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Sample records for west texas pharmacists

  1. Water supply and needs for West Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation focused on the water supplies and needs of West Texas, Texas High Plains. Groundwater is the most commonly used water resources on the Texas High Plains, with withdrawals from the Ogallala Aquifer dominating. The saturation thickness of the Ogallala Aquifer in Texas is such that t...

  2. Benchmark West Texas Intermediate crude assayed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhodes, A.K.

    1994-01-01

    The paper gives an assay of West Texas Intermediate, one of the world's market crudes. The price of this crude, known as WTI, is followed by market analysts, investors, traders, and industry managers around the world. WTI price is used as a benchmark for pricing all other US crude oils. The 41 degree API < 0.34 wt % sulfur crude is gathered in West Texas and moved to Cushing, Okla., for distribution. The WTI posted prices is the price paid for the crude at the wellhead in West Texas and is the true benchmark on which other US crudes are priced. The spot price is the negotiated price for short-term trades of the crude. And the New York Mercantile Exchange, or Nymex, price is a futures price for barrels delivered at Cushing

  3. A qualitative assessment of West Virginia pharmacist activities and attitude in diabetes management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatnawi, Aymen; Latif, David A

    2017-06-01

    The role of pharmacists in chronic disease state management has been shown to significantly improve patient health outcomes and reduce overall health care costs. The current study is designed to assess the roles and attitudes of West Virginia (WV) pharmacists toward diabetes, evaluate services provided, address pharmacist clinical understanding and training, and demonstrate the challenges that limit pharmacists ability to deliver an efficient disease state management. We invited 435 preceptors affiliated with the University of Charleston School of Pharmacy to participate in the study using Qualtrics online survey software. The survey was divided into sections related to pharmacists, practice environment, pharmacist's roles in diabetes management, and challenges faced that limit their ability to deliver effective care to diabetic patients. Data were analyzed using 1-way analysis of variance, and a P value ≤.05 was considered statistically significant. Of all eligible invited preceptors, 104 accessed the online survey based on the Qualtrics tracking tool, while 58 participated in the survey with a 56% response rate. Generally, WV pharmacists have positive attitudes regarding the provision of primary activities related to drug use and its associated problems. However, we report that WV pharmacists are less involved in providing education or recommendations regarding diabetes-associated risk factors such as nephropathy, retinopathy, foot care, and gastroparesis. In addition, the majority of pharmacists indicated that they face many challenges related to patient and the practice site environment that limit their ability to provide optimum diabetes patient care services. Despite the mounting evidence that pharmacists can improve diabetic patient outcomes while significantly reducing overall costs, WV pharmacists are less involved in providing education or counseling in a variety of areas related to disease state management. In addition, identifying pharmacist

  4. Atmospheric boundary layer evening transitions over West Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    A systemic analysis of the atmospheric boundary layer behavior during some evening transitions over West Texas was done using the data from an extensive array of instruments which included small and large aperture scintillometers, net radiometers, and meteorological stations. The analysis also comp...

  5. Crustal deformation and seismic measurements in the region of McDonald Observatory, West Texas. [Texas and Northern Chihuahua, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorman, H. J.

    1981-01-01

    The arrival times of regional and local earthquakes and located earthquakes in the Basin and Range province of Texas and in the adjacent areas of Chihuahua, Mexico from January 1976 to August 1980 at the UT'NASA seismic array are summarized. The August 1931 Texas earthquake is reevaluated and the seismicity and crustal structure of West Texas is examined. A table of seismic stations is included.

  6. Integration of pharmacists into patient-centered medical homes in federally qualified health centers in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Shui Ling; Barner, Jamie C; Sucic, Kristina; Nguyen, Michelle; Rascati, Karen L

    To describe the integration and implementation of pharmacy services in patient-centered medical homes (PCMHs) as adopted by federally qualified health centers (FQHCs) and compare them with usual care (UC). Four FQHCs (3 PCMHs, 1 UC) in Austin, TX, that provide care to the underserved populations. Pharmacists have worked under a collaborative practice agreement with internal medicine physicians since 2005. All 4 FQHCs have pharmacists as an integral part of the health care team. Pharmacists have prescriptive authority to initiate and adjust diabetes medications. The PCMH FQHCs instituted co-visits, where patients see both the physician and the pharmacist on the same day. PCMH pharmacists are routinely proactive in collaborating with physicians regarding medication management, compared with UC in which pharmacists see patients only when referred by a physician. Four face-to-face, one-on-one semistructured interviews were conducted with pharmacists working in 3 PCMH FQHCs and 1 UC FQHC to compare the implementation of PCMH with emphasis on 1) structure and workflow, 2) pharmacists' roles, and 3) benefits and challenges. On co-visit days, the pharmacist may see the patient before or after physician consultation. Pharmacists in 2 of the PCMH facilities proactively screen to identify diabetes patients who may benefit from pharmacist services, although the UC clinic pharmacists see only referred patients. Strengths of the co-visit model include more collaboration with physicians and more patient convenience. Payment that recognizes the value of PCMH is one PCMH principle that is not fully implemented. PCMH pharmacists in FQHCs were integrated into the workflow to address specific patient needs. Specifically, full-time in-house pharmacists, flexible referral criteria, proactive screening, well defined collaborative practice agreement, and open scheduling were successful strategies for the underserved populations in this study. However, reimbursement plans and provider

  7. 77 FR 49601 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Status for Six West Texas Aquatic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-16

    ... critical habitat for six west Texas aquatic invertebrate species under the Endangered Species Act. These... their habitat under the Endangered Species Act. DATES: We will accept comments received or postmarked on... Pecos County, Texas. Why we need to publish a rule. Under the Endangered Species Act, a species may...

  8. Space Radar Image of West Texas - SAR scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    This radar image of the Midland/Odessa region of West Texas, demonstrates an experimental technique, called ScanSAR, that allows scientists to rapidly image large areas of the Earth's surface. The large image covers an area 245 kilometers by 225 kilometers (152 miles by 139 miles). It was obtained by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) flying aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 5, 1994. The smaller inset image is a standard SIR-C image showing a portion of the same area, 100 kilometers by 57 kilometers (62 miles by 35 miles) and was taken during the first flight of SIR-C on April 14, 1994. The bright spots on the right side of the image are the cities of Odessa (left) and Midland (right), Texas. The Pecos River runs from the top center to the bottom center of the image. Along the left side of the image are, from top to bottom, parts of the Guadalupe, Davis and Santiago Mountains. North is toward the upper right. Unlike conventional radar imaging, in which a radar continuously illuminates a single ground swath as the space shuttle passes over the terrain, a Scansar radar illuminates several adjacent ground swaths almost simultaneously, by 'scanning' the radar beam across a large area in a rapid sequence. The adjacent swaths, typically about 50 km (31 miles) wide, are then merged during ground processing to produce a single large scene. Illumination for this L-band scene is from the top of the image. The beams were scanned from the top of the scene to the bottom, as the shuttle flew from left to right. This scene was acquired in about 30 seconds. A normal SIR-C image is acquired in about 13 seconds. The ScanSAR mode will likely be used on future radar sensors to construct regional and possibly global radar images and topographic maps. The ScanSAR processor is being designed for 1996 implementation at NASA's Alaska SAR Facility, located at the University of Alaska Fairbanks, and will produce digital images from the

  9. West Nile Virus Outbreak in Houston and Harris County, Texas, USA, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Diana; Murray, Kristy O; Reyna, Martin; Arafat, Raouf R; Gorena, Roberto; Shah, Umair A; Debboun, Mustapha

    2017-08-01

    Since 2002, West Nile virus (WNV) has been detected every year in Houston and the surrounding Harris County, Texas. In 2014, the largest WNV outbreak to date occurred, comprising 139 cases and causing 2 deaths. Additionally, 1,286 WNV-positive mosquito pools were confirmed, the most reported in a single mosquito season.

  10. An approach to optimize economics in a west Texas CO2 flood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pariani, G.J.; McColloch, K.A.; Warden, S.L.; Edens, D.R.

    1992-01-01

    Enhanced oil recovery projects, most notably CO 2 floods, are the next generation of recovery methods in the more mature West Texas waterfloods. The cost of installing and operating a CO 2 flood can be extremely high. In this paper, the authors will discuss the methods the authors used to make several active CO 2 floods more profitable by reducing operating costs and deferring investments. This paper reports that the author's goals in studying several active West Texas CO 2 floods were to determine the optimum near term cash flow, overall project economics (rate of return, present worth etc.) and oil recoveries. Using a reservoir simulator, various CO 2 flood designs were developed by altering specific operating parameters including the half-cycle slug size, gas-water ratio (GWR) injection schemes and total CO 2 slug sizes. The resulting injection and production rates were then entered into an economic simulator to determine the most economic set of operating conditions

  11. Geologic history and hydrogeologic setting of the Edwards-Trinity aquifer system, west-central Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, R.A.; Bush, P.W.; Baker, E.T.

    1994-01-01

    The Edwards-Trinity aquifer system underlies about 42,000 square miles of west-central Texas. Nearly flat-lying, mostly Comanche (Lower Cretaceous) strata of the aquifer system thin northwestward atop massive pre-Cretaceous rocks that are comparatively impermeable and structurally complex. From predominately terrigenous clastic sediments in the east and fluvialdeltaic (terrestrial) deposits in the west, the rocks of early Trinitian age grade upward into supratidal evaporitic and dolomitic strata, intertidal limestone and dolostone, and shallow-marine, openshelf, and reefal strata of late Trinitian, Fredericksburgian, and Washitan age. A thick, downfaulted remnant of mostly open-marine strata of Eaglefordian through Navarroan age composes a small, southeastern part of the aquifer system.

  12. Association of hypothyroidism with low-level arsenic exposure in rural West Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, Gordon; Basom, Janet; Mattevada, Sravan; Onger, Frederick

    2015-01-01

    It has been reported recently that a higher airborne arsenic level was correlated with higher urinary arsenic concentration and lower serum thyroxin level among urban policemen and rural highway workmen in Italy. The current study was to determine whether exposure to low-level arsenic groundwater (2–22 µg/L) is associated with hypothyroidism among 723 participants (118 male and 267 female Hispanics; 108 male and 230 female non-Hispanic whites, NHW) living in rural West Texas counties. Arsenic and iodine levels in their groundwater used for drinking and or cooking were estimated by the inverse distance weighted (IDW) interpolation technique. Groundwater arsenic was ≥8 µg/L in 36% of the subjects' wells while iodine concentration was <1 µg/L in 91% of their wells. Logistic regression analysis showed that arsenic in groundwater ≥8 µg/L and cumulative arsenic exposure (groundwater arsenic concentration multiplied by the number of years living in the current address) but not groundwater iodine concentration were significant predictors for hypothyroidism among Hispanics (p<0.05) but not NHW after adjusting for covariates such as age, gender, annual household income and health insurance coverage. The ethnic difference may be due to a marginally higher percentage of Hispanics (p=0.0622) who lived in areas with groundwater arsenic ≥8 µg/L compared with NHW. The prevalence of hypothyroidism was significantly higher in Hispanics or NHW of this rural cohort than the national prevalence. Measures should be taken to reduce arsenic in drinking water in order to prevent hypothyroidism in rural areas. - Highlights: • We determined if arsenic exposure is associated with hypothyroidism in rural Texas. • Groundwater arsenic level is associated with hypothyroidism among Hispanics only. • The rate of hypothyroidism in rural Texas was higher than the US general population

  13. Association of hypothyroidism with low-level arsenic exposure in rural West Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Gordon, E-mail: gordon.gong@ttuhsc.edu [F. Marie Hall Institute for Rural and Community Health, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, TX (United States); Basom, Janet [F. Marie Hall Institute for Rural and Community Health, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, TX (United States); Department of Family and Community Medicine, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, TX (United States); Mattevada, Sravan [Department of Internal Medicine, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, TX (United States); Onger, Frederick [Department of Family and Community Medicine, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, TX (United States)

    2015-04-15

    It has been reported recently that a higher airborne arsenic level was correlated with higher urinary arsenic concentration and lower serum thyroxin level among urban policemen and rural highway workmen in Italy. The current study was to determine whether exposure to low-level arsenic groundwater (2–22 µg/L) is associated with hypothyroidism among 723 participants (118 male and 267 female Hispanics; 108 male and 230 female non-Hispanic whites, NHW) living in rural West Texas counties. Arsenic and iodine levels in their groundwater used for drinking and or cooking were estimated by the inverse distance weighted (IDW) interpolation technique. Groundwater arsenic was ≥8 µg/L in 36% of the subjects' wells while iodine concentration was <1 µg/L in 91% of their wells. Logistic regression analysis showed that arsenic in groundwater ≥8 µg/L and cumulative arsenic exposure (groundwater arsenic concentration multiplied by the number of years living in the current address) but not groundwater iodine concentration were significant predictors for hypothyroidism among Hispanics (p<0.05) but not NHW after adjusting for covariates such as age, gender, annual household income and health insurance coverage. The ethnic difference may be due to a marginally higher percentage of Hispanics (p=0.0622) who lived in areas with groundwater arsenic ≥8 µg/L compared with NHW. The prevalence of hypothyroidism was significantly higher in Hispanics or NHW of this rural cohort than the national prevalence. Measures should be taken to reduce arsenic in drinking water in order to prevent hypothyroidism in rural areas. - Highlights: • We determined if arsenic exposure is associated with hypothyroidism in rural Texas. • Groundwater arsenic level is associated with hypothyroidism among Hispanics only. • The rate of hypothyroidism in rural Texas was higher than the US general population.

  14. Rock property estimates using multiple seismic attributes and neural networks; Pegasus Field, West Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuelke, J.S.; Quirein, J.A.; Sarg, J.F.

    1998-12-31

    This case study shows the benefit of using multiple seismic trace attributes and the pattern recognition capabilities of neural networks to predict reservoir architecture and porosity distribution in the Pegasus Field, West Texas. The study used the power of neural networks to integrate geologic, borehole and seismic data. Illustrated are the improvements between the new neural network approach and the more traditional method of seismic trace inversion for porosity estimation. Comprehensive statistical methods and interpretational/subjective measures are used in the prediction of porosity from seismic attributes. A 3-D volume of seismic derived porosity estimates for the Devonian reservoir provide a very detailed estimate of porosity, both spatially and vertically, for the field. The additional reservoir porosity detail provided, between the well control, allows for optimal placement of horizontal wells and improved field development. 6 refs., 2 figs.

  15. Spatiotemporal associations of reservoir nutrient characteristics and the invasive, harmful alga Prymnesium parvum in West Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanLandeghem, Matthew M.; Farooqi, Mukhtar; Southard, Greg M.; Patino, Reynaldo

    2015-01-01

    Golden alga (Prymnesium parvum) is a harmful alga that has caused ecological and economic harm in freshwater and marine systems worldwide. In inland systems of North America, toxic blooms have nearly eliminated fish populations in some systems. Modifying nutrient profiles through alterations to land or water use may be a viable alternative for golden alga control in reservoirs. The main objective of this study was to improve our understanding of the nutrient dynamics that influence golden alga bloom formation and toxicity in west Texas reservoirs. We examined eight sites in the Upper Colorado River basin, Texas: three impacted reservoirs that have experienced repeated golden alga blooms; two reference reservoirs where golden alga is present but nontoxic; and three confluence sites downstream of the impacted and reference sites. Total, inorganic, and organic nitrogen and phosphorus and their ratios were quantified monthly along with golden alga abundance and ichthyotoxicity between December 2010 and July 2011. Blooms persisted for several months at the impacted sites, which were characterized by high organic nitrogen and low inorganic nitrogen. At impacted sites, abundance was positively associated with inorganic phosphorus and bloom termination coincided with increases in inorganic nitrogen and decreases in inorganic phosphorus in late spring. Management of both inorganic and organic forms of nutrients may create conditions in reservoirs unfavorable to golden alga.

  16. Testing and sampling of deep brine aquifers in the Palo Duro Basin, West Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deyling, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    The US Department of Energy is investigating the Palo Duro Basin of West Texas along with locations in Nevada, Washington, Utah, Mississippi and Louisiana as potential sites for storage of high-level nuclear waste. Ten wells have been drilled to depths between 3000 and 8300 feet. Testing and sampling of deep test zones requires advance planning and analysis of what must be obtained from the well. Various alternatives are available depending on data needs. In this particular instance, both hydrologic and geochemical data were required. The methods chosen were field proven methods used in the oil field industry for many years. Short term testing has included conventional oil-field-type drill stem tests and drill stem equipment with surface pressure readout. Long term testing has consisted of a series of production and recovery tests. Fluid sampling was performed in two stages. The first was at the well head under an imposed pressure of several hundred psi. The second fluid samples were collected downhole at the production zone under pressures close to ambient pressure. The geochemical data and hydrologic data can be used as independent checks on each other in many cases. Test results from the well along with examination of recovered core provided maximum data for each well. 5 references, 8 figures

  17. An empirical model of daily highs and lows of West Texas Intermediate crude oil prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Angela W.W.; Wan, Alan T.K.; Kwok, Jerry T.K.

    2010-01-01

    There is a large collection of literature on energy price forecasting, but most studies typically use monthly average or close-to-close daily price data. In practice, the daily price range constructed from the daily high and low also contains useful information on price volatility and is used frequently in technical analysis. The interaction between the daily high and low and the associated daily range has been examined in several recent studies on stock price and exchange rate forecasts. The present paper adopts a similar approach to analyze the behaviour of the West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil price over a ten-year period. We find that daily highs and lows of the WTI oil price are cointegrated, with the error correction term being closely approximated by the daily price range. Two forecasting models, one based on a vector error correction mechanism and the other based on a transfer function framework with the range taken as a driver variable, are presented for forecasting the daily highs and lows. The results show that both of these models offer significant advantages over the naive random walk and univariate ARIMA models in terms of out-of-sample forecast accuracy. A trading strategy that makes use of the daily high and low forecasts is further developed. It is found that this strategy generally yields very reasonable trading returns over an evaluation period of about two years. (author)

  18. The discovery and character of Pleistocene calcrete uranium deposits in the Southern High Plains of west Texas, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Hall, Susan M.

    2017-12-18

    This report describes the discovery and geology of two near-surface uranium deposits within calcareous lacustrine strata of Pleistocene age in west Texas, United States. Calcrete uranium deposits have not been previously reported in the United States. The west Texas uranium deposits share characteristics with some calcrete uranium deposits in Western Australia—uranium-vanadium minerals hosted by nonpedogenic calcretes deposited in saline lacustrine environments.In the mid-1970s, Kerr-McGee Corporation conducted a regional uranium exploration program in the Southern High Plains province of the United States, which led to the discovery of two shallow uranium deposits (that were not publicly reported). With extensive drilling, Kerr-McGee delineated one deposit of about 2.1 million metric tons of ore with an average grade of 0.037 percent U3O8 and another deposit of about 0.93 million metric tons of ore averaging 0.047 percent U3O8.The west-Texas calcrete uranium-vanadium deposits occur in calcareous, fine-grained sediments interpreted to be deposited in saline lakes formed during dry interglacial periods of the Pleistocene. The lakes were associated with drainages upstream of a large Pleistocene lake. Age determinations of tephra in strata adjacent to one deposit indicate the host strata is middle Pleistocene in age.Examination of the uranium-vanadium mineralization by scanning-electron microscopy indicated at least two generations of uranium-vanadium deposition in the lacustrine strata identified as carnotite and a strontium-uranium-vanadium mineral. Preliminary uranium-series results indicate a two-component system in the host calcrete, with early lacustrine carbonate that was deposited (or recrystallized) about 190 kilo-annum, followed much later by carnotite-rich crusts and strontium-uranium-vanadium mineralization in the Holocene (about 5 kilo-annum). Differences in initial 234U/238U activity ratios indicate two separate, distinct fluid sources.

  19. Urban and community forests of the South Central West region: Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Eric J. Greenfield

    2010-01-01

    This report details how land cover and urbanization vary within the states of Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Texas by community (incorporated and census designated places), county subdivision, and county. Specifically this report provides critical urban and community forestry information for each state including human population characteristics and trends, changes...

  20. Motivating pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donehew, G R

    1979-01-01

    Although pharmacists are developing interest in many types of pharmacy practice, they are still spending the bulk of their time in the prescription dispensing process. Any effort to provide motivation must consider the prescription dispensing process. The pharmacy literature includes only a few studies that dealt with pharmacists as people. The studies usually showed that pharmacists basically were unhappy with their jobs. In developing a motivational climate for pharmacists, pharmacy supervisors have several concepts to consider: the hierarchy of needs by Maslow; the expectancy theory by Hampton; the gygiene-motivator theory by Herzberg; and the Theory Y management approach by McGregor. Because pharmacists must be induced to enter and remain in an organization, supervisors should be aware of the need to use any technique available in developing a motivational climate.

  1. Nontraditional work schedules for pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaney, Lynnae; Sanborn, Michael; Alexander, Emily

    2008-11-15

    Nontraditional work schedules for pharmacists at three institutions are described. The demand for pharmacists and health care in general continues to increase, yet significant material changes are occurring in the pharmacy work force. These changing demographics, coupled with historical vacancy rates and turnover trends for pharmacy staff, require an increased emphasis on workplace changes that can improve staff recruitment and retention. At William S. Middleton Memorial Veterans Affairs Hospital in Madison, Wisconsin, creative pharmacist work schedules and roles are now mainstays to the recruitment and retention of staff. The major challenge that such scheduling presents is the 8 hours needed to prepare a six-week schedule. Baylor Medical Center at Grapevine in Dallas, Texas, has a total of 45 pharmacy employees, and slightly less than half of the 24.5 full-time-equivalent staff work full-time, with most preferring to work one, two, or three days per week. As long as the coverage needs of the facility are met, Envision Telepharmacy in Alpine, Texas, allows almost any scheduling arrangement preferred by individual pharmacists or the pharmacist group covering the facility. Staffing involves a great variety of shift lengths and intervals, with shifts ranging from 2 to 10 hours. Pharmacy leaders must be increasingly aware of opportunities to provide staff with unique scheduling and operational enhancements that can provide for a better work-life balance. Compressed workweeks, job-sharing, and team scheduling were the most common types of alternative work schedules implemented at three different institutions.

  2. Application of advanced reservoir characterization, simulation and production optimization strategies to maximize recovery in slope and basin clastic reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin). Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, S.P.; Asquith, G.B.; Barton, M.D.; Cole, A.G.; Gogas, J.; Malik, M.A.; Clift, S.J.; Guzman, J.I.

    1997-11-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost-effective way to recover a higher percentage of the original oil in place through strategic placement of infill wells and geologically based field development. This project involves reservoir characterization of two Late Permian slope and basin clastic reservoirs in the Delaware Basin, West Texas, followed by a field demonstration in one of the fields. The fields being investigated are Geraldine Ford and Ford West fields in Reeves and Culberson Counties, Texas. Project objectives are divided into two major phases, reservoir characterization and implementation. The objectives of the reservoir characterization phase of the project were to provide a detailed understanding of the architecture and heterogeneity of the two fields, the Ford Geraldine unit and Ford West field. Reservoir characterization utilized 3-D seismic data, high-resolution sequence stratigraphy, subsurface field studies, outcrop characterization, and other techniques. Once reservoir characterized was completed, a pilot area of approximately 1 mi{sup 2} at the northern end of the Ford Geraldine unit was chosen for reservoir simulation. This report summarizes the results of the second year of reservoir characterization.

  3. Spatial Distribution of Estimated Wind-Power Royalties in West Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Brannstrom

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Wind-power development in the U.S. occurs primarily on private land, producing royalties for landowners through private contracts with wind-farm operators. Texas, the U.S. leader in wind-power production with well-documented support for wind power, has virtually all of its ~12 GW of wind capacity sited on private lands. Determining the spatial distribution of royalty payments from wind energy is a crucial first step to understanding how renewable power may alter land-based livelihoods of some landowners, and, as a result, possibly encourage land-use changes. We located ~1700 wind turbines (~2.7 GW on 241 landholdings in Nolan and Taylor counties, Texas, a major wind-development region. We estimated total royalties to be ~$11.5 million per year, with mean annual royalty received per landowner per year of $47,879 but with significant differences among quintiles and between two sub-regions. Unequal distribution of royalties results from land-tenure patterns established before wind-power development because of a “property advantage,” defined as the pre-existing land-tenure patterns that benefit the fraction of rural landowners who receive wind turbines. A “royalty paradox” describes the observation that royalties flow to a small fraction of landowners even though support for wind power exceeds 70 percent.

  4. Association of spring-summer hydrology and meteorology with human West Nile virus infection in West Texas, USA, 2002-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukawuba, Israel; Shaman, Jeffrey

    2018-04-04

    The emergence of West Nile virus (WNV) in the Western Hemisphere has motivated research into the processes contributing to the incidence and persistence of the disease in the region. Meteorology and hydrology are fundamental determinants of vector-borne disease transmission dynamics of a region. The availability of water influences the population dynamics of vector and host, while temperature impacts vector growth rates, feeding habits, and disease transmission potential. Characterization of the temporal pattern of environmental factors influencing WNV risk is crucial to broaden our understanding of local transmission dynamics and to inform efforts of control and surveillance. We used hydrologic, meteorological and WNV data from west Texas (2002-2016) to analyze the relationship between environmental conditions and annual human WNV infection. A Bayesian model averaging framework was used to evaluate the association of monthly environmental conditions with WNV infection. Findings indicate that wet conditions in the spring combined with dry and cool conditions in the summer are associated with increased annual WNV cases. Bayesian multi-model inference reveals monthly means of soil moisture, specific humidity and temperature to be the most important variables among predictors tested. Environmental conditions in March, June, July and August were the leading predictors in the best-fitting models. The results significantly link soil moisture and temperature in the spring and summer to WNV transmission risk. Wet spring in association with dry and cool summer was the temporal pattern best-describing WNV, regardless of year. Our findings also highlight that soil moisture may be a stronger predictor of annual WNV transmission than rainfall.

  5. Subsurface example of a dolomitized middle Guadalupian (Permian) reef from west Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longacre, S.A.

    1983-01-01

    A middle Guadalupian organic buildup was cored in the North McElroy Unit (NMU No. 3713 well) in Upton County, W. Texas. Fusulinid control indicates the buildup is equivalent to the Goat Seep reef that crops out in the Guadalupe Mt. The organic buildup at North McElroy consists of boundstones and associated flank grainstones. The reef biota is dominated by ramose and encrusting bryozoans, numerous types of calcareous sponges, the problematic encrusting organism Tubiphytes, encrusting algae, crinoids, brachiopods, and trilobites. Among the more significant aspects of diagenesis are mechanical degradation and biologic degradation, leaching, gypsum-anhydrite transformations, cementation, replacement of all calcite by dolomite, cementation and replacement by baroque dolomite, fracturing, and replacement of carbonate by anhydrite. 17 references.

  6. Fracture characterization and discrimination criteria for karst and tectonic fractures in the Ellenburger Group, West Texas: Implications for reservoir and exploration models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoak, T.E. [Science Applications International Corp., Germantown, MD (United States)]|[Kestrel Geoscience, Littleton, CO (United States); Sundberg, K.R. [Phillips Petroleum Co., Bartlesville, OK (United States); Deyhim, P. [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States); Ortoleva, P. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Lab. for Computational Geodynamics

    1998-12-31

    In the Ellenburger Group fractured dolomite reservoirs of West Texas, it is extremely difficult to distinguish between multiple phases of karst-related fracturing, modifications to the karst system during burial, and overprinting tectonic fractures. From the analyses of drill core, the authors developed criteria to distinguish between karst and tectonic fractures. In addition, they have applied these criteria within the context of a detailed diagenetic cement history that allows them to further refine the fracture genesis and chronology. In these analyses, the authors evaluated the relationships between fracture intensity, morphologic attributes, host lithology, fracture cement, and oil-staining. From this analysis, they have been able to characterize variations in Ellenburger tectonic fracture intensity by separating these fractures from karst-related features. In general, the majority of fracturing in the Ellenburger is caused by karst-related fracturing although a considerable percentage is caused by tectonism. These findings underscore the importance of considering the complete geologic evolution of a karst reservoir during exploration and field development programs. The authors have been able to more precisely define the spatial significance of the fracture data sets by use of oriented core from Andector Field. They have also demonstrated the importance of these results for exploration and reservoir development programs in West Texas, and the potential to extrapolate these results around the globe. Given the historic interest in the large hydrocarbon reserves in West Texas carbonate reservoirs, results of this study will have tremendous implications for exploration and production strategies targeting vuggy, fractured carbonate systems not only in West Texas, but throughout the globe.

  7. Associations between water physicochemistry and Prymnesium parvum presence, abundance, and toxicity in west Texas reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanLandeghem, Matthew M.; Farooqi, Mukhtar; Southard, Greg M.; Patino, Reynaldo

    2015-01-01

    Toxic blooms of golden alga (Prymnesium parvum) have caused substantial ecological and economic harm in freshwater and marine systems throughout the world. In North America, toxic blooms have impacted freshwater systems including large reservoirs. Management of water chemistry is one proposed option for golden alga control in these systems. The main objective of this study was to assess physicochemical characteristics of water that influence golden alga presence, abundance, and toxicity in the Upper Colorado River basin (UCR) in Texas. The UCR contains reservoirs that have experienced repeated blooms and other reservoirs where golden alga is present but has not been toxic. We quantified golden alga abundance (hemocytometer counts), ichthyotoxicity (bioassay), and water chemistry (surface grab samples) at three impacted reservoirs on the Colorado River; two reference reservoirs on the Concho River; and three sites at the confluence of these rivers. Sampling occurred monthly from January 2010 to July 2011. Impacted sites were characterized by higher specific conductance, calcium and magnesium hardness, and fluoride than reference and confluence sites. At impacted sites, golden alga abundance and toxicity were positively associated with salinity-related variables and blooms peaked at ~10°C and generally did not occur above 20°C. Overall, these findings suggest management of land and water use to reduce hardness or salinity could produce unfavorable conditions for golden alga.

  8. Salt dissolution and collapse at the Wink Sink in West Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, K.S.

    1986-06-01

    The Wink Sink, in Winkler County, Texas, is a collapse feature that formed in June 1980 when an underground dissolution cavity migrated upward by successive roof failures until it breached the land surface. The original cavity developed in the Permian Salado Formation salt beds more than 1300 feet below ground level. Natural dissolution of salt occurred in the vicinity of the Wink Sink in several episodes that began as early as Salado time and recurred in later Permian, Triassic, and Cenozoic time. Although natural dissolution cavity and resultant collapse were influenced by petroleum production activity in the immediate area. Drilling, completion, and plugging procedures used on an abandoned oil well at the site of the sink appear to have created a conduit that enabled water to circulate down the borehole and dissolve the salt. When the dissolution cavity became large enough, the roof failed and the overlying rocks collapsed into the cavity. Similar collapse features exist where underground salt beds have been intentionally dissolved during solution mining or accidentally dissolved as a result of petroleum production activities

  9. Self-esteem, ethnic identity, and behavioral adjustment among Anglo and Chicano adolescents in West Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, B; Wirt, R; Davids, A

    1985-03-01

    This study provides a comparison of similarities and differences with respect to ethnic identity between Anglo and Chicano adolescents from Texas. A path analysis model was used to test a theoretical assumption concerning proposed antecedents and consequences of self-esteem. Research instruments included the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale, the Semantic Differential (scales for Myself and My Ethnic Group) and the McGuire White Measure of Social Status. Results were consistent with the interpretation that there is a relationship between being Chicano and having lower self-esteem, lower behavioral adjustment, and higher ethnic esteem. The prediction that ethnic esteem would mediate between ethnic group and self-esteem was upheld. Variables such as ethnic group membership per se and sex appear as or more important to the prediction of behavioral level. Clinical implications include recognizing that Chicanos low in self-esteem or behavioral adjustment should not automatically be considered unusual. The problems faced by this group are considered as having something in common with other groups of people who have more problems, lesser status, fewer resources, and fewer sources of available help.

  10. Integrated ground-based hyperspectral imaging and geochemical study of the Eagle Ford Group in West Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lei; Khan, Shuhab; Godet, Alexis

    2018-01-01

    This study used ground-based hyperspectral imaging to map an outcrop of the Eagle Ford Group in west Texas. The Eagle Ford Group consists of alternating layers of mudstone - wackestone, grainstone - packstone facies and volcanic ash deposits with high total organic content deposited during the Cenomanian - Turonian time period. It is one of the few unconventional source rock and reservoirs that have surface representations. Ground-based hyperspectral imaging scanned an outcrop and hand samples at close ranges with very fine spatial resolution (centimeter to sub-millimeter). Spectral absorption modeling of clay minerals and calcite with the modified Gaussian model (MGM) allowed quantification of variations of mineral abundances. Petrographic analysis confirmed mineral identifications and shed light on sedimentary textures, and major element geochemistry supported the mineral quantification. Mineral quantification resulted in mapping of mudstone - wackestone, grainstone - packstone facies and bentonites (volcanic ash beds). The lack of spatial associations between the grainstones and bentonites on the outcrop calls into question the hypothesis that the primary productivity is controlled by iron availability from volcanic ash beds. Enrichment of molybdenum (Mo) and uranium (U) indicated "unrestricted marine" paleo-hydrogeology and anoxic to euxinic paleo-redox bottom water conditions. Hyperspectral remote sensing data also helped in creating a virtual outcrop model with detailed mineralogical compositions, and provided reservoir analog to extract compositional and geo-mechanical characteristics and variations. The utilization of these new techniques in geo-statistical analysis provides a workflow for employing remote sensing in resource exploration and exploitation.

  11. A comparative study on pharmacist job satisfaction in the private and public hospitals of the North–West Province / by Marine Vorster

    OpenAIRE

    Vorster, Martine

    2010-01-01

    Pharmacists experience high levels of stress at work, especially from factors intrinsic to their jobs and management roles. In South Africa, the public sector is confronted with situational difficulties such as a shortage of staff and poor working conditions Accordingly, a comparative survey was conducted using a self–constructed questionnaire to obtain individual responses from the pharmacists in the public, as well as the private sector. The focus population was the pharmacis...

  12. Application of Advanced Reservoir Characterization, Simulation, and Production Optimization Strategies to Maximize Recovery in Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin), Class III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, Shirley P.; Flanders, William A.

    2001-11-04

    The objective of this Class III project was demonstrate that reservoir characterization and enhanced oil recovery (EOR) by CO2 flood can increase production from slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico. Phase 1 of the project, reservoir characterization, focused on Geraldine Ford and East Ford fields, which are Delaware Mountain Group fields that produce from the upper Bell Canyon Formation (Ramsey sandstone). The demonstration phase of the project was a CO2 flood conducted in East Ford field, which is operated by Orla Petco, Inc., as the East Ford unit.

  13. Application of Advanced Reservoir Characterization, Simulation, and Production Optimization Strategies to Maximize Recovery in Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutton, Shirley

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this Class 3 project was demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost effective way to recover a higher percentage of the original oil in place through strategic placement of infill wells and geologically based field development. Project objectives are divided into two main phases. The original objectives of the reservoir-characterization phase of the project were (1) to provide a detailed understanding of the architecture and heterogeneity of two representative fields of the Delaware Mountain Group, Geraldine Ford and Ford West, which produce from the Bell Canyon and Cherry Canyon Formations, respectively, (2) to chose a demonstration area in one of the fields, and (3) to simulate a CO 2 flood in the demonstration area

  14. Knowledge, perceptions and practices of pharmacovigilance amongst community and hospital pharmacists in a selected district of North West Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Joubert

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: The majority of pharmacists are familiar with the concept of PV, but less than half reported any ADR. They are willing to participate in PV processes but are unsure what their exact role playing should be. More than half indicated that they would like to see improvements to the current PV system in South Africa. The majority are prepared to undergo further education to improve their PV knowledge.

  15. INTEGRATED OUTCROP AND SUBSURFACE STUDIES OF THE INTERWELL ENVIRONMENT OF CARBONATE RESERVOIRS: CLEAR FORK (LEONARDIAN-AGE) RESERVOIRS, WEST TEXAS AND NEW MEXICO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F. Jerry Lucia

    2002-01-31

    This is the final report of the project ''Integrated Outcrop and Subsurface Studies of the Interwell Environment of Carbonate Reservoirs: Clear Fork (Leonardian-Age) Reservoirs, West Texas and New Mexico'', Department of Energy contract no. DE-AC26-98BC15105 and is the third in a series of similar projects funded jointly by the U.S. Department of Energy and The University of Texas at Austin, Bureau of Economic Geology, Reservoir Characterization Research Laboratory for Carbonates. All three projects focus on the integration of outcrop and subsurface data for the purpose of developing improved methods for modeling petrophysical properties in the interwell environment. The first project, funded by contract no. DE-AC22-89BC14470, was a study of San Andres outcrops in the Algerita Escarpment, Guadalupe Mountains, Texas and New Mexico, and the Seminole San Andres reservoir, Permian Basin. This study established the basic concepts for constructing a reservoir model using sequence-stratigraphic principles and rock-fabric, petrophysical relationships. The second project, funded by contract no. DE-AC22-93BC14895, was a study of Grayburg outcrops in the Brokeoff Mountains, New Mexico, and the South Cowden Grayburg reservoir, Permian Basin. This study developed a sequence-stratigraphic succession for the Grayburg and improved methods for locating remaining hydrocarbons in carbonate ramp reservoirs. The current study is of the Clear Fork Group in Apache Canyon, Sierra Diablo Mountains, West Texas, and the South Wasson Clear Fork reservoir, Permian Basin. The focus was on scales of heterogeneity, imaging high- and low-permeability layers, and the impact of fractures on reservoir performance. In this study (1) the Clear Fork cycle stratigraphy is defined, (2) important scales of petrophysical variability are confirmed, (3) a unique rock-fabric, petrophysical relationship is defined, (4) a porosity method for correlating high-frequency cycles and defining rock

  16. Application of advanced reservoir characterization, simulation, and production optimization strategies to maximize recovery in slope and basin clastic reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin), Class III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, Shirley P.; Flanders, William A.; Zirczy, Helena H.

    2000-05-24

    The objective of this Class 3 project was to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost effective way to recover a higher percentage of the original oil in place through strategic placement of infill wells and geologically based field development. Phase 1 of the project, reservoir characterization, was completed this year, and Phase 2 began. The project is focused on East Ford field, a representative Delaware Mountain Group field that produces from the upper Bell Canyon Formation (Ramsey sandstone). The field, discovered in 1960, is operated by Oral Petco, Inc., as the East Ford unit. A CO{sub 2} flood is being conducted in the unit, and this flood is the Phase 2 demonstration for the project.

  17. Application of Advanced Reservoir Characterization, Simulation, and Production Optimization Strategies to Maximize Recovery in Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin), Class III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, Shirley P.; Flanders, William A.; Mendez, Daniel L.

    2001-05-08

    The objective of this Class 3 project was demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstone's of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost effective way to recover oil more economically through geologically based field development. This project was focused on East Ford field, a Delaware Mountain Group field that produced from the upper Bell Canyon Formation (Ramsey sandstone). The field, discovered in 9160, is operated by Oral Petco, Inc., as the East Ford unit. A CO2 flood was being conducted in the unit, and this flood is the Phase 2 demonstration for the project.

  18. Community pharmacists, Internet and social media: an empirical investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbakova, Natalia; Shepherd, Marv

    2014-01-01

    Use of social media and Internet for health information sharing is expanding among patients, physicians, and other health care professionals. Research on professional use of social media by community pharmacists is limited. 1) To determine the extent to which Texas (U.S. state) independent community pharmacists use text messaging, email, Facebook, Twitter, and/or other information technology for professional communication with patients and health care professionals and identify the perceptions of Texas independent community pharmacists toward such usage; 2) to determine the extent to which Texas independent community pharmacists develop and employ their pharmacy websites to provide drug information and patient care services. A 25-item survey with questions addressing the objectives of the study as well as basic demographic questions (gender, age, and type of pharmacy degree) was mailed to a random sample of 1196 independent community pharmacists in Texas in January 2012. The study response rate was 23.7%, with 284 usable questionnaires returned. The majority of respondents reported that Internet access is available at their pharmacies (98% (278)), and 91% (258) are familiar with the term 'social media'. To communicate with health care professionals, 56% (n = 160) of respondents use email, 34% (n = 97) use text messages and 5% (n = 14) use Facebook. To communicate with patients, 36% (n = 102) of respondents use email, 30% (n = 86) use text messages and 7% (n = 19) use Facebook. The perceptions of pharmacists who communicate with patients using electronic tools about information related to drug therapy once a month or more frequently were more positive than those of pharmacists who never or hardly ever communicate with patients via electronic tools about drug therapy (P social media for professional pharmacist's communications and perceptions toward the use of social media in patient-pharmacist communications among independent community pharmacists in

  19. Application of Advanced Reservoir Characterization, Simulation, and Production Optimization Strategies to Maximize Recovery in Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrew G. Cole; George B. Asquith; Jose I. Guzman; Mark D. Barton; Mohammad A. Malik; Shirley P. Dutton; Sigrid J. Clift

    1998-04-01

    The objective of this Class III project is to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of clastic reservoirs in basinal sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost-effective way to recover more of the original oil in place by strategic infill-well placement and geologically based enhanced oil recovery. The study focused on the Ford Geraldine unit, which produces from the upper Bell Canyon Formation (Ramsey sandstone). Reservoirs in this and other Delaware Mountain Group fields have low producibility (average recovery <14 percent of the original oil in place) because of a high degree of vertical and lateral heterogeneity caused by depositional processes and post-depositional diagenetic modification. Outcrop analogs were studied to better interpret the depositional processes that formed the reservoirs at the Ford Geraldine unit and to determine the dimensions of reservoir sandstone bodies. Facies relationships and bedding architecture within a single genetic unit exposed in outcrop in Culberson County, Texas, suggest that the sandstones were deposited in a system of channels and levees with attached lobes that initially prograded basinward, aggraded, and then turned around and stepped back toward the shelf. Channel sandstones are 10 to 60 ft thick and 300 to 3,000 ft wide. The flanking levees have a wedge-shaped geometry and are composed of interbedded sandstone and siltstone; thickness varies from 3 to 20 ft and length from several hundred to several thousands of feet. The lobe sandstones are broad lens-shaped bodies; thicknesses range up to 30 ft with aspect ratios (width/thickness) of 100 to 10,000. Lobe sandstones may be interstratified with laminated siltstones.

  20. West Texas geothermal resource assessment. Part II. Preliminary utilization assessment of the Trans-Pecos geothermal resource. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilliland, M.W.; Fenner, L.B.

    1980-01-01

    The utilization potential of geothermal resources in Trans-Pecos, Texas was assessed. The potential for both direct use and electric power generation were examined. As with the resource assessment work, the focus was on the Hueco Tanks area in northeastern El Paso County and the Presidio Bolson area in Presidio County. Suitable users of the Hueco Tanks and Presidio Bolson resource areas were identified by matching postulated temperature characteristics of the geothermal resource to the need characteristics of existing users in each resource area. The amount of geothermal energy required and the amount of fossil fuel that geothermal energy would replace were calculated for each of the users identified as suitable. Current data indicate that temperatures in the Hueco Tanks resource area are not high enough for electric power generation, but in at least part of the Presidio Bolson resource area, they may be high enough for electric power generation.

  1. An Updated Performance Assessment For A New Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility In West Texas - 12192

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dornsife, William P.; Kirk, J. Scott; Shaw, Chris G. [Waste Control Specialists LLC, Andrews, Texas (United States)

    2012-07-01

    This Performance Assessment (PA) submittal is an update to the original PA that was developed to support the licensing of the Waste Control Specialists LLC Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLRW) disposal facility. This update includes both the Compact Waste Facility (CWF) and the Federal Waste Facility (FWF), in accordance with Radioactive Material License (RML) No. R04100, License Condition (LC) 87. While many of the baseline assumptions supporting the initial license application PA were incorporated in this update, a new transport code, GoldSim, and new deterministic groundwater flow codes, including HYDRUS and MODFLOWSURFACT{sup TM}, were employed to demonstrate compliance with the performance objectives codified in the regulations and RML No. R04100, LC 87. A revised source term, provided by the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality staff, was used to match the initial 15 year license term. This updated PA clearly confirms and demonstrates the robustness of the characteristics of the site's geology and the advanced engineering design of the disposal units. Based on the simulations from fate and transport models, the radiation doses to members of the general public and site workers predicted in the initial and updated PA were a small fraction of the criterion doses of 0.25 mSv and 50 mSv, respectively. In a comparison between the results of the updated PA against the one developed in support of the initial license, both clearly demonstrated the robustness of the characteristics of the site's geology and engineering design of the disposal units. Based on the simulations from fate and transport models, the radiation doses to members of the general public predicted in the initial and updated PA were a fraction of the allowable 25 mrem/yr (0.25 m sievert/yr) dose standard for tens-of-thousands of years into the future. Draft Texas guidance on performance assessment (TCEQ, 2004) recommends a period of analysis equal to 1,000 years or until peak doses from

  2. 2014: A Record-Breaking Year for West Nile Virus Positive Mosquito Pools in Harris County and the City of Houston, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randle, Yvonne H; Freeman, Cheryl Battle; Jackson, Monique; Reyna, Martin; Debboun, Mustapha

    2016-01-01

    In the 14 years since the emergence of West Nile virus (WNV) in Harris County and the city of Houston, Texas, the number of mosquitoes infected with the virus has fluctuated with several high and low count years. During this 14-year period, mosquito surveillance operational areas in Harris County were expanded from 248 to 268 and the distribution of the virus activity in mosquitoes varied from year to year. Operational areas with WNV infected mosquitoes increased from 137 in 2002 to 197 in 2006, decreased to 71 areas in 2007, and to an all-time low of 18 in 2008. The number increased to 78 areas in 2009, 96 in 2010, 133 in 2011, and 177 in 2012, but fell to 73 in 2013. However, 234 areas were confirmed in 2014, and only 138 in 2015. The WNV transmission was high in 2002 with 227 WNV positive mosquito pools. The number of positive mosquitoes remained elevated for a number of years and then declined from 2007 to 2010. Three record high years for WNV activity were: 2005, 2006, and 2011 with 698, 838, and 605 confirmed positive mosquito pools, respectively. Viral activity declined in 2012, followed by a marked decline in 2013 with only 147 WNV positive mosquito pools. In 2014, a record-breaking number of 1,286 WNV positive mosquito pools were confirmed in Harris County and the city of Houston, the most ever in a single season, while 406 were confirmed in 2015.

  3. Application of Advanced Reservoir Characterization, Simulation, and Production Optimization Strategies to Maximize Recovery in Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, S.P.; Flanders, W.A.; Guzman, J.I.; Zirczy, H.

    1999-06-08

    The objective of this Class III project is to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost-effective way to recover a higher percentage of the original oil in place through geologically based field development. This year the project focused on reservoir characterization of the East Ford unit, a representative Delaware Mountain Group field that produces from the upper Bell Canyon Formation (Ramsey Sandstone). The field, discovered in 1960, is operated by Orla Petco, Inc., as the East Ford unit; it contained an estimated 19.8 million barrels (MMbbl) of original oil in place. Petrophysical characterization of the East Ford unit was accomplished by integrating core and log data and quantifying petrophysical properties from wireline logs. Most methods of petrophysical analysis that had been developed during an earlier study of the Ford Geraldine unit were successfully transferred to the East Ford unit. The approach that was used to interpret water saturation from resistivity logs, however, had to be modified because in some East Ford wells the log-calculated water saturation was too high and inconsistent with observations made during the actual production. Log-porosity to core-porosity transforms and core-porosity to core-permeability transforms were derived from the East Ford reservoir. The petrophysical data were used to map porosity, permeability, net pay, water saturation, mobil-oil saturation, and other reservoir properties.

  4. Pharmacist-industry relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, Keene; O'Connor, Bonnie; Fugh-Berman, Adriane

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to document, in their own words, beliefs and attitudes that American pharmacists have towards the pharmaceutical industry and pharmacists' interactions with industry. An ethnographic-style qualitative study was conducted utilizing open-ended interviews with four hospital pharmacists, two independent pharmacists, two retail pharmacists and one administrative pharmacist in the Washington, DC, metropolitan area to elicit descriptions of and attitudes towards pharmacists' relationships with industry. Analysis of the qualitative material followed established ethnographic conventions of narrative thematic analysis. All pharmacists reported interactions with pharmaceutical company representatives. Most had received free resources or services from industry, including educational courses. Respondents uniformly believed that industry promotional efforts are primarily directed towards physicians. Although respondents felt strongly that drug prices were excessive and that 'me-too' drugs were of limited use, they generally had a neutral-to-positive view of industry-funded adherence/compliance programmes, coupons, vouchers, and copay payment programmes. Interviewees viewed direct-to-consumer advertising negatively, but had a generally positive view of industry-funded drug information. Pharmacists may represent a hitherto under-identified cohort of health professionals who are targeted for industry influence; expanding roles for pharmacists may make them even more attractive targets for future industry attention. Pharmacy schools should ensure that students learn to rely on unbiased information sources and should teach students about conflicts of interest and the risks of interacting with industry. Further research should be conducted on the extent to which pharmacists' attitudes towards their duties and towards drug assessment and recommendation are influenced by the pharmaceutical industry. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  5. Nonexplosive and explosive magma/wet-sediment interaction during emplacement of Eocene intrusions into Cretaceous to Eocene strata, Trans-Pecos igneous province, West Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Befus, K.S.; Hanson, R.E.; Miggins, D.P.; Breyer, J.A.; Busbey, A.B.

    2009-01-01

    Eocene intrusion of alkaline basaltic to trachyandesitic magmas into unlithified, Upper Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) to Eocene fluvial strata in part of the Trans-Pecos igneous province in West Texas produced an array of features recording both nonexplosive and explosive magma/wet-sediment interaction. Intrusive complexes with 40Ar/39Ar dates of ~ 47-46??Ma consist of coherent basalt, peperite, and disrupted sediment. Two of the complexes cutting Cretaceous strata contain masses of conglomerate derived from Eocene fluvial deposits that, at the onset of intrusive activity, would have been > 400-500??m above the present level of exposure. These intrusive complexes are inferred to be remnants of diatremes that fed maar volcanoes during an early stage of magmatism in this part of the Trans-Pecos province. Disrupted Cretaceous strata along diatreme margins record collapse of conduit walls during and after subsurface phreatomagmatic explosions. Eocene conglomerate slumped downward from higher levels during vent excavation. Coherent to pillowed basaltic intrusions emplaced at the close of explosive activity formed peperite within the conglomerate, within disrupted Cretaceous strata in the conduit walls, and within inferred remnants of the phreatomagmatic slurry that filled the vents during explosive volcanism. A younger series of intrusions with 40Ar/39Ar dates of ~ 42??Ma underwent nonexplosive interaction with Upper Cretaceous to Paleocene mud and sand. Dikes and sills show fluidal, billowed, quenched margins against the host strata, recording development of surface instabilities between magma and groundwater-rich sediment. Accentuation of billowed margins resulted in propagation of intrusive pillows into the adjacent sediment. More intense disruption and mingling of quenched magma with sediment locally produced fluidal and blocky peperite, but sufficient volumes of pore fluid were not heated rapidly enough to generate phreatomagmatic explosions. This work suggests that

  6. 33 CFR 165.804 - Snake Island, Texas City, Texas; mooring and fleeting of vessels-safety zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Snake Island, Texas City, Texas... Guard District § 165.804 Snake Island, Texas City, Texas; mooring and fleeting of vessels—safety zone. (a) The following is a safety zone: (1) The west and northwest shores of Snake Island; (2) The...

  7. Attitudes towards conscientious objection among community pharmacists in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piecuch, Anna; Gryka, Malwina; Kozłowska-Wojciechowska, Małgorzata

    2014-04-01

    The European Council Resolution 1763 (2010), ‘‘The right to conscientious objection in lawful medical care’’, provoked a discussion among Polish pharmacists on the necessity for granting them the right to refuse to dispense medicinal products which invoke conscientious objection. To explore attitudes of Polish pharmacists towards the conscience clause. Pharmacies with public e-mail addresses in various parts of Poland (Lower Silesia Province, Mazovia Province, Kuyavia-Pomerania Province, and West Pomeranian Province). An online survey questionnaire addressed to 1,454 pharmacies. The participants were asked 8 questions,including a question addressed only to pharmacy managers and owners. Attitudes towards the right to conscientious objection for pharmacists. Ultimately, responses of 126 pharmacists (83 women, 43 men, average age-39 years of age) were taken into consideration. Most participants (92 %) have never refused to fill a prescription due to their beliefs; however, 15 % of participants state that if the conscience clause were legally sanctioned, they would exercise this right. Most participants(73 %) think that pharmacists should not have the right to conscientious objection. Almost half of participants who support implementation of the conscience clause would grant this right to pharmacists on a conditional basis, if the pharmacists were obliged to present other real options to the patient about obtaining a specific product. Pharmacists are rather reluctant to the idea of implementing the conscience clause, but despite a clear majority of its opponents, there seems to be a necessity for introducing such a regulation.

  8. An integrated geological and geophysical study of the Uinta Mountains, Utah, Colorado and a geophysical study on Tamarix in the Rio Grande River basin, West Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatun, Salma

    2008-07-01

    comprehensive picture of the structures in the study area. These models show that the Uinta uplift is a single sedimentary block with numerous thrust faults on the northern and southern flanks of the uplift. These models also reveal the fact that the thickness of the crust is quite variable in the study area. This is also supported by the crustal thickness map constructed for this study from seismic and receiver function information. Magnetic maps show that the Proterozoic sedimentary package known as Uinta Mountain Group extends into the Basin and Range and indicates its link with the ancient rift margin in the Western United States. Findings of this research are correlated to earlier studies and placed in a broader context. Finally an analogy is made between the Uinta aulacogen, the Southern Oklahoma aulacogen and the Dniepr-Donets aulacogen in Ukraine. This discussion focuses light on the mechanism that led to the Uinta's development from a failed rift to an uplift. Part two of this research examined the effect of saltcedar (Tamarix sp) on water and soil properties in the Rio Grande River valley in West Texas. Tamarix is a woody phreatophyte (water-loving plant) common in riparian habitats. The presence of Tamarix in a river system raises concerns about its effect on water quality because it can increase the salinity of water and surrounding soil and it reduces stream flow. Geophysical electrical techniques were used to track soil salinity and moisture changes caused by Tamarix, as well as to determine how soil salinity and moisture properties are altered when Tamarix is eradicated from the region. These techniques allowed more rapid in-situ assessment of the soil properties than the conventional method of removing soil and water samples for analysis. This study was focused on the influence of Tamarix on soil properties and hydrology at the subsurface at four sites in the Rio Bosque Wetlands Park, El Paso, Texas Two sites had flourishing Tamarix and two others were areas

  9. West Texas array experiment: Noise and source characterization of short-range infrasound and acoustic signals, along with lab and field evaluation of Intermountain Laboratories infrasound microphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Aileen

    The term infrasound describes atmospheric sound waves with frequencies below 20 Hz, while acoustics are classified within the audible range of 20 Hz to 20 kHz. Infrasound and acoustic monitoring in the scientific community is hampered by low signal-to-noise ratios and a limited number of studies on regional and short-range noise and source characterization. The JASON Report (2005) suggests the infrasound community focus on more broad-frequency, observational studies within a tactical distance of 10 km. In keeping with that recommendation, this paper presents a study of regional and short-range atmospheric acoustic and infrasonic noise characterization, at a desert site in West Texas, covering a broad frequency range of 0.2 to 100 Hz. To spatially sample the band, a large number of infrasound gauges was needed. A laboratory instrument analysis is presented of the set of low-cost infrasound sensors used in this study, manufactured by Inter-Mountain Laboratories (IML). Analysis includes spectra, transfer functions and coherences to assess the stability and range of the gauges, and complements additional instrument testing by Sandia National Laboratories. The IMLs documented here have been found reliably coherent from 0.1 to 7 Hz without instrument correction. Corrections were built using corresponding time series from the commercially available and more expensive Chaparral infrasound gauge, so that the corrected IML outputs were able to closely mimic the Chaparral output. Arrays of gauges are needed for atmospheric sound signal processing. Our West Texas experiment consisted of a 1.5 km aperture, 23-gauge infrasound/acoustic array of IMLs, with a compact, 12 m diameter grid-array of rented IMLs at the center. To optimize signal recording, signal-to-noise ratio needs to be quantified with respect to both frequency band and coherence length. The higher-frequency grid array consisted of 25 microphones arranged in a five by five pattern with 3 meter spacing, without

  10. ACCP Clinical Pharmacist Competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saseen, Joseph J; Ripley, Toni L; Bondi, Deborah; Burke, John M; Cohen, Lawrence J; McBane, Sarah; McConnell, Karen J; Sackey, Bryan; Sanoski, Cynthia; Simonyan, Anahit; Taylor, Jodi; Vande Griend, Joseph P

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of the American College of Clinical Pharmacy (ACCP) is to advance human health by extending the frontiers of clinical pharmacy. Consistent with this mission and its core values, ACCP is committed to ensuring that clinical pharmacists possess the knowledge, skills, attitudes, and behaviors necessary to deliver comprehensive medication management (CMM) in team-based, direct patient care environments. These components form the basis for the core competencies of a clinical pharmacist and reflect the competencies of other direct patient care providers. This paper is an update to a previous ACCP document and includes the expectation that clinical pharmacists be competent in six essential domains: direct patient care, pharmacotherapy knowledge, systems-based care and population health, communication, professionalism, and continuing professional development. Although these domains align with the competencies of physician providers, they are specifically designed to better reflect the clinical pharmacy expertise required to provide CMM in patient-centered, team-based settings. Clinical pharmacists must be prepared to complete the education and training needed to achieve these competencies and must commit to ongoing efforts to maintain competence through ongoing professional development. Collaboration among stakeholders will be needed to ensure that these competencies guide clinical pharmacists' professional development and evaluation by educational institutions, postgraduate training programs, professional societies, and employers. © 2017 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  11. Spanish-speaking patients' satisfaction with clinical pharmacists' communication skills and demonstration of cultural sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim-Romo, Dawn N; Barner, Jamie C; Brown, Carolyn M; Rivera, José O; Garza, Aida A; Klein-Bradham, Kristina; Jokerst, Jason R; Janiga, Xan; Brown, Bob

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess Spanish-speaking patients' satisfaction with their clinical pharmacists' communication skills and demonstration of cultural sensitivity, while controlling for patients' sociodemographic, clinical, and communication factors, as well as pharmacist factors, and to identify clinical pharmacists' cultural factors that are important to Spanish-speaking patients. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. SETTING Central Texas during August 2011 to May 2012. PARTICIPANTS Spanish-speaking patients of federally qualified health centers (FQHCs). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S) A Spanish-translated survey assessed Spanish-speaking patients' satisfaction with their clinical pharmacists' communication skills and demonstration of cultural sensitivity. RESULTS Spanish-speaking patients (N = 101) reported overall satisfaction with their clinical pharmacists' communication skills and cultural sensitivity. Patients also indicated that pharmacists' cultural rapport (e.g., ability to speak Spanish, respectfulness) was generally important to Spanish speakers. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that cultural rapport was significantly related to satisfaction with pharmacists' communication skills and demonstration of cultural sensitivity. CONCLUSION Overall, patients were satisfied with pharmacists' communication skills and cultural sensitivity. Patient satisfaction initiatives that include cultural rapport should be developed for pharmacists who provide care to Spanish-speaking patients with limited English proficiency.

  12. 76 FR 14387 - Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. CP11-118-000] Texas Eastern... Eastern Transmission, LP (Texas Eastern), Post Office Box 1642, Houston, Texas 77251-1642, filed in Docket... West Cameron Blocks 566, 565, and 548, offshore Louisiana, under Texas Eastern's blanket certificate...

  13. Texas Yehaa !!!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellberg, Kurt

    2001-01-01

    Indtryk fra et besøg på SLA, Special Libraries Associations årlige konference, San Antonio, Texas, USA, 9.-13. juni 2001. "An Information Odyssey: Seizing the Competitive Advantage"......Indtryk fra et besøg på SLA, Special Libraries Associations årlige konference, San Antonio, Texas, USA, 9.-13. juni 2001. "An Information Odyssey: Seizing the Competitive Advantage"...

  14. Texas situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avant, R.V. Jr.; Bowmer, W.J.

    1986-01-01

    The Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority was formed in 1981 to address the Texas low-level radioactive waste problem consistent with the direction of P.L. 96-573. The Authority has completed technical tasks, including source term evaluations, preliminary conceptual designs, economic assessments, and long-range planning, and has work in progress on facility design, site selection, operating procedures, and licensing. Site selection has been the major technical activity and will be completed in 1987 after on-site evaluations of potential sites. The Authority expects to have its site licensed and operating in 1992. Texas has been the leader in site selection. Political concerns and the uncertainty of the national agenda led Texas policy makers to slow down the state's progress. The lessons learned through the Texas situation should be instructive to other states and compacts and may well be a prediction of events for these other groups. This paper discusses the background and status of Texas development activities, future plans, and lessons learned

  15. Are pharmacists reducing COPD'S impact through smoking cessation and assessing inhaled steroid use?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verma, Arpana; Harrison, Annie; Torun, Perihan

    2012-01-01

    The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) COPD 2004 guidelines recommend: ∗ COPD patients who smoke should be encouraged to stop at every opportunity; ∗ Inhaled corticosteroid should be used only among patients with moderate to severe COPD; ∗ Pharmacists should identify...... smokers and provide smoking cessation advice. The community pharmacy contract requires pharmacists to review patients' medications, creating an opportunity for reviewing the prescribing of inhaled corticosteroids in COPD. The survey explored the degree to which community pharmacists in North West England...

  16. Assessment of Pharmacists Workforce in Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    Method: A national facility based census of the pharmacist workforce was conducted in Ethiopia. ... pharmacists practice in community, hospitals and other medical .... Higher proportion of female pharmacists than males were working .... Recognition they get for good work. 8 ..... pharmacists' empowerment and organizational.

  17. Application of advanced reservoir characterization, simulation, and production optimization strategies to maximize recovery in slope and basin clastic reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin). Quarterly report, October 1 - December 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, S.P.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost effective way to recover a higher percentage of the original oil in place through strategic placement of infill wells and geologically based field development. Project objectives are divided into two major phases. The objectives of the reservoir characterization phase of the project are to provide a detailed understanding of the architecture and heterogeneity of two fields, the Ford Geraldine unit and Ford West field, which produce from the Bell Canyon and Cherry Canyon Formations, respectively, of the Delaware Mountain Group and to compare Bell Canyon and Cherry Canyon reservoirs. Reservoir characterization will utilize 3-D seismic data, high-resolution sequence stratigraphy, subsurface field studies, outcrop characterization, and other techniques. Once the reservoir-characterization study of both fields is completed, a pilot area of approximately 1 mi{sup 2} in one of the fields will be chosen for reservoir simulation. The objectives of the implementation phase of the project are to (1) apply the knowledge gained from reservoir characterization and simulation studies to increase recovery from the pilot area, (2) demonstrate that economically significant unrecovered oil remains in geologically resolvable untapped compartments, and (3) test the accuracy of reservoir characterization and flow simulation as predictive tools in resource preservation of mature fields. A geologically designed, enhanced-recovery program (CO{sub 2} flood, waterflood, or polymer flood) and well-completion program will be developed, and one to three infill wells will be drilled and cored. Technical progress is summarized for: geophysical characterization; reservoir characterization; outcrop characterization; and recovery technology identification and analysis.

  18. Application of advanced reservoir characterization, simulation, and production optimization strategies to maximize recovery in slope and basin clastic reservoirs, west Texas (Delaware Basin). Annual progress report, March 31, 1995--March 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, S.P.; Hovorka, S.D.; Cole, A.G.

    1996-08-01

    The objective of this Class III project is to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of clastic reservoirs in basinal sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost-effective way to recover more of the original oil in place by strategic infill-well placement and geologically based field development. Reservoirs in the Delaware Mountain Group have low producibility (average recovery <14 percent of the original oil in place) because of a high degree of vertical and lateral heterogeneity caused by depositional processes and post-depositional diagenetic modification. Detailed correlations of the Ramsey sandstone reservoirs in Geraldine Ford field suggest that lateral sandstone continuity is less than interpreted by previous studies. The degree of lateral heterogeneity in the reservoir sandstones suggests that they were deposited by eolian-derived turbidites. According to the eolian-derived turbidite model, sand dunes migrated across the exposed shelf to the shelf break during sea-level lowstands and provided well sorted sand for turbidity currents or grain flows into the deep basin.

  19. Lessons from past experiences: Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackburn, T.W. III

    1986-01-01

    A site selection study was conducted in which technical criteria were developed and potential sites numerically ranked. Three candidate sites were chosen, two in south Texas and one in west Texas. Adamant public opposition to the two sites forced a reevaluation and redirection of the siting process. Three sites on state owned lands in west Texas have been identified under the second site selection study. The following are recommended guidelines to incorporate in any public participation program: use multiple approaches at both the regional and local level; identify the public and their true concerns; approach the public at their level and their style; use a slow, deliberate process, siting cannot be forced; be honest and available; give the public an active part in the decision making process; keep elected officials informed and active and encourage information exchange; and be prepared for surprises. Two ranking exercises were also undertaken and are briefly described. The first ranked eleven major issues in order of perceived importance. The second ranked waste disposal technologies. Detailed information on both ranking exercises can be obtained from the Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority

  20. Desirable Skills in New Pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Catherine E; Flowers, Schwanda K; Stowe, Cindy D

    2017-02-01

    To compare survey responses between licensed pharmacists who work with or employ new graduates and graduating senior pharmacy students at a college of pharmacy. This was a retrospective analysis of surveys given to 2 groups of pharmacists and students. Responses to items regarding importance of desirable qualities in new pharmacists and level of preparation of new graduates were analyzed. Qualities included drug information, pharmacology, therapeutics, communication with patients/customers or health care professionals, professionalism, ethics, management, and conflict resolution. There was consensus between pharmacists and students regarding the importance of all items ( P > .05 for all comparisons). However, the percentage of pharmacists versus students who agreed that new graduates communicate effectively differed (86.7% vs 100%, respectively, P career fair, 64.1% chose communication as the 1 skill that would distinguish an applicant, and retail and hospital pharmacists displayed a statistically significant ( P skills essential for pharmacy practice but disagree on the level of preparation for effective communication. These results support ongoing efforts to improve the development of communication skills in the professional pharmacy curriculum.

  1. Work experiences of internationally trained pharmacists in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziaei, Zainab; Hassell, Karen; Schafheutle, Ellen I

    2015-04-01

    Internationally trained health professionals are an important part of the domestic workforce, but little is known about the working experiences of internationally trained pharmacists (ITPs) in Great Britain (GB). The purpose of this study is to explore the work experiences of ITPs practising in the community or hospital sector in GB. Twenty-five semi-structured, face-to-face interviews were conducted with a sample of European Economic Area (EEA) and non-EEA pharmacists who, at the time of the study, practised in the community (n = 20) or hospital sector (n = 5) in the North West England from March to May 2009. In general, ITPs complained about their heavy workload, long working hours and lack of support from their employers. Specifically, EEA pharmacists in most cases felt excluded from the professional network and sensed colleagues saw them as 'foreigners' while some non-EEA pharmacists had to deal with a level of hostility from patients. This novel research provides a foundation for future work on ITPs in GB and could assist employers to better target their efforts in development of standards to support the working experiences of ITPs in GB. © 2014 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  2. Proximity of Residence to Bodies of Water and Risk for West Nile Virus Infection: A Case-Control Study in Houston, Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa S. Nolan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available West Nile virus (WNV, a mosquito-borne virus, has clinically affected hundreds of residents in the Houston metropolitan area since its introduction in 2002. This study aimed to determine if living within close proximity to a water source increases one’s odds of infection with WNV. We identified 356 eligible WNV-positive cases and 356 controls using a population proportionate to size model with US Census Bureau data. We found that living near slow moving water sources was statistically associated with increased odds for human infection, while living near moderate moving water systems was associated with decreased odds for human infection. Living near bayous lined with vegetation as opposed to concrete also showed increased risk of infection. The habitats of slow moving and vegetation lined water sources appear to favor the mosquito-human transmission cycle. These methods can be used by resource-limited health entities to identify high-risk areas for arboviral disease surveillance and efficient mosquito management initiatives.

  3. Arkansas community pharmacists' opinions on providing immunizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Anne C; Flowers, Schwanda K; Hastings, Jan K

    2010-10-01

    To determine community pharmacists' attitudes and knowledge on providing immunizations including perceived barriers to immunizing. The study also examined the percentage of Arkansas pharmacists providing immunizations and the utilization of student pharmacists. Survey. Arkansas community pharmacies from February to March 2009. Community pharmacists. Mailed survey. Perceived barriers to providing immunizations, pharmacists' attitudes regarding immunizations, number of immunization-certified pharmacists, immunization administration rates within the last year, and senior student pharmacists utilization. A total of 350 surveys were mailed, and 129 were returned. In all, 79% of the respondents believed administering immunizations has advanced or significantly advanced the profession. Being certified and attitude toward providing immunizations were correlated; 37% of the respondents held certification to immunize, of which 77% reported immunizing within the last year. Commonly reported barriers included time (76%) followed by reimbursement and legal liability. Only half the respondents realized fourth year student pharmacists could immunize and only 33% of certified pharmacists utilized student pharmacists to immunize. Pharmacists perceive many barriers to providing immunizations. Training student pharmacists to give immunizations may not result in them providing immunizations upon graduation. Additional education on overcoming potential barriers and using senior student pharmacists to administer immunizations is needed.

  4. Assessment of the pharmacist workforce in Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    Method: A national facility based census of the pharmacist workforce was conducted in Ethiopia. Pharmacists' job .... Female. N (%). Total No. of. Pharmacists,. N(%). Population Size. Density of .... 51(13.2). Marital Status. Single. 252 (64.1). Married. 136 (34.6). Divorced ..... Production, attrition and retention: In the memory of.

  5. Downsizing of health-system pharmacist positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahaleh, A A; Siganga, W; Holiday-Goodman, M; Lively, B T

    1998-11-15

    The effects of downsizing on institutional pharmacists were studied. A national mail survey was sent to a random sample of 533 members of ASHP in January 1997. The questionnaire was designed to determine (1) the influence of selected factors on the downsizing of pharmacist positions and (2) pharmacists' attitudes about downsizing. A total of 256 usable questionnaires were received, for a net response rate of 48%. Forty-four pharmacists, or 17%, had personally been affected by downsizing. Sixty-one percent of the pharmacists affected by downsizing had had administrative positions. After downsizing, only 32% of the pharmacists had an administrative position. Most of the pharmacists were currently employed. Thirty-five (79%) described their current job responsibilities as substantially changed. Two thirds made the same salaries or higher salaries. Pharmacists who had been downsized rated mergers, the impact of managed care, and the profit motive as the most influential causes of downsizing of pharmacist positions. The three most common negative comments about the impact of downsizing cited reduction in the quality of patient care, increased stress, and lowered morale. Most of the pharmacists believed that communication skills, education, cross-training, and clinical skills are keys to surviving downsizing. Most pharmacists whose positions were downsized said they went on to jobs with similar or higher salaries and substantially different responsibilities.

  6. Hospital pharmacists' and patients' views about what constitutes effective communication between pharmacists and patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Bernadette A M; Watson, Bernadette M; Barras, Michael A; Cottrell, William N

    2017-12-06

    The study's objective was to explore hospital pharmacists' and patients' views about what constitutes effective communication exchanges between pharmacists and patients. This was a novel theory-based qualitative study using semi-structured interviews to elicit patients' and pharmacists' perspectives. Pharmacists providing clinical pharmacy services in either inpatient or outpatient settings were recruited first. Eligible patients had been admitted to a study pharmacist's practice area and were prescribed three or more medications to manage a chronic disease(s). Following each pharmacist-patient medication counselling session, semi-structured interviews were held separately with patients and pharmacists. Participants were asked questions intended to explore their views about what constitutes an effective pharmacist-patient conversation. Audio recordings were transcribed verbatim, analysed using a process of inductive thematic analysis and then mapped to Communication Accommodation Theory strategies. Observational notes and reflexive note taking were conducted throughout. Twelve pharmacists each engaged four individual patients for a total of 48 pharmacist-patient conversations (resulting in 48 separate interviews with pharmacists and patients). An overall shared goal was the assurance of patients' confidence in managing their medications at home. Themes included shared colloquialisms/slang, well-explained information, engagement, established rapport and empowerment. Participants provided rich exemplars for each of the themes. Pharmacists and patients provided valuable insights about what makes pharmacist-patient interactions effective. Patient-identified preferences for pharmacist-patient exchanges may help guide pharmacy students and practitioners to engage patients in effective conversations. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  7. Public Outreach of the South Texas Health Physic Society and Texas A and M University Nuclear Engineering Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, R. O.

    2003-01-01

    In a cooperative effort of the members of the South Texas Chapter of the Heath Physics Society (STC-HPS) and the Texas A and M University Nuclear Engineering Department, great efforts have been made to reach out and provide educational opportunities to members of the general public, school age children, and specifically teachers. These efforts have taken the form of Science Teacher Workshops (STW), visits to schools all over the state of Texas, public forums, and many other educational arenas. A major motivational factor for these most recent efforts can be directly tied to the attempt of the State of Texas to site a low-level radioactive waste facility near Sierra Blanca in West Texas. When the State of Texas first proposed to site a low level radioactive waste site after the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 was passed, many years of political struggle ensued. Finally, a site at Sierra Blanca in far West Texas was selected for study and characterization for a disposal site for waste generated in the Texas Compact states of Maine, Vermont and Texas. During this process, the outreach to and education of the local public became a paramount issue

  8. [Pharmacists' interventions conducted by hospital pharmacists on psychotropic drugs pharmacotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, G; Rose, F-X; Bedouch, P; Conort, O; Charpiat, B; Juste, M; Roubille, R; Allenet, B

    2015-09-01

    The French Society of Clinical Pharmacy (SFPC) through the special interest group "standardization and optimization of clinical pharmacy activities" stated that the study of pharmacists' interventions (PIs) conducted during prescription analysis was a priority. The SFPC developed an internet website named Act-IP(®) (http://www.sfpc.eu/fr/) where French speaking pharmacists were able to document PIs using a normalized codification. The objective of this study was to analyze medication-related problems linked to psychotropic drugs in hospital and to investigate PIs performed during prescription analysis. This is a multicenter, retrospective, observational study using PIs involving psychotropic medications recorded between September 2006 and February 2009 on the Act-IP(®) website. Four thousand six hundred and twenty PIs recorded by 165 pharmacists in 57 hospitals were related to psychotropic drugs. Patients concerned by these drug-related problems were 64 years old on average. Seven categories of medication-related problems represented more than 69% of PIs (1.1-Non Conformity of the drug choice compared to the formulary; 4.1 Supratherapeutic dose; 5.3 Therapeutic redundancy; 6.2 Drug interaction (all levels of severity); 7.0 Adverse drug reaction; 8.3 Inappropriate drug form; 8.5 Inappropriate timing of administration). The PIs related to 9.2 Patient's non compliance, 2.0 Untreated indication and 3.2 Length of the treatment too short were infrequent (less than 1%). The most common type of intervention was the dose adjustment. Almost 45% of these PIs involved Zopiclone or Zolpidem prescription in elderly patients. Seven hundred and nine drug interactions were identified by pharmacists. The most common type of drug interaction considered the risk of cardiac arrhythmias due to antipsychotic medications. One hundred and thirty-three PIs concerned adverse drug reaction. The most frequent adverse drug reactions were a fall (36 PIs), hemorrhage/bleeding (32 PIs

  9. Qualitative insights into job satisfaction and dissatisfaction with management among community and hospital pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Jane; Ashcroft, Darren; Hassell, Karen

    2011-09-01

    Job satisfaction research in pharmacy has predominantly been investigated using quantitative measures that have generally overlooked satisfaction with management. This article explores pharmacists' experiences and perceptions of management and examines the implications for job satisfaction. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of 11 community and 15 hospital pharmacists in the North West of England (n=26). The interview schedule was composed of broad questions relating to job satisfaction and dissatisfaction, allowing for the exploration of original themes. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and entered into NVivo8. Template analysis was used to develop a hierarchical list of codes representing themes and the relationships between themes. Dissatisfaction with management emerged as a dominant aspect of pharmacists' job dissatisfaction. Of the 26 pharmacists interviewed, 24 commented on their dissatisfaction with management, whereas only 8 participants commented on positive experiences. Both hospital and community pharmacists expressed dissatisfaction with their line management, and how the organizations they worked for were managed. Findings suggest that satisfaction with management is an important and significant contributor to job satisfaction overall. It would appear that pharmacists' job satisfaction is compromised by poor line management, lack of recognition, and support from management, which may lead to an increase in turnover and a reduction in job satisfaction. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Rewards and advancements for clinical pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, S Diane; Kane-Gill, Sandra L; Ng, Tien M H; Melroy, Joel T; Hess, Mary M; Tallian, Kimberly; Trujillo, Toby C; Vermeulen, Lee C

    2010-01-01

    The American College of Clinical Pharmacy charged the Clinical Practice Affairs Committee to review and update the College's 1995 White Paper, "Rewards and Advancements for Clinical Pharmacy Practitioners." Because of the limited data on the present state of rewards and advancements for clinical pharmacists, an online survey of "front-line" clinical pharmacists and pharmacy managers was conducted (1126 total respondents, 14% response rate). The resulting White Paper discusses motivators and existing systems of rewards and advancements for clinical pharmacists, as well as perceived barriers to implementation of these systems. Clinical pharmacists reported work-life balance, a challenging position, and opportunities for professional advancement as the most important factors for career success. At the time of the survey, financial rewards appeared not to be a major motivator for clinical pharmacists. Managers underestimated the importance that clinical pharmacists place on work-life balance and favorable work schedules. Although almost two thirds of the clinical pharmacists surveyed had not developed a professional development plan, 84% indicated an interest in career planning. Both clinical pharmacists and managers rated the lack of a clear reward and advancement structure as the most important barrier to effective systems of rewards and advancements. Pharmacy managers and administrators are encouraged to develop effective systems of rewards and advancements for clinical pharmacists that positively impact patient care and the institution's mission; these systems will benefit the clinical pharmacist, the health care institution, and the patient.

  11. Pharmacist's Role in Diabetes Care

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-05-19

    This podcast is for a professional audience and discusses the role pharmacists can play on the diabetes care team, through collaborative practice agreements and medication therapy management.  Created: 5/19/2008 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Diabetes Translation (DDT), National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP).   Date Released: 6/4/2008.

  12. Impact of Pharmacist Facilitated Discharge Medication Reconciliation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd M. Super

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Preventable adverse drug events occur frequently at transitions in care and are a problem for many patients following hospital discharge. Many of these problems can be attributed to poor medication reconciliation. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact that direct pharmacist involvement in the discharge medication reconciliation process had on medication discrepancies, patient outcomes, and satisfaction. A cohort study of 70 patients was designed to assess the impact of pharmacist facilitated discharge medication reconciliation at a 204-bed community hospital in Battle Creek, Michigan, USA. Discharge summaries were analyzed to compare patients who received standard discharge without pharmacist involvement to those having pharmacist involvement. The total number of discrepancies in the group without pharmacist involvement was significantly higher than that of the pharmacist facilitated group.

  13. Influence of pharmacists expertise on physicians prescription ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the prescribing behaviour of physicians. ... Keywords: Physician prescription behaviour, Pharmacist factor, Collaboration, Trustworthiness ... provide information relating to drug prescription, ... processing [22], which takes into consideration.

  14. Typhus in Texas

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Dr. Kristy Murray, an associate professor in pediatrics and assistant dean of the National School of Tropical Medicine at Baylor College of Medicine and Texas Children's Hospital, discusses increased cases of typhus in southern Texas.

  15. SUPERCOLLIDER: Texas meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    With preparations pushing forward for the Superconducting Supercollider (SSC) to be built in Ellis County, Texas, there was a full agenda at the third SSC fall conference, held in Corpus Christi, Texas, from 14-17 October

  16. Treasured Texas Theaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Anita

    2012-01-01

    Dallas artist Jon Flaming's deep love of Texas is evident in his paintings and sculpture. Although he has created one sculptural Texas theater, his work primarily showcases old Texas barbershops, vacant homes, and gas stations. In this article, the author describes how her students, inspired by Flaming's works, created three-dimensional historical…

  17. Pharmacists' role in opioid overdose: Kentucky pharmacists' willingness to participate in naloxone dispensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Patricia R; Goodin, Amie; Troske, SuZanne; Strahl, Audra; Fallin, Amanda; Green, Traci C

    To assess pharmacists' willingness to initiate the dispensing of naloxone. As of 2015, Kentucky law permits certified pharmacists to dispense naloxone under a physician-approved protocol. Electronic survey (e-mail) gauging perception of pharmacists' role in opioid overdose and attitudes toward, and barriers to, naloxone dispensing. All Kentucky pharmacists with active licenses in 2015. Ordinal logistic regression was used to estimate the impact of pharmacist characteristics and attitudes on willingness to initiate naloxone dispensing, where the dependent variable was operationalized as a Likert-type question on a scale of 1 (not at all willing) to 6 (very willing). Of 4699 practicing Kentucky pharmacists, 1282 responded, of which 834 were community practitioners (response rate 27.3%). Pharmacists reported varying willingness to initiate naloxone dispensing, with 37.3% very willing (score 5 or 6) and 27.9% not willing (score 1 or 2). However, a majority of pharmacists reported willingness to dispense naloxone with a valid prescription (54.0%, score 5 or 6). Women pharmacists were 1.3 times more likely than men to be willing to initiate naloxone dispensing (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.0-1.6). Those who reported confidence in identifying individuals at risk for overdose were 1.2 times more likely to initiate dispensing, and those who reported confidence in ability to educate patients about overdose were 1.6 times more likely to express willingness to initiate naloxone dispensing (95% CIs, respectively, 1.0-1.3 and 1.4-1.8). Community pharmacists reported barriers to naloxone access at higher rates than pharmacists from other practice settings. Kentucky pharmacists are divided in their willingness to initiate naloxone dispensing; however, those who are confident in their ability to identify overdose risks are more willing. Increasing pharmacist confidence through appropriately designed education programs could facilitate pharmacist participation in naloxone

  18. Changing relationships: attitudes and opinions of general practitioners and pharmacists regarding the role of the community pharmacist.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muijrers, P.E.; Knottnerus, J.A.; Sijbrandij, J.; Janknegt, R.; Grol, R.P.T.M.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Relationship between general practitioners and pharmacists. AIM: To explore similarities and differences in opinions between general practitioners and pharmacists about the pharmacist's role. To identify factors which determine the attitude of the general practitioner towards the role of

  19. Influence of pharmacists expertise on physicians prescription ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To explore the influence of pharmacist factors on prescription decisions of physicians. Methods: A survey of literature was carried out across online databases and 12 relevant articles were identified. The influence of pharmacist factors on physician prescription decisions was identified in the articles. A conceptual ...

  20. Assessment of hospital pharmacists' clinical knowledge and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate hospital pharmacists' clinical knowledge and practical skill levels for pharmaceutical care. Methods: A quasi-experimental prospective longitudinal study design was used to evaluate the level of clinical skills with problem-based learning (PBL) sessions. Pharmacists' in three different government ...

  1. Texas floods of 1940

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeding, Seth D.

    1948-01-01

    Basin between Smithville and La Grange, amounting to 550 square miles, had an average rainfall of 19.3 inches, of which 11.5 inches appeared as runoff. The maximum discharge at La Grange was 182,000 second-feet, with much the greater part coming from below Smithville. This is probably a record-breaking flood for the area between Smithville and La Grange, but stages as much as 16 feet higher have occurred at La Grange. Heavy rainfall over the east half of Texas November 21-26 caused large floods in all streams in Texas east of the Guadalupe River. The maximum recorded rainfall for the 2-day period November 24-25 was 20.46 inches at Hempstead, of which 16.00 inches fell in 24 hours or less. The storm occurred during the period November 20-26, with the greater part of the rain falling November 23-25. During the period November 20-26, rainfall in Texas amounted to more than 15 inches over an area of 3,380 square miles, and 'to more than 10 inches over an area of 17,570 square miles. The average annual rainfall for the area in Texas experiencing more than 10 inches of rain during this storm ranges from 501 inches on the east border of the State to 35 inches near the west edge of the area. The study of this storm for the purposes of this report is limited to the San Jacinto River Basin, which had an average rainfall of 13.6 inches. This basin has an area of 2,791 square miles above the gaging station near Huffman and is typical in topographic and hydrologic features of much of eastern Texas. The stage reached at the gage near Huffman was about 1 foot higher than known before, the maximum discharge was 253,000 second-feet, and the runoff from the storm amounted to 8.8 inches. The November flood came after crops had been harvested, and its damage was mainly the destruction of highways and railways and the drowning of livestock. The storage reservoirs on the Colorado River located well upstream from the storm areas herein studied had very little effect on

  2. The pharmacist's role in promoting preconception health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ibiary, Shareen Y; Raney, Erin C; Moos, Merry-K

    2014-01-01

    To review the pharmacist's role in preconception health. PubMed search using the terms preconception, immunizations, epilepsy, diabetes, depression, tobacco, asthma, hypertension, anticoagulation, pharmacist, pregnancy, and current national guidelines. Preconception health has become recognized as an important public health focus to improve pregnancy outcomes. Pharmacists have a unique role as accessible health care providers to optimize preconception health by screening women for tobacco use, appropriate immunizations, and current medication use. Counseling patients on preconception risk factors and adequate folic acid supplementation as well as providing recommendations for safe and effective management of chronic conditions are also critical and within the scope of practice for pharmacists. Pharmacists play an important role in medication screening, chronic disease state management, and preconception planning to aid women in preparing for healthy pregnancies.

  3. Health Literacy Based Communication by Illinois Pharmacists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika Devraj

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Health literacy has received attention as an important issue for pharmacists to consider when interacting with patients. Yet, there is little information about methods pharmacists use to communicate with patients and their extent of use of health literacy based interventions during patient interactions. The purpose of this study was to examine methods of communication and types of health literacy based interventions that practicing pharmacists use in Illinois. Methods: A survey instrument addressing the study purpose was designed along with other items that were part of a larger study. Eleven items in the survey referred to pharmacist-patient communication. The instrument was pilot tested before administering to a random sample of 1457 pharmacists from the Illinois Pharmacists Association. Data were primarily collected via a mailed survey using Dillman’s five step total design method (TDM. Two reminder letters were mailed at two week intervals to non-respondents. Results: Usable responses were obtained from 701 respondents (48.1% response rate. Using simple words (96% and asking patients open-ended questions to determine comprehension (85% were the most frequent methods that pharmacists used to communicate with patients. Only 18% of respondents always asked patients to repeat medication instructions to confirm understanding. The various recommended types of health literacy interventions were “always” performed by only 8 to 33% of the respondents. More than 50% of respondents indicated that they rarely or never had access to an interpreter (51%, or employed bilingual pharmacists (59%. Only 11% of pharmacists said that they rarely/never pay attention to nonverbal cues that may suggest low health literacy. Conclusions: Pharmacists infrequently use action oriented health literacy interventions such as using visual aids, having interpreter access, medication calendars, etc. Additional training on health literacy, its scope, and

  4. Furthering Medical Education in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, Surendra K; Jennings, John

    2016-02-01

    Medical education in Texas is moving in the right direction. The Texas Medical Association has been a major partner in advancing medical education initiatives. This special symposium issue on medical education examines residency training costs, the Next Accreditation System, graduate medical education in rural Texas, Texas' physician workforce needs, the current state of education reform, and efforts to retain medical graduates in Texas.

  5. Maternal Mortality in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeva, Sonia; Archer, Natalie P; Ruggiero, Karen; Hall, Manda; Stagg, Julie; Interis, Evelyn Coronado; Vega, Rachelle; Delgado, Evelyn; Hellerstedt, John; Hankins, Gary; Hollier, Lisa M

    2017-05-01

    A commentary on maternal mortality in Texas is provided in response to a 2016 article in Obstetrics & Gynecology by MacDorman et al. While the Texas Department of State Health Services and the Texas Maternal Mortality and Morbidity Task Force agree that maternal mortality increased sharply from 2010 to 2011, the percentage change or the magnitude of the increase in the maternal mortality rate in Texas differs depending on the statistical methods used to compute and display it. Methodologic challenges in identifying maternal death are also discussed, as well as risk factors and causes of maternal death in Texas. Finally, several state efforts currently underway to address maternal mortality in Texas are described. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  6. Opportunities for Pharmacists and Student Pharmacists to Provide Clinical Preventive Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie A. DiPietro Mager

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacists and student pharmacists can play an important role in providing clinical preventive services as specified by the United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF. The USPSTF guidelines provide evidence-based recommendations about clinical preventive services for the general population. The purpose of this paper is to provide information to pharmacists and student pharmacists developing and implementing preventive health care services. Examples of successful pharmacy-based programs are also provided. Pharmacists and student pharmacists can provide preventive health care interventions by conducting screenings, providing education, and making referrals. Conflict of Interest We declare no conflicts of interest or financial interests that the authors or members of their immediate families have in any product or service discussed in the manuscript, including grants (pending or received, employment, gifts, stock holdings or options, honoraria, consultancies, expert testimony, patents and royalties   Type: Idea Paper

  7. Texas Heart Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of seminars and conferences. Resources Texas Heart Institute Journal Scientific Publications Library & Learning Resources Resources for Physicians Fellowships & Residencies School of Perfusion Technology THI Spotlight Check out the ...

  8. Pharmacists as immunizers: a survey of community pharmacists' willingness to administer adult immunizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Nicholas; Gorman Corsten, Erin; Kiberd, Mathew; Bowles, Susan; Isenor, Jennifer; Slayter, Kathryn; McNeil, Shelly

    2015-04-01

    Adult immunization rates worldwide fall below desired targets. Pharmacists are highly accessible healthcare providers with the potential to increase immunization rates among adults by administering vaccines in their practice setting. To determine the attitudes of community-based Canadian pharmacists with respect to expanding their scope of practice to include administration of immunizations. An internet-based survey was emailed to community pharmacists across Canada. The survey was piloted through focus groups for qualitative feedback, tested for content validity, and test-retest reliability prior to dissemination. There were 495 responses to the survey. The majority (88 %) agreed that pharmacists as immunizers would increase public access, improve rates (84 %), and be acceptable to the public (72 %). However, only 68 % agreed that pharmacists should be permitted to immunize. The majority of respondents (90 %) agreed that certification in vaccine administration should be required for pharmacists to administer vaccines. Pharmacists identified education, reimbursement, and negative interactions with other providers as barriers to pharmacists administering vaccines. Canadian pharmacists are willing to expand their scope of practice to include immunization. However, implementation requires professional development and certification in vaccine administration.

  9. Pharmacists' knowledge, attitude and perception towards prevention ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... knowledge, attitude and perception towards prevention and management of diabetes ... by healthcare professionals can impact on the care of diabetic patients. ... 2014 and February, 2015, among Pharmacists in Jos metropolis using a self ...

  10. Diabetes patient management by pharmacists during Ramadan

    OpenAIRE

    Wilbur, Kerry; Al Tawengi, Kawthar; Remoden, Eman

    2014-01-01

    Many Muslim diabetes patients choose to participate in Ramadan despite medical advice to the contrary. This study aims to describe Qatar pharmacists' practice, knowledge, and attitudes towards guiding diabetes medication management during Ramadan. Methods. A cross-sectional descriptive study was performed among a convenience sample of 580 Qatar pharmacists. A web-based questionnaire was systematically developed following comprehensive literature review and structured according to 4 main domai...

  11. 'It's showed me the skills that he has': pharmacists' and mentors' views on pharmacist supplementary prescribing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Fran; Parsons, Carole; Hughes, Carmel M

    2010-02-01

    Supplementary prescribing has seen pharmacists assume greater responsibility for prescribing in collaboration with doctors. This study explored the context and experiences, in relation to the practice of supplementary prescribing, of pharmacists and physicians (who acted as their training mentors) at least 12 months after pharmacists had qualified as supplementary prescribers. The setting was primary and secondary healthcare sectors in Northern Ireland. Pharmacists and mentors who had participated in a pre-training study were invited to take part. All pharmacists (n = 47) were invited to participate in focus groups, while mentors (n = 35) were asked to participate in face-to-face semi-structured interviews. The research took place between May 2005 and September 2007. All discussions and interviews were audiotaped, transcribed and analysed using constant comparison. Nine pharmacist focus groups were convened (number per group ranging from three to six; total n = 40) and 31 semi-structured interviews with mentors were conducted. The six main themes that emerged were optimal practice setting, professional progression for prescribing pharmacists, outcomes for prescribing pharmacists, mentors and patients, relationships, barriers to implementation and the future of pharmacist prescribing. Where practised, pharmacist prescribing had been accepted, worked best for chronic disease management, was perceived to have reduced doctors' workload and improved continuity of care for patients. However, three-quarters of pharmacists qualified to practise as supplementary prescribers were not actively prescribing, largely due to logistical and organisational barriers rather than inter-professional tensions. Independent prescribing was seen as contentious by mentors, particularly because of the diagnostic element. Supplementary prescribing has been successful where it has been implemented but a number of barriers remain which are preventing the wider acceptance of this practice

  12. Integration of Community Pharmacists in Transition of Care (TOC) Services: Current Trends and Pharmacist Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeleznikar, Elizabeth A; Kroehl, Miranda E; Perica, Katharine M; Thompson, Angela M; Trinkley, Katy E

    2017-01-01

    Barriers exist for patients transitioning from one health-care setting to another, or to home, and health-care systems are falling short of meeting patient needs during this time. Community pharmacist incorporation poses a solution to the current communication breakdown and high rates of medication errors during transitions of care (TOC). The purpose of this study was to determine community pharmacists' involvement in and perceptions of TOC services. Cross-sectional study using electronic surveys nationwide to pharmacists employed by a community pharmacy chain. Of 7236 pharmacists surveyed, 546 (7.5%) responded. Only 33 (6%) pharmacists reported their pharmacy participates in TOC services. Most pharmacists (81.5%) reported receiving discharge medication lists. The most common reported barrier to TOC participation is lack of electronic integration with surrounding hospitals (51.1%). Most pharmacists agreed that (1) it is valuable to receive discharge medication lists (83.3%), (2) receiving discharge medication lists is beneficial for patients' health (89.1%), (3) discharge medication list receipt improves medication safety (88.8%). Most pharmacists reported receiving discharge medication lists and reported discharge medication lists are beneficial, but less than half purposefully used medication lists. To close TOC gaps, health-care providers must collaborate to overcome barriers for successful TOC services.

  13. Physician-Pharmacist Collaborative Care for Dyslipidemia Patients: Knowledge and Skills of Community Pharmacists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villeneuve, Julie; Lamarre, Diane; Lussier, Marie-Therese; Vanier, Marie-Claude; Genest, Jacques; Blais, Lucie; Hudon, Eveline; Perreault, Sylvie; Berbiche, Djamal; Lalonde, Lyne

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: In a physician-pharmacist collaborative-care (PPCC) intervention, community pharmacists were responsible for initiating lipid-lowering pharmacotherapy and adjusting the medication dosage. They attended a 1-day interactive workshop supported by a treatment protocol and clinical and communication tools. Afterwards, changes in…

  14. Quantifying Potential Groundwater Recharge In South Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basant, S.; Zhou, Y.; Leite, P. A.; Wilcox, B. P.

    2015-12-01

    Groundwater in South Texas is heavily relied on for human consumption and irrigation for food crops. Like most of the south west US, woody encroachment has altered the grassland ecosystems here too. While brush removal has been widely implemented in Texas with the objective of increasing groundwater recharge, the linkage between vegetation and groundwater recharge in South Texas is still unclear. Studies have been conducted to understand plant-root-water dynamics at the scale of plants. However, little work has been done to quantify the changes in soil water and deep percolation at the landscape scale. Modeling water flow through soil profiles can provide an estimate of the total water flowing into deep percolation. These models are especially powerful with parameterized and calibrated with long term soil water data. In this study we parameterize the HYDRUS soil water model using long term soil water data collected in Jim Wells County in South Texas. Soil water was measured at every 20 cm intervals up to a depth of 200 cm. The parameterized model will be used to simulate soil water dynamics under a variety of precipitation regimes ranging from well above normal to severe drought conditions. The results from the model will be compared with the changes in soil moisture profile observed in response to vegetation cover and treatments from a study in a similar. Comparative studies like this can be used to build new and strengthen existing hypotheses regarding deep percolation and the role of soil texture and vegetation in groundwater recharge.

  15. Pharmaceutical care in Kuwait: hospital pharmacists' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoue, Maram G; Awad, Abdelmoneim I; Schwinghammer, Terry L; Kombian, Samuel B

    2014-12-01

    Pharmaceutical care practice has been championed as the primary mission of the pharmacy profession, but its implementation has been suboptimal in many developing countries including Kuwait. Pharmacists must have sufficient knowledge, skills, and positive attitudes to practise pharmaceutical care, and barriers in the pharmacy practice model must be overcome before pharmaceutical care can be broadly implemented in a given healthcare system. To investigate hospital pharmacists' attitudes towards pharmaceutical care, perceptions of their preparedness to provide pharmaceutical care, and the barriers to its implementation in Kuwait. Six general hospitals, eight specialized hospitals and seven specialized health centers in Kuwait. A descriptive, cross-sectional survey was distributed to all pharmacists working in the governmental hospitals in Kuwait (385 pharmacists). Data were collected via a pre-tested self-administered questionnaire. Descriptive statistics including percentages, medians and means Likert scale rating (standard deviations) were calculated and compared using statistical package for social sciences, version 20. Statistical significance was accepted at a p value of Kuwait. Completed surveys were received from 250 (64.9%) of the 385 pharmacists. Pharmacists expressed overall positive attitudes towards pharmaceutical care. They felt well prepared to implement the various aspects of pharmaceutical care, with the least preparedness in the administrative/management aspects. Pharmacists with more practice experience expressed significantly more positive attitudes towards pharmaceutical care (p = 0.001) and they felt better prepared to provide pharmaceutical care competencies (p Kuwait advocate implementation of pharmaceutical care while also appreciating the organizational, technical and professional barriers to its widespread adoption. Collaborative efforts between health authorities and educational institutions, and the integration of innovative approaches in

  16. The gender earnings gap among pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal, Manuel J; Armayor, Graciela M; Deziel, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    A gender earnings gap exists across professions. Compared with men, women earn consistently lower income levels. The determinants of wages and salaries should be explored to assess whether a gender earnings gap exists in the pharmacy profession. The objectives of this study were to (1) compare the responses of male and female pharmacists' earnings with human-capital stock, workers' preferences, and opinion variables and (2) assess whether the earnings determination models for male and female pharmacists yielded similar results in estimating the wage-and-salary gap through earnings projections, the influence of each explanatory variable, and gender differences in statistical significance. Data were collected through the use of a 37-question survey mailed to registered pharmacists in South Florida, United States. Earnings functions were formulated and tested separately for male and female pharmacists using unlogged and semilog equation forms. Number of hours worked, human-capital stock, job preferences, and opinion variables were hypothesized to explain wage-and-salary differentials. The empirical evidence led to 3 major conclusions: (1) men's and women's earnings sometimes were influenced by different stimuli, and when they responded to the same variables, the effect often was different; (2) although the influence of some explanatory variables on earnings differed in the unlogged and semilog equations, the earnings projections derived from both equation forms for male and female pharmacists were remarkably similar and yielded nearly identical male-female earnings ratios; and (3) controlling for number of hours worked, human-capital stock, job preferences, and opinion variables reduced the initial unadjusted male-female earnings ratios only slightly, which pointed toward the presence of gender bias. After controlling for human-capital stock, job-related characteristics, and opinion variables, male pharmacists continued to earn higher income levels than female

  17. Texas motorcycle crash countermeasure workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    The Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) contracted with the Texas A&M : Transportation Institute (TTI) to develop a 5-year strategic plan for improving motorcycle safety : in the State of Texas. The Texas Strategic Action Plan for Motorcycl...

  18. Pharmacist provision of primary health care: a modified Delphi validation of pharmacists' competencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kennie-Kaulbach Natalie

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pharmacists have expanded their roles and responsibilities as a result of primary health care reform. There is currently no consensus on the core competencies for pharmacists working in these evolving practices. The aim of this study was to develop and validate competencies for pharmacists' effective performance in these roles, and in so doing, document the perceived contribution of pharmacists providing collaborative primary health care services. Methods Using a modified Delphi process including assessing perception of the frequency and criticality of performing tasks, we validated competencies important to primary health care pharmacists practising across Canada. Results Ten key informants contributed to competency drafting; thirty-three expert pharmacists replied to a second round survey. The final primary health care pharmacist competencies consisted of 34 elements and 153 sub-elements organized in seven CanMeds-based domains. Highest importance rankings were allocated to the domains of care provider and professional, followed by communicator and collaborator, with the lower importance rankings relatively equally distributed across the manager, advocate and scholar domains. Conclusions Expert pharmacists working in primary health care estimated their most important responsibilities to be related to direct patient care. Competencies that underlie and are required for successful fulfillment of these patient care responsibilities, such as those related to communication, collaboration and professionalism were also highly ranked. These ranked competencies can be used to help pharmacists understand their potential roles in these evolving practices, to help other health care professionals learn about pharmacists' contributions to primary health care, to establish standards and performance indicators, and to prioritize supports and education to maximize effectiveness in this role.

  19. Distribution of indoor radon concentrations and uranium-bearing rocks in Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudak, P.F.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare regional patterns of indoor radon concentration with uranium-bearing rock zones and county populations in Texas. Zones yielding radon concentrations that are relatively high for Texas include shale and sandstone in northwest Texas; red beds in north-central Texas; felsic volcanic rocks in west Texas; and sandstone, limestone, and igneous rocks in central Texas. Located in northwest Tecas, only five of the 202 counties evaluated have mean indoor radon concentrations above 4.0 pCi l -1 . Two of those counties have populations above the state median of 20115. The highest county mean concentration is 8.8 pCi l -1 . Results of the study suggest that (1) regional geology influences indoor radon concentrations in Texas, (2) statewide, the radon concentrations are relatively low, (3) highly populated counties do not coincide with regions of high indoor radon concentration, and (4) regions that may warrant further monitoring include northwest Texas and, to a lesser degree, west and central Texas. (orig.)

  20. Pharmacists' experience of conflict in community practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Zubin; Gregory, Paul A M; Martin, J Craig

    2010-03-01

    Interpersonal conflict may be characterized as intellectual disagreement with emotional entanglement. While interpersonal conflict has been studied and described in different health care settings, there is little research that focuses on community pharmacists and the ways in which they experience conflict in professional practice. To describe and characterize the experience of interpersonal conflict within community pharmacy practice. A self-reporting narrative log was developed in which actively recruited pharmacists reported and reflected upon their day-to-day experiences of interpersonal conflict in professional practice. Focus groups of pharmacists were convened following data analysis to provide context and confirmation of identified themes. Based on this analysis, an explanatory model for interpersonal conflict in community pharmacy practice was generated. Participants were actively recruited from community pharmacy settings in the Toronto (Canada) area. A total of 41 community pharmacists participated. Interpersonal conflict in pharmacy practice is ubiquitous and results from diverse triggers. A conflict stance model was developed, based on the worldview and the communication style of the individual pharmacist. Specific conflict stances identified were: imposing, thwarting, settling, and avoiding. Further testing and refinement of this model is required. Crown Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Phylogenetic analysis of West Nile virus, Nuevo Leon State, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blitvich, Bradley J; Fernández-Salas, Ildefonso; Contreras-Cordero, Juan F; Loroño-Pino, María A; Marlenee, Nicole L; Díaz, Francisco J; González-Rojas, José I; Obregón-Martínez, Nelson; Chiu-García, Jorge A; Black, William C; Beaty, Barry J

    2004-07-01

    West Nile virus RNA was detected in brain tissue from a horse that died in June 2003 in Nuevo Leon State, Mexico. Nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the premembrane and envelope genes showed that the virus was most closely related to West Nile virus isolates collected in Texas in 2002.

  2. Texas freight 2055 roundtable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Participants were welcomed to the Roundtable discussion and to the Dallas/Fort Worth region by : Mr. Michael Morris (Director of Transportation, North Central Texas Council of Governments : (NCTCOG)). Mr. Morris began his remarks by noting the import...

  3. Texas' forests, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    James W. Bentley; Consuelo Brandeis; Jason A. Cooper; Christopher M. Oswalt; Sonja N. Oswalt; KaDonna Randolph

    2014-01-01

    This bulletin describes forest resources of the State of Texas at the time of the 2008 forest inventory. This bulletin addresses forest area, volume, growth, removals, mortality, forest health, timber product output, and the economy of the forest sector.

  4. Sylvatic trichinellosis in Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pence D.B.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available There are no published reports of domestic or sylvatic trichinellosis in Texas. The aim of the present survey was to determine the presence of Trichinella species in selected representative species of potential wildlife reservoirs in southern Texas. In 1998-99, tongues of 211 wild mammals were collected in southern Texas: 154 coyotes (Canis latrans, three bobcats (Lynx rufus, 32 racoons (Procyon lotor, 1 3 opossum (Didelphis marsupialis, four ocelots (Leopardus pardalis and five wild boars (Sus scrofa. Presence of Trichinella sp. larvae was investigated by artificial digestion and larvae of positive samples were identified at the species level by a multiple-polymerase chain reaction analysis. Nine (5.8 % coyotes had trichinellosis ; in the muscles of seven of these coyotes, the larvae were identified as Trichinella murrelli. This is the first report of sylvatic trichinellosis in Texas.

  5. Typhus in Texas

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-07-06

    Dr. Kristy Murray, an associate professor in pediatrics and assistant dean of the National School of Tropical Medicine at Baylor College of Medicine and Texas Children’s Hospital, discusses increased cases of typhus in southern Texas.  Created: 7/6/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 7/6/2017.

  6. Children Ask Questions about West African Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abercrombie, Denice; Cochran, Mathilda; Mims, Margaret

    1997-01-01

    Presents a collection of questions that fifth-grade students asked about African artwork and answers provided by staff from the Museum of Fine Arts in Houston, Texas. Observes that students' interest in important visual aspects of the art creates lead-ins to more detailed discussions of West African art and culture. (DSK)

  7. Why We Need West Nile Virus Testing

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-09-27

    Dr. Rodrigo Hasbun, a professor of infectious diseases at McGovern Medical School at UT Health, discusses the need for West Nile virus testing in Texas.  Created: 9/27/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 9/27/2016.

  8. Prescribing errors during hospital inpatient care: factors influencing identification by pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, Mary P; Buchan, Iain E

    2009-12-01

    To investigate the prevalence of prescribing errors identified by pharmacists in hospital inpatients and the factors influencing error identification rates by pharmacists throughout hospital admission. 880-bed university teaching hospital in North-west England. Data about prescribing errors identified by pharmacists (median: 9 (range 4-17) collecting data per day) when conducting routine work were prospectively recorded on 38 randomly selected days over 18 months. Proportion of new medication orders in which an error was identified; predictors of error identification rate, adjusted for workload and seniority of pharmacist, day of week, type of ward or stage of patient admission. 33,012 new medication orders were reviewed for 5,199 patients; 3,455 errors (in 10.5% of orders) were identified for 2,040 patients (39.2%; median 1, range 1-12). Most were problem orders (1,456, 42.1%) or potentially significant errors (1,748, 50.6%); 197 (5.7%) were potentially serious; 1.6% (n = 54) were potentially severe or fatal. Errors were 41% (CI: 28-56%) more likely to be identified at patient's admission than at other times, independent of confounders. Workload was the strongest predictor of error identification rates, with 40% (33-46%) less errors identified on the busiest days than at other times. Errors identified fell by 1.9% (1.5-2.3%) for every additional chart checked, independent of confounders. Pharmacists routinely identify errors but increasing workload may reduce identification rates. Where resources are limited, they may be better spent on identifying and addressing errors immediately after admission to hospital.

  9. Assessment of the pharmacist workforce in Ethiopia | Gebretekle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Method: A national facility based census of the pharmacist workforce was conducted in Ethiopia. Pharmacists' job satisfaction was also assessed taking cross-section of pharmacists from six regions by applying a stratified random sampling method. A self-administered questionnaire was employed for the quantitative data ...

  10. Physicians' and Pharmacists' Experience and Expectations of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate physicians' and pharmacists' experience and expectations of the roles of pharmacists in hospital setting in Macau for the development of physician-pharmacist collaborative working relationship (CWR). Methods: A survey was conducted to address the research questions. The study population ...

  11. Pharmacist's Intervention in the Control of Blood Sugar Levels in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The extended roles of pharmacists in Nigeria in the improvement of quality of health care at the primary health care (PHC) level is currently poorly executed even though pharmacists have been proven to be involved in interventional activities in health care delivery. Objective: To evaluate pharmacists' ...

  12. Patient Awareness and Expectations of Pharmacist Services During Hospital Stay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Philip K; Martin, Steven J; Betka, Eric M

    2017-10-01

    There are insufficient data in the United States regarding patient awareness and expectations of hospital pharmacist availability and services. The objective of this research is to assess patient awareness and expectations of hospital pharmacist services and to determine whether a marketing campaign for pharmacist services increases patient awareness and expectations. Eligible inpatients were surveyed before and after implementation of a hospital-wide pharmacist services marketing campaign (12 items; Likert scale of 1 [strongly disagree] to 4 [strongly agree]; maximum total score of 48) regarding awareness of pharmacist services. The primary outcome was the change in median total survey scores from baseline. Other outcomes included the frequency of patient requests for pharmacists. Similar numbers of patients completed the survey before and after the campaign (intervention, n = 140, vs control, n = 147). Awareness of pharmacist availability and services was increased (41 [interquartile ranges, IQRs: 36-46] vs 37 [IQR 31-43]; P marketing campaign implementation. Awareness among inpatients of pharmacist services is low. Marketing pharmacist availability and services to patients in the hospital improves awareness and expectations for pharmacist-provided care and increases the frequency of patient-initiated interaction between pharmacists and patients. This could improve patient outcomes as pharmacists become more integrally involved in direct patient care.

  13. The perceptions of Zimbabwean Pharmacists of their overall job ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We investigated the perceptions of Zimbabwean pharmacists of their overall job satisfaction and the factors associated with it. A random sample of 120 licensed pharmacists working in community, and hospital pharmacies and industry in Zimbabwe participated in this cross-sectional study. Pharmacists were highly satisfied ...

  14. Phytotherapic compounds: the consumer-pharmacist relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchini, Marco; Cuzzolin, Laura; Camerlengo, Thomas; Velo, Giampaolo; Benoni, Giuseppina

    2008-01-01

    Pharmacists play an important role in providing information about natural products and in preventing risks related to these substances, particularly with respect to interactions with conventional drugs. For these reasons, a survey was specifically designed to investigate the quality of self-care counselling by pharmacists on phytotherapy. Twenty-three pharmacy stores took part in the project. Face-to-face interviews, using a pre-structured questionnaire, were undertaken by trained pharmacists to consumers buying a herbal product. The questionnaire included socio-demographic data and 17 items designed to elicit information regarding the reason of consumption, product knowledge, relationship/communication with healthcare providers, level of satisfaction, concurrent drug use and adverse reactions. The collection of interviews started in November 2006 until April 2007. From the analysis of 1420 questionnaires, it is evident that herbal use is increasing in Italy: 12% of our interviewees were buying a herbal product for the first time. The present survey highlights the favourable perception of efficacy of phytotherapic compounds by the pharmacy's consumers, who consider this healthcare modality to be an important and effective way to promote health/wellness and disease management as well as being safer overall than conventional drugs. Moreover, findings from this study demonstrate that pharmacists are more likely to answer correctly about the uses of herbal medicines than about drug interactions, adverse drug effects and cautions about these products.

  15. Assessment of professional responsibilities of pharmacists towards ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dietary supplements (DS) are widely sold in pharmacies. In developing countries like Nigeria. Although there are no available data on the prevalence of use of DS, pharmacies sell many nutrition products used by the community. Patients generally depend on pharmacists for advice and information on drugs, including DS.

  16. Antibiotics: Pharmacists Can Make the Difference

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-04-16

    In this podcast, a pharmacist counsels a frustrated father about appropriate antibiotic use and symptomatic relief options for his son's cold.  Created: 4/16/2015 by Division of Bacterial Diseases (DBD), National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Disease (NCIRD), Get Smart: Know When Antibiotics Work Program.   Date Released: 4/16/2015.

  17. [Hospital pharmacists' perception of pharmacovigilance in Quebec].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerruti, L; Lebel, D; Bussières, J-F

    2016-03-01

    To assess the pharmacovigilance perception of Quebec's hospital pharmacists. Cross-sectional study. A questionnaire with 16 questions was developed in order to assess respondents' perception of their ability to practice pharmacovigilance, factors that can influence adverse drug reactions reporting and measures to increase reporting rate. The online questionnaire was sent to hospital pharmacist from Quebec in April 2014. The results were presented in the form of descriptive data. A total of 179/252 (71%) hospital pharmacists responded. More than 90% of respondents considered that they were able to practice all activities related to pharmacovigilance. During one year of practice, 98% of respondents faced at least one serious or unexpected adverse drug reaction and 77% notified at least one adverse drug reaction to Health Canada. The factors encouraging more than 89% of respondents to notify were: the severity, the rapidity of onset, the visibility of the reaction, the fact that the adverse drug reaction was unexpected or due to a recent marketed drug. More than 69% of respondents considered the overwork as the principal obstacle to the notification. The majority of respondents supported the implementation of 13/14 measures in order to increase reporting rate. Hospital pharmacists from Quebec presented a favorable ability to practice pharmacovigilance. Analysis of their perception of pharmacovigilance helped to identify improvements, such as the implementation of a pharmacovigilance coordinator in the health center. Copyright © 2015 Académie Nationale de Pharmacie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Hospital pharmacists' evaluation of drug wholesaler services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, W O; Ryan, M R; Roberts, K B

    1983-10-01

    Services provided by drug wholesalers were evaluated by hospital pharmacists. A survey was mailed to 1500 randomly selected pharmacy directors. Respondents indicated availability and use of 26 customer services. Pharmacists rated the services that they used on the basis of importance of the service and satisfaction with the service. The 644 returned questionnaires indicated that most services were available to a large majority of respondents. Most services used were rated as important or essential. Most respondents were satisfied with wholesaler services; the service with which the most respondents were dissatisfied was stocking of pharmaceuticals in single-unit packaging. Of other services that were widely used and rated important, prompt crediting for delivery errors, few out-of-stock items, frequent pickup of return merchandise, and stocking of injectable pharmaceuticals received low satisfaction ratings. Same-day delivery service and emergency delivery of prescription items were unavailable to more than 40% of respondents. Hospital pharmacists were generally satisfied with services provided by drug wholesalers. Wholesalers should be aware of the particular service needs of hospital pharmacists, and further studies of these needs should be conducted.

  19. Talking to the Pharmacist (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... exactly what allergies your child has and what medicines your child takes. This will help the pharmacist prevent harmful ... crush them to mix into foods? Will this medicine conflict with my child's other medicines, including over-the-counter medicines and ...

  20. Discriminatory Attitudes of Pharmacy Students and Pharmacists ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    negative perception items, namely, (a) people who got HIV through sex deserve it (p = 0.003), (b) ... Conclusions: Discriminatory attitudes against PLWHA among pharmacy students and .... “young” for students less than 25 years and ... higher percentage of older pharmacists thought ... from infected mother to child?(Yes).

  1. Geoscience/engineering characterization of the interwell environment in carbonate reservoirs based on outcrop analogs, Permian Basin, West Texas and New Mexico-stratigraphic hierarchy and cycle stacking facies distribution, and interwell-scale heterogeneity: Grayburg Formation, New Mexico. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnaby, R.J.; Ward, W.B.; Jennings, J.W. Jr.

    1997-06-01

    The Grayburg Formation (middle Guadalupian) is a major producing interval in the Permian Basin and has yielded more than 2.5 billion barrels of oil in West Texas. Grayburg reservoirs have produced, on average, less than 30 percent of their original oil in place and are undergoing secondary and tertiary recovery. Efficient design of such enhanced recovery programs dictates improved geological models to better understand and predict reservoir heterogeneity imposed by depositional and diagenetic controls. The Grayburg records mixed carbonate-siliciclastic sedimentation on shallow-water platforms that rimmed the Delaware and Midland Basins. Grayburg outcrops in the Guadalupe and Brokeoff Mountains region on the northwest margin of the Delaware Basin present an opportunity to construct a detailed, three-dimensional image of the stratigraphic and facies architecture. This model can be applied towards improved description and characterization of heterogeneity in analogous Grayburg reservoirs. Four orders of stratigraphic hierarchy are recognized in the Grayburg Formation. The Grayburg represents a long-term composite sequence composed of four high-frequency sequences (HFS 1-4). Each HFS contains several composite cycles comprising two or more cycles that define intermediate-scale transgressive-regressive successions. Cycles are the smallest scale upward-shoaling vertical facies successions that can be recognized and correlated across various facies tracts. Cycles thus form the basis for establishing the detailed chronostratigraphic correlations needed to delineate facies heterogeneity.

  2. Community Pharmacist Attitudes on Medication Synchronization Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Witry

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medication synchronization is a service offered by an increasing number of community pharmacies that aligns refilling of a patient’s multiple medications. Purported benefits include increased adherence and improved dispensing efficiency. Objective: To assess community pharmacist agreement with a set of declarative statements about medication synchronization programs and to identify variation related to pharmacist characteristics. Methods: In 2015, a cross-sectional survey was mailed to 1,000 pharmacists from 5 Midwestern U.S. states using 4-contacts and an online option. Respondents used a 7-point Likert scale to agree or disagree with 5 statements about medication synchronization. Demographic and workplace characteristics were collected. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and factor analysis. Multiple linear regression tested the relationship between pharmacist characteristics and a 4-item attitude composite. Results: There were 258 usable responses for a response rate of 28.8%. About half (45.0% reported their pharmacy offered medication synchronization. Most pharmacists (82.6% agreed this service has a positive impact on patient adherence but 57% agreed that a “significant change to workflow” was or would be required. Pharmacist agreement that the program provides financial benefits to the pharmacy was higher than agreement that the service provides more opportunities for patient interactions (p<0.001. In the multiple regression analysis, having a PharmD and working at a pharmacy offering Medication Therapy Management were associated with more positive scores on the medication synchronization benefits composite whereas working in a staff role (rather than a manager/owner was lower. No demographic predictors were significantly associated with agreeing that a significant change to workflow would be required for implementation. Conclusions: Pharmacists generally were positive about medication synchronization

  3. Quasi experimental designs in pharmacist intervention research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krass, Ines

    2016-06-01

    Background In the field of pharmacist intervention research it is often difficult to conform to the rigorous requirements of the "true experimental" models, especially the requirement of randomization. When randomization is not feasible, a practice based researcher can choose from a range of "quasi-experimental designs" i.e., non-randomised and at time non controlled. Objective The aim of this article was to provide an overview of quasi-experimental designs, discuss their strengths and weaknesses and to investigate their application in pharmacist intervention research over the previous decade. Results In the literature quasi experimental studies may be classified into five broad categories: quasi-experimental design without control groups; quasi-experimental design that use control groups with no pre-test; quasi-experimental design that use control groups and pre-tests; interrupted time series and stepped wedge designs. Quasi-experimental study design has consistently featured in the evolution of pharmacist intervention research. The most commonly applied of all quasi experimental designs in the practice based research literature are the one group pre-post-test design and the non-equivalent control group design i.e., (untreated control group with dependent pre-tests and post-tests) and have been used to test the impact of pharmacist interventions in general medications management as well as in specific disease states. Conclusion Quasi experimental studies have a role to play as proof of concept, in the pilot phases of interventions when testing different intervention components, especially in complex interventions. They serve to develop an understanding of possible intervention effects: while in isolation they yield weak evidence of clinical efficacy, taken collectively, they help build a body of evidence in support of the value of pharmacist interventions across different practice settings and countries. However, when a traditional RCT is not feasible for

  4. An examination of pharmacists' labor supply and wages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polgreen, Linnea A; Mott, David A; Doucette, William R

    2011-12-01

    For the last decade, there has been a shortage of pharmacists for most of the United States. This shortage is in part because of demand-side phenomena (eg, increasing prescription drug use, increases in the complexity of drug regimens, and an aging population). However, there also may be supply-side causes. Although the number of pharmacy school graduates has increased, most graduates are women, many of whom may choose to work part-time. Because of the change in sex composition of the workforce, some researchers conclude that pharmacist shortages will be even more critical in the future. The goals of this article are to model pharmacists' decisions to work, estimate pharmacists' wages, and identify influences on the number of hours worked by pharmacists in the United States. Pharmacist labor supply is examined using a static, 3-step, empirical labor supply model that estimates the decision to work, hourly wages, and number of hours worked for U.S. pharmacists. Pharmacists have high starting wages but flat wage trajectories. Although many pharmacists are working part-time, this is true for women and men. Income effects do not dominate substitution effects, even at the high level of compensation found here. Results indicate that previous predictions brought about by the changing sex composition of the pharmacist labor force might not come to pass, and additional pharmacists may be attracted to the profession by higher wages and flexible schedules. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. [Patients' reaction to pharmacists wearing a mask during their consultations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Eri; Kishimoto, Keiko; Fukushima, Noriko

    2013-01-01

      This study sought to determine the effect of pharmacists wearing a mask on the consultation intention of patients who do not have a trusting relationship with the pharmacists. We conducted a questionnaire survey of customers at a Tokyo drugstore in August 2012. Subjects answered a questionnaire after watching two medical teaching videos, one in which the pharmacist was wearing a mask and the other in which the pharmacist was not wearing a mask. Data analysis was performed using a paired t-test and multiple logistic regression. The paired t-test revealed a significant difference in 'Maintenance Problem' between the two pharmacist situations. After excluding factors not associated with wearing a mask, multiple logistic regression analysis identified three independent variables with a significant effect on participants not wanting to consult with a pharmacist wearing a mask. Positive factors were 'active-inactive' and 'frequency mask use', a negative factor was 'age'. Our study has shown that pharmacists wearing a mask may be a factor that prevents patients from consulting with pharmacist. Those patients whose intention to consult might be affected by the pharmacists wearing a mask tended to be younger, to have no habit of wearing masks preventively themselves, and to form a negative opinion of such pharmacists. Therefore, it was estimated that pharmacists who wear masks need to provide medical education by asking questions more positively than when they do not wear a mask in order to prevent the patient worrying about oneself.

  6. Transforming Developmental Education in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Developmental Education, 2014

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, with support from the Texas Legislature, the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board has funded various developmental education initiatives, including research and evaluation efforts, to help Texas public institutions of higher education provide more effective programs and services to underprepared students. Based on evaluation…

  7. Forests of east Texas, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerry Dooley

    2018-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in east Texas based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Southern Research Station (SRS) in cooperation with Texas A&M Forest Service. The 254 counties of Texas are consolidated into seven FIA survey units—Southeast (unit 1),...

  8. Evaluation of Pharmacists' Work in a Physician-Pharmacist Collaborative Model for the Management of Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isetts, Brian J; Buffington, Daniel E; Carter, Barry L; Smith, Marie; Polgreen, Linnea A; James, Paul A

    2016-04-01

    Physician-pharmacist collaborative models have been shown to improve the care of patients with numerous chronic medical conditions. Team-based health care using integrated clinical pharmacists provides one opportunity to improve quality in health care systems that use population-based financing. In November 2015, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) requested that the relative value of pharmacists' work in team-based care needs to be established. Thus the objective of this study was to describe the components of pharmacists' work in the management of hypertension with a physician-pharmacist collaborative model. Descriptive analysis of the components of pharmacists' work in the Collaboration Among Pharmacists and Physicians to Improve Outcomes Now (CAPTION) study, a prospective, cluster randomized trial. This analysis was intended to provide policymakers with data and information, using the CAPTION study model, on the time and intensity of pharmacists' work to understand pharmacists' relative value contributions in the context of CMS financing and population management aims. The CAPTION trial was conducted in 32 community-based medical offices in 15 U.S. states and included 390 patients with multiple cardiovascular risk factors. Blood pressure was measured by trained study coordinators in each office, and patients were included in the study if they had uncontrolled blood pressure. Included patients were randomized to a 9-month intervention, a 24-month intervention, or usual care. The goal of the pharmacist intervention was to improve blood pressure control and resolve drug therapy problems impeding progress toward blood pressure goals. This intervention included medical record review, a structured assessment with the patient, collaboration to achieve goals of therapy, and patient follow-up. The two intervention arms (9 and 24 mo) were identical the first 9 months, and that time frame is the focus of this workload evaluation. Pharmacists completed

  9. A cross-sectional study of the availability and pharmacist's knowledge of nano-pharmaceutical drugs in Palestinian hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assali, Mohyeddin; Shakaa, Ali; Abu-Hejleh, Sabaa; Abu-Omar, Reham; Karajeh, Nareman; Ajory, Nawal; Zyoud, Saed; Sweileh, Waleed

    2018-04-05

    Nanomedicine is the medical application of nanomaterials that may have an infinite size with the range less than 100 nm. This science has provided solutions to many of the current limitations in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Therefore, the pharmacist's knowledge and awareness of nano-pharmaceutical drugs will increase their availability in the market, and will improve the patient's compliance to their drug therapy. This study aimed to determine the availability of nano-pharmaceutical drugs in Palestinian hospitals and evaluate the extent of pharmacist's knowledge about them. A cross-sectional study design questionnaire was used to determine the availability of nano-pharmaceutical drugs based on the database of the ministry of health in the Palestinian hospitals (governmental, private and non- governmental organizations). Moreover, the knowledge of these nano-pharmaceutical drugs among pharmacists working in Palestinian hospitals was assessed based on developed questionnaire from the literature of the pharmaceutical formulations and nano-formulations. The variables were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 22). Fifty six pharmacists from 27 hospitals in the West bank completed the survey. The results regarding the availability of nano-pharmaceutical drugs indicated only eight available in hospitals with a frequency range 0-39.3%. Moreover, pharmacist's knowledge in the pharmaceutical formulations was better than that in nano-formulations. The availability of nano-pharmaceutical drugs in Palestinian hospitals was not adequate due to the lack of various nano-pharmaceutical drugs. The knowledge among pharmacists regarding nano-pharmaceutical drugs should be improved by providing courses in nanomedicine during the undergraduate pharmacy programs.

  10. Pharmacists' social authority to transform community pharmacy practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy McPherson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaders in the profession of pharmacy have articulated a vision of pharmacists as providers of patient-centered care (PCC services and the Doctor of Pharmacy was established as the required practice degree to achieve this vision. Pharmacist-provided PCC services have been shown to reduce medication costs and improve patient compliance with therapies. While community pharmacists are capable of, and are ideally placed for, providing PCC services, in fact they devote most of their time to prescription dispensing rather than direct patient care. As professionals, community pharmacists are charged with protecting society by providing expert services to help consumers manage risks associated with drug therapies. Historically pharmacists fulfilled this responsibility by accurately dispensing prescription medications, verifying doses, and allergy checking. This limited view of pharmacy practice is insufficient in light of the modern view of pharmacists as providers of PCC. The consumers' view of community pharmacy as a profession represents a barrier to transforming the basis of community pharmacy from product distribution to providing PCC services. Community pharmacists are conferred with social authority to dictate the manner in which their professional services are provided. Pharmacists can therefore facilitate the transition to PCC as the primary function of community pharmacy by exercising their social authority to engage consumers in their roles in the new patient-pharmacist relationship. Each pharmacist must decide to provide PCC services. Suggestions for initiating PCC services in community pharmacy are offered.   Type: Idea Paper

  11. Medication adherence beliefs of U.S community pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witry, Matthew J

    2018-05-01

    There is increasing attention on the role of community pharmacists in improving medication adherence. There is a need to better understand pharmacist attitudes and experiences related to this role. To assess community pharmacist perceptions of patient reasons for non-adherence, characterize the adherence beliefs of community pharmacists, and test if there are demographic predictors of pharmacists' self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and role beliefs related to intervening on medication non-adherence. A cross-sectional survey was mailed using a 4-contact approach to 1000 pharmacists practicing in 5 Midwestern U.S. States. The survey included seven domains to address the study objectives. Descriptive statistics were calculated for demographic items, coefficient alphas tested the internal consistency of scales, and multiple regression was used to test the relationship between demographics and scale means. There were 261 usable responses giving a 29% response rate. Pharmacists perceived forgetting and instructions changing without a new prescription to be the most common reasons for late refills. A minority of pharmacists agreed that non-adherence involves a deliberate decision or that negative medication beliefs were common reasons for late refills. Pharmacists were confident, had positive outcome expectations, and positive role beliefs related to interacting with patients who have adherence issues. Barriers to adherence intervention included difficulties with follow-up and documentation. Also, over half of the pharmacists reported that discussing adherence makes patients defensive. Pharmacists had positive attitudes toward intervening on medication non-adherence although barriers to intervention are present. Pharmacists perceived non-intentional reasons for late refills to be more prevalent than intentional reasons. Pharmacists may benefit from additional non-adherence communication training and support targeted at identifying a broader range of non

  12. Clinical skill development for community pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnette, D J; Murphy, C M; Carter, B L

    1996-09-01

    The importance of establishing clinical pharmacy services in the community cannot be understated in light of current challenges to the traditional dispensing role as the primary service of the community pharmacist. Advancements in automated dispensing technology and declining prescription fee reimbursement are rapidly forcing pharmacists to seek alternative sources of revenue. Providing pharmaceutical care is a viable option to increase customer loyalty job satisfaction, and reimbursement. To support the development of clinical services, academic institutions are forming partnerships with individual community practitioners to overcome perceived educational and training barriers. The authors describe the design and development of two unique clinical skill development programs at the University of Illinois at Chicago. This paper also outlines the patient focused services that the participants have established upon completing the training. These programs successfully enhanced participants' therapeutic knowledge base and facilitated development of the clinical skills necessary for direct patient care.

  13. Tornado from Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vail, Kathleen

    1996-01-01

    Santa Fe School Superintendent Yvonne Gonzales, the "Texas Tornado," was hired to fix a 40% student-dropout rate and a white/Hispanic gap in achievement test scores. Gonzales is an avid integrationist; relies on humor, appeasement, and persuasion tactics; and has alienated some school employees by increasing central office…

  14. The pharmacist and adverse drug reaction reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, K

    1982-08-01

    During premarketing trials, the number of patients exposed to a drug and the length of exposure to a drug are both limited. After marketing, many thousands, frequently millions, of patients are exposed to the drug over considerably longer periods of time, and adverse drug reactions not previously recognized appear. Because of these factors, postmarketing surveillance is extremely important. Pharmacists can contribute to drug safety and improved patient care by understanding and actively participating in the Food and Drug Administration's Spontaneous Reporting Program.

  15. Status of the Texas low-level radioactive waste disposal site - construction sequencing and staffing patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobi, L.R. Jr.

    1996-01-01

    The Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority, an agency of the State of Texas, has been attempting to develop a site for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste in Texas for more than fourteen years. Since 1991, the agency has been evaluating a site near Sierra Blanca, in far west Texas. Site characterization was completed in 1992, and a license application was filed that year. Construction plans were completed in 1993. In April 1996, the licensing agency, the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission, completed its review and proposed to issue a license. The administrative hearings on the proposed license should be completed by July 1997. The Authority is prepared to begin construction and operations as soon as a final license can be issued

  16. Job sharing for women pharmacists in academia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Kelly C; Finks, Shannon W

    2009-11-12

    The pharmacist shortage, increasing numbers of female pharmacy graduates, more pharmacy schools requiring faculty members, and a lower percentage of female faculty in academia are reasons to develop unique arrangements for female academic pharmacists who wish to work part-time. Job sharing is an example of a flexible alternative work arrangement that can be successful for academic pharmacists who wish to continue in a part-time capacity. Such partnerships have worked for other professionals but have not been widely adopted in pharmacy academia. Job sharing can benefit the employer through retention of experienced employees who collectively offer a wider range of skills than a single employee. Benefits to the employee include balanced work and family lives with the ability to maintain their knowledge and skills by remaining in the workforce. We discuss the additional benefits of job-sharing as well as our experience in a non-tenure track job-sharing position at the University of Tennessee College of Pharmacy.

  17. Documenting pharmacist interventions on an intranet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonian, Armen I

    2003-01-15

    The process of developing and implementing an intranet Web site for clinical intervention documentation is described. An inpatient pharmacy department initiated an organizationwide effort to improve documentation of interventions by pharmacists at its seven hospitals to achieve real-time capture of meaningful benchmarking data. Standardization of intervention types would allow the health system to contrast and compare medication use, process improvement, and patient care initiatives among its hospitals. After completing a needs assessment and reviewing current methodologies, a computerized tracking tool was developed in-house and integrated with the organization's intranet. Representatives from all hospitals agreed on content and functionality requirements for the Web site. The site was completed and activated in February 2002. Before this Web site was established, the most documented intervention types were Renal Adjustment and Clarify Dose, with a daily average of four and three, respectively. After site activation, daily averages for Renal Adjustment remained unchanged, but Clarify Dose is now documented nine times per day. Drug Information and i.v.-to-p.o. intervention types, which previously averaged less than one intervention per day, are now documented an average of four times daily. Approximately 91% of staff pharmacists are using this site. Future plans for this site include enhanced accessibility to the site with wireless personal digital assistants. The design and implementation of an intranet Web site to document pharmacists' interventions doubled the rate of intervention documentation and standardized the intervention types among hospitals in the health system.

  18. Family Commitment and Work Characteristics among Pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubbins, Paul O; Ragland, Denise; Castleberry, Ashley N; Payakachat, Nalin

    2015-12-17

    Factors associated with family commitment among pharmacists in the south central U.S. are explored. In 2010, a cross-sectional mailed self-administered 70 item survey of 363 active licensed pharmacists was conducted. This analysis includes only 269 (74%) participants who reported being married. Outcome measures were family commitment (need for family commitment, spouse's family commitment), work-related characteristics (work challenge, stress, workload, flexibility of work schedule), and job and career satisfaction. Married participants' mean age was 48 (SD = 18) years; the male to female ratio was 1:1; 73% worked in retail settings and 199 (74%) completed the family commitment questions. Females reported a higher need for family commitment than males ( p = 0.02) but there was no significant difference in satisfaction with the commitment. Work challenge and work load were significantly associated with higher need for family commitment ( p work status, and practice setting. Higher work challenge was associated with higher career satisfaction. Higher job related stress was associated with lower job satisfaction. High work challenge and work load may negatively impact family function since married pharmacists would need higher family commitment from their counterparts. The impact of work-family interactions on pharmacy career satisfaction should be further investigated.

  19. Family Commitment and Work Characteristics among Pharmacists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul O. Gubbins

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Factors associated with family commitment among pharmacists in the south central U.S. are explored. In 2010, a cross-sectional mailed self-administered 70 item survey of 363 active licensed pharmacists was conducted. This analysis includes only 269 (74% participants who reported being married. Outcome measures were family commitment (need for family commitment, spouse’s family commitment, work-related characteristics (work challenge, stress, workload, flexibility of work schedule, and job and career satisfaction. Married participants’ mean age was 48 (SD = 18 years; the male to female ratio was 1:1; 73% worked in retail settings and 199 (74% completed the family commitment questions. Females reported a higher need for family commitment than males (p = 0.02 but there was no significant difference in satisfaction with the commitment. Work challenge and work load were significantly associated with higher need for family commitment (p < 0.01, when controlled for age, gender, number of dependents, work status, and practice setting. Higher work challenge was associated with higher career satisfaction. Higher job related stress was associated with lower job satisfaction. High work challenge and work load may negatively impact family function since married pharmacists would need higher family commitment from their counterparts. The impact of work-family interactions on pharmacy career satisfaction should be further investigated.

  20. Impact of Pharmacist Counselling on Clozapine Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciara Ní Dhubhlaing

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Clozapine is the only antipsychotic with evidence for efficacy in treatment of resistant schizophrenia but it carries a high side effect burden. Patient information is provided but may be poorly retained. This study aims to examine the impact of pharmacist counselling upon patient knowledge of clozapine. Outpatients, aged 18 years and over, attending St. Patrick’s University Hospital, Dublin, participated in this study between June and August 2015. The intervention consisted of pharmacist counselling on two occasions one month apart. Knowledge was assessed using a 28-point checklist devised from the currently available clozapine patient information sources, at baseline and after each counselling session. Ethics approval was obtained. Twenty-five participants (40% female; mean age 45.1 years, SD 9.82; 64% unemployed, 28% smokers showed an improvement in knowledge scores of clozapine from baseline to postcounselling on each occasion with an overall improvement in knowledge score, from baseline to postcounselling at one month, of 39.43%; p<0.001. This study adds to the evidence that interventions involving pharmacist counselling can improve patient knowledge, whilst the specific knowledge gained relating to recognition of side effects may help patients towards more empowerment regarding their treatment.

  1. Professional use of social media by pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Arden R; Pearson, Glen J

    2015-01-01

    A recent trend among health care professionals is the use of social media for professional purposes. These rapidly expanding media allow for timely and efficient access to health information, but they also carry the potential for increased liability. There is a paucity of research detailing how health care professionals, specifically pharmacists, use social media. To characterize the use of social media by pharmacists in the Canadian province of Alberta and to identify independent determinants of and perceived barriers to using social media for professional purposes. Data for this mixed-methods study were collected by an online survey in March and April 2014. Alberta pharmacists were invited to participate via e-mail distributed by 2 professional organizations. The survey had 273 respondents. Of these, 226 (82.8%) stated that they had a social media account for either personal or professional purposes, and 138 (61.1%) of these reported using social media for professional purposes, although most respondents used social media predominantly for personal reasons. The most commonly reported social media applications were Facebook and Twitter, accessed primarily via smartphones. Of the 273 respondents, 206 (75.5%) had a Facebook account, and 101 (49.0%) of these used Facebook to some extent for professional purposes. Twitter users (104 [38.1%] of respondents) had a higher rate of professional utilization (57/104 [54.8%]). The most commonly identified barrier to using social media for professional purposes was concern over liability. Positive predictors of use of social media for professional purposes included younger age and fewer years of professional experience. Participants perceived the most beneficial aspect of social media (in professional terms) as connecting with pharmacist colleagues. More than 80% of pharmacists in Alberta reported that they had a social media account, and over half of them reported using their accounts for professional purposes. Although

  2. Development and evaluation of a pharmacogenomics educational program for pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formea, Christine M; Nicholson, Wayne T; McCullough, Kristen B; Berg, Kevin D; Berg, Melody L; Cunningham, Julie L; Merten, Julianna A; Ou, Narith N; Stollings, Joanna L

    2013-02-12

    Objectives. To evaluate hospital and outpatient pharmacists' pharmacogenomics knowledge before and 2 months after participating in a targeted, case-based pharmacogenomics continuing education program.Design. As part of a continuing education program accredited by the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE), pharmacists were provided with a fundamental pharmacogenomics education program.Evaluation. An 11-question, multiple-choice, electronic survey instrument was distributed to 272 eligible pharmacists at a single campus of a large, academic healthcare system. Pharmacists improved their pharmacogenomics test scores by 0.7 questions (pretest average 46%; posttest average 53%, p=0.0003).Conclusions. Although pharmacists demonstrated improvement, overall retention of educational goals and objectives was marginal. These results suggest that the complex topic of pharmacogenomics requires a large educational effort in order to increase pharmacists' knowledge and comfort level with this emerging therapeutic opportunity.

  3. A needs assessment of community pharmacists for pharmacist specialization in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgenson, Derek; Penm, Jonathan; MacKinnon, Neil; Smith, Jennifer

    2017-04-01

    Pharmacists are increasingly providing specialized services. However, no process exists for specialist certification in Canada. The aim of this study was to determine the extent to which Canadian community pharmacists support the development of a certification system for specialization. This study utilized a cross-sectional online survey of licensed Canadian pharmacists identified through the member databases of national and regional pharmacy associations. A questionnaire was developed (in French and English) and distributed via email, on behalf of the researchers, by multiple pharmacy organizations in January 2015. Multivariate logistic regressions were conducted to identify which sub-groups of respondents supported the creation of a certification system and which supported mandatory certification. A total of 770 responses were received. Many respondents were practising specialists (30.0%, 205/683) and the most commonly reported specialty areas were diabetes, smoking cessation and geriatrics. Almost 85% (n = 653/770) supported creation of a Canadian certification process and 68.5% (n = 447/653) felt certification should be mandatory. Respondents believed that the primary benefit of a certification system was greater public confidence in pharmacist specialist skills. They also felt that the most important factor in the development of the system is to create national definitions for specialty practice. The main barrier was the lack of reimbursement for specialty services in Canada. The majority of Canadian community pharmacist respondents support the creation of a certification process for pharmacist specialization. Future study is required to confirm this finding in a larger sample and to determine the optimal model and the financial feasibility of a national system in Canada. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  4. Stakeholder experiences with general practice pharmacist services: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Edwin C K; Stewart, Kay; Elliott, Rohan A; George, Johnson

    2013-09-11

    To explore general practice staff, pharmacist and patient experiences with pharmacist services in Australian general practice clinics within the Pharmacists in Practice Study. Qualitative study. Two general practice clinics in Melbourne, Australia, in which pharmacists provided medication reviews, patient and staff education, medicines information and quality assurance services over a 6-month period. Patients, practice staff and pharmacists. Semi-structured telephone interviews with patients, focus groups with practice staff and semi-structured interviews and periodic narrative reports with practice pharmacists. Data were analysed thematically and theoretical frameworks used to explain the findings. 34 participants were recruited: 18 patients, 14 practice staff (9 general practitioners, 4 practice nurses, 1 practice manager) and 2 practice pharmacists. Five main themes emerged: environment; professional relationships and integration; pharmacist attributes; staff and patient benefits and logistical challenges. Participants reported that colocation and the interdisciplinary environment of general practice enabled better communication and collaboration compared to traditional community and consultant pharmacy services. Participants felt that pharmacists needed to possess certain attributes to ensure successful integration, including being personable and proactive. Attitudinal, professional and logistical barriers were identified but were able to be overcome. The findings were explained using D'Amour's structuration model of collaboration and Roger's diffusion of innovation theory. This is the first qualitative study to explore the experiences of general practice staff, pharmacists and patients on their interactions within the Australian general practice environment. Participants were receptive of colocated pharmacist services, and various barriers and facilitators to integration were identified. Future research should investigate the feasibility and sustainability of

  5. Pharmacist-patient communication in Swedish community pharmacies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, Erika; Ingman, Pontus; Ahmed, Ban

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is important that pharmacists counsel patients about their prescribed medicines, as it leads to improved therapeutic outcome, increases compliance, and decreases confusion and insecurity. Studies have shown that the number of patients getting any pharmaceutical counseling varies...... greatly. Swedish pharmacists claim that the focus of the dialog with the patient has switched from pharmaceutical counseling to economy and regulations. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the content and time disposition of the patient-pharmacist communication during dispensing...

  6. Community pharmacists' knowledge of diabetes management during Ramadan in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Mohamed E K; Chewning, Betty

    2014-12-01

    Although Muslim diabetic patients may be aware of their religious exemption from fasting, many still fast and adjust their medication regimens accordingly. Pharmacists have a significant potential to identify and prevent harm from medication misuse in Ramadan. This study examines Egyptian pharmacists' knowledge regarding management of diabetes during Ramadan. It also explores pharmacists' willingness to attend a 1 day workshop on medication regimen adjustment during Ramadan. Community pharmacies throughout Alexandria, Egypt. A cross-sectional study using a pretested self-administered survey was conducted among a random sample of community pharmacists. The survey included three knowledge questions relevant to counseling diabetic patients during Ramadan. Questions covered the recommended timing and dosing for metformin and insulin as well as the safe blood glucose range required for diabetic patients to safely continue their fast. Using logistic regression, a model was estimated to predict pharmacists' willingness to attend a workshop on the adjustment of medication regimens during Ramadan. Content analysis was used to analyze pharmacists' answers to the question concerning what they would like the workshop to cover. Pharmacists' aggregate scores for all three diabetes management knowledge questions and pharmacists' willingness to attend a workshop on the adjustment of medication regimens during Ramadan. Ninety three percent of the 298 approached pharmacists agreed to participate. Forty three pharmacists (15.9%) did not know the correct answer to any question, 118(43.7%) 24 answered one correctly, 86 (31.9%) answered two correctly and only 23 (8.5%) answered all 25 three correctly. Confidence in therapeutic knowledge regarding medication regimen 26 adjustment during Ramadan was not associated with the pharmacists' knowledge of diabetes management during Ramadan. One hundred seventy five (63.6%) pharmacists wanted to attend a workshop on adjusting medication regimens

  7. Texas turns on lignite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faulkner, T.

    1992-01-01

    The paper describes the author's involvement with the Texas Mining and Reclamation Association (TMRA) and some of its activities. The mission of TMRA is to solidify the needs and opinions of the various mining sectors into one voice which can be heard on the vital matters of balance between mineral production, environmental protection, economic strength and public welfare. To make this voice effective, TMRA will present the mining industry - and its value to the Texas economy and lifestyle - to the public, educators and students, regulatory officials, legislators and to the media to enhance their understanding. TMRA will promote the active participation of its members in association affairs and strive for integrity, clarity and vision throughout all its operations and activities

  8. Development of a low level radioactive waste disposal site in Texas - 1994 status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobi, L.R. Jr.

    1995-01-01

    The Texas Low Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority, an agency of the State of Texas, has been trying to develop a site for the disposal of low level radioactive waste in Texas for over ten years. Since 1991, the agency has been evaluating a site near Sierra Blanca, in far west Texas. Site characterization has been completed and a license application has been filed with the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission. Construction plans were completed in 1993, and the agency is prepared to begin construction and operations as soon as a license can be issued. Development costs for the site are borne by the utility companies and other major generators in Texas through the assessment of a planning and implementation fee. Total costs to date are approximately $26 million. As the project moves toward completion, state and national anti-nuclear activist groups have become more involved in attempts to thwart the Texas government's effort to solve the radioactive waste problem. To counter this increased opposition, the Texas utility companies and medical radioactive waste generators have also become more active in responding to these groups. This has been very helpful and is in keeping with the elements of building block 12 of the Nuclear Power Oversight Committee's Strategic Plan for Building New Nuclear Power Plants. This paper and poster session look at the schedule, design, and long term prospects for ultimate success of the project

  9. Patient-pharmacist communication during a post-discharge pharmacist home visit.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ensing, H.T.; Vervloet, M.; Dooren, A.A. van; Bouvy, M.L.; Koster, E.S.

    2018-01-01

    Background With the shifting role of community pharmacists towards patient education and counselling, they are wellpositioned to conduct a post-discharge home visit which could prevent or solve drug-related problems. Gaining insight into the communication during these home visits could be valuable

  10. Ecological Baseline, Fort Hood, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-01

    cedar eTm (Uiimus crassifolia), Texas ash (Fraxinus texansis), and Texas persimmon ( Diospyros texana). Conversely, the two predominant tree species...Ilex decidua), Mex- ican buckeye (Ungnadia spjeciosa), and Texas persimmon ( Diospyros texana). Vines included greenbrier (Smilax bona-nox) and white...Hedgehey Cactus (Echinocereus sp.) has been observed on Fort Hood. Due to the brief period of flowering for this genus , the individual species were not

  11. Patient Assessment Skills Pertinent to Practicing Pharmacists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer A. Wilson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To describe pharmacists’ opinions regarding which patient assessment skills are necessary to understand and/or perform to provide optimal patient care in pharmacy practice. Methods: An online questionnaire was distributed to pharmacists licensed in North Carolina (n=14,167, as identified by the Board of Pharmacy. The 80 patient assessment items in the questionnaire were derived from a course text book and faculty experience. Participants indicated whether they “need to understand and be able to perform”, “need to understand only”, or “not need to understand or be able to perform” each item in their current practice setting. Descriptive statistics were used to describe background demographics and perceived need for each item. Post-hoc chi-square analyses were performed to determine differences in need based on practice setting and Pharm.D. degree completion. Results: Of 1036 responses received, 770 were used in data analysis; incomplete questionnaires and non-practicing pharmacist responses were excluded. Fifty-nine percent of respondents held a Pharm.D. degree. Participants identified their practice site(s as inpatient (29%, outpatient (16%, community/retail (50%, long term care (5%, and other (8%. The top five patient assessment items respondents identified as important to understand and perform included automatic blood pressure measurement (63%, point of care testing (57%, manual blood pressure measurement (53%, heart rate measurement (52%, and peak flow meter use (47%. Post-hoc analyses showed a significant difference among those with a Pharm.D. versus those without for the response “need to understand and be able to perform” for 20 patient assessment items; a significant difference was also noted among practice settings for 29 items. Conclusions: The top items pharmacists identified they need to both understand and perform could be applied in various practice settings. The study results may guide which patient

  12. Clinical relevance of pharmacist intervention in an emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Moreno, Maria Antonia; Rodríguez-Camacho, Juan Manuel; Calderón-Hernanz, Beatriz; Comas-Díaz, Bernardino; Tarradas-Torras, Jordi

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the clinical relevance of pharmacist intervention on patient care in emergencies, to determine the severity of detected errors. Second, to analyse the most frequent types of interventions and type of drugs involved and to evaluate the clinical pharmacist's activity. A 6-month observational prospective study of pharmacist intervention in the Emergency Department (ED) at a 400-bed hospital in Spain was performed to record interventions carried out by the clinical pharmacists. We determined whether the intervention occurred in the process of medication reconciliation or another activity, and whether the drug involved belonged to the High-Alert Medications Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP) list. To evaluate the severity of the errors detected and clinical relevance of the pharmacist intervention, a modified assessment scale of Overhage and Lukes was used. Relationship between clinical relevance of pharmacist intervention and the severity of medication errors was assessed using ORs and Spearman's correlation coefficient. During the observation period, pharmacists reviewed the pharmacotherapy history and medication orders of 2984 patients. A total of 991 interventions were recorded in 557 patients; 67.2% of the errors were detected during medication reconciliation. Medication errors were considered severe in 57.2% of cases and 64.9% of pharmacist intervention were considered relevant. About 10.9% of the drugs involved are in the High-Alert Medications ISMP list. The severity of the medication error and the clinical significance of the pharmacist intervention were correlated (Spearman's ρ=0.728/pclinical pharmacists identified and intervened on a high number of severe medication errors. This suggests that emergency services will benefit from pharmacist-provided drug therapy services. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  13. West Africa

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    freelance

    considered by many as a successful model of river basin organization. NBA, after years of ... a Regional Water Protocol for West Africa, following the model of the SADC ...... protection of water against pollution of all kinds (urban, industrial,.

  14. The Pharmacist's Perspective on Pharmacogenetics Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitendorf, Frederick; Reynolds, Kristen K

    2016-09-01

    The future for pharmacogenetics will continue to expand. Pharmacists can apply and incorporate drug knowledge in collaboration with other health providers using pharmacogenetics. Patients benefit with enhanced therapeutic outcomes that could lead to more streamlined drug approaches, fewer follow-up visits, cost savings, and shorter times to achieve therapeutic outcomes. As more drug-gene pathways are discovered and use of this knowledge increases, the potential for algorithm development for medication use will occur, resulting in better patient outcomes, higher standard of care, and reflect evidence-based medicine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Views of pharmacists on involvement in ward rounds in selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Pharmacist participation in ward rounds is of increasing interest for better pharmaceutical care, yet most pharmacists do not engage in this activity. Objective: The objective was to obtain public sector pharmacistsf views and perceptions on their involvement in ward rounds. Method: A rapid assessment was ...

  16. Assessment of the Involvement of the Community Pharmacist in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To assess the involvement of the Community Pharmacists in the practice of pharmaceutical care in Benin City. Method: A structured pharmaceutical care questionnaire was administered to all Community Pharmacies with registered pharmacists in Benin City. Descriptive statistics including frequencies, standard ...

  17. Perceptions of Hospital Pharmacist's Role in Pakistan's Healthcare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate hospital pharmacists' perception of their current clinical role in Pakistan's healthcare system. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study in a population that consisted of hospital pharmacists in Islamabad, Faisalabad and Lahore which are three cities in Punjab State, Pakistan. A sample of 116 ...

  18. Evaluation of Pharmacists' Participation in Post-Admission Ward ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The study evaluates pharmacist's perception of and participation in post-admission ward rounds, at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH). Method: All the 60 pharmacists covering various units of pharmaceutical services were administered a forty-two element structured questionnaire. Fifty (83.3%) ...

  19. Assessing the knowledge of asthma among community pharmacists ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To assess the knowledge of community pharmacists about asthma and its management. Methods: Seventy-six registered community pharmacists in. Edo State completed a structured questionnaire consisting of open and close ended questions which addressed issues relating to their knowledge of asthma

  20. Evaluation of the Perception of Community Pharmacists Regarding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: A qualitative study design was adopted. ... Conclusion: Community pharmacies in Pakistan currently face shortage of pharmacists. This has ... Compared to the developed world ... contact. All the interviews were conducted at the pharmacists' work-places. .... World Health Organization (WHO), Report of the health.

  1. Qualitative Assessment of the Pharmacist's Role in Punjab, Pakistan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: A qualitative approach was used to assess the perception of doctors regarding pharmacist's role in the study setting. A total of 12 ... Doctors' expectation, Pharmacist, Clinical pharmacy services, Qualitative study,. Prescribing. Tropical Journal of ... Demographic characteristics of respondents are shown in Table 1.

  2. Can Texas' Physicians Be as Diverse as Texas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Sean

    2017-07-01

    The United States and Texas have a chronic shortage of doctors, but the shortage of minority physicians is even more acute. To address this, and the health disparities that come with it, Texas medical schools are working to increase minority enrollment, but challenges remain.

  3. Geology and ground-water resources of Duval County, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayre, Albert Nelson

    1937-01-01

    Duval County is situated in southern Texas, 100 to 150 miles south of San Antonio and about midway between Corpus Christi, on the Gulf of Mexico, and Laredo, on the Rio Grande. The county lies on the Coastal Plain, which for the most part is low and relatively featureless. Between the Nueces River and the Rio Grande in this part of Texas the plain is interrupted by an erosion remnant, the Reynosa Plateau, which reaches a maximum altitude of nearly 1,000 feet above sea level and stands well above the areas to the east and west. The Reynosa Plateau includes most of Duval County and parts of Webb, Zapata, Starr, Jim Hogg, Jim Wells, McMullen, and Live Oak Counties. In Duval County the plateau is bounded on the west by the westward-facing Bordas escarpment, 75 to 150 feet high, which crosses the county with a southwesterly trend from about the middle of the north boundary to about the middle of the west boundary. On the east the plateau is bounded by a low seaward-facing escarpment, which passes through San Diego, trending a little west of south.

  4. Buprenorphine and addiction: challenges for the pharmacist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boatwright, Deborah E

    2002-01-01

    To present an analysis of the Drug Addiction Treatment Act of 2000 (DATA) and its impact on the practice of pharmacy. Statutes, codes, regulations, newspaper articles, journal articles; search of articles posted on MEDLINE identified using the search terms methadone, buprenorphine, treatment, opioid abuse, and opioid addiction. Not applicable. Not applicable. DATA and Food and Drug Administration approval of sublingual tablets of buprenorphine and buprenorphine with naloxone (Reckitt and Benckiser) will dramatically expand opioid addicts' access to treatment and increase the number of opioid addicts receiving prescriptions for buprenorphine and buprenorphine with naloxone. The availability of buprenorphine will pose unique challenges to pharmacists and suggests the need for education on addiction and greater awareness of the unique needs of patients recovering from addiction. The stage is being set to expand access to treatment and reach more untreated opioid addicts in the United States. Professional organizations such as the American Pharmaceutical Association should work with the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and its Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration to develop training materials, curricula, and guidelines for pharmacists on substance abuse with a special focus on outpatient opioid treatment. Such materials could be used in continuing education programs and materials and in pharmacy schools.

  5. Assessing Pharmacists' Attitudes and Barriers Involved with Immunizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Aldrich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacists are considered the most accessible health care professional. Immunizations create an opportunity for the profession to grow and develop toward direct patient care. Between 1995 and 2004 programs involving immunizations led to a national initiative to train pharmacists that became a significant leap toward pharmacist's involvement in direct patient care. Although immunizations can be considered a catalyst to change the pharmacist's role, little was known about pharmacist's attitudes and the barriers involved with immunizing. Few studies have assessed barriers, attitudes, and practice issues experienced by immunizing pharmacists. The objective of this study was to determine pharmacists' attitudes toward immunizations and more specifically to assess possible barriers involved with this practice. Five hundred pharmacists were randomly selected for inclusion in the study from the State of Ohio Board of Pharmacy Database, of which 137 (27.4% completed the survey. A 37- item questionnaire was administered via an e-mail invitation to take an online survey using Qualtrics software with a Likert-type scale, where 1 = strongly disagree and 7 = strongly agree. Several topics were assessed regarding immunizations including time constraints, workflow constraints, adequacy of training, technician support, worksite conditions and space, immunization processes, reimbursement issues, safety issues, documentation issues, and the future direction of immunizations. Demographics included gender, age, degree, number of years practicing, practice site, and number of years immunizing. Seventy-three percent of pharmacists believed that immunizing could lead to prescription filling errors (mean=4.45, SD=1.79. Pharmacists strongly agreed that having more technicians on staff would make providing immunizations easier (mean=5.80, SD=1.39 and that they play a vital role in keeping the process running smoothly (mean=6.08, SD=1.16. Also, pharmacists strongly agreed

  6. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of community pharmacists on generic medicines in Palestine: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shraim, Naser Y; Al Taha, Tasneem A; Qawasmeh, Rawan F; Jarrar, Hiba N; Shtaya, Maram A N; Shayeb, Lama A; Sweileh, Waleed M

    2017-12-28

    Generic substitution in several countries has become a common practice. Besides, it is considered as a major cost minimizing strategy meant to contain pharmaceutical expenditure without compromising healthcare quality. However, the safety and quality issues of generic products are of top concerns of general practitioners and health work professionals. This study aimed to investigate community pharmacist's knowledge, attitudes and practices toward generic medicines in Palestine. This study was a cross-sectional observational study employing a self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire was of four main sections: demographic and practice details of the participants, knowledge, attitudes and the influencing factors related to selection and dispensing of generic medicines. A convenience sampling technique was implemented in this study in which the data collection form was distributed in West Bank- Palestine among a set of practicing pharmacists. Mann-Whitney-U or Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to comparison of different issues as appropriate. P-values of marketing approval of generics, while 87.4% of participants agreed that they should be given the right to substitute generics and the majority (62.3%) support generic substitution for brand name drugs in all cases when a generic is available The main two factors affect pharmacists' selection and dispensing of generic medicines are personal faith in the product (86.1%) and cost effectiveness of generic medicines (84.1%). Generic medicines substitution among pharmacists is widespread and prevalent. Our data found that participant pharmacists in Palestine had basic knowledge with regards to generic medicine. However, their knowledge score pertaining the technical and regulatory aspects of bioequivalence and pharmacokinetic parameters in particular was insufficient.

  7. Pharmacists subjected to disciplinary action: characteristics and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Denham L; Noyce, Peter R; Walshe, Kieran; Parker, Dianne; Ashcroft, Darren M

    2011-10-01

    OBJECTIVE To establish whether there are any characteristics of pharmacists that predict their likelihood of being subjected to disciplinary action. METHODS  The setting was the Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain's Disciplinary Committee. One hundred and seventeen pharmacists, all of whom had been referred to the Disciplinary Committee, were matched with a quota sample of 580 pharmacists who had not been subjected to disciplinary action but that matched the disciplined pharmacists on a set of demographic factors (gender, country of residence, year of registration). Frequency analysis and regression analysis were used to compare the two groups of pharmacists in terms of sector of work, ethnicity, age and country of training. Descriptive statistics were also obtained from the disciplined pharmacists to further explore characteristics of disciplinary cases and those pharmacists who undergo them. KEY FINDINGS  While a number of characteristics appeared to increase the likelihood of a pharmacist being referred to the disciplinary committee, only one of these - working in a community pharmacy - was statistically significant. Professional misconduct accounted for a greater proportion of referrals than did clinical malpractice, and approximately one-fifth of pharmacists who went before the Disciplinary Committee had previously been disciplined by the Society. CONCLUSIONS  This study provides initial evidence of pharmacist characteristics that are associated with an increased risk of being disciplined, based upon the data currently available. It is recommended that follow-up work is carried out using a more extensive dataset in order to confirm the statistical trends identified here. © 2011 The Authors. IJPP © 2011 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  8. Pharmacists' Scope of Practice: Supports for Canadians with Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansell, Kerry; Edmunds, Kirsten; Guirguis, Lisa

    2017-12-01

    The pharmacists' role in Canada has significantly advanced over the past decade, resulting in increasing access to primary care services. This study aimed to characterize pharmacists' expanded scope of practice as it relates to providing services to Canadians with diabetes. This environmental scan characterized services that could be useful to Canadians with diabetes in each of the provinces (excluding the territories): immunizations, medication prescribing, ordering and interpreting laboratory tests, and medication reviews. Researchers also collected information on pharmacists' access to health information. Data were collected from regulatory authorities in each province, from pharmacy stakeholders and through a web search. Pharmacists' scope of practice varies widely across the Canadian provinces. Three provinces have medication-review programs focused specifically on diabetes, and many people with diabetes can access publicly funded medication reviews. Other than in Quebec, pharmacists can provide influenza (publicly funded) and pneumococcal vaccinations (publicly funded in British Columbia, Alberta and Manitoba). All pharmacists in Canadian provinces can renew prescriptions to ensure continuity of therapy. Pharmacists have varying levels of other prescriptive authority. Pharmacists in all provinces (except Ontario) can access provincial prescription information; in 4 provinces, they can access laboratory results, and in 3 provinces, they can order and interpret laboratory results, such as glycated hemoglobin levels. Canadians with diabetes can expect to receive influenza vaccines and have medications renewed at their pharmacies. Many patients with diabetes qualify for a publicly funded medication review, and some provinces allow pharmacists to order and interpret laboratory results. This expanded scope provides greater opportunities for pharmacists to help support patients with diabetes in conjunction with other health-care team members. Copyright © 2017

  9. Factors Affecting Number of Diabetes Management Activities Provided by Pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Annie; Lorenz, Kathleen; Cor, Ken; Simpson, Scot H

    2016-12-01

    Legislative changes since 2007 have given Alberta pharmacists additional authorizations and new practice settings, which should enhance provision of clinical services to patients. This study examined whether these changes are related to the number of diabetes management activities provided by pharmacists. Cross-sectional surveys of Alberta pharmacists were conducted in 2006 and 2015. Both questionnaires contained 63 diabetes management activities, with response options to indicate how frequently the activity was provided. Respondents were grouped by survey year, practice setting, diabetes-specific training and additional authorizations. The number of diabetes management activities provided often or always were compared among groups by using analysis of variance. Data from 128 pharmacists participating in the 2006 survey were compared with 256 pharmacists participating in the 2015 survey; overall mean age was 41.6 (±10.9) years, 245 (64%) were women, mean duration of practice was 16.1 (±11.8) years, 280 (73%) were community pharmacists, 75 (20%) were certified diabetes educators (CDEs), and 100 (26%) had additional prescribing authorization (APA). Pharmacists provided a mean of 28.7 (95% CI 26.3 to 31.2) diabetes management activities in 2006 and 35.2 (95% CI 33.4-37.0) activities in 2015 (p<0.001). Pharmacists who were CDEs provided significantly more activities compared to other pharmacists (p<0.001). In 2015, working in a primary care network and having APA were also associated with provision of more activities (p<0.05 for both comparisons). Pharmacists provided more diabetes management activities in 2015 than in 2006. The number of diabetes management activities was also associated with being a CDE, working in a primary care network or having APA. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Pharmaceutical Role Expansion and Developments in Pharmacist-Physician Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Alicia A; Jaynes, Heather A; Gonzalvo, Jasmine D; Hudmon, Karen Suchanek; Frankel, Richard M; Kobylinski, Amanda L; Zillich, Alan J

    2016-01-01

    Expanded clinical pharmacist professional roles in the team-based patient-centered medical home (PCMH) primary care environment require cooperative and collaborative relationships among pharmacists and primary care physicians (PCPs), but many PCPs have not previously worked in such a direct fashion with pharmacists. Additional roles, including formulary control, add further elements of complexity to the clinical pharmacist-PCP relationship that are not well described. Our objective was to characterize the nature of clinical pharmacist-PCP interprofessional collaboration across seven federally funded hospitals and associated primary care clinics, following pharmacist placement in primary care clinics and incorporation of expanded pharmacist roles. In-depth and semistructured interviews were conducted with 25 practicing clinical pharmacists and 17 PCPs. Qualitative thematic analysis revealed three major themes: (1) the complexities of electronic communication (particularly electronic nonformulary requests) as contributing to interprofessional tensions or misunderstandings for both groups, (2) the navigation of new roles and traditional hierarchy, with pharmacists using indirect communication to prevent PCP defensiveness to recommendations, and (3) a preference for onsite colocation for enhanced communication and professional relationships. Clinical pharmacists' indirect communication practices may hold important implications for patient safety in the context of medication use, and it is important to foster effective communication skills and an environment where all team members across hierarchies can feel comfortable speaking up to reduce error when problems are suspected. Also, the lack of institutional communication about managing drug formulary issues and related electronic nonformulary request processes was apparent in this study and merits further attention for both researchers and practitioners.

  11. Commercial Space Port Planning in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, L.; Looke, B.

    2002-01-01

    The Texas Legislature is providing funding to support research and planning activities aimed at creating a commercial spaceport in the state. These monies have been allocated to regional Spaceport Development Corporations that have been established in three countries containing candidate site locations: Willacy County (in South Texas); Brazoria County (East Texas); and Pecos County (West Texas). This program is being sponsored and coordinated by the Texas Aerospace Commission (TAC). The Sasakawa International Center for Space Architecture (SICSA) at the University of Houston is providing research, planning and design support to TAC and is a member of each of the three regional development teams. Planning must carefully consider special support requirements and operational characteristics of all prospective launch systems along with geographic, infrastructure and environmental factors at each site. Two of the candidate sites are in coastal areas; a priority for certain launch service providers; whereas the third inland site is more attractive to others. Candidate launch systems include winged horizontal takeoff air-launch vehicles, vertical multi-stage reusable launch vehicles, and expendable sub-orbital surrounding rockets. Important research and planning activities include environmental impact assessments, analyses of overflight hazards, investigations of economic impacts and business plan development. The results of these activities will guide master plan development for each site, including: a physical plan (site layout, infrastructure improvements and facility construction); and a strategic plan (user agreements, licenses, finance sources and participants). Commercial spaceport development demands compliance with stringent FAA regulations established by the Office of Commercial Space Transportation (OCST) which exceed minimum standards allowed for U.S. Government spaceport facilities. Key among these requirements are 15,000 ft. radius on-site clear zones

  12. Forests of East Texas, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas J. Brandeis

    2015-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in east Texas derived from an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program at the Southern Research Station in cooperation with the Texas A&M Forest Service. These estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and are...

  13. Forests of east Texas, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.J.W. Dooley; T.J. Brandeis

    2014-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in east Texas based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Southern Research Station in cooperation with the Texas A&M Forest Service. Forest resource estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and...

  14. CBTE: The Ayes of Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, W. Robert; Howsam, Robert B.

    1974-01-01

    A heated controversy occurred when the Texas State Board of Education mandated competency based teacher education (CBTE) for all of the State's 66 teacher preparatory institutions. This is an account of developments in Texas by two major proponents of CBTE. (Author/JF)

  15. The rise of neglected tropical diseases in the "new Texas"

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Within the last five years, the State of Texas has experienced either transmission or outbreaks of Ebola, chikungunya, West Nile, and Zika virus infections. Autochthonous transmission of neglected parasitic and bacterial diseases has also become increasingly reported. The rise of such emerging and neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) has not occurred by accident but instead reflects rapidly evolving changes and shifts in a “new” Texas beset by modern and globalizing forces that include rapid expansions in population together with urbanization and human migrations, altered transportation patterns, climate change, steeply declining vaccination rates, and a new paradigm of poverty known as “blue marble health.” Summarized here are the major NTDs now affecting Texas. In addition to the vector-borne viral diseases highlighted above, there also is a high level of parasitic infections, including Chagas disease, trichomoniasis, and possibly leishmaniasis and toxocariasis, as well as typhus-group rickettsiosis, a vector-borne bacterial infection. I also highlight some of the key shifts in emerging and neglected disease patterns, partly due to an altered and evolving economic and ecological landscape in the new Texas, and provide some preliminary disease burden estimates for the major prevalent and incident NTDs. PMID:29346369

  16. The rise of neglected tropical diseases in the "new Texas".

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Hotez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the last five years, the State of Texas has experienced either transmission or outbreaks of Ebola, chikungunya, West Nile, and Zika virus infections. Autochthonous transmission of neglected parasitic and bacterial diseases has also become increasingly reported. The rise of such emerging and neglected tropical diseases (NTDs has not occurred by accident but instead reflects rapidly evolving changes and shifts in a "new" Texas beset by modern and globalizing forces that include rapid expansions in population together with urbanization and human migrations, altered transportation patterns, climate change, steeply declining vaccination rates, and a new paradigm of poverty known as "blue marble health." Summarized here are the major NTDs now affecting Texas. In addition to the vector-borne viral diseases highlighted above, there also is a high level of parasitic infections, including Chagas disease, trichomoniasis, and possibly leishmaniasis and toxocariasis, as well as typhus-group rickettsiosis, a vector-borne bacterial infection. I also highlight some of the key shifts in emerging and neglected disease patterns, partly due to an altered and evolving economic and ecological landscape in the new Texas, and provide some preliminary disease burden estimates for the major prevalent and incident NTDs.

  17. Community pharmacists' perceptions of barriers to communication with migrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, Jennifer A; Watson, Margaret C; Walker, Leighton; Denison, Alan; Vanes, Neil; Moffat, Mandy

    2012-06-01

    Effective communication by pharmacists is essential to ensure patient safety in terms of provision and use of medications by patients. Global migration trends mean community pharmacists increasingly encounter patients with a variety of first languages. The aim of this study was to explore community pharmacists' perceptions of communication barriers during the provision of care to A8 (nationals from central/Eastern European states) migrants. A qualitative face-to-face interview study of purposively sampled community pharmacists, North East Scotland. Participants (n = 14) identified a number of barriers to providing optimal care to A8 migrants including: communication (information gathering and giving); confidentiality when using family/friends as translators; the impact of patient healthcare expectations on communication and the length of the consultation; and frustration with the process of the consultation. Several barriers were specific to A8 migrants but most seemed pertinent to any group with limited English proficiency and reflect those found in studies of healthcare professionals caring for more traditional UK migrant populations. Further research is needed using objective outcome measures, such as consultation recordings, to measure the impact of these perceived barriers on pharmacist-patient consultations. Language and cultural barriers impact on the quality of pharmacist-patient communication and thus may have patient safety and pharmacist training implications. © 2011 The Authors. IJPP © 2011 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  18. Key Value Considerations for Consultant Pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Lee; Perry, Ronald G; Rhodus, Susan M; Stearns, Wendy

    2016-07-01

    Managing the efficiency and costs of residents' drug regimens outside the acute-care hospital and through transitions of care requires a toolbox filled with cost-control tools and careful collaboration among the pharmacy provider(s), facility staff, and the consultant/senior care pharmacist. This article will provide the reader with key long-term care business strategies that affect the profitability of the pharmacy provider in various care settings while, at the same time, ensuring optimal therapy for residents as they transition across levels of care. Readers can take away ideas on how to access critical information, what they can do with this information, and how they can improve the overall care process. Four experts in various aspects of pharmacy management share their insights on pharmacy practice issues including formulary management, performance metrics, short-cycle dispensing challenges/solutions, cost-control measures, facility surveys, billing practices, medication reconciliation, prospective medication reviews, and transitions of care.

  19. Integration of pharmacists into a patient-centered medical home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Mollie Ashe; Hitch, Bill; Ray, Lisa; Colvin, Gaye

    2011-01-01

    To define the joint principles of the patient-centered medical home (PCMH) and describe the integration of pharmacists into a PCMH. Family medicine residency training program in North Carolina from 2001 to 2011. Mountain Area Health Education Family Health Center is a family medicine residency training program that is part of the North Carolina Area Health Education Center system. The goal of the organization is to train and retain health care students and residents. The practice is recognized as a level III PCMH by the National Committee for Quality Assurance (NCQA) and seeks to provide quality, safe, patient-centered care according to the joint principles of PCMH. Pharmacists, nurses, nutritionists, care managers, Spanish translators, and behavioral medicine specialists work collaboratively with physicians to provide seamless, comprehensive care. The Department of Pharmacotherapy is embedded in the family medicine clinic. Three pharmacists and two pharmacy residents are involved in providing direct patient care services, ensuring access to community resources, assisting patients with transitions of care, providing interprofessional education, and participating in continuous quality improvement initiatives. The pharmacists serve as clinical pharmacist practitioners and provide medication therapy management services in a pharmacotherapy clinic, anticoagulation clinics, and an osteoporosis clinic and via an inpatient family medicine service. Multiple learners such as student pharmacists, pharmacy residents, and family medicine residents rotate through the various pharmacy clinics to learn about pharmacotherapeutic principles and the role of the pharmacist in PCMH. PCMH is a comprehensive, patient-centered, team-based approach to population management in the primary care setting. Pharmacists play a vital role in PCMH and make fundamental contributions to patient care across health care settings. Such innovations in the ambulatory care setting create a unique niche

  20. Attitudes of pharmacists and physicians to antibiotic policies in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adu, A; Simpson, J M; Armour, C L

    1999-06-01

    Antibiotic therapy in hospitals has substantial impact on patient outcome and the pharmacy drug budget. Antibiotic policies have been implemented by some hospitals to improve the quality of patient outcome and cost of antibiotic therapy. Antibiotic policies impose certain requirements on pharmacists and physicians. Pharmacists' and physicians' attitudes to and opinions about antibiotic policies are likely to affect the usefulness of such policies. To determine the attitudes of pharmacists and physicians to antibiotic policies in New South Wales (NSW) hospitals. Pharmacists and physicians in NSW public hospitals were surveyed to determine their attitudes to and opinions on antibiotic policies. A simple one-stage cluster sample of 241 pharmacists and a two-stage cluster sample of 701 physicians were obtained. Factor analysis was used to identify the attitudinal dimensions. General linear modelling was used to investigate the effects of predictor variables on outcome variables. The response rates were 91% and 77% for pharmacists and physicians, respectively. Factor analysis identified three dimensions of attitude to antibiotic policies: that they encourage rational antibiotic use; that they improve the quality of antibiotic prescribing and that they are associated with some problems. The reliability of these factors (Cronbach's alpha) ranged from 0.71 to 0.74, and was 0.90 for the overall attitude scale. Pharmacists and physicians had a positive overall attitude to antibiotic policies. Whereas physicians recognize that antibiotic policies improve the quality of prescribing, this was highly correlated with identification of problems (alpha = 0.71). In urban hospitals, pharmacists were more likely than physicians to associate antibiotics with problems. There was a positive overall attitude to hospital antibiotic policies expressed by pharmacists and physicians.

  1. TEXAS MIGRANT LABOR, THE 1964 MIGRATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good Neighbor Commission of Texas, Austin.

    THE MAJORITY OF TEXAS MIGRANTS LIVE IN SOUTH TEXAS AND APPROXIMATELY 95 PERCENT OF THEM ARE OF MEXICAN EXTRACTION. MOST OF THE OTHER FIVE PERCENT ARE EAST TEXAS NEGROES. THE MECHANIZATION OF COTTON HARVESTING AND THE EXPIRATION OF THE "BRACERO PROGRAM" IN 1964 HAVE CAUSED MORE TEXAS MIGRANTS TO SEEK EMPLOYMENT OUTSIDE OF THE STATE. DURING 1964,…

  2. Texas Affordable Baccalaureate Program: A Collaboration between the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board, South Texas College, and Texas A&M University-Commerce. CBE Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein-Collins, Rebecca; Glancey, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    This case study is part of a series on newer competency-based degree programs that have been emerging in recent years. In January 2014, the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board (THECB), South Texas College (STC), and Texas A&M University-Commerce (A&M Commerce) launched the Texas Affordable Baccalaureate Program, the state's first…

  3. Nuclear Hybrid Energy Systems Regional Studies: West Texas & Northeastern Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Humberto E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Chen, Jun [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kim, Jong Suk [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); McKellar, Michael George [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Deason, Wesley R [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Vilim, Richard B. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Boardman, Richard D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-04-01

    The primary objective of this study is to conduct a preliminary dynamic analysis of two realistic hybrid energy systems (HES) including a nuclear reactor as the main baseload heat generator (denoted as nuclear HES or nuclear hybrid energy systems [[NHES]) and to assess the local (e.g., HES owners) and system (e.g., the electric grid) benefits attainable by the application of NHES in scenarios with multiple commodity production and high penetration of renewable energy. It is performed for regional cases not generic examples based on available resources, existing infrastructure, and markets within the selected regions. This study also briefly addresses the computational capabilities developed to conduct such analyses, reviews technical gaps, and suggests some research paths forward.

  4. The role of pharmacists and emergency contraception: Are pharmacists' perceptions of emergency contraception predictive of their dispensing practices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Alice R; Daley, Ellen M; Baldwin, Julie; Kromrey, Jeff; O'Rourke, Kathleen; Perrin, Kay

    2012-10-01

    Pharmacists can play a critical role in the access to emergency contraception (EC). We assessed if knowledge and attitudes were predictive of EC dispensing among a statewide sample of Florida pharmacists, who have legal authority to refuse to dispense medications. In 2008, surveys were mailed to a random sample of 1264 pharmacists registered with the Florida Board of Pharmacy. Data from 272 pharmacists (22% response rate) were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression. Fifty-six percent of respondents incorrectly answered that EC causes birth defects, and 46% replied that it causes abortion. Only 22% said that EC can be purchased in advance of need. Many felt uncomfortable dispensing to adolescents (61%) and men (58%). Knowledge about EC was the most important predictor of dispensing [odds ratio (OR)=1.57, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.22-2.03]. In particular, pharmacists who reported that EC does not act as an abortifacient were more likely to dispense it (OR=4.64, 95% CI 2.15-10.00). Correct information about EC was the most important predictor of pharmacists' dispensing EC. To expand availability of EC, pharmacists will have to become better informed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Aerobiology of Juniperus Pollen in Oklahoma, Texas, and New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levetin, Estelle; Bunderson, Landon; VandeWater, Pete; Luvall, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    Pollen from members of the Cupressaceae are major aeroallergens in many parts of the world. In the south central and southwest United States, Juniperus pollen is the most important member of this family with J. ashei (JA) responsible for severe winter allergy symptoms in Texas and Oklahoma. In New Mexico, pollen from J. monosperma (JM) and other Juniperus species are important contributors to spring allergies, while J. pinchotii (JP) pollinates in the fall affecting sensitive individuals in west Texas, southwest Oklahoma and eastern New Mexico. Throughout this region, JA, JM, and JP occur in dense woodland populations. Generally monitoring for airborne allergens is conducted in urban areas, although the source for tree pollen may be forested areas distant from the sampling sites. Improved pollen forecasts require a better understanding of pollen production at the source. The current study was undertaken to examine the aerobiology of several Juniperus species at their source areas for the development of new pollen forecasting initiatives.

  6. Identification of the Discrepancies between Pharmacist and Patient Perception of the Pharmacist's Role as an Advisor on Drug Therapy Based on Social Science Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, Shinji; Senoo, Kazuhiko; Negishi, Akio; Akimoto, Hayato; Ohara, Kousuke; Inoue, Naoko; Ohshima, Shigeru; Kutsuma, Nobuaki; Juni, Kazuhiko; Kobayashi, Daisuke

    2016-01-01

    Article 25-2 of the Japanese Pharmacists' Act was revised in June 2014, establishing the position of pharmacists as "advisors on the use of pharmaceuticals." Prior to the Act's revision, we investigated the perceptions of patients and pharmacists about pharmacists' roles using a social science methodology. We also examined current opinions and necessary factors for the future growth and development of pharmacists. This questionnaire survey was conducted using an internet method. Patients and pharmacists answered 12 questions. Responses from 529 patients and 338 pharmacists were analyzed. For all items, pharmacists' awareness of their roles exceeded patients' awareness of the roles. In this study, the difference between pharmacist and patient awareness was larger than in similar research conducted in the United States. The greatest difference was observed in three items: "Understanding the effects of the drugs the patients are taking" (rate of high ratings: pharmacists 80.2%, patients 37.8%), "Understanding the health changes caused by the drugs dispensed to the patients" (pharmacists 80.2%, patients 28.4%), and "Consciously protecting patients from the adverse effects of drugs" (pharmacists 82.8%, patients 42.2%), indicating role discrepancy. Partition analysis indicated the three factors for a pharmacist to be regarded as a drug therapy or medication specialist: "The patient regards the pharmacist as his/her family or regular pharmacist," "The pharmacist is making it easy for a patient to talk with him/her" and "The pharmacist is aware of a patient's use of products other than prescribed drugs, such as over the counter (OTC) medications or health foods and nutritional supplements." Future efforts are necessary to resolve role discrepancy and implement ongoing monitoring.

  7. Is the Texas Pecan Checkoff Program Working?

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Eli D.; Williams, Gary W.

    2008-01-01

    The Texas Pecan Board was established in 1998 to administer the Texas Pecan Checkoff Program and is financed through a one-half cent per pound assessment on grower pecan sales. The Board spends the assessment collections on a variety of advertising campaigns in an attempt to expand demand for Texas pecans, both improved and native varieties, and increase the welfare of Texas pecan growers. This study presents an evaluation of the economic effectiveness of the Texas Pecan Checkoff Program in e...

  8. Texas' performance assessment work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charbeneau, R.J.; Hertel, N.E.; Pollard, C.G.

    1990-01-01

    The Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority is completing two years of detailed on-site suitability studies of a potential low-level radioactive waste disposal site in Hudspeth County, Texas. The data from these studies have been used to estimate site specific parameters needed to do a performance assessment of the site. The radiological impacts of the site have been analyzed as required for a license application. The approach adopted for the performance assessment was to use simplified and yet conservative assumptions with regard to releases, radionuclide transport, and dose calculations. The methodologies employed in the performance assessment are reviewed in the paper. Rather than rely on a single computer code, a modular approach to the performance assessment was selected. The HELP code was used to calculate the infiltration rate through the trench covers and the amount of leachate released from this arid site. Individual pathway analyses used spreadsheet calculations. These calculations were compared with those from other computer models including CRRIS, INGDOS, PATHRAE, and MICROSHIELD copyright, and found to yield conservative estimates of the effective whole body dose. The greatest difficulty in performing the radiological assessment of the site was the selection of reasonable source terms for release into the environment. A surface water pathway is unreasonable for the site. Though also unlikely, the groundwater pathway with exposure through a site boundary well was found to yield the largest calculated dose. The more likely pathway including transport of leachate from the facility through the unsaturated zone and returning to the ground surface yields small doses. All calculated doses associated with normal releases of radioactivity are below the regulatory limits

  9. U.S. Pharmacist Opinions Regarding the Rescheduling of Hydrocodone Combination Products: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan R. Covvey

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In October 2014, the Drug Enforcement Administration in the U.S. reclassified hydrocodone combination products (HCPs from Schedule III to Schedule II, initiating one of the most significant and controversial regulatory changes for opioids in recent national history. The aim of the present study was to determine community pharmacist opinions on the effect of the rescheduling of HCPs on their personal practice. A web-based pilot survey was emailed to a convenience sample through online newsletters of professional pharmacy organizations in Pennsylvania, Kentucky and West Virginia in April/May 2015. A total of 62 surveys were initiated, yielding 56 complete responses. More than 75% of respondents noted increases in their workload as a result of the rescheduling of HCPs. Opinions regarding the intended outcomes of rescheduling were only weakly positive, with only 37.5% of respondents believing it has increased safety and 44.6% of respondents believing it has lessened abuse/diversion. For overall attitudes regarding the rescheduling, respondents were split between positive (26.8%, neutral (26.8% and negative (46.4%. These initial data suggest that pharmacists have encountered barriers in practice resulting from the rescheduling. Further expanded work is necessary to verify these results from the small sample, and to assess the intended effects of the rescheduling upon the safe and effective use of hydrocodone.

  10. Using scenarios to test the appropriateness of pharmacist prescribing in asthma management

    OpenAIRE

    Hanna, Tamer; Bajorek, Beata; Lemay, Kate; Armour, Carol L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To explore the potential for community pharmacist prescribing in terms of usefulness, pharmacists' confidence, and appropriateness, in the context of asthma management. Methods: Twenty community pharmacists were recruited using convenience sampling from a group of trained practitioners who had already delivered asthma services. These pharmacists were asked to complete a scenario-based questionnaire (9 scenarios) modelled on information from real patients. Pharmacist interventions w...

  11. Examination of why some community pharmacists do not provide 72-hour emergency prescription drugs to Medicaid patients when prior authorization is not available.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Marvin D

    2013-09-01

    Existing federal law requires that a 72-hour emergency supply of a prescription drug be dispensed to Medicaid patients when prior authorization (PA) is not available and the medication is needed without delay. The pharmacist's role is to contact prescribers and inform them that PA is needed. If the prescriber cannot be reached, the pharmacist can dispense a 72-hour emergency supply. To determine (a) the reasons why some community pharmacy owners/managers, staff pharmacists, and technicians are not compliant with the law; (b) how often the decision is made; and (c) estimate how often pharmacies do not dispense the 72-hour emergency supply when PA is not available. A questionnaire was mailed to selected Texas community pharmacies. The instrument was developed by the researcher and reviewed by the Texas Medicaid Vendor Drug Program staff. The University of Texas, Office of Survey Research collected the data in September and October of 2011 by mail and online. The data were forwarded to the researcher for analyses. A total of 788 identified community pharmacies were mailed a packet containing 3 questionnaires to be completed by the pharmacist-in-charge, a staff pharmacist, and a pharmacy technician. There were 2 mailings of the questionnaire packet and follow-up telephone calls to nonrespondents. A total of 653 questionnaires were completed and returned from 288 community pharmacies (36.7%) out of 788 pharmacies that were mailed the questionnaire packets. A total of 368 (57.5%) completed questionnaires came from chain store pharmacy respondents and 272 (42.5%) questionnaires from independent pharmacy respondents. A total of 21.3% (n = 134) of the respondents indicated that they were not aware of the federal and state requirement to dispense a 72-hour emergency supply of a prescription drug to Medicaid patients when prior authorization (PA) is not available. A greater proportion of the chain store respondents (26.6%) were unaware of the requirement compared with the

  12. Community Pharmacists' Perception of the Relevance of Drug ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Community Pharmacists' Perception of the Relevance of. Drug Package Insert as Source of Drug Information in. Southwestern Nigeria. Kenechuckwu Diobi, Titilayo O Fakeye* and Rasaq Adisa. Department of Clinical Pharmacy & Pharmacy Administration, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.

  13. The Role of Motivation in Continuing Education for Pharmacists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjin a Tsoi, Sharon

    2017-01-01

    Healthcare professionals, including pharmacists, need to continuously update their knowledge and are, therefore, expected to participate in Continuing Education (CE) and Continuous Professional Development (CPD) activities on a regular basis. Lack of intrinsic (or autonomous) motivation appears to

  14. Pharmacists' and general practitioners' pharmacology knowledge and pharmacotherapy skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijsers, Carolina J P W; Leendertse, Anne J; Faber, Adrianne; Brouwers, Jacobus R B J; de Wildt, Dick J; Jansen, Paul A F

    Understanding differences in the pharmacology knowledge and pharmacotherapy skills of pharmacists and physicians is vital to optimizing interprofessional collaboration and education. This study investigated these differences and the potential influence of work experience. The pharmacology knowledge

  15. 20-23 A Survey of Pharmacists' Knowledge, Attitude

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dell

    A Survey of Pharmacists' Knowledge, Attitude and Practice on Diabetes in Three Tertiary. Hospitals in ... using a structured questionnaire and analyzed based on descriptive statistics. A total of ... patients' treatment outcomes and quality of life.

  16. Assessment of the Attitude of Community Pharmacists and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (DOAJ), African Journal Online, Bioline International, Open-J-Gate and Pharmacy Abstracts ... behaviour of pharmacists and pharmacy ... purchasing anything, the simulated patients ..... predicting the guideline compliant supply (or non-.

  17. Pharmacists as Entrepreneurs or Employees: The Role of Locus of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patrick Erah

    career,1 the decision to become an entrepreneur rather than an employee is ... psychological/personality factors predispose the individual to ... 1005 pharmacists in different practice settings ... correlated with a higher risk of experiencing stress ...

  18. Technical Training seminar: Texas Instruments

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Monday 6 November TECHNICAL TRAINING SEMINAR 14:00 to 17:30 - Training Centre Auditorium (bldg. 593) Texas Instruments Technical Seminar Michael Scholtholt, Field Application Engineer / TEXAS INSTRUMENTS (US, D, CH) POWER - A short approach to Texas Instruments power products Voltage mode vs. current mode control Differentiating DC/DC converters by analyzing control and compensation schemes: line / load regulation, transient response, BOM, board space, ease-of-use Introduction to the SWIFT software FPGA + CPLD power solutions WIRELESS / CHIPCON Decision criteria when choosing a RF platform Introduction to Texas Instruments wireless products: standardized platforms proprietary platforms ( 2.4 GHz / sub 1 GHz) development tools Antenna design: example for 2.4 GHz questions, discussion Industrial partners: Robert Medioni, François Caloz / Spoerle Electronic, CH-1440 Montagny (VD), Switzerland Phone: +41 24 447 0137, email: RMedioni@spoerle.com, http://www.spoerle.com Language: English. Free s...

  19. Ethical, religious and factual beliefs about the supply of emergency hormonal contraception by UK community pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Richard J; Bissell, Paul; Wingfield, Joy

    2008-01-01

    Community pharmacists' role in the sale and supply of emergency hormonal contraception (EHC) represents an opportunity to increase EHC availability and utilise pharmacists' expertise but little is known about pharmacists' attendant ethical concerns. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were undertaken with 23 UK pharmacists to explore their views and ethical concerns about EHC. Dispensing EHC was ethically acceptable for almost all pharmacists but beliefs about selling EHC revealed three categories: pharmacists who sold EHC, respected women's autonomy and peers' conscientious objection but feared the consequences of limited EHC availability; contingently selling pharmacists who believed doctors should be first choice for EHC supply but who occasionally supplied and were influenced by women's ages, affluence and genuineness; non-selling pharmacists who believed EHC was abortion and who found selling EHC distressing and ethically problematic. Terminological/factual misunderstandings about EHC were common and discussing ethical issues was difficult for most pharmacists. Religion informed non-selling pharmacists' ethical decisions but other pharmacists prioritised professional responsibilities over their religion. Pharmacists' ethical views on EHC and the influence of religion varied and, together with some pharmacists' reliance upon non-clinical factors, led to a potentially variable supply, which may threaten the prompt availability of EHC. Misunderstandings about EHC perpetuated lay beliefs and potentially threatened correct advice. The influence of subordination and non-selling pharmacists' dispensing EHC may also lead to variable supply and confusion amongst women. Training is needed to address both factual/terminological misunderstandings about EHC and to develop pharmacists' ethical understanding and responsibility.

  20. No filter: A characterization of #pharmacist posts on Instagram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindman, F Mark; Bukowitz, Alison E; Reed, Brent N; Mattingly, T Joseph

    The primary objective was to characterize the underlying intent of Instagram posts using the hashtag metadata term "#pharmacist" over a 1-year period. The secondary objective was to determine whether statistically significant relationships existed between the categories and the 2 dichotomous variables tested, self-portrayed images, and relation to health care. Retrospective, cross-sectional, mixed methods, exploratory, descriptive study. A review of available Instagram posts using the hashtag metadata "#pharmacist" from November 4, 2014, to November 3, 2015. Data were collected using software provided by NEXT Analytics. A sample of 14 random days was selected. Six hundred sixty-one Instagram posts containing "#pharmacist" in the caption. Categorization of post (including both picture and primary caption), self-portrayed images (i.e., "selfie"), and health care-related images. One thousand three hundred thirty-eight posts were collected from the 14-day sample. Of the posts, 661 (49.4%) were analyzed; the remainder were excluded for being written in a non-English language or containing "#pharmacist" in the comments of the post, rather than the primary caption; 19.7% of all posts fell into the Celebration category, followed by Work Experience and Advertisement with 18.6% and 12.6%, respectively. The remainder of the categories contained 10% or fewer posts. Less than 25% of posts were self-portrayed images, and 88% of posts were deemed health care-related. Instagram is an emerging social media platform that can be used to expand patient education, professional advocacy, and public health outreach. In this study, the majority of #pharmacist posts were celebratory in nature, and the majority were determined to be related to health care. Posts containing #pharmacist may provide the opportunity to educate the public regarding the knowledge and capabilities of pharmacists. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Pharmacists' beliefs and values about advertising patient oriented services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, R; Smith, D P

    1986-03-01

    Pharmacists' beliefs about the utility of advertising sources and values for advertising outcomes were studied to learn about the decision-making process for advertising patient oriented pharmacy services in the ambulatory setting. The data suggest that pharmacists in the sample believe advertising through word-of-mouth communication is more likely to result in positive outcomes than either yellow pages or local newspaper advertising.

  2. Code of Ethics for Pharmacists – Pharmaceutical Chamber of Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Angelovska, Bistra

    2015-01-01

    Code of ethics represents the principles that form the fundamental basis of the roles and responsibilities of pharmacists in pharmaceutical practice. According to pharmacy practice, pharmacists are confirmed as healthcare professionals with unique knowledge, skills and responsibilities for safe and efficient medication therapy management in order to optimize therapeutic outcomes. The scope of pharmacy practice includes technical aspects of pharmaceutical services, the preparation of p...

  3. Pharmacist Advancement of Transitions of Care to Home (PATCH) Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trang, Joseph; Martinez, Amanda; Aslam, Sadaf; Duong, Minh-Tri

    2015-11-01

    There is a paucity of literature on a well-defined role of a pharmacist in different aspects of transition of care service (TCS). Although health care institutions have specific details on the discharge process, there is a need for a sustainable TCS with a well-defined role of pharmacists. To describe the impact of a pharmacist-led TCS on acute health care utilization, clinic quality indicators, and identification and resolution of medication-related problems (MRPs). A pharmacist-managed TCS service, referred to as the Pharmacist Advancement of Transitions of Care to Home (PATCH) service, was established at an academic medical center, where high-risk patients received a postdischarge phone call from a pharmacist followed by a face-to-face meeting with the pharmacist and the patient's primary care provider (PCP). In a prospective transitions of care group (n = 74), outcomes of patients such as acute health care utilization (an emergency department visit or an inpatient readmission, within 30 days post discharge), clinic quality indicators, and identification and resolution of MRPs were compared to a retrospective control group (n = 87) who received the standard of care. Utilization of acute health care services was significantly lower in the prospective group compared to the retrospective control group (23% vs 41.4%; P = .013). A total of 49 MRPs were discovered in patients who received the TCS. Pharmacists play an integral role in improving the transitions of care to reduce acute health care utilization. In addition, they may improve care transitions by optimizing clinic quality indicators and by identifying and resolving MRPs.

  4. Pharmacist's impact on acute pain management during trauma resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Kayla; Hall, A Brad; Keriazes, Georgia

    2015-01-01

    The timely administration of analgesics is crucial to the comprehensive management of trauma patients. When an emergency department (ED) pharmacist participates in trauma resuscitation, the pharmacist acts as a medication resource for trauma team members and facilitates the timely administration of analgesics. This study measured the impact of a pharmacist on time to first analgesic dose administered during trauma resuscitation. All adult (>18 years) patients who presented to this level II trauma center via activation of the trauma response system between January 1, 2009, and May 31, 2013, were screened for eligibility. For inclusion, patients must have received intravenous fentanyl, morphine, or hydromorphone in the trauma bay. The time to medication administration was defined as the elapsed time from ED arrival to administration of first analgesic. There were 1328 trauma response system activations during the study period; of which 340 patients were included. The most common analgesic administered was fentanyl (62% in both groups). When a pharmacist was participating, the mean time to first analgesic administered was decreased (17 vs 21 minutes; P = .03). Among the 78% of patients with documented pain scores, the overall mean reduction in pain scores from ED arrival to ED discharge was similar between the 2 groups. There was a 2.4 point reduction with a pharmacist versus 2.7 without a pharmacist, using a 0 to 10 numeric pain rating scale. The participation of a clinical pharmacist during trauma resuscitation significantly decreased the time to first analgesic administration in trauma patients. The results of this study supplement the literature supporting the integration of clinical ED pharmacists on trauma teams.

  5. General practitioners' perceptions of pharmacists' new services in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatah, Ernieda; Braund, Rhiannon; Duffull, Stephen; Tordoff, June

    2012-04-01

    In recent years, the pharmacy profession has moved towards more patient-oriented services. Some examples are medication review, screening and monitoring for disease, and prescribing. The new services are intended to be in close collaboration with general practitioners (GPs) yet little is known of how GPs in New Zealand perceive these new services. Objective To examine GPs' perceptions of pharmacists' new services. Study was undertaken at GPs' practices in two localities in New Zealand. Qualitative, face to face, semi-structured interviews were undertaken of 18 GPs. The cohort included GPs with less/more than 20 years of practice, and GPs who had experience of working in localities where some patients had undergone a medication review (Medicines Use Review, MUR) by community pharmacists. GPs were asked to share their perceptions about pharmacists providing some new services. Data were thematically analysed with constant comparison using NVivo 8 software. Using a business strategic planning approach, themes were further analysed and interpreted as the services' potential Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOTs). GPs' perceptions of pharmacists' new services. GPs were more supportive of pharmacists' playing active roles in medication review and less supportive of pharmacists practising screening-monitoring and prescribing. Discussions Pharmacists' knowledge and skills in medication use and the perceived benefits of the services to patients were considered the potential strengths of the services. Weaknesses centred around potential patient confusion and harm, conflict and irritation to GPs' practice, and the potential to fragment patient-care. Opportunities were the possibilities of improving communication, and having a close collaboration and integration with GPs' practice. Apparent threats were the GPs' perceptions of a related, and not renumerated, increase in their workloads, and the perception of limited benefit to patients. Pharmacists should

  6. Emergency department discharge prescription interventions by emergency medicine pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesarz, Joseph L; Steffenhagen, Aaron L; Svenson, James; Hamedani, Azita G

    2013-02-01

    We determine the rate and details of interventions associated with emergency medicine pharmacist review of discharge prescriptions for patients discharged from the emergency department (ED). Additionally, we evaluate care providers' satisfaction with such services provided by emergency medicine pharmacists. This was a prospective observational study in the ED of an academic medical center that serves both adult and pediatric patients. Details of emergency medicine pharmacist interventions on discharge prescriptions were compiled with a standardized form. Interventions were categorized as error prevention or optimization of therapy. The staff of the ED was surveyed related to the influence and satisfaction of this new emergency medicine pharmacist-provided service. The 674 discharge prescriptions reviewed by emergency medicine pharmacists during the study period included 602 (89.3%) for adult patients and 72 (10.7%) for pediatric patients. Emergency medicine pharmacists intervened on 68 prescriptions, resulting in an intervention rate of 10.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] 8.0% to 12.7%). The intervention rate was 8.5% (95% CI 6.4% to 11.1%) for adult prescriptions and 23.6% for pediatric prescriptions (95% CI 14.7% to 35.3%) (difference 15.1%; 95% CI 5.1% to 25.2%). There were a similar number of interventions categorized as error prevention and optimization of medication therapy, 37 (54%) and 31 (46%), respectively. More than 95% of survey respondents believed that the new pharmacist services improved patient safety, optimized medication regimens, and improved patient satisfaction. Emergency medicine pharmacist review of discharge prescriptions for discharged ED patients has the potential to significantly improve patient care associated with suboptimal prescriptions and is highly valued by ED care providers. Copyright © 2012. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  7. Attitudes towards conscientious objection among community pharmacists in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Piecuch, Anna; Gryka, Malwina; Kozłowska-Wojciechowska, Małgorzata

    2013-01-01

    Background The European Council Resolution 1763 (2010), “The right to conscientious objection in lawful medical care”, provoked a discussion among Polish pharmacists on the necessity for granting them the right to refuse to dispense medicinal products which invoke conscientious objection. Objective To explore attitudes of Polish pharmacists towards the conscience clause. Setting Pharmacies with public e-mail addresses in various parts of Poland (Lower Silesia Province, Mazovia Province, Kuyav...

  8. Aerial radiometric and magnetic survey, San Angelo National Topographic Map: Texas, West Texas Project. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-05-01

    The results of analyses of the airborne gamma radiation and total magnetic field survey flown for the region identified as the San Angelo National Topographic Map NH14-1 are presented. The airborne data gathered are reduced by ground computer facilities to yield profile plots of the basic uranium, thorium, and potassium equivalent gamma radiation intensities, ratios of these intensities, aircraft altitude above the earth's surface, total gamma ray and earth's magnetic field intensity, correlated as a function of geologic units. The distribution of data within each geologic unit, for all surveyed map lines and tie lines, has been calculated and is included. Two sets of profiled data for each line are included, with one set displaying the above-cited data. The second set includes only flight line magnetic field, temperature, pressure, altitude data plus magnetic field data as measured at a base station. A general description of the area, including descriptions of the various geologic units and the corresponding airborne data, is included

  9. Utilisation of community pharmacists by the general public in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Siew Siang; Lim, Kien Ping; Lee, Hong Gee

    2013-02-01

    The study was conducted to assess how the general public in the Klang Valley, Malaysia, utilised community pharmacists. This was a prospective observational study which documented interactions between community pharmacists and their customers. A researcher was stationed in 10 participating community pharmacies around the Klang Valley to observe and record all the interactions, using a structured data-collection form. KEYS FINDINGS: Interactions between 1914 customers and the pharmacists of the 10 community pharmacies were recorded. A total of 2199 requests were made by these customers. The main types of request were for medications by brand name (32.2%), advice on minor health problems (25.9%) and for health supplements (11.7%). Only 65 prescriptions were received by the community pharmacies; that is, fewer than two prescriptions per pharmacy per day. The pharmacists provided counselling for only 54.4% of the requests where a medication or health supplement was dispensed. Counselling by pharmacist was significantly associated with the type of request (P Malaysia was to purchase a particular medication. Few prescriptions were filled at community pharmacies in Malaysia, indicating the under-utilisation of community pharmacists as a safety net for prescribed medications in primary care. © 2012 The Authors. IJPP © 2012 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  10. Canadian community pharmacists' use of digital health technologies in practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Valerie; Tharmalingam, Sukirtha; Cooper, Janet; Charlebois, Maureen

    2016-01-01

    In 2010, a pan-Canadian study on the current state and benefits of provincial drug information systems (DIS) found that substantial benefits were being realized and that pharmacists perceived DIS to be a valuable tool in the evolving models of pharmacy practice. To understand changes in digital health and the impact on practice since that time, a survey of community pharmacists in Canada was conducted. In 2014, Canada Health Infoway (Infoway) and the Canadian Pharmacists Association (CPhA) invited community pharmacists to participate in a Web-based survey to understand their use and perceived benefits of digital health in practice. The survey was open from April 15 to May 12, 2014. Of the 447 survey responses, almost all used some form of digital health in practice. Those with access to DIS and provincial laboratory information systems (LIS) reported increased productivity and better quality of care. Those without access to these systems would overwhelmingly like access. There have been significant advances in digital health and community pharmacy practice over the past several years. In addition to digital health benefits in the areas of productivity and quality of care, pharmacists are also experiencing substantial benefits in areas related to recently expanded scope of practice activities such as ordering lab tests. Community pharmacists frequently use digital health in practice and recognize the benefits of these technologies. Digital health is, and will continue to be, a key enabler for practice transformation and improved quality of care. Can Pharm J (Ott) 2016;149:xx-xx.

  11. The role of the pharmacist in hypertension management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Palo, Katherine E; Kish, Troy

    2018-04-24

    Hypertension remains a vital, modifiable risk factor in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. However, many patients do not achieve their therapeutic goals for numerous reasons which can include poor disease insight and nonadherence. Pharmacists can be key players in controlling hypertension, given their medication knowledge and patient counseling skills, yet they remain an underutilized resource in the management of chronic disease states. Various models exist that allow pharmacists to provide direct patient-centered care but practices differ from state to state since pharmacists are not recognized nationally as healthcare providers. This article aims to provide an update on the proven methods in which pharmacists contribute to the management of hypertensive patients. Several recently published studies demonstrate the positive impact of pharmacist intervention and care on patient outcomes in ambulatory and community settings. These practice models include medication therapy management, collaborative drug therapy management, telehealth and team-based care. The role of the pharmacist in hypertension encompasses medication management, disease state education and patient counseling and is most successful when integrated into the patient's care team. Further validation through larger, prospective trials and evaluation of long-term outcomes, such as mortality, remain viable research opportunities.

  12. WHAT MOTIVATES POLISH COMMUNITY PHARMACISTS TO PURSUIT OF POSTGRADUATE EDUCATION?.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasinska-Stroschein, Magdalena; Kurczewska, Urszula; Orszulak-Michalak, Daria

    2017-03-01

    Due to increasing importance of the advisory role for physicians and patients played by the pharmacist over the last decade, it seems appropriate to evaluate if and why pharmacists are interested in postgraduate medical education. The purpose of the study was to develop and validate an instrument to assess such motives, with special interest to Polish community pharmacists. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by a sample of participants of community pharmacist specialization programs and it was analyzed in relation to participants of other postgraduate courses. They were asked to rank their motives on a Likert-like scale and the underlying dimensions for study motives were identified using exploratory and confirmatory techniques. The reasons for taking specialization for community pharmacists were similar as compared to participants of other postgraduate studies. However, the autotelic factor was not so strong and the crucial reason was that such postgraduate training was required to be promoted in work. Basing on Polish results, we propose the division of motives into three groups - autotelic, instrumental and coincidental. The validated self-administered questionnaire based on this division displayed acceptable construct validity and internal consistency, and therefore can be proposed as an example tool to assess the particular motives and expectations of potential postgraduate students and employees in the pharmaceutical job market. The promotion of postgraduate education among pharmacists can improve the quality of pharmaceutical service.

  13. British pharmacists' work-life balance - is it a problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seston, Elizabeth; Hassell, Karen

    2014-04-01

    Using a validated tool, the study aimed to explore pharmacists' experiences of maintaining work/life balance in a large, nationally representative sample of pharmacists in Great Britain (GB). A two-page postal questionnaire was sent in 2008 to all GB-domiciled pharmacists who were registered with the regulatory body for pharmacy in GB (just over 44 000 pharmacists). Demographic information, work patterns and other employment data were collected and analysed using regression techniques to explore the link between these characteristics and a validated measure of work/life balance. The response rate to the census was 69.6% (n = 30 517). Eighty-three per cent (n = 25 243) of respondents were working as a pharmacist and were therefore eligible to complete the work/life balance statements. The results reported here relate to 12 364 individuals who had full data for the work/life balance scale and the demographic and work variables. Findings indicate that age, ethnicity, having caring responsibilities, sector of practice, hours of work and type of job are significant predictors of work/life balance problems. Pharmacy employers and government should recognise the changing demographic characteristics of the profession and consider what support might be available to the workforce to help alleviate work/life balance problems being experienced by certain groups of pharmacists. © 2013 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  14. The pharmacist Aggregate Demand Index to explain changing pharmacist demand over a ten-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Katherine K; Shah, Bijal M; Barnett, Mitchell J

    2010-12-15

    To describe Aggregate Demand Index (ADI) trends from 1999-2010; to compare ADI time trends to concurrent data for US unemployment levels, US entry-level pharmacy graduates, and US retail prescription growth rate; and to determine which variables were significant predictors of ADI. Annual ADI data (dependent variable) were analyzed against annual unemployment rates, annual number of pharmacy graduates, and annual prescription growth rate (independent variables). ADI data trended toward lower demand levels for pharmacists since late 2006, paralleling the US economic downturn. National ADI data were most highly correlated with unemployment (p demand. Predictable increases in future graduates and other factors support revisiting the modeling process as new data accumulate.

  15. Geology and ground-water resources of Winkler County, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza, Sergio; Wesselman, John B.

    1963-01-01

    Winkler County, in west Texas, is adjacent to the southeast corner of New Mexico. Most of the county lies in the Pecos Valley; the remainder, in the northeastern part of the county, is part of the Llano Estacado, or the High Plains. Its principal industries are those related to the production and refining of oil, but ranching also is an important occupation. The county has an arid to semiarid climate, an area of about 887 square miles, and a population of about 12,000 in 1957.

  16. The opioid overdose epidemic: opportunities for pharmacists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu LT

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Li-Tzy Wu,1–4 Udi E Ghitza,5 Anne L Burns,6 Paolo Mannelli,1 1Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, 2Department of Medicine, 3Duke Clinical Research Institute, Duke University School of Medicine, 4Center for Child and Family Policy, Sanford School of Public Policy, Duke University, Durham, NC, 5Center for Clinical Trials Network, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Bethesda, MD, 6American Pharmacists Association, Washington, DC, USA The USA is experiencing an opioid overdose epidemic. It has been driven largely by prescription opioids and intensified by a surge of illicit opioids (e.g., heroin and fentanyl.1,2 Drug-involved overdose, mainly opioids (e.g., prescription opioids and heroin, is a leading cause of accidental death in the USA. The opioid overdose epidemic has been escalating consistently for over a decade.2 Every day, an estimated 91 Americans die from opioid-related overdose.3 Opioid overdose appears to have disproportionally affected men, adults aged 25–64 years, and non-Hispanic whites.2

  17. Combating pharmacist shortage through labor certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maswoswe, J J; Stewart, K R; Enigbokan, M; Egbunike, I; Jackson, D M

    1994-06-01

    Several solutions, ranging from increased technician duties to salary raises, automation, and increasing job satisfaction, have been presented in the literature as methods of assuaging the pharmacist shortage. Although a significant portion of pharmacy graduates from American pharmacy colleges are foreign nationals, no marketing strategies have been elucidated in the retention and recruitment of foreign nationals through labor certification. Labor certifications are generally approved by the Secretary of Labor if the following factors have been verified: 1) there are not sufficient United States workers who are able, willing, qualified, and available for employment; and 2) the employment of the foreign national will not adversely affect the wages and working conditions of U.S. workers similarly employed. When properly understood, the labor certification process is a test of the job market where foreigners, by virtue of their skills and qualifications, attain certification which subsequently leads to permanent residency (green card). The objective of this report is to elucidate the tedious yet effective method of retaining American-educated foreign nationals through labor certification.

  18. Exploring pharmacists' opinions regarding PHARMAC's interventions in promoting brand changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babar, Z U; Polwin, A; Kan, S W; Amerasinghe, N; McCarthy, S; Rasheed, F; Stewart, J; Lessing, C; Ragupathy, R; Scahill, S L

    2015-01-01

    In New Zealand, the use of generic medicines is advocated by the Pharmaceutical Management Agency of New Zealand (PHARMAC). Among other interventions, PHARMAC uses educational awareness campaigns to educate pharmacists to promote the uptake of generic medicines. However, the opinion of pharmacists regarding these interventions has not yet been evaluated. The objective of this study was to explore pharmacists' opinions regarding PHARMAC's interventions in promoting medicine brand changes. A cross-sectional study design was employed to explore pharmacists' opinions regarding brand changes. A questionnaire was sent to 500 randomly selected pharmacists in New Zealand. In second component of the study, five community pharmacies in the Auckland region were selected through convenience sampling, and a semi-structured interview was conducted with a pharmacist in each site. One-hundred and eighty seven questionnaires were returned and analyzed (response rate of 37.4%). Sixty-eight percent of pharmacists supported brand changes and 98.4% mentioned that PHARMAC is responsible for informing them of brand changes. Over half (51.3%) of pharmacists found the current interventions effective, and 39.6% were satisfied with the current brand change information provided by PHARMAC. The majority (94.7%) of pharmacists currently receive faxed information but many indicated (70.8%) that they prefer email notifications. Cilazapril was considered the least difficult medicine to substitute in the past 10 years and omeprazole the most difficult. Patient acceptance and claims about effectiveness were the main factors in determining the difficulty of brand substitution. Fewer than half of the respondents felt that interventions were implemented with enough preparation time for a brand change. The ideal lead-in time was in the range of three to six months. Pharmacists expressed a number of concerns about brand changes such as the frequency at which they occur and the lack of generic stock

  19. Pharmacist-led screening in sexually transmitted infections: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wood H

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Helen Wood, Sajni Gudka School of Allied Health, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, The University of Western Australia, Perth, WA, Australia Introduction: Sexually transmitted infection (STI screening is a crucial initiative that aims to reduce the increasing global prevalence of many common STIs such as chlamydia, gonorrhea, and herpes simplex virus (HSV. Many STIs are either asymptomatic or show mild symptoms that are often attributed to other infections; hence, screening is the only way to identify – and by extension, treat – them. In this way, the spread of STIs can be reduced, and the health implications of an untreated STI are minimized. Community pharmacies could provide an avenue to convenient, confidential STI screening by using noninvasive or minimally invasive sample collection techniques that are used by the consumer or pharmacist. We identified the most common STIs found globally and investigated the current and potential role of pharmacists in provision of STI screening interventions.Discussion: There is sufficient evidence for pharmacy-based chlamydia screening, with many consumers and pharmacists finding it an acceptable and highly valued service. Some evidence was found for pharmacy-based gonorrhea, hepatitis B virus (HBV, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV screening. Appropriate sample collection for gonorrhea screening needs to be further examined in a pharmacy setting. HBV screening presented an increased risk of personal injury to pharmacists through the collection of whole blood specimens, which could be reduced through consumer self-sampling. Pharmacist-collected specimens for HIV is less risky as an oral swab can be used, nullifying the risk of transmission; but pre- and post-screen consultations can be time-intensive; hence, pharmacists would require remuneration to provide an ongoing HIV screening service. Not enough evidence was found for syphilis screening through community pharmacies; more studies are

  20. Expressing and negotiating face in community pharmacist-patient interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murad, Muna S; Spiers, Judith A; Guirguis, Lisa M

    2017-11-01

    A collaborative patient-pharmacist interaction is fundamental to greater patient satisfaction with pharmacy care and improved medication adherence. Effective pharmacist-patient communication occurs when both pharmacist and patient are able to successfully attend to not only the typical tasks and goals of the interaction but also basic face needs that underlie all social interaction; autonomy, competence or esteem, and fellowship. Addressing face needs occurs through conventional and strategic communication strategies that respond to the emerging needs throughout an interaction. Pharmacist-patient interactions are not just about transfer of information and medications. Both parties assess the situation, the others' intentions within the context of their own goals and this influences how they choose to act throughout the interaction. Face-work Theory provides a framework to understand these interaction processes in pharmacist-patient communication. The aim of this study was to determine face needs, threats and the strategic communication strategies used to address these within community pharmacist-patient interactions. This exploratory descriptive study drew upon principles of ethology to first describe naturally occurring behaviour and then to interpret this behaviour within the context of Face-work theory. Twenty-five audio-recorded community pharmacist-patient interactions were collected and analyzed. The average length of these interactions was 3:67 min with a range of 0.39 s-9:35 min. Multiple face needs for both pharmacist and patient were evident in most interactions. Autonomy, competence and fellowship face needs were negotiated in the following contexts: participative relationships, concordant role expectations, sensitive topics, and negotiating expertise and knowledge. Competence face needs for both parties were the most dominant need found in negotiating role expectations. The most common communication strategies used to support face were solidarity

  1. Chagas disease risk in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Sahotra; Strutz, Stavana E; Frank, David M; Rivaldi, Chissa-Louise; Sissel, Blake; Sánchez-Cordero, Victor

    2010-10-05

    Chagas disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, remains a serious public health concern in many areas of Latin America, including México. It is also endemic in Texas with an autochthonous canine cycle, abundant vectors (Triatoma species) in many counties, and established domestic and peridomestic cycles which make competent reservoirs available throughout the state. Yet, Chagas disease is not reportable in Texas, blood donor screening is not mandatory, and the serological profiles of human and canine populations remain unknown. The purpose of this analysis was to provide a formal risk assessment, including risk maps, which recommends the removal of these lacunae. The spatial relative risk of the establishment of autochthonous Chagas disease cycles in Texas was assessed using a five-stage analysis. 1. Ecological risk for Chagas disease was established at a fine spatial resolution using a maximum entropy algorithm that takes as input occurrence points of vectors and environmental layers. The analysis was restricted to triatomine vector species for which new data were generated through field collection and through collation of post-1960 museum records in both México and the United States with sufficiently low georeferenced error to be admissible given the spatial resolution of the analysis (1 arc-minute). The new data extended the distribution of vector species to 10 new Texas counties. The models predicted that Triatoma gerstaeckeri has a large region of contiguous suitable habitat in the southern United States and México, T. lecticularia has a diffuse suitable habitat distribution along both coasts of the same region, and T. sanguisuga has a disjoint suitable habitat distribution along the coasts of the United States. The ecological risk is highest in south Texas. 2. Incidence-based relative risk was computed at the county level using the Bayesian Besag-York-Mollié model and post-1960 T. cruzi incidence data. This risk is concentrated in south Texas. 3. The

  2. Chagas disease risk in Texas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahotra Sarkar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chagas disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, remains a serious public health concern in many areas of Latin America, including México. It is also endemic in Texas with an autochthonous canine cycle, abundant vectors (Triatoma species in many counties, and established domestic and peridomestic cycles which make competent reservoirs available throughout the state. Yet, Chagas disease is not reportable in Texas, blood donor screening is not mandatory, and the serological profiles of human and canine populations remain unknown. The purpose of this analysis was to provide a formal risk assessment, including risk maps, which recommends the removal of these lacunae. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The spatial relative risk of the establishment of autochthonous Chagas disease cycles in Texas was assessed using a five-stage analysis. 1. Ecological risk for Chagas disease was established at a fine spatial resolution using a maximum entropy algorithm that takes as input occurrence points of vectors and environmental layers. The analysis was restricted to triatomine vector species for which new data were generated through field collection and through collation of post-1960 museum records in both México and the United States with sufficiently low georeferenced error to be admissible given the spatial resolution of the analysis (1 arc-minute. The new data extended the distribution of vector species to 10 new Texas counties. The models predicted that Triatoma gerstaeckeri has a large region of contiguous suitable habitat in the southern United States and México, T. lecticularia has a diffuse suitable habitat distribution along both coasts of the same region, and T. sanguisuga has a disjoint suitable habitat distribution along the coasts of the United States. The ecological risk is highest in south Texas. 2. Incidence-based relative risk was computed at the county level using the Bayesian Besag-York-Mollié model and post-1960 T. cruzi incidence data. This

  3. Texas pavement preservation center four-year summary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-04

    The Texas Pavement Preservation Center (TPPC), in joint collaboration with the Center for Transportation Research (CTR) of the University of Texas at Austin and the Texas Transportation Institute (TTI) of Texas A&M University, promotes the use of pav...

  4. The pharmacist as prescriber: a discourse analysis of newspaper media in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindel, Theresa J; Given, Lisa M

    2013-01-01

    Legislation to expand the scope of practice for pharmacists to include authority to independently prescribe medications in Alberta, Canada was announced in 2006 and enacted in April 2007. To date, very little research has explored public views of pharmacist prescribing. This study analyzes newspaper media coverage of pharmacist prescribing 1 year before and 2 years after prescribing was implemented. News items related to pharmacist prescribing were retrieved from 2 national, Canadian newspapers and 5 local newspapers in Alberta over a 3-year period after the announcement of pharmacist prescribing. A purposive sample of 66 texts including news items, editorials, and letters were retrieved electronically from 2 databases, Newscan and Canadian Newsstand. This study uses social positioning theory as a lens for analyzing the discourse of pharmacist prescribing. The results demonstrate a binary positioning of the debate on pharmacist prescribing rights. Using social positioning theory as a lens for analysis, the results illustrate self- and other-positioning of pharmacists' expected roles as prescribers. Themes related to the discourse on pharmacist prescribing include qualifications, diagnosis, patient safety, physician support, and conflict of interest. Media representations of pharmacist prescribing point to polarized views that may serve to shape public, pharmacist, physician, and others' opinions of the issue. Multiple and contradictory views of pharmacist prescribing coexist. Pharmacists and pharmacy organizations are challenged to bring clarity and consistency about pharmacist prescribing to better serve the public interest in understanding options for health care services. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Utilization of simulated patients to assess diabetes and asthma counseling practices among community pharmacists in Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paravattil, Bridget; Kheir, Nadir; Yousif, Adil

    2017-08-01

    Background Patient counseling is one of the most important services a pharmacist can provide to patients. Studies have shown that counseling provided by pharmacists may prevent medication related problems and improve adherence to medication therapy. Objective To explore counseling practices among community pharmacists using simulated patients and to determine if patient, pharmacist, and pharmacy characteristics influence the counseling provided by community pharmacists. Setting Private community pharmacies within Qatar. Method This is a randomized, cross sectional study where simulated patients visited community pharmacies and presented the pharmacist with a new prescription or requested a refill for either a diabetes or asthma medication. Pharmacists completed a questionnaire at the end of the simulated interaction, which was utilized to determine if patient, pharmacist, or pharmacy characteristics had any influence on the counseling provided to patients. A scoring system was devised to assess the pharmacist's counseling practices. Main outcome measure To evaluate the type of information provided by community pharmacists to the simulated patient regarding diabetes and asthma. Results One hundred and twenty-nine pharmacists were enrolled in the study. Eighty one percent of pharmacists had a score master of pharmacy degree provided significantly better counseling (f = 3.261; p = 0.042). Many pharmacists (65%) provided hypoglycemia management to patients, however, 63% referred the patient to the physician when the patient experienced hypoglycemia from inappropriate medication administration. Only 2 (7%) pharmacists correctly counseled the patient on all 8 inhaler administration steps. Majority of pharmacists (50%) educated on the role of the rescue and controller therapy in asthma, however, 33% referred the patient to the physician when the patient inquired about controller therapy use. Conclusion Patient counseling was substandard with the majority of community

  6. [Survey of student pharmacists' attitudes toward new procedures expected for future pharmacists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokunaga, Jin; Takamura, Norito; Ogata, Kenji; Yoshida, Hiroki; Setoguchi, Nao; Sato, Keizo

    2010-06-01

    Bedsides conventional bedside training the Department of Pharmacy of Kyushu University of Health and Welfare covers advanced practices focused on new procedures expected for future pharmacists. A questionnaire survey was conducted among the 4th year students of the 6-year curriculum of the department in order to retrospectively evaluate their attitudes toward basic life support, and the necessity and feasibility of items related to the training. Sixty-nine percent of the students responded that they would provide appropriate treatment under a situation where basic life support was needed. The item regarded as most necessary and feasible before training was "treatment for basic life support--cardiopulmonary resuscitation." After training, however, "checking vital signs," "physical assessment," and "pharmacist's assistance in medication" were the items rated as equal to or higher than "treatment for basic life support--cardiopulmonary resuscitation." The lowest ranked item in terms of necessity and feasibility both before and after training was "intramuscular/subcutaneous injection," followed by "intravenous injection" and "normal intravenous collection of blood" in that order. The results of this attitude survey demonstrated that many students were willing to perform such operations as part of checking vital signs and physical assessment.

  7. A waste walk through clinical pharmacy: how do the 'seven wastes' of Lean techniques apply to the practice of clinical pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Christopher F; Crawford, Victoria; Bresnen, Gaynor; Rowe, Philip H

    2015-02-01

    This study used a 'Lean' technique, the 'waste walk' to evaluate the activities of clinical pharmacists with reference to the seven wastes described in 'Lean' including 'defects', 'unnecessary motion', 'overproduction', 'transport of products or material', 'unnecessary waiting', 'unnecessary inventory' and 'inappropriate processing'. The objectives of the study were to categorise the activities of ward-based clinical pharmacists into waste and non-waste, provide detail around what constitutes waste activity and quantify the proportion of time attributed to each category. This study was carried out in a district general hospital in the North West of England. Staff were observed using work-sampling techniques, to categorise activity into waste and non-waste, with waste activities being allocated to each of the seven wastes described earlier and subdivided into recurrent themes. Twenty different pharmacists were observed for 1 h on two separate occasions. Of 1440 observations, 342 (23.8%) were categorised as waste with 'defects' and 'unnecessary motion' accounting for the largest proportions of waste activity. Observation of clinical pharmacists' activities has identified that a significant proportion of their time could be categorised as 'waste'. There are practical steps that could be implemented in order to ensure their time is used as productively as possible. Given the challenges facing the UK National Health Service, the adoption of 'Lean' techniques provides an opportunity to improve quality and productivity while reducing costs. © 2014 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  8. Pharmacists performing quality spirometry testing: an evidence based review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawley, Michael J; Warning, William J

    2015-10-01

    The scope of pharmacist services for patients with pulmonary disease has primarily focused on drug related outcomes; however pharmacists have the ability to broaden the scope of clinical services by performing diagnostic testing including quality spirometry testing. Studies have demonstrated that pharmacists can perform quality spirometry testing based upon international guidelines. The primary aim of this review was to assess the published evidence of pharmacists performing quality spirometry testing based upon American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society (ATS/ERS) guidelines. In order to accomplish this, the description of evidence and type of outcome from these services were reviewed. A literature search was conducted using five databases [PubMed (1946-January 2015), International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (1970 to January 2015), Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews] with search terms including pharmacy, spirometry, pulmonary function, asthma or COPD was conducted. Searches were limited to publications in English and reported in humans. In addition, Uniform Resource Locators and Google Scholar searches were implemented to include any additional supplemental information. Eight studies (six prospective multi-center trials, two retrospective single center studies) were included. Pharmacists in all studies received specialized training in performing spirometry testing. Of the eight studies meeting inclusion and exclusion criteria, 8 (100%) demonstrated acceptable repeatability of spirometry testing based upon standards set by the ATS/ERS guidelines. Acceptable repeatability of seven studies ranged from 70 to 99% consistent with published data. Available evidence suggests that quality spirometry testing can be performed by pharmacists. More prospective studies are needed to add to the current evidence of quality spirometry testing performed by

  9. Survey of community pharmacists' perception of electronic cigarettes in London

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques Gomes, Ana C N; Nabhani-Gebara, Shereen; Kayyali, Reem; Buonocore, Federico; Calabrese, Gianpiero

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To seek community pharmacists' perception on use, safety and possible effectiveness of e-cigarettes as quit smoking tools, and their future regulation. Setting A survey of a sample of 154 community pharmacies across London, UK. Context E-cigarettes have exclusively established themselves in the market through consumers-led demand. To date, e-cigarettes still remain unregulated and can be easily purchased in shops, over the internet, but more controversially also in pharmacies in the UK. Pharmacists find themselves with a shortage of information on their safety and efficacy, and may experience an ethical dilemma when consulted by patients/customers. Key findings Response rate: 60% (n=92). Independent pharmacies accounted for 90% of the sample. The majority of participants (73%) sell e-cigarettes. A minority of participants (20%) have been presented with adverse effects such as cough and dry mouth. As possible reasons for their use, pharmacists ranked ‘aid in stop smoking’ as the most important (56%), with ‘cheaper alternative’ (43%) and ‘social/recreational use’ (31%) being the least important ones. Safety issues were raised as statements such as ‘e-liquid in cartridges may be toxic’ were agreed by 52% of respondents. The majority of pharmacists (97%) were supportive of e-cigarettes being regulated, expressing current concerns regarding excipients (42%) and nicotine content (34%). Participants indicated that they would require training in the form of information packs (88%), online tutorials (67%), continuous professional development (CPD) workshops (43%) to cover safety, counselling, dosage instructions, adverse effects and role in the smoking cessation care pathway in the future. Conclusions Pharmacists expressed concerns about the safety of e-cigarettes, especially regarding the amounts of excipients and nicotine as these still remain unregulated. Currently, there are no guidelines for pharmacists regarding e-cigarettes. Community

  10. The Role of Medicinal Cannabis in Clinical Therapy: Pharmacists' Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Sami; Saini, Bandana; Chaar, Betty B

    2016-01-01

    Medicinal cannabis has recently attracted much media attention in Australia and across the world. With the exception of a few countries, cannabinoids remain illegal-known for their adverse effects rather than their medicinal application and therapeutic benefit. However, there is mounting evidence demonstrating the therapeutic benefits of cannabis in alleviating neuropathic pain, improving multiple sclerosis spasticity, reducing chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting, and many other chronic conditions. Many are calling for the legalisation of medicinal cannabis including consumers, physicians and politicians. Pharmacists are the gatekeepers of medicines and future administrators/dispensers of cannabis to the public, however very little has been heard about pharmacists' perspectives. Therefore the aim of this study was to explore pharmacists' views about medicinal cannabis; its legalisation and supply in pharmacy. Semi-structured interviews with 34 registered pharmacists in Australia were conducted. All interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed ad verbatim and thematically analysed using the NVivo software. Emergent themes included stigma, legislation, safety and collaboration. Overall the majority of pharmacists felt national legalisation of a standardised form of cannabis would be suitable, and indicated various factors and strategies to manage its supply. The majority of participants felt that the most suitable setting would be via a community pharmacy setting due to the importance of accessibility for patients. This study explored views of practicing pharmacists, revealing a number of previously undocumented views and barriers about medicinal cannabis from a supply perspective. There were several ethical and professional issues raised for consideration. These findings highlight the important role that pharmacists hold in the supply of medicinal cannabis. Additionally, this study identified important factors, which will help shape future policies for the

  11. The Role of Medicinal Cannabis in Clinical Therapy: Pharmacists' Perspectives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Isaac

    Full Text Available Medicinal cannabis has recently attracted much media attention in Australia and across the world. With the exception of a few countries, cannabinoids remain illegal-known for their adverse effects rather than their medicinal application and therapeutic benefit. However, there is mounting evidence demonstrating the therapeutic benefits of cannabis in alleviating neuropathic pain, improving multiple sclerosis spasticity, reducing chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting, and many other chronic conditions. Many are calling for the legalisation of medicinal cannabis including consumers, physicians and politicians. Pharmacists are the gatekeepers of medicines and future administrators/dispensers of cannabis to the public, however very little has been heard about pharmacists' perspectives. Therefore the aim of this study was to explore pharmacists' views about medicinal cannabis; its legalisation and supply in pharmacy.Semi-structured interviews with 34 registered pharmacists in Australia were conducted. All interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed ad verbatim and thematically analysed using the NVivo software.Emergent themes included stigma, legislation, safety and collaboration. Overall the majority of pharmacists felt national legalisation of a standardised form of cannabis would be suitable, and indicated various factors and strategies to manage its supply. The majority of participants felt that the most suitable setting would be via a community pharmacy setting due to the importance of accessibility for patients.This study explored views of practicing pharmacists, revealing a number of previously undocumented views and barriers about medicinal cannabis from a supply perspective. There were several ethical and professional issues raised for consideration. These findings highlight the important role that pharmacists hold in the supply of medicinal cannabis. Additionally, this study identified important factors, which will help shape future

  12. Cancer awareness among community pharmacist: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensah, Kofi Boamah; Oosthuizen, Frasia; Bonsu, Adwoa Bemah

    2018-03-16

    The WHO recognises that community pharmacists are the most accessible healthcare professionals to the general public. Most patients regularly visit community pharmacies for health information and also seek advice from pharmacists with respect to signs and symptoms of cancer. As readily accessible health care professionals, community pharmacists are also in the best position to include cancer-screening initiatives into their practice. Pharmacists are therefore in a good position to raise awareness when they counsel people who buy over-the-counter medication for the control of possible cancer-related symptoms. The aim of this review was to critically appraise evidence gathered from studies that; (1) explore or assess knowledge of community pharmacist on signs and symptoms of cancer, (2) explore or assess knowledge of community pharmacist on cancer screening. EMBASE (ovid), CINAHL (EBSCOhost) and MEDLINE (EBSCOhost) were systematically searched for studies conducted between 2005 to July 2017. Studies that focused on knowledge of community pharmacist in cancer screening, signs and symptoms were included. A total of 1538 articles were identified from the search, of which 4 out of the 28 potentially relevant abstracts were included in the review. Findings of the selected studies revealed lack of sufficient knowledge on breast cancer screening, signs and symptoms. Both studies attributed knowledge limitation as the cause of reason for the key findings of their studies. The selected studies focused largely on breast cancer, which hinder the generalizability and transferability of the findings. Hence there is a need for more studies to be conducted in this area to draw a better conclusion.

  13. Pharmacist intervention reduces gastropathy risk in patients using NSAIDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibañez-Cuevas, Victoria; Lopez-Briz, Eduardo; Guardiola-Chorro, M Teresa

    2008-12-01

    To establish a detection and intervention strategy in order to reduce the number of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAIDs) users at risk of gastropathy from receiving either inadequate or no gastroprotection. Community Pharmacies in Valencia, Spain. Prospective longitudinal intervention study without control group carried out by 79 Community Pharmacies. Patients over 18 who asked for any systemic NSAID were interviewed according to standard procedure. Pharmacist intervention was carried out when a patient at risk of serious NSAID-induced gastrointestinal complications due to inadequate or no gastric protection was identified. The doctor responsible was informed in order to then be able to assess the need to prescribe gastroprotection or change it if inadequate. In the case of over-the-counter (OTC) drugs, pharmacist intervention mainly involved replacing NSAIDs for safer medications. Firstly, the number of patients who had no prescribed gastroprotection or inadequate gastroprotection was determined. Pharmacist intervention then brought about changes in pharmacotherapy in this situation. Of the 6,965 patients who asked for NSAIDs during the study period, 3,054 (43.9%) presented NSAID gastropathy risk factors. 35.6% of the latter (1,089) were not prescribed gastroprotection or were prescribed inadequate gastroprotection. Pharmacist intervention was carried out in 1,075 of these cases. On 391 occasions such risk situations were reported to doctors, who accepted pharmacist intervention on 309 occasions (79.0%) and then either prescribed gastroprotection (77% of cases); changed it (13.9%); withdrew the NSAID (5.8%) or substituted it (3.2%). 235 Pharmacist interventions took place when dispensing OTC NSAIDs. Our strategy allowed us to identify a large number of patients who asked for NSAIDs in Community Pharmacies and who were at risk of NSAID gastropathy, as they received either inadequate gastroprotection or no gastroprotection whatsoever. Moreover, the

  14. Medical applications for pharmacists using mobile devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aungst, Timothy Dy

    2013-01-01

    Mobile devices (eg, smartphones, tablet computers) have become ubiquitous and subsequently there has been a growth in mobile applications (apps). Concurrently, mobile devices have been integrated into health care practice due to the availability and quality of medical apps. These mobile medical apps offer increased access to clinical references and point-of-care tools. However, there has been little identification of mobile medical apps suitable for the practice of pharmacy. To address the shortage of recommendations of mobile medical apps for pharmacists in daily practice. Mobile medical apps were identified via the iTunes and Google Play Stores via the "Medical" app categories and key word searches (eg, drug information, medical calculators). In addition, reviews provided by professional mobile medical app review websites were used to identify apps. Mobile medical apps were included if they had been updated in the previous 3 months, were available in the US, used evidence-based information or literature support, had dedicated app support, and demonstrated stability. Exclusion criteria included apps that were not available in English, had advertisement bias, used nonreferenced sources, were available only via an institution-only subscription, and were web-based portals. Twenty-seven mobile apps were identified and reviewed that involved general pharmacy practice, including apps that involved drug references, clinical references, medical calculators, laboratory references, news and continuing medical education, and productivity. Mobile medical apps have a variety of features that are beneficial to pharmacy practice. Individual clinicians should consider several characteristics of these apps to determine which are suitable to incorporate into their daily practice.

  15. Upper Cretaceous molluscan record along a transect from Virden, New Mexico, to Del Rio, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobban, W.A.; Hook, S.C.; McKinney, K.C.

    2008-01-01

    Updated age assignments and new collections of molluscan fossils from lower Cenomanian through upper Campanian strata in Texas permit a much refined biostratigraphic correlation with the rocks of New Mexico and the Western Interior. Generic names of many Late Cretaceous ammonites and inoceramid bivalves from Texas are updated to permit this correlation. Strata correlated in the west-to-east transect include the lower Cenomanian Beartooth Quartzite and Sarten Sandstone of southwest New Mexico, and the Eagle Mountains Formation, Del Rio Clay, Buda Limestone, and. basal beds of the Chispa Summit, Ojinaga, and Boquillas Formations of the Texas-Mexico border area. Middle Cenomanian strata are lacking in southwestern New Mexico but are present in the lower parts of the Chispa Summit and Boquillas Formations in southwest Texas. Upper Cenomanian and lower Turonian rocks are present at many localities in New Mexico and Texas in the Mancos Shale and Chispa Summit, Ojinaga, and Boquillas Formations. Middle Turonian and younger rocks seem to be entirely nonmarine in southwestern New Mexico, but they are marine in the Rio Grande area in the Chispa. Summit, Ojinaga, and Boquillas Formations. The upper part of the Chispa Summit and Boquillas contain late Turonian fossils. Rocks of Coniacian and Santonian age are present high in the Chispa Summit, Ojinaga, and Boquillas Formations, and in the lower part of the Austin. The San Carlos, Aguja, Pen, and Austin Formations contain fossils of Campanian age. Fossils representing at least 38 Upper Cretaceous ammonite zones are present along the transect. Collections made in recent years in southwestern New Mexico and at Sierra de Cristo Rey just west of downtown El Paso, Texas, have been well treated and do not need revision. Taxonomic names and zonations published in the pre-1970 literature on the Rio Grande area of Texas have been updated. New fossil collections from the Big Bend National Park, Texas, allow for a much refined correlation

  16. Health promotion and education activities of community pharmacists in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Abdelmoneim; Abahussain, Eman

    2010-04-01

    To investigate self-reported practice of pharmacists regarding health promotion and education activities, explore the barriers that may limit their involvement in health promotion and education, and identify their willingness to participate in continuing education programs related to health education. Community pharmacies in Kuwait. A descriptive cross-sectional study was performed using a pre-tested questionnaire on a sample of 223 community pharmacists. The extent of the pharmacists' involvement in counselling patients about health promotion and education topics, their preparation to counsel patients in health promotion and education topics, and their perceived success in changing the patients' health behaviour. The response rate was 92%. Information on medication use was the most frequent reason for consumers seeking community pharmacists' advice. The majority of respondents believed that behaviour related to the proper use of drugs was very important. There was less agreement on the importance of other health behaviours. Respondents indicated they were involved in counselling patients on health behaviours related to use of drugs as prescribed/directed, weight management, medicine contents and side effects, diet modification and stress reduction, but were less involved in counselling on other health behaviours. Respondents' perception of themselves as "most prepared" to counsel patients closely reflected their involvement. Pharmacists reported high levels of success in helping patients to achieve improvements in using their drugs properly compared to low levels in changing patients' personal health behaviours. The majority of respondents believed that pharmacists had a responsibility for counselling consumers on health behaviours (97%, 95% CI 95-99%), and indicated their willingness to learn more about health promotion (84%, 78-88%). Lack of pharmacists' time was reported by about 58% of respondents as the major barrier limiting pharmacists' provision of health

  17. A Survey for Assessment of Role of Pharmacist in Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Kapur

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Objective: To assess the role of pharmacist in community setting & consumer’s perception in National Capital
    Region.
    Setting: The study was conducted in National Capital Region of India during the year 2003-04.
    Method: Four pharmacy shops were selected for this study which were not attached to any hospital or clinic. Seventy
    seven consumers, who visited these pharmacies during the study period, were selected for this study and
    interviewed just after they visited the pharmacy.
    Key findings: A total of 77 consumers in the age group of 11 to 72 years were included in the present study, of
    which 66.2% were males and 33.8% were females. It is observed that 46.7% consumers came for prescription
    medicines, 23.4% for over the counter medicines. Close to general physicians’ clinics and proximity to home
    were most important reasons given for visiting particular pharmacy. Majority of the consumers (n=56, 72.7%
    rated the advice given by the pharmacist as very useful, only 1(1.3% rated it as not useful at all and 2 (2.6%
    consumers did not respond. Among consumer groups 31 (40.3% thought that pharmacist has a good balance
    between health and business matter and 35.7% were in opinion that pharmacist is more concerned with making
    money, while 5.2% supported that the pharmacist is also interested in the health of his/her customers. The pharmacists
    were ranked at the top with 28(36.4% by the consumers and favoured pharmacy as the most convenient
    place to get advice about staying healthy.
    Conclusion: Most of the consumers in the present study were of the opinion that pharmacist is concerned with the
    health of the consumers, though he/she is also interested in making money. Many respondents were unaware
    about the difference between pharmacist and doctor, most of them consider

  18. [Characteristics of systematic reviews about the impact of pharmacists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanguay, C; Guérin, A; Bussières, J-F

    2014-11-01

    The pharmacists' role is varied and numerous articles evaluate the outcomes of pharmaceutical interventions. The main objectives of this study were to establish the characteristics of systematic reviews about pharmacists' interventions that were published in the last five years. A literature search was performed on Pubmed for French and English articles published between 01-01-2008 and 31-05-2013. Systematic reviews that presented the role, the interventions and the impact of pharmacists were selected by two research assistants. A total of 46 systematic reviews was identified, amongst which one third (n=15/46, 33 %) were meta-analyses. A quarter of systematic reviews did not evaluate the quality of included articles (n=13/46, 28 %). Twelve themes were identified. A median [min-max] of 16 [2-298] articles was included per systematic review. The most frequent pharmaceutical activities were patient counseling (n=41 systematic reviews), patient chart review (n=29), pharmacotherapy evaluation (n=27) and recommendations (n=26). The least frequent activities were teaching others than patients (n=12) and medical rounds participation (n=7). Many elements can influence the completion of pharmacy practice research projects; however, there exists no link between the presence of systematic reviews and the importance of pharmacists in a given healthcare program. This study presents the characteristics of 46 systematic reviews about pharmacists interventions published since 2008. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Medication management in North Carolina elementary schools: Are pharmacists involved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegall-Zanation, Jennifer; Scolaro, Kelly L

    2010-01-01

    To determine the extent of pharmacist use in medication management, roles of school nurses, and use of other health care providers at elementary schools in North Carolina. Prospective survey of 153 (130 public and 23 private) elementary schools in four counties of North Carolina. A 21-question survey was e-mailed to the head administrator of each school (e.g., principal, headmaster) containing a Qualtrics survey link. Questions were designed to elicit information on school policies and procedures for medication management and use of health care providers, including pharmacists, in the schools. Responses were collected during a 2-month period. Representatives from 29 schools participated in the survey (19% response rate). All 29 schools reported having a school policy regarding medication administration during school hours. Of those, 27 schools reported consulting with nurses on their policies. Only 1 of 27 respondents reported consulting with pharmacists on medication management policies. The majority of the respondents (93.1%) stated that administrative staff was responsible for medication administration at the schools. Use of pharmacists in creating and reviewing policies for schools and actual medication management at schools was extremely low. The findings in this study reinforce the findings in previous studies that pharmacists are not being used and are not a major presence in elementary school health.

  20. Correlates of Prescription Opioid Legitimacy Judgments Among Community Pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemeier, Nicholas E; Alamian, Arsham; Murawski, Matthew M; Flippin, Heather; Hagy, Elizabeth J; Pack, Robert P

    2016-05-11

    Community pharmacists are legally required to evaluate and confirm the legitimacy of prescription opioids (POs) prior to dispensing. Yet, previous research has indicated community pharmacists perceive nearly 50% of dispensed POs to be issued lacking a legitimate medical purpose. To analyze correlates of PO legitimacy judgments across pharmacist and pharmacy setting characteristics. A cross-sectional study of 2000 Tennessee pharmacists was conducted during October and November of 2012. Community pharmacists' self-reported attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors specific to PO legitimacy were elicited. Step-wise multinomial logistic regression techniques were used to model correlates of PO legitimacy across low, moderate and high PO legitimacy estimations. Being female, practicing in a chain or independent practice setting, fear of employer disciplinary action if PO legitimacy is questioned, and self-confidence in one's ability to detect PO abuse increased the odds of low (vs. high) PO legitimacy estimation (p legitimacy estimation (p legitimacy judgments. Distinct correlates were noted across low and moderate as compared to high estimations of PO legitimacy. Legitimacy judgments can inform theoretical exploration of PO dispensing behaviors and inform intervention development targeted at reducing and preventing prescription drug abuse.

  1. Continued Professional Education of Bulgarian Pharmacists: Second Registration Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrova G.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The continuing professional education prepares the pharmacists for the requirements of the changed role of pharmacists in the society. Different approaches to continuous professional education ranging from lectures to peer-mentoring work shops and web tools have been developed throughout the last 25 years. The goal of the current analysis is to systematize the trends in accredited education events for pharmacists by the Quality Committee of the BPhU during 2010-2013. This study is a retrospective database analysis. The information concerning the accredited forms of continuing education of pharmacists as well as other activities related to continuing education was extracted from the official protocols, issued by the Quality Commission of the Bulgarian Pharmaceutical Union (BPhU. The continuing postgraduate education of pharmacists in Bulgaria is developing with new elements which allow competence development through individual forms of self-development such as publication activities, delivering presentations, individual training, etc. In the educational programs accredited during the second registration period, still prevailed the short courses, with focus on the new medicinal products.

  2. Pharmacists as Interprofessional Collaborators and Leaders through Clinical Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherine Ismail

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacists possess pivotal competencies and expertise in developing clinical pathways (CPs. We present a tertiary care facility experience of pharmacists vis-a-vis interprofessional collaboration for designing and implementing CPs. We participated in the development of CPs as leading members of a collaborative team of healthcare professionals. We reviewed literature, aligning it with hospital formulary and institutional standards, and participated in weekly team meetings for six months. Several tools and services were adapted to guide prescribing and standardization of care through time-bound order sets. Fifteen CPs leading to admissions in medical wards were developed and integrated into Computerized Prescriber Order Entry (CPOE sets. Tools and services included (1 reporting of creatinine clearance to guide optimum dosing; (2 advisory flags for dosing and infusion rates; (3 piloting of medication reconciliation and counseling services before discharge were initiated; (4 Arabic drug leaflets were designed to educate patients; and (5 five CPs were included in pragmatic randomized control trials with a clinical pharmacist as co-investigator. Clinical pharmacists conducted continuous orientation to various healthcare professionals throughout the process. CPs provide unique opportunities for establishing and evaluating patient-centered pharmaceutical services and allow clinical pharmacists to demonstrate interprofessional leadership in collaboration with multidisciplinary teams.

  3. Impact of Self Efficacy on Innovative Behaviour Pharmacist in Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri M. Wahyuningrum

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Hospitals are always required in order to improve the quality of service in accordance with professional standards in accordance with their code of ethics. Therefore, health workers in hospitals, especially pharmacists, are required to continuously improve its service to the community. To improve health services to the community, then the pharmacist must interact and be accepted by other professional health personnel in hospitals. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of self-efficacy pharmacist in a hospital organization that became an impact on innovative behavior. This study used an obsevational quantitative measurement using questionnaire instrument. The results measured by number consist of value, rank, and frequencies were analyzed using statistics software smartPLS to answer the research question or hypothesis to predict a particular variable affects another variable. The results showed that effect between self-efficacy of behavioral innovations in the hospital pharmacist significantly different. A pharmacist who has high self-efficacy will obviously have the higher innovation behavior in hospitals.

  4. [Medical IT-ization and development of pharmacists business].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miwa, Ryouju

    2014-01-01

    Two major trends are materializing: the super-aging of society and information technology (IT-ization). Thus, the most important action to benefit patients and society is to establish a medical information network supported by a trustworthy human network. This network should be organized by the people involved in local community healthcare. As such, it is essential for the human network to include not only hospitals and clinics (medical practitioners) but also community pharmacies (pharmacists). This need is apparent, because in the past, drug hazards recurred because fundamental improvement of the means to prevent those hazards was not possible without pharmacists where and when those incidences occurred. The medical information to be IT-ized would include drug notebooks and prescription cards, although electronic medical charts will be the ultimate source of information. The following points will be discussed in this paper: (a) Legal requirements for physical assessments by pharmacists, (b) Physical assessments by hospital pharmacists, (c) Physical assessments by community pharmacists, and (d) Security requirements for the Act for Protection of Personal Information, Articles 20-22.

  5. Medication Therapy Management and Preconception Care: Opportunities for Pharmacist Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie A. DiPietro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As medication therapy management (MTM continues to grow in the profession of pharmacy, careful consideration as to areas for positive patient impact is warranted. Given the current gaps in preconception care in the United States, and the accessibility and expertise of the pharmacist, MTM interventions related to preconception care may be valuable. This paper describes potential for pharmacist intervention in several different areas of preconception care. Notably, targeted medication reviews may be appropriate for interventions such as folic acid recommendations, teratogenic/category X medication management, immunizations, and disease state management. Comprehensive medication reviews may be warranted for selected disease states due to complexity of interventions, such the management of diabetes. Comprehensive medication reviews may also be warranted if several targeted interventions are necessary, or if there are a several medications or disease states requiring intervention. Pharmacists also have important roles in screening, support, and referrals needed for preconception care in the context of MTM. Patients may benefit substantially from pharmacist-directed MTM services related to preconception care. In addition, depending on clinical pharmacy service contracts and billing opportunities, pharmacists may be reimbursed for providing these services, generating sustainable revenue while fulfilling an important public health need.   Type: Idea Paper

  6. Comparison of methods used for estimating pharmacist counseling behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schommer, J C; Sullivan, D L; Wiederholt, J B

    1994-01-01

    To compare the rates reported for provision of types of information conveyed by pharmacists among studies for which different methods of estimation were used and different dispensing situations were studied. Empiric studies conducted in the US, reported from 1982 through 1992, were selected from International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, MEDLINE, and noncomputerized sources. Empiric studies were selected for review if they reported the provision of at least three types of counseling information. Four components of methods used for estimating pharmacist counseling behaviors were extracted and summarized in a table: (1) sample type and area, (2) sampling unit, (3) sample size, and (4) data collection method. In addition, situations that were investigated in each study were compiled. Twelve studies met our inclusion criteria. Patients were interviewed via telephone in four studies and were surveyed via mail in two studies. Pharmacists were interviewed via telephone in one study and surveyed via mail in two studies. For three studies, researchers visited pharmacy sites for data collection using the shopper method or observation method. Studies with similar methods and situations provided similar results. Data collected by using patient surveys, pharmacist surveys, and observation methods can provide useful estimations of pharmacist counseling behaviors if researchers measure counseling for specific, well-defined dispensing situations.

  7. Clinical pharmacist interventions to support adherence to thrombopreventive therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Ulla

    The three papers in the thesis were based on two randomised controlled trials (RCTs) on in-hospital clinical pharmacist interventions for improvement of adherence to thrombopreventive therapy in two different populations: outpatients with hypertension and patients with acute stroke/transient isch......The three papers in the thesis were based on two randomised controlled trials (RCTs) on in-hospital clinical pharmacist interventions for improvement of adherence to thrombopreventive therapy in two different populations: outpatients with hypertension and patients with acute stroke...... individualised interventions and team-based care, e.g. integrating a clinical pharmacist with particular focus on patients’ drug-related problems. One approach with growing evidence of improving medication adherence is motivational interviewing (MI). So far, no clinical pharmacist intervention using MI has...... targeted patients with hypertension or stroke in a hospital care setting. Thus, the aim of this thesis was to develop and evaluate in-hospital pharmacist interventions including MI to improve adherence to primary and secondary thrombopreventive therapy. The first study was a RCT, which investigated...

  8. Interim status of the Texas uranium survey experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jupiter, C.; Wollenberg, H.

    1974-01-01

    The objective of the Texas uranium survey experiment is to evaluate an improved method for prospecting for uranium by determining correlations among (a) geologic analysis, (b) soil sample radiochemical analysis, (c) aerial radiometric data, (d) aerial infrared scans, and (e) aerophotographic data. Although aerial radiometric measurements have been used previously in mineral prospecting, the development of useful correlative techniques based on analysis of data from large terrestrial areas employing the five parameters (a through e, above) remains to be evaluated, and could be of significant value to the need for establishing uranium resource pools to meet the nation's energy crisis. The Texas uranium survey field experiment began on June 13, 1973, employing a Martin-404 aircraft to fly gamma-ray recording equipment at a 500-ft altitude over two areas in southeast Texas. The areas surveyed are referred to as the Dubose area (approximately 120 sq. miles) and the Clay West area (approximately 24 sq. miles). This document briefly summarizes the work which has been done, describes the kind and quality of calibrations and data analysis carried out thus far and outlines recommended additional work which would bring the experiment to some degree of completion, providing a basis for evaluating the techniques

  9. 21 CFR 808.93 - Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Texas. 808.93 Section 808.93 Food and Drugs FOOD... and Local Exemptions § 808.93 Texas. (a) The following Texas medical device requirement is enforceable... that, in enforcing this requirement, Texas apply the definition of “used hearing aid” in § 801.420(a)(6...

  10. Public perception of pharmacists: Film and television portrayals from 1970 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanicak, Amy; Mohorn, Phillip L; Monterroyo, Philipp; Furgiuele, Gabrielle; Waddington, Lindsay; Bookstaver, P Brandon

    2015-01-01

    To determine the percentage of pharmacists portrayed in a positive, negative, or neutral light in films and television shows available in the United States from January 1970 to July 2013. Secondary objectives were to evaluate pharmacist characters as heroes, villains, or victims; assess pharmacist characters' demographics; and determine the presence of pharmacist characters in medical-themed television shows. Retrospective, observational, descriptive study. A review of available U.S. film and television from January 1970 to July 2013 at an academic institution. 214 television episodes or films that contained at least one pharmacist portrayal. Electronic inquiries requesting submissions of known pharmacist portrayals were distributed to pharmacy professionals in national and state-affiliated pharmacy organizations and to faculty, staff, and students at the University of South Carolina. Electronic databases and search engines (Internet Movie Database [IMDb], Bing, and Google) were consulted and used to further research possible pharmacist portrayals. The study investigators developed an algorithm incorporating social norms, common pharmacist practices, and viewer perceptions to determine positive, negative, or neutral status for each pharmacist portrayal. Year and genre of media, demographics of identified pharmacist characters, portrayal status of identified pharmacist characters, and number of pharmacist characters and appearances per each television show reviewed. In the films and television shows reviewed, there were 231 pharmacist portrayals, with 160 unique pharmacist characters. Of the 231 portrayals, 145 (63%) were negative, 30 (13%) were positive, and 56 (24%) were neutral. Of the 160 unique characters, 121 (76%) were male, 120 (75%) were Caucasian, and 86 (54%) were younger than 50 years old. The name of the character was provided for 70 (44%) of the pharmacists portrayed. The portrayal of pharmacists in U.S. film and television is primarily negative

  11. The Demographics of Corporal Punishment in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examined the student discipline policies of 1,025 Texas school districts, as well as data from the Texas Education Agency's Academic Excellence Indicator System in order to identify demographic patterns regarding corporal punishment policies in Texas schools. The study also studied the relationship between a district's corporal…

  12. Texas Real Estate Curriculum Workshop Summary Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Robert

    The Texas Real Estate Research Center-Texas Education Agency (TRERC-TEA) curriculum workshop was attended by over 40 participants representing 26 Texas community colleges. These participants divided into eight small groups by real estate specialty area and developed curriculum outlines and learning objectives for the following real estate courses:…

  13. 77 FR 18738 - Texas Regulatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-28

    ... improve operational efficiency. This document gives the times and locations that the Texas program and... location: Surface Mining and Reclamation Division, Railroad Commission of Texas, 1701 North Congress Avenue... available for you to read at the locations listed above under ADDRESSES. Texas proposes to revise its...

  14. 76 FR 50708 - Texas Regulatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-16

    ..., renewals, and significant revisions. Texas intends to revise its program to improve operational efficiency. This document provides the times and locations that the Texas program and proposed amendments to that... business hours at the following location: Railroad Commission of Texas, 1701 North Congress Ave., Austin...

  15. 75 FR 21534 - Texas Regulatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ... improve operational efficiency. This document gives the times and locations that the Texas program and... during regular business hours at the following location: Surface Mining and Reclamation Division... locations listed above under ADDRESSES. Texas proposes to revise its regulation at 16 Texas Administrative...

  16. Texas, 2008 forest inventory and analysis factsheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Bentley

    2011-01-01

    This science update summarizes the findings of the first statewide annual inventory conducted by the Southern Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program in cooperation with the Texas Forest Service of the forest resource attributes in Texas. The 254 counties of Texas are consolidated into seven FIA survey units—southeast (unit 1), the northeast (unit 2), the north...

  17. Ready Texas: Stakeholder Convening. Proceedings Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intercultural Development Research Association, 2016

    2016-01-01

    With the adoption of substantial changes to Texas high school curricula in 2013 (HB5), a central question for Texas policymakers, education and business leaders, families, and students is whether and how HB5 implementation impacts the state of college readiness and success in Texas. Comprehensive research is needed to understand the implications…

  18. Texas, 2010 forest inventory and analysis factsheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    James W. Bentley

    2012-01-01

    This science update summarizes the findings of the statewide annual inventory conducted by the Southern Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program in cooperation with the Texas Forest Service of the forest resource attributes in Texas. The 254 counties of Texas are consolidated into seven FIA survey units – southeast (unit 1), northeast (unit 2), north central (unit 3...

  19. 78 FR 11579 - Texas Regulatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-19

    ... Interest and Compliance Information (Underground Mining). Texas proposed to delete old language in Sec. 12.... Therefore, we approve Texas' deletion. Texas proposed to delete old language in Sec. 12.156 regarding the... proposed to add new language regarding certifying and updating existing permit information, permit...

  20. What is a Pharmacist: Opinions of Pharmacy Department Academics and Community Pharmacists on Competences Required for Pharmacy Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Jeffrey; de Paepe, Kristien; Sánchez Pozo, Antonio; Rekkas, Dimitrios; Volmer, Daisy; Hirvonen, Jouni; Bozic, Borut; Skowron, Agnieska; Mircioiu, Constantin; Marcincal, Annie; Koster, Andries; Wilson, Keith; van Schravendijk, Chris; Wilkinson, Jamie

    2016-01-01

    This paper looks at the opinions of 241 European academics (who provide pharmacy education), and of 258 European community pharmacists (who apply it), on competences for pharmacy practice. A proposal for competences was generated by a panel of experts using Delphi methodology. Once finalized, the proposal was then submitted to a large, European-wide community of academics and practicing pharmacists in an additional Delphi round. Academics and community pharmacy practitioners recognized the importance of the notion of patient care competences, underlining the nature of the pharmacist as a specialist of medicines. The survey revealed certain discrepancies. Academics placed substantial emphasis on research, pharmaceutical technology, regulatory aspects of quality, etc., but these were ranked much lower by community pharmacists who concentrated more on patient care competences. In a sub-analysis of the data, we evaluated how perceptions may have changed since the 1980s and the introduction of the notions of competence and pharmaceutical care. This was done by splitting both groups into respondents 40 years old. Results for the subgroups were essentially statistically the same but with some different qualitative tendencies. The results are discussed in the light of the different conceptions of the professional identity of the pharmacist. PMID:28970385

  1. What is a Pharmacist: Opinions of Pharmacy Department Academics and Community Pharmacists on Competences Required for Pharmacy Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Atkinson

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at the opinions of 241 European academics (who provide pharmacy education, and of 258 European community pharmacists (who apply it, on competences for pharmacy practice. A proposal for competences was generated by a panel of experts using Delphi methodology. Once finalized, the proposal was then submitted to a large, European-wide community of academics and practicing pharmacists in an additional Delphi round. Academics and community pharmacy practitioners recognized the importance of the notion of patient care competences, underlining the nature of the pharmacist as a specialist of medicines. The survey revealed certain discrepancies. Academics placed substantial emphasis on research, pharmaceutical technology, regulatory aspects of quality, etc., but these were ranked much lower by community pharmacists who concentrated more on patient care competences. In a sub-analysis of the data, we evaluated how perceptions may have changed since the 1980s and the introduction of the notions of competence and pharmaceutical care. This was done by splitting both groups into respondents < 40 and > 40 years old. Results for the subgroups were essentially statistically the same but with some different qualitative tendencies. The results are discussed in the light of the different conceptions of the professional identity of the pharmacist.

  2. Pharmacists correcting schedule II prescriptions: DEA flip-flops continue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abood, Richard R

    2010-12-01

    The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) has in recent years engaged in flip-flopping over important policy decisions. The most recent example involved whether a pharmacist can correct a written schedule II prescription upon verification with the prescriber. For several years the DEA's policy permitted this practice. Then the DEA issued a conflicting policy statement in 2007 in the preamble to the multiple schedule II prescription regulation, causing a series of subsequent contradictory statements ending with the policy that pharmacists should follow state law or policy until the Agency issues a regulation. It is doubtful that the DEA's opinion in the preamble would in itself constitute legal authority, or that the Agency would try to enforce the opinion. Nonetheless, these flip-flop opinions have confused pharmacists, caused some pharmacies to have claims rejected by third party payors, and most likely have inconvenienced patients.

  3. Pharmacist's role in dispensing opioids for acute and chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlowe, Karen F; Geiler, Richard

    2012-10-01

    Pain continues to be a serious health care concern in the United States. Patients with chronic pain experience the impact of the disease throughout their lives including their social interactions, family relationships, and in many cases economic productivity. Multiple surveys have found that many pharmacists hold misconceptions regarding opioids, pain disease states, and their understandings of current regulations. Multiple barriers affect the ability of pharmacists to deliver care to patients' prescribed opioid therapy. Inadequate communication between health care professionals and patients is one of the hurdles, which prevents quality care. Increased communication between health care providers including access to health information is one step, which is crucial to improving provision of pharmacotherapy. Finally, the quality of educational opportunities relative to opioids and pain management specifically for pharmacists needs to be increased, and consideration needs to be given for making appropriate pain management education mandatory.

  4. Evaluating Pharmacists' Motivation and Job Satisfaction Factors in Saudi Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benslimane, Nabila; Khalifa, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    High turnover rate among healthcare professionals is a very expensive price that healthcare organizations might pay if they don't have the proper strategies for motivating and satisfying their employees. Healthcare organizations should be able to identify areas that require more attention. Many studies discussed the vital link that bonds job satisfaction with motivation, which has a major impact on productivity, innovation, and overall organizational performance. Our study explored the level of job satisfaction and factors that motivate pharmacists in Saudi hospitals using mixed quantitative and qualitative methods. From pharmacy managers' point of view; financial rewards are more important than non-financial incentives and benefits. This contradicts with pharmacists' opinions; who ranked recognition, promotion, job satisfaction, job feedback, autonomy and task significance among the most influential motivators to pharmacists. These results show that managers need to revise their plans and provide further attention to ensure that effective motivation and retention strategies are put in place.

  5. Optimizing care transitions: the role of the community pharmacist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melody, Karleen T; McCartney, Elizabeth; Sen, Sanchita; Duenas, Gladys

    2016-01-01

    Transitions of care (TOC) refer to the movement of patients across institutions, among providers, between different levels of care, and to and from home. Medication errors that occur during TOC have the potential to result in medical complications that are serious for the patient and costly to the health care system. Positive outcomes have been demonstrated when pharmacists are involved in providing TOC services, including reducing preventable adverse drug reactions, medication-related problems, and rehospitalizations, as well as improving the discharge process. This review explores TOC models involving community pharmacy practice, the current impact of pharmacist interventions in TOC, and patient satisfaction with TOC services provided by community pharmacists. Common barriers and potential solutions to TOC services provided in the community pharmacy, such as patient identification, information gathering, standardization of services, administrative support, reimbursement, and time restraints, are also discussed. PMID:29354539

  6. [Targeting high-risk drugs to optimize clinical pharmacists' intervention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouterde, Anne-Laure; Bourdelin, Magali; Maison, Ophélie; Coursier, Sandra; Bontemps, Hervé

    2016-12-01

    By the Order of 6 April 2011, the pharmacist must validate all the prescriptions containing "high-risk drugs" or those of "patients at risk". To optimize this clinical pharmacy activity, we identified high-risk drugs. A list of high-risk drugs has been established using literature, pharmacists' interventions (PI) performed in our hospital and a survey sent to hospital pharmacists. In a prospective study (analysis of 100 prescriptions for each high-risk drug selected), we have identified the most relevant to target. We obtained a statistically significant PI rate (P<0.05) for digoxin, oral anticoagulants direct, oral methotrexate and colchicine. This method of targeted pharmaceutical validation based on high-risk drugs is relevant to detect patients with high risk of medicine-related illness. Copyright © 2016 Société française de pharmacologie et de thérapeutique. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Multifaceted Pharmacist-led Interventions in the Hospital Setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjøt-Arkil, Helene; Olesen, Carina Lundby; Kjeldsen, Lene Juel

    2018-01-01

    Clinical pharmacy services often comprise complex interventions. In this MiniReview, we conducted a systematic review aiming to evaluate the impact of multifaceted pharmacist-led interventions in a hospital setting. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Library and CINAHL for peer-reviewed articles...... published from 2006 to 1 March 2018. Controlled trials concerning hospitalized patients in any setting receiving patient-related multifaceted pharmacist-led interventions were considered. All types of outcomes were accepted. Inclusion and data extraction was performed. Study characteristics were collected......) showed no significant results. This rMiniReview indicates that multifaceted pharmacist-led interventions in a hospital setting may improve the quality of medication use, reduce hospital visits and length of stay, while no effect was seen on mortality, patient-reported outcomes and cost...

  8. Factors Influencing Participation in Continuing Professional Development : A Focus on Motivation Among Pharmacists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjin A Tsoi, Sharon L N M; de Boer, Anthonius|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/075097346; Croiset, Gerda; Koster, Andries S|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070975558; Kusurkar, Rashmi A

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The interest in continuing education (CE) for pharmacists has increased because of patient safety issues, advancing science and the quick changes in the profession. Therefore, contemporary pharmaceutical care requires an effective and sustainable system for pharmacists to maintain and

  9. Pharmacists' Perception of the Sale of Non-Clinically Proven Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    ISSN: 1596-5996 (print); 1596-9827 (electronic) ... Results: Fifty six pharmacists participated in the study (response rate, 28.0 %). A total of ..... supplements: a systematic review. BMC ... Chapman C, Braun L. The professional pharmacist and.

  10. Team work and collaborative practice agreements among pharmacists and nurse practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Kylee A; Weaver, Krystalyn K

    The authors share their knowledge about partnering and establishing collaborative practice agreements with nurse practitioners. State laws and regulations were reviewed that affect pharmacists' ability to fully partner with nurse practitioners. Nurse practitioners' role in primary care is growing, and, in many states, nurse practitioners practice independently. Collaborative practice agreements (CPAs) enable pharmacists to work with prescribers more efficiently. Pharmacists' and nurse practitioners' scope-of-practice laws and regulations may prevent CPAs between pharmacists and nurse practitioners. State pharmacy practice acts were reviewed to demonstrate which states allow for partnership under a CPA. Pharmacists should consider opportunities to partner more closely with nurse practitioners to provide care, sometimes under a CPA. In states where laws or regulations prevent CPAs between pharmacists and nurse practitioners, pharmacists should advocate for policy change. Copyright © 2018 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Use of Web 2.0 tools by hospital pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaga Serrano, B; Aldaz Francés, R; Garrigues Sebastiá, M R; Hernández San Salvador, M

    2014-04-01

    Web 2.0 tools are transforming the pathways health professionals use to communicate among themselves and with their patients so this situation forces a change of mind to implement them. The aim of our study is to assess the state of knowledge of the main Web 2.0 applications and how are used in a sample of hospital pharmacists. The study was carried out through an anonymous survey to all members of the Spanish Society of Hospital Pharmacy (SEFH) by means of a questionnaire sent by the Google Drive® application. After the 3-month study period was completed, collected data were compiled and then analyzed using SPPS v15.0. The response rate was 7.3%, being 70.5% female and 76.3% specialists. The majority of respondents (54.2%) were aged 20 to 35. Pubmed was the main way of accessing published articles. 65.2% of pharmacists knew the term "Web 2.0". 45.3% pharmacists were Twitter users and over 58.9% mainly for professional purposes. Most pharmacists believed that Twitter was a good tool to interact with professionals and patients. 78.7% do not use an agregator, but when used, Google Reader was the most common. Although Web 2.0 applications are gaining mainstream popularity some health professionals may resist using them. In fact, more than a half of surveyed pharmacists referred a lack of knowledge about Web 2.0 tools. It would be positive for pharmacists to use them properly during their professional practice to get the best out of them. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  12. Pharmacists as providers: targeting pneumococcal vaccinations to high risk populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taitel, Michael; Cohen, Ed; Duncan, Ian; Pegus, Cheryl

    2011-10-19

    Older adults and persons with chronic conditions are at increased risk for pneumococcal disease. Severe pneumococcal disease represents a substantial humanistic and economic burden to society. Although pneumococcal vaccination (PPSV) can decrease risk for serious consequences, vaccination rates are suboptimal. As more people seek annual influenza vaccinations at community pharmacies, pharmacists have the ability to identify at-risk patients and provide PPSV. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of pharmacists educating at-risk patients on the importance of receiving a pneumococcal vaccination. Using de-identified claims from a large, national pharmacy chain, all patients who had received an influenza vaccination between August 1, 2010 and November 14, 2010 and who were eligible for PPSV were identified for the analysis. Based on the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommendations, at-risk patients were identified as over 65 years of age or as aged 2-64 with a comorbid conditions. A benchmark medical and pharmacy claims database of commercial and Medicare health plan members was used to derive a PPSV vaccination rate typical of traditional care delivery to compare to pharmacy-based vaccination. Period incidence of PPSV was calculated and compared. Among the 1.3 million at-risk patients who were vaccinated by a pharmacist during the study period, 65,598 (4.88%) also received a pneumococcal vaccine. This vaccination rate was significantly higher than the benchmark rate of 2.90% (34,917/1,204,104; pvaccination rate (6.60%; 26,430/400,454) of any age group. Pharmacists were successful at identifying at-risk patients and providing additional immunization services. Concurrent immunization of PPSV with influenza vaccination by pharmacists has potential to improve PPSV coverage. These results support the expanding role of community pharmacists in the provision of wellness and prevention services. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  13. Use of Web 2.0 tools by hospital pharmacists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Bonaga Serrano

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Web 2.0 tools are transforming the pathways health professionals use to communicate among themselves and with their patients so this situation forces a change of mind to implement them. The aim of our study is to assess the state of knowledge of the main Web 2.0 applications and how are used in a sample of hospital pharmacists. Method: The study was carried out through an anonymous survey to all members of the Spanish Society of Hospital Pharmacy (SEFH by means of a questionnaire sent by the Google Drive® application. After the 3-month study period was completed, collected data were compiled and then analyzed using SPPS v15.0. Results: The response rate was 7.3%, being 70.5% female and 76.3% specialists. The majority of respondents (54.2% were aged 20 to 35. Pubmed was the main way of accessing published articles. 65.2% of pharmacists knew the term “Web 2.0”. 45.3% pharmacists were Twitter users and over 58.9% mainly for professional purposes. Most pharmacists believed that Twitter was a good tool to interact with professionals and patients. 78.7% do not use an agregator, but when used, Google Reader was the most common. Conclusion: Although Web 2.0 applications are gaining mainstream popularity some health professionals may resist using them. In fact, more than a half of surveyed pharmacists referred a lack of knowledge about Web 2.0 tools. It would be positive for pharmacists to use them properly during their professional practice to get the best out of them.

  14. Do pharmacists use social media for patient care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benetoli, Arcelio; Chen, Timothy F; Schaefer, Marion; Chaar, Betty; Aslani, Parisa

    2017-04-01

    Background Social media are frequently used by consumers and healthcare professionals. However, it is not clear how pharmacists use social media as part of their daily professional practice. Objective This study investigated the role social media play in pharmacy practice, particularly in patient care and how pharmacists interact online with patients and laypeople. Setting Face-to-face, telephone, or Skype interviews with practising pharmacists (n = 31) from nine countries. Method In-depth semi-structured interviews; audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and thematically analysed. Main outcome measure Two themes related to the use of social media for patient care: social media and pharmacy practice, and pharmacists' online interactions with customers and the public. Results Most participants were community pharmacists. They did not provide individualized services to consumers via social media, despite most of them working in a pharmacy with a Facebook page. No participant "friended" consumers on Facebook as it was perceived to blur the boundary between professional and personal relationships. However, they occasionally provided advice and general health information on social media to friends and followers, and more commonly corrected misleading health information spread on Facebook. Short YouTube videos were used to support patient counselling in community pharmacy. Conclusions Participants recognized the potential social media has for health. However, its use to support patient care and deliver pharmacy services was very incipient. Pharmacists as medicine experts are well equipped to contribute to improvements in social media medicines-related information, learn from consumers' online activities, and design new ways of delivering care to communities and individuals.

  15. Internationally trained pharmacists in Great Britain: what do registration data tell us about their recruitment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassell Karen

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Internationally trained health professionals are an important part of the domestic workforce, but little is known about pharmacists who come to work in Great Britain. Recent changes in the registration routes onto the Register of Pharmacists of the Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain may have affected entries from overseas: reciprocal arrangements for pharmacists from Australia and New Zealand ended in June 2006; 10 new states joined the European Union in 2004 and a further two in 2007, allowing straightforward registration. Aims The aims of the paper are to extend our knowledge about the extent to which Great Britain is relying on the contribution of internationally trained pharmacists and to explore their routes of entry and demographic characteristics and compare them to those of pharmacists trained in Great Britain. Methods The August 2007 Register of Pharmacists provided the main data for analysis. Register extracts between 2002 and 2005 were also explored, allowing longitudinal comparison, and work pattern data from the 2005 Pharmacist Workforce Census were included. Results In 2007, internationally trained pharmacists represented 8.8% of the 43 262 registered pharmacists domiciled in Great Britain. The majority (40.6% had joined the Register from Europe; 33.6% and 25.8% joined via adjudication and reciprocal arrangements. Until this entry route ended for pharmacists from Australia and New Zealand in 2006, annual numbers of reciprocal pharmacists increased. European pharmacists are younger (mean age 31.7 than reciprocal (40.0 or adjudication pharmacists (43.0, and the percentage of women among European-trained pharmacists is much higher (68% when compared with British-trained pharmacists (56%. While only 7.1% of pharmacists registered in Great Britain have a London address, this proportion is much higher for European (13.9%, adjudication (19.5% and reciprocal pharmacists (28.9%. The latter are more likely to

  16. Pharmacists' perceptions of professionalism on social networking sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benetoli, Arcelio; Chen, Timothy F; Schaefer, Marion; Chaar, Betty; Aslani, Parisa

    Social networking sites (SNS) are a new venue for communication, and health care professionals, like the general population, are using them extensively. However, their behavior on SNS may influence public perceptions about their professionalism. This study explored how pharmacists separate professional and personal information and activities on SNS, their perceptions of professional behavior on SNS, and opinions on guidelines in this area. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with international practising pharmacists (n = 31) recruited from a range of countries (n = 9). Initially, pharmacists known to the research team were invited, and thereafter, participants were recruited using a snowballing technique. The interviews lasted from 30 to 120 min. All interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and thematically analyzed. A majority of participants mixed professional and personal information and activities on SNS, and about one third adopted a separation strategy where professional information and activities were clearly separated from personal ones (e.g. two different SNS accounts, or one particular SNS for professional use and another platform for personal purposes). Most participants expressed concern over how pharmacists present themselves and behave in SNS when they reported (un)professional behaviors of peers they had observed. Examples of perceived unprofessional behaviors included revealing details of personal life and activities; open complaints about the pharmacy sector, co-workers, physicians, and patients; inappropriate description of pharmacists' roles and activities; and breaches of patient confidentiality. Positive professional behaviors, such as expression of compassion for patients, examples of effective patient management, promotion of pharmacists' role, and correction of misleading health information being spread online were also observed. There was no consensus on having professional social media guidelines. Some preferred

  17. Pharmacist-driven antimicrobial optimization in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Lucretia C; Covey, Robin B; Weston, Jaye S; Hu, Bee Bee Y; Laine, Gregory A

    2016-03-01

    A pharmacist-driven antimicrobial optimization service in the non-trauma emergency department (ED) of an 864-bed non-profit tertiary care teaching hospital was reviewed to assess its value. Local antimicrobial resistance patterns of urine, wound, stool, and blood cultures were also studied to determine whether or not empiric prescribing practices should be modified. A retrospective electronic chart review was performed for ED patients with positive cultures during two different three-month periods. During Period 1, ED nursing management performed positive culture follow-up. During Period 2, ED clinical pharmacists performed this role. The primary objective was to determine the value of the pharmacist-driven antimicrobial optimization service as measured by the number of clinical interventions made when indicated. The secondary objective was to examine resistance patterns of urine and wound isolates in order to determine if empiric prescribing patterns in the ED should be modified. During Period 1, there were 499 patient visits with subsequent positive cultures. Of those, 76 patients (15%) were discharged home. Nursing management intervened on 21 of 42 (50%) positive cultures that required an intervention; in Period 2, there were 473 patient visits with subsequent positive cultures, and 64 (14%) were discharged home. Pharmacists intervened on 24 of 30 (80%) cultures where an intervention was indicated resulting in a 30% increase in interventions for inappropriate therapy (p = 0.01). A review of the secondary objective revealed a 38% fluoroquinolone resistance rate of E. coli, the most frequently isolated urinary organism. Pharmacist-driven antimicrobial stewardship program resulted in a 30% absolute increase in interventions for inappropriate therapy as compared to the nursing-driven model. This stewardship program has further demonstrated the value of ED pharmacists. Pharmacist interventions should help to ensure that infections are resolved through modification of

  18. Pharmacist-led medication review in an acute admissions unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Trine Graabæk; Bonnerup, Dorthe Krogsgaard; Kjeldsen, Lene Juel

    2015-01-01

    of principles and methodologies, and the practical procedure is seldom described in detail, which makes reproducing study findings difficult. The objective of this paper is to provide a detailed description of a procedure developed and used for pharmacist-led medication review in acute admissions units......) collection of information about the patient's medical treatment, (3) patient interview, (4) critical examination of the patient's medications and (5) recommendations for the hospital physician.Conclusions We have provided a detailed description of a procedure for pharmacist-led medication review. We do so...

  19. An exploration of pharmacist-patient communication in clinic-style consultations

    OpenAIRE

    Greenhill, Nicola H.

    2010-01-01

    The importance of communication skills for pharmacists has been widely acknowledged. Research has shown that the use of good communication skills can improve patient health outcomes but little research has focussed on communication within new consultation based roles of pharmacists. This study aimed to explore the communication between pharmacists and patients in clinic style consultations and to investigate participant perceptions of communication and consultations. Eleven pharmacists ...

  20. Future expectations for Japanese pharmacists as compared to the rest of the world

    OpenAIRE

    井上, 裕; 森田, 夕貴; 滝川, 茉由; 高尾, 浩一; 金本, 郁男; 杉林, 堅次

    2015-01-01

    It is important to share information about other countries' pharmacists to optimize cross-border medical cooperation. This paper examines the dispensing systems and the work done by pharmacists in the United Kingdom, Germany, France, Thailand, and Malaysia so as to compare these countries' medical practices and develop a cohesive vision for the future of Japanese pharmacists. All five of the countries have dispensing assistants. Pharmacists in Japan have duties of inventory control, drug disp...

  1. Stakeholders' views on granting prescribing authority to pharmacists in Nigeria: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auta, Asa; Strickland-Hodge, Barry; Maz, Julia

    2016-08-01

    Background In Nigeria, only medical doctors, dentists and some nurses in primary care facilities have the legal right to prescribe medicines to patients. Patients' access to prescription medicines can be seriously affected by the shortage of prescribers leading to longer waiting times in hospitals. Objective This research was carried out to investigate stakeholders' views on granting prescribing authority to pharmacists in Nigeria. Setting The study was conducted in Nigeria. Methods Qualitative, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 43 Nigerian stakeholders including policymakers, pharmacists, doctors and patient group representatives. Transcribed interviews were entered into the QSR NVivo 10 software and analysed using a thematic approach. Main outcome measure Stakeholders' perception on the granting of prescribing authority to pharmacists in Nigeria. Results Three major themes emerged from the interviews: (1) prescribing as a logical role for pharmacists, (2) pharmacist prescribing- an opportunity or a threat and (3) the potential barriers to pharmacist prescribing. Many non-medical stakeholders including pharmacists and patient group representatives supported an extended role for pharmacists in prescribing while the majority of medical doctors including those in policy making were reluctant to do so. Generally, all stakeholders perceived that pharmacist prescribing represents an opportunity to increase patients' access to medicines, reduce doctors' workload and promote the utilisation of pharmacists' skills. However, many stakeholders including pharmacists and doctors commonly identified pharmacists' inadequate skills in diagnosis, medical resistance and shortage of pharmacists as potential barriers to the introduction of pharmacist prescribing in Nigeria. Conclusion The present study showed a split of opinion between participants who were medical doctors and those who were non-doctors in their support for pharmacist prescribing. However, all

  2. Optimizing the use of oral anticoagulant therapy for atrial fibrilation in primary care: a pharmacist-led intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virdee, Mandeep S; Stewart, Derek

    2017-02-01

    Background Updated evidence-based guidelines for the management of atrial fibrillation (AF) necessitate patient review, particularly with respect to oral anticoagulants, to ensure maximum health gain around stroke prophylaxis. Objective To quantify the level of anticoagulation utilisation in patients with a CHA 2 DS 2 -VASc ≥1/≥2 (male/female) according to evidence-based guidelines and to assess the impact of a pharmacist-led intervention to optimise therapy. Setting Fifteen general medical practices in Liverpool, North-West England with a practice population of 99,129. Method GRASP-AF software was employed to interrogate patient electronic medical records to identify and risk stratify AF patients (using CHA 2 DS 2 -VASc). A pharmacist then reviewed the medical records of those of patients not anticoagulated and with a CHA 2 DS 2 -VASc ≥1/≥2 (male/female). Recommendations were discussed with a general practitioner (GP) and those patients in whom the need for anticoagulation was agreed were invited for a consultation with either the pharmacist or GP and therapy optimised where appropriate. The GPs were responsible for managing those patients referred for diagnosis confirmation or further specialist opinion. Main outcome measure Proportion of patients eligible/not eligible for anticoagulation; proportions in whom anticoagulants initiated, refused, antiplatelets discontinued. Results Five hundred and twenty-three patients (31% of patients identified with AF and a CHA 2 DS 2 -VASc ≥1/≥2 (male/female)) were not receiving an anticoagulant (26 subsequently died or left the practice leaving 497). Three hundred and eighty-two (77%) pharmacist recommendations to a GP were agreed without modification. Following outcomes of diagnostic investigations and specialist referrals, 202 (41%) patients were candidates for anticoagulation, 251 (51%) were not eligible for anticoagulation, 103 (21%) were anticoagulated (56 warfarin, 47 DOAC). Conclusion A pharmacist

  3. Advanced Texas Studies: Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlandale Independent School District, San Antonio, TX. Career Education Center.

    The guide is arranged in vertical columns relating curriculum concepts in Texas studies to curriculum performance objectives, career concepts and career performance objectives, suggested teaching methods, and audio-visual and resource materials. Career information is included on 24 related occupations. Space is provided for teachers' notes which…

  4. "Fisher v. Texas": Strictly Disappointing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieli, Russell K.

    2013-01-01

    Russell K. Nieli writes in this opinion paper that as far as the ability of state colleges and universities to use race as a criteria for admission goes, "Fisher v. Texas" was a big disappointment, and failed in the most basic way. Nieli states that although some affirmative action opponents have tried to put a more positive spin on the…

  5. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-02

    Energy used by Texas single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  6. South Texas Maquiladora Suppliers Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, J. Michael

    This project was undertaken to assist South Texas industries in improving export to nearby Mexican maquiladoras (factories). The maquiladora program is based on co-production by two plants under a single management, one on each side of the border. Activities addressed four objectives: (1) to determine the dollar value, quantity, and source of the…

  7. Views of general practitioners and pharmacists on the role of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The successful implementation of this operational plan requires many healthcare providers trained in aspects of HIV. This study aimed to establish and compare the views of general practitioners and pharmacists on the role of the pharmacist in HIV/Aids management and to elucidate an appropriate role for pharmacists.

  8. Future enhanced clinical role of pharmacists in emergency departments in England:multi-site observational evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, Elizabeth; Terry, David; Huynh, Chi; Petridis, Konstantinos; Aiello, Matthew; Mazard, Louis; Ubhi, Hirminder; Terry, Alex; Wilson, Keith; Sinclair, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    Background There are concerns about maintaining appropriate clinical staffing levels in Emergency Departments. Pharmacists may be one possible solution. Objective To determine if Emergency Department attendees could be clinically managed by pharmacists with or without advanced clinical practice training. Setting Prospective 49 site cross-sectional observational study of patients attending Emergency Departments in England. Method Pharmacist data collectors identified patient attendance at thei...

  9. Building the Case: Changing Consumer Perceptions of the Value of Expanded Community Pharmacist Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckowych, Kathryn; Smith, Marie; Spiggle, Susan; Stevens, Andrew; Li, Hao

    2018-01-01

    The role of the community pharmacist has traditionally been a medication dispenser; however, community pharmacists' responsibilities must expand to include more direct patient care services in order to transform primary care practice. Use case-based scenarios to (1) determine factors that contribute to positive and negative consumer perceptions of expanded community pharmacist patient care roles, (2) identify facilitators and barriers that contribute to consumer perceptions of the value of expanded community pharmacist patient care services, and (3) develop a successful approach and strategies for increasing consumer advocacy for the value of expanded community pharmacist patient care services. Two consumer focus groups used scenario-based guided discussions and Likert scale questionnaires to elicit consumer reactions, facilitators, and barriers to expanded community pharmacist services. Convenience, timeliness, and accessibility were common positive reactions across all 3 scenarios. Team approach to care and trust were viewed as major facilitators. Participant concerns included uncertainty about pharmacist training and qualifications, privacy, pharmacists' limited bandwidth to accept new tasks, and potential increased patient costs. Common barriers to service uptake included a lack of insurance payment and physician preference to provide the services. Consumer unfamiliarity with non-traditional community pharmacist services is likely an influencer of consumers' hesitancy to utilize such services; therefore, an opportunity exists to engage consumers and advocacy organizations in supporting expanded community pharmacist roles. This study can inform consumers, advocates, community pharmacists, primary care providers, and community-based organizations on methods to shape consumer perceptions on the value of community pharmacist expanded services.

  10. Pharmacist advice is accepted more for medical than for surgical patients in an emergency department

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backer Mogensen, Christian; Olsen, Inger; Thisted, Anette Rehn

    2013-01-01

    Pharmacists' advice may reduce medication errors in the emergency department (ED). However, pharmacists' recommendations are of little value if not acknowledged by physicians. The aim of the present study was to analyze how often and which categories of pharmacist recommendations were taken...

  11. The pharmacist as a drug information supplier in hospitals : A view from services marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerkamp, E.J.C.; Reuijl, J.C.; Haaijer-Ruskamp, F.M.

    The aim of this study is to gain insight into how the information supply services of the pharmacist and his or her-potential competitors ave seen by physicians. In the context of the upcoming professionalization trend of the pharmacist we are interested in determining how the hospital pharmacist can

  12. Oak Bark Allometry and Fire Survival Strategies in the Chihuahuan Desert Sky Islands, Texas, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Schwilk, Dylan W.; Gaetani, Maria S.; Poulos, Helen M.

    2013-01-01

    Trees may survive fire through persistence of above or below ground structures. Investment in bark aids in above-ground survival while investment in carbohydrate storage aids in recovery through resprouting and is especially important following above-ground tissue loss. We investigated bark allocation and carbohydrate investment in eight common oak (Quercus) species of Sky Island mountain ranges in west Texas. We hypothesized that relative investment in bark and carbohydrates changes with tre...

  13. Salt water and its relation to fresh ground water in Harris County, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winslow, Allen G.; Doyel, William Watson; Wood, L.A.

    1957-01-01

    Harris County, in the West Gulf Coastal Plain in southeastern Texas, has one of the heaviest concentrations of ground-water withdrawal in the United States. Large quantities of water are pumped to meet the requirements of the rapidly growing population, for industry, and for rice irrigation. The water is pumped from artesian wells which tap a thick series of sands ranging in age from Miocene (?) to Pleistocene.

  14. Future enhanced clinical role of pharmacists in Emergency Departments in England: multi-site observational evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Elizabeth; Terry, David; Huynh, Chi; Petridis, Konstantinos; Aiello, Matthew; Mazard, Louis; Ubhi, Hirminder; Terry, Alex; Wilson, Keith; Sinclair, Anthony

    2017-08-01

    Background There are concerns about maintaining appropriate clinical staffing levels in Emergency Departments. Pharmacists may be one possible solution. Objective To determine if Emergency Department attendees could be clinically managed by pharmacists with or without advanced clinical practice training. Setting Prospective 49 site cross-sectional observational study of patients attending Emergency Departments in England. Method Pharmacist data collectors identified patient attendance at their Emergency Department, recorded anonymized details of 400 cases and categorized each into one of four possible options: cases which could be managed by a community pharmacist; could be managed by a hospital pharmacist independent prescriber; could be managed by a hospital pharmacist independent prescriber with additional clinical training; or medical team only (unsuitable for pharmacists to manage). Impact indices sensitive to both workload and proportion of pharmacist manageable cases were calculated for each clinical group. Main outcome measure Proportion of cases which could be managed by a pharmacist. Results 18,613 cases were observed from 49 sites. 726 (3.9%) of cases were judged suitable for clinical management by community pharmacists, 719 (3.9%) by pharmacist prescribers, 5202 (27.9%) by pharmacist prescribers with further training, and 11,966 (64.3%) for medical team only. Impact Indices of the most frequent clinical groupings were general medicine (13.18) and orthopaedics (9.69). Conclusion The proportion of Emergency Department cases that could potentially be managed by a pharmacist was 36%. Greatest potential for pharmacist management was in general medicine and orthopaedics (usually minor trauma). Findings support the case for extending the clinical role of pharmacists.

  15. 'Esprit de corps': Towards collaborative integration of pharmacists ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    framework[4] and implementation plan.[5]. The role of ... Netcare model also confirmed that quality improvement science skills are critical in ... of process and outcome measures for the management of community- acquired ... This article proposes possible ways of engagement between the pharmacist, nurse and doctor. The.

  16. The changing roles of pharmacists in hospital and community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Patrick O Erah

    Available online at http://www.tjpr.freehosting.net. Editorial. The changing roles of pharmacists in hospital and community pharmacy practice in Nigeria. The profession and practice of pharmacy did not start in Nigeria as a well defined health care area of specialization as it is today. Rather, pharmaceutical training was borne.

  17. The Role of Pharmacist in Dental Care Services | Kalala | Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Role of Pharmacist in Dental Care Services. WM Kalala. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL ...

  18. The Role of the Clinical Pharmacist in the Identification and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To explore patients' attitudes and knowledge about corticosteroids, investigate the reasons behind corticophobia (if any), explore the sources and validity of such beliefs, as well as investigate the role of the clinical pharmacist's intervention in minimizing corticophobia and improving patient compliance. Methods: ...

  19. The role of a community pharmacist in diabetes education | Berg ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A pharmacist is one of few medical professionals in the world to whom a patient or anyone else can go for a consultation or advice without an appointment. They are easily accessed and knowledgeable about a myriad of aspects concerning patients and their medication. It is thus of the utmost importance to take these skills ...

  20. Knowledge of pharmacists on proper use of oral contraceptive pills ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    community pharmacists and senior pharmacy students in UAE. The survey ... contraceptive methods use among women in. UAE [3]. More than 58 % of women in the Middle. East are using ... week, age, gender, social status and pharmacy location. In ..... knowledge and attitudes regarding oral emergency contraception.

  1. Perspectives of the surgeons, anaesthetists, and pharmacists on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Post-operative pain is best managed by a multi-disciplinary team approach. An extensive review of the literature indicated that little is known about the roles of surgeons, anaesthetists, and pharmacists regarding post-operative pain management in Ghana. Therefore, this study was undertaken in order to fully understand ...

  2. The role of pharmacists in diabetes management in Zanzibar and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross sectional descriptive study was conducted in public diabetes clinics, hospital and community pharmacies in vicinity of diabetes clinics in Dar es Salaam and Zanzibar to investigate the role of pharmacists in management of diabetes and diabetic patients' care. Face to face interviews were conducted with patients, ...

  3. Identification of Counterfeit Drugs by Community Pharmacists in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: The problem of fake and counterfeit drugs is real and constitutes a major threat to the health and safety of the Nigerian population. A descriptive study was carried out to assess the methods of identification of counterfeit drugs by community pharmacists in Lagos State. Methods: The research instrument was a ...

  4. Effects on Deaf Patients of Medication Education by Pharmacists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyoguchi, Naomi; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Kubota, Toshio; Shimazoe, Takao

    2016-01-01

    Deaf people often experience difficulty in understanding medication information provided by pharmacists due to communication barriers. We held medication education lectures for deaf and hard of hearing (HH) individuals and examined the extent to which deaf participants understood medication-related information as well as their attitude about…

  5. Pharmacist intervention in drug-related problems for patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the role of the community pharmacist in identifying, preventing and resolving drug related problems (DRPs) encountered by patients, with particular emphasis on cardiovascular drugs in community pharmacies in Northern Cyprus, Turkey. Methods: A prospective observational study for the ...

  6. Determinants of Hospital Pharmacists' Job Satisfaction in Romanian Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iorga, Magdalena; Dondaș, Corina; Soponaru, Camelia; Antofie, Ioan

    2017-12-11

    Aim : The purpose of this study is to identify the level of job satisfaction among hospital pharmacists in Romania in relation to environmental, socio-demographic, and individual factors. Material and Methods : Seventy-eight hospital pharmacists were included in the research. The Job Satisfaction Scale was used to measure the level of satisfaction with their current jobs, and the TAS-20 was used to evaluate emotional experience and awareness. Additionally, 12 items were formulated in order to identify the reasons for dissatisfaction with jobs, such as budget, number of working hours, legislation, relationships with colleagues, hospital departments, or stakeholders. Data were analyzed using IBM SPSS Statistics version 23. Results : The analyses of the data revealed a low level of satisfaction regarding the pay-promotion subscale, a high level of satisfaction with the management-interpersonal relationship dimension, and a high level of satisfaction regarding the organization-communication subscale. Seventy-four percent of subjects are dissatisfied about the annual budget, and 86.3% are not at all satisfied with present legislation. Conclusions : These results are important for hospital pharmacists and hospital management in order to focus on health policies, management, and environmental issues, with the purpose of increasing the level of satisfaction among hospital pharmacists.

  7. The Hispanic pharmacist: Value beyond a common language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipriano, Gabriela C; Andrews, Carlota O

    2015-01-01

    To highlight the added value of bilingual Hispanic pharmacists in the care of Hispanic patients by sharing their patients' language and culture. Inability to speak and/or write in the patients' native language severely impairs our best efforts to deliver good health care. This is a widely recognized cause of non-compliance or less than favorable possible health outcomes in Hispanic patients. What has received less attention, however, is that the ability to speak Spanish alone may not remove completely the barrier for non-compliance among Hispanics. Bilingual Spanish-English pharmacists do not have the language barrier, but if they do not recognize and accept cultural differences, their impact in their patients' response may still be limited. It is time to recognize the added value of Hispanic pharmacists to Hispanic patients' health outcomes. Understanding and sharing a culture allows the pharmacist to make medication education and interventions relevant to the patient and spark interest in their own health care. Thus, in caring for the health of our patients, cultural barriers may be more challenging to conquer than language barriers; deep appreciation and acceptance of our patients' belief system cannot be acquired by just reading about it, having a computerized program, or hiring an interpreter.

  8. The Hispanic pharmacist: Value beyond a common language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela C Cipriano

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To highlight the added value of bilingual Hispanic pharmacists in the care of Hispanic patients by sharing their patients’ language and culture. Summary: Inability to speak and/or write in the patients’ native language severely impairs our best efforts to deliver good health care. This is a widely recognized cause of non-compliance or less than favorable possible health outcomes in Hispanic patients. What has received less attention, however, is that the ability to speak Spanish alone may not remove completely the barrier for non-compliance among Hispanics. Bilingual Spanish–English pharmacists do not have the language barrier, but if they do not recognize and accept cultural differences, their impact in their patients’ response may still be limited. Conclusion: It is time to recognize the added value of Hispanic pharmacists to Hispanic patients’ health outcomes. Understanding and sharing a culture allows the pharmacist to make medication education and interventions relevant to the patient and spark interest in their own health care. Thus, in caring for the health of our patients, cultural barriers may be more challenging to conquer than language barriers; deep appreciation and acceptance of our patients’ belief system cannot be acquired by just reading about it, having a computerized program, or hiring an interpreter.

  9. Pharmacists' Roles and Factors Affecting Patient Care in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica J. Hwang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study was conducted to explore Korean community pharmacists' perceptions of their roles in providing care to patients after the implementation of the Separation of Prescribing and Dispensing Act (SPD Act and to investigate pharmacists' perceptions about factors that impact their patient care. Methods: Eight community pharmacists participated in semi-structured, face-to-face, in-depth interviews in Korea. A snowball sampling technique was used to obtain participants. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed. Interviews were analyzed using a summative content analysis procedure. Key findings: Participants' perceptions of their roles centered on dispensing prescriptions, educating and counseling patients, and helping patients with OTC products. Participants perceived time constraints due to prescription volume and patient expectations as factors influencing their provision of patient care. Conclusion: This study suggests that the SPD Act was successful in changing pharmacists' roles in the Korean health care system. None of the participants perceived their role to include prescribing, while all of the participants indicated that their primary role was to dispense medications. Future research should examine the pervasiveness of the themes identified in this study across Korean community pharmacy practice in order to generalize the impact of the SPD Act.   Type: Original Research

  10. Community pharmacists and Colleges of Pharmacy: the Ohio partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Marc A; Mauro, Vincent F; Cable, Gerald L; Rudnicki, Barbara M; Wall, Andrea L; Murphy, Christine C; Makarich, Joseph A; Kahaleh, Abir A

    2005-01-01

    To develop pharmacist practice standards, pharmacy preceptor standards, and objectives for students completing advanced practice community pharmacy rotations. Ohio. Pharmacy schools and community pharmacies that serve as advanced practice rotation sites. Developed standards for preceptors and objectives for student experiences. Focus groups that included both community pharmacists and pharmacy faculty collaborated on defining key standards for advanced community pharmacy rotations. Not applicable. Three main documents were produced in this initiative, and these are provided as appendices to this article. Professional and patient care guidelines for preceptors define minimum standards for these role models. Expectations of pharmacists as preceptors provide insights for managing this student-teacher relationship, which is fundamentally different from the more common employer-employee and coworker relationships found in pharmacies of all types. Objectives for student experiences during advanced practice community pharmacy rotations present core expectations in clinical, dispensing, patient education, wellness, and drug information areas. Through this collaboration, Ohio colleges of pharmacy developed a partnership with practitioners in community settings that should enhance the Ohio experiential educational program for student pharmacists. Use of the established guidelines will help educators and practitioners achieve their shared vision for advanced practice community pharmacy rotations and promote high-quality patient care.

  11. Evaluation of pharmacist clinical interventions in a Dutch hospital setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, Liesbeth; Jansman, Frank G. A.; Franken, Anton M.; Harting, Johannes W.; Van den Bemt, Patricia M. L. A.

    Objective Assessing the relevance of a clinically active pharmacist method compared to the traditional working method. Method The study was carried out in a general internal/gastro-enterology unit during two 8-weeks periods in 2004. It was an observational, non-randomized prospective study. Outcome

  12. Sleep Duration and Academic Performance Among Student Pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeek, Megan L; Savoie, Matthew J; Song, Matthew; Kennemur, Leanna M; Qian, Jingjing; Jungnickel, Paul W; Westrick, Salisa C

    2015-06-25

    To identify sleep patterns and frequency of daytime sleepiness and to assess the association between sleep duration and academic performance among student pharmacists. A cross-sectional design was used. An anonymous self-administered paper questionnaire was administered to first-year through third-year students at a pharmacy school. Questionnaires were completed by 364 student pharmacists (79.4% response rate and 93.8% cooperation rate). More than half of student pharmacists obtained less than 7 hours of sleep at night during a typical school week (54.7%) and a large majority on the night prior to an examination (81.7%). Almost half (47.8%) felt daytime sleepiness almost every day. Longer sleep duration the night prior to an examination was associated with higher course grades and semester grade point averages (GPAs). A majority of student pharmacists had suboptimal durations of sleep, defined as fewer than 7 hours. Adequate sleep the night prior to an examination was positively associated with student course grades and semester GPAs.

  13. The Role of a Psychiatric Pharmacist in College Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caley, Charles F.; Webber, Donna; Kurland, Michael; Holmes, Paula

    2010-01-01

    Published evidence indicates there is a growing prevalence of psychiatric illnesses on college campuses, and that approximately one quarter of students may be taking psychotropic medications. But attracting and retaining experienced mental health care professionals to college health settings is a challenging task. The psychiatric pharmacist is one…

  14. Opinions of pharmacists and herbalists on herbal medicine use and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research March 2017; 16 (3): 689-696 ... 1Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Applied .... herbalists and pharmacists who selected each of .... the importance of this topic would be beneficial to ... recommendation would be to run an educational.

  15. Survey of community pharmacists' perception of electronic cigarettes in London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques Gomes, Ana C N; Nabhani-Gebara, Shereen; Kayyali, Reem; Buonocore, Federico; Calabrese, Gianpiero

    2016-11-10

    To seek community pharmacists' perception on use, safety and possible effectiveness of e-cigarettes as quit smoking tools, and their future regulation. A survey of a sample of 154 community pharmacies across London, UK. E-cigarettes have exclusively established themselves in the market through consumers-led demand. To date, e-cigarettes still remain unregulated and can be easily purchased in shops, over the internet, but more controversially also in pharmacies in the UK. Pharmacists find themselves with a shortage of information on their safety and efficacy, and may experience an ethical dilemma when consulted by patients/customers. Response rate: 60% (n=92). Independent pharmacies accounted for 90% of the sample. The majority of participants (73%) sell e-cigarettes. A minority of participants (20%) have been presented with adverse effects such as cough and dry mouth. As possible reasons for their use, pharmacists ranked 'aid in stop smoking' as the most important (56%), with 'cheaper alternative' (43%) and 'social/recreational use' (31%) being the least important ones. Safety issues were raised as statements such as 'e-liquid in cartridges may be toxic' were agreed by 52% of respondents. The majority of pharmacists (97%) were supportive of e-cigarettes being regulated, expressing current concerns regarding excipients (42%) and nicotine content (34%). Participants indicated that they would require training in the form of information packs (88%), online tutorials (67%), continuous professional development (CPD) workshops (43%) to cover safety, counselling, dosage instructions, adverse effects and role in the smoking cessation care pathway in the future. Pharmacists expressed concerns about the safety of e-cigarettes, especially regarding the amounts of excipients and nicotine as these still remain unregulated. Currently, there are no guidelines for pharmacists regarding e-cigarettes. Community pharmacists look forward to regulations so to conduct their duties in a

  16. Characterization of oil and gas reservoirs and recovery technology deployment on Texas State Lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyler, R.; Major, R.P.; Holtz, M.H. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    Texas State Lands oil and gas resources are estimated at 1.6 BSTB of remaining mobile oil, 2.1 BSTB, or residual oil, and nearly 10 Tcf of remaining gas. An integrated, detailed geologic and engineering characterization of Texas State Lands has created quantitative descriptions of the oil and gas reservoirs, resulting in delineation of untapped, bypassed compartments and zones of remaining oil and gas. On Texas State Lands, the knowledge gained from such interpretative, quantitative reservoir descriptions has been the basis for designing optimized recovery strategies, including well deepening, recompletions, workovers, targeted infill drilling, injection profile modification, and waterflood optimization. The State of Texas Advanced Resource Recovery program is currently evaluating oil and gas fields along the Gulf Coast (South Copano Bay and Umbrella Point fields) and in the Permian Basin (Keystone East, Ozona, Geraldine Ford and Ford West fields). The program is grounded in advanced reservoir characterization techniques that define the residence of unrecovered oil and gas remaining in select State Land reservoirs. Integral to the program is collaboration with operators in order to deploy advanced reservoir exploitation and management plans. These plans are made on the basis of a thorough understanding of internal reservoir architecture and its controls on remaining oil and gas distribution. Continued accurate, detailed Texas State Lands reservoir description and characterization will ensure deployment of the most current and economically viable recovery technologies and strategies available.

  17. Opportunities for wind and solar to displace coal and associated health impacts in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohan, D. S.; Strasert, B.; Slusarewicz, J.

    2017-12-01

    Texas uses more coal for power production than any other state, but also leads the nation in wind power while lagging in solar. Many analysts expect that more than half of coal power plants may close within the next decade, unable to compete with cheaper natural gas and renewable electricity. To what extent could displacing coal with wind and solar yield benefits for air quality, health, and climate? Here, we present modeling of the ozone, particulate matter, and associated health impacts of each of 15 coal power plants in Texas, using the CAMx model for air quality and BenMAP for health effects. We show that health impacts from unscrubbed coal plants near urban areas can be an order of magnitude larger than some other facilities. We then analyze the temporal patterns of generation that could be obtained from solar and wind farms in various regions of Texas that could displace these coal plants. We find that winds along the southern Gulf coast of Texas exhibit strikingly different temporal patterns than in west Texas, peaking on summer afternoons rather than winter nights. Thus, wind farms from the two regions along with solar farms could provide complementary sources of power to displace coal. We quantify several metrics to characterize the extent to which wind and solar farms in different regions provide complementary sources of power that can reliably displace traditional sources of electricity.

  18. Pharmacists' perceptions of facilitators and barriers to lifelong learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Alan L; Bruskiewitz, Ruth H; Demuth, James E

    2007-08-15

    To reevaluate facilitators of and barriers to pharmacists' participation in lifelong learning previously examined in a 1990 study. A survey instrument was mailed to 274 pharmacists who volunteered to participate based on a prior random sample survey. Data based on perceptions of facilitators and barriers to lifelong learning, as well as self-perception as a lifelong learner, were analyzed and compared to a similar 1990 survey. The response rate for the survey was 88%. The top 3 facilitators and barriers to lifelong learning from the 2003 and the 1990 samples were: (1) personal desire to learn; (2) requirement to maintain professional licensure; and (3) enjoyment/relaxation provided by learning as change of pace from the "routine." The top 3 barriers were: (1) job constraints; (2) scheduling (location, distance, time) of group learning activities; and (3) family constraints (eg, spouse, children, personal). Respondents' broad self-perception as lifelong learners continued to be highly positive overall, but remained less positive relative to more specific lifelong learning skills such as the ability to identify learning objectives as well as to evaluate learning outcomes. Little has changed in the last decade relative to how pharmacists view themselves as lifelong learners, as well as what they perceive as facilitators and barriers to lifelong learning. To address factors identified as facilitators and barriers, continuing education (CE) providers should focus on pharmacists' time constraints, whether due to employment, family responsibilities, or time invested in the educational activity itself, and pharmacists' internal motivations to learn (personal desire, enjoyment), as well as external forces such as mandatory CE for relicensure.

  19. 76 FR 7833 - Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ...] Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application Take notice that on January 25, 2011, Texas Eastern Transmission, LP (Texas Eastern), 5400 Westheimer Court, Houston, Texas 77056, filed in the above... TEAM 2012 Project. Specifically, Texas Eastern requests: (i) Authorization under NGA sections 7(b) and...

  20. Pharmacists in primary care. Determinants of the care-providing function of Dutch community pharmacists in primary care.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muijrers, P.E.; Knottnerus, J.A.; Sijbrandij, J.; Janknegt, R.; Grol, R.P.T.M.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify determinants of the care-providing function of the community pharmacists (CPs) to explain variations in professional practice. SETTING: The Netherlands 2001. PARTICIPANTS: 328 CPs. METHOD: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was performed. Questionnaires were used to

  1. Investigating strategies used by hospital pharmacists to effectively communicate with patients during medication counselling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Bernadette A M; Watson, Bernadette M; Barras, Michael A; Cottrell, William Neil

    2017-10-01

    Medication counselling opportunities are key times for pharmacists and patients to discuss medications and patients' concerns about their therapy. Communication Accommodation Theory (CAT) describes behavioural, motivational and emotional processes underlying communication exchanges. Five CAT strategies (approximation, interpretability, discourse management, emotional expression and interpersonal control) permit identification of effective communication. To invoke CAT to investigate communication strategies used by hospital pharmacists during patient medication counselling. This was a theory-based, qualitative study using transcribed audiorecordings of patients and hospital pharmacists engaged in medication counselling. Recruited pharmacists practised in inpatient or outpatient settings. Eligible patients within participating pharmacists' practice sites were prescribed at least three medications to manage chronic disease(s). The extent to which pharmacists accommodate, or not, to patients' conversational needs based on accommodative behaviour described within CAT strategies. Twelve pharmacists engaged four patients (48 total interactions). Exemplars provided robust examples of pharmacists effectively accommodating or meeting patients' conversational needs. Non-accommodation mainly occurred when pharmacists spoke too quickly, used terms not understood by patients and did not include patients in the agenda-setting phase. Multiple strategy use resulted in communication patterns such as "information-reassurance-rationale" sandwiches. Most pharmacists effectively employed all five CAT strategies to engage patients in discussions. Pharmacists' communication could be improved at the initial agenda-setting phase by asking open-ended questions to invite patients' input and allow patients to identify any medication-related concerns or issues. © 2017 The Authors Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Pharmacist and physician perspectives on diabetes service delivery within community pharmacies in Indonesia: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibowo, Yosi; Sunderland, Bruce; Hughes, Jeffery

    2016-05-01

    To explore perspectives of physicians and pharmacists on diabetes service delivery within community pharmacies in Indonesia. In depth interviews were conducted with 10 physicians and 10 community pharmacists in Surabaya, Indonesia, using a semi-structured interview guide. Nvivo version 9 was used to facilitate thematic content analysis to identify barriers/facilitators for community pharmacists to provide diabetes services. The identified themes indicating barriers/facilitators for diabetes service delivery within Indonesian community pharmacies included: (1) pharmacist factors - i.e. positive views (facilitator) and perceived lack of competence (barrier); (2) pharmacist-physician relationships - i.e. physicians' lack of support and accessibility (barriers); (3) pharmacist-patient relationships - i.e. perceived patients' lack of support and accessibility (barriers); (4) pharmacy environment - i.e. business orientation (barrier), lack of staff and poor pharmacist availability (barriers), and availability of supporting resources, such as counselling areas/rooms, procedures/protocols and IT systems for labelling and patient records (facilitators); and (5) external environment - i.e. a health system to support pharmacist roles, remuneration, marketing and professional assistance (facilitators). Issues related to the pharmacist-physician-patient relationships, pharmacy environment and external environment need to be addressed before Indonesian community pharmacists can provide additional pharmacy services for type 2 diabetes patients. Collaboration between the Government, Ikatan Apoteker Indonesia (Indonesian Pharmacists Association) and Ikatan Dokter Indonesia (Indonesian Medical Association) is required to improve the pharmacy professional environment and facilities. © 2015 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  3. Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs and Pharmacist Orientation Toward Dispensing Controlled Substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fendrich, Michael; Bryan, Janelle K; Hooyer, Katinka

    2018-01-03

    We sought to understand how pharmacists viewed and used a newly implemented prescription drug monitoring program (PDMP). We also sought to understand pharmacist orientation toward dispensing of controlled substances and the people who obtain them. We conducted three mini focus groups. The focus group findings were used to inform the design of a structured survey. We emailed a survey to 160 pharmacists who were employed in one statewide community chain store; we obtained 48 survey responses. Focus groups findings suggested that, in relation to the dispensing of scheduled prescription medication, pharmacists were either "healthcare" oriented, "law-enforcement" oriented, or an orientation that combined these two perspectives. Surveys suggested that pharmacists found PDMPs easy to use and that they used them frequently - often to contact physicians directly. Surveys suggested that pharmacists were typically either "healthcare" oriented or "mixed" (combined perspectives). Pharmacist orientation was associated with the frequency with which they counseled patients about medication risk and the frequency with which they used the PDMP as the basis for contacting prescribers. Ongoing tracking of pharmacists' use of PDMPs is important both at the implementation stage and as PDMPs develop over time. The orientation construct developed here is useful in understanding pharmacist behavior and attitudes towards patients potentially at risk for misuse of controlled substance medications. Further research on this construct could shed light on barriers and incentives for pharmacist PDMP participation and use and provide guidance for pharmacist training, ultimately enhancing patient care.

  4. An Analysis of Job Satisfaction among Iranian Pharmacists through Various Job Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foroughi Moghadam, Mohamad Javad; Peiravian, Farzad; Naderi, Azadeh; Rajabzadeh, Ali; Rasekh, Hamid Reza

    2014-01-01

    Pharmacists and pharmaceutical services are among the most important resources and programs in providing health for a society. Pharmacists as the key players in presenting health services, greatly impact on the health of a society and if they suffer low job satisfaction, their dissatisfaction may relatively threaten health in a society. This study was conducted to determine Iranian pharmacists' job satisfaction and additionally, some causes of dissatisfaction among pharmacists have been diagnosed. A job satisfaction questionnaire was developed and reliability tests were done by some experts in field of pharmacy practice. A sample of 700 pharmacists was selected among ten leading provinces of the country and questionnaires were distributed at the continuing pharmacy education conferences. Three essential factors named "Endogenous Satisfaction", "Exogenous Satisfaction" and "Current Sense of Being Pharmacists" was considered as the main job satisfaction factors. Generally low scores of exogenous and endogenous job satisfaction were concluded among pharmacists while most of them were highly satisfied with being pharmacist. Male pharmacists were more satisfied than their female colleagues and a positive relationship between age and work experience with exogenous job satisfaction was found. Low levels of job satisfaction which were found among Iranian pharmacists could be considered as a deficiency of health system in Iran. Fortunately, inherent interest in the pharmacy profession found among Iranian pharmacists is an optimistic point at which policy-makers could develop their modifying policies. Health policy-makers must endeavor to take other steps to issue solutions for this current problem.

  5. Exploring community pharmacists' experiences of surveying patients for drug utilization research purposes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisk, Pia; Bergman, Ulrika; Kälvemark Sporrong, Sofia

    2015-01-01

    pharmacists. This study is part of a validation of that data acquisition method. Objectives (1) To explore the experiences of the pharmacists involved, (2) to explore a random or systematic exclusion of eligible patients by the pharmacists, and (3) to find areas of improvement to the applied method...... of surveying. Setting 72 Swedish community pharmacies, distributed all over the country. Method (a) A questionnaire was distributed to approximately 400 dispensing pharmacists at the pharmacies conducting the patient surveys; (b) semi-structured telephone interviews conducted with 19 pharmacists at 12...... of the pharmacies. Main outcome measure Proportions of pharmacists reporting positive and negative experiences of structured survey interviews, the nature of their experiences, proportion of pharmacists reporting to avoid survey interviews and reasons for doing so, and suggested areas of improvement. Results...

  6. Technicians or patient advocates?--still a valid question (results of focus group discussions with pharmacists)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Morgall, Janine Marie

    1999-01-01

    discussions with community pharmacists in the capital area Reykjavík and rural areas were employed to answer the research question: How has the pharmacists' societal role evolved after the legislation and what are the implications for pharmacy practice? The results showed firstly that the public image...... and the self-image of the pharmacist has changed in the short time since the legislative change. The pharmacists generally said that their patient contact is deteriorating due to the discount wars, the rural pharmacists being more optimistic, and believing in a future competition based on quality. Secondly......, the results showed that the pharmacists have difficulties reconciling their technical paradigm with a legislative and professional will specifying customer and patient focus. This study describes the challenges of a new legislation with a market focus for community pharmacists whose education emphasized...

  7. A qualitative study of English community pharmacists' experiences of providing lifestyle advice to patients with cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Morton, Kirsty; Pattison, Helen; Langley, Chris; Powell, Rachael

    2015-01-01

    Background - Cardiovascular disease (CVD) progression is modifiable through lifestyle behaviors. Community pharmacists are ideally placed to facilitate self-management of cardiovascular health however research shows varied pharmacist engagement in providing lifestyle advice. Objective - This study explored community pharmacists' experiences and perceptions of providing lifestyle advice to patients with CVD. Methods - Semi-structured interviews were conducted with fifteen pharmacists (1 superm...

  8. Evaluating the practice of Iranian community pharmacists regarding oral contraceptive pills using simulated patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foroutan, Nazanin; Dabaghzadeh, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    As oral contraceptive pills are available over the counter in pharmacies, pharmacists are professionally responsible for checking and informing patients about every aspect of taking these drugs. Simulated patient method is a new and robust way to evaluate professional performance of pharmacists. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the pharmacy practice of Iranian pharmacists regarding over-the-counter use of oral contraceptive pills using simulated patient method. Simulated patients visited pharmacy with a prescription containing ciprofloxacin and asked for oral contraceptive pills. The pharmacist was expected to ask important questions for using these drugs and to inform the patient about them properly. Moreover, the Pharmacists should advise patients in regard to the possible interaction. Ninety four pharmacists participated in this study. In 24 (25.3%) visits, the liable pharmacist was not present at the time of purchase. Furthermore, In 13 (18.57 %) visits by the simulated patients, the liable pharmacists did not pay any attention to the simulated patients even when they asked for consultation. Twenty nine (41.43%) pharmacists did not ask any question during dispensing. Nausea was the most frequent described side effect by pharmacists (27 (38.57%)). Yet important adverse effects of oral contraceptive pills were not mentioned by the pharmacists except for few ones. Only twelve (17.14%) pharmacists mentioned the possible interaction. There was a significant relation between the pharmacists' gender and detection of possible interaction (p value= 0.048). The quality of the pharmacists' consultations regarding the over the counter use of oral contraceptive pills was not satisfactory and required improvement.

  9. AN ANALYSIS OF PHARMACY SERVICES BY PHARMACIST IN COMMUNITY PHARMACY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Joseph Herman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: Up to now there are more than 60 schools of pharmacy with a variety of accreditation level in lndonesia. Previous study found that the standard of pharmaceutical services at various service facilities (hospitals, primary health care and community pharmacy can not be fully implemented because of the limited competency of pharmacist. This study was conducted to identify the qualification of pharmacist who delivers services in community pharmacy in compliance with the Indonesian Health Law No. 36 of 2009. As mandated in the Health Law No. 36 of 2009, the government is obliged to establish minimum requirements that must be possessed. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in 2010 at 2 community pharmacies in each of 3 cities, i.e. Bandung, DI Yogyakarta and Surabaya. Other than ten pharmacists delivering services in community pharmacies, there were pharmacists as informants from 4 institutions in each city selected, i.e. six pharmacists from two Schools of Pharmacy, three pharmacists from three Regional Indonesian Pharmacists Association,six pharmacists from three District Health Offices and three Provincial Health Offices. Primary data collection through in-depth interviews and observation as well as secondary data collection concerning standard operating procedures, monitoring documentation and academic curricula has been used. Descriptive data were analysed qualitatively Results: The findings indicate that pharmacists' qualification to deliver services in a community pharmacy in accordance with the Government Regulation No. 51 of 2009, Standards of Pharmacy Services in Community Pharmacy and Good Pharmaceutical Practices (GPP was varied. Most pharmacists have already understood their roles in pharmacy service, but to practice it in accordance with the standards or guidelines they are still having problems. It is also acknowledged by pharmacists in other institutions, including School of Pharmacy, Regional

  10. In-situ leaching opens new uranium reserves in Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, L.

    1975-01-01

    A commercial in-situ uranium leaching operation that is quite probably the largest ever built started up in April, 10 mi southwest of George West, Tex. Producing from a pattern of 66 injection wells and 46 extraction wells occupying an area of less than 3 acres, the Clay West mine and plant are expected to reach design capacity of 250,000 lb per year of yellowcake by the end of the summer. By late May, results were sufficiently favorable to make the owners think seriously about an early expansion. Built at a cost of $7 million by joint ventures Atlantic Richfield (50 percent owner and operator), Dalco (25 percent), and US Steel (25 percent), the Clay West mine may be only the first of several mines to extract U 3 O 8 from a uranium province that stretches from north of Houston to Brownsville, at the southernmost tip of the state. Westinghouse subsidiary Wyoming Minerals is building a 250,000-lb-per-year plant near Bruni, with startup planned before the end of 1975, and Mobil Oil is setting up a pilot-scale plant in the same area. A number of other companies are reported to be actively interested in development of in-situ uranium leaching in Texas. (U.S.)

  11. Implementation and evaluation of Parkinson disease management in an outpatient clinical pharmacist-run neurology telephone clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefan, Teodora Cristina; Elharar, Nicole; Garcia, Guadalupe

    2018-05-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) is a progressive, debilitating neurodegenerative disease that often requires complex pharmacologic treatment regimens. Prior to this clinic, there was no involvement of a clinical pharmacy specialist (CPS) in the outpatient neurology clinic at the West Palm Beach Veterans Affairs Medical Center. This was a prospective, quality-improvement project to develop a clinical pharmacist-run neurology telephone clinic and evaluate pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic interventions in an effort to improve the quality of care for patients with PD. Additionally, the CPS conducted medication education groups to 24 patients with PD and their caregivers, if applicable, at this medical center with the purpose of promoting patient knowledge and medication awareness. Medication management was performed via telephone rather than face to face. Only patients with a concomitant mental health diagnosis for which they were receiving at least one psychotropic medication were included for individual visits due to the established scope of practice of the CPS being limited to mental health and primary care medications. Data collection included patient and clinic demographics as well as pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic interventions made for patients enrolled from January 6, 2017, through March 31, 2017. A total of 49 pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic interventions were made for 10 patients. We successfully implemented and evaluated a clinical pharmacist-run neurology telephone clinic for patients with PD. Expansion of this clinic to patients with various neurological disorders may improve access to care using an innovative method of medication management expertise by a CPS.

  12. 75 FR 68398 - Texas, Oklahoma & Eastern Railroad, LLC-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-Texas, Oklahoma...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-05

    ... & Eastern Railroad, LLC--Acquisition and Operation Exemption--Texas, Oklahoma & Eastern Railroad Company Texas, Oklahoma & Eastern Railroad, LLC (TOE), a noncarrier, has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1150.31 to acquire from Texas, Oklahoma & Eastern Railroad Company and to operate...

  13. A new genus and two new species of the crustacean order Thermosbaebacea from the West Indies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stock, Jan H.

    1976-01-01

    Up to now, the crustacean order Thermosbaenacea contained two genera with only six valid species, five from the panmediterranean region, one from Texas. Two new members of this curious group of “living fossils” have been discovered in the West Indies. The one, from two deep wells not far from the

  14. 77 FR 58025 - Texas Regulatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    ... appropriation. When calculating anticipated costs to the Commission for regulating coal mining activity, Texas... (c) Does not have significant adverse effects on competition, employment, investment, productivity...

  15. 78 FR 12010 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Pearsall, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-21

    ... Broadcasting Services; Pearsall, Texas AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule... (``Petitioner''), licensee of FM Station KSAG, Channel 277A, Pearsall, Texas. Petitioner proposes to amend the... be allotted at Pearsall, Texas, in compliance with the Commission's minimum distance separation...

  16. Oceanographic measurements from the Texas Automated Buoy System (TABS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Texas Automated Buoy System contains daily oceanographic measurements from seven buoys off the Texas coast from Brownsville to Sabine. The Texas General Land...

  17. Clone of EPA Approved Regulations in the Texas SIP

    Science.gov (United States)

    changed name to EPA Approved Regulations in the Texas SIP, Add links to:Texas Read Me; Texas SIP History;Current/Previous SIP-Approved Regulations; Delete regulations--now in /node/191099, removed tables

  18. Status report on Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avant, R.V. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    In 1981, the Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority was created by Article 4590f-1 to site, develop, operate, decommission, and close a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility for Texas generated waste. In 1989, the Authority's act was recodified by the Texas legislature in the Health and Safety Code., Title 5. Sanitation and Environmental Quality, Subtitle D. Nuclear and Radioactive Materials, Chapter 402. The Authority is governed by a Board of Directors appointed by the Governor, composed of a certified health physicist, geologist, attorney, medical doctor, and two private citizens. Under the statute, low-level radioactive waste is defined as any radioactive material with a half-life of 35 years or less or having less than 10 nanocuries per gram of transuranics. Materials with half-lives of greater than 35 years may be classed as low-level waste if special criteria are established by the Texas Department of Health Bureau of Radiation Control. Subsequent sessions of the legislature have amended the act to revise siting criteria, require consideration of state land, create a Citizen's Advisory Committee, incorporate alternative designs, and establish a special low-level radioactive waste account in the state treasury. The Authority began its activities in 1982. The Authority has proposed a site in far West Texas near Fort Hancock, but El Paso County, the neighboring county to the west, has instituted three separate lawsuits to slow or stop the site selection process. Particular attention was paid early in the site selection process to items which could be fatal flaws from a licensing standpoint. This paper discusses the Fort Hancock site description, site evaluation studies, siting issues, waste volume projections, facility design, license application, cost and schedule

  19. Pharmacist's knowledge, practice and attitudes toward pharmacovigilance and adverse drug reactions reporting process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyagh, Maysa; Farah, Doaa; Abu Farha, Rana

    2015-04-01

    Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are a major cause of drug related morbidity and mortality. Pharmacovigilance is the science that plays an essential role in the reduction of ADRs, thus the evolution and growth of this science are critical for effective and safe clinical practice. This study is considered the first study in the region to evaluate pharmacist's knowledge, practice and attitudes toward ADRs reporting after establishing the national ADRs reporting center in Jordan. A cross sectional study was used to evaluate pharmacist knowledge and attitude toward ADRs reporting. A structured validated questionnaire was developed for this purpose and a total of 208 pharmacists were recruited to participate in this study. The majority of pharmacists have insufficient awareness and lack of knowledge about pharmacovigilance and ADRs reporting. Also the rate of reporting of ADRs was extremely poor. Several factors were found to discourage pharmacists from reporting ADRs, which include inadequate information available from the patient, unavailability of pharmacist ADRs form when needed, unawareness of the existence of the national ADRs reporting system. Also pharmacists think that ADRs are unimportant or they did not know how to report them. The results of this study suggest that pharmacists have insufficient knowledge about the concept of pharmacovigilance and spontaneous ADRs reporting. On the other hand, pharmacists had positive attitudes toward pharmacovigilance, despite their little experience with ADRs reporting. Educational programs are needed to increase pharmacist's role in the reporting process, and thus to have a positive impact on the overall patient caring process.

  20. Using scenarios to test the appropriateness of pharmacist prescribing in asthma management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Tamer; Bajorek, Beata; Lemay, Kate; Armour, Carol L

    2014-01-01

    To explore the potential for community pharmacist prescribing in terms of usefulness, pharmacists' confidence, and appropriateness, in the context of asthma management. Twenty community pharmacists were recruited using convenience sampling from a group of trained practitioners who had already delivered asthma services. These pharmacists were asked to complete a scenario-based questionnaire (9 scenarios) modelled on information from real patients. Pharmacist interventions were independently reviewed and rated on their appropriateness according to the Respiratory Therapeutic Guidelines (TG) by three expert researchers. In seven of nine scenarios (78%), the most common prescribing intervention made by pharmacists agreed with TG recommendations. Although the prescribing intervention was appropriate in the majority of cases, the execution of such interventions was not in line with guidelines (i.e. dosage or frequency) in the majority of scenarios. Due to this, only 47% (76/162) of the interventions overall were considered appropriate. However, pharmacists were deemed to be often following common clinical practice for asthma prescribing. Therefore 81% (132/162) of prescribing interventions were consistent with clinical practice, which is often not guideline driven, indicating a need for specific training in prescribing according to guidelines. Pharmacists reported that they were confident in making prescribing interventions and that this would be very useful in their management of the patients in the scenarios. Community pharmacists may be able to prescribe asthma medications appropriately to help achieve good outcomes for their patients. However, further training in the guidelines for prescribing are required if pharmacists are to support asthma management in this way.

  1. Community pharmacists as educators in Danish residential facilities: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mygind, Anna; El-Souri, Mira; Pultz, Kirsten; Rossing, Charlotte; Thomsen, Linda A

    2017-08-01

    To explore experiences with engaging community pharmacists in educational programmes on quality and safety in medication handling in residential facilities for the disabled. A secondary analysis of data from two Danish intervention studies where community pharmacists were engaged in educational programmes. Data included 10 semi-structured interviews with staff, five semi-structured interviews and three open-ended questionnaires with residential facility managers, and five open-ended questionnaires to community pharmacists. Data were thematically coded to identify key points pertaining to the themes 'pharmacists as educators' and 'perceived effects of engaging pharmacists in competence development'. As educators, pharmacists were successful as medicines experts. Some pharmacists experienced pedagogical challenges. Previous teaching experience and obtained knowledge of the local residential facility before teaching often provided sufficient pedagogical skills and tailored teaching to local needs. Effects of engaging community pharmacists included in most instances improved cooperation between residential facilities and community pharmacies through a trustful relationship and improved dialogue about the residents' medication. Other effects included a perception of improved patient safety, teaching skills and branding of the pharmacy. Community pharmacists provide a resource to engage in educational programmes on medication handling in residential facilities, which may facilitate improved cooperation between community pharmacies and residential facilities. However, development of pedagogical competences and understandings of local settings are prerequisites for facilities and pharmacists to experience the programmes as successful. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  2. Physicians’ perceptions, expectations, and experience with pharmacists at Hamad Medical Corporation in Qatar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidan, Manal; Singh, Rajvir; Wazaify, Mayyada; Tahaineh, Linda

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the physicians’ perceptions, and expectations of their experiences with the pharmacists at Hamad Medical Corporation (HMC) in Qatar. Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted at HMC between January and March 2006 using a validated questionnaire. The self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 500 physicians who were working at HMC comprising Hamad General Hospital, Women’s Hospital, Rumaila Hospital, Al-Amal Hospital, Al Khor Hospital, and primary health centers. The questionnaire was composed of four parts, investigating the physicians’ expectations, experiences, and perceptions of the pharmacists. Results: A total of 205 questionnaires were completed (response rate 41%). A total of 183 physicians (89%) expected the pharmacist to educate patients about safe and appropriate use of drugs, whereas 118 (57%) expected the pharmacist to be available for health-care team consultation during bedside rounds. The indices of physicians showing how comfortable they were with pharmacists, and their expectations of pharmacists, were 61% and 65%, respectively, whereas the index on experience of physicians with pharmacists was lower (15%). Conclusions: Physicians were comfortable with pharmacists and had high expectations of pharmacists in performing their duties. However, physicians reported a poor experience with pharmacists, who infrequently informed them about the effectiveness of alternative drugs, patients experiencing problems with prescribed medications, and who took personal responsibility to resolve any drug-related problem. PMID:21544250

  3. Physicians' perceptions, expectations, and experience with pharmacists at Hamad Medical Corporation in Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidan, Manal; Singh, Rajvir; Wazaify, Mayyada; Tahaineh, Linda

    2011-04-08

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the physicians' perceptions, and expectations of their experiences with the pharmacists at Hamad Medical Corporation (HMC) in Qatar. A cross-sectional study was conducted at HMC between January and March 2006 using a validated questionnaire. The self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 500 physicians who were working at HMC comprising Hamad General Hospital, Women's Hospital, Rumaila Hospital, Al-Amal Hospital, Al Khor Hospital, and primary health centers. The questionnaire was composed of four parts, investigating the physicians' expectations, experiences, and perceptions of the pharmacists. A total of 205 questionnaires were completed (response rate 41%). A total of 183 physicians (89%) expected the pharmacist to educate patients about safe and appropriate use of drugs, whereas 118 (57%) expected the pharmacist to be available for health-care team consultation during bedside rounds. The indices of physicians showing how comfortable they were with pharmacists, and their expectations of pharmacists, were 61% and 65%, respectively, whereas the index on experience of physicians with pharmacists was lower (15%). Physicians were comfortable with pharmacists and had high expectations of pharmacists in performing their duties. However, physicians reported a poor experience with pharmacists, who infrequently informed them about the effectiveness of alternative drugs, patients experiencing problems with prescribed medications, and who took personal responsibility to resolve any drug-related problem.

  4. Enhancing pharmacists' role in developing countries to overcome the challenge of antimicrobial resistance: a narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakeena, M H F; Bennett, Alexandra A; McLachlan, Andrew J

    2018-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global health challenge and developing countries are more vulnerable to the adverse health impacts of AMR. Health care workers including pharmacists can play a key role to support the appropriate use of antimicrobials in developing countries and reduce AMR. The aim of this review is to investigate the role of pharmacists in the appropriate use of antibiotics and to identify how the pharmacists' role can be enhanced to combat AMR in developing countries. The databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science and Google Scholar were searched for articles published between 2000 and the end of August 2017 that involved studies on the role of pharmacists in developing countries, the expanded services of pharmacists in patient care in developed countries and pharmacists' contributions in antimicrobial use in both developed and developing nations. In developing countries pharmacists role in patient care are relatively limited. However, in developed nations, the pharmacists' role has expanded to provide multifaceted services in patient care resulting in improved health outcomes from clinical services and reduced health care costs. Success stories of pharmacist-led programs in combating AMR demonstrates that appropriately trained pharmacists can be part of the solution to overcome the global challenge of AMR. Pharmacists can provide education to patients enabling them to use antibiotics appropriately. They can also provide guidance to their healthcare colleagues on appropriate antibiotic prescribing. This review highlights that appropriately trained pharmacists integrated into the health care system can make a significant impact in minimising inappropriate antibiotic use in developing countries. Strengthening and enhancing the pharmacists' role in developing countries has the potential to positively impact the global issue of AMR.

  5. Relationship between Student Pharmacist Decision Making Preferences and Experiential Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Charlene R; McLaughlin, Jacqueline E; Cox, Wendy C; Shepherd, Greene

    2016-09-25

    Objective. To determine if student pharmacists' preferences towards experiential and rational thinking are associated with performance on advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs) and whether thinking style preference changes following APPEs. Methods. The Rational Experiential Inventory (REI), a validated survey of thinking style, was administered to student pharmacists before starting APPEs and re-administered after completing APPEs. APPE grades were compared to initial REI scores. Results. Rational Experiential Inventory scores remained consistent before and after APPEs. Overall, APPE grades were independent of REI scores. In a regression model, the REI experiential score was a significant negative predictor of hospital APPE grades. Conclusion. These findings suggest that overall APPE performance is independent of decision-making preference, and decision-making style does not change following immersion into APPEs. Instead of targeting teaching strategies towards a specific decision-making style, preceptors may use pedagogical approaches that promote sound clinical decision-making skills through critical thinking and reflection.

  6. How to write effective business letters: scribing information for pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, C W

    1993-11-01

    Pharmacists frequently write letters but lack specific training on how to do it well. This review summarizes strategies for improving business correspondence, emphasizes basic writing guidelines, and offers practical advice for pharmacists. The first steps for effective communication are careful planning and identifying the main message to be conveyed. The purpose for writing should be stated in the opening paragraph of the letter. To ensure a successful outcome, actions needed should be clearly summarized and visually highlighted. The tone of the letter should reflect a reasonable speech pattern, not the cryptic writing found in many scientific papers. The layout of the letter should be inviting, which is readily achievable through judicious use of word processing. Many delivery options are available, such as traditional postal services, express mail, and facsimile transmission. Readers are encouraged to test these basic writing principles and decide for themselves whether these recommendations affect the success of business correspondence.

  7. Pharmacist work stress and learning from quality related events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Todd A; Bishop, Andrea; Morrison, Bobbi; Murphy, Andrea; Barker, James; Ashcroft, Darren M; Phipps, Denham; Mahaffey, Thomas; MacKinnon, Neil J

    2016-01-01

    Among the many stresses faced by pharmacy staff, quality related event (QRE) learning can be among the most significant. In the absence of a supportive organizational culture, the potential for blaming individuals, versus identifying key process flaws, is significant and can be very intimidating to those involved in such discussions and may increase an already stressful work environment. This research develops and tests a model of the relationship between the work stress faced by pharmacists and the extent of QRE learning in community pharmacies. Building upon recent research models that explore job characteristics and safety climate, the model proposes that work stress captured by the effort that the pharmacist invests into job performance, the extent to which the pharmacist is rewarded for such efforts, and the extent of pharmacist work-related commitment to their job, influence pharmacist assessment of the working conditions within their community pharmacy. It is further proposed that working conditions influence the extent of a blame culture and safety focus in the pharmacy, which, in turn, influences organizational learning from QREs. This research formed part of a larger study focused on QRE reporting in community pharmacies. As part of the larger study, a total of 1035 questionnaires were mailed to community pharmacists, pharmacy managers, and pharmacy owners in the Canadian province of Saskatchewan during the fall of 2013 and winter and spring of 2014. Partial least squares (PLS) using SmartPLS was selected to test and further develop the proposed model. An examination of the statistical significance of latent variable paths, convergent validity, construct reliability, discriminant validity, and variance explained was used to assess the overall quality of the model. Of the 1035 questionnaire sent, a total of 432 questionnaires were returned for an initial response rate of approximately 42%. However, for this research, only questionnaires from staff

  8. The social pharmacist: tweeting and posting the way to success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaldy, Joanne

    2010-01-01

    Social networking sites such as Twitter, Facebook, and LinkedIn attract millions of users each day. People of all ages, backgrounds, and interests sign onto these sites daily to share observations, seek answers, offer information and links, talk to friends and family, and network with colleagues. For senior care pharmacists, social networking sites present an opportunity to connect with consumers, hold virtual meetings, manage projects, offer value-added services for current customers, and market to potential clients. Many have joined these online communities and use them regularly. At the same time, some pharmacists are hesitant to use these sites because they don't understand them, are worried about privacy or other issues, or they just don't need them.

  9. Work group design in pharmacy: the pharmacist-technician team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kershaw, B P; Solomon, D K; Zarowitz, B J

    1987-05-01

    The contemporary pharmacy practice manager faces the challenge of designing pharmacy service programs that not only satisfy the needs of the patient, but at the same time satisfy and motivate the pharmacists and technicians who sustain the programs. This research examined the team design, which has been recommended but not fully described in the literature. This application did not explore the full potential of the team design in the hospital pharmacy setting. More study is needed in this area to assess the impact of work group design on the expansion of clinical programs, employee turnover rates, quality and quantity of work produced, and, most important, the impact on job satisfaction enjoyed by pharmacists and technicians.

  10. The duty of the pharmacist and the pharmaceutical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Peter

    2003-01-01

    The common law duty of care, an essential element of the tort of negligence, focuses on conduct. Accordingly, any discussion of the existence, nature and content of the duty of care of a pharmaceutical manufacturer and of a pharmacist, requires analysis of their respective functions. Also relevant are the special nature and effects of drug products and their approval for and acceptance in, human therapy based upon a balancing of risks and benefits. Critical to a manufacturer's potential tortuous liability is the so-called 'learned intermediary, role of pharmacists, prescribers and other health professionals and whether they have current and accurate drug product information. Manufacturers are not necessarily the only source of drug information available to health professionals. These responsibilities serve patients who also need to be adequately informed so as to achieve optimal safety and efficacy when using prescribed medications.

  11. The Role of Motivation in Continuing Education for Pharmacists

    OpenAIRE

    Tjin a Tsoi, Sharon

    2017-01-01

    Healthcare professionals, including pharmacists, need to continuously update their knowledge and are, therefore, expected to participate in Continuing Education (CE) and Continuous Professional Development (CPD) activities on a regular basis. Lack of intrinsic (or autonomous) motivation appears to be an important barrier for engaging in high quality learning and can have consequences for poor performance and patient safety. This thesis aims to enhance our understanding of pharmacists’ motivat...

  12. Knowledge of Pharmacists, Doctors and Nurses Towards Diabetes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge of Pharmacists, Doctors and Nurses Towards Diabetes. ... Les trois professions de la santé a étudié semblent avoir des problèmes similaires dans des domaines spécifiques tels que, l'alimentation, la gestion de l'hypoglycémie ainsi que des symptômes d'identification de l'acidocétose. Programmes de formation ...

  13. Pharmacist-led discharge medication counselling: A scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonetti, Aline F; Reis, Wálleri C; Lombardi, Natália Fracaro; Mendes, Antonio M; Netto, Harli Pasquini; Rotta, Inajara; Fernandez-Llimos, Fernando; Pontarolo, Roberto

    2018-04-24

    Discharge medication counselling has produced improved quality of care and health outcomes, especially by reducing medication errors and readmission rates, and improving medication adherence. However, no studies have assembled an evidence-based discharge counselling process for clinical pharmacists. Thus, the present study aims to map the components of the pharmacist-led discharge medication counselling process. We performed a scoping review by searching electronic databases (Pubmed, Scopus, and DOAJ) and conducting a manual search to identify studies published up to July 2017. Studies that addressed pharmacist-led discharge medication counselling, regardless of the population, clinical conditions, and outcomes evaluated, were included. A total of 1563 studies were retrieved, with 75 matching the inclusion criteria. Thirty-two different components were identified, and the most prevalent were the indication of the medications and adverse drug reactions, which were reported in more than 50% of the studies. The components were reported similarly by studies from the USA and the rest of the world, and over the years. However, 2 differences were identified: the use of a dosage schedule, which was more frequent in studies published in 2011 or before and in studies outside the USA; and the teach-back technique, which was used more frequently in the USA. Poor quality reporting was also observed, especially regarding the duration of the counselling, the number of patients, and the medical condition. Mapping the components of the pharmacist-led discharge counselling studies through a scoping review allowed us to reveal how this service is performed around the world. Wide variability in this process and poor reporting were identified. Future studies are needed to define the core outcome set of this clinical pharmacy service to allow the generation of robust evidence and reproducibility in clinical practice. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Community pharmacists in England's opinions on skill mix and delegation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Emma; Bullock, Alison; Allan, Margaret; Hodson, Karen

    2017-12-06

    Following the 2005 contractual framework amendment, the expanding role of community pharmacy team members required a shift in entrenched views on roles and duties. This study aimed to report on community pharmacists' opinions on skill mix and explore how they can be addressed so that skill mix may be optimised. An invitation to complete an online questionnaire was distributed via email, marked for the attention of the lead pharmacist. Following a low response, a paper-based questionnaire was sent to all community pharmacies in England (n = 11,816). Questions elicited data about the respondent, the pharmacy (including staffing profile) and opinions on skill mix. A total of 1154 returns were received, representing a 10% response rate. Of these, most were pharmacy chains (76%; n = 877), with 5-9 staff (54%; n = 600); commonly open 40-49 hours (42%; n = 487), dispensing <6000 prescriptions per week (41%, n = 533). From 26 statements on skill mix, three factors were identified by principal-components factor analysis: 'working well', 'feeling the pressure' and 'open to development'. Characteristics associated with 'working well': pharmacy owners, single businesses, with pharmacy technician(s), dispensing fewer prescriptions and open shorter hours. Characteristics associated with 'feeling the pressure': pharmacy chains, open longer hours, large numbers of prescriptions and relief pharmacists. Characteristics associated with 'open to development': recently qualified, second pharmacists, working longer hours, chains and dispensing lower numbers of prescriptions. Although limited by a low response, results suggest being in a position to influence (more experienced, business owners) may be associated with more positive opinions. Further training (including about legalities and leadership) could contribute to optimising skill mix in community pharmacies. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  15. A Survey for Assessment of Role of Pharmacist in Community

    OpenAIRE

    P Kapur; M Aqil; M S Alam; S Karim; Himanshu Sharma; P Jinda

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To assess the role of pharmacist in community setting & consumer’s perception in National Capital
    Region.
    Setting: The study was conducted in National Capital Region of India during the year 2003-04.
    Method: Four pharmacy shops were selected for this study which were not attached to any hospital or clinic. Seventy
    seven consumers, who visited these pharmacies during ...

  16. Application of STOPP and START criteria: interrater reliability among pharmacists.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ryan, Cristin

    2009-07-01

    Inappropriate prescribing is a well-documented problem in older people. The new screening tools, STOPP (Screening Tool of Older Peoples\\' Prescriptions) and START (Screening Tool to Alert doctors to Right Treatment) have been formulated to identify potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) and potential errors of omissions (PEOs) in older patients. Consistent, reliable application of STOPP and START is essential for the screening tools to be used effectively by pharmacists.

  17. The impact of the Consumer Protection Act on pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Toit, K; van Eeden, E

    2014-11-01

    The Consumer Protection Act of 2008 has had far-reaching consequences for suppliers of goods and services in South Africa. The implementation of the Act has important implications for all suppliers who enter into 'consumer transactions.' This article aims to stimulate awareness of the legal consequences of the Act arising from day-to-day situations occurring in the pharmacy, and to highlight the compliance obligations that the Act creates for pharmacists.

  18. The scholarly productivity and work environments of academic pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desselle, Shane P; Andrews, Brienna; Lui, Julia; Raja, G Leela

    2017-09-08

    Productive faculty are key to generating new knowledge and advancing pharmacy practice. The work environments of academic pharmacists are critical to their vitality, commitment, and longevity. To (1) identify correlates of faculty scholarly productivity and teaching effectiveness, considering personal and environmental characteristics; (2) determine the relationship between a faculty's perception of organizational citizenship behaviors they witness with the organizational culture of their employing college/school of pharmacy; and (3) describe the relationship between organizational climate, job satisfaction, and commitment of academic pharmacists. A self-administered survey was disseminated to a random sample of U.S. academic pharmacists acquired from AACP list-servs. The survey measured perceptions of their organization's culture, the organizational citizenship behaviors they witness at their institution, their job satisfaction, teaching load and productivity, and scholarly productivity based upon peer-reviewed scholarly papers accepted. Both bivariate and multivariate (regression) procedures were employed to identify factors most responsible for explaining academic pharmacist's work environment. Responses were received from 177 of 600 survey recipients. Faculty reported having had accepted 10.9 ± 13.6 papers in peer-reviewed journals during the previous 5 years, with most of those in journals with relatively low Impact Factor scores. Faculty productivity was related to type of academic institution employed, teaching effectiveness, job satisfaction, and other factors. Organizational citizenship behaviors and organizational culture was seen similarly by faculty of varied ranks and experience levels. Commitment to remain at the current college/school of pharmacy was highly associated with culture, climate, and job satisfaction conditions. The results provided evidence for a strong connection or nexus between teaching and research effectiveness. Organizational

  19. The Hispanic pharmacist: Value beyond a common language

    OpenAIRE

    Cipriano, Gabriela C; Andrews, Carlota O

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To highlight the added value of bilingual Hispanic pharmacists in the care of Hispanic patients by sharing their patients’ language and culture. Summary: Inability to speak and/or write in the patients’ native language severely impairs our best efforts to deliver good health care. This is a widely recognized cause of non-compliance or less than favorable possible health outcomes in Hispanic patients. What has received less attention, however, is that the ability to speak Spanish al...

  20. The modern pharmacist: Is the future in the past?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Frontini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In conclusion between a medicine with its active ingredient and the outcome of the patient there are a lot of barriers like e.g. drug formulation, patient attitude, social context, medication errors, patient’s genomic, biased information. The pharmacist has to help patients in overcoming such barriers but this is only possible if he or she is part of a cure team working in collaborative way without hierarchy barriers.

  1. What's West Nile Virus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español What's West Nile Virus? KidsHealth / For Kids / What's West Nile Virus? Print en español ¿Qué es el Virus del Nilo Occidental? What exactly is the West ...

  2. OTC polyethylene glycol 3350 and pharmacists' role in managing constipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, John R; Mantione, Maria Marzella; Johanson, John F

    2012-01-01

    To define constipation, assess the pharmacist's role in identifying and treating constipation, and review clinical evidence for the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of polyethylene glycol (PEG) 3350 (MiraLAX-Merck Consumer Care), an osmotic laxative now available over the counter (OTC), across a variety of patient populations routinely encountered in pharmacy settings. Systematic PubMed search of the primary literature for constipation treatment guidelines and clinical trial results for PEG 3350. Pharmacists have a unique role in assisting patients with identifying and managing constipation. Multiple controlled clinical trials have established the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of PEG 3350 at its recommended dose of 17 g once daily. On the basis of this evidence, various professional groups have recommended PEG 3350 for use in improving stool frequency and consistency in patients with constipation. PEG 3350 is approved for short-term use, including treatment of constipation caused by medications. Pharmacists can play an important role in managing constipation with OTC agents. Compared with other available OTC agents, PEG 3350 can be recommended to patients suffering from constipation on the basis of a large body of clinical evidence supporting its efficacy and safety, as well as the high patient acceptance shown for its palatability and once-daily dosing.

  3. Pharmacists' interventions on clinical asthma outcomes: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Cardenas, Victoria; Armour, Carol; Benrimoj, Shalom I; Martinez-Martinez, Fernando; Rotta, Inajara; Fernandez-Llimos, Fernando

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the impact of pharmacists' interventions on clinical asthma outcomes on adult patients and to identify the outcome indicators used.PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and Scielo were searched. Studies addressing pharmacists' interventions on adult asthma patients reporting clinical asthma outcomes were incorporated.11 clinical outcomes were identified in 21 studies. 10 studies measured the impact of the intervention on asthma control. Randomised controlled trials (RCT) and non-RCTs found positive results in percentages of controlled patients and Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ) scores. Discordant results were found for Asthma Control Test results. Asthma severity was assessed in four studies. One RCT found a significant decrease in the percentage of severe patients; two non-RCTs found significant improvements in severity scores. 11 studies reported pulmonary function indicators, showing inconsistent results. Eight studies measured asthma symptoms; three RCTs and four non-RCTs showed significant improvements.RCTs and non-RCTs generated similar results for most outcomes. Based on the evidence generated by RCTs, pharmacists' have a positive impact on the percentage of controlled patients, ACQ scores, severity and symptoms. Future research should report using the core outcome set of indicators established for asthma (PROSPERO CRD42014007019). Copyright ©ERS 2016.

  4. Pharmacists on Facebook: online social networking and the profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattingly, T Joseph; Cain, Jeff; Fink, Joseph L

    2010-01-01

    To provide a brief history of Facebook and online social networking and discuss how it has contributed and can contribute in the future to a paradigm change in social communications. When student pharmacists complete school and enter practice, they encounter enhanced expectations to act appropriately and professionally. Facebook expands the dilemma of separating private and public life--a challenge for individuals in all professions. From the standpoint of a professional association, Facebook provides a tremendous opportunity to reach out to members in an unprecedented way. Pharmacy organizations are beginning to use these new tools to increase communication and dissemination of information. The popularity of Facebook has brought the issue of online social networking to the forefront of professional and organizational discussions. The issues of privacy, identity protection, and e-professionalism are likely to reappear as pharmacists and student pharmacists continue to communicate via online networks. The potential exists for organizations to harness this organizational and communication power for their own interests. Further study is needed regarding the interaction between online social networking applications and the profession of pharmacy.

  5. [Pharmacist as gatekeeper: combating medication abuse and dependence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimane, Takuya

    2013-01-01

      The nonmedical use of medications, including psychotropic drugs, is a growing health problem in Japan. According to a nationwide survey of mental hospitals, the proportion of patients with sedative (mainly benzodiazepine)-related disorders has more than doubled over the last decade. An association between psychotropic drug overdose and suicide risk has also been reported. Furthermore, over-the-counter drug abuse is still a serious problem in Japan. In recent years, pharmacists have been expected to act as gatekeepers, making timely identifications of suicide risk or substance abuse and directing these individuals to appropriate medical care facilities. In August 2012, the revised Comprehensive Suicide Measures Act identified pharmacists as one professional group that should act as gatekeepers. This article begins by reviewing the fundamental terms involved in understanding the nonmedical use of medications, including abuse, dependence, and intoxication. The current situation of substance abuse and dependence is then introduced through a summary of several epidemiological surveys conducted in Japan. Finally, the role of pharmacists as gatekeepers in preventing substance abuse and dependence on medications is discussed.

  6. Role of pharmacists in reducing occupational exposure to HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, S N

    1989-12-01

    The role of pharmacists in reducing the occupational hazard of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission via needle-stick injuries is described. Some 40% of all pharmaceuticals used in hospitals are now administered by injection, and sales of large-volume injectable drug products continue to grow. Most needle-stick injuries in which health-care workers are exposed to HIV-contaminated blood occur during recapping of used needles, picking up and carrying the needle, or placing it in a receptacle. Pharmacists are responsible not only for the purchase, storage, dispensing, and use of drug products but also for providing information about their administration and safe disposal. Single-use vials, ampuls, and prefilled syringes must all be evaluated for availability, ease of use, and disposal. A major factor in drug-purchasing decisions must be the safety of nurses. Syringes that have been redesigned to eliminate the need for recapping offer a major safety advantage. Needle disposal units should be made more conveniently accessible. Pharmacists can help prevent the transmission of HIV to health-care workers by using their influence as educators and decision makers to reduce the risk of needle-stick injury.

  7. Impact of pharmacists providing immunizations on adolescent influenza immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robison, Steve G

    2016-01-01

    To determine if the Oregon law change in 2011 to allow pharmacists to immunize adolescents 11 to 17 years of age increased influenza immunizations or changed existing immunization venues. With the use of Oregon's ALERT Immunization Information System (IIS), 2 measures of impact were developed. First, the change in adolescent age 11-17 influenza immunizations before (2007-2010) and after (2011-2014) the pharmacy law change was evaluated against a reference cohort (aged 7-10) not affected by the law. Community pharmacies were also compared with other types of influenza immunization sites within one of the study influenza seasons (2013-2014). From 2007 to 2014, adolescent influenza immunizations at community pharmacies increased from 36 to 6372 per year. After the 2011 pharmacy law change, adolescents aged 11 to 17 were more likely to receive an influenza immunization compared with the reference population (odds ratio, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.19-1.22). Analysis of the 2013-2014 influenza season suggests that community pharmacies immunized a different population of adolescents than other providers. The 2011 change in Oregon law allowed pharmacists to increase the total of influenza immunizations given to adolescents. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Medical marijuana and the developing role of the pharmacist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seamon, Matthew J; Fass, Jennifer A; Maniscalco-Feichtl, Maria; Abu-Shraie, Nada A

    2007-05-15

    The pharmacology, therapeutic uses, safety, drug-drug interactions, and drug-disease interactions of medical marijuana are reviewed, and the legal issues related to its use and the implications of medical marijuana for the pharmacist are presented. Marijuana contains more than 460 active chemicals and over 60 unique cannabinoids. The legal landscape surrounding marijuana is surprisingly complex and unsettled. In the United States, 11 states and several municipalities have legalized medical marijuana. Another state provides legislation that allows patients to claim a defense of medical necessity. Nevertheless, patients using medical marijuana may never interact with a pharmacist. Marijuana is a Schedule I controlled substance and its use is illegal under federal law. Marijuana has a number of purported therapeutic uses with a broad range of supporting evidence. There are five general indications for medical marijuana: (1) severe nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy or other causes, (2) weight loss associated with debilitating illnesses, including HIV infection and cancer, (3) spasticity secondary to neurologic diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, (4) pain syndromes, and (5) other uses, such as for glaucoma. Marijuana is associated with adverse psychiatric, cardiovascular, respiratory, and immunologic events. Moreover, marijuana may interact with a number of prescription drugs and concomitant disease states. Several states have legalized the use of marijuana for chronic and debilitating medication conditions. Pharmacists need to understand the complex legal framework surrounding this issue so that they can protect themselves and better serve their patients.

  9. An Analysis of Laboratory Safety in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Edward J.; Picucci, Ali Callicoatte; Collins, James W.; Swann, Philip

    This paper reports on a survey to discover the types of laboratory accidents that occur in Texas public schools, the factors associated with such accidents, and the practices of schools with regard to current laboratory safety requirements. The purpose of the survey is to better understand safety conditions in Texas public schools and to help…

  10. Making Texas Restaurants Healthier for Children

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Sylvia Crixell, PhD, RD, Professor of Nutrition at Texas State University, discusses her study which details the success of a community-based program in Texas aimed at combatting childhood obesity by improving children’s menus in restaurants.

  11. 77 FR 66574 - Texas Regulatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-06

    ... regulations and improve operational efficiency. This document gives the times and locations that the Texas... during regular business hours at the following location: Surface Mining and Reclamation Division... for you to read at the locations listed above under ADDRESSES or at www.regulations.gov . Texas...

  12. 77 FR 25949 - Texas Regulatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-02

    ... regulations and improve operational efficiency. This document gives the times and locations that the Texas... during regular business hours at the following location: Surface Mining and Reclamation Division... locations listed above under ADDRESSES or at www.regulations.gov . Texas proposes to revise its regulation...

  13. Angiostrongylus cantonensis Meningitis and Myelitis, Texas, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Hammoud, Roukaya; Nayes, Stacy L; Murphy, James R; Heresi, Gloria P; Butler, Ian J; Pérez, Norma

    2017-06-01

    Infection with Angiostrongylus cantonensis roundworms is endemic in Southeast Asia and the Pacific Basin. A. cantonensis meningitis and myelitis occurred in summer 2013 in a child with no history of travel outside of Texas, USA. Angiostrongyliasis is an emerging neurotropic helminthic disease in Texas and warrants increased awareness among healthcare providers.

  14. 40 CFR 81.429 - Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Texas. 81.429 Section 81.429 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.429 Texas. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing Federal land...

  15. Overview: Texas College and Career Readiness Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Texas College and Career Readiness Standards define what students should know and be able to accomplish in order to succeed in entry-level college courses or skilled workforce opportunities upon graduation from high school. This paper answers the following questions: (1) Who developed the Texas College and Career Readiness Standards?; (2) What…

  16. Confronting the Graduation Rate Crisis in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losen, Daniel; Orfield, Gary; Balfanz, Robert

    2006-01-01

    The most accurate method for tracking high school graduation rates is to provide each student with a single lifetime school identification number that would follow him or her throughout his or her entire school career. Texas has this system in place, but this report demonstrates that the official rates Texas has historically reported dramatically…

  17. 40 CFR 81.344 - Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section 107 Attainment Status Designations § 81.344 Texas. Texas... County, Deaf Smith County, Dickens County, Donley County, Floyd County, Garza County, Gray County, Hale..., Cochran County, Collingsworth County, Crosby County, Dallam County, Deaf Smith County, Dickens County...

  18. Flexible working: understanding the locum pharmacist in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shann, Phillip; Hassell, Karen

    2006-09-01

    There is a growing trend in Great Britain (GB) for pharmacists to work as self-employed "locums" rather than as permanent employees. Despite this trend, little is known about their work patterns or why they choose to pursue nonstandard forms of work. The overall aim of the study was to explore why locums choose self-employment over a permanent contract and to explore a number of issues commonly associated with nonstandard working, such as marginalization and job satisfaction. A qualitative interview study was undertaken. In-depth telephone interviews were conducted with 34 locum pharmacists randomly selected from the GB register of pharmacists. Locums from a range of age groups, different sectors of practice, and with different work patterns were selected to ensure that a wide range of experiences and views were covered. The need or desire for flexibility was the overriding factor for choosing to work as a locum. A wide range and variety of individual personal circumstances were important drivers, but a desire for work-life balance was fundamental to many. A variety of work patterns were found, ranging from those with more ad hoc working arrangements to those who worked in the same store on a regular basis. Avoiding stress, paperwork, and nonprofessional duties were among reasons for choosing to locum. Disadvantages associated with being a locum included being viewed and treated negatively by peers, and having fewer opportunities for training. No conclusive evidence could be found for locums being marginalized, except for the training issues for some pharmacists. The findings do suggest some cause for concern, with some locums selecting places to work on the basis of attitudes not congruent with socially inclusive approaches to public health care. The locum workforce is far from homogenous or uniform. Freelance working of this kind has advantages for the individual: freedom and independence. But there may be risks for the profession if nonstandard work practices

  19. [Discuss the relationship between physicians and pharmacists in the context of euthanasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buijsen, M A J M

    2018-01-01

    Physicians are regularly confronted with pharmacists who refuse to provide euthanasia drugs. They do not always understand that the provision of euthanasia drugs is not a normal professional activity for pharmacists. It is a lot less clear that pharmacists are also allowed to have fundamental objections. In addition, professional standards lack clarity for pharmacists who do not have such objections to the provision of euthanasia drugs. The relationship between physicians and pharmacists in the context of euthanasia presents problems overlooked by researchers of the third evaluation of the Termination of Life on Request and Assisted Suicide (review procedures) Act (WTL). The professional bodies of physicians and pharmacists should address these as soon as possible.

  20. The Assessment, Development, Assurance Pharmacist's Tool (ADAPT) for ensuring quality implementation of health promotion programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Hoai-An; Taylor, Catherine R; DiPietro, Natalie A

    2012-02-10

    To develop and validate the Assessment, Development, Assurance Pharmacist's Tool (ADAPT), an instrument for pharmacists and student pharmacists to use in developing and implementing health promotion programs. The 36-item ADAPT instrument was developed using the framework of public health's 3 core functions (assessment, policy development, and assurance) and 10 essential services. The tool's content and usage was assessed and conducted through peer-review and initial validity testing processes. Over 20 faculty members, preceptors, and student pharmacists at 5 institutions involved in planning and implementing health promotion initiatives reviewed the instrument and conducted validity testing. The instrument took approximately 15 minutes to complete and the findings resulted in changes and improvements to elements of the programs evaluated. The ADAPT instrument fills a need to more effectively plan, develop, implement, and evaluate pharmacist-directed public health programs that are evidence-based, high-quality, and compliant with laws and regulations and facilitates documentation of pharmacists' contributions to public health.

  1. Pharmacists in a liberalised system - Results from a profession-wide survey in Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Björnsdóttir, Ingunn; Traulsen, Janine Morgall

    2002-01-01

    satisfaction was correlated with respondents' perception of the job's importance and responsibility, more so for community pharmacists than others. Overall job satisfaction was quite high and community pharmacists felt that their contact with customers was satisfactory. However, they were more dissatisfied...... with their work hours, importance of their work, and responsibility than other pharmacists. Conclusion - Community pharmacists have been affected more adversely by the legislative change than their colleagues in other work settings.......Background - The study reported here was part of a multi-study evaluation of new drug distribution legislation in Iceland. Objective - The objective of this sub-study was to compare the satisfaction of community pharmacists and pharmacists in other settings with regard to their job in general...

  2. Perceptions of pharmacists and patients on information provision and their influence on patient satisfaction in Japanese community pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaki, Hiroko; Abe, Takeru; Hagihara, Akihito

    2015-12-01

    The provision of information is now considered a major area in pharmacist-patient interactions. However, few reports have simultaneously evaluated patient and pharmacist perceptions with regard to the pharmacist's information provision. The aims were to clarify the perceptions of pharmacists and patients regarding information provision and the level of influence of those perceptions on patient satisfaction. A cross-sectional survey with respect to information provision was conducted for patients and pharmacists in community pharmacies in Fukuoka Prefecture, Japan. In total, 407 patient-pharmacist pairs were included in a t-test and multilevel analysis. The levels of patient perception regarding information provision were significantly higher than the levels of pharmacist perception in all variables. The pharmacists' perceived level of information provision concerning medication effects had a negative and significant association with patient satisfaction, while the patients' perceived level of information provision by the pharmacist had a positive and significant association with patient satisfaction. Higher patient expectations regarding the level of information provision concerning medication side effects and older age of the pharmacist were adversely related to patient satisfaction. Both pharmacist and patient perceptions of the information provision by pharmacists personalized to the patient had positive associations with patient satisfaction. Pharmacist perceptions related to the information provision were not associated with patient satisfaction. The present study highlights accurate information provision, building good patient-pharmacist relationships, and improving pharmaceutical care in community pharmacy settings. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Do pharmacists have a right to refuse to fill prescriptions for abortifacient drugs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, B D

    1992-01-01

    Some pharmacists opposed to abortion on moral ground are concerned by having to fill prescriptions for abortifacient drugs like mifepristone (RU-486). The issue of the right of pharmacists to refuse to fill such prescriptions depends on the model of the physician-pharmacist-patient relationship. The libertarian model of pharmacy practice holds that physicians, pharmacists, and patients are bound only by the contract that they freely negotiate with one another, thus the pharmacist has no moral obligation to fill a prescription for mifepristone unless he or she has expressly contracted to do so. The American Pharmaceutical Association's 1981 Code of Ethics does not specify what a pharmacist ought to do in particular circumstances. The right to refuse is strongly supported by the principles of nonmaleficence and respect for autonomy. These are principles of the libertarian model of the pharmacist-patient relationship but are also present in the guild or societal models stressing the duty to avoid harming others. Justification for pharmacists right of refusal appeals to their autonomy rights as members of the moral community rather than the profession of pharmacy. Since the professional right to autonomy is not absolute, moral consideration circumscribe it: it is difficult to argue that a pharmacist who believes that homosexuality is immoral has the right to refuse to fill a prescription for AZT. Even if a person who presents such a prescription is homosexual there is no causal relationship between filling a prescription for AZT and participating in a homosexual act. At the opposite end the libertarians reject the notion of even a basic right to health care. A woman in the above situation would not have a right to the abortifacient drug, so a pharmacist has no duty to dispense it. According to the technician model of professionalism, the pharmacist's personal values do not matter, so a pharmacist has a duty to provide the service.

  4. Community pharmacists' prescription intervention practices--exploring variations in practice in Norwegian pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandt, Ingunn; Horn, Anne Marie; Ekedahl, Anders; Granas, Anne Gerd

    2010-03-01

    Evidence suggests that prescription intervention frequencies have been found to vary as much as 10-fold among Norwegian pharmacies and among pharmacists within the same pharmacy. To explore community pharmacists' perceptions of how their prescription intervention practices were influenced by their working environment, their technological resources, the physical and social structures of the pharmacies, their relations with colleagues, and to the individual pharmacist's professional skills. Two focus groups consisting of 14 community pharmacists in total, from urban and rural areas in Norway, discussed their working procedures and professional judgments related to prescription interventions. Organizational theories were used as theoretical and analytical frameworks in the study. A framework based on Leavitt's organizational model was to structure our interview guide. The study units were the statements of the individual pharmacists. Recurrent themes were identified and condensed. Two processes describing variations in the dispensing workflow including prescription interventions were derived--an active dispensing process extracting information about the patient's medication from several sources and a fast dispensing process focusing mainly on the information available on the prescription. Both workflow processes were used in the same pharmacies and by the same pharmacist but on different occasions. A pharmacy layout allowing interactions between pharmacist and patients and a convenient organization of technology, layout, pharmacist-patient and pharmacist-coworker transactions at the workplace was essential for detecting and solving prescription problems. Pharmacists limited their contact with general practitioners when they considered the problem a formality and/or when they knew the answers themselves. The combined use of dispensing software and the Internet was a driving force toward more independent and cognitively advanced prescription interventions

  5. The incidence and severity of errors in pharmacist-written discharge medication orders

    OpenAIRE

    Onatade, Raliat; Sawieres, Sara; Veck, Alexandra; Smith, Lindsay; Gore, Shivani; Al-Azeib, Sumiah

    2017-01-01

    Background Errors in discharge prescriptions are problematic. When hospital pharmacists write discharge prescriptions improvements are seen in the quality and efficiency of discharge. There is limited information on the incidence of errors in pharmacists’ medication orders. Objective To investigate the extent and clinical significance of errors in pharmacist-written discharge medication orders. Setting 1000-bed teaching hospital in London, UK. Method Pharmacists in this London hospital routin...

  6. A snapshot of pharmacist attitudes and behaviors surrounding the management of pediatric asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elaro, Amanda; Shah, Smita; Armour, Carol L; Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to identify the current status of pediatric asthma management in the Australian community pharmacy setting from the pharmacists' perspective. This research will allow us to identify training needs of community pharmacists. Pharmacists were recruited from the Sydney metropolitan region and asked to complete a self-reported questionnaire that elucidated information on four general domains relating to pediatric asthma management within community pharmacy. All data collected were analysed descriptively. Bivariate Pearson correlations were performed to determine whether interrelationships existed between specific domains. All 77 pharmacists completed the questionnaire. Thirty-two percent had not completed any asthma related CPD in the past year and only 25% of pharmacists reported using the national asthma guidelines in practice. Just over half of the pharmacists (54%) reported that they provide device technique demonstrations for new inhaled medicines, and 35% of pharmacists reported that they check for written asthma self-management plan possession. Although 65% of pharmacists reported confidence in communication skills, most pharmacists were not confident in setting short-/long-term goals with the patient and carer for managing asthma at home. Pharmacists believed that they are just as effective as doctors in providing asthma counseling and education. Lack of time was identified as a significant barrier. We have identified a gap between guideline recommended practices and the self-reported practices of community pharmacists. Pharmacists need more appropriate continuing education programs that can translate into improved pediatric asthma self-management practices and thus improved asthma outcomes in children. This may require an alternative approach.

  7. A qualitative study on community pharmacists' decision-making process when making a diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinopoulou, Vassiliki; Summerfield, Paul; Rutter, Paul

    2017-12-01

    Self-care policies are increasingly directing patients to seek advice from community pharmacists. This means pharmacists need to have sound diagnostic decision-making skills to enable them to recognise a variety of conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the process by which pharmacists manage patient signs and symptoms and to explore their use of decision-making for diagnostic purposes. Data were collected through semi-structured, face-to-face interviews with community pharmacists working in England, between August 2013 and November 2014. Pharmacists were asked to share their experiences on how they performed patient consultations, and more specifically how they would approach a hypothetical headache scenario. As part of the interview, their sources of knowledge and experience were also explored. Framework analysis was used to identify themes and subthemes. Eight interviews were conducted with pharmacists who had a wide range of working practice, from 1 year through to 40 years of experience. The pharmacists' main motivations during consultations were product selection and risk minimisation. Their questioning approach and decision-making relied heavily on mnemonic methods. This led to poor quality information gathering-although pharmacists acknowledged they needed to "delve deeper" but were often unable to articulate how or why. Some pharmacists exhibited elements of clinical reasoning in their consultations, but this seemed, mostly, to be unconscious and subsequently applied inappropriately. Overall, pharmacists exhibited poor decision-making ability, and often decisions were based on personal belief and experiences rather than evidence. Community pharmacists relied heavily on mnemonic methods to manage patients' signs and symptoms with diagnosis-based decision-making being seldom employed. These findings suggest practicing pharmacists should receive more diagnostic training. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Implementation of vertical clinical pharmacist service on venous thromboembolism prophylaxis in hospitalized medical patients

    OpenAIRE

    Haga, Celina Setsuko; Mancio, Cassio Massashi; Pioner, Micheline da Costa; Alves, Fabricia Aparecida de Lima; Lira, Andreia Ramos; Silva, João Severino da; Ferracini, Fábio Teixeira; Borges Filho, Wladimir Mendes; Guerra, João Carlos de Campos; Laselva, Claudia Regina

    2014-01-01

    Objective : To describe the vertical clinical pharmacist service’s interventions in prevention of venous thromboembolism. Methods : This prospective study was done at a private hospital. From January to May 2012, the clinical pharmacist evaluated medical patients without prophylaxis for thromboembolism. If the patient fulfilled criteria for thromboembolism and did not have contraindications, the clinical pharmacist suggested inclusion of pharmacologic agents and/or mechanical methods for ven...

  9. Analysis of pharmacist-patient communication using the Roter Method of Interaction Process Analysis System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Chika; Kimata, Shiori; Oshima, Taeyuki; Kato, Ayako; Nitta, Atsumi

    2016-01-01

    Effective communication between pharmacists and patients is a crucial factor in ensuring that medications are used properly. However, few studies have examined the contents of actual on-site communications between pharmacists and patients. To identify the characteristics of and problems with routine communications between pharmacists and patients using the Roter Method of Interaction Process Analysis System (RIAS). Conversations between pharmacists and simulated patients (SPs) were recorded and transcribed. Using the RIAS technique, their utterances were classified into 42 categories, and these were further divided into 11 clusters, such as open- and closed-ended questions, and analyzed. Furthermore, the influence that the different scenarios performed by the pharmacists may have had on the structure of their communication was investigated. All of the transcripts were double-coded by two certified coders. A total of 57 pharmacists took part in the study. The mean ratio of utterances made by SPs and pharmacists were 44% and 56%, respectively. The percentage of pharmacists' questions was more than double that of SPs' for both open- and closed-ended questions. In the influence that the different scenarios, the scenarios for patients with cancer was significantly higher ratio of utterances by the pharmacists. Pharmacists' communications tended to focus more on information-gathering activities that concentrated on closed-ended questions and frequent counseling, or directing utterances about the medication than on considering the patient's background. On the other hand, the pharmacists did communicate in ways that matched each patient's disease. This study identified the structure of pharmacists' on-site communications, and revealed the associated characteristics and problems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The practice of OTC counseling by community pharmacists in Parana, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halila GC

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: In order to provide appropriate advice to the patient at the time of dispensing and over-the-counter (OTC medication counseling, community pharmacists need access to current and reliable information about medicines. Brazilian pharmacists have assumed new functions such as prescribing medication, in a dependent model, based in protocols. Objective: To examine the practice of community pharmacists in a Brazilian State, focusing on OTC recommendation. Method: A cross-sectional survey of community pharmacists in a state of Brazil was conducted from October 2013 to January 2014, with data collection through a pre-piloted self-administered anonymous survey via Survey Monkey® platform. Following ethical approval, the online instrument was sent to 8,885 pharmacists registered in Parana State, Brazil, focusing on professionals working in community pharmacies. The questionnaire assessed the community pharmacy setting, the search for information, the knowledge of the evidence-based practice, the important factors to consider when recommending an OTC medicine, and the pharmacist prescribing. Responses were imported into SPSS® (version 22.0 for analysis. Nonparametric tests were used to assess the association between responses and demographic information with a significance level less than 5% (p<0.05. Results: Of the pharmacists, 97.4% dispensed medications and counseled patients for a median of six hours per day. Product's efficacy (97% and adverse effects (62.3% were the most important factors taken into account when counseling a nonprescription medicine. Few pharmacists knew the meaning of terms related to evidence-based health. Most respondents agreed that pharmacists have the necessary training to prescribe. Conclusion: Over-the-counter medication counseling is a daily practice among Brazilian pharmacists. Learning needs exist for community pharmacists in relation to evidence-based practice. Thus, sources of information with good evidence

  11. How do general practitioners, pharmacists and patients evaluate the substitution system for prescription in Denmark?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubak, Sune; Andersen, Marie-Louise Elkjær; Mainz, Jan

    2002-01-01

    Aim/Objectives: Evaluation of how the substitution system has been implemented, how it was assessed by the general practitioners (GPs), pharmacists (PHs) and patients, and clarification of benefits and problems related to the system. Methods: The study was based on specific question-naires to GPs....... How do general practitioners, pharmacists and patients evaluate the substitution system for prescription in Denmark?. Available from: http://www.researchgate.net/publication/243131968_How_do_general_practitioners_pharmacists...

  12. Patients' and physicians' satisfaction with a pharmacist managed anticoagulation program in a family medicine clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Lisa; Young, Stephanie; Twells, Laurie; Dillon, Carla; Hawboldt, John

    2015-06-09

    A pharmacist managed anticoagulation service was initiated in a multi-physician family medicine clinic in December 2006. In order to determine the patient and physician satisfaction with the service, a study was designed to describe the patients' satisfaction with the warfarin education and management they received from the pharmacist, and to describe the physicians' satisfaction with the level of care provided by the pharmacist for patients taking warfarin. A self-administered survey was completed by both eligible patients receiving warfarin and physicians prescribing warfarin between December 2006 and May 2008. The patient survey collected information on patient demographics, satisfaction with warfarin education and daily warfarin management. The physician survey collected data about the satisfaction with patient education and daily anticoagulation management by the pharmacist. Seventy-six of 94 (81%) patients completed the survey. Fifty-nine percent were male with a mean age of 65 years (range 24-90). Ninety-six percent agreed/strongly agreed the pharmacist did a good job teaching the importance of warfarin adherence, the necessity of INR testing and the risks of bleeding. Eighty-five percent agreed/strongly agreed the risk of blood clots was well explained, 79% felt the pharmacist did a good job teaching about dietary considerations and 77% agreed/strongly agreed the pharmacist explained when to see a doctor. All patients felt the pharmacist gave clear instructions on warfarin dosing and INR testing. Four of nine physicians (44%) completed the survey. All agreed/strongly agreed the pharmacist was competent in the care provided, were confident in the care their patients received, would like the pharmacist to continue the service, and would recommend this program to other clinics. Patients and family physicians were satisfied with the pharmacist managed anticoagulation program and recommended continuation of the program. These results support the role of the

  13. Public health in community pharmacy: A systematic review of pharmacist and consumer views

    OpenAIRE

    Eades, Claire E; Ferguson, Jill S; O'Carroll, Ronan E

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The increasing involvement of pharmacists in public health will require changes in the behaviour of both pharmacists and the general public. A great deal of research has shown that attitudes and beliefs are important determinants of behaviour. This review aims to examine the beliefs and attitudes of pharmacists and consumers towards pharmaceutical public health in order to inform how best to support and improve this service. Methods Five electronic databases were searched ...

  14. Extending role by Japanese pharmacists after training for performing vital signs monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasegawa F

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Japan, the circumstances in which pharmacists work are changing. Pharmacists are expected to assess conditions of patients subject to medication to ensure proper use of pharmaceutical products. To ensure fulfilment of these roles, there have already been pharmacists’ efforts in performing vital signs monitoring. Objective: To clarify the necessity and related issues, by investigating the state of vital sign monitoring in clinical field by pharmacists who have been trained in vital sign monitoring. Method: A web survey was conducted from 4th October to 3rd December 2012, subjecting 1,026 pharmacists who completed the vital signs training hosted by The Japanese Association of Home Care Pharmacies (JAHCP. Survey items were 1 basic information of a respondent, 2 situation of homecare conducted by pharmacists, 3 seminar attendance status, and 4 vital signs monitoring status after the seminar. Results: The number of valid respondents was 430 and the response rate was 41.9%. As a result of the present research, it was revealed that 168 pharmacists (41.4%, had the opportunity to perform vital signs monitoring. By conducting vital sign monitoring, effects such as 1 improved motivation of pharmacists and better communication with patients, 2 proper use of medication, and 3 cost reduction were confirmed. Conclusion: Judging from the results of the survey, pharmacists can improve medication therapy for patients by attaining vital sign skills and conduct vital sign monitoring. Pharmacists who perform vital sign monitoring should share cases where they experienced positive patient outcomes.

  15. Job stress: its relationship to hospital pharmacists' insomnia and work outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Ying-Chen; Lin, Blossom Yen-Ju; Lin, Wen-Hung; Wan, Thomas T H

    2010-06-01

    Research must examine the nature of the work environment in order to achieve insight into the causes and effects of factors relevant to reducing job-related stress and improving the quality of work. This study aims to describe the job stressors of hospital pharmacists and to explore their effects on hospital pharmacists' insomnia and work-related outcomes. The study employed a cross-sectional, mailed survey. Structured questionnaires were distributed by postal mail to hospital pharmacists between February and April 2005. The individual hospital pharmacist is the unit of analysis. Descriptive analyses and structural equation modeling were performed on the survey responses from the 247 hospital pharmacists who responded. The top ten stress burdens occur in the areas of dispensing, pharmacy management, and hospital rules. The study findings confirmed the proposed hypotheses: that a hospital pharmacist's job stressors are related to his or her insomnia, intention to reduce working hours, intention to change job content, and intention to quit employment. The study also found associations between hospital pharmacists' social supports, gender, age, and monthly income and their insomnia and work outcomes. Hygienic job stressors based on Herzberg's two-factor motivation theory were examined in this study. These stressors were verified to be related to hospital pharmacists' insomnia and work outcomes. Hospital administrators could consider ways to improve the influences on hospital pharmacists' health.

  16. [The gift of pharmacopoeias made by Mésaize to the Society of Pharmacists of Rouen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafont, Olivier; Vettes, Jules

    2015-12-01

    Pierre-Grégoire Mésaize, a pharmacist of Rouen made an important gift to the Society of pharmacists of Rouen in 1831. 21 Books, mainly foreign pharmacopoeias, constituted this gift. Six were from Germany; five came from United Kingdom, three from Nederland, only two from France, and one from Belgium, one from Switzerland, one from Austria and one from Russia. This diversity of origins was quite informative about the quality of the content of pharmacists' libraries in Rouen at the beginning of the 19th century. Unfortunately these books could not be found nowadays in the Library of the Union of pharmacists of Seine-Maritime.

  17. Pharmacists' views on and experiences with bowel cancer screening kits in Auckland, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Nataly; Basdew, Kamlika; Kammona, Ala; Shen, Amy; Taylor, Caragh; McIntosh, Timothy R; Barnes, Joanne

    2014-08-01

    To explore the views of New Zealand pharmacists on bowel cancer screening, particularly with regards to faecal occult blood testing (FOBT) kits, self-perceived knowledge on FOBT kits and barriers, motivators and experiences with selling and counselling consumers with respect to FOBT kits. Semi-structured interviews were conducted face to face or by telephone with 20 community pharmacists in the Auckland region. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim and data were coded and analysed using NVivo software to identify key themes. Participant pharmacists believed that they were well placed to provide advice on FOBT kits to consumers. Barriers to selling the kits included cost and perceived lack of test sensitivity of the kits, poor consumer demand, pharmacists' lack of training and information, and a belief that selling FOBT kits was outside the pharmacists' scope of practice. Motivators to selling the kits included customer convenience, ease of use, confidence in the kits and embracing new roles for pharmacists. Pharmacists were concerned that use of the kits may increase the burden on the public health system through customer anxiety over test results; however, they agreed that there was a need for bowel cancer screening and awareness and that people concerned about bowel cancer should make visiting their general practitioner a priority. Pharmacists' views were mixed. Pharmacists' training and competence with respect to the provision of bowel cancer kits, and how a bowel cancer screening service can be developed to optimise public health outcomes, need to be addressed. © 2013 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  18. Physician Acceptance of Pharmacist Recommendations about Medication Prescribing Errors in Iraqi Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALI AZEEZ ALI AL-JUMAILI

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to measure the incidence and types of medication prescribing errors (MPEs in Iraqi hospitals, to calculate for the first time the percentage of physician agreement with pharmacist medication regimen review (MRR recommendations regarding MPEs, and to identify the factors influencing the physician agreement rate with these recommendations. Methods: Fourteen pharmacists (10 females and 4 males reviewed each hand-written physician order for 1506 patients who were admitted to two public hospitals in Al-Najaf, Iraq during August 2015. The pharmacists identified medication prescribing errors using the Medscape WebMD, LCC phone application as a reference. The pharmacists contacted the physicians (2 females and 34 males in-person to address MPEs that were identified. Results: The pharmacists identified 78 physician orders containing 99 MPEs with an incidence of 6.57 percent of all the physician orders reviewed. The patients with MPEs were taking 4.8 medications on average. The MPEs included drug-drug interactions (65.7%, incorrect doses (16.2%, unnecessary medications (8.1%, contra-indications (7.1%, incorrect drug duration (2%, and untreated conditions (1%. The physicians implemented 37 (37.4% pharmacist recommendations. Three factors were significantly related to physician acceptance of pharmacist recommendations. These were physician specialty, pharmacist gender, and patient gender. Pediatricians were less likely (OR= 0.1 to accept pharmacist recommendations compared to internal medicine physicians. Male pharmacists received more positive responses from physicians (OR=7.11 than female pharmacists. Lastly, the recommendations were significantly more likely to be accepted (OR= 3.72 when the patients were females. Conclusions: The incidence of MPEs is higher in Iraqi hospitalized patients than in the U.S. and U.K, but lower than in Brazil, Ethiopia, India, and Croatia. Drug-drug interactions were the most common type of

  19. Community pharmacists' burnout levels and related factors: an example from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calgan, Zeynep; Aslan, Dilek; Yegenoglu, Selen

    2011-02-01

    To determine community pharmacists' burnout levels and prevalences as well as factors associated with burnout. Study was conducted in Ankara, the capital of Turkey. In this cross-sectional study, 251 pharmacists were randomly selected from 1,504 community pharmacists registered in Ankara Chamber of Pharmacists. A questionnaire including questions related to pharmacists' individual and professional characteristics and Maslach Burnout Inventory was administered. The data was collected between February 27 and May 25, 2007. Three Maslach Burnout Inventory subscales (emotional exhaustion-EE, depersonalization-D, and personal accomplishment-PA) scores. Pharmacists' mean emotional exhaustion score was found to be 16.84 (SD: 6.25), depersonalization score was 4 (Range: 0-14), and personal accomplishment score was 22 (Range: 9-32). Of the pharmacists, 1.2% had high level of EE, .8% had high level of D, and 71.3% had high level of inefficacy. Age, marital status, work experience, work contentment, workload, time pressure, stress, and satisfaction with customers were found to be related with pharmacists' burnout levels. It can be useful to monitor pharmacists' burnout levels and prevalences periodically. Interventions on individual and organizational basis were needed to cope with burnout, respond to job demands, minimize the level of chronic stress, and increase work contentment and satisfaction.

  20. Distribution and characterization of Heterobilharzia americana in dogs in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, J Y; Lewis, B C; Snowden, K F

    2014-06-16

    Heterobilharzia americana is a trematode parasite (family Schistosomatidae) that infects a wide range of wild mammalian hosts. Canine cases have been reported in the Gulf coast and south Atlantic states, Kansas, and Oklahoma. A total of 238 canine H. americana cases in Texas were retrospectively collected for a period of approximately 22 years from case records at the Texas Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory and the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital pathology service, diagnostic parasitology service, and Gastrointestinal Laboratory at Texas A&M University College of Veterinary Medicine. Of these cases, 26 patients had 1-2 repeat positive tests for a total of 268 positive tests (26 biopsies, 39 necropsies, 160 fecal examinations, and 43 PCR). Multiple dogs were infected in 12 households. Cases were distributed primarily in the eastern region of Texas in 42 of 254 counties. Cases were seen as far west as Kerr county and in counties bordering Oklahoma, Louisiana, Mexico, and the Gulf of Mexico. The median dog age was 5.6 years (2.7 months to 17.2 years) and the median weight was 20.5 kg (1-61.6 kg). All American Kennel Club (AKC) breed groups were represented (n=186): crossbred (20%), herding (17.8%), sporting (16.1%), toy (10.8%), hounds (10.8%), working (10.1%), terrier (8.5%), non-sporting (4.9%), and miscellaneous (1%). No seasonal pattern of diagnosis was apparent. Clinical signs reported (n=90) were diarrhea (67%), weight loss (38%), anorexia/hyporexia (27%), vomiting (22%), hematochezia (20%), lethargy (17%), polyuria/polydipsia (6%), and collapse (3%). In 39 necropsy cases, trematode eggs were identified by histopathology in the small intestine (84%), liver (84%), large intestine (39%), pancreas (35%), lung (9%), lymph node (8%), spleen (4%), and stomach (3%). Adult parasites were identified histologically in four cases. Granulomatous inflammation associated with the eggs was the most commonly reported histopathologic change. Other changes reported

  1. Changes between early development (1930–60) and recent (2005–15) groundwater-level altitudes and dissolved-solids and nitrate concentrations In and near Gaines, Terry, and Yoakum Counties, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jonathan V.; Teeple, Andrew; Payne, Jason; Ikard, Scott

    2016-06-21

    Llano Estacado Underground Water Conservation District, Sandy Land Underground Water Conservation District, and South Plains Underground Water Conservation District manage groundwater resources in a part of west Texas near the Texas-New Mexico State line. Declining groundwater levels have raised concerns about the amount of available groundwater in the study area and the potential for water-quality changes resulting from dewatering and increased vertical groundwater movement between adjacent water-bearing units.

  2. The Texas Ten Percent Plan's Impact on College Enrollment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, Lindsay; Martorell, Paco; McFarlin, Isaac, Jr.

    2014-01-01

    The Texas Ten Percent Plan (TTP) provides students in the top 10 percent of their high-school class with automatic admission to any public university in the state, including the two flagship schools, the University of Texas at Austin and Texas A&M. Texas created the policy in 1997 after a federal appellate court ruled that the state's previous…

  3. 78 FR 27342 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Moran, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    ... Broadcasting Services; Moran, Texas AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY... service at Moran, Texas. Channel 281A can be allotted at Moran, Texas, in compliance with the Commission's... parties should serve petitioner as follows: Katherine Pyeatt, 215 Cedar Springs Rd., 1605, Dallas, Texas...

  4. 9 CFR 72.5 - Area quarantined in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Area quarantined in Texas. 72.5... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.5 Area quarantined in Texas. The area quarantined in Texas is the quarantined area...

  5. 76 FR 49760 - Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. CP11-524-000] Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application Take notice that on July 29, 2011, Texas Eastern Transmission, LP (Texas Eastern), 5400 Westheimer Court, Houston, Texas 77056-5310, filed with the Federal Energy...

  6. 75 FR 45611 - Texas Eastern Transmission LP; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. CP10-471-000] Texas Eastern Transmission LP; Notice of Application July 27, 2010. Take notice that on July 15, 2010, Texas Eastern Transmission (Texas Eastern), P.O. Box 1642, Houston, Texas 77251-1642, filed in Docket No. CP10-471-000, an...

  7. 78 FR 66352 - Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. CP14-9-000] Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application Take notice that on October 17, 2013, Texas Eastern Transmission, LP (Texas Eastern), 5400 Westheimer Court, Houston, Texas 77056, filed an application in Docket No. CP14-9...

  8. 78 FR 43874 - Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. CP13-514-000] Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application On July 2, 2013, Texas Eastern Transmission, LP (Texas Eastern) filed... natural gas facilities no longer in service. As described more fully in the Application, Texas Eastern...

  9. 78 FR 64933 - Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. CP14-4-000] Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application Take notice that on October 10, 2013, Texas Eastern Transmission, (Texas Eastern), having its principal place of business at 5400 Westheimer Court, Houston, Texas, 77056...

  10. 76 FR 38381 - Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. CP11-67-001] Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Amendment Take notice that on June 13, 2011, Texas Eastern Transmission, LP (Texas Eastern), 5400 Westheimer Court, Houston, Texas 77056, filed in the above referenced docket an amendment...

  11. 78 FR 79687 - Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. CP14-29-000] Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application Take notice that on December 10, 2013 Texas Eastern Transmission, LP (Texas Eastern), at 5400 Westheimer Court, Houston, Texas 77056, filed an application in Docket No. CP14...

  12. 77 FR 26534 - Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. CP12-164-000] Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application Take notice that on April 19, 2012, Texas Eastern Transmission, LP (Texas Eastern), 5400 Westheimer Court, Houston, Texas 77056, filed in Docket No. CP12-164-000, a request...

  13. 77 FR 20015 - Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. CP12-88-000] Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application Take notice that on March 19, 2012, Texas Eastern Transmission, LP (Texas Eastern), 5400 Westheimer Court, Houston, Texas 77056-5310, filed an application in Docket No...

  14. 77 FR 12045 - Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. CP12-68-000] Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application Take notice that on February 16, 2012, Texas Eastern Transmission, LP (Texas Eastern), PO Box 1642, Houston, Texas 77056 filed an application in the above referenced docket...

  15. 76 FR 18210 - Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. CP11-138-000] Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application On March 15, 2011, Texas Eastern Transmission Corporation (Texas Eastern), 5400 Westheimer Court, Houston, Texas 77056-5310, filed with the Federal Energy Regulatory...

  16. Medication Safety Systems and the Important Role of Pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansur, Jeannell M

    2016-03-01

    Preventable medication-related adverse events continue to occur in the healthcare setting. While the Institute of Medicine's To Err is Human, published in 2000, highlighted the prevalence of medical and medication-related errors in patient morbidity and mortality, there has not been significant documented progress in addressing system contributors to medication errors. The lack of progress may be related to the myriad of pharmaceutical options now available and the nuances of optimizing drug therapy to achieve desired outcomes and prevent undesirable outcomes. However, on a broader scale, there may be opportunities to focus on the design and performance of the many processes that are part of the medication system. Errors may occur in the storage, prescribing, transcription, preparation and dispensing, or administration and monitoring of medications. Each of these nodes of the medication system, with its many components, is prone to failure, resulting in harm to patients. The pharmacist is uniquely trained to be able to impact medication safety at the individual patient level through medication management skills that are part of the clinical pharmacist's role, but also to analyze the performance of medication processes and to lead redesign efforts to mitigate drug-related outcomes that may cause harm. One population that can benefit from a focus on medication safety through clinical pharmacy services and medication safety programs is the elderly, who are at risk for adverse drug events due to their many co-morbidities and the number of medications often used. This article describes the medication safety systems and provides a blueprint for creating a foundation for medication safety programs within healthcare organizations. The specific role of pharmacists and clinical pharmacy services in medication safety is also discussed here and in other articles in this Theme Issue.

  17. Role of the pharmacist in preventing distribution of counterfeit medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambliss, Walter G; Carroll, Wesley A; Kennedy, Daniel; Levine, Donald; Moné, Michael A; Ried, L Douglas; Shepherd, Marv; Yelvigi, Mukund

    2012-01-01

    To provide an overview of the counterfeit medication problem and recommendations of a joint American Pharmacists Association (APhA) Academy of Pharmaceutical Research and Science and APhA Academy of Pharmacy Practice and Management taskforce. SciFinder and PubMed were searched from 1980 to March 2011 using the following keywords: counterfeit drug product, counterfeit medications, drug product authentication, drug product verification, and track-and-trace. Publications, presentations, and websites of organizations that research the counterfeit medication problem in the United States and other countries were reviewed. A representative from the security division of a pharmaceutical manufacturer and a representative from a supplier of anticounterfeiting technologies gave presentations to the taskforce. The taskforce recommends that pharmacists (1) purchase medications from known, reliable sources; (2) warn patients of the dangers of purchasing medications over the Internet; (3) confirm with distributors that products were purchased from manufacturers or other reliable sources; (4) monitor counterfeit product alerts; (5) examine products for suspicious appearance; (6) work with the pharmaceutical industry, distributors, and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to close gaps in the supply chain, especially for drugs in short supply; (7) use scanning technology in the pharmacy as part of a prescription verification process; (8) educate themselves, coworkers, and patients about the risks of counterfeit medications; and (9) report suspicious medications to FDA, the distributor, and the manufacturer. The consequence of a patient receiving a counterfeit medication in the United States could be catastrophic, and pharmacists must play an active role in preventing such an event from occurring.

  18. Pharmacists' views on involvement in pharmacy practice research: Strategies for facilitating participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Carol; Brillant, Martha; Krass, Ines

    2007-01-01

    In order for community pharmacy practice to continue to evolve, pharmacy practice research on potential new services is essential. This requires the active participation of community pharmacists. At present the level of involvement of community pharmacists in pharmacy practice research is minimal. To ascertain the attitudes of a group of research-experienced community pharmacists towards participating in research; to investigate the barriers and facilitators to participation; to identify potential strategies to increase the involvement of community pharmacists in research. A focus group was conducted with a purposive sample of 11 research-experienced community pharmacists. A pharmacist academic moderated the focus group using a semi-structured interview guide. The participants were asked about their attitudes towards research, previous involvement in research, barriers to their involvement and strategies to overcome these barriers. The session was audio-taped and notes were taken by an observer. Thematic analysis of the notes and audio-tape transcripts was conducted. Three themes emerged around pharmacists' attitudes towards research: pharmacists' perception of the purpose of research, pharmacists' motivation for involvement in research, and pharmacists' desired role in research. Barriers to research participation were grouped into four themes: pharmacists' mindset, communication, infrastructure (time, money and staff), and skills/knowledge. Strategies to address each of these barriers were suggested. Participants recognised the importance of research towards advancing their profession and this was a motivating factor for involvement in research. They perceived their role in research primarily as data collection. A series of practical strategies to overcome the barriers to participation were offered that researchers may wish to consider when promoting research outcomes and designing research projects.

  19. Barriers and facilitators of medication reconciliation processes for recently discharged patients from community pharmacists' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennelty, Korey A; Chewning, Betty; Wise, Meg; Kind, Amy; Roberts, Tonya; Kreling, David

    2015-01-01

    Community pharmacists play a vital part in reconciling medications for patients transitioning from hospital to community care, yet their roles have not been fully examined in the extant literature. The objectives of this study were to: 1) examine the barriers and facilitators community pharmacists face when reconciling medications for recently discharged patients; and 2) identify pharmacists' preferred content and modes of information transfer regarding updated medication information for recently discharged patients. Community pharmacists were purposively and conveniently sampled from the Wisconsin (U.S. state) pharmacist-based research network, Pharmacy Practice Enhancement and Action Research Link (PEARL Rx). Community pharmacists were interviewed face-to-face, and transcriptions from audio recordings were analyzed using directed content analysis. The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) guided the development of questions for the semi-structured interviews. Interviewed community pharmacists (N = 10) described the medication reconciliation process to be difficult and time-consuming for recently discharged patients. In the context of the TPB, more barriers than facilitators of reconciling medications were revealed. Themes were categorized as organizational and individual-level themes. Major organizational-level factors affecting the medication reconciliation process included: pharmacy resources, discharge communication, and hospital resources. Major individual-level factors affecting the medication reconciliation process included: pharmacists' perceived responsibility, relationships, patient perception of pharmacist, and patient characteristics. Interviewed pharmacists consistently responded that several pieces of information items would be helpful when reconciling medications for recently discharged patients, including the hospital medication discharge list and stop-orders for discontinued medications. The TPB was useful for identifying barriers and facilitators of

  20. Pharmacist home visits: A 1-year experience from a community pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monte, Scott V; Passafiume, Sarah N; Kufel, Wesley D; Comerford, Patrick; Trzewieczynski, Dean P; Andrus, Kenneth; Brody, Peter M

    2016-01-01

    To provide experience on the methods and costs for delivering a large-scale community pharmacist home visit service. Independent urban community pharmacy, Buffalo, NY. Mobile Pharmacy Solutions provides traditional community pharmacy walk-in service and a suite of clinically oriented services, including outbound adherence calls linked to home delivery, payment planning, medication refill synchronization, adherence packaging, and pharmacist home visits. Pharmacist daily staffing included three dispensing pharmacists, one residency-trained pharmacist, and two postgraduate year 1 community pharmacy residents. A large-scale community pharmacy home visit service delivered over a 1-year period. Pharmacist time and cost to administer the home visit service as well as home visit request sources and description of patient demographics. A total of 172 visits were conducted (137 initial, 35 follow-up). Patients who received a home visit averaged 9.8 ± 5.2 medications and 3.0 ± 1.6 chronic disease states. On average, a home visit required 2.0 ± 0.8 hours, which included travel time. The percentages of visits completed by pharmacists and residents were 60% and 40%, respectively. The amounts of time to complete a visit were similar. Average home visit cost including pharmacist time and travel was $119 ($147 for a pharmacist, $77 for a resident). In this community pharmacy-based home visit service, costs are an important factor, with each pharmacist visit requiring 2 hours to complete. This experience provides a blueprint and real-world perspective for community pharmacies endeavoring to implement a home visit service and sets a foundation for future prospective trials to evaluate the impact of the service on important indicators of health and cost. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Physicians’ perceptions, expectations, and experience with pharmacists at Hamad Medical Corporation in Qatar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaidan M

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Manal Zaidan1, Rajvir Singh2, Mayyada Wazaify3, Linda Tahaineh41Department of Pharmacy, Al-Amal Hospital, 2Medical Research Centre, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar; 3Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Biopharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan; 4Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, JordanObjectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the physicians’ perceptions, and expectations of their experiences with the pharmacists at Hamad Medical Corporation (HMC in Qatar.Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted at HMC between January and March 2006 using a validated questionnaire. The self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 500 physicians who were working at HMC comprising Hamad General Hospital, Women’s Hospital, Rumaila Hospital, Al-Amal Hospital, Al Khor Hospital, and primary health centers. The questionnaire was composed of four parts, investigating the physicians' expectations, experiences, and perceptions of the pharmacists.Results: A total of 205 questionnaires were completed (response rate 41%. A total of 183 physicians (89% expected the pharmacist to educate patients about safe and appropriate use of drugs, whereas 118 (57% expected the pharmacist to be available for health-care team consultation during bedside rounds. The indices of physicians showing how comfortable they were with pharmacists, and their expectations of pharmacists, were 61% and 65%, respectively, whereas the index on experience of physicians with pharmacists was lower (15%.Conclusions: Physicians were comfortable with pharmacists and had high expectations of pharmacists in performing their duties. However, physicians reported a poor experience with pharmacists, who infrequently informed them about the effectiveness of alternative drugs, patients experiencing problems with prescribed medications, and who took personal responsibility to resolve any drug

  2. Ethical responsibilities of pharmacists when selling complementary medicines: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman Popattia, Amber; Winch, Sarah; La Caze, Adam

    2018-04-01

    The widespread sale of complementary medicines in community pharmacy raises important questions regarding the responsibilities of pharmacists when selling complementary medicines. This study reviews the academic literature that explores a pharmacist's responsibilities when selling complementary medicines. International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, Embase, PubMed, Cinahl, PsycINFO and Philosopher's index databases were searched for articles written in English and published between 1995 and 2017. Empirical studies discussing pharmacists' practices or perceptions, consumers' expectations and normative studies discussing ethical perspectives or proposing ethical frameworks related to pharmacists' responsibilities in selling complementary medicines were included in the review. Fifty-eight studies met the inclusion criteria. The majority of the studies discussing the responsibilities of pharmacists selling complementary medicines had an empirical focus. Pharmacists and consumers identified counselling and ensuring safe use of complementary medicines as the primary responsibilities of pharmacists. No formal ethical framework is explicitly employed to describe the responsibilities of pharmacists selling complementary medicines. To the degree any ethical framework is employed, a number of papers implicitly rely on principlism. The studies discussing the ethical perspectives of selling complementary medicines mainly describe the ethical conflict between a pharmacist's business and health professional role. No attempt is made to provide guidance on appropriate ways to resolve the conflict. There is a lack of explicit normative advice in the existing literature regarding the responsibilities of pharmacists selling complementary medicines. This review identifies the need to develop a detailed practice-specific ethical framework to guide pharmacists regarding their responsibilities when selling complementary medicines. © 2018 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  3. Factors influencing pharmacists' adoption of prescribing: qualitative application of the diffusion of innovations theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makowsky, Mark J; Guirguis, Lisa M; Hughes, Christine A; Sadowski, Cheryl A; Yuksel, Nese

    2013-09-14

    In 2007, Alberta became the first Canadian jurisdiction to grant pharmacists a wide range of prescribing privileges. Our objective was to understand what factors influence pharmacists' adoption of prescribing using a model for the Diffusion of Innovations in healthcare services. Pharmacists participated in semi-structured telephone interviews to discuss their prescribing practices and explore the facilitators and barriers to implementation. Pharmacists working in community, hospital, PCN, or other settings were selected using a mix of random and purposive sampling. Two investigators independently analyzed each transcript using an Interpretive Description approach to identify themes. Analyses were informed by a model explaining the Diffusion of Innovations in health service organizations. Thirty-eight participants were interviewed. Prescribing behaviours varied from non-adoption through to product, disease, and patient focused use of prescribing. Pharmacists' adoption of prescribing was dependent on the innovation itself, adopter, system readiness, and communication and influence. Adopting pharmacists viewed prescribing as a legitimization of previous practice and advantageous to instrumental daily tasks. The complexity of knowledge required for prescribing increased respectively in product, disease and patient focused prescribing scenarios. Individual adopters had higher levels of self-efficacy toward prescribing skills. At a system level, pharmacists who were in practice settings that were patient focused were more likely to adopt advanced prescribing practices, over those in product-focused settings. All pharmacists stated that physician relationships impacted their prescribing behaviours and individual pharmacists' decisions to apply for independent prescribing privileges. Diffusion of Innovations theory was helpful in understanding the multifaceted nature of pharmacists' adoption of prescribing. The characteristics of the prescribing model itself which

  4. Interprofessional development and implementation of a pharmacist professional advancement and recognition program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, David; Chmielewski, Eric; Porter, Andrea L; Brzozowski, Sarah; Rough, Steve S; Trapskin, Philip J

    2017-11-15

    The interprofessional development, implementation, and outcomes of a pharmacist professional advancement and recognition program (PARP) at an academic medical center are described. Limitations of the legacy advancement program, in combination with low rates of employee engagement in peer recognition and professional development, at the UW Health department of pharmacy led to the creation of a task force comprising pharmacists from all practice areas to develop a new pharmacist PARP. Senior leadership within the organization expanded the scope of the project to include an interprofessional work group tasked to develop guidelines and core principles that other professional staff could use to reduce variation across advancement and recognition programs. Key program design elements included a triennial review of performance against advancement standards and the use of peer review to supplement advancement decisions. The primary objective was to meaningfully improve pharmacists' engagement as measured through employee engagement surveys. Secondary outcomes of interest included the results of pharmacist and management satisfaction surveys and the program's impact on the volume and mix of pharmacist professional development activities. Of the 126 eligible pharmacists, 93 participated in the new program. The majority of pharmacists was satisfied with the program. For pharmacists who were advanced as part of the program, meaningful increases in employee engagement scores were observed, and a mean of 95 hours of professional development and quality-improvement activities was documented. Implementation of a PARP helped increase pharmacist engagement through participation in quality-improvement and professional development activities. The program also led to the creation of organizationwide interprofessional guidelines for advancement programs within various healthcare disciplines. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. West and East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Rappaport

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The topic “West-East” has a clear cultural and historical meaning. Orthodox temples face East. The way from West to East and from East to West is tens of thousands of kilometers long and has a special meaning. It differs from the way from North to South: the horizontal axes connect regions, while the vertical axis (Earth-Sky connects the worlds. The expansion of Eurasian tribes occurred along the East-West axis – the world horizontal way. Today the cultural memory of people in the East and West finds itself in the theatre of new dramas of existence and new forces. With the advances in electronic technologies, the world movements seem to have sunk in the depth of the chthonian past to come up anew to the surface of fantastic speeds and momentary connections. A new type of planetary landscape-space relation appears, giving no place for West and East.

  6. 75 FR 45695 - Final Federal Agency Actions on Trans-Texas Corridor 35 (TTC-35) in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ...-Texas Corridor 35 (TTC-35) in Texas AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION: Notice... proposed transportation project, TTC-35, extending from the Texas- Oklahoma line to the City of Laredo, generally paralleling existing I- 35 in the State of Texas. DATES: By this notice, the FHWA is advising the...

  7. Precipitation and Evaporation Trends in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, R. W.

    2009-05-01

    Texas is a large land area with at least three different climate types. As such it is expected that the results of climate change will not be homogenous. This paper presents results of a study of long trends in Texas precipitation and evaporation using data from the US Historical Climatology Network and the Texas Water Development Board. It shows that the long term trends of these variables is not homogenous and exhibits great variability in both spatial extent and magnitude. This variability must be considered in planning for future water supply or other mitigation projects.

  8. [Integration of a hospital pharmacist in the ICU].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moch, C; Pivot, C; Floccard, B; Rimmelé, T; Paillet, C

    2014-03-01

    The French regulatory system strongly encourages strict regulation of health products' production and distribution, especially concerning risk management and economic aspects. An ICU is an unusual environment for a local pharmacy practice (a nurse for every 2.5 patients, continuous adaptation of therapeutics…). However, a literature review reports interesting data concerning risk management and economics. This article aims to relate the experience of a pharmacist integration in a French teaching hospital ICU (half-time position). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Hydrologic effects of floodwater-retarding structures on Garza-Little Elm Reservoir, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Clarence R.; Sauer, Stanley P.

    1970-01-01

    The Texas District of the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey has collected and analyzed hydrologic data since 1953 to define the effects of systems of floodwater-retarding structures on downstream water and sediment yield. The district project includes 11 study areas ranging from 18 to 80 square miles in size and from 0 to 67 in percent of study area controlled by floodwaterretarding structures. The 11 study areas are within that part of Texas where the west-to-east average annual runoff ranges from about 2 to 7 inches. This report presents results of analyses, development of methodolgy, and results of application of methods for defining the downstream effects of systems of floodwaterretarding structures.

  10. Solar Leasing Summary, Houston Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammer, Mary [City of San Antonio, TX (United States)

    2013-02-14

    A relatively new option for homeowners looking to add solar to their home is the solar lease. At present, the solar lease option can be found in California, Arizona, Texas, Colorado, Hawaii, New York and Oregon. The most active companies currently offering solar leases are NRG Energy, Sungevity, Solar City and Sun Run. With the uncertainty and/or lack of subsidies the states participating in these programs have ebbed and flowed over the last few years. However, there is an expectation that in the current market solar leasing will make solar viable without the utility and federal subsidies. NRG Energy is currently testing this expectation in Houston, TX where currently no subsidies or incentives beyond the federal tax incentives, exist. Following is an explanation on the state of solar leasing in Houston, TX and explanation of the current financing options.

  11. Pharmacist-perceived barriers to pharmaceutical care of chronic and end-stage kidney disease patients in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal K Suleiman

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: The contribution of pharmacists in CKD and ESRD will continue to grow as their clinical knowledge improves. Saudi pharmacists believe that the pharmaceutical care is an essential component of managing CKD and ESRD patients.

  12. State and local economic impacts from wind energy projects: Texas case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slattery, Michael C.; Lantz, Eric; Johnson, Becky L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper uses the Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) model to estimate economic impacts from 1398 MW of wind power development in four counties in west Texas. Project-specific impacts are estimated at the local level (i.e., within a 100-mile radius around the wind farms) and at the state level. The primary economic policy question addressed is how investment in wind energy affects the state and local communities where the wind farms are built. During the four-year construction phase approximately 4100 FTE (full time equivalents) jobs were supported with turbine and supply chain impacts accounting for 58% of all jobs generated. Total lifetime economic activity to the state from the projects equated to more than $1.8 billion, or $1.3 million per MW of installed capacity. The total economic activity to the local communities was also substantial, equating to nearly $730 million over the assumed 20-year life cycle of the farms, or $0.52 million per MW of installed capacity. Given the current level of impacts observed, and the potential for increased impacts via greater utilization of instate manufacturing capacity and the development of trained wind industry specific laborers, Texas appears to be well positioned to see increasing impacts from continued wind development. - Highlights: ► We use the JEDI model to assess economic impacts from wind development in west Texas. ► Total lifetime economic impact from 1398 MW wind equated to more than $1.8 billion. ► Texas is well positioned to see increasing impacts from continued wind development.

  13. Impact of Pharmacists and Student Pharmacists in Educating and Screening Low-Income Women for Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie A. DiPietro, PharmD, MPH

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness of an educational intervention on knowledge of cardiovascular disease (CVD and to increase awareness of risk factors among female patients of a community health center with an on-site 340B pharmacy.Methods: The program consisted of a 10-minute educational intervention and brief pre-test, post-test, and participant satisfaction survey. Adult female patients at the clinic for any provider visit or prescription fill were eligible to participate. Participants met individually with a student pharmacist or faculty member and verbally completed the pre-test. The participant received education regarding CVD, risk factors, and symptoms of myocardial infarction and were screened for hypertension and/or hyperlipidemia. The post-test was then verbally administered. Participants answered the satisfaction survey privately. Based on individual needs, educational materials and information on available pharmacy clinical services were provided. The university IRB deemed the study exempt. Results: Eighty-four individuals received educational materials and/or a screening test. Of those, 30 women (mean age 46.9 years completed the educational intervention. Thirteen (43% reported smoking; 22 (73% identified themselves as overweight. Fourteen (47% indicated a preexisting diagnosis of hypertension. Correct responses for 6 of 8 knowledge-based questions were statistically significantly improved from pre-test to post-test (p<0.05. Twenty-nine patients (97% rated the program as “useful” or “very useful”. Conclusion: CVD is the leading cause of death in U.S. women. Data from this program indicate that through screening and education, pharmacists and student pharmacists can impact female patients’ knowledge of CVD risk factors. Continued efforts in this area may help to reduce the public health burden of CVD.

  14. Exploring community pharmacists' views on generic medicines: a nationwide study from Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Chee Ping; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Bahari, Mohd Baidi; Shafie, Asrul Akmal

    2011-02-01

    To evaluate the Malaysian community pharmacists' views on generic medicines. A sample of 1419 Malaysian community pharmacies with resident pharmacists. A cross-sectional nationwide survey using a self-completed mailing questionnaire. Pharmacists' views on generic medicines including issues surrounding efficacy, safety, quality and bioequivalence. Responses were received from 219 pharmacies (response rate 15.4%). Only 50.2% of the surveyed pharmacists agreed that all products that are approved as generic equivalents can be considered therapeutically equivalent with the innovator medicines. Around 76% of respondents indicated that generic substitution of narrow therapeutic index medicines is inappropriate. The majority of the pharmacists understood that a generic medicine must contain the same amount of active ingredient (84.5%) and must be in the same dosage form as the innovator brand (71.7%). About 21% of respondents though that generic medicines are of inferior quality compared to innovator medicines. Most of the pharmacists (61.6%) disagreed that generic medicines produce more side-effects than innovator brand. Pharmacists graduated from Malaysian universities, twinning program and overseas universities were not differed significantly in their views on generic medicines. Additionally, the respondents appeared to have difficulty in ascertaining the bioequivalent status of the marketed generic products in Malaysia. The Malaysian pharmacists' have lack of information and/or trust in the generic manufacturing and/or approval system in Malaysia. This issue should be addressed by pharmacy educators and relevant government agencies.

  15. Audio Cassettes as a Means of Professional Continuing Education for Pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Muth, James E.

    1979-01-01

    Lectures on audiotape cassettes are used by the University of Wisconsin-Extension for continuing profesional education of pharmacists. Evaluation statements from over 700 pharmacists revealed that participants viewed these courses as convenient, time-saving, and valuable learning experiences. The model presented in this study could be adapted for…

  16. Knowledge and attitude of Iranian community pharmacists about the pharmaceutical care for epileptic females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabzghabaee, A.M.; Zolfaghari, B.; Ebrahimabadi, M.H.

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the knowledge and attitude of a cohort of Iranian community pharmacists about the pharmaceutical care indexes and drug therapy in female epileptic patients. Methodology: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Iran (2011) and one hundred and twenty two community pharmacists were randomly selected using clustering method for sampling. A self-administered questionnaire which was originally made by a clinical pharmacy focus group was used. This questionnaire had 10 true/false questions for knowledge assessing (Spearman-Brown coefficient, 0.65) and 19 attitude statements (with Likert scale) about the intention of pharmacists for providing pharmaceutical care for epileptic females (Croanbach's alpha, 0.802). Face and content validity for both parts of the questionnaire were performed before the study. Results: There was a significant inverse relationship between pharmacists' knowledge on pharmaceutical care for epileptic females and the time elapsed from their graduation date. Considering the minimum passing score of 5, 85% of pharmacists did not have enough knowledge. The range of pharmacists' attitude scores was 35 to 64 and its mean was 46.09. Regarding the minimum passing score of 45, 63.3% of pharmacists had positive attitude to AEDs in epileptic females. Conclusion: It seems that the pharmaceutical care for epileptic females is a missing part of Pharmacy education. It is highly recommended to pay special attention to this topic in continuing education programs for Iranian pharmacists. (author)

  17. The Role of the Pharmacist in Animal Health Care: Case Study in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this cross-sectional study, the role of pharmacists in animal health care, particularly in the distribution of veterinary medicines in community pharmacies in Dar es Salaam was investigated. Using a semi-structured questionnaire a total of 260 pharmacists were interviewed. The study revealed that majority of the ...

  18. Analysis of pharmacist-patient communication using the Calgary-Cambridge guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhill, Nicola; Anderson, Claire; Avery, Anthony; Pilnick, Alison

    2011-06-01

    This study explored communication between pharmacists and patients through application of the Calgary-Cambridge guide [1] to appointment-based pharmacist-patient consultations and considers use of the guide in pharmacy education. Eighteen patients attending appointment-based consultations with five pharmacists were recruited to this qualitative study. Consultations were audio-recorded and observed. Transcripts were coded according to the use of skills within the guide and analysed thematically. The results showed good use of many skills by pharmacists, particularly signposting and closing the session. Some skills were poorly represented such as listening effectively, eliciting the patient's perspective, effective use of computers and creating patient-centred consultations. A key theme of social conversation was present in the data but this skill was not defined in the guide. The Calgary-Cambridge guide was developed for use in medical consultations but its application to pharmacist-patient consultations showed that the guide could be successfully used in pharmacy with some minor alterations. Pharmacists may need more training to improve the use of specific communication skills including how to conduct a patient-centred consultation. The Calgary-Cambridge guide is well aligned with many aspects of pharmacist-patient consultations and could help pharmacists to improve their consultation skills. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Collaboration of Physician, Pharmacist and Director Model Toward the Improvement of Teamwork Effectiveness in Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widy S. Abdulkadir

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Collaboration of physicians and pharmacists is very important in providing treatment to patients. Collaboration includes an exchange of views or ideas that give perspective to all collaborators. In order to make collaborative relationship optimal, all members of the different professions should have a desire to cooperate. Pharmacists and physicians should plan and practice as colleagues, work interdependence within the limits of the scope of practice with a variety of values and knowledge. The role of director in cooperation between doctor and pharmacist takes decision-making which refers to treatment of patients to be decided together between health professionals (physician and pharmacist. The study was a quasi-experimental design with a pre-test-post-test control group design, using paired t-test analysis. The study was conducted from October 2012 until February 2013. The paired t-test results showed that the variable of teamwork effectiveness in M. M. Dunda Hospital increased significantly (p=0.038, which means that the three-party (physician-pharmacist-director collaboration model may increase teamwork effectiveness. Three-party collaboration model can improve physician-pharmacist relationship in the hospital. Leadership has a positive and significant effect on employees’ organizational commitment. Director can be an inspiration in the work and determine the direction and goals of the organization. Therefore, the three-party (physician-pharmacist-director collaboration model can improve the quality of the relationship between the two professions, physician and pharmacist.

  20. Patient safety problem identification and solution sharing among rural community pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galt, Kimberly A; Fuji, Kevin T; Faber, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    To implement a communication network for safety problem identification and solution sharing among rural community pharmacists and to report participating pharmacists' perceived value and impact of the network on patient safety after 1 year of implementation. Action research study. Rural community pharmacies in Nebraska from January 2010 to April 2011. Rural community pharmacists who voluntarily agreed to join the Pharmacists for Patient Safety Network in Nebraska. Pharmacists reported errors, near misses, and safety concerns through Web-based event reporting. A rapid feedback process was used to provide patient safety solutions to consider implementing across the network. Qualitative interviews were conducted 1 year after program implementation with participating pharmacists to assess use of the reporting system, value of the disseminated safety solutions, and perceived impact on patient safety in pharmacies. 30 of 38 pharmacists participating in the project completed the interviews. The communication network improved pharmacist awareness, promoted open discussion and knowledge sharing, contributed to practice vigilance, and led to incorporation of proactive safety prevention practices. Despite low participation in error and near-miss reporting, a dynamic communication network designed to rapidly disseminate evidence-based patient safety strategies to reduce risk was valued and effective at improving patient safety practices in rural community pharmacies.

  1. A qualitative study of pharmacists' perceptions of, and recommendations for improvement of antibiotic use in Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Emily; Cartwright, Andrea; Bakharaiba, Sumaia; Al-Mekaty, Eman; Alsahan, Dima

    2014-08-01

    Use of antibiotics has been correlated with increasing rates of resistance. Pharmacists are ideally positioned as front line health care providers to limit indiscriminate antibiotic use and promote the safe and effective administration of these medications. The aim of this project was to assess pharmacists' opinions relating to antibiotic utilization in the community setting. Doha, Qatar. Community and primary care pharmacists were invited to participate in one of three focus groups or a semi-structured interview at Qatar University or at their site of employment. A total of 22 community and primary care pharmacists participated in this study. Interviews were facilitated using a focus group guide, were recorded, and later transcribed. Transcripts were reviewed for recurring themes and coded using Nvivo software for qualitative research. Pharmacists' perceptions. Five major themes emerged from a series of focus groups and interviews. Themes which recurred across interview groups included: misconceptions and inappropriate practices by patients and healthcare providers, currently implemented strategies, perceived barriers, ways to overcome perceived barriers, and targets for improvement of antibiotic use in Qatar. The greatest need, as identified by pharmacists in this study was increased knowledge of the general population about appropriate antibiotic use through various educational interventions. Pharmacists report a number of misconceptions and inappropriate practices relating to antibiotic use in Qatar by patients and healthcare providers. Education to improve knowledge of appropriate antibiotic use is needed. Despite recognition of these issues, barriers are preventing pharmacists from implementing strategies to improve antibiotic use in Qatar.

  2. A guided interview process to improve student pharmacists' identification of drug therapy problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovers, John; Miller, Michael J; Koenigsfeld, Carrie; Haack, Sally; Hegge, Karly; McCleeary, Erin

    2011-02-10

    To measure agreement between advanced pharmacy practice experience students using a guided interview process and experienced clinical pharmacists using standard practices to identify drug therapy problems. Student pharmacists enrolled in an advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) and clinical pharmacists conducted medication therapy management interviews to identify drug therapy problems in elderly patients recruited from the community. Student pharmacists used a guided interview tool, while clinical pharmacists' interviews were conducted using their usual and customary practices. Student pharmacists also were surveyed to determine their perceptions of the interview tool. Fair to moderate agreement was observed on student and clinical pharmacists' identification of 4 of 7 drug therapy problems. Of those, agreement was significantly higher than chance for 3 drug therapy problems (adverse drug reaction, dosage too high, and needs additional drug therapy) and not significant for 1 (unnecessary drug therapy). Students strongly agreed that the interview tool was useful but agreed less strongly on recommending its use in practice. The guided interview process served as a useful teaching aid to assist student pharmacists to identify drug therapy problems.

  3. Estimating problem drinking among community pharmacy customers: what did pharmacists think of the method?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Janie; Smart, Ros; McCormick, Ross

    2010-10-01

    Community pharmacists have successfully been involved in brief interventions in many areas of health, and also provide services to substance misusers. There has been recent interest in community pharmacists providing screening and brief interventions (SBI) to problem drinkers. The aim of this study was to develop a method for measuring prevalence of risky drinking among community pharmacy customers and to explore acceptability of this method to participating pharmacists. Forty-three pharmacies (from 80 randomly selected) in New Zealand agreed to participate in data collection. On a set, single, randomly allocated day during one week, pharmacies handed out questionnaires about alcohol consumption, and views on pharmacists providing SBI, to their customers. At the end of the data collection period semi-structured telephone interviews were carried out with participating pharmacists. Pharmacists were generally positive about the way the study was carried out, the support and materials they were provided with, and the ease of the data collection process. They reported few problems with customers and the majority of pharmacists would participate again. The method developed successfully collected data from customers and was acceptable to participating pharmacists. This method can be adapted to collecting data on prevalence of other behaviours or medical conditions and assessing customer views on services. © 2010 The Authors. IJPP © 2010 Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain.

  4. Kentucky pharmacists' opinions of the potential reclassification of pseudoephedrine as a legend drug

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monson, Kathleen E.; Freeman, Patricia R.; Goodin, Amie J.; Talbert, Jeffery; Blumenschein, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To collect and analyze Kentucky pharmacists' opinions of the effectiveness of current methamphetamine precursor controls, to analyze proposed legislation to make pseudoephedrine (PSE) a legend drug, and to analyze the potential impact of such legislation on pharmacy practice and patients. Design Descriptive, nonexperimental survey study. Setting Kentucky; June through October 2012. Participants 431 Kentucky community pharmacists. Intervention Mailed survey. Main outcome measures Perceived efficacy of current methamphetamine precursor controls, anticipated impact on individual pharmacy practices and patients of proposed legislation to make PSE available by prescription only, and current opinions about the proposed legislation. Results Analysis of 431 community pharmacists showed that approximately 77% believed proposed legislation to make PSE available by prescription only would be effective in reducing methamphetamine abuse and methamphetamine-related laboratory incidents, with 56.2% indicating support for the proposed legislation. Pharmacists practicing in chain pharmacies were 2.9 times more likely to support the legislation than pharmacists practicing in independent pharmacies. Additional factors influencing pharmacist support included Kentucky region of practice, anticipated impact on time spent on PSE activities, pharmacy profit, methamphetamine abuse, and methamphetamine-related laboratory incidents. Pharmacists practicing in regions of Kentucky associated with higher methamphetamine abuse appear to more strongly support the proposed legislation. Conclusion Pharmacists are at the frontline of PSE distribution. Gaining a better understanding of issues surrounding the distribution of PSE will enhance the likelihood that future legislation may be crafted to reduce methamphetamine production, laboratory incidents, and abuse while minimizing inconvenience and cost. PMID:25063261

  5. Do Training Programs Work? An Assessment of Pharmacists Activities in the Field of Chemical Dependency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Valerie G.; Brock, Tina Penick; Ahn, Jungeun

    2001-01-01

    Seeks to determine if pharmacists who attended a chemical dependency training program were performing more chemical dependency related activities. Results reveal that participants were more likely to perform the following activities: lecture to community groups about chemical dependency; participate in a pharmacists' recovery program; provide…

  6. Factors affecting the views and attitudes of Scottish pharmacists to continuing professional development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Ailsa; Grammatiki, Aikaterini; Bates, Ian; Mc Kellar, Susan; Johnson, B Julienne; Diack, H Lesley; Stewart, Derek; Hudson, Steve A

    2011-12-01

    To explore factors associated with Scottish pharmacists' views and attitudes to continuing professional development (CPD). A retrospective principal component analysis of 552 (22.8%) questionnaires returned from a sample of 2420 Scottish pharmacists randomly selected from the 4300 pharmacists registered with the Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain and with a Scottish address. Principal component analysis of questionnaire items (n = 19) revealed four factors associated with Scottish pharmacists' views and attitudes to CPD: having positive support in the workplace, having access to resources and meeting learning needs, having confidence in the CPD process and motivation to participate in the CPD process. Community pharmacists were identified as the subgroup of pharmacists that needed most support for CPD regarding all four factors, while pharmacists working in primary care felt that they had most support in the workplace in comparison to other sectors (P Scottish pharmacists' views and attitudes to CPD. This may provide an approach to facilitate comparison of CPD views and attitudes with intra and inter professional groupings. Further study may allow identification of good practice and solutions to common CPD issues. © 2011 The Authors. IJPP © 2011 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  7. Generating demand for pharmacist-provided medication therapy management: identifying patient-preferred marketing strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Gladys M; Snyder, Margie E; McGrath, Stephanie Harriman; Smith, Randall B; McGivney, Melissa Somma

    2009-01-01

    To identify effective strategies for marketing pharmacist-provided medication therapy management (MTM) services to patients in a self-insured employer setting. Qualitative study. University of Pittsburgh during March through May 2008. 26 university employees taking at least one chronic medication. Three focus group sessions were conducted using a semistructured topic guide to facilitate the discussion. Employees' perceived medication-related needs, perceived benefits of pharmacist-provided MTM, potential barriers for employee participation in MTM, and effective strategies for marketing MTM. Participants reported concerns with timing of doses, medication costs, access, and ensuring adherence. Participants generally felt positively toward pharmacists; however, the level of reported patient contact with pharmacists varied among participants. Some participants questioned pharmacists' education and qualifications for this enhanced role in patient care. Perceived benefits of MTM noted by participants included the opportunity to obtain personalized information about their medications and the potential for improved communication among their health providers. Barriers to patient participation were out-of-pocket costs and lack of time for MTM visits. Participants suggested use of alternative words to describe MTM and marketing approaches that involve personal contact. Pharmacists should emphasize parts of MTM that patients feel are most beneficial (i.e., provision of a personal medication record) and use patient-friendly language to describe MTM when marketing their practice. Patients will need greater exposure to the concept of MTM and the pharmacists' role in order to correctly describe and assign value to this type of pharmacist patient care practice.

  8. Practice Nurses and Pharmacists: A Perspective on the Expectation and Experience of Nurses for Future Collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Nabeel Khan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives: To explore the nurses’ expectations and experience about pharmacists in private sector hospitals of Karachi, Pakistan. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from June to September 2012 in five private sector hospitals of Karachi, Pakistan. A convenient sample of nurses (n=377 were enrolled in this study. Data was obtained through a previously validated questionnaire. Responses were statistically analyzed using SPSSv.17. Results: Questionnaires were returned giving a response rate of 63.6% of which 20 were unusable (n=240. Out of the remaining 220, 24.1% (n=53 responded that they never or rarely interacted with a pharmacist. Respondents who expect pharmacists to collaborate with nurses to solve drug related problems were 45% (n=99. Nurses’ experience of pharmacists was not substantial as only 44.5% (n=98 respondents consider pharmacists as a reliable source of clinical drug information. Conclusion: The role of pharmacists is not well appreciated among nurses in Pakistan. Hence, pharmacists must bridge the observed gap and use a more strategic and consistent approach to build a more positive image in line with other healthcare professionals and in providing patient-centred pharmaceutical care. This research would impress upon the pharmacists the need to redefine their role in the healthcare settings.

  9. Pharmacists' Perception of the Sale of Non-Clinically Proven Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pharmacists' Perception of the Sale of Non-Clinically Proven Health Supplements in Penang, Malaysia. ... A total of 10.7 % respondents indicated that the sale of non-clinically proven products result in high profit. Only 25.0 % of the pharmacists ... Keywords: Perception, Health promotion, Urban poor, Health supplements.

  10. Tobacco Cessation through Community Pharmacies: Knowledge, Attitudes, Practices and Perceived Barriers among Pharmacists in Penang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Nur Akmar; Tee, Ooi Guat

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Tobacco cessation is the primary goal of tobacco control measures. Community pharmacists are possible providers of tobacco cessation counselling due to their close contact with the public and the availability of non-prescription nicotine replacement therapies in pharmacies. However, community pharmacists often do not provide tobacco…

  11. Controversy and consensus on a clinical pharmacist in primary care in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazen, Ankie C M; Wal, Aletta W Van Der; Sloeserwij, Vivianne M.; Zwart, Dorien L M; Gier, Johan J De; de Wit, Niek J; Leendertse, Anne J.; Bouvy, Marcel L.; Bont, Antoinette A De

    2016-01-01

    Background Controversy about the introduction of a non-dispensing pharmacist in primary care practice hampers implementation. Objective The aim of this study is to systematically map the debate on this new role for pharmacists amongst all stakeholders to uncover and understand the controversy and

  12. Identification of drug-related problems by a clinical pharmacist in addition to computerized alerts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaal, R.J.; Jansen, M.; Duisenberg-van Essenberg, M.; C.C., Tijssen; Roukema, J.A.; van den Bemt, P.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Both clinical pharmacists and computerized physician order entry systems with clinical decision support (CPOE/CDSS) can reduce drug-related problems (DRPs). However, the contribution of a clinical pharmacist in addition to CPOE/CDSS has not been established in a prospective study.

  13. Controversy and consensus on a clinical pharmacist in primary care in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C.M. Hazen (Ankie); Wal, A.W.V.D. (Aletta W. Van Der); V.M. Sloeserwij (Vivianne); D.L.M. Zwart (Dorien); Gier, J.J.D. (Johan J. De); Wit, N.J.D. (Niek J. De); A.J. Leendertse (Anne); M.L. Bouvy (Marcel); A.A. de Bont (Antoinette)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground Controversy about the introduction of a non-dispensing pharmacist in primary care practice hampers implementation. Objective The aim of this study is to systematically map the debate on this new role for pharmacists amongst all stakeholders to uncover and understand the

  14. Identification of drug-related problems by a clinical pharmacist in addition to computerized alerts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.J. Zaal (Rianne); M.M.P.M. Jansen (Mark M. P.); M. Duisenberg-Van Essenberg (Marjolijn); C.C. Tijssen (Cees); J.A. Roukema; P.M.L.A. van den Bemt (Patricia)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground Both clinical pharmacists and computerized physician order entry systems with clinical decision support (CPOE/CDSS) can reduce drug-related problems (DRPs). However, the contribution of a clinical pharmacist in addition to CPOE/CDSS has not been established in a prospective

  15. Optimizing identification and management of COPD patients - reviewing the role of the community pharmacist

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Molen, Thys; van Boven, Job F. M.; Maguire, Terence; Goyal, Pankaj; Altman, Pablo

    The aim of this paper was to propose key steps for community pharmacist integration into a patient care pathway for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) management. A literature search was conducted to identify publications focusing on the role of the community pharmacist in identification

  16. Pharmacotherapeutic Problems and Pharmacist Interventions in a Medical Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Yun Park

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Interest in pharmacist participation in the multidisciplinary intensive care team is increasing. However, studies examining pharmacist interventions in the medical intensive care unit (MICU are limited in Korea. The aim of this study was to describe the current status of pharmacist interventions and to identify common pharmacologic problems requiring pharmacist intervention in the MICU. Methods: Between September 2013 and August 2014, a retrospective, observational study was conducted in the 22-bed MICU at a university hospital. Data were obtained from two trained pharmacists who participated in MICU rounds three times a week. In addition to patient characteristics, data on the cause, type, related drug, and acceptance rate of interventions were collected. Results: In 340 patients, a total of 1211 pharmacologic interventions were performed. The majority of pharmacologic interventions were suggested by pharmacists at multidisciplinary rounds in the MICU. The most common pharmacologic interventions were adjustment of dosage and administration (n = 328, 26.0%, followed by parenteral/enteral nutritional support (n = 228, 18.1%, the provision of drug information (n = 228, 18.1%, and advice regarding pharmacokinetics (n = 118, 9.3%. Antimicrobial agents (n = 516, 42.6% were the most frequent type of drug associated with pharmacist interventions. The acceptance rate of interventions was 84.1% with most accepted by physicians within 24 hours (n = 602, 92.8%. Conclusions: Medication and nutritional problems are frequently encountered pharmacotherapeutic problems in the MICU. Pharmacist interventions play an important role in the management of these problems.

  17. Pharmacists' Assessment of the Difficulty and Frequency of Ethical Issues Encountered in Community Pharmacy Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crnjanski, Tatjana; Krajnovic, Dusanka; Savic, Mirko

    2017-05-23

    Researching ethical problems and their frequency could give us a complex picture and greater insight into the types of ethical issues that pharmacists face in providing health care. The overall aim of this study was to assess the pharmacist's perception of difficulty and frequency of selected ethical issues encountered by the community pharmacists in their everyday practice. A quantitative cross sectional multicenter study was performed using a validated survey instrument - Ethical Issue Scale for Community Pharmacy (EISP). The results of the analysis of 690 completely filled out instruments (response rate 78.49%) showed the difference between the ethical issues which always occurred ("A pharmacist is prevented from dispensing a medicine to the patient due to an administrative error in the prescription"), and the ones that pharmacists found most difficult ("A pharmacist dispenses a medicine he/she personally considers inadequate for the therapeutic treatment of the patient, in order to avoid any conflicts with the physician" and "A pharmacist is considering violating the rules and regulations in order to perform an act of humanity"). The majority of respondents (84.78%) were familiar with the Code of Ethics but the correlation between the familiarity and the perceived usefulness of the code in resolving problems in everyday practice was negative (ρ = -0.17, p ethical issues and their occurrence. Further empirical research is recommended in order to systematically identify the ethical issues faced by community pharmacists.

  18. Work-related well-being of South African hospital pharmacists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastiaan Rothmann

    2011-06-01

    Research purpose: The objective of this study was to investigate whether job stress and coping strategies could predict the work-related well-being (burnout and work engagement of hospital pharmacists in South Africa. Motivation for the study: Information about the work-related well-being and coping strategies of hospital pharmacists could be used to plan individual and organisational interventions which can be used to retain them and to manage their well-being and performance. Research design, approach and method: A survey design was used. A stratified random sample (N = 187 of pharmacists in South African hospitals was studied. The Maslach Burnout Inventory – Human Services Survey, Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, Pharmacist Stress Inventory and the COPE questionnaire were administered. Main findings: The results showed that job related stress and three coping strategies (approach coping, avoidant coping, and turning to religion predicted burnout and work engagement of South African hospital pharmacists. Practical implications: Job stressors that are in the main responsible for the unfavourable work environment and that lead to the development of burnout amongst hospital pharmacists should be addressed. It is also important to enhance the coping capabilities of the hospital pharmacists. Contribution/value-add: The findings of this study provide insight into the factors impacting on the work-related well-being of hospital pharmacists in South Africa.

  19. Physician-assisted death: attitudes and practices of community pharmacists in East Flanders, Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bilsen, J.J.; Bauwens, M.; Bernheim, J.L.; Stichele, R.V.; Deliens, L.H.J.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigates attitudes and practices of community pharmacists with respect to physician-assisted death. Between 15 February and 15 April 2002, we sent anonymous mail questionnaires to 660 community pharmacists in the eastern province of Flanders, Belgium. The response rate was 54% (n =

  20. Physician-assisted death: attitudes and practices of community pharmacists in East Flanders, Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bilsen, J.J.; Bauwens, M.; Bernheim, J.L.; Stichele, R.V.; Deliens, L.H.J.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigates attitudes and practices of community pharmacists with respect to physician-assisted death. Between 15 February and 15 April 2002, we sent anonymous mail questionnaires to 660 community pharmacists in the eastern province of Flanders, Belgium. The response rate was 54%

  1. Effect of postgraduate training on job and career satisfaction among health-system pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padiyara, Rosalyn S; Komperda, Kathy E

    2010-07-01

    The effect of postgraduate training on job and career satisfaction among health-system pharmacists was evaluated. A mail-based questionnaire was sent to a random sample of pharmacist members of the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Previously validated questions for job and career satisfaction among pharmacists were utilized. The questionnaire was designed to obtain information regarding general employment, work environment, job satisfaction, career satisfaction, postgraduate training, and demographic characteristics. Pharmacists who had completed either a pharmacy residency or fellowship were classified as having postgraduate training. Questionnaires returned within two months of the original mailing date were included in the analysis. Responses from pharmacists who were retired, employed in a nonpharmacy career, or unemployed were excluded. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Of the 2499 questionnaires mailed, 36 were undeliverable; 1058 were completed, yielding a response rate of 43%. Of these, 48 were excluded, resulting in 1010 questionnaires suitable for analysis. Approximately 37% of respondents indicated completion of postgraduate training. The most common practice setting was a community, not-for-profit hospital (40.9%). Overall, 90.7% of respondents indicated they were either satisfied or highly satisfied with their current employment. Approximately 45% of pharmacists with postgraduate training indicated they were highly satisfied with their employment, compared with 32.7% of pharmacists without postgraduate training (p training were more satisfied with their job than those who did not complete such training.

  2. Use of simulated patients to assess the clinical and communication skills of community pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Marjorie C; Booth, Anneka; Jones, Bethan; Ramjeet, Sarah; Wong, Eva

    2010-06-01

    To investigate the quality and appropriateness of Emergency Hormonal Contraception (EHC) supply from community pharmacies. Community pharmacies in the southwest of England during 2007. Two simulated patient ('mystery shopper') scenarios to each participating pharmacy, one where the supply of EHC would be appropriate (scenario 1) and one where there was a drug interaction between EHC and St John's Wort, and the supply inappropriate (scenario 2). Pharmacy consultations were rated using criteria developed from two focus groups: one with pharmacist academics and one with female university students. Feedback to pharmacists to inform their continuing professional development was provided. Scores on rating scales encompassing the clinical and communication skills of the participating community pharmacists completed immediately after each mystery shopper visit. 40 pharmacist visits were completed: 21 for scenario 1 and 19 for scenario 2. Eighteen pharmacists were visited twice. Five pharmacists visited for scenario 2 supplied EHC against professional guidance, although other reference sources conflicted with this advice. Pharmacies which were part of the local PGD scheme scored higher overall in scenario 1 (P = 0.005) than those not part of the scheme. Overall the communication skills of pharmacists were rated highly although some pharmacists used jargon when explaining the interaction for scenario 2. Formatively assessing communication skills in an integrative manner alongside clinical skills has been identified as an important part of the medical consultation skills training and can be incorporated into the routine assessment and feedback of pharmacy over-the-counter medicines advice.

  3. Achieving the Texas Higher Education Vision

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Benjamin, Roger

    2000-01-01

    The Texas higher education system faces severe challenges in responding to the twin demands placed on it by economic growth and by the increasing problems of access to higher education that many Texans experience...

  4. Reporter Turnover on Texas Daily Newspapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Marquita

    1978-01-01

    A survey of Texas daily newspapers yielded a picture of newspaper reporters as relatively young men who do not stay in one place very long, suggesting that the stereotype of the itinerant reporter may have its basis in fact. (GW)

  5. Exploring sustainable transportation for Texas Southern University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Texas Southern University is a commuter campus with students, faculty, and staff traveling from the : Greater Houston area to the university. Over the past few years, the TSU campus has made marked : improvements to move towards a greener more ...

  6. Texas RPO workshop implementation project summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    This report documents rural planning organization (RPO) workshops conducted throughout Texas. An RPO is a voluntary organization created and governed by locally elected officials responsible for transportation decisions at the local level. RPOs addre...

  7. Noise measurements of highway pavements in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    This report presents the results of noise testing performed on Texas pavements between May of 2006 and the : summer of 2008. Two field test methodologies were used: roadside noise measurement with SPL meters and onvehicle : sound intensity measuremen...

  8. Estimating Texas motor vehicle operating costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    A specific Vcost model was developed for Texas conditions based on a sophisticated fuel model for light : duty vehicles, several excellent sources of secondary vehicle cost data, and the ability to measure heavy truck fuel : consumption through both ...

  9. Exploratory study : vehicle mileage fees in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    This project evaluates Vehicle Mileage (VM) fees as a possible funding mechanism for meeting the State of Texas : long-term transportation needs. Researchers conducted listening sessions with the general public and stakeholders to : gather input o...

  10. Evaluation of a Pharmacist and Nurse Practitioner Smoking Cessation Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzal, Zubair; Pogge, Elizabeth; Boomershine, Virginia

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of a smoking cessation program led by a pharmacist and a nurse practitioner. During a 6-month period, patients attended 7 one-on-one face-to-face smoking cessation counseling sessions with a pharmacist and 1 to 2 one-on-one face-to-face smoking cessation counseling sessions with a nurse practitioner. The primary outcome was smoking cessation point prevalence rates at months 1, 3, and 5 post-quit date. Secondary outcomes included medication adherence rates at months 1, 3, and 5 post-quit date, nicotine dependence at baseline versus program end, and patient satisfaction. Nine (47%) of 19 total participants completed the program. Seven of the 9 patients who completed the program were smoke-free upon study completion. Point prevalence rates at months 1, 3, and 5 post-quit date were 66%, 77%, and 77%, respectively, based on patients who completed the program. Medication adherence rates were 88.6%, 54.6%, and 75% at months 1, 3, and 5 post-quit date, respectively. Based on the Fagerstrom test, nicotine dependence decreased from baseline to the end of the study, 4.89 to 0.33 ( P smoking cessation program can assist patients in becoming smoke-free.

  11. Ontario pharmacists' crisis over Bill 16: A missed opportunity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Meagen; Austin, Zubin; Tsuyuki, Ross T

    2012-01-01

    In 2010, the Ontario government brought forward Bill 16, which, among other things, removed pharmacists' professional allowances. While many would disagree with this unilateral action by the Ontario government, it also could have served as a crisis for change towards patient-centred care. We sought to examine the response of the pharmacy profession in Ontario to this crisis as it relates to the vision outlined in the Blueprint for Pharmacy. We systematically examined publicly available responses to Schedule 5 of Ontario's Bill 16 during the period from April to June 16, 2010. A rapid textual analysis of the data using tag or word clouds and a qualitative content analysis were performed on all of the data collected. The rapid textual analysis revealed that the most frequently used terms were "pharmacist," "pharmacy" and "professional allowances"; the least used were "layoffs," "service cuts" and "patient care." Content analysis revealed 4 themes: the desire to maintain the status quo of practice, a focus on the business of pharmacy, pharmacy stakeholders' perceptions of government's attitude towards the profession and changes to patient services. It is notable that patient care was almost completely absent from the discussion, a reflection that our profession has not embraced patient-centred care. This also represents a missed opportunity - a crisis that could have been used to move the profession towards the Blueprint's vision. We thought that the Blueprint had already achieved this consensus, but the Ontario experience has shown that this may not be the case.

  12. Student pharmacists' use and perceived impact of educational technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolte, Scott K; Richard, Craig; Rahman, Ateequr; Kidd, Robert S

    2011-06-10

    To assess the frequency of use by and perceived impact of various educational technologies on student pharmacists. Data were obtained using a validated, Web-based survey instrument designed to evaluate the frequency of use and impact on learning of various technologies used in educating first-, second-, and third-year student pharmacists. Basic demographic data also were collected and analyzed. The majority (89.4%) of the 179 respondents were comfortable with the technology used in the academic program. The most frequently used technologies for educational purposes were in class electronic presentations, course materials posted on the school Web site, and e-mail. The technologies cited as having the most beneficial impact on learning were course materials posted on the Web site and in-class electronic presentations, and those cited as most detrimental were video-teleconferencing and online testing. Compared to the course textbook, students reported more frequent use of technologies such as electronic course materials, presentations, digital lecture recordings, e-mail, and hand-held devices. Because students' opinions of educational technologies varied, colleges and schools should incorporate educational technologies that students frequently use and that positively impact learning.

  13. The roles of community pharmacists in cardiovascular disease prevention and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George J

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available There is ample evidence in the international literature forpharmacist involvement in the prevention and managementof cardiovascular disease (CVD conditions in primary care.Systematic reviews and meta-analyses have confirmed thesignificant clinical benefits of pharmacist interventions for arange of CVD conditions and risk factors. Evidence generatedin research studies of Australian community pharmacistinvolvement in CVD prevention and management issummarised in this article.Commonwealth funding through the Community PharmacyAgreements has facilitated research to establish the feasibilityand effectiveness of new models of primary care involvingcommunity pharmacists. Australian community pharmacistshave been shown to effect positive clinical, humanistic andeconomic outcomes in patients with CVD conditions.Improvements in blood pressure, lipid levels, medicationadherence and CVD risk have been demonstrated usingdifferent study designs. Satisfaction for GPs, pharmacists andconsumers has also been reported. Perceived ‘turf’encroachment, expertise of the pharmacist, space, time andremuneration are challenges to the implementation of diseasemanagement services involving community pharmacists.

  14. Isolation of avian influenza virus in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, S E; Naqi, S A; Grumbles, L C

    1981-01-01

    An avian influenza virus with surface antigens similar to those of fowl plague virus (Hav 1 Nav 2) was isolated in 1979 from 2 commercial turkey flocks in Central Texas. Two flocks in contact with these infected flocks developed clinical signs, gross lesions, and seroconversion but yielded no virus. This was the first recorded incidence of clinical avian influenza in Texas turkeys and only the second time that an agent with these surface antigens was isolated from turkeys in U.S.

  15. Making Texas Restaurants Healthier for Children

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-12-30

    Sylvia Crixell, PhD, RD, Professor of Nutrition at Texas State University, discusses her study which details the success of a community-based program in Texas aimed at combatting childhood obesity by improving children’s menus in restaurants.  Created: 12/30/2014 by Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 12/30/2014.

  16. The potential role for a pharmacist in a multidisciplinary general practitioner super clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajorek, Beata; LeMay, Kate; Gunn, Kate; Armour, Carol

    2015-01-01

    The Australian government's General Practitioner (GP) super clinics programme aims to provide well-integrated, multidisciplinary, patient-centred care for people with chronic disease. However, there is no research into the current role of pharmacists in this setting. To explore the perspectives of GP super clinic staff on current and potential (future) pharmacist-led services provided in this setting. Individual interviews (facilitated using a semi-structured interview guide and thematically analysed) were conducted with purposively sampled staff of a GP super clinic in a semirural location in the state of New South Wales, until theme saturation. Participating staff included (n=9): three GPs, one pharmacist, one nurse, one business manager, and three reception staff. Three themes emerged conveying perspectives on: working relationships between staff; a pharmacist's current role; and potential future roles for a pharmacist. All clinic staff actively engaged the pharmacist in their "team approach". Currently established roles for home medicines reviews (HMRs) and drug information were well supported, but needed to be expanded, for example, with formalised case conferences between GPs, pharmacists, and other staff. New roles needed be explored in auditing medication use, optimising medication records, specialised drug information, dispensing, and prescribing. Although GPs had differing views about opportunities for pharmacists' prescribing in this setting, they saw several benefits to this service, such as reducing the time pressure on GPs to enable more effective consultations. Results suggest a pharmacist's services can potentially be better used within the multidisciplinary super clinic model of care to address current gaps within the semi-rural practice setting. Any future role for the pharmacist could be addressed as part of a formalised, strategic approach to creating an integrated healthcare team, with attention to funding and government legislation.

  17. Using Discursis to enhance the qualitative analysis of hospital pharmacist-patient interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadette A M Chevalier

    Full Text Available Pharmacist-patient communication during medication counselling has been successfully investigated using Communication Accommodation Theory (CAT. Communication researchers in other healthcare professions have utilised Discursis software as an adjunct to their manual qualitative analysis processes. Discursis provides a visual, chronological representation of communication exchanges and identifies patterns of interactant engagement.The aim of this study was to describe how Discursis software was used to enhance previously conducted qualitative analysis of pharmacist-patient interactions (by visualising pharmacist-patient speech patterns, episodes of engagement, and identifying CAT strategies employed by pharmacists within these episodes.Visual plots from 48 transcribed audio recordings of pharmacist-patient exchanges were generated by Discursis. Representative plots were selected to show moderate-high and low- level speaker engagement. Details of engagement were investigated for pharmacist application of CAT strategies (approximation, interpretability, discourse management, emotional expression, and interpersonal control.Discursis plots allowed for identification of distinct patterns occurring within pharmacist-patient exchanges. Moderate-high pharmacist-patient engagement was characterised by multiple off-diagonal squares while alternating single coloured squares depicted low engagement. Engagement episodes were associated with multiple CAT strategies such as discourse management (open-ended questions. Patterns reflecting pharmacist or patient speaker dominance were dependant on clinical setting.Discursis analysis of pharmacist-patient interactions, a novel application of the technology in health communication, was found to be an effective visualisation tool to pin-point episodes for CAT analysis. Discursis has numerous practical and theoretical applications for future health communication research and training. Researchers can use the software to

  18. Using Discursis to enhance the qualitative analysis of hospital pharmacist-patient interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Bernadette A M; Watson, Bernadette M; Barras, Michael A; Cottrell, William N; Angus, Daniel J

    2018-01-01

    Pharmacist-patient communication during medication counselling has been successfully investigated using Communication Accommodation Theory (CAT). Communication researchers in other healthcare professions have utilised Discursis software as an adjunct to their manual qualitative analysis processes. Discursis provides a visual, chronological representation of communication exchanges and identifies patterns of interactant engagement. The aim of this study was to describe how Discursis software was used to enhance previously conducted qualitative analysis of pharmacist-patient interactions (by visualising pharmacist-patient speech patterns, episodes of engagement, and identifying CAT strategies employed by pharmacists within these episodes). Visual plots from 48 transcribed audio recordings of pharmacist-patient exchanges were generated by Discursis. Representative plots were selected to show moderate-high and low- level speaker engagement. Details of engagement were investigated for pharmacist application of CAT strategies (approximation, interpretability, discourse management, emotional expression, and interpersonal control). Discursis plots allowed for identification of distinct patterns occurring within pharmacist-patient exchanges. Moderate-high pharmacist-patient engagement was characterised by multiple off-diagonal squares while alternating single coloured squares depicted low engagement. Engagement episodes were associated with multiple CAT strategies such as discourse management (open-ended questions). Patterns reflecting pharmacist or patient speaker dominance were dependant on clinical setting. Discursis analysis of pharmacist-patient interactions, a novel application of the technology in health communication, was found to be an effective visualisation tool to pin-point episodes for CAT analysis. Discursis has numerous practical and theoretical applications for future health communication research and training. Researchers can use the software to support

  19. Rural Australian community pharmacists' views on complementary and alternative medicine: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willis Jon A

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complementary and alternative medicines (CAMs are being used increasingly across the world. In Australia, community pharmacists are a major supplier of these products but knowledge of the products and interactions with other medicines is poor. Information regarding the use of CAMs by metropolitan pharmacists has been documented by the National Prescribing Service (NPS in Australia but the views of rural/regional community pharmacists have not been explored. The aim of this pilot study was to explore the knowledge, attitudes and information seeking of a cohort of rural community pharmacists towards CAMs and to compare the findings to the larger NPS study. Methods A cross sectional self-administered postal questionnaire was mailed to all community pharmacists in one rural/regional area of Australia. Using a range of scales, data was collected regarding attitudes, knowledge, information seeking behaviour and demographics. Results Eighty eligible questionnaires were returned. Most pharmacists reported knowing that they should regularly ask consumers if they are using CAMs but many lacked the confidence to do so. Pharmacists surveyed for this study were more knowledgeable in regards to side effects and interactions of CAMs than those in the NPS survey. Over three quarters of pharmacists surveyed reported sourcing CAM information at least several times a month. The most frequently sought information was drug interactions, dose, contraindications and adverse effects. A variety of resources were used to source information, the most popular source was the internet but the most useful resource was CAM text books. Conclusions Pharmacists have varied opinions on the use of CAMs and many lack awareness of or access to good quality CAMs information. Therefore, there is a need to provide pharmacists with opportunities for further education. The data is valuable in assisting interested stakeholders with the development of initiatives to

  20. Beliefs influencing community pharmacists' interventions with chronic kidney disease patients: A theory-based qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana-Bárcena, Patricia; Lalonde, Lyne; Lauzier, Sophie

    2018-04-06

    Drug-related problems (DRPs) are highly prevalent in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Community pharmacists are ideally positioned to manage these DRPs. However, little is known about the factors influencing their interventions with CKD patients. Using the theory of planned behavior (TPB), this qualitative study sought to: (1) explore the behavioral beliefs (perceived advantages and disadvantages), normative beliefs (perceived expectations of significant others) and control beliefs (perceived barriers and facilitators) influencing community pharmacists' interventions related to identifying and managing DRPs in CKD; and (2) compare these beliefs among three DRPs prevalent in CKD patients. Community pharmacists in Quebec, Canada participated in face-to-face individual semi-structured interviews. The topic guide was based on the TPB. Three vignettes were presented to stimulate community pharmacists' thoughts about their interventions regarding: (1) the use of an inappropriate over-the-counter laxative; (2) prescriptions of anti-inflammatory medications; and (3) non-adherence to antihypertensive medication. Integral transcripts of audio recordings were analyzed using thematic analysis. The findings on each of the three DRPs were systematically compared. Fifteen community pharmacists participated in the study. All expressed a positive attitude toward DRP management, mentioning advantages such as gaining the patient's loyalty as a client and avoiding CKD complications. Participants mentioned that patients and physicians generally approve their interventions, but the dynamics of these relationships may vary depending on the DRP. Common barriers in the management of the three DRPs were the pharmacists' limited time and heavy workloads. The pharmacists felt that the main disadvantage is that these interventions interrupt the workflow in the pharmacy. Community pharmacists hold positive views of their interventions in CKD. However, enhancing community pharmacists

  1. Conceptualizing and measuring pharmacist-patient communication: a review of published studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Bupendra; Chewning, Betty

    2006-06-01

    Pharmacist-patient communication in community pharmacies has been studied for over 25 years with little effort to evaluate this research comprehensively. The main objective of this review is to examine and summarize how researchers have conceptualized, defined, and measured pharmacist-patient communication across studies and identify gaps in the literature. Articles were compiled from a search of (1) Medline, IPA, CINAHL, and PubMed databases using the keywords, "counseling", "patient communication", "patient counseling", "patient education", "patient consult( *)", and/or "pharmacists", (2) bibliographies of selected articles. The search generated 56 studies on community pharmacy, of which 39 studies met the inclusion criteria. Most studies (72%) have used the term patient counseling, although pharmacist-patient communication and patient education were also used. The definition of patient counseling varies across studies. Almost half of the studies (49%) conceptualized pharmacist-patient communication solely as a pharmacist information provision activity. A total of 16 studies (41%) also focused on pharmacists' interpersonal behavior in addition to the information provision activity of the pharmacist. In contrast, patient communication behavior and the exchange process between both parties has been understudied. A total of 16 studies (41%) used a retrospective design. All studies used a cross-sectional design, with varying modes of data collection such as mail surveys, telephone interviews, nonparticipant observation, and shopper studies. Taped encounters are rare. SUMMARY/IMPLICATIONS: This review revealed that most studies have focused on a one way communication of pharmacists to patients. A need for examining the patient-pharmacist dyad is apparent. Future research could explore a greater use of taped encounters to analyze the interactive communication process, affective components of communication such as collaborative problem solving, interpersonal

  2. Factors associated with pharmacists' perceptions of their working conditions and safety and effectiveness of patient care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Nicole W; Lynd, Larry D; Gastonguay, Louise; Li, Kathy; Nakagawa, Bob; Marra, Carlo A

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the role of pharmacists has changed, as have various provincial legislations, which now allow pharmacists to provide additional health services to patients. With these changes comes growing concern about how well the current pharmacy working environment is adapting and whether it may also be creating work-related stress that may contribute to potentially unsafe practices of patient care. To characterize the current working conditions of pharmacists in British Columbia, an online survey was developed and distributed to all College of Pharmacists of BC (CPBC) registrants by email. The survey consisted of questions on pharmacists' demographics, practice setting and perceptions of workplace conditions. Responses were collected from October 1 to November 10, 2013. All data were summarized using descriptive statistics, and regression models were constructed to assess the association between various factors and pharmacists' self-reported working conditions. Twenty-three percent (1241/5300) of pharmacists registered with the CPBC responded, with 78% working in the community pharmacy setting (58% chain, 19% independent). Pharmacists mostly disagreed with the statements that they had enough time for breaks or lunches or to do their jobs, as well as enough staffing support. Pharmacists' perceptions of their workplace environment were negatively associated with workplace-imposed advanced service quotas (for medication reviews, immunizations and prescription adaptations); being employed at chain store pharmacies, compared to independent pharmacies or hospitals/long-term care settings; and higher prescription volume. Pharmacists working in chain community pharmacies who are required to meet monthly quotas for expanded services reported a substantial negative impact on their working conditions and perceived safety of patient care. Can Pharm J (Ott) 2016;149:xx-xx.

  3. Perceptions and attitudes of community pharmacists toward professional ethics and ethical dilemmas in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuković Rodríguez, Jadranka; Juričić, Živka

    2018-05-01

    Formal training in pharmacy ethics is relatively new in Croatia, and the professional code of ethics is more than 20 years old. Very little is known about how practicing pharmacists implement ethical considerations and relevant professional guidelines in their work. This study aimed to provide the first description of the perceptions and attitudes of Croatian community pharmacists toward ethics in pharmacy practice, how often they face certain ethical dilemmas and how they resolve them. A cross-sectional survey of 252 community pharmacists, including community pharmacists and pre-licensing trainees, was conducted in Zagreb, Croatia. This group accounts for 18% of licensed pharmacists in Croatia. The survey questions included four sections: general sociodemographic information, multiple-choice questions, pre-defined ethical scenarios, and ethical scenarios filled in by respondents. More than half of pharmacists (62.7%) face ethical dilemmas in everyday work. Nearly all (94.4%) are familiar with the current professional code of ethics in Croatia, but only 47.6% think that the code reflects the changes that the pharmacy profession faces today. Most pharmacists (83.3%) solve ethical dilemmas on their own, while nearly the same proportion (75.4%) think that they are not adequately trained to deal with ethical dilemmas. The pre-defined ethical scenarios experienced by the largest proportion of pharmacists are being asked to dispense a drug to someone other than the patient (93.3%), an unnecessary over-the-counter medicine (84.3%), a generic medicine clinically equivalent to the prescribed one (79.4%), or hormonal contraception over the counter (70.4%). The results demonstrate a need to improve formal pharmacy ethics education and training in how to assess ethical issues and make appropriate decisions, which implies the need for stronger collaboration between pharmacists and their professional association. Our results also highlight an urgent need to revise and update the

  4. Opioid exit plan: A pharmacist's role in managing acute postoperative pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genord, Cheryl; Frost, Timothy; Eid, Deeb

    The benefits of a pharmacist's involvement in medication reconciliation and discharge counseling are well documented in the literature as improving patient outcomes. In contrast, no studies have focused on the initiation of a pharmacist-led opioid exit plan (OEP) for acute postoperative pain management. This paper summarizes a pharmacist-led OEP practice model and the potential role that pharmacists and student pharmacists can have at the point of admission, during postoperative recovery, and on discharge in acute pain management patients. The pain management team at St. Joseph Mercy Hospital in Ann Arbor, MI, has developed and implemented a pharmacist-led OEP to better manage acute postoperative pain in neurosurgery and orthopedic and colorectal surgery in an effort to ensure appropriate patient and provider education and understanding of pain management. OEP is a tool with the potential to expand the role of pharmacists in managing acute pain in postoperative patients at the point of admission, during the postoperative inpatient stay, and on discharge. Its benefits include medication reconciliation review and prescription drug-monitoring program search before admission, interdisciplinary rounds with the medical team to provide optimal inpatient postoperative pain management, clinical assessment of outpatient prescriptions with opioid discharge counseling, and medication evaluation of prescribed pain regimen and opioid discontinuation status at the post-discharge follow-up appointment. A hospital pain management team operating a pharmacist-led OEP can be key to guiding the appropriate prescribing practice of opioids and assisting with transitions of care on discharge. Further outcomes-based evaluations of the practice model are planned and encouraged to validate and improve the pharmacist-led OEP practice. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Rising Above the Storm: DIG TEXAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellins, K. K.; Miller, K. C.; Bednarz, S. W.; Mosher, S.

    2011-12-01

    For a decade Texas educators, scientists and citizens have shown a commitment to earth science education through planning at the national and state levels, involvement in earth science curriculum and teacher professional development projects, and the creation of a model senior level capstone Earth and Space Science course first offered in 2010 - 2011. The Texas state standards for Earth and Space Science demonstrate a shift to rigorous content, career relevant skills and use of 21st century technology. Earth and Space Science standards also align with the Earth Science, Climate and Ocean Literacy framework documents. In spite of a decade of progress K-12 earth science education in Texas is in crisis. Many school districts do not offer Earth and Space Science, or are using the course as a contingency for students who fail core science subjects. The State Board for Educator Certification eliminated Texas' secondary earth science teacher certification in 2009, following the adoption of the new Earth and Space Science standards. This makes teachers with a composite teacher certification (biology, physics and chemistry) eligible to teach Earth and Space Science, as well other earth science courses (e.g., Aquatic Science, Environmental Systems/Science) even if they lack earth science content knowledge. Teaching materials recently adopted by the State Board of Education do not include Earth and Space Science resources. In July 2011 following significant budget cuts at the 20 Education Service Centers across Texas, the Texas Education Agency eliminated key staff positions in its curriculum division, including science. This "perfect storm" has created a unique opportunity for a university-based approach to confront the crisis in earth science education in Texas which the Diversity and Innovation in the Geosciences (DIG) TEXAS alliance aims to fulfill. Led by the Texas A&M University College of Geosciences and The University of Texas Jackson School of Geosciences, with

  6. Use of trees by the Texas ratsnake (Elaphe obsoleta) in eastern Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josh B. Pierce; Robert R. Fleet; Lance McBrayer; D. Craig Rudolph

    2008-01-01

    We present information on the use of trees by Elaphe obsoleta (Texas Ratsnake) in a mesic pine-hardwood forest in eastern Texas. Using radiotelemetry, seven snakes (3 females, 4 males) were relocated a total of 363 times from April 2004 to May 2005, resulting in 201 unique locations. Snakes selected trees containing cavities and used hardwoods and...

  7. Pharmacists' knowledge and interest in developing counseling skills relating to oral contraceptives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Mohamed E K

    2016-04-01

    Possessing correct therapeutic information on oral contraceptives is an important prerequisite for the provision of sound advice to women who are using these products. This study examines Egyptian pharmacists' knowledge of pharmacotherapeutic aspects of oral contraceptives as well as interest in developing skills in providing counseling on oral contraceptive pills. Community pharmacies throughout Alexandria, Egypt. A cross-sectional survey was self-administered by a random sample of community pharmacists in Alexandria, Egypt. Five multiple choice questions likely to arise when counseling women on oral contraceptives were constructed. Questions covered compatibility with breastfeeding, precautions, health risks and managing missed pills of oral contraceptives. Using ordered logistic regression, a model was estimated to predict pharmacists' interest in developing skills in providing counseling on oral contraceptives. Pharmacists' aggregate scores for knowledge questions and pharmacists' interest in developing skills in providing counseling on oral contraceptive pills. Of the 181 approached pharmacists, 92 % participated. Twenty one pharmacists (13 %) did not know the correct answer to any question, 122 (73 %) answered one-two correctly, 23 (14 %) answered three-four correctly. No pharmacist answered all five questions correctly. For pharmacists' interest in developing skills in providing counseling on oral contraceptives, the percentage values for answers were: not interested at all (10.2 %), slightly interested (27.0 %), somewhat interested (23.4 %), interested (30.0 %) and extremely interested (9.6 %). Pharmacists' interest in developing skills in providing counseling on oral contraceptives was significantly associated with the number of women who requested advice from the pharmacists on oral contraceptives (OR 1.54, CI 1.24-1.91). In terms of the learning method of preference, percentage values for answers were: attending a workshop (4 %), online course (18

  8. Trained student pharmacists' telephonic collection of patient medication information: Evaluation of a structured interview tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Amanda R; Martin, Beth A; Mott, David A

    2016-01-01

    To determine the feasibility and fidelity of student pharmacists collecting patient medication list information using a structured interview tool and the accuracy of documenting the information. The medication lists were used by a community pharmacist to provide a targeted medication therapy management (MTM) intervention. Descriptive analysis of patient medication lists collected with telephone interviews. Ten trained student pharmacists collected the medication lists. Trained student pharmacists conducted audio-recorded telephone interviews with 80 English-speaking, community-dwelling older adults using a structured interview tool to collect and document medication lists. Feasibility was measured using the number of completed interviews, the time student pharmacists took to collect the information, and pharmacist feedback. Fidelity to the interview tool was measured by assessing student pharmacists' adherence to asking all scripted questions and probes. Accuracy was measured by comparing the audio-recorded interviews to the medication list information documented in an electronic medical record. On average, it took student pharmacists 26.7 minutes to collect the medication lists. The community pharmacist said the medication lists were complete and that having the medication lists saved time and allowed him to focus on assessment, recommendations, and education during the targeted MTM session. Fidelity was high, with an overall proportion of asked scripted probes of 83.75% (95% confidence interval [CI], 80.62-86.88%). Accuracy was also high for both prescription (95.1%; 95% CI, 94.3-95.8%) and nonprescription (90.5%; 95% CI, 89.4-91.4%) medications. Trained student pharmacists were able to use an interview tool to collect and document medication lists with a high degree of fidelity and accuracy. This study suggests that student pharmacists or trained technicians may be able to collect patient medication lists to facilitate MTM sessions in the community pharmacy

  9. Experiences of community pharmacists involved in the delivery of a specialist asthma service in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmerton, Lynne M; Smith, Lorraine; LeMay, Kate S; Krass, Ines; Saini, Bandana; Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia Z; Reddel, Helen K; Burton, Deborah L; Stewart, Kay; Armour, Carol L

    2012-06-18

    The role of community pharmacists in disease state management has been mooted for some years. Despite a number of trials of disease state management services, there is scant literature into the engagement of, and with, pharmacists in such trials. This paper reports pharmacists' feedback as providers of a Pharmacy Asthma Management Service (PAMS), a trial coordinated across four academic research centres in Australia in 2009. We also propose recommendations for optimal involvement of pharmacists in academic research. Feedback about the pharmacists' experiences was sought via their participation in either a focus group or telephone interview (for those unable to attend their scheduled focus group) at one of three time points. A semi-structured interview guide focused discussion on the pharmacists' training to provide the asthma service, their interactions with health professionals and patients as per the service protocol, and the future for this type of service. Focus groups were facilitated by two researchers, and the individual interviews were shared between three researchers, with data transcribed verbatim and analysed manually. Of 93 pharmacists who provided the PAMS, 25 were involved in a focus group and seven via telephone interview. All pharmacists approached agreed to provide feedback. In general, the pharmacists engaged with both the service and research components, and embraced their roles as innovators in the trial of a new service. Some experienced challenges in the recruitment of patients into the service and the amount of research-related documentation, and collaborative patient-centred relationships with GPs require further attention. Specific service components, such as the spirometry, were well received by the pharmacists and their patients. Professional rewards included satisfaction from their enhanced practice, and pharmacists largely envisaged a future for the service. The PAMS provided pharmacists an opportunity to become involved in an

  10. Collaboration between Hospital and Community Pharmacists to Improve Medication Management from Hospital to Home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Kristeller

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study is to determine if a model for patient-centered care that integrates medication management between hospital and community pharmacists is feasible and can improve medication adherence. Design: This was a randomized, non-blinded, interventional study of 69 patients discharged from a hospital to home. Process measures include the number and type of medication-related discrepancies or problems identified, patient willingness to participate, the quality and quantity of interactions with community pharmacists, hospital readmissions, and medication adherence. Setting: A 214-bed acute care hospital in Northeastern Pennsylvania and seventeen regional community pharmacies. Patients: Enrolled patients were hospitalized with a primary or secondary diagnosis of heart failure or COPD, had a planned discharge to home, and agreed to speak to one of seventeen community pharmacists within the study network (i.e., a network community pharmacist following hospital discharge. Intervention: Information about a comprehensive medication review completed by the hospital pharmacist was communicated with the network community pharmacist to assist with providing medication therapy management following hospital discharge. Results: Of 180 patients eligible for the study, 111 declined to participate. Many patients were reluctant to talk to an additional pharmacist, however if the patient’s pharmacist was already within the network of 17 pharmacies, they usually agreed to participate. The study enrolled 35 patients in the intervention group and 34 in the control group. An average of 6 medication-related problems per patient were communicated to the patient’s network community pharmacist after discharge. In the treatment group, 44% of patients had at least one conversation with the network community pharmacist following hospital discharge. There was no difference in post-discharge adherence between the groups (Proportion of Days

  11. Knowledge and Practices About the Subject Emergency Contraception of the Pharmacists and Their Helpers in the Pharmacies in Manisa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayten Taspinar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The study was carried out as descriptive to determine the knowledge and practices about the subject emergency contraception of the pharmacists and their helpers in the pharmacies in central Manisa. METHOD: The universe of the research was formed by the 113 pharmacies registered to Manisa chamber of pharmacists in the year 2008 and all the pharmacies were included in the study. 47 pharmacists and 88 helpers agreed to join the study. The research which was planned to be descriptive March-to-June 2008. A questionnaire was produced by researchers and filled in during face-to face interviews with the pharmacists and their helpers. RESULTS: The pharmacists and their helpers stated that combined pills (46.8% and 44.5% and condoms (41.5% and 42.7% the most requested family planning methods their pharmacy. It was determined that 48.9% of the pharmacists, 33% of the pharmacist’s helpers gave information to customers about their use of family planning methods, 38.3% of the pharmacists, 23.9 % of the pharmacist’s helpers gave information what to do in case of failure to use/ where to apply to. 91.5% of the pharmacists, 95.5% of the pharmacist’s helpers stated that they had emergency contraception (EC purpose pills in their pharmacies. It was determined that 61.7% of the pharmacists, 28.4% of the pharmacist’s helpers had the knowledge about EC, 61.7% of the pharmacists, 52.3% of the pharmacist’s helpers could consider the EC methods true, 68.1% of the pharmacists, 70.5% of the pharmacist’s helpers gave the correct answers to the question of when the EC – purpose pills would be used. 68.1% of the pharmacists, 45.5% of the pharmacist’s helpers stated that EC methods might have adverse effects, 14.9% of the pharmacists, 25% of the pharmacist’s helpers stated that EC methods were protect agains to STD or not information about it, 12.8% of the pharmacists, 9.1% of the pharmacist’s helpers stated that these pills might be effective after the

  12. A Study on How Industrial Pharmacists Rank Competences for Pharmacy Practice: A Case for Industrial Pharmacy Specialization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Atkinson

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at the way in which industrial pharmacists rank the fundamental competences for pharmacy practice. European industrial pharmacists (n = 135 ranked 68 competences for practice, arranged into 13 clusters of two types (personal and patient care. Results show that, compared to community pharmacists (n = 258, industrial pharmacists rank competences centering on research, development and production of drugs higher, and those centering on patient care lower. Competences centering on values, communication skills, etc. were ranked similarly by the two groups of pharmacists. These results are discussed in the light of the existence or not of an “industrial pharmacy” specialization.

  13. Safety Evaluation Report related to the operation of South Texas Project, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-498 and 50-499). Supplement No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-09-01

    In April 1986 the staff of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission issued its Safety Evaluation Report (NUREG-0781) regarding the application of Houston Lighting and Power Company (applicant and agent for the owners) for a license to operate South Texas Project, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-498 and 50-499). The facility is located in Matagorda County, Texas, west of the Colorado River, 8 miles north-northwest of the town of Matagorda and about 89 miles southwest of Houston. This first supplement to NUREG-0781 reports the status of certain items that remained unresolved at the time the Safety Evaluation Report was published

  14. ED pharmacist monitoring of provider antibiotic selection aids appropriate treatment for outpatient UTI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingenfelter, Erin; Drapkin, Zachary; Fritz, Kelly; Youngquist, Scott; Madsen, Troy; Fix, Megan

    2016-08-01

    We sought to determine whether an emergency department (ED) pharmacist could aid in the monitoring and correction of inappropriate empiric antibiotic selection for urinary tract infections in an outpatient ED population. Urine cultures with greater than 100 000 CFU/mL bacteria from the University of Utah Emergency Department over 1 year (October 2011-Sept 2012) were identified using our electronic medical record system. Per ED protocol, an ED pharmacist reviews all cultures and performs a chart review of patient symptoms, diagnosis, and discharge antibiotics to determine whether the treatment was appropriate. A retrospective review of this process was performed to identify how often inappropriate treatment was recognized and intervened on by an ED pharmacist. Of the 180 cultures included, a total of 42 (23%) of empiric discharge treatments were considered inappropriate and required intervention. In 35 (83%) of 42 patients, the ED pharmacist was able to contact the patient and make appropriate changes; the remaining 7 patients were unable to be contacted, and no change could be made in their treatment. A chart review of all urine cultures with greater than 100 000 CFU/mL performed by an ED pharmacist helped identify inappropriate treatment in 23% of patients discharged to home with the diagnosis of urinary tract infection. Of these patients who had received inappropriate treatment, an ED pharmacist was able to intervene in 83% of cases. These data highlight the role of ED pharmacists in improving patient care after discharge. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The Preparedness of Pharmacist in Community Setting to Cope with Globalization Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Joseph Herman

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A descriptive study to identify the preparedness of pharmacist in community pharmacies to cope with globalization impact was conducted in 2009. This cross-sectional study was done in DKI Jakarta, Bali and Maluku. Informants were purposively determined involving pharmacists from schools of pharmacy, Indonesian Pharmacist Association (IAI, community pharmacies, Provincial and District Health Offices, as well as comunity pharmacy owners. Primary data were collected through in-depth interviews and observation using check-list in community pharmacy. Data were analyzed descriptively and qualitatively using triangulation method. Results of the study show that according to Health Offices and the Indonesian Pharmacist Association, pharmacists were not adequately prepared and pharmacists in stand alone community pharmacy are less prepared than those in a network or franchise pharmacy. Licensed pharmacists of network community pharmacy in the metropolis are going to prepare themselves to face the new patient-oriented paradigm and to meet the standard of pharmacy service, whereas stand-alone community pharmacy still prioritized fast service and lower drug price.

  16. Delivering health care through community pharmacies: are working conditions deterring female pharmacists' participation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidman, Wendy; Day, Jennie; Hassell, Karen; Payne, Katherine

    2009-07-01

    Recent UK government policy has placed community pharmacists at the frontline of health care delivery in order to improve patient access. Community pharmacy has been beset by recruitment and retention problems which potentially threaten health service delivery. This is largely a consequence of an increased demand for pharmacists. Additionally, the proportion of female pharmacists in the profession has risen. Consequently, interrupted career patterns and part-time working practices have increased, shrinking the pool of available workers. This study aimed to examine the importance of factors influencing female community pharmacists' work patterns. Q methodology was used in a sample of 40 female UK-based community pharmacists. Nine distinct factors emerged from a factor analysis of Q sorts: fulfilled pharmacists; family first or pharmacy shelved; low stress altruist; permanent part-time employees; focused on free time and finances; pressurized modernizers; wandering wage slaves; overloaded and under resourced for the new contract; and pin money part-timers. Female community pharmacists often worked below their potential and part-time at a practitioner level in response to a combination of domestic commitments and intensifying work place pressures. Family-friendly flexible work environments, adequate staffing levels and improved management support, might be more effective in increasing workforce participation than enhanced salary levels in this group of workers.

  17. A newly developed assessment tool on collaborative role of doctor–pharmacist in patient medication management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayur Porwal

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Poor communication is one of the most important common factor contributing to medication errors. Despite their common history, there are many intellectual and practical differences between the professions of medicine and pharmacy that eventually affects patient care and health outcomes. Objectives. The main objective of the study is to evaluate the coordination and teamwork between pharmacist and doctor to provide betterment in the care of the patient health. Material and methods . A questionnaire of 10 questions was developed each for the patient, pharmacist and doctor posted on District Hospital, Moradabad (U.P., India and data collected from the patient and medical professionals through questionnaire were analyzed for collaborative role of doctor-pharmacist with respect to patient care. The results were analyzed using Graph Pad Prism 5. Results. The data obtained from the questionnaire highlights a significant effort between pharmacist and doctors. However, some patients often doubt in the skills of pharmacist for treatment outcome, but the majority of people responds positive to doctor-pharmacist role as they prove to be fruitful in removing medication errors. Conclusions . To facilitate the patient care, doctor-pharmacist alliance is necessary, desired and should be motivated as professed by the respondents. Collaboration is an important element of effective patient-focused health care delivery.

  18. Roles and responsibilities of pharmacists with respect to natural health products: key informant interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatunde, Shade; Boon, Heather; Hirschkorn, Kristine; Welsh, Sandy; Bajcar, Jana

    2010-03-01

    Although many pharmacies sell natural health products (NHPs), there is no clear definition as to the roles and responsibilities (if any) of pharmacists with respect to these products. The purpose of this study was to explore pharmacy and stakeholder leaders' perceptions of pharmacists' professional NHP roles and responsibilities. Semi-structured key informant interviews were conducted with pharmacy leaders (n=17) and stakeholder (n=18) leaders representing consumers, complementary and alternative medicine practitioners, conventional health care practitioners, and industry across Canada. All participants believed a main NHP responsibility for pharmacists was in safety monitoring, although a one challenge identified in the interviews was pharmacists' general lack of NHP knowledge; however, stakeholder leaders did not expect pharmacists to be experts, but should have a basic level of knowledge about NHPs. Participants described pharmacists' professional roles and responsibilities for NHPs as similar to those for over-the-counter drugs; more awareness of existing NHP-related pharmacy policies is needed, and pharmacy owners/managers should provide additional training to ensure front-line pharmacists have appropriate knowledge of NHPs sold in the pharmacy. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. [Counselling customers with psychotropic vs. cardiovascular prescriptions: a survey among Austrian community pharmacists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagmair, Gisela; Amering, Michaela; Kaiser, Gerda; Katschnig, Heinz

    2014-01-01

    Prescriptions for psychotropic drugs in general and their share of all prescriptions have substantially risen over the last decades. Thus, also counselling by pharmacists becomes more important in this area. This study focuses on how community pharmacists see their own role when counselling persons with prescriptions for psychotropic medication and how this differs from counselling persons with other types of prescriptions. Based on the Toronto Community Pharmacists' Questionnaire an online questionnaire was developed with the assistance of the Austrian Pharmacists Association. This instrument elicits pharmacists' attitudes toward and professional interactions with users of psychotropic drugs on the one hand and of cardiovascular medication on the other. After a pilot study the questionnaire - which was to be filled in anonymously - was put on a web portal for six months and Austrian community pharmacists were invited to answer it. 125 pharmacists completed the questionnaire. Overall it was reported, that new customers with psychotropic prescriptions were less often counselled than those with prescriptions for cardiovascular medication. The main reasons for this difference seem to be the lack of privacy in public pharmacies, the fear of stigmatising customers with psychotropic medication and a perceived lack of training concerning the treatment of mental disorders. In addition to improving such training, it was suggested that seminars and workshops for communication skills should be organised. The reduced frequency in counselling new customers with psychotropic medication is related to a lack of privacy in public pharmacies, fear of stigmatising customers and a perceived need for improving the training on the treatment of mental disorders.

  20. Community Pharmacists' Perspectives of a Decision Aid for Managing Type 2 Diabetes in Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verweel, Lee; Gionfriddo, Michael R; MacCallum, Lori; Dolovich, Lisa; Rosenberg-Yunger, Zahava R S

    2017-12-01

    Decision aids are tools designed to help patients make choices about their health care. We explored pharmacists' perceptions of an evidence-based diabetes decision aid developed by the Mayo Clinic, Diabetes Medication Choice (DMC). Using DMC as a reference, we aimed to explore pharmacists' perspectives on decision aids, their place in a community pharmacy setting and the implementing of a decision aid, such as DMC, in Ontario. We used semistructured interviews with a convenience sample of community pharmacists from Ontario. We applied a thematic analysis to the data. We conducted 16 interviews with pharmacists, of whom 9 were certified diabetes educators, and 10 were female. Three themes emerged from the data: pharmacists' knowledge and awareness of decision aids; pharmacists' perceptions of the DMC decision aids, and implementation of the DMC decision aids in Ontario pharmacies. Participants discussed their limited experience with and training in the use of decision aids. Although many participants agreed that the DMC decision aids may contribute to patient-centred care, all agreed that significant changes were needed to be made to implement this tool in practice. Pharmacists felt that the use of decision aids in community pharmacies in Ontario may improve patient-centred care. Modifications, however, are needed to improve the applicability to their context and fit into their workflow. Empirical data concerning the impact of decision aids in community pharmacy is needed. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.