis-1,2-dichloroethene (cis-1,2-DCE). Chloroform (CHLF) was the predominant VOC in water from domestic wells surrounding the LSC, and was elevated in groundwater in and near the Fish Health Laboratory at the LSC, where a leak of chlorinated water occurred prior to 2006. The low-level concentrations of halogenated VOCs did not exceed human or aquatic-life health criteria, and were useful in providing an awareness of the intrinsic susceptibility of the fractured karstic groundwater system at the LSC to non-atmospheric anthropogenic inputs. The 3H/3He groundwater ages of spring discharge from the carbonate rocks showed transient behavior, with ages averaging about 2 a in 2004 following a wet climatic period (2003–2004), and ages in the range of 4–7 a in periods of more average precipitation (2008–2009). The SF6 and CFC-12 data indicate older water (model ages of 10s of years or more) in the low-permeability shale of the Martinsburg

  15. In search of a Silurian total petroleum system in the Appalachian basin of New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia: Chapter G.11 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Robert T.; Swezey, Christopher S.; Trippi, Michael H.; Lentz, Erika E.; Avary, K. Lee; Harper, John A.; Kappel, William M.; Rea, Ronald G.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    Oil and gas fields in Silurian carbonate and sandstone reservoirs in the Appalachian basin probably originated from one or more of the following source rocks: (1) Upper Ordovician Utica Shale, (2) Middle to Upper Devonian black shale, and (3) Lower to Upper Silurian shale and carbonate units. In this reconnaissance study, selected Silurian shale and carbonate rocks in the subsurface of New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia were analyzed for total organic carbon (TOC) content and Rock-Eval parameters to evaluate whether or not a Silurian total petroleum system exists in the Appalachian basin. A total of 308 samples were collected and analyzed for this investigation. Dark-gray to black shale and argillaceous carbonate intervals in the Salina Group (and equivalent units), Cabot Head Shale, Rochester Shale, Rose Hill Formation, Lockport Dolomite (or Group), and McKenzie Limestone (or Member) were prioritized for sampling and analysis.

  16. Estimation of Freely-Dissolved Concentrations of Polychlorinated Biphenyls, 2,3,7,8-Substituted Congeners and Homologs of Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and Dibenzofurans in Water for Development of Total Maximum Daily Loadings for the Bluestone River Watershed, Virginia and West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Robert W.

    2007-01-01

    The Commonwealth of Virginia Department of Environmental Quality, working closely with the State of West Virginia Department of Environmental Protection and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is undertaking a polychlorinated biphenyl source assessment study for the Bluestone River watershed. The study area extends from the Bluefield area of Virginia and West Virginia, targets the Bluestone River and tributaries suspected of contributing to polychlorinated biphenyl, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran contamination, and includes sites near confluences of Big Branch, Brush Fork, and Beaver Pond Creek. The objectives of this study were to gather information about the concentrations, patterns, and distribution of these contaminants at specific study sites to expand current knowledge about polychlorinated biphenyl impacts and to identify potential new sources of contamination. Semipermeable membrane devices were used to integratively accumulate the dissolved fraction of the contaminants at each site. Performance reference compounds were added prior to deployment and used to determine site-specific sampling rates, enabling estimations of time-weighted average water concentrations during the deployed period. Minimum estimated concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in water were about 1 picogram per liter per congener, and total concentrations at study sites ranged from 130 to 18,000 picograms per liter. The lowest concentration was 130 picograms per liter, about threefold greater than total hypothetical concentrations from background levels in field blanks. Polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations in water fell into three groups of sites: low (130-350 picogram per liter); medium (640-3,500 picogram per liter; and high (11,000-18,000 picogram per liter). Concentrations at the high sites, Beacon Cave and Beaverpond Branch at the Resurgence, were about four- to sixfold higher than concentrations estimated for the medium group of sites

  17. Quick-response evaluation of energy-related occupational safety and health programs. Task Order 1: mortality study of 50 workers exposed to coal-liquefaction processes at a Union Carbide Plant, Institute, West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, A.

    1977-11-01

    A study was undertaken of 50 Union Carbide employees who had been exposed to high-boiling oils containing polycyclic hydrocarbons, coal tar, and pitch. The exposures occurred as a result of a coal-hydrogenation process initiated at the West Virginia facility in May of 1952. Workers were given annual physical examinations and, beginning in 1955, quarterly skin inspections. A review of the findings does not support the initial hypothesis that those workers exposed to heavy streams of toxic materials who developed cancerous skin lesions were at risk for developing systemic carcinoma. Indeed, there was a marked lack of cancer-related deaths or morbidity in the study group after a latency period of 18 to 20 years. One case of lung cancer was reported in a subject at 60 years of age, after a lifetime of smoking. One case of prostatic cancer was diagnosed at 77 years of age. A review of the five deaths listed indicated all were cardiac related including coronary disease, arteriosclerotic disease, cor pulmonale, and myocardial disease.

  18. The cottontail rabbits of Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llewellyn, L.M.; Handley, C.O.

    1945-01-01

    Five races of cottontail rabbits belonging to three species occur in Virginia. One of them, the Mearns cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus mearnsi), is reported here for the first time. It occurs in six southwestern counties of the state, while the eastern cottontail (S. f. mallurus) occurs in the remainder of the state with the exception of Smith and Fishermans islands off the eastern coast of Cape Charles, where it is replaced by Hitchens cottontail (S. f. hitchensi). The New England cottontail (S. transitionalis) is found on the higher mountain peaks, above 3000 feet, and the swamp rabbit (S. palustris) occurs in the Dismal Swamp region of southeastern Virginia.....The height of the breeding season for the eastern cottontail in Virginia is March and April, but breeding continues through the entire year except in December and January. The average litter size based on embryo counts was 4.7. The sex ratio of 234 specimens from all parts of the state, taken mostly in the December to February period, was 53 males to 47 females. That of a group of 145 rabbits live-trapped at Blacksburg during February and Marchwas 58 males to 42 females. The figures show that males are more active than females during the winter months, and therefore are more easily taken then....In transplanting cottontails from one section of the state to another, it is recommended that only cottontails of the same race as those originally present in the region being restocked be released there....Tularemia is not a common disease among rabbits in Virginia, but the rabbit ticks are often carriers of the disease and may transmit it to rabbits. Rabbit ticks are also found to be carriers of Rocky Mountain fever and American Q. fever. After the ticks drop off the rabbits to hibernate in the ground, which is likely to occur during mid-winter in Virginia, there is relatively little danger of humans contracting tularemia by contact with rabbits. Present laws in Virginia which prohibit rabbit hunting until the

  19. Preserving Southwest Virginia's Folklore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgin, Ramond

    1997-01-01

    Describes Southwest Virginia's rich tradition of folklore and culture and the need for its preservation. Summarizes the author's time-consuming process of preparing an inventory and indexing the vast archival collections gathered by students in American Folklore classes at Mountain Empire Community College and by the Southwest Virginia Folklore…

  20. 76 FR 6589 - West Virginia Regulatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-07

    ... various biogases while bio-oil was limited to biodiesel.'' Given these definitions, it appears that we... Control and Reclamation Act of 1977, its legislative history, its implementing regulations, case...

  1. Mapping energy poverty in Huntington, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callicoat, Elizabeth Anne

    Energy poverty is a growing phenomenon culminating from the combination of low to mid household income, deteriorating housing structures and rising household energy costs. Energy prices are increasing for all households, but the burden is proportionally larger for those with low to mid income. These groups must sacrifice to afford energy, and are often unable or do not have the autonomy to make structural improvements, especially if they rent their home. Data on residential dwellings from the Cabell County Tax Assessor's Office was used within a geographic information system to map where energy poverty likely exists within the city limits of Huntington, WV. It was found that one fifth of Huntington households are at a high risk of energy poverty, primarily located across the northern section of the city and in the center, surrounding Marshall University, Downtown and Cabell Huntington Hospital.

  2. 77 FR 40793 - West Virginia Regulatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-11

    ... clean coal mined, as well fifteen cents of the amount collected allocated for deposit to the Special... the special reclamation tax to twenty-seven and nine-tenths cents per ton of clean coal mined. The...-tenths cents per ton of clean coal mined; the collection of this tax is eliminated and replaced with...

  3. ORTHOIMAGERY, TYLER COUNTY, WEST VIRGINIA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — An orthoimage is remotely sensed image data in which displacement of features in the image caused by terrain relief and sensor orientation has been mathematically...

  4. Level III Ecoregions of West Virginia

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Ecoregions by state were extracted from the seamless national shapefile. Ecoregions denote areas of general similarity in ecosystems and in the type, quality, and...

  5. 2015 State Geodatabase for West Virginia

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The 2015 TIGER Geodatabases are extracts of selected nation based and state based geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  6. FLOODPLAIN, Monongalia COUNTY, WEST VIRGINIA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  7. FLOODPLAIN, PENDLETON COUNTY, WEST VIRGINIA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  8. FLOODPLAIN, Braxton COUNTY, WEST VIRGINIA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  9. FLOODPLAIN, Doddridge COUNTY, WEST VIRGINIA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  10. FLOODPLAIN, Nicholas COUNTY, WEST VIRGINIA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  11. FLOODPLAIN, Calhoun COUNTY, WEST VIRGINIA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  12. FLOODPLAIN, TYLER COUNTY, WEST VIRGINIA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  13. 50 CFR 32.68 - West Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Refuge A. Migratory Game Bird Hunting. We allow hunting of goose, duck, rail, coot, gallinule, mourning.... 10. We allow dogs for hunting black bear during the gun season. We prohibit more than six dogs per... Tucker County antlerless deer season. The gun bear season begins the Monday following the antlerless...

  14. 40 CFR 81.349 - West Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... County Grant County Greenbrier County Hampshire County Hancock County 2 Hardy County Harrison County... Gilmer County Grant County Hampshire County Hancock County Hardy County Harrison County Jackson County... Hampshire County Hardy County Harrison County Jackson County Lewis County Lincoln County Logan County...

  15. FLOODPLAIN, BERKELEY COUNTY, WEST VIRGINIA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  16. Level IV Ecoregions of West Virginia

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Ecoregions by state were extracted from the seamless national shapefile. Ecoregions denote areas of general similarity in ecosystems and in the type, quality, and...

  17. Geologic map of the Stephens City quadrangle, Clark, Frederick, and Warren Counties, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weary, D.J.; Orndorff, R.C.; Aleman-Gonzalez, W.

    2006-01-01

    The Stephens City 1:24,000-scale quadrangle is one of several quadrangles in Frederick County, Virginia being mapped by geologists from the U.S. Geological Survey in Reston, VA with funding from the National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program. This work is part of a project being lead by the U.S. Geological Survey Water Resources Discipline, Virginia District, to investigate the geologic framework and groundwater resources of Frederick County as well as other areas in the northern Shenandoah Valley of Virginia and West Virginia.

  18. Virginia Woolf's "The Legacy."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavine, Ann

    1986-01-01

    Shows how the character Gilbert Clandon from Virginia Woolf's "The Legacy" illustrates one of Woolf's underlying beliefs about fiction--that it should not present reality as absolute and neatly packageable, but rather as subjectively experienced by individuals. (EL)

  19. Virginia Water Central

    OpenAIRE

    Virginia Water Resources Research Center

    2011-01-01

    This newsletter features articles on water-related science, policy, and law. Distributed to state agency representatives, faculty, students and interested citizens, it aims to provide current information, statistics, news, and notices related to water resources in Virginia.

  20. Humor As a Weapon in Virginia Woolf's "Orlando."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, Robin

    Virginia Woolf's "Orlando" is an excellent example of mock biography to use in literature classes concerned with analyzing literary genres. Woolf used humor to undermine some conventions of the genre of biography and to reform biography into a shape adequate to express the life of Vita Sackville-West. An ordinary biography most likely…

  1. Virginia Atlantic Coast Recreational Use

    Data.gov (United States)

    Virginia Department of Environmental Quality — As a member of the Mid-Atlantic Regional Council on the Ocean (MARCO), Virginia, through its Coastal Zone Management (CZM) Program, collected information on how the...

  2. Seduction and revenge in Virginia Woolf's Orlando.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Susan

    2011-07-01

    Virginia Woolf's Orlando was characterized by Nigel Nicolson as a "charming love letter" to his mother, Vita Sackville-West. The fictional biography was actually an attempt by Woolf to organize herself after the unbearable humiliation of Vita's abandoning her for another woman. In imagining, writing, and publishing Orlando, Woolf turns her despair about Vita's betrayal into a monument of revenge, defending against disorganizing feelings of humiliation, powerlessness, rage, and loss by creating her own scathing portrait of Vita. In the novel, Woolf also intermittently merges herself with Orlando/Vita to create a permanent tie to the woman who--like her mother and sister--excited and rejected her.

  3. Virginia Bioinformatics Institute awards Transdisciplinary Team Science

    OpenAIRE

    Bland, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The Virginia Bioinformatics Institute at Virginia Tech, in collaboration with Virginia Tech's Ph.D. program in genetics, bioinformatics, and computational biology, has awarded three fellowships in support of graduate work in transdisciplinary team science.

  4. Libraries in Virginia: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/virginia.html Libraries in Virginia To use the sharing features on ... enable JavaScript. Annandale South Baylo University Virginia Campus Library 7535 Little River Turnpike Suite 325A Annandale, VA ...

  5. Virginia ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, anadromous, and brackishwater fish species in Virginia. Vector polygons in this data...

  6. Virginia ESI: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, and rare invertebrate species in Virginia. Vector polygons in this data set...

  7. Virginia ESI: REPTPT (Reptile Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for sea turtles in Virginia. Vector points in this data set represent nesting sites. Species-specific...

  8. Virginia ESI: Wetlands (Wetland Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector polygons representing the coastal wetlands for Virginia, classified according to the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI)...

  9. Virginia ESI: REPTILES (Reptile Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for sea turtles and estuarine turtles in Virginia. Vector polygons in this data set represent turtle...

  10. Virginia ESI: NESTS (Nest Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for wading birds, shorebirds, raptors, diving birds, passerine birds, and gulls and terns in Virginia....

  11. Virginia ESI: HABITATS (Habitat Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) and rare terrestrial plants/communities in Virginia. Vector polygons...

  12. The Analysis of Virginia Woolf

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴寒路

    2014-01-01

    <正>Virginia Woolf is a British writer,one of the representatives criticism at home,stream of consciousness novel."Mark on the Wall"is her first article typical stream of consciousness works.Virginia Woolf has a complicated family background.The nine homes,two groups of children between age and personality clashes often occur some contradictions and conflicts.Woolf’s half-brother and two of her injuries left her permanently

  13. 75 FR 33617 - Notice of Proposed Settlement Agreement and Opportunity for Public Comment: West Huntington Spill...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-14

    ... AGENCY Notice of Proposed Settlement Agreement and Opportunity for Public Comment: West Huntington Spill... United States Department of Justice on behalf of EPA, in connection with the West Huntington Spill Site, Huntington, West Virginia (``Site''). DATES: Written comments on the proposed settlement agreement must...

  14. Infectious uveitis in Virginia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engelhard SB

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Stephanie B Engelhard,1 Zeina Haddad,1 Asima Bajwa,1 James Patrie,2 Wenjun Xin,2 Ashvini K Reddy1 1Department of Ophthalmology, 2Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA Purpose: To report the causes, clinical features, and outcomes of infectious uveitis in patients managed in a mid-Atlantic tertiary care center.Methods: Retrospective, observational study of infectious uveitis patients seen at the University of Virginia from 1984 to 2014.Results: Seventy-seven of 491 patients (15.7% were diagnosed with infectious uveitis (mean age 58 years, 71.4% female, 76.6% Caucasian. The mean follow-up was 5 years. Anterior uveitis was the most common anatomic classification (39 patients, 50.6% followed by panuveitis (20 patients, 26.0% and posterior uveitis (18 patients, 23.4%. The most common infectious etiology was herpetic anterior uveitis (37 patients, 48.1% followed by toxoplasma uveitis (14 patients, 18.2%. The most prevalent viral pathogen was varicella-zoster virus (21 patients, 27.3% followed by herpes simplex virus (20 patients, 26.0%. Acute retinal necrosis (ARN was diagnosed in 14 patients (18.2%. Aqueous humor yielded an etiologic diagnosis in seven (50% of ARN patients, four of whom tested positive for cytomegalovirus and three for varicella-zoster virus. On presentation, 43 patients (55.8% had a visual acuity (VA better than 20/40 and 17 (22.1% had a VA worse than 20/200. VA at the final follow-up was better than 20/40 in 39 patients (50.6% and worse than 20/200 in 22 patients (28.6%. In all, 16 (20.8% and 10 (13.0% patients required cataract and vitrectomy surgery, respectively. A total of 14 patients (18.2% were on glaucoma topical treatment and four (5.2% required glaucoma surgery.Conclusion: The most common type of infectious uveitis seen over the study period was herpetic anterior uveitis secondary to varicella-zoster virus or herpes simplex virus, found to be most prevalent in patients

  15. LOGGERHEAD SEA TURTLE LATE NESTING ECOLOGY IN VIRGINIA BEACH, VIRGINIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    T'he.loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta came is the only recurrent nesting species of sea turtle in southeastern Virginia (Lutcavage & Musick, 1985; Dodd, 1988). Inasmuch as the loggerhead is a federally threatened species, the opportunity to gather data on its nesting ecology is imp...

  16. Creation of Regional Habitat Cover Maps: Application of the NE Terrestrial Habitat Classification System: Completion of Virginia & Maryland Piedmont and Coastal Plain to be consistent with rest of region

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This project completed the comprehensive wildlife habitat map of the eastern region, including all states from Maine to Virginia, west to New York, Pennsylvania and...

  17. Virginia Woolf: Postmodern Writing Instructor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Bradley R.

    In her much-quoted statement of principles "A Room of One's Own," Virginia Woolf wishes for "a woman's sentence." In that essay, she doubts that a woman can use the same sentence as a man to write literature, because "the weight, the pace, the stride of a man's mind are too unlike her own for her to lift anything…

  18. Reading "Terebithia" in Southern Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Dori Grinenko

    2008-01-01

    The author discusses reading "The Bridge to Terebithia" to a third-grade class prior to release of the film version. Reading of the final chapter followed by two days the April 16, 2007 shootings at Virginia Tech University, just seventy miles from the classroom. Although none of the college students from the author's town died, everyone knew…

  19. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, TAYLOR COUNTY, WEST VIRGINIA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  20. AN EMERGY AUDIT OF WEST VIRGINIA: STRENGTHS AND VULNERABILITIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emergy provides a general accounting mechanism that allows us to view the economy of humanity and the economy of nature on the same income and balance sheets. In this manner we can verify the financial picture given by economic analysis by checking it against a similar represen...

  1. Water quality trends in the Blackwater River watershed, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jessica; Welsh, Stuart; Anderson, James T.; Fortney, Ronald H.

    2015-01-01

    An understanding of historic and current water quality is needed to manage and improve aquatic communities within the Blackwater River watershed, WV. The Blackwater River, which historically offered an excellent Salvelinus fontinalis (Brook Trout) fishery, has been affected by logging, coal mining, use of off-road vehicles, and land development. Using information-theoretic methods, we examined trends in water quality at 12 sites in the watershed for the 14 years of 1980–1993. Except for Beaver Creek, downward trends in acidity and upward trends in alkalinity, conductivity, and hardness were consistent with decreases in hydrogen ion concentration. Water-quality trends for Beaver Creek were inconsistent with the other sites and reflect ongoing coal-mining influences. Dissolved oxygen trended downward, possibly due to natural conditions, but remained above thresholds that would be detrimental to aquatic life. Water quality changed only slightly within the watershed from 1980–1993, possibly reflecting few changes in development and land uses during this time. These data serve as a baseline for future water-quality studies and may help to inform management planning.

  2. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, SUMMERS COUNTY, WEST VIRGINIA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk information and supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk...

  3. A Spatial Analysis of Obesity in West Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Anura Amarasinghe; Gerard D'Souza; Cheryl Brown; Tatiana Borisova

    2006-01-01

    A spatial panel data analysis at the county level examines how individual food consumption, recreational, and lifestyle choices ? against a backdrop of changing demographic, built environment, and policy factors ? leads to obesity. Results suggest that obesity tends to be spatially autocorrelated; in addition to hereditary factors and lifestyle choices, it is also caused by sprawl and lack of land use planning. Policy measures which stimulate educational attainment, poverty alleviation, and p...

  4. Fishes of the Blackwater River Drainage, Tucker County, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cincotta, Daniel A.; Welsh, Stuart; Wegman, Douglas P.; Oldham, Thomas E.; Hedrick, Lara B.

    2015-01-01

    The Blackwater River, a tributary of the upper Cheat River of the Monongahela River, hosts a modest fish fauna. This relatively low diversity of fish species is partly explained by its drainage history. The Blackwater was once part of the prehistoric, northeasterly flowing St. Lawrence River. During the Pleistocene Epoch, the fauna was significantly affected by glacial advance and by proglacial lakes and their associated overflows. After the last glacial retreat, overflow channels, deposits, and scouring altered drainage courses and connected some of the tributaries of the ancient Teays and Pittsburgh drainages. These major alterations allowed the invasion of fishes from North America's more species-rich southern waters. Here we review fish distributions based on 67 surveys at 34 sites within the Blackwater River drainage, and discuss the origin and status of 37 species. Within the Blackwater River watershed, 30 species (20 native, 10 introduced) have been reported from upstream of Blackwater Falls, whereas 29 (26 native, 3 introduced) have been documented below the Falls. Acid mine drainage, historic lumbering, and human encroachment have impacted the Blackwater's ichthyofauna. The fishes that have been most affected are Salvelinus fontinalis (Brook Trout), Clinostomus elongatus (Redside Dace), Nocomis micropogon (River Chub), Hypentelium nigricans (Northern Hog Sucker), Etheostoma flabellare (Fantail Darter), and Percina maculata(Blackside Darter). The first two species incurred range reductions, whereas the latter four were probably extirpated. In the 1990s, acid remediation dramatically improved the water quality of the river below Davis. Recent surveys in the lower drainage revealed 15 fishes where none had been observed since at least the 1940s; seven of these (Cyprinella spiloptera [Spotfin Shiner], Luxilus chrysocephalus [Striped Shiner], Notropis photogenis [Silver Shiner], N. rubellus [Rosyface Shiner];Micropterus dolomieu [Smallmouth Bass]; and Etheostoma camurum [Bluebreast Darter] and E. variatum [Variegate Darter]) represent additions to the faunal list of the Blackwater River.

  5. Identifying Energy Savings in Water and Wastewater Plants - West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-03-01

    Since 1976, Industrial Assessment Centers (IACs) administered by the U.S. Department of Energy have supported small and medium-sized American manufacturers to reduce their energy use and improve their productivity and competitiveness. DOE is now offering up to 50 assessments per year at no cost to industrial or municipal water and wastewater plants.

  6. Unique Wildlife Ecosystem Concept Plan State Of West Virginia

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Cannan Valley Master Plan guides the long-range development of the Refuge by identifying and integrating appropriate habitats, management strategies, program...

  7. Marmet Locks and Dam, Kanawha River, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    than 16.4 million tons of commerce locked through Marmet, including 15.4 million tons of coal , which is used mostly for power generation. The...acwc.sdp.sirsi.net/client/search/ asset /1000592 Headquarters, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (HQUSACE). 1997. Engineering and design; Monitoring Completed...Vicksburg, MS: U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center. http://acwc.sdp.sirsi.net/client/search/ asset /1042406 Patev, R. C. 2000. Probabilistic

  8. The Environmental Assessment and Management (TEAM) Guide: West Virginia Supplement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    evolution of gas forces or projects jets of flame or metal sparks beyond the ladle, runner , or collection hood (WVCSR 45-7-2). • Building, Structure...with at tached n eedles, scalpel blades , l ancets a nd broken glassware 7. Isolation w astes - wastes generated f rom t he car e o f a p atient who h...attached needles, scalpel blades , lancets and broken glassware (WVCSR 64- 56-3) [Revised February 1998]. • Shredded Waste Tires - tires or tire derived

  9. Ohio River Environmental Assessment: Cultural Resources Reconnaissance Report, West Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-08-01

    showed up in Maryland with Chartier . By 1725 there was only one group of Shawnee left in Alabama; the rest had moved into the headwaters of the Ohio. By...the American Philosophical Society, Vol. 54. Part 5 Philadelphia. Cunningham, Roger M. 1973. Paleo-Hunters Along the Ohio River. Archaeology of Eastern

  10. Understanding High School Graduation Rates in West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Graduation rates are a fundamental indicator of whether or not the nation's public school system is doing what it is intended to do: enroll, engage, and educate youth to be productive members of society. Since almost 90 percent of the fastest-growing and highest-paying jobs require some postsecondary education, having a high school diploma and the…

  11. Fire Clay Coal Zone County Statistics (Chemistry) in Kentucky, West Virginia, and Virginia

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset is a polygon coverage of counties limited to the extent of the Fire Clay coal zone resource areas and attributed with statistics on these coal quality...

  12. Fire Clay Coal Zone Resource Areas in Virginia, Kentucky, and West Virginia

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset is a polygon coverage of the Fire Clay coal zone that represents the areas in which resources were calculated and is only part of the full outcrop of...

  13. Fire Clay Coal Zone County Statistics (Geology) in Virginia, Kentucky, and West Virginia

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset is a polygon coverage of counties limited to the extent of the Fire Clay coal zone resource areas and attributed with statistics on the thickness of the...

  14. Pocahontas No. 3 Coal Bed Point Data (Chemistry) in Virginia and West Virginia

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset (located by latitude and longitude) is a subset of the geochemical dataset found in Chap. H, Appendix 2, Disc 1, and used in this study of the...

  15. Fire Clay Coal Zone Point Data (Geology) in Kentucky, Virginia and West Virginia

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset is a point coverage of attributes on data location, thickness of the Fire Clay coal zone, and its elevation, in feet. This resource model for the Fire...

  16. Pond Creek Coal Zone Remaining Resources by County in Kentucky, West Virginia, and Virginia

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset is a polygon coverage of counties limited to the extent of the Pond Creek coal zone resource areas and attributed with remaining resources (millions of...

  17. Fire Clay Coal Zone Remaining Resources by County in Virginia, Kentucky, and West Virginia

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset is a polygon coverage of counties limited to the extent of the Fire Clay coal zone resource areas and attributed with remaining resources (millions of...

  18. Pond Creek Coal Zone Point Data (Geology) in Kentucky, West Virginia, and Virginia

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset is a point coverage of attributes on data location, thickness of the Pond Creek coal bed main bench, and its elevation, in feet. The file is also found...

  19. Pond Creek Coal zone Point Data (Chemistry) in Virginia and West Virginia

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset (located by latitude and longitude) is a subset of the geochemical dataset found in Chap. H, Appendix 2, Disc 1, and used in this study of the...

  20. Pocahontas No. 3 Coal Bed Remaining Resources by County in Kentucky, West Virginia, and Virginia

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset is a polygon coverage of counties limited to the extent of the Pocahontas No. 3 coal bed resource areas and attributed with remaining resource values...

  1. Pond Creek Coal Zone County Statistics (Chemistry) in Kentucky, West Virginia, and Virginia

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset is a polygon coverage of counties limited to the extent of the Pond Creek coal zone resource areas and attributed with statistics on these coal quality...

  2. Pocahontas No. 3 Coal Bed Point Data (Geology) in West Virginia and Virginia

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset is a point coverage of the Pocahontas No. 3 coal with attributes on data location, minable thickness, and elevation, in feet. The file is also found as...

  3. Fire Clay Coal Zone Point Data (Chemistry) in Kentucky, Virginia and West Virginia

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset (located by latitude and longitude) is a subset of the geochemical dataset found in Chap. F, Appendix 7, Disc 1, and used in this study of the Fire Clay...

  4. Pocahontas No. 3 Coal Bed Original Resources by County in Kentucky, West Virginia, and Virginia

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset is a polygon coverage of counties limited to the extent of the Pocahontas No. 3 coal bed resource areas and attributed with original resource values...

  5. Pond Creek Coal Zone Original Resources by County in Kentucky, West Virginia, and Virginia

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset is a polygon coverage of counties limited to the extent of the Pond Creek coal zone resource areas and attributed with original resources (millions of...

  6. Pond Creek Coal Zone County Statistics (Geology) in Kentucky, West Virginia, and Virginia

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset is a polygon coverage of counties limited to the extent of the Pond Creek coal bed resource areas and attributed with statistics on the thickness of the...

  7. Fire Clay Coal Zone Original Resources by County in Virginia, Kentucky, and West Virginia

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset is a polygon coverage of counties limited to the extent of the Fire Clay coal zone resource areas and attributed with original resources (millions of...

  8. Pond Creek Coal Zone Resource Areas (Outcrop) in Kentucky, West Virginia, and Virginia

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset is a polygon coverage of counties limited to the extent of the Pond Creek coal bed resource areas. Resource areas are only a subset of the entire areal...

  9. Pocahontas No. 3 Coal Bed Resource Areas (Outcrop) in Kentucky, West Virginia, and Virginia

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset is a polygon coverage of counties limited to the extent of the Pocahontas No. 3 coal bed resource areas. The eastern limit of the coal bed is along the...

  10. Pocahontas No. 3 Coal Bed County Statistics (Geology) in Kentucky, West Virginia, and Virginia

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset is a polygon coverage of counties limited to the extent of the Pocahontas No. 3 coal bed resource areas and attributed with statistics on the thickness...

  11. Contaminants in peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) eggs from Virginia, Maryland and West Virginia

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Peregrine falcons were extirpated in the eastern United States in the 1960s principally due to the use of organochlorine pesticides, particularly DDT (Peakall et...

  12. Virginia Apgar and string music

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Virginia Apgar (1909-1974) is one of the most recognized American doctors, worldwide known by his contribution as the developer of the "Apgar test" a method used for the evaluation of newborns all over the world. She had many interests. She was anesthesiologist, a brilliant teacher and researcher, but she also loved lecture, basketball, fishing, golf, philately, and music. She played violin and cello and she interpreted that instruments in various chamber groups. Being motivated by one of her...

  13. 77 FR 27120 - Safety Zone; Virginia Beach Oceanfront Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Virginia Beach, VA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-09

    ..., Virginia Beach, VA in the Federal Register (76 FR 13519). We received one comment on the proposed rule. No... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Virginia Beach Oceanfront Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Virginia Beach, VA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY:...

  14. Hazard Concerns: MIC at Bhopal and Virginia and the Indian Nuclear Liability Act

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Oblivious to the anger and outrage expressed throughout the world after the methyl isocyanate leak in December 1984, the continued storage of MIC at the parent West Virginia plant until 2011, despite several accidents, indicates the limited effect of public safety concerns on corporate strategy. As in India, neither the US executive nor the judiciary seemed capable of withstanding pressures exerted by the chemical processing industry. This is an ongoing story of struggle. What gave Bhopal a f...

  15. Oviposition Preferences for Infusion-Baited Traps and Seasonal Abundance of Culex Mosquitoes in Southwestern Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Bryan Tyler

    2004-01-01

    Field studies were conducted in southwestern Virginia to determine the bionomics and ovipositional preferences of Culex restuans Theobald and Culex pipiens Linnaeus using ovitraps and gravid traps. Both species have been implicated as enzootic and epizootic vectors of West Nile virus (WNV) and these studies provide information on the relative abundance of gravid mosquitoes. Ovitraps were used in the summers of 2002 and 2003 to measure the oviposition activity of Culex mosquitoes, main...

  16. Virginia Woolf and Visual Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Humm, Maggie

    2010-01-01

    Virginia Woolf’s work is shaped by her knowledge of, and fascination with, visual cultures. Orlando, Flush, and Three Guineas all contain photographs, and Woolf wrote about cinema and was an enthusiastic domestic photographer.\\ud Visual artefacts of all kinds ranging from Omega Workshop crafts to Hogarth Press book designs, are part of her visual landscape.\\ud The chapter discusses Woolf’s relation to visual cultures, in particular Woolf’s ‘Portraits’, essays, ‘The Cinema’, Flush and Three Gu...

  17. Geology along the Blue Ridge Parkway in Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Mark W.; Southworth, C. Scott; Tollo, Richard P.; Merschat, Arthur J.; Wagner, Sara; Lazor, Ava; Aleinikoff, John N.

    2017-01-01

    Detailed geologic mapping and new SHRIMP (sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe) U-Pb zircon, Ar/Ar, Lu-Hf, 14C, luminescence (optically stimulated), thermochronology (fission-track), and palynology reveal the complex Mesoproterozoic to Quaternary geology along the ~350 km length of the Blue Ridge Parkway in Virginia. Traversing the boundary of the central and southern Appalachians, rocks along the parkway showcase the transition from the para-autochthonous Blue Ridge anticlinorium of northern and central Virginia to the allochthonous eastern Blue Ridge in southern Virginia. From mile post (MP) 0 near Waynesboro, Virginia, to ~MP 124 at Roanoke, the parkway crosses the unconformable to faulted boundary between Mesoproterozoic basement in the core of the Blue Ridge anticlinorium and Neoproterozoic to Cambrian metasedimentary and metavolcanic cover rocks on the western limb of the structure. Mesoproterozoic basement rocks comprise two groups based on SHRIMP U-Pb zircon geochronology: Group I rocks (1.2-1.14 Ga) are strongly foliated orthogneisses, and Group II rocks (1.08-1.00 Ga) are granitoids that mostly lack obvious Mesoproterozoic deformational features.Neoproterozoic to Cambrian cover rocks on the west limb of the anticlinorium include the Swift Run and Catoctin Formations, and constituent formations of the Chilhowee Group. These rocks unconformably overlie basement, or abut basement along steep reverse faults. Rocks of the Chilhowee Group are juxtaposed against Cambrian rocks of the Valley and Ridge province along southeast- and northwest-dipping, high-angle reverse faults. South of the James River (MP 64), Chilhowee Group and basement rocks occupy the hanging wall of the nearly flat-lying Blue Ridge thrust fault and associated splays.South of the Red Valley high-strain zone (MP 144.5), the parkway crosses into the wholly allochthonous eastern Blue Ridge, comprising metasedimentary and meta-igneous rocks assigned to the Wills Ridge, Ashe, and Alligator

  18. Coastal storm monitoring in Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicklein, Shaun M.; Bennett, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Coastal communities in Virginia are prone to flooding, particularly during hurricanes, nor’easters, and other coastal low-pressure systems. These weather systems affect public safety, personal and public property, and valuable infrastructure, such as transportation, water and sewer, and electric-supply networks. Local emergency managers, utility operators, and the public are tasked with making difficult decisions regarding evacuations, road closures, and post-storm recovery efforts as a result of coastal flooding. In coastal Virginia these decisions often are made on the basis of anecdotal knowledge from past events or predictions based on data from monitoring sites located far away from the affected area that may not reflect local conditions. Preventing flood hazards, such as hurricane-induced storm surge, from becoming human disasters requires an understanding of the relative risks that flooding poses to specific communities. The risk to life and property can be very high if decisions about evacuations and road closures are made too late or not at all.

  19. 7 CFR 51.2751 - U.S. Medium Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false U.S. Medium Virginia. 51.2751 Section 51.2751... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Shelled Virginia Type Peanuts Grades § 51.2751 U.S. Medium Virginia. “U.S. Medium Virginia” consists of shelled Virginia type peanut kernels of similar varietal...

  20. Virginia Regional Seismic Network. Final report (1986--1992)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bollinger, G.A.; Sibol, M.S.; Chapman, M.C.; Snoke, J.A. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (US). Seismological Observatory

    1993-07-01

    In 1986, the Virginia Regional Seismic Network was one of the few fully calibrated digital seismic networks in the United States. Continued operation has resulted in the archival of signals from 2,000+ local, regional and teleseismic sources. Seismotectonic studies of the central Virginia seismic zone showed the activity in the western part to be related to a large antiformal structure while seismicity in the eastern portion is associated spatially with dike swarms. The eastern Tennessee seismic zone extends over a 300x50 km area and is the result of a compressive stress field acting at the intersection between two large crustal blocks. Hydroseismicity, which proposes a significant role for meteoric water in intraplate seismogenesis, found support in the observation of common cyclicities between streamflow and earthquake strain data. Seismic hazard studies have provided the following results: (1) Damage areas in the eastern United States are three to five times larger than those observed in the west. (2) Judged solely on the basis of cataloged earthquake recurrence rates, the next major shock in the southeast region will probably occur outside the Charleston, South Carolina area. (3) Investigations yielded necessary hazard parameters (for example, maximum magnitudes) for several sites in the southeast. Basic to these investigations was the development and maintenance of several seismological data bases.

  1. Mechatronics education at Virginia Tech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bay, John S.; Saunders, William R.; Reinholtz, Charles F.; Pickett, Peter; Johnston, Lee

    1998-12-01

    The advent of more complex mechatronic systems in industry has introduced new opportunities for entry-level and practicing engineers. Today, a select group of engineers are reaching out to be more knowledgeable in a wide variety of technical areas, both mechanical and electrical. A new curriculum in mechatronics developed at Virginia Tech is starting to bring students from both the mechanical and electrical engineering departments together, providing them wit an integrated perspective on electromechanical technologies and design. The course is cross-listed and team-taught by faculty from both departments. Students from different majors are grouped together throughout the course, each group containing at least one mechanical and one electrical engineering student. This gives group members the ability to learn from one another while working on labs and projects.

  2. DOLLY ANN ROADLESS AREA, VIRGINIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesure, Frank G.; Jones, Jay G.

    1984-01-01

    Mineral-resource surveys indicate that much of the Dolly Ann Roadless Area, in the George Washington National Forest, Alleghany County, Virginia, has substantiated iron resource potential. Inferred low-grade iron resources occur in folded sedimentary rocks of Paleozoic age. The area has an estimated 540 million long tons of contained iron in hematitic sandstone and 700,000 long tons contained iron in deposits of sandy Limonite. Other mineral resources include various rocks suitable for crushed rock, quartzite suitable for high-silica uses, limestone suitable for agricultural uses, and clay and shale suitable for structural clay products, all of which can be readily obtained outside the wilderness. A potential for natural gas and geothermal energy may exist but cannot be quantified from present knowledge.

  3. [Virginia Apgar and her scale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gijn, Jan; Gijselhart, Joost P

    2012-01-01

    Virginia Apgar (1909-1974), born in New Jersey, managed to continue medical school despite the financial crisis of 1929, continued for a brief time in surgery and subsequently became one of the first specialists in anaesthesiology. In 1949 she was appointed to a professorship, the first woman to reach this rank at Columbia University in New York. She then dedicated herself to obstetric anaesthesiology and devised the well known scale for the initial assessment of newborn babies, according to 5 criteria. From 1959 she worked for the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis (now March of Dimes), to expand its activities from prevention of poliomyelitis to other aspects of preventive child care, such as rubella vaccination and testing for rhesus antagonism. She remained single; in her private life she enjoyed fly fishing, took lessons in aviation and was an accomplished violinist.

  4. 2012 FEMA Lidar: Southern Virginia Counties

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Dewberry collected LiDAR for ~3,341 square miles in various Virginia Counties, a part of Worcester County, and Hoopers Island. The acquisition was performed by...

  5. Rotunda, University of Virginia. Remodeling Portfolio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Progressive Architecture, 1976

    1976-01-01

    The recently completed restoration of Thomas Jefferson's Rotunda at the University of Virginia is criticized as being the result of compromises and, consequently, an amalgam of its three previous designers. (Author/MLF)

  6. Virginia ESI: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains boundaries for management areas, national parks, state and local parks, and wildlife refuges in Virginia. Vector polygons in this data set...

  7. Virginia ESI: HYDRO (Hydrography Lines and Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector lines and polygons representing coastal hydrography used in the creation of the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) for Virginia. The...

  8. 2011 FEMA Lidar: Southern Virginia Cities

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Dewberry collected LiDAR for ~3,341 square miles in various Virginia Counties, a part of Worcester County, and Hooper's Island. The acquisition was performed by...

  9. ORTHOIMAGERY, CITY OF POQUOSON, VIRGINIA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — These files contain Digital Orthophoto files for the State of Virginia developed from imagery acquired in spring 2007. In the spring of 2006, the Commonwealth of...

  10. Virginia Woolfi tunnid kummitavad edasi / Andres Laasik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laasik, Andres, 1960-2016

    2003-01-01

    Virginia Woolfi teosest "Mrs. Dalloway" ajendatud Michael Cunninghami romaanil "Tunnid" põhinev mängufilm "Tunnid" ("The Hours") : režissöör Stephen Daldry : kesksetes rollides Meryl Streep, Nicole Kidman, Julianne Moore : Suurbritannia 2002

  11. Virginia Woolfi tunnid kummitavad edasi / Andres Laasik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laasik, Andres, 1960-2016

    2003-01-01

    Virginia Woolfi teosest "Mrs. Dalloway" ajendatud Michael Cunninghami romaanil "Tunnid" põhinev mängufilm "Tunnid" ("The Hours") : režissöör Stephen Daldry : kesksetes rollides Meryl Streep, Nicole Kidman, Julianne Moore : Suurbritannia 2002

  12. SSN 774 Virginia Class Submarine (SSN 774)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    increasing performance capabilities more than eleven years after lead ship delivery in October 2004. With the delivery to the Navy of USS JOHN WARNER (SSN...of VIRGINIA Class Submarines are highlighted by the Commissioning of USS JOHN WARNER (SSN 785) at Norfolk Naval Shipyard on August 1, 2015 and the...significant production milestone with the completion of her pressure hull on August 29, 2015. Other near term VIRGINIA Class program events include Pre

  13. 77 FR 65493 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; Amendments to West...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-29

    ... (44 U.S.C. 3501 et seq.); Is certified as not having a significant economic impact on a substantial... Legislative Rule, 45 CSR 8- Ambient Air Quality Standards. The amendments change the effective date of the... its SIP pertaining to amendments of Legislative Rule, 45 CSR 8--Ambient Air Quality Standards. The SIP...

  14. Foundation Report on Stonewall Jackson Dam, West Fork River Basin, Weston, West Virginia. Volume 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-21

    stress -elief icints filled with clay C.:(-d ose a safety Doblem durino the con~stru.ct ion life of the Cari and may recuire rock bo’lts as an aid...INS1E IOM 9. TOTAL DEPTH OF HOLE 35.1 Dave Nugen ELEVATION DEPT. LEGEND. CLASIFICATION OF MATERIALS . COIrE BOx OR REMARKS101I 3.9NDeacptin) NECOV

  15. 76 FR 54189 - Television Broadcasting Services; Hampton-Norfolk, Virginia; Norfolk, Virginia-Elizabeth City, NC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Hampton-Norfolk, Virginia; Norfolk, Virginia... Association (``HRETA''), the licensee of noncommercial educational television station WHRO-TV, channel *16... license. There is presently a freeze on the filing of television allotment rulemaking petitions, but...

  16. Virginia Beach Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Virginia Beach, Virginia Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST)...

  17. Leader Of Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station Succumbs To Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    MacInnis, Stewart

    2003-01-01

    Kriton Hatzios, who, as director of the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station, oversaw Virginia Tech's rise to the top ranks of universities engaged in agricultural research, died today. He was 53.

  18. NASA Consortium awards funding to Virginia Tech's geospatial program

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Lynn

    2004-01-01

    NASA has selected a partnership between the Virginia Space Grant Consortium (VSGC) and Virginia Tech to receive a $100,000 grant for geospatial education and work force development. The grant, awarded through the NASA Space Grant College and Fellowship program, allows the partners to continue the already successful Virginia Geospatial Extension Program that was established in July 2003.

  19. 27 CFR 9.135 - Virginia's Eastern Shore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Virginia's Eastern Shore... Virginia's Eastern Shore. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Virginia's Eastern Shore.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of...

  20. Karen Gehrt named associate director of Virginia Cooperative Extension

    OpenAIRE

    Sutphin, Michael D.

    2006-01-01

    Karen Gehrt of Champaign, Ill., has been named the associate director of Family and Consumer Sciences programs for Virginia Cooperative Extension. In her new position at Virginia Tech, Gehrt will serve as a state program leader for the development and delivery of educational programs that meet the needs of Virginia's families and communities.

  1. 78 FR 16816 - Television Broadcasting Services; Hampton-Norfolk, Virginia; Norfolk, Virginia-Elizabeth City...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-19

    ..., North Carolina, and to modify its television station, WHRO-TV's license to specify Norfolk, Virginia... effective March 19, 2013. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jeremy Miller, Jeremy.Miller@fcc.gov , Media..., Media Bureau. BILLING CODE 6712-01-P...

  2. West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    With its vast expanses of sand, framed by mountain ranges and exposed rock, northwestern Africa makes a pretty picture when viewed from above. This image was acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The Canary Islands can be seen on the left side of the image just off Africa's Atlantic shore. The light brown expanse running through the northern two thirds of the image is the Sahara Desert. The desert runs up against the dark brown Haut Atlas mountain range of Morocco in the northwest, the Atlantic Ocean to the west and the semi-arid (light brown pixels) Sahelian region in the South. The Sahara, however, isn't staying put. Since the 1960s, the desert has been expanding into the Sahelian region at a rate of up to 6 kilometers per year. In the 1980s this desert expansion, combined with over cultivation of the Sahel, caused a major famine across west Africa. Over the summer months, strong winds pick up sands from the Sahara and blow them across the Atlantic as far west as North America, causing air pollution in Miami and damaging coral reefs in the Bahamas and the Florida Keys. The white outlines on the map represent country borders. Starting at the top-most portion of the map and working clockwise, the countries shown are Morocco, Western Sahara, Mauritania, Senegal, Mali, Burkina Fasso, Nigeria, Mali (again), and Algeria. Image by Reto Stockli, Robert Simmon, and Brian Montgomery, NASA Earth Observatory, based on data from MODIS

  3. Computer Anxiety Levels of Virginia Extension Personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Brenda L.; Stewart, Daisy L.; Hillison, John

    2001-01-01

    Survey responses from 402 Virginia extension personnel showed that secretaries and younger staff had the lowest computer anxiety, technicians and older staff the highest. Time spent using computers, age, and years of employment were somewhat associated with anxiety. Training recommendations were made. (SK)

  4. On Virginia Woolf’s Literary Experimentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕琳娜

    2013-01-01

    The paper takes the content of Virginia Woolf’s diary and novel as materials to analyze three of her most important theories which are“subjective vision”,“moment of being”and“character as center”to explain her literary experimentation which aims to find a new form for a new novel in an era of modernist literature.

  5. Teacher Certification Standards: The Virginia Answer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eicher, B. Keith; Sacks, Annabel L.

    1985-01-01

    Virginia's response to criticism dealing with teacher education programs has been to establish cut-off scores on the National Teachers Examination and to develop a provisional certification for all beginning teachers. These changes in teacher certification regulations are discussed. (DF)

  6. Freedman's Village, Arlington, Virginia: 1863-1900.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shildt, Roberta

    Designed for 7th- and 8th-grade students, the teaching unit demonstrates how blacks lived during and after the Civil War in the first government-provided housing in Freedman's Village. While concerned with local Arlington, Virginia sites and history, the unit provides an illustration of the role of architecture and design on American social…

  7. University of Virginia Reactor Facility Decommissioning Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ervin, P. F.; Lundberg, L. A.; Benneche, P. E.; Mulder, R. U.; Steva, D. P.

    2003-02-24

    The University of Virginia Reactor Facility started accelerated decommissioning in 2002. The facility consists of two licensed reactors, the CAVALIER and the UVAR. This paper will describe the progress in 2002, remaining efforts and the unique organizational structure of the project team.

  8. Silvical characteristics of Virginia pine (Pinus virginiana)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert G., Jr. Snow

    1960-01-01

    Virginia pine has finally attained its rightful place among trees of commercial importance. It has done so in spite of being called "scrub pine" and "poverty pine" - and in spite of the term "forest weed", which has lingered long in the speech of oldtimers who remember the days of timber-plenty.

  9. Virginia Tech opens Engineering Communications Center

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    In an attempt to provide the engineers of the 21st Century with top-notch professional skills to complement their technical expertise, Virginia Tech, one of ten largest undergraduate engineering programs in the country, has opened an Engineering Communication Center.

  10. KIDS COUNT in Virginia, 2001 [Data Book].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Action Alliance for Virginia's Children and Youth, Richmond.

    This Kids Count data book details statewide trends in the well-being of Virginia's children. The statistical portrait is based on the following four areas of children's well-being: health and safety; education; family; and economy. Key indicators examined are: (1) prenatal care; (2) low birth weight babies; (3) infant mortality; (4) child abuse or…

  11. The Right to Marry: "Loving v. Virginia."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallenstein, Peter

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the background, legal issues, and significance of the Supreme Court decision, "Loving v. Virginia" (1967). Outlines the history of laws against interracial marriage throughout U.S. history. Asserts that interpretation of the Fourteenth Amendment, applying federal civil rights to the states, was a key factor in the case. (CFR)

  12. Cryptosporidiosis in a black bear in Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, R B; Caudell, D; Lindsay, D S; Moll, H D

    1999-04-01

    Cryptosporidiosis has not been previously reported in black bears in North America, either free-roaming or captive. However, oocysts have been documented in two captive Malayan sun bears (Helarctos malayanus) located in zoological parks in Taiwan. Developmental stages of Cryptosporidium parvum were observed in tissue sections from the small intestine of a black bear cub found dead in Virginia (USA).

  13. Senior Military Colleges Meet At Virginia Tech

    OpenAIRE

    Lovegrove, Richard L.

    2003-01-01

    Representatives from the nation's six senior military colleges will hear from the Department of Defense and national Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC) commanders during the annual Senior Military Colleges Conference at Virginia Tech on Wednesday and Thursday, Sept. 17 and 18 at the Donaldson Brown Hotel and Conference Center.

  14. Virginia Woolf: A Bibliography, 1975-1978.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santora, Joseph C.; Greenstein, Jane L.

    The entries in this bibliography reflect the prolific amount of material by and about Virginia Woolf that was published between 1975 and 1978, including reprints and revised editions of original works, previously unpublished writings, and scholarly criticism. The selections are listed as primary sources and secondary sources. The secondary sources…

  15. Business Plan: The Virginia Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Billie M.

    1997-01-01

    The Virginia Commercial Space Flight Authority (VCSFA) was established on July 1, 1995 and codified at Sections 9-266.1 et seq., Code of Virginia. It is governed by an eleven person Board of Directors representing industry, state and local government and academia. VCSFA has designated the Center for Commercial Space Infrastructure as its Executive Directorate and Operating Agent. This Business Plan has been developed to provide information to prospective customers, prospective investors, state and federal government agencies, the VCSFA Board and other interested parties regarding development and operation of the Virginia Space Flight Center (VSFC) at Wallops Island. The VSFC is an initiative sponsored by VCSFA to achieve its stated objectives in the areas of economic development and education. Further, development of the VSFC is in keeping with the state's economic goals set forth in Opportunity Virginia, the strategic plan for jobs and prosperity, which are to: (1) Strengthen the rapidly growing aerospace industry in space based services including launch services, remote sensing, satellite manufacturing and telecommunications; and (2) Capitalize on intellectual and technical resources throughout the state and become a leader in the development of advanced technology businesses.

  16. Virginia Tech student receives Student Leadership Award

    OpenAIRE

    Dickerson, Susan

    2004-01-01

    The Outstanding Undergraduate Student Leader Award is one of 10 University Student Leadership Awards given annually by Virginia Tech's Department of Student Activities in the Division of Student Affairs to recognize outstanding members, extraordinary achievements by an organization, advisers, volunteerism, and service-learning experiences.

  17. Societal Implications of an Impact Crater - Chesapeake Bay Impact Structure, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emry, S.; McFarland, R.; Powars, D.

    2002-05-01

    Ground water plays an important role in the economy and quality of life in the Coastal Plain of Virginia. In 1990, the aquifers in the Coastal Plain supplied over 100 million gallons of water per day to the citizens, businesses, and industries of Virginia. In southeastern Virginia, the thirteen public water utilities serve approximately 1.5 million people in the Hampton Roads area. The role of ground water resources in sustaining this area is more critical than ever due to the relatively low relief of the Coastal Plain Province, providing few new surface water sources to meet the growing population and expanding economy and the increased regulatory obstacles to obtaining a permit to build new reservoirs. A zone of salty ground water, referred to as the "inland salt water wedge," is well known to ground water resource planners and scientists, but until recently the phenomenon has not been satisfactorily explained. In 1996, the directors of the water utilities in Hampton Roads were introduced to the most dramatic geological event that ever took place in the Chesapeake Bay region. Geologists from the U.S. Geological Survey provided evidence of a meteor impact that formed a crater over 35 million years ago. The contours of the inland saltwater wedge conform well to the shape of the crater's outer rim. Prior to the discovery of the impact crater, it was presumed that the ground water flow in the Coastal Plain aquifer system was a relatively simple system described as "alternating layers of aquifers and confining units gradually dipping and thickening from the west to the east." With the discovery of the impact crater, the rules changed. In 1997, the USGS and the Hampton Roads Planning District Commission, representing the sixteen member jurisdictions, teamed up in a cooperative effort to redefine the hydrogeology of southeastern Virginia. In 1999, the Virginia Department of Environmental Quality and the Virginia Department of Mines, Minerals, and Energy joined the team

  18. Review of Virginia Woolf's Night and Day

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baker M Bani-Khair

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this Review article, we have looked at different aspects that make Virginia Woolf's Night and Day one of the most interesting to read and analyze. We particularly focus on the familial and social patterns that distinguish this novel from other ones written by the same author. We also placed a good emphasis on the strength points the novel shows by looking at various elements such as themes of love relationships, modern treatment of plot and content, and more importantly on characterizations. The article revealed that Woolf's Night and Day is rich in terms of its modern and unconventional approach towards characters, plot, style, and thematic content which all make it a successful novel. Keywords: social stability, Virginia Woolf, Night and Day, techniques, styles, modernism, relationships, success, Marriage

  19. Salamander assemblage survey of mercury and selenium contaminated Headwater sites in the Appalachian Mountains of Pennsylvania, Virginia, and West Virginia

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Headwater streams comprise 60-75 percent of the total stream length and watershed area in the Mid-Atlantic region. Due to their diverse and complex life histories...

  20. Virginia Bioinformatics Institute offers fellowships for graduate work in transdisciplinary science

    OpenAIRE

    Bland, Susan

    2008-01-01

    The Virginia Bioinformatics Institute at Virginia Tech, in collaboration with Virginia Tech's Ph.D. program in genetics, bioinformatics, and computational biology, is providing substantial fellowships in support of graduate work in transdisciplinary team science.

  1. 77 FR 28875 - Delegation of Authority to the Commonwealth of Virginia To Implement and Enforce Additional or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-16

    ... AGENCY Delegation of Authority to the Commonwealth of Virginia To Implement and Enforce Additional or... March 5, 2012, EPA sent the Commonwealth of Virginia (Virginia) a letter acknowledging that Virginia's... Commonwealth of Virginia (Virginia) the authority to implement and enforce various federal National Emissions...

  2. The Urban-Rural Gap: Project-Based Learning with Web 2.0 among West Virginian Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Debbie; Kale, Ugur

    2016-01-01

    To overcome the digital divide in West Virginia, schools are urged to integrate emerging information and communication technologies (ICTs) such as Web 2.0 and alternative pedagogies to develop students' twenty-first-century skills. Yet, the potential effects of the digital divide on technology integration have not necessarily been part of planning…

  3. The Urban-Rural Gap: Project-Based Learning with Web 2.0 among West Virginian Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Debbie; Kale, Ugur

    2016-01-01

    To overcome the digital divide in West Virginia, schools are urged to integrate emerging information and communication technologies (ICTs) such as Web 2.0 and alternative pedagogies to develop students' twenty-first-century skills. Yet, the potential effects of the digital divide on technology integration have not necessarily been part of planning…

  4. Aircrew Automated Escape Systems (AAES). Data Analysis Program Symposium Held on 6,7,8 October 1981 at Norfolk, Virginia. Volume 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    t t .. DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY NAV; ’AFETY CENTER NAV,,L AIR STATION NORFOLK, VIRGINIA 23511 IN 45PLW AIF9-T; 122:gc3750 l Ser 4223 Al September 1981...Talley; Biotechnology; Humano ]id Systems; Dayton T. Brown; East-West Industries; Explosive Technology; Space Ordnance Systems; Person- System...gc 3750 Ser 4223 a September 1981 Fran: Commander, Naval Safety Center To: Distribution ’" Subj: Automated Airborne Escape Systems (AAES) Symposium

  5. 77 FR 13519 - Safety Zone; Virginia Beach Oceanfront Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Virginia Beach, VA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ..., Atlantic Ocean, Virginia Beach, VA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard proposes establishing a safety zone on the navigable waters of the Atlantic Ocean in..., which will then become highlighted in blue. In the ``Document Type'' drop down menu select...

  6. 77 FR 65419 - Virginia Electric and Power Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-26

    ... and Power Company AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Partial Director's Decision; issuance... Power Station, Units 1 and 2 (North Anna 1 and 2), by the Virginia Electric and Power Company (VEPCO or... August 23, 2011, Virginia Electric and Power Company (the licensee) should be required to obtain...

  7. Connecting the Dots: Lessons from the Virginia Tech Shootings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Gordon K.

    2008-01-01

    The shootings that took place last spring on the campus of Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, located in Blacksburg, Virginia, elicited a host of reactions, many deeply emotional. In groups of college and university presidents, the response was generally empathetic. Indeed, they were right to be put on alert by the random and…

  8. Virginia pine seed viable two months before natural cone opening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas W., Jr. Church; Edward I. Sucoff

    1960-01-01

    Virginia pine (Pinus virginiana Mill.) seed used in nurseries and for forest seeding ordinarily is collected from standing or felled trees in autumn. Some questions that concern the seed collector are: How early in the season does Virginia pine seed ripen? How does seed viability change if the cones are left on the felled trees?

  9. Northern Virginia wineries: understanding visitor motivations for market segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammeral Geide; Laurie Harmon; Robert Baker

    2009-01-01

    The wine industry is a rapidly growing sector of Virginia's economy, yet little research has been done on this topic. The purpose of this study was to obtain a better understanding of northern Virginia winery visitors' motivations to help winery operators better focus their marketing efforts. This exploratory research project collected basic information about...

  10. Business, industry, government preview energy research at Virginia Tech Showcase

    OpenAIRE

    Felker, Susan B.

    2006-01-01

    The Nov. 29-30 Energy Research Engagement Showcase offers business and community leaders the opportunity to learn about more than 300 energy-related activities at Virginia Tech, as well as energy efforts by faculty members at other public universities in Virginia.

  11. Assessing Changes in Virginia Master Gardener Volunteer Management

    OpenAIRE

    Dorn, Sheri T.

    1999-01-01

    ASSESSING CHANGES IN VIRGINIA MASTER GARDENER VOLUNTEER MANAGEMENT Sheri T. Dorn ABSTRACT Master Gardener (MG) volunteers are nonpaid, education partners with Virginia Cooperative Extension (VCE). VCE MGs have assisted Extension agents in meeting VCE's educational goals and mission by following the Sustainable Landscape Management educational program objectives within the VCE Plan of Work. Local MG volunteer programs must be managed appropriately so that vol...

  12. Comparison of the petrography, palynology and paleobotany of the Stockton coal bed, West Virginia and implications for paleoenvironmental interpretations. [USA - West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, B.S.; Stanton, R.W.; Eble, C.F. (US Geological Survey, Reston, VA (USA))

    1993-02-01

    The Stockton coal bed (Middle Pennsylvanian) is a relatively high ash coal composed primarily of moderately thin banded, sparsely thin banded, and nonbanded coal (split and cannel coal). Comparisons of petrographic, palynologic, and paleobotanic data gathered from the same sample sets from a single column of the Stockton coal bed indicate that compositional correspondences among the sets exist regardless of coal type. Some correspondences are believed to exist because of original plant constituents and others because of the paleoenvironment of peat formation. Using some combination of these data is critical when interpreting paleopenvironmental conditions because (1) a direct correspondence is lacking between many of the data and (2) each of the three data sets provide a unique and important perspective on the paleomire. The Stockton paleomire in the area of this study supported a diverse flora that consisted of both small and arboreous lycopsids, small ferns and tree ferns, calamites, cordaites, and pteridosperms. There appear to have been two successions of [ital Lycospora] spore-dominated, vitrinite-rich, liptinite-poor peat formation, which were followed by inertinite-rich peat formation marked by a tree fern-dominant spore assemblage and abundant unidentifiable plant tissues. These are interpreted to be two water-laden or topogenous peat formational stages followed by slightly domed, better drained peat formation. 48 refs., 17 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Obituary: Jeannette Virginia Lincoln, 1915-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, Helen E.

    2004-12-01

    J. (Jeannette) Virginia Lincoln died on 1 August 2003 of natural causes at age 87. She was a pioneer in space weather forecasting and was instrumental in establishing the World Data Center-A for Solar-Terrestrial Physics (WDC-A for STP) at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC). Lincoln received a U.S. Department of Commerce Gold Medal for Distinguished Service in 1973 for outstanding accomplishments and leadership. She was elected a Fellow of the American Geophysical Union, a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and a Fellow of the Society of Women Engineers. A physicist, she served as Division Chief of the Solar-Terrestrial Physics Division (STPD) and Director of WDC-A for STP from 1966 until her retirement in 1980. Virginia was born on Labor Day, 7 September 1915, in Ames, Iowa, to Rush B. Lincoln and Jeannette Bartholomew Lincoln. Her father, Rush B. Lincoln (b. 1881, d. 1977 at age 95), served as a Major General in the U.S. Air Force. He was a direct descendant of the brother of President Abraham Lincoln. Her mother Jeannette Bartholomew Lincoln (d. 1986 at age 104) taught Chemistry at Iowa State University. Her brother, Rush B. Lincoln, Jr. (d. 2002), was five years older. Her grandfather Lincoln fought in the Civil War as a Confederate Captain. Virginia was immersed in military life and continued many contacts and visited military installations throughout her life. Her parents lived with her until their deaths. She enjoyed the perks of being a General's daughter, actively participating in her parent's lives, and served as caregiver in their declining years. Influenced by her Army background, she developed a strong assertive personality and good problem-solving capabilities. She received a bachelor's degree in physics from Wellesley College in 1936 and a master's degree from Iowa State University in 1938. She was an instructor in household equipment at Iowa State from

  14. Carbofuran affects wildlife on Virginia corn fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinson, E.R.; Hayes, L.E.; Bush, P.B.; White, D.H.

    1994-01-01

    Forty-four Virginia corn fields on 11 farms were searched for evidence of dead or debilitated wildlife following in-furrow application of granular carbofuran (Furadan 15G) during April and May 1991. Evidence of pesticide poisoned wildlife, including dead animals, debilitated animals, feather spots, and fur spots was found on 33 fields on 10 farms. Carcasses of 61 birds, 4 mammals, and 1 reptile were recovered. Anticholinesterase poisoning was confirmed or suspected as the cause of most wildlife deaths based on the circumstances surrounding kills, necropsies of Carcasses, residue analyses, and brain ChE assays.

  15. Virginia Woolf, Caso clínico .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca García Nieto

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Sabido es que Virginia Woolf es considerada como una de las escritoras más importantes del siglo XX. En este trabajo, se realiza un breve análisis de los aspectos más relevantes de la vida y de la obra literaria de la escritora. Después de unos breves comentarios sobre su biografía, se estudia la relación entre su estilo literario y algunas de sus obras más conocidas con los síntomas de la psicosis maniaco-depresiva que padecía. A lo largo de este trabajo, se hace especial hincapié en la relación de Virginia con el lenguaje: su dependencia de él y la insuficiencia de éste en el último período de su vida. Por último, se hace un rápido repaso de las principales teorías psicológicas de la manía, subrayando especialmente la importancia de la teoría psicoanalítica y las llamadas teorías cognitivo-conductuales de tercera generación, debido a sus estudios sobre la relación entre el lenguaje y las enfermedades mentales.

  16. Climate Connections in Virginia: Your Actions Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, J. S.; Maurakis, E. G.

    2016-12-01

    Our project objectives are to educate the general public about the science of climate change on global and local scales, highlight current and potential future impacts of climate change on Virginia and its communities, define community climate resiliency and why it is important, illustrate how individuals can contribute to the resiliency of their own community by taking personal steps to be prepared for weather events and health threats related to climate change, and, foster a conversion of climate change awareness and understanding into personal action to increase readiness and resiliency in homes, schools, and communities. The communication methods used to convey climate change and resiliency information are: development of new programming for the museum's NOAA Science on a Sphere® and digital Dome theater, production of a statewide digital media series (24 audio and 12 video content pieces/year), engagement with social media platforms, a public lecture series, facilitation of resiliency-themed programming (Art Lab, Challenge Lab, EcoLab), establishment of extreme event readiness challenge workshops, and enacting community preparedness and resiliency checklist and certification programs. A front-end evaluation was conducted to survey general audience understanding of the difference between climate and weather, climate change impacts, and resilience. We seek here to share some initial content and reflection based on the first few months of this project. Funded by NOAA Award NA15SEC0080009 and the Virginia Environmental Endowment.

  17. Studies on suspension culture of virginia mallow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kasprzyk

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Virginia mallow (Sida hermaphrodita (L. Rusby belongs to the Malvaceae family. It is a very important industrial and energetic crop (Kasprzyk et al. 2013. In our studies, we used plant cell suspension cultures due to the fact that it is a useful tool to investigate biochemical, molecular and physiological aspects of many cellular functions (Dong et al. 2010. Virginia mallow seeds, obtained from Prof. Borkowska (University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Poland, were used in this investigation to obtain plants which were grown in sterile conditions in the Department of Plant Anatomy and Cytology, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University in Lublin, Poland. The seeds were surface sterilized and washed three times in sterile, distilled water. After 3 weeks of in vitro culture, young seedlings were used as a source of explants (to callus induction. Two types of explants were used to form callus culture: leaf and petiole. Callus tissues were then aseptically transferred to an Erlenmeyer flask with liquid medium and placed on an orbital shaker moving at 120 rpm. The observations of this suspense culture were conducted under light and confocal LSM microscopes. The authors observed that depending on the type of explants and composition of medium, callus tissue has varied in color and character of growth.

  18. Virginia Woolf, neuroprogression, and bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeira, Manuela V; Berni, Gabriela de Á; Passos, Ives C; Kauer-Sant'Anna, Márcia; Kapczinski, Flávio

    2017-01-01

    Family history and traumatic experiences are factors linked to bipolar disorder. It is known that the lifetime risk of bipolar disorder in relatives of a bipolar proband are 5-10% for first degree relatives and 40-70% for monozygotic co-twins. It is also known that patients with early childhood trauma present earlier onset of bipolar disorder, increased number of manic episodes, and more suicide attempts. We have recently reported that childhood trauma partly mediates the effect of family history on bipolar disorder diagnosis. In light of these findings from the scientific literature, we reviewed the work of British writer Virginia Woolf, who allegedly suffered from bipolar disorder. Her disorder was strongly related to her family background. Moreover, Virginia Woolf was sexually molested by her half siblings for nine years. Her bipolar disorder symptoms presented a pernicious course, associated with hospitalizations, suicidal behavioral, and functional impairment. The concept of neuroprogression has been used to explain the clinical deterioration that takes places in a subgroup of bipolar disorder patients. The examination of Virgina Woolf's biography and art can provide clinicians with important insights about the course of bipolar disorder.

  19. Virginia Woolf, neuroprogression, and bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela V. Boeira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Family history and traumatic experiences are factors linked to bipolar disorder. It is known that the lifetime risk of bipolar disorder in relatives of a bipolar proband are 5-10% for first degree relatives and 40-70% for monozygotic co-twins. It is also known that patients with early childhood trauma present earlier onset of bipolar disorder, increased number of manic episodes, and more suicide attempts. We have recently reported that childhood trauma partly mediates the effect of family history on bipolar disorder diagnosis. In light of these findings from the scientific literature, we reviewed the work of British writer Virginia Woolf, who allegedly suffered from bipolar disorder. Her disorder was strongly related to her family background. Moreover, Virginia Woolf was sexually molested by her half siblings for nine years. Her bipolar disorder symptoms presented a pernicious course, associated with hospitalizations, suicidal behavioral, and functional impairment. The concept of neuroprogression has been used to explain the clinical deterioration that takes places in a subgroup of bipolar disorder patients. The examination of Virgina Woolf’s biography and art can provide clinicians with important insights about the course of bipolar disorder.

  20. What's West Nile Virus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Puberty Train Your Temper What's West Nile Virus? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's West Nile Virus? Print A A A en español ¿Qué es el Virus del Nilo Occidental? What exactly is the West ...

  1. Low-flow characteristics of Virginia streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Samuel H.; Krstolic, Jennifer L.; Wiegand, Ute

    2011-01-01

    Low-flow annual non-exceedance probabilities (ANEP), called probability-percent chance (P-percent chance) flow estimates, regional regression equations, and transfer methods are provided describing the low-flow characteristics of Virginia streams. Statistical methods are used to evaluate streamflow data. Analysis of Virginia streamflow data collected from 1895 through 2007 is summarized. Methods are provided for estimating low-flow characteristics of gaged and ungaged streams. The 1-, 4-, 7-, and 30-day average streamgaging station low-flow characteristics for 290 long-term, continuous-record, streamgaging stations are determined, adjusted for instances of zero flow using a conditional probability adjustment method, and presented for non-exceedance probabilities of 0.9, 0.8, 0.7, 0.6, 0.5, 0.4, 0.3, 0.2, 0.1, 0.05, 0.02, 0.01, and 0.005. Stream basin characteristics computed using spatial data and a geographic information system are used as explanatory variables in regional regression equations to estimate annual non-exceedance probabilities at gaged and ungaged sites and are summarized for 290 long-term, continuous-record streamgaging stations, 136 short-term, continuous-record streamgaging stations, and 613 partial-record streamgaging stations. Regional regression equations for six physiographic regions use basin characteristics to estimate 1-, 4-, 7-, and 30-day average low-flow annual non-exceedance probabilities at gaged and ungaged sites. Weighted low-flow values that combine computed streamgaging station low-flow characteristics and annual non-exceedance probabilities from regional regression equations provide improved low-flow estimates. Regression equations developed using the Maintenance of Variance with Extension (MOVE.1) method describe the line of organic correlation (LOC) with an appropriate index site for low-flow characteristics at 136 short-term, continuous-record streamgaging stations and 613 partial-record streamgaging stations. Monthly

  2. Description of future drought indices in Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyunwoo; Sridhar, Venkataramana

    2017-10-01

    This article presents projected future drought occurrences in five river basins in Virginia. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) climate models were used to derive input variables of multiple drought indices, such as the Standardized Soil Moisture index (SSI), the Multivariate Standardized Drought Index (MSDI), and the Modified Palmer Drought Severity Index (MPDSI) for both historic and future periods. The results of SSI indicate that there was an overall increase in agricultural drought occurrences and that these were caused by increases in evapotranspiration and runoff. However, the results of the MSDI and MPDSI projected a decrease in drought occurrences in future periods due to a greater increase in precipitation in the future. Furthermore, GCM-downscaled products (precipitation and temperature) were verified using comparisons with historic observations, and the results of uncertainty analyses suggest that the lower and upper bounds of future drought projections agree with historic conditions.

  3. Earthquakes in Virginia and vicinity 1774 - 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarr, Arthur C.; Wheeler, Russell L.

    2006-01-01

    This map summarizes two and a third centuries of earthquake activity. The seismic history consists of letters, journals, diaries, and newspaper and scholarly articles that supplement seismograph recordings (seismograms) dating from the early twentieth century to the present. All of the pre-instrumental (historical) earthquakes were large enough to be felt by people or to cause shaking damage to buildings and their contents. Later, widespread use of seismographs meant that tremors too small or distant to be felt could be detected and accurately located. Earthquakes are a legitimate concern in Virginia and parts of adjacent States. Moderate earthquakes cause slight local damage somewhere in the map area about twice a decade on the average. Additionally, many buildings in the map area were constructed before earthquake protection was added to local building codes. The large map shows all historical and instrumentally located earthquakes from 1774 through 2004.

  4. Nebulous networks: Virginia Woolf and popular astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Holly Grace

    This study investigates Virginia Woolf's fascination with advances in astronomy and telescopic technologies of the 1920s and 30s. Grounded in the cultural studies of science, and the work of theorists such as Donna Haraway and Bruno Latour, the dissertation reconstructs the complex interconnections between Woolf's fiction and prose writing and an explosive popular interest in astronomy and cosmology. Woolf's aesthetic and political practices were shaped by emerging visualization technologies ranging from astronomical telescopes to the hand-held camera. While her writing provides a focus for this investigation, the dissertation offers close readings of fiction and essays by multiple British authors and science writers in the context of these converging phenomena. As a result of glimpsing tiny worlds through her own telescope, Virginia Woolf formulated a global aesthetic and a global politics. Gazing at the moon and stars reminded her that earth is a planet in space, and that earth's inhabitants must rely on this small, fragile globe for their future survival. The opening chapter establishes the cultural context for the study. In 1923, the American astronomer Edwin Hubble determined that the Andromeda galaxy was located far beyond the limits of the Milky Way, then believed to comprise the entire universe. Hubble's radical reconfiguration of the universe contributed to a pervasive sense, in the modern period, of a decentering and re-scaling of humans in the universe. In the chapters that follow, the dissertation offers readings of Woolf's novels and short fiction in relation to her fascination with astronomy and explores how the wildly popular British cosmologist and science writer, Sir James jeans, had a shaping effect on popular culture and on Woolf's narrative practices and pacifist politics. Despite his oblique connections to what became Bloomsbury, jeans and his popular science texts were to play a considerable role in Woolf's formulation of a global aesthetic.

  5. 78 FR 63184 - Delegation of Authority to the Commonwealth of Virginia To Implement and Enforce Additional or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ... AGENCY Delegation of Authority to the Commonwealth of Virginia To Implement and Enforce Additional or... March 13, 2013, EPA sent the Commonwealth of Virginia (Virginia) a letter acknowledging that Virginia's... States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has previously delegated to the Commonwealth of Virginia...

  6. Eastern Shore of Virginia National Wildlife Refuge [Land Status Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This map was produced by the Division of Realty to depict landownership at Eastern Shore Of Virginia National Wildlife Refuge. It was generated from rectified...

  7. 2012 USGS-FEMA Lidar: Virginia Northern Counties (South)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Dewberry collected LiDAR for ~3,341 square miles in various Virginia Counties, a part of Worcester County, and Hoopers Island. The acquisition was performed by...

  8. Virginia Tech, Sweet Briar College formalize student exchange program

    OpenAIRE

    Owczarski, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Virginia Tech and Sweet Briar College have formalized a student exchange program that will broaden the education opportunities of students, provide a diverse campus environment, and facilitate cooperation and collaboration among student and faculty at each institution.

  9. 2014 USGS Lidar: Central Virginia Seismic (Louisa County)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Laser Mapping Specialist, Inc (LMSI) collected 230 square miles in the Virginia counties of Fluvanna, Orange, Louisa, and Spotsylvania. The nominal pulse spacing for...

  10. The Work of Virginia Satir: Understanding Her Theory and Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Michael D.; Martin, Don

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the therapeutic process inherent in the work of Virginia Satir. Major conceptualizations and interventions are explored, including historical background; philosophical assumptions; basic operational principles; therapeutic goals; and basic techniques. (BH)

  11. University of Virginia experimental and theoretical high energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, B.

    1991-01-10

    This report discusses research being done in high energy physics at the University of Virginia in the following areas: charmonium; B mesons decay; B physics at the SCC; and symmetry and field theory. (LSP)

  12. Lavender Commencement Ceremony to honor LGBT graduates at Virginia Tech

    OpenAIRE

    Shannon, Kelly Baker

    2010-01-01

    The Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) Caucus at Virginia Tech is sponsoring the Second Annual Lavender Commencement Ceremony, which will be held on May 13 at 11 a.m. in the Old Dominion Ballroom of Squires Student Center.

  13. Virginia ESI: T_MAMMAL (Terrestrial Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for the northern river otter in Virginia. Vector polygons in this data set represent terrestrial mammal...

  14. Events Scheduled for Virginia Tech's Black History Month

    OpenAIRE

    Felker, Susan B.

    2004-01-01

    A variety of lectures, discussions, performances and displays will be held during Virginia Tech's observance of Black History Month. Events begin Jan. 19 and run through Feb. 28 and are free an open to the public (except where noted).

  15. The Work of Virginia Satir: Understanding Her Theory and Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Michael D.; Martin, Don

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the therapeutic process inherent in the work of Virginia Satir. Major conceptualizations and interventions are explored, including historical background; philosophical assumptions; basic operational principles; therapeutic goals; and basic techniques. (BH)

  16. Sügav kummardus Virginia Woolfile / Raili Põldsaar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Põldsaar, Raili, 1973-

    2003-01-01

    Virginia Woolfi teosest "Mrs. Dalloway" ajendatud Michael Cunninghami romaanil "Tunnid" põhinev mängufilm "Tunnid" ("The Hours") : režissöör Stephen Daldry : kesksetes rollides Meryl Streep, Nicole Kidman, Julianne Moore : Suurbritannia 2002

  17. Sügav kummardus Virginia Woolfile / Raili Põldsaar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Põldsaar, Raili, 1973-

    2003-01-01

    Virginia Woolfi teosest "Mrs. Dalloway" ajendatud Michael Cunninghami romaanil "Tunnid" põhinev mängufilm "Tunnid" ("The Hours") : režissöör Stephen Daldry : kesksetes rollides Meryl Streep, Nicole Kidman, Julianne Moore : Suurbritannia 2002

  18. EAARL Coastal Topography--Virginia, Post-Nor'Ida, 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A digital elevation model (DEM) of a portion of the Virginia coastline beachface, post-Nor'Ida (November 2009 nor'easter), was produced from remotely sensed,...

  19. Virginia Tech Horse Judging Team leaves its mark in Texas

    OpenAIRE

    Greiner, Lori A.

    2010-01-01

    The Virginia Tech Horse Judging Team completed a successful spring competition season with a win at the American Paint Horse Association's Spring Intercollegiate Horse Judging Sweepstakes in Fort Worth, Texas.

  20. EAARL Coastal Topography--Virginia, Post-Nor'Ida, 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A digital elevation model (DEM) of a portion of the Virginia coastline beachface, post-Nor'Ida (November 2009 nor'easter), was produced from remotely sensed,...

  1. Virginia Tech remains among best values in public higher education

    OpenAIRE

    Owczarski, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Virginia Tech is again ranked among the top public colleges and universities in the nation that offer a high quality educational experience at an affordable price, according to "Kiplinger's Personal Finance" magazine.

  2. Virginia ESI: M_MAMMAL (Marine Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for dolphin, seals, whales, and porpoise in Virginia. Vector polygons in this data set represent marine...

  3. 2012 USGS-FEMA Lidar: Virginia Northern Counties (North)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Dewberry collected LiDAR for ~3,341 square miles in various Virginia Counties, a part of Worcester County, and Hoopers Island. The acquisition was performed by...

  4. Virginia Tech recognized for world-class food science program

    OpenAIRE

    Sutphin, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    The Institute of Food Technologists (IFT) has reaccredited the undergraduate curriculum of Virginia Tech's Department of Food Science and Technology, reaffirming the department's place as a leader in contributing to food quality, safety, marketability, and availability.

  5. Virginia Tech's Cook Counseling Center receives international counseling accreditation

    OpenAIRE

    DeLauder, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    The Virginia Tech Thomas E. Cook Counseling Center has been accredited by the International Association of Counseling Services, Inc., an organization of United States, Canadian, and Australian counseling agencies based in Alexandria, Va.

  6. 76 FR 3695 - Environmental Impact Statement: Interstate 64 Corridor, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Interstate 64 Corridor, Virginia AGENCY... Administration is issuing this notice to advise the public of its intent to prepare an Environmental Impact..., Senior Environmental Specialist, Federal Highway Administration, Post Office Box 10249, Richmond...

  7. Water Supply Planning for Landscape Irrigation in Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Tucker, Adrienne Janel LaBranche

    2009-01-01

    A water supply plan approach was used to investigate irrigation application on landscaped areas in Virginia with a focus on turfgrass. The economically-important turfgrass industry in Virginia should be proactive in conserving drinking water supplies to meet human consumption needs, especially in drought times. This thesis investigates current irrigation water supplies, water supply sustainability, and alternative water sources to meet irrigation demands and offers an insight on how potable w...

  8. Virginia Tech creates Caribbean center for education and research

    OpenAIRE

    Felker, Susan B.

    2006-01-01

    Virginia Tech has established a research, education, and outreach center in the Caribbean that will serve as part of a broad strategy to create international centers of scholarship around the world. The Caribbean Center for Education and Research (CCER) in Punta Cana, on the eastern tip of the Dominican Republic, will allow Virginia Tech faculty to conduct research as well as instruct students on biodiversity, environmental and social sustainability, global issues in natural resources, and ho...

  9. The Relationship between Teacher Efficacy Levels and Virginia Standards of Learning Fifth Grade Math Achievement in One Virginia School Division

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, Daniel Michael

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between teacher efficacy levels and fifth grade Virginia SOL Mathematic achievement. This study sought to determine the extent to which personal efficacy, general efficacy, and total efficacy account for fifth grade Virginia Standards of Learning Mathematic achievement over and above that explained by teacher experience, teacher education, and class size. A critical review of the previous research methodologies and findings on teac...

  10. Indoor air quality in Virginia waterpipe cafes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Caroline Oates; Vansickel, Andrea Rae; Blank, Melissa D; Jentink, Kade; Travers, Mark J; Eissenberg, Thomas

    2013-09-01

    A revised indoor air quality law has been implemented in Virginia to protect the public from the harmful effects of secondhand smoke exposure. This legislation contains exemptions that include allowances for smoking in a room that is structurally separated and separately ventilated. The objective of the current study was to examine the impact of this law on air quality in waterpipe cafés, as well as to compare the air quality in these cafés to restaurants that allow cigarette smoking and those where no smoking is permitted. Indoor air quality in 28 venues (17 waterpipe cafés, five cigarette smoking-permitted restaurants and six smoke-free restaurants (five with valid data)) in Virginia was assessed during 4 March to 27 May 2011. Real-time measurements of particulate matter (PM) with 2.5 μm aerodynamic diameter or smaller (PM2.5) were obtained and occupant behaviour/venue characteristics were assessed. The highest mean PM2.5 concentration was observed for waterpipe café smoking rooms (374 μg/m(3), n=17) followed by waterpipe café non-smoking rooms (123 μg/m(3), n=11), cigarette smoking-permitted restaurant smoking rooms (119 μg/m(3), n=5), cigarette smoking-permitted restaurant non-smoking rooms (26 μg/m(3), n=5) and smoke-free restaurants (9 μg/m(3), n=5). Smoking density was positively correlated with PM2.5 across smoking rooms and the smoke-free restaurants. In addition, PM2.5 was positively correlated between smoking and non-smoking rooms of venues. The PM2.5 concentrations observed among the waterpipe cafés sampled here indicated air quality in the waterpipe café smoking rooms was worse than restaurant rooms in which cigarette smoking was permitted, and state-required non-smoking rooms in waterpipe cafés may expose patrons and employees to PM2.5 concentrations above national and international air quality standards. Reducing the health risks of secondhand smoke may require smoke-free establishments in which tobacco smoking sources such as water

  11. Outdoor water use and water conservation opportunities in Virginia Beach, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggleston, John R.

    2010-01-01

    How much water do you use to water your lawn, wash your car, or fill your swimming pool? Your answers to these questions have important implications for water supplies in the City of Virginia Beach. To help find the answers, the City cooperated with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and Old Dominion University to learn more about seasonal outdoor water use. In the summer of 2008 the USGS surveyed city residents and asked detailed questions about their outdoor water use. This fact sheet describes what was learned in the survey.

  12. Yes Virginia, quantum mechanics can be understood

    CERN Document Server

    Wallace, John P

    2017-01-01

    Virginia, B. W. Wooster, and Jeeves take up physics with the hope of understanding quantum mechanics. In the process they take a rather grand tour on an old sailing ship and aid a sow in distress. On their journey they discover that physics is not as difficult a subject as they imagined. When they dismantled physics and reassembled it in a form where gravity, strong, electromagnetic and the weak forces all stem from understanding the gaming strategy known as the fair-game. That great cultural divide first expounded by the novelist C.P.Snow was found to be a mere ditch that can be stepped over. The sins of the past were violations of energy conservation and strange notions about what mass actually represents. Now mass is defined without the assistance of the Standard Model. Things will not be the same. Singularities have been banished. The electron now has a scale and is no longer captive in a point. The gluon is no longer essential along with the single virtual photon.

  13. På afgrundens rand vokser en blomst: Det små og det store i Virginia Woolfs "The Waves"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klitgård, Ida Birthe

    1999-01-01

    Virginia Woolf, billedsprog, The Waves, det sublime, detaljen, modernisme, Edmund Burke, Immanuel Kant......Virginia Woolf, billedsprog, The Waves, det sublime, detaljen, modernisme, Edmund Burke, Immanuel Kant...

  14. Call From China West

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Wei; Guo Jin

    2008-01-01

    @@ The 12th East-West China Cooperation and Investment and Trade Fair was held from April 5 to 8 at the International Conference and Exhibition Center in Qu-jiang,Xi'an.Shaanxi province,in the west of China.

  15. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, CLAY COUNTY, WEST VIRGINIA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk Information And supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk;...

  16. Selection of forest canopy gaps by male Cerulean Warblers in West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Kelly A.; Wood, Petra Bohall

    2014-01-01

    Forest openings, or canopy gaps, are an important resource for many forest songbirds, such as Cerulean Warblers (Setophaga cerulea). We examined canopy gap selection by this declining species to determine if male Cerulean Warblers selected particular sizes, vegetative heights, or types of gaps. We tested whether these parameters differed among territories, territory core areas, and randomly-placed sample plots. We used enhanced territory mapping techniques (burst sampling) to define habitat use within the territory. Canopy gap densities were higher within core areas of territories than within territories or random plots, indicating that Cerulean Warblers selected habitat within their territories with the highest gap densities. Selection of regenerating gaps with woody vegetation >12 m within the gap, and canopy heights >24 m surrounding the gap, occurred within territory core areas. These findings differed between two sites indicating that gap selection may vary based on forest structure. Differences were also found regarding the placement of territories with respect to gaps. Larger gaps, such as wildlife food plots, were located on the periphery of territories more often than other types and sizes of gaps, while smaller gaps, such as treefalls, were located within territory boundaries more often than expected. The creations of smaller canopy gaps, <100 m2, within dense stands are likely compatible with forest management for this species.

  17. Progress of environmental studies in coal mining areas of western Pennsylvania and central West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eychaner, James H.

    1999-01-01

    Two studies related to the regional environmental effects of coal mining in the Appalachian Plateau were conducted in 1998 as part of the National Water‐Quality Assessment program of the U.S. Geological Survey. The study area of about 20,000 square miles included parts of the Allegheny and Monongahela River basins in the north and the Kanawha River basin in the south. Water in domestic wells downgradient from fully reclaimed surface coal mines was compared to water in similar wells at unmined sites. As expected, pH was lower and the concentration of sulfate was greater at mined sites in both areas, although the pH difference was greater in the southern area. Median concentrations of iron and manganese exceeded federal drinking‐water standards at mined sites in both areas and at unmined sites in the southern area. Median concentrations of radon near reclaimed mines were about half those at unmined sites. Surface water was sampled during summer base flow at about 180 sites that drain between 5 and 80 square miles; the sites also were sampled during 1979‐81. Median pH in 1998 was 7.9 in the north and 7.4 in the south, about 0.5 unit higher than in 1980 in both areas. Median concentrations of sulfate increased from 38 mg/L to 56 mg/L in the north and from 46 mg/L to 77 mg/L in the south, in apparent contradiction to the generally lower sulfur content of geologic units in the southern area. Among 52 basins where mining occurred both before and after 1980, the sulfate concentration more than doubled in 13 (25 percent), including greater than five‐fold increases in 5 (10 percent). For 16 mined basins where no mining has occurred since 1980, the median decrease in sulfate concentration was 18 percent, from which the half‐time for oxidation of mining‐related pyrite is estimated to be about 65 years.

  18. 78 FR 32461 - Verizon Services Corporation, Customer Service Clerk, General Clerk, Clarksburg, West Virginia...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-30

    ... Employment and Training Administration Verizon Services Corporation, Customer Service Clerk, General Clerk... workers and former workers of Verizon Services Corporation, Customer Service Clerk, General Clerk.... Workers of Verizon Services Corporation's Customer Service Clerk, General Clerk business unit at...

  19. The Ohio River Valley CO2 Storage Project AEP Mountaineer Plan, West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neeraj Gupta

    2009-01-07

    This report includes an evaluation of deep rock formations with the objective of providing practical maps, data, and some of the issues considered for carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) storage projects in the Ohio River Valley. Injection and storage of CO{sub 2} into deep rock formations represents a feasible option for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from coal-burning power plants concentrated along the Ohio River Valley area. This study is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), American Electric Power (AEP), BP, Ohio Coal Development Office, Schlumberger, and Battelle along with its Pacific Northwest Division. An extensive program of drilling, sampling, and testing of a deep well combined with a seismic survey was used to characterize the local and regional geologic features at AEP's 1300-megawatt (MW) Mountaineer Power Plant. Site characterization information has been used as part of a systematic design feasibility assessment for a first-of-a-kind integrated capture and storage facility at an existing coal-fired power plant in the Ohio River Valley region--an area with a large concentration of power plants and other emission sources. Subsurface characterization data have been used for reservoir simulations and to support the review of the issues relating to injection, monitoring, strategy, risk assessment, and regulatory permitting. The high-sulfur coal samples from the region have been tested in a capture test facility to evaluate and optimize basic design for a small-scale capture system and eventually to prepare a detailed design for a capture, local transport, and injection facility. The Ohio River Valley CO{sub 2} Storage Project was conducted in phases with the ultimate objectives of demonstrating both the technical aspects of CO{sub 2} storage and the testing, logistical, regulatory, and outreach issues related to conducting such a project at a large point source under realistic constraints. The site characterization phase was completed, laying the groundwork for moving the project towards a potential injection phase. Feasibility and design assessment activities included an assessment of the CO{sub 2} source options (a slip-stream capture system or transported CO{sub 2}); development of the injection and monitoring system design; preparation of regulatory permits; and continued stakeholder outreach.

  20. Medical grand rounds. West Virginia University Health Sciences Center. Bites and stings. Part 1. Spiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, I H

    1989-04-01

    Most animals can bite or sting. In narrowing the kingdom down to those that harm humans, the field still is vast. It would be interesting to explore the rich variety of pathology produced in us by moray eels, lionfish, sea urchins, jellyfish, sting rays, fire ants, kissing bugs, flies, lice, mosquitoes, ticks, mites, fleas, puss caterpillars, centipedes, snakes, dogs and cats, camels, and myriad other creatures including homo sapiens (not a trivial biter)--but for this grand rounds, the topic will simply be spiders (Part 1), bees and vespid (Part 2). Vespids are the wasps, yellow jackets and hornets.

  1. 78 FR 70225 - West Virginia: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ... significant economic impact on a substantial number of small entities under the Regulatory Flexibility Act (5... Waste Management System'' (33 CSR 20), effective June 16, 2011; and Title 45, Series 25 ``Control of Air Pollution from Hazardous Waste Treatment, Storage and Disposal Facilities'' (45 CSR 25), effective June 16...

  2. 75 FR 81474 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; Update to Materials...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-28

    ... as not having a significant economic impact on a substantial number of small entities under the... following regulatory changes to the IBR materials in paragraph 52.2520(c): 1. Addition of Regulation 45 CSR 39. 2. Revisions to the following regulations: 45 CSR 6, 45 CSR 8, 45 CSR 40, and 45 CSR 41. 3...

  3. Aquatic habitats of Canaan Valley, West Virginia: Diversity and environmental threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, C.D.; Young, J.A.; Stout, B. M.

    2006-01-01

    We conducted surveys of aquatic habitats during the spring and summer of 1995 in Canaan Valley, WV, to describe the diversity of aquatic habitats in the valley and identify issues that may threaten the viability of aquatic species. We assessed physical habitat and water chemistry of 126 ponds and 82 stream sites, and related habitat characteristics to landscape variables such as geology and terrain. Based on our analyses, we found two issues likely to affect the viability of aquatic populations in the valley. The first issue was acid rain and the extent to which it potentially limits the distribution of aquatic and semi-aquatic species, particularly in headwater portions of the watershed. We estimate that nearly 46%, or 56 kilometers of stream, had pH levels that would not support survival and reproduction of Salvelinuw fontinalis (brook trout), one of the most acid-tolerant fishes in the eastern US. The second issue was the influence of Castor canadensis (beaver) activity. In the Canaan Valley State Park portion of the valley, beaver have transformed 4.7 kilometers of stream (approximately 17% of the total) to pond habitat through their dam building. This has resulted in an increase in pond habitat, a decrease in stream habitat, and a fragmented stream network (i.e., beaver ponds dispersed among stream reaches). In addition, beaver have eliminated an undetermined amount of forested riparian area through their foraging activities. Depending on the perspective, beaver-mediated changes can be viewed as positive or negative. Increases in pond habitat may increase habitat heterogeneity with consequent increases in biological diversity. In contrast, flooding associated with beaver activity may eliminate lowland wetlands and associated species, create barriers to fish dispersal, and possibly contribute to low dissolved oxygen levels in the Blackwater River. We recommend that future management strategies for the wildlife refuge be viewed in the context of these two issues, and that the responses of multiple assemblages be incorporated in the design of refuge management plans.

  4. Best Management Practices for Controlling Soil Erosion and Sedimentation from Logging Operations in West Virginia 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Excess soil sediment has been described as the greatest single contaminant by volume of lakes, streams and rivers. Sediment containing organic matter can create a...

  5. Lower Kittanning Coal Bed County Statistics (Chemistry) in Pennsylvania, Ohio, West Virginia, and Maryland

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset is a polygon coverage of counties limited to the extent of the Lower Kittanning coal bed resource areas and attributed with statistics on these coal...

  6. Upper Freeport Coal Bed County Statistics (Chemistry) in Pennsylvania, Ohio, West Virginia, and Maryland

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset is a polygon coverage of counties limited to the extent of the Upper Freeport coal bed resource areas and attributed with statistics on these coal...

  7. Upper Freeport Coal Bed Point Data (Chemistry) in Pennsylvania, Ohio, West Virginia, and Maryland

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset (located by latitude and longitude) is a subset of the geochemical dataset found in Chap. D, Appendix 8, Disc 1, and used in this study of the Upper...

  8. Lower Kittanning Coal Bed Point Data (Chemistry) in Pennsylvania, Ohio, West Virginia, and Maryland

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset (located by latitude and longitude) is a subset of the geochemical dataset found in Chap. E, Appendix 2, Disc 1, and used in this study of the Lower...

  9. Pittsburgh Coal Bed County Statistics (Chemistry) in Pennsylvania, Ohio, West Virginia, and Maryland

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset is a polygon coverage of counties limited to the extent of the Pittsburgh coal bed resource areas and attributed with statistics on these coal quality...

  10. 78 FR 44487 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; Redesignation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    .... Circuit Court) on January 4, 2013 to remand to EPA two final rules implementing the PM 2.5 NAAQS. EPA is... December 11, 2012 NPR. This supplemental NPR addresses the recent decision of the D.C. Circuit Court which... D.C. Circuit Court remanded to EPA the ``Final Clean Air Fine Particle Implementation Rule'' (72...

  11. 78 FR 40655 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; Redesignation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-08

    ... for the District of Columbia (D.C. Circuit Court): The D.C. Circuit Court's August 21, 2012 decision... D.C. Circuit Court Decision Regarding EPA's CSAPR 1. Background 2. Supplemental Proposal on This Issue B. Effect of the January 4, 2013 D.C. Circuit Court Decision Regarding the PM 2.5...

  12. Pittsburgh Coal Bed Point Data (Geology) in Pennsylvania, Ohio, West Virginia, and Maryland

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset is a point coverage of attributes on data location, thickness of the Pittsburgh coal bed main bench, and its elevation, in feet. The file is also found...

  13. Upper Freeport Coal Bed Resource Areas in Pennsylvania, Ohio, West Virginia, and Maryland

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset is the digital compilation of geologic and resource maps provided mostly by State geologic surveys and depicts the projected area of occurrence of the...

  14. 75 FR 78949 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; Permits for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-17

    ...; Permits for Construction and Major Modification of Major Stationary Sources of Air Pollution for the... of Major Stationary Sources of Air Pollution for the Prevention of Significant Deterioration. ] I... address, as appropriate, disproportionate human health or environmental effects, using practicable...

  15. 77 FR 16937 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; Regional Haze State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ... benefits projected to result from the Cross State Air Pollution Rule. The commenter argues that EPA does... Transport Rule, commonly referred to as the Cross State Air Pollution Rule, sunsets the requirements of CAIR... environmental health or safety risk that EPA has reason to believe may have a disproportionate effect...

  16. Twenty Years of Endodontic Success and Failure at West Virginia University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    the canals, and when a pronounced overfill was present. Bender and Seltzer called attention to the problem of evaluating success and failure based on...concerning radiographic evaluation of the periapical status of 5 pulpless teeth. He differed with Bender and Seltzer in reporting that the radiograph...radiographic exams showing decided periapical improvement or constant periapical health plus a negative posttreatment history. Bender , Seltzer , and Freedland

  17. F00095: NOS Hydrographic Survey , West of Smith Island, Maryland-Virginia, 1951-05-17

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  18. Evaluation of Blister Run Bog, Randolph County, West Virginia, for eligibility as a Registered Natural Landmark

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Blister Run Bog was suggested for evaluation by the Director, Northeast Region, NPS, as part of the Wetlands Theme Study, as a bog/swamp area, under Department of...

  19. 76 FR 27290 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; Kentucky; Ohio...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    ...-Ohio fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) nonattainment Area (hereafter referred to as ``the Huntington... without change and may be made available online at http://www.regulations.gov , including any personal... the design values (i.e., the 3-year average of annual mean PM 2.5 concentrations) for the 1997 annual...

  20. Basin Centroid Points for Unregulated Streamgagages in and near West Virginia 1930-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Correlation of flows at pairs of streamgages were evaluated using a Spearman’s rho correlation coefficient to better identify gages that can be used as index gages...

  1. Streamflow Correlation Map Grids in and near West Virginia 1930-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Correlation of flows at pairs of streamgages were evaluated using a Spearman’s rho correlation coefficient to better identify gages that can be used as index gages...

  2. lnteragency Status Report on the Fishery Resources of the Upper Blackwater River in West Virginia

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Healthy watersheds are the foundation of sustainable communities and economies. However, increased water temperature and acidity caused by logging, deforestation,...

  3. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Morgantown Energy Technology Center, Morgantown, West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-06-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) conducted November 30 through December 4, 1987. In addition, the preliminary findings of the Laramie Project Office (LPO) Survey, which was conducted as part of the METC Survey on January 25 through 29, 1988, are presented in Appendices E and F. The Survey is being conducted by an interdisciplinary team of environmental specialists, led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. Individual team components are outside experts being supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with METC. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. The on-site phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations carried on at METC, and interviews with site personnel. The Survey team developed a Sampling and Analysis Plan to assist in further assessing certain environmental problems identified during its on-site activities at METC. The Sampling and Analysis Plan will be executed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). When completed, the results will be incorporated into the METC Environmental Survey Interim Report. The Interim Report will reflect the final determinations of the Survey METC. 60 refs., 28 figs., 43 tabs.

  4. Upper Freeport Coal Bed Point Data (Geology) in Pennsylvania, Ohio, West Virginia, and Maryland

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset is a point coverage of attributes on data location, thickness of the Upper Freeport coal bed, and its elevation, in feet. The file is also found as an...

  5. 76 FR 61291 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; Ohio; Determination...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    ... address, as appropriate, disproportionate human health or environmental effects, using practicable and... preempt tribal law. List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL...

  6. Demonstrating a Market-Based Approach to the Reclamation of Mined Lands in West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodrich-Mahoney, John; Donnelly, Ellen

    2009-12-31

    This project demonstrated that developing environmental credits on private land—including abandoned mined lands—is dependent on a number of factors, some of them beyond the control of the project team. In this project, acid mine drainage (AMD) was successfully remediated through the construction of a passive AMD treatment system. Extensive water quality sampling both before and after the installation of the passive AMD treatment system showed that the system achieved removal efficiencies and pollutant loading reductions for acidity, iron, aluminum and manganese that were consistent with systems of similar size and design. The success of the passive AMD treatment system should have resulted in water credits if the project had not been terminated. Developing carbon sequestration credits, however, was much more complex and was not achieved in this project. The primary challenge that the project team encountered in meeting the full project objectives was the unsuccessful attempt to have the landowner sign a conservation easement for his property. This would have allowed the project team to clear and reforest the site, monitor the progress of the newly planted trees, and eventually realize carbon sequestration credits once the forest was mature. The delays caused by the lack of a conservation easement, as well as other factors, eventually resulted in the reforestation portion of the project being cancelled. The information in this report will help the public make more informed decisions regarding the potential of using water and carbon, and other credits to support the remediation of minded lands through out the United States. The hope is that by using credits that more mined lands with be remediated.

  7. Switchgrass and Miscanthus Biomass and Theoretical Ethanol Production from Reclaimed Mine Lands in West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scagline, Steffany M.

    Awareness of environmental issues surrounding current energy practices has opened doors for new possibilities for energy solutions. The 2003 Energy Independence and Security Act mandates that by the year 2022, 16 billion gallons per year of fuel in the United States (U.S.) will be coming from cellulosic bioenergy sources. Herbaceous crop species like switchgrass have been proposed as potential cellulosic crops to meet future energy needs. Switchgrass is a native warm season grass to North America and has been studied on marginal lands and reclaimed mine lands for biomass production capabilities in the U.S. Another species which has been considered for bioenergy production capabilities in Europe, Miscanthus, is also a warm season perennial grass that has high biomass production capabilities. Currently, there are no studies done on the cellulosic bioenergy production capabilities of Miscanthus on reclaimed mine lands in the U.S. This study looks at Miscanthus and switchgrass as two potential cellulosic energy crops on reclaimed mine lands as a post-mining land use option for bioenergy production. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  8. 78 FR 4368 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; Requirements for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ... following methods: A. www.regulations.gov . Follow the on-line instructions for submitting comments. B... characters, any form of encryption, and be free of any defects or viruses. Docket: All documents in...

  9. 77 FR 68076 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; Redesignation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-15

    ...: Marilyn Powers, (215) 814-2308, or by e-mail at powers.marilyn@epa.gov SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION... in Kentucky; and Lawrence and Scioto Counties, Monroe and Sprigg Townships in Adams County, and...

  10. Levee Design Profiles for the Williamson, West Virginia, Flood Protection Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-01

    Herrmann , former and present Chiefs of the Hydraulics Laboratory, and M. B. Boyd, Chief of the Hydraulic Analysis Division. The project engineer for this...scale of 200 ft/in. Spot elevations were added in flat areas and at points of interest. ORH hydraulic design personnel determ! ned appropriate

  11. Environmental Compliance Assessment Protocol - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (ECAP-CDC), West Virginia Supplement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-11-01

    Water loosestrife Delphinium exaltatum Tall larkspur Descurainia pinnata Tansy-mustard Desmodium lineatum A tick-trefoil (continued) 5 -10 Appendix 5-1...continued) Scientific Name Common Name Desmodium pauciflorum A tick-trefoil Digilariafiliformis Slender crabgrass Disporum maculatum Mandarin

  12. Pittsburgh Coal Bed Resource Areas in Pennsylvania, Ohio, West Virginia, and Maryland

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The base of the Pittsburgh Coal bed and its stratigraphically (non-coal) equivalent horizon is used to subdivide Upper Pennsylvanian Series strata into the overlying...

  13. PSD Applicability for Ashland Chemical's Maleic Anhydride Plant in Neal, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  14. Modeling Critical Forest Habitat in the Southern Coal Fields of West Virginia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron E. Maxwell

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the Central Appalachians of the United States resource extraction primarily from coal mining has contributed to the majority of the forest conversion to barren and reclaimed pasture and grass. The loss of forests in this ecoregion is significantly impacting biodiversity at a regional scale. Since not all forest stands provide equal levels of ecological functions, it is critical to identify and map existing forested resources by the benefits that accrue from their unique spatial patterns, watershed drainage, and landscape positions. We utilized spatial analysis and remote sensing techniques to define critical forest characteristics. The characteristics were defined by applying a forest fragmentation model utilizing morphological image analysis, defining headwater catchments at a 1 : 24,000 scale, and deriving ecological land units (ELUs from elevation data. Once critical forest values were calculated, it was possible to identify clusters of critical stands using spatial statistics. This spatially explicit method for modeling forest habitat could be implemented as a tool for assessing the impact of resource extraction and aid in the conservation of critical forest habitat throughout a landscape.

  15. How Does Garlic Mustard Lure and Kill the West Virginia White Butterfly?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Samantha L; Frisch, Tina; Bjarnholt, Nanna; Cipollini, Don

    2015-10-01

    As it pertains to insect herbivores, the preference-performance hypothesis posits that females will choose oviposition sites that maximize their offspring's fitness. However, both genetic and environmental cues contribute to oviposition preference, and occasionally "oviposition mistakes" occur, where insects oviposit on hosts unsuitable for larval development. Pieris virginiensis is a pierine butterfly native to North America that regularly oviposits on an invasive plant, Alliaria petiolata, but the caterpillars are unable to survive. Alliaria petiolata has high concentrations of the glucosinolate sinigrin in its tissues, as well as a hydroxynitrile glucoside, alliarinoside. We investigated sinigrin as a possible cause of mistake oviposition, and sinigrin and alliarinoside as possible causes of larval mortality. We found that sinigrin applied to leaves of Cardamine diphylla, a major host of P. virginiensis that does not produce sinigrin, had no effect on oviposition rates. We tested the effect of sinigrin on larval performance using two host plants, one lacking sinigrin (C. diphylla) and one with sinigrin naturally present (Brassica juncea). We found no effect of sinigrin application on survival of caterpillars fed C. diphylla, but sinigrin delayed pupation and decreased pupal weight. On B. juncea, sinigrin decreased survival, consumption, and caterpillar growth. We also tested the response of P. virginiensis caterpillars to alliarinoside, a compound unique to A. petiolata, which was applied to B. oleracea. We found a significant reduction in survival, leaf consumption, and caterpillar size when alliarinoside was consumed. The 'novel weapon' alliarinoside likely is largely responsible for larval failure on the novel host A. petiolata. Sinigrin most likely contributes to the larval mortality observed, however, we did not observe any effect of sinigrin on oviposition by P. virginiensis females. Further research needs to be done on non-glucosinolate contact cues, and volatile signals that may induce P. virginiensis oviposition.

  16. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, GREENBRIER COUNTY, WEST VIRGINIA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk information and supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk...

  17. 76 FR 41158 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; Regional Haze State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-13

    ... sky. B. Requirements of the CAA and EPA's Regional Haze Rule (RHR) In section 169A of the 1977... anticipated net effect on visibility due to projected changes in point, area, and mobile source emissions over...

  18. Education and the Economy: Boosting West Virginia's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  19. Reservoir Characterization of Upper Devonian Gordon Sandstone, Jacksonburg, Stringtown Oil Field, Northwestern West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ameri, S.; Aminian, K.; Avary, K.L.; Bilgesu, H.I.; Hohn, M.E.; McDowell, R.R.; Patchen, D.L.

    2002-05-21

    The purpose of this work was to establish relationships among permeability, geophysical and other data by integrating geologic, geophysical and engineering data into an interdisciplinary quantification of reservoir heterogeneity as it relates to production.

  20. RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION OF UPPER DEVONIAN GORDON SANDSTONE, JACKSONBURG STRINGTOWN OIL FIELD, NORTHWESTERN WEST VIRGINIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Ameri; K. Aminian; K.L. Avary; H.I. Bilgesu; M.E. Hohn; R.R. McDowell; D.L. Matchen

    2001-07-01

    The Jacksonburg-Stringtown oil field contained an estimated 88,500,000 barrels of oil in place, of which approximately 20,000,000 barrels were produced during primary recovery operations. A gas injection project, initiated in 1934, and a pilot waterflood, begun in 1981, yielded additional production from limited portions of the field. The pilot was successful enough to warrant development of a full-scale waterflood in 1990, involving approximately 8,900 acres in three units, with a target of 1,500 barrels of oil per acre recovery. Historical patterns of drilling and development within the field suggests that the Gordon reservoir is heterogeneous, and that detailed reservoir characterization is necessary for understanding well performance and addressing problems observed by the operators. The purpose of this work is to establish relationships among permeability, geophysical and other data by integrating geologic, geophysical and engineering data into an interdisciplinary quantification of reservoir heterogeneity as it relates to production. Conventional stratigraphic correlation and core description shows that the Gordon sandstone is composed of three parasequences, formed along the Late Devonian shoreline of the Appalachian Basin. The parasequences comprise five lithofacies, of which one includes reservoir sandstones. Pay sandstones were found to have permeabilities in core ranging from 10 to 200 mD, whereas non-pay sandstones have permeabilities ranging from below the level of instrumental detection to 5 mD; Conglomeratic zones could take on the permeability characteristics of enclosing materials, or could exhibit extremely low values in pay sandstone and high values in non-pay or low permeability pay sandstone. Four electrofacies based on a linear combination of density and scaled gamma ray best matched correlations made independently based on visual comparison of geophysical logs. Electrofacies 4 with relatively high permeability (mean value > 45 mD) was determined to be equivalent to the pay sandstone within the Gordon reservoir. Three-dimensional models of the electrofacies in the pilot waterflood showed that electrofacies 4 is present throughout this area, and the other electrofacies are more disconnected. A three-layer, back-propagation artificial neural network with three slabs in the middle layer can be used to predict permeability and porosity from gamma ray and bulk density logs, the first and the second derivatives of the log data with respect to depth, well location, and log baselines. Two flow units were defined based on the stratigraphic model and geophysical logs. A three-dimensional reservoir model including the flow units, values of permeability calculated through the artificial neural network and injection pressure-rate information were then used as inputs for a reservoir simulator to predict oil production performance for the center producers in the pilot area. This description of the reservoir provided significantly better simulation results than earlier results obtained using simple reservoir models. Bulk density and gamma ray logs were used to identify flow units throughout the field. As predicted by the stratigraphic analysis, one of the flow units crosses stratigraphic units in the reservoir. A neural network was used to predict permeability values for each flow unit in producer and injection wells. The reservoir simulator was utilized to predict the performance of two flood patterns located to the north of the pilot area. Considering the simple model utilized for simulation, the results are in very good agreement with the field history.

  1. The Annual Pharmacy Undergraduate Research Seminar at West Virginia University School of Pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malanga, Carl J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    For 10 years, the undergraduate research seminar has provided an opportunity for presentation and evaluation of undergraduate research projects, enabled students to learn about research activity and graduate study in a variety of pharmacy specialties, and created enthusiasm among students. (MSE)

  2. Lower Kittanning Coal Bed Known Areal Extent (Outcrop) in Pennsylvania, Ohio, West Virginia, and Maryland

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset is a polygon coverage of the resource areas of the Lower Kittanning coal zone. This dataset is the digital compilation of geologic and resource maps...

  3. First records of Nocomis biguttatus (Hornyhead Chub) from West Virginia discovered in museum voucher specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Stuart; Cincotta, Daniel A.; Starnes, Wayne C.

    2013-01-01

    Specimens of Nocomis biguttatus (Hornyhead Chub) from South Fork Hughes River (Little Kanawha River drainage, WV) were discovered in two museum lots at the North Carolina Museum of Natural Sciences. These accessions, collected in 1960 and 1966, represent an addition to the state fauna and are the first distribution records for this species from the Appalachian Plateau, WV

  4. 77 FR 71812 - West Virginia; Amendment No. 2 to Notice of an Emergency Declaration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-04

    ... Disaster Loans; 97.031, Cora Brown Fund; 97.032, Crisis Counseling; 97.033, Disaster Legal Services; 97.034, Disaster Unemployment Assistance (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to Individuals and Households in Presidentially Declared Disaster Areas; 97.049,...

  5. 76 FR 28393 - Proposed Approval of Air Quality Implementation Plan; Ohio and West Virginia; Determinations of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ... economically significant regulatory action based on health or safety risks subject to Executive Order 13045 (62... Persoon, Environmental Engineer, at (312) 353-8290, before visiting the Region 5 office. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Region 5, Carolyn Persoon, Environmental Engineer, Control Strategies Section,...

  6. Implementation of the Stallings Classroom Management Staff Development Demonstration Project in Putnam County, West Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Debra K.; And Others

    The primary objective of the Stallings Classroom Management Staff Development Model is to help teachers change so that they can manage their classrooms more effectively. In this model, classroom observations and specific recommendations for teaching behaviors are made for each teacher, and a series of teacher training sessions helps them to change…

  7. Evaluation of the Stallings Classroom Management Staff Development Demonstration Project in Putnam County, West Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, Merrill L.

    An evaluation is presented of the Stallings Classroom Management Staff Development Demonstration Project, designed to increase student achievement in basic skills through the use of research-based, systematic change in teachers' classroom management and organizational techniques. One objective of the evaluation was to utilize techniques and to…

  8. 76 FR 71450 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; Determination of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-18

    ..., set forth at 40 CFR 51.1004(c), would no longer exist and this area would thereafter have to address... nonattainment area has attained the 24-hour 2006 PM 2.5 NAAQS. This determination, in accordance with 40 CFR 51...; Determination of Clean Data for the 2006 Fine Particulate Standard for the Charleston Area AGENCY: Environmental...

  9. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, HARDY COUNTY, WEST VIRGINIA (AND INCORPORATED AREAS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk information and supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk...

  10. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, BERKELEY COUNTY, WEST VIRGINIA (AND INCORPORATED AREAS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk information and supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk...

  11. Hydraulic Evaluation of Marmet Lock Filling and Emptying System, Kanawha River, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station. Headquarters, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. 1975. Hydraulic design of lock culvert valves . Engineer Manual ...operations with various valve operations was computed. The numerical model results indicate that the hydraulic conditions are not significantly...2 1.3 Vertical-Lift Valves

  12. Site characteristics of red spruce witness tree locations in the uplands of West Virginia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melissa Thomas-Van Gundy; Michael Strager; James. Rentch

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge, both of the historical range of spruce-dominated forests and associated site conditions, is needed by land managers to help define restoration goals and potential sites for restoration. We used an existing digital database of witness trees listed in deeds from 1752 to 1899 to compare characteristics of red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) sites...

  13. U.S. China Carbon Capture and Storage Development Project at West Virginia University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fletcher, Jerald

    2013-12-31

    The original overall objective of this activity was to undertake resource evaluation and planning for CCS projects and to describe and quantify the geologic, environmental, and economic challenges to successful development of large-scale CCS in China’s coal sector. Several project execution barriers were encountered in the course of this project, most notably a project stop/delay due to funds availability/costing restrictions from the US State Department to the US Department of Energy at the end of CY2012, which halted project execution from January 2, 2013 to April 1, 2013. At the resolution of this project delay, it was communicated to the project team that the overall project period would also be reduced, from a completion date of February 28, 2014 to December 31, 2013. The net impact of all these changes was a reduction in the project period from 24 months (3/1/2012-2/28/2014) to 22 months (3/1/2012-12/31/2013), with a 3 month stop from 1/1/2013-3/31/2013. The project team endeavored to overcome these project time impacts, focusing heavily on technoeconomic modeling that would be deliverable under Task 3 (Ordos Basin Feasibility Study), and choosing to abandon the full investigation into the Demonstration Site (Task 4) due to the reduced project time. The ultimate focus of this project changed to work with the Chinese on a carbon atlas/geologic characterization, and on mechanisms for CO2 storage options from high-quality streams within China.

  14. The Annual Pharmacy Undergraduate Research Seminar at West Virginia University School of Pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malanga, Carl J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    For 10 years, the undergraduate research seminar has provided an opportunity for presentation and evaluation of undergraduate research projects, enabled students to learn about research activity and graduate study in a variety of pharmacy specialties, and created enthusiasm among students. (MSE)

  15. 76 FR 30832 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; Permits for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ... explanation/citation 45 CSR] date at 40 CFR 52.2565 * * * * * * * Series 14 Permits for Construction and Major... Definitions 6/01/09 5/27/11 [Insert page This action number where the incorporates all of document...

  16. 78 FR 4333 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; Requirements for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ... several definitions, including ``Applicable implementation plan'' and ``Applicable SIP.'' Several terms no...,'' ``State Governor,'' ``State and Local Air Agencies,'' and ``State Agency.'' Definitions were added for the... CSR Series 35 and by: 0 a. Revising the entries for 45-35-1 through 45-35-4; and 0 b. Adding a...

  17. 30 CFR 948.15 - Approval of West Virginia regulatory program amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., 2008 CSR 38-2-2.39 (deletion of cumulative impact definition).CSR 38-2-3.22.e (approval of material... Legislative Rules at title 38, Series 2. June 29, 1990 October 4, 1991 CSR 38-2 §§ 2, 3, 5, 6, 9, 11 through 14, 17, 20, 22. July 12, 1991 November 19, 1991 CSR 38-2-20.5, .6, .7. July 30, 1993 August 16,...

  18. 77 FR 45302 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; Prevention of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-31

    ... of Appeals, or an order of the United States Supreme Court results in GHGs not being subject to... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background Throughout this document, whenever ``we,'' ``us,'' or ``our'' is used... Significant Deterioration, which was previously approved by EPA on May 27, 2011 (76 FR 30832). The...

  19. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Virginia. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2012 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Virginia.

  20. 76 FR 77182 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Virginia; General Conformity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-12

    ... Conformity Requirements for Federal Agencies Applicable to Federal Actions AGENCY: Environmental Protection... adopted by Virginia for the purpose of incorporating Federal general conformity requirements revisions... approving Virginia's general conformity SIP revision and if that provision may be severed from the...

  1. Virginia Tech's K-9 unit to receive Kevlar vest from alumni organization

    OpenAIRE

    Dickerson, Susan

    2004-01-01

    Hokie, the Virginia Tech Police Department's German shepherd, will be presented with a custom-fitted Virginia Tech Kevlar bulletproof vest to protect him from all the dangers he faces while performing his daily duties.

  2. Virginia Tech mourns the loss of Dr. Bernard "Bernie" F. Feldman

    OpenAIRE

    Owczarski, Mark

    2004-01-01

    Bernard "Bernie" F. Feldman of Check, Va., professor of biomedical sciences and pathobiology in the Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine at Virginia Tech , was killed in an automobile accident Feb. 19.

  3. Virginia koolimõrvar oli tähelepandamatu / Neeme Raud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raud, Neeme, 1969-

    2007-01-01

    USA ajaloo ohvriterohkeima koolimõrva korraldas 23-aastane lõunakorealane Cho Seung-Hui, kes õppis Virginia tehnikaülikoolis. Lisad: Ohvriterohked koolitulistamised. Virginia tehnikaülikooli linnak

  4. Extension targets vanishing honeybees that continue to trouble Virginia's bee industry

    OpenAIRE

    Sutphin, Michael D.

    2008-01-01

    More than 2,000 beekeepers in Virginia face the possibility of losing entire bee colonies to the Colony Collapse Disorder, but through Virginia Cooperative Extension, they have access to the latest research-based information about the problem.

  5. Virginia koolimõrvar oli tähelepandamatu / Neeme Raud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raud, Neeme, 1969-

    2007-01-01

    USA ajaloo ohvriterohkeima koolimõrva korraldas 23-aastane lõunakorealane Cho Seung-Hui, kes õppis Virginia tehnikaülikoolis. Lisad: Ohvriterohked koolitulistamised. Virginia tehnikaülikooli linnak

  6. 76 FR 68698 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Virginia; Revision to Nitrogen...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-07

    ...- 9487-7] Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Virginia; Revision to Nitrogen... Commonwealth of Virginia that revises regulatory language that inadvertently ended its nitrogen oxides (NO...

  7. Environmental Assessment for Combat Arms Training Maintenance (CATM) Range at Langley Air Force Base, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-09-01

    Wildlife Service UPH Unaccompanied Personnel Housing UST Underground Storage Tank VDEQ Virginia Department of Environmental Quality VDHR Virginia... UPH ) units. The UPH inventory includes permanent party dormitory space, visiting officer quarters, and visiting airmen quarters. 3.0 Affected

  8. Eastern shore of Virginia National Wildlife Refuge small firearms range assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Eastern Shore of Virginia National Wildlife Refuge (Refuge) is located on the southernmost tip of the Delmarva Peninsula in Northampton County, Virginia. It...

  9. Virginia Woolf and the Discourse of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Holly

    2003-03-01

    Holly Henry investigates how advances in astronomy in the early twentieth century influenced Woolf's literature and aesthetics and the work of such modernist British writers as Vita Sackville-West, H.G. Wells, and T.S. Eliot. In re-evaluating the cultural context out of which Modernism emerged, Henry contends that Woolf formulated a global vision that helped shape her fiction and her pacifist politics through her fascination with astronomy. Henry's study includes revealing examinations of unpublished scientific and literary archival material.

  10. 40 CFR 81.144 - Northeastern Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.144 Northeastern Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Northeastern Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by the... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Northeastern Virginia Intrastate...

  11. 40 CFR 81.143 - Central Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.143 Central Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by the... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Central Virginia Intrastate...

  12. Virginia Tech Residence Hall Federation recognized with multiple awards at annual conference

    OpenAIRE

    Gehrt, Katie

    2009-01-01

    On Feb. 8, 2009, the Virginia Tech Residence Hall Federation took home five awards at the 2009 Virginia Association of College and University Residence Halls (VACURH) conference, held this year at The University of Virginia-Wise, located in Wise, Va.

  13. 78 FR 56151 - Safety Zone, North Atlantic Ocean; Virginia Beach, VA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-12

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone, North Atlantic Ocean; Virginia Beach, VA... zone on the navigable waters of the North Atlantic Ocean in Virginia Beach, VA to support the Virginia... Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking...

  14. Has Virginia pine declined? The use of Forest Health Monitoring and other information in the determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    William G. Burkman; William A. Bechtold

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines the current status of Virginia pine, focusing on Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) results and using Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) information to determine if Virginia pine is showing a decline. An examination of crown condition data from live trees in the FHM program from 1991 through 1997 showed that Virginia pine had significantly...

  15. US west coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aerial surveys are conducted along the US west coast to determine distribution and abundance of endangered leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea), loggerhead...

  16. WEST Physics Basis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdelle, C.; Artaud, J. F.; Basiuk, V.; Bécoulet, M.; Brémond, S.; Bucalossi, J.; Bufferand, H.; Ciraolo, G.; Colas, L.; Corre, Y.; Courtois, X.; Decker, J.; Delpech, L.; Devynck, P.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Doerner, R. P.; Douai, D.; Dumont, R.; Ekedahl, A.; Fedorczak, N.; Fenzi, C.; Firdaouss, M.; Garcia, J.; Ghendrih, P.; Gil, C.; Giruzzi, G.; Goniche, M.; Grisolia, C.; Grosman, A.; Guilhem, D.; Guirlet, R.; Gunn, J.; Hennequin, P.; Hillairet, J.; Hoang, T.; Imbeaux, F.; Ivanova-Stanik, I.; Joffrin, E.; Kallenbach, A.; Linke, J.; Loarer, T.; Lotte, P.; Maget, P.; Marandet, Y.; Mayoral, M. L.; Meyer, O.; Missirlian, M.; Mollard, P.; Monier-Garbet, P.; Moreau, P.; Nardon, E.; Pégourié, B.; Peysson, Y.; Sabot, R.; Saint-Laurent, F.; Schneider, M.; Travère, J. M.; Tsitrone, E.; Vartanian, S.; Vermare, L.; Yoshida, M.; Zagorski, R.; Contributors, JET

    2015-06-01

    With WEST (Tungsten Environment in Steady State Tokamak) (Bucalossi et al 2014 Fusion Eng. Des. 89 907-12), the Tore Supra facility and team expertise (Dumont et al 2014 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 56 075020) is used to pave the way towards ITER divertor procurement and operation. It consists in implementing a divertor configuration and installing ITER-like actively cooled tungsten monoblocks in the Tore Supra tokamak, taking full benefit of its unique long-pulse capability. WEST is a user facility platform, open to all ITER partners. This paper describes the physics basis of WEST: the estimated heat flux on the divertor target, the planned heating schemes, the expected behaviour of the L-H threshold and of the pedestal and the potential W sources. A series of operating scenarios has been modelled, showing that ITER-relevant heat fluxes on the divertor can be achieved in WEST long pulse H-mode plasmas.

  17. Purge at West Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Warren

    1977-01-01

    Tells how the adviser of the student newspaper at West Valley College (Saratoga, California) was dismissed after the newspaper published stories based on investigations into alleged wrongdoings by administration members. (GW)

  18. Dracaena in West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    This taxonomic revision of the genus Dracaena L. (Liliaceae) in West Africa is another contribution towards a monograph on this group.Short general chapters contain historical, phytogeographical, morphological and phylogenetic observations. The taxonomic treatment contains a revised genus descriptio

  19. Eastern Culture Gone West

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGHONG

    2005-01-01

    THE implication of one of British 19th century writer Rudyard Kipling's most famous quotations: “East is East,West is West and never the twain shall meet” is endorsed by contemporary scholar Dr Samuel Huntington in his work The Clash of Civilizations, in which he asserts that future wars will not be between individual states and political unions but between differing civilizations.

  20. Uranium mining in Virginia: scientific, technical, environmental, human health and safety, and regulatory aspects of uranium mining and processing in Virginia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Uranium Mining in Virginia; Committee on Earth Resources; National Research Council

    2012-01-01

    .... Uranium Mining in Virginia examines the scientific, technical, environmental, human health and safety, and regulatory aspects of uranium mining, milling, and processing as they relate to the Common...

  1. 77 FR 26321 - Virginia Electric and Power Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-03

    ... Power Company AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Director's Decision; issuance. SUMMARY: The... Electric and Power Company (VEPCO or the licensee). The petition requested that the NRC: (1) Take escalated... be formally communicated to Virginia Electric and Power Company (VEPCO) in a written...

  2. Virginia Offshore Wind Cost Reduction Through Innovation Study (VOWCRIS) (Poster)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maples, B.; Campbell, J.; Arora, D.

    2014-10-01

    The VOWCRIS project is an integrated systems approach to the feasibility-level design, performance, and cost-of-energy estimate for a notional 600-megawatt offshore wind project using site characteristics that apply to the Wind Energy Areas of Virginia, Maryland and North Carolina.

  3. Determinants of Crime in Virginia: An Empirical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Abdiweli M.; Peek, Willam

    2009-01-01

    This paper is an empirical analysis of the determinants of crime in Virginia. Over a dozen explanatory variables that current literature suggests as important determinants of crime are collected. The data is from 1970 to 2000. These include economic, fiscal, demographic, political, and social variables. The regression results indicate that crime…

  4. Virginia Tech study reveals predation-evolution link

    OpenAIRE

    Trulove, Susan

    2007-01-01

    The fossil record seems to indicate that the diversity of marine creatures increased and decreased over hundreds of millions of years in step with predator-prey encounters, Virginia Tech geoscientists report in the proceedings of the National Academy of Science online early edition the week of Sept. 10.

  5. Virginia Tech to host Biodiversity Conservation in Agriculture Symposium

    OpenAIRE

    Felker, Susan B.

    2006-01-01

    Virginia Tech will host the Biodiversity Conservation in Agriculture Symposium at its Caribbean Center for Education and Research in Punta Cana, the Dominican Republic, May 31 - June 2. The symposium is designed to promote inclusion of biodiversity conservation objectives in agricultural development activities.

  6. Higher Education, Globalization and Economic Development in Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    State Council of Higher Education for Virginia, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In early 2009, the State Council of Higher Education for Virginia (SCHEV) initiated an effort to assess the status of the Commonwealth's international education programs. A survey was distributed to the public and private institutions, focusing on critical aspects of contemporary international education programs as identified by an ad hoc group of…

  7. Virginia Tech administrator receives award from Philippine government

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Philippine President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo has honored S. K. De Datta of Blacksburg, associate provost for international affairs at Virginia Tech, with a Presidential Citation Award. The award recognizes De Datta's contributions towards eradicating hunger through improved agricultural productivity and food security, particularly for the production of rice.

  8. Shell Games. VORTEX: Virginia's Oyster Reef Teaching EXperience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Juliana M.; Mann, Roger; Clark, Vicki P.

    This document introduces Virginia's Oyster Reef Teaching EXperience (VORTEX), which is an interdisciplinary program focusing on the importance of oyster reef communities in the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem. The VORTEX program uses field and laboratory experiences supported by multimedia instruction. This document presents an overview on the biology of…

  9. Virginia's Link to Education about Forestry (LEAF) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munsell, John F.; Gagnon, Jennifer L.; Barrett, Scott; Powell, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    Virginia's LEAF Program incorporates educational opportunities with heritage experiences and technology to advance forestry education in the Commonwealth. Statewide heritage-based outdoor classrooms use an integrated outdoor learning system to provide both formal and informal education. Online learning modules are coupled with the classrooms to…

  10. 78 FR 2708 - Virginia Disaster Number VA-00052

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-14

    ... ADMINISTRATION Virginia Disaster Number VA-00052 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 1... completed loan applications to: U.S. Small Business Administration, Processing and Disbursement Center... Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street SW., Suite 6050, Washington,...

  11. 77 FR 51100 - Virginia Disaster No. VA-00048

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-23

    ... ADMINISTRATION Virginia Disaster No. VA-00048 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 1.... ADDRESSES: Submit completed loan applications to: U.S. Small Business Administration, Processing and..., Office of Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street, SW., Suite...

  12. Virginia Tech to compete in 2009 Solar Decathlon

    OpenAIRE

    Chadwick, Heather Riley

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has announced that Virginia Tech will be one of 20 university teams selected to compete in its fourth Solar Decathlon, which will be held on the National Mall in Washington, D.C., in the fall of 2009.

  13. Virginia Tech team places fourth at Solar Decathlon 2005

    OpenAIRE

    Chadwick, Heather Riley

    2005-01-01

    A house designed and built by a team of students from Virginia Tech's College of Architecture and Urban Studies and College of Engineering placed fourth overall on Friday, Oct. 14, at Solar Decathlon 2005, an international competition sponsored by the Department of Energy held on the Mall in Washington, D.C.

  14. The Virginia Generalist Initiative: Lessons Learned in a Statewide Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, R. Michael; Plungas, Gay S.; Duke, Debra; Rollins, Lisa K.; Barnes, H. Verdain; Brinson, Betsy K.; Martindale, James R.; Marsland, David W.

    1999-01-01

    To increase supply of generalist physicians, three state-supported Virginia medical schools formed a partnership with governmental stakeholders in the Generalist Physician Initiative. Lessons learned concerning stakeholder participation in planning, shared philosophical commitment, support for risk-taking, attitudes toward change, and trust are…

  15. Linking the Virginia SOL Assessments to NWEA MAP Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northwest Evaluation Association, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Northwest Evaluation Association™ (NWEA™) is committed to providing partners with useful tools to help make inferences from the Measures of Academic Progress® (MAP®) interim assessment scores. Recently, NWEA completed a concordance study to connect the scales of the Virginia Standards of Learning (SOL) reading and math tests with those of the MAP…

  16. Bearing Witness to Differends: Virginia Woolf and Postmodern Composition Pedagogies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Lisa L.

    Borrowing from Heidegger and following Pamela Caughie and Victor Vitanza, the work of Virginia Woolf can be linked to composition pedagogies to ask: "What are composition instructors still not thinking in relation to the postmodern?" An answer may be found through postmodern rereadings of Woolf's "A Room of One's Own" and…

  17. Varsity Hall: The Infirmary at the University of Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christmas, William A.; Turner, James C.

    2008-01-01

    In the past 5 years, an important treasure for the field of college health was rediscovered and has been completely renovated. It is the original student infirmary, now called Varsity Hall, at the University of Virginia in Charlottesville. Varsity Hall is a significant rediscovery for those who are interested in the history of college health. This…

  18. Study of Life Themes in Charlotte Bronte and Virginia Woolf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanTassel-Baska, Joyce

    1995-01-01

    This article explores the inner and outer forces that energized the lives of Charlotte Bronte and Virginia Woolf and influenced their talent development. Similarities in their lives, including adversity, autodidactism, practice of the writing craft, search for a mother figure, influence of place, loneliness, emotional support, and a philosophy of…

  19. Bearing Witness to Differends: Virginia Woolf and Postmodern Composition Pedagogies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Lisa L.

    Borrowing from Heidegger and following Pamela Caughie and Victor Vitanza, the work of Virginia Woolf can be linked to composition pedagogies to ask: "What are composition instructors still not thinking in relation to the postmodern?" An answer may be found through postmodern rereadings of Woolf's "A Room of One's Own" and…

  20. Report on Virginia Tech Shootings Urges Clarification of Privacy Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Karin

    2007-01-01

    Educators, mental-health officials, and law-enforcement officers often do not share information about troubled students because they are confused by what they can disclose under complex and overlapping privacy laws, according to a report on the Virginia Tech shootings. Attorney General Alberto R. Gonzales and two other Bush cabinet secretaries…