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Sample records for west timor indonesia

  1. Dusk to dawn activity patterns of anopheline mosquitoes in West Timor and Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndoen, Ermi; Wild, Clyde; Dale, Pat; Sipe, Neil; Dale, Mike

    2011-05-01

    Malaria is a serious health issue in Indonesia. We investigated the dusk to dawn anopheline mosquito activity patterns, host-seeking and resting locations in coastal plain, hilly and highland areas in West Timor and Java. Adult mosquitoes were captured landing on humans or resting in houses or animal barns. Data analyzed were: mosquito night-time activities; period of peak activity; night-time activity in specific periods of time and for mosquito resting locations. Eleven species were recorded; data were sparse for some species therefore detailed analyses were performed for four species only. In Java Anopheles vagus was common, with a bimodal pattern of high activity. In West Timor, its activity peaked around midnight. Other species with peak activity around the middle of the night were An. barbirostris and An. subpictus. Most species showed no biting and resting preference for indoors or outdoors, although An. barbirostris preferred indoors in West Timor, but outdoors in Java. An. aconitus and An. annularis preferred resting in human dwellings; An. subpictus and An. vagus preferred resting in animal barns. An. barbirostris preferred resting in human dwellings in West Timor and in animal barns in Java. The information is useful for planning the mosquito control aspect of malaria management. For example, where mosquito species have peak activity at night indoors, bednets and indoor residual spraying should reduce malaria risk, but where mosquitoes are most active outdoors, other options may be more effective.

  2. Relationships between anopheline mosquitoes and topography in West Timor and Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndoen, Ermi; Wild, Clyde; Dale, Pat; Sipe, Neil; Dale, Mike

    2010-08-26

    Malaria is a serious health issue in Indonesia. Mosquito control is one aspect of an integrated malaria management programme. To focus resources on priority areas, information is needed about the vectors and their habitats. This research aimed to identify the relationship between anopheline mosquitoes and topography in West Timor and Java. Study areas were selected in three topographic types in West Timor and Java. These were: coastal plain, hilly (rice field) and highland. Adult mosquitoes were captured landing on humans identified to species level and counted. Eleven species were recorded, four of which were significant for malaria transmission: Anopheles aconitus, Anopheles barbirostris, Anopheles subpictus and Anopheles sundaicus. Each species occupied different topographies, but only five were significantly associated: Anopheles annularis, Anopheles vagus and Anopheles subpictus (Java only) with hilly rice fields; Anopheles barbirostris, Anopheles maculatus and Anopheles subpictus (West Timor only) with coastal areas. Information on significant malaria vectors associated with specific topography is useful for planning the mosquito control aspect of malaria management.

  3. Impacts of Pig Management and Husbandry Farmers Towards Classical Swine Fever Transmission in West Timor Indonesia (DAMPAK MANAJEMEN DAN CARA BETERNAK BABI TERHADAP PENULARAN PENYAKIT CHOLERA BABI DI TIMOR BARAT

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    Petrus Malo Bulu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Classical swine fever (CSF is a serious and highly infectious viral disease of domestic pigs and wildboar, which is caused by a single stranded RNA pestivirus. A cross sectional study was carried out onsmall-holder pig farmers in West Timor, in the province of East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia. The objectiveof this study was to describe the management, husbandry and trading practices adopted by pig farmers inWest Timor. A questionnaire survey was administered to the owners of these pigs (n = 240 to gatherinformation from farmers in order to understand management and husbandry practices in the region. Theresults of the questionnaire highlighted the lack of implementation of biosecurity measures by smallholderfarms in West Timor, which has the potential to increase the risk of their pigs to CSF, as well as toother diseases.

  4. Indigenous round houses versus 'healthy houses': health, place and identity among the Dawan of West Timor, Indonesia.

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    Kambaru Windi, Yohanes; Whittaker, Andrea

    2012-09-01

    Qualitative research was undertaken among Dawan people living in Fatumnasi, West Timor, to investigate the reasons for the Dawan's retention of traditional houses, ume kbubu, in the face of a national development campaign to introduce modern, "healthy" homes (rumah sehat). Indoor smoke pollution from internal fires and poor ventilation is believed to contribute to poor respiratory health among this population. The study explored Dawan cultural constructions of health to find that ume kbubu are fundamental to the Dawan's sense of psychosocial well-being and ethnic identity. While rumah sehat are associated with prosperity, public image and social status they do not provide the warmth, security and emotional nurturance that the Dawan perceive as necessary for optimum health and to protect them from disease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Improving food security empowerment in Indonesia- Timor Leste border

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    Dewi, G. D. P.; Yustikaningrum, R. V.

    2018-03-01

    Post Referendum 1999, Indonesia and Timor Leste have a strategic challenge to provide food consistently around the border. This research intended to discover an appropriate strategy to tackle fragility of food security in the land border of Indonesia-Timor Leste, to improve collaborative actions between parties, as well as, opportunity to actualize food cross-border trading between local farmers and factories. For the result, there are two approaches will be applied. First, the empowerment term refers to the strategy of empowerment in strengthening the capability and capacity of human capital as one of the determinant factors of the resilience and self-sufficiency achievement. Second, the gender approach looks at the women and men build confidence, resilience, and independence which one of them through an educational intervention that enable the local people to manage food chain. Atambua is a region count as relatively as high poverty, poor human capital, weak quality and competitiveness of agriculture products, livestock and fishery, SMEs, and infrastructure. Thus, field study research is applied to find the actual and strategic effort aim to lead the achievement of food security and to engage Atambua over food trade to Timor Leste.

  6. Northern Australia energy arc - Timor Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atherton, G.

    2000-01-01

    Early this year new Timor Gap Treaty arrangements were concluded between Australia and East Timor -with the blessing of Indonesia -and it was once again 'business as usual' in the Timor Sea. This was quickly confirmed in February when the US$1.4 billion (A$2.4 billion at current exchange rates) Stage 1 of the Bayu Undan Project was approved by the Timor Gap Zone of Co-operation Joint Authority. This meant the green light for the project, which involves the extraction and export of condensate (a light oil) and liquid petroleum gas (LPG) from the Bayu Undan fields, 500 km north west of Darwin. The proposed development would involve a total investment of $5 billion in offshore and onshore gas production and processing facilities, pipelines, petrochemical facilities and other customer developments. Royalties from Bayu Undan will be shared equally between Australia and east Timor, thus providing significant revenue to underpin the economic development of East Timor

  7. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of Papua-New Guinea, Eastern Indonesia, and East Timor, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pitman, Janet K.; Pollastro, Richard M.

    2012-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 5.8 billion barrels of oil and 115 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered natural gas in five geologic provinces in the areas of Papua New Guinea, eastern Indonesia, and East Timor.

  8. The PKI in West Timor and Nusa Tenggara Timur 1965 and beyond

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    Steven Farram

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the aftermath in West Timor and elsewhere in the province of Nusa Tenggara Timur (NTT, of the 30 September 1965 ‘coup’ in Jakarta that resulted in the banning of the Indonesian Communist Party (PKI and the large-scale killing of its members and associates. An assessment is given of PKI strength in NTT in 1965, along with an analysis of the killings, including the numbers killed, who carried out the killings, who was targeted, and the fate of those captured, but not killed. Consideration is also given to the ongoing effects in NTT of accusations of PKI membership.

  9. Characteristics of the Triassic Source Rocks of the Aitutu Formation in the (West Timor Basin

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    Asep Kurnia Permana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available DOI:10.17014/ijog.v1i3.192The Triassic rocks of the (West Timor Basin have been identified that was mainly deposited in the  marine environment. The fine grained clastics and carbonate  rocks of this Triassic marine  facies are considered to be the most promising source rocks potential in this basin. In this paper we present geochemical and petrographic data from outcrop samples of the Triassic carbonate Aitutu Formation, due to emphasized the organic maturation, kerogen type of the organic matter and the origin of the organic matter.  A representative of selected sample were subjected to the Rock-Eval Pyrolisis, vitrinite reflectance and thermal alteration index, bitumen extraction, were analyzed on the GC-MS. The samples were collected from marine deposit of the Triassic Sequence. The TOC values of the analyzed sample range between rich and rich organic richness (0.51% - 9.16%, wt.%, TOC, which consists mainly of type II and III kerogen and the organic matter consider to be predominantly oil/gas prone and gas prone potential. The thermal maturity assessed from Tmax, TAI, and vitrinite reflectance shows an immature to early peak mature stage of the organic matter. The GC-MS analyses of the biomarkers indicate mainly the organic matter derived from mixed source rocks facies containing alga debris and higher plant terrestrial origin.

  10. Forage Food of Timor Deer (Cervus timorensis in Manokwari, West Papua

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    AYS Arobaya

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, back yard deer husbandry is well developed in some parts in Papua, though information on deer husbandry has not been provided yet. Therefore, this study was aimed at highlighting the diet provided to the deer in back yard husbandry model in Manokwari. Survey method was approached by visiting eight deer back yard farmer respondents. Direct observation to the feeding site and semi-structured interview were carried out to learn about the deer management system, and identify the forage diet species consumed and served to the animals. The results indicated five most common forage species consumed in the study; they were field grass, Imperata (Imperata cylindrica, elephant grass (Penisetum purpureum, king grass (Penisetum purpureopoidhes and Melinis minutiflora depending on the location of farmed deer. Drinking water was offered and feed supplement such as various leafs, food and vegetable left over and banana peel was provided by 62.5% of the respondents. Food supplement was given two times per day (morning, evening and (afternoon, evening. Forage food species consumed in the study sites were relatively more similar to the food in the natural habitat. (Animal Production 12(2: 91-95 (2010Key Words: forage, food, Timor deer, Manokwari

  11. Reproductive Behaviour Of Timor Deer (Rusa Timorensis

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    Daud Sansudewa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Timor deer (Rusa timorensis is a newly domesticated animal in Indonesia and other countries in the world. It is a potential source of meat and livelihood. Low birth rate is a problem of deer farming in Indonesia. It happens because of low concern for key aspects of behaviors including reproductive behavior. The aim of this review is to give information about reproductive behavior of Timor deer in natural habitat and captivity breeding. Libido and estrous behaviors of Timor deer in captivity breeding were similar with natural habitat. However, male Timor deer in captivity breeding took longer time to approach the females before mating, compared with those in their natural habitat. Aggressive behavior commonly leads mating. Parturition and maternal behavior of hinds are affected by limitation of space, therefore dividing the area of cage which depends on age and physiological status is needed to improve reproductive management.

  12. Cryptocoryne aura (Araceae), a new species from West Kalimantan, Indonesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wongso, Suwidji; Ipor, Isa B.; Tawan, Cheksum S.

    2016-01-01

    A new species, Cryptocoryne aura Wongso & Ipor, from West Kalimantan, Indonesia, is described and illustrated. It differs from other Cryptocoryne species primarily by having a transparent, ciliate membrane along the leaf margin and a short spathe with a yellow, forward-twisted limb. It has...

  13. Biomass and carbon stock potential of Gliricidia Sepium as an alternative energy at Timor Tengah Utara Regency, East Nusa Tenggara Province, Indonesia

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    Prima, F. H.; Hariyadi; Hartono, A.

    2018-03-01

    The utilization of biomass from plants is one efforts for the fulfillment an availability of alternative energy in indonesia. Gliricidia sepium is a tolerant species that can grow in dry land. However its utilization as renewable energy source is non-optimized. This study aims to analyze the potential carbon stocks and biomass from Gliricidia sepium as a raw material for alternative energy in East Nusa Tenggara. This study was conducted in November 2015 and located in Humusu Sainiup, Timor Tengah Utara Regency, East Nusa Tenggara Province. The method used in collecting data was applied in three different land-use, namely monoculture Gliricidia sepium, polyculture between Gliricidia sepium and Leucaena leucocephala, and polyculture between Gliricidia sepium and Zea mays. We used the allometric equation from Ketterings namely B = 0.11ρD2+0,62 and C = 0.5 x B. The results showed that the different land-use will give different value of carbon stocks which is in this study the biggest value of carbon stocks was found in monoculture of Gliricidia sp (35.35 tC ha-1) compared with Gliricidia sp + Leucaena sp (18.83 tC ha-1), and Gliricidia sp + Zea mays (13.79 tC ha-1). The value of biomass and carbon stocks was influenced by wood density, trees density, and diameter at breast height (dbh).

  14. The vulnerability of fishermen’s community and livelihood opportunity through drought and seasonal changes in border area of Indonesia-Timor Leste

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    Jayanti, A. D.; Fitriya, W.; Setyobudi, E.; Budhiyanti, S. A.; Suadi; Kune, S. J.

    2018-03-01

    Communities that live in coastal areas in Indonesia are affected by the ecosystem degradation because their livelihoods majority depends on ecosystem’s services. Fishermen in Timor Tengah Utara Regency depends on their livelihood on fish catches and crops. TTU Regency is known as a place with drought. Agriculture sector and fisheries play the central role of communal livelihood. This research was conducted to gain information and baseline study to support the intervention scheme reducing the vulnerable level of coastal communities. This research was conducted in Insana Utara, Biboki Moenleu and Biboki Anleu District. The social-ecological and statistic descriptive analysis were undertaken and involving 53 fishermen, 4 women groups, 11 clan’s elder and staffs of local government as the respondents. The data shows that the majority of the fishermen are small-scale fisheries commercial fishermen and possess a high level of vulnerability. The factors that are mostly affected the fishermen livelihood is the job diversification as farmers which is primarily supported by the crops and rely on the rainfall. The vulnerable context of fishermen in TTU can be reduced by optimizing and enhancing communal institution capacity and increasing the cooperation among the stakeholders and government also women participation.

  15. Timor: the fallout on Jakarta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    This article highlights the impact of the independence of East Timor on the Indonesia's energy sector, and the ensuing rejection of the principle of liberalisation and restructuring of the state owned Pertamina monopoly. The adverse impact on exploration, agreements with Singapore to supply gas and the building of the pipeline from the Natuna gasfields to Singapore, problems posed by corruption, the development of the Natuna gas field, and the effects of the recent financial collapse are examined. (UK)

  16. Tsunami Disaster Risk Assessment and Prevention in West Java, Indonesia

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    Deng, H.; Harris, R. A.; Horns, D. M.; Yulianto, E.; Bunds, M. P.; Prasetyadi, C.; Emmett, C.; Hall, S.

    2016-12-01

    Java Island, Indonesia is the most populated area and one of the most tectonically active coastal nations on Earth. This island is the volcanic arc and accretionary wedge of the subduction zone of the Sunda and the Australia plate, where the Java Trench is located. However, the Java Trench hasn't had a mega or giant earthquake for at least 430 years according to historical records. Up to 30 m of slip may have accumulated on the subduction zone interface during this time, which is enough to produce a Mw 9.0 earthquake and large tsunami. One of the largest seismic gaps along the Sunda Arc is a 640 km section of the coast of west Java. The largest population center in this region is Pelabuhan Ratu, with is partially built on ridge and swale coastal plain topography. Candidate tsunami deposits were found in swales that may indicate inundation up to 1 km inland. Numerical modeling of various possible tsunami scenarios indicate that the configuration of the coastline may amplify a tsunami and cause high run-up in the most populated areas or the coast. Also, data from questionnaire surveys administered in Pelabuhan Ratu show a lack of awareness about how tsunamis threaten these communities and plans of action.

  17. INTESTINAL AND BLOOD PARASITES OF MAN IN TIMOR

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    W. Patrick Carney

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Survey tinja dan darah dipulau Timor guna menentukan distribusi dan prevalensi penyakit parasit diantara penduduk telah dilakukan pada bulan Juli dan Agustus tahun 1972 sebagai kelanjutan dari deretan survey yang dilakukan oleh Direktorat Jenderal Pencegahan Pemberantasan Penyakit menular Departemen Kesehatan, Bagian Parasitologi dan Pathologi Umum Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Indonesia dan US Namru-2 di Indonesia. Sejumlah 445 sediaan tinja untuk pemeriksaan parasit usus, 581 sediaan darah untuk pemeriksaan parasit malaria dan 663 sediaan darah untuk pemeriksaan parasit filaria telah diambil dari penduduk cara merata di 7 desa pada 3 kabupaten di Timor, Nusa Tenggara Timur. Enam puluh delapan per cent diantara penduduk melihatkan satu atau lebih parasit usus didalam tinjanya dimana cacing tambang merupakan parasit usus yang terbanyak. Ascaris lumbricoides ketemukan jauh lebih kurang daripada di Jawa, Sumatra dan Sulawesi, juga diketemukan perbedaan itara "intestinal parasite rate" di Timor Indonesia dan Timor Portugis. Dua belas percent penduduk yang diperiksa melihatkan parasit malaria didalam darahnya sedangkan parasit filaria ditemukan sebanyak 8 percent. Plasmodium falciparum merupakan parasit malaria yang terbanyak ditemukan, ia jenis parasit fdaria yang ditemukan adalah "Timor microfilaria" dan Wuchereria bancrofti dimana yang pertama merupakan parasit yang terbanyak diantara penduduk yang diperiksa.

  18. Seasonal variation in the nutritional status of children aged 6 to 60 months in a resettlement village in West Timor.

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    Miller, Jacqueline; Ritchie, Brett; Tran, Cuong; Beggs, Sean; Lada, Christina Olly; Whetter, Kathryn; Cobiac, Lynne

    2013-01-01

    Childhood malnutrition remains a public health issue in Indonesia with a national prevalence of wasting of 13% and stunting of 36%. In rural areas nutritional status depends on local agriculture and may fluctuate in relation to harvest time. The aim of this study was to characterise seasonal variations in nutritional status in two resettlement villages in the Oesao district, Nusa Tenggara Timur. A cross sectional study was conducted in a convenience sample of children after the wet season (March). Children aged 6 to 60 months were assessed for nutritional status using anthropometric and biochemical measures. A subset of these children was re-assessed for anthropometry after the dry season (November). Weight-for-height z scores improved significantly from mean±SD of -1.7± 0.9 in March to -1.3±0.9 in November (p<0.001). There was no significant change in height between seasons. Prevalence of wasting, (weight-for-height z score <-2), was 42% in March and 19% in November (p<0.001). However, stunting rates increased significantly from 42% in March to 45% in November (p<0.001). Thirty six per cent of children were anaemic (Hb level <11 mg/100 mL), 68% were vitamin A deficient (plasma vitamin A level <0.8 μmol/L) and 50% were zinc deficient (plasma zinc <9.94 μmol/L). All children except one were positive for intestinal parasites. These data indicate seasonal changes in anthropometry with inconsistent effects depending on the anthropometric index measured. Wasting and stunting were higher than the national average, alongside high rates of anaemia, zinc and vitamin A deficiencies.

  19. Molecular surveillance of Dengue in Sukabumi, West Java province, Indonesia.

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    Nusa, Roy; Prasetyowati, Heni; Meutiawati, Febrina; Yohan, Benediktus; Trimarsanto, Hidayat; Setianingsih, Tri Yuli; Sasmono, R Tedjo

    2014-06-11

    Dengue is endemic and affects people in all Indonesian provinces. Increasing dengue cases have been observed every year in Sukabumi in West Java province. Despite the endemicity, limited data is available on the genetic of dengue viruses (DENV) circulating in the country. To understand the dynamics of dengue disease, we performed molecular and serological surveillance of dengue in Sukabumi. A total of 113 patients were recruited for this study. Serological data were obtained using anti-dengue IgM and IgG tests plus dengue NS1 antigen detection. Dengue detection and serotyping were performed using real-time RT-PCR. Viruses were isolated and the envelope genes were sequenced. Phylogenetic and evolutionary analyses were performed to determine the genotype of the viruses and their evolutionary rates. Real-time RT-PCR detected DENV in 25 (22%) of 113 samples. Serotyping revealed the predominance of DENV-2 (16 isolates, 64%), followed by DENV-1 (5 isolates, 20%), and DENV-4 (4 isolates, 16%). No DENV-3 was detected in the samples. Co-circulation of genotype I and IV of DENV-1 was observed. The DENV-2 isolates all belonged to the Cosmopolitan genotype, while DENV-4 isolates were grouped into genotype II. Overall, their evolutionary rates were similar to DENV from other countries. We revealed the distribution of DENV serotypes and genotypes in Sukabumi. Compared to data obtained from other cities in Indonesia, we observed the differing predominance of DENV serotypes but similar genotype distribution, where the infecting viruses were closely related with Indonesian endemic viruses isolated previously.

  20. FACTORS RELATING TO DEPRESSION AMONG OLDER PEOPLE LIVING IN CIMAHI, WEST JAVA PROVINCE, INDONESIA

    OpenAIRE

    Kiki Gustryanti; Sunanta Thongpat; Sonthaya Maneerat

    2017-01-01

    Background: Depression is commonly found in older people. The prevalence of depression among older people, particularly in Indonesia is increasing worldwide. Objective: This study was aimed to identify the factors relating to depression among older people living in Cimahi, West Java Province, Indonesia. Method: A cross sectional design was used with a total of 267 older people aged from 60 to 79 years old. A multi-stage random sampling has been used in five Public Health Centers in Cima...

  1. Contemporary Minangkabau food culture in West Sumatra, Indonesia.

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    Lipoeto, N I; Mmedsci; Agus, Z; Oenzil, F; Masrul, M; Wattanapenpaiboon, N

    2001-01-01

    Diet has a strong relationship with food culture and changes in it are likely to be involved in the pathogenesis of newly emergent degenerative diseases. To obtain in-depth opinions about the food culture of Minangkabau people, focus group discussions were conducted in a Minangkabau region, represented by four villages in West Sumatra, Indonesia, from January to March 1999. The members of the discussion groups were principally women aged from 35 to 82 years old. Minangkabau culture is matriarchal and matrilineal which accounts for female gender dominants in the discussions. Rice, fish, coconut and chilli are the basic ingredients of the Minangkabau meals. Meat, especially beef and chicken, is mainly prepared for special occasions; pork is not halal and therefore not eaten by Muslim Minangkabau people; and for reasons of taste preference and availability, lamb, goat and wild game are rarely eaten. However, rendang, a popular meat dish, has been identified as one of the Minangkabau food culture characteristic dishes. Vegetables are consumed daily. Fruit is mainly seasonal, although certain kinds of fruit, such as banana, papaya and citrus, can be found all year around. Coconut has an important role in Minangkabau food culture and is the main source of dietary fat. While almost all food items consumed by the Minangkabau can be cooked with coconut milk, fried food with coconut oil is considered to be a daily basic food. Desiccated coconut is also used as a food ingredient on about a weekly basis and in snack foods almost every day. Although there have been no changes in food preparation and there is a slight difference in taste preference between the young and the old generations, there has been a dramatic shift in food preferences, which is reflected in the changing percentage of energy consumed over the past 15 years. The traditional combination of rice, fish and coconut in Minangkabau culture goes back hundreds of years, long before the emergence of the degenerative

  2. Overcoming Ethnic Conflict through Multicultural Education: The Case of West Kalimantan, Indonesia

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    Nakaya, Ayami

    2018-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of multicultural education provided after the ethnic conflict (1996-2001) in West Kalimantan, Indonesia. Research included textbook analysis, observation of practice, interviews with teachers and NGOs, and surveys of junior high school students' social identity. Multicultural education was found to help…

  3. Tree culture of smallholder farmers practicing agroforestry in Gunung Salak Valley, West Java, Indonesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahman, Syed Ajijur; Sunderland, Terry; Roshetko, James M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the types of agroforestry system that exist in Gunung Salak Valley, West Java, Indonesia in order to characterize the differences in their basic structure and associated crop plant diversity. Data were collected through rapid rural appraisal, field observation and focus...

  4. The Implementation of Special Autonomy in West Papua, Indonesia: Problems and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    however, that, on formal occasions, the Indonesian national flag, the Red and White, and the national anthem, Indonesia Raya , should be performed before...according to some ultra-nationalist elements in Jakarta, is a starting point toward West Papuan independent. Hari Sabarno, the minister of internal

  5. The Notes on Mammal Carcasses Collected in Pangandaran Nature Reserve, West Java, Indonesia

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    Yamato Tsuji

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A field survey was conducted in Pangandaran Nature Reserve (PNR, West Java, Indonesia between 2011 and 2015, during which fresh carcasses of wild mammals were collected. Body sizes of these carcasses were performed. This paper reports relevant data for future applications.

  6. New data on Rhyacophila (Trichoptera: Rhyacophilidae) from West Malaysia and Indonesia (Lombok and Bali) with descriptions of two new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Vladimir D; Melnitsky, Stanislav I

    2013-01-01

    A new species, Rhyacophila langkawia sp. n., belonging to the R. curvata Group sensu Schmid (1970) is described. The samples provide also material of the previously undescribed species cited by Schmid (1970) as R. schmidi, a nomen nudum; this species is described as R. schmidirossia sp. n., also in the R. curvata Group. Other sampled species were Rhyacophila curvata Morton, recorded for the first time from Negeri Sembilan (West Malaysia) and Lombok (Indonesia); Rhyacophila stheneboia Malicky & Prommi (Pahang and Negeri Sembilan, West Malaysia), and Rhyacophila anakbatukau Malicky, recorded for the first time from Lombok (Indonesia). Updated lists of the Rhyacophila species found in West Malaysia and Indonesia are provided.

  7. Plasmodium ovale in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, J K; Purnomo; Masbar, S

    1990-12-01

    We report 34 infections by Plasmodium ovale found among 15,806 blood film examinations taken between 1973 and 1989 from several sites in Indonesia. Twenty five of the P. ovale infections occurred in a single sample of 514 people living in Owi, Irian Jaya. We detected five additional infections at 3 other sites in Irian Jaya. Other infections by P. ovale occurred at two sites in West Flores. Another infection has already been reported from East Timor. Despite relatively frequent sampling of populations on Sumatra, Kalimantan, Java and Sulawesi, P. ovale has not been found on those islands. It appears that this parasite occurs only on the easternmost islands of the Indonesian archipelago where it is nonetheless a rare finding.

  8. Molecular characterization of an Akabane virus isolate from West Java, Indonesia.

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    Purnomo Edi, Suryo; Ibrahim, Afif; Sukoco, Rinto; Bunali, Lukman; Taguchi, Masaji; Kato, Tomoko; Yanase, Tohru; Shirafuji, Hiroaki

    2017-04-08

    We isolated an arbovirus from bovine blood in Indonesia. The arbovirus was obtained from the plasma of a cow showing no clinical symptoms in West Java in February 2014, and was identified as Akabane virus (AKAV) by AKAV-specific RT-PCR and subsequent sequence analysis. Phylogenetic analysis based on partial S segment indicated the AKAV isolate, WJ-1SA/P/2014, was most closely related with two isolates from Israel and Turkey reported in 2001 and 2015, respectively, and that WJ-1SA/P/2014 isolate belongs to AKAV genogroup Ib. This is the first isolation of AKAV from Indonesia.

  9. Women's status and child survival in West Java, Indonesia.

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    Widayatun

    1991-03-01

    This study is introduced by a literature review of the concept of women's status, and related factors that determine infant and child mortality. Women's status is primarily defined by education, occupation and economic activity, which affect women's decision-making in the home and their independence in larger society. Cluster analysis was used to identify geographical patterns of standardized women's status variables among 20 regencies and 4 municipalities in West Java. Euclidian distances were computed between pairs of regencies across the 13 indicators. Pearson's correlations and multiple regression were used to compare associations between women's status variables and infant and child mortality, after controlling for economic development. Using data from the 1980 census, the study demonstrated large regional variations in women's status in West Java, with higher status in both the household and in society in the south and central highlands than in the north and west. Women's status is closely related to infant and child mortality, independent of the level of development. There was 1 notable exception, the municipality of Bogor, where infant and child mortality were higher than average rates for the cluster of areas with higher women's status. The results suggest that improved education, and increase in age at 1st marriage are key elements for improving the status of women in West Java.

  10. Pathotypic characterization of Newcastle disease virus isolated from vaccinated chicken in West Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putri, Dwi Desmiyeni; Handharyani, Ekowati; Soejoedono, Retno Damajanti; Setiyono, Agus; Mayasari, Ni Luh Putu Ika; Poetri, Okti Nadia

    2017-04-01

    This research was conducted to differentiate and characterize eight Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolates collected from vaccinated chicken at commercial flocks in West Java, Indonesia, in 2011, 2014 and 2015 by pathotype specific primers. A total of eight NDV isolates collected from clinical outbreaks among commercial vaccinated flocks in West Java, Indonesia, in 2011, 2014, and 2015 were used in this study. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was used to detect and differentiate virulence of NDV strains, using three sets of primers targeting their M and F gene. First primers were universal primers to detect NDV targeting matrix (M) gene. Other two sets of primers were specific for the fusion (F) gene cleavage site sequence of virulent and avirulent NDV strains. Our results showed that three isolates belong to NDV virulent strains, and other five isolates belong to NDV avirulent strains. The nucleotide sequence of the F protein cleavage site showed 112 K/R-R-Q/R-K-R/G-F 117 on NDV virulent strains and 112 G-K/R-Q-G-R-L 117 on NDV avirulent strain. Result from the current study suggested that NDV virulent strain were circulating among vaccinated chickens in West Java, Indonesia; this might possess a risk of causing ND outbreaks and causing economic losses within the poultry industry.

  11. Nutrient budget for Saguling Reservoir, West Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Barry T; van Dok, Wendy; Djuangsih, Nani

    2002-04-01

    A preliminary nutrient budget for Saguling Reservoir is reported as a first attempt to quantify the behaviour of nutrients entering this reservoir. This work is part of a larger Indonesia-Australia collaborative research and training project, involving Padjadjaran University and Monash University, established to study nutrient dynamics in Saguling Reservoir. Saguling Reservoir, the first of a chain of three large reservoirs (Saguling, Cirata and Jatilahur), built on the Citarum River in central Java, was completed in 1985. It has already become highly polluted, particularly with domestic and industrial effluent (organic matter, nutrients, heavy metals) from the urban areas of Bandung (population 2 million). The reservoir experiences major water quality problems, including excessive growths of floating plants, toxic cyanobacterial blooms and regular fish-kills. The work reported in this paper shows that Saguling receives a very large nutrient load from the city of Bandung and because of this, is highly eutrophic. It is unlikely that the water quality of Saguling will improve until a substantial part of Bandung is sewered and adequate discharge controls are placed on the many industries in the region upstream of the reservoir.

  12. The effects of local culture on hospital administration in West Sumatra, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semiarty, Rima; Fanany, Rebecca

    2017-02-06

    Purpose Problems in health-care leadership are serious in West Sumatra, Indonesia, especially in hospitals, which are controlled locally. The purpose of this paper is to present the experience of three hospitals in balancing the conflicting demands of the national health-care system and the traditional model of leadership in the local community. Design/methodology/approach Three case studies of the hospital leadership dynamic in West Sumatra were developed from in-depth interviews with directors, senior administrators and a representative selection of employees in various professional categories. Findings An analysis of findings shows that traditional views about leadership remain strong in the community and color the expectations of hospital staff. Hospital directors, however, are bound by the modern management practices of the national system. This conflict has intensified since regional autonomy which emphasizes the local culture much more than in the past. Research limitations/implications The research was carried out in one Indonesian province and was limited to three hospitals of different types. Practical implications The findings elucidate a potential underlying cause of problems in hospital management in Indonesia and may inform culturally appropriate ways of addressing them. Originality/value The social and cultural contexts of management have not been rigorously studied in Indonesia. The relationship between local and national culture reported here likely has a similar effect in other parts of the country.

  13. Survey on gastrointestinal parasites and detection of Cryptosporidium spp. on cattle in West Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananta, Sylvia Maharani; Suharno; Hidayat, Adi; Matsubayashi, Makoto

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate the presence of gastrointestinal parasites on cattle in Indonesia because the prevalence of parasites varies between countries depending on the terrain surrounding livestock farms and investigations in Indonesia have never been performed. Fecal samples from cattle at 35 farms in 7 districts in West Java, Indonesia, has been examined using the floatation or sedimentation methods, and a immunofluorescence assay and experimentally inoculation to mice for Cryptosporidium or Giardia.spp. 153 of 394 examined cattle (38.8%) were infected with gastrointestinal parasites. The prevalence of Eimeria spp., Nematoda spp. (including Oesophagustomum and Bunostomum-like), Fasciola gigantica and Paramphistomum spp. was 22.4%, 11.2%, 12.5% and 3.8%, respectively. Cryptosporidium andersoni (C. andersoni) was also found in two samples. One isolate of this parasite was confirmed to be transmitted to mice, in contrast to the isolates from other countries. although this survey is preliminary, the results shows that the infection of gastrointestinal parasites in Indonesia was not high, but these infected cattle could be as a potential source leading to economic losses in livestock production. Copyright © 2014 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Field Training Activities for Hydrologic Science in West Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agustina, C.; Fajri, P. N.; Fathoni, F.; Gusti, T. P.; Harifa, A. C.; Hendra, Y.; Hertanti, D. R.; Lusiana, N.; Rohmat, F. I.; Agouridis, C.; Fryar, A. E.; Milewski, A.; Pandjaitan, N.; Santoso, R.; Suharyanto, A.

    2013-12-01

    In hydrologic science and engineering, one challenge is establishing a common framework for discussion among workers from different disciplines. As part of the 'Building Opportunity Out of Science and Technology: Helping Hydrologic Outreach (BOOST H2O)' project, which is supported by the U.S. Department of State, nine current or recent graduate students from four Indonesian universities participated in a week of training activities during June 2013. Students had backgrounds in agricultural engineering, civil and environmental engineering, water resources engineering, natural resources management, and soil science. Professors leading the training, which was based at Bogor Agricultural University (IPB) in west Java, included an agricultural engineer, civil engineers, and geologists. Activities in surface-water hydrology included geomorphic assessment of streams (measuring slope, cross-section, and bed-clast size) and gauging stream flow (wading with top-setting rods and a current meter for a large stream, and using a bucket and stopwatch for a small stream). Groundwater-hydrology activities included measuring depth to water in wells, conducting a pumping test with an observation well, and performing vertical electrical soundings to infer hydrostratigraphy. Students also performed relatively simple water-quality measurements (temperature, electrical conductivity, pH, and alkalinity) in streams, wells, and springs. The group analyzed data with commercially-available software such as AQTESOLV for well hydraulics, freeware such as the U.S. Geological Survey alkalinity calculator, and Excel spreadsheets. Results were discussed in the context of landscape position, lithology, and land use.

  15. An Investigation of Seismicity for the West Sumatra Region Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syafriani, S.

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the seismicity of the West Sumatra region in the coordinates area of 94° E – 104° E and 2° N - 4° S. Guttenberg-Richer magnitude-frequency relation and seismic risk have been computed. Historical data of earthquakes used from year of 1970 to 2017 with magnitude higher than 4. The study area was divided into 8 sub-regions based on seismotectonic characteristics, plate tectonic and geological models. The determination of seismotectonic characteristics was based on the level of seismic activity in a region (a value) and rock stress condition (b value). High a value was associated with high seismic activity, whereas high b values were associated with low stress rock conditions, and vice versa. Based on the calculation results, a and b values were obtained in the interval of 5.5-11.3 and 0.7-2. The highest b value was obtained in the sub region 5 (Nias islands), while the lowest b value was obtained in sub region 7 (the Mentawai islands). The sub region 7, Mentawai Islands was indicated as the seismic risk potential areas.

  16. Prototype Tsunami Evacuation Park in Padang, West Sumatra, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, B. E.; Cedillos, V.; Deierlein, G.; Di Mauro, M.; Kornberg, K.

    2012-12-01

    Padang, Indonesia, a city of some 900,000 people, half of whom live close to the coast and within a five-meter elevation above sea level, has one of the highest tsunami risks in the world due to its close offshore thrust-fault seismic hazard, flat terrain and dense population. There is a high probability that a tsunami will strike the shores of Padang, flooding half of the area of the city, within the next 30 years. If that tsunami occurred today, it is estimated that several hundred thousand people would die, as they could not reach safe ground in the ~30 minute interval between the earthquake's occurrence and the tsunami's arrival. Padang's needs have been amply demonstrated: after earthquakes in 2007, 2009, 2011 and 2012, citizens, thinking that those earthquakes might cause a tsunami, tried to evacuate in cars and motorbikes, which created traffic jams, and most could not reach safe ground in 30 minutes. Since 2008, GeoHazards International (GHI) and Stanford University have studied a range of options for improving this situation, including ways to accelerate evacuation to high ground with pedestrian bridges and widened roads, and means of "vertical" evacuation in multi-story buildings, mosques, pedestrian overpasses, and Tsunami Evacuation Parks (TEPs), which are man-made hills with recreation facilities on top. TEPs proved most practical and cost-effective for Padang, given the available budget, technology and time. The Earth Observatory Singapore (EOS) developed an agent-based model that simulates pedestrian and vehicular evacuation to assess tsunami risk and risk reduction interventions in Southeast Asia. EOS applied this model to analyze the effectiveness in Padang of TEPs over other tsunami risk management approaches in terms of evacuation times and the number of people saved. The model shows that only ~24,000 people (20% of the total population) in the northern part of Padang can reach safe ground within 30 minutes, if people evacuate using cars and

  17. ASGM status in West Nusa Tenggara Province, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baiq Dewi Krisnayanti

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Artisanal Small-Scale Gold Mining (ASGM obviously contributes to serious environmental and health issue for miners, nearby populations, and larger community when the use of mercury (Hg occurs.  Mercury amalgamation is used as a gold recovery technique by 10-12 million ASGM miners around the world and a predicted around 1000 tons of mercury are discharged into the environment every year as a result of poor mining practices. Exposure to mercury can cause serious health effects for future generation, and miners and their families are vulnarable group to expose with mercury vapor and methyl mercury contaminated food in ASGM areas, resulting in increase of levels of mercury in human specimens. Thus, investigate the the effects of mercury on the environment and people health are urgently necessary for developing a better solution to eliminate further mercury contamination to environment in West Nusa Tenggara (WNT Province. A field survey had been conducted for this research in two main ASGM spots in WNT Province: Sekotong-Lombok island and Taliwang-Sumbawa island. As part of the study, an initial health survey and socio-economic of workers/miners was conducted. Volunteer participants at sampling locations across Sekotong-Lombok and Taliwang-Sumbawa (exposed; indirect exposed; non exposed groups answered a questionnaire, and allowed the sampling of hair for subsequent analysis. The ore, tailing, plants and soil samples were also collected for investigating Hg concentration on the substances. The results found that the impact of ASGM on increasing  economic activity leading to jobs, income and opportunities for social development is positive. However, there is risk of contamination in soil and plants environment through mining activity and high Hg concentration discovered in human body in a short time of ASGM activity. The environmental sustainability of mining can be better regulated within legalised areas. Environmental monitoring will define

  18. Promoting innovative business in the fishery sector in West Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurhayati, A.; Aisah, I.; Supriatna, A. K.

    2018-04-01

    West Java represents an important fisheries production center in Indonesia, owing to the abundant capture and aquaculture resources. However, the intrinsic characteristics of fish products such as perishable, voluminous, and seasonal currently prevent fisheries from having brought significant economic contribution to the province. In line with it, this research was aimed to analyze and identify leverage factors that will lead to fishery-based innovative business in West Java. Data used in this research were primary and secondary ones, which were collected through surveys involving 30 respondents representing fish processors and the same number representing consumers. A Focus Group Discussion (FGD) was also carried out to verify the collected data. Analytical tools adopted in this research were fishery triangle product model. Based on the analyses, it was found factors influencing the success of a fishery innovative business in West Java, Indonesia were consecutively: the existence of derivative products, product processing innovativeness, product price competitiveness, market place, and promotion. Based on the fishery trianggle product model, it was found that fish onboard handling, post-harvest handling, and procesing was in the development stage and therefore these production nodes need a particularly high attention.

  19. Analysis of pig movements across eastern Indonesia, 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Edwina E C; Christley, Robert M; Geong, Maria; Ward, Michael P; Toribio, Jenny-Ann L M L

    2015-03-01

    Knowledge of live animal movement through markets and from farm-to-farm is needed to inform strategies for control of trans-boundary animal diseases (TADs) in south-east Asia, particularly due to consumer preference for fresh meat. In eastern Indonesia a TAD of principal interest for control is classical swine fever (CSF) due to its impacts on smallholder farmers. Pig movement is considered a contributor to failure of current CSF control efforts but pig movement patterns are not well understood. This study investigated movement of live pigs in West Timor, Flores and Sumba islands during 2009-2010, with the aim of informing CSF control policies for Nusa Tenggara Timor province. A market survey of 292 pig sellers and 281 pig buyers across nine live pig markets and a farmer survey across 18 villages with 289 smallholder farmers were conducted and information collected on pig movements. The data obtained was used for social network analysis (SNA) on formal (via a market) and informal (village-to-village) movements using information on trading practices, source and destination locations, and the number of pigs being moved. Both inter- and intra-island movements were identified, however inter-island movement was only observed between Flores and Sumba islands. West Timor and Sumba had highly connected networks where large numbers of villages were directly and indirectly linked through pig movement. Further for West Timor, both formal and informal pig movements linked the capital Kupang, on the eastern end of the island to the western districts bordering East Timor connecting all five districts and demonstrating that informal movement transports pigs over distances similar to formal movement on this island. Sumba had a higher potential for pigs to move to a greater number of sequential locations across the entire island. Flores was found to have a more fragmented network, with pig movements concentrated in its eastern or western regions, influenced by terrain. Markets were

  20. Microbiological Quality and Safety of Meatball Sold in Payakumbuh City, West Sumatra, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Ferawati; H. Purwanto; Y. F. Kurnia; E. Purwati

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbiological quality and safety of meatball obtained from five different manufacturers around Payakumbuh City, West Sumatra, Indonesia. Microbiological analysis of meatball sample resulted in aerobic plate count range from 7 log CFU/gr to 8.623 log CFU/gr, respectively. Total coliform ranges from 1.041 log Most Probable Number (MPN)/gr to 3.380 log MPN/gr, respectively. Chemical analysis of meatball sample consisted of borax and formalin content. T...

  1. IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF CARMOVIRUS ON CARNATION (Dianthus caryophyllus L. IN WEST JAVA, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erniawati Diningsih

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Carnation has a highly economic demand of cut flower in Indonesia. Field observations in West Java Indonesia was conducted in order to find the typical mottle symptoms that was a suspect caused by a virus disease. Identification of the virus was respectively conducted by performing ELISA test with four anti sera and characterizations held by bioassay, observing of virion particles, detecting of nucleic acid by RT-PCR and nucleotide sequencing. Total of 403 samples were collected from plants with or no virus-like symptoms. Among those all tested, 83% were found to be infected by Carnation mottle virus (CarMV, but negatively against Carnation ringspot virus (CRSV, Carnation laten virus (CLV, and Carnation vein mottle virus (CVMV antisera. By mechanical inoculation, the virus was able to infect systemically Cenopodium quinoa and locally infect on others. However on Phalaenopsis sp and Gomprena globosa, there was symptompless found. The isometric CarMV particles size was approximately 30 nm. RT-PCR using specific primers of CP gene of CarMV successfully amplified a DNA sized 1000 bp. CarMV West Java Indonesian (Idn-WJ isolates possessed the highest nucleotide and amino acid homology with CarMV from Spain and was in the same cluster with CarMV from China, Taiwan and Israel.

  2. Solar Radio Observation using Callisto Spectrometer at Sumedang West Java Indonesia: Current Status and Future Development Plan in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manik, T.; Sitompul, P.; Batubara, M.; Harjana, T.; Yatini, C. Y.; Monstein, C.

    2016-04-01

    Sumedang Observatory (6.91°S, 107,84°E) was established in 1975 and is one of the solar observation facilities of the Space Science Center of Indonesian National Institute of Aeronautics and Space (LAPAN), located around 40 km, east part of Bandung City, West Java, Indonesia. Several instrumentations for solar and space observation such as optical telescopes, radio solar spectrograph, flux gate magnetometer, etc. are operated there, together with an ionosphere sounding system (ionosonde) that was set up later. In July 2014, a standard Callisto (Compound Astronomical Low-cost Low-frequency Instrument for Spectroscopy and Transportable Observatory) spectrometer was installed at Sumedang Observatory for solar radio activity monitoring. Callisto has been developed in the framework of IHY2007 and ISWI, supported by UN and NASA. Callisto spectrometer has observation capability in the frequency range of 45-870 MHz. The Callisto spectrometer receives signal by using a set of 21 elements log-periodic antenna, model CLP5130-1N, pointed to the Sun and equipped with a low noise pre-amplifier. With respect to the Radio Frequency Interferences (RFI) measurements, the Callisto spectrometer is operated individually in frequency ranges of 45-80 MHz and 180-450 MHz. Observation status and data flow are monitored in on-line from center office located in Bandung. The data was transferred to central database at FHNW (Fachhochschule Nordwestschweiz) server every 15 minutes to appear on e-Callisto network subsequently. A real time data transfer and data processing based on Python software also has been developed successfully to be used as an input for Space Weather Information and Forecasting Services (SWIFtS) provided by LAPAN. On 5th November 2014, Callisto spectrometer at Sumedang observed the first clear solar radio event, a solar radio burst type II corresponding to a coronal mass ejection (CME), indicated by a strong X-ray event of M7.9 that was informed on by Space Weather

  3. Multi-Functional Lands Facing Oil Palm Monocultures: A Case Study of a Land Conflict in West Kalimantan, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, de R.E.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an ethnographic case study of a palm oil land conflict in a Malay community in West Kalimantan, Indonesia. The conflict occurred in the preparatory phase of a large-scale plantation, before any oil palms were planted. After protest from local communities, the project was

  4. Biodiversity of medicinal plants by Minangkabau ethnic in Guguak Sarai, West Sumatera, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairiah, A.; Nisyawati, Silalahi, M.

    2017-07-01

    The research was carried out in Guguak Sarai, West Sumatera, Indonesia. The purpose of this study was to document the diversity of medicinal plants by Minangkabau ethnic base on local knowledge. Data were collected using ethnobotanical approach through open-ended, semi-structured interview and exploration method. The sample consisted of 3 key informants and 94 respondents with provisions age ≥ 30 years old. Data were analyzed qualitatively using descriptive statistics. Total 158 medicinal plants species which belongs to 124 genera and 54 families were reported to be used in against 52 diseases. Among the diseases, gastrointestinal disorders had the highest number of medicinal plants to be used (37 species), skin diseases (36 species), postpartum cures (29 species), urinary tract disorders (26 species) and rheumatism (19 species). Fabaceae (Leguminosae) was the dominant families that used to treat the illness (12 species) followed by Euphorbiaceae, Lamiaceae, Poaceae (10 species) and Asteraceae (9 species).

  5. Metal concentrations of river water and sediments in West Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Masaomi; Yustiawati; Syawal, M Suhaemi; Sikder, Md Tajuddin; Hosokawa, Toshiyuki; Saito, Takeshi; Tanaka, Shunitz; Kurasaki, Masaaki

    2011-12-01

    To determine the water environment and pollutants in West Java, the contents of metals and general water quality of the Ciliwung River in the Jakarta area were measured. High Escherichia coli number (116-149/mL) was detected downstream in the Ciliwung River. In addition to evaluate mercury pollution caused by gold mining, mercury contents of water and sediment samples from the Cikaniki River, and from paddy samples were determined. The water was not badly polluted. However, toxic metals such as mercury were detected at levels close to the baseline environmental standard of Indonesia (0.83-1.07 μg/g of sediments in the Cikaniki River). From analyses of the paddy samples (0.08 μg/g), it is considered that there is a health risk caused by mercury.

  6. Effectiveness of Ivermectin and Albendazole against Haemonchus contortus in Sheep in West Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puspitasari, Silvia; Farajallah, Achmad; Sulistiawati, Erni; Muladno

    2016-01-01

    Administering a half dose of an anthelmintic is a simple method for detecting resistance in parasites infesting small ruminants. When a single anthelmintic fails in native sheep from Indonesia, a combination of anthelmintics from different chemical classes with different modes of action are administered as an alternative parasite-control strategy. This study compared the anthelmintic efficacy of ivermectin (IVM) and albendazole (ABZ) given either separately as a single dose or half dose or co-administered to sheep naturally infected with Haemonchus contortus. Twelve sheep from Bogor, West Java, Indonesia were divided into the following six treatment groups: half-dose IVM, full-dose IVM, half-dose ABZ, full-dose ABZ, combined IVM + ABZ, and control. The treatment efficacy was determined using the faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) at day 0 (pre-treatment) and post-treatment at days 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42. The efficacies of half-dose IVM, full-dose IVM, half-dose ABZ, full-dose ABZ, and the combination treatment ranged from −1900% to 100%, 99% to 100%, −167% to 100%, −467% to 89%, and −200% to 100%, respectively. The FECRT for the half-dose IVM, half-dose ABZ, full-dose ABZ showed that H. contortus is resistant to half-dose IVM and ABZ. Full-dose IVM was effective against H. contortus. The combined treatment was more effective against H. contortus than ABZ alone. PMID:27019686

  7. Effectiveness of Ivermectin and Albendazole against Haemonchus contortus in Sheep in West Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puspitasari, Silvia; Farajallah, Achmad; Sulistiawati, Erni; Muladno

    2016-02-01

    Administering a half dose of an anthelmintic is a simple method for detecting resistance in parasites infesting small ruminants. When a single anthelmintic fails in native sheep from Indonesia, a combination of anthelmintics from different chemical classes with different modes of action are administered as an alternative parasite-control strategy. This study compared the anthelmintic efficacy of ivermectin (IVM) and albendazole (ABZ) given either separately as a single dose or half dose or co-administered to sheep naturally infected with Haemonchus contortus. Twelve sheep from Bogor, West Java, Indonesia were divided into the following six treatment groups: half-dose IVM, full-dose IVM, half-dose ABZ, full-dose ABZ, combined IVM + ABZ, and control. The treatment efficacy was determined using the faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) at day 0 (pre-treatment) and post-treatment at days 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42. The efficacies of half-dose IVM, full-dose IVM, half-dose ABZ, full-dose ABZ, and the combination treatment ranged from -1900% to 100%, 99% to 100%, -167% to 100%, -467% to 89%, and -200% to 100%, respectively. The FECRT for the half-dose IVM, half-dose ABZ, full-dose ABZ showed that H. contortus is resistant to half-dose IVM and ABZ. Full-dose IVM was effective against H. contortus. The combined treatment was more effective against H. contortus than ABZ alone.

  8. FACTORS RELATING TO DEPRESSION AMONG OLDER PEOPLE LIVING IN CIMAHI, WEST JAVA PROVINCE, INDONESIA

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    Kiki Gustryanti

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Depression is commonly found in older people. The prevalence of depression among older people, particularly in Indonesia is increasing worldwide. Objective: This study was aimed to identify the factors relating to depression among older people living in Cimahi, West Java Province, Indonesia. Method: A cross sectional design was used with a total of 267 older people aged from 60 to 79 years old. A multi-stage random sampling has been used in five Public Health Centers in Cimahi. The instruments comprised socio-demographic questionnaires, General Health Perceptions questionnaire, Chula Activities of Daily Living Index (CADLI, and Geriatric Depression Scale-15 (GDS-15. Data analysis was conducted using descriptive statistic, chi-square, and point-biserial. Results: The result revealed that 56.2% respondents was no depression and 43.8% respondents was depression. The results also showed that age, marital status, family history of depression, perceived health status, and activities of daily living was significant relationship with depression a mong older people (p<.01; p<.05. Conclusion: This finding can be used as a reference to implement new strategies to decrease depression among older people.

  9. Analgesic Usage in Elderly at Public Health Center: A study in West Java, Indonesias

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    Gembong Soeyono Putro

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Various analgesics prescriptions for elderly are not appropriate according to the guideline and can cause the increase of side effects such as gastric problems. Puskesmas as a public health center in Indonesia has an important role in anticipating this problem. The objectives of this study was to identify the analgesic usage in elderly patients at the public health center. Methods: This retrospective descriptive study was conducted for 3 months at Tanjungsari public health center, Sumedang, West Java, Indonesia, using total sampling. The data was taken from 417 medical records from 2013. The data taken from medical records were: sex, analgesic drug, diagnosis, and drug for gastric problem. Results: From the collected data, the most analgesics prescribed for the elderly patients was paracetamol, followed by Piroxicam, Mefenamic acid, and Ibuprofen. Not all of the elderly patients who received NSAIDs, were given gastric drug. Conclusions: The most prescribed analgesic drug given to elderly patients at the public health center is paracetamol. [AMJ.2017;4(1:16–9

  10. Risk Factors of Orofacial Pain: A Population-Based Study in West Java Province, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rikmasari, Rasmi; Yubiliana, Gilang; Maulina, Tantry

    2017-01-01

    The management of orofacial pain in Indonesia has not been well performed, which consequently led to an increase in the orofacial pain occurrences and a decreased quality of life. One of the possible reasons for this particular matter is the lack of evaluation on the risk factors that might induce orofacial pain in some individuals. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the risk factors of orofacial pain on productive age population in West Java province, Indonesia. One thousand and fifty-six participants (522 males; 534 females) were recruited for the study. A questionnaire that consists of demographic questions and questions evaluating several assumed risk factors for orofacial pain was used in a single interview. All data was analyzed by using Chi Square test to test the significance, Odds Ratio (OR), as well as Relative Risk (RR) by using SPSS version 23 (IBM Statistic, USA). The result of the current study revealed that bruxism ( p orofacial pain. It was also found that participants who performed multitude of heavy liftings at work have an increased risk (RR=1.19: 95% CI: 1.04 - 1.35) of having orofacial pain compared to those who do not. Risk factors for the occurrence of orofacial pain on productive age population in Indonesian sample consisted of oral parafunctional habits and non-parafunctional habits, such as heavy lifting. Further study in this particular topic is of importance.

  11. Small area estimation for estimating the number of infant mortality in West Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anggreyani, Arie; Indahwati, Kurnia, Anang

    2016-02-01

    Demographic and Health Survey Indonesia (DHSI) is a national designed survey to provide information regarding birth rate, mortality rate, family planning and health. DHSI was conducted by BPS in cooperation with National Population and Family Planning Institution (BKKBN), Indonesia Ministry of Health (KEMENKES) and USAID. Based on the publication of DHSI 2012, the infant mortality rate for a period of five years before survey conducted is 32 for 1000 birth lives. In this paper, Small Area Estimation (SAE) is used to estimate the number of infant mortality in districts of West Java. SAE is a special model of Generalized Linear Mixed Models (GLMM). In this case, the incidence of infant mortality is a Poisson distribution which has equdispersion assumption. The methods to handle overdispersion are binomial negative and quasi-likelihood model. Based on the results of analysis, quasi-likelihood model is the best model to overcome overdispersion problem. The basic model of the small area estimation used basic area level model. Mean square error (MSE) which based on resampling method is used to measure the accuracy of small area estimates.

  12. Subordinating Timor: Central authority and the origins of communal identities in East Timor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Kammen

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In 2006, a mere seven years after the overwhelming vote in opposition to Indonesia's final offer of 'broad autonomy' and only four years after the restoration of independence, communal violence erupted in Dili, the capital of East Timor. This violence was framed in terms of tensions between westerners, known as kaladi, and easterners, known as firaku. This essay seeks to answer two basic puzzles. First, what are the origins of these communal labels? Second, why did these terms resonate so profoundly within East Timorese society so soon after independence? Tracing the history of these terms, this essay argues that across more than three centuries these communal labels have emerged during crucial struggles to exert central authority. In doing so, this essay highlights the relationship between regional identities and the social ecology of food.

  13. The Convolvulaceae of Timor with special reference to East Timor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simões, A.R.; Silva, H.; Silveira, P.

    2011-01-01

    A taxonomic review of the Convolvulaceae in Timor is presented. A total of 61 taxa are listed, comprising 53 species from 15 genera. The most diverse genus by far is Ipomoea with 25 reported species, followed by Merremia with seven species. Of the seven species initially thought to be endemic, only

  14. All projects related to indonesia | Page 2 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Leste. Project. Indonesia's Aceh province and the now independent state of Timor-Leste (formerly East ... Program: Food, Environment, and Health. Total Funding: CA$ 4,000,000.00. Universities and Councils Network on Innovation for Inclusive ...

  15. Nighttime behavioral study of flying foxes on the southern coast of West Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengjan, Yupadee; Saputra, Vidi; Pramono, Didik; Basri, Chaerul; Ando, Takeshi; Ohmori, Yasushige; Agungpriyono, Srihadi; Hondo, Eiichi

    2018-05-30

    Flying foxes are important in the maintenance of forests and diversity. However, knowledge of their behavioral ecology, especially of movement and foraging patterns, which are essential for conservation and management of their populations, are not well known. Therefore, movement behavior of two individuals of Pteropus vampyrus were examined using an Argos telemetry system, and foraging pattern of Pteropus spp. was directly observed, at West Java province, Indonesia in October 2017. The maximum distance between the location at which bats were released and their furthest roost, recorded via satellite telemetry, was approximately 100 km. This reflects the long-distance flight ability of P. vampyrus. Daytime roosting sites and nighttime foraging places consisted of several types of habitats, such as intact forests, agricultural lands, and residential areas. This evidence indicated that there was habitat overlap between humans and bats in West Java province. According to direct observation of the behaviors of flying foxes at two locations within residental areas, various activities such as wing spreading, excretion, fighting, aggressive calls, movement, hanging relax, and hanging alert were found. The number of bat-visits to the trees varied among night hours, and had a positive correlation with the number of fruit dropping. The data obtained in this study have improved our understanding of nighttime behavior and habitat utilization of P. vampyrus, that can be used to support landscape management, species conservation, and disease prevention in regions of Southeast Asia.

  16. PRODUKTIVITAS PADANG PENGGEMBALAAN SABANA TIMOR BARAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnold E. Manu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to evaluate the West Timor savanna productive at different season. The location of this study is in the station of Lili field, Assessment Institute for Agricultural Technology Naibonat Kupang, with 40 hectare of savannah for pasture, held in one year. The data collected are botanical composition, production, feed intake in savannah and forage quality also the carrying capacity. The data analyzed descriptively. The amount of goat used for measurement of feed intake in savannah is 10 does. The result showed that the averages of forage fluctuation available is between 0.61-4,33 ton/hectare. The lowest point of production is happened in the edge of dry season (October that is 0.61 ton/hectare. Then it increases in early of rainy (December and reaches the highest point in the early of dry season (April. From this point, then it decreases and reach the lowest point in October, so, the forage production in nature was increases in December. The composition rate of CP is very varied, that is 2.71-9.48%. The composition of CP in nature grass has no significant difference with the composition in other locations of Timor, that is 2.26 % in the ends of dry season and become 8-10% in the rainy. Most of forage on the pasture is nature grass that is upper 90% and relative less of leguminous plants. The lack proportion of leguminous plants in nature savannah result in the less of forage quality, especially during the dry season there is no legume proportion and the quality of nature grass become very low.

  17. Current situation of midwives in indonesia: Evidence from 3 districts in West Java Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background The village midwife is a central element of Indonesia's strategy to improve maternal and child health and family planning services. Recently there has been concern that the midwives were not present in the villages to which they had been assigned. To determine the extent to which this was the case we conducted a field-based census and survey of village midwives in three districts in West Java Province, Indonesia. Findings In June 2009 we interviewed a random sample of village midwives from three districts - Ciamis, Garut and Sukabumi - in West Java Province. Trained interviewers visited all villages represented in the sample to interview the midwives. We also obtained information about the midwives and their professional activities in the last year. Thirty percent of village midwives had moved to another location in the 12 months between the end of 2008, when the sampling frame was constructed, and December 2009 when the survey was conducted; most had moved to a government health center or another village. Of those who were present, there was considerable variation between districts in age distribution and qualifications. The total number of services provided was modest, also with considerable variation between districts. The median number of deliveries assisted in the last year was 64; the amount and mix of family planning services provided varied between districts and were dominated by temporary methods. Conclusions Compared to an earlier survey in an adjacent province, the village midwives in these three districts were younger, had spent less time in the village and a higher proportion were permanent civil servants. A high proportion had moved in the previous year with most moving to a health center or another village. The decision to move, as well as the mix of services offered, seems to be largely driven by opportunities to increase their private practice income. These opportunities are greater in urban areas. As urbanization procedes the forces

  18. Improved milk production performance of smallholder farms in West Java (Indonesia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sembada, Pria; Duteurtre, Guillaume; Purwanto, Bagus Priyo; Suryahadi

    2016-04-01

    In Indonesia, because of the rapidly growing demand for dairy products, the development of milk production in rural communities can play a strong role in reducing poverty. However, the development of smallholder dairy production requires adequate support from the government, development organizations, and private firms. To assess the needs and situations of poor dairy farmers, we conducted a study in Ciater sub-district in West Java Province to compare the current situation with the situation that prevailed 4 years ago, i.e., before the implementation of a dairy development project. Data were collected from 61 farms in June 2014. The average number of cows on the farms surveyed was three to four, and each relied on cultivating an average of 0.4 ha of forage. Results showed that thanks to the project activities, milk productivity per cow and net income from milk production increased by 25% between 2010 and 2014. These results underline the importance of providing training and technical support for the development of the livelihoods of dairy smallholders.

  19. Knowledge transfer to builders in post-disaster housing reconstruction in West-Sumatra of Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayat, Benny; Afif, Zal

    2017-11-01

    Housing is the most affected sector by disasters as can be observed after the 2009 earthquake in West Sumatra province in Indonesia. As in Indonesian construction industry, the housing post-disaster reconstruction is influenced by knowledge and skills of builders or laborers, or locally known as `tukang'. After the earthquake there were trainings to transfer knowledge about earthquake-safe house structure for the builders in the post-disaster reconstruction. This study examined the effectiveness of the training in term of understanding of the builders and application of the new knowledge. Ten semi-structured interviews with the builders were conducted in this study. The results indicate that the builders with prior housing construction experience can absorb and understand the new knowledge about earthquake-safe house structure. Combination of lecturing and practice sessions also help the builders to understand the knowledge. However, findings of this research also suggest there is a problem in implementation of the new knowledge. Utilization of earthquake-safe house structure may leads to a rise in house cost. As a result, some house owners prefer to save money than to adopt the new knowledge.

  20. The determination of the tribe of family members in Luhak Limopuluh Koto, West Sumatera Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahri, S.; Abbas, A.; Bakar, N. N.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, some mathematical models that state the tribe of the family members in Nagari Luhak Limopuluh Koto West Sumatera, Indonesia were built. The models were constructed by using the marriage rule and the ethnic data of Minangkabau community which embrace the matrilineal system. The marriage rule prohibits the same inter-tribal marriage while the matrilineal system causes the mother, child, and sibling tribes to be equal. Therefore, the matrices formed by marriage rule, mother-son tribal relation, someone-his/her sibling tribal relation, and the transpose of the matrices, are used in matrix multiplication to obtain the tribal models. The models are consecutively A, AC’, (AC’)B, ((AC’)B)W’, ((AC’)B)C, ((AC’)B)W, ((AC’)W’ for Denai, Denai’s mother, the sister of Denai’s mother, the brother of Denai’s mother, the husband of Denai’s mother’s sister, the son of Denai’s mother’s sister, the wife of Denai’s mother’s brother, and the Denai’s father models.

  1. Micro-seismic earthquakes characteristics at natural and exploited hydrothermal systems in West Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jousset, P. G.; Jaya, M. S.; Sule, R.; Diningrat, W.; Gassner, A.; Akbar, F.; Ryannugroho, R.; Hendryana, A.; Kusnadi, Y.; Syahbana, D.; Nugraha, A. D.; Umar, M.; Indrinanto, Y.; Erbas, K.

    2013-12-01

    The assessment of geothermal resources requires the understanding of the structure and the dynamics of geothermal reservoirs. We deployed a multidisciplinary geophysical network around geothermal areas in the south of Bandung, West Java, Indonesia. The first deployment included a network of 30 broadband and 4 short-period seismic stations with Güralp and Trillium sensors (0.008 - 100 Hz) since October 2012. In a second step, we extended the network in June 2013 with 16 short-period (1 Hz) seismometers. We describe the set-up of the seismic networks and discuss first observations and results. The co-existence of a large variety of intense surface manifestations like geysers, hot-steaming grounds, hot water pools, and active volcanoes suggest an intimate coupling between volcanic, tectonic and hydrothermal processes in this area. Preliminary location of earthquakes is performed using a non-linear algorithm, which allows us to define at least 3 seismic clusters. We discuss this seismic pattern within the geothermal fields.

  2. Gold grade of epithermal gold ore at Lamuntet, Brang Rea, West Sumbawa District, West Nusa Tenggara Province, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernawati, Rika; Idrus, Arifudin; TBMP, Himawan

    2017-06-01

    Lamuntet is one of gold ore mining area carried out by the Artisanal Small scale Gold Mining (ASGM) located in West Sumbawa, Indonesia. Most of the miners at this area are not the local miners but also those from other regions. Mineralization of this area is strong identified as low sulfidation epithermal system. There are two blocks of this mining location, namely, Ngelampar block with an area of 0.164 km2 and Song block with an area of 0.067 km2. This study was focused on Ngelampar block. The characteristic of epithermal system is the existence of quartz vein with comb, vuggy, and sugary texture. The aim of this research was to analyze the gold grade and other metals, such as Cu, Ag, Pb, As, Zn, and Hg. The research methods included literature study from previous researches, field work, laboratory work, and interpretation. The literature study was performed on previous researches with similar study area. The field work comprised of direct observation and sampling. Fieldwork was done for a week to obtain gold ore/vein. Sixteen samples were analyzed to obtain the grade of ore/metal. The Hg laboratory analysis was then performed on the six samples with the highest gold grade. Laboratory works were conducted at Intertek Jakarta by using Fire Assay (FA) for gold grade and Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS) for Cu, Ag, Pb, As, Zn, and Hg. Results of the analysis showed the range of Au was grade (0.1 ppm - 27.8 ppm), Cu was 26 ppm -1740 ppm, Pb was 101 ppm- >4000 ppm, Zn of 73 ppm- >10,000 ppm, Ag of 3 ppm -185 ppm, As was 150 ppm-6530 ppm, and Hg of 0.08 ppm - 1.89 ppm. L1 and L15 had high grade for all values (Au, Ag, Zn, Cu, As, and Hg). Gold mineralization was formed as electrum because of Ag content is higher than 20%. Associated minerals of the samples in the study area were galena, sphalerite, arsenopyrite, and chalcopyrite which showed the characteristic of rich base metal of Pb, Zn, and Cu at LS epithermal.

  3. Snack foods consumption contributes to poor nutrition of rural children in West Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiyama, Makiko; Roosita, Katrin; Ohtsuka, Ryutaro

    2012-01-01

    Dietary habits of children, including snack foods consumption, in developing countries have seldom been investigated in relation to their nutrition and health. To assess the effects of snack foods consumption of 154 children aged 1-12 years in a rural village of West Java, Indonesia, a 3-hour-interval food recall survey for all meals and snack foods consumed in seven consecutive days for each subject, anthropometry, and interviews for sociodemographic indicators were conducted. Their overall prevalence of stunting and underweight was 69.5% and 35.7%. There were 221 foods consumed by the subjects, among which 68 foods were categorized as snack foods. Though the children of both <7 year and ≥7 year age groups consumed snack foods similarly throughout the day, the latter group only consumed larger amounts of energy from snack foods at school recess-times. The mean percent contribution of snack foods was 59.6% for fat, 40.0% for energy, 20.6% for calcium, and <10% for vitamins A and C. Half number of the subjects who snacked more than the median amount consumed less carbohydrate and vitamin C than the remaining half. Furthermore, the more snack-consuming group the lower z score for height-for-age (HAZ) among schoolchildren. To improve this nutritionally vulnerable situation, consumption of snack foods should be replaced by the non-snack foods which contain much higher nutrient density; i.e. 15 times for calcium and 32 times for vitamin A. Moreover, considering high snack foods consumption of ≥7 y age group at school, appropriate school nutrition programs should be promoted.

  4. Valuing Ecotourism of a Recreational Site in Ciamis District of West Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endah Saptutyningsih

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Ecotourism, as an alternative tourism, involves visiting natural areas in order to learn, to study or to carry out activities environmentally friendly, that is a tourism based on the nature experience which enables the economic and social development of local communities. Ecotourism encourages rural economics and provides benefits to income and employment generation. It is considered as an alternative for enhancing rural lifestyle and for leading positive changes in the distribution of income. One of the area which has ecotourism site in Indonesia is Karangkamulyan site, Ciamis District of West Java. There is a tourist attraction that not only offers natural beauty, history and cool atmosphere, it also serves as a place of education and research on the history in the field of archeology. This attraction should receive special attention from the local government so that the tourists and local people also get the benefits. Ecotourism can be classified as possessing public goods-type characteristics, and as such, welfare benefit estimates must utilize non-market valuation techniques. This study employs the travel cost method and contingent valuation method. Travel cost and contingent valuation methods are applied to the problem of estimating the potential consumer surplus available to tourists from ecotourism in Ciamis. The results are compared with contingent valuation analysis of willingness-to-pay of tourists in their current trip to ecotourism sites of Ciamis. The result of travel cost method indicates that tourists’ average travel cost is estimated at no more than one hundred thousand rupiahs. The contingent valuation method concludes that the tourists’ average willingness to pay in their trip to ecotourism sites of Ciamis is are about IDR 6,800 in average. 

  5. Paulo Freire e a educação popular em Timor-Leste: uma história de libertação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Penteado Urban

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Timor-Leste é considerada a primeira democracia a se estabelecer como tal no século XXI, sendo que seu passado foi marcado por invasões: Portugal (1515-1975, num primeiro momento e Indonésia (1975-1999 num segundo. Num primeiro momento, com o processo de colonização português, muito pouco se fez para Timor, principalmente ao que se refere a educação, sendo esta uma ação política. Com a invasão indonésia em 1975, após o curto período de independência, foi-se muito investido na construção de escolas, desde a educação infantil até o ensino superior, baseando-se no ensino ideologicamente integracionista. Internamente a luta pela restauração da independência, a Educação foi uma das armas para que assim Timor conquistasse a restauração da independência em 2002. Através da Frente de Timor-Leste Independente (FRETILIN, iniciouse um processo de Educação Popular que teve grande infl uência de Paulo Freire. Esse processo educativo, ligado à conscientização política, baseou-se no conhecimento cotidiano dos próprios educandos e num ensino contextualizado as necessidades da luta. Desta forma, pretendeuse realizar apontamentos acerca da Educação Popular em Timor-Leste, levando em conta a infl uência de Paulo Freire, utilizando-se de material relacionado à história da educação em Timor-Leste e Educação Popular em Timor-Leste, além de entrevistas realizadas com o Professor Dr. Antero Benedito da Silva e com o sr. Alberto, vice residente do movimento social do campo de Timor denominada União dos Agricultores de Ermera (UNAER. Palavras-chave: Educação Popular. Paulo Freire. Timor-Leste. Paulo Freire and popular education in East Timor: a history of liberation ABSTRACT East Timor is considered the fi rst democracy to be established as such in the twenty-fi rst century and its past is marked for invasions: Portugal (1515-1975 at fi rst and Indonesia (1975-1999 in a second. At fi rst, the process of Portuguese

  6. The first evaluation of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PD) gene mutation in malaria-endemic region at South Central Timor (SCT) district, Eastern Indonesia 2015-2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutagalung, J.; Kusnanto, H.; Supargiyono; Sadewa, A. H.; Satyagraha, A. W.

    2018-03-01

    Primaquine (PQ) is the only licensed drug effective against P. vivax for specific hypnozoites and as a key drug in the malaria elimination stage. However, PQ can cause severe hemolysis in G6PD deficient individuals. Unfortunately, few epidemiological data of these disorders was in Indonesia. This study aimed to assesses the prevalence and genotyping variant of G6PDd among the people on malaria-endemic. Blood samples from 555 unrelated subjects in eastern Indonesia were for G6PDd by quantitative test and PCR-RFLP-DNA sequencing. All protocols followed by Promega, Madison, USA. The prevalence of malaria and anemia was 32.6% (181/555) and 16% (89/555) with P. vivaxdominant species 52.5% (95/181), respectively. Overall, 16.6% (92/555) subjects were G6PD deficient, including 58.7% (54/92) females and 41.3% (38/92). Among the 92 cases G6PD deficient molecularly studied, the genotype variant Vanua Lava (T10883C) were detected dominant and unknown G6PD deficient (T-13.154-C) in 3 cases. It was high G6PD deficient in eastern Indonesia indicate that diagnosis and management of G6PD deficient are necessary. Obligatory anti-malaria doses for G6PD deficient individuals, population screening, are needed on endemic malaria in eastern Indonesia.

  7. Paradoxical outcomes of national schooling in the borderland of West Kalimantan, Indonesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eilenberg, Michael

    2005-01-01

    This paper brings together facets of national belonging and national schooling within an Indonesian borderland context with the aim of understanding the often shifting and ambiguous relationship between border people and their nation-state. Mass-education in Indonesia is of fairly recent origin...... identification with Indonesia due to certain socio-economic constraints and the local border peoples’ long history of cross-border relations....

  8. Potential Sedimentary Evidence of Two Closely Spaced Tsunamis on the West Coast of Aceh, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monecke, Katrin; Meilianda, Ella; Rushdy, Ibnu; Moena, Abudzar; Yolanda, Irvan P.

    2016-04-01

    Recent research in the coastal regions of Aceh, Indonesia, an area that was largely affected by the 2004 Sumatra Andaman earthquake and ensuing Indian Ocean tsunami, suggests the possibility that two closely spaced tsunamis occurred at the turn of the 14th to 15th century (Meltzner et al., 2010; Sieh et al., 2015). Here, we present evidence of two buried sand layers in the coastal marshes of West Aceh, possibly representing these penultimate predecessors of the 2004 tsunami. We discovered the sand layers in an until recently inaccessible area of a previously studied beach ridge plain about 15 km North of Meulaboh, West Aceh. Here, the 2004 tsunami left a continuous, typically a few cm thick sand sheet in the coastal hinterland in low-lying swales that accumulate organic-rich deposits and separate the sandy beach ridges. In keeping with the long-term progradation of the coastline, older deposits have to be sought after further inland. Using a hand auger, the buried sand layers were discovered in 3 cores in a flooded and highly vegetated swale in about 1 km distance to the shoreline. The pair of sand layers occurs in 70-100 cm depth and overlies 40-60 cm of dark-brown peat that rests on the basal sand of the beach ridge plain. The lower sand layer is only 1-6 cm thick, whereas the upper layer is consistently thicker, measuring 11-17 cm, with 8-14 cm of peat in between sand sheets. Both layers consist of massive, grey, medium sand and include plant fragments. They show very sharp upper and lower boundaries clearly distinguishing them from the surrounding peat and indicating an abrupt depositional event. A previously developed age model for sediments of this beach ridge plain suggest that this pair of layers could indeed correlate to a nearby buried sand sheet interpreted as tsunamigenic and deposited soon after 1290-1400AD (Monecke et al., 2008). The superb preservation at this new site allows the clear distinction of two depositional events, which, based on a first

  9. Paraji and Bidan in Rancaekek : integrated medicine for advanced partnerships among traditional birth attendants and community midwives in the Sunda region of West Java, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ambaretnani, Prihatini

    2012-01-01

    The study about paraji (Traditional Birth Attendants - TBA) and bidan (Community Midwives -CMW) in Rancaekek, a subdistrict in West Java, Indonesia, aimed to contribute to the knowledge and understanding about the relationships between traditional and modern Maternal and Child Health (MCH) systems.

  10. Priority setting in HIV/AIDS control in West Java Indonesia: an evaluation based on the accountability for reasonableness framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tromp, Noor; Prawiranegara, Rozar; Subhan Riparev, Harris; Siregar, Adiatma; Sunjaya, Deni; Baltussen, Rob

    2015-04-01

    Indonesia has insufficient resources to adequately respond to the HIV/AIDS epidemic, and thus faces a great challenge in prioritizing interventions. In many countries, such priority setting processes are typically ad hoc and not transparent leading to unfair decisions. Here, we evaluated the priority setting process in HIV/AIDS control in West Java province against the four conditions of the accountability for reasonableness (A4R) framework: relevance, publicity, appeals and revision, and enforcement. We reviewed government documents and conducted semi-structured qualitative interviews based on the A4R framework with 22 participants of the 5-year HIV/AIDS strategy development for 2008-13 (West Java province) and 2007-11 (Bandung). We found that criteria for priority setting were used implicitly and that the strategies included a wide range of programmes. Many stakeholders were involved in the process but their contribution could be improved and particularly the public and people living with HIV/AIDS could be better engaged. The use of appeal and publicity mechanisms could be more transparent and formally stated. Public regulations are not yet installed to ensure fair priority setting. To increase fairness in HIV/AIDS priority setting, West Java should make improvements on all four conditions of the A4R framework. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine © The Author 2014; all rights reserved.

  11. Contemporary United States Foreign Policy Towards Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    and designing of a permanent solution to promote a constructive relationship between Indonesia and East Timor. This work provides a thorough analysis... sweatshop ’? Seattle Times, 28 August. Available from http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Acropolis/5232/seattletimes2.html. Internet. Accessed on 23

  12. Microbial diversity of acidic hot spring (kawah hujan B) in geothermal field of kamojang area, west java-indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aditiawati, Pingkan; Yohandini, Heni; Madayanti, Fida; Akhmaloka

    2009-01-01

    Microbial communities in an acidic hot spring, namely Kawah Hujan B, at Kamojang geothermal field, West Java-Indonesia was examined using culture dependent and culture independent strategies. Chemical analysis of the hot spring water showed a characteristic of acidic-sulfate geothermal activity that contained high sulfate concentrations and low pH values (pH 1.8 to 1.9). Microbial community present in the spring was characterized by 16S rRNA gene combined with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis. The majority of the sequences recovered from culture-independent method were closely related to Crenarchaeota and Proteobacteria phyla. However, detail comparison among the member of Crenarchaeota showing some sequences variation compared to that the published data especially on the hypervariable and variable regions. In addition, the sequences did not belong to certain genus. Meanwhile, the 16S Rdna sequences from culture-dependent samples revealed mostly close to Firmicute and gamma Proteobacteria.

  13. Hepatitis B virus prevalence, risk factors and genotype distribution in HIV infected patients from West Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fibriani, Azzania; Wisaksana, Rudi; Alisjahbana, Bachti; Indrati, Agnes; Schutten, Martin; van Crevel, Reinout; van der Ven, Andre; Boucher, Charles A B

    2014-04-01

    Indonesia currently faces both an increasing HIV incidence and a high hepatitis B virus (HBV) burden. The objective of our study is to examine the prevalence, risk factors, and genotypic distribution of HBV infection among HIV infected patients in West Java, Indonesia. A cross sectional study was conducted among a cohort of HIV infected patients in 2008. Demographic and disease related variables were compared between HBV negative and positive patients. Logistic regression was applied to determine risk factors for HBV co-infection. HBV and HIV genotyping was performed in co-infected patients. Of 636 HIV-infected patients, the rate of HBV co-infection was 7%. The proportion of males was higher in HBV/HIV co-infected patients than in HIV mono-infected patients (93% vs. 72%, P=0.001). A history of injecting drug use (IDU), but not tattooing, was associated with HBV co-infection [P=0.035 OR 2.41 (95% CI 1.06-5.47)]. In the HIV and HBV treatment naive patients, CD4 cells counts Java. However, an increased prevalence was observed in men with a history of IDU, underlining the need for routine HBV screening and monitoring. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Droughts and debts: The domestic tea value chain and vulnerable livelihoods in Girimukti village, West Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widyawati Sumadio

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This article is concerned with the linkages between the livelihoods of tea smallholders and domestic value chains in Indonesia. Theoretically, our empirical inquiry is informed by an integration of the sustainable livelihoods approach and value chain analyses. This enables a better investigation of micro (livelihoods — meso (industry — macro (national and international trends and political economy interdependencies and interactions. In addition to value chains and socioeconomic challenges, tea smallholders in Indonesia are also confronted with droughts due to climate change and the 2015–2016 El Niño. The empirical work consisted of 36 semi-structured interviews in Girimukti village in West Java; a remote village relatively far from urban markets. Overall, our analysis demonstrates that tea smallholders are not poor, but are in a vulnerable position and remain far below the level of a stable lower-middle class. The smallholders lack human and financial capital and growing tea is not supported by horizontal coordination/social capital. In contrast, a few wealthy tea agripreneurs have established themselves as providers of inputs, intermediaries, tea drying factories, informal rural banks and village philanthropists. In other words, Girimukti is host to a process of increasing rural inequality driven by endogenous actors who are able to accumulate and concentrate tea assets and position themselves as essential nodes within the domestic tea value chain. The adaptive strategy of rural-urban migration from Girimukti to escape rural marginalisation is unattractive because of relatively low human capital levels.

  15. Comparative energy input–output and financial analyses of greenhouse and open field vegetables production in West Java, Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuswardhani, Nita; Soni, Peeyush; Shivakoti, Ganesh P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper estimates energy consumption per unit floor area of greenhouse and open field for tomato, chili and lettuce production. Primary data were collected from 530 vegetable farmers during Jan–Dec, 2010 in West Java, Indonesia. Energy estimates were calculated from actual amount of inputs and outputs and corresponding conversion factors. Results reveal that the total input energy used in greenhouse (GH) production of tomato, chili (medium and high land) and lettuce were 47.62, 41.55, 58.84, and 24.54 GJ/ha respectively. Whereas, the requirement of total input energy for open field (OF) production of tomato, chili (medium and high land) and lettuce were 49.01, 41.04, 57.94 and 23.87 GJ/ha, respectively. The ratio of output to input energy was higher in greenhouse production (0.85, 0.45 and 0.49) than open field vegetable production (0.52, 0.175 and 0.186) for tomato, chili medium land and chili highland, respectively, but output–input ratio of lettuce open field production was twice as that of greenhouse vegetable production. Financial analysis revealed higher mean net returns from greenhouse vegetable production as 7043 $/ha (922–15,299 $/ha) when compared to 571 $/ha (44–1172 $/ha) from open field vegetable production. Among the greenhouse vegetables, tomato cultivation was the most profitable in terms of energy efficiency and financial productivity. - Highlights: ► Energy input–output analysis is carried out to compare vegetables production in greenhouse and open field. ► Tomato, Chili and Lettuce production in West Java, Indonesia. ► Economic analysis is conducted to compare the two production systems

  16. Urban-rural difference in the determinants of dietary and energy intake patterns: A case study in West Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosaka, Satoko; Suda, Kazuhiro; Gunawan, Budhi; Raksanagara, Ardini; Watanabe, Chiho; Umezaki, Masahiro

    2018-01-01

    Few studies have explored differences in the determinants of individual dietary/energy intake patterns between urban and rural areas. To examine whether the associations between individual characteristics and dietary/energy intake patterns differ between urban and rural areas in West Java, Indonesia. A 3-day weighed food record, interviews, and anthropometric measurements were conducted in Bandung (urban area; n = 85) and Sumedang (rural area; n = 201). Total energy intake and intake from protein, fat, and carbohydrates were calculated. Food items were grouped into dietary categories based on the main ingredients to calculate their share of total energy intake. The associations between individual characteristics and dietary/energy intake were examined by fitting regression models. Models that also included education and body mass index (BMI) were fitted to adult samples only. In Sumedang, the total energy intake and energy intake from carbohydrates, fat, and grain/tubers were significantly associated with age and occupation. In Bandung, energy intake from grain/tubers and vegetables/legumes was related to sex and occupation, while other indicators showed no associations. Among adults, BMI was associated with the total energy intake and educational level was associated with energy intake from vegetables/legumes (both only in Sumedang). The relationship between demographic and socioeconomic factors and dietary/energy intake patterns differs in rural versus urban areas in West Java. These results suggest that different strategies are needed in rural and urban areas to identify and aid populations at risk of diet-related diseases.

  17. Physical growth and diets of school children: Trends from 2001 to 2015 in rural West Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiyama, Makiko; Roosita, Katrin; Ohtsuka, Ryutaro

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to assess changes in physical growth and diets of school children in rural West Java, Indonesia, between 2001 and 2015, a period of rapid socioeconomic change. In 2001 and 2015, anthropometric measurements (height, weight, mid-upper arm circumference, skin-fold thickness), food consumption surveys, and questionnaires on socioeconomic status were completed by fourth-grade school children in a rural village in West Java. Height increments of 5.9 cm for boys and 4.7 cm for girls during this 14-year period were calculated as 4.21 cm per decade for boys and 3.36 cm per decade for girls, which is equivalent to height increments observed during rapid economic development periods in other countries. Weights also increased by 3.8 kg for boys and 2.0 kg for girls during this period. Variations in weight status significantly increased in 2015; while 98% of the children were within the 'normal' range in 2001, the prevalence of overweight increased from 2.4% in 2001 to 13.7% in 2015 and that of thinness was 4.3% in 2015. Energy, protein, and fat intakes significantly increased in 2015. In 2015, a significant correlation between nutritional intake and weight status was observed, especially among boys. Socioeconomic changes between 2001 and 2015 caused increased heights and weights and greater variation in weight status, especially among boys. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Using PS-InSAR to detect surface deformation in geothermal areas of West Java in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghsoudi, Yasser; van der Meer, Freek; Hecker, Christoph; Perissin, Daniele; Saepuloh, Asep

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, the Persistent Scatterer InSAR (PS-InSAR) technique is applied in order to investigate the ground deformation in and around two geothermal areas in West Java, Indonesia. Two time-series of ALOS PALSAR and Sentinel-1A acquisitions, covering the period from 2007 to 2009 and 2015-2016, are analysed. The first case study examines the Wayang Windu geothermal zone where the PS-InSAR analysis provides an overview of the surface deformation around a geothermal reservoir. Uplift is observed around the injection wells in the area. The second example involves the use of the PS-InSAR technique over a more recent geothermal system in Patuha field. Again, a pattern of uplift was observed around the only available injection well in the area. Due to the dense vegetation coverage of the geothermal areas in West Java, the longer wavelength ALOS PALSAR data is provides better results by identifying a larger number of PS points. Additionally, experiments have been carried out to compare the resulting deformation with another example of the fluid migration process i.e. water extraction in Bandung basin. The potential of sentinel-1A and ALOS PALSR data are compared in all the experiments.

  19. Local Knowledge About The Structure, Function And Conversion Of Landscape In The Karangwangi Village, Cianjur, West Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulfa Dwi Amelia, Fatiya; Iskandar, Johan

    2017-10-01

    Karangwangi people is one of indigenous people in West Java who has local knowledge about their nature thoroughly. They have local tradition about landscape ecosystem arrangement that based on sakral (sacred) norm. With this rule, local people will always try to preserve the sustainability of their natural environment. However, modernization, increasing population, decreasing forest, and increasing market economic penetration, causing this rule and structure of landscape in Karangwangi village has changed. Land conversion in Karangwangi was occur because of settlement and land investment by people outside the village. These behavior changes in tradition and landscape (structure, function and conversion) in Karangwangi may impact on their daily activities, and so do the changes in daily activities can change their behavior in tradition and landscape. This research was undertaken in the Village of Karangwangi, Sub-district of Cidaun, District of Cianjur, Province of West Java, Indonesia. This paper aims to identify how indigenous people in Karangwangi understand kinds of landscape and another conversion that was happen as a result of management. The method used in this paper is qualitative with ethno ecological approach. The resulted of the study show that local people in Karangwangi Village understand how chronological of landscape structure, function and conversion.

  20. Shale characterization in mass transport complex as a potential source rock: An example from onshore West Java Basin, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugraha, A. M. S.; Widiarti, R.; Kusumah, E. P.

    2017-12-01

    This study describes a deep-water slump facies shale of the Early Miocene Jatiluhur/Cibulakan Formation to understand its potential as a source rock in an active tectonic region, the onshore West Java. The formation is equivalent with the Gumai Formation, which has been well-known as another prolific source rock besides the Oligocene Talang Akar Formation in North West Java Basin, Indonesia. The equivalent shale formation is expected to have same potential source rock towards the onshore of Central Java. The shale samples were taken onshore, 150 km away from the basin. The shale must be rich of organic matter, have good quality of kerogen, and thermally matured to be categorized as a potential source rock. Investigations from petrography, X-Ray diffractions (XRD), and backscattered electron show heterogeneous mineralogy in the shales. The mineralogy consists of clay minerals, minor quartz, muscovite, calcite, chlorite, clinopyroxene, and other weathered minerals. This composition makes the shale more brittle. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) analysis indicate secondary porosities and microstructures. Total Organic Carbon (TOC) shows 0.8-1.1 wt%, compared to the basinal shale 1.5-8 wt%. The shale properties from this outcropped formation indicate a good potential source rock that can be found in the subsurface area with better quality and maturity.

  1. Management of children exposed to Mycobacterium tuberculosis: a public health evaluation in West Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Merrin E; Ruslami, Rovina; Anselmo, Melissa; Alisjahbana, Bachti; Yulianti, Neti; Sampurno, Hedy; van Crevel, Reinout; Hill, Philip C

    2013-12-01

    To investigate qualitatively and quantitatively the performance of a programme for managing the child contacts of adult tuberculosis patients in Indonesia. A public health evaluation framework was used to assess gaps in a child contact management programme at a lung clinic. Targets for programme performance indicators were derived from established programme indicator targets, the scientific literature and expert opinion. Compliance with tuberculosis screening, the initiation of isoniazid preventive therapy in children younger than 5 years, the accuracy of tuberculosis diagnosis and adherence to preventive therapy were assessed in 755 child contacts in two cohorts. In addition, 22 primary caregivers and 34 clinic staff were interviewed to evaluate knowledge and acceptance of child contact management. The cost to caregivers was recorded. Gaps between observed and target indicator values were quantified. THE GAPS BETWEEN OBSERVED AND TARGET PERFORMANCE INDICATORS WERE: 82% for screening compliance; 64 to 100% for diagnostic accuracy, 50% for the initiation of preventive therapy, 54% for adherence to therapy and 50% for costs. Many staff did not have adequate knowledge of, or an appropriate attitude towards, child contact management, especially regarding isoniazid preventive therapy. Caregivers had good knowledge of screening but not of preventive therapy and had difficulty travelling to the clinic and paying costs. The study identified widespread gaps in the performance of a child contact management system in Indonesia, all of which appear amenable to intervention. The public health evaluation framework used could be applied in other settings where child contact management is failing.

  2. Methods for Delineating Degraded Land at Citarum Watershed, West Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suria Darma Tarigan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Accurate information on the extent and spatial location of degraded lands is very important to plan their rehabilitation.So far, various institutions issue different estimation on the extent of degraded land in Indonesia led to big confusion for rehabilitation planning. Ministry of Forestry estimates around 30.2 million ha of degraded land both inside and outside forestry area throughout Indonesia based on data released in 2007. Ministry of Forestry implementes the socalled scoring method in delineating degraded land. Criteria used in the scoring methods are: land cover, slope steepness, erosion, and management. Scoring method applies different weight to each of those criteria. This study aimed to analyze accuracy of scoring method and to compare it to propose alternative methods in delineating degraded land such as: a Inconsistency of land use, and b Combination of Inconsistency of land use and scoring method. The accuracy of these methods were obtained by comparing to the field observation. The slope map was derived from SRTM 30 m, soil map was obtained from Soil Research Institute and land cover/land use from Ministry for Environment. Using GIS analysis, those maps were used to compose land capability classification (LCC and inconsistency of land use. The study showed that scoring method had 66% accuracy in delineating degraded land. When scoring method was combined with Inconsistency method the accuracy increased about 7%.

  3. Factors affecting peasants’ empowerment in West Halmahera District – a case study from Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitti Aminah

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural development has not yet created empowered farmers in Indonesia. Most farmers living in eastern Indonesia are peasants with low access to development resources. This condition causes most of the peasants to be classified as poor citizens. This research was meant to formulate improvement strategies for empowerment of the peasants. The data were collected between March – May 2012 using the following methods: observation, interview and focus group discussion. The data was analysed using descriptive statistic and structural equation modelling (SEM and showed that: (1 the empowerment of peasants was within the lowest category for all variables, namely: the peasant characteristics, the role of the agents for development, program quality, the learning process and access to environmental support, (2 the determining factors affecting the empowerment of the peasants were: program implementation quality, the role of the agents of development, environmental access and support, the peasant characteristics, and the appropriateness of the learning process and (3 the strategy to improve empowerment of the peasants could be through corrective efforts towards program implementation quality, the role of facilitators, environmental access and support while considering the peasant characteristics and the learning process of the peasants.

  4. Effectiveness of primary school-based oral health education in West Java, Indonesia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartono, S.W.; Lambri, S.E.; Palenstein Helderman, W.H. van

    2002-01-01

    A study in West Java has indicated that involvement of primary health care personnel and schoolteachers in oral health education (OHE) at primary schools is a feasible approach that is sustainable. AIM: The present study aims to assess the effects of that school-based OHE programme on pupils who had

  5. Maturity analysis of the innovation system in the livestock industries of West Sumatra, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresti, A.; Dinata, U. G. S.; Wati, R.

    2018-02-01

    The main objective of this study was to analyse the ANIS of Livestock industry in West Sumatera according to its main determinants. This research aims to know and understand the maturity level of the regional innovationsystem of West Sumatra livestock industries, including recommendation for improvements. The maturity level of the regional innovation system was analyzed with the ANIS method by using an opinion survey to some experts from businessmen, government and universities. This expert opinion survey was conducted to measure expert perceptions on the implementations of determinants of west Sumatera regional innovations systems on livestock industries on macro level (innovations policy), mezzo level (innovation institutions and programs) and micro level (innovation capacity). By using Likert method, the result showed maturity level for the West Sumatra livestock industries innovation system was still develop. This is caused by low maturity in the macro and meso determinants which are at the central and regional government side. This research result may be useful as recommendations for the government for improving the maturity level and may be a basic for incoming researches to identify regional innovation system determinants with low maturity to improve.

  6. Timor-Leste : Country Environmental Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2009-01-01

    The Country Environmental Analysis (CEA) for Timor-Leste identifies environmental priorities through a systematic review of environmental issues in natural resources management and environmental health in the context of the country's economic development and environmental institutions. Lack of data has been the main limitation in presenting a more rigorous analysis. Nevertheless, the repor...

  7. Shear wave velocity model beneath CBJI station West Java, Indonesia from joint inversion of teleseismic receiver functions and surface wave dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simanungkalit, R. H.; Anggono, T.; Syuhada; Amran, A.; Supriyanto

    2018-03-01

    Earthquake signal observations around the world allow seismologists to obtain the information of internal structure of the Earth especially the Earth’s crust. In this study, we used joint inversion of receiver functions and surface wave group velocities to investigate crustal structure beneath CBJI station in West Java, Indonesia. Receiver function were calculated from earthquakes with magnitude more than 5 and at distance 30°-90°. Surface wave group velocities were calculated using frequency time analysis from earthquakes at distance of 30°- 40°. We inverted shear wave velocity model beneath the station by conducting joint inversion from receiver functions and surface wave dispersions. We suggest that the crustal thickness beneath CBJI station, West Java, Indonesia is about 35 km.

  8. 3D Agro-ecological Land Use Planning Using Surfer Tool for Sustainable Land Management in Sumani Watershed, West Sumatra Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Aflizar; Alarima Cornelius Idowu; Roni Afrizal; Jamaluddin; Husnain; Tsugiyuki Masunaga; Edi Syafri; Muzakir

    2013-01-01

    Estimation of soil erosion 3D (E3D) provides basic information that can help manage agricultural areas sustainably, which has not been sufficiently conducted in Indonesia. Sumani watershed is main rice production area in West Sumatra which has experienced environmental problem such as soil erosion and production problem in recent years. 3D Agro-ecological land use planning based on soil erosion 3D hazard and economic feasibility analyses consist of production cost and prize data for each crop...

  9. Spiny lobster Panulirus versicolor filogenetic and genetic in Lombok waters, West Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranata B.

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the phylogenetic spiny lobster Panulirus versicolor in Lombok waters, Indonesia and its association with P. versicolor spiny lobster from several regions of the Indian Ocean based on the cytochrome oxidase I (COI gene. The researchers collected tissue samples from 13 P. versicolor spiny lobster in Lombok waters. 9 haplotypes were identified with haplotype diversity values (Hd and nucleotides (Pi respectively Hd = 0.859 and Pi = 0.00509. Research results exhibit P. versicolor spiny lobster population from the waters of Lombok is closely related to the spiny lobster population in some regions of the Indian Ocean. In general, P. versicolor spiny lobster population formed a monophyletic clone with spiny lobsters from several regions of the Indian Ocean with genetic distance values (P-distance from 0.001 to 0.004. The reconstruction of the haplotype network exhibited no genetic structure, which means that each population is not genetically isolated from others.

  10. Organic carbon sequestration under selected land use in Padang city, West Sumatra, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulnafatmawita; Yasin, S.

    2018-03-01

    Organic carbon is a potential element to build biomass as well as emitting CO2 to the atmosphere and promotes global warming. This research was aimed to calculate the sequestered Carbon (C) within a 1-m soil depth under selected land use from 6 different sites in Padang city, Indonesia. Disturbed and undisturbed soil samples were taken from several horizons until 100 cm depth at each location. Soil parameters observed were organic carbon (OC), bulk density (BD), and soil texture. The result showed that soil OC content tended to decrease by the depth at all land use types, except under rice field in Kurao-Nanggalo which extremely increased at >65 cm soil depth with the highest carbon stock. The soil organic carbon sequestration from the highest to the lowest according to land use and the location is in the following order mix garden- Kayu Aro > mix garden- Aie Pacah > Rangeland- Parak Laweh >seasonal farming- Teluk Sirih > rice field- Kampuang Jua.

  11. Women's choice of maternal healthcare in Parung, West Java, Indonesia: Midwife versus traditional birth attendant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agus, Yenita; Horiuchi, Shigeko; Iida, Mariko

    2018-02-14

    In the 1990s, the Indonesian government launched programmes to train traditional birth attendants (TBAs) and increase the number of midwives. To identify and compare the factors that influence women's choice of a midwife or a TBA for maternal healthcare in Indonesia. This study used a descriptive design for comparing women's choice of maternal healthcare. The participants were (1) married women, (2) experienced birth within two years, (3) living in a rural or urban village, and (4) capable of communicating in the Indonesia language. Three instruments were used: (1) traditional belief questionnaire, (2) preference for caregiver questionnaire, and (3) women-centered care (WCC) questionnaire which measured women's perceptions of care that they received during pregnancy. A total of 371 women participated in this study. All these subjects answered based on their most recent birth within the last two years. Of the 371 women, 207 (55.8%) chose a midwife and 164 (44.2%) chose a TBA for giving birth. Women choosing midwives were generally satisfied and perceived receiving WCC. Factors determining choice were (1) women's background, (2) perception of WCC, (3) satisfaction, (4) choice of antenatal care (ANC), (5) family encouragement, and (6) traditional beliefs. The choice of caregivers was determined by not only education, parity, usual source of healthcare payment, and family encouragement but also traditional beliefs. Indonesian women's choice of a midwife instead of a TBA for their maternal healthcare resulted in a higher satisfaction of care and more ANC visits. Copyright © 2018 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Cost-effectiveness of scaling up voluntary counselling and testing in West-Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tromp, Noor; Siregar, Adiatma; Leuwol, Barnabas; Komarudin, Dindin; van der Ven, Andre; van Crevel, Reinout; Baltussen, Rob

    2013-01-01

    to evaluate the costs-effectiveness of scaling up community-based VCT in West-Java. the Asian epidemic model (AEM) and resource needs model (RNM) were used to calculate incremental costs per HIV infection averted and per disability-adjusted life years saved (DALYs). Locally monitored demographic, epidemiological behavior and cost data were used as model input. scaling up community-based VCT in West-Java will reduce the overall population prevalence by 36% in 2030 and costs US$248 per HIV infection averted and US$9.17 per DALY saved. Cost-effectiveness estimation were most sensitive to the impact of VCT on condom use and to the population size of clients of female sex workers (FSWs), but were overall robust. The total costs for scaling up community-based VCT range between US$1.3 and 3.8 million per year and require the number of VCT integrated clinics at public community health centers to increase from 73 in 2010 to 594 in 2030. scaling up community-based VCT seems both an effective and cost-effective intervention. However, in order to prioritize VCT in HIV/AIDS control in West-Java, issues of budget availability and organizational capacity should be addressed.

  13. Spatial data analysis and integration for regional-scale geothermal potential mapping, West Java, Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carranza, Emmanuel John M.; Barritt, Sally D. [Department of Earth Systems Analysis, International Institute for Geo-information Science and Earth Observation (ITC), Enschede (Netherlands); Wibowo, Hendro; Sumintadireja, Prihadi [Laboratory of Volcanology and Geothermal, Geology Department, Institute of Technology Bandung (ITB), Bandung (Indonesia)

    2008-06-15

    Conceptual modeling and predictive mapping of potential for geothermal resources at the regional-scale in West Java are supported by analysis of the spatial distribution of geothermal prospects and thermal springs, and their spatial associations with geologic features derived from publicly available regional-scale spatial data sets. Fry analysis shows that geothermal occurrences have regional-scale spatial distributions that are related to Quaternary volcanic centers and shallow earthquake epicenters. Spatial frequency distribution analysis shows that geothermal occurrences have strong positive spatial associations with Quaternary volcanic centers, Quaternary volcanic rocks, quasi-gravity lows, and NE-, NNW-, WNW-trending faults. These geological features, with their strong positive spatial associations with geothermal occurrences, constitute spatial recognition criteria of regional-scale geothermal potential in a study area. Application of data-driven evidential belief functions in GIS-based predictive mapping of regional-scale geothermal potential resulted in delineation of high potential zones occupying 25% of West Java, which is a substantial reduction of the search area for further exploration of geothermal resources. The predicted high potential zones delineate about 53-58% of the training geothermal areas and 94% of the validated geothermal occurrences. The results of this study demonstrate the value of regional-scale geothermal potential mapping in: (a) data-poor situations, such as West Java, and (b) regions with geotectonic environments similar to the study area. (author)

  14. Atmospheric corrosion performance of different steels in early exposure in the coastal area region West Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuraini, Lutviasari; Prifiharni, Siska; Priyotomo, Gadang; Sundjono, Gunawan, Hadi; Purawiardi, Ibrahim

    2018-05-01

    The performance of carbon steel, galvanized steel and aluminium after one month exposed in the atmospheric coastal area, which is in Limbangan and Karangsong Beach, West Java, Indonesia was evaluated. The corrosion rate was determined by weight loss method and the morphology of the steel after exposed was observed by Scanning Electron Microscopy(SEM)/Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysis(EDX). The site was monitored to determine the chloride content in the marine atmosphere. Then, the corrosion products formed at carbon steel were characterized by X-Ray diffraction (XRD). The result showed the aggressively corrosion in Karangsong beach, indicated from the corrosion rate of carbon steel, galvanized steel and aluminium were 38.514 mpy; 4.7860 mpy and 0.5181 mpy, respectively. While in Limbangan Beach the corrosion rate of specimen carbon steel, galvanized steel and aluminium were 3.339; 0.219 and 0.166 mpy, respectively. The chloride content was found to be the main factor that influences in the atmospheric corrosion process in this area. Chloride content accumulated in Karangsong and Limbangan was 497 mg/m2.day and 117 mg/m2.day, respectively. The XRD Analysis on each carbon steel led to the characterization of a complex mixture of iron oxides phases.

  15. Multi-Functional Lands Facing Oil Palm Monocultures: A Case Study of a Land Conflict in West Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanne E. de Vos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an ethnographic case study of a palm oil land conflict in a Malay community in West Kalimantan, Indonesia. The conflict occurred in the preparatory phase of a large-scale plantation, before any oil palms were planted. After protest from local communities, the project was abolished. This case enables an empirical enquiry of land tenure as well as the meaning of land and associated resources for people’s livelihoods in a pre-plantation situation. The article aims to understand how people’s responses to the oil palm plantation project are rooted in the way they give meaning to the land that is targeted for conversion. Using a functional analysis of property relations, the article shows that people value multiple functions of land, including food security, income security over generations, flexibility to respond to crises and opportunity, and the ability to retain autonomy and identity as farmers. One of the factors that contributed to the conflict was the expectation that a conversion of diversified agricultural land and forest into a monoculture plantation, run by a company, would change the functionality of land and associated resources in a way that would negatively impact livelihood opportunities, lifestyles, and identity.

  16. A Fossil Wood of Dipterocarpaceae From Pliocene Deposit in the West Region of Java Island, Indonesia.

    OpenAIRE

    I, Yance; Mandang, Mandang; Kagemori, Noriko

    2003-01-01

    Fossil woods in Java Island have been excavated and sold for outdoor ornaments or indoor decoration purposes since 30 years ago. These fossils are in danger of being drained out without known identities, composition and history. This study was aimed to find out the botanical identity and geographical aspect of a newly discovered silicified fossil wood from Banten area in the west region of Java Island. The fossil trunk 28 m in length and 105 cm in diameter was buried in a tuffaceous sandstone...

  17. A Fossil Wood of Dipterocarpaceae from Pliocene Deposit in the West Region of Java Island, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    YANCE I. MANDANG; NORIKO KAGEMORI

    2004-01-01

    Fossil woods in Java Island have been excavated and sold for outdoor ornaments or indoor decoration purposes since 30 years ago. These fossils are in danger of being drained out without known identities, composition and history. This study was aimed to find out the botanical identity and geographical aspect of a newly recovered silicified fossil wood from Banten area in the west region of Java Island. The fossil trunk 28 m in length and 105 cm in diameter was buried in a tuffaceous sandstone ...

  18. Rice distribution planning for “the poor people” in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutarman; Hidayat, Endang

    2017-12-01

    Bandung is one of the big and developed cities in Indonesia. The high economic growth in this city has an impact on increasing the prosperity of its citizens. However, the prosperity has not spread evenly. In fact, many residents of the city are still lack of rice. The party in charge of distributing rice to the poor is a state company called Bulog. Bulog has several warehouses with limited capacity to supply the poor. Three of them are Cisaranten Kidul, Main Warehouse and Citeureup warehouse. Bulog supplies rice to poor villages spread over 30 districts in Bandung. The allocation of rice for all districts needs to be improved so that the needs of the poor can be fulfilled with minimum allocation cost. Distribution planning conducted in this research was used Linear Programming method. Through this method, the optimization of rice allocation for the poor in Bandung can be obtained. Based on the finding, Linear programming method can be recommended as rice distribution pattern for poor people in Bandung with minimal logistics cost.

  19. Physical Land Suitability for Civet Arabica Coffee: Case Study of Bandung and West Bandung Regencies, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chairani, E.; Supriatna, J.; Koestoer, R.; Moeliono, M.

    2017-12-01

    Indonesia has been widely known as the best Arabica coffee (Coffea arabica) producer, in terms of both aspects, quality and number of product. Currently, its production, however, declines to the 3rd rank internationally. Issues emerged in the coffee cultivation are: land unsuitability, low quality of seeds, and poor management. Among Arabica coffee types, wild civet coffee is the most expensive one and harvested from the coffee beans which have been digested naturally. The study aims to determine the physical suitability of land as well as the constraints related to land for civet Arabica coffee in selected study cases, e.g., Bandung and Bandung Barat. The research methods employ multi-criteria analysis, and combined with weighted overlaying techniques for mapping. The criteria include temperature, rainfall, humidity, duration of dry season, slope, altitude, type of soil, soil texture, and erosion potential. Parameters of civet (Paradoxurus hermaphroditus) are land use, altitude, and temperature. Local policy strongly supports the extensive management for land and the increase of coffee export. Processing data involved matching the comparison between guideline requirements for the land suitability classes, characteristics of Arabica coffee and civet habitat. The results covered the profile suitable land of the civet Arabica coffee in the study areas.

  20. Monthly variations of diurnal rainfall in north coast of West Java Indonesia during boreal winter periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulihastin, E.; Trismidianto

    2018-05-01

    Diurnal rainfall during the active monsoon period is usually associated with the highest convective activity that often triggers extreme rainfall. Investigating diurnal rainfall behavior in the north coast of West Java is important to recognize the behavioral trends of data leading to such extreme events in strategic West Java because the city of Jakarta is located in this region. Variability of diurnal rainfall during the period of active monsoon on December-January-February (DJF) composite during the 2000-2016 period was investigated using hourly rainfall data from Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) 3B41RT dataset. Through the Empirical Mode Decomposition method was appears that the diurnal rain cycle during February has increased significantly in its amplitude and frequency. It is simultaneously shows that the indication of extreme rainfall events is related to diurnal rain divergences during February shown through phase shifts. The diurnal, semidiurnal, and terdiurnal cycles appear on the characteristics of the DJF composite rainfall data during the 2000-2016 period.The significant increases in amplitude occurred during February are the diurnal (IMF 3) and terdiurnal (IMF 1) of rainfall cycles.

  1. Escherichia coli contamination of babies' food-serving utensils in a district of West Sumatra, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusuma, Aria; Eryando, Tris; Susanna, Dewi

    2012-01-01

    Contamination of baby's complementary food may occur with Escherichia coli from several sources including unclean utensils. We examined the relationship between socio-economic conditions, environmental factors, characteristics of food handlers and contamination of babies food-serving utensils with E. coli. The study was conducted in 21 villages of the Community Health Centre (CHC) Selayo in Indonesia. A cross-sectional design was used. A sample of 142 households, which had a 6-12 month-old baby on complementary food, was chosen randomly using midwives' registration books. Respondents were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. Check-lists were used for observations. Standard laboratory methods were used for collection of specimen and confirmation of contamination with E. coli. More than half of the respondents (59.2%) used water that had high risk of contamination and 61.3% of the latrines did not meet the criteria of a healthy latrine. Waste management practices of nearly all respondents (97.9%) were below the standards set by the Ministry of Health. More than half of the respondents (68.3%) did not wash their hands with soap for 20 seconds and 52.1% did not use flowing water for washing hands. Majority of the respondents' hands (57%, 81/142) and 72.2% (104/142) of the eating utensils were found to be contaminated by E. coli. Contaminated hands of food handlers were more likely to contaminate the babies food-serving utensils (OR: 3.7; 95%CI: 1.62-8.46, p 0.002). Contamination of the hands of food handler was associated with contamination of babies food-serving utensils by E. coli. Hence, food handlers should be trained on proper hand washing methods.

  2. Factors influencing the use of antenatal care in rural West Sumatra, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Yenita

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Every year, nearly half a million women and girls needlessly die as a result of complications during pregnancy, childbirth or the 6 weeks following delivery. Almost all (99% of these deaths occur in developing countries. The study aim was to describe the factors related to low visits for antenatal care (ANC services among pregnant women in Indonesia. Method A total of 145 of 200 married women of reproductive age who were pregnant or had experienced birth responded to the questionnaire about their ANC visits. We developed a questionnaire containing 35 items and four sections. Section one and two included the women's socio demographics, section three about basic knowledge of pregnancy and section four contained two subsections about preferences about midwives and preferences about Traditional Birth Attendant (TBA and the second subsections were traditional beliefs. Data were collected using a convenience sampling strategy during July and August 2010, from 10 villages in the Tanjung Emas. Multiple regression analysis was used for preference for types of providers. Results Three-quarter of respondents (77.9% received ANC more than four times. The other 22.1% received ANC less than four times. 59.4% received ANC visits during pregnancy, which was statistically significant compared to multiparous (p = 0.001. Women who were encouraged by their family to receive ANC had statistically significant higher traditional belief scores compared to those who encouraged themselves (p = 0.003. Preference for TBAs was most strongly affected by traditional beliefs (p p Conclusions Parity was the factor influencing women's receiving less than the recommended four ANC visits during pregnancy. Women who were encouraged by their family to get ANC services had higher traditional beliefs score than women who encouraged themselves. Moreover, traditional beliefs followed by lower income families had the greater influence over preferring TBAs, with the

  3. Bioaccumulation factor of 137Cs in some marine biotas from West Bangka Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suseno, Heny

    2014-03-01

    Radionuclides may be released from nuclear facilities to the marine environment. Concentrations of radionuclides within marine biotic systems can be influenced by a number of factors, including the type of biota, its source, the radionuclide, and specific characteristics of the sampled specimens and the marine environment (salinity, etc.). The bioconcentration factor for a marine organism is the ratio of the concentration of a radionuclide in that organism to the concentration found in its marine water environment - under conditions of equilibrium. Information on the bioaccumulation of Cs-137 in marine organisms is required to risk assessment evaluates the potential risks to human health. Bioaccumulation of Cs was investigated in marine biota from west Bangka such as Marine cat fish (Arius thalassinus), Baramundi (Lates calcarifer), Mackerel (Scomberomorus commerson), Striped eel catfish (Plotosus lineatus), eel tailed fish (Euristhmus microceps), Yellowtail fusilier (Caesio erythrogaster), Coastal crab (Scylla sp), White shrimp (Penaeus merguiensis) and marine bivalve mollusk (Anadara granosa). Muscle of these marine biota, sediments and water were assayed for Cs-137 by HPGe gamma spectrometer. The bioaccumulation factor for fishes were calculated by ratio of concentration Cs-137 in muscle biota to the its concentration in water. The bioaccumulation factor for mollusks were calculates by ratio of concentration Cs-137 in muscle biota to the its concentration in sediments. The bioaccumulation factor were range 4.99 to 136.34.

  4. Inventory of the tropical coral reef fishes in Wondama Bay regency, West Papua, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madiyani, K. D. P.; Triastuti, J.; Pursetyo, K. T.

    2018-04-01

    Teluk Wondama Regency is one of the areas in West Papua that is part of the Cendrawasih Bay National Park due to its potential of coral fishes. Until now, there is no thorough information that gives the potential diversities of coral fishes species can be found in the waters, and one of the attempts to find out is to carry out an inventory. Inventories were conducted from March to May 2016 in Rariei and Auri (Roon District), Numamuran (Duairi District), Nusrowi (Rumberpon District) and Waprak (Roswar District). The results of these inventories found 28 species of coral fishes in Rariei consisting of 8 genus (Balistapus, Synodus, Pentapodus, Thalassoma, Zebrasoma, Amblyglyphidodon, Chaetodon and Labroides) in Rariei, 11 genus (Abudefduf, Chaetodon, Amphiprion, Cheilinus, Dascyllus, Chromis, Parastromateus, Priacanthus, Epinephelus, Nemipterus and Lutjanus) in Namamuran, 11 genus in Nusrowi (Halichoeres, Pomacentrus, Dischistodus, Heniochus, Amblyglyphidodon, Arothron, Parupeneus, Lutjanus, Plectropomus, Epinephelus and Acanthurus), 4 genus in the waters of Waprak (Parupeneus, Pomacentrus, Chaetodon and Amblyglyphidodon) and 10 genus in Auri (Lutjanus, Pomacentrus, Amphiprion, Chaetodon, Chromis, Dascyllus, Zanclus, Halichoeres, Siganus and Amblyglyphidodon)

  5. Bioaccumulation factor of {sup 137}Cs in some marine biotas from West Bangka Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suseno, Heny, E-mail: henis@batan.go.id [Radioactive Waste Technology Center - The Indonesia Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN) (Indonesia)

    2014-03-24

    Radionuclides may be released from nuclear facilities to the marine environment. Concentrations of radionuclides within marine biotic systems can be influenced by a number of factors, including the type of biota, its source, the radionuclide, and specific characteristics of the sampled specimens and the marine environment (salinity, etc.). The bioconcentration factor for a marine organism is the ratio of the concentration of a radionuclide in that organism to the concentration found in its marine water environment - under conditions of equilibrium. Information on the bioaccumulation of Cs-137 in marine organisms is required to risk assessment evaluates the potential risks to human health. Bioaccumulation of Cs was investigated in marine biota from west Bangka such as Marine cat fish (Arius thalassinus), Baramundi (Lates calcarifer), Mackerel (Scomberomorus commerson), Striped eel catfish (Plotosus lineatus), eel tailed fish (Euristhmus microceps), Yellowtail fusilier (Caesio erythrogaster), Coastal crab (Scylla sp), White shrimp (Penaeus merguiensis) and marine bivalve mollusk (Anadara granosa). Muscle of these marine biota, sediments and water were assayed for Cs-137 by HPGe gamma spectrometer. The bioaccumulation factor for fishes were calculated by ratio of concentration Cs-137 in muscle biota to the its concentration in water. The bioaccumulation factor for mollusks were calculates by ratio of concentration Cs-137 in muscle biota to the its concentration in sediments. The bioaccumulation factor were range 4.99 to 136.34.

  6. Escherichia coli as bioindicator of the groundwater quality in Palmerah District, West Jakarta, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayanti, M. P.; Fachrul, M. F.; Wijayanti, A.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of thie research is to determine the quality of groundwater in Palmerah District, West Jakarta (6°11’24.32”S 106°47’49.88”E) by correlation between the depth of the well and the distance of septic tank with the distribution of Escherichia coli. The presence of E. coli is measured by using the Most Probable Number method. The distribution pattern of the E. coli was processed by Surfer Program. Research was conducted in April upto July 2017. The highest amount of E. coli always found in the Jati Pulo and Palmerah sub-district which is >1100 MPN/100 ml; while the lowest amount of E. coli found in the Kemanggisan sub-district and Slipi sub-district which is <3.0 MPN/100 ml; with every samples is obtained on the condition of pH 5 - 7, DO 0.81 - 7.65, and water temperature of 26 - 34°C. Refering to the Ministry of Health Regulation No. 492 of 2010 on the requirements of drinking water quality; it is shown that the groundwater in Palmerah District is not feasible to be directly consumed. This research provides the initial information to local sanitation to the distribution pattern of E. coli within the dense residential area.

  7. Resisting Agribusiness Development: The Merauke Integrated Food and Energy Estate in West Papua, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longgena Ginting

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Merauke Integrated Food and Energy Estate (MIFEE, launched in 2010 by the Indonesian government, aims to transform 1.2 million hectares of indigenous and forest land in West Papua into large-scaleagribusiness estates for food and bioenergy production. This article looks both at the power structures and geopolitics behind the project and at the emerging resistance to the MIFEE land grab. What is the extent of local opposition to the project? What coalitions between local groups and organized movements and NGOs are developing and what national and international alliances are theyinvolved in? How do they counter the state narrative of MIFEE as a development path for the region? Analyzing key documents of the diff erent organizations and initiatives involved, we examine three distinct but connected narratives of opposition around the discourses of customary forest rights, Indonesian ‘imperialist’ subjugation of Papua, and land reform and food sovereignty. We argue that their relation to each other needs to be rethought in order to overcome internal divisions and to broaden and deepen the social movement opposing the project.

  8. Bioaccumulation factor of 137Cs in some marine biotas from West Bangka Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suseno, Heny

    2014-01-01

    Radionuclides may be released from nuclear facilities to the marine environment. Concentrations of radionuclides within marine biotic systems can be influenced by a number of factors, including the type of biota, its source, the radionuclide, and specific characteristics of the sampled specimens and the marine environment (salinity, etc.). The bioconcentration factor for a marine organism is the ratio of the concentration of a radionuclide in that organism to the concentration found in its marine water environment - under conditions of equilibrium. Information on the bioaccumulation of Cs-137 in marine organisms is required to risk assessment evaluates the potential risks to human health. Bioaccumulation of Cs was investigated in marine biota from west Bangka such as Marine cat fish (Arius thalassinus), Baramundi (Lates calcarifer), Mackerel (Scomberomorus commerson), Striped eel catfish (Plotosus lineatus), eel tailed fish (Euristhmus microceps), Yellowtail fusilier (Caesio erythrogaster), Coastal crab (Scylla sp), White shrimp (Penaeus merguiensis) and marine bivalve mollusk (Anadara granosa). Muscle of these marine biota, sediments and water were assayed for Cs-137 by HPGe gamma spectrometer. The bioaccumulation factor for fishes were calculated by ratio of concentration Cs-137 in muscle biota to the its concentration in water. The bioaccumulation factor for mollusks were calculates by ratio of concentration Cs-137 in muscle biota to the its concentration in sediments. The bioaccumulation factor were range 4.99 to 136.34

  9. PENCEGAHAN DAN PEMBERANTASAN PENYAKIT-PENYAKIT ZOONOSA NEW, EMERGING DAN RE-EMERGING DI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gindo Simanjuntak

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Some important zoonotic diseases in Indonesia are Rabies, Plague, Anthrax, Taeniasis/Cysticercosis and Japanese encephalitis. These diseases are geographycally distributed in some provinces in Indonesia and each disease have its control program. Other zoonoses which are under intensive surveillance are Toxoplasmosis, Leptospirosis, Brucellosis, bovine Tuberculosis and Haemorrhagic Hanta virosis. These diseases have epidemic potential. Plague known foci are in Boyolali Central Java dan Sleman Yogyakarta. In 1987 after 30 years of dormant period an outbreack of plague occured in Pasuruan, East Java with 48 number of cases and 21 deaths. Intensive surveillance on human, rodent and fleas were conducted in three plague foci. Since 1988 no human case of plague is found in Indonesia eventhough antibody against Y. pestis were found positive in human as well as in rodents. Anthrax is distributed geographycally in Jakarta, West Java, Central Java, South Sulawesi, Southeast Sulawesi, West and East Nusa Tenggara and Timor Timur. Skin and intestinal Anthrax types are to be found in Indonesia. In 1990 on outbreak of anthrax occured in Central Java and 7 out of 98 cases were fatal. Of 154 (27.9% out 553 human sera collected from the provinces of West Sumatera, West Kalimantan, South Sulawesi, North Sumatera and North Sulawesi were found positive against toxoplasmosis during the survey conducted in 1995. From the same provinces 152 (19.2% out of 792 animal sera also were found antibody positive against Toxoplasma gondii. There are about 170 Leptospirosis serotypes known in Indonesia. Leptospirosis is geographycally distributed in Central Java, Yogyakarta, West Java, North Sumatera, Riau, Jambi, South Sumatera, Bengkulu, East Kalimantan. Sporadic outbreaks occured in some provinces related to the lack of washing and drinking water in the dry season. Of 10 (1.8% out 154 serum specimens taken from humans in West Sumatera, West Kalimantan, South Sulawesi, North

  10. Mutation spectrum of β-globin gene in thalassemia patients at Hasan Sadikin Hospital - West Java Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskoen, Ani Melani; Rahayu, Nurul S; Reniarti, Lelani; Susanah, Susi; Laksono, Bremmy; Fauziah, Prima Nanda; Zada, Almira; Hidayat, Dadang S

    2017-12-30

    Thalassemia is the most common hereditary haemolytic anemia in Southeast Asia, in which Indonesia is among countries that are at a high risk for thalassemia. It has been reported that mutation in the beta-globin gene is responsible in severe Thalassemia. However, the spectrum of beta-globin gene mutations in Indonesian population varies in different regions . Thus, this study aimed to identify the most prevalent mutation of Thalassemia patients from the Hasan Sadikin Hospital, Bandung, using this as a reference hospital for Thalassemia in West Java. The three most prevalent mutations of beta globin (IVS1nt5, Cd26 (HbE), and IVS1nt1), were conducted in the beginning of this study. Mutations of 291 samples were detected by PCR-RFLP in the Molecular Genetic Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine Universitas Padjadjaran, Bandung. The prevalence of the beta globin gene mutation types were 47.4% IVS1nt5 homozygote, 9.9% compound heterozygote IVS1nt5/HbE, 5.4% compound heterozygote IVS1nt5/IVS1nt1, 1.4% compound heterozygote HbE/IVS1nt1, 1% HbE homozygote, 14.4% Compound heterzygote IVS1nt5/… (no paired mutation), 2.06% compound heterozygote HbE/… (no paired mutation), 1.3% compound heterozygote IVS1nt1/… (no paired mutation), and 7 samples were unidentified. The thalassemia mutation IVS1nt5 homozygote is the most common mutation found in Thalassemia patients at Hasan Sadikin Hospital, Bandung. The samples with unidentified results might carry mutations other than the three that are observed in the present study.

  11. Diffusion of Policy Discourse into Rural Spheres Through Co-Management of State Forestlands: Two Cases from West Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Hideyuki

    2008-07-01

    In the context of state forestland management in tropical regions, the implementation of a co-management approach has been widely advocated in order to include the voices of local people and accommodate their interests in management decision-making. Most co-management literatures, however, underestimate the significance of statutory authority held by state to control forestlands and resources. By clarifying the implications of state ownership of forestland, this article aims to critically examine co-management processes with reference to Foucault’s notion of power and subject. Case studies were conducted at two co-management pilot sites in Gunung Halimun-Salak National Park, West Java, Indonesia. Findings demonstrate that co-management processes actually materialize shared decision-making arrangements between state forest bureaucracy and rural people through the application of equity approaches, such as deliberation, negotiation, and experimentation. At the same time, these processes can also function to diffuse state policy discourse in rural spheres, which makes rural subjects who accept and practice the policy discourse. The research also reveals that the diffusion process is complex and does not necessarily make a durable subject unless they are pertinently organized. The results of this research indicate that co-management of state forestlands is a double-edged process for local people who risk becoming a proxy of state bureaucracy in the implementation of state policy. Proponents of co-management should, therefore, critically examine whether new institutional arrangements, which are developed through co-management, truly reflect values and needs of local people and assist them to develop a pertinent subject to deal with it.

  12. System Properties Determine Food Security and Biodiversity Outcomes at Landscape Scale: A Case Study from West Flores, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil French Collier

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The food-biodiversity nexus is a concept that defines and characterizes the complex interactions between agricultural systems and biodiversity conservation. Here we use a social-ecological systems approach that combines fuzzy cognitive mapping and graph theoretic analyses to uncover system properties that determine food security and biodiversity outcomes at a landscape scale. We studied a rice-based agricultural landscape system situated in Mbeliling district of West Flores, Indonesia. A graphical representation of the Mbeliling district food-biodiversity nexus was created by local experts. The representation revealed system properties that help reconcile the trade-offs between food security and biodiversity conservation. The graph represented a diverse set of food security and biodiversity nodes, and showed that there is not a simple dichotomy between ‘production and protection’. The analysis captured greater complexity than popular academic concepts such as land sparing–land sharing or sustainable intensification. Three major themes emerged from the graph. We found distinct clusters of factors influencing biodiversity and food security. We named these sources of influence (1 Modernisation and sustainable farming; (2 Knowledge and management; and (3 Governance and processes. Component 2 was the most representative of emergent system properties that contribute positively to managing a sustainable food-biodiversity nexus in the Mbeliling landscape. The key determinants of outcomes were: improving agronomic practices, diversifying production, maintaining forest cover and connectivity, and using knowledge and natural resource management processes to mitigate the main drivers of change. Our approach highlights the complexities in the food-biodiversity nexus, and could have wide application in other locations.

  13. Goodbye Conflict, Hello Development? Curriculum Reform in Timor-Leste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ritesh

    2012-01-01

    Motivations to reform curriculum in post-conflict, or post-colonial states are often driven by the need to (re) construct a cohesive and publicly legitimated national identity that is starkly different to that which existed prior. This paper explores the context behind such action in the Timor-Leste (East Timor) and some challenges which policy…

  14. Comparison of INAR(1)-Poisson model and Markov prediction model in forecasting the number of DHF patients in west java Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahdika, Atina; Lusiyana, Novyan

    2017-02-01

    World Health Organization (WHO) noted Indonesia as the country with the highest dengue (DHF) cases in Southeast Asia. There are no vaccine and specific treatment for DHF. One of the efforts which can be done by both government and resident is doing a prevention action. In statistics, there are some methods to predict the number of DHF cases to be used as the reference to prevent the DHF cases. In this paper, a discrete time series model, INAR(1)-Poisson model in specific, and Markov prediction model are used to predict the number of DHF patients in West Java Indonesia. The result shows that MPM is the best model since it has the smallest value of MAE (mean absolute error) and MAPE (mean absolute percentage error).

  15. Accumulation of heavy metals in freshwater fish in cage aquaculture at Cirata Reservoir, West Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salami, Indah Rachmatiah Siti; Rahmawati, Suphia; Sutarto, Ratri Indri Hapsari; Jaya, Pinilih Marendra

    2008-10-01

    Freshwater fish demand in West Java is supported by cage aquaculture in reservoirs. Cirata Reservoir is one of three cascading hydropower reservoirs built along the Citarum River that receives domestic and industrial wastes. Water pollution by heavy metals, such as copper and lead, increases the health risk of humans who consume the fish. The study was aimed to evaluate the concentration of copper and lead in fish, specifically on Cyprinus carpio, that are widely cultivated in the Cirata Reservoir. Two sizes of fish were collected from five sampling points around floating-cage area. The liver of the fish was found to contain the highest copper level, followed by gills, skin, and muscle. In contrast, lead was also high in the liver, followed by skin, gills, and the muscle, but the copper concentration found in the tissues studied was much higher (31.111 +/- 17.911 mg/kg dry wt) than the lead content (0.290 +/- 0.346 mg/kg dry wt). The concentration of metals in smaller fish was always higher than than that in bigger fish. The metals content was also compared to those in fish exposed in a semistatic laboratory-scale study using Oreochromis niloticus. After 28 days exposure with 0.01 mg Cu/L, fish accumulated 21.53 mg Cu/kg dry wt, whereas for Pb exposure of 0.016 mg/L, fish accumulated up to 7 mg/kg dry wt. However, estimates of Cu and Pb intake from C. carpio consumption were still below the average daily intake (ADI) limit. This study suggested that monitoring of water quality and heavy metals in cultured fish is important in protecting human health.

  16. Exploring contacts facilitating transmission of influenza A(H5N1) virus between poultry farms in West Java, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wibawa, Hendra; Karo-Karo, Desniwaty; Pribadi, Eko Sugeng; Bouma, Annemarie; Bodewes, Rogier; Vernooij, Hans; Diyantoro,; Sugama, Agus; Muljono, David H.; Koch, Guus; Tjatur Rasa, Fadjar Sumping; Stegeman, Arjan

    2018-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N1 has been reported in Asia, including Indonesia since 2003. Although several risk factors related to the HPAIV outbreaks in poultry in Indonesia have been identified, little is known of the contact structure of farms of different poultry production

  17. Tsunamis as geomorphic crises: Lessons from the December 26, 2004 tsunami in Lhok Nga, West Banda Aceh (Sumatra, Indonesia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Raphaël; Wassmer, Patrick; Sartohadi, Junun; Lavigne, Franck; Barthomeuf, Benjamin; Desgages, Emilie; Grancher, Delphine; Baumert, Philippe; Vautier, Franck; Brunstein, Daniel; Gomez, Christopher

    2009-03-01

    Large tsunamis are major geomorphic crises, since they imply extensive erosion, sediment transport and deposition in a few minutes and over hundreds of kilometres of coast. Nevertheless, little is known about their geomorphologic imprints. The December 26, 2004 tsunami in Sumatra (Indonesia) was one of the largest and deadliest tsunamis in recorded human history. We present a description of the coastal erosion and boulder deposition induced by the 2004 tsunami in the Lhok Nga Bay, located to the West of Banda Aceh (northwest Sumatra). The geomorphological impact of the tsunami is evidenced by: beach erosion (some beaches have almost disappeared); destruction of sand barriers protecting the lagoons or at river mouths; numerous erosion escarpments typically in the order of 0.5-1.5 m when capped by soil and more than 2 m in dunes; bank erosion in the river beds (the retreat along the main river is in the order of 5-15 m, with local retreats exceeding 30 m); large scars typically 20-50 cm deep on slopes; dislodgement of blocks along fractures and structural ramps on cliffs. The upper limit of erosion appears as a continuous trimline at 20-30 m a.s.l., locally reaching 50 m. The erosional imprints of the tsunami extend to 500 m from the shoreline and exceed 2 km along riverbeds. The overall coastal retreat from Lampuuk to Leupung was 60 m (550,000 m 2) and locally exceeded 150 m. Over 276,000 m 3 of coastal sediments were eroded by the tsunami along the 9.2 km of sandy coast. The mean erosion rate of the beaches was ~ 30 m 3/m of coast and locally exceeded 80 m 3/m. The most eroded coasts were tangent to the tsunami wave train, which was coming from the southwest. The fringing reefs were not efficient in reducing the erosional impact of the tsunami. The 220 boulders measured range from 0.3 to 7.2 m large (typically 0.7-1.5 m), with weights from over 50 kg up to 85 t. We found one boulder, less than 1 m large, at 1 km from the coastline, but all the others were

  18. Geochemical Investigation of Selected Elements in an Agricultural Soil: Case Study in Sumani Watershed West Sumatera in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aflizar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the geochemical study of agricultural soil and river sediments along Sumani watershed, West Sumatra in Indonesia. We examined the distribution and abundances of 16 elements (Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni, Cr,V, Sr, Rb, Ce, Th, Zr, Si, Ti, Fe Ca, and P in vegetable soil, sawah soil =and river sediment sample, to evaluate the factors controlling their abundances, possible sources, and environmental implications. Average concentrations of Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni, Cr,V, Sr, Rb, Ce, Th, Zr at vegetable (1 soil were 38, 88.3, 38.7, 3, 8, 101, 96, 98, 87, 31 and 218 mg kg-1 , 26, 39.05, 8.8, 13.5, 31, 231.5, 37, 19, 78, 16 and 303.5 mg kg-1 at sawah soil (3, 4 and 30, 61.6, 35.7, 9, 22, 294, 65, 12, 78, 14 and 232 mg kg-1 at river sediment (2, respectively. The concentration of Pb, Rb, Th and Zr at upland vegetables, V and Zr at sawah soil and river sediment were mostly two time Sumatra BCSCST or BCC in several samples. Enrichment factor values showed low to moderate enrichment of Pb, Zn, Cu, Rb, Ce and Zr, whereas Th showed significant contamination at vegetables soil, suggesting contributions from anthropogenic sources. Anthropogenic contributions of most metals mainly originate from natural processes. However, Pb, Ce, Th and Zr ranges of 527–108, 41-89, 66-117 and 35-100%, respectively, at Vegetable and sawah soil and river sediment confirm their anthropogenic contribution. Factor analysis and correlation matrices suggested that elevated metal concentrations at agricultural soil in Sumani watershed might be controlled by pH, CEC, Fe-oxy-hydroxides. Deposition of metals at vegetable and sawah soil and river sediment might be controlled by non-ferrous metal (i.e., aluminosilicates, sediment grain size, or source rock composition (andesite, alluvial fan, undifferentiated volcanic material, granite and gneiss.

  19. Challenges to the implementation of the integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI) at community health centres in West Java province, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titaley, C R; Jusril, H; Ariawan, I; Soeharno, N; Setiawan, T; Weber, M W

    2014-01-01

    The integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI) is a comprehensive approach to child health, which has been adopted in Indonesia since 1997. This study aims to provide an overview of IMCI implementation at community health centres (puskesmas) in West Java province, Indonesia. Data were derived from a cross-sectional study conducted in 10 districts of West Java province, from November to December 2012. Semi-structured interviews were used to obtain information from staff at 80 puskesmas, including the heads (80 informants), pharmacy staff (79 informants) and midwives/nurses trained in IMCI (148 informants), using semi-structured interviews. Quantitative data were analysed using frequency tabulations and qualitative data were analysed by identifying themes that emerged in informants' responses. Almost all (N = 79) puskesmas implemented the IMCI strategy; however, only 64% applied it to all visiting children. Several barriers to IMCI implementation were identified, including shortage of health workers trained in IMCI (only 43% of puskesmas had all health workers in the child care unit trained in IMCI and 40% of puskesmas conducted on-the-job training). Only 19% of puskesmas had all the essential drugs and equipment for IMCI. Nearly all health workers acknowledged the importance of IMCI in their routine services and very few did not perceive its benefits. Lack of supervision from district health office staff and low community awareness regarding the importance of IMCI were reported. Complaints received from patients'families were generally related to the long duration of treatment and no administration of medication after physical examination. Interventions aiming to create local regulations endorsing IMCI implementation; promoting monitoring and supervision; encouraging on-the-job training for health workers; and strengthening training programmes, counselling and other promotional activities are important for promoting IMCI implementation in West Java province

  20. IDP camp closure and gender inequality in Timor-Leste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phyllis Ferguson

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The goal of humanitarian assistance in Timor-Leste during a seriesof crises from 2006 to 2008 became increasingly focused on IDPcamp closure, with the assisted return of IDPs to their communitiesor to alternative living situations.

  1. Surgical capacity building in Timor-Leste: a review of the first 15 years of the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons-led Australian Aid programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guest, Glenn D; Scott, David F; Xavier, Joao P; Martins, Nelson; Vreede, Eric; Chennal, Antony; Moss, Daliah; Watters, David A

    2017-06-01

    Timor-Leste suffered a destructive withdrawal by the Indonesian military in 1999, leaving only 20 Timorese-based doctors and no practising specialists for a population of 700 000 that has now grown to 1.2 million. This article assesses the outcomes and impact of Royal Australasian College of Surgeons (RACS) specialist medical support from 2001 to 2015. Three programmes were designed collaboratively with the Timor-Leste Ministry of Health and Australian Aid. The RACS team began to provide 24/7 resident surgical and anaesthesia services in the capital, Dili, from July 2001. The arrival of the Chinese and Cuban Medical Teams provided a medical workforce, and the Cubans initiated undergraduate medical training for about 1000 nationals both in Cuba and in Timor-Leste, whilst RACS focused on specialist medical training. Australian Aid provided AUD$20 million through three continuous programmes over 15 years. In the first 10 years over 10 000 operations were performed. Initially only 10% of operations were done by trainees but this reached 77% by 2010. Twenty-one nurse anaesthetists were trained in-country, sufficient to cover the needs of each hospital. Seven Timorese doctors gained specialist qualifications (five surgery, one ophthalmology and one anaesthesia) from regional medical schools in Papua New Guinea, Fiji, Indonesia and Malaysia. They introduced local specialist and family medicine diploma programmes for the Cuban graduates. Timor-Leste has developed increasing levels of surgical and anaesthetic self-sufficiency through multi-level collaboration between the Ministry of Health, Universidade Nacional de Timor Lorosa'e, and sustained, consistent support from external donors including Australian Aid, Cuba and RACS. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  2. A qualitative study on knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes of mothers and health care providers toward pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harjaningrum, Agnes Tri; Kartasasmita, Cissy; Orne-Gliemann, Joanna; Jutand, Marthe-Aline; Goujon, Nicolas; Koeck, Jean-Louis

    2013-03-01

    Due to the high burden of pneumonia in Indonesia, the inclusion of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) into Indonesia's National Immunization Program (NIP) is recommended by World Health Organization. Prior to the introduction of new vaccines, it is imperative to assess the perceptions of the public and medical community about the disease and the vaccine. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes of mothers and health care providers (HCPs) toward PCV in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia. Fifty-five respondents (26 mothers and 29 HCPs) were interviewed at public and private health care facilities in Bandung using semi-structured interviews in May-June 2011. Data were analyzed manually according to pre-defined themes. Although most mothers had low knowledge about PCV, did not perceive themselves as susceptible to the disease, perceived that cost was the main barrier to PCV access, and obtained little information on PCV, they considered pneumonia as a severe disease and a priority health problem, perceived benefits of the vaccine, and were likely to adopt it. Similarly, knowledge about PCV among most HCPs was limited. Despite perceiving cost as the main barrier, most HCPs perceived benefits of the vaccine, susceptibility and severity of the disease, regarded pneumonia as a priority health problem, and were likely to suggest the new vaccination. Despite the poor knowledge of mothers and HCPs about PCV, they are aware of the high burden of pneumonia and the need for a vaccine in the NIP. Perceived severity and benefits among mothers, and, additionally, perceived susceptibility among HCPs were manifested in the willingness to accept PCV. The findings would contribute to better understanding the factors, which could support decision-making about vaccine introduction, and be utilized for developing suitable messages for mothers and HCPs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Exploring contacts facilitating transmission of influenza A(H5N1) virus between poultry farms in West Java, Indonesia: A major role for backyard farms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibawa, Hendra; Karo-Karo, Desniwaty; Pribadi, Eko Sugeng; Bouma, Annemarie; Bodewes, Rogier; Vernooij, Hans; Diyantoro; Sugama, Agus; Muljono, David H; Koch, Guus; Tjatur Rasa, Fadjar Sumping; Stegeman, Arjan

    2018-08-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N1 has been reported in Asia, including Indonesia since 2003. Although several risk factors related to the HPAIV outbreaks in poultry in Indonesia have been identified, little is known of the contact structure of farms of different poultry production types (backyard chickens, broilers, layers, and ducks). This study aims to quantify the contact rates associated with the movement of people, and movements of live birds and products and equipment that affect the risk of HPAIV H5N1 transmission between poultry farms in Indonesia. On 124 poultry farms in 6 districts in West Java, logbooks were distributed to record the movements of farmers/staff and visitors and their poultry contacts. Most movements in backyard chicken, commercial native chicken, broiler and duck farms were visits to and from other poultry farms, whilst in layer farms visits to and from poultry companies, visits to egg collection houses and visit from other poultry farms were most frequent. Over 75% of persons visiting backyard chicken and duck farms had previously visited other poultry farms on the same day. Visitors of backyard chicken farms had the highest average contact rate, either direct contact with poultry on other farms before the visits (1.35 contact/day) or contact during their visits in the farms (10.03 contact/day). These results suggest that backyard chicken farms are most at risk for transmission of HPAIV compared to farms of the other poultry production types. Since visits of farm-to-farm were high, backyard farms could also a potential source for HPAIV transmission to commercial poultry farms. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Dietary trans fatty acids intake and its relation to dyslipidemia in a sample of adults in Depok city, West Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartika, Ratu Ayu Dewi

    2011-12-01

    The Basic Health Research of the Ministry of Health Indonesia in 2008 reported that the single most important cause of death was stroke, in both urban and rural populations. The risk factors underlying the cause of death are associated with hypertension, obesity and dyslipidemia. The purpose of this study was to determine the mean intake of trans fatty acids and its relation to dyslipidemia in a sample of Indonesian adults. A cross-sectional study was conducted on a total of 180 adult male and female respondents aged 35-60 years living in rural and urban areas of Depok city, West Java. Dietary intake was assessed by means of 24-hour recall and semi-quantitative FFQ. The mean intake of trans fatty acids was 0.48% of total calories (urban 0.40% and rural 0.55%). The prevalence of dyslipidemia in the rural and urban subjects were 61.1% and 66.7%, respectively. There was a statistically significant relationship between trans fatty acids intake and hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia. The intake of trans fatty acid among the Indonesian adults studied was half the recommended level. The high prevalence of dyslipidemia found indicates the need for intervention to reduce the rising incidence of cardiovascular diseases in Indonesia.

  5. Enhancing community role in catchment area of cascade-pond system at the campus of Universitas Indonesia, Depok, West Java, Indonesia

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    Maitri Caya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The population in the catchment area of Universitas Indonesia (UI campus cascade-pond system is growing rapidly. The rapid growth of population increases the activities intensity in the catchment area, so that a better water resource management is urgently needed. The Dublin Principles in Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM among others says that water development and management should be based on a participatory approach, which involves users, planners and policymakers at all levels. The Watershed Stewardship Program is one of the Eight-Tool for Watershed Protection developed by Center for Watershed Protection. Community as the main role holder, besides as beneficiary, is also as planner and executor of the program. The study aims to facilitate community in designing the activities towards water-friendly neighborhood, in the framework of community-potential-based watershed management, to increase the health of UI aquatic system and its catchment area. A combination of Participatory Action Research and Appreciative Inquiry method is applied. The required data and information is collected through field survey and focus group discussion (FGD. Field survey is conducted by interviewing random population inside the catchment area to get the behavior pattern overview of the community. FGD aims to unite the stakeholder and discuss their knowledge and potencies.

  6. Hamatak halirin: The cosmological and socio-ecological roles of water in Koba Lima, Timor

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    Balthasar Kehi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The cosmological and socio-ecological roles of water, in particular spring water, have not been the subject of sustained analysis in the anthropological literatures of the eastern archipelago. Taking as our starting point the central role of water in the origin narratives and ritual practices of Koba Lima, a coalition of five ancient kingdoms located across the division of East Timor and Indonesian West Timor, we explore the profound cosmological meanings and many layered understandings of life and death associated with water. We argue that in this nuanced socio-ecological world, water is the blood and milk of the mother transformed into life itself through father fire. It is through these transformative capacities connected to water that the boundaries separating the visible and invisible worlds can be permeated, enabling the living access to matak malirin or good health and productive life force. The paper is both a contribution to the literature on archipelagic socio-cosmic dualisms and a unique ethnography which presents new material on the significance of water in this region.

  7. MAIN CAREGIVER’S EXPERIENCE IN MEETING SELF-CARE NEEDS AMONG ADOLESCENTS WITH ASD IN PONTIANAK MUNICIPALITY, WEST BORNEO, INDONESIA: A QUALITATIVE STUDY

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    Lilis Lestari

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is a complex developmental disorder, increasing in number, faster than that of other developmental disorders in the world. This complex disorder affects a child’s self-autonomy, which is important for individual self-care. Objective : This study is to explore main caregivers’ experience to meet self-care needs among adolescents with ASD in Pontianak, West Borneo, Indonesia. Methods: Qualitative semi-structured in-depth interviews were done with 7 main caregivers that have lived together and taken care of the adolescents with ASD in Pontianak Municipality, West Borneo Province. Sampling was taken with purposive sampling (maximum variation. Source (interviews and method (observations of self-care activities and documents like photos, learning reports and field notes triangulations were taken on 1 participant and 7 autistic adolescents. Participants’ statements were recorded by using a voice recorder, and then transcribed, coded, interpreted, and categorized in order that sub-topics and main topics could be formed. Results: The study identified five main topics: i.e., 1 Autonomy in self-care; 2 Care effort; 3 Feelings, support, and expectations. Three findings of the study emphasize the potentials of children with autism to be autonomous in daily self-care. Conclusions: Adolescents with ASD can potentially meet the needs of their daily care independently.

  8. Second phase of the extension of ASEAN: East Timor case

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    Maricela Reyes López

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available East Timor, the newly independent and small country of the Southeast Asia applies to join ASEAN. ASEAN members debate pro and con arguments on that admission. Vietnam, Lao and Cambodia are pro because they are beneficiary countries in economic terms trough ASEAN. Also, they ....the integration of all countries of the region, including East Timor, will be improve in a meaningful way the political and economic stability in the region. Today government officials, analysts and academics are debating on the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN enlargement to admit East Timor as the eleventh member. East Timor recently declared independence and could benefit regionally just now as favorable factors are improving its economy and political position. Pro and con arguments of such membership represent more than an individual vote from the region’s friendly governments. A positive consensus will mean certain effects in the region and beyond it. This paper discusses arguments of several actors concerning the acceptance of East Timor into the ASEAN and its regional implications.

  9. Beyond Democratic Tolerance: Witch Killings in Timor-Leste

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    Rebecca Strating

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Newly democratising states experience challenges in reconciling “traditional” or “customary” dispute resolution practices with newly established state-based legal systems based on the rule of law. For Timor-Leste, these tensions are pronounced in continuing debates concerning the killing or injuring of women accused of witchcraft. Defences of extrajudicial punishments tend to conflate democracy with local support and fail to deal with the key institutions of democratic systems, including the rule of law, political equality, and civil rights. In Timor-Leste’s case, where equality and social rights were incorporated into the Constitution as fundamental governmental obligations, localised extrajudicial punishments threaten internal and external state legitimacy and highlight the difficulties of ensuring the primacy of state-based institutions. Extrajudicial punishments challenge Timor-Leste’s capacity to consolidate new liberal democratic political institutions.

  10. Report on the FY 1992 basic survey for industrialization related to the survey of overseas geological structure (Embalut West area, Indonesia); 1996 nendo kaigai chishitsu kozo nado chosa ni kakawaru kigyoka kiso chosa hokokusho (Indonesia Embalut nishi chiku)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-03-01

    The paper reported the FY 1992 basic survey for the coal mine development/industrialization in the Embalut West area of Indonesia. The geological structure in the survey area is under the Loa Haur Syncline which lies approximately north and south to the west of the area, and is regarded as the stabilized structure having no faults. The three beams from the upper part, S14, S13 and S12, are assumed to be the coal seams to be drilled. The average seam thickness is 1.17, 2.35 and 3.09m, respectively, and the continuity is good. In S14 beam, which is thin, it is difficult to mine coal using equipment. The theoretical minable reserve of the three coal seams is 18,859,000 tons. The recoverable coal reserve is 12,258,000 tons at a mining recovery of 65%. In case of annual production of 0.4 million tons, it is possible to mine more than 30 years. The coal is classified into a subbituminous coal-brown coal rank of the JIS coal classification. It is high in water content and medium in heating value, but is an environmental protection type with low ash and low sulfur content. In the case of mines in the Mahakam River basin, barge transport is indispensable. For sea transportation, the following should be studied in the light of the international price competition: reinforcement of shipping facilities on Mahakam River, increase in barge size, joint use of Balikpapan Coal Center, etc. (NEDO)

  11. Agricultural Economic Development In The Conservation Area And The Buffer Zone Of The National Park West End Banten Indonesia

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    Suherman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Forest ecosystem as a whole form of landscape biological resources dominated by trees in their natural forms with the environment that one can not be separated have many benefits for human life either directly or indirectly. Forest is a unique and complex ecosystem also has the economic potential value in it if utilized properly. Indonesia has a Natural Resources SDA were abundant but on the other hand the economic level of the people is still low. It is certainly in the spotlight especially that forest communities are on average less capable in economic terms. In various regions in Indonesia forest use that is not merely become agro-industry has actually been ogled as a way to make forest that is specifically intended to be developed and maintained for the purpose of tourism or the new tour. Data Director General of PHPA Forest Conservation and Nature Protection until year 98 has been designated a conservation area as much as 374 units with an area of 21.3 million hectares consists of 16.8 million hectares of land and 4.5 million hectares in the waters. Vast natural spaces altogether 5.9 million hectares were reached broad nature conservation area of 15.4 million hectares. Target conservation area on the mainland can reach 10 or about 20 million hectares. The waters are still expected for the target area of 10 million hectares.

  12. Assessing risk of navigational hazard from sea-level-related datum in the South West of Java Sea, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poerbandono

    2017-07-01

    This paper assesses the presence of navigational hazards due to underestimation of charted depths originated from an establishment of a sea-level-related reference plane, i.e. datum. The study domain is situated in one of Indonesia's densest marine traffic, SW Java Sea, Indonesia. The assessment is based on the comparison of the authorized Chart Datum (CD), being uniformly located at 0.6 m below Mean Sea Level (MSL), and a spatially varying Lowest Astronomical Tide (LAT) generated for the purpose of this research. Hazards are considered here as the deviation of LAT from CD and quantified as the ratio of LAT -CD deviation with respect to the allowable Total Vertical Uncertainty (TVU), i.e. the international standard for accuracy of depth information on nautical charts. Underestimation of charted depth is expected for the case that LAT falls below CD. Such a risk magnifies with decreasing depths, as well as the increasing volume of traffic and draught of the vessel. It is found that most of the domain is in the interior of risk-free zone from using uniform CD. As much as 0.08 and 0.19 parts of the area are in zones where the uncertainty of CD contributes respectively to 50% and 30% of Total Vertical Uncertainty. These are zones where the hazard of navigation is expected to increase due to underestimated lowest tidal level.

  13. The Influence Of Business Partnership And Competitive Strategy On Business Performance Of Recreation Park Services Industry In West Java Indonesia

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    Kurniawan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Recreational parks services industry in West Java have problems due to low business performance caused by the difficulty of companies to compete whereas tourism services right now are yet offered unique characteristics products due to the product is relatively similar with competitors. Based on that background the research aims to obtain a study on the influence of business partnerships and competitive strategy on business performance in recreation park service industries in West Java. Research conducted using an explanatory survey. In this study the target population is a company incorporated in the tourism service industry in West Java. Time horizon is a cross-sectional which research is done in one time simultaneously. The data analyzed through verification. Hypothesis is tested using partial least square PLS. The research findings reveal that there is a simultaneous and partial influence of business partnerships and competitive strategy on business performance. The influence of competitive strategy is more dominant than business partnership in improving business performance the rest influenced by other factors not examined in this study. Based on that it would need to the management of recreation park services companies in West Java to increase the competitive strategy as the first priority in efforts to improve business performance.

  14. Live pig markets in eastern Indonesia: Trader characteristics, biosecurity and implications for disease spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Edwina E C; Geong, Maria; Abdurrahman, Muktasam; Ward, Michael P; Toribio, Jenny-Ann L M L

    2016-03-01

    Classical swine fever has been negatively impacting pig production in Nusa Tenggara Timur province in eastern Indonesia since its introduction in the 1990s, with live market trade contributing to disease spread. To understand market trader knowledge and practices regarding pig management, biosecurity, pig movements and pig health (specifically CSF), a repeated survey was conducted with pig sellers and pig buyers at 9 market sites across West Timor and the islands of Flores and Sumba. A total of 292 sellers and 281 buyers were interviewed in 2009 during two periods (rounds), a high-demand month (September) and a low-demand month (November). Information was collected via questionnaire. The majority of traders were male (sellers: 89%; buyers: 87%) with the highest level of completed education being primary school (sellers: 48%; buyers: 41%). The primary occupation of most respondents was farming: 90% of sellers and 87% of buyers were smallholder pig farmers and tended to sell their own home-raised pigs at market (52%). Pigs were sold for monetary gain either for primary (52%) or extra income (44%). Markets tended to be selected based on a good reputation (62%), a location close to residence (62%) and having the desired pig type (59%). Pig sales through markets were reported to be highest from August to October with 31% of sellers trading pigs at two or more markets. Prices at market were significantly higher on Sumba compared to West Timor and cross-bred pigs were significantly more expensive than indigenous pigs. Understanding of CSF and biosecurity was limited: 85% of sellers and 83% of buyers had no prior knowledge of CSF. Fifty-four percent of sellers reported no use of any biosecurity practices at market. Most respondents (88%) were able to recognise at least one clinical sign of a sick pig. Informal pig movements were also identified: 18% of pig buyers purchased pigs directly from other farmers. This study has provided baseline information on market trader

  15. Spatial landuse planning using land evaluation and dynamic system to define sustainable area of paddy field: Case study in Karawang Regency, West Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widiatmaka, Widiatmaka; Ambarwulan, Wiwin; Firmansyah, Irman; Munibah, Khursatul; Santoso, Paulus B. K.

    2015-04-01

    Indonesia is the country with the 4th largest population in the worlds; the population reached more than 237 million people. With rice as the staple food for more than 95 percent of the population, there is an important role of paddy field in Indonesian food security. Actually, paddy field in Java has produced 52,6% of the total rice production in Indonesia, showing the very high dependence of Indonesia on food production from paddy fields in Java island. Karawang Regency is one of the regions in West Java Province that contribute to the national food supply, due to its high soil fertility and its high extent of paddy field. Dynamics of land use change in this region are high because of its proximity to urban area; this dynamics has led to paddy field conversion to industry and residential landuse, which in turn change the regional rice production capacity. Decreasing paddy field landuse in this region could be serve as an example case of the general phenomena which occurred in Javanese rice production region. The objective of this study were: (i) to identify the suitable area for paddy field, (ii) to modelize the decreasing of paddy field in socio-economic context of the region, and (iii) to plan the spatial priority area of paddy field protection according to model prediction. A land evaluation for paddy was completed after a soil survey, while IKONOS imagery was analyzed to delineate paddy fields. Dynamic system model of paddy field land use is built, and then based on the model built, the land area of paddy field untill 2040 in some scenarios was developped. The research results showed that the land suitability class for paddy fields in Karawang Regency ranged from very suitable (S1) to marginally suitable (S3), with various land characteristics as limiting factors. The model predicts that if the situation of paddy field land use change continues in its business as usual path, paddy field area that would exist in the region in 2040 will stay half of the recent

  16. Timor-Leste’s Foreign Policy: Securing State Identity in the Post-Independence Period

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    Selver B. Sahin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines some of the major ideational aspects of Timor-Leste’s foreign policy orientation in the post-independence period. Drawing upon the constructivist accounts of state behaviour, the paper situates Timorese leaders’ foreign policy decisions in the broader context of their search to position the fledging nation in the global political order. It argues that Timor-Leste’s insecure state identity has shaped its leaders’ foreign policy preferences in the post-independence period. This identity can be examined by separating it into two parts: the construction of spatial boundaries and the creation of a temporal “other”. The former is evidenced by the leadership’s rhetorical emphasis on the country’s Portuguese heritage and their prioritisation of ASEAN membership, both of which are closely related to the consolidation of the young nation’s political and cultural identity. The creation of a temporal other, as illustrated by the rise of political discourse emphasising sovereignty, reflects a wider transitional process that is embedded in the country’s transformation from colony to independent state under international supervision as well as the state’s transformation from “fragile” or “failing” to “stable”. A detailed analysis of the basic aspects of Timor-Leste’s insecurities as a constitutive element of its foreign policy becomes instrumental to understanding the country’s nation-state-building experience since its separation from Indonesia in 1999, as it enters a new phase of socio-political structuring following the withdrawal of the international security presence in 2012.

  17. The use of first language scaffolding to teach English as a foreign language to pre-school children during dramatic play in West Sumatera, Indonesia

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    Mulia Dewi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Indonesian community generally perceives that English language teaching should require phonology, vocabulary, grammar, discourse, and pragmatics. As a result, this often demands that pre-school teachers use English all the time. Code switching between English, Indonesian, and Minang – the local language of the region – is perceived negatively, and teachers are often criticized for using a multilingual approach that is “part snake and part eel” [sakarek ula sakarek baluik]. This refers to a negative perception of mixing languages in educational settings. In fact, code switching between Minang (first language, Indonesian (second language, and English (foreign language is the norm of language use in this part of Indonesia. However, in this community, there is a lack of respect for pre-school teachers' professionalism as well as scepticism towards the effectiveness of a multilingual teaching approach, which is used widely at the pre-school level. Vygotsky [14], the Russian psychologist, presents a different perspective on this phenomenon, noting that children learn languages by playing. Their first language can be the main tool to help them understand new words and utterances in context. By using code switching, teachers help pre-school children to link their prior knowledge and experience to the new forms of expression that enable them to derive the meaning of new words from the social context of language use. For this reason, scaffolding techniques should be used by pre-school teachers, particularly in ways which support children's cognitive development in constructing new meanings based on their first language experience. This paper, based on a research study-in-progress at Deakin University, Melbourne, Australia, explores patterns of interaction between pre-school teachers and their students as teachers scaffold the development of EFL through dramatic play in West Sumatera, Indonesia. This interaction is systemic in nature and

  18. Unravelling of Waste in a Touristic Area of Pangandaran from Neglecting Towards Embracing Informal Waste Management Practices, West Java, Indonesia

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    Bastiaan Schippers

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Increased attention for sustainable waste management practices has in Indonesia resulted in legislation that seeks participation and self-regulation amongst people in urban and rural areas. However districts are trying to meet the expectations of the national government, implementing Westernized-recycling systems. We demonstrate that these top-down waste management practices as well as the current approach towardsscavenging systemsas being problematic and undesirable, will not lead to effective waste management. Using a holistic approach we explore the subjectivity of waste and alternating perceptions of these objects in both formal and informal waste management practices.Moreover this article considers the functioning of informal waste management systems to be dynamic and profitable. Within the context of a touristic area that can’t keep up with the increasing amount of solid waste, this article advocates a highly potential informal waste management practices that are systematically overlooked.

  19. Why do some women still prefer traditional birth attendants and home delivery?: a qualitative study on delivery care services in West Java Province, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titaley, Christiana R; Hunter, Cynthia L; Dibley, Michael J; Heywood, Peter

    2010-08-11

    Trained birth attendants at delivery are important for preventing both maternal and newborn deaths. West Java is one of the provinces on Java Island, Indonesia, where many women still deliver at home and without the assistance of trained birth attendants. This study aims to explore the perspectives of community members and health workers about the use of delivery care services in six villages of West Java Province. A qualitative study using focus group discussions (FGDs) and in-depth interviews was conducted in six villages of three districts in West Java Province from March to July 2009. Twenty FGDs and 165 in-depth interviews were conducted involving a total of 295 participants representing mothers, fathers, health care providers, traditional birth attendants and community leaders. The FGD and in-depth interview guidelines included reasons for using a trained or a traditional birth attendant and reasons for having a home or an institutional delivery. The use of traditional birth attendants and home delivery were preferable for some community members despite the availability of the village midwife in the village. Physical distance and financial limitations were two major constraints that prevented community members from accessing and using trained attendants and institutional deliveries. A number of respondents reported that trained delivery attendants or an institutional delivery were only aimed at women who experienced obstetric complications. The limited availability of health care providers was reported by residents in remote areas. In these settings the village midwife, who was sometimes the only health care provider, frequently travelled out of the village. The community perceived the role of both village midwives and traditional birth attendants as essential for providing maternal and health care services. A comprehensive strategy to increase the availability, accessibility, and affordability of delivery care services should be considered in these West Java

  20. Why do some women still prefer traditional birth attendants and home delivery?: a qualitative study on delivery care services in West Java Province, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titaley Christiana R

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trained birth attendants at delivery are important for preventing both maternal and newborn deaths. West Java is one of the provinces on Java Island, Indonesia, where many women still deliver at home and without the assistance of trained birth attendants. This study aims to explore the perspectives of community members and health workers about the use of delivery care services in six villages of West Java Province. Methods A qualitative study using focus group discussions (FGDs and in-depth interviews was conducted in six villages of three districts in West Java Province from March to July 2009. Twenty FGDs and 165 in-depth interviews were conducted involving a total of 295 participants representing mothers, fathers, health care providers, traditional birth attendants and community leaders. The FGD and in-depth interview guidelines included reasons for using a trained or a traditional birth attendant and reasons for having a home or an institutional delivery. Results The use of traditional birth attendants and home delivery were preferable for some community members despite the availability of the village midwife in the village. Physical distance and financial limitations were two major constraints that prevented community members from accessing and using trained attendants and institutional deliveries. A number of respondents reported that trained delivery attendants or an institutional delivery were only aimed at women who experienced obstetric complications. The limited availability of health care providers was reported by residents in remote areas. In these settings the village midwife, who was sometimes the only health care provider, frequently travelled out of the village. The community perceived the role of both village midwives and traditional birth attendants as essential for providing maternal and health care services. Conclusions A comprehensive strategy to increase the availability, accessibility, and

  1. Hybrid Method for Mobile learning Cooperative: Study of Timor Leste

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa Tavares, Ofelia Cizela; Suyoto; Pranowo

    2018-02-01

    In the modern world today the decision support system is very useful to help in solving a problem, so this study discusses the learning process of savings and loan cooperatives in Timor Leste. The purpose of the observation is that the people of Timor Leste are still in the process of learning the use DSS for good saving and loan cooperative process. Based on existing research on the Timor Leste community on credit cooperatives, a mobile application will be built that will help the cooperative learning process in East Timorese society. The methods used for decision making are AHP (Analytical Hierarchy Process) and SAW (simple additive Weighting) method to see the result of each criterion and the weight of the value. The result of this research is mobile leaning cooperative in decision support system by using SAW and AHP method. Originality Value: Changed the two methods of mobile application development using AHP and SAW methods to help the decision support system process of a savings and credit cooperative in Timor Leste.

  2. Contested Space of Transborder Fishing in Timor and Arafura Seas

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    Shiskha Prabawaningtyas

    2017-06-01

    This paper examines the transformation of transborder fishing in Timor and Arafura Sea to demonstrated the contested space of which interplayed by local, state and international actor. State regulations had transformed transborder fishing into political space of authority competition relied on territorial sovereignty, while socio-cultural heritage reminds exploited within fluid space of livelihood survival when state function is just absent.

  3. Hybrid Method for Mobile learning Cooperative: Study of Timor Leste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    da Costa Tavares Ofelia Cizela

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the modern world today the decision support system is very useful to help in solving a problem, so this study discusses the learning process of savings and loan cooperatives in Timor Leste. The purpose of the observation is that the people of Timor Leste are still in the process of learning the use DSS for good saving and loan cooperative process. Based on existing research on the Timor Leste community on credit cooperatives, a mobile application will be built that will help the cooperative learning process in East Timorese society. The methods used for decision making are AHP (Analytical Hierarchy Process and SAW (simple additive Weighting method to see the result of each criterion and the weight of the value. The result of this research is mobile leaning cooperative in decision support system by using SAW and AHP method. Originality Value: Changed the two methods of mobile application development using AHP and SAW methods to help the decision support system process of a savings and credit cooperative in Timor Leste.

  4. Bacterial community composition and predicted functional ecology of sponges, sediment and seawater from the thousand islands reef complex, West Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Voogd, Nicole J; Cleary, Daniel F R; Polónia, Ana R M; Gomes, Newton C M

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, we assessed the composition of Bacteria in four biotopes namely sediment, seawater and two sponge species (Stylissa massa and Xestospongia testudinaria) at four different reef sites in a coral reef ecosystem in West Java, Indonesia. In addition to this, we used a predictive metagenomic approach to estimate to what extent nitrogen metabolic pathways differed among bacterial communities from different biotopes. We observed marked differences in bacterial composition of the most abundant bacterial phyla, classes and orders among sponge species, water and sediment. Proteobacteria were by far the most abundant phylum in terms of both sequences and Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs). Predicted counts for genes associated with the nitrogen metabolism suggested that several genes involved in the nitrogen cycle were enriched in sponge samples, including nosZ, nifD, nirK, norB and nrfA genes. Our data show that a combined barcoded pyrosequencing and predictive metagenomic approach can provide novel insights into the potential ecological functions of the microbial communities. Not only is this approach useful for our understanding of the vast microbial diversity found in sponges but also to understand the potential response of microbial communities to environmental change. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Land use/land cover and land capability data for evaluating land utilization and official land use planning in Indramayu Regency, West Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambarwulan, W.; Widiatmaka; Nahib, I.

    2018-05-01

    Land utilization in Indonesia is regulated in an official spatial land use planning (OSLUP), stipulated by government regulations. However in fact, land utilizations are often develops inconsistent with regulations. OSLUP itself is also not usually compatible with sustainable land utilizations. This study aims to evaluate current land utilizations and OSLUP in Indramayu Regency, West Java. The methodology used is the integrated analysis using land use and land cover (LU/LC) data, land capability data and spatial pattern in OSLUP. Actual LU/LC are interpreted using SPOT-6 imagery of 2014. The spatial data of land capabilities are derived from land capability classification using field data and laboratory analysis. The confrontation between these spatial data is interpreted in terms of future direction for sustainable land use planning. The results shows that Indramayu regency consists of 8 types of LU/LC. Land capability in research area range from class II to VIII. Only a small portion of the land in Indramayu has been used in accordance with land capability, but most of the land is used exceeding its land capability.

  6. Habitat degradation correlates with tolerance to climate-change related stressors in the green mussel Perna viridis from West Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendling, Carolin Charlotte; Huhn, Mareike; Ayu, Nurina; Bachtiar, Ramadian; von Juterzenka, Karen; Lenz, Mark

    2013-06-15

    It is unclear whether habitat degradation correlates with tolerance of marine invertebrates to abiotic stress. We therefore tested whether resistance to climate change-related stressors differs between populations of the green mussel Perna viridis from a heavily impacted and a mostly pristine site in West Java, Indonesia. In laboratory experiments, we compared their oxygen consumption and mortality under lowered salinity (-13 and -18 units, both responses), hypoxia (0.5 mg/l, mortality only) and thermal stress (+7 °C, mortality only). Mussels from the eutrophied and polluted Jakarta Bay showed a significantly smaller deviation from their normal oxygen consumption and higher survival rates when stressed than their conspecifics from the unaffected Lada Bay. This shows that human induced habitat degradation correlates with mussel tolerance to environmental stress. We discuss possible mechanisms - e.g. the selection of tolerant genotypes or habitat-specific differences in the nutritional status of the mussels - that could explain our observation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Distribution, Condition and Gonad Maturity of the Invasive Pacific Oysters (Crassostrea Gigas, Thunberg 1793 in Cimanuk Delta, Indramayu, West Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selia Hermawati

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas is an invasive species which is able to adapt a wide range of environmental conditions. The study was conducted from August to October 2014. Objective of this study was to asses the distribution pattern, condition and gonad maturity length (Lm 50% of the Pacific oysters in mangrove ecosystem of Cimanuk Delta, Indramayu, West Java, Indonesia.  This study was conducted in two adjacent areas:  Pabean Ilir and Pagirikan subdeltas. The oysters were collected from the estuary, brackish water ponds and the coastal flat, and  observed for their abundance, total length (mm and weight (g. Morphological and histological methods were used to estimate the gonad maturity stage. Analysis were carried out to estimate distribution pattern and condition factor. According to the study, the Pacific oyster distribution pattern was clumped. The condition factor of the oyster was higher in the brackish water pond and estuary than in the coastal flat.  The Pacific oyster was found in gonad maturity stage (GMS I – IV. The oyster was hermaprodit protandry and had length maturity (Lm 50% of 47,46-48,43 mm (male and 75,27-75,50  mm (female.

  8. CORRELATION BETWEEN RESPECT, RESPONSIBILITY, INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIP, SUPERVISION, AND COMPENSATION TO THE PERFORMANCE OF OFFICIAL RECORDER AT STATE HOSPITALS BUKITTINGGI WEST-SUMATRA INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syukra Alhamda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Primary survey was conducted on November 10, 2012 at The State Hospitals Bukittinggi, with randomly selected of 100 hospital medical records. There were incomplete contents of 61.66% and 48.33% of late files. This issue is very disturbing process for management of recording medical data, therefore, disrupting functions of medical recorders.Method: This study applied cross-sectionalstudy to determine the correlation between respect, responsibility, interpersonal relations, supervisionand compensation for the performance of official recorders at The State Hospitals Bukittinggi West-Sumatra Indonesia. Questionnaires from the subjects were proceed and computed by applying chisquare test.Results: The results showed that there were significant correlation between the performance of official award recorders (p = 0.003 and OR = 9.208, responsibilities (p = 0.012 and OR = 6.094, interpersonal (p = 0.0025 and OR = 5.417, performance of official (p = 0.012 and OR = 6.094, and compensation of official recorders (p = 0.025 and OR = 5.417 to recorders performance. Conclusion: In this research, we observed that there was a significant correlation between respect, responsibility, interpersonal relations, supervision and compensation to the performance of official recorders. A greater

  9. Monogenean parasites on cantang grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus- lanceolatus) wilture in floating net cage for mariculture center Lombok, West Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewi, N. T. B.; Aryadi, I. F.; Arrizal, A. F. T.; Mardika, D. R.; Syahputra, P. A.; Subekti, S.; Kismiyati; Sari, P. D. W.

    2018-04-01

    Cantang groupers (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus-lanceolatus) is a hybrid grouper species. This hybrid species has several advantages, one of the advantages is it has better resistance to disease. However, it does not guarantee that grouper fish can not be infected by parasite that leads to disease. This study aims to determine the prevalence and intensity of monogenean parasites that infest cantang groupers (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus-lanceolatus) from floating net-cages farm, at Mariculture Center Lombok, West Nusa Tenggara Indonesia. The study conducted on grouper with size ranging from 15 to 27.5 cm, body weight ranging from 55 to 233 g. The result showed that monogeneans was found in cantang groupers were Neobenedenia girellae (3.8-5.4 x 1.5-2.5 mm) that infested the fins, eyes, and fish skin and Pseudorhabdosynochus seabassi (0.52-0.68 x 0.12-0.25 mm) only found on gills lamella. The highest prevalence of monogeneans was found in mixed infestation of P. seabassi and N. girellae 50% in most of categories. The highest intensity of monogeneans was 10.09 individuals/fish in single infestation of Pseudorhabdosynochus seabassi.

  10. Beyond sexual desire and curiosity: sexuality among senior high school students in Papua and West Papua Provinces (Indonesia) and implications for HIV prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diarsvitri, Wienta; Utomo, Iwu Dwisetyani; Neeman, Teresa; Oktavian, Antonius

    2011-10-01

    When it comes to sexuality and norms, young Indonesians are becoming more open. Concern about this is related to the rapid increase in HIV prevalence in Indonesia, especially in Papua and West Papua Provinces. While much research has been conducted among youth who have left school, little is known about senior high school students' sexuality and sexual practices in these provinces. Using qualitative and quantitative data, we explore perspectives on and experiences of sexuality, contraceptive use, unintended pregnancy and unsafe abortion among 1082 Year 11 students from 16 senior high schools in both provinces. Findings suggest that around 38.3% of students reported having had sexual intercourse and 36.5% of these having had their first sexual encounter before they were 15 years old. Furthermore, contraceptive use among sexually active students was very low. Around 32% of female students who reported having had sexual intercourse also reported having an unintended pregnancy and the majority of them had had unsafe abortions. The paper points to the implications of students' high-risk sexual behaviours for HIV prevention.

  11. Locally Sustainable School Lunch Intervention Improves Hemoglobin and Hematocrit Levels and Body Mass Index among Elementary Schoolchildren in Rural West Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiyama, Makiko; Roosita, Katrin; Ohtsuka, Ryutaro

    2017-01-01

    School lunch is not provided in public elementary schools in Indonesia, and students frequently buy and eat snacks at school. We hypothesized that providing a traditional Sundanese meal as school lunch would be beneficial for children in rural West Java. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated the effect of a 1-month school lunch intervention aiming at sustainability and based on children’s nutritional intake, hemoglobin and hematocrit levels, and body mass index (BMI). A lunch (including rice, vegetable dish, animal protein dish, plant protein dish, and fruit) containing one-third of the recommended daily allowance of energy was offered every school day for 1 month, targeting 68 fourth-grade elementary schoolchildren. At baseline, the prevalence of anemia was 33.3%. The prevalence of stunting and underweight were 32.4% and 2.9%, respectively, whereas that of overweight and obesity combined was 17.6%, indicating a double burden of malnutrition among the subjects. During the intervention, intakes of protein (p nutritional intakes and health statuses, implying its potential for reducing anemia and resolving the double burden of malnutrition among rural Indonesian schoolchildren. PMID:28805668

  12. The herpetofauna of Timor-Leste: a first report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Hinrich; Carvalho, Venancio Lopes; Ceballos, Jester; Freed, Paul; Heacox, Scott; Lester, Barbara; Richards, Stephen J.; Trainor, Colin R.; Sanchez, Caitlin; O’Shea, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Fieldwork conducted throughout Timor-Leste in September 2004 and July 2009 resulted in a collection or recording of 263 herpetological specimens (100 amphibians, 163 reptiles), comprising at least seven species of frogs and toads, 20 species of lizards, seven species of snakes, two species of turtles, and one species of crocodile. Among the amphibians, the most frequently encountered species were toads (Duttaphrynus melanostictus), rice paddy frogs (genus Fejervarya), and rhacophorid treefrogs (Polypedates cf. leucomystax). All three variants of rice paddy frogs encountered represent undescribed species similar to Fejervarya verruculosa from neighboring Wetar Island. Records of Fejervarya cancrivora and Fejervarya limnocharis for Timor Island are apparently errors based on misidentification. We obtained voucher specimens for a total of 147 lizards and voucher photographs only for four specimens of Varanus timorensis. Aside from geckos frequently associated with human habitations (e.g., Gehyra mutilata, Gekko gecko, Hemidactylus frenatus, Hemidactylus platyurus), we discovered an as yet undescribed species of bent-toed gecko, genus Cyrtodactylus, in the Same valley. Our specimens of Hemidactylus platyurus are the first record of this species from Timor-Leste. Commonly encountered skinks included four-fingered skinks (genus Carlia), wedge skinks (genus Sphenomorphus), and night skinks (genus Eremiascincus). Notable among the 15 snakes collected was the frequency of pitvipers (Cryptelytrops insularis), which amounted to over 25% of all snakes. Our specimen of the wolfsnake Lycodon subcinctus is the first record of this species for Timor-Leste. Based on these findings, it appears that the biodiversity of amphibians and reptiles in this remote corner of Wallacea is much greater than previously thought, particularly with respect to scincid lizards. The detail we provide in the species accounts is designed to allow the use of this report as a preliminary field

  13. The herpetofauna of Timor-Leste: a first report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hinrich Kaiser

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Fieldwork conducted throughout Timor-Leste in September 2004 and July 2009 resulted in a collection or recording of 263 herpetological specimens (100 amphibians, 163 reptiles, comprising at least seven species of frogs and toads, 20 species of lizards, seven species of snakes, two species of turtles, and one species of crocodile. Among the amphibians, the most frequently encountered species were toads (Duttaphrynus melanostictus, rice paddy frogs (genus Fejervarya, and rhacophorid treefrogs (Polypedates cf. leucomystax. All three variants of rice paddy frogs encountered represent undescribed species similar to F. verruculosa from neighboring Wetar Island. Records of F. cancrivora and F. limnocharis for Timor Island are apparently errors based on misidentification. We obtained voucher specimens for a total of 147 lizards and voucher photographs only for four specimens of Varanus timorensis. Aside from geckos frequently associated with human habitations (e.g., Gehyra mutilata, Gekko gecko, Hemidactylus frenatus, H. platyurus, we discovered an as yet undescribed species of bent-toed gecko, genus Cyrtodactylus, in the Same valley. Our specimens of H. platyurus are the first record of this species from Timor-Leste. Commonly encountered skinks included four-fingered skinks (genus Carlia, wedge skinks (genus Sphenomorphus, and night skinks (genus Eremiascincus. Notable among the 15 snakes collected was the frequency of pitvipers (Cryptelytrops insularis, which amounted to over 25% of all snakes. Our specimen of the wolfsnake Lycodon subcinctus is the first record of this species for Timor-Leste. Based on these findings, it appears that the biodiversity of amphibians and reptiles in this remote corner of Wallacea is much greater than previously thought, particularly with respect to scincid lizards. The detail we provide in the species accounts is designed to allow the use of this report as a preliminary field guide to the amphibians and reptiles of

  14. The cooperation of the government and digital media industry in social development (a study in Cirebon city, West Java, Indonesia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusuma, M.; Mariana, D.; Anwar, R. K.

    2018-03-01

    This study explores the role of government in encouraging and providing a model of economic growth, including in the field of micro, small, and medium enterprises. The case studied in this research is the digital media industry. It could be a potential in creating public welfare. The questions in this research are about how to model a development of community-based digital media industry in Cirebon City, West Java; whether the government could bring people to the digital media industry to foster a productive economic society; and how the community appreciates and becomes a part of the digital media industry. By using descriptive and qualitative methods, this study finds that the government has sufficiently active roles in the development of the digital media industry in the society. The society itself has already been open-minded in responding the government’s programs and the development of contemporary technology, such as in the field of selling goods and services. Still, some obstacles might continue to be refined for the success of the community’s digital media industry.

  15. Committed carbon emissions, deforestation, and community land conversion from oil palm plantation expansion in West Kalimantan, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Kimberly M; Curran, Lisa M; Ratnasari, Dessy; Pittman, Alice M; Soares-Filho, Britaldo S; Asner, Gregory P; Trigg, Simon N; Gaveau, David A; Lawrence, Deborah; Rodrigues, Hermann O

    2012-05-08

    Industrial agricultural plantations are a rapidly increasing yet largely unmeasured source of tropical land cover change. Here, we evaluate impacts of oil palm plantation development on land cover, carbon flux, and agrarian community lands in West Kalimantan, Indonesian Borneo. With a spatially explicit land change/carbon bookkeeping model, parameterized using high-resolution satellite time series and informed by socioeconomic surveys, we assess previous and project future plantation expansion under five scenarios. Although fire was the primary proximate cause of 1989-2008 deforestation (93%) and net carbon emissions (69%), by 2007-2008, oil palm directly caused 27% of total and 40% of peatland deforestation. Plantation land sources exhibited distinctive temporal dynamics, comprising 81% forests on mineral soils (1994-2001), shifting to 69% peatlands (2008-2011). Plantation leases reveal vast development potential. In 2008, leases spanned ∼65% of the region, including 62% on peatlands and 59% of community-managed lands, yet carbon emissions. Intact forest cover declines to 4%, and the proportion of emissions sourced from peatlands increases 38%. Prohibiting intact and logged forest and peatland conversion to oil palm reduces emissions only 4% below BAU, because of continued uncontrolled fire. Protecting logged forests achieves greater carbon emissions reductions (21%) than protecting intact forests alone (9%) and is critical for mitigating carbon emissions. Extensive allocated leases constrain land management options, requiring trade-offs among oil palm production, carbon emissions mitigation, and maintaining community landholdings.

  16. Building agribusiness model of LEISA to achieve sustainable agriculture in Surian Subdistrict of Sumedang Regency West Java Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djuwendah, E.; Priyatna, T.; Kusno, K.; Deliana, Y.; Wulandari, E.

    2018-03-01

    Building agribusiness model of LEISA is needed as a prototype of sustainable regional and economic development (SRRED) in the watersheds (DAS) of West Java Province. Agribusiness model of LEISA is a sustainable agribusiness system applying low external input. The system was developed in the framework of optimizing local-based productive resources including soil, water, vegetation, microclimate, renewable energy, appropriate technology, social capital, environment and human resources by combining various subsystems including integrated production subsystems of crops, livestock and fish to provide a maximum synergy effect, post-harvest subsystem and processing of results, marketing subsystems and supporting subsystems. In this study, the ecological boundary of Cipunegara sub-watershed ecosystem, administrative boundaries are Surian Subdistricts in Sumedang. The purpose of this study are to identify the potency of natural resources and local agricultural technologies that could support the LEISA model in Surian and to identify the potency of internal and external inputs in the LEISA model. The research used qualitative descriptive method and technical action research. Data were obtained through interviews, documentation, and observation. The results showed that natural resources in the form of agricultural land, water resources, livestock resources, and human labor are sufficient to support agribusiness model of LEISA. LEISA agribusiness model that has been applied in the research location is the integration of beef cattle, agroforestry, and agrosilvopasture. By building LEISA model, agribusiness can optimize the utilization of locally based productive resources, reduce dependence on external resources, and support sustainable food security.

  17. Using native epiphytic ferns to estimate the atmospheric mercury levels in a small-scale gold mining area of West Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, Yuriko; Rahajoe, Joeni S; Hidayati, Nuril; Kodamatani, Hitoshi; Tomiyasu, Takashi

    2012-09-01

    Mercury pollution is caused by artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) operations along the Cikaniki River (West Java, Indonesia). The atmosphere is one of the primary media through which mercury can disperse. In this study, atmospheric mercury levels are estimated using the native epiphytic fern Asplenium nidus complex (A. nidus) as a biomonitor; these estimates shed light on the atmospheric dispersion of mercury released during mining. Samples were collected from 8 sites along the Cikaniki Basin during September-November, 2008 and September-November, 2009. The A. nidus fronds that were attached to tree trunks 1-3m above the ground were collected and measured for total mercury concentration using cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CVAAS) after acid-digestion. The atmospheric mercury was collected using porous gold collectors, and the concentrations were determined using double-amalgam CVAAS. The highest atmospheric mercury concentration, 1.8 × 10(3) ± 1.6 × 10(3) ngm(-3), was observed at the mining hot spot, and the lowest concentration of mercury, 5.6 ± 2.0 ngm(-3), was observed at the remote site from the Cikaniki River in 2009. The mercury concentrations in A. nidus were higher at the mining village (5.4 × 10(3) ± 1.6 × 10(3) ngg(-1)) than at the remote site (70 ± 30 ngg(-1)). The distribution of mercury in A. nidus was similar to that in the atmosphere; a significant correlation was observed between the mercury concentrations in the air and in A. nidus (r=0.895, P<0.001, n=14). The mercury levels in the atmosphere can be estimated from the mercury concentration in A. nidus using a regression equation: log (Hg(A.nidu)/ngg(-1))=0.740 log (Hg(Air)/ngm (-3)) - 1.324. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Locally Sustainable School Lunch Intervention Improves Hemoglobin and Hematocrit Levels and Body Mass Index among Elementary Schoolchildren in Rural West Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiyama, Makiko; Roosita, Katrin; Ohtsuka, Ryutaro

    2017-08-12

    School lunch is not provided in public elementary schools in Indonesia, and students frequently buy and eat snacks at school. We hypothesized that providing a traditional Sundanese meal as school lunch would be beneficial for children in rural West Java. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated the effect of a 1-month school lunch intervention aiming at sustainability and based on children's nutritional intake, hemoglobin and hematocrit levels, and body mass index (BMI). A lunch (including rice, vegetable dish, animal protein dish, plant protein dish, and fruit) containing one-third of the recommended daily allowance of energy was offered every school day for 1 month, targeting 68 fourth-grade elementary schoolchildren. At baseline, the prevalence of anemia was 33.3%. The prevalence of stunting and underweight were 32.4% and 2.9%, respectively, whereas that of overweight and obesity combined was 17.6%, indicating a double burden of malnutrition among the subjects. During the intervention, intakes of protein ( p < 0.05), calcium ( p < 0.05), and vitamin C ( p < 0.001) significantly increased, while that of fat significantly decreased ( p < 0.001). After the intervention, hemoglobin ( p < 0.05) and hematocrit ( p < 0.05) levels were significantly improved, thereby almost halving the rate of anemia. These changes were significantly larger in the baseline anemic group than the non-anemic group ( p < 0.01). BMI significantly increased in the baseline underweight/normal group ( p < 0.001) but not in the overweight/obese group. The school lunch intervention significantly improved nutritional intakes and health statuses, implying its potential for reducing anemia and resolving the double burden of malnutrition among rural Indonesian schoolchildren.

  19. Preliminary Study of Ground Movement in Prone Landslide Area by Means of MAI InSAR A Case Study: Ciloto, West Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayati, Noorlaila; Riedel, Björn; Niemeier, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    Ciloto is one of the most prone landslide hazard areas in Indonesia. Several landslides in 2012 and 2013 had been recorded in Ciloto and damaged infrastructure around the area. Investigating the history of ground movement along slope area before the landslide happened could support the hazard mitigation in the future. Considering to an efficient surveying method, space-borne SAR processing is the one appropriate way to monitor the phenomenon in past years. The purpose of this study is detecting ground movement using multi-temporal synthetic aperture radar images. We use 13 ALOS PALSAR images from 2007 to 2009 with combination Fine Beam Single (FBS) and Fine Beam Double (FBD) polarization to investigate the slow movement on slope topography. MAI (Multiple Aperture Interferometry) InSAR method is used to analyze the ground movement from both line-of-sight and along-track direction. We split the synthetic aperture into two-looking aperture so that along-track displacement could be created by the difference of forward-backward looking interferograms. With integration of both methods, we could more precisely detect the movement in prone landslide area and achieve two measurements produced by the same interferogram. However, InSAR requires smaller baseline and good temporal baseline between master and slave images to avoid decorellation. There are only several pairs that meet the condition of proper length and temporal baseline indeed the location is also on the agriculture area where is mostly covered by vegetation. The result for two years observation shows that there is insignificant slow movement along slope surface in Ciloto with -2 - -7 cm in range looks or line of sight and 9-40 cm in along track direction. Based on geometry SAR , the most visible detecting of displacement is on the north-west area due to utilization of ascending SAR images.

  20. Hydrothermal system of the Papandayan Volcano, West Java, Indonesia and its geochemistry evolution of thermal water after the November 2002 eruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Mazot

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.17014/ijog.vol2no1.20072Papandayan is a strato volcano situated in West Java, Indonesia. After the last magmatic eruptionin 1772, only few phreatic explosions have been occurring. At the present time, the activity is centeredin the northeast crater manifested by the presence of fumaroles and hot springs. In November 2002an explosive eruption occurred and ejected ash and altered rocks. Study of the altered rocks revealedthat an advanced argillic alteration took place in the hydrothermal system by an interaction betweenacid fl uids and rocks. Four zones of alteration have been formed as a limited extension along faults oracross permeable structures at different levels beneath the active crater of the volcano.Two types of acid fl uids are distinguished in the crater of the Papandayan Volcano: (1 acidsulphate-chloride water with pH values between 1.6 and 4.6, and (2 acid sulphate water with pHvalues between 1.2 and 2.5. The samples collected after the eruption revealed an increase in the SO4/Cl and Mg / Cl ratios. This evolution is likely explained by an increase in the neutralization of acidfl uids which tends to show that water-rock interactions were more signifi cant after the eruption. Thechanges in chemistry observed in 2003 were the consequence of the opening of new fractures whereunaltered or less altered volcanic rocks were in contact with the ascending acid water. The high δ34Svalues (9-17‰ observed in the acid sulphate-chloride water before the November 2002 eruptionsuggest that dissolved sulphates were mainly formed by the disproportionation of magmatic SO2. Onthe other hand, the low δ34S values (-0.3-7 ‰ observed in acid sulphate-chloride water sampled afterthe eruption suggest that the origin of dissolved sulphates for these waters is the surfi cial oxidation ofhydrogen sulphide.

  1. 3D Agro-ecological Land Use Planning Using Surfer Tool for Sustainable Land Management in Sumani Watershed, West Sumatra Indonesia

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    Aflizar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of soil erosion 3D (E3D provides basic information that can help manage agricultural areas sustainably, which has not been sufficiently conducted in Indonesia. Sumani watershed is main rice production area in West Sumatra which has experienced environmental problem such as soil erosion and production problem in recent years. 3D Agro-ecological land use planning based on soil erosion 3D hazard and economic feasibility analyses consist of production cost and prize data for each crop. Using a kriging method in Surfer tool program, have been developed data base from topographic map, Landsat TM image, climatic data and soil psychochemical properties. Using these data, the Universal Soil Loss Equation was used for spatial map of soil erosion 3D and proposed a 3D agro-ecological land use planning for sustainable land management in Sumani watershed. A 3D Agro-ecological land use planning was planned under which the land use type would not cause more than tolerable soil erosion (TER and would be economically feasible. The study revealed that the annual average soil erosion from Sumani watershed was approximately 76.70 Mg ha-1yr-1 in 2011 where more than 100 Mg ha-1yr-1 was found on the cultivated sloping lands at agricultural field, which constitutes large portion of soil erosion in the watershed. Modification of land use with high CP values to one with lower CP values such as erosion control practices by reforestation, combination of mixed garden+beef+chicken (MBC, terrace (TBC or contour cropping+beef+chicken (CBC and sawah+buffalo+chicken (SBC could reduce soil erosion rate by 83.2%, from 76.70 to 12.9 Mg ha-1 yr-1, with an increase in total profit from agricultural production of about 9.2% in whole Sumani watershed.

  2. Coral based-ENSO/IOD related climate variability in Indonesia: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudawati Cahyarini, Sri; Henrizan, Marfasran

    2018-02-01

    Indonesia is located in the prominent site to study climate variability as it lies between Pacific and Indian Ocean. It has consequences to the regional climate in Indonesia that its climate variability is influenced by the climate events in the Pacific oceans (e.g. ENSO) and in the Indian ocean (e.g. IOD), and monsoon as well as Indonesian Throughflow (ITF). Northwestern monsoon causes rainfall in the region of Indonesia, while reversely Southwestern monsoon causes dry season around Indonesia. The ENSO warm phase called El Nino causes several droughts in Indonesian region, reversely the La Nina causes flooding in some regions in Indonesia. However, the impact of ENSO in Indonesia is different from one place to the others. Having better understanding on the climate phenomenon and its impact to the region requires long time series climate data. Paleoclimate study which provides climate data back into hundreds to thousands even to million years overcome this requirement. Coral Sr/Ca can provide information on past sea surface temperature (SST) and paired Sr/Ca and δ18O may be used to reconstruct variations in the precipitation balance (salinity) at monthly to annual interannual resolution. Several climate studies based on coral geochemical records in Indonesia show that coral Sr/Ca and δ18O from Indonesian records SST and salinity respectively. Coral Sr/Ca from inshore Seribu islands complex shows more air temperature rather than SST. Modern coral from Timor shows the impact of ENSO and IOD to the saliniy and SST is different at Timor sea. This result should be taken into account when interpreting Paleoclimate records over Indonesia. Timor coral also shows more pronounced low frequency SST variability compared to the SST reanalysis (model). The longer data of low frequency variability will improve the understanding of warming trend in this climatically important region.

  3. Preliminary assessment of the state of CO2 soil degassing on the flanks of Gede volcano (West Java, Indonesia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunrat, S. L.; Schwandner, F. M.

    2013-12-01

    Gede Volcano (West Java) is part of an andesitic stratovolcano complex consisting of Pangrango in the north-west and Gede in the south-east. The last recorded eruptive activity was a phreatic subvolcanian ash eruption in 1957. Current activity is characterized by episodic swarms at 2-4 km depth, and low-temperature (~160°C) crater degassing in two distinct summit crater fumarolic areas. Hot springs occur in the saddle between the Gede and Pangrango edifice, as well as on the NE flank base. The most recent eruptive events produced pyroclastic material, their flow deposits concentrate toward the NE. A collaborative effort between the Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (CVGHM), Geological Agency and the Earth Observatory of Singapore (EOS) is since 2010 aimed at upgrading the geophysical and geochemical monitoring network at Gede Volcano. To support the monitoring instrumentation upgrades under way, surveys of soil CO2 degassing have been performed on the flanks of Gede, in circular and radial traverses.The goal was to establish a spatial distribution of flank CO2 fluxes, and to allow smart siting for continuous gas monitoring stations. Crater fluxes were not surveyed, as its low-temperature hydrothermal system is likely prone to large hydraulic changes in this tropical environment, resulting in variable permeability effects that might mask signals from deeper reservoir or conduit degassing. The high precipitation intensity in the mountains of tropical Java pose challenges to this method, since soil gas permeability is largely controlled by soil moisture content. Simultaneous soil moisture measurements were undertaken. The soil CO2 surveys were carried out using a LI-8100A campaign flux chamber instrument (LICOR Biosciences, Lincoln, Nebraska). This instrument has a very precise and highly stable sensor and an atmospheric pressure equilibrator, making it highly sensitive to low fluxes. It is the far superior choice for higher precision low

  4. Portugal em Timor-Leste: INTERFET e UNTAET

    OpenAIRE

    Palma, Elisabete Cortes

    2005-01-01

    A Resolução 1246 (11 de Junho de 1999) do Conselho de Segurança das Nações Unidas autorizou o estabelecimento da Missão de Assistência das Nações Unidas em Timor-Leste (UNAMET), com o objectivo de levar a cabo a consulta popular sobre o futuro do território. À UNAMET caberia ainda supervisionar o período de transição conducente à implementação da decisão do povo de Timor Leste. A onda de violência que se seguiu ao referendo de 30 de Agosto de 1999, levou, contudo, a que o Conselho de Seguranç...

  5. Transkripsi Musik Gong Timor Menggunakan Continous Wavelet Transform (CWT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yovinia C H Siki

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak: Transkripsi musik gong timor dibutuhkan untuk pengembangan aplikasi pengolahan sinyal musik seperti mengeditmusik, melacak tempo musik dan analisis sinyal musik lainnya yang dapat membantu para pemain pemula untukbelajar bagaimana memainkan alat musik gong. Rumitnya analisa suara musik gong dibandingkan analisa peralatanmusik barat karena dipengaruhi oleh cara pembuatan peralatan yang kurang sempurna, dan cara pemukulan peralatanyang berdasar kira-kira. Dengan menggunakan metode CWT, sinyal music gong dikonvolusi untuk menghasilkanscalogram music gong domain skala dan frekuensi. Estimasi nada gong diperoleh menggunakan sebuah proses notegenerating. Keberhasilan transkripsi ditentukan dengan menghitung error yaitu ketepatan menterjemah. Dimana adanada yang seharusnya tidak ada tetapi dikenali sebagai note (insertion, ada nada yang tidak dikenali sehinggaterhapus (deletion dan ada nada yang dikenali salah (substitution.Kata kunci: Gong timor, transkripsi musik, CWT, scalogram, note generating Abstract: Gong timor music transcription used to develop some other aplication in music signal processing such as music editing,beat detection, etc. With this transcription, new percussionist of gong can learn more easily to playing gong instrument.Analyzing music gong are more difficult than any other music instrument, it is because gong instrument created withvery simple tools and the percussionist playing this instrument by feelings of any other instrument in gamelan. Musicgong signal convoluted using CWT to create scalogram of music gong in scale and frequency domain. Tone estimationobtained using a note generating process. The success of transcription process determined by calculating errors intranscription results. Which are sometimes there is a tone that shouldn’t exist but marked as a tone (insertion, or thereis a tone but the transcription process doesn’t recognize it (deletion and sometimes there is a tone but marked as adifferent tone

  6. A description of smallholder pig production systems in eastern Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Edwina E C; Geong, Maria; Abdurrahman, Muktasam; Ward, Michael P; Toribio, Jenny-Ann L M L

    2015-03-01

    Pig farming is a common practice among smallholder farmers in Nusa Tenggara Timur province (NTT), eastern Indonesia. To understand their production systems a survey of smallholder pig farmers was conducted. Eighteen villages were randomly selected across West Timor, Flores and Sumba islands, and 289 pig farmers were interviewed. Information on pig management, biosecurity practices, pig movements and knowledge of pig health and disease, specifically classical swine fever was collected. The mean number of pigs per herd was 5.0 (not including piglets), and total marketable herd size (pigs≥two months of age) did not differ significantly between islands (P=0.215). Chickens (71%) and dogs (62%) were the most commonly kept animal species in addition to pigs. Pigs were mainly kept as a secondary income source (69%) and 83% of farmers owned at least one sow. Seventy-four percent (74%) of pigs were housed in a kandang (small bamboo pen) and 25% were tethered. Pig feeds were primarily locally sourced agricultural products (93%). The majority of farmers had no knowledge of classical swine fever (91%) and biosecurity practices were minimal. Forty-five percent (45%) reported to consuming a pig when it died and 74% failed to report cases of sick or dead pigs to appropriate authorities. Sixty-five percent (65%) of farmers reported that a veterinarian or animal health worker had never visited their village. Backyard slaughter was common practice (55%), with meat mainly used for home consumption (89%). Most (73%) farmers purchased pigs in order to raise the animal on their farm with 36% purchasing at least one pig within the last year. Predominantly fattener pigs (34%) were given as gifts for celebratory events, most commonly for funerals (32%), traditional ceremonies (27%) and marriages (10%). For improved productivity of this traditional low-input system, research incorporating farming training and improved knowledge on pig disease and biosecurity needs to be integrated with

  7. Using Multi-Scenario Tsunami Modelling Results combined with Probabilistic Analyses to provide Hazard Information for the South-WestCoast of Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zosseder, K.; Post, J.; Steinmetz, T.; Wegscheider, S.; Strunz, G.

    2009-04-01

    the inundation for a specific area, the wave height at coast at this area and the estimated times of arrival (ETAs) of the waves, caused by one tsunamigenic source with a specific magnitude. These parameters from the several scenarios can overlap each other along the coast and must be combined to get one comprehensive hazard assessment for all possible future tsunamis at the region under observation. The simplest way to derive the inundation probability along the coast using the multiscenario approach is to overlay all scenario inundation results and to determine how often a point on land will be significantly inundated from the various scenarios. But this does not take into account that the used tsunamigenic sources for the modeled scenarios have different likelihoods of causing a tsunami. Hence a statistical analysis of historical data and geophysical investigation results based on numerical modelling results is added to the hazard assessment, which clearly improves the significance of the hazard assessment. For this purpose the present method is developed and contains a complex logical combination of the diverse probabilities assessed like probability of occurrence for different earthquake magnitudes at different localities, probability of occurrence for a specific wave height at the coast and the probability for every point on land likely to get hit by a tsunami. The values are combined by a logical tree technique and quantified by statistical analysis of historical data and of the tsunami modelling results as mentioned before. This results in a tsunami inundation probability map covering the South West Coast of Indonesia which nevertheless shows a significant spatial diversity offering a good base for evacuation planning and mitigation strategies. Keywords: tsunami hazard assessment, tsunami modelling, probabilistic analysis, early warning

  8. Fishing Farmers or Farming Fishers? Fishing Typology of Inland Small-Scale Fishing Households and Fisheries Management in Singkarak Lake, West Sumatra, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuerlita; Perret, Sylvain Roger; Shivakoti, Ganesh P.

    2013-07-01

    Technical and socio-economic characteristics are known to determine different types of fishers and their livelihood strategies. Faced with declining fish and water resources, small-scale fisheries engage into transformations in livelihood and fishing practices. The paper is an attempt to understand these changes and their socio-economic patterns, in the case of Singkarak Lake in West Sumatra, Indonesia. Based upon the hypothesis that riparian communities have diverse, complex yet structured and dynamic livelihood systems, the paper's main objective is to study, document and model the actual diversity in livelihood, practices and performance of inland small-scale fisheries along the Singkarak Lake, to picture how households are adapted to the situation, and propose an updated, workable model (typology) of those for policy. Principal component analysis and cluster analysis were used to develop a typology of fishing households. The results show that small-scale fishers can be classified into different types characterized by distinct livelihood strategies. Three household types are identified, namely "farming fishers" households (type I, 30 %), "fishing farmers" households (type II, 30 %), and "mainly fishers" households (type III, 40 %). There are significant differences among these groups in the number of boats owned, annual fishing income, agriculture income and farming experience. Type I consists of farming fishers, well equipped, with high fishing costs and income, yet with the lowest return on fishing assets. They are also landowners with farming income, showing the lowest return on land capital. Type II includes poor fishing farmers, landowners with higher farming income; they show the highest return on land asset. They have less fishing equipment, costs and income. Type III (mainly fishers) consists of poorer, younger fishers, with highest return on fishing assets and on fishing costs. They have little land, low farming income, and diversified livelihood

  9. Selection of Avocado Plants Based on Fruit Characters, Fat Content, and Continual Harvest along The Year in West Java-Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Reni Lestari; Lazarus Agus Sukamto; Popi Aprilianti; Sri Wahyuni; Winda Utami Putri

    2016-01-01

    Avocado (Persea americana Mill.) belongs to Lauraceae family, is originated from lowland and highland tropical America region. Avocado plant was introduced to Indonesia in 1750 by Spanish. Fruit of avocado contains high unsaturated ( healthy) fat, protein, fiber, vitamins, minerals, and energy. Fruit of avocado can be eaten freshly, used as an additional ingredient cooking and material for cosmetics. Avocado fruits are available along the year in market cities of Indonesia but their fruits fl...

  10. The implementation of the risk approach on pregnancy outcome by traditional birth attendants : the Tanjungsari study in West-Java, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.D. Alisjahbana-Kartadiredja (Anna)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractIndonesia is made up of more than 13000 islands with defined ecological, ethnic, socioeconomic and cultural co nditions and which developed rapidly. Much has been achieved but maternal and child health remains still a problem especially in rural areas. So far the problem of perinatal

  11. Gunem Catur in the Sunda region of West Java : indigenous communication on MAC plant knowledge and practice within the Arisan in Lembang, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djen Amar, Siti Chaerani

    2010-01-01

    The introduction demonstrates that medicinal plants obviously play an important role in health care in Indonesia. Apart from the lack of access to the modern health care system by, the larger segment of the population, the cultural appropriateness of local herbal medicine is a major factor in the

  12. Nearshore Benthic Habitats of Timor-Leste Derived from WorldView-2 Satellite Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic habitat classes were derived for nearshore waters (< 20 m depths) around Timor-Leste from DigitalGlobe WorldView-2 satellite imagery, acquired from Jan 26...

  13. The Australian Governments' Attitude to East Timor Problem in 1974-1996

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Е V Esakova

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article the author considers the reasons of East Timor problem, the factors which conditioned the Australian government attitude to the issue as well as the attitude of Indonesian government to this conflict resolution.

  14. Air dan Konflik: Studi Kasus Kabupaten Timor Tengah Selatan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hary Jocom

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Secara perhitungan teknis, antara ketersediaan air dan kebutuhan air per kapita mencukupi di Kabupaten Timor Tengah Selatan (TTS Provinsi Nusa Tenggara Timur, namun permasalahan aksesibilitas yang menyebabkan terjadinya kekeringan dibeberapa wilayah. Penelitian ini dilakukan di Kecamatan Kolbano dan Kualin, Kab. TTS bertujuan pembuktian teori Homer-Dixon dan Gleick tentang konflik berbasis sumber daya alam. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwapertama, ketidakadilan akses terhadap sumber daya air tidak menimbulkan konflik antar masyarakat, dan kedua, tidak terjadi migrasi besar dari wilayah langka air ke wilayah lain. Faktor yang melandasiadalah adanyanilai-nilai budaya yang masih dipercaya dan dijaga, sehingga mampumenciptakan harmoni sosial. Temuan empirik ini menjadi sebuah penemuan teori baru dari pengembangan teori Homer-Dixon dan Gleick yang menyatakan bahwa kelangkaan sumber daya alam/air menimbulkan konflik, namun tidak terjadi dalam konteks masyarakat di Kec. Kolbano dan Kualin, dan wilayah lain di Kab. TTS.   Kata kunci: Kelangkaan air, konflik, sumberdaya air, sumber daya alam ABSTRACT In technical calculations, between water availability and water demand per capita is sufficient in Timor Tengah Selatan (TTS East Nusa Tenggara province, but the problem of accessibility caused drought in some areas. This research was conducted in the District Kolbano and Kualin, Kab. TTS aims at proving the theory Homer-Dixon and Gleick about natural resource-based conflicts. The results showed that the first, inequality in access to water resources does not generate conflicts between communities, and second, there was no major migration of water-scarce region to region. Factors underlying is their cultural values ​​are still believed and guarded, so as to create social harmony. These empirical findings into a discovery of a new theory of the development of the theory of Homer-Dixon and Gleick stating that the scarcity of natural resources

  15. Estimating Greenhouse Gas Emissions Level of A Natural Gas Pipeline – Case Study from A to B Point in West Java-Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianita Cindy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is one of the highest greenhouse emitters in the world. As a response of this problem, Indonesia declared the national action plan to focus on national greenhouse gas (GHG reduction by 26 % by 2020. To achieve this target, Government puts energy sector as one of the top priorities since it is the second strongest contributor to national GHG emissions. The main purpose of this paper is to apply the method of fugitive emissions calculation to the existing natural gas pipeline in Indonesia. Fugitive emissions are the major component of GHG emissions from natural gas systems and methane (CH4, the primary component of natural gas pipeline, is a potent GHG. Tiered approaches from Interstate Natural Gas Association of America (INGAA are implemented in this paper as the estimation guidelines. A case study of a natural gas pipeline system in Indonesia is analyzed to compare the GHG emissions level resulted from Tier 1 and Tier 2 methods. In these methods, the input data are pipeline length, the number of compressor stations, and the number of meter and pressure regulation stations. In this case, the GHG emissions level of Tier 2 is significantly different from Tier 1. The variation of pipeline length shows that for the length under 479.2 miles, Tier 1 gives lower amount of CO2 equivalent than Tier 2. The differences of these estimation methods and results can be furtherly developed to provide relevant information and recommendation for the Companies and Government to record the emissions level from natural gas transmission pipeline according to their needs and purposes.

  16. Pelanggaran Prinsip Iktikad Baik terhadap Negosiasi Treaty on Certain Maritime Arrangements in the Timor Sea (Kesepakatan Maritim Khusus di Laut Timor oleh Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiara Ika Winarni

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Pada tahun 2006, Australia dan Timor Leste menyepakati Kesepakatan Maritim Khusus Laut Timor (CMATS sebagai pengaturan sementara mengenai pengelolaan sumber daya alam di ladang Greater Sunrise. Namun, 6 tahun kemudian salah seorang mantan agen Dinas Rahasia Intelijen Australia memberikan informasi kepada pemerintah Timor Leste, bahwa Australia telah melakukan penyadapan terhadap diskusi internal pemerintah Timor Leste mengenai negosiasi CMATS pada tahun 2004. Penyadapan di dalam negosiasi CMATS dianggap suatu bentuk pelanggaran terhadap kewajiban untuk melaksanakan prinsip iktikad baik di dalam pembentukan perjanjian internasional berdasarkan ketentuan di dalam Konvensi Hukum Laut Perserikatan Bangsa-Bangsa maupun Konvensi Wina 1969 tentang Hukum Perjanjian Internasional. Tujuan penulisan artikel ini adalah untuk menganalisa penyadapan sebagai bentuk pelanggaran terhadap kewajiban untuk melaksanakan prinsip iktikad baik di dalam proses negosiasi CMATS, sehingga kesepakatan tersebut dapat dibatalkan. Penyadapan dapat dilihat sebagai unsur penipuan yang merupakan bentuk kecurangan berdasarkan Pasal 49 Konvensi Wina. Dengan demikian, penyadapan merupakan suatu bentuk kecurangan yang merupakan pelanggaran terhadap kewajiban untuk melaksanakan prinsip iktikad baik dalam negosiasi sebagai tahap pembentukan CMATS. Penetapan batas maritim permanen dapat menjadi solusi bagi kedua negara agar dapat memperoleh kepastian hukum bagi pengelolaan ladang sumber daya alam, serta penyelesaian sengketa dapat mengikutsertakan pihak ketiga. Abstract In 2006, Australia and Timor Leste have agreed on Treaty on Certain Maritime Arrangements in the Timor Sea (CMATS as a provisional arrangement in regards to resources management in Greater Sunrise field. However, 6 years later a former agent of Australian Secret Intelligence Service provided some information to the government of Timor Leste that Australia has intercepted the internal discussion of CMATS negotiation in

  17. Education in Timor-Leste: Envisioning the Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Burns

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Timor-Leste is a small state that finally achieved independence in 2002. It has had to re-build an entire education system from a small base largely destroyed in the independence struggle. This paper presents the issues identified in pre-independence meetings, and considers these within the framework of transition and transformation problems for a small island with a diverse population and a long history of colonisation, using Namibia as an apt example. Fifteen years later, teacher preparation both pre- and in-service is identified as a major issue in achieving educational and social goals, with language training a key factor. Enrolments have improved and gender equity is close to parity, but urban-rural differences remain. Late enrolments, drop-outs especially in the early years, and repetition are major hurdles in achieving an educated, knowledgeable and qualified population.

  18. IRON-ZINC SUPPLEMENTATION AMONG ADOLESCENT GIRLS AT ELEMENTARY SCHOOL IN KUPANG CITY, EAST TIMOR PROVINCE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yustina Anie Indriastuti Kurniawan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Anemia is the main micronutrient deficiency problem among adolescent girls in Indonesia. Anemia due to iron deficiency often coexists with zinc deficiency. Both iron deficiency anemia and zinc deficiency can increase the risk of obstetric complications among pregnant women i.e. bleeding during labor and post-partum hemorrhage. Iron-folate supplementation among pregnant women had been conducting since long time ago throughout this country; however, effort to improve the nutritional status particularly among adolescent girls prior to pregnancy is still lack behind. Iron and zinc have antagonistic interaction. Therefore it was challenging to alleviate anemia problem among adolescent girls with appropriate ratio of iron-zinc supplementation, and will give a benefit to improve their nutritional status. This study was aimed to investigate the different ratios of ironzinc supplementation on reducing the prevalence of anemia as improving the nutritional status of adolescent school girls.A female elementary school students age 10-12 years old (n= 137 were screened in rural area of Kupang City, East Timor Province. Subjects were assigned randomly to one of the three groups for daily iron-zinc supplementation for 12 weeks; Group 1 (iron; 60 mg/day, Group 2 (iron and zinc; 30 mg and 15 mg/day, Group 3 (iron and zinc; 60 mg and 15 mg/day. Hemoglobin concentration was measured by cyanmethemoglobin method (Hemocue to determine the prevalence of anemia (Hb level < 120 g/L, while anthropometric assessment was conducted for measuring weight and height to determine the nutritional status. General characteristics was assessed through interview. At base line, 29.1% of subjects suffered from anemia and in general, the prevalence was reduced to around 13.1% after they took iron supplements with or without zinc. Hemoglobin concentration was significantly increased among all subjects euther suffered from anemia or not. The result of this study showed that subject who

  19. Fragile States, Infectious Disease and Health Security: The Case for Timor-Leste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M. Quinn

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Timor-Leste is a very young and developing nation state. Endemic infectious disease and weakened health security coupled with its growing and inclusive public institutions keep Timor-Leste fragile and in transition on the spectrum of state stability. The objective here is to systematically review Timor-Leste's state and public health successes, showing how a fragile state can consistently improve its status on the continuum of stability and improve health security for the population. The case study follows a state case study approach, together with a disease burden review and a basic description of the health portrait in relation to Timor-Leste's fragile state status. Disease burden and health security are directly proportional to state stability and indirectly proportional to state failure. Timor-Leste is a clear example of how public health can feed into increased state stability. Our discussion attempts to describe how the weak and fragile island nation of Timor-Leste can continue on its current path of transition to state stability by increasing health security for its citizens. We surmise that this can be realized when public policy focuses on primary healthcare access, inclusive state institutions, basic hygiene and preventative vaccination programs. Based on our review, the core findings indicate that by increasing health security, a positive feedback loop of state stability follows. The use of Timor-Leste as a case study better describes the connection between public health and health security; and state stability, development and inclusive state institutions that promote health security.

  20. Capacity Development and Strengthening for Energy Policy formulation and implementation of Sustainable Energy Projects in Indonesia CASINDO. Deliverable No. 27. Biogas construction plan in Jeruk Manis Village in Lombok, West Nusa Tenggara

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natsir, A. [University of Mataram, Mataram (Indonesia)

    2011-10-15

    The overall objective of the CASINDO programme is to establish a self-sustaining and self-developing structure at both the national and regional level to build and strengthen human capacity to enable the provinces of North Sumatra, Yogyakarta, Central Java, West Nusa Tenggara (WNT) and Papua to formulate sound policies for renewable energy and energy efficiency and to develop and implement sustainable energy projects. The proposed small-scale renewable energy project to be developed under the Casindo Technical Working Group IV in West Nusa Tenggara is focused on household biogas. The project will be implemented in Jeruk Manis, which has been selected as the target location for the implementation of the renewable energy project in the program Casindo. Administratively, the village of 'Jeruk Manis' is located in the district Sikur, East Lombok, West Nusa Tenggara province. The number of households eligible as the target of the program in Jeruk Manis is 63. To implement the project, the Casindo team in WNT has partnered with Hivos and its BIRU program (Biogas Rumah program or Indonesia Domestic Biogas Programme). The biogas digester construction will be conducted by BIRU Lombok, in collaboration with a construction partner organization called Yayasan Mandiri Membangun Masyarakat Sejahtera (YM3S) and managed by the Casindo project team from the Faculty of Engineering at the University of Mataram. If the project is implemented, it will bring many benefits for poor people in the target location, which are likely to be sustained for a long time. While the benefits of developing biogas in the selected low-income location are obvious and abundant, there are also many challenges. The main problem for the proposed project is finding other interested funders to support the building of household biogas, as the financial capacity of the target households is very small.

  1. An Enduring Shell Artefact Tradition from Timor-Leste: Oliva Bead Production from the Pleistocene to Late Holocene at Jerimalai, Lene Hara, and Matja Kuru 1 and 2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle C Langley

    Full Text Available In this paper, we describe 485 Oliva spp. shell beads recovered from four archaeological cave sites Jerimalai, Lene Hara, Matja Kuru 1, and Matja Kuru 2, located in Timor-Leste, Island Southeast Asia. While Pleistocene-aged examples of modified marine shells used for personal ornamentation are common in African and Eurasian assemblages, they are exceedingly rare in Southeast Asia, leading some researchers to suggest that these Modern Human societies were less complex than those found further west. In Timor-Leste, the lowest Oliva bead to be recovered was directly dated to ca. 37,000 cal. BP, making it the oldest piece of personal ornamentation in Southeast Asia. Morphometric, taphonomic, use wear, and residue analyses of these beads alongside modern reference specimens, and experimentally made examples indicate that the Oliva shells were modified to be strung consecutively (as in a necklace, and while their mode of production changed remarkably little over the thousands of years they were utilised, an increase in their deposition around 6,000 cal. BP suggests that there was a change in their use coinciding with sea-level stabilisation. These tiny beads demonstrate that early Island Southeast Asian societies produced the same kinds of symbolic material culture we have come to expect from the more intensively studied African/Eurasian region, and that limited sampling and poor recovery methods have biased our perspectives of this region.

  2. Ads in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wulan Roro Retno

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cosmetics industry created the beauty myth for women through advertising. A cosmetic ad in Indonesia has spread a new concept of white skin: East Asia beauty myth. The white concept of Asia white skin basically derived from colonial legacy. The purpose of the research was analyzing the beauty myth in Indonesia ads using postcolonial perspective. The principal result brought the discourse analysis and postcolonial perspective a new insight in communication research. Particularly on media and cultural studies. Major conclusions showed that the beauty myth since the Dutch colonial period never been change. The main concept is always in colonialism’s idea: “white is better”. The West is better than the East.

  3. Potensi Konflik Penggembalaan Kuda pada Habitat Rusa Timor (Rusa timorensis Blainville 1822 di Kawasan Tanjung Torong Padang, Nusa Tenggara Timur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayat

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Livestock grazing had been believed to affect on the existence of wildlife, including the timor deer (Rusa timorensis Blainville 1822 through competition. This study aimed to determine whether the free-roaming horse grazing owned by local communities in Torong Padang Cape, East Nusa Tenggara become a competitor for timor deer. Field observations and interviews with horse owners were carried out to determine the distribution of horse in timor deer habitat. Food preference of both horse and timor deer were collected using species identification from feces and compared with 1 x 1 m2 plots at feeding areas of both animals during the dry and rainy seasons in 2014 and 2015. There is no clear indication of competition between timor deer and free-roaming horses in the Torong Padang Cape area.The deer and horse avoided overlapping spatially in their distribution in the Cape. The free-roaming horse mainly occupied hilly savanna, whereas timor deer preferred to occupy savanna with lebbek tree (Albizia lebbeck (L. Benth and valleys with tropical dry forest vegetation. In addition, the timor deer prefer to feed shrubs and foliage (browser, while horses prefer grass (grazer. The presence of free-roaming horse in the Torong Padang Capearea does not affect negatively for the timor deer and its habitat.

  4. EMME (Indonesia)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — EMME is a program specific M&E tool for the Indonesia Mission that is managed by RTI and provides access to project statuses and success stories for the USAID...

  5. Early modern human lithic technology from Jerimalai, East Timor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwick, Ben; Clarkson, Chris; O'Connor, Sue; Collins, Sophie

    2016-12-01

    Jerimalai is a rock shelter in East Timor with cultural remains dated to 42,000 years ago, making it one of the oldest known sites of modern human activity in island Southeast Asia. It has special global significance for its record of early pelagic fishing and ancient shell fish hooks. It is also of regional significance for its early occupation and comparatively large assemblage of Pleistocene stone artefacts. Three major findings arise from our study of the stone artefacts. First, there is little change in lithic technology over the 42,000 year sequence, with the most noticeable change being the addition of new artefact types and raw materials in the mid-Holocene. Second, the assemblage is dominated by small chert cores and implements rather than pebble tools and choppers, a pattern we argue pattern, we argue, that is common in island SE Asian sites as opposed to mainland SE Asian sites. Third, the Jerimalai assemblage bears a striking resemblance to the assemblage from Liang Bua, argued by the Liang Bua excavation team to be associated with Homo floresiensis. We argue that the near proximity of these two islands along the Indonesian island chain (c.100 km apart), the long antiquity of modern human occupation in the region (as documented at Jerimalai), and the strong resemblance of distinctive flake stone technologies seen at both sites, raises the intriguing possibility that both the Liang Bua and Jerimalai assemblages were created by modern humans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Contested Space of Transborder Fishing in Timor and Arafura Seas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiskha Prabawaningtyas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The continuity of Indonesian transborder fishing activities into Australian Fishing Zone (AFZ highlights the rooted dispute of maritime border when contested space of boundary shared by local, state and international actor is confronted. Therefore, the prevailing of multilayer perspective of maritime boundary should not be easily neglected. The colonial project in early 19th century in Southeast Asia that initiated the foundation of modern state-formation had challenged the prior-political and economic construction of the region, specifically on the issue of territoriality. The modernization of shipping and fishing activities of which relied on technology and capitals had generated political and economic competitions and later persuaded state’s actors of applying the strategy of the territorialisation of the sea in order to ensure control. Unavoidably, securitization of transborder fishing became preferable solution. Transborder fishings are further subjected into state control relied on territorial sovereignty. This paper examines the transformation of transborder fishing in Timor and Arafura Sea to demonstrated the contested space of which interplayed by local, state and international actor. State regulations had transformed transborder fishing into political space of authority competition relied on territorial sovereignty, while socio-cultural heritage reminds exploited within fluid space of livelihood survival when state function is just absent.

  7. Selection of forages by timor deer (cervus timorensis blainville) in menjangan island, bali

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketut Ginantra, I.; Bagus Made Suaskara, Ida; Ketut Muksin, I.

    2018-03-01

    This study was conducted to determine the selection of forages plants by Timor deer (Cervus timorensis) on Menjangan Island and its relation to the availability, chemical and physical properties of feed plants. The study was conducted in July-September 2016 in savanna and monsoon forest habitats. The availability of habitat feed plants in the habitat was determined by the quadrat method, and the species of plant eaten by Timor deer was determined through the microhistological analysis of the fecal sample. The food selection index is determine by the Ivlev index. Energy contents of forages plants by bomb calorimeter apparatus, crude protein analyzed by Semi-Micro Kjeldahl technique, NDF, ADF and lignin levels refer to the method of Goering and Van Soest. Mineral content of calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) by using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Determination of tannin content with Folin Denish reaction. Physical properties determine are water regain capacity and water solubility. The relationship between availability with the utilization of plants by Timor deer was analyzed with the similarity index. Multiple regression statistic to test the relationship between index selection with nutritional value factor and physical characteristic of plant species. The result showed that Timor deer selected 32 plants species of graminoids, forbs and woody plants. Feeding selection of Timor deer is strongly influenced by the availability of forage plants in habitat. The feeding selection was significantly influenced by three predictor variables i.e. positive nutritional value is crude protein and negative nutritional value were lignin and tannins. Selection of forage plant Timor deer is positively correlated with the physical properties of feed plants.

  8. Ensino do Português em Timor: uma experiência

    OpenAIRE

    Mariano, Alexandra de Brito

    2001-01-01

    Descreve-se neste artigo a experiência de ensino em Timor no âmbito da Missão de Cooperação (julho-setembro, 2000), ao abrigo do protocolo estabelecido pelo Conselho de Reitores das Universidades Portuguesas (CRUP), pela Fundação das Universidades Portuguesas (FUP) e pelo Conselho Nacional de Resistência Timorense (CNRT). A missão consistiu na Organização de Cursos de Formação de Professores do Ensino Básico e Secundário, na área disciplinar do Português, em Timor Leste.

  9. Pre-pregnancy body mass index and gestational weight gain and their effects on pregnancy and birth outcomes: a cohort study in West Sumatra, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, Hora; Lipoeto, Nur I; Fair, Frankie J; Kilner, Karen; Yusrawati, Y

    2017-11-09

    Indonesia has a considerably high incidence of maternal and infant mortality. The country has however been experiencing a social and economic transition, influencing its general population demographics and nutritional status including the state of health and nutrition of pregnant women. This study aimed to explore body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG), and their relationship with pregnancy outcomes in a sample of Indonesian pregnant women. This observational cohort study included a total of 607 pregnant women who were recruited in 2010 from maternity clinics in Western Sumatra, Indonesia. Multiple logistic and regression analyses were undertaken to compare pregnancy and birth outcomes for different BMI and GWG, using normal weight women and women with a recommended weight gain as the referent groups. The prevalence of underweight (BMI < 18.5 kg/m 2 ) in pregnancy was high at 20.1%; while 21.7% of women were overweight (BMI: 23.0-27.4 kg/m 2 ) and 5.3% obese (BMI ≥ 27.5 kg/m 2 ) using the Asian BMI classifications. The incidence of overweight (BMI: 25.0-29.9 kg/m 2 ) and obese (BMI ≥ 30.0 kg/m 2 ) according to the international BMI classifications were 13.5% and 1.1% respectively. The majority of women gained inadequate weight in pregnancy compared to the Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations, especially those who had a normal BMI. Birthweight adjusted mean difference aMD (95% confidence interval) 205 (46,365) and the odds of macrosomia adjusted odds ratio aOR 13.46 (2.32-77.99) significantly increased in obese women compared to those with a normal BMI. Birthweight aMD -139 (-215, -64) significantly decreased in women with inadequate GWG compared to those with recommended GWG, while SGA aOR 5.44 (1.36, 21.77) and prematurity aOR 3.55 (1.23, 10.21) increased. Low nutritional status and inadequate GWG remain a cause for concern in these women. The higher odds of macrosomia with increasing maternal BMI and higher odds of

  10. Performance Achievement As The Impact Of Strategy Organizatonal Competence Strategy Execution And Competitive Advantage A Study On Private Polytechnics In West Java Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertha Musty

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT - The higher education environment has changed faster than the ability of higher education to respond the competition becomes more intense complex and dynamic making some polytechnics can thrive survive and others are stopping operations. This study was conducted to examine the profile of 29 polytechnics in West Java to achieve organizational performance. Research results show that polytechnic performance is affected by the quality of the execution and its competitive advantage which are determined by the precision and alignment strategies with organizational competence. The model findings of this study could be an analysis tool to solve the polytechnics survival problems how to face the intense competition and changing environment.

  11. Why don't some women attend antenatal and postnatal care services?: a qualitative study of community members' perspectives in Garut, Sukabumi and Ciamis districts of West Java Province, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titaley, Christiana R; Hunter, Cynthia L; Heywood, Peter; Dibley, Michael J

    2010-10-12

    Antenatal, delivery and postnatal care services are amongst the recommended interventions aimed at preventing maternal and newborn deaths worldwide. West Java is one of the provinces of Java Island in Indonesia with a high proportion of home deliveries, a low attendance of four antenatal services and a low postnatal care uptake. This paper aims to explore community members' perspectives on antenatal and postnatal care services, including reasons for using or not using these services, the services received during antenatal and postnatal care, and cultural practices during antenatal and postnatal periods in Garut, Sukabumi and Ciamis districts of West Java province. A qualitative study was conducted from March to July 2009 in six villages in three districts of West Java province. Twenty focus group discussions (FGDs) and 165 in-depth interviews were carried out involving a total of 295 respondents. The guidelines for FGDs and in-depth interviews included the topics of community experiences with antenatal and postnatal care services, reasons for not attending the services, and cultural practices during antenatal and postnatal periods. Our study found that the main reason women attended antenatal and postnatal care services was to ensure the safe health of both mother and infant. Financial difficulty emerged as the major issue among women who did not fulfil the minimum requirements of four antenatal care services or two postnatal care services within the first month after delivery. This was related to the cost of health services, transportation costs, or both. In remote areas, the limited availability of health services was also a problem, especially if the village midwife frequently travelled out of the village. The distances from health facilities, in addition to poor road conditions were major concerns, particularly for those living in remote areas. Lack of community awareness about the importance of these services was also found, as some community members perceived

  12. Application of Natural Air Drying on Shelled Corn in Timor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nino, J.; Nelwan, L. O.; Purwanto, Y. A.

    2018-05-01

    A study of the application of natural air drying on shelled corn in Timor using a bed- type dryer has been performed. The study aspects were limited to obtain the suitable air flow rate requirement and duration of the drying operation per day. For each aspect, the treatments were carried out simultaneously. The results showed that at the average ambient air temperature of 30.6°C and relative humidity (RH) of 73.0% the air flow rate of 0.83 L/s-kg provided the highest drying rate. Subsequently, by using the same air flow rate, three scheme of drying operations duration were used, i.e., 8 hours per day (08.00-16.00), 6 hours per day (09.00-15.00) and 4 hours per day (10.00-14.00). The average temperature and RH of ambient air condition at the second experiment were 30.3°C and 73.3% respectively. After 4 days of drying, the 8 hours per day (first scheme) treatment was able to dry the shelled corn from the initial moisture content of 27.24% w.b. to the final moisture content of 14.05% w.b. The specific energy consumption (SEC) of the first scheme was 1.75 MJ/kg. The final moisture content of the second and third schemes were 15.08 % w.b. and 18.45 % w.b. respectively with SEC of 1.41 MJ/kg and 1.21 MJ/kg respectively.

  13. The Role of Partnership in Value Chain of Sweet Potato in Regency of West Java (Case Study of PT Galih Estetika Indonesia Partnership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Farichatul Aeni

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The partnership between the farmers and PT Galih Estetika Indonesia as the exporter company in the field of sweet potato processing is expected to support the development of sweet potato agribusiness in Kuningan Regency and become one of the solutions for farmers’ problems. Termination of partnership contracts undertaken by the farmers will have an impact on the implementation of partnerships, company operations as well as the value chain. This study aims to analyze the pattern of partnership, degree of partnership, value chain structure, value chain governance, farmers’ income (partner and non-partner and margin. The method of data processing and data analysis used the descriptive analysis qualitative and quantitative descriptive analysis. The results showed that the pattern of partnership that is formed is a centralized pattern with the degree value of partnership of 716 (madya pattern. The structure of the value chain by mapping the actors and their activities result in relationships and coordination between the parties. Farmers with companies belong to the modular type in VCG. Economic benefits indicate that net income of partner farmers is Rp22,157,828/Ha, while non-partner farmers obtain Rp12,306,789/Ha and the smallest margin is obtained by the coordinator. The analysis shows that farmers' incomes are larger, but partnership planning has not been ideal. Therefore, the roles of farmers, companies and related agencies are required in the running of the ideal sweet potato partnership program.Keywords: sweet potato partnership, partnership pattern, value chain, value chain governance, revenue

  14. Coral reef fish biomass and benthic cover data from Timor-Leste in June 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral reef fish and benthos were surveyed at 150 shallow-water coral reef sites across the north coast of Timor-Leste and around Atauro Island in June 2013 during a...

  15. Multilingual Language Policy and Mother Tongue Education in Timor-Leste: A Multiscalar Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffery, Jo; Coronado, Gabriela; Hodge, Bob

    2016-01-01

    This article looks at multilingual, mother-tongue-based language policies influenced by colonial and postcolonial histories and globalization processes. We use multiscalar analysis to show these policies as creative responses to problems affected by national and international forces. Our study focuses on Timor-Leste, specifically a pilot…

  16. Toka Boot/The Big Jam: Making Music in Rural East Timor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Gillian; Dunphy, Kim

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses a community music project in rural East Timor. Australian musician Gillian Howell lived for three months in the isolated town of Lospalos as an Asialink artist-in-residence, where she worked with local community members and visiting Australian musicians to share music and ideas, and to communicate across cultures. Three…

  17. A policy proposal for the introduction of solar home systems in East Timor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, M.; Fuller, R.J.; Aye, Lu [The University of Melbourne, Victoria (AU). Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, International Technologies Centre (IDTC)

    2007-12-15

    The Government of East Timor aims to increase the rate of household electricity service from 20% to 80% over the next 20 years. With a largely rural population living in sparsely populated, remote locations, solar home systems (SHS) will play an important role in meeting the off-grid component of rural electrification in East Timor. This paper describes current experience and trials in East Timor with solar photovoltaic (PV) technology. It examines the East Timorese context against six 'key features' identified by the World Bank as typically included in solar PV projects: delivery infrastructure; access to finance; rural electrification policy; guarantees for minimum quality; understanding of customer needs; and scaling up capacity building. Of these issues, the authors contend that selection of the delivery infrastructure model is the most critical decision, and that for East Timor, in its present stage of development, a market-driven approach for SHS is unlikely to be successful. A model which subsidises capital costs but seeks full recovery of operating costs is recommended. Irrespective of the delivery infrastructure model, for sustainability, capacity must be developed in a range of other areas, particularly the commercial availability of high-quality components and spare parts; creation of a pool of skilled technicians for installation and maintenance; and development of a robust fee collection and maintenance infrastructure. (author)

  18. A policy proposal for the introduction of solar home systems in East Timor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, M.; Fuller, R.J.; Aye, Lu

    2007-01-01

    The Government of East Timor aims to increase the rate of household electricity service from 20% to 80% over the next 20 years. With a largely rural population living in sparsely populated, remote locations, solar home systems (SHS) will play an important role in meeting the off-grid component of rural electrification in East Timor. This paper describes current experience and trials in East Timor with solar photovoltaic (PV) technology. It examines the East Timorese context against six 'key features' identified by the World Bank as typically included in solar PV projects: delivery infrastructure; access to finance; rural electrification policy; guarantees for minimum quality; understanding of customer needs; and scaling up capacity building. Of these issues, the authors contend that selection of the delivery infrastructure model is the most critical decision, and that for East Timor, in its present stage of development, a market-driven approach for SHS is unlikely to be successful. A model which subsidises capital costs but seeks full recovery of operating costs is recommended. Irrespective of the delivery infrastructure model, for sustainability, capacity must be developed in a range of other areas, particularly the commercial availability of high-quality components and spare parts; creation of a pool of skilled technicians for installation and maintenance; and development of a robust fee collection and maintenance infrastructure

  19. Transformative Teachers or Teachers to Be Transformed? The Cases of Bolivia and Timor-Leste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ritesh; Lopes Cardozo, Mieke T. A.

    2016-01-01

    Applying the Strategic Relational Approach, this paper analyses the circumstances behind and educators' strategies in response to education reforms in two nation-states undergoing socio-political transformation--Bolivia and Timor-Leste. Despite the starkly different histories and contemporary context of each nation, we suggest that transformation…

  20. First Complete Genome Sequence of Suakwa aphid-borne yellows virus from East Timor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maina, Solomon; Edwards, Owain R.; de Almeida, Luis; Ximenes, Abel

    2016-01-01

    We present here the first complete genomic RNA sequence of the polerovirus Suakwa aphid-borne yellows virus (SABYV), from East Timor. The isolate sequenced came from a virus-infected pumpkin plant. The East Timorese genome had a nucleotide identity of 86.5% with the only other SABYV genome available, which is from Taiwan. PMID:27469955

  1. Etiology and clinical management of adult meningitis in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rizal Ganiem, A.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis consists of 8 chapters and addresses the etiology, diagnosis, outcome and treatment of adult meningitis in Indonesia. The studies were conducted in Hasan Sadikin Hospital, Bandung, the referral hospital for West Java province, Indonesia between December 2006 and August 2012. In a cohort

  2. Estimasi Potensi dan Kinerja Sapi Bali di Kabupaten Timor Tengah Utara, Propinsi Nusa Tenggara Timur (The Potency Estimation and Performance of Bali Cattle in Timor Tengah Utara Regency, East Nusa Tenggara Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trimeldus Tulak Tonbesi

    2012-02-01

    Djagra Formula could be used to estimate male and female Bali cattle body weight in regency north middle Timor with correction factor each -0.34% and -16.71%. (Key words: Bali Cattle, Performance, Potency, Population dynamics

  3. Potential risk of viral transmission from flying foxes to domestic animals and humans on the southern coast of West Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basri, Chaerul; Arifin, Eko Muhammad Zainal; Takemae, Hitoshi; Hengjan, Yupadee; Iida, Keisuke; Sudarnika, Etih; Zahid, Abdul; Soejoedono, Retno Damayanti; Susetya, Heru; Sumiarto, Bambang; Kobayashi, Ryosuke; Agungpriyono, Srihadi; Hondo, Eiichi

    2017-09-29

    Flying foxes have been considered to be involved in the transmission of serious infectious diseases to humans. Using questionnaires, we aimed to determine the direct and/or indirect contacts of flying foxes in an Indonesian nature conservation area with domestic animals and humans living in the surrounding area. We surveyed 150 residents of 10 villages in West Java. Villages were classified into 3 groups: inside and/or within 1 km from the outer border of the conservation area and 1-5 km or 5-10 km away from the reserve's outer border. Data were collected by direct interview using a structured questionnaire consisting of the respondent characteristics (age, sex and occupation); histories of contacts between flying foxes and humans, dogs and other domestic animals; and knowledge about infectious diseases, mainly rabies, in flying foxes. We found that flying foxes from the nature conservation area often enter residential areas at night to look for food, especially during the fruit season. In these residential areas, flying foxes had direct contacts with humans and a few contacts with domestic animals, especially dogs. People who encounter flying foxes seldom used personal protective equipment, such as leather gloves, goggles and caps. The residents living around the conservation area mostly had poor knowledge about flying foxes and disease transmission. This situation shows that the population in this region is at a quite high risk for contracting infectious diseases from flying foxes.

  4. Development of complementary feeding recommendations for 12-23-month-old children from low and middle socio-economic status in West Java, Indonesia: contribution of fortified foods towards meeting the nutrient requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahmida, Umi; Santika, Otte

    2016-07-01

    Inadequate nutrient intake as part of a complementary feeding diet is attributable to poor feeding practices and poor access to nutritious foods. Household socio-economic situation (SES) has an influence on food expenditure and access to locally available, nutrient-dense foods and fortified foods. This study aimed to develop and compare complementary feeding recommendations (CFR) for 12-23-month-old children in different SES and evaluate the contribution of fortified foods in meeting nutrient requirements. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in low and medium SES households (n 114/group) in urban Bandung district, West Java province, Indonesia. Food pattern, portion size and affordability were assessed, and CFR were developed for the low SES (LSES) and middle SES (MSES) using a linear programming (LP) approach; two models - with and without fortified foods - were run using LP, and the contribution of fortified foods in the final CFR was identified. Milk products, fortified biscuits and manufactured infant cereals were the most locally available and consumed fortified foods in the market. With the inclusion of fortified foods, problem nutrients were thiamin in LSES and folate and thiamin in MSES groups. Without fortified foods, more problem nutrients were identified in LSES, that is, Ca, Fe, Zn, niacin and thiamin. As MSES consumed more fortified foods, removing fortified foods was not possible, because most of the micronutrient-dense foods were removed from their food basket. There were comparable nutrient adequacy and problem nutrients between LSES and MSES when fortified foods were included. Exclusion of fortified foods in LSES was associated with more problem nutrients in the complementary feeding diet.

  5. Korea’s Post-Conflict Peace Operations: A Comparative Assessment of Korean Combat Battalions in East Timor and Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    became popular throughout East Timor, and the national East Timor Taekwondo championship was among the Independence Day events in May 2002. Taekwondo...Israeli territory. Israeli forces entered the war with their overwhelming naval, air and land attacks. Intense fighting , in which 1,187 Lebanese and...relationship of brothers in humanity that ultimately defines our utmost love for UNIFIL and its soldiers.339 However, a positive local reputation is not

  6. P retention and cation exchange as affected by nanoparticle of volcanic ash and application of phosphate solubilizing bacteria on Andisol Ciater, West Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitriatin, Betty Natalie; Arifin, Mahfud; Devnita, Rina; Yuniarti, Anni; Haryanto, Rachmat; Setiabudi, Mariska Amalia

    2018-02-01

    Andisols is a soil with high retention of phosphate and cannot be absorbed by plants. Some of soil bacteria have the ability to solubilize P and make it available to growing plants are known phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB). The research aims to study the effect of nanoparticle volcanic ash and phosphate solubilising bacteria (PSB) on P retention and cation exchangeable (CEC) in Andisol Ciater, West Java. This research was conducted from October 2016 to March 2017. The design of the analysis used was a complete randomized factorial design with two factors. The first factor was nanoparticle volcanic ash (a) consists of four dosages based on weight percentage (0%, 2.5%, 5.0% and 7.5%) and the second factor was PSB (h) consists of two dosages (without biofertilizer and with biofertilizer 1 g/Kg soil). The combination treatments replicated three times were incubated for 4 months. Soil samples were analyzed at first month and fourth month after incubation. The results showed that all dosages of nanoparticle volcanic ash and application of PSB decreased P retention by 75-77% at the first month after incubation. Nanoparticle volcanic ash dosage decreased to 7.5% the P retention reaches 90.36% in the fourth month after incubation. The nanoparticle of volcanic ash dosage 7.5% increased with CEC (24.787 cmol.kg-1 and 16.555 cmol.kg-1) at the first and fourth months after incubation. The application of PSB increased the CEC (28.606 cmol.kg-1) in the first month after incubation.

  7. ASPERGILLUS FLA VUS INFECTION AND AFLATOXIN CONTAMINATION IN PEANUTS AT VARIOUS STAGES OF THE DELIVERY CHAINS IN CIANJUR REGENCY, WEST JAVA, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OKKY SETYAWATI DHARMAPUTRA

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A survey to obtain information on pre- and postharvest handling of peanuts at farmer, collector, wholesaler and retailer levels, including Aspergillus flavus infection and aflatoxin BI contamination of peanuts collected in Cianjur regency, West Java, was conducted during the harvest period of the wet season of February 2004. The moisture contents and physical qualities of the peanuts were also determined. Thirteen and 40 dry pod samples were collected randomly from 12 farmers and 23 co llectors, respectively. Seven dry kernel samples were also collected from collectors. Five and 45 dry kernel samples were collected randomly from 2 wholesalers and 45 retailers in traditional markets, resp ectively. Thus, a total of 110 dry peanut pod and kernel samples were collected. The results of interviews with farmers, collectors, wholes alers and retailers, and also the moisture contents and physical qualities of the peanuts arc described in this article. The percentages of samples infected by A. flavus were highest at the wholesaler as well as at retailer levels (100%, respectively, followed by those sampled at the collectors (85.0 and 85.7%, respectively, and farmers (84.6%. The mean percentage of infected kernels in infect ed samples of peanuts collected from retailers was the highest (87.6%, followed by those collected from wholesalers (72.4%, collectors in the form of kernels (23.3% and pods (17.7%, and farmers (15.2%. The range of aflatoxin BI contents in peanut samples collected from farmers (dry pods, collectors (dry pods, wholesalers (dry pods and kernels and retailers (dry kernels were < 3.6 -114.2, < 3.6 -2999.5 and < 3,6 - 34.1, < 3.6 - 6065.9, and < 3.6 - 6073.0 ppb, respectively. The highest aflatoxin B, contents at the wholesaler and retailer levels were 6065.9 ppb (in one sample and 6073.0 ppb (in one sample, respectively. The percentage of samples contaminated with more than 15 ppb of aflatoxin BI was the highest in peanuts collected from

  8. Brokerage and the making of middle Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Klinken, G.

    2013-01-01

    Indonesia is the world's fourth most populous nation, extending 5,000 km west to east. Its grand myth of national becoming, the Revolution of 1945, intended to weld together a disparate colonial patchwork, stands in uneasy contrast with the spatial unevenness of its actual history of national

  9. KONTAMINASI LOGAM BERAT DI SEDIMEN: STUDI KASUS PADA WADUK SAGULING JAWA BARAT (Heavy Metals Contamination in Sediment: Saguling Reservoir Case Study West Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoyok Sudarso

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Waduk Saguling merupakan salah satu waduk cascade yang berlokasi di Jawa Barat, yang sekarang ini mengalami beberapa permasalahan antara lain: proses sedimentasi yangtinggi, korositas turbin, penurunan kualitas air akibat blooming alga, polusi organik, pestisida, dan logam-logam berat yang berasal dari buangan limbah domestik, industri, aktivitas gunung berapi, dan sebagainya. Logam berat di ekosistem akuatik mempunyai kecenderungan untuk berikatan dengan sedimen yang mampu bertindak sebagai sumber polusi sekunder ke kolom air. Penelitian pada tahun 2004 ini bertujuan untuk mengungkap kontaminasi logam berat Cu, Cd, dan Pb pada sedimen Waduk Saguling. Sampling dilakukan tiga kali mulai bulan Juni hingga September 2004 dengan l3 titik stasiun pengamatan. Hasil kontaminasi logam berat pada sedimen di setiap stasiun pengamatan menunjukkan adanya perbedaan yang sangat signifikan diantara masing-masing stasiun pengamatan yaitu: untuk logam Cd (F: 17,803 dan p = 0,00001, Pb (F= 154,343 dan p < 0,01, dan Cu (F:36,499, P<0,000001. Konsentrasi logam berat hasil pengamatan dibandingkan dengan guideline dari kementrian lingkungan Ontario, SEPA, ERL, ERM, PEL, SEL, dan TEL, secara umum menunjukkan bahwa kontaminasi logam Pb dan Cu yang paling berpotensi menimbulkan gangguan pada ekosistem perairan, sedangkan logam Cd masih dibawah ambang batas dari guideline tersebut diatas. Khusus untuk guideline yang berasal dari US-EPAregion Y Great lakes ke tiga logam tersebut diatas sudah masuk dalam kategori terpolusi berat dari St. Gunung Wayang hingga Stasiun Rajamandala.   ABSTRACT Saguling reservoir is one of three cascade reservoirs, which is located in West Java. Nowadays, the reservoir has some serious problems such as: high sedimentation rate, turbine corrosity, water quality depletion caused by blooming algae, organic pollution, pesticide, and heavy metals which are resulted from domestic and industrial wastes, as well as teaching from volcano

  10. KETERKAITAN PERSEPSI DAN PERILAKU PENGUNJUNG TERHADAP KESEJAHTERAAN RUSA TIMOR DI TAMAN SATWA CIKEMBULAN GARUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anggita Puspitasari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rusa deer management in Taman Satwa Cikembulan (TSC as one of the conservation institution needs to consider animal welfare, perceiption, and behavior of visitors, order to optimize the function of Rusa deer as an exhibition wildlife. The data were collected on March to April 2014 in TSC, Garut, gains by interview and questionnaire. This research shown that animal welfare implementation of Timor deer in TSC rank into sufficient. Health management wasn’t yet optimal and it influence pain and injury aspect has become the lowest value. Visitors behavior wasn’t relate significantly with animal welfare assesment, nevertheless if animal welfare emendation done by manager, it will increase visitors anxiety of Timor deer. Animal welfare emendetaion, management of visitors, additional utilities and infrastructures are some manegement which can minimize the annoying behaviors by visitors in TSC. Keyword : animal welfare, behavior, perception, Rusa deer

  11. Participatory Theater, Is It Really? A Critical Examination of Practices in Timor-Leste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Scharinger

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dance, music, and oral narratives are an important and vibrant part of cultural practice and heritage in Timor-Leste. But while Timorese people have used such creative methods and processes during rituals, celebrations, and their fight for independence, today arts and artistic expression become an increasingly popular strategy in development cooperation. Especially diff erent forms of so-called participatory theater with origins in development cooperation, arts, and social movements, present themselves as innovative, participatory, and well applicable in terms of capacity building and stimulating positive social transformation. Based on the author’s experience and observations, this article critically examines the alliance between various stakeholders in Timor-Leste engaging with the fact that the current scene of participatory theater can hardly be seen as an independent grassroots or even social movement, rather than an initiated top-down process by donors with specific agendas.

  12. Beberapa Catatan Tentang Bahasa Melayu Dili: Studi Awal Mengenai Bahasa Melayu Di Timor Timur

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez, Inyo Yos

    1994-01-01

    Menurul Suparlan (1978:44), ada beragam ras di antara berbagai kelompok etnik yang mendiami Propinsi Timor Timur. Dapat disebutkan antara lain Papua Melenesoid, Veda Austrotoid, Kaukasoid, Mongoloid, dan Melayu. Keberadaan ras Melayu di antara berbagai ras tersebut adalah wajar mengingat penyebaran suku Melayu hampir meliputi seluruh pelosok tanah air, dan telah menjadi Kenyataan sejarah. Di berbagai daerah puak Melayu dan kebudayaannya berbaur dengan kehidupan budaya setempat, salah satu per...

  13. Fossil manganese nodules from Timor: geochemical and radiochemical evidence for deep-sea origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margolis, S.V.; Fein, C.D.; Glasby, G.P.; Audley-Charles, M.G.

    1978-01-01

    Fossil Mn nodules of Cretaceous age from western Timor exhibit chemical, structural and radioisotope compositions consistent with their being of deep-sea origin. These nodules show characteristics similar to nodules now found at depths of 3,500-5,000 m in the Pacific and Indian Oceans. Slight differences in the fine structure and chemistry of these nodules and modern deep-sea nodules are attributed to diagenetic alteration after uplift of enclosing sediments

  14. Land access and livelihoods in post-conflict Timor-Leste: no magic bullets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon P.J. Batterbury

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In Timor-Leste, customary institutions contribute to sustainable and equitable rural development and the establishment of improved access to and management of land, water and other natural resources. Drawing on multi-sited empirical research, we argue that the recognition and valorization of custom and common property management is a prerequisite for sustainable and equitable land tenure reform in Timor-Leste. In a four-community study of the relationship between land access and the practice of rural livelihoods in eastern and western districts of Timor-Leste, where customary management systems are dominant, we found different types of traditional dispute resolution, with deep roots in traditional forms of land management and with varying levels of conflict. The article shows how customary land tenure systems have already managed to create viable moral economies. Interviewees expressed a desire for the government to formalize its recognition and support for customary systems and to provide them with basic livelihood support and services. This was more important than instituting private landholding or state appropriation of community lands, which is perceived to be the focus of national draft land laws and an internationally supported project. We suggest ways in which diverse customary institutions can co-exist and work with state institutions to build collective political legitimacy in the rural hinterlands, within the context of upgrading the quality of rural life, promoting social and ecological harmony, and conflict management.

  15. (Pretexts for thinking educational cooperation in East Timor: some references to International Solidarity

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    Suzani Cassiani

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the profile of the Brazilian cooperators in the formation of Timor-Leste teachers. We start from a larger project under the Teacher Education Program and Portuguese Language Teaching in Timor-Leste (PQLP, managed by the Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES and coordinated by the Federal University of Santa Catarina (UFSC since 2009. In order to better understand such international cooperation we began with understandings of the production conditions of some intricacies of historic-political and socio-cultural context in which it occurs. The research involves the study of documents and discourse analysis of Brazilians who worked in East Timor. In addition, we propose to explain some limits, possibilities and progresses in our trajectory as active, including the challenges in drawing some more appropriate referrals. In these analyses, the problematizations involving the coloniality of knowledge/power, the assistentialist performances, peace-building, among others, encourage reflections that can be welcome in future cooperation.

  16. Solar lanterns or solar home lighting systems - Community preferences in East Timor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, M.; Aye, Lu; Fuller, R.J. [Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Group, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia)

    2010-05-15

    Access to electrification in rural areas of East Timor is extremely limited with as few as 5% of rural households connected to electricity. The government of East Timor intends to increase rural access to electricity significantly in the coming decade. The introduction of small PV systems is envisaged for many households in the most remote areas. Several agencies have piloted the introduction of small solar home systems (SHS) and solar lanterns. In the Railaco sub-district of East Timor, some 1000 households have experience of using either SHS and/or solar lanterns and are in a unique position to indicate a preference regarding these forms of PV lighting technology. This paper reports on a survey of 76 households in Railaco investigating experience with PV lighting systems. Results of the survey indicate a strong preference by users for SHS rather than lanterns. The preference for SHS arose from a range of factors including: a perception of better light quality; ability to illuminate the whole house; reduced risk of damage to the PV equipment; and longer duration of nightly operation. The research indicates that where a single PV lighting system is provided, users are likely to prefer SHS to solar lanterns. (author)

  17. Body measurements and testosteron level of male Timor deer (Rusa timorensis at various hierarchies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Samsudewa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to observe body (neck, chest and scrotum circumferences and testosterone level of α-male, β-male and subordinate male Timor deer reared under captivity after establisment of the dominance hierarchy. Twelve males (51 ± 6 months old; 68.29 ± 8.41 kg body weight and in same antler stages were used in this research. The bucks was grouped into three stall each containing four bucks. ELISA kit and tape measurements were used for plasma Testosterone assay and body measurement, respectively. Data was collected before and 43 days after establishment of the dominance hierarchy. Wilcoxon signed ranks test and Kruskal-Wallis H test of non-parametric analysis was used. Significant difference was tested with Mann-Whitney U test. The results showed no significantly different for body circumferences (neck, chest, scrotum and testosterone level of male Timor deer before establishment of dominance hierarchy. Chest and scrotum circumferences of male Timor deer after establihment of dominance hierarchy showed no significantly different. Significantly difference shown on parameter neck circumference (P<0.05; χ2 = 8.74 and testosteron level (P<0.05; χ2 = 7.87 after establishment of dominance hierarchy. In conclusion, dominance hierarchy affected the testosterone level and body measurement.

  18. Back to the Future?: Timor-Leste, Cuba and the return of the mass literacy campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bob Boughton

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In December 2005, eleven Cuban educational advisers arrived in Timor-Leste to begin work on a national literacy campaign. Adapting the program known in Latin America as Yo, Sí Puedo (Yes I Can, the Cubans trained over 400 local tutors to run classes in every part of the country, using a method they call ‘alphanumeric’, delivered via audiovisual technology. The campaign was launched in March 2007, and the first classes began in June of that year. By September 2010, three years later, over 70,000 adults, over one fifth of the total illiterate population, had successfully completed a thirteen week basic literacy course. Drawing on original research undertaken in Timor-Leste between 2004 and 2009, followed by further investigations in May 2010 in Havana, Cuba, this paper describes the Timor-Leste campaign, locating it within the historical commitment of the country’s independence movement to adult literacy, and the broader context of Cuba’s international literacy work.

  19. Human settlement history between Sunda and Sahul: a focus on East Timor (Timor-Leste) and the Pleistocenic mtDNA diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Sibylle M; Bodner, Martin; Souto, Luis; Zimmermann, Bettina; Huber, Gabriela; Strobl, Christina; Röck, Alexander W; Achilli, Alessandro; Olivieri, Anna; Torroni, Antonio; Côrte-Real, Francisco; Parson, Walther

    2015-02-14

    Distinct, partly competing, "waves" have been proposed to explain human migration in(to) today's Island Southeast Asia and Australia based on genetic (and other) evidence. The paucity of high quality and high resolution data has impeded insights so far. In this study, one of the first in a forensic environment, we used the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM) for generating complete mitogenome sequences via stand-alone massively parallel sequencing and describe a standard data validation practice. In this first representative investigation on the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation of East Timor (Timor-Leste) population including >300 individuals, we put special emphasis on the reconstruction of the initial settlement, in particular on the previously poorly resolved haplogroup P1, an indigenous lineage of the Southwest Pacific region. Our results suggest a colonization of southern Sahul (Australia) >37 kya, limited subsequent exchange, and a parallel incubation of initial settlers in northern Sahul (New Guinea) followed by westward migrations <28 kya. The temporal proximity and possible coincidence of these latter dispersals, which encompassed autochthonous haplogroups, with the postulated "later" events of (South) East Asian origin pinpoints a highly dynamic migratory phase.

  20. Bank Indonesia dalam Tata Pemerintahan Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail, Maqdir

    2010-01-01

    This research focuses on problems as follows: First, position and role of Bank Indonesia as a state body in Indonesia; Second, independency of central bank in performing its monetary function. This research is a juridical normative research using primary legal source which is legislation concerning central bank. Data is collected through document study and literary study. This research concludes that position of Bank Indonesia as a legal entity should have been included in the explanation of ...

  1. Bank Indonesia Dalam Tata Pemerintahan Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail, Maqdir

    2010-01-01

    This research focuses on problems as follows: First, position and role of Bank Indonesia as a state body in Indonesia; Second, independency of central bank in performing its monetary function. This research is a juridical normative research using primary legal source which is legislation concerning central bank. Data is collected through document study and literary study. This research concludes that position of Bank Indonesia as a legal entity should have been included in the explanation of ...

  2. Review of past and present geotectonic concepts of eastern indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katili, John A.

    equatorial Indo-Pacific region, for example, has recently been compared to the terrane map of the North American Cordillera. The position of eastern Indonesia within the plate-tectonic framework is the key to resolving contradictory views on the tectonics of the Banda Sea. For example, did the Indonesian orogeny take place at the Gondwana margin or the Asian margin, are Timor and Seram a tectonic melange and thus part of the Tertiary Indonesian island arcs, or are these two islands a part of the passive Australian margin? Oceanic magnetic stripes from the Sulu, Celebes and Banda Seas all trend NE-SW. These new data suggest that the Sulu, Celebes and probably the Banda Sea represent areas of trapped Indian Ocean crust. Deep sea drilling in the Banda Sea can resolve much controversy. The Banda Sea occupies a critical position in the complex convergent zone between Australia, Southeast Asia and the Philippine Sea Plate. The determination of the stratigraphy and basement ages of the Banda Sea will constrain evolutionary models which have been proposed. Another unsolved question of key importance in our understanding of the evolution of Sulawesi and the Moluccas is the function and timing of events of the Birdhead 'bacon slicer', or the tectonic shaving in Irian Jaya. Once this mechanism is understood, the development and timing of the various structural features of Sulawesi, Halmahera and the Banda Arc will be classified. Opinions still differ regarding the 'birthplace' of the micro-continents in the Banda Sea. Some regard them as a result of Jurassic rifting of Gondwana in northwestern Australia while others consider them displaced westward from northern Irian Jaya along the Sorong transform fault. Several authors suggested that the eastern parts of Sulawesi, Buru and Seram represent micro-continents which originated from Irian Jaya, while others considered East Sulawesi and north Sulawesi remnants of ophiolite belts or fragments of island arcs that originate from the Pacific

  3. EPA Collaboration with Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indonesia is a key actor in the global environmental arena. In addition to significant ecological resources, Indonesia also has the fourth largest population in the world and the third largest greenhouse gas emissions.

  4. Reconstructing tuberculosis services after major conflict: experiences and lessons learned in East Timor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Martins

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB is a major public health problem in developing countries. Following the disruption to health services in East Timor due to violent political conflict in 1999, the National Tuberculosis Control Program was established, with a local non-government organisation as the lead agency. Within a few months, the TB program was operational in all districts. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Using the East Timor TB program as a case study, we have examined the enabling factors for the implementation of this type of communicable disease control program in a post-conflict setting. Stakeholder analysis was undertaken, and semi-structured interviews were conducted in 2003 with 24 key local and international stakeholders. Coordination, cooperation, and collaboration were identified as major contributors to the success of the TB program. The existing local structure and experience of the local non-government organisation, the commitment among local personnel and international advisors to establishing an effective program, and the willingness of international advisers and local counterparts to be flexible in their approach were also important factors. This success was achieved despite major impediments, including mass population displacement, lack of infrastructure, and the competing interests of organisations working in the health sector. CONCLUSIONS: Five years after the conflict, the TB program continues to operate in all districts with high notification rates, although the lack of a feeling of ownership by government health workers remains a challenge. Lessons learned in East Timor may be applicable to other post-conflict settings where TB is highly prevalent, and may have relevance to other disease control programs.

  5. Botanical Composition, Grass Production, and Carrying Capacity of Pasture in Timor Tengah Selatan District

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    V. E. Se’u

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to analyze the botanical composition, grass production, carrying capacity, and potential production of nutrients in pasture located in Timor Tengah Selatan Regency. The experiment was conducted from February to July 2013, using field survey method. The botanical composition, grass production and carrying capacity on real condition were analyzed descriptively, while the grass production and carrying capacity based of cutting arrangement were analyzed by using randomized block factorial design with 3 altitude locations (Sub District of Mollo Utara with altitude of 1007 m above sea level; Sub District of Noebeba, 500 m ASL, and Sub District of Amanuban Selatan, 65 m ASL x 2 cutting intervals (1 and 2 month and 5 replications. The results showed that the grass type dominated the pasture in the Sub District of Mollo Utara, while legum type was more dominant in the pasture in the Sub Districts of Noebeba and Amanuban Selatan. The potential production of dry matter grass in Timor Tengah Selatan Regency based on real condition was 150 to 390 kg/ha/yr, this could accommodate 0.24 to 0.63 AU/ha/yr. The arrangement of cutting interval by 1 month in Mollo Utara and 2 months in Noebeba and Amanuban Selatan could increase (P<0.05 grass production and carrying capacity. The potential productions of grass nutrients were higher in Sub District of Mollo Utara, while potential production of grass dry matter was higher in Sub Districts of Noebeba and Amanuban Selatan. It was concluded that grass dry matter potential production and carrying capacity in Timor Tengah Selatan Regency were low. The arrangement of cutting interval could increase grass dry matter potential production, carrying capacity, nutrition production, and quality of nutrition.

  6. Halving Poverty in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Auwalin, Ilmiawan

    2009-01-01

    This study extends the literature on relationship between economic growth, income inequalities, and poverty reduction. We discuss poverty reduction, using the case ofIndonesia, as one of the Millennium Development Goals declared by the United Nations General Assembly in September 2000. Using provincial level data of Indonesia from 1993 to 2000, we examine the required conditions in order to halve the poverty in Indonesia by2015. The result of analysis shows that Indonesia would need to achiev...

  7. "Conical Hut": A Basic Form of House Types in Timor Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y. R.; Lim, Y. L.; Wang, M. H.; Chen, C. Y.

    2015-08-01

    Timor Island situates in the southeast end of Southeast Asia. The island accommodates many ethnic groups, which produce many diverse house types. As visiting East Timor in 2012 and Timor Island in 2014, we found the "Pair- House Type" widely spread over Timor Island. Uma Lulik (holy house), accommodating the ancestry soul, fireplace and elder's bed, and Uma Tidor (house for sleep), containing living, sleeping and working space, compose the pair-house. The research team visited 14 ethnic groups and their houses, some of which were measured and drawn into 3D models as back to Taiwan. Uma Tidors of each ethnic group are quite similar with rectangular volume and hip roof, however, one of the fourteen ethnic groups can build cylinder houses for Uma Tidor. Uma Luliks of different ethnic groups are diversified and special. One group of the Uma Luliks shows a rectangular or square volume sheltered by a hip roof. The other group of Uma Luliks presents a non-specific volume under a conical roof, that we called the "conical hut". Seven ethnic groups, Atoni, Weimua, Makassae, Mambai, Bunaq, Kemak and Bekais, have built "conical huts" for the use of Uma Lulik. People of the seven ethnic groups can construct a reasonable structural system to support the conical roof, and take good advantage of the space under the conical roof to meet their sacred needs and everyday life. "Conical Hut" may be regarded as the basic form of the house types adopted by the seven ethnic groups. It contains the basic spatial limits and the formal properties that the construction systems have to follow. Based on the concise rules of the basic form, people of each ethnic group use their talents, skills and building materials to generate variations of "conical hut", which are different in house scale, spatial layout, construction system and form. The "conical huts" contain the consistency that all the huts come from the basic form, meanwhile, they also present the diversification that each conical hut has

  8. A preliminary account of the fruit fly fauna of Timor-Leste (Diptera: Tephritidae: Dacinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellis, Glenn A; Brito, Americo A; Jesus, Hipolito DE; Quintao, Valente; Sarmento, Joaquim C; Bere, Apolinario; Rodrigues, João; Hancock, David L

    2017-12-05

    Opportunistic monitoring using baited fruit fly traps throughout Timor-Leste revealed the presence of 16 species of Bactrocera and one species of Dacus, all of which are previously reported from the region. Sampling of a range of commercial fruit species detected an additional species, B. latifrons, and revealed that nine species are attacking commercial fruits and vegetables. A key for separating these species is provided. New host records were found for B. minuscula, B. floresiae and B. bellisi. Variation in the morphology of B. minuscula, B. floresiae and an undescribed species and within B. albistrigata confounded attempts at accurate identification of some specimens.

  9. "Conical Hut": A Basic Form of House Types in Timor Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. R. Chen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Timor Island situates in the southeast end of Southeast Asia. The island accommodates many ethnic groups, which produce many diverse house types. As visiting East Timor in 2012 and Timor Island in 2014, we found the “Pair- House Type” widely spread over Timor Island. Uma Lulik (holy house, accommodating the ancestry soul, fireplace and elder’s bed, and Uma Tidor (house for sleep, containing living, sleeping and working space, compose the pair-house. The research team visited 14 ethnic groups and their houses, some of which were measured and drawn into 3D models as back to Taiwan. Uma Tidors of each ethnic group are quite similar with rectangular volume and hip roof, however, one of the fourteen ethnic groups can build cylinder houses for Uma Tidor. Uma Luliks of different ethnic groups are diversified and special. One group of the Uma Luliks shows a rectangular or square volume sheltered by a hip roof. The other group of Uma Luliks presents a non-specific volume under a conical roof, that we called the “conical hut”. Seven ethnic groups, Atoni, Weimua, Makassae, Mambai, Bunaq, Kemak and Bekais, have built “conical huts” for the use of Uma Lulik. People of the seven ethnic groups can construct a reasonable structural system to support the conical roof, and take good advantage of the space under the conical roof to meet their sacred needs and everyday life. “Conical Hut” may be regarded as the basic form of the house types adopted by the seven ethnic groups. It contains the basic spatial limits and the formal properties that the construction systems have to follow. Based on the concise rules of the basic form, people of each ethnic group use their talents, skills and building materials to generate variations of “conical hut”, which are different in house scale, spatial layout, construction system and form. The “conical huts” contain the consistency that all the huts come from the basic form, meanwhile, they also present

  10. Rationalism and Future Political Islam in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurus Shalihin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to examine the Muslim rationality in legislative and executive election, and also to understand the reason why they choose national party, or Islamic party based on the alkali data of legislative and executive election in West Sumatera from 2004-2009 periods. The paradigm of research is a rational choice theory. This paradigm helps to understand the political behavior of Muslim in West Sumatera in legislative and executive election of 2004-2009 period. Finally, the research finds out that Muslim in West Sumatera always make a political choice rationale, and ignore the primordial consideration to choose the party. This fact is crucial factor why the Islamic party was lost in West Sumatera, and other places in Indonesia.

  11. Coral reef fish biomass and benthic cover data from Timor-Leste in June 2013 (NCEI Accession 0165354)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral reef fish and benthos were surveyed at 150 shallow-water coral reef sites across the north coast of Timor-Leste and around Atauro Island in June 2013 during a...

  12. 76 FR 54928 - Export Administration Regulations: Netherlands Antilles, Curaçao, Sint Maarten and Timor-Leste

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    ..., Bureau of Industry and Security, U.S. Department of Commerce at 202-482-2440 or by e-mail: Sharron.Cook... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security 15 CFR Parts 738, 740, 745, and 748 [Docket...[ccedil]ao, Sint Maarten and Timor-Leste AGENCY: Bureau of Industry and Security, Commerce. ACTION: Final...

  13. Direct dating of Pleistocene stegodon from Timor Island, East Nusa Tenggara

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    Julien Louys

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Stegodons are a commonly recovered extinct proboscidean (elephants and allies from the Pleistocene record of Southeast Asian oceanic islands. Estimates on when stegodons arrived on individual islands and the timings of their extinctions are poorly constrained due to few reported direct geochronological analyses of their remains. Here we report on uranium-series dating of a stegodon tusk recovered from the Ainaro Gravels of Timor. The six dates obtained indicate the local presence of stegodons in Timor at or before 130 ka, significantly pre-dating the earliest evidence of humans on the island. On the basis of current data, we find no evidence for significant environmental changes or the presence of modern humans in the region during that time. Thus, we do not consider either of these factors to have contributed significantly to their extinction. In the absence of these, we propose that their extinction was possibly the result of long-term demographic and genetic declines associated with an isolated island population.

  14. Building states without building nations: understanding urban citizenship in Dili, Timor Leste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valenti, Alex

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available State and nation building, although often used interchangeably in international relations policy and literature, are in fact two distinct, although closely intertwined, processes: the (recons-truction of a state cannot be reduced to a technical exercise, that is, state building; rather, it needs to focus just as significantly on the (reconstruction of the country’s social fabric in order to develop the sense of citizenship upon which its sovereignty and legitimacy rest, that is, nation building. This research note introduces urban spaces as interesting contexts to explore the relationship between state and nation building, arguing that their diversity is both a challenge and an opportunity for the state to create a sense of citizenship amongst its population. The case of Dili, the capital of Timor Leste, where a violent past and rapid urbanisation have combined to shape extremely diverse social, political and economic urban spaces, is used here to explore how the population of three case study areas perceives the impact of state policies and to question how these perceptions influence the scales at which people build their identity as well as how these scales affect the construction of local, urban or national citizenship in Timor Leste.

  15. COMPARISON OF TREND PROJECTION METHODS AND BACKPROPAGATION PROJECTIONS METHODS TREND IN PREDICTING THE NUMBER OF VICTIMS DIED IN TRAFFIC ACCIDENT IN TIMOR TENGAH REGENCY, NUSA TENGGARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksius Madu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to predict the number of traffic accident victims who died in Timor Tengah Regency with Trend Projection method and Backpropagation method, and compare the two methods based on the degree of guilt and predict the number traffic accident victims in the Timor Tengah Regency for the coming year. This research was conducted in Timor Tengah Regency where data used in this study was obtained from Police Unit in Timor Tengah Regency. The data is on the number of traffic accidents in Timor Tengah Regency from 2000 – 2013, which is obtained by a quantitative analysis with Trend Projection and Backpropagation method. The results of the data analysis predicting the number of traffic accidents victims using Trend Projection method obtained the best model which is the quadratic trend model with equation Yk = 39.786 + (3.297 X + (0.13 X2. Whereas by using back propagation method, it is obtained the optimum network that consists of 2 inputs, 3 hidden screens, and 1 output. Based on the error rates obtained, Back propagation method is better than the Trend Projection method which means that the predicting accuracy with Back propagation method is the best method to predict the number of traffic accidents victims in Timor Tengah Regency. Thus obtained predicting the numbers of traffic accident victims for the next 5 years (Years 2014-2018 respectively - are 106 person, 115 person, 115 person, 119 person and 120 person.   Keywords: Trend Projection, Back propagation, Predicting.

  16. Assessment of equity in healthcare financing in Fiji and Timor-Leste: a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asante, Augustine D; Price, Jennifer; Hayen, Andrew; Irava, Wayne; Martins, Joao; Guinness, Lorna; Ataguba, John E; Limwattananon, Supon; Mills, Anne; Jan, Stephen; Wiseman, Virginia

    2014-12-02

    Equitable health financing remains a key health policy objective worldwide. In low and middle-income countries (LMICs), there is evidence that many people are unable to access the health services they need due to financial and other barriers. There are growing calls for fairer health financing systems that will protect people from catastrophic and impoverishing health payments in times of illness. This study aims to assess equity in healthcare financing in Fiji and Timor-Leste in order to support government efforts to improve access to healthcare and move towards universal health coverage in the two countries. The study employs two standard measures of equity in health financing increasingly being applied in LMICs-benefit incidence analysis (BIA) and financing incidence analysis (FIA). In Fiji, we will use a combination of secondary and primary data including a Household Income and Expenditure Survey, National Health Accounts, and data from a cross-sectional household survey on healthcare utilisation. In Timor-Leste, the World Bank recently completed a health equity and financial protection analysis that incorporates BIA and FIA, and found that the distribution of benefits from healthcare financing is pro-rich. Building on this work, we will explore the factors that influence the pro-rich distribution. The study is approved by the Human Research Ethics Committee of University of New South Wales, Australia (Approval number: HC13269); the Fiji National Health Research Committee (Approval # 201371); and the Timor-Leste Ministry of Health (Ref MS/UNSW/VI/218). Study outcomes will be disseminated through stakeholder meetings, targeted multidisciplinary seminars, peer-reviewed journal publications, policy briefs and the use of other web-based technologies including social media. A user-friendly toolkit on how to analyse healthcare financing equity will be developed for use by policymakers and development partners in the region. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group

  17. The Relationship Between Education, Job, and Family Income with TB Medication Dropouts in Timor-Leste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valente Da Silva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background:  TB treatment dropout is one causes of treatment failure, which could increase drug resistant cases. Drug resistant cases of TB were reported by the Ministry of Health of East Timor in 2008 (3 cases, 2009 (3 cases, and in 2010 (6 cases. With drug resistant emerging, TB will require longer treatment time. According to the WHO report (2013 the results of pulmonary tuberculosis BTA (+ treatment were reported: Year 2010 the number of failure of treatment was (0.53%; Died of TB (3.53%; Drop out of treatment (4.05%; Outmigration (3.98%; In 2011 cases of treatment failure (0.50% Died of TB (3.36%; Drop out of treatment (3.36%; Outmigration (1.92%; In 2012 cases of treatment failure (1.03%; Died of TB (3.49% Drop out of treatment (4.59% and migration, (2.26%. According to the National Statistics Directorate (NSD in 2011, that the East Timorese people still live mostly 70.4% in the rural areas. While access to health services remains a challenge, since the people of Timor Leste proclaimed the restoration of its independence. Objective: This study aimed to determine whether there is a relationship between the variables of education, family income, and job with cases of TB medication discontinuation. Methods: This study was conducted using descriptive correlation method. The sample was determined by Ridwan & Akdon (2010 formula. The total of samples was 100 people who met the inclusion and exclusion criteria, and selected randomly. This research was conducted in District Manatuto and Liquica Timor-Leste on March 28, 2015. Results: The correlation test showed a strong positive relationship level if r = 0.51 until +1. Analysis of significance value of r xy = 0.671 and p = 0.000 indicates that there is a significant relationship between the variables of education, job and income with variable discontinuation of treatment. Conclusion: Based on the results of research and data analysis, it can be concluded that the results of this study are as

  18. Recent progress of geological investigations in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prijosoesilo, Purnomo; Sunarya, Yaya; Wahab, A.

    Geologically, the Indonesian archipelago was formed as a result of the interaction and collision of the gigantic crustal blocks, i.e. the Eurasian, Indian, Australian and the Pacific plates. This process caused the formation of extensively distributed ultrabasic rocks in Eastern Indonesia, containing rich mineral resources. In Western Indonesia most ore bodies found are associated with the active volcano-plutonic arc or the stable mass of the Sunda Shelf. There are 60 known Tertiary sedimentary basins in Indonesia and only 36 of them have been "failry" explored, of which 14 basins have had hydrocarbon commercial production. Most of the hydrocarbon exploration and production during the last 100 years have been carried out in Western Indonesia. Many of the "unexplored" basins in Indonesia are located in the offshore areas with water depth over 200 m. Coal and geothermal resources are mostly found in Western Indonesia, particularly Sumatra, Java and Kalimantan. Coal production in 1990 has reached 11 million tons. The steady growth of production was primarily due to the establishment of the coal contract agreement with foreign contractors as well as the re-growth of the State coal mines in Bukit Asam and Sawahlunto, Sumatra. Aside from coal, geothermal is one of the alternative energy resources that have been developed in recent years. From some 16,000 MW resources potential estimated, presently only 140 MW geothermal generating power units have been commercially put on production in Kamojang, West Java. The most important minerals mined in Indonesia are tin (Sn), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu) and bauxite. Most of the gold (Au) and silver (Ag) production are mined in association with copper (Cu) such as those in Tembagapura, Irian Jaya, with the exception of a few epithermal gold mines in other areas in the country. Between 1984 and 1990, Indonesia produced around 1.3-1.5 MMBPD crude oil and condensate plus 1.6-2.2 TSCF natural gas. Most of the natural gas production was

  19. NILAI FILOSOFIS BUDAYA MATRILINEAL DI MINANGKABAU (RELEVANSINYA BAGI PENGEMBANGAN HAK-HAK PEREMPUAN DI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iva Ariani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This research is a qualitative research to find an essence of matrilineal culture in Minangkabau tradition from the philosophical perspective of Feminism. Method of data collection is dividing research areas in West Sumatra into two big groups that are Minang Pesisir and Minang Bukit. Then, collecting data through direct interview and observation to get data about matrilineal system in West Sumatra. Data which has collected then be analyzed using interpretation and hermeneutics method and described as a concept to develop the rights of enforcer process of woman in Indonesia. This research is to develop the woman movements and law concerning femininity in Indonesia that is more suitable with the personality and cultural of Indonesia because it lifted from local and cultural wisdom in Indonesia. The expectation is that it will be able to more suitable to the agenda of offering values of feminist appropriate for public of Indonesia.

  20. PEMETAAN MAJALAH ILMIAH TERBITAN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamariah Tambunan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study is to find out the mapping of scientific journals published in Indonesia, mainly cover of subject, city ofpublication, publisher, period and year of publication. Directory of Indonesian Learned Periodicals which publishedby the Centre for Scientific Documentation and Information- Indonesian Institute of Sciences in year of 2004 is usedas data source. The study found that the directory are covers 1.170 journals that already have ISSN and still issueduntil year of 2003. The most subject available is technology (418 titles. The most scientific journal was published inDKI Jakarta (182 titles, then West Java (176 titles and East Java (174 titles. The journals issued mainly by educationalinstitutions (academy, universities, schools, etc.. The journals issued half-yearly are the most common, thereare 673 titles. These journals issued in 50’s up to 2004 and the most ones (605 titles issued in 2000-2004.

  1. A new species of Asplenium section Thamnopteris (Aspleniaceae) from Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dong, S.Y.; Mujahidin,; Wei, L.L.; Chao, Y.S.

    2012-01-01

    A new species, Asplenium riswanii (sect. Thamnopteris), is described from Central Java and West Papua, Indonesia. It is distinct from any known species by having thick and rigid fronds, abaxially keeled midribs, broadly lanceolate scales, and distantly spaced sori. Morphologically, A. riswanii is

  2. PERFORMANCE OF BALI BULL IN GREENLOT FATTENING BY FARMERS WHEN RAINY SEASON IN TIMOR ISLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.K. Tahuk

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to determine the performance of Bali bull in rainy season underfeedlotting management on farmer level in Timor Island. Twenty Bali bulls with 2.0-2.5 years old on thebasis of teeth eruption were used in this study. Feed for animals was field grass, king grass and cornstraw. The type, quantity and quality of feed given in accordance with the habits of farmers in thefattened cattle. Research was conducted by direct observation in farmer management during rainyseason. Data measured were daily gain, feed consumption and feed conversion. The data collected wastabulated and analyzed descriptively. The result showed that the average of daily gain weight was 0.53kg/head/d, dry matter intake was 3.88 kg/head/d and feed conversion was 7.55 kg DM/kg daily gain. Inconclusion, performance of Bali bull fattened at farmers level with forage in the rainy season could beimproved.

  3. Islamic Puritanism Movements in Indonesia as Transnational Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benny Baskara

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Islamic puritanism movements are the movements compelling to return to the teachings of Quran and Sunnah, as the pure teachings of Islam and abandon even abolish other teachings outside the teachings of Quran and Sunnah. The movements of Islamic puritanism can be considered as transnational movements because they spread their teachings and ideologies, create organizations, networks, and provide financial supports across nations. This paper describes Islamic puritanism movements in Indonesia and their transnational connections. Some Islamic puritanism movements in Indonesia can be considered as part of Islamic transnational movements, in which most of the movements are centered in the Middle East. In Indonesia, Islamic puritanism movements firstly appeared in the beginning of the nineteenth century, called Padri movement in West Sumatra. It was then continued to the emergence of Islamic organizations in the twentieth century. Recently, Islamic puritanism movements in Indonesia mostly take form as Salafism-Wahabism movements.

  4. Prevalence and correlates of current cigarette smoking among adolescents in East Timor-Leste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siziya, S; Muula, A S; Rudatsikira, E

    2008-12-01

    To determine the prevalence and correlates for current cigarette smoking. Secondary analysis of the East Timor-Leste Global Youth Tobacco Survey conducted in 2006. Public and private schools registered with the Ministry of Education. A two-stage cluster sample of 1790 students in Grades 7 to 9. Schools were selected with probability proportional to enrolment size, and classes were randomly selected in each school. All students in selected classes were eligible to participate in the survey. The school and student response rates were 96.0% and 84.5%, respectively. Prevalence of current cigarette smoking. Out of 1790 adolescents, 52.1% were of ages less than 15 years, 51.8% were males, 42.8% reported having some pocket money in a month, and 72.7% had at least a parent who was a smoker. Prevalence of current cigarette smoking was 40.3%. Current smokers also reported having bought cigarettes from peddlers (32.4%), someone bought for them (16.7%), got from someone older (13.7%), borrowed (13.3%), and stole (3.4%). Males were more likely to be smokers than females (59.0% versus 19.3%). Factors positively associated with current smoking were: parental smoking; closest friend smoking; amount of pocket money; and exposure to anti-tobacco messages. East Timor has one of the highest prevalence of cigarette smoking among adolescents. The fact that exposure to anti-tobacco messages was associated with being a smoker may be evidence suggesting that anti-tobacco messages, especially from tobacco-related industry, may have unintended consequences.

  5. Application of standard treatment guidelines in rural community health centres, Timor-Leste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Michiyo; Okumura, Junko; Aoyama, Atsuko; Suryawati, Sri; Porter, John

    2012-08-01

    To analyse nurses' and midwives' knowledge of and attitudes towards standard treatment guidelines (STGs), which were developed to help their practices at rural community health centres (CHCs) in Timor-Leste. Fifty-five nurses and midwives were individually interviewed. Data were analysed qualitatively using the Framework approach. Overall, the standard treatments for acute respiratory tract infections, malaria and diarrhoea were well known by the respondents. Clinical nurses showed precise and detailed knowledge, especially for antibiotic use. The respondents were willing to use STGs and believed that they 'should' follow them. This feeling arose due to their self-awareness as frontline health workers and, at the same time, as peripheral civil servants. The changes brought about by the introduction of STGs were positively perceived. Three components of the change were observed: the concept, daily practice and perceived patient satisfaction. The respondents had previously felt a lack of confidence and hoped to improve their capacity as health care workers; they became confident in their practices by using STGs. Self-confidence was identified more clearly in the clinical nurse interviews. Few difficulties in using STGs were indicated, and the respondents suggested ways to deal with these difficulties. By using the STGs, the nurses/midwives gained knowledge and self-confidence. The positive perception of the changes promoted further use of the STGs. Clinical nurse training positively influenced the knowledge of and attitudes towards the STGs. Few difficulties in applying STGs in daily practice were identified, which is contrary to previous studies that targeted physicians in the Western world. Development of STGs within a health policy framework was considered a key factor. The STGs exist across related policies and various programmes, which are interconnected. The Timor-Leste experience indicates the value of STGs for non-physician health care providers at the

  6. Assessment of sediment hydrocarbon contamination from the 2009 Montara oil blow out in the Timor Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, Kathryn A.; Jones, Ross

    2016-01-01

    In August 2009, a blowout of the Montara H1 well 260 km off the northwest coast of Australia resulted in the uncontrolled release of about 4.7 M L of light crude oil and gaseous hydrocarbons into the Timor Sea. Over the 74 day period of the spill, the oil remained offshore and did not result in shoreline incidents on the Australia mainland. At various times slicks were sighted over a 90,000 km"2 area, forming a layer of oil which was tracked by airplanes and satellites but the slicks typically remained within 35 km of the well head platform and were treated with 183,000 L of dispersants. The shelf area where the spill occurred is shallow (100–200 m) and includes off shore emergent reefs and cays and submerged banks and shoals. This study describes the increased inputs of oil to the system and assesses the environmental impact. Concentrations of hydrocarbon in the sediment at the time of survey were very low (total aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) ranged from 0.04 to 31 ng g"−"1) and were orders of magnitude lower than concentrations at which biological effects would be expected. - Highlights: • 2009 fire/collapse of MWH1 released approximately 4.7 M L oil into the Timor Sea. • Oil gushed for 74 days before capping. Sediment studies initially declined. • Estimated 183,000 L dispersant forced oil into seawater in ∼100 m water depth area. • Sediments collected from nearby reefs and shoals 6 and 18 months later. • Assessment based on the increased oil inputs to the system. - Australia's oil spill response must include sediments collected immediately after and sediment quality guidelines for PAHs must include alkylated components as specified by the USEPA quidelines.

  7. PENGARUH FREKUENSI SIKLON TROPIS TERHADAP CURAH HUJAN DI TIMOR-LESTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandes Flaviana Pinto

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the impact of tropical cyclone frequency to the rainfall in Timor-Leste using monthly data for 30 years. The rainfall data obtained from tropical rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM satellite and Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC. Daily rainfall In Situ data obtained from Direcção Nacional de Meteorologia e Geofisica (DNMG. Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA and Bureau of Meteorology Australia (BOM provided for tropical cyclone data. The impact of tropical cyclone to the rainfall can be observed from the seasonal pattern of DJF, MAM, JJA and SON. The highest and the lowest correlation seasonal pattern of MAM and DJF are about r = 0.99 and r = -0.97, respectively. Correlation in the seasonal pattern of JJA and SON are about r = 0.0, it because no cyclone in this season. If we observed the daily condition between tropical cyclone frequency to rainfall, the highest correlation occurred in March 2004 and April 2011 with the resulting correlation are about r = 0.73 and r = 0.79, respectively. This is an overall correlation a week before, after and during cyclone. For along 30 years, we found the correlation in 2000 and 2006 is about r = 0.41. So that, the value of correlation coefficient obtained from 1983 to 2012 is about r = 0.19, there is not a significant impact to the rainfall when tropical cyclone doesn’t occur in Timor-Leste. Keywords: Tropical Cyclone Frequency, Rainfall, Anomaly, Correlation

  8. Spatial and temporal patterns of dengue infections in Timor-Leste, 2005-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangdi, Kinley; Clements, Archie C A; Du, Tai; Nery, Susana Vaz

    2018-01-04

    Dengue remains an important public health problem in Timor-Leste, with several major epidemics occurring over the last 10 years. The aim of this study was to identify dengue clusters at high geographical resolution and to determine the association between local environmental characteristics and the distribution and transmission of the disease. Notifications of dengue cases that occurred from January 2005 to December 2013 were obtained from the Ministry of Health, Timor-Leste. The population of each suco (the third-level administrative subdivision) was obtained from the Population and Housing Census 2010. Spatial autocorrelation in dengue incidence was explored using Moran's I statistic, Local Indicators of Spatial Association (LISA), and the Getis-Ord statistics. A multivariate, Zero-Inflated, Poisson (ZIP) regression model was developed with a conditional autoregressive (CAR) prior structure, and with posterior parameters estimated using Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation with Gibbs sampling. The analysis used data from 3206 cases. Dengue incidence was highly seasonal with a large peak in January. Patients ≥ 14 years were found to be 74% [95% credible interval (CrI): 72-76%] less likely to be infected than those < 14 years, and females were 12% (95% CrI: 4-21%) more likely to suffer from dengue as compared to males. Dengue incidence increased by 0.7% (95% CrI: 0.6-0.8%) for a 1 °C increase in mean temperature; and 47% (95% CrI: 29-59%) for a 1 mm increase in precipitation. There was no significant residual spatial clustering after accounting for climate and demographic variables. Dengue incidence was highly seasonal and spatially clustered, with positive associations with temperature, precipitation and demographic factors. These factors explained the observed spatial heterogeneity of infection.

  9. Herança da resistência do Híbrido de Timor UFV 443-03 à ferrugem-do-cafeeiro Inheritance of coffee leaf rust resistance in Timor Hybrid UFV 443-03

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Sandri Capucho

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar a herança da resistência do Híbrido de Timor UFV 443-03 à ferrugem-do-cafeeiro (Hemileia vastatrix. Para isso, a raça II e o patótipo 001 de ferrugem foram inoculados em 246 plantas da população F2, 115 plantas do retrocruzamento suscetível (RC S e 87 plantas do retrocruzamento resistente (RC R, originadas do cruzamento entre o genótipo suscetível cv. Catuaí Amarelo IAC 64 e a fonte de resistência Híbrido de Timor UFV 443-03. Para ambos os inóculos, a cv. Catuaí Amarelo IAC 64 foi suscetível, enquanto o Híbrido de Timor UFV 443-03, a planta representante da geração F1 e as plantas do RC R foram resistentes. As plantas F2, quando inoculadas com a raça II, apresentaram dois padrões de segregação significativos: 15:1 e 61:3. A herança da resistência foi confirmada pela inoculação das plantas do RC S, que segregaram na proporção de 3:1, padrão esperado para herança condicionada por dois genes. A hipótese de segregação 7:1 para três genes foi rejeitada. Resultados semelhantes foram obtidos para o patótipo 001. Dois genes dominantes e independentes conferem a resistência genética do Híbrido de Timor UFV 443-03 à raça II e ao patótipo 001 de H. vastatrix.The aim of this work was to characterize the resistance inheritance of the Timor Hybrid UFV 443-03 to coffee leaf rust (Hemileia vastatrix. For this, the race II and pathotype 001 of coffee leaf rust were inoculated in 246 F2 plants, 115 susceptible backcrossing (BCS plants, and 87 resistant backcrossing (BC R plants, derived from the crossing between the susceptible genotype 'Catuaí Amarelo' IAC 64 and the resistance source Timor Hybrid UFV 443-03. For both inoculums, the 'Catuaí Amarelo' IAC 64 was susceptible, while the Timor Hybrid, the plant representing F1 generation, and the BC R plants were resistant. The F2 plants inoculated with race II presented two significant segregation ratios: 15:1 and 61:3. The

  10. SASTRA CYBER DI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laily Fitriani

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The digital era started when the internet technology spread to the developing countries including Indonesia. The flourish of cyber literature leads to the debate on the quality of the work of literature. Above all, the existence of literature sites (cyber literature becomes an important alternative for writers and literary activist in Indonesia.

  11. LDC nuclear power: Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poneman, D.B.

    1982-01-01

    Indonesia's five-year plan to develop a research reactor is still in the feasibility stage of a policy to minimize domestic oil consumption. The evolution of a nuclear program in Indonesia illustrates the importance of strong political leadership in developing countries which lack technical skills and political and economic stability and the need for strong international support. 39 references

  12. Use of medicines and adherence to standard treatment guidelines in rural community health centers, Timor-Leste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Michiyo; Okumura, Junko; Aoyama, Atsuko; Suryawati, Sri; Porter, John

    2015-03-01

    The use of medicines and nurses'/midwives' adherence to standard treatment guidelines (STGs) were examined in Timor-Leste during the early stage of the nation's new health system development. A cross-sectional study was conducted as the quantitative element of mixed methods research. Retrospective samples from patient registration books and prospective observations were obtained in 20 randomly selected rural community health centers. The medicines use indicators, in particular the level of injection use, in Timor-Leste did not suggest overprescription. Prescribers with clinical nurse training prescribed significantly fewer antibiotics than those without such training (P < .01). The adjusted odds ratio of prescribing adherence for clinical nurse training, after accounting for confounders and prescriber clustering, was 6.6 (P < .01). STGs for nonphysician health professionals at the primary health care level have potential value in basic health care delivery, including appropriate use of medicines, in resource-limited communities when strategically developed and introduced. © 2012 APJPH.

  13. "The family is the clinic, the community is the hospital": community mental health in Timor-Leste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Zoe; Tilman, Teofilo

    2011-07-01

    This paper describes the history and recent development of mental health services in Timor-Leste, a small developing country recovering from conflict. Challenges to effective service delivery are discussed as well as plans for future development. Timor-Leste's mental health service began just over a decade ago. Unlike many other low and middle income countries where hospital-based services predominate, the mental health model in Timor-Leste is entirely community based. However, challenges to effective mental health care delivery are similar to most developing countries and include a lack of sufficient financial resources, human resources, and mental health infrastructure. Addressing these issues successfully requires political will, a greater prioritization of mental health services, close coordination between stakeholders, as well as developments in the area of education, training and infrastructure. Greater understanding and education about the links between mental and physical health would benefit the overall health of the population, and integration of these respective policies may prove a successful method of more equitably redistributing finances and resources.

  14. Maintaining Identity Political Culture In Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauzi, AM; Sudrajat, A.; Affandi, A.; Raditya, A.

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the portrayal of traditional political cultures in West Kalimantan Province, a growing of election process. Results showed that Political life in Indonesia leads to modern political culture after experiencing a change of paradigm of political life. Political life in Indonesia leads to modern political culture after experiencing a change of paradigm of political life. Beginning Indonesia’s independence in the Old Order Phase, the politics used using the ideological paradigm, subsequent to the New Order Period used the political paradigm of unification and simplification of political parties but in practice it became the strategy of the State’s rulers to facilitate subjugating its citizens. After entering the reform era, several phenomena of political culture are displayed, some are using modern paradigm by giving women the widest possible role in political parties, and so on. Besides that there is the opposite of displaying and practicing traditional political culture, this is as it runs in West Borneo Province. The change of political culture in the modern direction is different from the political culture of the citizens in terms of who will be chosen, most West Borneo Province residents determine their political choice by using traditional patterns.

  15. Changes in Land Use/Land Cover Patterns in Indonesia's Border and their Relation to Population and Poverty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fransiscus Xaferius Herwirawan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the pattern and change of land use and land cover (LULC during 2000−2015 and its relation to population and poverty in the semi-arid region of Indonesia in Timor Island, on the country border to Republic Dominica Timor Leste (RDTL. The analyzes employ visual interpretation on the GIS software to classify 14 classes of LULC using Landsat imagery. The transition matrix of LULC change during the 15 years period indicates a substantial deforestation in which 1,309 ha or 13% of the forest in year 2000 has been disappeared. In detail, about 2 ha (7% of primary mangrove forest has been converted into mixed farming and 1,307 ha (19% of secondary forest has become shrub. Within the non-forest classification, 1,288 ha (17% of shrub in 2000 has turned into savannah, and 15 ha (10% of shrub swamp has turned into bare land, while at the same time human settlement has expanded by 118% from the settlement area in year 2000. Spatial pattern of LULC changes in the study area for 15 years are dispersed, and tend to remained in the middle area that dominated by mix agriculture. The forest cover is weakly associated with level of poverty and rural population in the study area. However, the two latter variables were not significantly associated with deforestation

  16. Capacity Development and Strengthening for Energy Policy formulation and implementation of Sustainable Energy Projects in Indonesia CASINDO. Deliverable No. 25. Renewable Energy Action Plan of West Nusa Tenggara Province 2010-2025

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-08-15

    The overall objective of the CASINDO programme is to establish a self-sustaining and self-developing structure at both the national and regional level to build and strengthen human capacity to enable the provinces of North Sumatra, Yogyakarta, Central Java, West Nusa Tenggara and Papua to formulate sound policies for renewable energy and energy efficiency and to develop and implement sustainable energy projects. This report is expected to become a reference for government and private sectors in the development of renewable energy in West Nusa Tenggara Province, not only the development of renewable energy for electricity generation, but also for other needs such as fuel for industry and cooking fuel for households. The Renewable Energy Action Plan of West Nusa Tenggara Province is a follow-up of the enactment of Presidential Regulation No. 5 Year 2006 concerning National Energy Policy, which the Central Government has set a target utilization of renewable energy by 2025 by 17%. Furthermore, this document contains data and information regarding current utilization of renewable energy, renewable energy potential and development opportunities, target of renewable energy development and action plans necessary to achieve the targets.

  17. Dinamika Kurikulum di Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Asri

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Education does not have a standard reference, which covers access for revision by the authorities. Because education continues to grow along with the rolling times. Therefore, all matters relating to education also do not have a standard reference, including educational curriculum. The curriculum is one of the important elements that has a role to advance education in Indonesia, in accordance with the ideals of the constitution. Curriculum changes are not taboo for education in developed countries of the world (such as Japan, Finlandia,  USA, etc.. Basically the dynamics of curriculum in Indonesia aims to make education in Indonesia able to compete with the developed countries in the world.

  18. Pemberitaan Media Pers Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashadi Siregar

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available New freedom and democratic atmosphere existing in Indonesia allow the Indonesian press enjoys its new significant position. This can expand the Indonesian press goals, particularly in enriching the industrial aspiration of the institution. However, bearing in mind that Indonesia is a multicultural country, the Indonesian press can also strengthen the various demographic backgrounds of the state leading to the unity of Indonesia. This article discusses four points of the Indonesian press that need to he considered by the mass media professionals.

  19. IDRC in Indonesia

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    management. IDRC has long supported research on the sustainable use of forests in Indonesia. It ... participation in managing the Berau ... Science, technology, and innovation are critical ... and policy analysis, this IDRC-funded project.

  20. Jepara Indonesia Furniture

    OpenAIRE

    romanzick

    2016-01-01

    Jepara Indonesia Furniture A wide choice of Indonesian furniture companies provide free business listings to all types of furniture also for outlets and stores. Each section is accessible that contains a comprehensive list of our range of furniture details information and full campaign. We provided a platform create various products along with featured inspiration section related products, services, accessories. Indonesia Furniture Teak Garden Furniture It is bringing customers distinctive as...

  1. Islamic fundamentalism in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Nagy, Sandra L.

    1996-01-01

    This is a study of Islamic fundamentalism in Indonesia. Islamic fundamentalism is defined as the return to the foundations and principles of Islam including all movements based on the desire to create a more Islamic society. After describing the practices and beliefs of Islam, this thesis examines the three aspects of universal Islamic fundamentalism: revivalism, resurgence, and radicalism. It analyzes the role of Islam in Indonesia under Dutch colonial rule, an alien Christian imperialist po...

  2. Farmers and finance : experience with institutional savings and credit in West Java

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moll, H.A.J.

    1989-01-01

    This study deals with an experimental savings and credit scheme developed for vegetable farmers in West Java, Indonesia, by a technical cooperation project between the governments of Indonesia and The Netherlands. Key elements were:
    a) An organizational structure with three

  3. Determinan Ekspor CPO Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratih Rosita

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil is one of the products that are important to the economy of Indonesia. This study aims to analyze the performance of Indonesia's CPO exports and to look for the influence of the independent variables such as production volume CPO, CPO consumption and the value of the rupiah against the U.S. dollar. The authors of this study tested using the Method of Error Correction Model. The time interval used is from 1998 to 2011 with the data quarter. The findings suggest that Indonesia's CPO production volume variables exert a positive and significant impact on the number of Indonesian CPO exports in both the short and long term, then the variable volume Indonesia CPO consumption in the short and long term is also a significant effect on the number of Indonesian CPO exports but negatively related, this is due to the domestic CPO consumption greater that the capacity to export will be reduced. Variables of the Rupiah against the U.S. dollar also affects Indonesia's CPO exports significantly and negatively related to both the short and long term and conditions of the depreciation of the rupiah exchange rate is not enough to effectively be driving exports. Estimates show that the close relationship between external demand caused exports to Indonesia's export performance vulnerable to external shocks. Side factors are also a determinant of export performance. Keywords: palm oil, CPO consumption, Error Correction Model

  4. Determinan Ekspor CPO Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratih Rosita

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil is one of the products that are important to the economy of Indonesia. This study aims to analyze the performance of Indonesia's CPO exports and to look for the influence of the independent variables such as production volume CPO, CPO consumption and the value of the rupiah against the U.S. dollar. The authors of this study tested using the Method of Error Correction Model. The time interval used is from 1998 to 2011 with the data quarter. The findings suggest that Indonesia's CPO production volume variables exert a positive and significant impact on the number of Indonesian CPO exports in both the short and long term, then the variable volume Indonesia CPO consumption in the short and long term is also a significant effect on the number of Indonesian CPO exports but negatively related, this is due to the domestic CPO consumption greater that the capacity to export will be reduced. Variables of the Rupiah against the U.S. dollar also affects Indonesia's CPO exports significantly and negatively related to both the short and long term and conditions of the depreciation of the rupiah exchange rate is not enough to effectively be driving exports. Estimates show that the close relationship between external demand caused exports to Indonesia's export performance vulnerable to external shocks. Side factors are also a determinant of export performance.

  5. VECTORS OF MALARIA AND FILARIASIS IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoedojo Hoedojo

    2012-09-01

    is transmitted by Culex quinquefasciatus, whereas the rural type is transmitted mosdy by Anopheles spp., such as An.aconitus and An.punctulatus complex. The periodic species of Mansonia transmit the subperiodic noctural B.malayi. B.timori which is distributed in the Eastern part of Indonesia (East Nusa Tenggara, is transmitted by An.barbirostris. Some filariasis vectors such as An.aconitus and the An.puctulatus complex may function both as filariasis vector and malaria vector as well.An.barbirostris with is confirmed as a vector of malaria in South Sulawesi, a vector of periodic nocturnal malayan filariasis in Central Sulawesi and as the only vector of timorian filariasis in Timor and Flores, has to be studied further as it has two types of behaviouristic appearance, namely : 1. Anbarbirostris in Java This mosquito is an anthropozophilic species, feeds indoors and outdoors, and rest outdoors. None is found to transmit mosquitoborne disease. 2. Anbarbirostris in Sulawesi and East Nusa Tenggara (outside Java. This mosquito is a zooanthropophilic form, endo and exophagic, and rests outdoors. It is confirmed as a vector of malaria, periodic noctural malayan filariasis and the only vector of timorian filariasis. 

  6. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-10-01

    Indonesia is a country of south east Asia comprising a large island group extending east-west for over 3000 miles. The geology of Indonesia is fairly well known but is extremely complicated. Successive mountain movements took place around an ancient crustal area. The oldest, of Permian-Triassic age formed northeast Sumatra, northern Java and western Kalimantan. This was followed by the Sumatra orogenesis and finally in Cretaceous and Tertiary times the southern half of Java and the islands as far as New Guinea were formed. Geological studies tend to indicate that the most favourable uranium areas are likely to be in West Sumatra and West Kalimantan. Exploration by the Directorate of Survey and Geology of the National Atomic Energy Agency has been carried out on a small scale since 1961. Exploration concession have been granted to French, German and Japanese organisations. No uranium reserve or resource figures have ever been stated but small occurrences and radioactive anomalies have been found in West and South Sumatra, West and Central Kalimantan and in West Irian. Although the geology of some areas appears to be favourable, little success has attended exploration efforts to date and thus the Speculative Potential is noted as between 1,000 and 10,000 tonnes uranium. (author)

  7. Phylogenetic analysis of dengue virus types 1 and 3 isolated in Jakarta, Indonesia in 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjatha, Fithriyah; Takizawa, Yamato; Yamanaka, Atsushi; Konishi, Eiji

    2012-12-01

    Dengue viruses are mosquito-borne viruses that cause dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever, both of which are globally important diseases. These viruses have evolved in a transmission cycle between human hosts and mosquito vectors in various tropical and subtropical environments. We previously isolated three strains of dengue type 1 virus (DENV1) and 14 strains of dengue type 3 virus (DENV3) during an outbreak of dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever in Jakarta, Indonesia in 1988. Here, we compared the nucleotide sequences of the entire envelope protein-coding region among these strains. The isolates were 97.6-100% identical for DENV1 and 98.8-100% identical for DENV3. All DENV1 isolates were included in two different clades of genotype IV and all DENV3 isolates were included in a single clade of genotype I. For DENV1, three Yap Island strains isolated in 2004 were the only strains closely related to the present isolates; the recently circulated Indonesian strains were in different clades. Molecular clock analyses estimated that ancestors of the genotype IV strains of DENV1 have been indigenous in Indonesia since 1948. We predict that they diverged frequently around 1967 and that their offspring distributed to Southeast Asia, the Western Pacific, and Africa. For DENV3, the clade containing all the present isolates also contained strains isolated from other Indonesian regions and other countries including Malaysia, Singapore, China, and East Timor from 1985-2010. Molecular clock analyses estimated that the common ancestor of the genotype I strains of DENV3 emerged in Indonesia around 1967 and diverged frequently until 1980, and that their offspring distributed mainly in Southeast Asia. The first dengue outbreak in 1968 and subsequent outbreaks in Indonesia might have influenced the divergence and distribution of the DENV1 genotype IV strains and the DENV3 genotype I strains in many countries. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Hematologic Profile and Semen Quality of Male Timor Deer (Rusa timorensis) at Various Hierarchies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsudewa, D.; Capitan, S. S.; Sevilla, C. C.; Vega, R. S. A.; Ocampo, P. P.

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this research was to observe hematologic profile i.e. erythrocyte count, hemoglobin and hematocrit and semen quality, i.e. semen volume, sperm motility and sperm abnormality of α-male, β-male and subordinate male Timor deer raised under captivity. Twelve males (51 ± 6 months old; 68.29 ± 8.41kg body weight) at similar antler stages were use in this study. Before and after 43 days of establishment of dominance hierarchy blood were sampled after sedation for erythrocyte count, hemoglobin (mg/dL), and hematocrit (%). Likewise, semen was collected using electroejaculator and were analyzed for semen volume (ml), sperm motility (%) and sperm abnormality (%) to compare male deer at various heirarchies. Wilcoxon signed ranks test and Kruskal-Wallis H test of non-parametric analysis was done. Significant difference was tested with Mann-Whitney U test. The results showed that highest count of erythrocyte shown on α and β-male (1.60 million per µL). The highest increase in hematocrit was observed in β-male (5%) and then followed by S2-male (4%). S2-male had the highest increase in hemoglobin (0.13 g/dL). The highest increase in semen volume was observed in α -male (0.75 ml). Social stress affected negatively the sperm motility and abnormality (P<0.05). The highest decrease was observed in S2-male.

  9. Agenda Setting and Evidence in Maternal Health: Connecting Research and Policy in Timor-Leste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Kayli; Kelly, Paul; Barclay, Lesley; Martins, Nelson

    2015-01-01

    The evidence-based policy (EBP) movement has received significant attention in the scientific literature; however, there is still very little empirical research to provide insight into how policy decisions are made and how evidence is used. The lack of research on this topic in low- and middle-income countries is of particular note. We examine the maternity waiting home policy in Timor-Leste to understand the role of context, policy characteristics, individual actors, and how evidence is used to influence the policy agenda. The research tracked the maternity waiting home policy from 2005 to 2009 and is based on in-depth interviews with 31 senior policy-makers, department managers, non-government organization representatives, and United Nations advisors. It is also informed by direct observation, attendance at meetings and workshops, and analysis of policy documents. The findings from this ethnographic case study demonstrate that although the post-conflict context opened up space for new policy ideas senior Ministry of Health officials rather than donors had the most power in setting the policy agenda. Maternity waiting homes were appealing because they were a visible, non-controversial, and logical solution to the problem of accessing maternal health services. Evidence was used in a variety of ways, from supporting pre-determined agendas to informing new policy directions. In the pursuit of EBP, we conclude that the power of research to inform policy lies in its timeliness and relevance, and is facilitated by the connection between researchers and policy-makers.

  10. PENGEMBANGAN KULINER LOKAL SEBAGAI DAYA TARIK WISATA DI DILI, TIMOR LESTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Barreto Araujo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The development of tourism industry can provide opportunities for tourism products including culinary in Dili, Timor-Leste. This article aims to identify types of traditional foods, measure the perception of tourists on traditional food and formulate program to develop traditional food as culinary tourism. Data collection for this article used direct field observation, interviews and documentation study, while data analysis used SWOT matrix. The results of this article revealed that in Dili there were several types of traditional food such as Saboko, Tukir, Kulu tunu or Kulu Gisa could be developed as culinary tourism. In regard to tourist perception on traditional food processing while good on quality of traditional food, food cleanliness and quality of restaurant service. Several programs conducted by the government to develop traditional food are human resource quality improvement, creating market for traditional food, identification of potential local products in each district and assessment of traditional foods.The restaurant owners also develop several programs such as menu adjustment, creativity in traditional food processing, and promotion.

  11. Representations of body and violence: the invention of "domestic violence" in East Timor

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    Daniel Schroeter Simião

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available East Timor is now faced to a strong social and political change, which implies, on gender issues, the building of a new morality about domestic physical aggression. Based on the local translation of gender equality principles ? seen as universal values ? a set of actions against domestic violence is questioning local practices and attitudes regarding representations of body, gender and sexuality, such as polygamy, the obligations to childbirth and the responsibilities on contraception. Based on one year fieldwork in the country, this paper discusses the way the knowledge of experts on the field of gender and development reflects upon political projects which contribute to the shaping of a specific way of experiencing the body, inscribing physical punishment into a new universe of meanings, many of them considerably different from those in force at the countryside. Conflicts and syntheses emerged from this process show the importance of being aware of the relationship of the building of local identities faced to broader political and symbolic disputes as well as the limits of the binding of local practices and values thought as universal ones.

  12. PENGEMBANGAN POTENSI DAYA TARIK WISATA PULAU ATAURO DI DISTRIK DILI, TIMOR-LESTE

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    Miguel Da Costa Costa Gomes

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The island of Atauro is a tourist destination located in Dili    District of East Timor.The island has big potential for tourist attractions that deserves to be further developed to be tourist destinations. This study aims to investigate the potential tourist attractions, the internal and external environmental conditions as well as to formulate strategies and programs for sustainable tourism development. This study used IFAS (Internal Factor Analysis System and EFAS (External Factor Analysis System are used. This study applies planning theory, tourism area life cycle by Butler, planning and Participation Theory. Data are collected through observation, interviews, and questionnaires.The results showed that there is potential to further develop some tourist attractions in Atauro to be sustainable tourism. Unspoiled natural view, underwater panoramic, extended coral-reef with varieties of fishes, forest with various birds, unique social and cultural life are some of the potential areas for development. The analysis on internal and external environment showed that Atauro is categorized into cell I Grow and Development (the concentration is via vertical integration. The potential for tourism in Atauro Island mainly lays in marine, culture, beaches, history, biking, spring water, seaweed cultivation, cave, spirituality, and sightseeing adventure. The strongest factor of internal environmental condition is the panoramic view, while the weakest factor is the inadequate facilities and infrastructure.

  13. Associations between bride price stress and intimate partner violence amongst pregnant women in Timor-Leste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Susan; Mohsin, Mohammed; Tay, Alvin Kuowei; Soares, Elisa; Tam, Natalino; da Costa, Zelia; Tol, Wietse; Silove, Derrick

    2017-08-28

    Reducing violence against women is a global public health priority, particularly in low-income and conflict-affected societies. However, more needs to be known about the causes of intimate partner violence (IPV) in these settings, including the stress of bride price obligations. The representative study of women attending ante-natal clinics in Dili, Timor-Leste was conducted between June, 2013 and September, 2014 with 1672 pregnant women, a response rate of 96%. We applied contextually developed measures for the stress of bride price and poverty, and the World Health Organisation measure for intimate partner violence. Compared to those with no problems with bride price, women with moderate or serious problems with that custom reported higher rates of IPV (18.0% vs. 43.6%). Adjusting for socio-demographic factors, multivariate analysis revealed that ongoing poverty (OR = 1.75, 95% CI: 1.20-2.56) was significantly associated with IPV. Importantly, the strongest association with IPV was problems with bride price (OR = 2.73, 95% CI: 1.86-4.01). This is the first large consecutively sampled study to demonstrate a strong association between the stressors of bride price and poverty with IPV. Notably, bride price stress had the strongest association with IPV. Revealing this hitherto unrecognized factor of bride price stress may prove pivotal in guiding policy and interventions aimed at reducing IPV, and thereby improve the health and psychosocial status of women in low income and conflict-affected settings.

  14. ‘A Bit of a Grope’: Gender, Sex and Racial Boundaries in Transitional East Timor

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    Roslyn Appleby

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the gender positioning of white Australian women working on aid projects in East Timor during the military and aid intervention of 2000-2002. Drawing on interviews with women employed in English language teaching programs, I compare the positions women adopted in relation to their engagement with men in the foreign intervention/occupation community and with men in the local Timorese community. From the women’s perspective, the intervention was constructed as patriarchal regime that carried the gendered legacy of an earlier colonial era. This context provided a challenging domain for women development workers, as they juggled often conflicting discourses of gender equality and cultural sensitivity in their relations with men in the community of foreign occupiers, and with local Timorese men. The women’s self positioning in relation to these two groups varied markedly: while they readily rejected the behaviour and attitudes of foreign men as sexist and patriarchal, their response to Timorese men was more complex and ambivalent, demonstrating an awareness of their own inappropriacy as foreign intruders in this space.

  15. “Amor virtutis” – “timor disciplinae” [Vocazione etica e precettività disciplinare

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    Piero Bellini

    2016-12-01

    SOMMARIO: 1. «Deus summus Legislator: summus Iudex» - 2. «Bene facere: bonum facere» - 3. «Lex divina ad hoc ordinat hominem ut sit totaliter subditus Deo» - 4. «Opus operantis: opus operatum» - 5. «Sine dilectione boni nullus Deo placere potest» - 6.«Sollicitudo sacerdotalis: sollicitudo praelatitia» - 7. «A Deo omnia, et in Deum»: «nulla vita est quae non sit a Deo» - 8. «Sine dilectione boni nullusDeo placere potest» - 9. «Voluntas facit opus meritorium, non opus voluntatem» - 10. «Deus agit in homines per homines» - 11. «Homines vident ea quae parent: Deus autem intuetur cor» - 12. «Quodlibet factum vel dictum potest esse scandalum» - 13. «Non sunt mali cogendi ad bonum» - 14. «Animus non est cogendus, sed cogenda est actio» - 15. «Coacta servitia Deo non placent» - 16. «Quicumque ad bonum cogitur solo timore non amore ducitur» - 17. «quies fidelium: ordo constitutus» - 18. «Discrimen soporis animae».

  16. The use of evidence in maternal health: Connecting research and policy in Timor-Leste

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    Kayli Janine Wild

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The evidence-based policy (EBP movement has received significant attention in the scientific literature, however, there is still very little empirical research to provide insight into how policy decisions are made and how evidence is used. The lack of research on this topic in low and middle-income countries is of particular note. We examine the maternity waiting home policy in Timor-Leste to understand the role of context, policy characteristics, individual actors and how evidence is used to influence the policy agenda. The research tracked the maternity waiting home policy from 2005 to 2009 and is based on in-depth interviews with 31 senior policy-makers, department managers, non-government organisation (NGO representatives and United Nations (UN advisors. It is also informed by direct observation, attendance at meetings and workshops and analysis of policy documents. The findings from this case study demonstrate the importance of political context, policy characteristics and the power of senior Ministry of Health officials rather than donors in setting the policy agenda. Maternity waiting homes were appealing because they were a visible, non-controversial and logical solution to the problem of accessing maternal health services. Evidence was used in a variety of ways, from supporting pre-determined agendas to informing new policy directions. In the pursuit of EBP, we conclude that the power of research to inform policy lies in its timeliness and relevance, and is facilitated by the connection between researchers and policy-makers.

  17. The measurement of workplace incivility in Indonesia: evidence and construct validity

    OpenAIRE

    Handoyo S; Samian; Syarifah D; Suhariadi F

    2018-01-01

    Seger Handoyo, Samian, Dewi Syarifah, Fendy Suhariadi Department of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Faculty of Psychology, Airlangga University, Surabaya, Indonesia Introduction: A large body of research in workplace incivility has largely been conducted in the West, while in Asia, it is still relatively limited despite its close relationship to local cultural norms. The purpose of this study was to explore workplace incivility experienced by employees in Indonesia and develop a wor...

  18. Analisis Determinan Net Ekspor Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Daulay, Rahmawaty

    2010-01-01

    This study is to analyzing empirically among Indonesia GDP, trade partnership GDP (Malaysia, Singapore, US and Thailand) and real exchange rate toward Indonesia Net Export. To find out which one from those three variables is significant in order to fluctuating (increasing or decreasing) Indonesia Net Export either in the short run or in the long run. Data collection is obtained using secondary data, namely Indonesia GDP, Malaysia GDP, Singapura GDP, US GDP, Thailand GDP and real exchange rate...

  19. Birth choices in Timor-Leste: a framework for understanding the use of maternal health services in low resource settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Kayli; Barclay, Lesley; Kelly, Paul; Martins, Nelson

    2010-12-01

    The high rate of maternal mortality in Timor-Leste is a persistent problem which has been exacerbated by the long history of military occupation and ongoing political crises since independence in 1999. It is similar to other developing countries where there have been slow declines in maternal mortality despite 20 years of Safe Motherhood interventions. The national Ministry of Health, United Nations (UN) agencies and non-government organisations (NGOs) have attempted to reduce maternal mortality by enacting policies and interventions to increase the number of births in health centres and hospitals. Despite considerable effort in promoting facility-based delivery, most Timorese women birth at home and the lack of midwives means few women have access to a skilled birth attendant. This paper investigates factors influencing access to and use of maternal health services in rural areas of Timor-Leste. It draws on 21 interviews and 11 group discussions with Timorese women and their families collected over two periods of fieldwork, one month in September 2006 and five months from July to December 2007. Theoretical concepts from anthropology and health social science are used to explore individual, social, political and health system issues which affect the way in which maternal health services are utilised. In drawing together a range of theories this paper aims to extend explanations around access to maternal health services in developing countries. An empirically informed framework is proposed which illustrates the complex factors that influence women's birth choices. This framework can be used by policy-makers, practitioners, donors and researchers to think critically about policy decisions and where investments can have the most impact for improving maternal health in Timor-Leste and elsewhere. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Malaria and mefloquine prophylaxis use among Japan Ground Self-Defense Force personnel deployed in East Timor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Tatsuya; Kaku, Koki; Jelinek, Tomas; Kimura, Mikio

    2007-01-01

    Malaria poses a significant threat to military personnel stationed in endemic areas; therefore, it is important to examine the risks of military operations, particularly in areas where malaria-related data are scarce. The recent deployment of Japan Ground Self-Defense Force (JGSDF) for a peacekeeping operation in East Timor provided an opportunity to investigate these risks. The results of these studies may be translated into chemoprophylactic strategies for travelers. A total of 1,876 members were deployed between April 2002 and September 2003. They consisted of three battalions; each remained for 6 months and was put on mefloquine prophylaxis. Malaria infection was investigated, including exposure to Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites, assessed by seroconversion for anticircumsporozoite (anti-CS) protein antibodies. Adherence to and adverse events (AEs) of mefloquine were studied via questionnaires. Four members were evacuated: one each with optic neuritis, lung cancer with brain metastasis, IgA nephropathy, and psychotic reactions that may have been precipitated by mefloquine. Six clinical episodes of Plasmodium vivax occurred, including one relapse, but there were no clinical cases of P falciparum, yielding a crude malaria attack rate of 0.32% for the 6-month period. Overall, 3.1% of the study population seroconverted for the anti-CS protein antibodies, with some regional differences noted. About 24% of questionnaire respondents, reported AEs; however, none of the AEs was severe. The AEs tended to emerge during the initial doses of chemoprophylaxis. The implementation of mefloquine prophylaxis among JGSDF personnel in East Timor, where P falciparum constitutes a moderate risk, appears to have been a success. Mefloquine prophylaxis was generally safe for Japanese unless predisposed to neuropsychiatric illness. However, given that mefloquine is the only chemoprophylactic agent available, a risk-benefit analysis tailored to the traveler is required for visits to

  1. HISTORISITAS POLITIK PEREMPUAN INDONESIA

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    Wasisto Raharjo Jati

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze historicity of political participation and representation of women in the political landscape in Indonesia. This paper used the perspective of feminism theory as core analysis in reviewing its issue. Periodicity of Indonesian women's political participation is very volatile and depends on the political situation contemporary. Indonesian women's political participation in the era of colonialism experienced domestication, revivalism in the Sukarno era, stigmatization in the New Order era, and is now experiencing ambiguity in the Reformation era. Indonesian women's political participation need to find a strong platform to promote the aspirations of his peopleKeywords: partisipation, representation, domestification, stigmatization, and women politic.Artikel ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis histo-risitas partisipasi politik dan keterwakilan perempuan dalam lanskap politik di Indonesia. Tu-lisan ini menggunakan perspektif teori feminisme sebagai analisis inti dalam meninjau isu nya. Periodisitas partisipasi politik perempuan Indonesia sangat fluktuatif dan tergantung pada situasi politik kontemporer. Partisipasi politik perempuan Indonesia di era kolonialisme mengalami domestikasi, revivalisme di era Soekarno, stigmatisasi di era Orde Baru, dan sekarang mengalami ambiguitas dalam era Reformasi. Partisipasi politik perempuan Indonesia perlu menemukan platform yang kuat untuk memperjuangkan aspirasi rakyatnyaKata kunci: partisipasi, representasi, domestifikasi, stigmasi, politik perempuan  

  2. Demographic and spatial predictors of anemia in women of reproductive age in Timor-Leste: implications for health program prioritization.

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    Andrew A Lover

    Full Text Available Anemia is a significant risk factor for poor health outcomes for both the mother and neonate; however, the determinants of anemia in many epidemiological settings are poorly understood. Using a subset of a nationally representative cluster survey (2010 Demographic and Health Survey in combination with other non-contemporaneous survey data, the epidemiology of anemia among women of reproductive age in Timor-Leste has been explored. Logistic regression was used to identify risk factors, population-level impacts were estimated as population attributable fractions and spatial analytics were used to identify regions of highest risk. The DHS survey found that ∼ 21% of adult women in Timor-Leste are anemic (49,053; 95% CI: 37,095 to 61,035, with hemoglobin <12.0 g/dL. In this population, the main risk factors (adjusted odds ratio; 95% CI are: currently abstaining from sex for any reason (2.25; 1.50 to 3.38; illiteracy (2.04; 1.49 to 2.80; giving birth within the previous year (1.80; 1.29 to 2.51; consumption of fruits/vegetables low in vitamin A (1.57; 1.13 to 2.20; and the district-level confirmed malaria incidence (1.31; 1.15 to 1.49. A review of prior soil-transmitted helminth surveys in Timor-Leste indicates low-to-moderate prevalence with generally low egg counts, suggesting a limited impact on anemia in this setting, although comprehensive survey data are lacking. Examination of the population-level effects highlights the impacts of both recent births and malaria on anemia, with more limited impacts from diet; the evidence does not suggest a large contribution from geohelminths within Timor-Leste. These patterns are divergent from some other settings in the Asia-Pacific region and highlight the need for further focused research. Targeting high-burden districts and by increasing access to pre/postnatal care, raising literacy levels, increasing access to family planning, and improving malaria control should be prioritized to maximize inherently

  3. Estimating one's own and one's relatives' multiple intelligence: a cross-cultural study from East Timor and Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Félix; Furnham, Adrian; Pinto, Maria da Conceição

    2009-11-01

    This study examined estimates of their own, and their parents' general and multiple intelligences. Three hundred and twenty three students from East Timor, and one hundred eighty three students from Portugal estimated their own, and their parents' IQ scores on each of Gardner's ten multiple intelligences. Men believed they were more intelligent than were women on mathematical (logical), spatial, and naturalistic intelligence. There were consistent and clear culture differences. Portuguese gave higher self, and family ratings than Timorese, as expected. Participants of both cultures rated overall intelligence of their father higher than that of their mother. Implications of these results for education and self-presentations are considered.

  4. An estimation of the prevalence of diabetes mellitus and diabetic retinopathy in adults in Timor-Leste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawkins, Rosie Claire Hewitt; Oliver, Genevieve Frances; Sharma, Manoj; Pinto, Basilio Martins; Jeronimo, Belmerio; Pereira, Bernadete; Magno, Julia; Motta, Lara Alexandra; Verma, Nitin; Shephard, Mark

    2015-06-18

    Once considered an affliction of people in high-income countries, diabetes mellitus is increasingly seen as a global epidemic. However, for many countries very little is known about the prevalence of diabetes and its complications. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of diabetes, and diabetic retinopathy, in adults in Timor-Leste. From March 2013 to May 2014, adult patients being assessed for cataract surgery at the Sentru Matan Nasional (National Eye Centre) in Dili, Timor-Leste had a point-of-care HbA1c measurement performed on the DCA Vantage device (Siemens Ltd) under a quality framework. A diagnostic cut-off of 6.5% (48 mmol/mol) HbA1c was used for diagnosis of diabetes. Ocular examination, blood pressure, demographic and general health data were also collected. Diabetic retinopathy assessment was carried out by ophthalmologists. A total of 283 people [mean age 63.6 years (range 20-90 years)] were tested and examined during the study period. Forty-three people (15.2%) were found to have diabetes, with a mean HbA1c of 9.5% (77 mmol/mol). Of these, 27 (62.9%) were newly diagnosed, with a mean HbA1c of 9.7% (83 mmol/mol) and a range of 6.6-14% (49-130 mmol/mol). Nearly half (48.1%) of people newly diagnosed with diabetes had an HbA1c over 10.0% (86 mmol/mol). Of those with known diabetes, only 68.8% were receiving any treatment. Mean HbA1c for treated patients was 9.9% (85 mmol/mol). Diabetic retinopathy was identified in 18.6% of people with diabetes, of whom half had no previous diagnosis of diabetes. This study estimates the prevalence of diabetes at 15% in adults in Timor-Leste, a substantial proportion of whom have evidence of diabetic retinopathy. This is consistent with regional estimates. With the majority of patients undiagnosed, and management of people known to have diabetes largely inadequate, point-of-care testing is a valuable tool to assist with diabetes case detection and management. Whilst only a preliminary estimate, our data provides

  5. Gynecological cancer in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, M Farid

    2009-03-01

    To overview the status of gynecologic cancer in Indonesia. Information regarding Indonesia obtained from World Bank Report and Statistical Yearbook of Indonesia 2007, epidemiological data obtained from Histopathological Data of Cancer in Indonesia 2002, Department of Health-Registry Body of Indonesian Specialist of Pathology Association-Indonesian Cancer Society; Various Hospitals in big Cities in Indonesia. Indonesia is an Archipelago with a total area of 1,922,570.00 km(2), the population is 222,192,000 (2006), the fourth world rank. Female is 49.86% with life expectancy 69 years. Gross National Product per Capita is 690.00 USD. Histopathological report in 2002 revealed that cervical cancer, ovarian cancer and uterine cancer were the most frequent cancer among female, which were the first (2,532 cases), the third (829 cases) and the eighth (316 cases) rank respectively. The peak age for cervical, uterine and ovarian cancer was 45-54 years. HPV 16, 18 were found in 82% of invasive cervical. Data from various academic hospitals in 2007 showed that cervical cancer is the most common malignancy followed by ovary, uterus, vulva and vagina. Five-year survival rate of stage I, II, III, IV cervical cancer were 50%, 40%, 20%, and 0% respectively. Overall five-year survival rate of carcinoma of the ovary was 54.8%. If sub-classified by stage, five-year survival rate are 94.3%, 75.0%, 31%, and 11.7% for stage I, II, III, and IV respectively. Five-year disease-free survival rate of endometrial cancer was 71.9%. Indonesia is the biggest Archipelago with a dense population but the income per capita still low (poor country). The most common gynecologic cancer is cervical cancer, followed by ovarian and uterine cancer. These cancers are included in top ten cancers in Indonesia. HPV 16, 18 were the most cause of cervical cancer. The five-year survival rates are comparable with world report.

  6. Changes in the oral health of the children of Dili, Timor Leste, between 2002 and 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babo Soares, Lucio F; Allen, Penny L; Kingi, Jenna; Roberts-Thomson, Kaye; Bettiol, Silvana; Crocombe, Leonard

    2016-01-01

    This research compared the oral health status of school children in Dili (the capital of Timor Leste) in 2002 and 2014. The 2014 oral health survey of Dili's children replicated the methods of an AusAID-supported oral health survey conducted in 2002. Equal numbers of children were invited to participate from four age groups (6-8, 9-11, 12-14 and 15-17 years). For the 2014 survey, the subdistricts of Dom Aleixo, Cristo Rei, Metinaro and Vera Cruz were randomly selected for inclusion. A questionnaire was used to collect data on demographics and oral health behaviours. Oral epidemiological examinations were conducted by four dentists and five dental nurses. The 2014 survey in Dili recruited 758 participants for the questionnaire and 655 children for the oral examination. In 2014, a lower proportion of children reported brushing their teeth the previous day (97% vs 100%, p=0.01) and a larger proportion reported having toothache (40% vs 19%, pp=0.01). There was no difference in the prevalence of decay in the primary dentition (39% vs 37%, p=0.61) or the mean number of decayed, missing or filled (dmft) teeth in the primary dentition in 2014 compared to 2002 (2.0 vs 1.8, p=0.47). However, the prevalence of decay in the permanent dentition was greater in 2014 (70% vs 53%, pp=0.04). The prevalence of gingival bleeding (65% vs 81%, ppchildren between 2002 and 2014, associated with more permanent teeth dental caries experiences.

  7. PENGEMBANGAN DAYA TARIK WISATA BERBASIS MASYARAKAT DI PANTAI VATUVOU, DISTRIK LIQUISA, TIMOR LESTE

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    Cipriana Dos Santos Guterres

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Vatuvou beach, located in the Village Vatuvou, Liquica District      of East Timor, has the potential to be developed into a tourist attraction, but until now its potential has not fully developed yet. The aim of this study is to determine the potential of Vatuvou Beach, to know how the local community have been involved to develop Vatuvou beach, to formulate the most effective strategies to develop it has a community based tourist attraction. The results of this study indicated that Vatuvou coastal region could be used as a tourist attraction in the District of Liquisa, because it has the existing potential such as beach panorama with sunset, black sandy beaches and under–sea wealth, availability of facilities and infrastructure to support tourism, such as water, electricity, road, telecommunication, public toilets, parking, and accommodation (but still limited. Socio-cultural potential as hospitality of the people in the village of Vatuvou, traditional activities, such as handcrafted, and rituals performed by people in the village of Vatuvou. In addition, the strategic location of the Vatuvou beach easily leads to some nearby tourist attraction, such as lake Maubara, Maubara Fort, historical buildings of Portuguese’s heritage, and souvenir center. The involvement of community participation in the coastal development of Vatuvou has been through the initial proceses, namely planning stage, development and evaluation of activities that have been implemented. Through the description, it can be concluded that the strategy of tourism development of Vatuvou beach can be made by the following procedures (1 Increasing the quality and quantity of human resources in tourism, (2 Inviting foreign or local investors to the potential of the existing tourism sectors, (3 Developing the potential of cultural as tourist attractions, and (4 Improving tourism facilities and infrastructure to support tourism activities in Vatuvou coastal areas.

  8. Thinking Skills in the 12th Grade English Course book in Timor Leste

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    Joaninho Xavier Hei

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the English course book of (Manual do Aluno INGLÊS 12.o ano de escolaridade/Students’ English Manual for 12th Year Schooling in Timor Leste. The activities in the reading and listening sections of the course book were performed to determine whether they emphasized on lower or higher levels of cognitive process. The study attempted to answer the following question: Do the cognitive levels of the activities that relate to the focus on reading and listening in the 12th grade English course book sufficiently represent all the six levels of the New Bloom Taxonomy of thinking skills? The objective of this analysis was to discover the reading and listening activities that can sufficiently promote the levels of cognitive process. The activities determined as the criteria for analysis were: Wh-questions, true/false question, yes/no question, multiple choice question, complete the sentence phrase, a chart, matching questions, statement question, and a key word request question. The activities of the questions were gathered, listed with the total numbers of 161 questions and analyzed according to the six levels of New Bloom’s Taxonomy. The results showed that 98 activities emphasized mostly on lower levels cognitive order while only 63 activities emphasized the higher levels of thinking skills. So, the course book mentioned above targeted as a resource for students to learn the language, not as a resource for students to develop thinking skills because it fails to equip learners with the activities requiring higher levels of thinking order. By implication, for the teacher/syllabus designer can be aware to modify their own learning material by integrating more higher-order questions to achieve higher levels of thinking skills. Keywords: Course book Activities Analysis, and New Bloom’s Taxonomy

  9. MANAJEMEN RISIKO PADA PELAKSANAAN PROYEK KONSTRUKSI GEDUNG PEMERINTAH DI KOTA DILI – TIMOR LESTE

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    Octavio P.M Marques

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Building project as one of the construction services are filled with varying risks during the construction phase of the project implementation. At the stage of the project implementation, risks may arise either the risk of time, cost and those which affect the quality of the project. Therefore, we need to understand the risks at the construction phase and mitigation to the risks to meet in execution of project based on initial planning. The study was conducted to identify the risks in the implementation of construction projects of government buildings by using survey methods that aim to get the opinion of the respondents regarding the risks at implementation of the government building construction projects in the city of Dili - Timor Leste. Further, it was done a risk assessment to determine the major or main risks. Major risk is controlled through mitigation measures and allocation of risks to the parties directly involved in construction projects such as Project Owner, Technical Supervisor, Consultant Design, Consultant Supervision and Contractor. The analysis used in this study is a qualitative analysis. The results showed 64 risks identified in the implementation of construction projects there are 10 government buildings risks (16% with an unacceptable category, 18 risks (28% with the undesirable category, 28 risks (44% with acceptable category and 8 risks (12% with negligible category. Ownership of major / main risk to the parties directly involved in the implementation of construction projects such as the project owner, technical supervisor, consultant design, consultant supervision and contractors. The project Owner and Technical Supervision (Department of Public Works is expected to further enhance the ability to manage projects so not throwing responsibility in managing government projects. consultant design and sonsultant supervision to be more careful in design till supervision during the implementation period so as to meet the cost

  10. West Africa

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

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    considered by many as a successful model of river basin organization. NBA, after years of ... a Regional Water Protocol for West Africa, following the model of the SADC ...... protection of water against pollution of all kinds (urban, industrial,.

  11. My Classroom: Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balazs, Erica

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the teaching experiences of Alief Noor Farida--a junior lecturer at Indonesia's "Universitas Negeri Semarang" (Semarang State University [UNNES]). Now teaching her fourth semester and an alumna of the English Education program at UNNES, Ms. Farida is an especially motivated and dedicated educator. She teaches 18…

  12. EKSISTENSI OMBUDSMAN REPUBLIK INDONESIA

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    yusnani hasjimzoem

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Republic of Indonesia is a rule of law under Article 1 (3 of the 1945 Constitution and should uphold respect for the rights of individuals and communities in implementing the country. The rights strengthened by the basic norms that become the main spirit of the people of Indonesia, Pancasila. Basic norms that the political objectives in developing the Indonesian nation and enact any bill. Thus the state agency that was created by a special law should work in line with the basic norms of the nation and work together to create prosperity. In 2003 the Ombudsman created by a special law has the duty and function to oversee public services effectively, efficiently, and in spite of the practice of (corruption, collusion, and nepotism. Ombudsman based its duties and functions that have the same vision as mandated in the fourth paragraph of the preamble of the Constitution of 1945. The Ombudsman is thus expected to make a good bureaucratic reform so that it can be a model and public services watchdog whose presence is really felt by the people of Indonesia. Keywords: Ombudsman of the Republic of Indonesia

  13. Petroleum systems of Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doust, H.; Noble, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    Indonesia contains many Tertiary basins, several of which have proven to be very prolific producers of oil and gas. The geology and petroleum systems of these productive basins are reviewed, summarized and updated according to the most recent developments. We have linked the recognized petroleum

  14. ANALISIS EKSPOR KOPI INDONESIA

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    SRI - WIDAYANTI

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT   This study aimed at analyzing, firstly, the factors influencing the coffee export of Indonesia; secondly, the factors influencing the domestic coffee supply; and thirdly, the factors influencing the domestic coffee demand. This research used secondary data, time series data of 1975–1997 which were collected from many resources, i.e. Statistical Center Bureau (BPS, Trade Department, Indonesian Coffee Exporter Association, Forestry and Commercial Agricultural Enterprise Department, and the Indonesian Bank. The factors influencing the coffee export of Indonesia as well as the domestic coffee demand and supply were analyzed by simultaneous equation model in the form of double logarithm using the two stage least square method (2SLS. The research results show that the factors influencing the export quantity of coffee were the coffee FOB price, the coffee price in domestic markets, the exchange rate and the coffee supply of the previous year. The coffee export price had negative correlation with the coffee export quantity of Indonesia with export supply elasticity toward the export price of 2.04. In other words, the increase of coffee export price was followed by the decrease of coffee export quantity. This condition was due to the low quality of the coffee export of Indonesia. The coffee price at domestic markets has positive correlation with the coffee export quantity of Indonesia. Export was still conducted when the coffee price at domestic markets increased because the demand for domestic coffee was still very low. Other factors positively influencing the coffee export quantity were the exchange rate of rupiah and the coffee supply of the previous year. The factors influencing the domestic coffee supply were the domestic coffee price, technology level and the coffee supply of the previous year. The domestic coffee price positively related to the coffee supply at domestic markets with a supply elasticity of 0.04. This means that the

  15. Kriptosporidiosis di Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Wijayanti

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTCryptosporidiosis included to waterborne and soil transmited diseases, caused by Cryptosporidium, obligat intraceluller pathogen organism. Cryptosporidium cause intestinal infection of human and animal acute diarrhea. Lung cryptosporidiosis on HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis  patients was reported. Diarrhea still be important health problem because diarrhea was be the third dominant contributor of children morbidity and mortality at some country include Indonesia. Every children have 1,6-2x diarrhea onset annually. Diarrhea cases caused by Cryptosporidium sp parasite was around 4-11%. Focus of this review is  about cryptosporidiosis on children, HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis patients, animal, environment, diagnostic and it’s prevention and control. Cryptosporidium species confirmed in Indonesia are C. wrairi, C. muris,  C. felis, C. hominis, C. meleagridis and C. parvum, indicated that there was a big rule of animal on Cryptosporidium transmission. Cryptosporidium was necessary to be one of diseases diagnose on HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis patients. Transmission of Cryptosporidium by  respiratory secretion (droplet, aerosol or contact with vomiting must be anticipated to prevent cryptosporidiosis especially on imunocompromissed/imunodeficiency people. Rapid Diagnostic Test that have highly sensitivity and spesificity is very important on Cryptosporidium cases finding and surveillance in Indonesia. Environment and cattle sanitation, personal hygiene, water and food treatment, is necessary to prevent cryptosporidiosis transmission.  Kriptosporidiosis termasuk waterborne dan soil transmitted diseases, disebabkan oleh Cryptosporidium yang bersifat obligat intraseluler. Cryptosporidium menyebabkan infeksi pada usus halus dan dapat menyebabkan diare akut pada manusia dan hewan. Kriptosporidiosis paru telah dilaporkan pada penderita HIV/AIDS dan tuberkulosis. Diare merupakan penyumbang utama ketiga angka kesakitan dan kematian anak di berbagai negara

  16. MEWUJUDKAN NEGARA HUKUM INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Soebechi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Artikel yang berjudul “Mewujudkan Negara Hukum” ini merupakan studi tentang konsepsi negara hukum Indonesia yang membedakannya dengan konsepsi negara hukum lain. meski mendapat pengaruh dari berbagai pemikiran, tetapi konsepsi negara hukum Indonesia berbeda dengan konsepsi rule of law dan rechtsstaat. Hal tersebut dapat ditelisik dari dasar falsafah, sifat kedaulatan, kekuasaan organ negara, dan hak asasi manusia. Terdapat enam unsur utama negara hukum indonesia, yaitu : 1 Pancasila; 2 supremasi hukum; 3 demokratis; 4 pembatasan dan pemencaran kekuasaan negara; 5 kekuasaan kehakiman yang bebas dan mandiri; 6 perlindungan hak asasi manusia. Dengan penguatan Indonesia sebagai negara hukum yang demokratis berdasarkan Pancasila maka seharusnya segala bentuk tindakan bernegara dan bermasyarakat harus disandarkan pada hukum.   This Article entitled " the State law of Indonesian" is the result of a study on the conception of the characteristic of law states of Indonesian that distinguish the conception of the state laws in other countries. Based on the research results, can be explained even get the effect of various thoughts, but the conception of law state of Indonesian different with conception the rule of law and rechtstaat. This can be searched from basic of philosophy, the nature of sovereignty, the powers of state organs, and human rights. There are six main elements of Indonesian law states, namely: 1 Pancasila; 2 supremacy of law;; 3 democratic 4 restrictions and dispersal of state power; 4 independent judiciary; 6 protection of human rights. the statement of Indonesia as a democratic rule of law based on Pancasila then should all forms of civic and social action must be based on the law.

  17. Analisis Cadangan Devisa Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lusia Bunga Uli

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aims to determine the relationship between variables export, import, and exchange rate against Foreign Exchange Reserves in Indonesia. The data used in the empirical study of a sequence of data monthly time of year 2011.01 through 2014.12 from Bank Indonesia and the Central Statistics Agency (BPS. The analysis tool used is Auto Regression Vector Model (VAR. The results of this study indicate that the one-way relationship between the variables of foreign reserves and export. Then one-way relationship between exchange rate and exports. Lastly, there is a two-way relationship between imports and foreign exchange reserves, two-way relationship between exchange rate and foreign exchange reserves, two-way relationship between imports and exports, two-way relationship between the exchange rate and imports. The results also showed foreign exchange reserves are significantly influenced by the movement itself at a probability of 1 %. Export variable negative and not significantly affect the foreign exchange reserves. While imports of positive and not significant to the foreign exchange reserves. Foreign Exchange Reserves Indonesia is positively influenced by the exchange rate and not significant. Keywords: Foreign exchange reserves, exports, imports, exchange rate   Abstrak. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui seberapa keterkaitan antar variabel ekspor, impor, dan nilai tukar rupiah terhadap Cadangan Devisa Indonesia. Data yang digunakan dalam kajian empiris ini merupakan data runtutaan waktu bulanan dari tahun 2011.01 sampai 2014. 12 yang berasal dari Bank Indonesia dan Badan Pusat Statistik (BPS. Alat analisis yang digunakan yaitu Vector Autoregression Model (VAR. Hasil dari penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa hubungan searah antara variabel cadangan devisa ke ekspor. Lalu hubungan searah antara kurs terhadap ekspor Terakhir, terdapat hubungan dua arah antara impor dan cadangan devisa, hubungan dua arah antara kurs dan cadangan

  18. Perlindungan Hukum terhadap Tenaga Kerja Indonesia Bermasalah Asal Kalimantan Barat yang Bekerja di Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    ARIEF SYAFRIANTO,SE A.21208038, Jurnal Mahasiswa S2

    2013-01-01

    This thesis addressed the issue of the Legal Protection of Indonesian Migrant Workers in West Kalimantan The Troubled Origin Working in Malaysia. From the results of research using legal and sociological research methods can be concluded : 1. Normative reality of the setting and implementation of the legal protection of migrant workers and migrant workers from West Kalimantan province in Indonesia origin troubled working in Malaysia in principle has been made are optimal by the Government thr...

  19. What do health workers in Timor-Leste want, know and do? Findings from a national health labour market survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xiaohui; Witter, Sophie; Zaman, Rashid U; Engelhardt, Kay; Hafidz, Firdaus; Julia, Fernanda; Lemiere, Christophe; Sullivan, Eileen B; Saldanha, Estanislau; Palu, Toomas; Lievens, Tomas

    2016-11-18

    The objectives of this study were to understand the labour market dynamics among health workers, including their preferences and concerns, and to assess the skills, competence and performance (i.e. the 'know-do gap') of doctors working in Timor-Leste. This cross-sectional survey was implemented in all 13 districts of Timor-Leste in 2014. We surveyed 443 health workers, including 175 doctors, 150 nurses and 118 midwives (about 20% of the health workers in the country). We also observed 632 clinical consultations with doctors, including 442 direct clinical observations, and tested 190 vignettes. The study highlights some positive findings, including the gender balance of health workers overall, the concentration of doctors in rural areas, the high overall reported satisfaction of staff with their work and high motivation, the positive intention to stay in the public sector, the feeling of being well prepared by training for work, the relatively frequent and satisfactory supervisions, and the good attitudes towards patients as identified in observations and vignettes. However, some areas require more investigations and investments. The overall clinical performance of the doctors was very good in terms of attitude and moderate in regard to history taking, health education and treatment. However, the average physical examination performance score was low. Doctors performed better with simulated cases than the real cases in general, which means they have better knowledge and skills than they actually demonstrated. The factors that were significantly associated with the clinical performance of doctors were location of the health facility (urban doctors were better) and consultation time (cases with more consultation time were better). Regression analysis suggests that lack of knowledge was significantly associated with lack of performance, while lack of motivation and equipment were not significant. The survey provides essential information for workforce planning and for

  20. An exploratory study of treated-bed nets in Timor-Leste: patterns of intended and alternative usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilder-Smith Annelies

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Timor-Leste Ministry of Health has recently finalized the National Malaria Control Strategy for 2010-2020. A key component of this roadmap is to provide universal national coverage with long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs in support of achieving the primary goal of reducing both morbidity and mortality from malaria by 30% in the first three years, followed by a further reduction of 20% by end of the programme cycle in 2020 1. The strategic plan calls for this target to be supported by a comprehensive information, education and communication (IEC programme; however, there is limited prior research into household and personal usage patterns to assist in the creation of targeted, effective, and socio-culturally specific behaviour change materials. Methods Nine separate focus group discussions (FGDs were carried out in Dili, Manatuto, and Covalima districts, Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste, in July 2010. These focus groups primarily explored themes of perceived malaria risk, causes of malaria, net usage patterns within families, barriers to correct and consistent usage, and the daily experience of users (both male and female in households with at least one net. Comprehensive qualitative analysis utilized open source analysis software. Results The primary determinants of net usage were a widespread perception that nets could or should only be used by pregnant women and young children, and the availability of sufficient sleeping space under a limited number of nets within households. Both nuisance biting and disease prevention were commonly cited as primary motivations for usage, while seasonality was not a significant factor. Long-term net durability and ease of hanging were seen as key attributes in net design preference. Very frequent washing cycles were common, potentially degrading net effectiveness. Finally, extensive re-purposing of nets (fishing, protecting crops was both reported and observed, and may

  1. Indonesia's migration transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugo, G

    1995-01-01

    This article describes population movements in Indonesia in the context of rapid and marked social and economic change. Foreign investment in Indonesia is increasing, and global mass media is available to many households. Agriculture is being commercialized, and structural shifts are occurring in the economy. Educational levels are increasing, and women's role and status are shifting. Population migration has increased over the decades, both short and long distance, permanent and temporary, legal and illegal, and migration to and between urban areas. This article focuses specifically on rural-to-urban migration and international migration. Population settlements are dense in the agriculturally rich inner areas of Java, Bali, and Madura. Although the rate of growth of the gross domestic product was 6.8% annually during 1969-94, the World Bank ranked Indonesia as a low-income economy in 1992 because of the large population size. Income per capita is US $670. Indonesia is becoming a large exporter of labor to the Middle East, particularly women. The predominance of women as overseas contract workers is changing women's role and status in the family and is controversial due to the cases of mistreatment. Malaysia's high economic growth rate of over 8% per year means an additional 1.3 million foreign workers and technicians are needed. During the 1980s urban growth increased at a very rapid rate. Urban growth tended to occur along corridors and major transportation routes around urban areas. It is posited that most of the urban growth is due to rural-to-urban migration. Data limitations prevent an exact determination of the extent of rural-to-urban migration. More women are estimated to be involved in movements to cities during the 1980s compared to the 1970s. Recruiters and middlemen have played an important role in rural-to-urban migration and international migration.

  2. Sekolah Tinggi Aviasi Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Laviana

    2017-01-01

    The demand of air transportion has increased significantly each year. This supports the concept of Aerotropolis region at Kualnamu Airport, where the airport as the center of economic movements with various commercial functions in the vicinity. By doing so, the aviation industry require the HR (Human Resources) fatherly balance demand and the needs. In addition, the human resources are also required to have high qualifications in performing their duties. Therefore, Indonesia...

  3. Democracy in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-01

    on the president in the formulation of state-policies. The formulation of legislation is the responsibility of the Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat (DPR- the...autonomy). These regional governments are composed of the Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat Daerah (DPR-D: the regional representative assembly). On the other...out to "smash Malaysia ." With these attitudes the economy of Indonesia collapsed and politics became polarized. As political confrontation escalated

  4. KONFLIK AGRARIA DI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Zuber

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This article describe agrarian conflict in Indonesia. Until this moment many agrarian conflict are happen in Papua, Java, Kalimantan and Sumatera. This conflict consist many interests and there isn’t equity policy to society are following this conflict. The implication the agrarian conflict become latent conflict. It usually make huge damage in society and nation.

  5. Designing Futures in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Crosby

    2016-08-01

    This curated issue takes as its departure point Fry’s notion that design broadly shapes the world we occupy. To ask what happens when the world we occupy is not conceived simply in terms of local issues and solutions, but rather as a set of shared concerns that are localised and play out through global flows. To do so this issue presents ten contributions from Indonesia.

  6. Politisasi Birokrasi Di Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    RINA MARTINI, RINA MARTINI

    2010-01-01

    Indonesian bureaucracy is built in a long history, since an era of kingdom until an era of thestate formation called Indonesia. However, the characteristics of the bureacracy is mainly identifiedas patrimonialistic. The characteristics are inheritted until in the era of reformation when politicalstructure has been reconstructed to be more democratic. The efforst to reform seem not to yield amore legal-rationalistic typology of bureacracy. One of the reasons is a highly politicized bureaucracy...

  7. O ensino e a aprendizagem da leitura nos primeiros anos da escolaridade em Timor-Leste The teaching and the learning of reading in the first years of schooling in East Timor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aicha Binte Umar Bassarewan

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Timor-Leste é um novo país do terceiro milênio. Enquanto nação com uma sociedade de tradição oral, e, em sua maioria, ágrafa, enfrenta muitos desafios nesta era de globalização. Tendo em consideração a importância da leitura para a vida do ser humano, o ensino e a aprendizagem da leitura das crianças timorenses devem ser trabalhados desde os primeiros anos de escolaridade, levando em conta a realidade linguística e sociocultural do país. Com um estudo de caso na Escola Pública n° 1 Nularan, em Díli, Timor-Leste, sobre o ensino e a aprendizagem da leitura, nos primeiros três anos de escolaridade, pôde-se verificar que tanto as orientações do programa curricular como os livros de referência aplicados pela escola no trabalho com os alunos não promovem o desenvolvimento da leitura reflexiva nem estimulam situações em que a criança possa expor suas ideias ou comunicar-se tendo o texto para uma discussão coletiva. Dessa forma, sugere-se o acompanhamento e a avaliação constantes do processo de ensino e aprendizagem da leitura nas escolas primárias e do investimento tanto na formação dos recursos humanos quanto na melhoria de materiais didáticos e na infraestrutura das escolas. É de notar que não basta constar na Constituição e nas leis; o importante é a ação das entidades competentes na concretização do ensino de qualidade ao timorense como sujeito ativo nas invenções e nos saberes para que tenha acesso a uma vida melhor para si e para a comunidade da qual faz parte.East Timor is a new country of the Third Millennium. As a nation with a largely illiterate society of strong oral traditions, it faces many challenges in an era of globalization. Considering the importance of reading to human life, its teaching and learning must be developed from the first years of schooling of East Timorean children, taking into account the socio-cultural and linguistic reality of the country. A case study at Nularan Public

  8. Determinan Kebahagiaan Di Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresia Puji Rahayu

    2016-08-01

      Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menganalisis faktor-faktor penentu kebahagiaan di Indonesia. Dengan menggunakan data antar ruang/silang tempat dari Indonesia Family Life Survey (IFLS wave 4, 2007, studi ini mengambil 17,650 pengamatan yang diestimasi menggunakan model Oprobit. Model Oprobit dipilih karena adanya variabel respon ordinal dan asumsi normal dalam distribusi kesalahan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kebahagiaan di Indonesia secara positif dipengaruhi oleh pendapatan, tingkat pendidikan, status kesehatan yang dirasakan dan modal sosial. Namun demikian, modal sosial yang berkaitan dengan agama dan etnis tidak memiliki pengaruh yang signifikan terhadap kebahagiaan. Semua prediktor bersifat robust. Karakteristik demografi menginformasikan bahwa orang yang menikah, bukan kepala rumah tangga, tinggal di daerah perkotaan, berada di luar pulau Jawa-Bali dan dari suku Jawa lebih bahagia daripada yang lain. Riset ini juga menemukan bahwa tidak terdapat perbedaan dalam tingkat kebahagiaan antara pria dan wanita. Kemudian, hubungan antara kebahagiaan dan usia menunjukkan kurva yang berbentuk U. Terakhir, efek marjinal menunjukkan efek yang berbeda untuk setiap tingkat kebahagiaan karena perubahan unit variabel independen.

  9. Nuclear programme in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahimsa, Djali

    1994-01-01

    Implementation of the energy policy covers several aspects such as issuance of regulations, standards, energy pricing incentives and disincentives, and the application of appropriate technologies. The policies and implementation of the technologies can fully be supported by the use of nuclear technology, especially toward the now popular issue concerning the environment. In view of these policies and the need to implement these policies. i.e. for the diversification of energy and environmental concern, the Department of Mines and Energy has established an Indonesian Energy Coordination Board (BAKOREN). This board has realised the importance of considering nuclear as a source of energy, which has led to a decision in September 1989, for The National Atomic Energy Agency (BATAN) to conduct a feasibility study to introduce nuclear power plants in Indonesia. The establishment of an authority for the construction and operation of Nuclear Power Plants in Indonesia, which is primarily related to the safe and efficient operation of nuclear power plants, must also be prepared. This authority is still under considerations by the Indonesian Government. In implementing the Indonesia Nuclear Programme, it is important that cooperation exists among countries of the world, Korea, in this respect, as learning from experiences of other countries are very necessary to plan for a successful Nuclear Programme

  10. Contemporary United States Foreign Policy Towards Indonesia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McAslan, Hugh

    2004-01-01

    United States national interests in Indonesia have traditionally being based on strategic security requirements given Indonesia's geographic location between the Indian and Pacific Oceans, and strong...

  11. Persepsi Masyarakat terhadap Pengelolaan Sampah Padat Perkotaan di Kecamatan Dom Aleixo Kabupaten Dili-Timor Leste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Soares

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Penelitiaan mengenai persepsi masyarakat terhadap pengelolaan sampah padat perkotaan dilaksanakan di Kecamatan Dom Aleixo, Kabupaten Dili Timor Leste dengan sampel penelitiannya adalah rumah tangga yang ada di Desa Comoro dan Bairopite. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan dengan tujuan untuk: (1 mengkaji persepsi masyarakat terhadap usaha pemerintah dalam memberdayakan, menguatkan serta bagaimana menfasilitasi peranserta masyarakat dalam mengelola sampah rumah tangganya; (2 mengkaji kelemahan-kelemahan maupun permasalahan yang dihadapi Pemerintah Kota Dili dalam hal:  (a merumuskan kebijakan dan peraturan daerah tentang pengelolaan sampah padat perkotaan di Kecamatan Dom Aleixo; (b bagaimana usaha pemerintah daerah menggerakkan masyarakat agar berperan serta secara aktif dalam kegiatan pengelolaan sampah rumah tangganya; (3 mengkaji struktur kelembagaan Pemerintah Kota Dili guna mempertegas pendelegasian wewenang institusi pengelolaan sampah perkotaan; (4  membantu menfasilitasi keterlibatan stakeholder dalam mendukung program pemerintah mengenai pengelolaan sampah perkotaan di Kabupaten Dili. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian yang merujuk pada kegiatan lapangan atau survei. Dari populasi yang ada dipilih sejumlah sampel mengunakan teknik sampling yaitu secara random sampling. Teknik ini dipilih karena populasi sudah diketahui memiliki karakteristik yang homogen sehingga setiap individu yang terpilih sebagai sampel diyakini mampu menggambarkan karakteristik dari populasi tersebut. Data yang diperoleh dianalisis secara mix method yaitu gabungan antara analisis kuantitatif dan kualitatif. Teknik analisis ini dipilih dengan pertimbangan bahwa data yang telah diolah secara kuantitatif yaitu dengan teknik scoring diharapkan dapat di interpretasi secara lebih luas dan mendalam dengan teknik kualitatif. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan pada bulan Juli 2010 sampai dengan Agustus 2010.  Hasil dari penelitian ini : (a untuk kepentingan pemerintah daerah

  12. A probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment for Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horspool, N.; Pranantyo, I.; Griffin, J.; Latief, H.; Natawidjaja, D. H.; Kongko, W.; Cipta, A.; Bustaman, B.; Anugrah, S. D.; Thio, H. K.

    2014-11-01

    Probabilistic hazard assessments are a fundamental tool for assessing the threats posed by hazards to communities and are important for underpinning evidence-based decision-making regarding risk mitigation activities. Indonesia has been the focus of intense tsunami risk mitigation efforts following the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, but this has been largely concentrated on the Sunda Arc with little attention to other tsunami prone areas of the country such as eastern Indonesia. We present the first nationally consistent probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment (PTHA) for Indonesia. This assessment produces time-independent forecasts of tsunami hazards at the coast using data from tsunami generated by local, regional and distant earthquake sources. The methodology is based on the established monte carlo approach to probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA) and has been adapted to tsunami. We account for sources of epistemic and aleatory uncertainty in the analysis through the use of logic trees and sampling probability density functions. For short return periods (100 years) the highest tsunami hazard is the west coast of Sumatra, south coast of Java and the north coast of Papua. For longer return periods (500-2500 years), the tsunami hazard is highest along the Sunda Arc, reflecting the larger maximum magnitudes. The annual probability of experiencing a tsunami with a height of > 0.5 m at the coast is greater than 10% for Sumatra, Java, the Sunda islands (Bali, Lombok, Flores, Sumba) and north Papua. The annual probability of experiencing a tsunami with a height of > 3.0 m, which would cause significant inundation and fatalities, is 1-10% in Sumatra, Java, Bali, Lombok and north Papua, and 0.1-1% for north Sulawesi, Seram and Flores. The results of this national-scale hazard assessment provide evidence for disaster managers to prioritise regions for risk mitigation activities and/or more detailed hazard or risk assessment.

  13. A voz dos bandos: colectivos de justiça e ritos da palavra portuguesa em Timor Leste colonial

    OpenAIRE

    Roque, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    Este artigo examina as relações entre o discurso da justiça e a prática do ritual nos bandos do governo colonial português em Timor Leste, entre a segunda metade do século XIX e as primeiras décadas do século XX. Os bandos consistiam em ordens e instruções de comando emanadas pelo governador português em Díli, e comunicadas de forma cerimonial por oficiais às populações dos diversos reinos timorenses dispersos pelo país. Bandos eram um instrumento por excelência de governação colonial dos ass...

  14. Nurture Versus Nature: Accounting for the Differences Between the Taiwan and Timor active arc-continent collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, R. A.

    2011-12-01

    The active Banda arc/continent collision of the Timor region provides many important contrasts to what is observed in Taiwan, which is mostly a function of differences in the nature of the subducting plate. One of the most important differences is the thermal state of the respective continental margins: 30 Ma China passive margin versus 160 Ma NW Australian continental margin. The subduction of the cold and strong NW Australian passive margin beneath the Banda trench provides many new constraints for resolving longstanding issues about the formative stages of collision and accretion of continental crust. Some of these issues include evidence for slab rollback and subduction erosion, deep continental subduction, emplacement or demise of forearc basement, relative amounts of uplift from crustal vs. lithospheric processes, influence of inherited structure, partitioning of strain away from the thrust front, extent of mélange development, metamorphic conditions and exhumation mechanisms, continental contamination and accretion of volcanic arcs, does the slab tear, and does subduction polarity reverse? Most of these issues link to the profound control of lower plate crustal heterogeneity, thermal state and inherited structure. The thermomechanical characteristics of subducting an old continental margin allow for extensive underthrusting of lower plate cover units beneath the forearc and emplacement and uplift of extensive nappes of forearc basement. It also promotes subduction of continental crust to deep enough levels to experience high pressure metamorphism (not found in Taiwan) and extensive contamination of the volcanic arc. Seismic tomography confirms subduction of continental lithosphere beneath the Banda Arc to at least 400 km with no evidence for slab tear. Slab rollback during this process results in massive subduction erosion and extension of the upper plate. Other differences in the nature of the subducting plates in Taiwan in Timor are differences in the

  15. International cooperation and health policy implementation in a post-conflict situation: the case of East Timor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Luiz Eduardo; Almeida, Celia

    2015-01-01

    This study centers on relationships among national and international actors in preparation of the first health policy document for East Timor, under the United Nations transitional administration, between 1999 and 2002. International cooperation support for the health system rehabilitation process during the post-conflict period is analyzed as part of reconstruction of the State in parallel with construction of the country's political and institutional framework. Knowledge, ideas, "ways of doing," and induced and accepted practices permeate an interplay of power relationships that condition both national political alliance-building and the architecture of international aid, pointing to input to a discussion of how these mechanisms interact at different conjunctures and times in different negotiating frameworks.

  16. The tyranny of distance: maternity waiting homes and access to birthing facilities in rural Timor-Leste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Kayli; Barclay, Lesley; Kelly, Paul; Martins, Nelson

    2012-02-01

    To examine the impact of maternity waiting homes on the use of facility-based birthing services for women in two remote districts of Timor-Leste. A before-and-after study design was used to compare the number of facility-based births in women who lived at different distances (0-5, 6-25, 26-50 and > 50 km) from the health centre before and after implementation of maternity waiting homes. Routine data were collected from health centre records at the end of 2007; they included 249 births in Same, Manufahi district, and 1986 births in Lospalos, Lautem district. Population data were used to estimate the percentage of women in each distance category who were accessing facility-based care. Most facility-based births in Same (80%) and Lospalos (62%) were among women who lived within 5 km of the health centre. There was no significant increase in the number of facility-based births among women in more remote areas following implementation of the maternity waiting homes. The percentage of births in the population that occurred in a health facility was low for both Manufahi district (9%) and Lautem district (17%), and use decreased markedly as distance between a woman's residence and the health facilities increased. The maternity waiting homes in Timor-Leste did not improve access to facility-based delivery for women in remote areas. The methods for distance analysis presented in this paper provide a framework that could be used by other countries seeking to evaluate maternity waiting homes.

  17. Understanding Health Workers' Job Preferences to Improve Rural Retention in Timor-Leste: Findings from a Discrete Choice Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smitz, Marc-Francois; Witter, Sophie; Lemiere, Christophe; Eozenou, Patrick Hoang-Vu; Lievens, Tomas; Zaman, Rashid U; Engelhardt, Kay; Hou, Xiaohui

    2016-01-01

    Timor-Leste built its health workforce up from extremely low levels after its war of independence, with the assistance of Cuban training, but faces challenges as the first cohorts of doctors will shortly be freed from their contracts with government. Retaining doctors, nurses and midwives in remote areas requires a good understanding of health worker preferences. The article reports on a discrete choice experiment (DCE) carried out amongst 441 health workers, including 173 doctors, 150 nurses and 118 midwives. Qualitative methods were conducted during the design phase. The attributes which emerged were wages, skills upgrading/specialisation, location, working conditions, transportation and housing. One of the main findings of the study is the relative lack of importance of wages for doctors, which could be linked to high intrinsic motivation, perceptions of having an already highly paid job (relative to local conditions), and/or being in a relatively early stage of their career for most respondents. Professional development provides the highest satisfaction with jobs, followed by the working conditions. Doctors with less experience, males and the unmarried are more flexible about location. For nurses and midwives, skill upgrading emerged as the most cost effective method. The study is the first of its kind conducted in Timor-Leste. It provides policy-relevant information to balance financial and non-financial incentives for different cadres and profiles of staff. It also augments a thin literature on the preferences of working doctors (as opposed to medical students) in low and middle income countries and provides insights into the ability to instil motivation to work in rural areas, which may be influenced by rural recruitment and Cuban-style training, with its emphasis on community service.

  18. Container Shipping Network Efficiency Comparison in Indonesia: Nusantara Pendulum and Sea Tollway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafida Fahmiasari

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The disparity of the trading activities in Indonesia has triggered Indonesia Port Corporation to come up with the plan of Nusantara Pendulum, the future network of container shipping in Indonesia. The Sea Tollway plan is the modification of Nusantara Pendulum that is also envisioned by Indonesia President for Indonesia future backbone container plan. Both networks were designed to increase Indonesia container shipping flow from west to east and vice versa like a pendulum, thus results the reduced transport cost. This paper depicts the comparison of network efficiency analysis between these networks: Nusantara Pendulum, Sea Tollway, and the existing network. Two main methods that are used are Nagurney-Qiang and Jenelius-Peterson-Mattson. Mainly, these two methods use the efficiency calculation by considering parameters of demand (goods flow between each region and maritime transportation cost. It is concluded afterward that: 1 Sea Tollway is 8% more efficient than Nusantara Pendulum; 2 Sea Tollway and Nusantara Pendulum are ten times more efficient than current network; 3 Eastern ports in Indonesia (Bitung and Sorong urgently requisite a development.

  19. Final report of Phase 1 of the project: Assistance in developing the management of the petroleum sector in Timor-Leste 2002 - 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-05-15

    This is an institutional cooperation programme between the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate and The Ministry of Natural Resources, Minerals and Energy Policy in Timor-Leste, funded by the Oil for Development programme from the Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation (NORAD). This final report is required according to the Country Agreement (Appendix 1), Article VII, Section 5: - East Timor shall submit to Norway a final report within 6 months after the completion of the Project. The report shall give a summary of outputs and activities undertaken, achievements compared to Goal and Objective and an assessment of the efficiency of the Project.- This report summarizes the planning of the Project, the activities and outputs, shows how project funds have been spent and discusses the results of the project. It is hoped that it also functions as a history book for an important factor in the early development of Timor-Leste's petroleum sector and for this long and high profiled Norwegian Development project. For the period 2003-2006, the Implementing institution in Timor-Leste was The Ministry of Natural Resources, Minerals and Energy Policy. From 2007 and for the rest of the project-period, the implementing institution was changed to the Secretariat of State for Natural Resources. The main tasks for the cooperation project were: Training on petroleum tax, accounting and basic finance topics for staff in the Petroleum Tax Division, MOPF; Analyze and give advice on possible tax effects and revenue effects regarding PSA agreements, gas pipeline and the implementation of new consolidated tax law; Help establish regular meetings with DNPG/TSDA and MOF to discuss current issues and improve flow of information between the different Timor-Leste petroleum authorities; Conduct and give advice on tax audits and desk audits Identify and give advice on current petroleum tax issues; Designed spreadsheets to facilitate overall monitoring of petroleum tax payments; New tax return

  20. CDM Country Guide for Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Under the Integrated Capacity Strengthening for the CDM (ICS-CDM) programme, IGES presents the CDM Country Guides, a series of manuals on CDM project development for Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Thailand. These guidebooks aim at facilitating CDM project developments in Asia by providing essential information to both project developers and potential investors. This volume is on Indonesia

  1. ANALISIS DAYA SAING KEDELAI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarwono Sarwono

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available RCA (Revealed Comparative Advantage index of soybean in Indonesia from 1983 up to 2013 is less than one, mostly. It means that the competitiveness of soybean in Indonesia is low. The purpose of this study is to analyze the factors influence the soybean competitiveness. OLS (Ordinary Least Square was used as the analysis method. Hypotheses test based on that analysis model is not bias, so that, classic divergence test is needed. It is for getting the Best Linier Unbiased Estimator (BLUE appraisal. T statistic and F statistic were also applied. The result of this research shows that production and export have positive and significant influence. In addition, exchange rate and government policy do not influence the Indonesia soybean competitiveness.Indeks RCA (Revealed Comparative Advantage kedelai Indonesia dari tahun 1983-2013 kecenderungan bernilai kurang dari satu yang berarti daya saing kedelai Indonesia rendah.Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi daya saing kedelai Indonesia.Metode analisis yang digunakan adalah Ordinary Least Square (OLS.Pengujian hipotesis berdasarkan model analisis tersebut tidak bias maka perlu dilakukan uji penyimpangan klasik yang tujuannya agar diperoleh penaksiran yang bersifat Best Linier Unbiased Estimator (BLUE.Pengujian statistik menggunakan uji t statistikdan uji f statistik.Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa produksi dan ekspor berpengaruh secara positif dan signifikan terhadap daya saing kedelai Indonesia. Nilai tukar rupiah dan kebijakan pemerintah tidak berpengaruh terhadap daya saing kedelai Indonesia.

  2. Emergence of Melioidosis in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauran, Patricia M; Sennang, Nurhayana; Rusli, Benny; Wiersinga, W Joost; Dance, David; Arif, Mansyur; Limmathurotsakul, Direk

    2015-12-01

    Melioidosis is known to be highly endemic in parts of southeast Asia and northern Australia; however, cases are rarely reported in Indonesia. Here we report three cases of melioidosis in Makassar, South Sulawesi, Indonesia occurring between 2013 and 2014. Two patients died and the other was lost to follow-up. Burkholderia pseudomallei isolates from all three cases were identified by the VITEK2 Compact installed in the hospital in 2012. None of the three patients reported received antimicrobials recommended for melioidosis because of the delayed recognition of the organism. We reviewed the literature and found only seven reports of melioidosis in Indonesia. Five were reported before 1960. We suggest that melioidosis is endemic throughout Indonesia but currently under-recognized. Training on how to identify B. pseudomallei accurately and safely in all available microbiological facilities should be provided, and consideration should be given to making melioidosis a notifiable disease in Indonesia. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  3. Photovoltaic systems in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tjaroko, T.; Bakker, P. de

    2001-01-01

    The article discusses the reasons for the slow growth of the photovoltaic industry in Indonesia where more than 100 million people have no access to electricity, but there is an abundance of solar power. There should be considerable scope for solar home systems in particular. Barriers to expansion of the PV market have included the devaluation of the rupee and the failure of many government-initiated projects. It is concluded that at present, the purchasing power of individuals is insufficient for the potential PV market to expand

  4. KURVA PHILLIPS DI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maichal Maichal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze the existence of the Philips curve in the Indonesian economy, 2000Q1-2010Q3. The results obtained by using OLS method shows that the expectations augmented Philips curve and the New Keynesian Philips curve models cannot give a clear results of Philips curve existence in the Idonesia economy. Shocks variable such as percentage change of exchange rates and crude oil prices provide a very small effect on the inflation rate in Indonesia. Furthermore, the results obtained by using GMM method on the hybrid model of the New Keynesian Philips curve shows that the Philips curve exists in the Indonesian economy.

  5. Traditional Birth Attendance (TBA) in a health system: what are the roles, benefits and challenges: A case study of incorporated TBA in Timor-Leste

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro Sarmento, Decio

    2014-01-01

    Background One current strategy to overcome the issue of shortage of qualified health workers has focused on the use of community health workers in the developing countries to deliver health care services specifically to the most vulnerable communities in the rural areas. Timor-Leste is the one of the world’s newest developing countries that has incorporated the traditional birth attendance in its health system through a family health promoter initiative in response to reproductive and child ...

  6. Spatial Modeling Of Infant Mortality Rate In South Central Timor Regency Using GWLR Method With Adaptive Bisquare Kernel And Gaussian Kernel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teguh Prawono Sabat

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Geographically Weighted Logistic Regression (GWLR was regression model consider the spatial factor, which could be used to analyze the IMR. The number of Infant Mortality as big as 100 cases in 2015 or 12 per 1000 live birth in South Central Timor Regency. The aim of this study was to determine the best modeling of GWLR with fixed weighting function and Adaptive Gaussian Kernel in the case of infant mortality in South Central Timor District in 2015. The response variable (Y in this study was a case of infant mortality, while variable predictor was the percentage of neonatal first visit (KN1 (X1, the percentage of neonatal visit 3 times (Complete KN (X2, the percentage of pregnant get Fe tablet (X3, percentage of poor families pre prosperous (X4. This was a non-reactive study, which is a measurement which individuals surveyed did not realize that they are part of a study, with analysis unit in 32 sub-districts of South Central Timor Districts. Data analysis used open source program that was Excel, R program, Quantum GIS and GWR4. The best GWLR spatial modeling with Adaptive Gaussian Kernel weighting function, a global model parameters GWLR Adaptive Gaussian Kernel weighting function obtained by g (x = 0.941086 - 0,892506X4, GWLR local models with adaptive Kernel bisquare weighting function in the 13 Districts were obtained g(x = 0 − 0X4, factors that affect the cases of infant mortality in 13 sub-districts of South Central Timor Regency in 2015 was the percentage of poor families pre prosperous.

  7. Characteristic and factors of competitive maritime industry clusters in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlyana, N.; Tontowi, A. E.; Yuniarto, H. A.

    2017-12-01

    Indonesia is situated in the strategic position between two oceans therefore is identified as a maritime state. The fact opens big opportunity to build a competitive maritime industry. However, potential factors to boost the competitive maritime industry still need to be explored. The objective of this paper is then to determine the main characteristics and potential factors of competitive maritime industry cluster. Qualitative analysis based on literature review has been carried out in two aspects. First, benchmarking analysis conducted to distinguish the most relevant factors of maritime clusters in several countries in Europe (Norway, Spain, South West of England) and Asia (China, South Korea, Malaysia). Seven key dimensions are used for this benchmarking. Secondly, the competitiveness of maritime clusters in Indonesia was diagnosed through a reconceptualization of Porter’s Diamond model. There were four interlinked of advanced factors in and between companies within clusters, which can be influenced in a proactive way by government.

  8. PERMODELAN INDEKS HARGA KONSUMEN INDONESIA DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN MODEL INTERVENSI MULTI INPUT

    KAUST Repository

    Novianti, Putri Wikie

    2017-01-24

    There are some events which are expected effecting CPI’s fluctuation, i.e. financial crisis 1997/1998, fuel price risings, base year changing’s, independence of Timor-Timur (October 1999), and Tsunami disaster in Aceh (December 2004). During re-search period, there were eight fuel price risings and four base year changing’s. The objective of this research is to obtain multi input intervention model which can des-cribe magnitude and duration of each event effected to CPI. Most of intervention re-searches that have been done are only contain of an intervention with single input, ei-ther step or pulse function. Multi input intervention was used in Indonesia CPI case because there are some events which are expected effecting CPI. Based on the result, those events were affecting CPI. Additionally, other events, such as Ied on January 1999, events on April 2002, July 2003, December 2005, and September 2008, were affecting CPI too. In general, those events gave positive effect to CPI, except events on April 2002 and July 2003 which gave negative effects.

  9. Volcano-hydrothermal system and activity of Sirung volcano (Pantar Island, Indonesia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caudron, Corentin; Bernard, Alain; Murphy, Sam; Inguaggiato, Salvatore; Gunawan, Hendra

    2018-05-01

    Sirung is a frequently active volcano located in the remote parts of Western Timor (Indonesia). Sirung has a crater with several hydrothermal features including a crater lake. We present a timeseries of satellite images of the lake and chemical and isotope data from the hyperacid hydrothermal system. The fluids sampled in the crater present the typical features of hyperacidic systems with high TDS, low pH and δ34SHSO4-δ34SS0 among the highest for such lakes. The cations concentrations are predominantly controlled by the precipitation of alunite, jarosite, silica phases, native sulfur and pyrite which dominate the shallow portions of the hydrothermal system. These minerals may control shallow sealing processes thought to trigger phreatic eruptions elsewhere. Sparse Mg/Cl and SO4/Cl ratios and lake parameters derived from satellite images suggest gradual increase in heat and gas flux, most likely SO2-rich, prior to the 2012 phreatic eruption. An acidic river was sampled 8 km far from the crater and is genetically linked with the fluids rising toward the active crater. This river would therefore be a relevant target for future remote monitoring purposes. Finally, several wells and springs largely exceeded the World Health Organization toxicity limits in total arsenic and fluoride.

  10. Coal fires in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehouse, Alfred E.; Mulyana, Asep A.S. [Office of Surface Mining/Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources Coal Fire Project, Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, Agency for Training and Education, Jl. Gatot Subroto, Kav. 49, Jakarta 12950 (Indonesia)

    2004-07-12

    Indonesia's fire and haze problem is increasingly being ascribed to large-scale forest conversion and land clearing activities making way for pulpwood, rubber and oil palm plantations. Fire is the cheapest tool available to small holders and plantation owners to reduce vegetation cover and prepare and fertilize extremely poor soils. Fires that escaped from agricultural burns have ravaged East Kalimantan forests on the island of Borneo during extreme drought periods in 1982-1983, 1987, 1991, 1994 and 1997-1998. Estimates based on satellite data and ground observations are that more than five million hectares were burned in East Kalimantan during the 1997/1998 dry season. Not only were the economic losses and ecological damage from these surface fires enormous, they ignited coal seams exposed at the ground surface along their outcrops.Coal fires now threaten Indonesia's shrinking ecological resources in Kutai National Park and Sungai Wain Nature Reserve. Sungai Wain has one of the last areas of unburned primary rainforest in the Balikpapan-Samarinda area with an extremely rich biodiversity. Although fires in 1997/1998 damaged nearly 50% of this Reserve and ignited 76 coal fires, it remains the most valuable water catchment area in the region and it has been used as a reintroduction site for the endangered orangutan. The Office of Surface Mining provided Indonesia with the capability to take quick action on coal fires that presented threats to public health and safety, infrastructure or the environment. The US Department of State's Southeast Asia Environmental Protection Initiative through the US Agency for International Development funded the project. Technical assistance and training transferred skills in coal fire management through the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resource's Training Agency to the regional offices; giving the regions the long-term capability to manage coal fires. Funding was also included to extinguish coal fires as

  11. Management of Hazardous Waste in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widyatmoko, H.

    2018-01-01

    Indonesia needs to build four Treatment Centrals for 229,907 tons per year produced hazardous waste. But almost all hazardous waste treatment is managed by just one company at present, namely PT. PPLI (Prasada Pamunah Limbah Industri). This research is based on collected data which identifies payback period of 0.69 years and rate of return 85 %. PT PPLI is located within the Cileungsi District of the Bogor Regency of West Java Province. Records from nearest rainfall station at Cibinong indicate that annual average rainfall for the site is about 3,600 mm. It is situated on hilly terrain and is characterized by steep slopes as well as has a very complex geological structure. The Tertiary sequence was folded to form an assymetric anticline with axis trend in an East-West direction. Three major faults cut the middle of the site in a North-South direction with a vertical displacement of about 1.5 meters and a zone width of 1 meter. The high concentration of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) 2500 ppm in Secondary Leachate Collection System (SLCS) indicate a possible failure of the Primary Leachate Clection System (PLCS), which need correct action to prevent groundwater contamination.

  12. Inventory of Forts in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinandi, N.; Suryaningsih, F.

    2015-08-01

    The great archipelago in Indonesia with its wealthy and various nature, the products and commodities of tropic agriculture and the rich soil, was through the centuries a region of interest for other countries all over the world. For several reasons some of these countries came to Indonesia to establish their existence and tried to monopolize the trading. These countries such as the Portuguese, the Spanish, the Dutch and the British built strengthened trade stations which later became forts all over Indonesia to defend their interest. The archipelago of Indonesia possesses a great number of fortification-works as legacies of native rulers and those which were built by European trading companies and later became colonial powers in the 16th to the 19th centuries. These legacies include those specific structures built as a defence system during pre and within the period of World War II. These fortresses are nowadaysvaluable subjects, because they might be considered as shared heritage among these countries and Indonesia. It's important to develop a vision to preserve these particular subjects of heritage, because they are an interesting part of the Indonesian history and its cultural treasures. The Government of the Republic of Indonesia has national program to compile a comprehensive documentation of the existing condition of these various types of forts as cultural heritage. The result of the 3 years project was a comprehensive 442 forts database in Indonesia, which will be very valuable to the implementation of legal protection, preservation matters and adaptive re-use in the future.

  13. EFISIENSI PERBANKAN SYARIAH DI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afif Amirillah

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to find out the factors that can cause the efficiency value difference of Islamic Banking in In-donesia. The data at this research is monetary data of Islamic Banking. It was obtained from Bank of Indonesia. Then, it was divided into input and output variables. The determination of input output variables at this research uses Value Added Approach. Its input output variables consist of Demand Deposits, Saving Deposits, Time Depo-sits, Paid -In Capital, Placement at Bank ofIndonesia, Inter Bank Assets, Mudharabah, Musyara kah, Murabahah, Istishna, Ijarahand Qardh. This research used Data Envelopment Analysis method. This method has a strength that is having the capability to measure inefficiency input output variables, so that, the variable can have the efficiency. This research has resulted Islamic Banking efficiency in Indonesia, but it does not include BPRS. The mean efficiency of Islamic banking in Indonesia is 99,94%. Penelitian ini bertujuan mencari faktor –faktor penyebab perbedaan nilai efisiensiperbankan syariah di Indo-nesia yang dibandingkan secara relatif untuk setiap periode. Data yang digunakan pada penelitian ini menggu-nakan data keuangan perbankan syariah yang diperoleh dari Bank Indonesia kemudian dibagi menjadi variabel input dan output. Penentuan variabel input dan output pada penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan Value Added Approach. Variabel input outputnyaterdiri dari : Giro iB, Tabungan iB, Deposito iB, Modal disetor, Pen-empatan padaBank Indonesia, Penempatan pada bank lain, Mudharabah, Musyarakah, Murabahah,Istishna, Ijarah dan Qardh. Pada penelitian ini menggunakan metode Data Envelopment Analysis yang mempunyai kel-ebihan dalam menghitung efisiensi untuk setiap variabel input outputyang mengalami inefisiensi. Penelitian ini menghasilkan nilai efisiensi perbankan syariah di Indoenesia (tidak termasuk BPRS. Efisiensi perbankan syariah di Indonesia mengalami efisiensi rata-rata sebesar 99,94%.

  14. Mapping the outdoor gamma dose rate in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iskandar, Dadong; Syarbaini, Sutarman; Bunawas, Kusdiana

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Indonesia is the largest archipelago in the world, comprising five main islands - Java, Sumatra, Sulawesi, Kalimantan and Papua - as well as 30 archipelagoes totaling 17,508 islands with about 6000 of those inhabited. Mapping the outdoor gamma dose rate in Indonesia is a research project conducted by National Nuclear Energy Agency since 2005 aiming to produce a baseline data map as an overview for planning purposes. In these three years 4 main islands has been measured. The grid system has been used in the research. In Sumatra Island the grid is 50 x 50 km 2 , while in Java 40 x 40 km 2 , in Kalimantan 60 x 60 km 2 , and in Sulawesi 40 x 40 km 2 . The gamma dose rates have been measured by Mini Gamma Ray Spectrometer Model GR-130 made by Exploranium-Canada. Figure 1 shows the map of outdoor gamma dose rate in Indonesia. Range of dose rate are in Sumatra from 22,96 ± 0,46 n Sv/h to 186,08 ± 3,72 n Sv/h, in Java 11,32 ± 0,72 n Sv/h to 127,54 ± 6,14 n Sv/h, in Kalimantan 10.72 ± 8.32 n Sv/h to 349,48 ± 57,21 n Sv/h, and in Sulawesi 17.7 ± 11,5 n Sv/h to 467 ± 102 n Sv/h. The arithmetic and geometric mean of dose rate in Indonesia are 68 n Sv/h and 53 n Sv/h, respectively. In general, outdoor gamma dose rate in Indonesia is in a normal range. There are some regions have anomaly of gamma dose rate, for examples at North Sumatra 186.08 ± 3,72 n Sv/h (N 2.12727, E 99.80909), at West Kalimantan 349,48 ± 57,21 n Sv/h (S 1.39507, E 110.57584), at West Sulawesi 487 ± 103 n Sv/h (S 2.95781, E 118.86995), etc. These data is very useful as a radiation baseline in Indonesia. (author)

  15. Traditional Birth Attendance (TBA) in a health system: what are the roles, benefits and challenges: A case study of incorporated TBA in Timor-Leste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro Sarmento, Decio

    2014-01-01

    One current strategy to overcome the issue of shortage of qualified health workers has focused on the use of community health workers in the developing countries to deliver health care services specifically to the most vulnerable communities in the rural areas. Timor-Leste is the one of the world's newest developing countries that has incorporated the traditional birth attendance in its health system through a family health promoter initiative in response to reproductive and child health, hence to improve primary health care delivery and increase number of healthcare workforce. The study utilized a non-systematic review of the literature using key words such as community health workers, traditional birth attendants, reproductive health, child health and health outcomes. A case study from Timor-Leste was also used. Traditional birth attendants have performed wide variety of tasks including outreach and case finding, health and patient education, referrals, home visits and care management. Evidence indicated that there were, to varying degrees, positive associations between traditional birth attendance training and maternity care. Traditional birth attendance training was found to be associated with significant increases in attributes such as knowledge, attitude, behavior, advice for antenatal care, and pregnancy outcomes. However, some challenges faced by traditional birth attendants' role in encouraging women to go to health center for preventive services would be the compliance and refusal of the referral. The implementation case study from Timor-Leste shows that integrating traditional birth attendance into a national healthcare system through Family Health Promoter program has been programmatic effective. It is recommended that the implementation should consider regular communication between health staff and community leaders in recruiting members of family health promoters, and the use of supportive supervision tools to identify weaknesses in the management of

  16. "I go I die, I stay I die, better to stay and die in my house": understanding the barriers to accessing health care in Timor-Leste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Jennifer A; Soares, Ana I F Sousa; Asante, Augustine D; Martins, Joao S; Williams, Kate; Wiseman, Virginia L

    2016-09-30

    Despite public health care being free at the point of delivery in Timor-Leste, wealthier patients access hospital care at nearly twice the rate of poorer patients. This study seeks to understand the barriers driving inequitable utilisation of hospital services in Timor-Leste from the perspective of community members and health care managers. This multisite qualitative study in Timor-Leste conducted gender segregated focus groups (n = 8) in eight districts, with 59 adults in urban and rural settings, and in-depth interviews (n = 8) with the Director of community health centres. Communication was in the local language, Tetum, using a pre-tested interview schedule. Approval was obtained from community and national stakeholders, with written consent from participants. Lack of patient transport is the critical cross-cutting issue preventing access to hospital care. Without it, many communities resort to carrying patients by porters or on horseback, walking or paying for (unaffordable) private arrangements to reach hospital, or opt for home-based care. Other significant out-of-pocket expenses for hospital visits were blood supplies from private suppliers; accommodation and food for the patient and family members; and repatriation of the deceased. Entrenched nepotism and hospital staff denigrating patients' hygiene and personal circumstances were also widely reported. Consequently, some respondents asserted they would never return to hospital, others delayed seeking treatment or interrupted their treatment to return home. Most considered traditional medicine provided an affordable, accessible and acceptable substitute to hospital care. Obtaining a referral for higher level care was not a significant barrier to gaining access to hospital care. Onerous physical, financial and socio-cultural barriers are preventing or discouraging people from accessing hospital care in Timor-Leste. Improving access to quality primary health care at the frontline is a key strategy for

  17. Challenges for control of taeniasis/cysticercosis in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suroso, Thomas; Margono, Sri S; Wandra, Toni; Ito, Akira

    2006-01-01

    Taeniasis/cysticercosis has been reported from several provinces of Indonesia: Papua (=former Irian Jaya), Bali, North Sumatra, East Nusa Tenggara, South East Sulawesi, Lampung, North Sulawesi, Jakarta, West Kalimantan, and East Java. The highest level of endemicity of taeniasis/cysticercosis has been found in Papua. Recent surveys in Jayawijaya District of Papua in 2000 and 2001 showed that 5 of 58 local people (8.6%) harbored the adult tapeworm, Taenia solium, whereas 44 of 96 people (45.8%), 50 of 71 pigs (70.4%), and 7 of 64 local dogs (10.9%) were seropositive for T. solium cysticercosis. Current surveys in Bali and Samosir District, North Sumatra during 2002-2005 revealed that Taenia saginata taeniasis has increased in incidence whereas T. solium cysticercosis is now rather rare compared to one-two decades ago in Bali. Taenia asiatica taeniasis is still common in Samosir District. Data from other provinces of Indonesia are very limited or unavailable. Control of these diseases is not a priority in the health or veterinary services, neither at central or local government levels. However, limited efforts toward control of the diseases have been implemented such as training of health personnel, community education on disease prevention, and provision of anthelminthics. A working group for control of the disease in Indonesia and an international collaboration have been established among Ministry of Health, Indonesia; University of Indonesia; and Asahikawa Medical College, Asahikawa, Japan since 1996. Future goals include implementation of active case finding (active surveillance) and treatment of tapeworm carriers, sustainable public health education, establishment of a system to check the quality of beef/pork and determine the distribution of infected animals and strengthening of laboratory capacity. Efforts to motivate provinces and districts should be implemented in developing the strategic plan to control of the disease. Given the considerable differences in

  18. Fertilitas Remaja di Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mugia Bayu Raharja

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Fertilitas remaja merupakan isu penting dari segi kesehatan dan sosial karena berhubungan dengan tingkat morbiditas serta mortalitas ibu dan anak. Tujuan penelitian adalah mempelajari faktor-faktor yang memengaruhi fertilitas remaja di Indonesia. Data yang digunakan adalah hasil Survei Demografi dan Kesehatan Indonesia tahun 2012 dengan unit analisis wanita usia subur yang termasuk dalam kategori usia remaja (15 - 19 tahun. Jumlah sampel sebanyak 6.927 responden. Analisis dilakukan dengan metode deskriptif dan inferensial menggunakan model regresi logistik biner. Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa satu dari sepuluh remaja wanita tersebut pernah melahirkan dan atau sedang hamil saat survei dilakukan; sebesar 95,2% dari remaja yang sudah pernah melahirkan, memiliki satu anak sisanya sebesar 4,8% memiliki dua atau tiga anak; sebesar 11,1% dari remaja wanita yang pernah kawin, pertama kali kawin pada usia 10 - 14 tahun. Secara statistik, terdapat hubungan yang signifikan antara kejadian fertilitas remaja dengan daerah tempat tinggal, pendidikan, status bekerja, serta tingkat kesejahteraan keluarga. Wanita berisiko tinggi mengalami fertilitas pada usia remaja adalah mereka yang tinggal di perdesaan, berpendidikan rendah, tidak bekerja dan berstatus ekonomi rendah. Rekomendasi berdasarkan hasil penelitian adalah akses ke tingkat pendidikan formal yang lebih tinggi bagi remaja wanita, penyediaan pelatihan usaha ekonomi kreatif terutama pada daerah perdesaan, peningkatan pengetahuan kesehatan reproduksi bagi remaja melalui pendidikan. Adolescent fertility is an important issue in terms of health and social care as it relates to the morbidity and mortality of mothers and children. This study aimed to know the factors that influence adolescent fertility in Indonesia. The data used was the result of Indonesian Demography and Health Survey in 2012 with units of analysis included women of childbearing age in the adolescent age group (15 - 19 years. Total

  19. Kebiasaan sarapan tidak berhubungan dengan status gizi anak sekolah dasar di Kabupaten Timor Tengah Selatan, Provinsi Nusa Tenggara Timur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Yunawati

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackground: School age children are the future generation. Improvement the quality of human resources should be done early. One of factors affecting the quality of human resources is the nutritional status. Breakfast contributes in nutritional intake (15-25% RDA. Skipping of breakfast makes the body decreasing of glucose. It makes body to unload supplies of energy from fat tissue and cause of weight reduction.Objectives: To determine the relationship between breakfast habits with the nutritional status of elementary school children in Nusa Tenggara Timur Province.Methods: This was an observational study with cross-sectional design. This study used the secondary data of Alma Ata Centre for Healthy Life and Food (ACHEAF 2013. The subjects were children from elementary school of classes between II-VI in Amanuban Barat and Kie Subdistrict, Timor Tengah SelatanDistrict with total sample of 313 students. Sample were selected by cluster random sampling technique using computer generated random number software. Data analysis used chi-square test with a confidence interval (CI of 95% to the level of significance of p<0.05. Analysis by logistic regression was done if itshowed significance result.Results: The proportion of breakfast habits of school children was 82.11%. Most widely consumed breakfast type (78,32% was rice (rice porridge and rice and the other (21.68% were non-rice eating breakfast (bose corn, yam/cassava, boiled bananas, instant noodles, corn porridge, bread/cooky. The contribution of breakfast energy intake is 13.94% RDA and protein intake was 14.4% RDA. There was no relationship between breakfast habits and nutritional status of elementary school children.Conclusions: Breakfast habits was not related with the nutritional status of school children in Amanuban Barat and Kie Sub-district.KEYWORDS: breakfast habits, nutritional status, school childrenABSTRAKLatar belakang: Anak usia sekolah merupakan generasi penerus

  20. A voz dos bandos: colectivos de justiça e ritos da palavra portuguesa em Timor-Leste colonial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Roque

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo examina as relações entre o discurso da justiça e a prática do ritual nos bandos do governo colonial português em Timor Leste, entre a segunda metade do século XIX e as primeiras décadas do século XX. Os bandos consistiam em ordens e instruções de comando emanadas pelo governador português em Díli, e comunicadas de forma cerimonial por oficiais às populações dos diversos reinos timorenses dispersos pelo país. Bandos eram um instrumento por excelência de governação colonial dos assuntos indígenas, servindo para arbitrar conflitos, punir transgressões e, em geral, instituir realidades no mundo timorense. Contudo, esta instituição assumiu igualmente uma singular expressão nos usos timorenses, servindo bandos para comunicar também as ordens de autoridades tradicionais, os liurais. O artigo acompanha as variações coloniais e indígenas que os bandos adquiriram em Timor Leste, conceptualizando-os enquanto colectivos de justiça. Ao considerar assim os bandos como colectivos - formações heterogéneas em que elementos linguísticos e não linguísticos se combinam na produção de efeitos de poder sobre as populações - o artigo propõe uma via conceptual alternativa às perspectivas linguísticas e literárias de análise do discurso colonial.This article examines the relations between juridical discourse and ritual practice in the bandos issued by the Portuguese colonial government in East Timor between the second-half of the nineteenth century and the early decades of the twentieth century. Bandos consisted of orders and instructions of command issued by the Portuguese governor in Dilly and ceremonially transmitted by colonial officers to the populations of the various Timorese kingdoms. Bandos were a principal tool of colonial governance with regards to indigenous matters. They were used by the Portuguese to arbitrate conflicts, punish transgressions and, generally, to institute realities in the Timorese

  1. Konservatisme Akuntansi di Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Hananto Andreas

    2017-04-01

    Dalam penyajian laporan keuangan yang berkualitas, perusahaan dihadapkan oleh pertimbangan yang salah satunya adalah penerapan konservatisme akuntansi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memberikan bukti empiris pengaruh company growth, profitability, dan investment opportunity set (IOS terhadap penerapan prinsip konservatisme akuntansi. Konservatisme akuntansi dalam penelitian ini diukur menggunakan perhitungan total akrual. Total akrual adalah selisih antara laba sebelum extraordinary item ditambah dengan depresiasi dikurangi dengan arus kas operasi untuk mengetahui apakah perusahaan menggunakan konservatisme akuntansi tinggi atau rendah di dalam perusahaan. Sampel yang digunakan sebanyak 114 perusahaan manufaktur yang terdaftar di Bursa Efek Indonesia (BEI di tahun 2012 dan 2013. Metoda pemilihan sampel yang digunakan yaitu purposive sampling. Alat analisis yang digunakan untuk pengujian adalah regresi linier berganda yang sebelumnya harus lolos uji asumsi klasik. Hasil pengujian secara parsial menunjukkan company growth, profitability dan investment opportunity set berpengaruh positif signifikan terhadap konservatisme akuntansi.

  2. DETERMINAN PERMINTAAN KARET INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Hartana I Putra

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to analyze the factors that determinant the rubber demand by Unites States of America. The analysis method of this research is Partial Adjustment Model. Demand of Indonesia rubber by United States of America at research time line of 1995.1 up to 2007.4, simply only influenced by the price of rubber in international market. As for international price influence of rubber to demand of rubber by United States of America from Indonesian is significant and negativity. Whereas other independent variable is federal exchange rate and US’s GDP doesn't have an effect on to demand of rubber by United States of AmericaDOI: 10.15408/sjie.v1i2.2603

  3. December 2004 Sumatra, Indonesia Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The December 26, 2004 magnitude 9.1 Sumatra, Indonesia earthquake (3.316 N, 95.854 E, depth 30 km) generated a tsunami that was observed worldwide and caused...

  4. Decentralization and Governance in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holzhacker, Ronald; Wittek, Rafael; Woltjer, Johan

    2016-01-01

    I. Theoretical Reflections on Decentralization and Governance for Sustainable Society 1. Decentralization and Governance for Sustainable Society in Indonesia Ronald Holzhacker, Rafael Wittek and Johan Woltjer 2. Good Governance Contested: Exploring Human Rights and Sustainability as Normative Goals

  5. Health services in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosen, S; Gunawan, S

    In Indonesia, rapid economic development has led to a reduction in poverty among the 195 million inhabitants. While population increased more than 50% from 1971 to 1990, the annual growth rate, crude birth rate, and total fertility rates have declined rapidly. Life expectancy has increased from 45.7 years in 1971 to 62.7 in 1994 as crude death rates and infant and child mortality rates have declined. Causes of death have shifted from infectious to chronic diseases, but in 1992 major causes of death in children under 5 years old were preventable, and the maternal mortality rate was 425/100,000. Policies which guide the development of health care call for improvements in quality of life, adherence to humanitarian principles, use of scientifically approved traditional medicine, and provision of public health through a three-tiered system. Health care is financed by the government and the community, and managed care has been encouraged. Foreign aid has bolstered development in the health sector. Adequate sanitation has been achieved for 35% of the population, and 65% of urban and 35% of rural residents have reasonable access to clean water. Improvements in health indicators include 55% contraceptive prevalence, reduction in prevalence of anemia during pregnancy, 55.8% of pregnant women receiving prenatal care, a decrease in protein-energy malnutrition among children under five, and high vaccination coverage. Remaining public health problems include malaria, tuberculosis, dengue hemorrhagic fever, an increase in HIV/AIDS, iodine-deficiency, an increasing number of traffic fatalities, and an increasing number of smokers. New health policies have been instituted to meet these challenges as Indonesia's need for a productive and competitive labor force increases.

  6. Ergonomics policy in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutarjo, Untung S

    2007-12-01

    Workers' conditions in accordance with their place of work are different from one area to another, especially in this reformation era where there are immense alterations in politics shown from the centralized government shifting to decentralization and district autonomy. Ergonomics problems in Indonesia are reviewed. In home industries, workers have to adjust themselves to their jobs, and ergonomic improvement may face significant impediments especially in small-scale industries. It is necessary to create or identify the most plausible model to be implemented in accordance with the conditions of districts, including low awareness about the relation between ergonomics and workers' productivity in producing goods and services and working processes scattered often at their own houses. As conditions conducive to ergonomics programs, district-level willingness to improve and increase the wealth of their society, recognition by businesses about the impacts of ergonomics on productivity and reduction of medical treatment costs may be mentioned. Labor unions support ergonomic improvements at production processes, and professionals and academicians are ready to assist, whereas national banks and foreign investment may encourage new technologies including ergonomics aspects. It is important to strengthen ergonomic improvement efforts in Indonesia through establishing district ergonomics improvement networks and ergonomics peer leaders with the support of continual training starting from the training of core leaders at the province level and extending to peer leaders at district level. This training should be made as simple as possible in order to facilitate innovations toward changes. Finally assistance is needed by the mentor teams in order to periodically monitor the improvements undertaken.

  7. Kedudukan Musyawarah dan Demokrasi di Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Hanafi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak: Kedudukan Musyawarah dan Demokrasi di Indonesia. Negara Kesatuan Republik Indonesia (NKRI berdasarkan lintasan sejarah perjuangan, memiliki konstruksi kenegaraan satu-satunya di dunia yang bangsa terlahir dahulu, kemudian baru membentuk negara. Presiden pertama Republik Indonesia Ir. Soekarno menegaskan, bahwa Negara Kesatuan ialah Negara Kebangsaan. Tujuan Bangsa Indonesia terlahir, merdeka, dan membentuk negara memiliki satu cita-cita, Kehendak Untuk Mengangkat Harkat dan Martabat Hidup Rakyat Indonesia (Kedaulatan Rakyat Indonesia. Melalui analisis atas realitas kehidupan saat ini, Bangsa Indonesia telah hidup pada kondisi tatanan kehidupan seolah-olah sama dengan Negara Demokrasi, ialah negara dulu terbentuk baru bangsanya dilahirkan kemudian. Sehingga kedaulatan rakyat Indonesia yang berdasarkan prinsip musyawara-mufakat dan perwakilan belum mampu terealisasi. Sementara pelaksanaan demokrasi voting yang memiliki dasar liberalisme terus bergulir, sehingga kehidupan bangsa Indonesia semakin jauh dari cita-cita awal. DOI: 10.15408/jch.v1i2.2657

  8. Analisis Industri Ritel Di Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Soliha, Euis

    2008-01-01

    This article presents an overview the analisys of retail industry in Indonesia.Retail industry in Indonesia grow rapidly. Industrial presence of modern retailbasically exploits public shopping pattern especially middle-weight and to which donot want to mill around in traditional market. Analysis Five Forces is used toanalysis retail industry. Analysis five force is bargaining power of buyers,bargaining power of suppliers, threat of new entrants, threat of new substituteproducts, and rivalry a...

  9. PROSES PEMBENTUKAN KOMUNITAS MUSLIM INDONESIA

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    Mirhan AM

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a study in mapping out more about the process of formation of the Muslim community in Indonesia. History is a reconstruct of the past. It seems as if the past was to be away from the present. Is it true that this view. We borrow the Kuntowijoyo’s words: “Historians are like people take who takes the train to look back, and he can freely turn to the right and to the left, which can not be done is to look ahead”. History is a valuable clue, a picture of the past that can be used as guidelines in stride, present and future. The Indonesian Islam history has significance for this nation generation. Because it has its own characteristics compared to the history of Islam in other countries. It can give the feel of the real Islam in Indonesia. The Indonesian Islam is an Islamic hue promising future in the era of globalization. Thus, Indonesian Islam will be in focus in the eyes of the world. In this description, the writer describes the entry and the development of Islam in Indonesia with discussion; process and the introduction of Islam to Indonesia, acceptance by indigenous and institutionalization of Islam in society. Then, point the establishment of Islam in Indonesia, as well as the transformation of Indonesia society

  10. Indonesia lays out a power privatisation agenda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-07-15

    Indonesia is preparing to embark on a major power sector privatisation programme in order to stimulate the installation of new electricity capacity, which at present stands at little more than 9,000 MW. This figure, however, represents a 100% increase in capacity in the last five years, up from 4,600 MW in 1984-85. Much of the new capacity is coal-based and the state utility, PLN, new operates 1,730 MW of coal-fired capacity. Backed by East Kalimantan and Sumatran coal deposits, Indonesia plans to further increase domestic coal use for electric power generation over the next 10 years. The PLN will add three 600MW units at Suralaya, four 400MW units at Paiton in East Java, two 65MW mine-mouth units at Bukit Asam, Sumatra and two 65MW mine-mouth units at Ombilin, Sumatra. Private generators will be given the opportunity to participate in coal-based electricity supply under build-own-operate schemes through the installation of four 600 MW units at Paiston, five 600 MW units at Tanjing Jati, Central Java, two 600 MW units in west Java, two 65 MW units at Taraham, Sumatra and four 45 MW units at Banjarmasin, Kalimantan. A substantial amount of private capacity is in fact already under development, particularly in Sumatra and Batam island. Some private companies have identified projects that will be required to supply power to industrial estates; some projects may consist of several units totalling 1,000 MW or more at a single site.

  11. DUKUN BAYI DALAM PERSALINAN OLEH MASYARAKAT INDONESIA

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    Rina Anggorodi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Baby Soothsayers are Still in Birthing Process by Indonesian Community. One of health case which still many happened in Indonesia, born children with helped by baby soothsayer. In reality, most all Indonesia publics either that is who live in rural and also more even a urban love to be helped by soothsayer. The thing because of local tradition and mores. Finds strategic to build cohesive network between the prominent as of themes, public, soothsayer and midwife in executing health service of maternal and perinatal joinly. Applies qualitative method. Technique done is in-depth interview. Informan is baby soothsayer, nurse and delivering birth mother helped by delivering birth baby soothsayer and mother helped by midwife. Research is done in Kabupaten Kendari (South-east Sulawesi, countryside Tobimiita and countryside Inalobu and countryside Lapulu; Sub-Province Cirebon (West Java, countryside Bode Sari and countryside Karangasem and countryside Gombong. Effort for improvement of service of health of like the one mirror in soothsayer program to train that of course not aim to eliminate role played by system treatment of old health and changes it with system treatment of new health. Education given in soothsayer program to train that is justri realized as confession to carry out (enforcement health service to baby soothsayer institute. Moreover, with education given, baby soothsayer is assumed can replace presence of new health facility assumed able to increase public health level. Partnership is one of solution for this problem most off all will develop cloistered areas where access every very limited health service.

  12. Using Causal Loop Diagramming to Explore the Drivers of the Sustained Functionality of Rural Water Services in Timor-Leste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Neely

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is recognized that international water sector development work has issues with a lack of sustained positive outcomes. A large driver of this outcome is how NGOs work with communities to implement and then manage water services. Many NGOs tend to focus their efforts on improving their reach and organisational growth by continually engaging in new projects. This behaviour is largely driven by short-term donor funding models that reward extended coverage, leaving little focus on sustained outcomes. Similarly, community-based management (CBM schemes often impede sustained services as a result of the community’s limited capacity to operate and maintain the technology. To explore these complicated drivers on water service sustainability, we used causal loop diagramming to analyse the key aspect influencing the combined dynamics between NGOs, donors and CBM. We demonstrate this methodology through a study in Timor-Leste, where we gathered data necessary to develop and apply causal loop diagrams to analyse rural water supply program outcomes. The analysis of these diagrams allowed identification of leverage points used to suggest structural changes for sustained benefits of water services. These structural changes emphasize the importance of increased robustness and reliability of water technology and the associated impact this has on community satisfaction and, conjointly, on water service sustainability.

  13. Growth rate and ring width variability of teak, Tectona grandis (Verbenaceae in an unmanaged forest in East Timor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicelina B. Sousa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Teak (Tectona grandis is one of the most valuable timbers in international trade and an important species for tropical forestry. Teak is found on the island of East Timor but no information is available on teak growth from this region. A pure stand planted in 1940-50 in the North of East Timor and left unmanaged was studied. Fifteen trees were sampled in October-November 2003 and stem discs taken at three height levels of its height (1.7m, 9.5m and 18.7m, and cores were collected at DBH. Transverse surfaces of the discs and cores were polished for ring identification. Core cross sections were first digitized and disc cross sections were observed under the microscope. Three randomly selected radii were analyzed in each disc. Ring width measurement and ring counting were done using image analysis software. The distinction between heartwood and sapwood was performed macroscopically by colour difference, and heartwood radius and sapwood width were measured. The relationship between stem and heartwood radius was studied for each disc and heartwood percentage by radius was determined. Radial ring width curves are presented for the different axial positions within the stem, and ring width variability was analyzed. Growth rates were calculated and age-radius relationships were estimated using cumulative growth curves. Growth rings were large and well defined in the juvenile phase, reflecting the specie’s fast-growing character. The year-to-year variation of ring width showed a similar pattern among trees. Mean ring width ranged between 4.3-7.3mm for the first 20 years and 3.3-5.1mm for 30 to 45 years. Pith eccentricity was evident in the lower part of the stem and ring wedging occurred. On average, heartwood represented 84% of the radius and sapwood contained 6 to 11 rings. The age-related variation of ring width and the occurrence in the lower part of the tree stems of eccentricity and wedging rings, highlights the importance of appropriate stand

  14. Opportunistic infection of HIV/AIDS patients in West Papua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witaningrum, A. M.; Khairunisa, S. Q.; Yunifiar, M. Q.; Bramanthi, R.; Rachman, B. E.; Nasronudin

    2018-03-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) had a major impact on health problemin Indonesia. HIV type 1 (HIV-1) epidemic is currently infected with HIV viruses developing rapidly in Indonesia.Papua provinces have the highest prevalence rate of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in Indonesia; however, data on opportunistic infection of HIV-1 are limited. The study using medical records as a research sample was conducted among HIV patients from January 2013 - December 2014 in Sele be Solu hospital among 49 patients. Opportunistic infections commonly occur in HIV-infected patients. The aim of the study was to know theprevalence of opportunistic infection among HIV positive patients in West Papua. Forty-nine HIV-1 patients were collected in Sele be Solu Hospital, West Papua.Opportunistic infection was identified such as tuberculosis, tuberculosis Pulmo, tuberculosis and candidiasis, candidiasis and diarrhea. The clinical sign appeared in HIV infected patients such as itchy, cough and loss weight. The prevalence of opportunistic infection indicated the necessity of monitoring the opportunistic infection of HIV/AIDS patients in Indonesia.

  15. IMPLEMENTASI PENDIKTEAN BAHASA INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayu Purwarianti

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Paper ini memaparkan hasil penelitian dalam membangun aplikasi pendiktean Bahasa Indonesia untuk waktu nyata. Dalam membangun sebuah aplikasi pendiktean, terdapat beberapa masalah seperti perintah suara (voice command, Out Of Vocabulary (OOV, noise, dan filler. Adapun yang menjadi fokus dalam penelitian ini adalah penanganan perintah suara dan OOV dari kata yang didiktekan. Pendiktean suara merupakan pengembangan lanjut dari pengenalan suara secara waktu nyata dengan tambahan metode untuk menangani hal-hal yang telah dinyatakan sebelumnya. Untuk menangani perintah suara, sebuah modul ditambahkan untuk mengecek hasil decoding dari sistem pengenalan suara. Adapun untuk menangani OOV, ditambahkan modul penanganan pengejaan setelah sebelumnya dinyatakan status ejaan. Model perintah suara dan model huruf ditambahkan ke dalam kamus dan digunakan sebagai pelatihan dari model bahasa n-gram. Dalam pengujian, dilakukan evaluasi terhadap sistem pengenalan suara, penanganan perintah suara, dan modul pengejaan sebagai strategi untuk menangani kata OOV. Untuk modul pengenalan suara, akurasi yang dicapai adalah 70%. Untuk modul penanganan perintah suara, pengujian menunjukkan bahwa perintah suara dapat ditangani dengan baik. Sedangkan untuk modul pengejaan, pengujian menunjukkan bahwa hanya 20 dari 26 huruf yang berhasil dikenali. In this paper, we presented the results of research in building applications dictation of the Bahasa Indonesia for real-time. In developing a dictation application, there are some problems such as voice command, Out of Vocabulary (OOV, noise, and filler. As the focus in this research is the handling of voice command and OOV from dictated words. Voice dictation is a further development of real time voice recognition with an additional method to deal with things that have been stated before. To handle voice commands, a module is added to check the results of decoding of the voice recognition system. To handle OOV, spelling handling

  16. Health Information in Indonesian (Bahasa Indonesia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → Indonesian (Bahasa Indonesia) URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/indonesian.html Health Information in Indonesian (Bahasa Indonesia) To use the sharing features on this page, ...

  17. DESENTRALISASI PENGELUARAN DI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Herni Rochana

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the implementation of Law 22/1999 and Law 25/1999 of 2001, has been an increase in the implementation of fiscal decentralization with a phenomenon called Big Bang. The study was conducted to determine the degree of decentralization of expenditure covering the period before and after the implementation of regional autonomy. The research data is a panel data drawn from 30 provinces between 1994 to 2007. The results showed that in Indonesia there has been a significant increase in expenditure decentralization since 2001. Significant increases occurred mainly on the expenditure side, especially the decentralization of authority be spending more than doubled from the previous. On a national scale, the degree of decentralization of authority expenditure increased from 10.48% in the year 2000 to 25.45% in 2001. And the average for each province, the degree of decentralization of spending authority increased from 0.40% in 2000 to 0, 85% in 2001DOI: 10.15408/sjie.v2i2.2423

  18. ANALISIS KELAYAKAN FINANSIAL INDUSTRIALISASI RUMPUT LAUT ATC Chips DI TUJUH PROPINSI INDONESIA TIMUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Susanto

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia has one of the largest wet seaweed producer in the World. It will impact the  economic value if the seaweed processing industry small and medium-scale can be established disentra seaweed production centers such as in Eastern Indonesia. The establishment of the seaweed industry small and medium-scale can be realized through several approaches, both economic and financial approach. The research method using descriptive analytic  with field surveys as reinforcement data analysis . The object of  this study is the financial analysis of the seaweed industry in Indonesia, especially in eastern regions such as South Sulawesi, Central Sulawesi, North Sulawesi, West Nusa Tenggara, East Nusa Tenggara, Maluku and North Maluku. The results of the financial analysis of the overall approach to demonstrate the positive zone seen from the feasibility, both NPV, IRR, and Payback Ratio ratio BC

  19. INDUSTRI KREATIF INDONESIA: PENDEKATAN ANALISIS KINERJA INDUSTRI

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Kamil

    2015-01-01

    In 2008, the Department of Commerce of the Republic of Indonesia has launched a creative economic development documents interpreted the 2025 Indonesia became the starting point and guide the development of the creative economy in Indonesia. With the existence of this document, the industry and its stakeholders or other stakeholders can readily develop the creative economy in Indonesia. Economic development in the direction of the creative industries is one manifestation of optimism aspiration...

  20. Prospek Perekonomian Indonesia dalam Memasuki Afta

    OpenAIRE

    Basuki, Agus Tri

    2002-01-01

    This article will analyze Indonesia's economic performance towards ASEAN free trade area (AFTA). From the economic performance, Indonesia is facing high threats, especially on the competitiveness of product and KKN (corruption, collusion, and nepotism) problem that cause high cost economy. So, government and businessman must anticipate it in order to strengthened Indonesia's economy.

  1. Assessing ecosystem carbon stocks of Indonesia's threatened wetland forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, M.; Kauffman, B.; Murdiyarso, D.; Kurnianto, S.

    2011-12-01

    Over millennia, atmospheric carbon dioxide has been sequestered and stored in Indonesia's tropical wetland forests. Waterlogged conditions impede decomposition, allowing the formation of deep organic soils. These globally significant C pools are highly vulnerable to deforestation, degradation and climate change which can potentially switch their function as C sinks to long term sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Also at risk are critical ecosystem services which sustain millions of people and the conservation of unique biological communities. The multiple benefits derived from wetland forest conservation makes them attractive for international C offset programs such as the proposed Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD+) mechanism. Yet, ecosystem C pools and fluxes in wetland forests remain poorly quantified. Significant knowledge gaps exist regarding how land use changes impact C dynamics in tropical wetlands, and very few studies have simultaneously assessed above- and belowground ecosystem C pools in Indonesia's freshwater peat swamps and mangroves. In addition, most of what is known about Indonesia's tropical wetland forests is derived from few geographic locations where long-standing research has focused, despite their broad spatial distribution. Here we present results from an extensive survey of ecosystem C stocks across several Indonesian wetland forests. Ecosystem C stocks were measured in freshwater peat swamp forests in West Papua, Central Kalimantan, West Kalimantan, and Sumatra. Carbon storage was also measured for mangrove forests in W. Papua, W. Kalimantan, and Sumatra. One overarching goal of this research is to support the development of REDD+ for tropical wetlands by informing technical issues related to carbon measuring, monitoring, and verification (MRV) and providing baseline data about the variation of ecosystem C storage across and within several Indonesian wetland forests.

  2. THE INFLUENCE OF SOCIAL CAPITAL AND ENTREPRENEURSHIP ORIENTATION ON BUSINESS STRATEGY AND PERFORMANCE OF MICRO, SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES: A STUDY IN TIMOR TENGAH UTARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fina Y.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to explain the Influence of Social Capital, Entrepreneurship Orientation on Business Strategy and Performance of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSME. The population of this study - owners and/or managers of MSME furniture processing industry and traditional weaving industry in district of Timor Tengah Utara with a sample of 40 respondents. Sampling technique is done using simple random sampling. The analysis data technique used in this research is Partial Least Square approach. The results of this study indicate that social capital and entrepreneurship orientation have a significant effect on the business strategy and performance of MSME.

  3. IDENTITAS JEMAAH AHMADIYAH INDONESIA DALAM KONTEKS MULTIKULTURAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavius Floris Andries

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Jemaah Ahmadiyah Indonesia (JAI is known as a group on behalf of themselves as part of Islam adherents, however, their acceptance as part of Islam become an issue led to the creation of conflict. Although by law, their existence in citizenship context is legal, but in public service is often made difficult, due to intervention of the interest groups and affiliate with the state. Disclaimer of JAI identity of Islam by Islamist group was not limited to the theological issues, dogmatic, but it extends to the social issues and public sphere policy. It can be found through postponement case of e-ID card service for the JAI community in Manis Lor village, Jalaksana District, Kuningan regency of West Java. By using a qualitative research methods, this research aims to identify and understand the basic reasons of the e-ID card service postponement for the JAI community and find out who the actor affecting these e-ID service postponement. Through interviews with several informant from government, that is executive, and legislative, and mass organizations were influential in the regency, and own JAI community, as well as document review, it was found that the e-ID services postponement for the JAI community in Kuningan West Java, was not apart from the role of local politics, Islamic mass organizations, thus it can be concluded that ID card services postponement for JAI in Kuningan are not limited to identity issue related to theological doctrine, but also the impact of the political bargaining at the local level related to the electoral votes winnings, and other parties to the influence of Islamic mass organizations that want to maintain status quo and power. Negotiation of interests between government and mass organization to make JAI as the power object led to discrimination against JAI as minorities in obtaining their rights as citizens.

  4. Toward tsunami early warning system in Indonesia by using rapid rupture durations estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madlazim

    2012-01-01

    Indonesia has Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (Ina-TEWS) since 2008. The Ina-TEWS has used automatic processing on hypocenter; Mwp, Mw (mB) and Mj. If earthquake occurred in Ocean, depth 7, then Ina-TEWS announce early warning that the earthquake can generate tsunami. However, the announcement of the Ina-TEWS is still not accuracy. Purposes of this research are to estimate earthquake rupture duration of large Indonesia earthquakes that occurred in Indian Ocean, Java, Timor sea, Banda sea, Arafura sea and Pasific ocean. We analyzed at least 330 vertical seismogram recorded by IRIS-DMC network using a direct procedure for rapid assessment of earthquake tsunami potential using simple measures on P-wave vertical seismograms on the velocity records, and the likelihood that the high-frequency, apparent rupture duration, T dur . T dur can be related to the critical parameters rupture length (L), depth (z), and shear modulus (μ) while T dur may be related to wide (W), slip (D), z or μ. Our analysis shows that the rupture duration has a stronger influence to generate tsunami than Mw and depth. The rupture duration gives more information on tsunami impact, Mo/μ, depth and size than Mw and other currently used discriminants. We show more information which known from the rupture durations. The longer rupture duration, the shallower source of the earthquake. For rupture duration greater than 50 s, the depth less than 50 km, Mw greater than 7, the longer rupture length, because T dur is proportional L and greater Mo/μ. Because Mo/μ is proportional L. So, with rupture duration information can be known information of the four parameters. We also suggest that tsunami potential is not directly related to the faulting type of source and for events that have rupture duration greater than 50 s, the earthquakes generated tsunami. With available real-time seismogram data, rapid calculation, rupture duration discriminant can be completed within 4–5 min after an earthquake

  5. Kenaf: its prospect in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estri Laras Arumingtyas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Kenaf is a plant fibre with high potential as source of material industry. Originally, kenaf usage in Indonesia is still limited only for jute sacks material, which is then displaced by plastic sacks production. While at international scale, kenaf has been started to be developed as pulp material, polypropylene composite, fibreglass replacement, and particle board for automotive industry materials. Indonesia is a tropical country this condition which suitable for kenaf cultivation. However, research reports about kenaf potential usages are still few and limited in domestic level only. Whereas, Indonesian kenaf plant information is needed by international community to understand comprehensively about the potential of tropical plants. This article aims to provide an overview about kenaf cultivation potential and usages in Indonesia as well as the possibility of future development. Key words: kenaf, fibre, prospect, potential.

  6. DETERMINAN TABUNGAN MUDHARABAH DI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roikhan Moch Aziz

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research to determine how the influence of macro variables were Profit Sharing Ratio (equivalent rate, Inflation, GDP, and SWBI against Mudharabah Savings at Islamic Banking in Indonesia. The data used in this research were data time series by using multiple regressions and analysis by Ordinary Least Squares. The results showed that simultaneously independent variables (Profit Sharing ratio, Inflation, GDP, and SWBI have significant influence the dependent variable (MudharabaH Savings with probability 0.000000. End that partially independent variables (Inflation with probability 0.0013, GDP with probability 0.0000, and SWBI with probability 0.0000 have positively influence and significantly to dependent variable (Mudharabah Savings in the Islamic Banking of Indonesia. While between the variable independent (Profit Sharing ratio to dependent variable (Mudharabah Savings have not significantly with probability 0.2040, in the Islamic Banking of IndonesiaDOI: 10.15408/sjie.v2i2.2425

  7. Indonesia: bursting forth with supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-06-28

    Indonesia increased its coal production fourfold between 1987 and 1990 and could well triple its output to over 30 mt/yr in 1993. Figures are given for production by the state owned companies, contractors of PT Tambang Batubara Bukit Asam and private companies from 1990 to 1995. Domestic demand for coal is, however, lagging behind production capability. Three or four 400MW units have been commissioned for a coal-fired power station at Paiton in East Java and there should be some growth in Indonesia's cement industry but there is likely to be a large increase in the exportable surplus of coal. When the new Kalimantan terminals are completed Indonesia will be in a position to compete with Australia and South Africa as a coal exporter. The high moisture content of coals from several Indonesian fields may put restrictions on its usage in existing power stations. 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  8. PERSPEKTIF ARSITEKTUR SURYA DI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmy Priatman

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy is a prospective alternative resource due to its existence as a non-polluting source of renewable energy. The potency of solar energy in Indonesia at the belt of equator enables its usage in buildings directly to fulfill human needs. The integrative implementation of solar technology into building emerges specific challenges in architectural design and evolves a new architectural approach which is called "solar architecture". Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Energi surya merupakan sumberdaya alternatif yang prospektif karena energi surya merupakan sumber energi yang dapat diperbarui dan tidak menimbulkan polusi. Potensi energi surya di Indonesia yang berada dijalur khatulistiwa memungkinkan penggunaan secara langsung dalam bangunan untuk memenuhi kebutuhan manusia. Implementasi teknik pemanfaatan energi surya kedalam bangunan secara integratif menimbulkan tantangan spesifik dalam perancangan arsitektur dan merupakan embrio pewujudan suatu tatanan arsitektur baru yang dikenal sebagai "arsitektur surya" Keywords: arsitektur surya, energi surya

  9. STRENGTHENING BIOTECHNOLOGY RESEARCH IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sastrapradja

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The wave of biotechnology promises has struck not only the developed countries but the developing countries as well. The scientific community in Indonesia is aware of the opportunities and is eager to take an active part in this particular endeavour. Meanwhile resources are required to welcoming the biotech­nology era. The need of trained manpower, appropriate infrastructure and equipment, operational and maintenance costs requires serious consideration if a unit or a laboratory is expected to be functional in biotechnology. There is a good opportunity of applying biotechnology in the field of agriculture and industry considering the availability of biological resources in Indonesia. This paper outlines what have been done so far, the difficulties encountered and the efforts made to strengthening biotechnology research in Indonesia.

  10. Indonesia country report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murni Soedyartomo Soentono, Tri [National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia - Batan, Radioisotopes and Radiopharmaceuticals Development Centre, Pasar Jum' at, Cinere Raya, 12570 Jakarta (Indonesia)

    2008-07-01

    Several nuclear research are currently operation in Serpong, Jakarta, Bandung and Yogyakarta; these facilities has been in operation step wisely and having strong link with various universities and laboratories within the country (30 MW in Serpong, 2 MW in Bandung, Cyclotron CS-30 Serpong, Accelerator Yogyakarta, Irradiator Co-60). Public Acceptance: Further more the routine activities of the public information by WiN regarding the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, especially to the immediate environment of the NPP candidate site are indeed of important steps. Future of nuclear power: Since 1990's, Indonesia planned to build NPP station in Jepara to anticipate future energy crisis. Indonesia National Energy Policy has four main objectives: - Securing the continuity of energy supply for domestic use at price affordable to the public, - Enhancing the life quality of the people, - Stimulating economic growth, and, - Reserving an adequate supply of oil and gas for expert to provide source of foreign exchange to fund the national development program. Nuclear Waste Management Policy: Law no 10/1997 on nuclear power became the basic policy in management of radioactive waste The only national agency dealing with radioactive substances, BATAN possesses all data and information concerning the use of nuclear power. Radioactive waste management is particularly earmarked for maximum protection of living creatures, the environment and its ecosystems. In order to guarantee maximum safety and protection, all parties involved in the acquisition of radioactive materials should abide by the ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) principle. In order to achieve radioactive waste management that complies with the principle of sustainable development, technological applications should be technically and economically viable for maximum protection of the environment and safety from any potential nuclear hazards, now and in future. The application must also be accepted by the community

  11. ANALISIS IMPOR BERAS DI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratih Kumala Sari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak ___________________________________________________________________ Salah satu kebijakan pemerintah untuk memenuhi kebutuhan beras yaitu dengan menggenjot produksi beras dalam negeri. Namun dengan semakin meningkatnya jumlah penduduk akan meningkatkan permintaan terhadap beras dan upaya peningkatan produktivitas dalam negeri tidak dapat memenuhi kebutuhan beras dalam negeri. Sehingga untuk menutupi kekurangan tersebut pemerintah mengambil keputusan untuk melakukan impor beras dari negara lain. Akan tetapi pada kenyataannya impor beras dilakukan ketika data statistik menunjukkan bahwa Indonesia sedang mengalami surplus beras. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui faktor-faktor apa saja yang mempengaruhi impor beras di Indonesia. Metode analisis yang digunakan adalah analisis regresi linier berganda dengan model Error Correction Model (ECM. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian disimpulkan bahwa secara parsial maupun secara bersama-sama produksi beras, konsumsi beras, harga beras dalam negeri dan nilai tukar rupiah terhadap dollar AS berpengaruh dan signifikan terhadap impor beras di Indonesia. Abstract ___________________________________________________________________ One of the government’s policy to fulfill the need of rice is to boost the domestic production. However, by increasing the population, the demand of rice will also increase and the effort of increasing the domestic productivity cannot supply domestic rice need. So, to cover the shortage the government make decision to import rice from other countries. Yet, in fact importing rice is occurred when the statistical data showed that the supply of rice in Indonesia is surplus. The purpose of this research is necessary to study the factors which influence the import of rice in Indonesia. The analysis method used is multiple linear regression analysis model with Error Correction Model (ECM. Based on the research proven that partially or jointly the production, the consumption, the

  12. Migration and Deforestation in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Rivayani Darmawan; Stephan Klasen; Nunung Nuryartono

    2015-01-01

    Indonesia now has the highest deforestation rate in the world, with an average increase of about 47,600 ha per year. As a result, the nation is one of the largest emitters of greenhouse gases in the world and is putting its rich biodiversity at risk. Although the literature discussing the political economy of Indonesia commercial's logging is growing, only a small amount focuses on the relation-ship between migration and deforestation. Migration may contribute to the forest cover change, as m...

  13. Probabilitas Teroris Perempuan di Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Endy Saputro

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Indonesian police through Densus 88 have analyzed and predicted the strategy of terrorism in Indonesia, which was important to note that those Indonesian terrorist are males. In short, the Indonesian terrorists need to set up their strategy of attack. Will the Indonesian terrorists build a new strategy with taking involve woman within the strategy? This paper aims to understand the involvement of women terrorist in some suicide actions in global context. To sum up, this paper argues that the emergence of women terrorist in Indonesia are possible, yet it requires the precedence conditions of world women terrorists in global contexts.

  14. Anticancer potency of black sea cucumber (Holothuria atra) from Mentawai Islands, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Mieke Hemiawati Satari; Utmi Arma; Syafruddin Ilyas; Dian Handayani

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: The source of bioactive compounds believed to have strong anticancer potency is derived from sea cucumber. Black sea cucumber (Holothuria atra) is a dominant species in Mentawai Islands, West Sumatera, Indonesia. Key factor compound that acts as anticancer in sea cucumber extract is tritepenoid also known as Frondoside A. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of the active compound taken from black sea cucumber as anticancer. Methods: Methods u...

  15. THE STUPID LIBIDO: SEARCHING FOR THE ROOT CAUSES OF SEXUAL VIOLENCE AGAINST CHILDREN IN INDONESIA

    OpenAIRE

    Rosyadi, Khoirul

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to explore and comprehend sexual violence against children in Indonesia using the phenomenological method. The study was conducted in Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam and West Java Provinces. In-depth interviews were carried out with several informants ranging from government officials, women activists, teachers, and community leaders. Results showed that sexual violence against children was actually perpetrated by the person closest to the victims. The perpetrato...

  16. United Nations at Crossroads: International Administration of Territories and Domestic Political Culture. The Kosovo and East Timor Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Zervaki

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available El Capítulo VII solo ha sido invocado en dos ocasiones para el establecimiento de administraciones territoriales internacionales, en el caso de Timor Leste y Kosovo. A pesar del legado institucional y político de estas operaciones similares bajo el mandato de la Liga de Naciones y el marco de las Naciones Unidas, parecen establecerse no sólo en un vacío institucional debido a la ausencia de una definición en la Carta de las Naciones Unidas, sino también de una forma no sistemática, siguiendo un enfoque casuístico en relación con la selección de los territorios a ser administrados, los medios para la ejecución de la “gobernanza internacional” y los fines últimos de estas operaciones. Estas deficiencias estructurales influencian los procesos de construcción de identidad cívica, lo cual es esencial para la ejecución de las reformas institucionales y la resolución consensual de conflictos, elementos que constituyen los principales pilares de las operaciones de construcción de paz. En este artículo el marco institucional y conceptual de esta nueva generación de operaciones es presentado con un examen a continuación, de la evolución del concepto de gobernanza internacional y su contribución al proceso de transición y las culturas políticas domésticas en los territorios concernidos.

  17. Growth curves and the international standard: How children's growth reflects challenging conditions in rural Timor-Leste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Phoebe R; Sanders, Katherine A; Judge, Debra S

    2018-02-01

    Population-specific growth references are important in understanding local growth variation, especially in developing countries where child growth is poor and the need for effective health interventions is high. In this article, we use mixed longitudinal data to calculate the first growth curves for rural East Timorese children to identify where, during development, deviation from the international standards occurs. Over an eight-year period, 1,245 children from two ecologically distinct rural areas of Timor-Leste were measured a total of 4,904 times. We compared growth to the World Health Organization (WHO) standards using z-scores, and modeled height and weight velocity using the SuperImposition by Translation And Rotation (SITAR) method. Using the Generalized Additive Model for Location, Scale and Shape (GAMLSS) method, we created the first growth curves for rural Timorese children for height, weight and body mass index (BMI). Relative to the WHO standards, children show early-life growth faltering, and stunting throughout childhood and adolescence. The median height and weight for this population tracks below the WHO fifth centile. Males have poorer growth than females in both z-BMI (p = .001) and z-height-for-age (p = .018) and, unlike females, continue to grow into adulthood. This is the most comprehensive investigation to date of rural Timorese children's growth, and the growth curves created may potentially be used to identify future secular trends in growth as the country develops. We show significant deviation from the international standard that becomes most pronounced at adolescence, similar to the growth of other Asian populations. Males and females show different growth responses to challenging conditions in this population. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Small Enterprise Dynamics in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berry, A.; Rodriquez, E.; Sandee, H.M.

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in Indonesia before and during the crisis. It argues that SME productivity has risen substantially, at rates not far from those of larger firms. Case studies indicate that various mechanisms are at work, such as technology

  19. The Strategy of KPID West Java in Socializing Media Literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Pujasari Supratman

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The socialization strategy of media literacy which has done by KPID West Java (Regional-Indonesia Broadcasting Commission aims to strengthen national integration, national identity, and educate the nation. This study focused on the strategies of KPID West Java as an independent institution of the state in disseminating a variety of media literacy programs that have been run by the West Java KPID period 2015-2018 to promote media literacy. The author used a descriptive case study method. In this study, a case to be analyzed is in how KPID West Java disseminated the media literacy. The essence of media literacy conducted by KPID West Java is to grow the wise society in gratification media and to encourage the broadcaster’s institution to produce quality broadcasting content. KPID West Java as a representative of the public continues to call for media literacy socialization which is harder to be censored if there is no public participation in reporting a content violation. This form of socialization by using new media approach encourage KPID West Java Period 2015-2018 to develop steps of innovative media literacy along with the technology development.

  20. Oldest human occupation of Wallacea at Laili Cave, Timor-Leste, shows broad-spectrum foraging responses to late Pleistocene environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Stuart; O'Connor, Sue; Maloney, Tim Ryan; Litster, Mirani; Kealy, Shimona; Fenner, Jack N.; Aplin, Ken; Boulanger, Clara; Brockwell, Sally; Willan, Richard; Piotto, Elena; Louys, Julien

    2017-09-01

    The Wallacea Archipelago provides an extraordinary laboratory for the study of human colonisation and adaptation, yet few detailed archaeological studies have been conducted in the region that span the earliest phase of human settlement. Laili Cave, in northern Timor-Leste, preserves the oldest human occupation in this insular region with a cultural sequence spanning 11,200 to 44,600 cal BP. Small-bodied vertebrates and invertebrates were recovered to the lowest excavated levels, associated with highly concentrated stone artefacts. We report on human behavioural adaptations within the context of Pleistocene environments and changing landscapes using zooarchaeological, stone artefact, bathymetric, and experimental isotopic analyses. Results indicate that Pleistocene humans used the abundant local chert liberally and engaged in mobile broad-spectrum exploitation of invertebrates and fishes from marine, estuarine, and freshwater environments within close proximity of Laili Cave. The faunal assemblage indicates heterogeneous but relatively stable environments during the late Pleistocene. Variability in subsistence strategies over time appears to be a response to changing landscapes and concomitant local resources. This record contrasts with marine specialisations evident from other sites in Timor-Leste and within the broader Wallacean region.

  1. Domestic Resources Cost Analysis of Small-Scale Beef Cattle Farming at Upstream Area of Benain-Noelmina Watershed, West Timor, East Nusa Tenggara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalle Agus Arnold

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to evaluate the Domestic Resources Cost (DRC of beef cattle raised either on grazing, or a tethering system of small-scale beef cattle farming. The study was done using a survey method. A total of 120 respondents were selected purposively to consist of 60 farmers applying the grazing system and another 60 farmers applying the tethering system. The parameters measured were socio-economic characteristic, Domestic Resources Cost Ratio (DRCR and Private Cost Ratio (PCR. Data were analyzed by applying a method of Policy Analysis Matrix (PAM. The result of the study indicated that 87% of those farmers involved in the grazing system and 85% of those involved in tethered beef cattle production, were within the productive age range. In the grazing system, the cattle farmers upstream of Benain-Noelmina watershed area gain the private and social profit levels which is IDR 406,284,-/AU/year and IDR 688,388,-/AU/year, respectively. Further, in the tethering system, the average of private and social profit gain is IDR 855,222,-/AU/year and IDR 1,385,712,-/AU/year, respectively. The small-scale beef cattle farming upstream of Benain-Noelmina watershed has competitive and comparative advantages, indicated by the value of PCR and DRCR which are less than 1. The PCR value was 0.41 in the grazing system and 0.71 on the tethering system; hence, the DRCR of the grazing system was 0.29 and 0.60 of the tethering system.

  2. Energy policy review of Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-11-21

    The Republic of Indonesia is the world's fourth most populous nation and a developing economy in transition. It is now consolidating its democratic government and implementing governance and financial reforms. After the Asian financial crisis of 1997-99, Indonesia's economy has returned to a strong and stable 5-6% annual growth. Over recent decades, its resource wealth, openness to trade and investment, and a strategically favourable location in East Asia have made Indonesia a key global exporter of oil, gas, and coal. However, Indonesia now faces the serious challenge of fast-rising domestic energy demand with declining oil and gas production. The country's energy policy makers are looking closely at domestic energy requirements and best policies to meet these needs. This includes moving prices towards international parity, improving the energy sector investment climate, and developing electricity generation capacity. While some very difficult decisions have been made over recent years, many challenges remain. This study assesses the country's major energy issues. The study was conducted by a team of IEA member country specialists - an approach which has also been used for national and sectoral reviews of other non-IEA countries, including Angola, China, India, Russia, and Ukraine, as well as the Western Balkan region. The Review offers an analysis of Indonesia's energy sector, with findings and recommendations that draw on experience in IEA member countries. Six areas are suggested for priority attention, including progressive reduction in fuel and electricity subsidies, better implementation of policy, improving clarity of the investment framework, helping the energy regulators do their job more effectively, and harnessing a sustainable development agenda particularly renewable energy and energy efficiency.

  3. Energy policy review of Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-11-21

    The Republic of Indonesia is the world's fourth most populous nation and a developing economy in transition. It is now consolidating its democratic government and implementing governance and financial reforms. After the Asian financial crisis of 1997-99, Indonesia's economy has returned to a strong and stable 5-6% annual growth. Over recent decades, its resource wealth, openness to trade and investment, and a strategically favourable location in East Asia have made Indonesia a key global exporter of oil, gas, and coal. However, Indonesia now faces the serious challenge of fast-rising domestic energy demand with declining oil and gas production. The country's energy policy makers are looking closely at domestic energy requirements and best policies to meet these needs. This includes moving prices towards international parity, improving the energy sector investment climate, and developing electricity generation capacity. While some very difficult decisions have been made over recent years, many challenges remain. This study assesses the country's major energy issues. The study was conducted by a team of IEA member country specialists - an approach which has also been used for national and sectoral reviews of other non-IEA countries, including Angola, China, India, Russia, and Ukraine, as well as the Western Balkan region. The Review offers an analysis of Indonesia's energy sector, with findings and recommendations that draw on experience in IEA member countries. Six areas are suggested for priority attention, including progressive reduction in fuel and electricity subsidies, better implementation of policy, improving clarity of the investment framework, helping the energy regulators do their job more effectively, and harnessing a sustainable development agenda particularly renewable energy and energy efficiency.

  4. What's West Nile Virus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español What's West Nile Virus? KidsHealth / For Kids / What's West Nile Virus? Print en español ¿Qué es el Virus del Nilo Occidental? What exactly is the West ...

  5. Teaching religions in Indonesia Islamic Higher education: from comparative religion to Religious Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Media Zainul Bahri

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on how the study of Comparative Religion conducted in Indonesian Islamic higher institutions, i.e. on both UIN Yogyakarta and Jakartasince the beginning of the New Order (1960s to Reform era (2014. The focus of the study was on models/approaches and main issues. In general, for more than half a century, the comparative study of religion is not been done for academic purposes an sich. Just within the new last decade that theoretical studies of Comparative Religion began developed. Another important thing that the study of Comparative Religion in Indonesia, although mostly referring to the methodological sources of the West and the Middle East, but ithas always been associated with religious and cultural context of Indonesia.Therefore, the study on both UIN Yogyakarta and Jakarta always deliver courseson religions that live in Indonesia alongside with Indonesian contemporary issues. In the reform era, though still using Comparative Religion’s term, butit looks religious studies such as used in the West. Thus, its “form” or “clothes”is Comparative Religion but it is religious studies. Artikel ini fokus pada bagaimana studi Perbandingan Agama yang dilakukan di lembaga-lembaga pendidikan tinggi Islam Indonesia, yaitu pada UIN Yogyakarta dan Jakarta sejak awal Orde Baru (1960 Reformasi era (2014. Fokus penelitian adalah pada model/pendekatan dan isu-isu utama. Secara umum, selama lebih dari setengah abad, studi perbandingan agama tidak dilakukan untuk tujuan akademik an sich. Hanya dalam dekade terakhir studi teoritis Perbandingan Agama mulai dikembangkan. Hal lain yang penting bahwa studi Perbandingan Agama di Indonesia, meskipun sebagian besar mengacu padasumber-sumber metodologi Barat dan Timur Tengah, tetapi selalu dikaitkan dengan konteks agama dan budaya Indonesia. Oleh karena itu, penelitian pada kedua UIN Yogyakarta dan Jakarta selalu memberikan kursus tentang agamayang hidup di Indonesia bersama dengan isu

  6. Indonesia-DLN Is A Digital Library Network In Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahmi, Ismail

    2001-01-01

    Within this paper, philosophy of the knowledge sharing, vision of the network, and how it can give benefits to Indonesia are described. The status of the network is described that show the successfulness of the architecture in tying together partner's knowledge from all big islands of Indonesia (Sumatera, Java, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, and Irian Jaya) whether they have dedicated internet connection or only a dial-up one. Currently 13 institutions have joined the network and 15+ in progress of developing their servers. Features of the software, Ganesha Digital Library (GDL version 3.1) are presented, that is now distributed as a Free-Software that is based on My SQL, PHP, and Apache

  7. PENGARUH DESENTRALISASI FISKAL TERHADAP DISPARITAS PENDAPATAN REGIONAL DI INDONESIA TAHUN 2001-200

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Andry Nurman

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Studi ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis bagaimanakah pengaruh desentralisasi fiskal terhadap disparitas pendapatan regional di Indonesia selama periode 2001-2008. Studi dilakukan terhadap Kabupaten/Kota di Indonesia yang merupakan titik tolak dari desentralisasi di Indonesia. Sampel yang diteliti sebanyak 253 Kabupaten/Kota. Variabel yang digunakan sebagai proxy dari desentralisasi fiskal adalah: belanja langsung (desentralisasi pengeluaran, serta PAD, DAU dan Dana Bagi Hasil (desentralisasi penerimaan. Studi menggunakan pendekatan data panel dan alat analisis Least Square Dummy Variables (LSDV atau juga dikenal sebagai Fixed Effect Model (FEM dan Newey West Method atau juga dikenal sebagai HAC (heteroscedasticity-and autocorrelation-consistent untuk menghilangkan heteroskedastisitas dan autokorelasi. Hasil studi menunjukkan bahwa variabel belanja langsung telah mampu untuk mengurangi disparitas pendapatan regional, sebaliknya DAU justru mengakibatkan meningkatnya disparitas pendapatan regional. Terdapat indikasi bahwa penyebab utamanya adalah adanya missallocated di dalam mekanisme alokasi DAU. Sementara itu variabel PAD dan Dana Bagi Hasil tidak berpengaruh signifikan terhadap disparitas pendapatan regional. This study aims to analyze how the influence of fiscal decentralization on regional income disparity in Indonesia during the period 2001-2008. Studies conducted on municipalities in Indonesia. 253 municipalities are used as samples. The variables used as proxies of fiscal decentralization are: direct expenditure (expenditure decentralization, and PAD, DAU and DBH (revenue decentralization. The study is using panel data approach and Least Square Dummy Variables (LSDV as an analytical tool or also known as the Fixed Effect Modeland Newey West method or also known as HAC (heteroscedasticity-and Autocorrelation-consistent to remove heteroscedasticity and autocorrelation. The study shows that direct expenditure variable has been able to reduce

  8. Konstruksi Pencitraan Maskulinitas pada Majalah Men's Health Indonesia Versus Feminitas pada Majalah Women's Health Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Azis, Andi Azisah; Cangara, Hafied; Bahfiarti, Tuti

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the research was to determine the construction of image projection of masculinity formed Indonesia Men's Health magazine versus femininity of Indonesia Women's Health magazine. The subjects of the research were the covers of Indonesia Men's Health magazine and Indonesia Women's Health magazine published from December 2014 to May 2015. The methods of obtaining the data were done by interpreting picture texts and categorizing written text topics. They were analyzed descriptive qualit...

  9. Geothermal and volcanism in west Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawan, I.; Indarto, S.; Sudarsono; Fauzi I, A.; Yuliyanti, A.; Lintjewas, L.; Alkausar, A.; Jakah

    2018-02-01

    Indonesian active volcanoes extend from Sumatra, Jawa, Bali, Lombok, Flores, North Sulawesi, and Halmahera. The volcanic arc hosts 276 volcanoes with 29 GWe of geothermal resources. Considering a wide distribution of geothermal potency, geothermal research is very important to be carried out especially to tackle high energy demand in Indonesia as an alternative energy sources aside from fossil fuel. Geothermal potency associated with volcanoes-hosted in West Java can be found in the West Java segment of Sunda Arc that is parallel with the subduction. The subduction of Indo-Australian oceanic plate beneath the Eurasian continental plate results in various volcanic products in a wide range of geochemical and mineralogical characteristics. The geochemical and mineralogical characteristics of volcanic and magmatic rocks associated with geothermal systems are ill-defined. Comprehensive study of geochemical signatures, mineralogical properties, and isotopes analysis might lead to the understanding of how large geothermal fields are found in West Java compared to ones in Central and East Java. The result can also provoke some valuable impacts on Java tectonic evolution and can suggest the key information for geothermal exploration enhancement.

  10. FINANCIAL DEPTH AND FINANCIAL ACCESS IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigit Setiawan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study is intended to analyze the current levels of financial depth and financial access in Indonesia and to analyze the factors affecting them. The analysis method used was a combination of descriptive quantitative, benchmarking, and literature reviews. The conclusion is that the financial depth in Indonesia has not shown a satisfactory level since it was the lowest, or the second lowest ranked country among the sampled countries. Meanwhile, the financial access in Indonesia is relatively better than its financial depth, especially for financial markets, in which Indonesia ranks in the lower average group. From literature reviews, it can be inferred that the main factor driving the poor financial depth in Indonesia is non-competitiveness of the institutions; whereas the driving force of poor financial access in Indonesia are geographical constraints, poverty, a high income gap, and a less than effective national financial development policy.

  11. INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY LAW IN INDONESIA AFTER 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie Selvie Sinaga

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the major changes of intellectual property condition in Indonesia after 2001. In that year, Indonesia, which has become a member of the Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS since 1994, was ready to meet its commitment under TRIPS. To do so, Indonesiahas made changes in the areas of legislation, administration, court proceedings, and law enforcement. The paper also discusses problematic issues surrounded the implementation of such changes in Indonesia. Tulisan ini melihat kembali perubahan-perubahan besar dalam bidang hak kekayaan intelektual di Indonesia setelah tahun 2001. Pada tahun tersebut, Indonesia, yang telah menjadi anggota Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS sejak 1994, siap untuk memenuhi komitmennya dalam TRIPS. Untuk memenuhi komitmen tersebut, Indonesia telah membuat perubahan-perubahan dalam bidang legislatif, administratif, tata cara pengadilan dan penegakan hukum. Tulisan ini juga membahas permasalahan di seputar pelaksanaan perubahan-perubahan tersebut.

  12. KAJIAN BISNIS FRANCHISE MAKANAN DI INDONESIA

    OpenAIRE

    Dewi Astuti

    2005-01-01

    Food franchising business in Indonesia is growing up very fast. Factors that urge the growth are the specific characteristics of franchise inself, the rise of market demand, the availability of skilled labor, the high of return on investment and the internal factors such as the motivation, personality and the changing life style. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Bisnis franchise makanan di Indonesia berkembang dengan cepat. Beberapa faktor yang mendorong pertumbuhannya adalah ciri-ciri dari fra...

  13. KEJAHATAN KORPORASI DALAM HUKUM PERBANKAN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodosiva Yovita

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Subjects involved in criminal law are people and corporation. In banking crime when a corporate involved the law enforcement is frequently less cared about. Therefore, it will be a need to do further study on how a banking law regulates the corporation crime in Indonesia. Corporation in Banking Law has a broader meaning than in Civil Law A form of corporation crime is raising fund from the community without any license from Central Bank of Indonesia, Bank Indonesia.

  14. Opportunity for Tourism Professional Development in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Menara Simanjuntak

    2013-01-01

    This study focused on opportunities related to the professional growth of tourism in Indonesia at this time and in the future. The proportion of workers in the tourism sector, including the fourth largest after agriculture, manufacturing and non-manufacturing, tends to grow very fast, because tourists visiting Indonesia will increase sharply in coming years. The purpose of this study is to provide advice to the government, tourism, and educational institutions in Indonesia's tourism industry ...

  15. STRATEGI MARKET ENTRY CONVENIENCE STORE DI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Respati Wulandari

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisa dan melihat strategi yang digunakan pada Convenience Store di Indonesia dengan mengambil 7-Eleven sebagai sumber field study dengan metode orientasi pasar. Pengaruh lifestyle menjadi indikator penunjang dalam perkembangan 7-Eleven ddengan menerapkan beberapa strategi yang mengena di market Indonesia, terutama bagi kalangan muda dimana diketahui memiliki indikasi terpenting dalam siklus lifestyle di Indonesia. Tujuan tercapai dengan mengetahui penerapan strategi yang digunakan sehingga dapat diterapkan dalam menjalankan strategi bisnis pada Convenience Store

  16. FINANCIAL DEPTH AND FINANCIAL ACCESS IN INDONESIA

    OpenAIRE

    Sigit Setiawan

    2015-01-01

    This study is intended to analyze the current levels of financial depth and financial access in Indonesia and to analyze the factors affecting them. The analysis method used was a combination of descriptive quantitative, benchmarking, and literature reviews. The conclusion is that the financial depth in Indonesia has not shown a satisfactory level since it was the lowest, or the second lowest ranked country among the sampled countries. Meanwhile, the financial access in Indonesia is relativel...

  17. Nuclear energy research in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supadi, S.; Soentono, S.; Djokolelono, M.

    1988-01-01

    Indonesia's National Atomic Energy Authority, BATAN (Badan Tenaga Atom Nasional), was founded to implement, regulate and monitor the development and launching of programs for the peaceful uses of nuclear power. These programs constitute part of the efforts made to change to a more industrialized level the largely agricultural society of Indonesia. BATAN elaborated extensive nuclear research and development programs in a variety of fields, such as medicine, the industrial uses of isotopes and radiation, the nuclear fuel cycle, nuclear technology and power generation, and in fundamental research. The Puspiptek Nuclear Research Center has been equipped with a multi-purpose research reactor and will also have a fuel element fabrication plant, a facility for treating radioactive waste, a radiometallurgical laboratory, and laboratories for working with radioisotopes and for radiopharmaceutical research. (orig.) [de

  18. Perlakuan Akuntansi Karbon di Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Meliana Taurisianti

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to understand the implementation of accounting for carbon, about how it can be measured, recognized, recorded, presentedand disclosed based on Pernyataan Standar Akuntansi (PSAK 19, 23, 32 and 57, also the impact toward the financial ratios. The object of this study is the financial statements of an integrated timber company in Indonesia. This study has analyzed the enables account to be used to record accounting for carbon, also analyzed the impact of implementation of accounting for carbon toward the financial ratios. The results of this study are support the previous study, which intangible asset can be recognized based on PSAK 19, whereas asset and contingent liabilities can be recognized based on PSAK 57. This study also fit out the previous study, which a company can recognize its expense and other income based on PSAK 19, 23 and 32 as a basis for forestry accounting in Indonesia.

  19. CESTODES IN MAN IN INDONESIA

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    Sri S. Margono

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cestodes are found endemic in certain areas of Indonesia. The most common cestodes found are Taenia saginata and Taenia solium. Eggs of Taenia are found in stool samples during surveys in Irian Jaya (2-9 %, Nusa Tenggara Timur (7 %, Bali and resettlement areas of people from Bali (0,4 - 3,3%. Interviews, with questions concerning expelled segments, recovered a prevalence of 9,5 % in inhabitants of the island of Samosir (North Sumatra and 2 % in the people of 6 villages in Abiansemal (Bali. Cases are also reported from Jakarta. Hymenolepis nana (0,2 -1% and Hymenolepis diminuta (0,4 % are rarely found in surveys. A case of hyperinfection with H. nana has been reported in Jakarta in 1968. Occasionally there are reports of infections with Dipylidium caninum, Raillietina madagascariensis, Bertiella studeri and sparganum. Report on treatment of taeniasis in Indonesia mentioned the use of atabrine, mebendazole, bithionol and praziquantel with different results.

  20. KERAGAAN KOPI PASAR DOMESTIK INDONESIA

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    Taufani Sagita

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Coffee has been becoming one of priority commodity of Indonesia since this country also as one of main producer in the world. However, Indonesia got hardly in maintaining world position due to increasing of production and capacity of other country such as in Vietnam and Brazil. Therefore, it is necessary to recognize situation of demand and supply for coffee commodity in domestic scope to understand further the bargaining position level. Various variable such as production, productivity,demand, supply, domestic price, export and import of coffe are considered to be performance variables for domestic market. This research used SAS (Statistical Analysis System tool by using times series data. The result of the analysis shown that the performance of Indonesian coffee trading is affected by the supply, demand and price of Indonesian coffee.

  1. INDONESIA: FROM PLURALISM TO MULTICULTURALISM

    OpenAIRE

    Wasino Wasino

    2013-01-01

    Indonesia was not a new entity when started to become national country. It was called a continuation of the history of the Dutch East Indies. The people lived under western colonial was a pluralistic society, people separated by social class, ethnicity, religion, race and inter-group. Between the authorities and the people separated along racial lines. In addition there was the separation of ethnic groups associated with the economic, educational and social relations. After Indonesian indepen...

  2. Analisis Financial Deepening di Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Ruslan, Dede

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to analize the financial deepening on Indonesia economy. The focusof analysize is to identifiying effect of interest rate, exchange rate and Gross DomesticProduct (GDP) to financial deepening on Indonesian economy for 1980-2007. Methodeof analysize is linier regression model. The result of analysize are Gross DomesticProduct (GDP) and interest rate have significant effect to financial deepening onIndonesian economy.

  3. Mekanisme Transmisi Syariah di Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    ERWIN HARDIANTO

    2005-01-01

    Since Indonesia has two different type of banking system (shariah and interest rate system) debtor or investor can chose appropriate system for their investment. When monetary instrument became tightening (high interest rate) so instrument from shariah system will substituted it. This situation arises because of nature from shariah instrument (revenue sharing) that flexible for price volatility. The other circumstances are revenue sharing can reduce inflation because with this system possibil...

  4. Transmigration and accumulation in Indonesia.

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Sáinz, Juan Pablo

    1980-01-01

    ILO pub-wep pub. Working paper tracing the evolution of migration policy involving state intervention to reduce problems of overpopulation and employment in Indonesia - describes historical internal migration from java and bali to the outer islands during colonialism and after to up 1979, and argues that migration policy based on exploitation of surplus labour supply for reasons of capitalism has ended in failure. References and statistical tables.

  5. EKSISTENSI BAHASA INDONESIA SEBAGAI BAHASA PERSATUAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marsudi Marsudi

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Bahasa Indonesia lahir dari Bahasa Melayu yang pada zaman dulu menjadi bahasa lingua franca, yakni bagasa perdagangan antarpulau di nusantara. Kemudian dikukuhkan menjadi bahasa persatuan melalui momen Sumpah Pemuda. Bahasa Melayu menjadi dominan di kala itu dikarenakan fleksibelitasnya akan bahasa-bahasa lain. Dengan fakta tersebut, tepatnya 28 Oktober 1928, bahasa Melayu diangkat sebagai bahasa persatuan dan tahun 1945 diresmikan sebagai bahasa negara. Permasalahan yang muncul dalam eksistensi bahasa Indonesia adalah bagaimanakah cara mempertahankan eksistensi bahasa Indonesia? Tidak hanya masalah eksistensi saja, tetapi sanggupkah bahasa-bahasa daerah di negeri ini memperkaya kosa kata dan istilah bahasa Indonesia? Selain itu, bagaimanakah potensi bahasa Indonesia di era globalisasi? Eksistensi bahasa Indonesia, selain dipengaruhi kekonsistenan penggunaanya, juga didukung oleh kemampuan bahasa tersebut dalam mengungkapkan fenomena baru yang berkembang. Oleh karena itu, perkembangan bahasa Indonesia sangat tergantung pada tingkat keberhasilan menciptakan kosa kata dan istilah-istilah baru. Bahasa Indonesia sudah mulai mengglobal karena bahasa Indonesia memiliki sifat terbuka dan demokratis. Perkembangan yang terjadi sekarang dan yang datang tidak hanya menyangkut masalah struktur dan bahasa, tetapi lebih jauh mengungkapkan permasalahan manusia baru yang dialami manusia di dalam sebuah proses perubahan dalam berbagai aspek kehidupan

  6. UPAYA PENANGGULANGAN TINDAK PIDANA TERORISME di Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hery Firmansyah

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Terrorism has become the most serious issue in Indonesia after terrorist attacks in Bali, November 2002. With the current condition where Indonesia still faces a key risk of new militant attacks with new cells and more bomb experts, this paper aims to analyse the way Indonesian government fight against terrorism. Terorisme adalah permasalahan yang sangat serius di Indonesia, pasca serangan bom di Bali pada November 2002. Dengan keadaan sekarang di mana Indonesia masih menghadapi permasalahan serius serangan militan dengan jaringan baru dan lebih banyak ahli bom, tulisan ini bertujuan menganalisis cara yang ditempuh pemerintah untuk melakukan penanggulangan tindak pidana terorisme.

  7. The Third Wave of Democratization in Indonesia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Delin, Azizan

    2000-01-01

    .... The revolutionary struggle shaped general Indonesian acceptance of the authoritarian rule. However, by 1997 Indonesia's authoritarian rule was faced with a serious problem of legitimacy and governability...

  8. PERSPEKTIF GLOBAL PENYELESAIAN SENGKETA INVESTASI DI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Syaifuddin

    2011-06-01

    Pembentukan UUPM No. 25/2007 adalah konsekwensi yuridis dari ratifikasi Perjanjian WTO. TRIMs, yang bertujuan menciptakan hukum investasi, termasuk hukum penyelesaian sengketa investasi, yang sesuai dengan kehendak investor asing dalam perspektif global, yaitu: pertama, mengandung karakter hukum yang berkepastian, berkeadilan, dan berefisiensi; dan kedua, berlandaskan spirit hukum yang mengarahkan pemerintah dan penanaman modal asing menyelesaikan sengketa investasi melalui arbitrase internasional daripada pengadilan bahkan arbitrase nasional di Indonesia. Krisis lembaga peradilan di Indonesia harus diselesaikan dengan cara membangun sistem hukum peradilan dengan mengacu pada Pancasila sebagai cita hukum investasi Indonesia. Hal tersebut adalah  suatu syarat bagi terbentuknya aturan hukum penyelesaian sengketa investasi yang serasi dalam perspektif global dan lokal (Indonesia.

  9. Six-year longitudinal study of pathways leading to explosive anger involving the traumas of recurrent conflict and the cumulative sense of injustice in Timor-Leste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silove, Derrick; Mohsin, Mohammed; Tay, Alvin Kuowei; Steel, Zachary; Tam, Natalino; Savio, Elisa; Da Costa, Zelia Maria; Rees, Susan

    2017-10-01

    Cumulative evidence suggests that explosive anger may be a common reaction among survivors of mass conflict. However, little is known about the course of explosive anger in the years following mass conflict, or the psychosocial factors that influence the trajectory of that reaction pattern. We examined these issues in a 6-year longitudinal study (2004-2010) conducted among adult residents of a rural and an urban village in Timor-Leste (n = 1022). We derived a brief, context-specific index of explosive anger using qualitative methods. Widely used measures of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and severe psychological distress were calibrated to the Timor context. We developed an index of the cumulative sense of injustice related to consecutive historical periods associated with conflict in Timor-Leste. We applied partial structural equation modeling (SEM) to examine pathways from baseline explosive anger, socio-demographic factors, recurrent trauma, mental health indices (PTSD, severe psychological distress) and the sense of injustice, to explosive anger. Half of the sample with explosive anger at baseline continued to report that reaction pattern after 6 years; and a third of those who did not report explosive anger at baseline developed the response by follow-up. A symmetrical pattern of younger age, female gender and the trauma count for the preceding historical period predicted explosive anger at each assessment point. The sense of injustice was related to explosive anger at follow-up. Explosive anger was associated with impairment in functioning and conflict with the intimate partner and wider family. Sampling constraints caution against generalizing our findings to other populations. Nevertheless, our data suggest that explosive anger may persist for a prolonged period of time following mass conflict and that the response pattern is initiated and maintained by recurrent trauma exposure associated with a sense of injustice. Averting recurrence of mass

  10. Pembaruan Hukum Perwakafan di Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Siregar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This article concentrates on Islamic law product relating to charitable religious endowment (waqf in Indonesia. Based on the traditional perspective of fiqh originated from the earlier Islamic jurists of orthodox view and in turn it had long been legislised as part of Indonesia positive law system, the law of waqfhad regulated that the wealth to be waqf shall be limited to only unmoving properties.  This regulation had led the management of waqf to be unproductive to raise the social welfare.By the virtue of the relatively wider viwpoint of the contemporar y Islamic law thinkers,the Islamic law refor m takes place in Indonesia particularly at the level of postive law ,namely Law Number 41/2004 Relating to Waqf. This law stipulates the thing to be waqf could be either unmoving or moving properties, like cash, gold, certificate of obligation, inteletual wealth, and so forth. This law also lays down the regulation relating to the penalty against those who deviate in managing a waqf. However, as a critque and recommendation the writer propose that the society could be involved in preser ving the purpose of a waqf which is the right of Allah. And it could be conducted by stipulating the class action as a way of the settlements of dispute occuring to a waqf property.

  11. Inflation Rate Modelling in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezzy Eko Caraka

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this research were to analyse: (i Modelling the inflation rate in Indonesia with parametric regression. (ii Modelling the inflation rate in Indonesia using non-parametric regression spline multivariable (iii Determining the best model the inflation rate in Indonesia (iv Explaining the relationship inflation model parametric and non-parametric regression spline multivariable. Based on the analysis using the two methods mentioned the coefficient of determination (R2 in parametric regression of 65.1% while non-parametric amounted to 99.39%. To begin with, the factor of money supply or money stock, crude oil prices and the rupiah exchange rate against the dollar is significant on the rate of inflation. The stability of inflation is essential to support sustainable economic development and improve people's welfare. In conclusion, unstable inflation will complicate business planning business activities, both in production and investment activities as well as in the pricing of goods and services produced.DOI: 10.15408/etk.v15i2.3260

  12. Indonesia`s Palm Oil Industrialization: the Resistance of Tanjung Pusaka Villagers, Central Kalimantan Against Palm Oil Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Wulansari, Ica

    2017-01-01

    Indonesia`s Palm oil industry is the greatest export commodity in the world. Palm oil industry has been developed since Soeharto`s administration with World Bank`s initiative. Indonesia`s development pattern is modernization which is fully supported by global capitalist agent. Furthermore, the government of Indonesia has issued policies to support this industry and the ease of accessibilty for investor to build in Indonesia. Most of the policies focus on economic interest with lack of attenti...

  13. A~probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment for Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horspool, N.; Pranantyo, I.; Griffin, J.; Latief, H.; Natawidjaja, D. H.; Kongko, W.; Cipta, A.; Bustaman, B.; Anugrah, S. D.; Thio, H. K.

    2014-05-01

    Probabilistic hazard assessments are a fundamental tool for assessing the threats posed by hazards to communities and are important for underpinning evidence based decision making on risk mitigation activities. Indonesia has been the focus of intense tsunami risk mitigation efforts following the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami, but this has been largely concentrated on the Sunda Arc, with little attention to other tsunami prone areas of the country such as eastern Indonesia. We present the first nationally consistent Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessment (PTHA) for Indonesia. This assessment produces time independent forecasts of tsunami hazard at the coast from tsunami generated by local, regional and distant earthquake sources. The methodology is based on the established monte-carlo approach to probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA) and has been adapted to tsunami. We account for sources of epistemic and aleatory uncertainty in the analysis through the use of logic trees and through sampling probability density functions. For short return periods (100 years) the highest tsunami hazard is the west coast of Sumatra, south coast of Java and the north coast of Papua. For longer return periods (500-2500 years), the tsunami hazard is highest along the Sunda Arc, reflecting larger maximum magnitudes along the Sunda Arc. The annual probability of experiencing a tsunami with a height at the coast of > 0.5 m is greater than 10% for Sumatra, Java, the Sunda Islands (Bali, Lombok, Flores, Sumba) and north Papua. The annual probability of experiencing a tsunami with a height of >3.0 m, which would cause significant inundation and fatalities, is 1-10% in Sumatra, Java, Bali, Lombok and north Papua, and 0.1-1% for north Sulawesi, Seram and Flores. The results of this national scale hazard assessment provide evidence for disaster managers to prioritise regions for risk mitigation activities and/or more detailed hazard or risk assessment.

  14. Pesantren Responses to Religious Tolerance, Pluralism and Democracy in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurrohman Nurrohman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Pesantren (Islamic boarding school is the oldest Islamic institution in Indonesia that often affiliated to the largest mass Muslim organization Nahdlatul Ulama. This organization is well known for its stance to uphold moderate, tolerance Islam and accepting pluralistic state based on Pancasila. Pesantren also often referred as the barometer to understand the way of thinking of Muslims grass root in Indonesia because many Islamic figures in Indonesian village are alumni of pesantren.  There are debates among scholars on whether religious violence has a root in religious doctrine or it is caused by factors outside religion such as poverty or injustice. By assuming that both inside and outside factors have significant contribution to violence or radicalism this study will discuss the doctrine that potentially can be used to justify violence and intolerance by reviewing the opinion of pesantren leaders in West Java on jihad, violence or intolerance and power. This study is aimed to examine whether the commitment of Muslim leaders in national level on democracy and plurality is supported by grass root particularly from pesantren leaders.  Overall the study found that although they agree that democracy is compatible with Islam, this study reveals that their acceptance to pluralism still be questioned as evidenced by almost half of them supported theocratic caliphate carry out by radical group. Although many argued that pesantren promotes tolerance and pluralism, nevertheless this  study shows that some of their teaching tacitly supported violence act in the name of religion that will tarnished the effort of Indonesia to synchronize Islam, democracy and modernity. It means that many of them actually not wholeheartedly accepted democracy and pluralism.

  15. INDONESIA: FROM PLURALISM TO MULTICULTURALISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasino Wasino

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia was not a new entity when started to become national country. It was called a continuation of the history of the Dutch East Indies. The people lived under western colonial was a pluralistic society, people separated by social class, ethnicity, religion, race and inter-group. Between the authorities and the people separated along racial lines. In addition there was the separation of ethnic groups associated with the economic, educational and social relations. After Indonesian independence the pluralistic society situation continues. The end of the New Order has opened a Pandora's Box of poor relations between ethnic and inter-religious. As a result many conflicts occurred based on religious and ethnic differences. The conflict heated up as the influx of political interests. The process of political reform gave birth to a new awareness of the relationship between ethnicity and religion. The starting point of this change was when the President Abdurrahman Wahid unlocked barriers on multicultural relationship that respects the differences of cultural orientation among the existing ethnic. From that moment the concept of multiculturalism experienced socialization process within Indonesian society. Key words: pluralism, multiculturalism, colonial, new order, socialization Ketika Indonesia lahir sebagai negara nasional, Indonesia bukanlah  entitas yang baru. Ia merupakan kelanjutan  sejarah dari masyarakat yang disebut Hindia Belanda. Masyarakat di bawah penjajah Barat ini merupakan masyarakat majemuk, masyarakat yang terpisah-pisah berdasarkan kelas sosial, suku, agama, ras, dan antar golongan. Antara penguasa dan rakyat terpisah secara garis rasial. Selain itu ada pe-misahan suku bangsa terkait dengan ekonomi, pendidikan, dan hubungan-hubungan sosial. Setelah Indonesia merdeka situasi masyarakat majemuk terus berlangsung. Berakhirnya Orde Baru telah membuka kotak pandora  buruknya hubungan antar etnik dan antar agama. Akibatnya

  16. Mini review : Pengolahan kerupuk “Rambak” kulit di Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedes Amertaningtyas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Hide a waste product of animal slaughter house is still can be utilized as food in the form of cracker. Cattle, buffalo, rabbit, chicken shank and fish skin can be used of raw materials for cracker production. This process include hide selection, washing, immersing, liming, deliming, boiling, cutting, immersing in sauce, drying and frying. In Indonesia, the skin cracker industriesare consentralised in certain area of west, central and east java provinces where Sumatra skin cracker are popular knows as “ kerupuk jangek”. Although skin cracker have a high protein content, however its quality are low comparedto other meat processed products. The most dominant amino acid in this product is glycine. Some important issues such as it is not recommended for people suffering uric acid, addition of harmfull additives i.e. formalin and borax, containg chrome which originated from hide prosessing industry and unreligion system of slaughtering (is not halal. Key words: waste product, skin animal, rambak cracker.

  17. THE DEVELOPMENT OF REGIONAL EXPANSION APPARATUS RESOURCE PLACEMENT IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suraji

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to describe, analyze and deeply assess the implementation of regional apparatus resource development into new areas of regional expansion in Indonesia. The research was conducted by using qualitative approach, specifically, case study by analyzing descriptive data in the form of interviews, as well as analyzing valid data documentation to support the research problem. This research was conducted in the new area of Pangandaran Regency of West Java, Indonesia. The results of the research could map that there were still very few development programs of regional and apparatus expansion and it had not become the priority program after the expansion; the target of improving the quality of the apparatus resource appeared not to be the main measure, but rather, the main measure was the structuring of the apparatus and the issue of the regional office infrastructure; the instruments used in the development and training process were also less supportive, it caused many stagnant employees did not understand about new issues in the dynamics of work; apparatus development through training activities and scientific forums (seminars, scientific discussions, workshops and improvements was obstructed due to budget constraints.

  18. Studying Landslide Displacements in Megamendung (Indonesia Using GPS Survey Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasanuddin Z. Abidin

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Landslide is one of prominent geohazards that frequently affects Indonesia, especially in the rainy season. It destroys not only environment and property, but usually also causes deaths. Landslide monitoring is therefore very crucial and should be continuously done. One of the methods that can have a contribution in studying landslide phenomena is repeated GPS survey method. This paper presents and discusses the operational performances, constraints and results of GPS surveys conducted in a well known landslide prone area in West Java (Indonesia, namely Megamendung, the hilly region close to Bogor. Three GPS surveys involving 8 GPS points have been conducted, namely on April 2002, May 2003 and May 2004, respectively. The estimated landslide displacements in the area are relatively quite large in the level of a few dm to a few m. Displacements up to about 2-3 m were detected in the April 2002 to May 2003 period, and up to about 3-4 dm in the May 2003 to May 2004 period. In both periods, landslides in general show the northwest direction of displacements. Displacements vary both spatially and temporally. This study also suggested that in order to conclude the existence of real and significant displacements of GPS points, the GPS estimated displacements should be subjected to three types of testing namely: the congruency test on spatial displacements, testing on the agreement between the horizontal distance changes with the predicted direction of landslide displacement, and testing on the consistency of displacement directions on two consecutive periods.

  19. The Sorong Fault Zone, Indonesia: Mapping a Fault Zone Offshore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melia, S.; Hall, R.

    2017-12-01

    The Sorong Fault Zone is a left-lateral strike-slip fault zone in eastern Indonesia, extending westwards from the Bird's Head peninsula of West Papua towards Sulawesi. It is the result of interactions between the Pacific, Caroline, Philippine Sea, and Australian Plates and much of it is offshore. Previous research on the fault zone has been limited by the low resolution of available data offshore, leading to debates over the extent, location, and timing of movements, and the tectonic evolution of eastern Indonesia. Different studies have shown it north of the Sula Islands, truncated south of Halmahera, continuing to Sulawesi, or splaying into a horsetail fan of smaller faults. Recently acquired high resolution multibeam bathymetry of the seafloor (with a resolution of 15-25 meters), and 2D seismic lines, provide the opportunity to trace the fault offshore. The position of different strands can be identified. On land, SRTM topography shows that in the northern Bird's Head the fault zone is characterised by closely spaced E-W trending faults. NW of the Bird's Head offshore there is a fold and thrust belt which terminates some strands. To the west of the Bird's Head offshore the fault zone diverges into multiple strands trending ENE-WSW. Regions of Riedel shearing are evident west of the Bird's Head, indicating sinistral strike-slip motion. Further west, the ENE-WSW trending faults turn to an E-W trend and there are at least three fault zones situated immediately south of Halmahera, north of the Sula Islands, and between the islands of Sanana and Mangole where the fault system terminates in horsetail strands. South of the Sula islands some former normal faults at the continent-ocean boundary with the North Banda Sea are being reactivated as strike-slip faults. The fault zone does not currently reach Sulawesi. The new fault map differs from previous interpretations concerning the location, age and significance of different parts of the Sorong Fault Zone. Kinematic

  20. West and East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Rappaport

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The topic “West-East” has a clear cultural and historical meaning. Orthodox temples face East. The way from West to East and from East to West is tens of thousands of kilometers long and has a special meaning. It differs from the way from North to South: the horizontal axes connect regions, while the vertical axis (Earth-Sky connects the worlds. The expansion of Eurasian tribes occurred along the East-West axis – the world horizontal way. Today the cultural memory of people in the East and West finds itself in the theatre of new dramas of existence and new forces. With the advances in electronic technologies, the world movements seem to have sunk in the depth of the chthonian past to come up anew to the surface of fantastic speeds and momentary connections. A new type of planetary landscape-space relation appears, giving no place for West and East.

  1. Kajian Tvc Wonderful Indonesia sebagai Cermin Citra Indonesia di Mata Dunia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Oscario

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is one of the most important sectors supporting the economy of Indonesia. One way to develop the Indonesian tourism is strengthening the image of Indonesia in the world. To strengthen the image, Indonesia has replaced the old brand, “Visit Indonesia”, and launched a new brand, “Wonderful Indonesia”. Besides the logo, in order to campaign “Wonderful Indonesia,” some television commercials have been launched. An advertising, which creates a powerful image, not only has a great power to influence the viewers but can also be a double-edged sword. Advertising can become a mirror of reality, but it can also become a distorted mirror of reality. A similar case happens with Wonderful Indonesia television commercial, which was released early in 2012 by the Ministry of Tourism and Creative Economy. The television commercial is considered to have distorted the image of Indonesia in the world by displaying only the culture, society, and nature of Java and Bali. Meanwhile, the other Wonderful Indonesia television commercial, “Feeling is Believing,” which was launched by Indonesia Tourism Board in 2012 considered to have become quite successful framing the beauty, and diversity of the cultures, communities, regions, and natures of Indonesia. Learning from the mistakes, and considering the importance of an image, the future Wonderful Indonesia television commercial should be dealt more carefully. The image that is proper to represent Indonesia, the visual signifier should reflect the intended signified precisely.  

  2. The experience of medical training and expectations regarding future medical practice of medical students in the Cuban-supported Medical School in Timor-Leste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrinho, Paulo; Valdes, Ana C; Cabral, Jorge

    2015-03-28

    The purpose of this paper is to describe and analyse the professional expectations and profile of medical students at the Cuban-supported School of General Medicine, in the Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences of the National University of Timor-Leste. A piloted, standardized questionnaire, with closed- and open-ended questions, was distributed to registered medical students attending classes on the day of the survey. All data were analysed using SPSS. The statistical analysis is mostly descriptive. Students decide to study medicine at an early age. Relatives and friends seem to have an especially important influence in encouraging, reinforcing and promoting the desire to be a doctor. The degree of feminization of the student population is high. Medical students are in general satisfied with the training received, though demanding improvements in terms of systems to support their studies and training (e.g. libraries, laboratories, access to computers and the Internet). Medical students know that they will be needed in the public sector and that it would represent their opportunity to contribute to the public's welfare. Nonetheless, they report that they expect to combine public sector practice with private work, probably, in order to improve their earnings. This may be explained by their expectations for salaries, which are much higher than the current level of public sector salaries. A significant proportion of students are unsure about their future area of specialization. Of those that have determined their desired specialization, most intend to train as hospital specialists and to follow a hospital-based career. For many, specialization is equated with migration to study abroad. There are important differences between students at the start of their training compared with more advanced students. This paper gives an overview of student expectations for alignment with stated national human resources for health priorities for Timor-Leste.

  3. Does mobile phone ownership predict better utilization of maternal and newborn health services? a cross-sectional study in Timor-Leste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Juan; Unger, Jennifer Anna; Thompson, Susan; Hofstee, Marisa; Gu, Jing; Mercer, Mary Anne

    2016-07-23

    Increasingly popular mobile health (mHealth) programs have been proposed to promote better utilization of maternal, newborn and child health services. However, women who lack access to a mobile phone are often left out of both mHealth programs and research. In this study, we determine whether household mobile phone ownership is an independent predictor of utilization of maternal and newborn health services in Timor-Leste. The study included 581 women aged 15-49 years with a child under the age of two years from the districts of Manufahi and Ainaro in Timor-Leste. Participants were interviewed via a structured survey of knowledge, practices, and coverage of maternal and child health services, with additional questions related to ownership and utilization of mobile phones. Mobile phone ownership was the exposure variable, and the dependent variables included having at least four antenatal care visits, skilled birth attendance, health facility delivery, a postnatal checkup within 24 h, and a neonatal checkup within 24 h for their youngest child. Logistic regression models were applied to assess for associations. Sixty-seven percent of women reported having at least one mobile phone in the family. Women who had a mobile phone were significantly more likely to be of higher socioeconomic status and to utilize maternal and newborn health services. However, after adjusting socioeconomic factors, household mobile phone ownership was not independently associated with any of the dependent variables. Evaluations of the effects of mHealth programs on health in a population need to consider the likelihood of socioeconomic differentials indicated by mobile phone ownership.

  4. Role of cold surge and MJO on rainfall enhancement over indonesia during east asian winter monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauzi, R. R.; Hidayat, R.

    2018-05-01

    Intensity of precipitation in Indonesia is influenced by convection and propagation of southwest wind. Objective of this study is to analyze the relationship between cold surge and the phenomenon of intra-seasonal climate variability Madden-julian Oscillation (MJO) for affecting precipitation in Indonesia. The data used for identifying the occurrence of cold surge are meridional wind speed data from the ERA-Interim. In addition, this study also used RMM1 and RMM2 index data from Bureau of Meteorology (BOM) for identifying MJO events. The results showed that during East Asian Winter Monsoon (EAWM) in 15 years (2000-2015), there are 362 cold surge events, 186 MJO events, and 113 cold surge events were associated with MJO events. The spread of cold surge can penetrate to equator and brought mass of water vapor that causes dominant precipitation in the Indonesian Sea up to 50-75% from climatological precipitation during EAWM. The MJO convection activity that moves from west to east also increases precipitation, but the distribution of rainfall is wider than cold surge, especially in Eastern Indonesia. MJO and cold surge simultaneously can increase rainfall over 100-150% in any Indonesian region that affected by MJO and cold surge events. The mechanism of heavy rainfall is illustrated by high activity of moisture transport in areas such as Java Sea and coastal areas of Indonesia.

  5. Indonesia-Madagascar partnership in agricultural linkages (impartial aims for sustainability

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    Y Widodo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Starting in 2011 Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA through the Program of Third Country Experts (TCE invited Indonesian scientists to be involved in the development endeavors for African Countries, including Madagascar especially in attempt to increase productivity of rice as main staple food of Malagasy. Initiation of bilateral cooperation between Indonesia and Madagascar had been stimulated from JICA-TCE, furthermore for developing Indonesian soybean to Madagascar from 2013 to 2015. Madagascar and many African Countries are grouped into the countries requesting global aid for taming hunger as declared under Millennium Development Goals (MDGs ended 2015 that continued into Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs 2030. Fortunately, there is a similarity of languages in Indonesia and Madagascar East and West Africa as heritage from the ancient voyage before western occupation or even Before Christ (BC era as reflected in the relief at wall of Borobudur a Buddhist temple in Magelang Central Java Indonesia. Based on historical background, there is an opportunity to propose Indonesia- Madagascar Partnership in Agricultural Linkages (IMPARTIAL as a new alliance for attaining sustainable development in developing countries at the southern hemisphere. Implementing agricultural innovation to provide adequate food and renewable energy for daily modern livelihood is a key to attain sustainability.

  6. Entering the nuclear debate in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlapfer, A.; Marinova, D.

    1995-01-01

    The authors discuss the risks involved with nuclear technology in relation to the specific geographic, economic and political situation of Indonesia, and argue that Australia must demonstrate a strong interest in any energy decision made in Indonesia. 11 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig

  7. The Third Wave of Democratization in Indonesia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Delin, Azizan

    2000-01-01

    .... For half a century, authoritarianism was dominant in Indonesia, but like all dictatorships, Indonesia subsequently had to return to democracy. Pressures from within the authoritarian government and Indonesian society dictated the democratization process. However, the long term prospects for unstable democracy remain unclear.

  8. Report on Fulbright Summer Seminar on Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christenson, Charles Elroy

    This resource packet was compiled by a participant in the Fulbright Summer Seminar on Indonesia. The materials provide information for teaching about the diaspora of Hinduism and Islamic beliefs throughout the southeast Asia archipelagoes and their influence on art and culture. The handouts supplement information on Indonesia as part of an Asian…

  9. Shia: Its History and Development in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh Hasyim

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Shiah becomes a new problem in Indonesia after hundreds years of living together. Currently, treatment to Shiah tends to violate the principles of religious freedom. Therefore, it is necessary to know, how the history of the emergence of Shiah and its development in Indonesia? This is a library research using a critical analysis approach. This study found that the Syiah is a religious ideology which refers to the views of Saidina Ali (the fourth khalifat and his descendants. This teaching emerged since the beginning of the khulafaurasidin. Shiah has developed dozens of religiousstreams due to disagreement and differences on the idea of Imamah. There are four stages of Shiah development in Indonesia, namely: Firstly, along with the arrival of Islam in Indonesia; Secondly, after the Islamic revolution in Iran; Thirdly, through Indonesian Muslim Intellectuals who studied in Iran, and Finally,  during the open era there was an establishment of as association Jamaah Ahlul Bai’t Indonesia.

  10. Perkembangan Korupsi Dalam Novel Indonesia

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    M. Shoim Anwar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Tulisan ini bertujuan mendeskripsikan perkembangan korupsi yang terepresentasikan dalam novel Indonesia. Teori yang digunakan adalah teori sosiologi, kajian budaya, jaringan, dan pasca­kolonial. Sumber datanya adalah novel Korupsi (1954 karya Pramoedya Ananta Toer, Senja di Jakarta (1970 karya Mochtar Lubis, Ladang Perminus (1990 karya Ramadhan K.H., Orang-­Orang Proyek (2002 karya Ahmad Tohari, dan Memburu Koruptor (2009 karya Urip Sutomo. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa sesuai dengan latar waktu dalam novel, waktu penyelesaian, serta waktu diterbitkan, perkembangan korupsi dalam novel Indonesia dapat dirumuskan dengan periode tahun: 1945-1954, 1954-1957, 1966-1976/1982, 1991-1992/2001, 1998-2009. Korupsi dalam teks novel Indonesia berkembang semakin luas baik dari segi pelaku, penyebab, modus, maupun sifatnya. Abstract: This paper is aimed at describing the development of corruption in Indonesian novels. This paper uses theories of sociology, cultural studies, network, and postcolonial. The sources of data are Korupsi (1954 by Pramoedya Ananta Toer, Senja di Jakarta (1970 by Mochtar Lubis, Ladang Perminus (1990 by Ramadhan K.H., Orang­Orang Proyek (2002 by Ahmad Tohari, and Memburu Koruptor (2009 by Urip Sutomo. The result of the research shows that in accordance with the background of the time in the novels, completion time, and publication time, the development of corruption in Indonesian novels can be formulated by the way of periods of years: 1945-1954, 1954-1957, 1966-1976/1982, 1991-1992/2001, 1998-2009. Corruption in the texts of Indonesian novels has developed widely in terms of actors, causes, modes, and nature. Key Words: corruption, period, development, Indonesian novels

  11. Analysis of Implementation The Policy on Malaria Elimination in Indonesia

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    Betty Roosihermiatie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: As a tropic country Indonesia still faces malaria problems. In Asean, indonesia is one of three countries with the highest malaria morbidity. In 2007, 396 (80% of 495 districts/municipalities in indonesia are malaria. In 2009 the government issued a decree of the minister of health No 293 on malaria elimination. The study aimed to analyze the implementation decree of Ministry of Health No. 293/2009 on malaria elimination. Methods: It was a descriptive study. The study was conducted in 4 provinces, and 4 districts based on malaria elimination stages as in Bali province and Karangasem district, Riau islands province and Bintan district, West Nusa Tenggara province and west Lombok district, and Maluku province and South Halmahera district. The stakeholders were Heads and malaria programmers at province/district Health Offices and the related programs. Data were collected by focus group discussion and secondary data were taken. Data were collected by focus group discussion and secondary data. Analysis for Ministry of Health decree No.293 year 2009 on 1 Comphrehend, 2 Implementation, and, 3 Comittment, 4 Innovation intervension to support malaria elimination, 5 Sustainability of activity community empowerment, 6 Proportion of budget. Results: showed there was district that had not issued local policy on malaria elimination, the implementation with comittment especially that health centers in areas under study corfi rm diagnose by laboratory examination and malaria treatment by Artemisin Combined Therapy (ACT, although there were still treatment to clinical malaria, innovation activities were of bersifat local spesifi c, and reward for Juru Malaria Desa or malaria cadre to increase malaria suspect case detection, and with district budget for malaria program ranged 0,95-5,6% of the total budget. Recomendations: It suggested to advocate all malaria endemic areas to issue local policy on malaria elimination, decide intervension of the

  12. Criação e exploração de uma infra-estrutura de informação geográfica em Timor-Leste

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    João Matos

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available SETTING UP AND EXPLORING GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION INFRASTRUCTURES IN EAST TIMOR. This paper presents a report on the production and usage of Geographic Information applied in a co-operation project with Timor Leste. The project was funded by the Portuguese Government, developed by technical teams of the Technical University of Lisbon and coordinated by the group GERTiL. The work in the project resorted extensively to geographical information. The article describes the global implementation strategy, namely the definition of a co-ordinate system, the installation of a GPS permanent base-station, field surveys, remote sensing and data gathering. Different projects made use of the built infrastructure, namely a strategic development plan, the “school mapping” project, the border demarcation and other smaller projects.

  13. DAYA SAING KAKAO INDONESIA DI PASAR INTERNASIONAL

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    Anggita Tresliyana

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa is one of the major Indonesian agricultural export products. Cocoa international market has great potential regarding world’s consumption growth, therefore Indonesia is expected to take advantage on existing opportunities. The aims of this study were to analyze the competitiveness of Indonesian cocoa beans and processed cocoa trade in the international market as well as the level of competition between cocoa exporting countries. By using Revealed Comparative Advantage (RCA and Spearman Rank Correlation, it showed that Indonesia had a comparative advantage as an cocoa exporter on the international market, the highest for cocoa beans and the lowest for cocoa paste; Indonesia also had a significant correlation to exporting countries in cocoa beans’ market (Ghana and cocoa paste’s market (Netherlands and Malaysia, the correlation suggests that there were high correlation between Indonesia and the exporting country in competing for market share.Keywords: cocoa, comparative advantage, international trade, competitiveness, market share, RCA ABSTRAKKakao merupakan salah satu komoditas pertanian unggulan ekspor Indonesia.  Pasar kakao memiliki potensi yang besar dilihat dari peningkatan konsumsi dunia, sehingga Indonesia diharapkan dapat memanfaatkan peluang yang ada.  Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menganalisis daya saing perdagangan biji kakao dan kakao olahan Indonesia di pasar internasional serta hubungan daya saing antar negara eksportir kakao. Dengan menggunakan Reavealed Comparative Advantage (RCA, dan Korelasi Rank Spearman, hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa Indonesia memiliki keunggulan komparatif sebagai eksportir biji kakao dan kakao olahan di pasar internasional, tertinggi untuk biji kakao dan terendah untuk kakao pasta;  Indonesia juga memiliki korelasi yang signifikan di beberapa negara untuk pasar biji kakao (Ghana dan kakao pasta (Belanda dan Malaysia, korelasi tersebut menunjukkan bahwa terdapat hubungan daya saing yang cukup

  14. INDUSTRI KREATIF INDONESIA: PENDEKATAN ANALISIS KINERJA INDUSTRI

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    Ahmad Kamil

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In 2008, the Department of Commerce of the Republic of Indonesia has launched a creative economic development documents interpreted the 2025 Indonesia became the starting point and guide the development of the creative economy in Indonesia. With the existence of this document, the industry and its stakeholders or other stakeholders can readily develop the creative economy in Indonesia. Economic development in the direction of the creative industries is one manifestation of optimism aspiration to support the Master Plan for the Acceleration and Expansion of Indonesia's Economic Development in realizing the vision of Indonesia are being developed nation. The main objective of this study is the first to analyze the role of the creative industries in Indonesia for labor, value added and productivity, secondly, to analyze the performance trend of the creative industries sector, and third, to analyze the factors affecting the performance of the creative industries sector in Indonesia. Under Indonesia Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC and codes 151-372 (manufacturing industries category identified 18 industry groups belonging to the creative industries, showed that the performance of the national creative industries has been relatively high (in terms of trend analysis of the performance of the industrial creative. Furthermore, regression analysis of panel data (econometrics indicates that company size (SIZE, wages for workers (WAGE and the content of local inputs (LOCAL has a significant impact on the performance of Indonesia's creative industry. Meanwhile, the concentration ratio (CR4 no consequences but have koresi significantly positive effect on the performance of Indonesia’s creative industry.

  15. Indonesia knowledge dissemination: a snapshot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasution, M. K. M.

    2018-03-01

    The educational progress of a country or educational institution is measured through the implementation of knowledge dissemination. Evidence of knowledge dissemination has carried out be in form of the type of published document, which is based on the databases of the index of scientific publications: Scopus. This paper expresses a simple form of knowledge dissemination based on document type. Although the growth of knowledge dissemination does not have the same pattern based on the appearance of document types, the general implementation is almost the same. However, maximum effort needs to be done by PTN-bh to support Indonesia knowledge dissemination.

  16. RICKETTSIAL DISEASES: RISK FOR INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen L. Richards

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Penyakit Rickettsia bersifat endemik hampir di seluruh bagian dunia, dan begitu juga di Indonesia. Termasuk dalam penyakit-penyakit rickettsia adalah tifus epidemik, tifus murine, "scrub typhus," dan "spotted fever." Tifus epidemik, yang ditularkan kepada manusia melalui tuma pada tubuh manusia, dan dapat menyebabkan sakit berat dan kematian.   Tifus murine (tifus endemik, bersumber pada pinjal hewan, merupakan penyakit yang mirip tifus epidemik, tetapi dengan gejala-gejala yang lebih ringan dan jarang menyebabkan kematian. "Scrub typhus", merupakan penyakit yang dapat ringan sampai berat dan dapat membahayakan hidup, ditularkan kepada manusia melalui gigitan tungau yang belum dewasa yang dikenal sebagai "chigger". "Spotted fever: (demam yang disertai dengan bintik-bentik pada kulit, disebabkan karena terinfeksi oleh salah satu dari berbagai spesies rickettsia dari kelompok "spotted fever", dan ditularkan kepada manusia oleh pejamu (hospes vertebrata melalui gigitan caplak (tick yang terinfeksi. Penyakit yang disebabkan oleh organisma yang menyerupai rickettsia (rickettsia-like organism adalah: "Q fever", yaitu penyakit yang akut atau kronis yang diduga ditularkan secara alamiah akibat terhirup oleh partikel udara yang terinfeksi Coxiella burnetti sejenis bakteri yang sangat resisten terhadap upaya menonaktifkannya secara kimiawi dan fisik. Bartonellosis atau penyakit Carrion, ditemukan pada daerah dengan ketinggian sedang di Andes, Amerika Selatan. Penyakit ini ditularkan oleh lalat pasir (sand flies. "Trench fever", mirip dengan tifus epidemik, ditularkan kepada manusia oleh tuma; penyakit ini sembuh sendiri. Penyakit garutan kucing (Cat-scratch disease, disebabkan oleh infeksi Bartonella henselae di tempat gigitan atau garutan kucing rumah yang merupakan hospes. Demam sennetsu, merupakan penyakit yang dapat sembuh sendiri dan hanya ditemukan di Jepang dan Malaysia. Pengobatan dengan tetrasiklin atau kloramfenikol untuk penyakit Rickettsia

  17. Children’s use of Bahasa Indonesia in Jakarta kindergartens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everaert, M.B.H.; Van de Velde, H.; Kushartanti, B.

    2015-01-01

    At a very young age children living in Jakarta use both Colloquial Jakarta Indonesia and Bahasa Indonesia. The children’s first and most used language is Colloquial Jakarta Indonesia. In the formal school setting Bahasa Indonesia is frequently used and stimulated on a daily basis, and the learning

  18. Analysis on traditional fishing grounds in Indonesia`s Natuna waters under International Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniaty, R.; Ikaningtyas; Ruslijanto, P. A.

    2018-04-01

    This paper examines the boundary tension between Indonesia and China regarding traditional fishing ground in Natuna. Indonesia`s Natuna island is claimed by the China government as its traditional fishing zone/ground. The inclusion of Natuna territory into China`s traditional fishing zone brings new problems to Indonesia, especially with the Chinese ships docked and entered Indonesia`s exclusive economic zone, as well as several cases of illegal fishing over the territorial waters of Indonesia. Claims on traditional fishing zones have the potential to threaten the sovereignty of the Indonesian territory. This study aims to analyze the claims of the traditional fishing rights of China over the waters of the Natuna Islands under international law, especially UNCLOS 1982. This study revealed that the china`s argument of traditional fishing ground in Natuna to the nine dash line map is a unilateral claim, there is no international legal norm that can be used as the legal basis. Indonesia and some ASEAN countries have Internationally validated bilateral agreement on the continental shelf (i.e. Indonesia-Vietnam and Indonesia-Malaysia) thus the inclusion of Natuna into China`s nine dash line map rejects the legal status of Indonesian water under UNCLOS 1982.

  19. FILOGENETIK POPULASI UDANG JERBUNG (Fenneropenaeus merguiensis de Man DI INDONESIA BERDASARKAN SEKUENS 16S-rRNA DNA MITOKONDRIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eni Kusrini

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui hubungan kekerabatan stok udang jerbung Indonesia sebagai informasi dasar bagi program pemuliaan. Udang jerbung uji berasal dari Pantai Bengkulu, Selat Sunda (Banten, Pantai Cilacap (Jawa Tengah, Selat Lombok (NTB, dan Pontianak (Kalimantan Barat. Amplifikasi PCR dan sekuensing daerah 16S-rRNA DNA mitokondria dilakukan menggunakan primer 5’-CGCCTGTTTAAC-AAAAACAT-3’ dan 5’-CCGGTCTGAACTCAGATCATGT-3’. Hasil analisis homologi susunan nukleotida 16S-rRNA DNA mitokondria menunjukkan bahwa udang jerbung yang digunakan dalam penelitian merupakan Fenneropenaeus merguiensis. Hasil analisis kekerabatan menunjukkan bahwa 5 populasi udang jerbung uji dapat dibagi menjadi 2 kelompok besar, yaitu kelompok Kalimantan Barat dan kelompok Bengkulu-Banten-Jawa Tengah-NTB. Populasi udang jerbung Kalimantan dan Bengkulu masing-masing memiliki sekuens spesifik, yaitu ACTGACT dan C-GAC di terminal 5. Sekuens tersebut mungkin dapat digunakan sebagai penanda dalam program pemuliaan udang jerbung Indonesia. The experiment was conducted to understand the family relationship of banana prawn in Indonesia and to provide basic information for breeding program. Prawns were obtained from Bengkulu Coast, Sunda Strait (Banten, Cilacap Coast (Central Java, Lombok Strait (West Nusa Tenggara, Pontianak Coast (West Kalimantan. PCR amplification and sequencing of 16S-rRNA mitochondrial DNA region were performed using 5’-CGCCTGTTTAAC-AAAAACAT-3’ and 5’-CCGGTCTGAACTCAGATCATGT-3’. Analysis of homology sequences of 16S-rRNA mtDNA showed that banana prawn used in this study was Fenneropenaeus merguiensis. Result of family relationship analysis indicated that five populations of banana prawn can be divided into two groups, i.e. West Kalimantan and Bengkulu-Banten-Central Java-NTB groups. Banana prawns from West Kalimantan and Bengkulu have specific sequences at 5’ terminal, ACTGACT and C-GAC, respectively. Those sequences can

  20. DISTORSI KAPASITAS PERDAGANGAN INTER-REGIONAL IMT-GT Kasus Provinsi Terpilih di Sumatera Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benito Rio Avianto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper was to understand the impact of sub regional economic cooperation, known as the Indonesia-Malaysia-Thailand Growth Triangle (IMT-GT, on trade sector in Indonesia. The approach of research based on export macro information by provinces and commodities. The method used in the analytical framework was a fixed effect method. The regional study covered Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam, North Sumatera, West Sumatera, and Riau provinces, and the commodities involved CPO, coffee and rubber, with 1990-2008 data series. Based on pooled regression, there was a significant impact on export from the four provinces to Malaysia and Thailand for all based years. One might focus on commodity level that, in fact, CPO was the only one commodity that had a significant impact within the IMTGT region. In addition, Thai Bath and Malaysian Ringgit, with respect to GDP for both countries, had significant influenced on export, especially after the IMT-GT endorsed.

  1. 'They love us just the way they love a woman': gender identity, power and transactional sex between men who have sex with men and transgender women in Timor-Leste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niven, Hamish; Jose, Hayden; Rawstorne, Patrick; Nathan, Sally

    2017-11-07

    There has been limited research on the experiences of men who have sex with men and transgender women in Timor-Leste. Previous research has suggested a phenomenon by which same-sex-attracted men and transgender women have sexual and intimate relationships with straight-identifying men or mane-forte. Transactional sex has also been reported to be common. This paper, which complements a larger national size estimation among key populations at risk of HIV, further investigates sexual and social identities and roles, including sexual practices, among men who have sex with men and transgender women in Timor-Leste. Fifteen interviews were conducted with a profile of participants from urban and rural settings. Using inductive thematic analysis, we found that gender identity played a significant role in sexual relationships, with mane-forte having power over their sexual partner(s). Transactional sex was also found to be customary. Some participants experienced stigma, discrimination, sexual coercion and violence, while others, such as mane-forte, did not. Our research suggests that gender identity and power are significant in sexual relationships between men who have sex with men and transgender women in Timor-Leste, have implications for HIV prevention efforts and may reflect gender norms within the broader community.

  2. Menggagas Pendidikan Multikultur di Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anin Nurhayati

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia with diversity of ethnic, culture, tradition, social group, religion, and so on, on the one hand, has aroused the dynamics of cultural diversity and positive civilization; on the other hand, it will even become the cause of conflict and disintegration, if it is not managed wisely and comprehensively. Multicultural education in Indonesia, however, should not only become an academic discourse, but it needs to be implemented in the concrete sphere, among them is in the education realm. Here, we need a conceptual frame in its implementation, so that the problem that emerges as the effect of the diversity and religiousness bias does not become a heavy burden of this nation. Multicultural education is a reform as well as the process of education which inculcate to the students the values and beliefs the importance of uniqueness recognition at every ethnic, culture, and other social groups. There are at least five scopes in multicultural education, they are (1 promotion to strengthen cultural diversity; (2 promotion to respect human right and other different people; (3 promotion to act based on his own way of life for every human being; and (5 promotion to the importance of equality and distribution of authority among different social groups.

  3. Responding book banning in indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aji, RNB; Artono; Liana, C.

    2018-01-01

    The prohibition of books conducted by the government through its apparatus without any due process of law is unfortunate. The Constitutional Court of the Republic of Indonesia (MKRI) in 2010 was decided that book banning is contradictory to the 1945 Constitution (UUD 1945). The purpose of this paper is to know Indonesia, according to the Constitutional Court must absolutely carry out the function of due process of law that is law enforcement in a judicial system when it wants to prohibit printed material which is a book, whether it is a book that is considered criticism and books that teach radicalism. It would be wise for anyone who disagrees with a book, and then responds by writing through a book. The result of this article is to support and suggest that the government and its apparatus in the state of the law should not arbitrarily impose a book ban. Likewise, people should not take violence action to respond this issue. In historical records, the prohibition of books without due process of law is always followed by the withdrawal of books and make people unable to deal with differences, especially in knowledge. That’s why, the government and its apparatus must create a conducive situation and support the creation of various perspectives in the framework of the progress of science through a book. It would implicate that people can respect in any perspective and thought.

  4. Micronutrient deficiency in urban Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, R; Schultink, W

    1997-06-01

    The economic situation of Indonesia is characterized by a large increase in the gross national product which has been on average 7% annually during the last ten years. This was accompanied by rapid urbanization. With the economic improvement, "First World" and "Third World" health and nutrition problems are coexisting in Indonesia. In 1992, the most common of death cause was cardiovascular disease whereas tuberculosis was the second ranking. About 40% of the preschool children are stunted. The main stable food and energy source is rice, although the urban population has a more diverse food pattern than the rural population. In Jakarta, many children receive too late colostrum feeding and mothers are not aware about the importance of correct breastfeeding practices after delivery. Three studies had shown that about one fifth of preschool children and one fourth of elderly take micronutrient supplements. Nevertheless, micronutrient deficiencies are prevalent in Jakarta. About one third of women suffer from moderate vitamin A deficiency (plasma retinol middle class to spend more time and money to solve their own problems.

  5. Pricing of electricity in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amarullah, M.

    1983-01-01

    The objectives of this study are 1) to establish a sound theoretical basis for the determinants of electricity demand in Indonesia, 2) to measure the welfare losses of existing electricity pricing, and 3) to suggest a method of reducing these welfare losses. An econometric model for electricity demand is estimated using pooled time-series of fifteen regions in Indonesia covering the period 1970-1979. The short run price elasticities for both residential and industrial/business sectors are found to be inelastic, while the long run price elasticities for these sectors are found to be quite elastic with a value of -.61 for the residential sector and of -1.1 for the industrial/business sector. Income elasticity is .8 in the short run and around 1.00 for the long run. The exposure variable that captures the accessibility of electricity, has long run elasticity of 1.00 for the residential sector and less than 1.00 for the industrial/business sector. Due to distributional considerations, the 1980's electricity rate was set below its efficient level, and has created a welfare loss of Rp.8273.23 million per month. This accounts for 36.03% of the monthly electricity revenue. A rebate mechanism is recommended in this study, which provides a way to mitigate conflicting aspects of efficiency and equity

  6. TRAMWAY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM IN INDONESIA

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    Melia Damayanti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tramway systems, which can carry more passengers than buses at one haul, are now being proposed to meet Indonesia’s public transport requirement. The objective of this research is to analyze the management structures for operating tram in different countries and then propose a suitable organizational structure for operating trams, if re-introduced, in Indonesia. The author chose France (Montpellier tramway, Germany (Karlsruhe tram-train and the UK (Nottingham Express Transit as the role model countries for investigation. From the analysis, the most appropriate organizational structure and suitable tramway management structure for operating tramways implementation in Indonesia. The key features of the research are to establish public transport company by local government to manage all public transport systems, propose tramway construction and operation to exist as separate departments under the tramway team division of the public company, recommend the public transport company to have responsibility for overseeing construction of the trams, operating, and maintaining the trams, suggest local government to own them and have responsibility for tramway strategic policy, control regulation as well as supervision and coordination of the performance of the public transport company, propose joint working between public and private sectors.

  7. The role of the state coal mining enterprise in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangunwidjaja, I.A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that PT Tambang Batubara Bukit Asam is now becoming one of the 3 State Mining Enterprises in Indonesia which is dealing specifically with coal minings and their developments, while the other 2 are PT Tambang Timah for tin and PT Aneka Tambang for miscellaneous minerals. However, there are actually 3 other more State Enterprises under the umbrella of the Department of Mines and Energy, namely PERTAMINA which is dealing with oil and natural gas exploitation, PLN which is the State Electricity Corporation and the State Gas Corporation. The process of merging into one State Coal Mining Enterprise was only happening on October 30, 1990 by the issuance of the Government Regulation Number 56, 1991 whereby the then called Perum Tambang Batubara was merged into PT Tambang Batubara Bukit Asam, which was then operating only in Tanjung Enim, South Sumatra. The new scope of operation and management of the PT Tambang Batubara Bukit Asam is now including not only the management of coal mines at Tanjung Enim South Sumatra, but also the coal mines at Ombilin, West Sumatra and the supervision of all contract of works in coal which up to now amount to 11, mostly spread in East Kalimantan, South Kalimantan and one in West Sumatra. The amount of coal produced by PT Tambang Batubara Bukit Asam in 1990 was 4,854 million tons, while the coal production from all contract of works was 4,059 million tons for the same year

  8. Indonesia Interest in International Labor Organization (ILO) Convention No.189

    OpenAIRE

    Jamaan, Ahmad; Anugrah, Debora Panca

    2014-01-01

    This research aims to analyze, Indonesia Interest in ILO convention No. 189 on Decent Works for Domestic Workers. Indonesia has massive number of domestic workers caused by low quality of education. Therefore, Indonesia agreed on creation of ILO Convention No.189 in protecting their society that works as domestic workers. However, in the early of ILO Convention No.189 agreement creation in 2011, Indonesia has not ratified this Convention to 2013. If Indonesia has ratified this convention prev...

  9. Indonesia's family planning story: success and challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, T H; Hull, V J; Singarimbun, M

    1977-11-01

    clinics. The strong community structures on Bali encourage birth control use. Bali, which is predominantly Hindi, is more receptive to the IUD than Java, which is predominantly Muslim. In East Java, the authoritarian bureaucracy makes efficient use of its money. Central Java is making slow but steady progress in family planning. In West Java, fieldworkers are teamed with paramedics; there, door-to-door contraceptive supply was more effective than the clinic system. In many areas traditional methods, i.e., herbs, massage, total abstinence for long periods of time, etc., were favored. More educated women often do not use contraceptives for fear of side effects. The need for family planning on the outer Indonesian islands is not as great, but programs are being set under way. These programs are the beginning of an attempt to alleviate problems that could be encountered if Indonesia's population growth continues unchecked.

  10. Tectonics and oil prospects of the Moluccas, Eastern Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gribi, Jr, E A

    1973-07-01

    The greater Moluccas are bounded by the Pacific and Indian oceanic plates and the greater Australian and Sunda continental crustal plates or shelves.The effect of their opposing movement is a giant counterclockwise sworl. The island arcs within this pattern are parts of subduction zones between the opposing plates. The Sorong transform left lateral fault resulted from these forces and offset remnants of the W. Irian shelf terrane at least 700 km westerly to the Sula islands. Sedimentary rocks of pre-Pliocene to Permian age occur notably in Timor and the Sula islands. In most localities they are deformed and indurated to the extent of making them economic basement. Plio-Pleistocene linear sedimentary basins follow the ''S'' trend and reach a maximum of 3,000 m in thickness in NE. Ceram and Timor. Rocks include deep water claystones, shelf and lagoonal clays, bar and beach sands, and barrier coral reefs. Oil seeps occur on Ceram, Timor, and Buton (asphalt) mostly from Plio-Pleistocene rocks. Oil is produced at Bula, Ceram, from Pleistocene bar and shoreline sands in stratigraphic traps. A recent development at Bula has established prolific production from an extremely permeable Pleistocene reef.

  11. Augmented Reality Edugame Senjata Tradisional Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endah Sudarmilah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Senjata tradisional merupakan sebuah produk yang berkaitan erat dengan budaya suatu masyarakat. Selain berfungsi sebagai senjata, senjata tradisional telah menjadi identitas suatu bangsa yang membantu memperkaya khasanah budaya nusantara. Pendidikan di Indonesia berpedoman pada kurikulum baru yang disebut kurikulum 2013. Salah satu materi kurikulum mengarahkan siswa untuk belajar tentang senjata tradisional bentuk senjata tradisional. Berdasarkan pada masalah yang timbul dari kurikulum 2013, peneliti menyiapkan metode pembelajaran dengan menggabungkan Augmented Reality (AR dengan permainan edukasi berbasis adventure game dalam menyajikan materi keanekaragaman budaya Indonesia, terutama untuk senjata tradisional sehingga siswa memiliki semangat dalam belajar tentang keanekaragaman budaya Indonesia khusunya senjata.

  12. The production sharing contract in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machmud, T.N.

    1994-01-01

    The basic concept of production sharing is that the petroleum resource is owned and controlled by the host country while all cost and risk of exploration are borne by the contractor who is freely allowed to lift his share of petroleum. The first Production Sharing Contract (PSC) was established by the government of Indonesia in 1967 and has since become an accepted pattern for petroleum exploration and exploitation agreements between host governments and private oil companies in many developing countries in addition to Indonesia. The history of the PSC in Indonesia is briefly reviewed and a new incentive package and new contractual arrangements for gas developments are discussed. (UK)

  13. FINANCIAL DEPTH AND FINANCIAL ACCESS IN INDONESIA

    OpenAIRE

    Sigit Setiawan

    2015-01-01

    This study is intended to analyse the current levels of financial depth and financial access in Indonesia and to analyse the factors affecting them. The analysis method used was a combination of descriptive quantitative, benchmarking, and literature reviews. The conclusion is that the financial depth in Indonesia has not shown a satisfactory level since it was the lowest, or the second lowest ranked country among the sampled countries. Meanwhile, the financial access in Indonesia is relativel...

  14. KEBEBASAN BERAGAMA DAN DEMOKRATISASI DI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zainuddin

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to understand the religious freedom and the process of democratization in Indonesia. The result of this research shows that the religious freedom in Indonesia is regulated by the law. In this sense, religious freedom means freedom to choose and believe in certain religion, it does not mean that people have freedom to be atheism. In fact, the religious freedom in Indonesia has not run well since there is a religion banned by claiming it as a wrong and deviate religion. Furthermore, the violence by a religion to another religion is common in social life.

  15. Financial Depth and Financial Access in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Setiawan, Sigit

    2015-01-01

    This study is intended to analyse the current levels of financial depth and financial access in Indonesia and to analyse the factors affecting them. The analysis method used was a combination of descriptive quantitative, benchmarking, and literature reviews. The conclusion is that the financial depth in Indonesia has not shown a satisfactory level since it was the lowest, or the second lowest ranked country among the sampled countries. Meanwhile, the financial access in Indonesia is relativel...

  16. West Greenlandic Eskimo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trondhjem, Naja Blytmann; Fortescue, Michael David

    West Greenlandic Eskimo. The current situation of the West Greenlandic language as principal means of communication among the majority Greenlandic population will be presented with special emphasis on the northwest hunting district of Upernavik, where traditional marine mammal hunting is still...... the principal economic activity. Research projects and language initiatives currently in progress within Greenland will be touched upon, as will the possibilities of communication with North American Inuit. West Greenlandic is unique among the native languages of the North American Arctic and Sub...

  17. GENETIC OF DIVERSITY AND RELATIONSHIP BAMBARA GROUNDNUT (Vigna Subteranea L. GENOTYPE LANDRACES OF WEST JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enceng Sobari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Bambara groundnut (Vigna subteranea L. is one of underutliized crops in Indonesia. Bambara groundnut is potential to be developed and can be utilized as an alternative food source in Indonesia. Bambara groundnut greatly varies and has a very wide area of adaptation. The experiment was conducted at the experimental field station at Ciparanje in Padjadjaran University. Starting on September 2014 until March 2015 with Randomized Block Design (RBD and repeated two times. The research used 30 accessions originally from various locations in West Java (Bandung, Tasikmalaya, Garut, Sumedang, Bogor, Majalengka and East Java (Lamongan, Madura. Genetic variability of Bambara groundnut landrace  in some West Java showed broad criteria on the characters fresh pod weight, dry pod weight, weight of 100 seeds, and weight per plot. Genotypes which had many similarities in some characters based on euclidian distance coefficient had close relationship.

  18. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Listeria monocytogenes on chicken carcasses in Bandung, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiri, Yoni Darmawan; Gölz, Greta; Meeyam, Tongkorn; Baumann, Maximilian P O; Kleer, Josef; Chaisowwong, Warangkhana; Alter, Thomas

    2014-08-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and quantify the number of Listeria monocytogenes in fresh chicken carcasses sold in traditional markets and supermarkets in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia, and to determine the antimicrobial resistance patterns of the isolated L. monocytogenes strains. The overall prevalence of L. monocytogenes in chicken carcasses was 15.8% (29/184). When comparing samples from traditional markets and supermarkets, no significant difference in the L. monocytogenes prevalence was detectable (15.2 versus 16.3%). Of the samples, 97.3% had L. monocytogenes counts study were grouped into the molecular serogroup IIb, comprising the serovars 1/2b, 3b, and 7.

  19. IMPORTANT PROTOZOAN PARASITES IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srisasi Gandahusada

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The most important protozoan parasites in Indonesia are the malaria parasites, Toxoplasma gondii and Entamoeba histolytica. After the second world war the residual insecticides and effective antimalarial drugs were used in the control of malaria. After development of resistance among mosquitoes to insecticides, the Malaria Control Programme was switched over to the Malaria Eradication Programme. Malaria incidence dropped heavily. However, due to the quick development of vector resistance and financial limitations, malaria came back and so did the Malaria Control Programme. P. falciparum and P.vivax are the most common species in Indonesia. Important vectors are An. sundaicus, An. aconitus, An. maculatus, An. hyrcanus group, An. balabacensis, An. farauti etc. An. sundaicus and An. aconitus have developed resistance to DDT and Dieldrin in Java. In 1959 the Malaria Eradication Programme was started in Java, Bali and Lampung. In 1965 the API dropped to 0,15 per thousand. From 1966 onwards malaria transmission was on the increase, because spraying activities were slowed down, but dropped again from 1974 onwards by occasional residual house spraying with DDT or Fenitrothion, malaria surveillance and treatment of malaria cases, resulting in an API of 0.18 per thousand in 1987. At present malaria is not transmitted in Jakarta and in capitals of the provinces and kabupatens, except in Irian Jaya, Nusa Tenggara Timur and one or two other provinces, but it still exists in rural areas. The distribution of chloroquine resistant P.falciparum is patchy. Resistance is at the RI, RII and RUT levels. The main problems of malaria control are : the increasing development of resistance of the vector to insecticides, the change of An.aconitus from zoophili to anthropophili and from indoor to outdoor biting, the increasing resistance of P.falciparum to chloroquine, the shortage of skilled manpower and limitation of budget. In Indonesia many newborns with congenital

  20. Perilaku Impor Susu di Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hastuti Pratiwi

    2016-06-01

    This paper analyzes the behaviour of milk import in Indonesia during 1985-2010. Using an Error Correction Model (ECM, it finds that in the long run, factors influencing the milk import are percapita income, domestic milk real price, and imported milk price. In the short run, the import is influenced by population size of more than 5-year old residents, real domestic price milk, real price of imported milk, and exchange rates. Variables that do not influence milk imports, both in the short run and in the long run, are national milk production, milk exports, population size of less than 5-year old residents, and the gonvernment policy on the deletion of milk imports.

  1. US west coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aerial surveys are conducted along the US west coast to determine distribution and abundance of endangered leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea), loggerhead...

  2. Analisis Keunggulan Bersaing Nissan di Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    lim Sanny

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Automotive sales in Indonesia picked up sharply in 2010, and increase of prices does not lower the demand for automotive products. The large population of Indonesia and the low level of car ownership in the country suggest there is a lot of potential for expansion in the automotive industry. The aim of this research is to observe Nissan’s strategy in Indonesia to gain a spot in the top 10 of the best automotive seller in Indonesia. This research uses primary data with forecasting with monthly index to forecast the demand and to detect the selling target plans in 2010. Then, with combined porter five forces to determine the competitive strategy in the last 5 years. 

  3. Interferensi Bahasa Daerah Terhadap Perkembangan Bahasa Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Irwan

    2006-01-01

    Bahasa Indonesia bersumber dari bahasa Melayu Riau yang mengalami perubahan dan perkembangan sitiap saat sesuai dengan perkembangan zaman. Bahasa Melayu Riau menjadi bahasa nasional dicetuskan pada tanggal 28 Oktober 1928 yang dikenal dengan Hari Sumpah Pemuda, oleh Irwan 06007435

  4. Revitalisasi bahasa Indonesia dalam konteks kebahasaan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Wayan Sartini

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Bahasa Indonesia today faces many misuse in its daily usage. The language disorder appears on many aspects on language usage, such as excessive and misguided use of foreign languages, violation of the rules of Bahasa Indonesia in media and in public places, the inclusion of regional language structure, use of acronyms arbitrarily, the emergence of slank language and so on. Regarding the language disorder, there is a strong need of revitalization of Bahasa Indonesia in linguistic context. Revitalization means re-positioning Indonesian on its right place and return its existing language rules. Revitalization of Indonesian is expected to overcome language misuse, expected to reduce the chaos or even eliminate them. Using Bahasa Indonesia correctly and appropriately means modelling the right stance to the only official language in this country.

  5. Chinese Foreign Direct Investment in Indonesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammeltoft, Peter; Tarmidi, Lepi T.

    2013-01-01

    In Indonesia, no systematic study of Chinese FDI has been undertaken to date. This paper contributes to filling this research gap and analyses the current composition as well as the historical evolution of Chinese FDI in Indonesia, relying on a survey conducted in 2008 among Chinese invested...... enterprises supplemented with key informant interviews, available official statistics and secondary data. Considering the evolution of Chinese investments in Indonesia over time, investments have evolved from being individual and isolated projects to acquiring more systemic properties. Chinese companies have...... acquired a broader sectoral presence in Indonesia and Chinese invested companies in, e.g., extractive or manufacturing activities can increasingly rely on complementary Chinese investments in logistics, travel, finance, etc. Where the local development effects are concerned, a picture emerges where Chinese...

  6. PERKEMBANGAN ISLAM DI INDONESIA PASCA KEMERDEKAAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beti Yanuri Posha

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Islam is a religion that put the principles of truth and justice for all its adherents. Factors that encourage Muslims to achieve independence are factors Ideology, political, economic, social and cultural. In Indonesia, Islam has an important role in education. Islamic education in Indonesia is given in three sectors, namely formal, informal and non-formal. After Indonesian independence, the issue of religious education received serious attention from the government, both in public and private schools, and has established educational institutions, especially schools and a mosque which has become a bastion of Islam that is so strong effect. Therefore, it is important to reassess how the development of Islam in Indonesia as well as the development of Islamic education institutions in Indonesia after independence.

  7. December 1992 Flores Region, Maumere, Indonesia Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — On December 12, 1992, a magnitude 7.5 Ms (USGS) earthquake at 05:29 UT occurred in the Flores, Indonesia, region producing a tsunami that reached shore in five...

  8. PURWARUPA PORTAL MEMBER DOTA 2 INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogi Anggoro

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Game di Indonesia sangatlah berkembang pesat, dari game offline maupun online. Penggemar game bukan hanya dari kalangan anak kecil, namun dari semua kalangan. Apalagi game online, sampai diperlombakan. Salah satunya yaitu game Dota 2, yang merupakan salah satu game online. Pada gamers bahkan tidak hanya di lingkup Indonesia saja, namun dapat tanding dengan negara manapun. Dari game ini muncul komunitas Dota 2, di Indonesia terdapat website yang memberikan informasi tentang Dota 2. Tetapi dari sekian website yang dikembangkan tidak ditemukan sebuah website yang mengakomodasi kebutuhan dari gamers. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah membuat sebuah wadah yang berfungsi sebagai sistem informasi untuk mengatur segala aktivitas gamers dalam bermain Dota 2. Purwarupa dalam penelitian ini mengakomodasi dalam pembuatan grup, mendapatkan pertandingan serta berpartisipasi dalam pertandingan ini. Di dalam purwarupa ini menjadi penting agar mempermudah pemain dalam bermain game Dota 2 ini. Dengan metode pengumpulan data literature, inisiasi, investigasi sampai pengembangan sistem dapat menghasilkan sebuah sistem informasi untuk komunitas Dota 2 di Indonesia.

  9. Distribution of peatlands in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieley, J. [Dept. of Life Science, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Page, S.E. [Leicester Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Zoology; Setiadi, B. [Agency for the Assesment and Application of Technology, Jakarta (Indonesia)

    1996-12-31

    Indonesia contains between 160 and 270 000 km{sup 2} of peatland, mostly in the sub-coastal lowlands of Irian Jaya, Kalimantan and Sumatra; depth varies from 0.5 to more than 10 metres. Present day peat started to accumulate in response to very wet climatic conditions after the end of the last glacial period on waterlogged substrates of low nutrient status and oxygen deficiency. Coastal and basin peatlands were preceded by mangrove swamp; Yiigh peat (peat at a slightly higher elevation) was probably initiated in freshwater swamp. Dates of origin range from 800 to almost 5 000 years B.P. for the former and over 9 000 years B.P. for the latter. Lowland tropical peat is relatively homogeneous, consisting of trunks, branches and roots of trees; it is mainly fibric with low mineral content. Peat domes are ombrogenous with a water table close to or above the surface for most of the year. Lowland peat swamps support a zonation of forest types. The marginal, mixed swamp forest is dominated by high canopy trees whilst the interior `pole` forest consists of lower, smaller diameter trees. Indonesian peat swamp forests are an important reservoir of biodiversity; they contain several commercial tree species and provide a range of non-timber forest products. Almost 20 % of the peat swamp forests of Indonesia have been developed for agriculture and settlement. In their natural condition, however, they act as important water catchment and control systems, stabilize the landscape against erosion and maintain water quality for downstream riverine, estuarine and coastal fisheries. (orig.) (19 refs.)

  10. Report on the FY 1989 potential survey of overseas coal development. Coal fields in Indonesia; 1989 nendo kaigaitan kaihatsu kanosei chosa hokokusho. Indonesia kyowakoku kaku tanden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-12-01

    This survey is aimed at acquiring the basic data required for judging a possibility of development/import of steam coal in Indonesia (west of Java, north of Sumatra and west of Sumatra). Areas for survey are Meulaboh coal field in north Sumatra, Ombilin III area in West Sumatra, and Bayah coal field in West Java. The survey includes the field survey to grasp the situation of coal seam existence, coal quality, coal amount, etc. and activities for collecting the related data and information from the organizations concerned. The Meulaboh coal field has a technical possibility of open pit mining of medium scale. However, the heating value is extremely low, around 4,300 kcal/kg. Judging from this coal quality, there is no possibility of exporting it. It can be said that Ombilin coal is the world's top class steam coal. Accordingly, the demand can be expected both in export use and domestic use. As to Bayah coal, Bemmelen (1949) concluded that the coal was extremely excellent in quality, but had great disadvantages such as thin coal seam, discontinuity, and complicated geological structure. To date, the conclusion has been unchanged. (NEDO)

  11. Hepatitis B virus infection in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Yoshihiko; Utsumi, Takako; Lusida, Maria Inge; Hayashi, Yoshitake

    2015-10-14

    Approximately 240 million people are chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV), 75% of whom reside in Asia. Approximately 600000 of infected patients die each year due to HBV-related diseases or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The endemicity of hepatitis surface antigen in Indonesia is intermediate to high with a geographical difference. The risk of HBV infection is high in hemodialysis (HD) patients, men having sex with men, and health care workers. Occult HBV infection has been detected in various groups such as blood donors, HD patients, and HIV-infected individuals and children. The most common HBV subgenotype in Indonesia is B3 followed by C1. Various novel subgenotypes of HBV have been identified throughout Indonesia, with the novel HBV subgenotypes C6-C16 and D6 being successfully isolated. Although a number of HBV subgenotypes have been discovered in Indonesia, genotype-related pathogenicity has not yet been elucidated in detail. Therefore, genotype-related differences in the prognosis of liver disease and their effects on treatments need to be determined. A previous study conducted in Indonesia revealed that hepatic steatosis was associated with disease progression. Pre-S2 mutations and mutations at C1638T and T1753V in HBV/B3 have been associated with advanced liver diseases including HCC. However, drug resistance to lamivudine, which is prominent in Indonesia, remains obscure. Although the number of studies on HBV in Indonesia has been increasing, adequate databases on HBV infection are limited. We herein provided an overview of the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of HBV infection in Indonesia.

  12. THE GROWTH OF ISLAMIC BANKING IN INDONESIA

    OpenAIRE

    Fika Fitriasari

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the growth of Islamic banking industry in Indonesia. Islamic banking to perform progressive and strong performance from the banking indicators. Bank Indonesia estimates that the Islamic banking industry will achieve a growth higher than the national banking system in general. In the development of Islamic banking there are still some challenges to be solved especially for a small market share, lack of human resources, and the lack of product developmen...

  13. Analisis determinan impor gula Indonesia dari Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Sartika, Novia Reni; Amril, Amril; Artis, Dearmi

    2018-01-01

    The research aims to analyze the influence of national income, exchange rate, inflation and domestic sugar prices on Indonesia sugar import from Thailand. The data used in this research is time series data by using descriptive analysis method and quantitative analysis method.The results showed that simultaneously the variable of GDP, exchange rate, inflation, and domestic sugar prices together had significant effect on Indonesia sugar import from Thailand. While the partial variable of GDP an...

  14. Representasi Nasionalisme Dalam Film Soegija 100% Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Christya A, Theresa; Santosa, Hedi Pudjo; Hasfi, Nurul

    2013-01-01

    NATIONALISM REPRESENTATION OF SOEGIJA 100% INDONESIA MOVIEAbstractRepresentation is the act of bringing back or represent the process as well as productfrom the meaning of a sign, whether in the form of person, event or object. Representation inthe movie was built by human, as social actor who define meaning. It has similarity withstory of the movie. Story of the movie is the construction of the author and the audience whoproduce that meaning.In the Soegija 100% Indonesia movie, nationalism w...

  15. Abusive Supervision Scale Development in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Wulani, Fenika; Purwanto, Bernadinus M; Handoko, Hani

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a scale of abusive supervision in Indonesia. The study was conducted with a different context and scale development method from Tepper’s (2000) abusive supervision scale. The abusive supervision scale from Tepper (2000) was developed in the U.S., which has a cultural orientation of low power distance. The current study was conducted in Indonesia, which has a high power distance. This study used interview procedures to obtain information about superviso...

  16. Plagiarism In English Language Theses In Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Like Raskova Octaberlina

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that plagiarism in Indonesia exists due to some reasons. The reasons range from the requirements on the part of the students to adhere to uniformity in terms of thesis format to failure on the part of the government to effectively enforce a regulation dealing with plagiarism. Anecdotal observations as a student in one Indonesian university will give color to the discussion throughout this article. A recommendation to subdue plagiarism in Indonesia will conclude the article.

  17. Perkembangan Islam Di Indonesia Pasca Kemerdekaan

    OpenAIRE

    Posha, Beti Yanuri

    2015-01-01

    Islam is a religion that put the principles of truth and justice for all its adherents. Factors that encourage Muslims to achieve independence are factors Ideology, political, economic, social and cultural. In Indonesia, Islam has an important role in education. Islamic education in Indonesia is given in three sectors, namely formal, informal and non-formal. After Indonesian independence, the issue of religious education received serious attention from the government, both in public and priva...

  18. Analisis Kurs dan Money Supply di Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Oktavia, Adek Laksmi; Sentosa, Sri Ulfa; Aimon, Hasdi

    2013-01-01

    This article focused on analyze (1) Effect of the money supply, income, domestic interest rates, inflation and the trade balance to the exchange rate in Indonesia. (2) The influence of domestic interest rates, output and the exchange rate on the money supply in Indonesia. Data used time series of (I year kuartal 2000 – IV year kuartal 2010). This article use analyzer model equation of simultaneous with method of Two Stage Least Squared (TSLS). The result of research concludes that (1) the ...

  19. Dynamics of Bioplastics Development in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Qinan Maulana Binu Soesanto; Dian Prihadyanti; Hartiningsih Hartiningsih; Trina Fizzanty

    2016-01-01

    Increase in consumption of conventional plastics lead to environmental problems. Therefore, some efforts are needed to overcome it, one of them by using bioplastics. However, in Indonesia, companies engaged in bioplastics sector are still rarely found. Without the readiness of the bioplastics industry in Indonesia, development of bioplastics which ends to solve environmental problems cannot be realized. Through Socio-Technical Systems (STS) approach with Multi Level Perspective framework, thi...

  20. Cocoa farming in Indonesia: Present Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad, Junaid

    2014-01-01

    The article discusses major constraints facing most recently cocoa farming in Indonesia. Critique of National cocoa revitalization program and dealing with these issues are discussed as well. Several recommendations are expressed. The global consumption of chocolate has risen twofold over the past two decades and chocolate demand is predicted to rise a quarter in the next decade. As the third largest cocoa producer in the world, Indonesia is keen to contribute more and more in the world ch...

  1. Intellectual Property Law in Indonesia After 2001

    OpenAIRE

    Sinaga, Valerie Selvie

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the major changes of intellectual property condition in Indonesia after 2001. In that year, Indonesia, which has become a member of the Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) since 1994, was ready to meet its commitment under TRIPS. To do so, Indonesiahas made changes in the areas of legislation, administration, court proceedings, and law enforcement. The paper also discusses problematic issues surrounded the implementation of such change...

  2. INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY LAW IN INDONESIA AFTER 2001

    OpenAIRE

    Valerie Selvie Sinaga

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the major changes of intellectual property condition in Indonesia after 2001. In that year, Indonesia, which has become a member of the Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) since 1994, was ready to meet its commitment under TRIPS. To do so, Indonesiahas made changes in the areas of legislation, administration, court proceedings, and law enforcement. The paper also discusses problematic issues surrounded the implementation of such change...

  3. Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) and environmental risk factors for soil-transmitted helminth intensity of infection in Timor-Leste, using real time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Suzy J; Nery, Susana V; Wardell, Rebecca; D'Este, Catherine A; Gray, Darren J; McCarthy, James S; Traub, Rebecca J; Andrews, Ross M; Llewellyn, Stacey; Vallely, Andrew J; Williams, Gail M; Clements, Archie C A

    2017-03-01

    No investigations have been undertaken of risk factors for intensity of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infection in Timor-Leste. This study provides the first analysis of risk factors for intensity of STH infection, as determined by quantitative PCR (qPCR), examining a broad range of water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) and environmental factors, among communities in Manufahi District, Timor-Leste. A baseline cross-sectional survey of 18 communities was undertaken as part of a cluster randomised controlled trial, with additional identically-collected data from six other communities. qPCR was used to assess STH infection from stool samples, and questionnaires administered to collect WASH, demographic, and socioeconomic data. Environmental information was obtained from open-access sources and linked to infection outcomes. Mixed-effects multinomial logistic regression was undertaken to assess risk factors for intensity of Necator americanus and Ascaris infection. 2152 participants provided stool and questionnaire information for this analysis. In adjusted models incorporating WASH, demographic and environmental variables, environmental variables were generally associated with infection intensity for both N. americanus and Ascaris spp. Precipitation (in centimetres) was associated with increased risk of moderate-intensity (adjusted relative risk [ARR] 6.1; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.9-19.3) and heavy-intensity (ARR 6.6; 95% CI 3.1-14.1) N. americanus infection, as was sandy-loam soil around households (moderate-intensity ARR 2.1; 95% CI 1.0-4.3; heavy-intensity ARR 2.7; 95% CI 1.6-4.5; compared to no infection). For Ascaris, alkaline soil around the household was associated with reduced risk of moderate-intensity infection (ARR 0.21; 95% CI 0.09-0.51), and heavy-intensity infection (ARR 0.04; 95% CI 0.01-0.25). Few WASH risk factors were significant. In this high-prevalence setting, strong risk associations with environmental factors indicate that anthelmintic

  4. Intermittent explosive disorder amongst women in conflict affected Timor-Leste: associations with human rights trauma, ongoing violence, poverty, and injustice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Rees

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Women in conflict-affected countries are at risk of mental disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder and depression. No studies have investigated the association between experiences of abuse and injustice and explosive anger amongst women in these settings, and the impact of anger on women's health, family relationships and ability to participate in development. METHODS: A mixed methods study including an epidemiological survey (n = 1513, 92.6% response and qualitative interviews (n = 77 was conducted in Timor-Leste. The indices measured included Intermittent Explosive Disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder; severe distress; days out of role (the number of days that the person was unable to undertake normal activities; gender-specific trauma; conflict/violence; poverty; and preoccupations with injustice. RESULTS: Women with Intermittent Explosive Disorder (n = 184, 12.2% were more disabled than those without the disorder (for >5 days out of role, 40.8% versus 31.5%, X(2 (2 = 12.93 p = 0.0016. Multivariable associations with Intermittent Explosive Disorder, controlling for the presence of PTSD, psychological distress and other predictors in the model, included the sense of being sick (OR 1.73; 95% CI 1.08-2.77; victimization as a result of helping the resistance movement (OR 2.33, 95% CI 1.48-3.68; war-related trauma specific to being a woman (OR 1.95, 95%, CI 1.09-3.50; ongoing family violence and community conflict (OR 1.88, 95% CI 1.27-2.77; extreme poverty (OR 1.23, 95%, CI 1.08-1.39; and distressing preoccupations with injustice (relating to 2/3 historical periods, OR 2.10, 95% CI 1.35-3.28. In the qualitative study, women elaborated on the determinants of anger and its impact on their health, family and community functioning, child-rearing, and capacity to engage in development. Women reflected on the strategies that might help them overcome their anger. CONCLUSIONS: Intermittent Explosive Disorder is prevalent and

  5. Viability of Timor deer stag (Cervus timorensis spermatozoa extended in tris egg yolk diluent with different sources of carbohydrate and storage at room temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Marlene Mesang-Nalley

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The successful sperm preservation, influenced by the capability of its extender on the maintenance the sperm quality during storage. The carbohydrate such as glucose and fructose were the common sugar added on the mammalian sperm extender to support their live and motility. The sucrose was the main carbohydrate in Timor deer stag seminal plasma. The experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of carbohydrates in Tris egg yolk (TEY extender on the motility and viability of stag sperm, stored in room temperature (27-28 oC. The semen was collected using electro ejaculator from five Timor deer stags at hard antler stage, 3-5 years old, body weight of 64-102 kg with normal testes. The semen was than evaluated macro-and microscopically and divided into 3 aliquots. Each of them was diluted with TEY-glucose (TEYG, TEY-fructose (TEYF and TEY-Sucrose (TEYS with the concentration of spermatozoa 100 x 106 ml-1. The extended semen was than stored at room temperature. The sperm motility and viability were evaluated every 3 hours. Result of the experiment showed that the semen volume was 2.06 ± 0.63 ml, pH 7.03±0.13, yellow white until creamy in color and the consistency ranged from normal to thick. The mass movement between ++ to +++ and the sperm motility was 68.67 ± 7.4%. The average of sperm concentration was 842.35 ± 258.14x106 ml-1, the viable sperm was 78.11 ± 3.61%, the sperm abnormality was 7.31 ± 2.98%. The percentages of sperm motility on TEYG (18.00 ± 17.63% and TEYS (21.83 ± 15.92% were higher compare to TEYF (4,00 ± 0,00% extender in 24 hours observation. The percentage of sperm viability showed the same pattern. The sperm viability in TEYG (28.17 ± 20.06 and TEYS (24.00 ± 22.59% (P<0.05 were significantly higher compare to TEYF (4.00 ± 0.00%. It is concluded that the deer stag sperm can use the three sugars for their nutrition source. The diluted sperm still can be used for artificial insemination after 12 hour storage.

  6. Intermittent explosive disorder amongst women in conflict affected Timor-Leste: associations with human rights trauma, ongoing violence, poverty, and injustice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Susan; Silove, Derrick; Verdial, Teresa; Tam, Natalino; Savio, Elisa; Fonseca, Zulmira; Thorpe, Rosamund; Liddell, Belinda; Zwi, Anthony; Tay, Kuowei; Brooks, Robert; Steel, Zachary

    2013-01-01

    Women in conflict-affected countries are at risk of mental disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder and depression. No studies have investigated the association between experiences of abuse and injustice and explosive anger amongst women in these settings, and the impact of anger on women's health, family relationships and ability to participate in development. A mixed methods study including an epidemiological survey (n = 1513, 92.6% response) and qualitative interviews (n = 77) was conducted in Timor-Leste. The indices measured included Intermittent Explosive Disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder; severe distress; days out of role (the number of days that the person was unable to undertake normal activities); gender-specific trauma; conflict/violence; poverty; and preoccupations with injustice. Women with Intermittent Explosive Disorder (n = 184, 12.2%) were more disabled than those without the disorder (for >5 days out of role, 40.8% versus 31.5%, X(2) (2) = 12.93 p = 0.0016). Multivariable associations with Intermittent Explosive Disorder, controlling for the presence of PTSD, psychological distress and other predictors in the model, included the sense of being sick (OR 1.73; 95% CI 1.08-2.77); victimization as a result of helping the resistance movement (OR 2.33, 95% CI 1.48-3.68); war-related trauma specific to being a woman (OR 1.95, 95%, CI 1.09-3.50); ongoing family violence and community conflict (OR 1.88, 95% CI 1.27-2.77); extreme poverty (OR 1.23, 95%, CI 1.08-1.39); and distressing preoccupations with injustice (relating to 2/3 historical periods, OR 2.10, 95% CI 1.35-3.28). In the qualitative study, women elaborated on the determinants of anger and its impact on their health, family and community functioning, child-rearing, and capacity to engage in development. Women reflected on the strategies that might help them overcome their anger. Intermittent Explosive Disorder is prevalent and disabling amongst women in conflict-affected Timor

  7. Intermittent Explosive Disorder amongst Women in Conflict Affected Timor-Leste: Associations with Human Rights Trauma, Ongoing Violence, Poverty, and Injustice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Susan; Silove, Derrick; Verdial, Teresa; Tam, Natalino; Savio, Elisa; Fonseca, Zulmira; Thorpe, Rosamund; Liddell, Belinda; Zwi, Anthony; Tay, Kuowei; Brooks, Robert; Steel, Zachary

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Women in conflict-affected countries are at risk of mental disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder and depression. No studies have investigated the association between experiences of abuse and injustice and explosive anger amongst women in these settings, and the impact of anger on women's health, family relationships and ability to participate in development. Methods A mixed methods study including an epidemiological survey (n = 1513, 92.6% response) and qualitative interviews (n = 77) was conducted in Timor-Leste. The indices measured included Intermittent Explosive Disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder; severe distress; days out of role (the number of days that the person was unable to undertake normal activities); gender-specific trauma; conflict/violence; poverty; and preoccupations with injustice. Results Women with Intermittent Explosive Disorder (n = 184, 12.2%) were more disabled than those without the disorder (for >5 days out of role, 40.8% versus 31.5%, X2 (2)  = 12.93 p = 0.0016). Multivariable associations with Intermittent Explosive Disorder, controlling for the presence of PTSD, psychological distress and other predictors in the model, included the sense of being sick (OR 1.73; 95% CI 1.08–2.77); victimization as a result of helping the resistance movement (OR 2.33, 95% CI 1.48–3.68); war-related trauma specific to being a woman (OR 1.95, 95%, CI 1.09–3.50); ongoing family violence and community conflict (OR 1.88, 95% CI 1.27–2.77); extreme poverty (OR 1.23, 95%, CI 1.08–1.39); and distressing preoccupations with injustice (relating to 2/3 historical periods, OR 2.10, 95% CI 1.35–3.28). In the qualitative study, women elaborated on the determinants of anger and its impact on their health, family and community functioning, child-rearing, and capacity to engage in development. Women reflected on the strategies that might help them overcome their anger. Conclusions Intermittent Explosive Disorder

  8. The role of grief symptoms and a sense of injustice in the pathways to post-traumatic stress symptoms in post-conflict Timor-Leste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, A K; Rees, S; Steel, Z; Liddell, B; Nickerson, A; Tam, N; Silove, D

    2017-08-01

    Grief symptoms and a sense of injustice may be interrelated responses amongst persons exposed to mass conflict and both reactions may contribute to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. As yet, however, there is a dearth of data examining these relationships. Our study examined the contributions of grief and a sense of injustice to a model of PTSD symptoms that included the established determinants of trauma events, ongoing adversity and severe psychological distress. The study involved a large population sample (n = 2964, response rate: 82.4%) surveyed in post-conflict Timor-Leste. The survey sites included an urban administrative area (suco) in Dili, the capital of Timor-Leste and a rural village located an hour's drive away. Culturally adapted measures were applied to assess conflict related traumatic events (TEs), ongoing adversity, persisting preoccupations with injustice, symptoms of grief, psychological distress (including depressive symptoms) and PTSD symptoms. We tested a series of structural equation models, the final comprehensive model, which included indices of grief symptoms and injustice, producing a good fit. Locating grief symptoms as the endpoint of the model produced a non-converging model. In the final model, strong associations were evident between grief and injustice (β = 0.34, s.e. = 0.02, p < 0.01) and grief and PTSD symptoms (β = 0.14, s.e. = 0.02, p < 0.01). The sense of injustice exerted a considerable effect on PTSD symptoms (β = 0.13, s.e. = 0.03, p < 0.01). In addition, multiple indirect paths were evident, most involving grief and a sense of injustice, attesting to the complex inter-relationship of these factors in contributing to PTSD symptoms. Our findings support an expanded model of PTSD symptoms relevant to post-conflict populations, in which grief symptoms and a sense of injustice play pivotal roles. The model supports the importance of a focus on loss, grief and a sense of injustice in conducting trauma

  9. Usability testing of indonesia tourism promotion website

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, U.; Anindito; Tanuar, E.; Maryani

    2018-03-01

    Indonesian tourism has been viewed as one of the source of foreign exchange, therefore visit Indonesia campaign through Wonderful Indonesia should be given attention. This research aims to test the usability of web http://www.indonesia.travel/en, at the end can give input to the Tourism Ministry of the Republic of Indonesia. The concept used based on usabilitygeek.com which mentions the three main categories for usability testing, i. e. explorative, assessment and comparative with the users are three classes of Communication Department students of Bina Nusantara University with a total of 120 students, however finally only 22 students were elected because of the criteria are the students should be like travelling and access to the tourism website more than 12 times. The methodology used is qualitative descriptive and experiments, with data collection techniques through observation and interviews after participants’ access to the web: Due to their one-on-one nature, interviews enable the observer to ask direct questions to the user and the participants posted their opinion in online discussion forum. The results mentioned that the elements web of Wonderful Indonesia has a high learning ability and memorability but less efficiency and satisfaction, as well as several times errors when used. In conclusion, to maximize about the visit of tourism to Indonesia, this web is only able to learn and impress the visitor, but do not give satisfaction to users.

  10. Morphology and Anatomy Characteristic of Pisang Awak (Musa paradisiaca cv. Awak in West Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari Sunandar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is the origin and center of diversity of banana. One of an edible banana in Indonesia is Pisang Awak (Musa paradisiaca cv. Awak . In West Kalimantan, the ripe Pisang Awak has been processed into sale (dried banana. The aims of this research were to describe the morphological and anatomical character of Pisang Awak in West Kalimantan, Indonesia. In this study, Pisang Awak were collected from Padang Tikar I village, Batu Ampar Sub-district, Kubu Raya district, West Kalimantan. Morphological characterizations were conducted by following the instruction on Descriptors for Banana (Musa spp. from IPGRI. The root, leaf blade, and petiole were fixed in FAA solution. Root, leaf, and petiole anatomy preparats were made by paraffin method. The lamina of Pisang Awak consisted of adaxial epidermis, two hypodermis layers, two palisade layers, spongy layer, bundle sheath cell, abaxial epidermis, laticifer. The petiole of Pisang Awak composed of three tissue systems, i.e., epidermis layer, parenchyma tissue and vascular tissue. The root of Pisang Awak consists of two epidermis layers, parenchyma and vascular cylinder. In the future, morphological and anatomical character in Pisang Awak could be applied as the basis of information for breeding programs of banana cultivars and classification.

  11. Indonesia and Africa: questioning the origins of some of Africa’s most famous icons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Dick-Read

    2006-04-01

    Madagascar was only ever of secondary importance to Indonesians compared with mineral-rich Africa. But for centuries the Austronesian-speaking, Afro-Indonesian people of Madagascar maintained regular contact with the mainland giving rise to mixed societies, particularly in the Mozambique-Zimbabwe region. He believes the ancient Zimbabwe culture was in several ways linked with that of Madagascar, and that the vast ruin area of Nyanga was also connected. These cross-channel associations were gradually eclipsed by the domination of Arab-Shirazi colonisation down the East African Coast. There is a wealth of evidence that Indonesians rounded the Cape and sailed to West Africa. Several elements of Nigerian culture generally attributed to East-West overland movements or trans-Saharan Arab traders, are more likely to have reached the lower Niger regions by sea from Indonesia. Among these was the technology enabling the iconic ‘bronze’ artwork for which Nigeria is famous.

  12. PERKEMBANGAN MENTAL BAYI DAN ANAK INDONESIA: HASIL SEANUTS INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basuki Budiman

    2013-09-01

    MENTAL DEVELOPMENT OF INDONESIAN INFANTS AND CHILDREN: RESULTS OF SEANUTS INDONESIA Maternal nutrition during gestation has consequences on mental development of the offspring. The physical and mental disorders can be identified in early life. South East Asian Nutrition Survey (SEANUTS is a multicenter nutrition study on children aged 0.5 to 12.9 years in which measurement of mental development is also included. The aim of this paper was to describe mental development of Indonesian children 0.5-5.9 years old. Denver Development Screening Test (DDST was used to identify the deviation of development. Child’s height was measured to reflect posture. Detailed study design was described by Sandjaja, et al earlier in this issue. The results revealed that total suspected of late all four development was 21.6 percent, including 11.5, 14.5, 11.8, and 15.8 percent for gross-motor development, personal social, adaptation-fine motor, and language skill, respectively. Infants were the most often detected as severe suspected of late developments (45.8%, especially for language and personal social skill. Unadjusted data revealed that there were no associations found between neuropsychological deviation (all four and posture. When it was adjusted, a significant difference was found only in 1.0-2.9 years old group. We concluded that parenting stimulation as be shown in language skill and personal-social were important risk factors.  Keyword: mental development, DDST, posture, multi-center study

  13. Associations between bride price obligations and women's anger, symptoms of mental distress, poverty, spouse and family conflict and preoccupations with injustice in conflict-affected Timor-Leste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Susan; Mohsin, Mohammed; Tay, Alvin Kuowei; Thorpe, Rosamund; Murray, Samantha; Savio, Elisa; Fonseca, Mira; Tol, Wietse; Silove, Derrick

    2016-01-01

    Bride price is a widespread custom in many parts of the world, including in most countries in sub-Saharan Africa and parts of Asia. We hypothesised that problems relating to the obligatory ongoing remittances made by the husband and his family to the bride's family may be a source of mental disturbance (in the form of explosive anger and severe mental distress) among women. In addition, we postulated that problems arising with bride price would be associated with conflict with the spouse and family, poverty and women's preoccupations with injustice. A mixed-methods study comprising a total community household survey and semistructured qualitative interviews. Two villages, one urban, the other rural, in Timor-Leste. 1193 married women participated in the household survey and a structured subsample of 77 women participated in qualitative interviews. Problems with bride price showed a consistent dose-effect relationship with sudden episodes of explosive anger, excessive anger and severe psychological distress. Women with the most severe problems with bride price had twice the poverty scores as those with no problems with the custom. Women with the most severe problems with bride price also reported a threefold increase in conflict with their spouse and a fivefold increase in conflict with family. They also reported heightened preoccupations with injustice. Our study is the first to show consistent associations between problems with bride price obligations and mental distress, poverty, conflict with spouse and family and preoccupations with injustice among women in a low-income, postconflict country.

  14. 42,000-year-old worked and pigment-stained Nautilus shell from Jerimalai (Timor-Leste): Evidence for an early coastal adaptation in ISEA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, Michelle C; O'Connor, Sue; Piotto, Elena

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we describe worked and pigment-stained Nautilus shell artefacts recovered from Jerimalai, Timor-Leste. Two of these artefacts come from contexts dating to between 38,000 and 42,000 cal. BP (calibrated years before present), and exhibit manufacturing traces (drilling, pressure flaking, grinding), as well as red colourant staining. Through describing more complete Nautilus shell ornaments from younger levels from this same site (>15,900, 9500, and 5000 cal. BP), we demonstrate that those dating to the initial occupation period of Jerimalai are of anthropogenic origin. The identification of such early shell working examples of pelagic shell in Island Southeast Asia not only adds to our growing understanding of the importance of marine resources to the earliest modern human communities in this region, but also indicates that a remarkably enduring shell working tradition was enacted in this area of the globe. Additionally, these artefacts provide the first material culture evidence that the inhabitants of Jerimalai were not only exploiting coastal resources for their nutritional requirements, but also incorporating these materials into their social technologies, and by extension, their social systems. In other words, we argue that the people of Jerimalai were already practicing a developed coastal adaptation by at least 42,000 cal. BP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. School organization and the mobilization of teachers and students in the use of a new general secondary education curriculum in East Timor

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    Ana Margarida Capelo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Given that reforms involving how to deal with the past are extremely difficult, especially when the past involves memories of victimization, death, and destruction so widespread that a high percentage of the population is affected, the main purpose of this article is to describe how the general secondary education (GSE curriculum in East Timor –an ancient Portuguese colony– is organized in terms of principles and objectives, themes, and methodological guidelines that give priority to assisting students to minimize or manage problems associated with conflict. Subsequently, the current state of GSE is characterized, in terms of school organization and logistics, and mobilization of teachers and students in using the new curriculum. The empirical results show that curricular materials incorporate aspects that can contribute to understanding and minimizing or managing problems created by the conflict, as well as contributing to avoid new conflicts. Nevertheless, although textbooks incorporate these aspects and teachers and students express interest in use them, problems remain regarding their appropriate usage due to numerous factors such as: logistics; school organization and poor teacher skills, despite training given and continued focused investment.

  16. Riwayat pola asuh, pola makan, asupan zat gizi berhubungan dengan stunting pada anak 24–59 bulan di Biboki Utara, Timor Tengah Utara, Nusa Tenggara Timur

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    Christin Debora Nabuasa

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackground: Stunting is an indicator of chronic malnutrition that reflects problem of overall social economic condition in the past and as a manifestation of further consequences of the prevalence of low birth weight and undernutrition in children underfive and absence of supreme catch-up growth in the followingyears. Stunting brings impact to physical growth disorder that results in low capacity in working memory, learning memory, visuospatial ability and cognitive function. Low economic condition, rearing pattern, eating pattern, nutrient intake for a long time cause high prevalence of stunting in children underfives. The result of basic health survey 2007 showed the prevalence of stunting at the Province of Nusa Tenggara Timur was 46.7%, in District of Timor Tengah Utara was 59.6% and at Subdistrict of Biboki Utara in two subsequent years were 64.6% and 60.2%.Objectives: To identify association between history of rearing pattern, eating pattern, nutrient intake and stunting in children of 24-59 months in Subdistrict of Biboki Utara District of Timor Tengah Utara Province of Nusa Tenggara Timur.Methods: The study was observational with case control design. Research instrument was questionnaire that was used to identify history of rearing pattern, eating pattern and nutrient intake through recall 4x24 hours subsequently. The study was carried out in Subdistrict of Biboki Utara with subject of the study were children of 24-59 months old involving a total of 152 subjects consisting of 76 children underfive as cases and 76 as control.Results: History of inadequate rearing pattern was 53.9%, eating pattern 55.9%, energy intake 55.9%, protein intake 52.6%, calcium intake 52.0%, infection disease 51.3%, family economy 61.8%, food tenacity 71.7%. The result of bivariate analysis showed variables of history of rearing pattern, eating pattern, nutrient intake, infection disease, family economy had significant association (p<0

  17. IMPORTANT NEMATODE INFECTIONS IN INDONESIA

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    Sri Oemijati

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available At least 13 species of intestinal nematodes and 4 species of blood and tissue nematodes have been reported infecting man in Indonesia. Five species of intestinal nematodes are very common and highly prevalent, especially in the rural areas and slums of the big cities. Those species are Ascaris lumbricoides, Necator americanus, Ancylostoma duodenale, Trichuris trichiura and Oxyuris vermicularis, while Strongyloides stercoralis is disappearing. The prevalence of the soil transmitted helminths differs from place to place, depending on many factors such as the type of soil, human behaviour etc. Three species of lymph dwelling filarial worms are known to be endemic, the urban Wuchereria bancrofti is low endemic in Jakarta and a few other cities along the north coast of Java, with Culex incriminated as vector, high endemicity is found in Irian Jaya, where Anopheline mosquitoes act as vectors. Brugia malayi is widely distributed and is still highly endemic in many areas. The zoonotic type is mainly endemic in swampy areas, and has many species of Mansonia mosquitoes as vectors. B.timori so far has been found only in the south eastern part of the archipelago and has Anopheles barbirostris as vector. Human infections with animal parasites have been diagnosed properly only when adult stages were found either in autopsies or removed tissues. Cases of infections with A. caninum, A.braziliense, A.ceylanicum, Trichostrongylus colubriformis, T.axei and Oesophagostomum apiostomum have been desribed from autopsies, while infections with Gnathostoma spiningerum have been reported from removed tissues. Infections with the larval stages such as VLM, eosinophylic meningitis, occult filanasis and other could only be suspected, since the diagnosis was extremely difficult and based on the finding and identification of the parasite. Many cases of creeping eruption which might be caused by the larval stages of A.caninum and A.braziliense and Strongyloides stercoralis

  18. POLITIK HUKUM PERBANKAN SYARIAH DI INDONESIA

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    Muhammad Ramadhan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak: Politik hukum merupakan sesuatu yang mendasari kebijakan dasar diundangkannya suatu regulasi, dan dasar kebijakan diberlakukannya suatu regulasi tertentu dalam tatanan sistem hukum nasional. Pengaturan dan keberlakuan regulasi perbankan syariah di Indonesia dalam perspektif politik hukum adalah sesuatu yang patut untuk dipahami. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode penelitian kualitatif dengan komparatif deskriptif sebagai analisis berpikirnya. Penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa regulasi perbankan syariah menjadi cerminan dalam dimensi kebijakan dasar (basic policy. Regulasi perbankan syariah merupakan respons atas perkembangan industri perbankan syariah yang membutuhkan jaminan kepastian hukum dan keadilan hukum dalam suatu regulasi yang jelas. Dalam dimensi kebijakan keberlakuan hukum (enactment policy regulasi perbankan syariah diyakini memberikan manfaat (utility dan kemaslahatan bagi masyarakat Indonesia dan dipandang sejalan dengan tujuan ekonomi nasional. Eksistensi regulasi perbankan syariah di Indonesia saat ini memperkuat teori positivisasi hukum Islam dan memperkuat paradigma hukum profetik dalam sistem hukum nasional. Abstract: Legal Policy of Islamic Banking in Indonesia. Legal policy is something that underlies basic policy of a regulation and a basic policy of enactment specific regulation in the national legal system order. Setting and enforceability of Islamic banking regulations in Indonesia on political law perspective is something that deserves to be understood. This study uses qualitative research with descriptive comparative as its thinking analysis. This study shows that the regulation of Islamic banking was a reflection of basic policy dimension. Islamic banking regulation was a response to growing Islamic banking industry that need of legaly and legal justice in a clear regulation. In the enactment of policy dimension, regulation of Islamic banking is believed to provide utility and benefit for Indonesia people and

  19. MARICULTURE DEVELOPMENT IN INDONESIA: Prospects and Constraints

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    Michael A. Rimmer

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Mariculture is an important component of Indonesian fisheries and aquaculture production, directly contributing an estimated US$ 320 million in 2008. Because most mariculture production is focussed on producing for export markets, mariculture production is an important source of foreign earnings for the Indonesian economy. This paper reviews the current status and prospects for continuing development of mariculture in Indonesia. Currently the major mariculture commodity in Indonesia is seaweed for carrageenan production. Seaweed production accounts for 98% of total Indonesian mariculture production and 84% of value. The other major commodity groups are marine finfish and pearl oysters. Commodities being developed for mariculture in Indonesia include abalone and spiny lobsters. Prospects for continued development of mariculture in Indonesia appear positive. Indonesia has several advantages for mariculture development, including many potential mariculture sites, a stable tropical climate, and does not suffer from cyclonic storms. The Government of Indonesia is planning to increase aquaculture production substantially over the next four years, including mariculture production. Globally, demand for seafood products is expanding due to increasing population and increased per capita consumption of fish products. Constraints to the continued development of mariculture in Indonesia include: limited seed supply, particularly of species which cannot be economically produced in hatcheries, such as spiny lobsters; need to develop more efficient production systems for some marine finfish; the need to improve environmental sustainability by improving feeds and reducing environmental impacts; and market issues relating to environmental sustainability.

  20. Women with HIV in Indonesia: are they bridging a concentrated epidemic to the wider community?

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    Rahmalia, Annisa; Wisaksana, Rudi; Meijerink, Hinta; Indrati, Agnes R; Alisjahbana, Bachti; Roeleveld, Nel; van der Ven, Andre J A M; Laga, Marie; van Crevel, Reinout

    2015-12-09

    Male injecting drug users drove the onset of the HIV epidemic in Indonesia but over time more women have been diagnosed. We examined the relative proportion of female patients in an HIV cohort and characterized their probable transmission route and reproductive profile. Prospective cohort study in a referral hospital in West Java. Interviews with standardized questionnaires, physical and laboratory examinations were done for 2622 individuals enrolled in HIV care between 2007 and 2012. The proportion of women in this cohort was compared with national estimates. The general characteristics of HIV-infected women and men as well as the sexual and reproductive health of HIV-infected women were described. The proportion of female patients enrolled in HIV care increased from 22.2 % in 2007 to 38.3 % in 2012, in line with national estimates. Women were younger than men, fewer reported a history of IDU (16.1 vs. 73.8 %, p women were in their reproductive age, had children, and were not using contraceptives at the time of enrolment. HIV-infected women in Indonesia have specific characteristics that differ them from women in the general population. Further research to elucidate the characteristics of women exposed to HIV, their access to testing and care and sexual and reproductive needs can help reduce transmission to women and children in the context of concentrated HIV epidemic in Indonesia.