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Sample records for west point treatment

  1. Technical Basis for Radiological Emergency Plan Annex for WTD Emergency Response Plan: West Point Treatment Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hickey, Eva E.; Strom, Daniel J.

    2005-08-01

    Staff of the King County Wastewater Treatment Division (WTD) have concern about the aftermath of a radiological dispersion event (RDE) leading to the introduction of significant quantities of radioactive material into the combined sanitary and storm sewer system in King County, Washington. Radioactive material could come from the use of a radiological dispersion device (RDD). RDDs include "dirty bombs" that are not nuclear detonations but are explosives designed to spread radioactive material (National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) 2001). Radioactive material also could come from deliberate introduction or dispersion of radioactive material into the environment, including waterways and water supply systems. This document, Volume 3 of PNNL-15163 is the technical basis for the Annex to the West Point Treatment Plant (WPTP) Emergency Response Plan related to responding to a radiological emergency at the WPTP. The plan primarily considers response to radioactive material that has been introduced in the other combined sanitary and storm sewer system from a radiological dispersion device, but is applicable to any accidental or deliberate introduction of materials into the system.

  2. West Point student drops out / Jorgen Johansson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Johansson, Jorgen

    2001-01-01

    Läti kohus mõistis välja kahjutasu Juris Matusevics'ilt, kes rikkus Läti kaitsejõududega sõlmitud kokkulepet, mis kohustas teda pärast USA West Pointi sõjaväeakadeemia lõpetamist teenima viis aastat Läti armees

  3. Spent fuel treatment at ANL-West

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goff, K.M.; Benedict, R.W.; Levinskas, D.

    1994-01-01

    At Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-West) there are several thousand kilograms of metallic spent nuclear fuel containing bond sodium. This fuel will be treated in the Fuel Cycle Facility at ANL-West to produce stable waste forms for storage and disposal. The treatment operations will employ a pyrochemical process that also has applications for treating most of the fuel types within the Department of Energy complex. The treatment equipment is in its last stage of readiness, and operations will begin in the Fall of 1994

  4. 78 FR 24816 - Pricing for the 2013 American Eagle West Point Two-Coin Silver Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for the 2013 American Eagle West Point Two-Coin Silver Set AGENCY: United States Mint, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing the price of the 2013 American Eagle West Point Two-Coin Silver Set. The...

  5. K West integrated water treatment system subproject safety analysis document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SEMMENS, L.S.

    1999-01-01

    This Accident Analysis evaluates unmitigated accident scenarios, and identifies Safety Significant and Safety Class structures, systems, and components for the K West Integrated Water Treatment System

  6. K West integrated water treatment system subproject safety analysis document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SEMMENS, L.S.

    1999-02-24

    This Accident Analysis evaluates unmitigated accident scenarios, and identifies Safety Significant and Safety Class structures, systems, and components for the K West Integrated Water Treatment System.

  7. America’s “Peculiar Children”: Authority and Christian Nationalism at Antebellum West Point

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Graziano

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay examines how the United States Military Academy at West Point developed an explicitly “federal” Christianity to help train the antebellum officers of the United States Army. It begins by examining how the Episcopal Church was quietly “established” at West Point, and how the church allied with the federal government and US Army to encourage a potent Christian nationalism that collapsed the sovereignty of the United States into the sovereignty of God. The case of West Point illustrates how federal officials, Army leaders, and Academy administrators understood religion as a central component of national security.

  8. Early Career Preparation, Experiences, and Commitment of Female and Male West Point Graduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    report. Data Collection All participants in the study were graduates in the Class of 1980, the v first coeducational class at West Point. The sampling...Class of 1980 has been regarded as an unique entity because of its destiny as the first coeducational class. These data will show where this is true and...understand the experiences of the graduates from West Point. This is the first systematic program to assess the effects of coeducation by using as 5-5 .*:. 0

  9. Energy Optimization Assessment at U.S. Army Installations: West Point Military Academy, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    chillers to work unnecessarily more than needed. Other buildings had setpoints at different areas above 55 °F. Many buildings are air-conditioned and... optimal . The cost of 12.5 cents/KWh makes it unlikely, especially where steam adsorption chillers exist. 11.8.2 Solution Use the existing steam...ER D C/ CE R L TR -0 8 -1 4 Energy Optimization Assessment at U.S. Army Installations West Point Military Academy, NY David M

  10. Energy supply waste water treatment plant West Brabant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poldervaart, A; Schouten, G J

    1983-09-01

    For the energy supply for the waste water treatment plant (rwzi-Bath) of the Hoogheemraadschap West-Brabant three energy sources are used: biogas of the digesters, natural gas and electricity delivered by the PZEM. For a good balance between heat/power demand and production a heat/power plant is installed. By using this system a high efficiency for the use of energy will be obtained. To save energy the oxygen concentration in the aerationtanks is automatically controlled by means of regulating the position of the air supply control valves and the capacity and number of the turbocompressors. For the oxygen controlsystem a Siemens PLC is used.

  11. End points and assessments in esthetic dental treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Yuichi; Fujimoto, Keiko; Higaki, Nobuaki; Goto, Takaharu; Ichikawa, Tetsuo

    2015-10-01

    There are two key considerations for successful esthetic dental treatments. This article systematically describes the two key considerations: the end points of esthetic dental treatments and assessments of esthetic outcomes, which are also important for acquiring clinical skill in esthetic dental treatments. The end point and assessment of esthetic dental treatment were discussed through literature reviews and clinical practices. Before designing a treatment plan, the end point of dental treatment should be established. The section entitled "End point of esthetic dental treatment" discusses treatments for maxillary anterior teeth and the restoration of facial profile with prostheses. The process of assessing treatment outcomes entitled "Assessments of esthetic dental treatment" discusses objective and subjective evaluation methods. Practitioners should reach an agreement regarding desired end points with patients through medical interviews, and continuing improvements and developments of esthetic assessments are required to raise the therapeutic level of esthetic dental treatments. Copyright © 2015 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Value-Chain Dynamics of the West Point Foundry, 1817-1911: A Historical Case Analysis in Marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkus, Ed, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    This case provides the opportunity for students to explore marketing and value/supply-chain dynamics in a unique historical context. The West Point Foundry (WPF), located in Cold Spring, New York, was one of the most important manufacturing ventures in the United States from 1817 to 1911. The case outlines the supply-chain details of the WPF as…

  13. "It Could Affect You as a Person, Character-Wise": Promoting Character Development and Preventing Sexual Violence at West Point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbeit, Miriam R.

    2017-01-01

    The United States Military Academy at West Point develops cadets into "leaders of character" who will become Army officers. This focus on character presents an opportunity for the prevention of sexual violence through an emphasis on military values. Using constructivist grounded theory, this study examined how cadets experience their own…

  14. Multiple types of motives don't multiply the motivation of West Point cadets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrzesniewski, Amy; Schwartz, Barry; Cong, Xiangyu; Kane, Michael; Omar, Audrey; Kolditz, Thomas

    2014-07-29

    Although people often assume that multiple motives for doing something will be more powerful and effective than a single motive, research suggests that different types of motives for the same action sometimes compete. More specifically, research suggests that instrumental motives, which are extrinsic to the activities at hand, can weaken internal motives, which are intrinsic to the activities at hand. We tested whether holding both instrumental and internal motives yields negative outcomes in a field context in which various motives occur naturally and long-term educational and career outcomes are at stake. We assessed the impact of the motives of over 10,000 West Point cadets over the period of a decade on whether they would become commissioned officers, extend their officer service beyond the minimum required period, and be selected for early career promotions. For each outcome, motivation internal to military service itself predicted positive outcomes; a relationship that was negatively affected when instrumental motives were also in evidence. These results suggest that holding multiple motives damages persistence and performance in educational and occupational contexts over long periods of time.

  15. Dinner and a Conversation: Transgender Integration at West Point and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten G. Ender

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In 2016, the United States military lifted the ban on transgender members serving and are expected to begin accessions of transgender service members in 2017. A paucity of research exists on transgender matters in the military, especially on attitudes towards cisgender service members. This study deploys a qualitative methodology, comprised of 21 focus groups of undergraduate cadets and advanced schooled Army officers (N = 110, at the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York, using a semi-structured interview protocol. Overall, a diversity of experiences and familiarity with transgender people surfaced among cadets and officers. We distinguish between experiences and familiarity on a spectrum by introducing notions of transgender tourism and cosmopolitanism. Major concerns associated with (uncomfortableness emerged from the focus groups including privacy, physical standards, well-being, and costs. Interventions are offered by the participants based on their major concerns. We recommend education, increased cosmopolitism, privacy considerations, narrowing the civil-military propinquity gap, and more studies of diversity and inclusion issues in the military.

  16. Teaching a Second Core Course in Information Technology: A West Point Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Wolfe

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available The United States Military Academy (USMA at West Point has the mission to produce officers for the U.S. Army. As part of the curriculum, the Academy requires all non-ABET major cadets (students to take two courses on information technology (IT with both courses focused on problem solving with technology. The first course is an introductory course offered in the freshman year while the second course is a more detailed course offered in the junior year. The Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Department uses an expanded definition of information technology; that is, any technology that acquires, transmits, processes, or displays information. Information technology is becoming increasingly important in the Army with the development and use of sensors, command and control systems, and other technologies to achieve information dominance. The course is divided into six modules: acquisition of data and sensors, transmission of data and networks, processing of data into information, display of information, legal and ethical issues of IT, and information dominance and operations. Cadets use a four-step problem solving methodology to develop and implement the components of an Information System to solve a real-world problem. The short-term impact of the course on the cadets has been very positive, and we are confident that the long-term impact will be substantial on the cadets and the Army. Cadets are exposed to a number of different technologies, gaining an understanding of how these technologies are used to acquire data, transmit data, process data into information, and display information to support decision making. In addition, the course projects help enforce the problem solving methodology where cadets analyze, design, implement, and test their solutions.

  17. Stereotactic Target point Verification in Actual Treatment Position of Radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Hyong Geun; Lee, Hyun Koo

    1995-01-01

    Purpose : Authors tried to enhance the safety and accuracy of radiosurgery by verifying stereotactic target point in actual treatment position prior to irradiation. Materials and Methods : Before the actual treatment, several sections of anthropomorphic head phantom were used to create a condition of unknown coordinated of the target point. A film was sand witched between the phantom sections and punctured by sharp needle tip. The tip of the needle represented the target point. The head phantom was fixed to the stereotactic ring and CT scan was done with CT localizer attached to the ring. After the CT scanning, the stereotactic coordinates of the target point were determined. The head phantom was secured to accelerator's treatment couch and the movement of laser isocenter to the stereotactic coordinates determined by CT scanning was performed using target positioner. Accelerator's anteroposterior and lateral portal films were taken using angiographic localizers. The stereotactic coordinates determined by analysis of portal films were compared with the stereotactic coordinates previously determined by CT scanning. Following the correction of discrepancy, the head phantom was irradiated using a stereotactic technique of several arcs. After the irradiation, the film which was sand witched between the phantom sections was developed and the degree of coincidence between the center of the radiation distribution with the target point represented by the hole in the film was measured. In the treatment of actual patients, the way of determining the stereotactic coordinates with CT localizers and angiographic localizers between two sets of coordinates, we proceeded to the irradiation of the actual patient. Results : In the phantom study, the agreement between the center of the radiation distribution and the localized target point was very good. By measuring optical density profiles of the sand witched film along axes that intersected the target point, authors could confirm

  18. Diagnosis as the First Critical Point in the Treatment Trajectory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Missel, Malene; Pedersen, Jesper H; Hendriksen, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    sociology. RESULTS: The findings are presented as themes that summarize and express the ways in which a diagnosis affects patients' daily lives: the cancer diagnosis comes as a shock, it changes everyday awareness; it presents the patient with an unfamiliar body, disturbs social relationships, forces......BACKGROUND: Significant advances have been made in the surgical treatment of lung cancer while patient experiences with diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation remain only sparsely researched. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate how the diagnosis affects the daily lives...... of patients with operable lung cancer in order to identify their needs for care interventions from the point of diagnosis to hospitalization. METHODS: We investigated patients' lived experiences from a longitudinal perspective at 4 critical time points during the treatment trajectory; we present here...

  19. Understanding the West African monsoon variability and its remote effects: an illustration of the grid point nudging methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielli, Soline; Douville, Hervé; Pohl, Benjamin

    2010-07-01

    General circulation models still show deficiencies in simulating the basic features of the West African Monsoon at intraseasonal, seasonal and interannual timescales. It is however, difficult to disentangle the remote versus regional factors that contribute to such deficiencies, and to diagnose their possible consequences for the simulation of the global atmospheric variability. The aim of the present study is to address these questions using the so-called grid point nudging technique, where prognostic atmospheric fields are relaxed either inside or outside the West African Monsoon region toward the ERA40 reanalysis. This regional or quasi-global nudging is tested in ensembles of boreal summer simulations. The impact is evaluated first on the model climatology, then on intraseasonal timescales with an emphasis on North Atlantic/Europe weather regimes, and finally on interannual timescales. Results show that systematic biases in the model climatology over West Africa are mostly of regional origin and have a limited impact outside the domain. A clear impact is found however on the eddy component of the extratropical circulation, in particular over the North Atlantic/European sector. At intraseasonal timescale, the main regional biases also resist to the quasi-global nudging though their magnitude is reduced. Conversely, nudging the model over West Africa exerts a strong impact on the frequency of the two North Atlantic weather regimes that favor the occurrence of heat waves over Europe. Significant impacts are also found at interannual timescale. Not surprisingly, the quasi-global nudging allows the model to capture the variability of large-scale dynamical monsoon indices, but exerts a weaker control on rainfall variability suggesting the additional contribution of regional processes. Conversely, nudging the model toward West Africa suppresses the spurious ENSO teleconnection that is simulated over Europe in the control experiment, thereby emphasizing the relevance

  20. Understanding the West African monsoon variability and its remote effects: an illustration of the grid point nudging methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bielli, Soline; Douville, Herve; Pohl, Benjamin [CNRM/GMGEC/UDC, Meteo-France, Toulouse Cedex 01 (France)

    2010-07-15

    General circulation models still show deficiencies in simulating the basic features of the West African Monsoon at intraseasonal, seasonal and interannual timescales. It is however, difficult to disentangle the remote versus regional factors that contribute to such deficiencies, and to diagnose their possible consequences for the simulation of the global atmospheric variability. The aim of the present study is to address these questions using the so-called grid point nudging technique, where prognostic atmospheric fields are relaxed either inside or outside the West African Monsoon region toward the ERA40 reanalysis. This regional or quasi-global nudging is tested in ensembles of boreal summer simulations. The impact is evaluated first on the model climatology, then on intraseasonal timescales with an emphasis on North Atlantic/Europe weather regimes, and finally on interannual timescales. Results show that systematic biases in the model climatology over West Africa are mostly of regional origin and have a limited impact outside the domain. A clear impact is found however on the eddy component of the extratropical circulation, in particular over the North Atlantic/European sector. At intraseasonal timescale, the main regional biases also resist to the quasi-global nudging though their magnitude is reduced. Conversely, nudging the model over West Africa exerts a strong impact on the frequency of the two North Atlantic weather regimes that favor the occurrence of heat waves over Europe. Significant impacts are also found at interannual timescale. Not surprisingly, the quasi-global nudging allows the model to capture the variability of large-scale dynamical monsoon indices, but exerts a weaker control on rainfall variability suggesting the additional contribution of regional processes. Conversely, nudging the model toward West Africa suppresses the spurious ENSO teleconnection that is simulated over Europe in the control experiment, thereby emphasizing the relevance

  1. Microcurrent Point Stimulation Applied to Lower Back Acupuncture Points for the Treatment of Nonspecific Neck Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Kelly; Gokal, Raman; Chevalier, Antoine; Todorsky, William; Lim, Mike

    2017-04-01

    Although acupuncture and microcurrent are widely used for chronic pain, there remains considerable controversy as to their therapeutic value for neck pain. We aimed to determine the effect size of microcurrent applied to lower back acupuncture points to assess the impact on the neck pain. This was a cohort analysis of treatment outcomes pre- and postmicrocurrent stimulation, involving 34 patients with a history of nonspecific chronic neck pain. Consenting patients were enrolled from a group of therapists attending educational seminars and were asked to report pain levels pre-post and 48 hours after a single MPS application. Direct current microcurrent point stimulation (MPS) applied to standardized lower back acupuncture protocol points was used. Evaluations entailed a baseline visual analog scale (VAS) pain scale assessment, using a VAS, which was repeated twice after therapy, once immediately postelectrotherapy and again after a 48-h follow-up period. All 34 patients received a single MPS session. Results were analyzed using paired t tests. Results and Outcomes: Pain intensity showed an initial statistically significant reduction of 68% [3.9050 points; 95% CI (2.9480, 3.9050); p = 0.0001], in mean neck pain levels after standard protocol treatment, when compared to initial pain levels. There was a further statistically significant reduction of 35% in mean neck pain levels at 48 h when compared to pain levels immediately after standard protocol treatment [0.5588 points; 95% CI (0.2001, 0.9176); p = 0.03], for a total average pain relief of 80%. The positive results in this study could have applications for those patients impacted by chronic neck pain.

  2. CTC Sentinel. Volume 1, Issue 1, December 2007. West Point Releases First Issue of CTC Sentinel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    ideologues themselves. A common categorization of Salafism is Quintan Wiktorowicz’s typology that divides Salafism into three currents: purists...implemented.4 While a useful starting point, the typology provides 2 For his biography, see Brynjar Lia, Architect of Global Jihad: The Life of...Sayyid Imam, in judging whether or not to employ violence, particularly against an Islamic government or foreign tourists , one must always consider

  3. Environmental assessment for the Waste Water Treatment Facility at the West Valley Demonstration Project and finding of no significant impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    The possible environmental impacts from the construction and operation of a waste water treatment facility for the West Valley Demonstration Project are presented. The West Valley Project is a demonstration project on the solidification of high-level radioactive wastes. The need for the facility is the result of a rise in the work force needed for the project which rendered the existing sewage treatment plant incapable of meeting the nonradioactive waste water treatment needs.

  4. Environmental assessment for the Waste Water Treatment Facility at the West Valley Demonstration Project and finding of no significant impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The possible environmental impacts from the construction and operation of a waste water treatment facility for the West Valley Demonstration Project are presented. The West Valley Project is a demonstration project on the solidification of high-level radioactive wastes. The need for the facility is the result of a rise in the work force needed for the project which rendered the existing sewage treatment plant incapable of meeting the nonradioactive waste water treatment needs

  5. The integrated melter off-gas treatment systems at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vance, R.F.

    1991-12-01

    The West Valley Demonstration project was established by an act of Congress in 1980 to solidify the high level radioactive liquid wastes produced from operation of the Western New York Nuclear Services Center from 1966 to 1972. The waste will be solidified as borosilicate glass. This report describes the functions, the controlling design criteria, and the resulting design of the melter off-gas treatment systems

  6. The integrated melter off-gas treatment systems at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vance, R.F. [West Valley Nuclear Services Co., Inc., NY (United States)

    1995-02-01

    The West Valley Demonstration Project was established by Public Law 96-368, the {open_quotes}West Valley Demonstration Project Act, {close_quotes} on October 1, l980. Under this act, Congress directed the Department of Energy to carry out a high level radioactive waste management demonstration project at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center in West Valley, New York. The purpose of this project is to demonstrate solidification techniques which can be used for preparing high level radioactive waste for disposal. In addition to developing this technology, the West Valley Demonstration Project Act directs the Department of Energy to: (1) develop containers suitable for permanent disposal of the high level waste; (2) transport the solidified high level waste to a Federal repository; (3) dispose of low level and transuranic waste produced under the project; and (4) decontaminate and decommission the facilities and materials associated with project activities and the storage tanks originally used to store the liquid high level radioactive waste. The process of vitrification will be used to solidify the high level radioactive liquid wastes into borosilicate glass. This report describes the functions, the controlling design criteria, and the resulting design of the melter off-gas treatment systems which are used in the vitrification process.

  7. Wastewater Sludge Stabilization Using Lime A Case Study of West Ahwaz Wastewater Treatment Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Farzadkia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Lime stabilization is a chemical method used for wastewater sludge stabilization. It is capable of decreasing large quantities of pathogens and of preventing microbial degradation of sludge organic materials. The main objective of the present experimental research was to investigate stabilization of the sludge from west Ahwaz wastewater treatment plant by lime addition and to control if the microbial quality of this sludge conforms to the USEPA standards for sludge reuse and safe disposal. The study was carried out on a pilot scale in 5 stages over a period of 12 months (July 2005 to June 2006 at west Ahwaz wastewater treatment plant laboratory using raw sludge. For the purposes of this study, a 30-liter reactor was commissioned and loaded with sludge and appropriate quantities of hydrated lime were added based on the solid waste percent. The parameters used to determine stabilization efficiency were pH, Total Coliform, Fecal Coliform, and parasite eggs. The results showed that lime addition at a ratio of 265g Ca(OH2/kg. ds was the optimum level for sludge stabilization in westAhwazwastewater treatment plant, which is acceptable from both economic and technical viewpoints. The method is capable of achieving class B but never satisfied class A of USEPA standards.

  8. Estimating Limit Reference Points for Western Pacific Leatherback Turtles (Dermochelys coriacea in the U.S. West Coast EEZ.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Alexandra Curtis

    Full Text Available Biological limit reference points (LRPs for fisheries catch represent upper bounds that avoid undesirable population states. LRPs can support consistent management evaluation among species and regions, and can advance ecosystem-based fisheries management. For transboundary species, LRPs prorated by local abundance can inform local management decisions when international coordination is lacking. We estimated LRPs for western Pacific leatherbacks in the U.S. West Coast Exclusive Economic Zone (WCEEZ using three approaches with different types of information on local abundance. For the current application, the best-informed LRP used a local abundance estimate derived from nest counts, vital rate information, satellite tag data, and fishery observer data, and was calculated with a Potential Biological Removal estimator. Management strategy evaluation was used to set tuning parameters of the LRP estimators to satisfy risk tolerances for falling below population thresholds, and to evaluate sensitivity of population outcomes to bias in key inputs. We estimated local LRPs consistent with three hypothetical management objectives: allowing the population to rebuild to its maximum net productivity level (4.7 turtles per five years, limiting delay of population rebuilding (0.8 turtles per five years, or only preventing further decline (7.7 turtles per five years. These LRPs pertain to all human-caused removals and represent the WCEEZ contribution to meeting population management objectives within a broader international cooperative framework. We present multi-year estimates, because at low LRP values, annual assessments are prone to substantial error that can lead to volatile and costly management without providing further conservation benefit. The novel approach and the performance criteria used here are not a direct expression of the "jeopardy" standard of the U.S. Endangered Species Act, but they provide useful assessment information and could help guide

  9. Demographics, nature and treatment of orthopaedic trauma injuries occurring in an agricultural context in the West of Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Byrne, F J

    2011-03-01

    Farming is a major industry in the West of Ireland. This prospective study examined the age profile, nature and treatment of orthopaedic injuries occurring in agricultural surroundings presenting at the Orthopaedic Unit of Merlin Park Hospital, Galway.

  10. Selection of a reference process for treatment of the West Valley alkaline waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holton, L.K.; Wise, B.M.; Bray, L.A.; Pope, J.M.; Carl, D.E.

    1984-08-01

    As part of the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) the alkaline PUREX supernatant stored in Tank 8D2 will be partially decontaminated by the removal of radiocesium. Four processes for removal of radiocesium from the alkaline supernatant were studied through experimentation and engineering analysis to identify a reference approach for the WVDP. These processes included the use of a zeolite inorganic ion-exchanger (Linde Ionsiv IE-95), an organic ion exchange resin (Duolite CS-100), and two precipitation processes; one using sodium tetraphenylboron (NaTPB) and the other using phosphotungstic acid (PTA). Based upon process performance, safety and environmental considerations, process and equipment complexity and impacts to the waste vitrification system, the zeolite ion-exchange process has been selected by West Valley Nuclear Services, Inc., as the reference supernatant treatment process for the WVDP. This paper will summarize the technical basis for the selection of the zeolite ion-exchange process. 4 figures, 2 tables

  11. Comparative risk assessments for the city of Pointe-à-Pitre (French West Indies): earthquakes and storm surge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reveillere, A. R.; Bertil, D. B.; Douglas, J. D.; Grisanti, L. G.; Lecacheux, S. L.; Monfort, D. M.; Modaressi, H. M.; Müller, H. M.; Rohmer, J. R.; Sedan, O. S.

    2012-04-01

    In France, risk assessments for natural hazards are usually carried out separately and decision makers lack comprehensive information. Moreover, since the cause of the hazard (e.g. meteorological, geological) and the physical phenomenon that causes damage (e.g. inundation, ground shaking) may be fundamentally different, the quantitative comparison of single risk assessments that were not conducted in a compatible framework is not straightforward. Comprehensive comparative risk assessments exist in a few other countries. For instance, the Risk Map Germany project has developed and applied a methodology for quantitatively comparing the risk of relevant natural hazards at various scales (city, state) in Germany. The present on-going work applies a similar methodology to the Pointe-à-Pitre urban area, which represents more than half of the population of Guadeloupe, an overseas region in the French West Indies. Relevant hazards as well as hazard intensity levels differ from continental Europe, which will lead to different conclusions. French West Indies are prone to a large number of hazards, among which hurricanes, volcanic eruptions and earthquakes dominate. Hurricanes cause damage through three phenomena: wind, heavy rainfall and storm surge, the latter having had a preeminent role during the largest historical event in 1928. Seismic risk is characterized by many induced phenomena, among which earthquake shocks dominate. This study proposes a comparison of earthquake and cyclonic storm surge risks. Losses corresponding to hazard intensities having the same probability of occurrence are calculated. They are quantified in a common loss unit, chosen to be the direct economic losses. Intangible or indirect losses are not considered. The methodology therefore relies on (i) a probabilistic hazard assessment, (ii) a loss ratio estimation for the exposed elements and (iii) an economic estimation of these assets. Storm surge hazard assessment is based on the selection of

  12. Experimental data developed to support the selection of a treatment process for West Valley alkaline supernatant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bray, L.A.; Holton, L.K.; Myers, T.R.; Richardson, G.M.; Wise, B.M.

    1984-01-01

    At the request of West Valley Nuclear Services Co., Inc., the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has studied alternative treatment processes for the alkaline PUREX waste presently being stored in Tank 8D2 at West Valley, New York. Five tasks were completed during FY 1983: (1) simulation and characterization of the alkaline supernatant and sludge from the tank. The radiochemical and chemical distributions between the aqueous and solid phase were determined, and the efficiency of washing sludge with water to remove ions such as Na/sup +/ and SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ was investigated; (2) evaluation of a sodium tetraphenylboron (Na-TPB) precipitation process to recover cesium (Cs) and a sodium titanate (Na-TiA) sorption process to recover strontium (Sr) and plutonium (Pu) from the West Valley Alkaline supernatant. These processes were previously developed and tested at the US Department of Energy's Savannah River Plant; (3) evaluation of an organic cation-exchange resin (Duolite CS-100) to recover Cs and Pu from the alkaline supernatant followed by an organic macroreticular cation exchange resin (Amberlite IRC-718) to recover Sr; (4) evaluation of an inorganic ion exchanger (Linde Ionsiv IE-95) to recover Cs, Sr, and Pu from the alkaline supernatant; and (5) evaluation of Dowex-1,X8 organic anion exchange resin to recover technetium (Tc) from alkaline supernatant. The findings of these tasks are reported. 21 references, 36 figures, 34 tables.

  13. Evaluation of Coverage and Barriers to Access to MAM Treatment in West Pokot County, Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basquin, Cecile; Imelda, Awino; Gallagher, Maureen

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Despite an increased number of nutrition treatment coverage assessments conducted, they often focus on Severe Acute Malnutrition (SAM) treatment. In a recent experience in Kenya, Action Against Hunger| ACF International (ACF) conducted a coverage assessment to evaluate access to SAM and Moderate Acute Malnutrition (MAM) treatment. ACF supports the Ministry of Health (MoH) in delivering SAM and MAM treatment at health facility level through an Integrated Management of Acute Malnutrition (IMAM) programme in West Pokot county since 2011. In order to evaluate the coverage of Outpatient Therapeutic Programme (OTP) and Supplementary Feeding Programme (SFP) components, the Simplified Lot Quality Assurance Sampling Evaluation of Access and Coverage (SLEAC) methodology was used. The goals of the coverage assessment were i) to estimate coverage for OTP and SFP; ii) to identify barriers to access to SAM and MAM treatment; iii) to evaluate whether any differences exist between barriers to access to SAM versus to MAM treatment as SFP coverage and uptake of MAM services were never assessed before; and iv) to build local capacities in assessing coverage and to provide recommendations for the MoH-led IMAM programme. With the support of the Coverage Monitoring Network (CMN), ACF led the SLEAC assessment as part of an on-the-job training exercise for MoH and partners in July 2013, covering all of West Pokot county. SLEAC is a rapid and low-resource survey method that uses a three-tier classification approach to evaluate and classify coverage, i.e., low coverage: < 20%; moderate: 20% -50%; and high coverage: ≤ 50%. In a first sampling stage, villages in each of the four sub-counties were randomly selected using systematic sampling. In a second sampling stage, in order to also assess MAM coverage, a house-to-house approach was applied to identify all or near all acutely malnourished children using Mid Upper Arm Circumference (MUAC) tape and identification of bilateral

  14. Argonne-West facility requirements for a radioactive waste treatment demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwight, C.C.; Felicione, F.S.; Black, D.B.; Kelso, R.B.; McClellan, G.C.

    1995-01-01

    At Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W), near Idaho Falls, Idaho, facilities that were originally constructed to support the development of liquid-metal reactor technology are being used and/or modified to meet the environmental and waste management research needs of DOE. One example is the use of an Argonne-West facility to conduct a radioactive waste treatment demonstration through a cooperative project with Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) and Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company. The Plasma Hearth Process (PBP) project will utilize commercially-adapted plasma arc technology to demonstrate treatment of actual mixed waste. The demonstration on radioactive waste will be conducted at Argonne's Transient Reactor Test Facility (TREAT). Utilization of an existing facility for a new and different application presents a unique set of issues in meeting applicable federal state, and local requirements as well as the additional constraints imposed by DOE Orders and ANL-W site requirements. This paper briefly describes the PHP radioactive demonstrations relevant to the interfaces with the TREAT facility. Safety, environmental design, and operational considerations pertinent to the PHP radioactive demonstration are specifically addressed herein. The personnel equipment, and facility interfaces associated with a radioactive waste treatment demonstration are an important aspect of the demonstration effort. Areas requiring significant effort in preparation for the PBP Project being conducted at the TREAT facility include confinement design, waste handling features, and sampling and analysis considerations. Information about the facility in which a radioactive demonstration will be conducted, specifically Argonne's TREAT facility in the case of PHP, may be of interest to other organizations involved in developing and demonstrating technologies for mixed waste treatment

  15. Selection of a reference process for treatment of the West Valley alkaline waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bray, L.A.; Holton, L.K.; Wise, B.M.; Carl, D.E.; Pope, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    As part of the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) the alkaline PUREX supernatant stored in Tank 8D2 will be partially decontaminated by the removal of radiocesium. Four processes for removal of radiocesium from the alkaline supernatant were studied through experimentation and engineering analysis to identify a reference approach for the WVDP. These processes included the use of a zeolite inorganic ion-exchanger (Linde Ionsiv IE-95, Ionsiv is a trademark of Union Carbide Company), an organic ion exchange resin (Duolite CS-100, Duolite is a registered trademark of Diamond Shamrock Co) and two precipitation processes; one using sodium tetraphenylboron (NaTPB) and the other using phosphotungsthC acid (PTA). Based upon process performance, safety and environmental considerations, process and equipment complexity and impacts to the waste vitrification system, the zeolite ion-exchange process has been selected by West Valley Nuclear Services, Inc., as the reference supernatant treatment process for the WVDP. This paper summarizes the technical basis for the selection of the zeolite ion-exchange process

  16. Randomised clinical trial of five ear acupuncture points for the treatment of overweight people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Sujung; Kim, Kang Sik; Lim, Sabina

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of the five ear acupuncture points (Shen-men, Spleen, Stomach, Hunger, Endocrine), generally used in Korean clinics for treating obesity, and compare them with the Hunger acupuncture point. A randomised controlled clinical trial was conducted in 91 Koreans (16 male and 75 female, body mass index (BMI)≥23), who had not received any other weight control treatment within the past 6 months. Subjects were divided randomly into treatment I, treatment II or sham control groups and received unilateral auricular acupuncture with indwelling needles replaced weekly for 8 weeks. Treatment I group received acupuncture at the five ear acupuncture points, treatment II group at the Hunger acupuncture point only and the sham control group received acupuncture at the five ear acupuncture points used in treatment I, but the needles were removed immediately after insertion. BMI, waist circumference, weight, body fat mass (BFM), percentage body fat and blood pressure were measured at baseline and at 4 and 8 weeks after treatment. For the 58 participants who provided data at 8 weeks, significant differences in BMI, weight and BFM were found between the treatment and control groups. Treatment groups I and II showed 6.1% and 5.7% reduction in BMI, respectively (pfive ear acupuncture points, generally used in Korean clinics, and the Hunger point alone treatment are both effective for treating overweight people.

  17. Prevalence of dental caries and treatment needs in children in coastal areas of West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulal Das

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was carried out to measure the caries prevalence and treatment needs in school children of 6-14 year old residing in coastal areas of West Bengal. Materials and Methods: A total of 1764 children of 6-14 years age group, studying in different primary and high schools of the coastal areas were examined using World Health Organization criteria (1997 to record the prevalence of dental caries. The treatment needs were also calculated according to that given criteria. Statistical Analysis: The results were subjected to statistical analysis using the Chi-square test and unpaired ′t′ test. Results: Dental caries were founded low in the studied population. The overall all caries prevalence in the permanent dentition was 28.06%, in boys it was 25.39% and in girls it was 30.86%. Therefore caries prevalence in female was higher and which was statistically highly significant (P < 0.05. The most frequently required treatment was one surface filling followed by other treatments irrespective of sex and age group. Discussion: The presence of sea foods containing high fluoride and least availability of refined carbohydrate in the diet may be the reason of lower prevalence. Conclusion: child oral health is always a matter of concern for a developing country so further research is required to explore actual causes.

  18. Oak Ridge National Laboratory West End Treatment Facility simulated sludge vitrification demonstration, Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicero, C.A.; Bickford, D.F.; Bennert, D.M.; Overcamp, T.J.

    1994-01-01

    Technologies are being developed by the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Nuclear Facility sites to convert hazardous and mixed wastes to a form suitable for permanent disposal. Vitrification, which has been declared the Best Demonstrated Available Technology for high-level radioactive waste disposal by the EPA, is capable of producing a highly durable wasteform that minimizes disposal volumes through organic destruction, moisture evaporation, and porosity reduction. However, this technology must be demonstrated over a range of waste characteristics, including compositions, chemistries, moistures, and physical characteristics to ensure that it is suitable for hazardous and mixed waste treatment. These wastes are typically wastewater treatment sludges that are categorized as listed wastes due to the process origin or organic solvent content, and usually contain only small amounts of hazardous constituents. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL) West End Treatment Facility's (WETF) sludge is considered on of these representative wastes. The WETF is a liquid waste processing plant that generates sludge from the biodenitrification and precipitation processes. An alternative wasteform is needed since the waste is currently stored in epoxy coated carbon steel tanks, which have a limited life. Since this waste has characteristics that make it suitable for vitrification with a high likelihood of success, it was identified as a suitable candidate by the Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) for testing at CU. The areas of special interest with this sludge are (1) minimum nitrates, (2) organic destruction, and (3) waste water treatment sludges containing little or no filter aid

  19. Results of the Treatment of Talar Neck Fractures in a West African Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AD Kacou

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Talar neck fractures (TNFs are complex injuries and treatment is fraught with complications. We retrospectively studied 18 patients with TNFs: 6 Hawkins type-I, 7 type-II, 4 type-III, and 1 type-IV. Five patients with type-I and 2 with type-II fractures were treated conservatively. The remaining 11 patients underwent operative treatment. Open reduction via posterolateral approach was performed in 10 patients while closed reduction was used in one patient. All operatively reduced fractures were stabilized with screws. The following postoperative complications were encountered: wound dehiscence (n=1, avascular necrosis (n=2, and post-traumatic osteoarthritis (n=12. Fifteen patients were available for final evaluation at a mean follow- up period of three years (range 10 months to 6 years. Using the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS score, the mean for type-I fracture was 96.4 points, 80.2 points for type-II, 68.5 points for type-III and 55 points for type-IV fractures. TNFs remain a devastating injury as the prognosis and outcomes of treatment continued to be hampered by the consequences of injury.

  20. Perspectives on Obesity and Its Treatment: Health Care Providers and the General Public in Rural West Virginia and Urban Baltimore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menez, Steven; Cheskin, Lawrence; Geller, Gail

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine and compare the perspectives of the general public and health care providers (HCPs) on obesity and its treatment in rural West Virginia (WV) and Baltimore, MD. Method: Surveys were completed in both locations by the general public (WV: "n" = 200; Baltimore: "n" = 171) and HCPs (WV: "n" = 25;…

  1. Dose specification and normal tissue reference points in the treatment of cancer cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, D.K.; Kumar, P.; Misra, D.K.; Das, R.; Kumar, A.; Maji, T.; Chaudhuri, P.; Sinha, T.P.

    2007-01-01

    Carcinoma of uterine cervix is one of the most common diseases among the women in India where radiotherapy is the mainstay of treatment. Most common practice of dose prescription point is the Manchester Point A. American Brachytherapy Society (ABS) recommends a point H equivalent to that used in the classical Manchester system. Many centre practices Madison point M as dose specification point which is 20 mm cephaled along the tandem from a line joining the mid dwell positions in the ovoids/ring and 20 mm lateral to the tandem. In the present study has compared the dose prescription points between Manchester Point A and Madison Point M for ring applicators and their implication in the assessment of rectal and bladder doses in patients of Carcinoma of uterine cervix

  2. Applicability of bacterial cellulose as an alternative to paper points in endodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, Aya; Tabuchi, Mari; Uo, Motohiro; Tatsumi, Hiroto; Hideshima, Katsumi; Kondo, Seiji; Sekine, Joji

    2013-04-01

    Dental root canal treatment is required when dental caries progress to infection of the dental pulp. A major goal of this treatment is to provide complete decontamination of the dental root canal system. However, the morphology of dental root canal systems is complex, and many human dental roots have inaccessible areas. In addition, dental reinfection is fairly common. In conventional treatment, a cotton pellet and paper point made from plant cellulose is used to dry and sterilize the dental root canal. Such sterilization requires a treatment material with high absorbency to remove any residue, the ability to improve the efficacy of intracanal medication and high biocompatibility. Bacterial cellulose (BC) is produced by certain strains of bacteria. In this study, we developed BC in a pointed form and evaluated its applicability as a novel material for dental canal treatment with regard to solution absorption, expansion, tensile strength, drug release and biocompatibility. We found that BC has excellent material and biological characteristics compared with conventional materials, such as paper points (plant cellulose). BC showed noticeably higher absorption and expansion than paper points, and maintained a high tensile strength even when wet. The cumulative release of a model drug was significantly greater from BC than from paper points, and BC showed greater compatibility than paper points. Taken together, BC has great potential for use in dental root canal treatment. Copyright © 2012 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Predictors of engaging in problem gambling treatment: data from the West Virginia Problem Gamblers Help Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstock, Jeremiah; Burton, Steve; Rash, Carla J; Moran, Sheila; Biller, Warren; Krudelbach, Norman; Phoenix, Natalie; Morasco, Benjamin J

    2011-06-01

    Gambling help-lines are an essential access point, or frontline resource, for treatment seeking. This study investigated treatment engagement after calling a gambling help-line. From 2000-2007 over 2,900 unique callers were offered an in-person assessment appointment. Logistic regression analyses assessed predictors of (a) accepting the referral to the in-person assessment appointment and (b) attending the in-person assessment appointment. Over 76% of callers accepted the referral and 55% of all callers attended the in-person assessment appointment. This treatment engagement rate is higher than typically found for other help-lines. Demographic factors and clinical factors such as gender, severity of gambling problems, amount of gambling debt, and coercion by legal and social networks predicted engagement in treatment. Programmatic factors such as offering an appointment within 72 hr also aided treatment engagement. Results suggest gambling help-lines can be a convenient and confidential way for many individuals with gambling problems to access gambling-specific treatment. Alternative services such as telephone counseling may be beneficial for those who do not engage in treatment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. [Cryptogenic West syndrome: Clinical profile, response to treatment and prognostic factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón Romero, María; Arce Portillo, Elena; López Lobato, Mercedes; Muñoz Cabello, Beatriz; Blanco Martínez, Bárbara; Madruga Garrido, Marcos; Alonso Luego, Olga

    2017-12-06

    West syndrome (WS) is an age-dependent epileptic encephalopathy in which the prognosis varies according to the, not always identified, underlying origin. To define the profile of cryptogenic (a least studied isolated sub-group) WS, in Spain. To study its outcome, response to different treatments, and to establish prognostic factors. The study included a review of the medical records of 16 patients diagnosed with cryptogenic WS during the period, 2000-2015. The mean follow-up time was 6.6 years, with a minimum of 2 years. The large majority (11/16) were male. The mean age at onset was 6 months, and 6/16 had a family history of idiopathic epilepsy. The first line treatment with vigabatrin had an electrical-clinical response in 5/16 patients, with the remaining cases responding to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). Almost half (44%) of the patients progressed to other types of epilepsy, with no difference between those treated with vigabatrin or ACTH. A greater number of adverse effects were obtained with ACTH, with no retinal involvement being observed with vigabatrin. The aetiological cause was found in 2/16. Being female, late onset, and early control of the hypsarrhythmia, were factors of a good prognosis. The overall prognosis of cryptogenic WS was more serious than expected. Although the incidence of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome was low, the progression to focal epilepsy was the most common, with it appearing within the first 2 years of the diagnosis. The initial response to vigabatrin was lower than expected, but the long-term result was comparable to ACTH. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  5. Treatment of Myofascial Trigger Points of Pelvic Floor with Physiotherapeutic Package: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeil Shokri

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are various factors that may cause pain and dysfunction in the pelvic region. Myofascial trigger points can likewise contribute in pelvic pain. Common treatments for myofascial trigger points include electrotherapy, laser therapy, massage, ischemic compression, dry-needling, stretch, icing, heating, and biofeedback. Case Report: A 26 year old man with an exertion-related pain that lasted 5 months was referred for physiotherapy consultation. He had no pain at rest but reported a referral pain from perineal region to the anus and muscular stiffness following a bout of physical activity. On palpation there was a trigger point in the perineal region with referral pain to anus. At the beginning of the treatment, the patient was asked to stop his physical activities. The patient received a treatment package which was useful in the management of trigger points. After 7 sessions of treatment the pain was diminished and there was no exercise induced stiffness. The patient was followed for 10 months later and no pain and stiffness was reported. Conclusion: The application of heat, friction massage, stretching, combined with endurance exercise could be an effective treatment for reliving the pain and muscular stiffness caused by trigger points.

  6. An Altimetry-Derived Index of the Offshore Forcing on the "Pressure Point" of the West Florida Shelf: Anomalous Upwelling and Its Influence on Harmful Algal Blooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Weisberg, R. H.; Lenes, J. M.; Zheng, L.; Hubbard, K.; Walsh, J. J.

    2017-12-01

    Gulf of Mexico Loop Current (LC) interactions with the West Florida Shelf (WFS) slope play an important role in shelf ecology through the upwelling of new inorganic nutrients across the shelf break. This is particularly the case when the LC impinges upon the shelf slope in the southwest portion of the WFS near the Dry Tortugas. By contacting shallow water isobaths at this "pressure point" the LC forcing sets the entire shelf into motion. Characteristic patterns of LC interactions with the WFS and their occurrences are identified from altimetry data using unsupervised neural network, self-organizing map. The duration of the occurrences of such LC patterns is used as an indicator of offshore forcing of anomalous upwelling. Consistency is found between the altimetry-derived offshore forcing and the occurrence and severity of WFS coastal blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis: years without major blooms tend to have prolonged LC contact at the "pressure point," whereas years with major blooms tend not to have prolonged offshore forcing. Resetting the nutrient state of the shelf by the coastal ocean circulation in response to deep-ocean forcing demonstrates the importance of physical oceanography in shelf ecology. A satellite altimetry-derived seasonal predictor for major K. brevis blooms is also proposed.

  7. Methodology of adjustment point in the post treatment of gaseous effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vizuet G, J.; Molina, G.

    2005-01-01

    The methodology to determine the adjustment points of the monitoring system of gaseous discharges is based on the stipulations of the 10CFR20, which are expressed in terms of limit concentrations for the outstanding radionuclides, and of dose limits for the individuals members of the public. Besides the points of liberation properly said, like they are the chimneys of the reactor buildings and of turbine, the points of adjustment of the monitoring instrumentation that watches in real time the discharge of the Treatment system of output gases, to the HVAC of the waste building; they also undergo to the same methodology, with the approaches previously described. (Author)

  8. Impact of Heat Treatment on the Freezing Points of Cow and Goat Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohumíra Janštová

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to monitor the impact of heat treatment variables on the freezing point of cow and goat milk. The freezing point (FP was established in 30 bulk tank samples of goat milk and in 30 bulk tank samples of cow milk which were subject to laboratory heat treatment at temperatures of 72 °C (A, 85 °C (B, 95 °C (C, with the same exposition times of 20 s. Freezing point measurements of raw and heat-treated milk were carried out in compliance with the Standard CTS 57 0538 by a thermistor cryoscope. The FP of raw cow milk increased with heat treatment from the initial values of -0.5252 ± 0.0114 °C (O by 0.0023 °C (A, 0.0034 °C (B and 0.0051°C (C. Changes in FP values of goat milk were detected, from its initial value of –0.5530 ± 0.0086 °C there was an increase in the FP depending on the mode of heat treatment due to pasteurization by an average of 0.0028 °C (A, 0.0036 °C (B and 0.0054 °C (C. The dynamics of the changes were similar both in goat and cow milk. Freezing point values in cow and goat milk differed (P ⪬ 0.01 when compared to the freezing point of untreated milk after the individual interventions as well as when compared between each other. An increase in the heat treatment temperature of cow and goat milk causes an increase in the freezing point (a shift towards zero. These results can be used in practice for checking the raw material in dairy industry.

  9. Root diseases in coniferous forests of the Inland West: potential implications of fuels treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raini C. Rippy; Jane E. Stewart; Paul J. Zambino; Ned B. Klopfenstein; Joanne M. Tirocke; Mee-Sook Kim; Walter G. Thies

    2005-01-01

    After nearly 100 years of fire exclusion, introduced pests, and selective harvesting, a change in forest composition has occurred in many Inland West forests of North America. This change in forest structure has frequently been accompanied by increases in root diseases and/or an unprecedented buildup of fuels. Consequently, many forest managers are implementing plans...

  10. [Discussion on the key points of building modern theory of acupuncture treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang

    2013-10-01

    Acupuncture treatment is different from treatment of materia medica. However, syndrome differentiation system of internal medicine is adopted all the time for the present acupuncture textbooks. It is held that the characteristics of acupuncture can not be fully reflexed, and advantages of acupuncture can not be brought into full play. Therefore, it's urgent to build up a modem theory on acupuncture treatment which is fit for the clinical practice of acupuncture and can give a better play for the treatment of acupuncture. A clear target is one of the characteristics of acupuncture treatment. And it is based on the understanding of the location of disease, therefore, disease differentiation is held as the basis of acupuncture treatment. The aim of meridian differentiation is to select distal effective points on the base of diseases differentiation, which is also taken as the characteristics of acupuncture treatment. Syndrome differentiation is a process of understanding the general pathological states of the human body, it is an important process to enhance the therapeutic effect of acupuncture. Thus, the key point for establishing the modern acupuncture theory is clarifying the values of disease differentiation, meridian differentiation and syndrome differentiation.

  11. "Make Sure You're Not Getting Yourself in Trouble:" Building Sexual Relationships and Preventing Sexual Violence at the U.S. Military Academy at West Point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbeit, Miriam R

    2017-10-01

    Sexual violence continues to present a problem on college campuses nationwide and among members of the U.S. military. This study attended to patterns of response in how students (cadets) at the U.S. Military Academy (West Point) discussed sexual and romantic relationships, both potential and actual, in order to examine how, if at all, they enact their sexuality-related values. Constructivist grounded theory was used to analyze semistructured interviews with three male and three female cadets from each of the 4 years of the undergraduate program, in which they are intended to become "leaders of character" who will serve as Army officers. Findings indicated limitations in cadets' access to developing and implementing sexuality-related skills within this context. Cadets' fear and distrust erected barriers to their pursuing their desires; the ways in which cadets avoided getting in trouble for sexual harassment or sexual assault shifted responsibility from a potential perpetrator onto a potential victim; and cadets were caught in dilemmas regarding romantic relationships as sources of both emotional support and social stigma. These findings have implications for promoting gender equity and for preventing sexual violence at this institution and at others like it, including both university campuses and other military settings.

  12. Adaptive brachytherapy of cervical cancer, comparison of conventional point A and CT based individual treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanderaas, Anne D.; Langdal, Ingrid; Danielsen, Signe; Frykholm, Gunilla; Marthinsen, Anne B. L; Sundset, Marit

    2012-01-01

    Background. Locally advanced cervical cancer is commonly treated with external radiation therapy combined with local brachytherapy. The brachytherapy is traditionally given based on standard dose planning with prescription of dose to point A. Dosimetric aspects when changing from former standard treatment to individualized treatment plans based on computed tomography (CT) images are here investigated. Material and methods. Brachytherapy data from 19 patients with a total of 72 individual treatment fractions were retrospectively reviewed. Standard library plans were analyzed with respect to doses to organs at risk (OARs), and the result was compared to corresponding delivered individualized plans. The theoretical potential of further optimization based on prescription to target volumes was investigated. The treatments were performed with a Fletcher applicator. Results. For standard treatment planning, the tolerance dose limits were exceeded in the bladder, rectum and sigmoid in 26%, 4% and 15% of the plans, respectively. This was observed most often for the smallest target volumes. The individualized planning of the delivered treatment gave the possibility of controlling the dose to critical organs to below certain limits. The dose was still prescribed to point A. An increase in target dose coverage was achieved when additional individual optimization was performed, while still keeping the dose to the OARs below predefined limits. Relatively low average target coverage, especially for the largest volumes was however seen. Conclusion. The individualized delivered treatment plans ensured that doses to OARs were within acceptable limits. This was not the case in 42% of the corresponding standard plans. Further optimized treatment plans were found to give an overall better dose coverage. In lack of MR capacity, it may be favorable to use CT for planning due to possible protection of OARs. The CT based target volumes were, however, not equivalent to the volumes described

  13. Acupuncture point injection treatment of primary dysmenorrhoea: a randomised, double blind, controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, C; Wang, L; Zhao, W J; Cardini, F; Kronenberg, F; Gui, S Q; Ying, Z; Zhao, N Q; Chao, M T; Yu, J

    2016-01-05

    To determine if injection of vitamin K3 in an acupuncture point is optimal for the treatment of primary dysmenorrhoea, when compared with 2 other injection treatments. A Menstrual Disorder Centre at a public hospital in Shanghai, China. Chinese women aged 14-25 years with severe primary dysmenorrhoea for at least 6 months not relieved by any other treatment were recruited. Exclusion criteria were the use of oral contraceptives, intrauterine devices or anticoagulant drugs, pregnancy, history of abdominal surgery, participation in other therapies for pain and diagnosis of secondary dysmenorrhoea. Eighty patients with primary dysmenorrhoea, as defined on a 4-grade scale, completed the study. Two patients withdrew after randomisation. A double-blind, double-dummy, randomised controlled trial compared vitamin K3 acupuncture point injection to saline acupuncture point injection and vitamin K3 deep muscle injection. Patients in each group received 3 injections at a single treatment visit. The primary outcome was the difference in subjective perception of pain as measured by an 11 unit Numeric Rating Scale (NRS). Secondary measurements were Cox Pain Intensity and Duration scales and the consumption of analgesic tablets before and after treatment and during 6 following cycles. Patients in all 3 groups experienced pain relief from the injection treatments. Differences in NRS measured mean pain scores between the 2 active control groups were less than 1 unit (-0.71, CI -1.37 to -0.05) and not significant, but the differences in average scores between the treatment hypothesised to be optimal and both active control groups (1.11, CI 0.45 to 1.78) and (1.82, CI 1.45 to 2.49) were statistically significant in adjusted mixed-effects models. Menstrual distress and use of analgesics were diminished for 6 months post-treatment. Acupuncture point injection of vitamin K3 relieves menstrual pain rapidly and is a useful treatment in an urban outpatient clinic. NCT00104546; Results

  14. Epidemiology and Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in West-Nile Populations of Sudan and Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Neuner, Frank

    2003-01-01

    Bürgerkriege haben für die betroffenen Länder verheerende Auswirkungen auf soz-ialer, wirtschaftlicher, medizinischer und politischer Ebene. In einer epidemiologischen Studie, die im West-Nil Gebiet von Sudan und Uganda durchgeführt wurde, sollten die psychischen Folgen des sudanesischen Bürgerkrieges untersucht werden. Dabei wurden drei Populationen miteinander verglichen: Sudanesen, die im Sudan verblieben waren (n =664), Flüchtlinge, die aus dem Sudan nach Uganda geflohen waren (n = 1240) ...

  15. BrachyTPS -Interactive point kernel code package for brachytherapy treatment planning of gynaecological cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thilagam, L.; Subbaiah, K.V.

    2008-01-01

    Brachytherapy treatment planning systems (TPS) are always recommended to account for the effect of tissue, applicator and shielding material heterogeneities exist in Intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT) applicators. Most of the commercially available brachytherapy TPS softwares estimate the absorbed dose at a point, only taking care of the contributions of individual sources and the source distribution, neglecting the dose perturbations arising from the applicator design and construction. So the doses estimated by them are not much accurate under realistic clinical conditions. In this regard, interactive point kernel rode (BrachyTPS) has been developed to perform independent dose calculations by taking into account the effect of these heterogeneities, using two regions build up factors, proposed by Kalos. As primary input data, the code takes patients' planning data including the source specifications, dwell positions, dwell times and it computes the doses at reference points by dose point kernel formalisms, with multi-layer shield build-up factors accounting for the contributions from scattered radiation. In addition to performing dose distribution calculations, this code package is capable of displaying an isodose distribution curve into the patient anatomy images. The primary aim of this study is to validate the developed point kernel code integrated with treatment planning systems against the other tools which are available in the market. In the present work, three brachytherapy applicators commonly used in the treatment of uterine cervical carcinoma, Board of Radiation Isotope and Technology (BRIT) made low dose rate (LDR) applicator, Fletcher Green type LDR applicator and Fletcher Williamson high dose rate (HDR) applicator were studied to test the accuracy of the software

  16. Depression treatment for impoverished mothers by point-of-care providers: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segre, Lisa S; Brock, Rebecca L; O'Hara, Michael W

    2015-04-01

    Depression in low-income, ethnic-minority women of childbearing age is prevalent and compromises infant and child development. Yet numerous barriers prevent treatment delivery. Listening Visits (LV), an empirically supported intervention developed for delivery by British home-visiting nurses, could address this unmet mental health need. This randomized controlled trial (RCT) evaluated the effectiveness of LV delivered at a woman's usual point-of-care, including home visits or an ob-gyn office. Listening Visits were delivered to depressed pregnant women or mothers of young children by their point-of-care provider (e.g., home visitor or physician's assistant), all of whom had low levels of prior counseling experience. Three quarters of the study's participants were low-income. Of those who reported ethnicity, all identified themselves as minorities. Participants from 4 study sites (N = 66) were randomized in a 2:1 ratio, to LV or a wait-list control group (WLC). Assessments, conducted at baseline and 8 weeks, evaluated depression, quality of life, and treatment satisfaction. Depressive severity, depressive symptoms, and quality of life significantly improved among LV recipients as compared with women receiving standard social/health services. Women valued LV as evidenced by their high attendance rates and treatment satisfaction ratings. In a stepped model of depression care, LV can provide an accessible, acceptable, and effective first-line treatment option for at-risk women who otherwise are unlikely to receive treatment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Air-sea fluxes of CO2 and CH4 from the Penlee Point Atmospheric Observatory on the south-west coast of the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mingxi; Bell, Thomas G.; Hopkins, Frances E.; Kitidis, Vassilis; Cazenave, Pierre W.; Nightingale, Philip D.; Yelland, Margaret J.; Pascal, Robin W.; Prytherch, John; Brooks, Ian M.; Smyth, Timothy J.

    2016-05-01

    We present air-sea fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), momentum, and sensible heat measured by the eddy covariance method from the recently established Penlee Point Atmospheric Observatory (PPAO) on the south-west coast of the United Kingdom. Measurements from the south-westerly direction (open water sector) were made at three different sampling heights (approximately 15, 18, and 27 m above mean sea level, a.m.s.l.), each from a different period during 2014-2015. At sampling heights ≥ 18 m a.m.s.l., measured fluxes of momentum and sensible heat demonstrate reasonable ( ≤ ±20 % in the mean) agreement with transfer rates over the open ocean. This confirms the suitability of PPAO for air-sea exchange measurements in shelf regions. Covariance air-sea CO2 fluxes demonstrate high temporal variability. Air-to-sea transport of CO2 declined from spring to summer in both years, coinciding with the breakdown of the spring phytoplankton bloom. We report, to the best of our knowledge, the first successful eddy covariance measurements of CH4 emissions from a marine environment. Higher sea-to-air CH4 fluxes were observed during rising tides (20 ± 3; 38 ± 3; 29 ± 6 µmole m-2 d-1 at 15, 18, 27 m a.m.s.l.) than during falling tides (14 ± 2; 22 ± 2; 21 ± 5 µmole m-2 d-1), consistent with an elevated CH4 source from an estuarine outflow driven by local tidal circulation. These fluxes are a few times higher than the predicted CH4 emissions over the open ocean and are significantly lower than estimates from other aquatic CH4 hotspots (e.g. polar regions, freshwater). Finally, we found the detection limit of the air-sea CH4 flux by eddy covariance to be 20 µmole m-2 d-1 over hourly timescales (4 µmole m-2 d-1 over 24 h).

  18. National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Wastewater Treatment Plant Points, Region 9, 2007, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Point geospatial dataset representing locations of NPDES Waste Water Treatment Plant Facilities. NPDES (National Pollution Discharge Elimination System) is an EPA...

  19. National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Wastewater Treatment Plant Points, Region 9, 2011, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Point geospatial dataset representing locations of NPDES Waste Water Treatment Plant Facilities. NPDES (National Pollution Discharge Elimination System) is an EPA...

  20. National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Wastewater Treatment Plant Points, Region 9, 2012, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Point geospatial dataset representing locations of NPDES Waste Water Treatment Plant Facilities. NPDES (National Pollution Discharge Elimination System) is an EPA...

  1. Suitability of point kernel dose calculation techniques in brachytherapy treatment planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshminarayanan Thilagam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Brachytherapy treatment planning system (TPS is necessary to estimate the dose to target volume and organ at risk (OAR. TPS is always recommended to account for the effect of tissue, applicator and shielding material heterogeneities exist in applicators. However, most brachytherapy TPS software packages estimate the absorbed dose at a point, taking care of only the contributions of individual sources and the source distribution, neglecting the dose perturbations arising from the applicator design and construction. There are some degrees of uncertainties in dose rate estimations under realistic clinical conditions. In this regard, an attempt is made to explore the suitability of point kernels for brachytherapy dose rate calculations and develop new interactive brachytherapy package, named as BrachyTPS, to suit the clinical conditions. BrachyTPS is an interactive point kernel code package developed to perform independent dose rate calculations by taking into account the effect of these heterogeneities, using two regions build up factors, proposed by Kalos. The primary aim of this study is to validate the developed point kernel code package integrated with treatment planning computational systems against the Monte Carlo (MC results. In the present work, three brachytherapy applicators commonly used in the treatment of uterine cervical carcinoma, namely (i Board of Radiation Isotope and Technology (BRIT low dose rate (LDR applicator and (ii Fletcher Green type LDR applicator (iii Fletcher Williamson high dose rate (HDR applicator, are studied to test the accuracy of the software. Dose rates computed using the developed code are compared with the relevant results of the MC simulations. Further, attempts are also made to study the dose rate distribution around the commercially available shielded vaginal applicator set (Nucletron. The percentage deviations of BrachyTPS computed dose rate values from the MC results are observed to be within plus/minus 5

  2. Auricular Point Acupressure for Chronic Low Back Pain: A Feasibility Study for 1-Week Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Hsing Yeh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The objective of this one-group, repeated-measures design was to explore the acceptance of auricular point acupressure (APA to reduce chronic low back pain (CLBP and estimate minimum clinically important differences (MCIDs for pain intensity change. Methods. Subjects received 7-day APA treatment. After appropriate acupoints were identified, vaccaria seeds were carefully taped onto each selected auricular point for 7-day. The Brief Pain Inventory Short Form (BPI was used to collect outcome data. Results. A total of 74 subjects participated in the study. Ten subjects dropped out and the retention rate was 87%. Subjects reported a 46% reduction in BPI worst pain, and over 50% reduction in BPI average pain, overall pain severity and pain interference by the end of study, and 62.5% subjects also reported less pain medication use. The MCIDs for the subscale of BPI ranged from .70 to 1.86 points. The percentage improvement of MCIDs from baseline was between 14.5–24.9%. Discussion. APA appears to be highly acceptable to patients with CLBP. A sham group is needed in order to differentiate the true effects of APA from the possible psychological effects of more frequent visits by the auricular therapist and patients’ expectation of the APA treatment.

  3. Antiretroviral treatment response of HIV-infected children after prevention of mother-to-child transmission in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ndondoki, Camille; Dicko, Fatoumata; Ahuatchi Coffie, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: We assessed the rate of treatment failure of HIV-infected children after 12 months on antiretroviral treatment (ART) in the Paediatric IeDEA West African Collaboration according to their perinatal exposure to antiretroviral drugs for preventing mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT......). METHODS: A retrospective cohort study in children younger than five years at ART initiation between 2004 and 2009 was nested within the pWADA cohort, in Bamako-Mali and Abidjan-Côte d'Ivoire. Data on PMTCT exposure were collected through a direct review of children's medical records. The 12-month Kaplan....... Immunological failure was defined according to the 2006 World Health Organization age-related immunological thresholds for severe immunodeficiency. RESULTS: Among the 1035 eligible children, PMTCT exposure was only documented for 353 children (34.1%) and remained unknown for 682 (65.9%). Among children...

  4. Assessment of Nelumbo nucifera and Hydrilla verticillata in the treatment of pharmaceutical industry effluent from 24 Parganas, West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamba Chatterjee

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Modern day technologies employed in industrialization and unhygienic lifestyle of mankind has led to a severe environmental menace resulting in pollution of freshwater bodies. Pharmaceutical industry effluents cause eutrophication and provide adequate nutrients for growth of pathogenic bacteria. This study has been conducted with aquatic plants water lotus (Nelumbo nucifera and hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata with an novel aim to treat pharmaceutical industry effluents showing the outcome of the experiments carried out with the effluents collected from rural areas of 24 Parganas, West Bengal, India. Determination of pH, solid suspend, BOD5, NH3-N, MPN and coliform test were used for this notioned purpose. Pharmaceutical waste effluent water treated with water lotus showed less pH, solid suspend, DO, BOD, NH3-N, MPN and coliform bacteria than hydrilla treatment when compared to the control. In conclusion, water lotus is found to be more efficient in treatment of pharmaceutical industry effluent waste water than hydrilla.

  5. 40 CFR 63.1583 - What are the emission points and control requirements for an industrial POTW treatment plant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... control requirements for an industrial POTW treatment plant? 63.1583 Section 63.1583 Protection of... Pollutants: Publicly Owned Treatment Works Industrial Potw Treatment Plant Description and Requirements § 63.1583 What are the emission points and control requirements for an industrial POTW treatment plant? (a...

  6. Neuro Emotional Technique for the treatment of trigger point sensitivity in chronic neck pain sufferers: A controlled clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Bablis, Peter; Pollard, Henry; Bonello, Rod

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Trigger points have been shown to be active in many myofascial pain syndromes. Treatment of trigger point pain and dysfunction may be explained through the mechanisms of central and peripheral paradigms. This study aimed to investigate whether the mind/body treatment of Neuro Emotional Technique (NET) could significantly relieve pain sensitivity of trigger points presenting in a cohort of chronic neck pain sufferers. Methods Sixty participants presenting to a private chiro...

  7. Air–sea fluxes of CO2 and CH4 from the Penlee Point Atmospheric Observatory on the south-west coast of the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We present air–sea fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2, methane (CH4, momentum, and sensible heat measured by the eddy covariance method from the recently established Penlee Point Atmospheric Observatory (PPAO on the south-west coast of the United Kingdom. Measurements from the south-westerly direction (open water sector were made at three different sampling heights (approximately 15, 18, and 27 m above mean sea level, a.m.s.l., each from a different period during 2014–2015. At sampling heights  ≥  18 m a.m.s.l., measured fluxes of momentum and sensible heat demonstrate reasonable ( ≤  ±20 % in the mean agreement with transfer rates over the open ocean. This confirms the suitability of PPAO for air–sea exchange measurements in shelf regions. Covariance air–sea CO2 fluxes demonstrate high temporal variability. Air-to-sea transport of CO2 declined from spring to summer in both years, coinciding with the breakdown of the spring phytoplankton bloom. We report, to the best of our knowledge, the first successful eddy covariance measurements of CH4 emissions from a marine environment. Higher sea-to-air CH4 fluxes were observed during rising tides (20 ± 3; 38 ± 3; 29 ± 6 µmole m−2 d−1 at 15, 18, 27 m a.m.s.l. than during falling tides (14 ± 2; 22 ± 2; 21 ± 5 µmole m−2 d−1, consistent with an elevated CH4 source from an estuarine outflow driven by local tidal circulation. These fluxes are a few times higher than the predicted CH4 emissions over the open ocean and are significantly lower than estimates from other aquatic CH4 hotspots (e.g. polar regions, freshwater. Finally, we found the detection limit of the air–sea CH4 flux by eddy covariance to be 20 µmole m−2 d−1 over hourly timescales (4 µmole m−2 d−1 over 24 h.

  8. Auricular point acupressure as an adjunct analgesic treatment for cancer patients: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chao Hsing; Chien, Lung-Chang; Chiang, Yi Chien; Ren, Dianxu; Suen, Lorna Kwai-Ping

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed (1) to examine the feasibility of an auricular point acupressure (APA) research protocol in terms of recruitment and for the assessment and management of pain and (2) to examine the potential APA analgesic effects for cancer patients. This study was a repeated-measures one-group design. Participants were recruited from the cancer center follow-up clinic affiliated with a large university hospital in the northeastern United States. Participants included 50 patients aged 55-87 years with a diagnosis of cancer. Participants received 7 days of APA treatment for their pain. After appropriate acupoints were identified, vaccaria seeds were carefully taped onto each selected auricular point on each ear. The study recruitment and retention rates were 92% and 91%, respectively. Importantly, the study found preliminary evidence for the analgesic effects of APA for cancer pain management. For example, by the end of the 7-day study, APA reduced pain intensity more than 55% for "worst pain" and about 57% for "average pain" and "pain intensity." Moreover, the use of pain medication was reduced during the APA treatment (e.g., 78% of patients [n = 39] took less pain medication than before the treatment). APA appears to be highly acceptable to patients with cancer-related pain. However, without a placebo control, we cannot draw conclusive evidence for the analgesic effect of APA for cancer patients. A sham group must be added to future studies to differentiate the true effects of APA from the possible psychological effects of the APA treatment. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The profile and treatment outcomes of sputum smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis re-treatment cases, in a district medical college of West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abinash Agarwala

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In a high tuberculosis (TB burden county like India with different regional demography, knowledge about patient profile has a pivotal role in determining and identifying the factors associated with poor treatment outcomes among TB re-treatment cases. Aim: The aim was to describe the demography and clinical characteristics of TB re-treatment cases and to evaluate the factors associated with poor treatment outcomes among those patients. Settings and Design: A prospective longitudinal cohort study was carried out at chest medicine outdoor from February, 2011 to 2014 in a district medical college of West Bengal, India. Materials and Methods: Sputum smear positive re-treatment pulmonary TB patients attending our chest medicine outdoor during the 3 years study period were evaluated for demographic and clinical characteristics on the basis of previous treatment history and records at the beginning of the study. Patients were followed-up during the 8 months treatment period (Category II treatment regimen under Revised National TB Control Program. At the end of the study period, treatment outcomes were analyzed and factors associated with poor treatment outcomes were identified. Statistical Analysis: All variables were described by proportions, and differences between independent groups were compared using the Chi-square test and Fisher′s exact test, as applicable. Results: Among 74 patients, re-treatment was successful in 75.7% of relapse case, 66.7% of loss to follow-up cases and 53.8% of failure cases. Re-treatment failure was higher (38.5% in treatment failure cases compare to relapse cases (10.8% and initial loss to follow-up cases (16.7%. Young age, male, unmarried, employed who work outside appears to be the risk factors for loss to follow-up. Low body mass index, treatment from the private sector, history of alcoholism, radiological cavitory lesion, larger duration of previous treatment, lesser gap from previous treatment has

  10. Evaluating the sustainability of ceramic filters for point-of-use drinking water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Dianjun; Colosi, Lisa M; Smith, James A

    2013-10-01

    This study evaluates the social, economic, and environmental sustainability of ceramic filters impregnated with silver nanoparticles for point-of-use (POU) drinking water treatment in developing countries. The functional unit for this analysis was the amount of water consumed by a typical household over ten years (37,960 L), as delivered by either the POU technology or a centralized water treatment and distribution system. Results indicate that the ceramic filters are 3-6 times more cost-effective than the centralized water system for reduction of waterborne diarrheal illness among the general population and children under five. The ceramic filters also exhibit better environmental performance for four of five evaluated life cycle impacts: energy use, water use, global warming potential, and particulate matter emissions (PM10). For smog formation potential, the centralized system is preferable to the ceramic filter POU technology. This convergence of social, economic, and environmental criteria offers clear indication that the ceramic filter POU technology is a more sustainable choice for drinking water treatment in developing countries than the centralized treatment systems that have been widely adopted in industrialized countries.

  11. Outcome of graves' disease after anti-thyroid drug treatment in South West of Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahbazian, H.; Saiedinia, S.; Aleali, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study was conducted to observe the optimal results of long term treatment with antithyroid drugs in patients with graves' disease. Methodology: Total of 268 patients with graves' disease who were referred to endocrinology clinic during 2005 - 2008 and treated with anti-thyroid drugs for a long term were studied. Data about the age, gender, estimated weight of thyroid before and after the treatment, level of thyroid hormones, disease relapse, hypothyroidism and the drug side-effects were collected and analyzed. Results: Eighty two (31%) patients were males, 186 (69%) females, mean age of 35 +- 27 years and follow-up course of 31+- 16 months], were studied. After the discontinuation of long term treatment, 53% were affected with relapse of hyperthyroidism. The mean duration of hyperthyroidism relapse after the treatment was 8.3 +- 7.3 months. The relapse rate was and patients with large thyroid and lower TSH level at the end of treatment, the rate of relapse treatment was about 6%. More decrease of thyroid size during the treatment course, higher level of serum TSH after discontinuation of the treatment, and lower thyroid hormone levels before the treatment were some of the effective factors in hypothyroidism incidence (P=0.005, patients (39%) remained euthyroid in the follow-up course. Conclusion: patients with graves' especially in middle-aged women with smaller goiters. (author)

  12. Sustainable colloidal-silver-impregnated ceramic filter for point-of-use water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyanedel-Craver, Vinka A; Smith, James A

    2008-02-01

    Cylindrical colloidal-silver-impregnated ceramic filters for household (point-of-use) water treatment were manufactured and tested for performance in the laboratory with respect to flow rate and bacteria transport. Filters were manufactured by combining clay-rich soil with water, grog (previously fired clay), and flour, pressing them into cylinders, and firing them at 900 degrees C for 8 h. The pore-size distribution of the resulting ceramic filters was quantified by mercury porosimetry. Colloidal silver was applied to filters in different quantities and ways (dipping and painting). Filters were also tested without any colloidal-silver application. Hydraulic conductivity of the filters was quantified using changing-head permeability tests. [3H]H2O water was used as a conservative tracer to quantify advection velocities and the coefficient of hydrodynamic dispersion. Escherichia coli (E. coli) was used to quantify bacterial transport through the filters. Hydraulic conductivity and pore-size distribution varied with filter composition; hydraulic conductivities were on the order of 10(-5) cm/s and more than 50% of the pores for each filter had diameters ranging from 0.02 to 15 microm. The filters removed between 97.8% and 100% of the applied bacteria; colloidal-silver treatments improved filter performance, presumably by deactivation of bacteria. The quantity of colloidal silver applied per filter was more important to bacteria removal than the method of application. Silver concentrations in effluent filter water were initially greater than 0.1 mg/L, but dropped below this value after 200 min of continuous operation. These results indicate that colloidal-silver-impregnated ceramic filters, which can be made using primarily local materials and labor, show promise as an effective and sustainable point-of-use water treatment technology for the world's poorest communities.

  13. Selection of the treatment method for the West Valley alkaline supernatant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carl, D.E.; Leonard, I.M.

    1987-02-01

    As part of the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), th PUREX supernatant stored in Tank 8d-2 will be partially decontaminated before encapsulation in the final glass form. This report discusses selection of a method for removing Cs-137, the major radioactive ion in the supernatant. Methods considered were: (1) electrodialysis; (2) hyperfiltration; (3) precipitation with ferrocyanide, NaTPB, or PTA; (4) organic ion exchange using Cs-100 or a biologically derived media; (5) chelation using DeVoe/Holbein compostions; and (6) inorganic ion exchange using Durasil, natural zeolities, IE-95 or IE-96 media. Several different methods of using inorganic ion exchange media were also reviewed including (1) four columns with elution, and (2) two, three, or four columns without elution. After the careful evaluation of experimental data with all process constraints taken into account, the inorganic exchange media IE-96 (Linde Ionsiv IE-96 synthetic zeolite) was chosen for WVDP cesium recovery. IE-96 was chosen for the following reasons: high sorption rate, a decontamination factor (DF) over 1000, excellent exchange capacity at WVDP conditions, compatability with the glass formers used for borosilicate glass in direct melter feed applications, and a history of successful application in radio chemical seperation for waste streams. 34 refs., 29 figs., 27 tabs

  14. Using sorbent waste materials to enhance treatment of micro-point source effluents by constructed wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Verity; Surridge, Ben; Quinton, John; Matthews, Mike

    2014-05-01

    Sorbent materials are widely used in environmental settings as a means of enhancing pollution remediation. A key area of environmental concern is that of water pollution, including the need to treat micro-point sources of wastewater pollution, such as from caravan sites or visitor centres. Constructed wetlands (CWs) represent one means for effective treatment of wastewater from small wastewater producers, in part because they are believed to be economically viable and environmentally sustainable. Constructed wetlands have the potential to remove a range of pollutants found in wastewater, including nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and carbon (C), whilst also reducing the total suspended solids (TSS) concentration in effluents. However, there remain particular challenges for P and N removal from wastewater in CWs, as well as the sometimes limited BOD removal within these treatment systems, particularly for micro-point sources of wastewater. It has been hypothesised that the amendment of CWs with sorbent materials can enhance their potential to treat wastewater, particularly through enhancing the removal of N and P. This paper focuses on data from batch and mesocosm studies that were conducted to identify and assess sorbent materials suitable for use within CWs. The aim in using sorbent material was to enhance the combined removal of phosphate (PO4-P) and ammonium (NH4-N). The key selection criteria for the sorbent materials were that they possess effective PO4-P, NH4-N or combined pollutant removal, come from low cost and sustainable sources, have potential for reuse, for example as a fertiliser or soil conditioner, and show limited potential for re-release of adsorbed nutrients. The sorbent materials selected for testing were alum sludge from water treatment works, ochre derived from minewater treatment, biochar derived from various feedstocks, plasterboard and zeolite. The performance of the individual sorbents was assessed through

  15. Treatment of myofascial trigger points in female patients with chronic tension-type headache - A randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berggreen, S.; Wiik, E.; Lund, Hans

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of myofascial trigger point massage in the muscles of the head, neck and shoulders regarding pain in the treatment of females with chronic tension-type headache. They were randomized into either a treatment group (n = 20) (one session of trigger......: 8.8 (95% CI 0.1117.4), p = 0.047). Furthermore, a significant decrease in the number of trigger points was observed in the treatment group compared with the control group. Myofascial trigger point massage has a beneficial effect on pain in female patients with chronic tension-type headache....... point massage per week for 10 weeks) or a control group receiving no treatment (n = 19). The patients kept a diary to record their pain on a visual analogue scale (VAS), and the daily intake of drugs (mg) during the 4 weeks before and after the treatment period. The McGill Pain Questionnaire...

  16. Cost analysis of the treatment of severe acute malnutrition in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isanaka, Sheila; Menzies, Nicolas A; Sayyad, Jessica; Ayoola, Mudasiru; Grais, Rebecca F; Doyon, Stéphane

    2017-10-01

    We present an updated cost analysis to provide new estimates of the cost of providing community-based treatment for severe acute malnutrition, including expenditure shares for major cost categories. We calculated total and per child costs from a provider perspective. We categorized costs into three main activities (outpatient treatment, inpatient treatment, and management/administration) and four cost categories within each activity (personnel; therapeutic food; medical supplies; and infrastructure and logistical support). For each category, total costs were calculated by multiplying input quantities expended in the Médecins Sans Frontières nutrition program in Niger during a 12-month study period by 2015 input prices. All children received outpatient treatment, with 43% also receiving inpatient treatment. In this large, well-established program, the average cost per child treated was €148.86, with outpatient and inpatient treatment costs of €75.50 and €134.57 per child, respectively. Therapeutic food (44%, €32.98 per child) and personnel (35%, €26.70 per child) dominated outpatient costs, while personnel (56%, €75.47 per child) dominated in the cost of inpatient care. Sensitivity analyses suggested lowering prices of medical treatments, and therapeutic food had limited effect on total costs per child, while increasing program size and decreasing use of expatriate staff support reduced total costs per child substantially. Updated estimates of severe acute malnutrition treatment cost are substantially lower than previously published values, and important cost savings may be possible with increases in coverage/program size and integration into national health programs. These updated estimates can be used to suggest approaches to improve efficiency and inform national-level resource allocation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Managing medical treatment waste and effluent: the point of view of a nuclear medicine practitioner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karcher, G.

    2011-01-01

    The nuclear medicine department of the Nancy CHU hospital is one of the largest in France: 16.000 patients are welcomed each year and 4.000 persons undergo a tomography there. 5 shielded and isolated rooms, dedicated to Iodine 131 treatment, allow the care of 150 to 200 patients each year. The head of the nuclear medicine department gives his meaning about the new regulation on the management of radioactive effluents. According to him, regulations are necessary but the values of the imposed thresholds have to be scientifically justified. Another point is that a lot of money is spent on radiation protection issues while the radioactive risks are almost null, which leads to wasting money. The elaboration of the radioprotection regulations must be made not as a whole but on a specific basis according to the domain: nuclear power plants, research reactors or nuclear medicine, it applies. (A.C.)

  18. Effects of music in combination with vibration in acupuncture points on the treatment of fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Augusto; Werneck, Lineu; Paiva, Eduardo; Gans, Paulo

    2015-02-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is a disease that causes widespread pain and increased sensitivity to pain because of a dysfunction in the central nervous system. This study investigated the effect of music combined with vibration on acupuncture points for the treatment of FM. A total of 120 patients with FM were allocated randomly to four groups (30 patients each). One group listened to a sequence of Bach's compositions. The second group was subjected to vibratory stimuli on a combination of acupuncture points on the skin. The third group (complete) underwent both procedures in a simultaneous and synchronized manner, with inclusion of binaural beats. The fourth group (control) received no stimulation. The participants underwent the experimental procedure during five sessions performed on alternate days. They were assessed by the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) and the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) before the first session and after the last session (20 days). All groups showed a significant improvement in FIQ and HAQ scores at the evaluation after the intervention. The complete group exhibited the best result on both the FIQ and HAQ (p<0.001), and the improvement in HAQ score was significant (p<0.004). The results suggest that the placebo effect in FM may be substantial. However, comparison between groups revealed that the complete group had the greatest reduction in both FIQ and HAQ, with a significant improvement in HAQ, suggesting that the combined use of music and vibration exerts a greater effect on FM symptoms.

  19. National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Wastewater Treatment Plant Outfall Points, Region 9, 2012, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Point geospatial dataset representing locations of NPDES outfalls/dischargers for waste water treatment plants which generally represent the site of the discharge....

  20. National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Wastewater Treatment Plant Outfall Points, Region 9, 2007, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Point geospatial dataset representing locations of NPDES outfalls/dischargers for waste water treatment plants which generally represent the site of the discharge....

  1. National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Wastewater Treatment Plant Outfall Points, Region 9, 2011, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Point geospatial dataset representing locations of NPDES outfalls/dischargers for waste water treatment plants which generally represent the site of the discharge....

  2. Bacterial treatment effectiveness of point-of-use ceramic water filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielefeldt, Angela R; Kowalski, Kate; Summers, R Scott

    2009-08-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted on six point-of-use (POU) ceramic water filters that were manufactured in Nicaragua; two filters were used by families for ca. 4 years and the other filters had limited prior use in our lab. Water spiked with ca. 10(6)CFU/mL of Escherichia coli was dosed to the filters. Initial disinfection efficiencies ranged from 3 - 4.5 log, but the treatment efficiency decreased with subsequent batches of spiked water. Silver concentrations in the effluent water ranged from 0.04 - 1.75 ppb. Subsequent experiments that utilized feed water without a bacterial spike yielded 10(3)-10(5)CFU/mL bacteria in the effluent. Immediately after recoating four of the filters with a colloidal silver solution, the effluent silver concentrations increased to 36 - 45 ppb and bacterial disinfection efficiencies were 3.8-4.5 log. The treatment effectiveness decreased to 0.2 - 2.5 log after loading multiple batches of highly contaminated water. In subsequent loading of clean water, the effluent water contained filters. This indicates that the silver had some benefit to reducing bacterial contamination by the filter. In general these POU filters were found to be effective, but showed loss of effectiveness with time and indicated a release of microbes into subsequent volumes of water passed through the system.

  3. How Do We Assess Dissociation in Treatment Seeking Refugees in the West?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palic, Sabina; Elklit, Ask; Armour, Cherie

    Bosnian treatment seeking refugees with the dissociation subscale of the Structured Interview for Disorders of Extreme Stress (SIDES-D), the self-report version of the SIDES-D (SIDES-D-SR), the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES), and the DES-Taxon. The DES correlated strongly with the SIDES...

  4. Mapping of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis in the regions of Littoral, North-West, South and South-West Cameroon and recommendations for treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The previous nationwide mapping of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) in Cameroon was conducted 25 years ago. Based on its results, mass drug administration (MDA) of praziquantel was limited to the three northern regions and few health districts in the southern part of Cameroon. In 2010, we started the process of updating the disease distribution in order to improve the control strategies. Three of the ten regions of Cameroon were mapped in 2010 and the data were published. In 2011, surveys were conducted in four additional regions, i.e. Littoral, North-West, South and South-West. Methods Parasitological surveys were conducted in March 2011 in selected schools in all 65 health districts of the four targeted regions, using appropriate research methodologies, i.e. Kato-Katz and urine filtration. Results The results showed significant variation of schistosomiasis and STH prevalence between schools, villages, districts and regions. Schistosoma haematobium was the most prevalent schistosome species, with an overall prevalence of 3.2%, followed by S. mansoni (3%) and S. guineensis (1.2%). The overall prevalence of schistosomiasis across the four regions was 7.4% (95% CI: 6.7-8.3%). The prevalence for Ascaris lumbricoides was 19.5% (95% CI: 18.3-20.7%), Trichuris trichiura 18.9% (95% CI: 17.7-20.1%) and hookworms 7.6% (95% CI: 6.8-8.4%), with an overall STH prevalence of 32.5% (95% CI: 31.1-34.0%) across the four regions. STH was more prevalent in the South region (52.8%; 95% CI: 48.0-57.3%), followed by the South-West (46.2%; 95% CI: 43.2-49.3%), the North-West (35.9%; 95% CI: 33.1-38.7%) and the Littoral (13.0%; 95% CI: 11.3-14.9%) regions. Conclusions In comparison to previous data in 1985–87, the results showed an increase of schistosomiasis transmission in several health districts, whereas there was a significant decline of STH infections. Based on the prevalence data, the continuation of annual or bi-annual MDA for STH is

  5. Mapping of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis in the regions of Littoral, North-West, South and South-West Cameroon and recommendations for treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchuem Tchuenté, Louis-Albert; Dongmo Noumedem, Calvine; Ngassam, Pierre; Kenfack, Christian Mérimé; Gipwe, Nestor Feussom; Dankoni, Esther; Tarini, Ann; Zhang, Yaobi

    2013-12-23

    The previous nationwide mapping of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) in Cameroon was conducted 25 years ago. Based on its results, mass drug administration (MDA) of praziquantel was limited to the three northern regions and few health districts in the southern part of Cameroon. In 2010, we started the process of updating the disease distribution in order to improve the control strategies. Three of the ten regions of Cameroon were mapped in 2010 and the data were published. In 2011, surveys were conducted in four additional regions, i.e. Littoral, North-West, South and South-West. Parasitological surveys were conducted in March 2011 in selected schools in all 65 health districts of the four targeted regions, using appropriate research methodologies, i.e. Kato-Katz and urine filtration. The results showed significant variation of schistosomiasis and STH prevalence between schools, villages, districts and regions. Schistosoma haematobium was the most prevalent schistosome species, with an overall prevalence of 3.2%, followed by S. mansoni (3%) and S. guineensis (1.2%). The overall prevalence of schistosomiasis across the four regions was 7.4% (95% CI: 6.7-8.3%). The prevalence for Ascaris lumbricoides was 19.5% (95% CI: 18.3-20.7%), Trichuris trichiura 18.9% (95% CI: 17.7-20.1%) and hookworms 7.6% (95% CI: 6.8-8.4%), with an overall STH prevalence of 32.5% (95% CI: 31.1-34.0%) across the four regions. STH was more prevalent in the South region (52.8%; 95% CI: 48.0-57.3%), followed by the South-West (46.2%; 95% CI: 43.2-49.3%), the North-West (35.9%; 95% CI: 33.1-38.7%) and the Littoral (13.0%; 95% CI: 11.3-14.9%) regions. In comparison to previous data in 1985-87, the results showed an increase of schistosomiasis transmission in several health districts, whereas there was a significant decline of STH infections. Based on the prevalence data, the continuation of annual or bi-annual MDA for STH is recommended, as well as an extension of

  6. Comparison between the effects of trigger point mesotherapy versus acupuncture points mesotherapy in the treatment of chronic low back pain: a short term randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Cesare, Annalisa; Giombini, Arrigo; Di Cesare, Mariachiara; Ripani, Maurizio; Vulpiani, Maria Chiara; Saraceni, Vincenzo Maria

    2011-02-01

    The goal of this study was to compare the effects of trigger point (TRP) mesotherapy and acupuncture (ACP) mesotherapy in the treatment of patients with chronic low back pain. Short term randomized controlled trial. 62 subjects with chronic low back pain were recruited at outpatients Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinic at the University of Rome "La Sapienza" in the period between July 2006 and May 2008. Study subjects were assigned to receive 4 weeks treatments with either trigger point mesotherapy (TRP mesotherapy, n=29) or acupoints mesotherapy (ACP mesotherapy, n=33). Pain intensity with a pain visual analogic scale (VAS) and verbal rating scale (VRS) and pain disability with McGill Pain Questionnaire Short Form (SFMPQ), Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMQ) and Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Questionaire (ODQ). ACP mesotherapy shows a more effective results in VRS and VAS measures in the follow-up (p(VRS)=mesotherapy group. Our results suggest that the response to ACP mesotherapy may be greater than the response to TRP mesotherapy in the short term follow-up. This technique could be nevertheless a viable option as an adjunct treatment in an overall treatment planning of CLBP. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Fenbendazole treatment for Mammomonogamus species infection of a domestic cat on St Kitts, West Indies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattenuo, Talia; Ketzis, Jennifer; Shell, Linda

    2014-10-01

    A 7-month-old, female, domestic shorthair, indoor/outdoor cat on the island of St Kitts was presented to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital at Ross University School of Veterinary Medicine as part of a student training spay-neuter program. Observation of diarrhea prompted a double centrifugation fecal analysis. Ova of Mammomonogamus species, in addition to Ancylostoma species, Trichuris species and Platynosomum species, were found. Mammomonogamus ierei is a parasitic nematode found on many Caribbean islands for which treatment is not well documented. Five days of fenbendazole (50 mg/kg bodyweight) was administered, and fecal analyses gave negative results for Mammomonogamus species eggs 1 week after the last fenbendazole treatment. © ISFM and AAFP 2014.

  8. Cost effectiveness of intermittent screening followed by treatment versus intermittent preventive treatment during pregnancy in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandes, Silke; Sicuri, Elisa; Halimatou, Diawara

    2016-01-01

    $/DALY averted. Simulations show that cost-effectiveness of ISTp-AL increases as the efficacy of IPTp-SP decreases, though the specific threshold at which ISTp-AL becomes cost-effective depends on assumptions about the contribution of bed nets to malaria control, bed net coverage and the willingness......-to-pay threshold used.  Conclusions: At SP efficacy levels currently observed in the trial settings it would not be cost-effective to switch from IPTp-SP to ISTp-AL, mainly due to the substantially higher costs of ISTp-AL and limited difference in outcomes. The modelling results indicate thresholds below which IPT......Background: Emergence of high-grade sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) resistance in parts of Africa has led to growing concerns about the efficacy of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria during pregnancy (IPTp) with SP. The incremental cost-effectiveness of intermittent screening and treatment...

  9. Investigation of TC and TSS Removal Efficiencies at Ahvaz West WTP Effluent Using the Land‒plant Treatment Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Takdastan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Although the conventional (primary and secondary treatment processes are known to remove up to 95–99% of some micro-organisms, they do not provide adequate treatment to make the effluent suitable for direct reuse, mainly due to the presence of high concentrations of pathogenic microorganisms. Obtaining reusable effluents, therefore, requires the use of processes that can be justified both technical and economic grounds. One such indigenous, low cost option is the land-plant process that can be used for advanced wastewater treatment. It is the objective of the present study to determine the efficiency of the local soil in Ahvaz and that of the vetiver plant in reducing the microbial load in the effluent from municipal wastewater treatment plants. A pilot study was thus carried out including three Lysimeters installed in West Ahvaz Wastewater Treatment Plant. Local soil was used in one Lysimeter, local soil with vetiver plant in the second one, and an artificial assortment of soil comprising local soil, silica sand (0.5-1mm, and sand (15-30mm in the third. In addition, the effluent from the secondary settling outlet at the WTP was transferred by pumping at the three filtration rates of 0.2, 0.6, and 1 ml/min into the system with three replications for each rate and samples were collected from both inlet and outlet flows. The average removal efficiencies of Total Suspended Solids (TSS and Total Coliform (TC in the effluent from the three Lysimeters with local soil with vetiver, local soil without vetiver, and artificial soil assortment for the filtration rate of 0.2 ml/min were: 67.75% and 99.7%, 58.33% and 99.6%, and 56.25% and 99.5%, respectively. For a filtration rate of 0.6 ml/min, these values were: 53.33% and 98.93%, 48.8 and 98.77%, and 47.68% and 98.64%. Finally, the values obtained for a filtration rate of 0.6 ml/min were: 50% and 93.96%, 46.42 and 91.34%, and 44/04% and 88/81%, respectively. The results from the study showed that the

  10. Surface Observation and Pore Size Analyses of Polypropylene/Low-Melting Point Polyester Filter Materials: Influences of Heat Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Jia-Horng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes making filter materials with polypropylene (PP and low-melting point (LPET fibers. The influences of temperatures and times of heat treatment on the morphology of thermal bonding points and average pore size of the PP/LPET filter materials. The test results indicate that the morphology of thermal bonding points is highly correlated with the average pore size. When the temperature of heat treatment is increased, the fibers are joined first with the thermal bonding points, and then with the large thermal bonding areas, thereby decreasing the average pore size of the PP/LPET filter materials. A heat treatment of 110 °C for 60 seconds can decrease the pore size from 39.6 μm to 12.0 μm.

  11. Hydraulic modeling of clay ceramic water filters for point-of-use water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweitzer, Ryan W; Cunningham, Jeffrey A; Mihelcic, James R

    2013-01-02

    The acceptability of ceramic filters for point-of-use water treatment depends not only on the quality of the filtered water, but also on the quantity of water the filters can produce. This paper presents two mathematical models for the hydraulic performance of ceramic water filters under typical usage. A model is developed for two common filter geometries: paraboloid- and frustum-shaped. Both models are calibrated and evaluated by comparison to experimental data. The hydraulic models are able to predict the following parameters as functions of time: water level in the filter (h), instantaneous volumetric flow rate of filtrate (Q), and cumulative volume of water produced (V). The models' utility is demonstrated by applying them to estimate how the volume of water produced depends on factors such as the filter shape and the frequency of filling. Both models predict that the volume of water produced can be increased by about 45% if users refill the filter three times per day versus only once per day. Also, the models predict that filter geometry affects the volume of water produced: for two filters with equal volume, equal wall thickness, and equal hydraulic conductivity, a filter that is tall and thin will produce as much as 25% more water than one which is shallow and wide. We suggest that the models can be used as tools to help optimize filter performance.

  12. Multi-point optimization of recirculation flow type casing treatment in centrifugal compressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tun, Min Thaw; Sakaguchi, Daisaku

    2016-06-01

    High-pressure ratio and wide operating range are highly required for a turbocharger in diesel engines. A recirculation flow type casing treatment is effective for flow range enhancement of centrifugal compressors. Two ring grooves on a suction pipe and a shroud casing wall are connected by means of an annular passage and stable recirculation flow is formed at small flow rates from the downstream groove toward the upstream groove through the annular bypass. The shape of baseline recirculation flow type casing is modified and optimized by using a multi-point optimization code with a metamodel assisted evolutionary algorithm embedding a commercial CFD code CFX from ANSYS. The numerical optimization results give the optimized design of casing with improving adiabatic efficiency in wide operating flow rate range. Sensitivity analysis of design parameters as a function of efficiency has been performed. It is found that the optimized casing design provides optimized recirculation flow rate, in which an increment of entropy rise is minimized at grooves and passages of the rotating impeller.

  13. Good quality of oral anticoagulation treatment in general practice using international normalised ratio point of care testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkkegaard, Thomas; Pedersen, Tina Heidi; Lind, Bent

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Oral anticoagulation treatment (OACT) with warfarin is common in general practice. Increasingly, international normalised ratio (INR) point of care testing (POCT) is being used to manage patients. The aim of this study was to describe and analyse the quality of OACT with warfarin...... practices using INR POCT in the management of patients in warfarin treatment provided good quality of care. Sampling interval and diagnostic coding were significantly correlated with treatment quality....

  14. Evaluation of the Hanford 200 West Groundwater Treatment System: Fluidized Bed Bioreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Looney, Brian B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jackson, Dennis G. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Dickson, John O. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Eddy-Dilek, Carol A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-05-12

    A fluidized bed reactor (FBR) in the 200W water treatment facility at Hanford is removing nitrate from groundwater as part of the overall pump-treat-reinject process. Control of the FBR bed solids has proven challenging, impacting equipment, increasing operations and maintenance (O&M), and limiting the throughput of the facility. In response to the operational challenges, the Department of Energy Richland Office (DOE-RL) commissioned a technical assistance team to facilitate a system engineering evaluation and provide focused support recommendations to the Hanford Team. The DOE Environmental Management (EM) technical assistance process is structured to identify and triage technologies and strategies that address the target problem(s). The process encourages brainstorming and dialog and allows rapid identification and prioritization of possible options. Recognizing that continuous operation of a large-scale FBR is complex, requiring careful attention to system monitoring data and changing conditions, the technical assistance process focused on explicit identification of the available control parameters (“knobs”), how these parameters interact and impact the FBR system, and how these can be adjusted under different scenarios to achieve operational goals. The technical assistance triage process was performed in collaboration with the Hanford team.

  15. Hospitals and organizational models based on the intensity of treatment: the internist's point of view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Chesi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionThe type of patients being treated in our hospitals has changed significantly. Today's patients are much older with more complicated, polypathological problems. As a result, hospital organization and management structures must also change, particularly in Internal Medicine. A widely discussed approach, organization according to “intensity of treatment,” could be an appropriate solution from an organizational viewpoint that would also satisfy these new demands.Materials and methodsWith the aid of a questionnaire sent to internists working in the hospitals of Italy's Emilia-Romagna region and the review of the relevant medical literature, we defined structural, organizational, technological, managerial, and staffing characteristics to better determine and classify this model. We analyzed questionnaire responses of 31 internists heading operative units in their hospitals, a relatively homogeneous subgroup with experience in organizing and managing healthcare as well as its clinical aspects.ResultsAnalysis of these questionnaires revealed important points concerning the model: 1 an accurate identification of the medical care on which to base the model; 2 a well-defined strategy for differentiated allocation of staff to structural and technological areas depending on the level of medical care provided in the area; 3 an accurate definition of the types and features of patients targeted by each level of medical care; 4 an early exchange (starting from the patient's arrival in the Emergency Department of information and medical knowledge among Emergency Department physicians and those present during the initial stages of hospitalization; 5 a precise definition of responsibilities in the different areas, operative and collaborative stages among different physicians and medical staff, the different disciplines involved in the process.ConclusionsAmong the physicians responsible for managing complex areas of Internal Medicine in Emilia

  16. Neuro Emotional Technique for the treatment of trigger point sensitivity in chronic neck pain sufferers: A controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pollard Henry

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trigger points have been shown to be active in many myofascial pain syndromes. Treatment of trigger point pain and dysfunction may be explained through the mechanisms of central and peripheral paradigms. This study aimed to investigate whether the mind/body treatment of Neuro Emotional Technique (NET could significantly relieve pain sensitivity of trigger points presenting in a cohort of chronic neck pain sufferers. Methods Sixty participants presenting to a private chiropractic clinic with chronic cervical pain as their primary complaint were sequentially allocated into treatment and control groups. Participants in the treatment group received a short course of Neuro Emotional Technique that consists of muscle testing, general semantics and Traditional Chinese Medicine. The control group received a sham NET protocol. Outcome measurements included pain assessment utilizing a visual analog scale and a pressure gauge algometer. Pain sensitivity was measured at four trigger point locations: suboccipital region (S; levator scapulae region (LS; sternocleidomastoid region (SCM and temporomandibular region (TMJ. For each outcome measurement and each trigger point, we calculated the change in measurement between pre- and post- treatment. We then examined the relationships between these measurement changes and six independent variables (i.e. treatment group and the above five additional participant variables using forward stepwise General Linear Model. Results The visual analog scale (0 to 10 had an improvement of 7.6 at S, 7.2 at LS, 7.5 at SCM and 7.1 at the TMJ in the treatment group compared with no improvement of at S, and an improvement of 0.04 at LS, 0.1 at SCM and 0.1 at the TMJ point in the control group, (P Conclusion After a short course of NET treatment, measurements of visual analog scale and pressure algometer recordings of four trigger point locations in a cohort of chronic neck pain sufferers were significantly

  17. Neuro Emotional Technique for the treatment of trigger point sensitivity in chronic neck pain sufferers: a controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bablis, Peter; Pollard, Henry; Bonello, Rod

    2008-05-21

    Trigger points have been shown to be active in many myofascial pain syndromes. Treatment of trigger point pain and dysfunction may be explained through the mechanisms of central and peripheral paradigms. This study aimed to investigate whether the mind/body treatment of Neuro Emotional Technique (NET) could significantly relieve pain sensitivity of trigger points presenting in a cohort of chronic neck pain sufferers. Sixty participants presenting to a private chiropractic clinic with chronic cervical pain as their primary complaint were sequentially allocated into treatment and control groups. Participants in the treatment group received a short course of Neuro Emotional Technique that consists of muscle testing, general semantics and Traditional Chinese Medicine. The control group received a sham NET protocol. Outcome measurements included pain assessment utilizing a visual analog scale and a pressure gauge algometer. Pain sensitivity was measured at four trigger point locations: suboccipital region (S); levator scapulae region (LS); sternocleidomastoid region (SCM) and temporomandibular region (TMJ). For each outcome measurement and each trigger point, we calculated the change in measurement between pre- and post- treatment. We then examined the relationships between these measurement changes and six independent variables (i.e. treatment group and the above five additional participant variables) using forward stepwise General Linear Model. The visual analog scale (0 to 10) had an improvement of 7.6 at S, 7.2 at LS, 7.5 at SCM and 7.1 at the TMJ in the treatment group compared with no improvement of at S, and an improvement of 0.04 at LS, 0.1 at SCM and 0.1 at the TMJ point in the control group, (P algometer recordings of four trigger point locations in a cohort of chronic neck pain sufferers were significantly improved when compared to a control group which received a sham protocol of NET. Chronic neck pain sufferers may benefit from NET treatment in the relief

  18. Ebola Virus Disease and Pregnancy: A Retrospective Cohort Study of Patients Managed at 5 Ebola Treatment Units in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henwood, Patricia C; Bebell, Lisa M; Roshania, Reshma; Wolfman, Vanessa; Mallow, Michaela; Kalyanpur, Anushka; Levine, Adam C

    2017-07-15

    Reliable data are lacking on pregnancy outcomes during Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemics. We aimed to characterize symptoms and outcomes among pregnant women admitted to Ebola treatment units (ETUs) with suspected and confirmed EVD to better inform obstetric management. We analyzed a retrospective cohort of reproductive-aged women presenting to 5 West African ETUs from September 2014 to September 2015. We compared clinical symptoms, risk of EVD diagnosis, and mortality between pregnant and nonpregnant women. Of 729 reproductive-aged women admitted to study ETUs, 44 (6%) reported pregnancy. Thirteen of 44 pregnant women (30%) tested EVD positive; 6 of 13 (46%) died. Pregnant women were less likely than nonpregnant women to report anorexia, asthenia, diarrhea, fever, myalgias/arthralgias, nausea, or vomiting (P Ebola viral loads on presentation to nonpregnant women, as measured by initial cycle threshold (26.4 vs 23.2, P = .16), they were less likely to have myalgias/arthralgias (P< .001) and vomiting (P = .02). Both all-cause mortality (14% vs 19%, P = .39) and EVD-specific mortality (46% vs 54%, P = .60) were not significantly different between pregnant and nonpregnant women. Two neonates born live in the ETU died within 8 days. We find no evidence to support a difference in the risk of death between pregnant women with suspected or confirmed EVD compared to nonpregnant women. Limited data suggest poor fetal and neonatal outcomes in EVD-affected pregnancies. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  19. The Treatment Train approach to reducing non-point source pollution from agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, N.; Reaney, S. M.; Barker, P. A.; Benskin, C.; Burke, S.; Cleasby, W.; Haygarth, P.; Jonczyk, J. C.; Owen, G. J.; Snell, M. A.; Surridge, B.; Quinn, P. F.

    2016-12-01

    An experimental approach has been applied to an agricultural catchment in NW England, where non-point pollution adversely affects freshwater ecology. The aim of the work (as part of the River Eden Demonstration Test Catchment project) is to develop techniques to manage agricultural runoff whilst maintaining food production. The approach used is the Treatment Train (TT), which applies multiple connected mitigation options that control nutrient and fine sediment pollution at source, and address polluted runoff pathways at increasing spatial scale. The principal agricultural practices in the study sub-catchment (1.5 km2) are dairy and stock production. Farm yards can act as significant pollution sources by housing large numbers of animals; these areas are addressed initially with infrastructure improvements e.g. clean/dirty water separation and upgraded waste storage. In-stream high resolution monitoring of hydrology and water quality parameters showed high-discharge events to account for the majority of pollutant exports ( 80% total phosphorus; 95% fine sediment), and primary transfer routes to be surface and shallow sub-surface flow pathways, including drains. To manage these pathways and reduce hydrological connectivity, a series of mitigation features were constructed to intercept and temporarily store runoff. Farm tracks, field drains, first order ditches and overland flow pathways were all targeted. The efficacy of the mitigation features has been monitored at event and annual scale, using inflow-outflow sampling and sediment/nutrient accumulation measurements, respectively. Data presented here show varied but positive results in terms of reducing acute and chronic sediment and nutrient losses. An aerial fly-through of the catchment is used to demonstrate how the TT has been applied to a fully-functioning agricultural landscape. The elevated perspective provides a better understanding of the spatial arrangement of mitigation features, and how they can be

  20. Dual Treatments as Starting Point for Integrative Perceptions in Teaching Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kërënxhi, Svjetllana; Gjoci, Pranvera

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we recommend mathematical teaching through dual treatments. The dual treatments notion, classified in dual interpretations, dual analyses, dual solutions, and dual formulations, is explained through concrete examples taken from mathematical textbooks of elementary education. Dual treatments provide opportunities for creating…

  1. Remains of the ancient ports and anchorage points at Miyani and Visawada, on the west coast of India: A study based on underwater investigations

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh; Tripati, S.

    as an excellent natural harbour. The important antiquities include varieties of stone anchors, which are very similar to those reported from Dwarka and Bet Dwarka. The identification of ancient anchorage points between water depth of 5 and 15 m is another...

  2. Natural gas treatment: Simultaneous water and hydrocarbon-dew point-control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, T. (Solvay Catalysts GmbH, Hannover (Germany)); Rennemann, D. (Solvay Catalysts GmbH, Hannover (Germany)); Schulz, T. (Solvay Catalysts GmbH, Hannover (Germany))

    1993-10-01

    Natural gas is a multicomponent mixture of hydrocarbons. The condensation behavior of such mixtures is different from single component systems. The so-called retrograde behavior leads to the observations that saturated vapor (dew point curve) and saturated liquid curve (bubble point curve) are not identical. Between both is a region of saturated phases which even can exist above the critical point. Following this behaviour it is possible that condensation might occur at pressure decrease or at temperature increase, respectively. This phenomenon is undesired in natural gas pipeline networks. Selective removal of higher hydrocarbons by the means of adsorption can change the phase behavior in such a way that condensation does not occur at temperatures and pressures specified for gas distribution. (orig.)

  3. Selective hydrolysis of wastewater sludge. Part 1. Model calculations and cost benefit analysis for Esbjerg West waste water treatment plant, Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OEstergaard, N [Eurotec West A/S (DK); Thomsen, Anne Belinda; Thygesen, Anders; Bangsoe Nielsen, H [Risoe National Laboratory, DTU (DK); Rasmussen, Soeren [SamRas (DK)

    2007-09-15

    The project 'Selective hydrolysis of wastewater sludge' investigates the possibilities of utilizing selective hydrolysis of sludge at waste water treatment plants to increase the production of biogas based power and heat, and at the same time reduce power consumption for handling and treatment of nitrogen and sludge as well as for disposal of the sludge. The selective hydrolysis system is based on the fact that an anaerobic digestion before a hydrolysis treatment increases the hydrolysis efficiency, as the production of volatile organic components, which might inhibit the hydrolysis efficiency, are not produced to the same extent as may be the case for a hydrolysis made on un-digested material. Furthermore it is possible to separate ammonia from the sludge without using chemicals; it has, however, proven difficult to treat wastewater sludge, as the sludge seems to be difficult to treat in the laboratory using simple equipment. Esbjerg Wastewater Treatment Plant West, Denmark, is used as model plant for the calculations of the benefits using selective hydrolysis of sludge as if established at the existing sludge digester system. The plant is a traditional build plant based on the activated sludge concept in addition to traditional digester technology. The plant treats combined household and factory wastewater with a considerable amount of the wastewater received from the industries. During the project period Esbjerg Treatment Plant West went through considerable process changes, thus the results presented in this report are based on historical plant characteristics and may be viewed as conservative relative to what actually may be obtainable. (BA)

  4. Numerical Treatment of Fixed Point Applied to the Nonlinear Fredholm Integral Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berenguer MI

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors present a method of numerical approximation of the fixed point of an operator, specifically the integral one associated with a nonlinear Fredholm integral equation, that uses strongly the properties of a classical Schauder basis in the Banach space .

  5. Fouling in gravity driven Point-of-Use drinking water treatment systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chawla, Charu; Zwijnenburg, A.; Kemperman, Antonius J.B.; Nijmeijer, Dorothea C.

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes fouling in simulated Point-of-Use (PoU) systems based on low pressure hollow fiber ultrafiltration membranes. Various operational configurations such as recirculation of feed, discontinuous vs. continuous filtration, and inside/out vs. outside/in were compared to study their

  6. Chemical treatment of mixed waste can be done.....Today exclamation point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honigford, L.; Dilday, D.; Cook, D.; Sattler, J.

    1996-01-01

    The Chemical Treatment Project is one in a series of projects implemented by the FEMP to treat mixed waste. The projects were initiated to address concerns regarding treatment capacity for mixed waste and to comply with requirements established by the Federal Facility Compliance Act. The Chemical Treatment Project is designed to utilize commercially available mobile technologies to perform treatment at the FEMP site. The waste in the Project consists of a variety of waste types with a wide range of hazards and physical characteristics. The treatment processes to be established for the waste types will be developed by a systematic approach including waste streams evaluation, projectization of the waste streams, and categorization of the stream. This information is utilized to determine the proper train of treatment which will be required to lead the waste to its final destination (i.e., disposal). This approach allows flexibility to manage a wide variety of waste in a cheaper, faster manner than designing a single treatment technology diverse enough to manage all the waste streams

  7. A Study of Veterans Administration/Department of Defense Health Care Resources Sharing at Keller Army Community Hospital West Point, New York 10996

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-04-01

    Comnmunity Health Nursing (1) Nurse Anesthetists (2) Inhalation Therapy IPPB Treatments Humidity Aerosol Chest Physiotherapy Arterial Blood Samples OB...Continuing Health (12) Psychiatric Intensive Care Unit (13) Post-Traumatic Stress Unit (14) Geriatric C. Outpatient Program - Mental Hygiene Clinic 3...Service consists.of a large professional staff of Registered Nurses, Licensed Practical Nurses, Nurse Instructors, Geriatric Consultant Nurse and a

  8. Sewage Treatment Plant Points, Tutuila AS, 2009, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Across the United States, municipal wastewater treatment plants receive and treat sewage and other wastewater collected from homes, businesses, and industries. These...

  9. THE INFECTIVE ENDOCARDITIS (PREVENTION, DIAGNOSIS CRITERIA AND TREATMENT: KEY POINTS 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Demin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Key positions of Guidelines on the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of infective endocarditis issued by the Task Force of ESC in 2009 are explained in the comments. Recent opinions on these items are presented.

  10. Objective assessment of the aesthetic outcomes of breast cancer treatment: toward automatic localization of fiducial points on digital photographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udpa, Nitin; Sampat, Mehul P.; Kim, Min Soon; Reece, Gregory P.; Markey, Mia K.

    2007-03-01

    The contemporary goals of breast cancer treatment are not limited to cure but include maximizing quality of life. All breast cancer treatment can adversely affect breast appearance. Developing objective, quantifiable methods to assess breast appearance is important to understand the impact of deformity on patient quality of life, guide selection of current treatments, and make rational treatment advances. A few measures of aesthetic properties such as symmetry have been developed. They are computed from the distances between manually identified fiducial points on digital photographs. However, this is time-consuming and subject to intra- and inter-observer variability. The purpose of this study is to investigate methods for automatic localization of fiducial points on anterior-posterior digital photographs taken to document the outcomes of breast reconstruction. Particular emphasis is placed on automatic localization of the nipple complex since the most widely used aesthetic measure, the Breast Retraction Assessment, quantifies the symmetry of nipple locations. The nipple complexes are automatically localized using normalized cross-correlation with a template bank of variants of Gaussian and Laplacian of Gaussian filters. A probability map of likely nipple locations determined from the image database is used to reduce the number of false positive detections from the matched filter operation. The accuracy of the nipple detection was evaluated relative to markings made by three human observers. The impact of using the fiducial point locations as identified by the automatic method, as opposed to the manual method, on the calculation of the Breast Retraction Assessment was also evaluated.

  11. [Clinical treatment of children and adolescents with gender dysphoria from international experts' point of view].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutzen, Katharina M; Nieder, Timo Ole; Schreier, Herbert; Möller, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    The clinical treatment of children and adolescents with gender dysphoria is still a controversial issue. The aim of this study was to get an overview of the knowledge and experience of international experts and to highlight shared views as well as differences in theoretical convictions and treatment approaches. Half-structured, guide-line based interviews were carried out with international experts in the field. The interviews were analyzed using qualitative content analysis (Mayring, 2010).

  12. [Clinical observation on auricular point magnetotherapy for treatment of senile low back pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Gui-Ping

    2007-02-01

    To compare the therapeutic effects of auricular point magnetotherapy and auricular point sticking of Vaccaria seed on senile low back pain. Sixty cases, aged 60 or over 60 years with back pain, were randomly divided into 2 groups, a control group and a test group. The control group were treated with auricular sticking of Vaccaria seed with no pressing, and the test group with sticking magnetic bead of 66 gauss each piece with no pressing. Auricular points, Shenmen, Kidney, Bladder, Yaodizhui, Gluteus, Liver and Spleen were selected. Three weeks constituted one course. The effects before, during and after the course were assessed by questionnaire about back pain. Compared with the control group, in the test group the back pain was more effectively improved, including reducing pain and numbness in the back and the legs, decreasing the disorder of physical strength induced by this disease, and improving daily life quality of the patient. Follow-up survey for 2-4 weeks showed the effects still were kept. Auricular magnetotherapy can effectively improve senile back pain.

  13. Environmental assessment for the treatment of Class A low-level radioactive waste and mixed low-level waste generated by the West Valley Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is currently evaluating low-level radioactive waste management alternatives at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) located on the Western New York Nuclear Service Center (WNYNSC) near West Valley, New York. The WVDP's mission is to vitrify high-level radioactive waste resulting from commercial fuel reprocessing operations that took place at the WNYNSC from 1966 to 1972. During the process of high-level waste vitrification, low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and mixed low-level waste (MILLW) will result and must be properly managed. It is estimated that the WVDP's LLW storage facilities will be filled to capacity in 1996. In order to provide sufficient safe storage of LLW until disposal options become available and partially fulfill requirements under the Federal Facilities Compliance Act (FFCA), the DOE is proposing to use U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission-licensed and permitted commercial facilities in Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Clive, Utah; and Houston, Texas to treat (volume-reduce) a limited amount of Class A LLW and MLLW generated from the WVDP. Alternatives for ultimate disposal of the West Valley LLW are currently being evaluated in an environmental impact statement. This proposed action is for a limited quantity of waste, over a limited period of time, and for treatment only; this proposal does not include disposal. The proposed action consists of sorting, repacking, and loading waste at the WVDP; transporting the waste for commercial treatment; and returning the residual waste to the WVDP for interim storage. For the purposes of this assessment, environmental impacts were quantified for a five-year operating period (1996 - 2001). Alternatives to the proposed action include no action, construction of additional on-site storage facilities, construction of a treatment facility at the WVDP comparable to commercial treatment, and off-site disposal at a commercial or DOE facility

  14. Reading the Word. An ecclesiastical interpretation of the Bible in the Orthodox church and its difficulties from the point of view of the Christian West

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Składanowski

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a specific ecclesiastical interpretation of the Bible within Orthodox theology and shows some difficulties of this approach from the point of view of Western theological thought. The article discusses the problem of the Orthodox biblical canon and the main difficulties associated with the division between „canonical” and „non-canonical” books. Then the text presents specific elements of Orthodox biblical exegesis, with emphasis on the community of the Church as its primary context. The article also touches the problem of biblical language, and especially importance attached to the text of the Septuagint as well as critical evaluation of certain modern translations of the Bible by Orthodox theologians. The text reveals the elements of the Orthodox approach to the interpretation of the Bible that are valuable for all Christian theological traditions as well as the main theological problems related to it.

  15. Under digital fluoroscopic guidance multiple-point injection with absolute alcohol and pinyangmycin for the treatment of superficial venous malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Ming; Xiao Gang; Peng Youlin

    2010-01-01

    Objective: to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of multiple-point injection with absolute alcohol and pinyangmycin under digital fluoroscopic guidance for superficial venous malformations. Methods: By using a disposal venous transfusion needle the superficial venous malformation was punctured and then contrast media lohexol was injected in to visualize the tumor body, which was followed by the injection of ethanol and pinyangmycin when the needle was confirmed in the correct position. The procedure was successfully performed in 31 patients. The clinical results were observed and analyzed. Results: After one treatment complete cure was achieved in 21 cases and marked effect was obtained in 8 cases, with a total effectiveness of 93.5%. Conclusion: Multiple-point injection with ethanol and pinyangmycin under digital fluoroscopic guidance is an effective and safe technique for the treatment of superficial venous malformations, especially for the lesions that are deeply located and ill-defined. (authors)

  16. Investigation of acupuncture-point injection combined with intratumor injection of radionuclide phosphorus 32 in treatment of metastatic carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, H.C.

    1986-01-01

    Seventeen patients with carcinoma and three patients with benign lesions of the head were studied by acupuncture-point injection combined with intratumor injection of radionuclide P-32 for treatment of metastatic carcinoma. The metastatic cervical nodules shrank to half their original sizes within 2-3 weeks in five cases of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. The injected dose ranged from 0.222 to 0.421 mCi, approximately 10 times less than that given by the ordinary method. The acupuncture points are selected according to the Theory of Channels and Collaterals of Chinese traditional medicine. The mechanism of therapeutic action of radionuclide P-32 is possibly by the delivery of destructive ionizing radiation from beta emission properties of P-32. This method appears to offer a low-dose means of P-32 treatment of metastatic carcinoma

  17. Ethnopharmacological survey of medicinal plants practiced by traditional healers and herbalists for treatment of some urological diseases in the West Bank/Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaradat, Nidal Amin; Zaid, Abdel Naser; Al-Ramahi, Rowa; Alqub, Malik A; Hussein, Fatima; Hamdan, Zakaria; Mustafa, Mahmoud; Qneibi, Mohammad; Ali, Iyad

    2017-05-08

    Throughout history, every civilization in the world used plants or their derivatives for treatment or prevention of diseases. In Palestine as in many other countries, herbal medicines are broadly used in the treatment of wide range of diseases including urological diseases. The main objective of this research is to study the use of herbal remedies by herbalists and traditional healers for treatment of various urological diseases in the West Bank regions of Palestine and to assess their efficacy and safety through the literature review of the most cited plants. The study included a survey part, plant identification and a review study. The first part was a cross-sectional descriptive study. Face to face questionnaires were distributed to 150 traditional healers and herbalist in all regions of the West Bank of Palestine. The literature review part was to assess the most cited plants for their efficacy and toxicity. One hundred forty four herbalists and traditional healers accepted to participate in this study which was conducted between March and April, 2016. The results showed that 57 plant species belonging to 30 families were used by herbalists and traditional healers for treatment of various urinary tract diseases in Palestine. Of these, Apiaceae family was the most prevalent. Paronychia argentea, Plantago ovata, Punica granatum, Taraxacum syriacum, Morus alba and Foeniculum vulgare were the most commonly used plant species in the treatment of kidney stones, while Capsella bursa-pastoris, Ammi visnaga and Ammi majus were the most recommended species for treatment of urinary tract infections and Portulaca oleracea used for renal failure. In addition Curcuma longa and Crocus sativus were used for enuresis while Juglans regia, Quercus infectoria, Sambucus ebulus and Zea mays were used for treatment symptoms of benign prostate hyperplasia. Fruits were the most common parts used, and a decoction was the most commonly used method of preparation. Through literature

  18. Good quality of oral anticoagulation treatment in general practice using international normalised ratio point of care testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkkegaard, Thomas; Pedersen, Tina Heidi; Lind, Bent

    2015-01-01

    collected retrospectively for a period of six months. For each patient, time in therapeutic range (TTR) was calculated and correlated with practice and patient characteristics using multilevel linear regression models. RESULTS: We identified 447 patients in warfarin treatment in the 20 practices using POCT......INTRODUCTION: Oral anticoagulation treatment (OACT) with warfarin is common in general practice. Increasingly, international normalised ratio (INR) point of care testing (POCT) is being used to manage patients. The aim of this study was to describe and analyse the quality of OACT with warfarin...

  19. Network Analysis of Acupuncture Points Used in the Treatment of Low Back Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soon-Ho Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The appropriate selection of acupoints is fundamental to obtain a therapeutic effect from clinical acupuncture. Objective. Using a network analysis method, we investigated the acupoints that are combined to treat low back pain (LBP. Methods. To analyze the patterns of the combinations of acupoints, we used acupoint information from clinical trials to calculate the modified mutual information (MI value, integrated these data, and visualized the network. Results. Based on the highest MI values, we found two different types of acupoint pairs used in the treatment of LBP: pairs of distant acupoints and pairs of local acupoints. Using modular analysis, we found that three acupoint modules were applied in the treatment of LBP: local acupoints, distant acupoints along the meridian, and distant acupoints based on the symptom differentiations. Conclusion. Using the modified MI technique, we provide a systematic framework for the acupoint combination network, and reveal how the technique of acupoint combination is used in the treatment of LBP. Application of this knowledge in acupuncture research may help clarify the mechanisms underlying acupuncture treatment at the systems level, bridging the gap between traditional medicine and modern science.

  20. Feasibility and acceptability of point of care HIV testing in community outreach and GUM drop-in services in the North West of England: A programmatic evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelliman Pauline

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Liverpool, injecting drug users (IDUs, men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM and UK Africans experience a disproportionate burden of HIV, yet services do not reach out to these groups and late presentations continue. We set out to: increase testing uptake in targeted marginalized groups through a community and genitourinary medicine (GUM-based point of care testing (POCT programme; and conduct a process evaluation to examine service provider inputs and document service user perceptions of the programme. Methods Mixed quantitative, qualitative and process evaluation methods were used. Service providers were trained to use fourth generation rapid antibody/antigen HIV tests. Existing outreach services incorporated POCT into routine practice. Clients completed a semi-structured questionnaire and focus group discussions (FGDs were held with service providers. Results Between September 2009 and June 2010, 953 individuals underwent POCT (GUM: 556 [59%]; community-based sites: 397 [42%]. Participants in the community were more likely to be male (p = 0.028, older (p Conclusions Community and GUM clinic-based POCT for HIV was feasible and acceptable to clients and service providers in a low prevalence setting. It successfully reached target groups, many of whom would not have otherwise tested. We recommend POCT be considered among strategies to increase the uptake of HIV testing among groups who are currently underserved.

  1. Isolation of viruses from drinking water at the Point-Viau water treatment plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payment, P.

    1981-04-01

    Viruses were isolated from every sample of raw (100 L) and treated (1000 L) water collected at a water treatment plant drawing sewage-contaminated river water. Few plaque-forming isolates were formed but cytopathogenic viruses were isolated as frequently in drinking water as in raw water. In drinking water some samples contained more than 1 cytopathogenic unit per litre, but most contained 1-10/100 L. These viruses had not been inactivated or removed by prechlorination, flocculation, filtration, ozonation, and postchlorination. There were no coliforms present and a residual chlorine level had been maintained. Poliovirus type 1 was a frequent isolate but many isolates were nonpoliovirus. The presence of these viruses in drinking water raises questions about the efficacy of some water treatment processes to remove viruses from polluted water.

  2. Neuropathological aspects of conservative treatment of scoliosis. A theoretical view point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czupryna, Krzysztof; Nowotny-Czupryna, Olga; Nowotny, Janusz

    2012-01-01

    An upright body posture cannot be maintained passively for reasons including a high location of the centre of gravity (COG) and a small support area. Proper alignment of body parts is maintained automatically, tending towards a pattern encoded in the CNS. A particularly important role in posture regulation is played by the short muscles of the back, which respond to being stretched with a contraction. During the early phase of scoliosis, the CNS automatically corrects abnormalities, but over time habituation occurs and the CNS treats them as something normal. Any attempt to restore proper body alignment is treated as an error and CNS automatically restores this abnormal pattern. With a prolonged deviation in body part alignment, CNS treats it as a defect and runs compensatory mechanisms to restore the balance of the body as a whole. Balance is ensured by postural compensation, but this does not restore proper body part alignment. In the treatment of scoliosis, it is important both to slow down progression and to prevent the development of abnormal postural habits, which are part of a vicious circle even without progression. Secondary prevention is therefore needed in all patients. Passive observation limits the possibilities for prevention and contradicts the principle of early implementation of rehabilitation. Depending on the size of the angle of curvature, recommended treatments of scoliosis comprise observation, corset bracing, and surgery. Physiotherapy is often treated as an unconventional and ineffective treatment. Often, the biggest problem is transferring the resulting correction to automatic maintenance of a correct posture in the vertical position. The aim of this paper was to discuss the conservative treatment of scoliosis with regard to difficulties maintaining the correct alignment of the body parts in the vertical position that accompany scoliosis.

  3. The conception of municipal sewage treatment systems from an economical point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posch, A.

    1999-09-01

    The objective of this work is to show the fundamental decisions that are necessary for planning municipal sewage treatment systems in rural areas and to assess the consequences of the possible alternatives. The analysis shows that the specific costs depend strongly on the chosen technology, the structure of the system and the type of organization. For instance constructed wetlands used on small scales are much more favorable than complex technical sewage plants. Whether a central or decentral structured sewage treatment system is preferable depends on the local topographic conditions. The fact that private and cooperative organizations mostly cause lower costs per capita as public organizations can be explained with the principal-agent-theory of the New Institutional Economics. Further economical and important ecological criteria are discussed in the analysis, too. The conclusions drawn from analysis aim especially to improve the process of planing sewage treatment systems. Especially recommended are the implementation of a professional project management, a complete survey of the given local conditions, the use of modern planning methods, an early participation of the population, the particularly consideration of innovative technologies as well as the development of integrated concepts of water management. (author)

  4. Numerical study and ex vivo assessment of HIFU treatment time reduction through optimization of focal point trajectory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisey, A.; Yon, S.; Pechoux, T.; Letort, V.; Lafitte, P.

    2017-03-01

    Treatment time reduction is a key issue to expand the use of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) surgery, especially for benign pathologies. This study aims at quantitatively assessing the potential reduction of the treatment time arising from moving the focal point during long pulses. In this context, the optimization of the focal point trajectory is crucial to achieve a uniform thermal dose repartition and avoid boiling. At first, a numerical optimization algorithm was used to generate efficient trajectories. Thermal conduction was simulated in 3D with a finite difference code and damages to the tissue were modeled using the thermal dose formula. Given an initial trajectory, the thermal dose field was first computed, then, making use of Pontryagin's maximum principle, the trajectory was iteratively refined. Several initial trajectories were tested. Then, an ex vivo study was conducted in order to validate the efficicency of the resulting optimized strategies. Single pulses were performed at 3MHz on fresh veal liver samples with an Echopulse and the size of each unitary lesion was assessed by cutting each sample along three orthogonal planes and measuring the dimension of the whitened area based on photographs. We propose a promising approach to significantly shorten HIFU treatment time: the numerical optimization algorithm was shown to provide a reliable insight on trajectories that can improve treatment strategies. The model must now be improved in order to take in vivo conditions into account and extensively validated.

  5. West Africa

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    freelance

    considered by many as a successful model of river basin organization. NBA, after years of ... a Regional Water Protocol for West Africa, following the model of the SADC ...... protection of water against pollution of all kinds (urban, industrial,.

  6. A single point acupuncture treatment at large intestine meridian: a randomized controlled trial in acute tonsillitis and pharyngitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleckenstein, Johannes; Lill, Christian; Lüdtke, Rainer; Gleditsch, Jochen; Rasp, Gerd; Irnich, Dominik

    2009-09-01

    One out of 4 patients visiting a general practitioner reports of a sore throat associated with pain on swallowing. This study was established to examine the immediate pain alleviating effect of a single point acupuncture treatment applied to the large intestine meridian of patients with sore throat. Sixty patients with acute tonsillitis and pharyngitis were enrolled in this randomized placebo-controlled trial. They either received acupuncture, or sham laser acupuncture, directed to the large intestine meridian section between acupuncture points LI 8 and LI 10. The main outcome measure was the change of pain intensity on swallowing a sip of water evaluated by a visual analog scale 15 minutes after treatment. A credibility assessment regarding the respective treatment was performed. The pain intensity for the acupuncture group before and immediately after therapy was 5.6+/-2.8 and 3.0+/-3.0, and for the sham group 5.6+/-2.5 and 3.8+/-2.5, respectively. Despite the articulation of a more pronounced improvement among the acupuncture group, there was no significant difference between groups (Delta=0.9, confidence interval: -0.2-2.0; P=0.12; analysis of covariance). Patients' satisfaction was high in both treatment groups. The study was prematurely terminated due to a subsequent lack of suitable patients. A single acupuncture treatment applied to a selected area of the large intestine meridian was no more effective in the alleviation of pain associated with clinical sore throat than sham laser acupuncture applied to the same area. Hence, clinically relevant improvement could be achieved. Pain alleviation might partly be due to the intense palpation of the large intestine meridian. The benefit of a comprehensive acupuncture treatment protocol in this condition should be subject to further trials.

  7. Fertility-sparing treatment of endometrial cancer precursors among young women: a reproductive point of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciardi, E; Maniglio, P; Frega, A; Marci, R; Caserta, D; Moscarini, M

    2012-12-01

    Early-stage endometrial cancer and complex atypical hyperplasia are treated with hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. An emerging issue among younger women affected is the possibility of a fertility-sparing treatment with progestative therapy and close follow-up. To assess the possibility of conceiving after a diagnosis of atypical endometrial hyperplasia among women younger than 40 years old, in term of delaying definitive treatment and achieving pregnancy. 15 women younger than 40 years old with complex CAH or early carcinoma of the endometrium and a wish to preserve fertility. Progestins were administered orally for at least a 12 weeks period. Endometrial biopsies were used at follow-up. In 11 women, a complete pathological remission of the disease was observed. 4 pregnancies were attained in 4 women. 3 showed progression and underwent definitive surgery at 18 months. 1 showed no response at 24 months and 3 cycles and was counseled to receive a hysterectomy. A conservative approach in patients younger than 40 years appears a valid option, and a progestative therapy trial should be attempted whether a valid consensus is attained. Considering the risk to find AEH at biopsies and eventually a carcinoma at hysterectomy (25% of cases) a careful management is strictly required.

  8. THE RUSSIAN CONSENSUS ON DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF CHRONIC PANCREATITIS: POINTS OF DEBATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. E. Khat'kov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The most controversial provisions of the Russian Consensus on Diagnosis and Treatment of Chronic Pancreatitis (hereinafter, the Consensus are presented. The debate has been initiated by the Russian Pancreatic Club and performed with the use of the Delphi system, based on interdisciplinary approach with participation of leading gastroenterologists, surgeons and pediatricians. This paper is the first in the series of the Consensus-related publications. Here we discuss the most controversial issues of Chapter 5 "Treatment of acute episodes" and Chapter 8 "Strategies of pain syndrome management". While discussing the conventional recommendation of a period of starvation for patients with clinical symptom of exacerbation of chronic pancreatitis, it was noted that for a long time it had been virtually the only way to provide functional rest for the pancreas. However, patients with chronic pancreatitis are frequently in malnutrition, therefore, starving may aggravate nutritional deficit that significantly affects the prognosis; therefore, early nutritional support is indicated. To alleviate functional strain of the pancreas, it is reasonable to use enteral nutrition elemental and semi-elemental formulas. The transition from formulas to conventional nutrition should be accompanied by administration of adequate pancreatin doses. The role of pancreatic enzymes, spasmolytics and proton pump inhibitors in the management of pain syndrome was also controversial.

  9. Quality assurance for HIV point-of-care testing and treatment monitoring assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandstrom, Paul; Denny, Thomas N.; Hurlston, Mackenzie; Ball, Terry B.; Peeling, Rosanna W.; Boeras, Debrah I.

    2016-01-01

    In 2015, UNAIDS launched the 90-90-90 targets aimed at increasing the number of people infected with HIV to become aware of their status, access antiretroviral therapies and ultimately be virally suppressed. To achieve these goals, countries may need to scale up point-of-care (POC) testing in addition to strengthening central laboratory services. While decentralising testing increases patient access to diagnostics, it presents many challenges with regard to training and assuring the quality of tests and testing. To ensure synergies, the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine held a series of consultations with countries with an interest in quality assurance and their implementing partners, and agreed on an external quality assessment (EQA) programme to ensure reliable results so that the results lead to the best possible care for HIV patients. As a result of the consultations, EQA International was established, bringing together EQA providers and implementers to develop a strategic plan for countries to establish national POC EQA programmes and to estimate the cost of setting up and maintaining the programme. With the dramatic increase in the number of proficiency testing panels required for thousands of POC testing sites across Africa, it is important to facilitate technology transfer from global EQA providers to a network of regional EQA centres in Africa for regional proficiency testing panel production. EQA International will continue to identify robust and cost-effective EQA technologies for quality POC testing, integrating novel technologies to support sustainable country-owned EQA programmes in Africa. PMID:28879133

  10. Point Climat no. 20 'CDM Policy Dialogue: a traditional 'treatment' coupled with new 'prescriptions' '

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shishlov, Igor; Bellassen, Valentin

    2012-01-01

    Among the publications of CDC Climat Research, 'Climate Briefs' presents, in a few pages, hot topics in climate change policy. This issue addresses the following points: As the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) reached the milestone billionth CER issued and the secondary CER price tipped below 2 euros, the recommendations of the High Level Panel on the CDM Policy Dialogue published on 11 September 2012 could not be timelier. By focusing on the current supply-demand disequilibrium that threatens the very survival of the CDM, the Panel extended its recommendations beyond the traditional scope of CDM reform. The Panel's ambition to pro-actively engage with other climate initiatives such as the Green Fund and regional markets is also innovative. Indeed, the CDM toolbox enriched by 10-years of experience stands to apply to or be partly recycled through new mechanisms. Along the 51 recommendations from the Policy Dialogue, there are calls for further standardization and streamlining, together with both old and new ideas on governance and contribution of the CDM to sustainable development

  11. Continuous quality improvement process pin-points delays, speeds STEMI patients to life-saving treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    Using a multidisciplinary team approach, the University of California, San Diego, Health System has been able to significantly reduce average door-to-balloon angioplasty times for patients with the most severe form of heart attacks, beating national recommendations by more than a third. The multidisciplinary team meets monthly to review all cases involving patients with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarctions (STEMI) to see where process improvements can be made. Using this continuous quality improvement (CQI) process, the health system has reduced average door-to-balloon times from 120 minutes to less than 60 minutes, and administrators are now aiming for further progress. Among the improvements instituted by the multidisciplinary team are the implementation of a "greeter" with enough clinical expertise to quickly pick up on potential STEMI heart attacks as soon as patients walk into the ED, and the purchase of an electrocardiogram (EKG) machine so that evaluations can be done in the triage area. ED staff have prepared "STEMI" packets, including items such as special IV tubing and disposable leads, so that patients headed for the catheterization laboratory are prepared to undergo the procedure soon after arrival. All the clocks and devices used in the ED are synchronized so that analysts can later review how long it took to complete each step of the care process. Points of delay can then be targeted for improvement.

  12. Quality assurance for HIV point-of-care testing and treatment monitoring assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne F.A. Meyers

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In 2015, UNAIDS launched the 90-90-90 targets aimed at increasing the number of peopleinfected with HIV to become aware of their status, access antiretroviral therapies and ultimatelybe virally suppressed. To achieve these goals, countries may need to scale up point-of-care (POC testing in addition to strengthening central laboratory services. While decentralisingtesting increases patient access to diagnostics, it presents many challenges with regard totraining and assuring the quality of tests and testing. To ensure synergies, the London Schoolof Hygiene & Tropical Medicine held a series of consultations with countries with an interestin quality assurance and their implementing partners, and agreed on an external qualityassessment (EQA programme to ensure reliable results so that the results lead to the bestpossible care for HIV patients. As a result of the consultations, EQA International wasestablished, bringing together EQA providers and implementers to develop a strategic planfor countries to establish national POC EQA programmes and to estimate the cost of setting upand maintaining the programme. With the dramatic increase in the number of proficiencytesting panels required for thousands of POC testing sites across Africa, it is important tofacilitate technology transfer from global EQA providers to a network of regional EQA centresin Africa for regional proficiency testing panel production. EQA International will continue toidentify robust and cost-effective EQA technologies for quality POC testing, integrating noveltechnologies to support sustainable country-owned EQA programmes in Africa.

  13. SU-E-T-72: A Retrospective Correlation Analysis On Dose-Volume Control Points and Treatment Outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, A; Nohadani, O [Northwestern University, Evanston, IL (United States); Refaat, T; Bacchus, I; Cutright, D; Sathiaseelan, V; Mittal, B [Northwestern University, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To quantify correlation between dose-volume control points and treatment outcomes. Specifically, two outcomes are analyzed: occurrence of radiation induced dysphagia and target complications. The results inform the treatment planning process when competing dose-volume criteria requires relaxations. Methods: 32 patients, treated with whole-field sequential intensity modulated radiation therapy during 2009–2010 period, are considered for this study. Acute dysphagia that is categorized into 3 grades is observed on all patients. 3 patients are observed in grade 1, 17 patients in grade 2, and 12 patients in grade 3. Ordinal logistic regression is employed to establish correlations between grades of dysphagia and dose to cervico-thoracic esophagus. Particularly, minimum (Dmin), mean (Dmean), and maximum (Dmax) dose control points are analyzed. Additionally, target complication, which includes local-regional recurrence and/or distant metastasis, is observed on 4 patients. Binary logistic regression is used to quantify correlation between target complication and four dose control points. Namely, ICRU recommended dose control points, D2, D50, D95, and D98 are analyzed. Results: For correlation with dysphagia, Dmin on cervico-thoracic esophagus is statistically significant (p-value = 0.005). Additionally, Dmean on cervico-thoracic esophagus is also significant in association with dysphagia (p-value = 0.012). However, no correlation was observed between Dmax and dysphagia (p-value = 0.263). For target complications, D50 on the target is a statistically significant dose control point (p-value = 0.032). No correlations were observed between treatment complications and D2 (p-value = 0.866), D95 (p-value = 0.750), and D98 (p-value = 0.710) on the target. Conclusion: Significant correlations are observed between radiation induced dysphagia and Dmean (and Dmin) to cervico-thoracic esophagus. Additionally, correlation between target complications and median dose to target

  14. SU-E-T-72: A Retrospective Correlation Analysis On Dose-Volume Control Points and Treatment Outcomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, A; Nohadani, O; Refaat, T; Bacchus, I; Cutright, D; Sathiaseelan, V; Mittal, B

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify correlation between dose-volume control points and treatment outcomes. Specifically, two outcomes are analyzed: occurrence of radiation induced dysphagia and target complications. The results inform the treatment planning process when competing dose-volume criteria requires relaxations. Methods: 32 patients, treated with whole-field sequential intensity modulated radiation therapy during 2009–2010 period, are considered for this study. Acute dysphagia that is categorized into 3 grades is observed on all patients. 3 patients are observed in grade 1, 17 patients in grade 2, and 12 patients in grade 3. Ordinal logistic regression is employed to establish correlations between grades of dysphagia and dose to cervico-thoracic esophagus. Particularly, minimum (Dmin), mean (Dmean), and maximum (Dmax) dose control points are analyzed. Additionally, target complication, which includes local-regional recurrence and/or distant metastasis, is observed on 4 patients. Binary logistic regression is used to quantify correlation between target complication and four dose control points. Namely, ICRU recommended dose control points, D2, D50, D95, and D98 are analyzed. Results: For correlation with dysphagia, Dmin on cervico-thoracic esophagus is statistically significant (p-value = 0.005). Additionally, Dmean on cervico-thoracic esophagus is also significant in association with dysphagia (p-value = 0.012). However, no correlation was observed between Dmax and dysphagia (p-value = 0.263). For target complications, D50 on the target is a statistically significant dose control point (p-value = 0.032). No correlations were observed between treatment complications and D2 (p-value = 0.866), D95 (p-value = 0.750), and D98 (p-value = 0.710) on the target. Conclusion: Significant correlations are observed between radiation induced dysphagia and Dmean (and Dmin) to cervico-thoracic esophagus. Additionally, correlation between target complications and median dose to target

  15. Selective hydrolysis of wastewater sludge. Part 1. Model calculations and cost benefit analysis for Esbjerg West waste water treatment plant, Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OEstergaard, N. (Eurotec West A/S (DK)); Thomsen, Anne Belinda; Thygesen, Anders; Bangsoe Nielsen, H. (Risoe National Laboratory, DTU (DK)); Rasmussen, Soeren (SamRas (DK))

    2007-09-15

    The project 'Selective hydrolysis of wastewater sludge' investigates the possibilities of utilizing selective hydrolysis of sludge at waste water treatment plants to increase the production of biogas based power and heat, and at the same time reduce power consumption for handling and treatment of nitrogen and sludge as well as for disposal of the sludge. The selective hydrolysis system is based on the fact that an anaerobic digestion before a hydrolysis treatment increases the hydrolysis efficiency, as the production of volatile organic components, which might inhibit the hydrolysis efficiency, are not produced to the same extent as may be the case for a hydrolysis made on un-digested material. Furthermore it is possible to separate ammonia from the sludge without using chemicals; it has, however, proven difficult to treat wastewater sludge, as the sludge seems to be difficult to treat in the laboratory using simple equipment. Esbjerg Wastewater Treatment Plant West, Denmark, is used as model plant for the calculations of the benefits using selective hydrolysis of sludge as if established at the existing sludge digester system. The plant is a traditional build plant based on the activated sludge concept in addition to traditional digester technology. The plant treats combined household and factory wastewater with a considerable amount of the wastewater received from the industries. During the project period Esbjerg Treatment Plant West went through considerable process changes, thus the results presented in this report are based on historical plant characteristics and may be viewed as conservative relative to what actually may be obtainable. (BA)

  16. The treatment of facial palsy from the point of view of physical and rehabilitation medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafshak, T S

    2006-03-01

    There are evidences to support recommending the early intake of prednisone (in its appropriate dose of 1 mg/kg body weight for up to 70 or 80 mg/day) or the combined use of prednisone and acyclovir (or valacyclovir) within 72 h following the onset of paralysis in order to improve the outcome of Bell's palsy (BP). Although there may be a controversy about the role of physiotherapy in BP or facial palsy, it seemed that local superficial heat therapy, massage, exercises, electrical stimulation and biofeedback training have a place in the treatment of lower motor facial palsy. However, each modality has its indications. Moreover, some rehabilitative surgical methods might be of benefit for some patients with traumatic facial injuries or long standing paralysis without recovery, but early surgery in BP is usually not recommended. However, few may recommend early surgery in BP when there is 90-100% facial nerve degeneration. The efficacy of acupuncture, magnetic pellets and other modalities of physiotherapy needs further investigation. The general principles and the different opinions in treating and rehabilitating facial palsy are discussed and the need for further research in this field is suggested.

  17. 40 CFR 63.1586 - What are the emission points and control requirements for a non-industrial POTW treatment plant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... control requirements for a non-industrial POTW treatment plant? 63.1586 Section 63.1586 Protection of... Pollutants: Publicly Owned Treatment Works Non-Industrial Potw Treatment Plant Requirements § 63.1586 What are the emission points and control requirements for a non-industrial POTW treatment plant? There are...

  18. Good quality of oral anticoagulation treatment in general practice using international normalised ratio point of care testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkkegaard, Thomas; Pedersen, Tina Heidi; Lind, Bent

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Oral anticoagulation treatment (OACT)with warfarin is common in general practice. Increasingly,international normalised ratio (INR) point of care testing(POCT) is being used to manage patients. The aim of thisstudy was to describe and analyse the quality of OACT withwarfarin...... in the management of patients in warfarintreatment provided good quality of care. Sampling intervaland diagnostic coding were significantly correlated withtreatment quality. FUNDING: The study received financial support from theSarah Krabbe Foundation, the General Practitioners’ Educationand Development Foundation...

  19. [Low-frequency pulsed magnetotherapy combined with electrostimulation of biologically active points in the combined treatment of traumatic mandibular osteomyelitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korotkikh, N G; Oreshkin, A V

    1999-01-01

    The results of treatment are analyzed in 51 patients (35 with exacerbation of chronic traumatic mandibular osteomyelitis and 16 with chronic traumatic mandibular osteomyelitis). Low-intensity pulsed magnetic therapy of the focus in combination with electric stimulation of segmentary bioactive points, synchronized by the patient's pulse, are proposed to be added to the therapeutic complex. Such a modality improved the regional hemodynamics, promoted liquidation of the postoperative edema on days 1-2 after intervention, and sooner than after traditional therapy repaired the energy of the patient's organism.

  20. Travellers and Cowboys: Myths of the Irish West.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisplinghoff, Gretchen

    The recent Irish film "Into the West" (1992) explores the myth of the West on two continents. Images from television and movies appear as a visual reference point within "Into the West"; the main characters, two young Irish boys, are fascinated with the American West of cowboys and Indians as depicted in countless Hollywood…

  1. Determinants of accepting non-invasive ventilation treatment in motor neurone disease: a quantitative analysis at point of need.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousins, Rosanna; Ando, Hikari; Thornton, Everard; Chakrabarti, Biswajit; Angus, Robert; Young, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    Objectives : Motor neurone disease (MND) progressively damages the nervous system causing wasting to muscles, including those used for breathing. There is robust evidence that non-invasive ventilation (NIV) relieves respiratory symptoms and improves quality of life in MND. Nevertheless, about a third of those who would benefit from NIV decline the treatment. The purpose of the study was to understand this phenomenon. Design : A cross-sectional quantitative analysis. Methods : Data including age, sex, MND symptomatology, general physical and mental health and psychological measures were collected from 27 patients and their family caregivers at the point of being offered ventilatory support based on physiological markers. Results : Quantitative analyses indicated no difference in patient characteristics or symptomatology between those who tolerated ( n  = 17) and those who declined ( n  = 10) NIV treatment. A comparison of family caregivers found no differences in physical or mental health or in caregiving distress, emphasising that this was high in both groups; however, family caregivers supporting NIV treatment were significantly more resilient, less neurotic and less anxious than family caregivers who did not. Regression analyses, forcing MND symptoms to enter the equation first, found caregiver resilience:commitment the strongest predictor of uptake of NIV treatment adding 22% to the 56% explained variance. Conclusion : Patients who tolerated NIV treatment had family caregivers who cope through finding meaning and purpose in their situation. Psychological support and proactive involvement for family caregivers in the management of the illness situation is indicated if acceptance of NIV treatment is to be maximised in MND.

  2. Total Delay Is Associated with Unfavorable Treatment Outcome among Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients in West Gojjam Zone, Northwest Ethiopia: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senedu Bekele Gebreegziabher

    Full Text Available delay in diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis (TB may worsen the disease, increase mortality and enhance transmission in the community. This study aimed at assessing the association between total delay and unfavorable treatment outcome among newly diagnosed pulmonary TB (PTB patients.A prospective cohort study was conducted in West Gojjam Zone, Amhara Region of Ethiopia from October 2013 to May 2015. Newly diagnosed PTB patients who were ≥15 years of age were consecutively enrolled in the study from 30 randomly selected public health facilities. Total delay (the time period from onset of TB symptoms to first start of anti-TB treatment was measured. Median total delay was calculated. Mixed effect logistics regression was used to analyze factors associated with unfavorable treatment outcome.Seven hundred six patients were enrolled in the study. The median total delay was 60 days. Patients with total delay of > 60 days were more likely to have unfavorable TB treatment outcome than patients with total delay of ≤ 60 days (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04-5.26. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV positive TB patients were 8.46 times more likely to experience unfavorable treatment outcome than HIV negative TB patients (AOR, 8.46; 95% CI, 3.14-22.79.Long total delay and TB/HIV coinfection were associated with unfavorable treatment outcome. Targeted interventions that can reduce delay in diagnosis and treatment of TB, and early comprehensive management of TB/HIV coinfection are needed to reduce increased risk of unfavorable treatment outcome.

  3. Determinants of delay in malaria treatment-seeking behaviour for under-five children in south-west Ethiopia: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deribew Amare

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prompt diagnosis and timely treatment of malaria within 24 hours after onset of first symptoms can reduce illness progression to severe stages and therefore, decrease mortality. The reason why mothers/caretakers delay in malaria diagnosis and treatment for under-five children is not well studied in Ethiopia. The objective of this study was to assess determinants of malaria treatment delay in under-five children in three districts of south-west Ethiopia. Methods A case control study was conducted from March 15 to April 20, 2010. Cases were under-five children who had clinical malaria and sought treatment after 24 hours of developing sign and symptom, and controls were under-five children who had clinical malaria and sought treatment within 24 hours of developing sign and symptom of malaria. Data were collected by trained enumerators using structured questionnaire. Data were entered in to Epi Info version 6.04 and analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. To identify determinants, multiple logistic regression was done. Results A total of 155 mothers of cases and 155 mothers of controls were interviewed. Mothers of children who were in a monogamous marriage (OR = 3.41, 95% CI: 1.39, 8.34, who complained about the side effects of anti-malarial drugs (OR = 4.96, 95% CI: 1.21, 20.36, who had no history of child death (OR = 3.50, 95% CI: 1.82, 6.42 and who complained about the higher cost of transportation to reach the health institutions (OR = 2.01, 95% CI: 1.17, 3.45 were more likely to be late for the treatment of malaria in under-five children. Conclusion Effective malaria control programmes should address reducing delayed presentation of children for treatment. Efforts to reduce delay should address transport cost, decentralization of services and increasing awareness of the community on early diagnosis and treatment.

  4. Effects of residential wastewater treatment systems on ground-water quality in west-central Jefferson County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Dennis C.; Hillier, D.E.; Nickum, Edward; Dorrance, W.G.

    1981-01-01

    The use of residential wastewater-treatment systems in Evergreen Meadows, Marshdale, and Herzman Mesa, Colo., has degraded ground-water quality to some extent in each community. Age of community; average lot size; slope of land surface; composition, permeability, and thickness of surficial material; density, size , and orientation of fractures; maintenance of wastewater-treatment systems; and presence of animals are factors possibly contributing to the degradation of ground-water quality. When compared with effluent from aeration-treatment tanks, effluent fom septic-treatment tanks is characterized by greater biochemical oxygen demand and greater concentrations of detergents. When compared with effluent from septic-treatment tanks, effluent from aeration-treatment tanks is characterized by greater concentrations of dissolved oxygen, nitrite, nitrate, sulfate, and dissolved solids. (USGS)

  5. A Mathematical Model to Investigate the Long-Term Effects of the Lymphatic Filariasis Medical Treatment in Jati Sampurna, West Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K. Supriatna

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we discuss a mathematical model for the transmission of Lymphatic Filariasis disease in Jati Sampurna, West Java Indonesia. The model assumes that acute infected humans are infectious and treatment is given to a certain number of acute infected humans found from screening process. The treated acute individuals are assumed to be remain susceptible to the disease. The model is analyzed and it is found a condition for the existence and stability of the endemic equilibrium. A well known rule of thumb in epidemiological model, that is, the endemic equilibrium exists and stable if the basic reproduction number is greater than one, is shown. Moreover, it is also shown that if the level of screening n is sufficiently large, current medical treatment strategy will be able to reduce the long-term level of incidences. However, in practice it is not realistic and cannot eliminate the disease, in terms of reducing the basic reproduction number. The reproduction number can be reduced by giving additional treatments, such as reducing the biting rate and mosquito's density. This suggests that there should be a combination of treatment to eliminate the disease.

  6. SU-F-T-362: Quantification and Modelling of the Ionization Chamber Simulation Effective Points On Monaco Treatment Planning System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, R; Bai, W [The Fourth Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei (China)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Because of statistical noise in Monte Carlo dose calculations, effective point doses may not be accurate. Volume spheres are useful for evaluating dose in Monte Carlo plans, which have an inherent statistical uncertainty.We use a user-defined sphere volume instead of a point, take sphere sampling around effective point make the dose statistics to decrease the stochastic errors. Methods: Direct dose measurements were made using a 0.125cc Semiflex ion chamber (IC) 31010 isocentrically placed in the center of a homogeneous Cylindric sliced RW3 phantom (PTW, Germany).In the scanned CT phantom series the sensitive volume length of the IC (6.5mm) were delineated and defined the isocenter as the simulation effective points. All beams were simulated in Monaco in accordance to the measured model. In our simulation using 2mm voxels calculation grid spacing and choose calculate dose to medium and request the relative standard deviation ≤0.5%. Taking three different assigned IC over densities (air electron density(ED) as 0.01g/cm3 default CT scanned ED and Esophageal lumen ED 0.21g/cm3) were tested at different sampling sphere radius (2.5, 2, 1.5 and 1 mm) statistics dose were compared with the measured does. Results: The results show that in the Monaco TPS for the IC using Esophageal lumen ED 0.21g/cm3 and sampling sphere radius 1.5mm the statistical value is the best accordance with the measured value, the absolute average percentage deviation is 0.49%. And when the IC using air electron density(ED) as 0.01g/cm3 and default CT scanned EDthe recommented statistical sampling sphere radius is 2.5mm, the percentage deviation are 0.61% and 0.70%, respectivly. Conclusion: In Monaco treatment planning system for the ionization chamber 31010 recommend air cavity using ED 0.21g/cm3 and sampling 1.5mm sphere volume instead of a point dose to decrease the stochastic errors. Funding Support No.C201505006.

  7. Preliminary design of a biological treatment facility for trench water from a low-level radioactive waste disposal area at West Valley, New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosten, R.; Malkumus, D. [Pacific Nuclear, Inc. (United States); Sonntag, T. [New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, NY (United States); Sundquist, J. [Ecology and Environment, Inc. (United States)

    1993-03-01

    The New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) owns and manages a State-Licensed Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Area (SDA) at West Valley, New York. Water has migrated into the burial trenches at the SDA and collected there, becoming contaminated with radionuclides and organic compounds. The US Environmental Protection Agency issued an order to NYSERDA to reduce the levels of water in the trenches. A treatability study of the contaminated trench water (leachate) was performed and determined the best available technology to treat the leachate and discharge the effluent. This paper describes the preliminary design of the treatment facility that incorporates the bases developed in the leachate treatability study.

  8. [Properties of NiTi wires with direct electric resistance heat treatment method in three-point bending tests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-mei; Wang, Bang-kang; Ren, Chao-chao; Bai, Yu-xing

    2011-03-01

    To investigate the mechanical properties of Ni-Ti wires with direct electric resistance heat treatment (DERHT) method in three-point bending tests. Two superelastic Ni-Ti wires (wire A: Smart SE, wire B: SENTALLOY SE, 0.406 mm × 0.559 mm) and 2 heat-actived Ni-Ti wires (wire C: Smart SM, wire D: L&H TITAN, 0.406 mm × 0.559 mm) were selected. They were heat-treated using the DERHT method by a controlled electric current (6.36 A) applied for different period of time [0 (control), 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 seconds). Then, a three-point bending test was performed under controlled temperature (37°C) to examine the relationships between the deflection and the load in the bending of wires. After DERHT treatment, the plateau in the force-deflection curve of superelastic Ni-Ti wires and heat-activated Ni-Ti wires were increased. When the wires were heated for 2.0 seconds and deflected to 1.5 mm, the loading force of A, B, C and D Ni-Ti wires increased from (3.85 ± 0.11), (3.62 ± 0.07), (3.28 ± 0.09), (2.91 ± 0.23) N to (4.33 ± 0.07), (4.07 ± 0.05), (4.52 ± 0.08), (3.27 ± 0.15) N respectively. DERHT method is very convenient for clinical use. It is possible to change the arch form and superelastic force of NiTi wires. The longer the heating time is, the more the superelastic characteristics of the wires are altered.

  9. Variations in breast cancer histology and treatment patterns between the major ethnic groups of South West Sydney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Eunji; Yap, Mei Ling; Boxer, Miriam M; Chong, Shanley; Duggan, Kirsten; Kaadan, Nasreen; Delaney, Geoffrey P

    2017-12-19

    Studies in the United States and United Kingdom have demonstrated ethnic variations in breast cancer receptor status, histology, and treatment access. This study aimed to investigate whether ethnicity variation similarly exists in Australia. Patients diagnosed with breast cancer between 2006 and 2011 across all public hospitals in the South Western Sydney Local Health District were identified and patient data collected retrospectively. Logistic regression analysis was used to measure the association between various biologic and treatment parameters and ethnicity. Ethnicity was found to have an influence on age of diagnosis, histology, treatment utilization, and recurrence in breast cancer patients. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Optimal timing of antiretroviral treatment initiation in HIV-positive children and adolescents: a multiregional analysis from Southern Africa, West Africa and Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomaker, Michael; Leroy, Valeriane; Wolfs, Tom; Technau, Karl-Günter; Renner, Lorna; Judd, Ali; Sawry, Shobna; Amorissani-Folquet, Madeleine; Noguera-Julian, Antoni; Tanser, Frank; Eboua, François; Navarro, Maria Luisa; Chimbetete, Cleophas; Amani-Bosse, Clarisse; Warszawski, Josiane; Phiri, Sam; N'Gbeche, Sylvie; Cox, Vivian; Koueta, Fla; Giddy, Janet; Sygnaté-Sy, Haby; Raben, Dorthe; Chêne, Geneviève; Davies, Mary-Ann

    2017-04-01

    There is limited knowledge about the optimal timing of antiretroviral treatment initiation in older children and adolescents. A total of 20 576 antiretroviral treatment (ART)-naïve patients, aged 1-16 years at enrolment, from 19 cohorts in Europe, Southern Africa and West Africa, were included. We compared mortality and growth outcomes for different ART initiation criteria, aligned with previous and recent World Health Organization criteria, for 5 years of follow-up, adjusting for all measured baseline and time-dependent confounders using the g-formula. Median (1st;3rd percentile) CD4 count at baseline was 676 cells/mm 3 (394; 1037) (children aged ≥ 1 and 10 years at enrolment we did not find any difference in mortality or growth with immediate ART initiation, with estimated differences of -0.1% (-0.2%; 0.6%) and -0.03 (-0.05; 0.00), respectively. Growth differences in children aged < 10 years persisted for treatment thresholds using higher CD4 values. Regular follow-up led to better height and mortality outcomes. Immediate ART is associated with lower mortality and better growth for up to 5 years in children < 10 years old. Our results on adolescents were inconclusive. © The Author 2016; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association

  11. An inventory of plants commonly used in the treatment of some disease conditions in Ogbomoso, South West, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olorunnisola, O S; Adetutu, A; Afolayan, A J

    2015-02-23

    This study was designed to take an inventory of medicinal plants, recipes and methods commonly used traditionally to treat some cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases in five local government areas in Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria. First-hand field survey through semi-structured questionnaire was employed in the 5 months study. A total of 101 plant species (medicinal plants (80.90%), spices (17.5%) and vegetables (1.53%)) belonging to 51 different families were mentioned for the treatment of various types of cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases. The survey revealed that 51.5% of the plants mentioned are used for the management of inflammatory diseases, 34.7% for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases and 11.9% of the plants are used for the treatment of both diseases. Euphorbiaceae (7.9%) are the most frequently used families of plants for the treatment of the various types of diseases mentioned, followed by Caesalpiaceae, (4.9%), Apocynoceae (4.9%) and Poaceae (4.9%). Fifty-nine recipes are usually prepared for the treatment of the six types of inflammatory diseases while twenty-three recipes are reportedly used for the treatment of the four types of cardiovascular diseases mentioned in this study. The recipes covered in the survey were mostly prepared from leaves (37.6%) and roots (23.8%) decoction or infusions. Medications are mostly administered orally with few numbers of the recipes showing side effect. The study has documented indigenous plants in Ogbomoso as a potential source for the development of new drugs for the treatment of cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Assessment of a treatment guideline to improve home management of malaria in children in rural south-west Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oduola Ayo MJ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many Nigerian children with malaria are treated at home. Treatments are mostly incorrect, due to caregivers' poor knowledge of appropriate and correct dose of drugs. A comparative study was carried out in two rural health districts in southwest Nigeria to determine the effectiveness of a guideline targeted at caregivers, in the treatment of febrile children using chloroquine. Methods Baseline and post intervention knowledge, attitude and practice household surveys were conducted. The intervention strategy consisted of training a core group of mothers ("mother trainers" in selected communities on the correct treatment of malaria and distributing a newly developed treatment guideline to each household. "Mother trainers" disseminated the educational messages about malaria and the use of the guideline to their communities. Results Knowledge of cause, prevention and treatment of malaria increased with the one-year intervention. Many, (70.4% of the respondents stated that they used the guideline each time a child was treated for malaria. There was a significant increase in the correct use of chloroquine from 2.6% at baseline to 52.3% after intervention among those who treated children at home in the intervention arm compared with 4.2% to 12.7% in the control arm. The correctness of use was significantly associated with use of the guideline. The timeliness of commencing treatment was significantly earlier in those who treated febrile children at home using chloroquine than those who took their children to the chemist or health facility (p Conclusion The use of the guideline with adequate training significantly improved correctness of malaria treatment with chloroquine at home. Adoption of this mode of intervention is recommended to improve compliance with drug use at home. The applicability for deploying artemisinin-based combination therapy at the community level needs to be investigated.

  13. Ethnopharmacological survey of herbal remedies used for treatment of various types of cancer and their methods of preparations in the West Bank-Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaradat, Nidal Amin; Al-Ramahi, Rowa; Zaid, Abdel Naser; Ayesh, Ola Ibrahim; Eid, Ahmad Mustafa

    2016-03-08

    Plants have been the primary source of medicines since life on earth; more than 50 % of existing cancer treatments are derived from plants. An ethnopharmacological survey of herbal remedies used in cancer treatment was carried out in the West Bank/ Palestine. A questionnaire was distributed to one hundred and fifty herbalists, traditional healers and rural dwellers. Collected information included the names of plants, the used parts, types of cancers for which these plants were used and also their methods of preparation. To identify the most important species used, Factor of informant's consensus (F(ic)), Fidelity level (Fl) and the Use-value (UV) were calculated. Collected data has shown that 72 plants are utilized for treatment of cancer, belonging to 44 families; from them Compositae and Lamiaceae were the most common. Leaves and fruits were the most commonly used parts, while decoctions, infusions and syrups were the main methods of preparation. Lung cancer was the most common type of cancer treated with these plants and Ephedra alata was the most commonly used plant for treatment of cancer in Palestine. The Fic was high for all the plants; Fl was 100% for many plants, the highest UV (0.72) was for Ephedra alata. This study showed that many herbal remedies are still used by herbalists in Palestine for treatment of cancer; some of them have been approved scientifically while others are not. A combined effort between informants and scientific institutions working in this field can help in the discovery of new anticancer agents. Moreover, scientists must explore the most suitable method of extraction, formulation and dose determination in order to achieve the best benefits from these herbals.

  14. Ethnopharmacological survey about medicinal plants utilized by herbalists and traditional practitioner healers for treatments of diarrhea in the West Bank/Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaradat, Nidal Amin; Ayesh, Ola Ibrahim; Anderson, Cynthia

    2016-04-22

    Folk herbal medicine knowledge and its utilization by aboriginal cultures are not only useful for conservation of cultural traditions and biodiversity, but also useful for community healthcare and drug discovery in the present and in the future. Using a semi-structured questionnaire, an ethnopharmacological survey of medicinal plants used for treatment of diarrhea in the West Bank/Palestine was investigated. Information about fifty medicinal plants used for treatment of diarrhea, including the names of plants, parts used, mode and methods of preparation was obtained from 100 traditional healers and herbalists. This research is the first scientific work in the Middle East to collect data about plants used by traditional healers for treatments of diarrhea and their evidence based effects against this disease. The fidelity levels were 97% for Salvia fruticosa, Teucrium polium and Musa paradisiaca, 95% for Camellia sinensis and Aegle marmelos, 79% for Oryza sativa and Solanum tuberosum, 77% for Quercus boissieri, 66% for Psidium guajava, 56% for Anthemis palestina, 54% for Solanum nigrum and 52% for Juglans regia while the highest use and choice values were for S. fruticosa, T. polium and M. paradisiaca as well as the factor of informant's consensus for medicinal plants used for treatment of diarrhea was 0.505.The leaves were the most commonly used parts, followed by fruits, roots and rhizomes, while decoctions and infusions are the preferred methods of preparation. The Palestinian traditional medicine is rich with herbal remedies for treatment of diarrhea in comparison with other countries, but most of these herbal remedies lack standard in-vitro and in-vivo evaluations to establish their antidiarrheal effects. Therefore, the information obtained can serve as a basis for further phytochemical and pharmacological studies to determine their efficacy and safety which might contribute to a better integration of Palestinian traditional medicine into the national health

  15. Quali-quantitative characterization and wastewater treatment of a winery located in the mid-west of Santa Catarina state, South of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortigara, A R C; Sezerino, P H; Bento, A P; Scaratti, D

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses variations in the quali-quantitative characterization of winery wastewater, and the behavior of the treatment of these effluents. The wastewater produced is sent to two disposition systems: Point A receives the wastewater from the production area whereas Point B receives the wastewater from the area where the washing of bottles takes place. Two Aerated Submerged Biofilter (ASB) reactors (with oyster shells as support material) were built at lab scale to promote the treatment of the winery effluent. Water usage and effluent production values of the 2008 harvest season indicate that grape processing accounted for 30% of the total water usage. The median value found for the effluent at Point A was 8,260 mg COD L(-1) and at Point B 358 mg COD L(-1). The average C/N/P ratio found at Point A was 100/0.29/0.28 during the harvest and 100/0.27/0.25 during the non harvest. For ASB 1 the COD removal efficiency ranged from 56% to 90%, with the removed organic load ranging from 1.5 kg COD m(-3) d(-1) to 2.7 kg COD m(-3) d(-1), respectively. For ASB 2 the COD removal efficiency ranged from 63% to 82%, with the removed organic load ranging from 1.8 kg COD m(-3) d(-1) to 1.7 kg COD m(-3) d(-1), respectively.

  16. TREATMENT OF SUBACUTE POSTERIOR KNEE PAIN IN AN ADOLESCENT BALLET DANCER UTILIZING TRIGGER POINT DRY NEEDLING: A CASE REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansey, Kimberly A.; Westrick, Richard B.

    2014-01-01

    Study Design: Case Report. Background and Purpose: Dry needling (DN) is an increasingly popular intervention used by clinicians as a treatment of regional neuromusculoskeletal pain. DN is an invasive procedure that involves insertion of a thin monofilament needle directly into a muscle trigger point (MTP) with the intent of stimulating a local twitch response. Current evidence is somewhat limited, but recent literature supports the use of this intervention in specific neuromusculoskeletal conditions. The purpose of this case report is to present the outcomes of DN as a primary treatment intervention in an adolescent subject with subacute posterior knee pain. Case Description: The subject was a 16‐year‐old female competitive ballet dancer referred to physical therapy with a two month history of right posterior knee pain. Palpation identified MTPs which reproduced the patient’s primary symptoms. In addition to an exercise program promoting lower extremity flexibility and hip stability, the subject was treated with DN to the right gastrocnemius, soleus, and popliteus muscles. Outcomes: The subject reported being pain free on the Numerical Pain Scale and a +7 improvement in perceived change in recovery on the Global Rating of Change at final follow‐up. Physical examination demonstrated no observed impairments or functional limitations, including normal mobility, full strength, and unrestricted execution of dance maneuvers. Discussion: The patient was able to return to high level dance training and competition without physical limitations and resumed pre‐injury dynamic movement activities including dancing, running, jumping, and pivoting without pain. DN can be an effective and efficient intervention to assist patients in decreasing pain and returning to high intensity physical activity. Additional research is needed to determine if DN is effective for other body regions and has long‐term positive outcomes. Level of Evidence: Level 4 PMID:24567862

  17. A Point System to Forecast Hepatocellular Carcinoma Risk Before and After Treatment Among Persons with Chronic Hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Jian; Spradling, Philip R; Moorman, Anne C; Holmberg, Scott D; Teshale, Eyasu H; Rupp, Loralee B; Gordon, Stuart C; Lu, Mei; Boscarino, Joseph A; Schmidt, Mark A; Trinacty, Connie M; Xu, Fujie

    2017-11-01

    Risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) may be difficult to determine in the clinical setting. Develop a scoring system to forecast HCC risk among patients with chronic hepatitis C. Using data from the Chronic Hepatitis Cohort Study collected during 2005-2014, we derived HCC risk scores for males and females using an extended Cox model with aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI) as a time-dependent variables and mean Kaplan-Meier survival functions from patient data at two study sites, and used data collected at two separate sites for external validation. For model calibration, we used the Greenwood-Nam-D'Agostino goodness-of-fit statistic to examine differences between predicted and observed risk. Of 12,469 patients (1628 with a history of sustained viral response [SVR]), 504 developed HCC; median follow-up was 6 years. Final predictors in the model included age, alcohol abuse, interferon-based treatment response, and APRI. Point values, ranging from -3 to 14 (males) and -3 to 12 (females), were established using hazard ratios of the predictors aligned with 1-, 3-, and 5-year Kaplan-Meier survival probabilities of HCC. Discriminatory capacity was high (c-index 0.82 males and 0.84 females) and external calibration demonstrated no differences between predicted and observed HCC risk for 1-, 3-, and 5-year forecasts among males (all p values >0.97) and for 3- and 5-year risk among females (all p values >0.87). This scoring system, based on age, alcohol abuse history, treatment response, and APRI, can be used to forecast up to a 5-year risk of HCC among hepatitis C patients before and after SVR.

  18. Occurrence and fate of selected PPCPs in a conventional sewage treatment plant located in north west UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reif, R.; Santos, A.; Judd, S. J.; Lema, J. M.; Omil, F.

    2009-01-01

    Over the last decade, the occurrence of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) in wastewater effluents has become an increasing concern. Most of these compounds are released into the environment through sewage treatment plant effluents, due to the fact that these plants are not able to remove many of them in a significant extension. Presently, studies regarding hazardous effects in the aquatic environment are emerging worldwide, but still there is little information available regarding their potential eco toxicological effects. (Author)

  19. Malaria self medications and choices of drugs for its treatment among residents of a malaria endemic community in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GTA Jombo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess people ’s knowledge about malaria treatment which is one of the main components of the roll back malaria (RBM programme instituted on the African Continent with the aim of bringing the disease under control. Methods: The cross-sectional study was carried out between October and December 2009, involving 3 171 adult women who were selected from households using systematic sampling methods. Quantitative information such as age, educational level, marital status, occupation, number of children and knowledge of malaria were obtained using structured and semi-structured questionnaires, while qualitative information was obtained using focussed and in-depth group discussions to complement quantitative data. Results: The modes of approach to malaria treatment were 41.1% (1 302, 36.0% (1 143, 10.7% (339 and 0.5% (15 would attend hospital/clinic, buy drugs from pharmacy/chemist shop, take traditional herbs, and take no action respectively. Factors that were found to increase the level of knowledge about antimalarial drugs among the respondents were increasing educational level, being married compared to singles, having children and increasing family income (P 0.05. Knowledge about artemisinin combined therapy (ACT was less than 15% similar with intermittent preventive treatment (IPT; home-based management for malaria (HBMM was not in place. Conclusions: The drug component of the RBM programme in the community should be reviewed and appropriate amends instituted in order to ensure efficiency of the overall malaria control programme in the community.

  20. Dissection of Biological Property of Chinese Acupuncture Point Zusanli Based on Long-Term Treatment via Modulating Multiple Metabolic Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangli Yan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acupuncture has a history of over 3000 years and is a traditional Chinese medical therapy that uses hair-thin metal needles to puncture the skin at specific points on the body to promote wellbeing, while its molecular mechanism and ideal biological pathways are still not clear. High-throughput metabolomics is the global assessment of endogenous metabolites within a biologic system and can potentially provide a more accurate snap shot of the actual physiological state. We hypothesize that acupuncture-treated human would produce unique characterization of metabolic phenotypes. In this study, UPLC/ESI-HDMS coupled with pattern recognition methods and system analysis were carried out to investigate the mechanism and metabolite biomarkers for acupuncture treatment at “Zusanli” acupoint (ST-36 as a case study. The top 5 canonical pathways including alpha-linolenic acid metabolism, d-glutamine and d-glutamate metabolism, citrate cycle, alanine, aspartate, and glutamate metabolism, and vitamin B6 metabolism pathways were acutely perturbed, and 53 differential metabolites were identified by chemical profiling and may be useful to clarify the physiological basis and mechanism of ST-36. More importantly, network construction has led to the integration of metabolites associated with the multiple perturbation pathways. Urine metabolic profiling might be a promising method to investigate the molecular mechanism of acupuncture.

  1. Dissection of Biological Property of Chinese Acupuncture Point Zusanli Based on Long-Term Treatment via Modulating Multiple Metabolic Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Guangli; Zhang, Aihua; Sun, Hui; Cheng, Weiping; Meng, Xiangcai; Liu, Li; Zhang, Yingzhi; Xie, Ning; Wang, Xijun

    2013-01-01

    Acupuncture has a history of over 3000 years and is a traditional Chinese medical therapy that uses hair-thin metal needles to puncture the skin at specific points on the body to promote wellbeing, while its molecular mechanism and ideal biological pathways are still not clear. High-throughput metabolomics is the global assessment of endogenous metabolites within a biologic system and can potentially provide a more accurate snap shot of the actual physiological state. We hypothesize that acupuncture-treated human would produce unique characterization of metabolic phenotypes. In this study, UPLC/ESI-HDMS coupled with pattern recognition methods and system analysis were carried out to investigate the mechanism and metabolite biomarkers for acupuncture treatment at "Zusanli" acupoint (ST-36) as a case study. The top 5 canonical pathways including alpha-linolenic acid metabolism, d-glutamine and d-glutamate metabolism, citrate cycle, alanine, aspartate, and glutamate metabolism, and vitamin B6 metabolism pathways were acutely perturbed, and 53 differential metabolites were identified by chemical profiling and may be useful to clarify the physiological basis and mechanism of ST-36. More importantly, network construction has led to the integration of metabolites associated with the multiple perturbation pathways. Urine metabolic profiling might be a promising method to investigate the molecular mechanism of acupuncture.

  2. Application of cryptocrystalline magnesite-bentonite clay hybrid for defluoridation of underground water resources: implication for point of use treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Masindi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A new synthesis method was established to fabricate a nanocomposite material comprising of cryptocrystalline magnesite and bentonite clay that has high adsorption capacity for ionic pollutants. To synthesize the composite at 1:1 weight (g: weight (g ratio, a vibratory ball mill was used. Batch adsorption experiments were carried out to determine optimum conditions for fluoride adsorption. Parameters optimized included: time, dosage, concentration and pH. Optimum conditions for defluoridation were found to be 30 min of agitation, 0.5 g of dosage, 0.5:100 solid to liquid (S/L ratios and 25 mg L−1 of initial fluoride ions. Fluoride removal was independent of pH. The adsorption kinetics and isotherms were well fitted by pseudo-second-order and Langmuir models, respectively, indicating chemical and monolayer adsorption. Findings illustrated that the newly synthesized adsorbent was a promising adsorbent for the environmental pollution clean-up of excess fluoride in underground water and it can be used as a point source treatment technology in rural areas of South Africa and other developing countries.

  3. Software Configuration Management Plan for the K West Basin Integrated Water Treatment System (IWTS) - Project A.9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GREEN, J.W.

    2000-01-01

    This document provides a configuration control plan for the software associated with the operation and control of the Integrated Water Treatment System (IWTS). It establishes requirements for ensuring configuration item identification, configuration control, configuration status accounting, defect reporting and resolution of computer software. It is written to comply with HNF-SD-SNF-CM-001, Spent Nuclear Fuel Configuration Management Plan (Forehand 1998) and HNF-PRO-309 Computer Software Quality Assurance Requirements, and applicable sections of administrative procedure CM-6-037-00, SNF Project Process Automation Software and Equipment

  4. A comparative evaluation of dental caries status among hearing-impaired and normal children of Malda, West Bengal, evaluated with the Caries Assessment Spectrum and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Sudipta; Kundu, Goutam; Maiti, Shyamal Kumar; Ghosh, Chiranjit; Bazmi, Badruddin Ahamed; Mukhopadhyay, Santanu

    2016-01-01

    Dental caries is one of the major modern-day diseases of dental hard tissue. It may affect both normal and hearing-impaired children. This study is aimed to evaluate and compare the prevalence of dental caries in hearing-impaired and normal children of Malda, West Bengal, utilizing the Caries Assessment Spectrum and Treatment (CAST). In a cross-sectional, case-control study of dental caries status of 6-12-year-old children was assessed. Statistically significant difference was found in studied (hearing-impaired) and control group (normal children). In the present study, caries affected hearing-impaired children found to be about 30.51% compared to 15.81% in normal children, and the result was statistically significant. Regarding individual caries assessment criteria, nearly all subgroups reflect statistically significant difference except sealed tooth structure group, internal caries-related discoloration in dentin, and distinct cavitation into dentine group, and the result is significant at P caries effected hearing-impaired children found about 30.51% instead of 15.81% in normal children, and the result was statistically significant (P caries assessment criteria, nearly all subgroups reflect statistically significant difference except sealed tooth structure group, internal caries-related discoloration in dentin, and distinct cavitation into dentine group. Dental health of hearing-impaired children was found unsatisfactory than normal children when studied in relation to dental caries status evaluated with CAST.

  5. HIV-1 integrase inhibitor resistance among treatment naïve patients in the West of Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley-Stewart, A; Urcia, C; MacLean, A; Aitken, C; Gunson, R

    2017-07-01

    Transmitted integrase inhibitor resistance is rare, with only a small number of cases reported world-wide to date. The aim of this study was to assess whether transmitted integrase inhibitor resistance has occurred in Scotland and if so, could there be a case for performing genotypic integrase resistance testing at baseline. The study population consisted of 106 treatment naïve, newly diagnosed, HIV positive patients. The patient samples were collected between October 2015 and March 2016 at the time of HIV diagnosis and prior to initiation of anti-retroviral therapy. The integrase region was amplified and sequenced. We detected integrase inhibitor resistance (T66I/T) at baseline in one patient sample. This is a non-polymorphic mutation seen in patients receiving elvitegravir which confers high-level resistance to elvitegravir and intermediate resistance to raltegravir. A further 10 patients had accessory mutations which have minimal or no effect on susceptibility to integrase inhibitors. Transmitted integrase inhibitor resistance remains rare. The results of the present study do not support performing integrase resistance testing at baseline. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Management of advanced ovarian cancer in South West Wales - a comparison between primary debulking surgery and primary chemotherapy treatment strategies in an unselected, consecutive patient cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drews, F; Bertelli, G; Lutchman-Singh, K

    2017-08-01

    This study represents the first reported outcomes for patients with advanced ovarian cancer (AOC) in South-West Wales undergoing treatment with primary debulking surgery or primary chemotherapy respectively. This is a retrospective study of consecutive, unselected patients with advanced ovarian, fallopian tube or primary peritoneal cancer (FIGO III/IV) presenting to a regional cancer centre between October 2007 and October 2014. Patients were identified from Welsh Cancer Services records and relevant data was extracted from electronic National Health Service (NHS) databases. Main outcome measures were median overall survival (OS), progression free survival (PFS) and perioperative adverse events. Hazard ratio estimation was carried out with Cox Regression analysis and survival determined by Kaplan-Meier plots. Of 220 women with AOC, 32.3% underwent primary debulking surgery (PDS) and 67.7% primary chemotherapy and interval debulking (PCT-IDS). Patients were often elderly (median age 67 years) with a poor performance status (26.5% PS >1). Complete cytoreduction (0cm residual) was achieved in 32.4% of patients in the PDS group and in 50.0% of patients undergoing IDS. Median OS for all patients was 21.9 months (PDS: 27.0 and PCT-IDS: 19.2 months; p >0.05) and median PFS was 13.1 months (PDS: 14.3 months and PCT-IDS: 13.0 months; p >0.05). Median overall and progression free survival for patients achieving complete cytoreduction were 48.0 and 23.2 months respectively in the PDS group and 35.4 months and 18.6 months in the IDS group (p >0.05). This retrospective study of an unselected, consecutive cohort of women with AOC in South West Wales shows comparable survival outcomes with recently published trials, despite the relatively advanced age and poor performance status of our patient cohort. Over the seven-year study period, our data also demonstrated a non-significant trend towards improved survival following primary surgery in patients who achieved maximal

  7. Quantifying the net benefit impacts of the Troy Waste Water Treatment Plant on Steelhead Habitat in the West Fork Little Bear Creek drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Murillo, R.; Brooks, E. S.; Boll, J.

    2010-12-01

    Discharge of waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) typically is viewed to result in water quality impairment. However, WWTPs can also be a source of nutrients to enhance the salmonid food web as well as an efficient way to maintain acceptable water temperature regimes and flow conditions during summer. We observed this paradox in West Fork Little Bear Creek (WFLB) in the City of Troy, Idaho. Despite the nutrient load, the WFLB had the highest Steelhead trout density in the watershed, with a mean density of 13.2 fish/100 m2. The objective of this project was to utilize a water quality model, QUAL2kw, and an ecology assessment to examine how the nutrient load from the WWTP affects: a) habitat conditions for steelhead juveniles, and b) physic-chemical parameters. Four monitoring stations were installed from May through November in 2009 and 2010. An undisturbed creek was used as a control site in 2010. Dissolved oxygen (DO), electrical conductivity, temperature, and discharge were measured continuously at each monitoring station. Weekly samples were collected at each monitoring station and analyzed for nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, total phosphorous, and orthophosphates. In 2010, Chlorophyll a was analyzed weekly, while bottom algae biomass was determined monthly. Results show that during summer months, the WWTP provides the majority of the flow (0.1 cfs) in the creek. Water samples and DO measurements taken 200 m downstream of the plant during late summer months indicate that nitrification process leads to low DO level well below the state standard of 6 mg/L for cold water biota. However dissolved oxygen levels recover within 1 km downstream. Discharge data suggest that without the flow from the treatment most of the creek would dry during late summer months. Abundance of macroinverbrates, high primary productivity, and sustained flow during summer suggests that the effluent from the WWTP is a net benefit to the Steelhead habitat in the basin

  8. Treatment of myofascial trigger points in common shoulder disorders by physical therapy: a randomized controlled trial [ISRCTN75722066].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bron, Carel; Wensing, Michel; Franssen, Jo Lm; Oostendorp, Rob Ab

    2007-11-05

    Shoulder disorders are a common health problem in western societies. Several treatment protocols have been developed for the clinical management of persons with shoulder pain. However available evidence does not support any protocol as being superior over others. Systematic reviews provide some evidence that certain physical therapy interventions (i.e. supervised exercises and mobilisation) are effective in particular shoulder disorders (i.e. rotator cuff disorders, mixed shoulder disorders and adhesive capsulitis), but there is an ongoing need for high quality trials of physical therapy interventions. Usually, physical therapy consists of active exercises intended to strengthen the shoulder muscles as stabilizers of the glenohumeral joint or perform mobilisations to improve restricted mobility of the glenohumeral or adjacent joints (shoulder girdle). It is generally accepted that a-traumatic shoulder problems are the result of impingement of the subacromial structures, such as the bursa or rotator cuff tendons. Myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) in shoulder muscles may also lead to a complex of symptoms that are often seen in patients diagnosed with subacromial impingement or rotator cuff tendinopathy. Little is known about the treatment of MTrPs in patients with shoulder disorders.The primary aim of this study is to investigate whether physical therapy modalities to inactivate MTrPs can reduce symptoms and improve shoulder function in daily activities in a population of chronic a-traumatic shoulder patients when compared to a wait-and-see strategy. In addition we investigate the recurrence rate during a one-year-follow-up period. This paper presents the design for a randomized controlled trial to be conducted between September 2007 - September 2008, evaluating the effectiveness of a physical therapy treatment for non-traumatic shoulder complaints. One hundred subjects are included in this study. All subjects have unilateral shoulder pain for at least six months

  9. Methodology of adjustment point in the post treatment of gaseous effluents; Metodologia del punto de ajuste en el post tratamiento de efluentes gaseosos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vizuet G, J.; Molina, G. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: jvg@nuclear.inin.mx

    2005-07-01

    The methodology to determine the adjustment points of the monitoring system of gaseous discharges is based on the stipulations of the 10CFR20, which are expressed in terms of limit concentrations for the outstanding radionuclides, and of dose limits for the individuals members of the public. Besides the points of liberation properly said, like they are the chimneys of the reactor buildings and of turbine, the points of adjustment of the monitoring instrumentation that watches in real time the discharge of the Treatment system of output gases, to the HVAC of the waste building; they also undergo to the same methodology, with the approaches previously described. (Author)

  10. Achievements in emergency medical rescue service, North-West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-08-28

    Aug 28, 2006 ... In North-West province this process of provincialisation took place in ... Emergency Medical Rescue Service, Department of Health, North-West. Victor R .... recovery after CPR treatment should be started as soon as possible ...

  11. Evaluation of sarolaner and spinosad oral treatments to eliminate fleas, reduce dermatologic lesions and minimize pruritus in naturally infested dogs in west Central Florida, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryden, Michael W; Canfield, Michael S; Niedfeldt, Emily; Kinnon, Amanda; Kalosy, Kimberly; Smith, Amber; Foley, Kaitlin M; Smith, Vicki; Bress, Todd S; Smith, Nicole; Endrizzi, Mike; Login, Joyce

    2017-08-17

    An in-home investigation of naturally flea infested dogs was conducted in West Central Florida, USA to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of two different oral flea adulticides to control flea infestations, minimize dermatologic lesions and reduce pruritus over an 8-week period. Twenty-nine dogs living in 19 homes and another 26 dogs residing in 16 different homes were orally administered either a sarolaner or spinosad chewable, respectively on day 0 and once between days 28-30. Products were administered by study personnel according to label directions. Flea populations on dogs were estimated using visual area counts and flea infestations in the indoor premises were assessed using intermittent-light flea traps on days 0, 7, 14, 21 and once between days 28-30, 40-45, and 56-60. Assessments of dermatologic lesions were conducted monthly during the study and severity of pruritus was evaluated throughout the study on the same schedule as flea counts were conducted. Concurrent treatments for existing skin disease were not allowed. The administration of sarolaner or spinosad reduced flea populations on dogs by 99.0% and 97.3%, respectively within 7 days. Flea infestations on the sarolaner- and spinosad-treated dogs were reduced by > 99% at every counting period from day 14 post-treatment through the end of the 8-week study. At the end of the study 96.4 and 92.0% of the dogs treated with sarolaner and spinosad, respectively were flea-free. Flea populations in the indoor premises were also markedly reduced the end of the study, with 100 and 99.8% reductions in flea trap counts in the sarolaner and spinosad treatment groups, respectively. FAD lesion scores, atopic dermatitis lesions scores (CADESI-4) and pruritus severity scores were also markedly improved with both formulations. An in-home clinical field study conducted during the summer of 2016 in subtropical Florida demonstrated that two-monthly administrations of either sarolaner or spinosad chewables almost

  12. A comparative evaluation of dental caries status among hearing-impaired and normal children of Malda, West Bengal, evaluated with the Caries Assessment Spectrum and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudipta Kar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Dental caries is one of the major modern-day diseases of dental hard tissue. It may affect both normal and hearing-impaired children. Aims: This study is aimed to evaluate and compare the prevalence of dental caries in hearing-impaired and normal children of Malda, West Bengal, utilizing the Caries Assessment Spectrum and Treatment (CAST. Settings and Design: In a cross-sectional, case-control study of dental caries status of 6-12-year-old children was assessed. Subjects and Methods: Statistically significant difference was found in studied (hearing-impaired and control group (normal children. In the present study, caries affected hearing-impaired children found to be about 30.51% compared to 15.81% in normal children, and the result was statistically significant. Regarding individual caries assessment criteria, nearly all subgroups reflect statistically significant difference except sealed tooth structure group, internal caries-related discoloration in dentin, and distinct cavitation into dentine group, and the result is significant at P < 0.05. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was carried out utilizing Z-test. Results: Statistically significant difference was found in studied (hearing-impaired and control group (normal children. In the present study, caries effected hearing-impaired children found about 30.51% instead of 15.81% in normal children, and the result was statistically significant (P < 0.05. Regarding individual caries assessment criteria, nearly all subgroups reflect statistically significant difference except sealed tooth structure group, internal caries-related discoloration in dentin, and distinct cavitation into dentine group. Conclusions: Dental health of hearing-impaired children was found unsatisfactory than normal children when studied in relation to dental caries status evaluated with CAST.

  13. [Professor WU Zhongchao's experience in the treatment of bi syndrome with fire needling therapy at lower he-sea points].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yu; Chen, Zhongjie; Liu, Chun; Wang, Bing; Zhang, Ning; Li, Caifen; Xie, Qian

    2016-07-12

    Bi syndrome is classified into five categories. Based on the syndrome differentiation of meridians and collaterals and zangfu theories, Professor WU Zhongchao proposed the fire needling therapy at the lower he -sea points for five types of bi syndromes. Professor WU stresses on the flexible application of fire needling therapy for bi syndrome at the lower he -sea points and innovated the unique five techniques of fire needling therapy, named lifting and threating needle of small amplitude at the lower he -sea points, the stimulation along the relevant meri-dians before fire needling, detecting the sensitive sites by gentle pressing the relevant lower he -sea points, combining the movement of affected upper limb or joint during fire needling, or combining with contralateral needling technique, and controlling the depth of fire needling based on the duration of sickness and depth of affected site. He pointed out that Shangjuxu (ST 37) is for skin bi syndrome, Zusanli (ST 36) for muscle bi syndrome, Yanglingquan (GB 34) for tendon bi syndrome, Weizhong (BL 40) for bone bi syndrome and Xiajuxu (ST 39) for vessel bi syndrome.

  14. Point-of-care genetic testing for personalisation of antiplatelet treatment (RAPID GENE): a prospective, randomised, proof-of-concept trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Jason D; Wells, George A; Le May, Michel R; Labinaz, Marino; Glover, Chris; Froeschl, Michael; Dick, Alexander; Marquis, Jean-Francois; O'Brien, Edward; Goncalves, Sandro; Druce, Irena; Stewart, Alexandre; Gollob, Michael H; So, Derek Y F

    2012-05-05

    Prospective assessment of pharmacogenetic strategies has been limited by an inability to undertake bedside genetic testing. The CYP2C19*2 allele is a common genetic variant associated with increased rates of major adverse events in individuals given clopidogrel after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We used a novel point-of-care genetic test to identify carriers of the CYP2C19*2 allele and aimed to assess a pharmacogenetic approach to dual antiplatelet treatment after PCI. Between Aug 26, 2010, and July 7, 2011, 200 patients were enrolled into our prospective, randomised, proof-of-concept study. Patients undergoing PCI for acute coronary syndrome or stable angina were randomly assigned to rapid point-of-care genotyping or to standard treatment. Individuals in the rapid genotyping group were screened for the CYP2C19*2 allele. Carriers were given 10 mg prasugrel daily, and non-carriers and patients in the standard treatment group were given 75 mg clopidogrel daily. The primary endpoint was the proportion of CYP2C19*2 carriers with high on-treatment platelet reactivity (P2Y12 reactivity unit [PRU] value of more than 234) after 1 week of dual antiplatelet treatment, which is a marker associated with increased adverse cardiovascular events. Interventional cardiologists and data analysts were masked to genetic status and treatment. Patients were not masked to treatment allocation. All analyses were by intention to treat. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01184300. After randomisation, 187 patients completed follow-up (91 rapid genotyping group, 96 standard treatment). 23 individuals in each group carried at least one CYP2C19*2 allele. None of the 23 carriers in the rapid genotyping group had a PRU value of more than 234 at day 7, compared with seven (30%) given standard treatment (p=0·0092). The point-of-care genetic test had a sensitivity of 100% (95% CI 92·3-100) and a specificity of 99·3% (96·3-100). Point-of-care genetic testing after

  15. Examination of acute treatment strategies in 314 patients with putaminal hemorrhage from the view point of functional prognosis in kaifukuki rehabilitation wards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakoh, Masaharu; Ohmura, Yuji; Fujii, Ryousuke; Horimi, Hirotsugu; Ishikawa, Makoto; Ishihara, Ken

    2010-01-01

    We examined the influence of acute treatment strategies for putaminal hemorrhage from the view point of the functional prognosis in Kaifukuki rehabilitation wards. Subjects were 314 patients with putaminal hemorrhage for inpatient rehabilitation in our hospital. For all patients, Functional Independence Measure (FIM), Barthel Index (BI), Independence of Gait (IOG) was measured on admission and discharge, respectively. We examined the functional prognosis, according to method of treatment, age, volume of hematoma, CT classification, side of damage, sex, and hospitalization waiting period. A significant difference was admitted with FIM, BI, and IOG in the age, the volume of hematoma, the hospitalization waiting period, and the CT classification (p<0.05). The functional prognosis was excellent in the conservative treatment than in the surgical treatment. The hospitalization waiting period was significantly a long term in the surgical treatment (p<0.05). In the analysis where the age is arranged the volume of hematoma, the surgical treatment was more excellent than the conservative treatment, in the patients less than 70 years old and the volume of hematoma with 60 ml or more. The functional prognosis of putaminal hemorrhage was excellent in the conservative treatment, but the stereotactic hematoma evacuation is recommended to the limited case as a surgical treatment. Early rehabilitation is a pressing need for the improvement of the functional prognosis. Especially, it is indispensable to shorten the hospitalization waiting period in the surgical treatment. (author)

  16. Cerebral gigantism with West syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Munni; Malhi, P; Bhalla, A K; Singhi, P D

    2003-07-01

    A case of cerebral gigantism (Sotos syndrome) with West syndrome in a one-year-old male child is reported. The case had a large stature, typical facies and neurodevelopmental delay along with infantile spasms, which were refractory to treatment with valproate and clonazepam.

  17. Comparison of CT-based volumetric dosimetry with traditional prescription points in the treatment of cervical cancer with PDR brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowrey, Nicola; Nilsson, Sanna; Moutrie, Zoe; Chan, Philip; Cheuk, Robyn

    2015-01-01

    The traditional use of two-dimensional geometric prescription points in intracavitary brachytherapy planning for locally advanced cervical cancer is increasingly being replaced by three-dimensional (3D) planning. This study aimed to directly compare the two planning methods to validate that CT planning provides superior dosimetry for both tumour and organs at risk (OARs) in our department. The CT planning data of 10 patients with locally advanced cervical cancer was audited. For each CT dataset, two new brachytherapy plans were created, comparing the dosimetry of conventional American Brachytherapy Society points and 3D-optimised volumes created for the high-risk clinical target volume (HR CTV) and OARs. Total biologically equivalent doses for these structures were calculated using the modified EQD2 formula and comparative dose-volume histogram (DVH) analysis performed. DVH analysis revealed that for the 3D-optimised plans, the prescription aim of D90 ≥ 100% was achieved for the HR CTV in all 10 patients. However, when prescribing to point A, only 50% of the plans achieved the minimum required dose to the HR CTV. Rectal and bladder dose constraints were met for all 3D-optimised plans but exceeded in two and one of the conventional plans, respectively. This study confirms that the regionally relevant practice of CT-based 3D-optimised planning results in improved tumour dose coverage compared with traditional points-based planning methods and also improves dose to the rectum and bladder.

  18. Bench-scale treatability testing of biological, UV oxidation, distillation, and ion-exchange treatment of trench water from a low-level radioactive waste disposal area at West Valley, New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundquist, J.A.; Gillings, J.C. [Ecology and Environment, Inc. (United States); Sonntag, T.L. [New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (United States); Denault, R.P. [Pacific Nuclear, Inc. (United States)

    1993-03-01

    Ecology and Environment, Inc. (E and E), under subcontract to Pacific Nuclear Services (PNS), conducted for the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) treatability tests to support the selection and design of a treatment system for leachate from Trench 14 of the West Valley State-Licensed, Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Area (SDA). In this paper E and E presents and discusses the treatability test results and provides recommendations for the design of the full-scale treatment system.

  19. Scraping technique of stuck needle at Anmian point in the treatment of insomnia: a randomized controlled trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张全爱

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare the efficacy difference in the treatment of insomnia between scraping technique of stuck needle and conventional acupuncture at Anmian (Extra) .Methods One hundred and thirty one cases

  20. Programmatic factors associated with the limited impact of Community-Directed Treatment with Ivermectin to control Onchocerciasis in three drainage basins of South West Cameroon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Tetteh Duamor

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The CDTI model is known to have enhanced community participation in planning and resource mobilization toward the control of onchocerciasis. These effects were expected to translate into better individual acceptance of the intervention and hence high Treatment Coverage, leading to a sustainable community-led strategy and reduction in the disease burden. A survey revealed that after 10-12 rounds of treatment, prevalence of onchocerciasis was still high in three drainage basins of South West Cameroon and transmission was going on.We designed a three (3-year retrospective (2012, 2013 and 2014, descriptive cross-sectional study to explore the roles of operational challenges in the failure of CDTI to control the disease as expected. We administered 83 semi-structured questionnaires and conducted 12 in-depth interviews with Chiefs of Bureau Health, Chiefs of Centers, CDDs and Community Heads. Descriptive statistics was used to explore indicators of performance which were supported with views from in-depth interviews.We found that community participation was weak; communities were not deciding time and mode of distributions. Only 6 (15.0% of 40 Community Drug Distributors reported they were selected at general community meetings as required. The health service was not able to meet and discuss Community-Directed Treatment with Ivermectin activities with individual communities partly due to transportation challenges; this was mostly done through letters. Funding was reported to be inadequate and not timely. Funds were not available to conduct Community-Self Monitoring after the 2014 Mass Drug Administration. There was inadequate health staff at the frontline health facility levels, and some Chiefs of Center reported that Community-Directed Treatment with Ivermectin work was too much for them. The mean operational Community Drug Distributor-population ratio was 1 Community Drug Distributor per 317 populations (range: 194-464, expected is 1:250. Community

  1. The Benguela upwelling system lying off southern Africa's west ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    Africa's west coast is one of the world's four main upwelling ..... Regions of current shear, convergence and divergence, as well ..... between Cape Point and Danger Point in 1975. .... processes in relation to eastern boundary current pelagic.

  2. Semiclassical wave packet treatment of scattering resonances: application to the delta zero-point energy effect in recombination reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetoshkin, Evgeny; Babikov, Dmitri

    2007-09-28

    For the first time Feshbach-type resonances important in recombination reactions are characterized using the semiclassical wave packet method. This approximation allows us to determine the energies, lifetimes, and wave functions of the resonances and also to observe a very interesting correlation between them. Most important is that this approach permits description of a quantum delta-zero-point energy effect in recombination reactions and reproduces the anomalous rates of ozone formation.

  3. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Puncturing and Bloodletting at Twelve Hand Jing Points to Treat Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning as Adjunct to First Aid Treatment: A Study Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Yue

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Acute carbon monoxide poisoning (ACOP is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in many countries. Twelve Hand Jing Points (THJP have been believed to be effective to treat all kinds of emergency calls in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM for more than 3000 years. This randomized controlled trial (RCT is designed to evaluate the effectiveness of THJP in curing acute carbon monoxide poisoning in first aid treatment. This paper reports the protocol of the trial. Methods/Design. This RCT is a multicenter, randomized, controlled study undergoing in China. The compliant patients are divided into the bloodletting group and standard of care group. With first aid treatments given to both of the groups, the bloodletting group is bleeding at THJP upon being hospitalized. Primary outcomes and secondary outcomes will be measured and compared between these two groups. Before treatment, immediately after treatment, and 30 minutes, 1 hour, and 4 hours after treatment, patients’ basic vital signs and state of consciousness were observed. Before treatment and 1 and 4 hours after treatment, carboxyhemoglobin concentration in venous blood samples was detected. Discussion. The objective of this study is to provide convincing evidence to clarify the efficacy and safety of THJP for early treatment of acute carbon monoxide poisoning.

  4. Protocol for a randomised controlled implementation trial of point-of-care viral load testing and task shifting: the Simplifying HIV TREAtment and Monitoring (STREAM) study

    OpenAIRE

    Dorward, Jienchi; Garrett, Nigel; Quame-Amaglo, Justice; Samsunder, Natasha; Ngobese, Hope; Ngomane, Noluthando; Moodley, Pravikrishnen; Mlisana, Koleka; Schaafsma, Torin; Donnell, Deborah; Barnabas, Ruanne; Naidoo, Kogieleum; Abdool Karim, Salim; Celum, Connie; Drain, Paul K

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Achieving the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV and AIDS 90-90-90 targets requires models of HIV care that expand antiretroviral therapy (ART) coverage without overburdening health systems. Point-of-care (POC) viral load (VL) testing has the potential to efficiently monitor ART treatment, while enrolled nurses may be able to provide safe and cost-effective chronic care for stable patients with HIV. This study aims to demonstrate whether POC VL testing combined with task shift...

  5. Platelet-rich plasma versus dry needling of myofascial meridian trigger points in the treatment of plantar fasciitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reem El Mallah

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion PRP injection is a promising line of treatment for chronic PF with documented ultrasonographic healing effect. Dry needling is a simple and safe technique for treating pain associated with PF, yet it is more invasive and less effective compared with PRP injection.

  6. Morphology as the starting point for individualized cancer treatment; La morfologia como punto de partida del tratamiento oncologico individualizado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanz Ortega, J.

    2009-07-01

    Historically, the histopathological diagnosis has been essential for the proper treatment of cancer. Today, in the new era of individualized cancer treatment, pathologists acquire a new role for identifying therapeutic targets, detection of hereditary syndromes; to select the most suitable molecular technique for each sample or to assess individual response to neoadjuvant therapy. The objective of this review is to show how we must combine and integrate new gross examination, microscopic and immunohistochemical data with molecular pathology, taking the example of colorectal cancer. Immunohistochemistry for DNA repair genes, the study of K-ras mutations and circumferential resection margin in rectal adenocarcinoma are part of this new reality. Therefore, besides making the correct diagnosis and staging of the tumor, we can play a key role in risk stratification of cancer and individualized treatment. Integration of the molecular study with the morphology and clinical data by pathologists may improve the efficiency of genetic tests and save costs. Phenotype precedes genotype in the clinical management algorithm of the disease. (Author) 19 refs.

  7. Numeric treatment of nonlinear second order multi-point boundary value problems using ANN, GAs and sequential quadratic programming technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulqurnain Sabir

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, computational intelligence technique are presented for solving multi-point nonlinear boundary value problems based on artificial neural networks, evolutionary computing approach, and active-set technique. The neural network is to provide convenient methods for obtaining useful model based on unsupervised error for the differential equations. The motivation for presenting this work comes actually from the aim of introducing a reliable framework that combines the powerful features of ANN optimized with soft computing frameworks to cope with such challenging system. The applicability and reliability of such methods have been monitored thoroughly for various boundary value problems arises in science, engineering and biotechnology as well. Comprehensive numerical experimentations have been performed to validate the accuracy, convergence, and robustness of the designed scheme. Comparative studies have also been made with available standard solution to analyze the correctness of the proposed scheme.

  8. Generalized treatment of point reactor kinetics driven by random reactivity fluctuations via the Wiener-Hermite functional method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behringer, K.

    1991-02-01

    In a recent paper by Behringer et al. (1990), the Wiener-Hermite Functional (WHF) method has been applied to point reactor kinetics excited by Gaussian random reactivity noise under stationary conditions, in order to calculate the neutron steady-state value and the neutron power spectral density (PSD) in a second-order (WHF-2) approximation. For simplicity, delayed neutrons and any feedback effects have been disregarded. The present study is a straightforward continuation of the previous one, treating the problem more generally by including any number of delayed neutron groups. For the case of white reactivity noise, the accuracy of the approach is determined by comparison with the exact solution available from the Fokker-Planck method. In the numerical comparisons, the first-oder (WHF-1) approximation of the PSD is also considered. (author) 4 figs., 10 refs

  9. What's West Nile Virus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español What's West Nile Virus? KidsHealth / For Kids / What's West Nile Virus? Print en español ¿Qué es el Virus del Nilo Occidental? What exactly is the West ...

  10. The role of radiation therapy in the multidisciplinary treatment of patients with malignant tumors. Radiation pathological stand point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niibe, Hideo

    1998-01-01

    Estimations suggest that about 60% of all cancer patients will require some form of radiation therapy during their lifetime. Although 40 to 50% of cancer patients in Europe and the United States receive radiation therapy, only about 20% of patients with cancer in Japan undergo such treatment. This is largely due to the lack of understanding of the role of radiation therapy by many medical personnel in Japan, as well as to ''''radiation allergy'''' among many of the general population in Japan, a country that has been undergone atomic bombing. From our perspective as specialists in radiation therapy, the chronic shortage of radiation oncologist also poses a serious problem. Although there are approximately 700 hospitals throughout Japan where radiation therapy is available, no more than half this number of medical facilities have a full-time radiation oncologist. Perhaps the reason for this is that radiation therapy is perceived as unnecessary in Japan. However, it is absolutely essential. In our experience, the 5-year relative survival rate of patients with malignant tumors who have undergone radiation therapy in our clinic is 65 percent. Thus, radiation therapy has proven very useful in the treatment of malignant tumors. Moreover, better estimates of prognosis of cancer patients treated with radiation therapy are becoming possible. This article discusses the role of radiation therapy, from a radiation pathological perspective, in a multidisciplinary approach to treatment of cancer patients. I also emphasize the critical importance of training radiation oncologists who can function as part of multidisciplinary teams that care for patients with malignant tumors. (author). 50 refs

  11. AIDS wanes in West, grows in Africa and Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worldwide, at least 22 million people have been infected with HIV. The overwhelming majority of these cases, however, are in sub-Saharan Africa, Thailand, and India; approximately 15-20 million people are infected with the total number rapidly increasing. Approximately two million people are infected in the West, and the rate and extent of HIV infection are either plateauing or decreasing. In the West, HIV is contracted primarily through homosexual contact and IV drug use. HIV1-B is the prevalent strain of HIV in such settings. HIV in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, however, is mainly transmitted through heterosexual contact and consists of HIV-1 strains A, C, and E. There are therefore two distinct HIV epidemics taking place. Professor Max Essex of the Harvard AIDS Institute noted in his address at a conference on infectious diseases in New Delhi, India, that most planned vaccines and therapy for AIDS were developed in the West and thus targeted to combat HIV1-B. It seems likely, however, that other HIV subtypes will also take hold in the West and that an heterosexual epidemic of considerable magnitude should be anticipated. The high rate of HIV genetic mutation is of concern for both AIDS prevention and treatment. Essex further pointed out that the growing cost of treating AIDS patients with increasingly long lives has prompted a shift in the core of AIDS research from therapy to prevention. That levels of awareness about HIV/AIDS and the extent of sex education among youth are higher in more developed countries compared to in developing countries may play a role in the relatively lower incidence of new HIV cases in the West.

  12. The Secret Drama at the Patient's Bedside-Refusal of Treatment Because of the Practitioner's Ethnic Identity: The Medical Staff 's Point of View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popper-Giveon, Ariela; Keshet, Yael

    2018-04-01

    Patients' refusal of treatment based on the practitioner's ethnic identity reveals a clash of values: neutrality in medicine versus patient-centered care. Taking the Israeli-Palestinian conflict into account, this article aims at examining Israeli health care professionals' points of view concerning patients' refusal of treatment because of a practitioner's ethnic identity. Fifty in-depth interviews were conducted with 10 managers and 40 health care professionals, Jewish and Arab, employed at 11 public hospitals. Most refusal incidents recorded are unidirectional: Jewish patients refusing to be treated by Arab practitioners. Refusals are usually directed toward nurses and junior medical staff members, especially if recognizable as religious Muslims. Refusals are often initiated by the patients' relatives and occur more frequently during periods of escalation in the conflict. The structural competency approach can be applied to increase awareness of the role of social determinants in shaping patients' ethnic-based treatment refusals and to improve the handling of such incidents.

  13. Multiple memory systems, multiple time points: how science can inform treatment to control the expression of unwanted emotional memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Renée M; Lau-Zhu, Alex; Henson, Richard N; Holmes, Emily A

    2018-03-19

    Memories that have strong emotions associated with them are particularly resilient to forgetting. This is not necessarily problematic, however some aspects of memory can be. In particular, the involuntary expression of those memories, e.g. intrusive memories after trauma, are core to certain psychological disorders. Since the beginning of this century, research using animal models shows that it is possible to change the underlying memory, for example by interfering with its consolidation or reconsolidation. While the idea of targeting maladaptive memories is promising for the treatment of stress and anxiety disorders, a direct application of the procedures used in non-human animals to humans in clinical settings is not straightforward. In translational research, more attention needs to be paid to specifying what aspect of memory (i) can be modified and (ii) should be modified. This requires a clear conceptualization of what aspect of memory is being targeted, and how different memory expressions may map onto clinical symptoms. Furthermore, memory processes are dynamic, so procedural details concerning timing are crucial when implementing a treatment and when assessing its effectiveness. To target emotional memory in its full complexity, including its malleability, science cannot rely on a single method, species or paradigm. Rather, a constructive dialogue is needed between multiple levels of research, all the way 'from mice to mental health'.This article is part of a discussion meeting issue 'Of mice and mental health: facilitating dialogue between basic and clinical neuroscientists'. © 2018 The Authors.

  14. Bedrock geologic map of the Spring Valley, West Plains, and parts of the Piedmont and Poplar Bluff 30'x60' quadrangles, Missouri, including the upper Current River and Eleven Point River drainage basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weary, David J.; Harrison, Richard W.; Orndorff, Randall C.; Weems, Robert E.; Schindler, J. Stephen; Repetski, John E.; Pierce, Herbert A.

    2015-01-01

    This map covers the drainage basins of the upper Current River and the Eleven Point River in the Ozark Plateaus physiographic province of southeastern Missouri. The two surface drainage basins are contiguous in their headwaters regions, but are separated in their lower reaches by the lower Black River basin in the southeast corner of the map area. Numerous dye-trace studies demonstrate that in the contiguous headwaters areas, groundwater flows from the Eleven Point River basin into the Current River basin. Much of the groundwater discharge of the Eleven Point River basin emanates from Big Spring, located on the Current River. This geologic map and cross sections were produced to help fulfill a need to understand the geologic framework of the region in which this subsurface flow occurs.

  15. The influence of applied heat-treatment on in 718 fatigue life at three point flexural bending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Belan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Inconel alloy 718 is an iron-nickel based superalloy with a working temperature up to 650 °C. Presented phases such as γ'' (Ni3Nb, γ' (Ni3Al, and δ (delta – Ni3Nb are responsible for the alloy's unique properties. The δ – delta phase is profitable when situated at grain boundaries in small quantities due to increasing fatigue life. However, at temperatures close to 650 °C the γ'' transforms to δ – delta and causes a decrease in fatigue life. Heat-treatment (800°C/ for 72 hours and its influence on fatigue life are discussed in this paper. Fatigue tests were carried out at room temperature. After the tests we plotted the S-N curves for both stages. SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy fractography was carried out as well.

  16. Field evaluation of a rapid point-of-care assay for targeting antibiotic treatment for trachoma control: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Claude-Edouard C; Solomon, Anthony W; Magbanua, Jose P V; Massae, Patrick A; Huang, Ling; Mosha, Jonaice; West, Sheila K; Nadala, Elpidio C B; Bailey, Robin; Wisniewski, Craig; Mabey, David C W; Lee, Helen H

    2006-05-13

    Trachoma results from repeated episodes of conjunctival infection with Chlamydia trachomatis and is the leading infectious cause of blindness. To eliminate trachoma, control programmes use the SAFE strategy (Surgery, Antibiotics, Face cleanliness, and Environmental improvement). The A component is designed to treat C trachomatis infection, and is initiated on the basis of the prevalence of the clinical sign trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF). Unfortunately, TF correlates poorly with C trachomatis infection. We sought to assess a newly developed point-of-care (POC) assay compared with presence of TF for guiding the use of antibiotics for trachoma control. We compared performance outcomes of the POC assay and presence of TF using commercial PCR as a comparator in 664 children aged 1-9 years in remote, trachoma-endemic villages in Tanzania. Signs of trachoma were graded according to the WHO simplified trachoma grading system. Of 664 participants, 128 (19%) were positive for ocular C trachomatis infection by PCR. Presence of TF had a sensitivity of 64.1% (95% CI 55.8-72.4), specificity of 80.2% (76.8-83.6), and positive predictive value of 43.6% (36.5-50.7). By contrast, the POC assay had a sensitivity of 83.6% (77.2-90.0), specificity of 99.4% (98.8-100.0), and positive predictive value of 97.3% (94.2-100.3). Interagreements and intra-agreements between four novice operators were 0.988 (0.973-1.000) and 0.950 (0.894-1.000), respectively. The POC assay is substantially more accurate than TF prevalence in identifying the presence or absence of infection. Additional studies should assess the use of the assay in the planning and monitoring of trachoma control activities.

  17. Proceedings of the 1982 Army Science Conference Held at the United States Military Academy, West Point, New York on 15-18 June 1982. Volume I. Principal Authors A through G.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-18

    remaining nodal points are obtained from an Sautomatic mesh generating computer program. The grid was partitioned to place a finer grid at those areas...accordance with . Reit: state. federal. .and (26) local land use controls - Historieal e Evaluates the spelfico Stelmtz and 11r8 Resources rodel unique

  18. Cost-effectiveness of initiating antiretroviral therapy at different points in TB treatment in HIV-TB co-infected ambulatory patients in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Kogieleum; Grobler, Anneke C; Deghaye, Nicola; Reddy, Tarylee; Gengiah, Santhanalakshmi; Gray, Andrew; Karim, Salim Abdool

    2015-01-01

    Objective Initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) during tuberculosis (TB) treatment improves survival in TB-HIV co-infected patients. In patients with CD4+ counts benefit of early ART initiation. The purpose of this study was to assess the costs and cost effectiveness of starting ART at various time points during TB treatment in patients with CD4+ counts ≥50cells/mm3. Methods In the SAPiT trial, 642 HIV-TB co-infected patients were randomized to three arms, either receiving ART within 4 weeks of starting TB treatment (early treatment arm; Arm-1), after the intensive phase of TB treatment (late treatment arm; Arm-2), or after completing TB treatment (sequential arm; Arm-3). Direct healthcare costs were measured from a provider perspective using a micro-costing approach. The incremental cost per death averted was calculated using the trial outcomes. Results For patients with CD4+ count≥50cells/mm3, median monthly variable costs per patient were $116, $113 and $102 in Arms-1, -2 and -3, respectively. There were 12 deaths in 177 patients in Arm-1, 8 deaths in 180 patients in the Arm-2 and 19 deaths in 172 patients in Arm-3. While the costs were lower in Arm-3, it had a substantially higher mortality rate. The incremental cost per death averted associated with moving from Arm-3 to Arm-2 was $4199. There was no difference in mortality between Arm-1 and Arm-2, but Arm-1 was slightly more expensive. Conclusions Initiation of ART after the completion of the intensive phase of TB treatment is cost effective for patients with CD4+ counts≥50cells/mm3. PMID:26167618

  19. A Point Source of a Different Color: Identifying a Gap in United States Regulatory Policy for “Green” CSO Treatment Using Constructed Wetlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeno F. Levy

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Up to 850 billion gallons of untreated combined sewer overflow (CSO is discharged into waters of the United States each year. Recent changes in CSO management policy support green infrastructure (GI technologies as “front of the pipe” approaches to discharge mitigation by detention/reduction of urban stormwater runoff. Constructed wetlands for CSO treatment have been considered among suites of GI solutions. However, these wetlands differ fundamentally from other GI technologies in that they are “end of the pipe” treatment systems that discharge from a point source, and are therefore regulated in the U.S. under the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES. We use a comparative regulatory analysis to examine the U.S. policy framework for CSO treatment wetlands. We find in all cases that permitting authorities have used best professional judgment to determine effluent limits and compliance monitoring requirements, referencing technology and water quality-based standards originally developed for traditional “grey” treatment systems. A qualitative comparison with Europe shows less stringent regulatory requirements, perhaps due to institutionalized design parameters. We recommend that permitting authorities develop technical guidance documents for evaluation of “green” CSO treatment systems that account for their unique operational concerns and benefits with respect to sustainable development.

  20. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... en español Blog About OnSafety CPSC Stands for Safety The Tipping Point Home > 60 Seconds of Safety (Videos) > The Tipping Point The Tipping Point by ... danger death electrical fall furniture head injury product safety television tipover tv Watch the video in Adobe ...

  1. West and East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Rappaport

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The topic “West-East” has a clear cultural and historical meaning. Orthodox temples face East. The way from West to East and from East to West is tens of thousands of kilometers long and has a special meaning. It differs from the way from North to South: the horizontal axes connect regions, while the vertical axis (Earth-Sky connects the worlds. The expansion of Eurasian tribes occurred along the East-West axis – the world horizontal way. Today the cultural memory of people in the East and West finds itself in the theatre of new dramas of existence and new forces. With the advances in electronic technologies, the world movements seem to have sunk in the depth of the chthonian past to come up anew to the surface of fantastic speeds and momentary connections. A new type of planetary landscape-space relation appears, giving no place for West and East.

  2. QMRA (quantitative microbial risk assessment) and HACCP (hazard analysis and critical control points) for management of pathogens in wastewater and sewage sludge treatment and reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westrell, T; Schönning, C; Stenström, T A; Ashbolt, N J

    2004-01-01

    Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) was applied for identifying and controlling exposure to pathogenic microorganisms encountered during normal sludge and wastewater handling at a 12,500 m3/d treatment plant utilising tertiary wastewater treatment and mesophilic sludge digestion. The hazardous scenarios considered were human exposure during treatment, handling, soil application and crop consumption, and exposure via water at the wetland-area and recreational swimming. A quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA), including rotavirus, adenovirus, haemorrhagic E. coli, Salmonella, Giardia and Cryptosporidium, was performed in order to prioritise pathogen hazards for control purposes. Human exposures were treated as individual risks but also related to the endemic situation in the general population. The highest individual health risk from a single exposure was via aerosols for workers at the belt press for sludge dewatering (virus infection risk = 1). The largest impact on the community would arise if children ingested sludge at the unprotected storage site, although in the worst-case situation the largest number of infections would arise through vegetables fertilised with sludge and eaten raw (not allowed in Sweden). Acceptable risk for various hazardous scenarios, treatment and/or reuse strategies could be tested in the model.

  3. Gamma-rays and heat-treatment conversions of point defects in massive rose quartz from the Borborema Pegmatite Province, Northeast Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzzo, Pedro L.; Barreto, Sandra B.; Miranda, Milena R.; Gonzaga, Raysa S. G.; Casals, Sandra A.

    2017-11-01

    An extensive characterization of trace elements and point defects in rose quartz from the Borborema Pegmatite Province (BPP) in the northeast of Brazil was carried out by complementary spectroscopic methods. The aim here was to document the change in the configuration of point defects into the quartz lattice induced by heat-treatment and ionizing radiation. The samples were extracted from the core of two granitic rare element (REL) pegmatites, Taboa (Carnaúba dos Dantas, RN) and Alto do Feio (Pedra Lavrada, PB). The contents of Al, P, Ti, Ni, Fe, Ge, Li, Be, B and K were measured by laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Polished plates were heat-treated at 500 and 1000 °C and then irradiated with 50 kGy of γ rays. Point defects were characterized by optical (UV-Vis), infrared (IR), and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopies. In the as-received condition, [AlO4/H]0 centers, Li- and B-dependent OH defects were observed. Point defects related to Al and Li species were significantly affected by heat-treatment at 1000 °C and/or γ radiation. Paramagnetic centers such as [AlO4]0, [GeO4/Li]0, [TiO4/Li]0 and [O2 3-/Li]0 were created by the diffusion of Li+ ions from their original diamagnetic centers related to substitutional Al3+ and OH-species. The smoky color developed after irradiation and the signal intensities of the paramagnetic centers were independent from the original rose color grade. The samples from the Taboa (TB) pegmatite showed the highest concentration of Al, Ti, Fe and Li elements as well as the highest signal intensities for [AlO4]0, [AlO4/H]0, [GeO4/Li]0 and [TiO4/Li]0 centers. Although TB also showed the higher concentration of B element, the intensity of the 3597 cm-1 IR band related to [BO4/H]0 centers was higher for Alto do Feio (AF) samples. This result suggests that the uptake of B into the quartz core of each pegmatite took place through different mechanisms. It was concluded that the change in

  4. Safety and Effectiveness of Bone Marrow Cell Concentrate in the Treatment of Chronic Critical Limb Ischemia Utilizing a Rapid Point-of-Care System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesh Ponemone

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Critical limb ischemia (CLI is the end stage of lower extremity peripheral vascular disease (PVD in which severe obstruction of blood flow results in ischemic rest pain, ulcers and/or gangrene, and a significant risk of limb loss. This open-label, single-arm feasibility study evaluated the safety and therapeutic effectiveness of autologous bone marrow cell (aBMC concentrate in revascularization of CLI patients utilizing a rapid point-of-care device. Seventeen (17 no-option CLI patients with ischemic rest pain were enrolled in the study. Single dose of aBMC, prepared utilizing an intraoperative point-of-care device, the Res-Q™ 60 BMC system, was injected intramuscularly into the afflicted limb and patients were followed up at regular intervals for 12 months. A statistically significant improvement in Ankle Brachial Index (ABI, Transcutaneous Oxygen Pressure (TcPO2, mean rest pain and intermittent claudication pain scores, wound/ ulcer healing, and 6-minute walking distance was observed following aBMC treatment. Major amputation-free survival (mAFS rate and amputation-free rates (AFR at 12 months were 70.6% and 82.3%, respectively. In conclusion, aBMC injections were well tolerated with improved tissue perfusion, confirming the safety, feasibility, and preliminary effectiveness of aBMC treatment in CLI patients.

  5. Checklist for Early Recognition and Treatment of Acute Illness (CERTAIN): evolution of a content management system for point-of-care clinical decision support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barwise, Amelia; Garcia-Arguello, Lisbeth; Dong, Yue; Hulyalkar, Manasi; Vukoja, Marija; Schultz, Marcus J; Adhikari, Neill K J; Bonneton, Benjamin; Kilickaya, Oguz; Kashyap, Rahul; Gajic, Ognjen; Schmickl, Christopher N

    2016-10-03

    The Checklist for Early Recognition and Treatment of Acute Illness (CERTAIN) is an international collaborative project with the overall objective of standardizing the approach to the evaluation and treatment of critically ill patients world-wide, in accordance with best-practice principles. One of CERTAIN's key features is clinical decision support providing point-of-care information about common acute illness syndromes, procedures, and medications in an index card format. This paper describes 1) the process of developing and validating the content for point-of-care decision support, and 2) the content management system that facilitates frequent peer-review and allows rapid updates of content across different platforms (CERTAIN software, mobile apps, pdf-booklet) and different languages. Content was created based on survey results of acute care providers and validated using an open peer-review process. Over a 3 year period, CERTAIN content expanded to include 67 syndrome cards, 30 procedure cards, and 117 medication cards. 127 (59 %) cards have been peer-reviewed so far. Initially MS Word® and Dropbox® were used to create, store, and share content for peer-review. Recently Google Docs® was used to make the peer-review process more efficient. However, neither of these approaches met our security requirements nor has the capacity to instantly update the different CERTAIN platforms. Although we were able to successfully develop and validate a large inventory of clinical decision support cards in a short period of time, commercially available software solutions for content management are suboptimal. Novel custom solutions are necessary for efficient global point of care content system management.

  6. Fixed Points

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 5. Fixed Points - From Russia with Love - A Primer of Fixed Point Theory. A K Vijaykumar. Book Review Volume 5 Issue 5 May 2000 pp 101-102. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  7. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... OnSafety CPSC Stands for Safety The Tipping Point Home > 60 Seconds of Safety (Videos) > The Tipping Point ... 24 hours a day. For young children whose home is a playground, it’s the best way to ...

  8. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 60 Seconds of Safety (Videos) > The Tipping Point The Tipping Point by CPSC Blogger September 22, 2009 appliance child Childproofing CPSC danger death electrical fall furniture head injury product safety television tipover tv Watch the video in Adobe Flash ...

  9. Six dimensional analysis with daily stereoscopic x-ray imaging of intrafraction patient motion in head and neck treatments using five points fixation masks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linthout, Nadine; Verellen, Dirk; Tournel, Koen; Storme, Guy

    2006-01-01

    The safety margins used to define the Planning Target Volume (PTV) should reflect the accuracy of the target localization during treatment that comprises both the reproducibility of the patient positioning and the positional uncertainty of the target, so both the inter- and intrafraction motion of the target. Our first aim in this study was to determine the intrafraction motion of patients immobilized with a five-point thermoplastic mask for head and neck treatments. The five-point masks have the advantage that the patient's shoulders as well as the cranial part of the patient's head is covered with the thermoplastic material that improves the overall immobilization of the head and neck region of the patient. Thirteen patients were consecutively assigned to use a five-point thermoplastic mask. The patients were positioned by tracking of infrared markers (IR) fixed to the immobilization device and stereoscopic x-ray images were used for daily on-line setup verification. Repositioning was carried out prior to treatment as needed; rotations were not corrected. Movements during treatment were monitored by real-time IR tracking. Intrafraction motion and rotation was supplementary assessed by a six-degree-of-freedom (6-D) fusion of x-ray images, taken before and after all 385 treatments, with DRR images generated from the planning CT data. The latter evaluates the movement of the patient within the thermoplastic mask independent from the mask movement, where IR tracking evaluates the movement of the mask caused by patient movement in the mask. These two movements are not necessarily equal to each other. The maximum intrafraction movement detected by IR tracking showed a shift [mean (SD; range)] of -0.1(0.7; 6.0), 0.1(0.6; 3.6), -0.2(0.8;5.5) mm in the vertical, longitudinal, and lateral direction, respectively, and rotations of 0.0(0.2; 1.6), 0.0(0.2; 1.7) and 0.2(0.2; 2.4) degrees about the vertical, longitudinal, and lateral axis, respectively. The standard deviations

  10. Increasing equity of access to point-of-use water treatment products through social marketing and entrepreneurship: a case study in western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Matthew C; Quick, Robert E; Abbott, Daniel P; Ogutu, Paul; Rheingans, Richard

    2009-09-01

    Point-of-use water chlorination reduces diarrhoea risk by 25-85%. Social marketing has expanded access to inexpensive sodium hypochlorite for water treatment, at a cost of less than US$0.01 per day, in Kenya. To increase product access, women's groups in western Kenya were trained to educate neighbours and sell health products to generate income. We evaluated this programme's impact on equity of access to water treatment products in a cross-sectional survey. We surveyed 487 randomly selected households in eight communities served by the women's groups. Overall, 20% (range 5-39%) of households in eight communities purchased and used chlorine, as confirmed by residual chlorine observed in stored water. Multivariate models using illiteracy and the poorest socioeconomic status as a referent showed that persons with at least some primary education (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.8, 3.5) or secondary education (OR 5.4, 95% CI 1.6, 17.5) and persons in the four wealthiest quintiles (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.0, 6.0) were more likely to chlorinate stored water. While this implementation model was associated with good product penetration and use, barriers to access to inexpensive water treatment remained among the very poor and less educated.

  11. Repetitive Acupuncture Point Treatment with Diluted Bee Venom Relieves Mechanical Allodynia and Restores Intraepidermal Nerve Fiber Loss in Oxaliplatin-Induced Neuropathic Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Ji-Hee; Yoon, Seo-Yeon; Kwon, Soon-Keun; Kim, Sol-Ji; Lee, Jang-Hern; Beitz, Alvin J; Roh, Dae-Hyun

    2016-03-01

    The chemotherapeutic agent, oxaliplatin, produces a robust painful neuropathy that results in the loss of intraepidermal nerve fibers (IENFs). We have previously reported that an acupuncture point (acupoint) injection of diluted bee venom (DBV) produces a temporary antiallodynic effect in oxaliplatin-induced neuropathic mice. Herein we show a significant long-lasting antinociceptive effect of repetitive DBV acupoint treatment on oxaliplatin-induced mechanical allodynia and a significant reduction in the loss of IENFs. DBV (0.1 mg/kg, subcutaneous) was administered once a day for 18 days beginning on day 15 after oxaliplatin injection. Immunohistochemistry for IENF was performed on the glabrous skin of the hind paw footpad using the pan-neuronal marker, protein gene product 9.5. A temporary increase in mechanical threshold was observed 60 minutes after a single DBV injection into the Zusanli acupoint, and this effect was enhanced over time with repetitive DBV treatments. The basal mechanical threshold before daily DBV injection also increased from day 7 after DBV injections, and peaked at day 14 after DBV treatment. Moreover, the oxaliplatin-induced loss of IENFs was significantly reduced in mice treated repetitively with DBV. Repetitive pretreatment with the α-2 adrenoceptor antagonist, yohimbine, (5 mg/kg, subcutaneous) completely prevented the antiallodynic effects and the increase in IENFs observed in mice treated repetitively with DBV. We showed that repetitive acupoint stimulation with DBV gradually and significantly reduced oxaliplatin-induced mechanical allodynia and restored the loss of IENFs in neuropathic mice via an α-2 adrenoceptor mechanism. Collectively, results of this study suggest that repetitive acupoint treatment with DBV can be a potential strategy for the management of chemotherapy-induced neuropathy. Copyright © 2016 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Dew Point

    OpenAIRE

    Goldsmith, Shelly

    1999-01-01

    Dew Point was a solo exhibition originating at PriceWaterhouseCoopers Headquarters Gallery, London, UK and toured to the Centre de Documentacio i Museu Textil, Terrassa, Spain and Gallery Aoyama, Tokyo, Japan.

  13. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Point by CPSC Blogger September 22, 2009 appliance child Childproofing CPSC danger death electrical fall furniture head injury product safety television tipover tv Watch the video in Adobe Flash ...

  14. Tipping Point

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Point by CPSC Blogger September 22, 2009 appliance child Childproofing CPSC danger death electrical fall furniture head injury product safety television tipover tv Watch the video in Adobe Flash ...

  15. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Point by CPSC Blogger September 22, 2009 appliance child Childproofing CPSC danger death electrical fall furniture head ... see news reports about horrible accidents involving young children and furniture, appliance and tv tip-overs. The ...

  16. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Point by CPSC Blogger September 22, 2009 appliance child Childproofing CPSC danger death electrical fall furniture head ... TV falls with about the same force as child falling from the third story of a building. ...

  17. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tipping Point by CPSC Blogger September 22, 2009 appliance child Childproofing CPSC danger death electrical fall furniture ... about horrible accidents involving young children and furniture, appliance and tv tip-overs. The force of a ...

  18. Lessons Learned From The 200 West Pump And Treatment Facility Construction Project At The US DOE Hanford Site - A Leadership For Energy And Environmental Design (LEED) Gold-Certified Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorr, Kent A.; Ostrom, Michael J.; Freeman-Pollard, Jhivaun R.

    2012-01-01

    CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) designed, constructed, commissioned, and began operation of the largest groundwater pump and treatment facility in the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) nationwide complex. This one-of-a-kind groundwater pump and treatment facility, located at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation Site (Hanford Site) in Washington State, was built in an accelerated manner with American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funds and has attained Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) GOLD certification, which makes it the first non-administrative building in the DOE Office of Environmental Management complex to earn such an award. There were many contractual, technical, configuration management, quality, safety, and LEED challenges associated with the design, procurement, construction, and commissioning of this $95 million, 52,000 ft groundwater pump and treatment facility. This paper will present the Project and LEED accomplishments, as well as Lessons Learned by CHPRC when additional ARRA funds were used to accelerate design, procurement, construction, and commissioning of the 200 West Groundwater Pump and Treatment (2W PandT) Facility to meet DOE's mission of treating contaminated groundwater at the Hanford Site with a new facility by June 28, 2012

  19. Lessons Learned From The 200 West Pump And Treatment Facility Construction Project At The US DOE Hanford Site - A Leadership For Energy And Environmental Design (LEED) Gold-Certified Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorr, Kent A. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States); Ostrom, Michael J. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States); Freeman-Pollard, Jhivaun R. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States)

    2012-11-14

    CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) designed, constructed, commissioned, and began operation of the largest groundwater pump and treatment facility in the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) nationwide complex. This one-of-a-kind groundwater pump and treatment facility, located at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation Site (Hanford Site) in Washington State, was built in an accelerated manner with American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funds and has attained Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) GOLD certification, which makes it the first non-administrative building in the DOE Office of Environmental Management complex to earn such an award. There were many contractual, technical, configuration management, quality, safety, and LEED challenges associated with the design, procurement, construction, and commissioning of this $95 million, 52,000 ft groundwater pump and treatment facility. This paper will present the Project and LEED accomplishments, as well as Lessons Learned by CHPRC when additional ARRA funds were used to accelerate design, procurement, construction, and commissioning of the 200 West Groundwater Pump and Treatment (2W P&T) Facility to meet DOE's mission of treating contaminated groundwater at the Hanford Site with a new facility by June 28, 2012.

  20. Dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity, pH and other variables collected from profile and discrete sample observations using CTD, Niskin bottle, and other instruments from NOAA Ship Fairweather and R/V Point Sur in the U.S. West Coast California Current System during the 2013 West Coast Ocean Acidification Cruise (WCOA2013) from 2013-08-05 to 2013-08-28 (NCEI Accession 0132082)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival package contains data from the third dedicated West Coast Ocean Acidification cruise (Expocode:317W20130803, Cruise ID: WCOA2013), which took place...

  1. [Psychosomatic basic care in the general hospital - an empirical investigation of the bio-psycho-social stress, treatment procedures and treatment outcomes from the vantage point of medical doctors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritzsche, Kurt; Schäfer, Inna; Wirsching, Michael; Leonhart, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigates the psycho-social stress, the treatment procedures and the treatment outcomes of stressed patients in the hospital from the perspective of the hospital doctors. Physicians from all disciplines who had completed the course "Psychosomatic Basic Care" as part of their specialist training documented selected treatment cases. 2,028 documented treatment cases of 367 physicians were evaluated. Anxiety, depression and family problems were the most common causes of psychosocial stress. In over 40 % of the cases no information was found on the medical history. Diagnostic and therapeutic conversations took place with almost half the patients (45%). From the vantage point of the physicians patients receiving diagnostic and therapeutic conversations achieved significantly more positive scores with respect to outcome variables than patients without these measures. Collegial counseling was desired for more than half of the patients and took place mainly among the ward team. There were few significant differences in the views of surgical and nonsurgical physicians. Psychosomatic basic care in general hospitals is possible, albeit with some limitations. Patients undergoing psychosocial interventions have better treatment outcomes. Therefore, extending training to 80 hours for all medical disciplines seems reasonable.

  2. A critical evaluation of two point-of-use water treatment technologies: can they provide water that meets WHO drinking water guidelines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Heather M; McBean, Edward A; Farahbakhsh, Khosrow

    2010-12-01

    Point-of-use (POU) technologies have been proposed as solutions for meeting the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) for safe water. They reduce the risk of contamination between the water source and the home, by providing treatment at the household level. This study examined two POU technologies commonly used around the world: BioSand and ceramic filters. While the health benefits in terms of diarrhoeal disease reduction have been fairly well documented for both technologies, little research has focused on the ability of these technologies to treat other contaminants that pose health concerns, including the potential for formation of contaminants as a result of POU treatment. These technologies have not been rigorously tested to see if they meet World Health Organization (WHO) drinking water guidelines. A study was developed to evaluate POU BioSand and ceramic filters in terms of microbiological and chemical quality of the treated water. The following parameters were monitored on filters in rural Cambodia over a six-month period: iron, manganese, fluoride, nitrate, nitrite and Escherichia coli. The results revealed that these technologies are not capable of consistently meeting all of the WHO drinking water guidelines for these parameters.

  3. Fast and fuzzy multi-objective radiotherapy treatment plan generation for head and neck cancer patients with the lexicographic reference point method (LRPM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Haveren, Rens; Ogryczak, Włodzimierz; Verduijn, Gerda M.; Keijzer, Marleen; Heijmen, Ben J. M.; Breedveld, Sebastiaan

    2017-06-01

    Previously, we have proposed Erasmus-iCycle, an algorithm for fully automated IMRT plan generation based on prioritised (lexicographic) multi-objective optimisation with the 2-phase ɛ-constraint (2pɛc) method. For each patient, the output of Erasmus-iCycle is a clinically favourable, Pareto optimal plan. The 2pɛc method uses a list of objective functions that are consecutively optimised, following a strict, user-defined prioritisation. The novel lexicographic reference point method (LRPM) is capable of solving multi-objective problems in a single optimisation, using a fuzzy prioritisation of the objectives. Trade-offs are made globally, aiming for large favourable gains for lower prioritised objectives at the cost of only slight degradations for higher prioritised objectives, or vice versa. In this study, the LRPM is validated for 15 head and neck cancer patients receiving bilateral neck irradiation. The generated plans using the LRPM are compared with the plans resulting from the 2pɛc method. Both methods were capable of automatically generating clinically relevant treatment plans for all patients. For some patients, the LRPM allowed large favourable gains in some treatment plan objectives at the cost of only small degradations for the others. Moreover, because of the applied single optimisation instead of multiple optimisations, the LRPM reduced the average computation time from 209.2 to 9.5 min, a speed-up factor of 22 relative to the 2pɛc method.

  4. Botulinum toxin a in the treatment of chronic tension-type headache with cervical myofascial trigger points: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, R Norman; Cottrill, Jerod; Gagnon, Christine M; Smitherman, Todd A; Weinland, Stephan R; Tann, Beverley; Joseph, Petra; Lee, Thomas S; Houle, Timothy T

    2009-05-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of botulinum toxin A (BT-A) as a prophylactic treatment for chronic tension-type headache (CTTH) with myofascial trigger points (MTPs) producing referred head pain. Although BT-A has received mixed support for the treatment of TTH, deliberate injection directly into the cervical MTPs very often found in this population has not been formally evaluated. Patients with CTTH and specific MTPs producing referred head pain were assigned randomly to receive intramuscular injections of BT-A or isotonic saline (placebo) in a double-blind design. Daily headache diaries, pill counts, trigger point pressure algometry, range of motion assessment, and responses to standardized pain and psychological questionnaires were used as outcome measures; patients returned for follow-up assessment at 2 weeks, 1 month, 2 months, and 3 months post injection. After 3 months, all patients were offered participation in an open-label extension of the study. Effect sizes were calculated to index treatment effects among the intent-to-treat population; individual time series models were computed for average pain intensity. The 23 participants reported experiencing headache on a near-daily basis (average of 27 days/month). Compared with placebo, patients in the BT-A group reported greater reductions in headache frequency during the first part of the study (P = .013), but these effects dissipated by week 12. Reductions in headache intensity over time did not differ significantly between groups (P = .80; maximum d = 0.13), although a larger proportion of BT-A patients showed evidence of statistically significant improvements in headache intensity in the time series analyses (62.5% for BT-A vs 30% for placebo). There were no differences between the groups on any of the secondary outcome measures. The evidence for BT-A in headache is mixed, and even more so in CTTH. However, the putative technique of injecting BT-A directly into the ubiquitous MTPs in CTTH is partially supported

  5. West Greenlandic Eskimo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trondhjem, Naja Blytmann; Fortescue, Michael David

    West Greenlandic Eskimo. The current situation of the West Greenlandic language as principal means of communication among the majority Greenlandic population will be presented with special emphasis on the northwest hunting district of Upernavik, where traditional marine mammal hunting is still...... the principal economic activity. Research projects and language initiatives currently in progress within Greenland will be touched upon, as will the possibilities of communication with North American Inuit. West Greenlandic is unique among the native languages of the North American Arctic and Sub...

  6. What Point-of-Use Water Treatment Products Do Consumers Use? Evidence from a Randomized Controlled Trial among the Urban Poor in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luoto, Jill; Najnin, Nusrat; Mahmud, Minhaj; Albert, Jeff; Islam, M. Sirajul; Luby, Stephen; Unicomb, Leanne; Levine, David I.

    2011-01-01

    Background There is evidence that household point-of-use (POU) water treatment products can reduce the enormous burden of water-borne illness. Nevertheless, adoption among the global poor is very low, and little evidence exists on why. Methods We gave 600 households in poor communities in Dhaka, Bangladesh randomly-ordered two-month free trials of four water treatment products: dilute liquid chlorine (sodium hypochlorite solution, marketed locally as Water Guard), sodium dichloroisocyanurate tablets (branded as Aquatabs), a combined flocculant-disinfectant powdered mixture (the PUR Purifier of Water), and a silver-coated ceramic siphon filter. Consumers also received education on the dangers of untreated drinking water. We measured which products consumers used with self-reports, observation (for the filter), and chlorine tests (for the other products). We also measured drinking water's contamination with E. coli (compared to 200 control households). Findings Households reported highest usage of the filter, although no product had even 30% usage. E. coli concentrations in stored drinking water were generally lowest when households had Water Guard. Households that self-reported product usage had large reductions in E. coli concentrations with any product as compared to controls. Conclusion Traditional arguments for the low adoption of POU products focus on affordability, consumers' lack of information about germs and the dangers of unsafe water, and specific products not meshing with a household's preferences. In this study we provided free trials, repeated informational messages explaining the dangers of untreated water, and a variety of product designs. The low usage of all products despite such efforts makes clear that important barriers exist beyond cost, information, and variation among these four product designs. Without a better understanding of the choices and aspirations of the target end-users, household-based water treatment is unlikely to reduce

  7. Effectiveness of Trigger Point Manual Treatment on the Frequency, Intensity, and Duration of Attacks in Primary Headaches: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Falsiroli Maistrello

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundA variety of interventions has been proposed for symptomatology relief in primary headaches. Among these, manual trigger points (TrPs treatment gains popularity, but its effects have not been investigated yet.ObjectiveThe aim was to establish the effectiveness of manual TrP compared to minimal active or no active interventions in terms of frequency, intensity, and duration of attacks in adult people with primary headaches.MethodsWe searched MEDLINE, COCHRANE, Web Of Science, and PEDro databases up to November 2017 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs. Two independent reviewers appraised the risk-of-bias (RoB and the grading of recommendations, assessment, development, and evaluation (GRADE to evaluate the overall quality of evidence.ResultsSeven RCTs that compared manual treatment vs minimal active intervention were included: 5 focused on tension-type headache (TTH and 2 on Migraine (MH; 3 out of 7 RCTs had high RoB. Combined TTH and MH results show statistically significant reduction for all outcomes after treatment compared to controls, but the level of evidence was very low. Subgroup analysis showed a statistically significant reduction in attack frequency (no. of attacks per month after treatment in TTH (MD −3.50; 95% CI from −4.91 to −2.09; 4 RCTs and in MH (MD −1.92; 95% CI from −3.03 to −0.80; 2 RCTs. Pain intensity (0–100 scale was reduced in TTH (MD −12.83; 95% CI from −19.49 to −6.17; 4 RCTs and in MH (MD −13.60; 95% CI from −19.54 to −7.66; 2RCTs. Duration of attacks (hours was reduced in TTH (MD −0.51; 95% CI from −0.97 to −0.04; 2 RCTs and in MH (MD −10.68; 95% CI from −14.41 to −6.95; 1 RCT.ConclusionManual TrPs treatment of head and neck muscles may reduce frequency, intensity, and duration of attacks in TTH and MH, but the quality of evidence according to GRADE approach was very low for the presence of few studies, high RoB, and imprecision of results.

  8. Oil spill waste treatment after a ship accident from the point of view of the Kymenlaakso region; Oeljyvahinkojaetteiden kaesittely alusonnettomuuden jaelkeen Kymenlaakson alueen naekoekulmasta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupponen, M.; Tanskanen, A.-L.; Luoranen, M.; Horttanainen, M.

    2007-07-01

    The aim of the study was to ascertain the treatment methods, disposal possibilities and capacities from the point of view of the Kymenlaakso region for oily waste that is collected from the shoreline after a large oil ship accident in the Gulf of Finland. The aim was to establish where the waste could be handled and how the oil spill waste could be processed during intermediate storage to make cleaning and disposal more effective. The focus of the study was on both solid oily waste from the shoreline and oily sea water. The beginning of the study focuses on waste disposal responsibility, i.e. whose responsibility the oily waste from a ship accident is. The principles of the technically suitable treatment methods of oil spill waste and limitations of the methods in handling the waste are presented briefly in the study. The volume of waste and the treatment methods applied in previous oil ship accidents that have influenced Finland or happened in the world are also mentioned in the study. The study introduces companies in the Kymenlaakso region, Ekokem Oy Ab in Riihimaeki and mobile treatment plants' possibilities to treat oily waste. Companies that are able to treat oily seawater are also introduced in the study from the point of view of the Kymenlaakso region. The information was collected by telephone and email from the companies' employees in the year 2007. In the Kymenlaakso region, approximately 10 000 t of oily organic matter and crushable equipment used in cleaning can be burned mixed with normal solid fuel in the fluidized bed furnaces of regional power plants annually. Approximately 1 200 t of homogenized oily organic matter can be burned annually in the rotary kiln of a Leca factory. The region's burning capacity will increase when the municipal solid waste incineration plant that was under construction during the study is ready and the waste can be burned on its grate. Soils polluted with vaporizable compounds can be treated with soil

  9. US west coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aerial surveys are conducted along the US west coast to determine distribution and abundance of endangered leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea), loggerhead...

  10. SU-E-T-263: Point Dose Variation Using a Single Ir-192 HDR Brachytherapy Plan for Two Treatments with a Single Tandem-Ovoid Insertion for Cervical Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, X; Morrill, S; Hardee, M; Han, E; Penagaricano, J; Zhang, X; Vaneerat, R [University of Arkansas Medical Science, Little Rock, AR (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the point dose variations between Ir-192 HDR treatments on two consecutive days using a single tandem-ovoid insertion without replanning in cervical cancer patients. Methods: This study includes eleven cervical cancer patients undergoing HDR brachytherapy with a prescribed dose of 28 Gy in 4 fractions. Each patient had two tandemovoid insertions one week apart. Each insertion was treated on consecutive days with rescanning and replanning prior to each treatment. To study the effect of no replanning for day 2 treatments, the day 1 plan dwell position and dwell time with decay were applied to the day 2 CT dataset. The point dose variations on the prescription point H (defined according to American Brachytherapy Society), and normal tissue doses at point B, bladder, rectum and vaginal mucosa (based on ICRU Report 38) were obtained. Results: Without replanning, the mean point H dose variation was 4.6 ± 10.7% on the left; 2.3 ± 2.9% on the right. The mean B point variation was 3.8 ± 4.9% on the left; 3.6 ± 4.7% on the right. The variation in the left vaginal mucosal point was 12.2 ± 10.7%; 9.5 ± 12.5% on the right; the bladder point 5.5 ± 7.4%; and the rectal point 7.9 ± 9.1%. Conclusion: Without replanning, there are variations both in the prescription point and the normal tissue point doses. The latter can vary as much as 10% or more. This is likely due to the steep dose gradient from brachytherapy compounded by shifts in the positions of the applicator in relationship to the patients anatomy. Imaging prior to each treatment and replanning ensure effective and safe brachytherapy are recommended.

  11. Performance Of West African Dwarf Sheep Fed Diets Supplemented ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment to investigate the possible growth promoting effect of rare earth elements (REE) in growing West African dwarf sheep as well as their influence on the haematological and blood serum biochemical changes was conducted for 12 weeks. Forty West African dwarf sheep were allotted to four dietary treatments: a ...

  12. Perceived Importance of Various Job Characteristics by West Point Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Gerald W.; Butler, Richard P.

    1973-01-01

    This study investigates the relative importance of various job characteristics to a select group of Army officers. Additionally, the study seeks to see if a need structure posited by Maslow exists among military officers. (Author/RK)

  13. Barriers to tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus treatment guidelines adherence among nurses initiating and managing anti-retroviral therapy in KwaZulu-Natal and North West provinces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lufuno Makhado

    2018-03-01

    Conclusion: This qualitative study identified that nurses have substantial concerns over guideline adherence. If NIMART trained nurses’ barriers inhibiting adherence to treatment guidelines cannot be remedied, patient outcomes may suffer and South Africa will struggle to meet the 90-90-90 targets.

  14. Thermophysiological Responses of West African Dwarf (WAD ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to determine the physiological responses of West African Dwarf (WAD) bucks fed Pennisetum purpureum (PP) and unripe plantain peels (UPP). Thirty 30 growingWAD bucks with average weight of 7.00 ± 0.55kg and aged between 8 and 9 months old, were allotted to three (3) dietary treatments (A, ...

  15. Are patients’ preferences regarding the place of treatment heard and addressed at the point of referral: an exploratory study based on observations of GP-patient consultations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Today, in several north-western European countries, patients are encouraged to choose, actively, a healthcare provider. However, patients often visit the provider that is recommended by their general practitioner (GP). The introduction of patient choice requires GPs to support patients to be involved, actively, in the choice of a healthcare provider. We aim to investigate whether policy on patient choice is reflected in practice, i.e. what the role of the patient is in their choices of healthcare providers at the point of referral and to what extent GPs’ and patients’ healthcare paths influence the role that patients play in the referral decision. Methods In 2007–2008, we videotaped Dutch GP-patient consultations. For this study, we selected, at random, 72 videotaped consultations between 72 patients and 39 GPs in which the patient was referred to a healthcare provider. These were analysed using an observation protocol developed by the researchers. Results The majority of the patients had little or no input into the choice of a healthcare provider at the point of referral by their GP. Their GPs did not support them in actively choosing a provider and the patients often agreed with the provider that the GP proposed. Patients who were referred for diagnostic purposes seem to have had even less input into their choice of a provider than patients who were referred for treatment. Conclusions We found that the GP chooses a healthcare provider on behalf of the patient in most consultations, even though policy on patient choice expects from patients that they choose, actively, a provider. On the one hand, this could indicate that the policy needs adjustments. On the other hand, adjustments may be needed to practice. For instance, GPs could help patients to make an active choice of provider. However, certain patients prefer to let their GP decide as their agent. Even then, GPs need to know patients’ preferences, because in a principal-agent relationship

  16. Are patients' preferences regarding the place of treatment heard and addressed at the point of referral: an exploratory study based on observations of GP-patient consultations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victoor, Aafke; Noordman, Janneke; Sonderkamp, Johan A; Delnoij, Diana M J; Friele, Roland D; van Dulmen, Sandra; Rademakers, Jany J D J M

    2013-12-10

    Today, in several north-western European countries, patients are encouraged to choose, actively, a healthcare provider. However, patients often visit the provider that is recommended by their general practitioner (GP). The introduction of patient choice requires GPs to support patients to be involved, actively, in the choice of a healthcare provider. We aim to investigate whether policy on patient choice is reflected in practice, i.e. what the role of the patient is in their choices of healthcare providers at the point of referral and to what extent GPs' and patients' healthcare paths influence the role that patients play in the referral decision. In 2007-2008, we videotaped Dutch GP-patient consultations. For this study, we selected, at random, 72 videotaped consultations between 72 patients and 39 GPs in which the patient was referred to a healthcare provider. These were analysed using an observation protocol developed by the researchers. The majority of the patients had little or no input into the choice of a healthcare provider at the point of referral by their GP. Their GPs did not support them in actively choosing a provider and the patients often agreed with the provider that the GP proposed. Patients who were referred for diagnostic purposes seem to have had even less input into their choice of a provider than patients who were referred for treatment. We found that the GP chooses a healthcare provider on behalf of the patient in most consultations, even though policy on patient choice expects from patients that they choose, actively, a provider. On the one hand, this could indicate that the policy needs adjustments. On the other hand, adjustments may be needed to practice. For instance, GPs could help patients to make an active choice of provider. However, certain patients prefer to let their GP decide as their agent. Even then, GPs need to know patients' preferences, because in a principal-agent relationship, it is necessary that the agent is fully

  17. High boiling point hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pier, M

    1929-04-29

    A process is given for the production of hydrocarbons of high boiling point, such as lubricating oils, from bituminous substances, such as varieties of coal, shale, or other solid distillable carbonaceous materials. The process consists of treating the initial materials with organic solvents and then subjecting the products extracted from the initial materials, preferably directly, to a reducing treatment in respect to temperature, pressure, and time. The reduction treatment is performed by means of hydrogen under pressure.

  18. Islam and the West

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd. Kamal Hassan

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The scientific and technological developments during the 18th and' the 19th centuries ensured material progress of the West, as well as emergence of the West as the dominating power which colonized the rest of the world. During the post-colonial phase, Islam emerged as a revitalized sociopolitical force. This has been mistaken as a threat by the West, and Islam has been portrayed as the "new enemy after the demise of communism. This is partly an effort to establish a Western identity, which is disintegrating due to lack of a challenge; and partly a reflection of the failure of Muslims to realize the social and ethical ideals of Islam.

  19. Protocol for a randomised controlled implementation trial of point-of-care viral load testing and task shifting: the Simplifying HIV TREAtment and Monitoring (STREAM) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorward, Jienchi; Garrett, Nigel; Quame-Amaglo, Justice; Samsunder, Natasha; Ngobese, Hope; Ngomane, Noluthando; Moodley, Pravikrishnen; Mlisana, Koleka; Schaafsma, Torin; Donnell, Deborah; Barnabas, Ruanne; Naidoo, Kogieleum; Abdool Karim, Salim; Celum, Connie; Drain, Paul K

    2017-09-27

    Achieving the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV and AIDS 90-90-90 targets requires models of HIV care that expand antiretroviral therapy (ART) coverage without overburdening health systems. Point-of-care (POC) viral load (VL) testing has the potential to efficiently monitor ART treatment, while enrolled nurses may be able to provide safe and cost-effective chronic care for stable patients with HIV. This study aims to demonstrate whether POC VL testing combined with task shifting to enrolled nurses is non-inferior and cost-effective compared with laboratory-based VL monitoring and standard HIV care. The STREAM (Simplifying HIV TREAtment and Monitoring) study is an open-label, non-inferiority, randomised controlled implementation trial. HIV-positive adults, clinically stable at 6 months after ART initiation, will be recruited in a large urban clinic in South Africa. Approximately 396 participants will be randomised 1:1 to receive POC HIV VL monitoring and potential task shifting to enrolled nurses, versus laboratory VL monitoring and standard South African HIV care. Initial clinic follow-up will be 2-monthly in both arms, with VL testing at enrolment, 6 months and 12 months. At 6 months (1 year after ART initiation), stable participants in both arms will qualify for a differentiated care model involving decentralised ART pickup at community-based pharmacies. The primary outcome is retention in care and virological suppression at 12 months from enrolment. Secondary outcomes include time to appropriate entry into the decentralised ART delivery programme, costs per virologically suppressed patient and cost-effectiveness of the intervention compared with standard care. Findings will inform the scale up of VL testing and differentiated care in HIV-endemic resource-limited settings. Ethical approval has been granted by the University of KwaZulu-Natal Biomedical Research Ethics Committee (BFC296/16) and University of Washington Institutional Review Board (STUDY

  20. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in The Netherlands in relation to sociodemographic variables, lifestyle and eating behavior: starting points for the prevention and treatment of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deurenberg, P; Hautvast, J G

    1989-01-01

    The prevalence and incidence of overweight and obesity has been studied in a young adult population aged 19-35 years. Special attention was given to the relation with psychosociological variables and life-style. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was also studied in a representative population for The Netherlands, in which population also the relation with self-reported illness and subjective health was studied. In the patient population of four general practices the relation of overweight and obesity with disease was investigated in a retrospective design. Also the influence of the body fat distribution was studied. The prevalence of overweight (BMI greater than 25 kg/m2) in the Dutch adult population was 34% in men and 24% in women. The prevalence of obesity (BMI greater than 30 kg/m2) was 4 and 6% in men and women, respectively. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was negatively related with social class and increased with age. Also, life-style variables such as coffee consumption, alcohol consumption, smoking and amount of hours sleep (CASS behavior), physical activity during leisure time, slimming behavior and health-conscious behavior were correlated with the prevalence of overweight. Life events caused an increase in body weight, but in women (not in men) this gain was suppressed by following slimming periods. Thus, emotional eating seems to be an important factor in the etiology of obesity. The results of our studies on the relation of overweight and obesity with morbidity aspects show a clear relation of some diseases and subjective health with overweight, especially in men and women with an abdominal fat distribution. From the results of this study starting points for the prevention and treatment of obesity are proposed.

  1. Experience of adjunctive cannabis use for chronic non-cancer pain: findings from the Pain and Opioids IN Treatment (POINT) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degenhardt, Louisa; Lintzeris, Nicholas; Campbell, Gabrielle; Bruno, Raimondo; Cohen, Milton; Farrell, Michael; Hall, Wayne D

    2015-02-01

    There is increasing debate about cannabis use for medical purposes, including for symptomatic treatment of chronic pain. We investigated patterns and correlates of cannabis use in a large community sample of people who had been prescribed opioids for chronic non-cancer pain. The POINT study included 1514 people in Australia who had been prescribed pharmaceutical opioids for chronic non-cancer pain. Data on cannabis use, ICD-10 cannabis use disorder and cannabis use for pain were collected. We explored associations between demographic, pain and other patient characteristics and cannabis use for pain. One in six (16%) had used cannabis for pain relief, 6% in the previous month. A quarter reported that they would use it for pain relief if they had access. Those using cannabis for pain on average were younger, reported greater pain severity, greater interference from and poorer coping with pain, and more days out of role in the past year. They had been prescribed opioids for longer, were on higher opioid doses, and were more likely to be non-adherent with their opioid use. Those using cannabis for pain had higher pain interference after controlling for reported pain severity. Almost half (43%) of the sample had ever used cannabis for recreational purposes, and 12% of the entire cohort met criteria for an ICD-10 cannabis use disorder. Cannabis use for pain relief purposes appears common among people living with chronic non-cancer pain, and users report greater pain relief in combination with opioids than when opioids are used alone. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Performance Evaluation and HaematologicalParameters of West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Performance Evaluation and HaematologicalParameters of West African Dwarf Goats Fed Diet Containing Graded Level of Raw and Fermented Malted Sorghum ... influenced white blood cell count (WBC), lymphocytes, monocytes, basophil and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration across the dietary treatments.

  3. Implementation of a decentralized community-based treatment program to improve the management of Buruli ulcer in the Ouinhi district of Benin, West Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Setondji Amoussouhoui

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium ulcerans infection, commonly known as Buruli ulcer (BU, is a debilitating neglected tropical disease. Its management remains complex and has three main components: antibiotic treatment combining rifampicin and streptomycin for 56 days, wound dressings and skin grafts for large ulcerations, and physical therapy to prevent functional limitations after care. In Benin, BU patient care is being integrated into the government health system. In this paper, we report on an innovative pilot program designed to introduce BU decentralization in Ouinhi district, one of Benin's most endemic districts previously served by centralized hospital-based care.We conducted intervention-oriented research implemented in four steps: baseline study, training of health district clinical staff, outreach education, outcome and impact assessments. Study results demonstrated that early BU lesions (71% of all detected cases could be treated in the community following outreach education, and that most of the afflicted were willing to accept decentralized treatment. Ninety-three percent were successfully treated with antibiotics alone. The impact evaluation found that community confidence in decentralized BU care was greatly enhanced by clinic staff who came to be seen as having expertise in the care of most chronic wounds.This study documents a successful BU outreach and decentralized care program reaching early BU cases not previously treated by a proactive centralized BU program. The pilot program further demonstrates the added value of integrated wound management for NTD control.

  4. GFR Decline as an Alternative End Point to Kidney Failure in Clinical Trials : A Meta-analysis of Treatment Effects From 37 Randomized Trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inker, Lesley A.; Lambers Heerspink, Hiddo J.; Mondal, Hasi; Schmid, Christopher H.; Tighiouart, Hocine; Noubary, Farzad; Coresh, Josef; Greene, Tom; Levey, Andrew S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is increased interest in using alternative end points for trials of kidney disease progression. The currently established end points of end-stage renal disease and doubling of serum creatinine level, equivalent to a 57% decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), are

  5. [The first exploration of a minimally invasive lysis subcutaneouly for the treatment of gluteal muscle contracture based on relatively safe region around standard injection point of gluteal muscle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ying; Tang, Zhi-hong; Zhang, Si-rong; Zou, Guo-yao; Xiao, Rong-chi; Liu, Rui-duan; Hu, Jun-zu

    2011-06-01

    To explore the solution of choosing the minimally invasive incision site for gluteal muscle contracture patient based on standard injection point of gluteal muscle. from September 2008 to August 2010, 25 patients (14 males and 11 females with an average of 16.5 years, ranging from 12 to 26 years) with injected gluteal muscle contracture were prospectively studied. The course of disease was from 6 to 12 years. Firstly, the connective skin Surface line from anterior superior iliac spine to coccyx (line AD) was delineated and the point (point O) was marked out as the standard gluteal muscle injection site which was on the one-third of the distance from the anterior superior iliac spine(point A) to the coccyx (point D). Secondly, the anterior and posterior edge lines of surface projection of the gluteal muscle contracture banding (line a, line p) were delineated. Thirdly, the distance from B to O and C to O (B is the point of intersection of line a and line AD,C is the point of intersection of line P and line AD)were measured which was the intersection of line a,p and line AD to point O. Lastly, the minimally invasive surgery was operformed via the skin entry of point C. OB = (0 +/- 0.76) cm, OC = (2.86 +/- 0.78) cm, BC = (2.86 +/- 1.01) cm,the mean postoperative drainage was less than 10 ml,there was no nerve damage,hematoma and other complications. All patients achieved the function of squatting in 4 to 6 days. The solution of choosing the minimally invasive incision site based on standard injection point of gluteal muscle has advantages of positioning precisely,handling easily, recoverying quickly, less trauma and safety, etc.

  6. Mortality and loss to programme before antiretroviral therapy among HIV-infected children eligible for treatment in The Gambia, West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okomo Uduak

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV infection among children, particularly those under 24 months of age, is often rapidly progressive; as a result guidelines recommend earlier access to combination antiretroviral therapy (cART for HIV infected children. Losses to follow-up (LTFU and death in the interval between diagnosis and initiation of ART profoundly limit this strategy. This study explores correlates of LTFU and death prior to ART initiation among children. Methods The study is based on 337 HIV-infected children enrolled into care at an urban centre in The Gambia, including those alive and in care when antiretroviral therapy became available and those who enrolled later. Children were followed until they started ART, died, transferred to another facility, or were LTFU. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to determine the hazard of death or LTFU according to the baseline characteristics of the children. Results Overall, 223 children were assessed as eligible for ART based on their clinical and/or immunological status among whom 73 (32.7% started treatment, 15 (6.7% requested transfer to another health facility, 105 (47.1% and 30 (13.5% were lost to follow-up and died respectively without starting ART. The median survival following eligibility for children who died without starting treatment was 2.8 months (IQR: 0.9 - 5.8 with over half (60% of all deaths occurring at home. ART-eligible children less than 2 years of age and those in WHO stage 3 or 4 were significantly more likely to be LTFU when compared with their respective comparison groups. The overall pre-treatment mortality rate was 25.7 per 100 child-years of follow-up (95% CI 19.9 - 36.8 and the loss to programme rate was 115.7 per 100 child-years of follow-up (95% CI 98.8 - 137. In the multivariable Cox proportional hazard model, significant independent predictors of loss to programme were being less than 2 years of age and WHO stage 3 or 4. The Adjusted Hazard Ratio

  7. Attenuation and diel cycling of coal-mine drainage constituents in a passive treatment wetland: A case study from Lambert Run, West Virginia, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vesper, Dorothy J.; Smilley, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    This study reports changes in coal-mine drainage constituent concentrations through a passive treatment wetland and over diel cycles. The purpose of the study was to determine what physiochemical mechanisms control attenuation of metals and if they varied by location and through time. The source water was slightly acidic (average pH 5.43); downstream degassing of CO 2 contributed to an increase in pH prior to discharge from the site (average pH 7.05). Aluminum, Fe, rare earth elements (REE) and Y were removed to a greater extent than were Mn, Co and Ni. At acidic pH, the REE and Y were generally complexed by SO 4 . At higher pH, carbonate complexes became more important. The REE and Y concentrations were normalized to the North American Shale Composite standard; the normalized patterns were coherent near the source but anomalies of Ce and Y were present further downstream indicating oxidation and sorption processes. Four sets of diel-based samples were collected, one from a shallow, surface-flow wetland and three from a deeper, newly constructed wetland. Well-defined diel cycles were observed for concentrations of Si, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, As, REE and Y in the shallow wetland. In all cases, the concentrations increased (up to 863%) during night and decreased during the day. These cycles had an inverse relationship with the temperature cycle (pH had no discernable cycle). The consistency of concentration cycles suggests a common mechanism, most likely associated with the formation of Fe oxyhydroxides. The increased rate of Fe 2+ oxidation in warm water can account for the cycles in Fe; scavenging of the other elements by the Fe precipitate can account for the consistency of the cycles even though the elements include cations, anions (H 2 AsO 4 - or HAsO 4 -2 ), and neutral species (H 4 SiO 4 0 ). While REE and Y had clear cycles in the constructed wetland, the other elements did not. This is partially due to the lower elemental concentrations (including Fe) but the cycles

  8. Prevalence of lipodystrophy and metabolic syndrome among HIV positive individuals on Highly Active Anti-Retroviral treatment in Jimma, South West Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berhane, Tsegay; Yami, Alemishet; Alemseged, Fessahaye; Yemane, Tilahun; Hamza, Leja; Kassim, Mehedi; Deribe, Kebede

    2012-01-01

    Use of highly active antiretroviral therapy has led to significant reductions in morbidity and mortality rates. However, these agents had also given rise to the metabolic and morphologic abnormalities which are modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Evidences elsewhere indicate growing in prevalence of these problems but studies are lacking in Ethiopia. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of HIV-associated lipodystrophy and metabolic syndrome in patients taking highly active antiretroviral therapy. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010 on a sample of 313 patients taking highly active antiretroviral therapy in Jimma University specialized hospital. Structured questionnaire was used to assess patients' sociodemographic characteristics and clinical manifestations of metabolic abnormalities. Checklists were used for reviewing charts about clinical manifestations of metabolic abnormalities and immunologic profile of patients. Data was cleaned, entered in and analyzed using SPSS for windows version 16.0. Metabolic syndrome was detected in 21.1% and HIV-lipodystrophy was detected 12.1% of patients. The factors found to be independently associated with metabolic syndrome were taking the antiretroviral therapy for more than 12 months (AOR=4.2; 95% CI=1.24-14.23) and female sex (AOR=2.30; 95% CI=1.0-5.27) and the factor found to be independently associated with HIV-lipodystrophy was taking the antiretroviral therapy (AOR=3.59; 95% CI=1.03-12.54) for more than 12 months. Metabolic abnormalities were relatively common in the study population. The problems were higher among those who took anti-retroviral treatment for longer duration. Therefore, regular screening for and taking action against the metabolic abnormalities is mandatory.

  9. A study of the provision of hospital based dental General Anaesthetic services for children in the North West of England: Part 2--the views and experience of families and dentists regarding service needs, treatment and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Michaela; Pretty, Iain A; Sanders, Caroline

    2015-04-09

    Patterns of service delivery and the organisation of Dental General Anaesthesia (DGA) have been found to differ across hospitals. This paper reports on qualitative research aimed to understand the impact of such variation by exploring views and experiences of families receiving care in different hospital sites, as well as dentists involved in referral and delivery of care. Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with 26 people comprising parents (n = 15), dentists working in primary care (n = 6) and operating dentists (n = 5) in relation to DGA. Participants were recruited from areas across the North West of England to ensure a variety referral and treatment experiences were captured. Field notes were made during visits to all settings included in the study and explored alongside interview transcripts to elicit key themes. A variety of positive and negative impacts on children and parents throughout the referral process and operation day were apparent. Key themes established were clustered around three key topics: 1. Organisational and professional concerns regarding referrals, delivery of treatment and prevention. 2. The role of hospital environment and routine on the emotional experiences of children. 3. The influence of the wider social context on dental health. These findings suggest the need and perceived value of: tailored services for children (such as play specialists) and improved information, such as clear guidance regarding wait times and what is to be expected on the day of the procedure. These features were viewed to be helpful in alleviating the stress and anxiety often associated with DGA. While some elements will always be restricted in part to the hospital setting in which they occur, there are several aspects where best practice could be shared amongst hospitals and, where issues such as wait times have been acknowledged, alternative pathways can be explored in order to address areas which can impact negatively on children.

  10. Temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, and other variables collected from profile observations using CTD and other instruments from NOAA Ship FAIRWEATHER and R/V POINT SUR in the West Coast of the United States from 5 Aug to 2013-08-28 (NODC Accession 0119491)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains the CTD measurements collected by Dr. Gregory C. Johnson of the Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory during the West Coast Ocean...

  11. Design and manufacturing of WEST Baffle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batal, Tristan; Firdaouss, Mehdi; Richou, Marianne; Ferlay, Fabien; Larroque, Sébastien; Gargiulo, Laurent; Dupas, Timothée; Verger, Jean-Marc; Doceul, Louis; Samaille, Franck; Bucalossi, Jérôme; Salami, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Disruption's torque in the PFC was simulated thanks to ANSYS. • The ANSYS thermal results comply with WEST project requirements. • The cycling analysis complies with WEST project requirements. • 316L components comply with A level RCC-MRx criteria. - Abstract: The Tore Supra tokamak is being transformed in an X-point divertor fusion device in the frame of the WEST project, launched in support to the Iter tungsten divertor strategy. The WEST Baffle aims to evacuate particles by creating a toroidal pumping throat. It also protects the lower divertor cooling pipes and the passive stabilization plate from heat fluxes. The Baffle is made of actively cooled plasma facing components (PFCs), with underneath a passive stabilization plate and a support beam. The Baffle design is presented in a first part. In a second time the different ANSYS simulations are described: electromagnetic, thermal and mechanical results are presented. The design choices are justified for the different results obtained thanks to the simulation. In a final part, some aspects of the PFC manufacturing are presented.

  12. Ebola in West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Raka, Lul; Guardo, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Ebola viral disease (EVD) is a severe and life-threatening disease. The current Ebola outbreak in West Africa entered its second year and is unprecedented because it is the largest one in history, involved urban centers and affected a large number of health care workers. It quickly escalated from medical into a humanitarian, social, economic, and security crisis. The primary pillars to prevent EVD are: early diagnosis, isolation of patients, contact tracing and monitoring, safe burials, infec...

  13. West Virginia's Forests 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard H. Widmann; Gregory W. Cook; Charles J. Barnett; Brett J. Butler; Douglas M. Griffith; Mark A. Hatfield; Cassandra M. Kurtz; Randall S. Morin; W. Keith Moser; Charles H. Perry; Ronald J. Piva; Rachel Riemann; Christopher W. Woodall

    2012-01-01

    The first full annual inventory of West Virginia's forests reports 12.0 million acres of forest land or 78 percent of the State's land area. The area of forest land has changed little since 2000. Of this land, 7.2 million acres (60 percent) are held by family forest owners. The current growing-stock inventory is 25 billion cubic feet--12 percent more than in...

  14. West Virginia Forests 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall S. Morin; Gregory W. Cook; Charles J. Barnett; Brett J. Butler; Susan J. Crocker; Mark A. Hatfield; Cassandra M. Kurtz; Tonya W. Lister; William G. Luppold; William H. McWilliams; Patrick D. Miles; Mark D. Nelson; Charles H. (Hobie) Perry; Ronald J. Piva; James E. Smith; Jim Westfall; Richard H. Widmann; Christopher W. Woodall

    2016-01-01

    The annual inventory of West Virginia's forests, completed in 2013, covers nearly 12.2 million acres of forest land with an average volume of more than 2,300 cubic feet per acre. This report is based data collected from 2,808 plots located across the State. Forest land is dominated by the oak/hickory forest-type group, which occupies 74 percent of total forest...

  15. The West Heslerton Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic Powlesland

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available The excavation of the Early Anglo-Saxon or Anglian Settlement at West Heslerton, North Yorkshire, between 1986 and 1995, represents one of the largest excavations conducted in Britain in the last two decades. The project, funded by English Heritage, combined the fundamental needs of rescue and research archaeology. The excavation has produced a wealth of new evidence which is forcing us to re-evaluate much that has been said about the formative period of the English nation.

  16. REMOVAL OF CHEMICAL AND MICROBIAL CONTAMINANTS IN DRINKING WATER - WATTS PREMIER M-2400 POINT-OF-ENTRY REVERSE OSMOSIS DRINKINGWATER TREATMENT SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Watts Premier M-2400 POE RO Drinking Water Treatment System was tested at the NSF Drinking Water Treatment Systems Laboratory for removal of the viruses fr and MS2, the bacteria Brevundimonas diminuta, and chemicals aldicarb, benzene, cadmium, carbofuran, cesium, chl...

  17. Checklist for Early Recognition and Treatment of Acute Illness (CERTAIN): evolution of a content management system for point-of-care clinical decision support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barwise, Amelia; Garcia-Arguello, Lisbeth; Dong, Yue; Hulyalkar, Manasi; Vukoja, Marija; Schultz, Marcus J.; Adhikari, Neill K. J.; Bonneton, Benjamin; Kilickaya, Oguz; Kashyap, Rahul; Gajic, Ognjen; Schmickl, Christopher N.

    2016-01-01

    The Checklist for Early Recognition and Treatment of Acute Illness (CERTAIN) is an international collaborative project with the overall objective of standardizing the approach to the evaluation and treatment of critically ill patients world-wide, in accordance with best-practice principles. One of

  18. Concurrent inhibition of TGF-beta and mitogen driven signaling cascades in Dupuytren's disease - Non-surgical treatment strategies from a signaling point of view

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krause, C.; Kloen, P.

    2012-01-01

    Dupuytren's disease (DD) is a benign progressive fibro-proliferative disorder of the fascia palmaris of the hand. Currently, treatment consists of surgical excision with a relatively high recurrence rate and risk of complications. To improve long-term outcome of DD treatment, research focus has

  19. The predictive role of interim positron emission tomography for Hodgkin lymphoma treatment outcome is confirmed using the interpretation criteria of the Deauville five-point scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallamini, Andrea; Barrington, Sally F; Biggi, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    .94 and 0.73, respectively. Binary concordance amongst reviewers was good (Cohen's kappa 0.69-0.84). In conclusion, the prognostic role and validity of the Deauville five-point scale for interpretation of interim positron emission tomography scans have been confirmed by the present study....

  20. Health service utilisation by people living with chronic non-cancer pain: findings from the Pain and Opioids IN Treatment (POINT) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Suzanne; Campbell, Gabrielle; Peacock, Amy; Smith, Kimberly; Bruno, Raimondo; Hall, Wayne; Cohen, Milton; Degenhardt, Louisa

    2016-11-01

    Objective The aims of the present study were to describe the use, and barriers to the use, of non-medication pain therapies and to identify the demographic and clinical correlates of different non-opioid pain treatments. Methods The study was performed on a cohort (n=1514) of people prescribed pharmaceutical opioids for chronic non-cancer pain (CNCP). Participants reported lifetime and past month use of healthcare services, mental and physical health, pain characteristics, current oral morphine equivalent daily doses and financial and access barriers to healthcare services. Results Participants reported the use of non-opioid pain treatments, both before and after commencing opioid therapy. Services accessed most in the past month were complementary and alternative medicines (CAMs; 41%), physiotherapy (16%) and medical and/or pain specialists (15%). Higher opioid dose was associated with increased financial and access barriers to non-opioid treatment. Multivariate analyses indicated being younger, female and having private health insurance were the factors most commonly associated with accessing non-opioid treatments. Conclusions Patients on long-term opioid therapy report using multiple types of pain treatments. High rates of CAM use are concerning given limited evidence of efficacy for some therapies and the low-income status of most people with CNCP. Financial and insurance barriers highlight the importance of considering how different types of treatments are paid for and subsidised. What is known about the topic? Given concerns regarding long-term efficacy, adverse side-effects and risk of misuse and dependence, prescribing guidelines recommend caution in prescribing pharmaceutical opioids in cases of CNCP, typically advising a multidisciplinary approach to treatment. There is a range of evidence supporting different (non-drug) treatment approaches for CNCP to reduce pain severity and increase functioning. However, little is known about the non-opioid treatments

  1. The effect of post-processing treatments on inflection points in current–voltage curves of roll-to-roll processed polymer photovoltaics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lilliedal, Mathilde Raad; Medford, Andrew James; Vesterager Madsen, Morten

    2010-01-01

    Inflection point behaviour is often observed in the current–voltage (IV) curve of polymer solar cells. This phenomenon is examined in the context of flexible roll-to-roll (R2R) processed polymer solar cells in a large series of devices with a layer structure of: PET–ITO–ZnO–P3HT...... characterization of device interfaces was carried out in order to identify possible chemical processes that are related to photo-annealing. A possible mechanism based on ZnO photoconductivity, photooxidation and redistribution of oxygen inside the cell is proposed, and it is anticipated that the findings......:PCBM–PEDOT:PSS–Ag. The devices were manufactured using a combination of slot-die coating and screen printing; they were then encapsulated by lamination using a polymer based barrier material. All manufacturing steps were carried out in ambient air. The freshly prepared devices showed a consistent inflection point in the IV...

  2. West Europe Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-28

    resume of his 5 years on the job. Jagmetti makes use of a revealing image in assessing his job. "Given the choice of attending a lecture on the global ...the Netherlands and in West Germany with Hawk and now also Patriot surface-to-air guided missiles. The Nike will be phased out within the...becomes obsolete, it should be modernized to fly for another 20-25 years. This kind of thing is very common in the navy, but it is a brand new idea

  3. West African Antislavery Movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahonou, Eric Komlavi; Pelckmans, Lotte

    2011-01-01

    In the context of liberalization of West African political regimes, the upsurge of audacious political entrepreneurs who want to end chattel slavery in their nation-state, resulted in the legal criminalisation of slavery in both Mauritania (2007) and Niger (2003) and in a proposal to revise......-slavery movements had raised awareness, this political emergence was even easier. Indeed the fight against ‘slave mentalities’ was everywhere a major challenge and a crucial step to mobilize groups of slave status under a united force. As this article argues changes in political structures and changes in political...

  4. Selection of appropriate end-points (pCR vs 2yDFS) for tailoring treatments with prediction models in locally advanced rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentini, Vincenzo; Stiphout, Ruud G.P.M. van; Lammering, Guido; Gambacorta, Maria A.; Barba, Maria C.; Bebenek, Marek; Bonnetain, Franck; Bosset, Jean F.; Bujko, Krzysztof; Cionini, Luca; Gerard, Jean P.; Rödel, Claus; Sainato, Aldo; Sauer, Rolf; Minsky, Bruce D.; Collette, Laurence; Lambin, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Personalized treatments based on predictions for patient outcome require early characterization of a rectal cancer patient’s sensitivity to treatment. This study has two aims: (1) identify the main patterns of recurrence and response to the treatments (2) evaluate pathologic complete response (pCR) and two-year disease-free survival (2yDFS) for overall survival (OS) and their potential to be relevant intermediate endpoints to predict. Methods: Pooled and treatment subgroup analyses were performed on five large European rectal cancer trials (2795 patients), who all received long-course radiotherapy with or without concomitant and/or adjuvant chemotherapy. The ratio of distant metastasis (DM) and local recurrence (LR) rates was used to identify patient characteristics that increase the risk of recurrences. Findings: The DM/LR ratio decreased to a plateau in the first 2 years, revealing it to be a critical follow-up period. According to the patterns of recurrences, three patient groups were identified: 5–15% had pCR and were disease free after 2 years (excellent prognosis), 65–75% had no pCR but were disease free (good prognosis) and 15–30% had neither pCR nor 2yDFS (poor prognosis). Interpretation: Compared with pCR, 2yDFS is a stronger predictor of OS. To adapt treatment most efficiently, accurate prediction models should be developed for pCR to select patients for organ preservation and for 2yDFS to select patients for more intensified treatment strategies

  5. Relationship between nongenital tender point tenderness and intravaginal muscle pain intensity: ratings in women with provoked vestibulodynia and implications for treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Nancy; Brown, Candace; Bachmann, Gloria; Wan, Jim; Wood, Ronald; Ulrich, Dagny; Bachour, Candi; Foster, David

    2016-12-01

    Vulvodynia is a chronic vulvar pain disorder and fibromyalgia is a chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain disorder, both of unknown etiology. Association of these conditions is well documented. Intravaginal algometer measurement of tenderness to pressure applied to the pelvic floor muscles helps define vulvodynia associated with musculoskeletal factors. Women with both vulvodynia and fibromyalgia might have increased pelvic muscle pain compared to women with vulvodynia alone, defining the possible link of these 2 conditions. We sought to: (1) correlate pain intensity during the nongenital tender point tenderness examination to pain intensity with the vaginal algometer in women with provoked vestibulodynia, and (2) determine whether subjects with provoked vestibulodynia and fibromyalgia had higher pain intensity scores with the vaginal algometer than those without fibromyalgia. In all, 92 subjects referred for vulvar pain were confirmed to have provoked vestibulodynia using the cotton swab test. A diagnosis of fibromyalgia was made if pain was present (numeric rating scale >1) in at least 11 sites of the 18-point nongenital tender point tenderness exam. Vaginal pain sensitivity was measured using an intravaginal pressure algometer, where 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5 kg/cm 2 forces were applied digitally in random assignment by force and location to the right and left iliococcygeus muscle regions and the posterior vaginal wall. Both tender point tenderness and algometer pain intensity were reported on a 0 (no pain) to 10 (worse pain) numeric rating scale. Correlations were computed between the composite pain intensity (total of rating scale from each pressure threshold at specified site) of nongenital and those of iliococcygeus regions and the posterior vaginal wall. Independent t tests were used to determine differences in iliococcygeus regions and the posterior vaginal algometer pain ratings and presence or absence of fibromyalgia. The significance level was at P pain

  6. Relationship between non-genital tender point tenderness and intra-vaginal muscle pain intensity: Ratings in women with provoked vestibulodynia and implications for treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    PHILLIPS, Nancy; BROWN, Candace; BACHMANN, Gloria; WAN, Jim; WOOD, Ronald; ULRICH, Dagny; BACHOUR, Candi; FOSTER, David

    2016-01-01

    Background Vulvodynia is a chronic vulvar pain disorder and fibromyalgia is a chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain disorder; both of unknown etiology. Association of these conditions is well documented. Intra-vaginal algometer measurement of tenderness to pressure applied to the pelvic floor muscles helps to define vulvodynia associated with musculoskeletal factors. Women with both vulvodynia and fibromyalgia might have increased pelvic muscle pain compared to women with vulvodynia alone, defining the possible link of these two conditions. Objective 1) correlate pain intensity during the non-genital tender point tenderness examination to pain intensity with the vaginal algometer in women with provoked vestibulodynia, 2) determine whether subjects with provoked vestibulodynia and fibromyalgia had higher pain intensity scores with the vaginal algometer than those without fibromyalgia. Study Design Ninety-two subjects referred for vulvar pain were confirmed to have provoked vestibulodynia using the cotton swab test. A diagnosis of fibromyalgia was made if pain was present (Numerical rating scale> 1) in at least 11 sites of the 18-point non-genital tender point tenderness exam. Vaginal pain sensitivity was measured using an intra-vaginal pressure algometer, where 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5 kg/cm2 forces were applied digitally in random assignment by force and location to the right and left iliococcygeus muscle regions and the posterior vaginal wall. Both tender point tenderness and algometer pain intensity were reported on a 0 (no pain) to 10 (worse pain) numeric rating scale. Correlations were computed between the composite pain intensity (total of rating scale from each pressure threshold at specified site) of non-genital and those of iliococcygeus regions and the posterior vaginal wall. Independent t-tests were used to determine differences in iliococcygeus regions and the posterior vaginal algometer pain ratings and presence or absence of fibromyalgia. The significance

  7. Physical characteristics of stream subbasins in the Pomme de Terre River Basin, west-central Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, D.L.; Payne, G.A.

    1994-01-01

    Data describing the physical characteristics of stream subbasins upstream from selected points on streams in the Pomme de Terre River Basin, located in west-central Minnesota, are presented in this report. The physical characteristics are the drainage area of the subbasin, the percentage area of the subbasin covered only by lakes, the percentage area of the subbasin covered by both lakes and wetlands, the main-channel length, and the main-channel slope. The points on the stream include outlets of subbasins of at least 5 square miles, outfalls of sewage treatment plants, and locations of U.S. Geological Survey low-flow, high-flow, and continuous-record gaging stations.

  8. Nutrient digestibility and nitrogen metabolism in West African dwarf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted to determine nutrient digestibility and nitrogen metabolism in sheep fed differently processed breadfruit meal. Twenty West African dwarf sheep with mean weight body of 6.00 ± 0.55kg were randomly allotted to four dietary treatments with five sheep per treatment in a completely randomised ...

  9. Performance Evaluation of West African Dwarf (WAD) Goats fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the effect of replacing Pennisetum purpureum with unripe plantain peels on the performance of West African Dwarf Goats. Thirty buck kids with an average weight of 7.00 ± 0.55kg were randomly assigned to three dietary treatment groups with ten bucks per treatment in a completely randomized ...

  10. Assessing the impact of a school-based safe water intervention on household adoption of point-of-use water treatment practices in southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Matthew C; Clasen, Thomas

    2011-03-01

    We assessed a pilot project by UNICEF and Hindustan Unilever Limited to improve the quality of drinking water for children in schools through adoption of improved drinking water practices among households in southern India. The intervention consisted of providing classrooms of 200 schools a commercial water purifier, and providing basic hygiene and water treatment information to students, parents, and teachers. We found no evidence that the intervention was effective in improving awareness or uptake of effective water treatment practices at home. A similar proportion of household members in the intervention and control groups boiled their water (P = 0.60), used a ceramic filtration system (P = 0.33), and used a cloth filter (P = 0.89). One year after the launch of the campaign, household ownership of the commercial purifier promoted at schools was higher in the intervention group (26%) than the control group (19%), but this difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.53).

  11. Effect of heat treatment and dough formulation on the formation of Maillard reaction products in fine bakery products - benefits and weak points

    OpenAIRE

    Ciesarová, Z.; Kukurová, K.; Bednáriková, A.; Morales, F. J.

    2009-01-01

    Possibly harmful compounds (acrylamide, 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furfural - HMF), markers of the Maillard reaction extent (furosine, fluorescence, browning, colour), as well as beneficial radical-scavenging capacity were determined in fried fine bakery products, rosquillas, at different heat treatment and dough formulation. In different simplified recipes, saccharose was substituted by glucose and fructose, and a raising agent was added while different temperature and time regimes were applied. Du...

  12. Research Advances: DNA Computing Targets West Nile Virus, Other Deadly Diseases, and Tic-Tac-Toe; Marijuana Component May Offer Hope for Alzheimer's Disease Treatment; New Wound Dressing May Lead to Maggot Therapy--Without the Maggots

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Angela G.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents three reports of research advances. The first report describes a deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)-based computer that could lead to faster, more accurate tests for diagnosing West Nile Virus and bird flu. Representing the first "medium-scale integrated molecular circuit," it is the most powerful computing device of its type to…

  13. Re-analysis of clinical and treatment related prognostic factors on outcome using biochemical control as an end-point in patients with prostate cancer treated with external beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziaja, Ellen L.; Horwitz, Eric M.; Vicini, Frank A.; Dmuchowski, Carl F.; Brabbins, Donald S.; Gustafson, Gary S.; Hollander, Jay; Matter, Richard C.; Stromberg, Jannifer S.; Martinez, Alvaro A.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Prostate specific antigen (PSA) has been established as the most important prognostic factor for prostate cancer. We reviewed our experience treating patients with clinically localized prostate cancer with external beam irradiation (RT) to evaluate if previously defined clinical and treatment related prognostic factors remain valid when biochemical control was used as an end-point to evaluate results. Methods and Materials: Between 1/87 and 12/91, 480 patients with clinically localized prostate cancer received external beam irradiation (RT) using localized prostate fields at William Beaumont Hospital. The median dose to the prostate was 66.6 Gy (range 58 - 70.4 Gy) using a 4 field or arc technique. Pre- and post-treatment serum PSA levels were recorded. Biochemical control was defined as PSA nadir ≤ 1.5 ng/ml within 1 year of treatment completion. After achieving nadir, if 2 consecutive increases of PSA were noted, the patient was scored a failure at the time of the first increase. Patients (pts) were divided into 3 groups according to total number of days on treatment: ≤ 49 days (≤ 7 weeks)- 21 pts; 50-63 days (8-9 weeks)- 429 pts; and ≥ 64 days (≥ 9 weeks)- 15 pts. Patients were also divided into groups with respect to the method of diagnosis: TURP (81 pts), or other means (399 pts). Patients were further divided into 2 groups: 1) if they had ever had a pre-treatment TURP (170 pts) or 2) if they had not (310 pts). Patients were divided into 2 groups according to boost technique: bilateral arcs (459 pts) or 4 field box (21 pts). Patients were also divided into groups according to total RT dose: ≤ 70 Gy (421 pts) or > 70 Gy (59 pts). Patients were further subdivided into 3 dose groups: 70 Gy (59 pts). Results: Median follow-up is 48 months (range 3 - 112 months). No statistically significant difference in rates of biochemical control were noted for treatment time, overall time (date of biopsy to completion of RT), or treatment time divided into

  14. Addressing sampling bias in counting forest birds: a West African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Addressing sampling bias in counting forest birds: a West African case study. ... result may occur because of the noise they may introduce into the analysis. ... used at all; and for all transects to reach their mid-point at the same time each day, ...

  15. Geothermal investigations in West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendry, R.; Hilfiker, K.; Hodge, D.; Morgan, P.; Swanberg, C.; Shannon, S.S. Jr.

    1982-11-01

    Deep sedimentary basins and warm-spring systems in West Virginia are potential geothermal resources. A temperature gradient map based on 800 bottom-hole temperatures for West Virginia shows that variations of temperature gradient trend northeasterly, parallel to regional structure. Highest temperature gradient values of about 28/sup 0/C/km occur in east-central West Virginia, and the lowest gradients (18/sup 0/C/km) are found over the Rome Trough. Results from ground-water geochemistry indicate that the warm waters circulate in very shallow aquifers and are subject to seasonal temperature fluctuations. Silica heat-flow data in West Virginia vary from about 0.89 to 1.4 HFU and generally increase towards the west. Bouguer, magnetic, and temperature gradient profiles suggest that an ancient rift transects the state and is the site of several deep sedimentary basins.

  16. Ebola in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raka, Lul; Guardo, Monica

    2015-03-15

    Ebola viral disease (EVD) is a severe and life-threatening disease. The current Ebola outbreak in West Africa entered its second year and is unprecedented because it is the largest one in history, involved urban centers and affected a large number of health care workers. It quickly escalated from medical into a humanitarian, social, economic, and security crisis. The primary pillars to prevent EVD are: early diagnosis, isolation of patients, contact tracing and monitoring, safe burials, infection prevention and control and social mobilization. The implementation of all these components was challenged in the field. Key lessons from this Ebola outbreak are that countries with weak health care systems can't withstand the major outbreaks; preparedness to treat the first confirmed cases is a national emergency; all control measures must be coordinated together and community engagement is the great factor to combat this disease.

  17. Ebola in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lul Raka

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Ebola viral disease (EVD is a severe and life-threatening disease. The current Ebola outbreak in West Africa entered its second year and is unprecedented because it is the largest one in history, involved urban centers and affected a large number of health care workers. It quickly escalated from medical into a humanitarian, social, economic, and security crisis. The primary pillars to prevent EVD are: early diagnosis, isolation of patients, contact tracing and monitoring, safe burials, infection prevention and control and social mobilization. The implementation of all these components was challenged in the field. Key lessons from this Ebola outbreak are that countries with weak health care systems can’t withstand the major outbreaks; preparedness to treat the first confirmed cases is a national emergency; all control measures must be coordinated together and community engagement is the great factor to combat this disease.

  18. Collision physics going west

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    The centroid of proton-antiproton physics is moving west across the Atlantic concluded Luigi Di Leila of CERN in his summary talk at the Topical Workshop on Proton-Antiproton Collider Physics, held at Fermilab in June. Previous meetings in this series had been dominated by results from CERN's big proton-antiproton collider, dating back to 1981. However last year saw the first physics run at Fermilab's collider, and although the number of collisions in the big CDF detector was only about one thirtieth of the score so far at CERN, the increased collision energy at Fermilab of 1.8 TeV (1800 GeV, compared to the routine 630 GeV at CERN) is already paying dividends

  19. West Germany's nuclear dilemma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dangelmayer, D.

    1978-01-01

    The US 1978 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act legislated the embargo of enriched uranium supplies from that country to any other country which would not agree to tighter restrictions on a wide variety of their nuclear activities, including the reprocessing of spent uranium to provide separated plutonium. This has resulted in a three month supply cut-off to the EEC countries. However the EEC is now willing to renegotiate supply contracts with the US to accord with the tighter safeguards set down in the Act. Effectively both sides now have an 18 month breathing space for them to seek a compromise on the non-proliferation question. The effect of these strategies on West Germany's energy policy, which seeks to become increasingly energy self-sufficient through the use of nuclear fuel reprocessing and the fast reactor, is discussed. (U.K.)

  20. Fluconazole therapy for treatment of invasive candidiasis in Intensive Care patients. Is it still valid from a pharmacological point of view?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Musu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluconazole – antimycotic belonging to the first generation azoles – is widely used as treatment for invasive candidiasis and candidemia in numerous clinical settings as Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU and adult Intensive Care Unit (ICU, as well as oncology, onco-hematology and solid organ transplantation. More recently use of antimycotics has spread to medical divisions, where fungal infections represent an emerging problem due to population’s ageing, malnourishment and important comorbidities. Fluconazole is effective against numerous Candida species, particularly against albicans, tropicalis and parapsilosis strains. On the other hand, C. krusei is intrinsically resistant to fluconazole and C. glabrata can be sensitive or resistant in a dose dependent fashion. Epidemiological variability is noteworthy and depends on the geographical location of the institution, the clinical setting, and the frequency and intensity of fluconazole employment for invasive candidiasis. In many ICUs fluconazole sensitive C. albicans is cultured in 50% of positive samples, while the remaining 50% show growth of variably sensitive fungal species, often resistant to fluconazole. Due to increasingly frequent emergence of resistant strains of Candida spp., American guidelines (IDSA in 2009, and European ones (ESCMID in 2012, recommended substitution of fluconazole with echinocandines as first line therapy in patients with severe disease, as defined by an APACHE II score greater than 15. Thus fluconazole must be limited to low risk cases, treatment of sensitive strains and de-escalation from echinocandin therapy, after microbiological diagnosis and drug resistance profile characterization.

  1. Illness Beliefs, Treatment Beliefs and Information Needs as Starting Points for Patient Information: The Evaluation of an Intervention for Patients with Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glattacker, Manuela; Heyduck, Katja; Meffert, Cornelia; Jakob, Teresa

    2018-02-16

    Patients with depression are often dissatisfied with disease- and therapy-related information. The objective of this study was to evaluate an intervention that applied the Common Sense Model to the provision of information during inpatient rehabilitation for patients with depression. The intervention was evaluated in a sequential control group design. Analyses of covariance were used to assess differences between the control and intervention groups. Changes with respect to illness and treatment beliefs (personal control, treatment control, coherence and concerns about medicines), satisfaction with information about medicines, illness and rehabilitation, and depressive burden were selected as primary outcome measures. We observed significant between-group differences indicating the intervention group's superiority in terms of satisfaction with information regarding medicines. However, the two groups' changes during rehabilitation did not differ in terms of the other outcomes. The intervention resulted in patients judging that their medication information needs had been more thoroughly fulfilled than those patients who received care-as-usual information. However, the intervention did not prove to be effective when the other outcome variables are considered. Taken together and bearing in mind the limitations of our study-particularly the non-randomised design-our results should be replicated in a randomised controlled trial.

  2. Bentyia (Kukyia: a Songhay–Mande meeting point, and a “missing link” in the archaeology of the West African diasporas of traders, warriors, praise-singers, and clerics Bentyia (Kukyia, un point de rencontre songhaï–mandé et un “chaînon manquant” dans l’archéologie des diasporas de commerçants, guerriers, griots et clercs en Afrique de l’Ouest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Fernando de Moraes Farias

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The present tragedy in Mali draws our attention to the divisions, tensions and conflicts between West African ethnic groups, religious persuasions, and populations from different regions, in both the present and the past. But a long-term critical perspective on the past brings to light borrowings between cultures, and shows how the mobility of people across West Africa links regional and ethnic histories. The communication axis running from the Aḍagh to the Niger and, along the Niger Valley, from Gao to Busa (in Nigerian Borgu and beyond, is a strategic locus for investigating this mobility and connectivity. It has linked together the Saharan, savannah, and forest zones of West Africa. It was a magnet for diasporas of Soninke praise-singers and Mande warriors and traders. Fishermen and other waterfolk along the river, oral traditionists and other craftspeople, priests and priestesses of African cults, and Islamic clerics, as well as armies, long-distance merchants, and enslaved human beings, moved along it. Although the archeological sites at Bentyia/Kukyia occupy a strategic position on this historical axis, they have not been excavated, whence a serious gap in our knowledge of the history of the eastern Niger Valley and of West Africa as a whole.L'actuelle tragédie malienne attire notre attention sur les divisions, les tensions et les conflits, présents et passés, entre groupes ethniques ouest-africains, confessions religieuses et populations de différentes régions. Mais, une perspective critique sur la longue durée fait apparaître des emprunts entre cultures et nous aide à comprendre comment la mobilité des personnes à travers l'Afrique occidentale relie les histoires régionales et ethniques. L’axe de communication allant de l’Aḍagh au Niger et, le long de la vallée du Niger, de Gao à Busa (au Borgou nigérian et au-delà, est un espace stratégique pour examiner cette mobilité et cette connectivité. Il raccordait les

  3. Comet assay with gill cells of Mytilus galloprovincialis end point tools for biomonitoring of water antibiotic contamination: Biological treatment is a reliable process for detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Nadia; Zouiten, Amina; Dridi, Dorra; Tahrani, Leyla; Zouiten, Dorra; Mosrati, Ridha; Cherif, Ameur; Chekir-Ghedira, Leila; Mansour, Hedi Ben

    2016-04-01

    This article investigates the ability of Pseudomonas peli to treat industrial pharmaceuticals wastewater (PW). Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (MS)/MS analysis revealed the presence, in this PW, of a variety of antibiotics such as sulfathiazole, sulfamoxole, norfloxacine, cloxacilline, doxycycline, and cefquinome.P. peli was very effective to be grown in PW and inducts a remarkable increase in chemical oxygen demand and biochemical oxygen demand (140.31 and 148.51%, respectively). On the other hand, genotoxicity of the studied effluent, before and after 24 h of shaking incubation with P. peli, was evaluated in vivo in the Mediterranean wild mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis using comet assay for quantification of DNA fragmentation. Results show that PW exhibited a statistically significant (pbody weight (b.w.); 0.33 ml/kg b.w. of PW, respectively. However, genotoxicity decreased strongly when tested with the PW obtained after incubation with P. peli We can conclude that using comet assay genotoxicity end points are useful tools to biomonitor the physicochemical and biological quality of water. Also, it could be concluded that P. peli can treat and detoxify the studied PW. © The Author(s) 2013.

  4. West Nile Virus Drug Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siew Pheng Lim

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The outbreak of West Nile virus (WNV in 1999 in the USA, and its continued spread throughout the Americas, parts of Europe, the Middle East and Africa, underscored the need for WNV antiviral development. Here, we review the current status of WNV drug discovery. A number of approaches have been used to search for inhibitors of WNV, including viral infection-based screening, enzyme-based screening, structure-based virtual screening, structure-based rationale design, and antibody-based therapy. These efforts have yielded inhibitors of viral or cellular factors that are critical for viral replication. For small molecule inhibitors, no promising preclinical candidate has been developed; most of the inhibitors could not even be advanced to the stage of hit-to-lead optimization due to their poor drug-like properties. However, several inhibitors developed for related members of the family Flaviviridae, such as dengue virus and hepatitis C virus, exhibited cross-inhibition of WNV, suggesting the possibility to re-purpose these antivirals for WNV treatment. Most promisingly, therapeutic antibodies have shown excellent efficacy in mouse model; one of such antibodies has been advanced into clinical trial. The knowledge accumulated during the past fifteen years has provided better rationale for the ongoing WNV and other flavivirus antiviral development.

  5. First line treatment response in patients with transmitted HIV drug resistance and well defined time point of HIV infection: updated results from the German HIV-1 seroconverter study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabia Zu Knyphausen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Transmission of drug-resistant HIV-1 (TDR can impair the virologic response to antiretroviral combination therapy. Aim of the study was to assess the impact of TDR on treatment success of resistance test-guided first-line therapy in the German HIV-1 Seroconverter Cohort for patients infected with HIV between 1996 and 2010. An update of the prevalence of TDR and trend over time was performed. METHODS: Data of 1,667 HIV-infected individuals who seroconverted between 1996 and 2010 were analysed. The WHO drug resistance mutations list was used to identify resistance-associated HIV mutations in drug-naïve patients for epidemiological analysis. For treatment success analysis the Stanford algorithm was used to classify a subset of 323 drug-naïve genotyped patients who received a first-line cART into three resistance groups: patients without TDR, patients with TDR and fully active cART and patients with TDR and non-fully active cART. The frequency of virologic failure 5 to 12 months after treatment initiation was determined. RESULTS: Prevalence of TDR was stable at a high mean level of 11.9% (198/1,667 in the HIV-1 Seroconverter Cohort without significant trend over time. Nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor resistance was predominant (6.0% and decreased significantly over time (OR = 0.92, CI = 0.87-0.98, p = 0.01. Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (2.4%; OR = 1.00, CI = 0.92-1.09, p = 0.96 and protease inhibitor resistance (2.0%; OR = 0.94, CI = 0.861.03, p = 0.17 remained stable. Virologic failure was observed in 6.5% of patients with TDR receiving fully active cART, 5,6% of patients with TDR receiving non-fully active cART and 3.2% of patients without TDR. The difference between the three groups was not significant (p = 0.41. CONCLUSION: Overall prevalence of TDR remained stable at a rather high level. No significant differences in the frequency of virologic failure were

  6. Late outcome of a controlled trial of enalapril treatment in progressive chronic renal failure. Hard end-points and influence of proteinuria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, A L; Strandgaard, S; Leyssac, P P

    1995-01-01

    An earlier controlled trial showed that over an average of 26 months, enalapril slowed the progression of chronic renal failure. Following completion of the trial, the patients continued to receive antihypertensive treatment according to ordinary clinical criteria. All but four patients...... end-stage renal failure (ESRF) (P renal outcome groups. In all patients, baseline Calb and CIgG were negatively correlated with the rate of change in GFR during the controlled trial (r = -0.37, P .... In the original enalapril group, 12 of the 35 patients (34%) were alive without renal replacement therapy versus five of the 35 patients (14%) in the control group. This difference of 20% in favour of having been in the enalapril group in the original trial was significant (P = 0.05; 95% confidence limits 0...

  7. Capecitabine and oxaliplatin in the preoperative multimodality treatment of rectal cancer: surgical end points from National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project trial R-04.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Michael J; Colangelo, Linda H; Beart, Robert W; Petrelli, Nicholas J; Allegra, Carmen J; Sharif, Saima; Pitot, Henry C; Shields, Anthony F; Landry, Jerome C; Ryan, David P; Parda, David S; Mohiuddin, Mohammed; Arora, Amit; Evans, Lisa S; Bahary, Nathan; Soori, Gamini S; Eakle, Janice; Robertson, John M; Moore, Dennis F; Mullane, Michael R; Marchello, Benjamin T; Ward, Patrick J; Wozniak, Timothy F; Roh, Mark S; Yothers, Greg; Wolmark, Norman

    2014-06-20

    The optimal chemotherapy regimen administered concurrently with preoperative radiation therapy (RT) for patients with rectal cancer is unknown. National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project trial R-04 compared four chemotherapy regimens administered concomitantly with RT. Patients with clinical stage II or III rectal cancer who were undergoing preoperative RT (45 Gy in 25 fractions over 5 weeks plus a boost of 5.4 Gy to 10.8 Gy in three to six daily fractions) were randomly assigned to one of the following chemotherapy regimens: continuous intravenous infusional fluorouracil (CVI FU; 225 mg/m(2), 5 days per week), with or without intravenous oxaliplatin (50 mg/m(2) once per week for 5 weeks) or oral capecitabine (825 mg/m(2) twice per day, 5 days per week), with or without oxaliplatin (50 mg/m(2) once per week for 5 weeks). Before random assignment, the surgeon indicated whether the patient was eligible for sphincter-sparing surgery based on clinical staging. The surgical end points were complete pathologic response (pCR), sphincter-sparing surgery, and surgical downstaging (conversion to sphincter-sparing surgery). From September 2004 to August 2010, 1,608 patients were randomly assigned. No significant differences in the rates of pCR, sphincter-sparing surgery, or surgical downstaging were identified between the CVI FU and capecitabine regimens or between the two regimens with or without oxaliplatin. Patients treated with oxaliplatin experienced significantly more grade 3 or 4 diarrhea (P < .001). Administering capecitabine with preoperative RT achieved similar rates of pCR, sphincter-sparing surgery, and surgical downstaging compared with CVI FU. Adding oxaliplatin did not improve surgical outcomes but added significant toxicity. The definitive analysis of local tumor control, disease-free survival, and overall survival will be performed when the protocol-specified number of events has occurred. © 2014 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  8. Task-shifting point-of-care CD4+ testing to lay health workers in HIV care and treatment services in Namibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaindjee-Tjituka, Francina; Sawadogo, Souleymane; Mutandi, Graham; Maher, Andrew D; Salomo, Natanael; Mbapaha, Claudia; Neo, Marytha; Beukes, Anita; Gweshe, Justice; Muadinohamba, Alexinah; Lowrance, David W

    2017-01-01

    Access to CD4+ testing remains a common barrier to early initiation of antiretroviral therapy among persons living with HIV/AIDS in low- and middle-income countries. The feasibility of task-shifting of point-of-care (POC) CD4+ testing to lay health workers in Namibia has not been evaluated. From July to August 2011, Pima CD4+ analysers were used to improve access to CD4+ testing at 10 selected public health facilities in Namibia. POC Pima CD4+ testing was performed by nurses or lay health workers. Venous blood samples were collected from 10% of patients and sent to centralised laboratories for CD4+ testing with standard methods. Outcomes for POC Pima CD4+ testing and patient receipt of results were compared between nurses and lay health workers and between the POC method and standard laboratory CD4+ testing methods. Overall, 1429 patients received a Pima CD4+ test; 500 (35.0%) tests were performed by nurses and 929 (65.0%) were performed by lay health workers. When Pima CD4+ testing was performed by a nurse or a lay health worker, 93.2% and 95.2% of results were valid ( p = 0.1); 95.6% and 98.1% of results were received by the patient ( p = 0.007); 96.2% and 94.0% of results were received by the patient on the same day ( p = 0.08). Overall, 97.2% of Pima CD4+ results were received by patients, compared to 55.4% of standard laboratory CD4+ results ( p lay health workers. Rollout of POC CD4+ testing via task-shifting can improve access to CD4+ testing and retention in care between HIV diagnosis and antiretroviral therapy initiation in low- and middle-income countries.

  9. Alien smuggling: East to West.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, J H

    1987-01-01

    This year untold millions of illegal aliens will enter Western Europe, Canada, and the US; in 1986, the US alone made 1.7 million apprehensions. Because of the numbers involved and the hard currency exchanged, alien smuggling has become big business--a lucrative track in desparate human beings. West Germany's open door asylum policy has been a boon to the smugglers, and West Berlin is currently a favored port of entry. The government provides social benefits--apartments, food, a stipend, and clothing--for asylum seekers. Smuggling operations appear to fit 3 categories: 1) state-sponsored alien smugglers, with a sub-category of terrorists; 2) ethnic smugglers with a history of terrorist spinoffs; and 3) independent smugglers, who are profit oriented, and willing to handle ethnic aliens and terrorists. In West Germany, immigration investigations begin at the border. West German officials often know that as they cause the Eastern border to be tightened, the flow will gravitate south toward Austria. Redirecting the trasit of Third Worlders from East Berlin away from West Germany, Sweden, and Denmark will be a stop-gap measure at best. Part of West Germany's immigration problem can be traced to the Basic Law that provides asylum for those who claim persecution (political, racial, ethnic, or religious). Yet, any attempt to change asylum would result in an admission of defeat in the quest for a unified Germany. Should Austria move to tighten its immigration laws, agreements similar to those between East and West Germany will likely follow.

  10. Trade networks in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    To date, most of the literature on trade networks in West Africa has considered networks in a metaphorical way. The aim of this paper is to go one step further by showing how social network analysis may be applied to the study of regional trade in West Africa. After a brief review of the literature......, this exploratory paper investigates two main issues related to regional trade. We start by discussing how recent developments in regional trade in West Africa have contributed to challenging the social structure of traders. We then discuss the changes that have affected the spatiality of regional trade by looking...

  11. Place of radiation therapy for the treatment of gynecologic and urologic tumors in 1994; Place de la radiotherapie dans les tumeurs gynecologiques et urologiques. Le point en 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maulard-Durdux, C.; Housset, M. [Hopital Saint-Louis, 75 - Paris (France)

    1995-06-01

    External-beam radiation therapy and brachytherapy are currently used both as curative and as palliative therapy in patients with gynecologic and urologic tumors. Ionizing radiation plays a key role in the locoregional control of uterine and prostatic tumors, in particular in combination with surgery. External-beam radiation therapy in combination with concomitant radiosensitizing chemotherapy may allow conservation of the bladder in patients with infiltrating vesical tumors classically treated by cystectomy. It has beneficial effects on some of the most incapacitating complications of these cancers: its hemostatic effect is valuable in patients with vaginal bleeding or hematuria and it relieves the pain due to bone metastases, which are particularly common in prostatic cancer. Furthermore, use of high energy accelerators, development of better imaging techniques, and advances in dosimetry have substantially reduced the rate of delayed radiation-induced complications. Thus, external-beam radiation therapy and brachytherapy are important tools for the treatment of gynecologic and urologic tumors. A discussion is provided of the role of radiation therapy in the four most common types of gynecologic and urologic cancer: cancers of the prostate, bladder, uterine cervix, and uterine corpus. (authors). 52 refs., 2 tabs.

  12. Profound blockage of CXCR4 signaling at multiple points using the synergy between plerixafor, mirtazapine, and clotrimazole as a new glioblastoma treatment adjunct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kast, Richard E

    2010-10-01

    CXCL12 signaling at CXCR4 is important in glioblastoma growth promotion as a migration-directing chemokine and as a mitosis-stimulating cytokine system. Recent developments in other areas of medicine may have made it now possible to comprehensively block glioblastoma's use of CXCL12 signaling. CXCL12 signaling at CXCR4 requires an active intermediate conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel to function. Plerixafor (AMD3100) is a new small molecular weight inhibitor of CXCR4, FDA approved to aid in stem cell mobilization. Inhibition of CXCR4 by plerixafor is expected to inhibit particularly the glioblastoma stem cell population by inhibiting that sub-population's homing to the protective hypoxic niche. Histamine signals through the H1 receptor in glioblastoma cells to activate the intermediate conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel also, thereby forming a potential bypass for inhibition of CXCR4-initiated signaling. The antidepressant mirtazapine is perhaps the most potent H1 antagonist in common clinical use. By inhibiting H1 stimulation of intermediate conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels, it could prevent circumvention of CXCR4 inhibition by that path. The anti-fungal clotrimazole directly inhibits the intermediate conductance Ca2+- activated K+ channel at clinically achievable and well-tolerated doses. These three drugs used simultaneously are potential low morbidity paths to deeply inhibit CXCR4/CXCL12 signaling during cytotoxic glioblastoma treatment.

  13. West African Journal of Medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... To furnish a means whereby appropriate international medical and health organisations may transmit information to medical scientists in medical institutions of West Africa and elsewhere.

  14. Endoscopic capacity in West Africa.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: In surveying physicians, less than half had resources to perform an ... In fact, a study in Zambia, which discussed ... als in West Africa via pre and post didactic examinations .... teaching tools for the participants who came from a va-.

  15. Professor ZHAN Qiang's Point-probe and Cannula Perfusion Treatment for Old Ankle Sprain%詹强教授治疗陈旧性踝关节扭伤的临床经验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    寇智君; 崔太松; 陈东林; 詹强

    2017-01-01

    [目的]介绍詹强教授治疗陈旧性踝关节扭伤的独特经验,以供学习及参考.[方法]通过对陈旧性踝关节扭伤病因病机、探穴针罐灌注疗法理论、治疗方法、经典案例等几个方面进行论述,详细介绍詹强教授运用独创的探穴针罐灌注疗法治疗陈旧性踝关节扭伤的临床经验.[结果]詹强教授利用皮试针头在选取的经痹点平刺进针,进行不同深度、不同方向的多次探刺,并在皮下进行扫散,同时配合局部拔罐治疗,使瘀血得到消散,经络得到疏通,达到通则不痛的目的,治疗陈旧性踝关节扭伤有显著的疗效.[结论]詹强教授运用“探穴针罐灌注疗法”治疗陈旧性踝关节扭伤,经验独特,疗效显著,且安全性高,操作简单,值得临床推广应用.%[Objective] To introduce the Professor ZHAN Qiang treatment of old ankle arthritis of the unique experience of a systematic for others's learning and reference.[Methods]Through the etiology and pathogenesis of old ankle arthritis,probe the theory of point needle perfusion therapy,treatment methods,the classic case and several other aspects to introducte the clinical experience of Professor ZHAN Qiang use of their original point probe pot cannulation therapy for treatment of the old ankle sprain.[Result]Professor ZHAN Qiang using the skin test needle in the selected channel Bi points needle,with different depth and direction repeatedly,and combined with local cupping therapy,which can remove blood stasis and meridians get dredge.Therefore,treatment of old ankle sprain has a significant effect.[Conclusion]Professor ZHAN Qiang use of the "probe hole needle pot perfusion therapy"treatment of old ankle sprain has the advantage of unique experience,high safety,significant effect,and simple operation,so the clinical use of it should be promoted.

  16. Why the West?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Ferguson

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available La cuestión de cómo "Occidente" llegó a dominar el mundo durante la era moderna se ha debatido recientemente entre los historiadores. El debate se ha polarizado entre quienes ven en la "modernidad" como resultado de un 'milagro', el proceso cultural único generado en el seno del mismo Occidente, y aquellos que cuestionan este "milagro" como paradigma eurocéntrico, y buscan otros factores para entender y explicar el dominio occidental del mundo económico y político. La literatura tradicional, representada por David Landes en su reciente “La riqueza y la pobreza de las naciones”, atribuye el éxito europeo a sus valores culturales únicos, a sus instituciones sociales y sus prácticas políticas. Este éxito fue completamente "impulsado desde dentro” por estas características. Recientemente, varios historiadores han cuestionado este "paradigma del milagro" como eurocéntrica, y miran a otros factores para comprender y explicar el dominio occidental del mundo económico y político. Después de examinar los recientes trabajos de los historiadores frente a este problema, este artículo trata de colocar la expansión europea en un contexto global, y la comprensión de la Revolución Industrial como una transformación global. Esta perspectiva nos permite entender los cambios tecnológicos y económicos Europeos en el contexto más amplio de patrones de interacción económica y cultural de todo el mundo._____________ABSTRACT:The question of how 'the West' came to dominate the globe during the modern era has been debated recently among historians. The debate has been polarized between those who view 'modernity' as the result of a 'European miracle', the culturally unique and internally generated project of the West, and those who question this 'European miracle' paradigm as Eurocentric, and look to other factors to understand and explain Western economic and political world dominance. The traditional narrative, represented by David

  17. Cold war, quantum foundations, and East-West collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skaar-Jacobsen, Anja [Niels Bohr Archive, Copenhagen (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    It is well-known that the cultural cold war changed the ideological line in the Soviet Union from the late 1940s and that this had serious implications for the autonomy of research in genetics and quantum foundations in the East bloc. However, besides the more narrow concern from the point of view of research in quantum foundations, I suggest that the ideological impact on quantum foundations also constituted an obstacle for attempts by Western physicists to bring about a rapprochement between physics in the east and west in general. In connection with re-establishing East-West co-operation between physicists after Stalin's death in 1953 this obstacle needed to be cleared away. In my talk I discuss these issues and how the Institute for Theoretical Physics in Copenhagen came to be an important meeting place for physicists from the East and West from the mid-1950s.

  18. Comparison of Dose When Prescribed to Point A and Point H for Brachytherapy in Cervical Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gang, Ji Hyeong; Gim, Il Hwan; Hwang, Seon Boong; Kim, Woong; Im, Hyeong Seo; Gang, Jin Mook; Gim, Gi Hwan; Lee, Ah Ram [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seou (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    The purpose of this study is to compare plans prescribed to point A with these prescribed to point H recommended by ABS (American Brachytherapy Society) in high dose rate intracavitary brachytherapy for cervical carcinoma. This study selected 103 patients who received HDR (High Dose Rate) brachytherapy using tandem and ovoids from March 2010 to January 2012. Point A, bladder point, and rectal point conform with Manchester System. Point H conforms with ABS recommendation. Also Sigmoid colon point, and vagina point were established arbitrarily. We examined distance between point A and point H. The percent dose at point A was calculated when 100% dose was prescribed to point H. Additionally, the percent dose at each reference points when dose is prescribed to point H and point A were calculated. The relative dose at point A was lower when point H was located inferior to point A. The relative doses at bladder, rectal, sigmoid colon, and vagina points were higher when point H was located superior to point A, and lower when point H was located inferior to point A. This study found out that as point H got located much superior to point A, the absorbed dose of surrounding normal organs became higher, and as point H got located much inferior to point A, the absorbed dose of surrounding normal organs became lower. This differences dose not seem to affect the treatment. However, we suggest this new point is worth being considered for the treatment of HDR if dose distribution and absorbed dose at normal organs have large differences between prescribed to point A and H.

  19. Wolf Point Substation, Roosevelt County, Montana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    The Western Area Power Administration (Western), an agency of the United States Department of Energy, is proposing to construct the 115-kV Wolf Point Substation near Wolf Point in Roosevelt County, Montana (Figure 1). As part of the construction project, Western's existing Wolf Point Substation would be taken out of service. The existing 115-kV Wolf Point Substation is located approximately 3 miles west of Wolf Point, Montana (Figure 2). The substation was constructed in 1949. The existing Wolf Point Substation serves as a ''Switching Station'' for the 115-kV transmission in the region. The need for substation improvements is based on operational and reliability issues. For this environmental assessment (EA), the environmental review of the proposed project took into account the removal of the old Wolf Point Substation, rerouting of the five Western lines and four lines from the Cooperatives and Montana-Dakota Utilities Company, and the new road into the proposed substation. Reference to the new proposed Wolf Point Substation in the EA includes these facilities as well as the old substation site. The environmental review looked at the impacts to all resource areas in the Wolf Point area. 7 refs., 6 figs

  20. Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safaa M. Raghab

    2013-08-01

    The main goal of this study is to utilize a natural low cost material “as an accelerator additive to enhance the chemical treatment process using Alum coagulant and the accelerator substances were Perlite and Bentonite. The performance of the chemical treatment was enhanced using the accelerator substances with 90 mg/l Alum as a constant dose. Perlite gave better performance than the Bentonite effluent. The removal ratio for conductivity, turbidity, BOD and COD for Perlite was 86.7%, 87.4%, 89.9% and 92.8% respectively, and for Bentonite was 83.5%, 85.0%, 86.5% and 85.0% respectively at the same concentration of 40 mg/l for each.

  1. Measles Cases during Ebola Outbreak, West Africa, 2013-2106.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colavita, Francesca; Biava, Mirella; Castilletti, Concetta; Quartu, Serena; Vairo, Francesco; Caglioti, Claudia; Agrati, Chiara; Lalle, Eleonora; Bordi, Licia; Lanini, Simone; Guanti, Michela Delli; Miccio, Rossella; Ippolito, Giuseppe; Capobianchi, Maria R; Di Caro, Antonino

    2017-06-01

    The recent Ebola outbreak in West Africa caused breakdowns in public health systems, which might have caused outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases. We tested 80 patients admitted to an Ebola treatment center in Freetown, Sierra Leone, for measles. These patients were negative for Ebola virus. Measles virus IgM was detected in 13 (16%) of the patients.

  2. Performance, Digestibility and Nitrogen Balance of West African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of dietary inclusions of ground tree leaves (Azadirachta indica, Newbouldia laevis and Spondias mombin) on performance, digestibility and nitrogen balance of West African dwarf goats was studied for a ten week period. Twenty four (24) bucks were (10.8±0.6 kg) distributed into four treatments (tree leaves and a ...

  3. Decontamination and decommissioning of the West Valley Reprocessing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daugherty, H.F.; Keel, R.

    1986-11-01

    This report presents the decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) activities at the West Valley Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Plant through September 1, 1986. The topics addressed are: D and D of areas for reuse by the Liquid Waste Treatment System (LWTS); D and D of areas for reuse as High Level Waste (HLW) canister storage; and technologies developed in D and D work

  4. Effect of exogenous progesterone on oestrus response of West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty-four (24) healthy, parous West African dwarf (WAD) does aged 2 – 3 years were used to study the effects of varying doses of progesterone on oestrus synchronization and plasma progesterone levels. The does were randomly assigned to 4 treatment groups consisting of 12.5, 25.0 and 37.5 mg progesterone ...

  5. Performance Characteristics of West African Dwarf Goats Fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a study of dietary effects of fungi (Trichoderma ghanense and Trichoderma asperellum) treatment on Jatropha curcas meal. Defatted Jatropha curcas cake was inoculated with the fungi and then used to replace soybean meal in a formulated diet for West African Dwarf goats. The fungi Trichoderma ghanense was ...

  6. Killing Unwanted West Indies Mahogany Trees by Peeling and Frilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. W. Nobles; C. B. Briscoe

    1966-01-01

    Peeling and frilling each killed approximately 70 percent of treated West Indies mahogany, but peeling killed a higher percentage of trees between 18 and 33 centimeters (7 and 13 inches) than did frilling. Essentially all mortality occurred within the first 15 months following treatment.

  7. An analysis of clinical and treatment related prognostic factors on outcome using biochemical control as an end-point in patients with prostate cancer treated with external beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horwitz, Eric M.; Vicini, Frank A.; Ziaja, Ellen L.; Dmuchowski, Carl F.; Stromberg, Jannifer S.; Gustafson, Gary S.; Martinez, Alvaro A.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: We reviewed our institution's experience in treating patients with clinically localized prostate cancer with external beam irradiation (RT) to determine if previously analyzed clinical and treatment related prognostic factors affected outcome when biochemical control was used as an end-point to evaluate results. Materials and methods: Between 1 January 1987 and 31 December 1991, 470 patients with clinically localized prostate cancer were treated with external beam RT using localized prostate fields at William Beaumont Hospital. Biochemical control was defined as PSA nadir ≤1.5 ng/ml within 1 year of treatment. After achieving nadir, if two consecutive increases of PSA were noted, the patient was scored a failure at the time of the first increase. Prognostic factors, including the total number of days in treatment, the method of diagnosis, a history of any pretreatment transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) and the type of boost were analyzed. Results: Median follow-up was 48 months. No statistically significant difference in rates of biochemical control were noted for treatment time, overall time (date of biopsy to completion of RT), history of any pretreatment TURP, history of diagnosis by TURP, or boost techniques. Patients diagnosed by TURP had a significant improvement in the overall rate of biochemical control (P < 0.03) compared to transrectal/transperineal biopsy. The 5-year actuarial rates were 58 versus 39%, respectively. This improvement was not evident when pretreatment PSA, T stage, or Gleason score were controlled for. On multivariate analysis, no variable was associated with outcome. When analysis was limited to a more favorable group of patients (T1/T2 tumors, pretreatment PSA ≤20 ng/ml and Gleason score <7), none of these variables were significantly predictive of biochemical control when controlling for pretreatment PSA, T stage and Gleason score. Conclusions: No significant effect of treatment time, overall time, pretreatment

  8. HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points) to guarantee safe water reuse and drinking water production--a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewettinck, T; Van Houtte, E; Geenens, D; Van Hege, K; Verstraete, W

    2001-01-01

    To obtain a sustainable water catchment in the dune area of the Flemish west coast, the integration of treated domestic wastewater in the existing potable water production process is planned. The hygienic hazards associated with the introduction of treated domestic wastewater into the water cycle are well recognised. Therefore, the concept of HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points) was used to guarantee hygienically safe drinking water production. Taking into account the literature data on the removal efficiencies of the proposed advanced treatment steps with regard to enteric viruses and protozoa and after setting high quality limits based on the recent progress in quantitative risk assessment, the critical control points (CCPs) and points of attention (POAs) were identified. Based on the HACCP analysis a specific monitoring strategy was developed which focused on the control of these CCPs and POAs.

  9. Methods of a large prospective, randomised, open-label, blinded end-point study comparing morning versus evening dosing in hypertensive patients: the Treatment In Morning versus Evening (TIME) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rorie, David A; Rogers, Amy; Mackenzie, Isla S; Ford, Ian; Webb, David J; Willams, Bryan; Brown, Morris; Poulter, Neil; Findlay, Evelyn; Saywood, Wendy; MacDonald, Thomas M

    2016-02-09

    Nocturnal blood pressure (BP) appears to be a better predictor of cardiovascular outcome than daytime BP. The BP lowering effects of most antihypertensive therapies are often greater in the first 12 h compared to the next 12 h. The Treatment In Morning versus Evening (TIME) study aims to establish whether evening dosing is more cardioprotective than morning dosing. The TIME study uses the prospective, randomised, open-label, blinded end-point (PROBE) design. TIME recruits participants by advertising in the community, from primary and secondary care, and from databases of consented patients in the UK. Participants must be aged over 18 years, prescribed at least one antihypertensive drug taken once a day, and have a valid email address. After the participants have self-enrolled and consented on the secure TIME website (http://www.timestudy.co.uk) they are randomised to take their antihypertensive medication in the morning or the evening. Participant follow-ups are conducted after 1 month and then every 3 months by automated email. The trial is expected to run for 5 years, randomising 10,269 participants, with average participant follow-up being 4 years. The primary end point is hospitalisation for the composite end point of non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI), non-fatal stroke (cerebrovascular accident; CVA) or any vascular death determined by record-linkage. Secondary end points are: each component of the primary end point, hospitalisation for non-fatal stroke, hospitalisation for non-fatal MI, cardiovascular death, all-cause mortality, hospitalisation or death from congestive heart failure. The primary outcome will be a comparison of time to first event comparing morning versus evening dosing using an intention-to-treat analysis. The sample size is calculated for a two-sided test to detect 20% superiority at 80% power. TIME has ethical approval in the UK, and results will be published in a peer-reviewed journal. UKCRN17071; Pre-results. Published by the BMJ

  10. The Treatment of Acute Ankle Sprain by Acupuncture at Xiaojie and Daling Point Combined with Movement%针刺小节穴、大陵穴配合运动治疗急性踝关节扭伤

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄义专

    2015-01-01

    目的 观察针刺小节穴、大陵穴配合运动治疗急性踝关节扭伤的临床疗效. 方法 选择64例急性踝关节扭伤患者,随机分为2组(各组32例);对照组采用外敷新伤药治疗,观察组采用针刺小节穴、大陵穴配合运动治疗;记录前两次治疗前后、疗程结束时综合评分,采用统计学分析. 结果 观察组临床痊愈率为68. 75%,对照组临床痊愈率为37.50%;观察组疗程为(2.34 ±0.79)d,对照组疗程为(5.56 ±2.11)d;两组比较,临床痊愈率、疗程差异有统计学意义(P<0. 05). 结论 针刺小节穴、大陵穴配合运动治疗急性踝关节扭伤能较快改善症状、缩短疗程,远期疗效明显,值得临床推广.%Objective To observe the effects of acupuncture at Xiaojie and Daling point combined with movement in the treatment of acute ankle sprain. Methods 64 cases of patients with o acute ankle sprain were randomly divided into 2 groups (32 cases in each group);Patients of control group were treated with external application using Chinese drugs. Patients of observation group were treated with acupuncture at Xiaojie and Daling point combined with movement. Record the comprehensive score before and after treatment at the fist and the second and the last time, then analysied by SPSS19. 0. Results The clinical cure rate was 68. 75% in the observation group, the clinical cure rate is 37. 50% in the control group;the observation group course of treatment were 2. 34 ± 0. 79 days, the control group course of treatment were(5. 56 ± 2. 11)days; the data of two groups had significant difference with the clinical cure rate, and course of treatment (P<0. 05). Conclusion Acupuncture at Xiaojie and Daling point combined with movement can quickly improve symptoms, shorten the course of treatment of the patient with acute ankle sprain, and has a conspicuous long-term effect and is worthy of popularizing.

  11. Early warning of climate tipping points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenton, Timothy M.

    2011-07-01

    A climate 'tipping point' occurs when a small change in forcing triggers a strongly nonlinear response in the internal dynamics of part of the climate system, qualitatively changing its future state. Human-induced climate change could push several large-scale 'tipping elements' past a tipping point. Candidates include irreversible melt of the Greenland ice sheet, dieback of the Amazon rainforest and shift of the West African monsoon. Recent assessments give an increased probability of future tipping events, and the corresponding impacts are estimated to be large, making them significant risks. Recent work shows that early warning of an approaching climate tipping point is possible in principle, and could have considerable value in reducing the risk that they pose.

  12. The impact of a knowledge translation intervention employing educational outreach and a point-of-care reminder tool vs standard lay health worker training on tuberculosis treatment completion rates: study protocol for a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puchalski Ritchie, Lisa M; van Lettow, Monique; Makwakwa, Austine; Chan, Adrienne K; Hamid, Jemila S; Kawonga, Harry; Martiniuk, Alexandra L C; Schull, Michael J; van Schoor, Vanessa; Zwarenstein, Merrick; Barnsley, Jan; Straus, Sharon E

    2016-09-07

    Despite availability of effective treatment, tuberculosis (TB) remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality globally, with low- and middle-income countries most affected. In many such settings, including Malawi, the high burden of disease and severe shortage of skilled healthcare workers has led to task-shifting of outpatient TB care to lay health workers (LHWs). LHWs improve access to healthcare and some outcomes, including TB completion rates, but lack of training and supervision limit their impact. The goals of this study are to improve TB care provided by LHWs in Malawi by refining, implementing, and evaluating a knowledge translation strategy designed to address a recognized gap in LHWs' TB and job-specific knowledge and, through this, to improve patient outcomes. We are employing a mixed-methods design that includes a pragmatic cluster randomized controlled trial and a process evaluation using qualitative methods. Trial participants will include all health centers providing TB care in four districts in the South East Zone of Malawi. The intervention employs educational outreach, a point-of-care reminder tool, and a peer support network. The primary outcome is proportion of treatment successes, defined as the total of TB patients cured or completing treatment, with outcomes taken from Ministry of Health treatment records. With an alpha of 0.05, power of 0.80, a baseline treatment success of 0.80, intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.1 based on our pilot study, and an estimated 100 clusters (health centers providing TB care), a minimum of 6 patients per cluster is required to detect a clinically significant 0.10 increase in the proportion of treatment successes. Our process evaluation will include interviews with LHWs and patients, and a document analysis of LHW training logs, quarterly peer trainer meetings, and mentorship meeting notes. An estimated 10-15 LHWs and 10-15 patients will be required to reach saturation in each of 2 planned interview

  13. Cover Crops in West Africa

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sasakawa Global 2000 — Bénin, 04 BP 1091, Cotonou, Benin ..... and West African farmers have been remarkably creative with GMCCs, developing and ...... Journal d'agriculture tropicale et de botanique appliquée, 4(5). ...... political; the best approach is therefore thought to be to accept this limitation and work with it.

  14. West Virginia's forest resources, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.H. Widmann; G.W. Cook

    2011-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for West Virginia based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information, please refer to page 4 of this...

  15. West Virginia's forest resources, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.H. Widmann; G.W. Cook

    2011-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for West Virginia based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information please refer to page 4 of this...

  16. West Virginia's forest resources, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.H. Widmann; B.J. Butler; G.W. Cook

    2010-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for West Virginia based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information please refer to page 4 of this...

  17. WEST AFRICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICINE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user1

    WEST AFRICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICINE. Tuberculous Lymphadenitis: Skin Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity Reaction and. Cellular Immune Responses. Lymphadénite Tuberculeuse: Peau Réaction d'hypersensibilité Retardée de Type et les Réponses. Immunitaires Cellulaires. E. A. G. Khalil†*, A. A. Elnour†, A. M. Musa†, ...

  18. Anurans Collected in West Malaysia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cedhagen, Tomas

    1997-01-01

    Distributional records and natural history noles are given for anurans collected in West Malaysia 1976. Rano baramica was observed when it was caught by an Ahaetulfa nasula (Serpentes: Colubridae). Rhacophorus leucomystax, Limnonectes limnociulris and Microhyla heymonsi were all found al night on...

  19. Primary Schooling in West Bengal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Amartya

    2010-01-01

    With his Nobel Prize award money, Amartya Sen set up the Pratichi Trust which carries out research, advocacy and experimental projects in basic education, primary health care, and women's development in West Bengal and Bangladesh. Professor Sen himself took active interest in this work--helping set the agenda, looking at the evidence from…

  20. Verbal aspects in West Greenlandic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trondhjem, Naja Blytmann

    2017-01-01

    In this article, lexical aspectual types in West Greenlandic are investigated in the five aspectual types, states, achievements, semelfactives, activities and accomplishments. It is shown that derivational verbalizing affixes include aspectual type congruent with the lexical aspect and how the as...

  1. West Nile Virus Neuroinvasive Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological features of West Nile Virus (WNV disease among children (<18 years of age reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention from 1999 through 2007 were analyzed and compared with those of adult WNV neuroinvasive disease (WNND, in a study at CDC&P, Fort Collins, CO.

  2. Upgrading of the West Area

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    The rejigged main hall (EHW1) in the West Area: on background, below the crane, is the brown yoke of the Omega magnet which had been resited. The upgrading was completed by the time in July when 400 GeV protons arrived. See Annual Report 1983 p. 107.

  3. West Europe without Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This document contains basic conclusions of discussion if West Europe can exist without nuclear energy: 1. Presumptions for the nuclear energy removal 2. Regional and international consulting 3. Economic competition 4. Role of the nuclear energy 5. Situation in the energetic industry 6. Costs, safety and public relations 7. Energy policy

  4. The West in Early Cinema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeff, Nanna

    2006-01-01

    Verhoeff investigates the emergence of the western genre, made in the first two decades of cinema (1895-1915). By analyzing many unknown and forgotten films from international archives she traces the relationships between films about the American West, their surrounding films, and other popular

  5. West African Journal of Radiology: Journal Sponsorship

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    West African Journal of Radiology: Journal Sponsorship. Journal Home > About the Journal > West African Journal of Radiology: Journal Sponsorship. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  6. Team West Virginia/Rome Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korakakis, Dimitris [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2017-04-10

    Overall, the team, West Virginia University (WVU) and University of Rome Tor Vergata (UTV), has a goal of building an attractive, low-cost, energy-efficient solar-powered home that represents both the West Virginian and Italian cultures.

  7. Detecting cardiometabolic syndrome using World Health Organization public health action points for Asians and Pacific Islanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandinetti, Andrew; Kaholokula, Joseph K; Mau, Marjorie K; Chow, Dominic C

    2010-01-01

    To assess the screening characteristics of World Health Organization (WHO) body mass index action points for cardiometabolic syndrome (CMS) in Native Hawaiians and people of Asian ancestry (ie, Filipino and Japanese). Cross-sectional data were collected from 1,452 residents of a rural community of Hawai'i between 1997 and 2000, of which 1,198 were analyzed in this study. Ethnic ancestry was determined by self-report. Metabolic status was assessed using National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATPIII) criteria. Screening characteristics of WHO criteria for overweight and obesity were compared to WHO public health action points or to WHO West Pacific Regional Office (WPRO) cut-points. Among Asian-ancestry participants, WHO public health action points improved both sensitivity and specificity for detecting CMS. However, similar improvements were not observed for WPRO criteria for Native Hawaiians. Moreover, predictive values were high regardless of which criteria were utilized due to high CMS prevalence. WHO public health actions points for Asians provide a significant improvement in sensitivity in detection of CMS. However, predictive value, which varies greatly with disease prevalence, should be considered when deciding which criteria to apply.

  8. The End of Points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Jo

    2018-01-01

    Have teachers become too dependent on points? This article explores educators' dependency on their points systems, and the ways that points can distract teachers from really analyzing students' capabilities and achievements. Feldman argues that using a more subjective grading system can help illuminate crucial information about students and what…

  9. Demerit points systems.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2006-01-01

    In 2012, 21 of the 27 EU Member States had some form of demerit points system. In theory, demerit points systems contribute to road safety through three mechanisms: 1) prevention of unsafe behaviour through the risk of receiving penalty points, 2) selection and suspension of the most frequent

  10. 75 FR 17463 - Key West Bank, Key West, Florida; Notice of Appointment of Receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision Key West Bank, Key West, Florida; Notice... section 5(d)(2) of the Home Owners' Loan Act, the Office of Thrift Supervision has duly appointed the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation as sole Receiver for Key West Bank, Key West, Florida, (OTS No...

  11. Population Structure of West Greenland Narwhals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riget, F.; Dietz, R.; Møller, P.

    The hypothesis that different populations of narwhals in the West Greenland area exist has been tested by different biomarkers (metal and organochlorine concentrations, stable isotopes and DNA). Samples of muscle, liver, kidney, blubber and skin tissues of narwhals from West Greenland have been...... isotopes could not support the population structure with two West Greenland populations suggested by the genetic study....

  12. Regionalizing Telecommunications Reform in West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2007-01-01

    This report assesses the potential gains from regionalized telecommunications policy in West Africa. The report seeks to assist officials in the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), the West African Telecommunications Regulators Assembly (WATRA) and member states in designing an effective regional regulatory process. To this end, the report: (i) discusses how regional coop...

  13. Spirit's West Valley Panorama

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    NASA'S Mars Exploration Rover Spirit captured this westward view from atop a low plateau where Sprit spent the closing months of 2007. After several months near the base of the plateau called 'Home Plate' in the inner basin of the Columbia Hills range inside Gusev Crater, Spirit climbed onto the eastern edge of the plateau during the rover's 1,306th Martian day, or sol, (Sept. 5, 2007). It examined rocks and soils at several locations on the southern half of Home Plate during September and October. It was perched near the western edge of Home Plate when it used its panoramic camera (Pancam) to take the images used in this view on sols 1,366 through 1,369 (Nov. 6 through Nov. 9, 2007). With its daily solar-energy supply shrinking as Martian summer turned to fall, Spirit then drove to the northern edge of Home Plate for a favorable winter haven. The rover reached that northward-tilting site in December, in time for the fourth Earth-year anniversary of its landing on Mars. Spirit reached Mars on Jan. 4, 2004, Universal Time (Jan. 3, 2004, Pacific Standard Time). It landed at a site at about the center of the horizon in this image. This panorama covers a scene spanning left to right from southwest to northeast. The western edge of Home Plate is in the foreground, generally lighter in tone than the more distant parts of the scene. A rock-dotted hill in the middle distance across the left third of the image is 'Tsiolkovski Ridge,' about 30 meters or 100 feet from the edge of Home Plate and about that same distance across. A bump on the horizon above the left edge of Tsiolkovski Ridge is 'Grissom Hill,' about 8 kilometers or 5 miles away. At right, the highest point of the horizon is 'Husband Hill,' to the north and about 800 meters or half a mile away. This view combines separate images taken through Pancam filters centered on wavelengths of 753 nanometers, 535 nanometers and 432 nanometers to produce an approximately true-color panorama.

  14. Point specificity in acupuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi Emma M

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The existence of point specificity in acupuncture is controversial, because many acupuncture studies using this principle to select control points have found that sham acupoints have similar effects to those of verum acupoints. Furthermore, the results of pain-related studies based on visual analogue scales have not supported the concept of point specificity. In contrast, hemodynamic, functional magnetic resonance imaging and neurophysiological studies evaluating the responses to stimulation of multiple points on the body surface have shown that point-specific actions are present. This review article focuses on clinical and laboratory studies supporting the existence of point specificity in acupuncture and also addresses studies that do not support this concept. Further research is needed to elucidate the point-specific actions of acupuncture.

  15. Minesoil development in central West Virginia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noll, W.J.; Sencindiver, J.C.

    1998-01-01

    Immediately after mining and regrading, minesoils usually have little or no horizon development. Over time, horizons begin to form and definite diagnostic properties develop. The purpose of this study was to document the genesis of a 13-year-old minesoil. The study site was a reclaimed surface mine in Upshur County, West Virginia. Transects were established in 1983 across the site immediately after mining and regrading but before revegetation. Soil pits were excavated to 100+ cm at nine points along those transects. Soil profiles were described at each point, and each minesoil horizon was sampled for analyses. In 1983, only C horizons were described because no structure had developed. In 1996, all nine profiles had developed A horizons ranging in thickness from 2 to 9 cm (mean 6.1 cm). Subsurface horizons (AC, Bw, or C/B), ranging in thickness from 7 to 17 cm (mean 11.8 cm), also had formed in each profile. The A horizons were identified by colors that were darker than the subsoil horizons and the presence of weak fine granular or subangular blocky structure. The AC, Bw and C/B horizons had weak fine to very coarse subangular blocky or weak medium to very thick platy structure. Chemical and physical properties of the minesoils supported the morphological properties indicating that definite pedogenic horizons have formed in 13 years

  16. Interesting Interest Points

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanæs, Henrik; Dahl, Anders Lindbjerg; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup

    2012-01-01

    on spatial invariance of interest points under changing acquisition parameters by measuring the spatial recall rate. The scope of this paper is to investigate the performance of a number of existing well-established interest point detection methods. Automatic performance evaluation of interest points is hard......Not all interest points are equally interesting. The most valuable interest points lead to optimal performance of the computer vision method in which they are employed. But a measure of this kind will be dependent on the chosen vision application. We propose a more general performance measure based...... position. The LED illumination provides the option for artificially relighting the scene from a range of light directions. This data set has given us the ability to systematically evaluate the performance of a number of interest point detectors. The highlights of the conclusions are that the fixed scale...

  17. Disintegration phenomena in Comet West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekanina, Z.

    1976-01-01

    Two peculiarities of Comet West, the multiple splitting of the nucleus as seen in telescope observations and the complex structure of the dust tail, are discussed. A method of analysis based on the premise that the observed rate of separation of a fragment from the principal nucleus is determined by the difference in effective solar attraction acting on the bodies is applied to investigate the motion of the four fragments that separated from the nucleus of Comet West. The predicted motion of the fragments is in good agreement with available observations. It is suggested that the 'synchronic' bands of the dust tail consist of tiny fragments from relatively large particles that burst after release from the comet. The unusual orientation of these bands and their high surface brightness relative to the diffuse tail are explained by a sudden increase in the particle acceleration and in the total scattering surface as the result of the disintegration of the larger particles.

  18. Permafrost degradation in West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Niels Nielsen; Ingeman-Nielsen, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Important aspects of civil engineering in West Greenland relate to the presence of permafrost and mapping of the annual and future changes in the active layer due to the ongoing climatically changes in the Arctic. The Arctic Technology Centre (ARTEK) has worked more than 10 years on this topic...... and the first author has been involved since 1970 in engineering geology, geotechnical engineering and permafrost related studies for foundation construction and infrastructures in towns and communities mainly in West Greenland. We have since 2006 together with the Danish Meteorological Institute, Greenland...... Survey (ASIAQ) and the University of Alaska Fairbanks carried out the US NSF funded project ARC-0612533: Recent and future permafrost variability, retreat and degradation in Greenland and Alaska: An integrated approach. This contribution will present data and observations from the towns Ilulissat...

  19. Prevalence of rheumatoid arthritis in the French West Indies: Results of the EPPPRA study in Martinique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunier, Lauren; Bleterry, Marie; Merle, Sylvie; Derancourt, Christian; Polomat, Katlyn; Dehlinger, Véronique; Deligny, Christophe; Jean-Baptiste, Georges; Arfi, Serge; Banydeen, Rishika; De Bandt, Michel

    2017-07-01

    Studies suggest that rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is less frequent in African populations. However, no recent precise data exists for Afro-Caribbeans. The EPPPRA project is a prospective epidemiological survey to describe prevalence and clinical aspects of RA in the French West Indies (Martinique, Guadeloupe, French Guiana). EPPPRA involved all rheumatologists from the French West Indies who included all patients with a known clinical diagnosis of RA, during a one-year period. We outline here results for Martinique. EPPPRA estimated an overall world age-standardized prevalence of RA at 0.10% [95% CI 0.09% to 0.11%] in Martinique, with a high female predominance (88.1%) and 93.1% of self-reported Afro-Caribbeans. Mean age at diagnosis was 49.6±16.0 years. A majority of subjects presented at least 4 criteria points from the 1987 American College of Rheumatology (ACR) classification (94.4%) and at least 6 points (78.2%) from the 2010 ACR/European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) classification. A high immune seropositivity rate was highlighted (84.2%). Despite functional impact observed in 40.5% of patients, 71.4% presented a low disease activity level. Methotrexate was the most common ongoing treatment (73%), followed by biotherapies (24.4%). Numerous patients (68.6%) received a steroid regimen. Cardiovascular risk factors were very frequent, contrasting with a very low tobacco use (8.7%), CONCLUSION: This work outlines low standardized prevalence of RA in a French Afro-Caribbean population with specific characteristics (high female predominance, high immune seropositivity, low tobacco use). Despite easy access to care and biotherapies, approximately half of RA patients still present destructive disease with functional impact. Copyright © 2016 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. The West Bank: An Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-20

    78 percent Muslim, 9.6 percent Christian, 11 percent Jewish and I percent other. The Muslim population was distributed in urban and rural aleas ...to cluster in the mountains and hill country as a refuge from depredations by Beduins in the plains. Village feuds and the pressures of Turkish tax...modern living patterns, industry, and co-merce--well developed in the coastal areas--were, by comparison, primitive in the mountainous West Bank

  1. [Legal Framework of Autologous Fat Usage in Point-of-Care Treatments in Plastic and Aesthetic Surgery - Risks of Criminal Prosecution and Infringement of Medical Law Due to Pharmaceutical Regulations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faltus, T

    2016-08-01

    The use of autologous fat, especially for (stem) cell-assisted lipotransfer in plastic and aesthetic surgery, has regularly been regarded as the manufacture and application of so called Advanced Therapy Medicinal Products (ATMP). However, the in-house production of such pharmaceuticals at the point-of-care (PoC) in the surgeon's practice is not permitted without an official manufacturing license. Therefore, before beginning such treatments, a pharmaceutical manufacturing license has to be granted to the surgeon to avoid criminal prosecution and negative consequences due to infringement of professional regulations. Because such a license is linked to compliance with GMP standard, in-house manufacturing of such pharmaceuticals also implies extra technical and personnel expenses. The surgeon is obliged to check that the available autologous fat based applications are in compliance with pharmaceutical legislation. Repeated infringements of pharmaceutical regulations are incompatible with medical reliability - a prerequisite for the license to practice medicine. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Anker Energy battles AMD in West Virginia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frey, T.J.

    1998-01-01

    To comply with the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977, Anker Energy has a number of reclamation projects in progress in northern West Virginia to fight acid mine drainage (AMD), the number one reclamation problem in the region. Anker's reclamation activities range from water treatment systems to the backhaul and use of coal ash from its customers. The article describes the passive treatment system - successive alkalinity producing system (SAPS) used at the Ankar subsidiary Upshur Property Inc., in Upshur Country, W.Va., and a similar passive system used at the Green Run site in Albright, W.Va. A backhaul and ash utilization water treatment system is used by Anker subsidiary Patriot Mining Co. Inc., for water discharged from a surface mine into the Cheat River in Albright. In another ash project, the Stacks Run Refuse Reprocessing Project in Preston County, W.Va., refuse placed 10 years ago in abandoned pits is excavated, mixed with coal, burned with limestone and the CFB ash used in reclamation. At Patriot's Osaga surface mine ditches are filled with slag from old steel mills to generate alkalinity. At Pete Dye a golf course has been built on land mined by Consolidation Coal. 7 photos

  3. Point defects in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    The principal properties of point defects are studied: thermodynamics, electronic structure, interactions with etended defects, production by irradiation. Some measuring methods are presented: atomic diffusion, spectroscopic methods, diffuse scattering of neutron and X rays, positron annihilation, molecular dynamics. Then points defects in various materials are investigated: ionic crystals, oxides, semiconductor materials, metals, intermetallic compounds, carbides, nitrides [fr

  4. Indexing Moving Points

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agarwal, Pankaj K.; Arge, Lars Allan; Erickson, Jeff

    2003-01-01

    We propose three indexing schemes for storing a set S of N points in the plane, each moving along a linear trajectory, so that any query of the following form can be answered quickly: Given a rectangle R and a real value t, report all K points of S that lie inside R at time t. We first present an...

  5. Generalized zero point anomaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogueira, Jose Alexandre; Maia Junior, Adolfo

    1994-01-01

    It is defined Zero point Anomaly (ZPA) as the difference between the Effective Potential (EP) and the Zero point Energy (ZPE). It is shown, for a massive and interacting scalar field that, in very general conditions, the renormalized ZPA vanishes and then the renormalized EP and ZPE coincide. (author). 3 refs

  6. Poisson branching point processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, K.; Teich, M.C.; Saleh, B.E.A.

    1984-01-01

    We investigate the statistical properties of a special branching point process. The initial process is assumed to be a homogeneous Poisson point process (HPP). The initiating events at each branching stage are carried forward to the following stage. In addition, each initiating event independently contributes a nonstationary Poisson point process (whose rate is a specified function) located at that point. The additional contributions from all points of a given stage constitute a doubly stochastic Poisson point process (DSPP) whose rate is a filtered version of the initiating point process at that stage. The process studied is a generalization of a Poisson branching process in which random time delays are permitted in the generation of events. Particular attention is given to the limit in which the number of branching stages is infinite while the average number of added events per event of the previous stage is infinitesimal. In the special case when the branching is instantaneous this limit of continuous branching corresponds to the well-known Yule--Furry process with an initial Poisson population. The Poisson branching point process provides a useful description for many problems in various scientific disciplines, such as the behavior of electron multipliers, neutron chain reactions, and cosmic ray showers

  7. The Lagrangian Points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linton, J. Oliver

    2017-01-01

    There are five unique points in a star/planet system where a satellite can be placed whose orbital period is equal to that of the planet. Simple methods for calculating the positions of these points, or at least justifying their existence, are developed.

  8. Thermomechanical simulation of WEST actively cooled upper divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batal, T.; Richou, M.; Guilhem, D.; Firdaouss, M.; Larroque, S.; Ferlay, F.; Missirlian, M.; Bucalossi, J.

    2016-01-01

    The Tore Supra tokamak is being transformed in an x-point divertor fusion device in the frame of the WEST (W-for tungsten-Environment in Steady-state Tokamak) project, launched in support to the ITER tungsten divertor strategy. The WEST project aims to test ITER-like W monoblock Plasma Facing Units (PFU). This ITER-like divertor will be tested under long plasma discharge up to 1000 s, with high heat flux density up to 20 MW/m 2 . This paper presents the results of ANSYS thermal-structural simulations of the WEST upper divertor. The upper divertor is made of twelve 30° sectors, each one composed of 38 PFU. The PFUs are actively cooled CuCrZr heat sinks and the incidence surface is coated with a thin tungsten layer. The fixing system is made of pins engaged in slotted holes. Besides, the fixing system of the sector assembly is the same as WEST lower divertor, so one upper divertor sector can be used indifferently in upper or Lower position during transitional operation phases in WEST. The total surface of the upper divertor is 8 m 2 , and it has to be able to extract up to 4 MW in steady-state, with peak heat flux values up to 8 MW/m 2 . The fixing system was designed to handle structural loads such as forces and torques resulting from halo and eddy current, respectively, especially during disruptions and Vertical Displacement Event (VDE). The torque resulting from eddy current is first calculated thanks to an internal CEA ANSYS APDL routine. Then the ANSYS structural and thermal-structural simulations of the PFU are presented, and its design is validated thanks to A-level RCC-MRx criteria. Finally, the most conservative load case is determined in order to validate the design of the pins and the support structure.

  9. Thermomechanical simulation of WEST actively cooled upper divertor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batal, T., E-mail: tristan.batal@cea.fr; Richou, M.; Guilhem, D.; Firdaouss, M.; Larroque, S.; Ferlay, F.; Missirlian, M.; Bucalossi, J.

    2016-11-15

    The Tore Supra tokamak is being transformed in an x-point divertor fusion device in the frame of the WEST (W-for tungsten-Environment in Steady-state Tokamak) project, launched in support to the ITER tungsten divertor strategy. The WEST project aims to test ITER-like W monoblock Plasma Facing Units (PFU). This ITER-like divertor will be tested under long plasma discharge up to 1000 s, with high heat flux density up to 20 MW/m{sup 2}. This paper presents the results of ANSYS thermal-structural simulations of the WEST upper divertor. The upper divertor is made of twelve 30° sectors, each one composed of 38 PFU. The PFUs are actively cooled CuCrZr heat sinks and the incidence surface is coated with a thin tungsten layer. The fixing system is made of pins engaged in slotted holes. Besides, the fixing system of the sector assembly is the same as WEST lower divertor, so one upper divertor sector can be used indifferently in upper or Lower position during transitional operation phases in WEST. The total surface of the upper divertor is 8 m{sup 2}, and it has to be able to extract up to 4 MW in steady-state, with peak heat flux values up to 8 MW/m{sup 2}. The fixing system was designed to handle structural loads such as forces and torques resulting from halo and eddy current, respectively, especially during disruptions and Vertical Displacement Event (VDE). The torque resulting from eddy current is first calculated thanks to an internal CEA ANSYS APDL routine. Then the ANSYS structural and thermal-structural simulations of the PFU are presented, and its design is validated thanks to A-level RCC-MRx criteria. Finally, the most conservative load case is determined in order to validate the design of the pins and the support structure.

  10. Publication point indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elleby, Anita; Ingwersen, Peter

    2010-01-01

    ; the Cumulated Publication Point Indicator (CPPI), which graphically illustrates the cumulated gain of obtained vs. ideal points, both seen as vectors; and the normalized Cumulated Publication Point Index (nCPPI) that represents the cumulated gain of publication success as index values, either graphically......The paper presents comparative analyses of two publication point systems, The Norwegian and the in-house system from the interdisciplinary Danish Institute of International Studies (DIIS), used as case in the study for publications published 2006, and compares central citation-based indicators...... with novel publication point indicators (PPIs) that are formalized and exemplified. Two diachronic citation windows are applied: 2006-07 and 2006-08. Web of Science (WoS) as well as Google Scholar (GS) are applied to observe the cite delay and citedness for the different document types published by DIIS...

  11. Multispectral Image Feature Points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristhian Aguilera

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel feature point descriptor for the multispectral image case: Far-Infrared and Visible Spectrum images. It allows matching interest points on images of the same scene but acquired in different spectral bands. Initially, points of interest are detected on both images through a SIFT-like based scale space representation. Then, these points are characterized using an Edge Oriented Histogram (EOH descriptor. Finally, points of interest from multispectral images are matched by finding nearest couples using the information from the descriptor. The provided experimental results and comparisons with similar methods show both the validity of the proposed approach as well as the improvements it offers with respect to the current state-of-the-art.

  12. Herbicide hardwood crop tree release in central West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey D. Kochenderfer; Shepard M. Zedaker; James E. Johnson; David W. Smith; Gary W. Miller

    2001-01-01

    Chemical crop tree release treatments were applied to young hardwood stands at three sites in central West Virginia to evaluate the effectiveness of glyphosate as Accord (41.5% SL), imazapyr as Arsenal AC (53.1% SL) and Chopper (27.6% EC), and triclopyr as Garlon 3A (44.4% triethylamine salt SL), and Garlon 4 (61.6% butoxyethyl ester EC) using hack-and-squirt injection...

  13. Evaluating Subcriticality during the Ebola Epidemic in West Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne T A Enanoria

    Full Text Available The 2014-2015 Ebola outbreak is the largest and most widespread to date. In order to estimate ongoing transmission in the affected countries, we estimated the weekly average number of secondary cases caused by one individual infected with Ebola throughout the infectious period for each affected West African country using a stochastic hidden Markov model fitted to case data from the World Health Organization. If the average number of infections caused by one Ebola infection is less than 1.0, the epidemic is subcritical and cannot sustain itself. The epidemics in Liberia and Sierra Leone have approached subcriticality at some point during the epidemic; the epidemic in Guinea is ongoing with no evidence that it is subcritical. Response efforts to control the epidemic should continue in order to eliminate Ebola cases in West Africa.

  14. The WEST project: Current status of the ITER-like tungsten divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Missirlian, M.; Bucalossi, J.; Corre, Y.; Ferlay, F.; Firdaouss, M.; Garin, P.; Grosman, A.; Guilhem, D.; Gunn, J.; Languille, P.; Lipa, M.; Richou, M.; Tsitrone, E.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We presented the ITER-like W components occurred for the WEST divertor. • The main features including key elements of the design were detailed. • The main results of studies investigating the integration constraints or issues were reported. • The WEST ITER-like divertor design reached a mature stage to enable the launching of the procurement phase. - Abstract: The WEST (W – for tungsten – Environment in Steady-state Tokamak) project is an upgrade of Tore Supra from a limiter based tokamak with carbon PFCs into an X-point divertor tokamak with full-tungsten armour while keeping its long discharge capability. The WEST project will primarily offer the key capability of testing for the first time the ITER technology in real plasma environment. In particular, the main divertor (i.e. the lower divertor) of the WEST project will be based on actively cooled tungsten monoblock components and will follow as closely as possible the design and the assembling technology, foreseen for the ITER divertor units. The current design of WEST ITER-like tungsten divertor has now reached a mature stage following the 2013 WEST Final Design Review. This paper presents the key elements of the design, reports the technological requirements and reviews the main design and integration issues

  15. The WEST project: Current status of the ITER-like tungsten divertor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Missirlian, M., E-mail: marc.missirlian@cea.fr; Bucalossi, J.; Corre, Y.; Ferlay, F.; Firdaouss, M.; Garin, P.; Grosman, A.; Guilhem, D.; Gunn, J.; Languille, P.; Lipa, M.; Richou, M.; Tsitrone, E.

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • We presented the ITER-like W components occurred for the WEST divertor. • The main features including key elements of the design were detailed. • The main results of studies investigating the integration constraints or issues were reported. • The WEST ITER-like divertor design reached a mature stage to enable the launching of the procurement phase. - Abstract: The WEST (W – for tungsten – Environment in Steady-state Tokamak) project is an upgrade of Tore Supra from a limiter based tokamak with carbon PFCs into an X-point divertor tokamak with full-tungsten armour while keeping its long discharge capability. The WEST project will primarily offer the key capability of testing for the first time the ITER technology in real plasma environment. In particular, the main divertor (i.e. the lower divertor) of the WEST project will be based on actively cooled tungsten monoblock components and will follow as closely as possible the design and the assembling technology, foreseen for the ITER divertor units. The current design of WEST ITER-like tungsten divertor has now reached a mature stage following the 2013 WEST Final Design Review. This paper presents the key elements of the design, reports the technological requirements and reviews the main design and integration issues.

  16. Do acupuncture points exist?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Xiaohui; Zhang Xinyi; Liu Chenglin; Dang, Ruishan; Huang Yuying; He Wei; Ding Guanghong

    2009-01-01

    We used synchrotron x-ray fluorescence analysis to probe the distribution of four chemical elements in and around acupuncture points, two located in the forearm and two in the lower leg. Three of the four acupuncture points showed significantly elevated concentrations of elements Ca, Fe, Cu and Zn in relation to levels in the surrounding tissue, with similar elevation ratios for Cu and Fe. The mapped distribution of these elements implies that each acupuncture point seems to be elliptical with the long axis along the meridian. (note)

  17. Do acupuncture points exist?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan Xiaohui; Zhang Xinyi [Department of Physics, Surface Physics Laboratory (State Key Laboratory), and Synchrotron Radiation Research Center of Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Liu Chenglin [Physics Department of Yancheng Teachers' College, Yancheng 224002 (China); Dang, Ruishan [Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Huang Yuying; He Wei [Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Ding Guanghong [Shanghai Research Center of Acupuncture and Meridian, Pudong, Shanghai 201203 (China)

    2009-05-07

    We used synchrotron x-ray fluorescence analysis to probe the distribution of four chemical elements in and around acupuncture points, two located in the forearm and two in the lower leg. Three of the four acupuncture points showed significantly elevated concentrations of elements Ca, Fe, Cu and Zn in relation to levels in the surrounding tissue, with similar elevation ratios for Cu and Fe. The mapped distribution of these elements implies that each acupuncture point seems to be elliptical with the long axis along the meridian. (note)

  18. West Valley Demonstration Project, West Valley, New York: Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Under the West Valley Demonstration Project Act, Public Law 96-368, liquid high-level radioactive waste stored at the Western New York Nuclear Services Center, West Valley, New York, that resulted from spent nuclear fuel reprocessing operations conducted between 1966 and 1972, is to be solidified in borosilicate glass and transported to a federal repository for geologic disposal. A major milestone was reached in May 1988 when the Project began reducing the volume of the liquid high-level waste. By the end of 1988, approximately 15 percent of the initial inventory had been processed into two waste streams. The decontaminated low-level liquid waste is being solidified in cement. The high-level waste stream is being stored in an underground tank pending its incorporation into borosilicate glass. Four tests of the waste glass melter system were completed. These tests confirmed equipment operability, control system reliability, and provided samples of waste glass for durability testing. In mid-1988, the Department validated an integrated cost and schedule plan for activities required to complete the production of the waste borosilicate glass. Design of the radioactive Vitrification Facility continued

  19. Marine Point Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    will link to the zone forecast and then allow further zooming to the point of interest whereas on the Honolulu, HI Chicago, IL Northern Indiana, IN Lake Charles, LA New Orleans, LA Boston, MA Caribou, ME

  20. Critical-point nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, R.M.

    2004-01-01

    It has been suggested that a change of nuclear shape may be described in terms of a phase transition and that specific nuclei may lie close to the critical point of the transition. Analytical descriptions of such critical-point nuclei have been introduced recently and they are described briefly. The results of extensive searches for possible examples of critical-point behavior are presented. Alternative pictures, such as describing bands in the candidate nuclei using simple ΔK = 0 and ΔK = 2 rotational-coupling models, are discussed, and the limitations of the different approaches highlighted. A possible critical-point description of the transition from a vibrational to rotational pairing phase is suggested

  1. National Wetlands Inventory Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Wetland point features (typically wetlands that are too small to be as area features at the data scale) mapped as part of the National Wetlands Inventory (NWI). The...

  2. Allegheny County Address Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains address points which represent physical address locations assigned by the Allegheny County addressing authority. Data is updated by County...

  3. Iowa Geologic Sampling Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Point locations of geologic samples/files in the IGS repository. Types of samples include well cuttings, outcrop samples, cores, drillers logs, measured sections,...

  4. Characterizing fixed points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjo Zlobec

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A set of sufficient conditions which guarantee the existence of a point x⋆ such that f(x⋆ = x⋆ is called a "fixed point theorem". Many such theorems are named after well-known mathematicians and economists. Fixed point theorems are among most useful ones in applied mathematics, especially in economics and game theory. Particularly important theorem in these areas is Kakutani's fixed point theorem which ensures existence of fixed point for point-to-set mappings, e.g., [2, 3, 4]. John Nash developed and applied Kakutani's ideas to prove the existence of (what became known as "Nash equilibrium" for finite games with mixed strategies for any number of players. This work earned him a Nobel Prize in Economics that he shared with two mathematicians. Nash's life was dramatized in the movie "Beautiful Mind" in 2001. In this paper, we approach the system f(x = x differently. Instead of studying existence of its solutions our objective is to determine conditions which are both necessary and sufficient that an arbitrary point x⋆ is a fixed point, i.e., that it satisfies f(x⋆ = x⋆. The existence of solutions for continuous function f of the single variable is easy to establish using the Intermediate Value Theorem of Calculus. However, characterizing fixed points x⋆, i.e., providing answers to the question of finding both necessary and sufficient conditions for an arbitrary given x⋆ to satisfy f(x⋆ = x⋆, is not simple even for functions of the single variable. It is possible that constructive answers do not exist. Our objective is to find them. Our work may require some less familiar tools. One of these might be the "quadratic envelope characterization of zero-derivative point" recalled in the next section. The results are taken from the author's current research project "Studying the Essence of Fixed Points". They are believed to be original. The author has received several feedbacks on the preliminary report and on parts of the project

  5. Alternating current for the West

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    In the framework of the reactor EPR construction in the Manche, the authors wonder on the pertinence of this energy choice for the economy and the environment of the West France. They show that there is an alternative to this choice. In a first part a state of the situation concerning the electricity supply and demand in the region is detailed. Then from the local potential of renewable electric power production and the electricity conservation, they propose many concrete actions. (A.L.B.)

  6. Photoacoustic Point Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calasso, Irio G.; Craig, Walter; Diebold, Gerald J.

    2001-01-01

    We investigate the photoacoustic effect generated by heat deposition at a point in space in an inviscid fluid. Delta-function and long Gaussian optical pulses are used as sources in the wave equation for the displacement potential to determine the fluid motion. The linear sound-generation mechanism gives bipolar photoacoustic waves, whereas the nonlinear mechanism produces asymmetric tripolar waves. The salient features of the photoacoustic point source are that rapid heat deposition and nonlinear thermal expansion dominate the production of ultrasound

  7. Unconventional Quantum Critical Points

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Cenke

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we review the theory of unconventional quantum critical points that are beyond the Landau's paradigm. Three types of unconventional quantum critical points will be discussed: (1). The transition between topological order and semiclassical spin ordered phase; (2). The transition between topological order and valence bond solid phase; (3). The direct second order transition between different competing orders. We focus on the field theory and universality class of these unconventio...

  8. SharePoint governance

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Mudassar

    2013-01-01

    Masteroppgave i informasjons- og kommunikasjonsteknologi IKT590 2013 – Universitetet i Agder, Grimstad SharePoint is a web-based business collaboration platform from Microsoft which is very robust and dynamic in nature. The platform has been in the market for more than a decade and has been adapted by large number of organisations in the world. The platform has become larger in scale, richer in features and is improving consistently with every new version. However, SharePoint ...

  9. Epistemological failures : everyday terrorism in the west

    OpenAIRE

    Gentry, Caron Eileen

    2016-01-01

    This article attempts to problematize the disparate level of attention paid to similar violences globally, whereby violence against women in the developing world is seen as a security concern to the West and yet violence against women in the West is minimized or ignored. It will do this first by demonstrating that everyday violences, better known as everyday terrorism, in the West are subjugated knowledges within Terrorism Studies. To demonstrate this, Half the Sky, Sex and World Peace, and T...

  10. Lessons Learned from the 200 West Pump and Treatment Facility Construction Project at the US DOE Hanford Site - A Leadership for Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Gold-Certified Facility - 13113

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorr, Kent A.; Freeman-Pollard, Jhivaun R.; Ostrom, Michael J. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, P.O. Box 1600, MSIN R4-41, 99352 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) designed, constructed, commissioned, and began operation of the largest groundwater pump and treatment facility in the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) nationwide complex. This one-of-a-kind groundwater pump and treatment facility, located at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation Site (Hanford Site) in Washington State, was built to an accelerated schedule with American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funds. There were many contractual, technical, configuration management, quality, safety, and Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) challenges associated with the design, procurement, construction, and commissioning of this $95 million, 52,000 ft groundwater pump and treatment facility to meet DOE's mission objective of treating contaminated groundwater at the Hanford Site with a new facility by June 28, 2012. The project team's successful integration of the project's core values and green energy technology throughout design, procurement, construction, and start-up of this complex, first-of-its-kind Bio Process facility resulted in successful achievement of DOE's mission objective, as well as attainment of LEED GOLD certification (Figure 1), which makes this Bio Process facility the first non-administrative building in the DOE Office of Environmental Management complex to earn such an award. (authors)

  11. Lessons Learned from the 200 West Pump and Treatment Facility Construction Project at the US DOE Hanford Site - A Leadership for Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Gold-Certified Facility - 13113

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorr, Kent A.; Freeman-Pollard, Jhivaun R.; Ostrom, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) designed, constructed, commissioned, and began operation of the largest groundwater pump and treatment facility in the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) nationwide complex. This one-of-a-kind groundwater pump and treatment facility, located at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation Site (Hanford Site) in Washington State, was built to an accelerated schedule with American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funds. There were many contractual, technical, configuration management, quality, safety, and Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) challenges associated with the design, procurement, construction, and commissioning of this $95 million, 52,000 ft groundwater pump and treatment facility to meet DOE's mission objective of treating contaminated groundwater at the Hanford Site with a new facility by June 28, 2012. The project team's successful integration of the project's core values and green energy technology throughout design, procurement, construction, and start-up of this complex, first-of-its-kind Bio Process facility resulted in successful achievement of DOE's mission objective, as well as attainment of LEED GOLD certification (Figure 1), which makes this Bio Process facility the first non-administrative building in the DOE Office of Environmental Management complex to earn such an award. (authors)

  12. Lessons Learned from the 200 West Pump and Treatment Facility Construction Project at the US DOE Hanford Site - A Leadership for Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Gold-Certified Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorr, Kent A.; Ostrom, Michael J.; Freeman-Pollard, Jhivaun R.

    2013-01-11

    CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) designed, constructed, commissioned, and began operation of the largest groundwater pump and treatment facility in the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) nationwide complex. This one-of-a-kind groundwater pump and treatment facility, located at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation Site (Hanford Site) in Washington State, was built to an accelerated schedule with American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funds. There were many contractual, technical, configuration management, quality, safety, and Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) challenges associated with the design, procurement, construction, and commissioning of this $95 million, 52,000 ft groundwater pump and treatment facility to meet DOE’s mission objective of treating contaminated groundwater at the Hanford Site with a new facility by June 28, 2012. The project team’s successful integration of the project’s core values and green energy technology throughout design, procurement, construction, and start-up of this complex, first-of-its-kind Bio Process facility resulted in successful achievement of DOE’s mission objective, as well as attainment of LEED GOLD certification, which makes this Bio Process facility the first non-administrative building in the DOE Office of Environmental Management complex to earn such an award.

  13. K West Basin canister survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitner, A.L.

    1998-01-01

    A survey was conducted of the K West Basin to determine the distribution of canister types that contain the irradiated N Reactor fuel. An underwater camera was used to conduct the survey during June 1998, and the results were recorded on videotape. A full row-by-row survey of the entire basin was performed, with the distinction between aluminum and stainless steel Mark 1 canisters made by the presence or absence of steel rings on the canister trunions (aluminum canisters have the steel rings). The results of the survey are presented in tables and figures. Grid maps of the three bays show the canister lid ID number and the canister type in each location that contained fuel. The following abbreviations are used in the grid maps for canister type designation: IA = Mark 1 aluminum, IS = Mark 1 stainless steel, and 2 = Mark 2 stainless steel. An overall summary of the canister distribution survey is presented in Table 1. The total number of canisters found to contain fuel was 3842, with 20% being Mark 1 Al, 25% being Mark 1 SS, and 55% being Mark 2 SS. The aluminum canisters were predominantly located in the East and West bays of the basin

  14. Publication point indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elleby, Anita; Ingwersen, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents comparative analyses of two publication point systems, The Norwegian and the in-house system from the interdiscplinary Danish Institute for International Studies (DIIS), used as case in the study for publications published 2006, and compares central citation-based indicators...... with novel publication point indicators (PPIs) that are formalized and exemplified. Two diachronic citation windows are applied: 2006-07 and 2006-08. Web of Science (WoS) as well as Google Scholar (GS) are applied to observe the cite delay and citedness for the different document types published by DIIS...... for all document types. Statistical significant correlations were only found between WoS and GS and the two publication point systems in between, respectively. The study demonstrates how the nCPPI can be applied to institutions as evaluation tools supplementary to JCI in various combinations...

  15. ARM West Antarctic Radiation Experiment (AWARE) Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubin, Daniel [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States). Scripps Inst. of Oceanography; Bromwich, David H [Ohio State University; Vogelmann, Andrew M [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Verlinde, Johannes [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Russell, Lynn M [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States). Scripps Inst. of Oceanography

    2017-09-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) West Antarctic Radiation Experiment (AWARE) is the most technologically advanced atmospheric and climate science campaign yet fielded in Antarctica. AWARE was motivated be recent concern about the impact of cryospheric mass loss on global sea level rise. Specifically, the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) is now the second largest contributor to rising sea level, after the Greenland Ice Sheet. As steadily warming ocean water erodes the grounding lines of WAIS components where they meet the Amundsen and Bellingshausen Seas, the retreating grounding lines moving inland and downslope on the underlying terrain imply mechanical instability of the entire WAIS. There is evidence that this point of instability may have already been reached, perhaps signifying more rapid loss of WAIS ice mass. At the same time, the mechanical support provided by adjacent ice shelves, and also the fundamental stability of exposed ice cliffs at the ice sheet grounding lines, will be adversely impacted by a warming atmosphere that causes more frequent episodes of surface melting. The surface meltwater damages the ice shelves and ice cliffs through hydrofracturing. With the increasing concern regarding these rapid cryospheric changes, AWARE was motivated by the need to (a) diagnose the surface energy balance in West Antarctica as related to both summer season climatology and potential surface melting, and (b) improve global climate model (GCM) performance over Antarctica, such that future cryospheric projections can be more reliable.

  16. Primary Care Fall Risk Assessment for Elderly West Virginians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkemeyer, Vivian M; Meriweather, Matt; Shuler, Franklin D; Mehta, Saurabh P; Qazi, Zain N

    2015-01-01

    West Virginia is ranked second nationally for the percent of its population 65 years of age. The elderly are especially susceptible to falls with fall risk increasing as age increases. Because falls are the number one cause of injury-related morbidity and mortality in the West Virginia elderly, evaluation of fall risk is a critical component of the patient evaluation in the primary care setting. We therefore highlight fall risk assessments that require no specialized equipment or training and can easily be completed at an established office visit. High quality clinical practice guidelines supported by the American Geriatric Society recommend yearly fall risk evaluation in the elderly. Those seniors at greatest risk of falls will benefit from the standardized therapy protocols outlined and referral to a balance treatment center. Patients with low-to-moderate fall risk attributed to muscle weakness or fatigue should be prescribed lower extremity strengthening exercises, such as kitchen counter exercises, to improve strength and balance.

  17. Understanding the cryptic nature of Lassa fever in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibb, Rory; Moses, Lina M; Redding, David W; Jones, Kate E

    2017-09-01

    Lassa fever (LF) is increasingly recognized by global health institutions as an important rodent-borne disease with severe impacts on some of West Africa's poorest communities. However, our knowledge of LF ecology, epidemiology and distribution is limited, which presents barriers to both short-term disease forecasting and prediction of long-term impacts of environmental change on Lassa virus (LASV) zoonotic transmission dynamics. Here, we synthesize current knowledge to show that extrapolations from past research have produced an incomplete picture of the incidence and distribution of LF, with negative consequences for policy planning, medical treatment and management interventions. Although the recent increase in LF case reports is likely due to improved surveillance, recent studies suggest that future socio-ecological changes in West Africa may drive increases in LF burden. Future research should focus on the geographical distribution and disease burden of LF, in order to improve its integration into public policy and disease control strategies.

  18. Seasonal and spatial variation of diffuse (non-point) source zinc pollution in a historically metal mined river catchment, UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gozzard, E., E-mail: emgo@ceh.ac.uk [Hydrogeochemical Engineering Research and Outreach Group, School of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); Mayes, W.M., E-mail: W.Mayes@hull.ac.uk [Hydrogeochemical Engineering Research and Outreach Group, School of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); Potter, H.A.B., E-mail: hugh.potter@environment-agency.gov.uk [Environment Agency England and Wales, c/o Institute for Research on Environment and Sustainability, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); Jarvis, A.P., E-mail: a.p.jarvis@ncl.ac.uk [Hydrogeochemical Engineering Research and Outreach Group, School of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU (United Kingdom)

    2011-10-15

    Quantifying diffuse sources of pollution is becoming increasingly important when characterising river catchments in entirety - a prerequisite for environmental management. This study examines both low and high flow events, as well as spatial variability, in order to assess point and diffuse components of zinc pollution within the River West Allen catchment, which lies within the northern England lead-zinc Orefield. Zinc levels in the river are elevated under all flow regimes, and are of environmental concern. Diffuse components are of little importance at low flow, with point source mine water discharges dominating instream zinc concentration and load. During higher river flows 90% of the instream zinc load is attributed to diffuse sources, where inputs from resuspension of metal-rich sediments, and groundwater influx are likely to be more dominant. Remediating point mine water discharges should significantly improve water quality at lower flows, but contribution from diffuse sources will continue to elevate zinc flux at higher flows. - Highlights: > Zinc concentrations breach EU quality thresholds under all river flow conditions. > Contributions from point sources dominate instream zinc dynamics in low flow. > Contributions from diffuse sources dominate instream zinc dynamics in high flow. > Important diffuse sources include river-bed sediment resuspension and groundwater influx. > Diffuse sources would still create significant instream pollution, even with point source treatment. - Diffuse zinc sources are an important source of instream contamination to mine-impacted rivers under varying flow conditions.

  19. Archives: West African Journal of Medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 40 of 40 ... Archives: West African Journal of Medicine. Journal Home > Archives: West African Journal of Medicine. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 40 of ...

  20. West African Journal of Applied Ecology: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. Instructions To Authors Papers for submission to the West African Journal of Applied Ecology should be written in English and should not exceed 8,000 words in total ... Authors publish in the Journal with the understanding that they assign their copyright to the West Africa Journal of Applied Ecology.

  1. West African Journal of Applied Ecology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The focus of the West African Journal of Applied Ecologyis on ecology, agriculture and water pollution. It aims to serve as an avenue for lecturers and researchers in West Africa to publish their work. Other websites related to this journal are http://apps.ug.edu.gh/wajae/.

  2. West African Journal of Radiology: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. The West African Journal of Radiology (WAJR) is a publication and the official organ of the Association of Radiologists of West Africa. It is enlisted on AJOL (African Journals on-line). The Journal accepts for publication, original work in the science and technology of radiology, radiotherapy allied subjects, ...

  3. New Novae snack point

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Located next to the car park by the flag poles, a few metres from the Main CERN Reception (building 33), a new snack point catered by Novae will open to the public on Wednesday 8 August. More information will be available in the next issue of the Bulletin!

  4. [Clinical key points. Gonioscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamard, P

    2007-05-01

    Gonioscopy should be performed in all patients with glaucoma or suspected of having glaucoma. Four points are systematically evaluated: the width of the angle, the degree of trabecular pigmentation, the iridotrabecular appositions or synechia, and the level of iris insertion and the shape of the peripheral iris profile.

  5. ACS Zero Point Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolphin, Andrew

    2005-07-01

    The uncertainties in the photometric zero points create a fundamental limit to the accuracy of photometry. The current state of the ACS calibration is surprisingly poor, with zero point uncertainties of 0.03 magnitudes. The reason for this is that the ACS calibrations are based primarily on semi-emprical synthetic zero points and observations of fields too crowded for accurate ground-based photometry. I propose to remedy this problem by obtaining ACS images of the omega Cen standard field with all nine broadband ACS/WFC filters. This will permit the direct determination of the ACS zero points by comparison with excellent ground-based photometry, and should reduce their uncertainties to less than 0.01 magnitudes. A second benefit is that it will facilitate the comparison of the WFPC2 and ACS photometric systems, which will be important as WFPC2 is phased out and ACS becomes HST's primary imager. Finally, three of the filters will be repeated from my Cycle 12 observations, allowing for a measurement of any change in sensitivity.

  6. Point Lepreau generating station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganong, G.H.D.; Strang, A.E.; Gunter, G.E.; Thompson, T.S.

    Point Lepreau-1 reactor is a 600 MWe generating station expected to be in service by October 1979. New Brunswick is suffering a 'catch up' phenomenon in load growth and needs to decrease dependence on foreign oil. The site is on salt water and extensive study has gone into corrosion control. Project management, financing and scheduling have unique aspects. (E.C.B.)

  7. Least fixed points revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.W. de Bakker (Jaco)

    1975-01-01

    textabstractParameter mechanisms for recursive procedures are investigated. Contrary to the view of Manna et al., it is argued that both call-by-value and call-by-name mechanisms yield the least fixed points of the functionals determined by the bodies of the procedures concerned. These functionals

  8. Point kinetics modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimpland, R.H.

    1996-01-01

    A normalized form of the point kinetics equations, a prompt jump approximation, and the Nordheim-Fuchs model are used to model nuclear systems. Reactivity feedback mechanisms considered include volumetric expansion, thermal neutron temperature effect, Doppler effect and void formation. A sample problem of an excursion occurring in a plutonium solution accidentally formed in a glovebox is presented

  9. The Implementation of Special Autonomy in West Papua, Indonesia: Problems and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    however, that, on formal occasions, the Indonesian national flag, the Red and White, and the national anthem, Indonesia Raya , should be performed before...according to some ultra-nationalist elements in Jakarta, is a starting point toward West Papuan independent. Hari Sabarno, the minister of internal

  10. Medical women of the West.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, A L

    1988-01-01

    The presence in the West of women physicians with degrees from regular medical schools spans a period of approximately 130 years. Women's Medical College of Pennsylvania graduated many of these early women physicians. The first woman medical graduate of a western school was Lucy M. Field Wanzer, who finished in 1876 at the Department of Medicine, University of California in San Francisco. Soon thereafter, schools that would become Stanford University and the Oregon Health Sciences University schools of medicine, as well as the newly founded University of Southern California, were contributing to the pool of women physicians. The University of Michigan Medical School, the first coeducational state medical school, also educated some of the western women physicians, who by 1910 numbered about 155. This regional account of the progress of women physicians as they strove to become an integral part of the profession emphasizes the familiar themes of altruism, ingenuity, and perseverance that characterized their efforts. Images PMID:3074578

  11. Human Rights in the West

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorgen S. Nielsen

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the areas of conflict between Islam and the West in today’s world is the concern for human rights. This has sometimes been criticized in the Muslim world as a form of neo-imperialism. It is therefore necessary to understand the various dimensions of human rights, and the various phases through which this concern has grown. In the earliest form, it was an assertion of the rights of the landed aristocracy against those of the monarch. The French revolution, with its emphasis on "liberty, equality and fraternity," for all individuals, provided another dimension. There were many occasions on which individual and organized religion came into conflict during the Middle Ages. The experience of World War II, particularly the atrocities of the Nazis, led to the internationalization of individual rights.

  12. Status of the new WEST plasma control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravene, Nathalie; Nouailletas, Rémy; Signoret, Jacqueline; Guillerminet, Bernard; Treutterrer, Wolfgang; Spring, Anett; Masand, Harish; Dhongde, Jasraj; Bhandarkar, Manisha; Rapson, Chris; Laqua, Heike; Lewerentz, Marc; Moreau, Philippe; Brémond, Sylvain; Allegretti, Ludovic; Raupp, Gerhard; Werner, Andreas; Laurent, François Saint; Nardon, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The WEST (W – for Tungsten – Environment in Steady state Tokamak) project is aiming at minimizing technology and operational risks of a full tungsten actively cooled divertor on ITER. It was started in 2013 and consists in transforming the Tore Supra tokamak into an X point divertor device, while taking advantage of its long discharge capability. To operate the next coming operations of WEST, new controllers are required. These developments are an opportunity to develop a new Plasma Control System (PCS) architecture featuring build-in real time handling of both plasma and plants events, thus addressing key ITER needs. The Tore Supra PCS will be refurbished including a new Pulse Schedule Editor (PSE). The main idea is to use a time segmented approach to describe the pulse schedule with a full integration of event handling both on PCS and PSE. Further to detailed requirement specifications and architecture design, two software tools were selected to define and execute a whole plasma discharge defined as a set of time segments. The PCS real-time framework (RTF) is based on an upgraded version of the AUG framework, called DCS (Discharge Control System). The PSE is the Xedit application used on WEGA and under further development for W7-X facility. This paper reports on the status of the new WEST PCS developments. The on-going developments to adapt DCS to the Tore Supra Control infrastructure networks (new real-time network, chronology system and pulse supervision) will be reported. The required preparations for the use of Xedit will be presented, mainly the appropriate formal description of the WEST control system and the implementation of the mapping between the Xedit experiment configuration and DCS configuration files.

  13. Status of the new WEST plasma control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravene, Nathalie, E-mail: nathalie.ravenel@gmail.com [IRFM, CEA, F-13108 Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Nouailletas, Rémy; Signoret, Jacqueline; Guillerminet, Bernard [IRFM, CEA, F-13108 Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Treutterrer, Wolfgang [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstraße 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Spring, Anett [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Teilinstitut Greifswald, Wendelsteinstraße 1, D-17491 Greifswald (Germany); Masand, Harish; Dhongde, Jasraj; Bhandarkar, Manisha [Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), Near Indira Bridge, Bhat, Gandhinagar, 382 428 Gujarat (India); Rapson, Chris [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstraße 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Laqua, Heike; Lewerentz, Marc [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Teilinstitut Greifswald, Wendelsteinstraße 1, D-17491 Greifswald (Germany); Moreau, Philippe; Brémond, Sylvain; Allegretti, Ludovic [IRFM, CEA, F-13108 Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Raupp, Gerhard [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstraße 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Werner, Andreas [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Teilinstitut Greifswald, Wendelsteinstraße 1, D-17491 Greifswald (Germany); Laurent, François Saint; Nardon, Eric [IRFM, CEA, F-13108 Saint Paul lez Durance (France)

    2016-11-15

    The WEST (W – for Tungsten – Environment in Steady state Tokamak) project is aiming at minimizing technology and operational risks of a full tungsten actively cooled divertor on ITER. It was started in 2013 and consists in transforming the Tore Supra tokamak into an X point divertor device, while taking advantage of its long discharge capability. To operate the next coming operations of WEST, new controllers are required. These developments are an opportunity to develop a new Plasma Control System (PCS) architecture featuring build-in real time handling of both plasma and plants events, thus addressing key ITER needs. The Tore Supra PCS will be refurbished including a new Pulse Schedule Editor (PSE). The main idea is to use a time segmented approach to describe the pulse schedule with a full integration of event handling both on PCS and PSE. Further to detailed requirement specifications and architecture design, two software tools were selected to define and execute a whole plasma discharge defined as a set of time segments. The PCS real-time framework (RTF) is based on an upgraded version of the AUG framework, called DCS (Discharge Control System). The PSE is the Xedit application used on WEGA and under further development for W7-X facility. This paper reports on the status of the new WEST PCS developments. The on-going developments to adapt DCS to the Tore Supra Control infrastructure networks (new real-time network, chronology system and pulse supervision) will be reported. The required preparations for the use of Xedit will be presented, mainly the appropriate formal description of the WEST control system and the implementation of the mapping between the Xedit experiment configuration and DCS configuration files.

  14. Relative performance of indoor vector control interventions in the Ifakara and the West African experimental huts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oumbouke, Welbeck A; Fongnikin, Augustin; Soukou, Koffi B; Moore, Sarah J; N'Guessan, Raphael

    2017-09-19

    West African and Ifakara experimental huts are used to evaluate indoor mosquito control interventions, including spatial repellents and insecticides. The two hut types differ in size and design, so a side-by-side comparison was performed to investigate the performance of indoor interventions in the two hut designs using standard entomological outcomes: relative indoor mosquito density (deterrence), exophily (induced exit), blood-feeding and mortality of mosquitoes. Metofluthrin mosquito coils (0.00625% and 0.0097%) and Olyset® Net vs control nets (untreated, deliberately holed net) were evaluated against pyrethroid-resistant Culex quinquefasciatus in Benin. Four experimental huts were used: two West African hut designs and two Ifakara hut designs. Treatments were rotated among the huts every four nights until each treatment was tested in each hut 52 times. Volunteers rotated between huts nightly. The Ifakara huts caught a median of 37 Culex quinquefasciatus/ night, while the West African huts captured a median of 8/ night (rate ratio 3.37, 95% CI: 2.30-4.94, P  4-fold higher mosquito exit relative to the West African huts (odds ratio 4.18, 95% CI: 3.18-5.51, P < 0.0001), regardless of treatment. While blood-feeding rates were significantly higher in the West African huts, mortality appeared significantly lower for all treatments. The Ifakara hut captured more Cx. quinquefasciatus that could more easily exit into windows and eave traps after failing to blood-feed, compared to the West African hut. The higher mortality rates recorded in the Ifakara huts could be attributable to the greater proportions of Culex mosquitoes exiting and probably dying from starvation, relative to the situation in the West African huts.

  15. Call document for West Africa

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Chaitali Sinha

    2017-04-10

    Apr 10, 2017 ... health care services that address social determinants of health as root causes ... research, implementation research focuses on the interaction .... entry points to reach more adolescents and their communities to improve their.

  16. Melting point of yttria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skaggs, S.R.

    1977-06-01

    Fourteen samples of 99.999 percent Y 2 O 3 were melted near the focus of a 250-W CO 2 laser. The average value of the observed melting point along the solid-liquid interface was 2462 +- 19 0 C. Several of these same samples were then melted in ultrahigh-purity oxygen, nitrogen, helium, or argon and in water vapor. No change in the observed temperature was detected, with the exception of a 20 0 C increase in temperature from air to helium gas. Post test examination of the sample characteristics, clarity, sphericity, and density is presented, along with composition. It is suggested that yttria is superior to alumina as a secondary melting-point standard

  17. 'Saddle-point' ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, T.J.; Hale, E.B.; Irby, V.D.; Olson, R.E.; Missouri Univ., Rolla; Berry, H.G.

    1988-01-01

    We have studied the ionization of rare gases by protons at intermediate energies, i.e., energies at which the velocities of the proton and the target-gas valence electrons are comparable. A significant channel for electron production in the forward direction is shown to be 'saddle-point' ionization, in which electrons are stranded on or near the saddle-point of electric potential between the receding projectile and the ionized target. Such electrons yield characteristic energy spectra, and contribute significantly to forward-electron-production cross sections. Classical trajectory Monte Carlo calculations are found to provide qualitative agreement with our measurements and the earlier measurements of Rudd and coworkers, and reproduce, in detail, the features of the general ionization spectra. (orig.)

  18. Special Issue - A Press Review of The West Normandy Marine Energy Highlights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piquet, Francois; Martin, Geraldine; Bornemann, Brigitte; Longmore, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This Special Issue has been undertaken at the initiative of West Normandy that shares the Alderney Race - Europe's second most powerful tidal stream - with the nearby British Channel Island of Alderney. Its objective is to help to understand better the region that by the end of this decade will be home to the first tidal turbines to be deployed in France and some of the first offshore wind-turbines at nearby Courseulles-sur-Mer. Via these articles the reader can discover the depth of the political will locally and nationally to put in place a strong and vibrant French marine renewable energy industry. One hundred and fifty West Normandy SMEs are wanting to be involved in the sector. There are both skills and training directories to assist the energy companies and the developers. This western tip of France has the right industrial infrastructure and experience, with 150 local SMEs already known to be interested in the industry. There are all the necessary R and D as well as education and training facilities. The ports of Cherbourg-Octeville and Caen-Ouistreham offer all tide, and all weather access for installation and/or maintenance vessels. Grid connectivity is already assured. To encourage and facilitate the creation of the industry in West Normandy the region has set up West Normandy Marine Energy - a limited public company which is the primary point of contact for everything relating to marine renewables in West Normandy. Their focus is on offering a special welcome to devices tested in British sites and now interested in using the Alderney Race pilot farms as a first step towards industrialisation. Energy policy in France is being increasingly devolved to the regions, away from central government. West Normandy is now a regional leader in all forms of marine renewables. West Normandy Marine Energy was set up by the West Normandy region, the General Council of the Manche department, and Cherbourg Urban Community

  19. Critical point predication device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumura, Kazuhiko; Kariyama, Koji.

    1996-01-01

    An operation for predicting a critical point by using a existent reverse multiplication method has been complicated, and an effective multiplication factor could not be plotted directly to degrade the accuracy for the prediction. The present invention comprises a detector counting memory section for memorizing the counting sent from a power detector which monitors the reactor power, a reverse multiplication factor calculation section for calculating the reverse multiplication factor based on initial countings and current countings of the power detector, and a critical point prediction section for predicting the criticality by the reverse multiplication method relative to effective multiplication factors corresponding to the state of the reactor core previously determined depending on the cases. In addition, a reactor core characteristic calculation section is added for analyzing an effective multiplication factor depending on the state of the reactor core. Then, if the margin up to the criticality is reduced to lower than a predetermined value during critical operation, an alarm is generated to stop the critical operation when generation of a period of more than a predetermined value predicted by succeeding critical operation. With such procedures, forecasting for the critical point can be easily predicted upon critical operation to greatly mitigate an operator's burden and improve handling for the operation. (N.H.)

  20. At the Tipping Point

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiley, H. S.

    2011-02-28

    There comes a time in every field of science when things suddenly change. While it might not be immediately apparent that things are different, a tipping point has occurred. Biology is now at such a point. The reason is the introduction of high-throughput genomics-based technologies. I am not talking about the consequences of the sequencing of the human genome (and every other genome within reach). The change is due to new technologies that generate an enormous amount of data about the molecular composition of cells. These include proteomics, transcriptional profiling by sequencing, and the ability to globally measure microRNAs and post-translational modifications of proteins. These mountains of digital data can be mapped to a common frame of reference: the organism’s genome. With the new high-throughput technologies, we can generate tens of thousands of data points from each sample. Data are now measured in terabytes and the time necessary to analyze data can now require years. Obviously, we can’t wait to interpret the data fully before the next experiment. In fact, we might never be able to even look at all of it, much less understand it. This volume of data requires sophisticated computational and statistical methods for its analysis and is forcing biologists to approach data interpretation as a collaborative venture.

  1. Maximum power point tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enslin, J.H.R.

    1990-01-01

    A well engineered renewable remote energy system, utilizing the principal of Maximum Power Point Tracking can be m ore cost effective, has a higher reliability and can improve the quality of life in remote areas. This paper reports that a high-efficient power electronic converter, for converting the output voltage of a solar panel, or wind generator, to the required DC battery bus voltage has been realized. The converter is controlled to track the maximum power point of the input source under varying input and output parameters. Maximum power point tracking for relative small systems is achieved by maximization of the output current in a battery charging regulator, using an optimized hill-climbing, inexpensive microprocessor based algorithm. Through practical field measurements it is shown that a minimum input source saving of 15% on 3-5 kWh/day systems can easily be achieved. A total cost saving of at least 10-15% on the capital cost of these systems are achievable for relative small rating Remote Area Power Supply systems. The advantages at larger temperature variations and larger power rated systems are much higher. Other advantages include optimal sizing and system monitor and control

  2. A recombinant influenza a virus expressing domain III of west nile virus induces protective immune responses against influenza and west nile virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.E.E. Martina (Byron); P. van den Doel (Petra); P. Koraka (Penelope); G. van Amerongen (Geert); G. Spohn (Gunther); B.L. Haagmans (Bart); L.B.V. Provacia (Lisette); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); G.F. Rimmelzwaan (Guus)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractWest Nile virus (WNV) continues to circulate in the USA and forms a threat to the rest of the Western hemisphere. Since methods for the treatment of WNV infections are not available, there is a need for the development of safe and effective vaccines. Here, we describe the construction of

  3. Cost-Effectiveness Comparison of Fidaxomicin and Vancomycin for Treatment of Clostridium difficile Infection: A Markov Model Based on Data from a South West Balkan Country in Socioeconomic Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marković, Veroljub; Kostić, Marina; Iličković, Ivana; Janković, Slobodan M

    2014-09-01

    Recent studies have shown that fidaxomicin, a novel antibiotic, can reduce the rate of complications and mortality in patients with colitis induced by Clostridium difficile. Introduction of fidaxomicin in clinical practice is limited by its high costs. The purpose of this study was to estimate the cost effectiveness of using fidaxomicin versus vancomycin in patients with colitis induced by C. difficile who did not respond to oral metronidazole. We constructed a Markov model that was than simulated by Monte-Carlo simulation using 1000 virtual patients with colitis induced by C. difficile. The perspective in our model was institutional. The time horizon was 3 months. Values of transition probabilities and therapy outcomes were estimated from the available literature, the prices of health services were obtained from the Republic Institute for Health Insurance Tariff Book, and the price of fidaxomicin was derived from data gained from the drug manufacturer. The total costs of treating one statistical patient for 3 months with fidaxomicin were higher (48,106.19 ± 118.07 Republic of Serbia dinars [RSD]; 95% confidence interval 47,988.12-48,224.27) than the total costs of treating with vancomycin (25,872.85 ± 41.44 RSD; 95% confidence interval 25,831.41-25,914.29). Our results showed that the treatment of infections induced by C. difficile with fidaxomicin correlated with a lower rate of mortality and with a smaller number of colectomies. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of fidaxomicin versus vancomycin for colitis induced by C. difficile per saved life was estimated at 2.97 million RSD and for one avoided colectomy at 10.07 million RSD. Results of our model indicate that fidaxomicin is a cost-effective therapy compared with vancomycin in patients with colitis induced by C. difficile if the outcome is life-year saved. However, if the outcome is the number of avoided colectomies, then fidaxomycin is not a cost-effective option compared with vancomycin. Copyright

  4. Drainage areas of the Potomac River basin, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Jeffrey B.; Hunt, Michelle L.; Stewart, Donald K.

    1996-01-01

    This report contains data for 776 drainage-area divisions of the Potomac River Basin, from the headwaters to the confluence of the Potomac River and the Shenandoah River. Data, compiled in downstream order, are listed for streams with a drainage area of approximately 2 square miles or larger within West Virginia and for U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations. The data presented are the stream name, the geographical limits in river miles, the latitude and longitude of the point, the name of the county, and the 7 1/2-minute quadrangle in which the point lies, and the drainage area of that site. The total drainage area of the Potomac River Basin downstream of the confluence of the Shenandoah River at the State boundary is 9,367.29 square miles.

  5. Ebola vaccine and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Ayato

    2015-01-01

    Filoviruses (Ebola and Marburg viruses) cause severe hemorrhagic fever in humans and nonhuman primates. No effective prophylaxis or treatment for filovirus diseases is yet commercially available. The recent outbreak of Ebola virus disease in West Africa has accelerated efforts to develop anti-Ebola virus prophylaxis and treatment, and unapproved drugs were indeed used for the treatment of patients during the outbreak. This article reviews previous researches and the latest topics on vaccine and therapy for Ebola virus disease.

  6. Thallium in the hydrosphere of south west England

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, Sin [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Turner, Andrew, E-mail: aturner@plymouth.ac.uk [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)

    2011-12-15

    Thallium is a highly toxic metal whose environmental concentrations, distributions and behaviour are not well understood. In the present study we measure the concentrations of Tl in filtered and unfiltered samples of rain, tap, river, estuarine and waste waters collected from south west England. Dissolved Tl was lowest (<20 ng L{sup -1}) in tap water, rain water, treated sewage and landfill effluents, estuarine waters, and rivers draining catchments of sandstones and shales. Concentrations up to about 450 ng L{sup -1} were observed in rivers whose catchments are partly mineralized and where metal mining was historically important, and the highest concentration ({approx}1400 ng L{sup -1}) was measured in water abstracted directly from an abandoned mine. Compared with other trace metals measured (e.g. As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn), Tl has a low affinity for suspended particles and undergoes little removal by conventional (hydroxide precipitation) treatment of mine water. - Highlights: > Thallium concentrations have been measured in natural and waste waters from south west England. > Dissolved concentrations spanned three orders of magnitude and were highest in water from an abandoned mine. > Inputs associated with historical metal mine workings are the most important to the regional hydrosphere. - Concentrations of dissolved thallium in waters of south west England span two orders of magnitude and are greatest in water from an abandoned mine.

  7. Thallium in the hydrosphere of south west England

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, Sin; Turner, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Thallium is a highly toxic metal whose environmental concentrations, distributions and behaviour are not well understood. In the present study we measure the concentrations of Tl in filtered and unfiltered samples of rain, tap, river, estuarine and waste waters collected from south west England. Dissolved Tl was lowest ( -1 ) in tap water, rain water, treated sewage and landfill effluents, estuarine waters, and rivers draining catchments of sandstones and shales. Concentrations up to about 450 ng L -1 were observed in rivers whose catchments are partly mineralized and where metal mining was historically important, and the highest concentration (∼1400 ng L -1 ) was measured in water abstracted directly from an abandoned mine. Compared with other trace metals measured (e.g. As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn), Tl has a low affinity for suspended particles and undergoes little removal by conventional (hydroxide precipitation) treatment of mine water. - Highlights: → Thallium concentrations have been measured in natural and waste waters from south west England. → Dissolved concentrations spanned three orders of magnitude and were highest in water from an abandoned mine. → Inputs associated with historical metal mine workings are the most important to the regional hydrosphere. - Concentrations of dissolved thallium in waters of south west England span two orders of magnitude and are greatest in water from an abandoned mine.

  8. Biomass burning in West African savannas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menaut, J.C.; Abbadie, L.; Lavenu, F.; Loudjani, P.; Podaire, A.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter approaches the influence of West African savanna ecosystems on the regional climate by giving, as precisely as possible, the amount of volatilized elements (e.g., carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur) annually released by bush fires into the atmosphere. In spite of the relative functional similarity of West African savannas, fire behavior and effects vary with the different bioclimatic and phytogeographic zones of the region: Guinea or humid zone; Sudan or mesic zone; and, Sahel or arid zone. In order to reach an acceptable accuracy, results are given for each of the zones described and summarized for West Africa

  9. Vernal Point and Anthropocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez-Campos, Teodosio; Chavez S, Nadia; Chavez-Sumarriva, Israel

    2014-05-01

    The time scale was based on the internationally recognized formal chronostratigraphical /geochronological subdivisions of time: The Phanerozoic Eonathem/Eon; the Cenozoic Erathem/Era; the Quaternary System/Period; the Pleistocene and Holocene Series/Epoch. The Quaternary was divided into: (1) The Pleistocene that was characterized by cycles of glaciations (intervals between 40,000 and 100,000 years). (2) The Holocene that was an interglacial period that began about 12,000 years ago. It was believed that the Milankovitch cycles (eccentricity, axial tilt and the precession of the equinoxes) were responsible for the glacial and interglacial Holocene periods. The magnetostratigraphic units have been widely used for global correlations valid for Quaternary. The gravitational influence of the sun and moon on the equatorial bulges of the mantle of the rotating earth causes the precession of the earth. The retrograde motion of the vernal point through the zodiacal band is 26,000 years. The Vernal point passes through each constellation in an average of 2000 years and this period of time was correlated to Bond events that were North Atlantic climate fluctuations occurring every ≡1,470 ± 500 years throughout the Holocene. The vernal point retrogrades one precessional degree approximately in 72 years (Gleissberg-cycle) and approximately enters into the Aquarius constellation on March 20, 1940. On earth this entry was verify through: a) stability of the magnetic equator in the south central zone of Peru and in the north zone of Bolivia, b) the greater intensity of equatorial electrojet (EEJ) in Peru and Bolivia since 1940. With the completion of the Holocene and the beginning of the Anthropocene (widely popularized by Paul Crutzen) it was proposed the date of March 20, 1940 as the beginning of the Anthropocene. The date proposed was correlated to the work presented in IUGG (Italy 2007) with the title "Cusco base meridian for the study of geophysical data"; Cusco was

  10. Point/Counterpoint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ungar, David; Ernst, Erik

    2007-01-01

    Point Argument: "Dynamic Languages (in Reactive Environments) Unleash Creativity," by David Ungar. For the sake of creativity, the profession needs to concentrate more on inventing new and better dynamic languages and environments and less on improving static languages. Counterpoint Argument......: "Explicitly Declared Static Types: The Missing Links," by Erik Ernst. How do we understand software? Using it is a powerful approach, but it provides examples of properties, not general truths. Some static knowledge is needed. This department is part of a special issue on dynamically typed languages....

  11. Mise au point

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tomie est replacé et fixé par des fils d'acier, krönlein lais- sait ce fragment pédiculé au fascia temporalis afin d'évi- ter la dépression de la fosse temporale due à la désinser- tion du muscle temporal [20] ; dans notre série, après reconstitution du cadre, le muscle temporal est suturé à son point d'insertion. pour les tumeurs ...

  12. Torsades de Pointes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J Chen, MD

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: 70-year-old male with a history ventricular arrhythmia, AICD (automated implantable cardioverter defibrillator, coronary artery disease and cardiac stents presented to the Emergency Department after three AICD discharges with dyspnea but no chest pain. During triage, he was found to have an irregular radial pulse and was placed on a cardiac monitor. Significant findings: The patient was found to be in a polymorphic ventricular tachycardia; he was alert, awake and asymptomatic. A rhythm strip showed a wide complex tachycardia with the QRS complex varying in amplitude around the isoelectric line consistent with Torsades de Pointes. Discussion: Torsades de Pointes (TdP is a specific type of polymorphic ventricular tachycardia. The arrhythmia’s characteristic morphology consists of the QRS complex “twisting” around the isoelectric line with gradual variation of the amplitude, reflecting its literal translation of “twisting of the points.”1 This arrhythmia occurs in the context of prolonged QT. The most common form of acquired QT prolongation is medication induced. Common causes include antiarrhythmics, antipsychotics, antiemetics, and antibiotics.2 Patient specific risk factors include female sex, bradycardia, hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, hypocalcemia, hypothermia and heart disease.3 In the setting of prolonged QT, the repolarization phase is extended. TdP is initiated when a PVC (premature ventricular contraction occurs during this repolarization, known as an ‘R on T’ phenomenon. TdP is often asymptomatic and self-limited. The danger in TdP is its potential to deteriorate into ventricular fibrillation. A mainstay of management of TdP is prevention of risk factors when possible.4 Unstable patients should be treated with synchronized cardioversion. Magnesium sulfate should be administered in all cases of TdP.1 If a patient is not responsive to magnesium, consider isoproterenol, amiodarone, and overdrive

  13. Pointing control for LDR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yam, Y.; Briggs, C.

    1988-01-01

    One important aspect of the LDR control problem is the possible excitations of structural modes due to random disturbances, mirror chopping, and slewing maneuvers. An analysis was performed to yield a first order estimate of the effects of such dynamic excitations. The analysis involved a study of slewing jitters, chopping jitters, disturbance responses, and pointing errors, making use of a simplified planar LDR model which describes the LDR dynamics on a plane perpendicular to the primary reflector. Briefly, the results indicate that the command slewing profile plays an important role in minimizing the resultant jitter, even to a level acceptable without any control action. An optimal profile should therefore be studied.

  14. Point of Care Ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrich, Christoph F; Goudie, Adrian; Chiorean, Liliana

    2017-01-01

    Over the last decade, the use of portable ultrasound scanners has enhanced the concept of point of care ultrasound (PoC-US), namely, "ultrasound performed at the bedside and interpreted directly by the treating clinician." PoC-US is not a replacement for comprehensive ultrasound, but rather allows...... and critical care medicine, cardiology, anesthesiology, rheumatology, obstetrics, neonatology, gynecology, gastroenterology and many other applications. In the future, PoC-US will be more diverse than ever and be included in medical student training....

  15. The point on.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    In this last article, we find the point of view about the world petroleum activity, the reserves and the recent discoveries, the deep offshore, the technological developments in petroleum upstream. The petroleum situation in China is treated. The trends of world refining are described. The recent technological developments in the petroleum downstream are detailed. The prices of crude oil and the refining margins are the subject of a chapter. The investments of hydrocarbons area are given, the world trade and the lng projects, the gas availability in Western Europe have their place. The trends of European automobile industry and the fuels distribution are also discussed. (N.C.)

  16. Geology and radiometry of West Macedonia (Greece)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minatidis, Demetrios G.

    1984-10-01

    Car borne scintillometry survey in W. Macedonia (Greece) showed that the granitic rocks of the area, the zone centered on the Tertiary volcanic rocks of Almopia zone and a large part of adjacent sediments constitute the most promising geological formations for further uranium exploration. Some Tertiary volcanic rocks in the general area centered on the Aegean plate are associated with uranium mineralization and high radioactivity. An attempt has been made to evaluate young Alpine volcanic rocks from uranium exploration point of view on a regional scale by using arithmetic mean radioactivity data from the car borne survey coverage of W. Macedonia, as well as other geological and geochemical data from numerous similar volcanic rocks of the area and other neighbouring areas. In connection with this further exploration of the Tertiary volcanic rocks of W. Macedonia is expected to reveal new uranium deposits in the area. Horizontal or gently dipping sedimentary rocks adjacent to the above mentioned volcanics have a statistical radioactivity higher than that in normal sediments, a fact that may give evidence of the existence or uranium mineralization in deeper horizons in these sediments. To make a comparison with this the existence of 134 ppm of leachable U in sediments of W. Crete Island, 20 to 30 meters below the surface, is reported where the overlying sediments exhibit also a radioactivity higher than in normal sediments. Some structural contacts, in particular the contact between the granite of Florina and the limestones of Krystallopigi (west of Florina), have locally a very high radioactivity. Also an open fault in the Achlada-Papadia area (Florina) exhibits locally a high radioactivity and a high U content. All the above mentioned geological formations are, therefore, proposed for further U exploration. (author)

  17. National policy styles and the environment. Britain and West Germany compared

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, J J; Watts, N S.J.

    1985-01-01

    In drawing tentative conclusions from the review of the 'processing' of the environmental issue in Britain and West Germany, the authors try to highlight the most important features influencing the trajectory of the issue, the factors which have influenced the political management of the issue, and the value and limitations of the concept of policy style in this broad area. The nature and development of the environmental issue, structural factors affecting the political management of the environmental issue are pointed out, British and West German policy styles are compared, and the efficacy of policy style is seen as a concept. (orig./HSCH).

  18. WEST AFRICAN TECHNOLOGY, EDUCATION AND RECIPROCITY (WATER) FOR BENIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Songhai Center has produced and tested over 300 fully functional point-of-use drinking water filters. The holistic approach of incorporated water treatment, waste reduction, economic development and promoted environmental and health awareness in the community. The ...

  19. Mise au point

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dont 1,96% de cas de rhinoplastie, 2,17%des cas de chi- ... total thyroidectomy and histological exam. nine-month treatment with anti- .... 5. Lecerf j.m. Les thyroïdites. La gazette méd 1993 ; 101 : 10-14. 6. el malki HO, mohsine r, Benkhraba k.

  20. Mise au point

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    31 mai 2013 ... L'examen anatomopathologique a confirmé le diagnostic d'his- ... The osseous lesions are the most frequent (60 to 90%). ... Preoperative panoramic radiograph showed anradiolucent areas with well demarcated borders the lefthorizontal branch .... pathology, imaging and treatment of skeletal involvement.

  1. IAU South West Asian ROAD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickaelian, Areg; Azatyan, Naira; Farmanyan, Sona; Mikayelyan, Gor

    2016-10-01

    Armenia is hosting the IAU South West Asian (SWA) Regional Office of Astronomy for Development (ROAD). It is a county of ancient astronomy and is also rich in modern astronomical facilities and infrastructures, hence may successfully serve as a regional center for various activities. Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory (BAO) has 2.6m and 1m Schmidt, as well as a number of smaller telescopes that are an observational basis for joint projects and collaborations. Armenian Virtual Observatory (ArVO) is hosting astronomical databases, such as the Digitized First Byurakan Survey (DFBS) and may also serve as a basis for development of VO structures in this region. Recently we have conducted a number of new activities; a meeting on ``Relation of Astronomy to other Sciences, Culture and Society" (RASCS) was organized by BAO and Armenian Astronomical Society (ArAS) in Oct 2014 in Byurakan. Activities related to Archaeoastronomy and Astronomy in Culture (AAC) were initiated as well. Discussions on future Armenian-Iranian collaboration in astronomy were carried out, including an Armenian-Iranian Astronomical Workshop held in Oct 2015 in Byurakan. Similar workshops have been carried out between BAO and Abastumani Astronomical Observatory (AbAO, Georgia) since 1974.

  2. Soufriere Hills, Montserrat, West Indies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Volcanic activity on the West Indian island of Montserrat has remained high for several years-the current activity started in 1995. However, remote sensing of the island has been difficult because of frequent cloud cover. The International Space Station crew flew north of the island on a clear day in early July (July 9, 2001) and recorded a vigorous steam plume emanating from the summit of Soufriere Hills. The image also reveals the extensive volcanic mud flows (lahars) and new deltas built out from the coast from the large amounts of volcanic debris delivered downstream by the rivers draining the mountain. As a small island (only 13 x 8 km), all of Montserrat has been impacted by the eruptions. Sources of Information: Smithsonian Global Volcanism Program Italy's Volcanoes Montserrat Volcano Observatory Digital photograph number ISS002-E-9309 was taken on 9 July 2001 from Space Station Alpha and was provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

  3. Relative Critical Points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debra Lewis

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Relative equilibria of Lagrangian and Hamiltonian systems with symmetry are critical points of appropriate scalar functions parametrized by the Lie algebra (or its dual of the symmetry group. Setting aside the structures – symplectic, Poisson, or variational – generating dynamical systems from such functions highlights the common features of their construction and analysis, and supports the construction of analogous functions in non-Hamiltonian settings. If the symmetry group is nonabelian, the functions are invariant only with respect to the isotropy subgroup of the given parameter value. Replacing the parametrized family of functions with a single function on the product manifold and extending the action using the (coadjoint action on the algebra or its dual yields a fully invariant function. An invariant map can be used to reverse the usual perspective: rather than selecting a parametrized family of functions and finding their critical points, conditions under which functions will be critical on specific orbits, typically distinguished by isotropy class, can be derived. This strategy is illustrated using several well-known mechanical systems – the Lagrange top, the double spherical pendulum, the free rigid body, and the Riemann ellipsoids – and generalizations of these systems.

  4. Reassessing Function Points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.R. Finnie

    1997-05-01

    Full Text Available Accurate estimation of the size and development effort for software projects requires estimation models which can be used early enough in the development life cycle to be of practical value. Function Point Analysis (FPA has become possibly the most widely used estimation technique in practice. However the technique was developed in the data processing environment of the 1970's and, despite undergoing considerable reassessment and formalisation, still attracts criticism for the weighting scoring it employs and for the way in which the function point score is adapted for specific system characteristics. This paper reviews the validity of the weighting scheme and the value of adjusting for system characteristics by studying their effect in a sample of 299 software developments. In general the value adjustment scheme does not appear to cater for differences in productivity. The weighting scheme used to adjust system components in terms of being simple, average or complex also appears suspect and should be redesigned to provide a more realistic estimate of system functionality.

  5. Bright point study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, F.; Harvey, K.; Bruner, M.; Kent, B.; Antonucci, E.

    1982-01-01

    Transition region and coronal observations of bright points by instruments aboard the Solar Maximum Mission and high resolution photospheric magnetograph observations on September 11, 1980 are presented. A total of 31 bipolar ephemeral regions were found in the photosphere from birth in 9.3 hours of combined magnetograph observations from three observatories. Two of the three ephemeral regions present in the field of view of the Ultraviolet Spectrometer-Polarimeter were observed in the C IV 1548 line. The unobserved ephemeral region was determined to be the shortest-lived (2.5 hr) and lowest in magnetic flux density (13G) of the three regions. The Flat Crystal Spectrometer observed only low level signals in the O VIII 18.969 A line, which were not statistically significant to be positively identified with any of the 16 ephemeral regions detected in the photosphere. In addition, the data indicate that at any given time there lacked a one-to-one correspondence between observable bright points and photospheric ephemeral regions, while more ephemeral regions were observed than their counterparts in the transition region and the corona

  6. Referential Zero Point

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matjaž Potrč

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Perhaps the most important controversy in which ordinary language philosophy was involved is that of definite descriptions, presenting referential act as a community-involving communication-intention endeavor, thereby opposing the direct acquaintance-based and logical proper names inspired reference aimed at securing truth conditions of referential expression. The problem of reference is that of obtaining access to the matters in the world. This access may be forthcoming through the senses, or through descriptions. A review of how the problem of reference is handled shows though that one main practice is to indulge in relations of acquaintance supporting logical proper names, demonstratives, indexicals and causal or historical chains. This testifies that the problem of reference involves the zero point, and with it phenomenology of intentionality. Communication-intention is but one dimension of rich phenomenology that constitutes an agent’s experiential space, his experiential world. Zero point is another constitutive aspect of phenomenology involved in the referential relation. Realizing that the problem of reference is phenomenology based opens a new perspective upon the contribution of analytical philosophy in this area, reconciling it with continental approach, and demonstrating variations of the impossibility related to the real. Chromatic illumination from the cognitive background empowers the referential act, in the best tradition of ordinary language philosophy.

  7. Human rights trauma and the mental health of West Papuan refugees resettled in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Susan; Silove, Derrick M; Tay, Kuowei; Kareth, Moses

    2013-08-19

    To document the extent and nature of human rights violations and other traumatic events reported by West Papuan refugees resettled in Australia and to assess trauma-related psychological disorders, distress and disability. Australian-based sample, mixed-methods design with 44 participants, conducted in Australia between October 2007 and November 2010 in communities in North Queensland and Melbourne. West Papuan refugees aged 18 years and over (88% response rate). Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms (Harvard Trauma Questionnaire) and premigration potentially traumatic events (PTEs), psychological distress (Kessler Psychological Distress Scale [K10]), post-migration living difficulties, days out of role. Of the 44 West Papuan refugees, 40 reported one or more PTE, including inability to access medical care for family (40), lack of food and water (39) and lack of access to medical treatment (38). The most frequent postmigration stressors were separation from and worries about family members remaining in West Papua (43) and being unable to return home in an emergency because of ongoing conflict (41). Twenty-six participants reached a lower threshold for PTSD symptoms of 2.0, and 13 reached the clinical threshold of 2.5. Fourteen reported severe psychological distress. West Papuan refugees resettled in Australia report a wide range of premigration PTEs including human rights violations, as well as symptoms of PTSD and distress. The data add to concerns about the state of human rights and mental health among West Papuans.

  8. 200 West Groundwater Aggregate Area management study report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report presents the results of an aggregate area management study (AAMS) for the 200 West Groundwater Aggregate Area in the 200 Areas of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in Washington State. This scoping level study provides the basis for initiating Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) activities under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), Facility Investigations (Rlq) and Corrective Measures Studies (CMS) under RCRA. This report also integrates select RCRA treatment, storage or disposal (TSD) closure activities with CERCLA and RCRA past practice investigations

  9. 2012 OLC Lidar: West Metro, Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — WSI has collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data of the Oregon West Metro Study Area for the Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (DOGAMI)....

  10. 2012 OLC Lidar DEM: West Metro, Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — WSI has collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data of the Oregon West Metro Study Area for the Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (DOGAMI)....

  11. Students' Perception of West African Agricultural Productivity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    E M IGBOKWE

    recommended that West African Agricultural Productivity Programme officials ... The agricultural sector in the 1960s provided the main source of employment, .... their fathers and mothers' occupation were majorly trading (43.3%) and trading.

  12. West Coast Rockfish Conservation Areas, 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data delineate Rockfish Conservation Areas (RCA) off the West Coast of the United States for 2015. There are three types of areas closures depicted in this...

  13. NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease - 2015.In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding year),...

  14. Eighteenth annual West Coast theoretical chemistry conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    Abstracts are presented from the eighteenth annual west coast theoretical chemistry conference. Topics include molecular simulations; quasiclassical simulations of reactions; photodissociation reactions; molecular dynamics;interface studies; electronic structure; and semiclassical methods of reactive systems.

  15. Haematological characteristics and performance of West African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-02-18

    Feb 18, 2009 ... ISSN 1684–5315 © 2009 Academic Journals. Full Length ... performance of 36 young West African Dwarf (WAD) goats was investigated in order to simulate the .... cause antibody depression, alter white blood cell counts,.

  16. NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease - 2017. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding year),...

  17. NNDSS - Table II. West Nile to Zika

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. West Nile to Zika - 2018. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding year), and...

  18. IDRC in the West Bank and Gaza

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    stress. Researchers from Birzeit Univer- sity and Canada's Queen's University studied more than ... Research Institute, West Bank. The economy of ... youth. Research findings will inform the work ... Grantee: The American Near East. Refugee ...

  19. Globalization, migration and underdevelopment in West Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Globalization, migration and underdevelopment in West Africa. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... However, globalization has put a new spin on igration, which results in greater economic opportunities for the developed ...

  20. NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease - 2016. In this Table, provisional* cases of selected† notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding...

  1. West Bank Gaza Geo-MIS System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The Geo-MIS System is USAID/West Bank and Gaza's primary system for capturing and managing projectrelated information. Its purpose is to assist USAID and its...

  2. Future markers of the West Greenlandic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trondhjem, Naja Blytmann

    2010-01-01

    Abstract West Greenlandic, a polysynthetic language, belongs to Inuit languages. In Inuktitut (Canada) and West Greenlandic (Inuit languages) tense is marked by optional tense suffixes and in both languages the temporal systems are based on a future/ non-future opposition. In Inuktitut the tense...... suffixes have developed a complicated remoteness system. In West Greenlandic the future tense suffixes have a distinction between vague and inevitable future, and the past time suffixes have developed different perfect meanings. In Iñupiaq (Alaska), the temporal system is based on an opposition between...... past, present and future, where tense is marked in the flectional morpheme, but only in the indicative mood. There are only a few tense suffixes. The meanings of these tense suffixes are the same as those of the West Greenlandic tense suffixes. My current work is a typological investigation about...

  3. WEST AFRICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICINE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The patients' demographic data, diagnosis, results of investigations and intra- operative findings were obtained from the records. Additional information extracted from the records was the duration of surgery, complications ... cholecystectomy marked the turning point in laparoscopic ... associated with prolonged bed rest and.

  4. Mise au point

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    infections rhinosinusiennesaigue¨s de l'enfant en France.med mal Infect 2007 ;. 37:127-52. 5. anon jB, jacobs mr, Poole mD, et al. antimicrobial treatment guidelines for acute bacterial rhinosinusitis. Otolaryngol Head neck Surg2004 ; 130:1-45. 6. ebright jr, Pace mT, nazis aF. Septic thrombosis of the cavernous sinuses.

  5. Using a 400 kV Van de Graaff accelerator to teach physics at West Point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marble, D. K.; Bruch, S. E.; Lainis, T.

    1997-02-01

    A small accelerator visitation laboratory is being built at the United States Military Academy using two 400 kV Van de Graaff accelerators. This laboratory will provide quality teaching experiments and increased research opportunities for both faculty and cadets as well as enhancing the department's ability to teach across the curriculum by using nuclear techniques to solve problems in environmental engineering, material science, archeology, art, etc. This training enhances a students ability to enter non-traditional fields that are becoming a large part of the physics job market. Furthermore, a small accelerator visitation laboratory for high school students can stimulate student interest in science and provide an effective means of communicating the scientific method to a general audience. A discussion of the USMA facility, class experiments and student research projects will be presented.

  6. Avian Analysis of LCTA Core Plot Data: West Point Military Academy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schreiber, Eric

    1998-01-01

    The Land Condition Trend Analysis (LCTA) program is the Army's standard for land inventory and monitoring, using standard methods for natural resources data collection, analyses, and reporting designed to meet multiple goals and objectives...

  7. Avian Analysis of LCTA Core Plot Data: West Point Military Academy (Revised)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schreiber, Eric

    1998-01-01

    The Land Condition Trend Analysis (LCTA) program is the Army's standard for land inventory and monitoring, using standard methods for natural resources data collection, analyses, and reporting designed to meet multiple goals and objectives...

  8. Basin Centroid Points for Unregulated Streamgagages in and near West Virginia 1930-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — Correlation of flows at pairs of streamgages were evaluated using a Spearman’s rho correlation coefficient to better identify gages that can be used as index gages...

  9. Health Care Marketing at Keller Army Community Hospital West Point, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-01

    p. 58 3 Robin S.E. MacStravic, "Market Research In Ambulatory Care," Journal of Ambulatory Care Management 4 (May, 1981), 37. 41bid. 5 "Should We... Kotler , Philip. Marketing for Nonprofit Organizations. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1975. MacStravic, Robin E. Marketing Health Care. Germantown...they react to complaints, outside stimuli, or higher headquarters rather than take a proactive marketing approach to management . This study seeks to

  10. H09105: NOS Hydrographic Survey , West of Point La Jolla, California, 1970-03-12

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  11. H09108: NOS Hydrographic Survey , West of Point La Jolla, California, 1970-04-23

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  12. The Combating Terrorism Center at West Point: Radical Islamic Ideology in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    debriefing by the US, Guantanamo Bay 2008 . According to Nasir Abas, a Malaysian JI member, when Abu Bakar Ba’asyir visited the DI camp in Torkham on the...teachings and writings of prominent clerics; there is no equivalent of an Abu Bakar Bashir or Hashim Selamat, to say nothing of a Abu Muhammad al...9 of JI, Abu Bakar Ba’asyir and Abdullah Sungkar, have connections with al-Qa’ida and sent a number of Indonesians and Malaysians to train in Afghan

  13. Water Quality Management Studies. West Point Lake, Chattahoochee River, Alabama-Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-08-01

    Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Alpr . May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. 30V 00 7. 5 ft0 25 CH-13 N Ahadkee Crook . .. -. S Apr. "%Y June July Rug. Sept...Jm I y %g Spt.Ot N- Jn Alpr . May June Jl jg t.O.Nv.acJn.Fob. Mar. Api.. May June July Aus. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. EXPLIRTION SI- LrNE OF EOIJRL DISSOLVED...Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. 0 3 IL25 :* ..... C Alpr . May June July Rug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Rug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec

  14. The Meal Tastes Sweeter: Documentation of Young’s Mill West Point Lake, Troup County, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-27

    unmortared courses of field stone. In addition, several strands of barbed wire were covering the feature, and an early twentieth century medicine bottle was...retaining wall. It’s stone lined, and it’s about 6 ft long and 2 ft wide. Had some barb wire, a few strands of barbed wire, laid over the top of it...a stallion and three mares. I raised them ****** Yates: Going back, when you was just a young man, Mr. Young, how many, say, farm employees worked for

  15. Ancient technology of jetties and anchoring points along the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A; Vora, K.H.

    The Indian coast, with a long history of maritime activities, has been dotted with several ancient ports. The evidence for this exists in port-related structures on the shore and in relics lying in the sea adjacent. Marine archaeological...

  16. H09106: NOS Hydrographic Survey , West of Point La Jolla, California, 1970-04-01

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  17. Group Selection Methods and Contribution to the West Point Leadership Development System (WPLDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Government. 14. ABSTRACT Group work in an academic setting can consist of projects or problems students can work on collaboratively. Although pedagogical ...ABSTRACT Group work in an academic setting can consist of projects or problems students can work on collaboratively. Although pedagogical studies...helping students develop intangibles like communication, time management, organization, leadership, interpersonal, and relationship skills. Supporting

  18. Novel Lessons on Behavioral Ethics from the U.S. Military Academy at West Point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offstein, Evan H.; Dufresne, Ronald L.; Childers, J. Stephen, Jr.

    2017-01-01

    After a spate of business ethics crises over the past two decades, management educators were put on notice: considerably more was needed to improve the ethical grounding of our graduating students. Taking stock of our progress, we contend that management education remains well short of achieving this charge and cannot be content with the state of…

  19. Fisheries and Limnological Studies on West Point Reservoir, Alabama-Georgia. Phase IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-01

    This is seemingly due to the irregular fishing effort and catch during the winter as dictated by the vagaries of the weather. To substantially increase...Agri. Exp. Stat. Bull. 477. 21 pp. Echelle, A. A., and J. B. Mense . 1968. Forage value of Mississippi silverside in Lake Texoma. Proc. Okla. Acad. Sci

  20. A Prospective Evaluation of Stress Fractures/Overuse Injuries in a Population of West Point Cadets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wade, Charles

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of physical training in adolescent males and females on the interrelationship of the hypothaliunic-pituitary-gonadal axis, bone mineral density...

  1. Microbial keratitis in West and East Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Vanitha Ratnalingam; Thiageswari Umapathy; Kala Sumugam; Hanida Hanafi; Shamala Retnasabapathy

    2017-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the epidemiological and etiological factors of microbial keratitis seen in tertiary hospitals in West and East Malaysia.METHODS: A total of 207 patients were enrolled. Patients referred for microbial keratitis to Sungai Buloh Hospital and Kuala Lumpur Hospital in West Malaysia and Queen Elizabeth Hospital and Kuching General Hospital in East Malaysia were recruited. Risk factors were documented. Corneal scrapings for microscopy and culture were performed.RESULTS: The most com...

  2. Writing the west: critical approaches to Shane

    OpenAIRE

    Griffin, R

    2007-01-01

    Representations of the American West have perhaps resonated most strongly in the western film genre, yet at the same time, the literary Western is a highly developed and sophisticated genre in its own right. Meanwhile, critical approaches to the West have become increasingly wide-ranging, spanning historical/literary studies; film/cultural studies; genre; gender studies; philosophy, structuralism and, most recently, post-modernism. In light of such critical diversity, this article places a li...

  3. Statistical power in parallel group point exposure studies with time-to-event outcomes: an empirical comparison of the performance of randomized controlled trials and the inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Peter C; Schuster, Tibor; Platt, Robert W

    2015-10-15

    Estimating statistical power is an important component of the design of both randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies. Methods for estimating statistical power in RCTs have been well described and can be implemented simply. In observational studies, statistical methods must be used to remove the effects of confounding that can occur due to non-random treatment assignment. Inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) using the propensity score is an attractive method for estimating the effects of treatment using observational data. However, sample size and power calculations have not been adequately described for these methods. We used an extensive series of Monte Carlo simulations to compare the statistical power of an IPTW analysis of an observational study with time-to-event outcomes with that of an analysis of a similarly-structured RCT. We examined the impact of four factors on the statistical power function: number of observed events, prevalence of treatment, the marginal hazard ratio, and the strength of the treatment-selection process. We found that, on average, an IPTW analysis had lower statistical power compared to an analysis of a similarly-structured RCT. The difference in statistical power increased as the magnitude of the treatment-selection model increased. The statistical power of an IPTW analysis tended to be lower than the statistical power of a similarly-structured RCT.

  4. Point Pollution Sources Dimensioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta CUCULEANU

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a method for determining the main physical characteristics of the point pollution sources is presented. It can be used to find the main physical characteristics of them. The main physical characteristics of these sources are top inside source diameter and physical height. The top inside source diameter is calculated from gas flow-rate. For reckoning the physical height of the source one takes into account the relation given by the proportionality factor, defined as ratio between the plume rise and physical height of the source. The plume rise depends on the gas exit velocity and gas temperature. That relation is necessary for diminishing the environmental pollution when the production capacity of the plant varies, in comparison with the nominal one.

  5. Critical Points of Contact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.; Wind, Simon; Lanng, Ditte Bendix

    2012-01-01

    In this brief article, we shall illustrate the application of the analytical and interventionist concept of ‘Critical Points of Contact’ (CPC) through a number of urban design studios. The notion of CPC has been developed over a span of the last three to four years and is reported in more detail...... elsewhere (Jensen & Morelli 2011). In this article, we will only discuss the conceptual and theoretical framing superficially, since our real interest is to show and discuss the concept's application value to spatial design in a number of urban design studios. The 'data' or the projects presented are seven...... in urban design at Aalborg University, where urban design consists of both an analytical and an interventionist field of operation. Furthermore, the content of the CPC concept links to research in mobilities, the network city, and urban design. These are among the core pillars of both the masters programme...

  6. Point defects in platinum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piercy, G.R.

    1960-01-01

    An investigation was made of the mobility and types of point defect introduced in platinum by deformation in liquid nitrogen, quenching into water from 1600 o C, or reactor irradiation at 50 o C. In all cases the activation energy for motion of the defect was determined from measurements of electrical resistivity. Measurements of density, hardness, and x-ray line broadening were also made there applicable. These experiments indicated that the principal defects remaining in platinum after irradiation were single vacant lattice sites and after quenching were pairs of vacant lattice sites. Those present after deformation In liquid nitrogen were single vacant lattice sites and another type of defect, perhaps interstitial atoms. (author)

  7. Virtual turning points

    CERN Document Server

    Honda, Naofumi; Takei, Yoshitsugu

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of a virtual turning point truly is a breakthrough in WKB analysis of higher order differential equations. This monograph expounds the core part of its theory together with its application to the analysis of higher order Painlevé equations of the Noumi–Yamada type and to the analysis of non-adiabatic transition probability problems in three levels. As M.V. Fedoryuk once lamented, global asymptotic analysis of higher order differential equations had been thought to be impossible to construct. In 1982, however, H.L. Berk, W.M. Nevins, and K.V. Roberts published a remarkable paper in the Journal of Mathematical Physics indicating that the traditional Stokes geometry cannot globally describe the Stokes phenomena of solutions of higher order equations; a new Stokes curve is necessary.

  8. The Temporal Tipping Point

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, A. K.

    2016-01-01

    “Slow journalism” is a term anthropologist and sociologists sometimes use to describe their empirical work, ethnography. To journalists and media observers, meanwhile, “slow journalism” signifies a newfound dedication to serious long-form journalism. Not surprisingly, thus, “ethnographic journalism......”—a genre where reporters adopt research strategies from social science—takes “slow” to the extreme. Immersing themselves in communities for weeks, months and years, ethnographic journalists seek to gain what anthropologists call “the native's point of view”. Based on in-depth interviews with practitioners...... and analyses of their journalistic works, this paper offers a study of ethnographic journalism suggesting that slow time operates in at least three separate registers. First, in terms of regimentation, ethnographic journalism is mostly long-form pieces that demand time-consuming research and careful writing...

  9. The Point Mass Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehnert B.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A point-mass concept has been elaborated from the equations of the gravitational field. One application of these deductions results in a black hole configuration of the Schwarzschild type, having no electric charge and no angular momentum. The critical mass of a gravitational collapse with respect to the nuclear binding energy is found to be in the range of 0.4 to 90 solar masses. A second application is connected with the spec- ulation about an extended symmetric law of gravitation, based on the options of positive and negative mass for a particle at given positive energy. This would make masses of equal polarity attract each other, while masses of opposite polarity repel each other. Matter and antimatter are further proposed to be associated with the states of positive and negative mass. Under fully symmetric conditions this could provide a mechanism for the separation of antimatter from matter at an early stage of the universe.

  10. The Point Mass Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehnert B.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A point-mass concept has been elaborated from the equations of the gravitational field. One application of these deductions results in a black hole configuration of the Schwarzschild type, having no electric charge and no angular momentum. The critical mass of a gravitational collapse with respect to the nuclear binding energy is found to be in the range of 0.4 to 90 solar masses. A second application is connected with the speculation about an extended symmetric law of gravitation, based on the options of positive and negative mass for a particle at given positive energy. This would make masses of equal polarity attract each other, while masses of opposite polarity repel each other. Matter and antimatter are further proposed to be associated with the states of positive and negative mass. Under fully symmetric conditions this could provide a mechanism for the separation of antimatter from matter at an early stage of the universe.

  11. West European magnetic confinement fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenney, B.L.; McGrain, M.; Hogan, J.T.; Porkolab, M.; Thomassen, K.I.

    1990-01-01

    This report presents a technical assessment and review of the West European program in magnetic confinement fusion by a panel of US scientists and engineers active in fusion research. Findings are based on the scientific and technical literature, on laboratory reports and preprints, and on the personal experiences and collaborations of the panel members. Concerned primarily with developments during the past 10 years, from 1979 to 1989, the report assesses West European fusion research in seven technical areas: tokamak experiments; magnetic confinement technology and engineering; fusion nuclear technology; alternate concepts; theory; fusion computations; and program organization. The main conclusion emerging from the analysis is that West European fusion research has attained a position of leadership in the international fusion program. This distinction reflects in large measure the remarkable achievements of the Joint European Torus (JET). However, West European fusion prominence extends beyond tokamak experimental physics: the program has demonstrated a breadth of skill in fusion science and technology that is not excelled in the international effort. It is expected that the West European primacy in central areas of confinement physics will be maintained or even increased during the early 1990s. The program's maturity and commitment kindle expectations of dramatic West European advances toward the fusion energy goal. For example, achievement of fusion breakeven is expected first in JET, before 1995

  12. West Nile virus: North American experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeister, Erik K.

    2011-01-01

    West Nile virus, a mosquito-vectored flavivirus of the Japanese encephalitis serogroup, was first detected in North America following an epizootic in the New York City area in 1999. In the intervening 11 years since the arrival of the virus in North America, it has crossed the contiguous USA, entered the Canadian provinces bordering the USA, and has been reported in the Caribbean islands, Mexico, Central America and, more recently, South America. West Nile virus has been reported in over 300 species of birds in the USA and has caused the deaths of thousands of birds, local population declines of some avian species, the clinical illness and deaths of thousands of domestic horses, and the clinical disease in over 30 000 Americans and the deaths of over 1000. Prior to the emergence of West Nile virus in North America, St. Louis encephalitis virus and Dengue virus were the only other known mosquito-transmitted flaviviruses in North America capable of causing human disease. This review will discuss the North American experience with mosquito-borne flavivirus prior to the arrival of West Nile virus, the entry and spread of West Nile virus in North America, effects on wild bird populations, genetic changes in the virus, and the current state of West Nile virus transmission.

  13. May 2002 Lidar Point Data of Southern California Coastline: Dana Point to Point La Jolla

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains lidar point data from a strip of Southern California coastline (including water, beach, cliffs, and top of cliffs) from Dana Point to Point La...

  14. September 2002 Lidar Point Data of Southern California Coastline: Dana Point to Point La Jolla

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains lidar point data from a strip of Southern California coastline (including water, beach, cliffs, and top of cliffs) from Dana Point to Point La...

  15. Preliminary analysis of West Valley Waste Removal System equipment development and mock demonstration facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janicek, G.P.

    1981-06-01

    This report defines seven areas requiring further investigation to develop and demonstrate a safe and viable West Valley Waste Removal System. These areas of endeavor are discussed in terms of their minimum facility requirements. It is concluded that utilizing separated specific facilities at different points in time is of a greater advantage than an exact duplication of the West Valley tanks. Savannah River Plant's full-scale, full-circle and half-circle tanks, and their twelfth scale model tank would all be useful to varying degrees but would require modifications. Hanford's proposed full-size mock tank would be useful, but is not seriously considered because its construction may not coincide with West Valley needs. Costs of modifying existing facilities and/or constructing new facilities are assessed in terms of their benefit to the equipment development and mock demonstration. Six facilities were identified for further analysis which would benefit development of waste removal equipment

  16. Treatment Options for Retinoblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... or in other places in the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  17. Determination of the water quality index ratings of water in the Mpumalanga and North West provinces, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanda, Elijah M. M.; Mamba, Bhekie B.; Msagati, Titus A. M.

    2016-04-01

    This study reports on the water quality index (WQI) of wastewater and drinking water in the Mpumalanga and North West provinces of South Africa. The WQI is one of the most effective tools available to water sustainability researchers, because it provides an easily intelligible ranking of water quality on a rating scale from 0 to 100, based on the ascription of different weightings to several different parameters. In this study the WQI index ratings of wastewater and drinking water samples were computed according to the levels of pH, electrical conductivity (EC), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), E. coli, temperature, turbidity and nutrients (nitrogen and phosphates) found in water samples collected from the two provinces between June and December, 2014. This study isolated three groups of WQ-rated waters, namely: fair (with a WQI range = 32.87-38.54%), medium (with a WQI range = 56.54-69.77%) and good (with a WQI range = 71.69-81.63%). More specifically, 23%, 23% and 54% of the sampled sites registered waters with fair, medium and good WQ ratings respectively. None of the sites sampled during the entire period of the project registered excellent or very good water quality ratings, which would ordinarily indicate that no treatment is required to make it fit for human consumption. Nevertheless, the results obtained by the Eerstehoek and Schoemansville water treatment plants in Mpumalanga and North West provinces, respectively, suggest that substantial improvement in the quality of water samples is possible, since the WQI values for all of the treated samples were higher than those for raw water. Presence of high levels of BOD, low levels of dissolved oxygen (DO), E. coli, nitrates and phosphates especially in raw water samples greatly affected their overall WQ ratings. It is recommended that a point-of-use system should be introduced to treat water intended for domestic purposes in the clean-water-deprived areas.

  18. For the categories `east` and `west` in the stories `White Fortress` by Ohran Pamuk and Zona Zamfirova by Stevan Sremac

    OpenAIRE

    Karanikolova-Cocorovska, Lusi

    2015-01-01

    This article deals with the issues east - west in two novels: "White Fortress" by OrhanPamuk and "ZonaZamfirova" by StevanSremac. The focus is on the treatment of these two entities as separate categories, according to their significance in the novels, and also according to their importance to the culture of the East and West. It is determined the analysis of the categories "east" and "west" in the novels "White Fortress" by OrhanPamuk and ZonaZamfirova by StevanSremacod simply because t...

  19. Efficacy of Aggression Replacement Training among Children from North-West Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Koposov

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess whether the Aggression Replacement Training (ART programme is effective in increasing social skills and decreasing problem behaviour. The sample consisted of 232 children (mean age 10.9 yrs, SD = 2.32, their parents and teachers. The study had a quasi-experimental design with intervention and control groups. Children were recruited from six schools and four social institutions from four regions in North-West Russia from 2010 to 2013. Social skills and externalizing behaviour were assessed with the Social Skills Rating Scale and analyzed by repeated measures ANOVA (GLM. In a pre and post-test assessment, the 30-hour ART programme was associated with a significant increase in social skills when assessed by children’s self-reports. The most reliable effects of the intervention were demonstrated in the two age groups of 6-9 and 10-14 years old. When both pre and post-test were assessed by parents and teachers, children from both the intervention and control groups demonstrated more social skills and less problem behaviour. Overall results point to a significant improvement of social skills among children from the intervention groups, but an improvement in social skills and reduction of problem behaviour have also been indicated among children from the control group. Findings are discussed in view to possible diffusion of treatment from children participating in an intervention to children from control groups.

  20. Couching Techniques for Cataract Treatment in Osogbo, South West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To find out the different techniques of couching, highlight the unacceptable poor visual sequelae and assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices of subjects. Settings and Design: Clinic based and prospective observational study. Methods and Material: Structured interview and clinical examination of consecutive ...

  1. Neuromuscular Manifestations of West Nile Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Arturo eLeis

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The most common neuromuscular manifestation of West Nile virus (WNV infection is a poliomyelitis syndrome with asymmetric paralysis variably involving one (monoparesis to four limbs (quadriparesis, with or without brainstem involvement and respiratory failure. This syndrome of acute flaccid paralysis may occur without overt fever or meningoencephalitis. Although involvement of anterior horn cells in the spinal cord and motor neurons in the brainstem are the major sites of pathology responsible for neuromuscular signs, inflammation also may involve skeletal or cardiac muscle (myositis, myocarditis, motor axons (polyradiculitis, peripheral nerve (Guillain-Barré syndrome, brachial plexopathy. In addition, involvement of spinal sympathetic neurons and ganglia provides a plausible explanation for autonomic instability seen in some patients. Many patients also experience prolonged subjective generalized weakness and disabling fatigue. Despite recent evidence that WNV may persist long term in the central nervous system or periphery in animals, the evidence in humans is controversial. WNV persistence would be of great concern in immunosuppressed patients or in those with prolonged or recurrent symptoms. Support for the contention that WNV can lead to autoimmune disease arises from reports of patients presenting with various neuromuscular diseases that presumably involve autoimmune mechanisms (GBS, other demyelinating neu¬ropathies, myasthenia gravis, brachial plexopathies, stiff-person syndrome, and delayed or recurrent symptoms. Although there is no specific treatment or vaccine currently approved in humans, and the standard remains supportive care, drugs that can alter the cascade of immunobiochemical events leading to neuronal death may be potentially useful (high-dose corticosteroids, interferon preparations, and intravenous immune globulin containing WNV-specific antibodies. Human experience with these agents seems promising based on anecdotal

  2. Imaging the West Bohemia Seismic Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrakis, C.; Calo, M.; Bouchaala, F.; Vavrycuk, V.

    2013-12-01

    West Bohemia is located at the suture of three mantle lithosphere plates, the Eger Rift, the Cheb basin and is the site of Quaternary volcanism. This complex tectonic setting results in localized, periodic earthquake swarms throughout the region and many CO2 springs and gas exhalation sites. Nový Kostel, the most active swarm area, experiences frequent swarms of several hundreds to thousands of earthquakes over a period of weeks to several months. It is a unique study area, since the swarm region is surrounded by the West Bohemia Seismic Network (WEBNET), providing observations in all directions. Larger swarms, such as those in 1985/1986, 1997, 2000, 2007 and 2008, have been studied in terms of source mechanisms and swarm characteristics (Fischer and Michálek, 2003; Fischer et al., 2010; Vavryčuk, 2011). The seismicity is always located in the same area and depth range (6-15 km), however the active fault planes differ. This indicates changes to the local stress field, and may relate to the complicated tectonic situation and/or migrating fluids. Many studies have examined individual swarms and compared the earthquake episodes, however the mechanisms behind the phenomenon are still not understood. This has motivated many studies, including recent proposals for a reflection seismic profile directly over the swarm area and multidisciplinary monitoring through ICDP. In this study, we image the velocity structure within and around the swarm area using double-difference tomography (Zhang and Thurber, 2003) and Weighted Average Model (WAM) post-processing analysis (Calò et al., 2011). The WAM analysis averages together velocity models calculated with a variety of reasonable starting parameters. The velocities are weighted by the raypath proximity and density at an inversion node. This reduces starting model bias and artifacts, and yields a weighted standard deviation at each grid point. Earthquake locations and WEBNET P and S arrival times for the two most recent large

  3. Learning power point 2000 easily

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mon, In Su; Je, Jung Suk

    2000-05-15

    This book introduces power point 2000, which gives descriptions what power point is, what we can do with power point 2000, is it possible to install power point 2000 in my computer? Let's run power point, basic of power point such as new presentation, writing letter, using text box, changing font size, color and shape, catching power user, insertion of word art and creating of new file. It also deals with figure, chart, graph, making multimedia file, presentation, know-how of power point for teachers and company workers.

  4. ATLAS Point 1 Construction

    CERN Multimedia

    Inigo-Golfin, J

    After 3 years of work in point 1, a number of surface buildings have already been completed and handed over to CERN (the control, the gas and the cooling and ventilation buildings) and, probably more appealing to the public, 60,000 m3 of earth have already been excavated from underground. At present, the technical cavern USA15 and its access shaft are almost finished, leaving only the main cavern and the liaison galleries to be completed in the coming year and a half. The main cavern has been excavated down to the radiation limit and its walls and vault will presently be concreted (see below the picture of the section of the vault with the impressive shell of 1.2 m thickness). The excavation of the bench (27 vertical metres to go yet!) will proceed from August, when some additional civil engineering work in the LHC tunnel will be undertaken. Needless to say many different services are necessary around the detector, both for its installation and future operation for physics. To that end much of the heavy...

  5. Point 1 Updates

    CERN Multimedia

    Inigo-Golfin, J.

    The ATLAS experimental area is located in Point 1, just across the main CERN entrance, in the commune of Meyrin. There people are ever so busy to finish the different infrastructures for ATLAS. Not only has Civil Engineering finished the construction of the USA15 technical cavern, but the excavation of the main UX15 cavern has resumed below the machine tunnel, after a brief halt to allow the construction of the UJ-caverns for the power converters of the LHC machine. The excavation work should end in August 2002. The UX15 hand-over to ATLAS is expected in April 2003. On the surface civil engineering is starting to complete the last two surface buildings (SDX1 and SH1), once the services (cooling pipes, ventilation ducts and the largest item, the lift modules and its lift of course) in the shaft PX15 have been completed. But the civil engineering is not all. A lot more is under way. The site installation of the steel structures in the caverns is to begin in Autumn, along with all the cooling pipes, airconditi...

  6. Rational points on varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Poonen, Bjorn

    2017-01-01

    This book is motivated by the problem of determining the set of rational points on a variety, but its true goal is to equip readers with a broad range of tools essential for current research in algebraic geometry and number theory. The book is unconventional in that it provides concise accounts of many topics instead of a comprehensive account of just one-this is intentionally designed to bring readers up to speed rapidly. Among the topics included are Brauer groups, faithfully flat descent, algebraic groups, torsors, étale and fppf cohomology, the Weil conjectures, and the Brauer-Manin and descent obstructions. A final chapter applies all these to study the arithmetic of surfaces. The down-to-earth explanations and the over 100 exercises make the book suitable for use as a graduate-level textbook, but even experts will appreciate having a single source covering many aspects of geometry over an unrestricted ground field and containing some material that cannot be found elsewhere. The origins of arithmetic (o...

  7. "Point de suspension"

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    CERN - Globe of Science and Innovation 20 and 21 October Acrobatics, mime, a cappella singing, projections of images, a magical setting... a host of different tools of a grandeur matching that of the Universe they relate. A camera makes a massive zoom out to reveal the multiple dimensions of Nature. Freeze the frame: half way between the infinitesimally small and the infinitesimally large, a man suspends his everyday life (hence the title "Point de Suspension", which refers to the three dots at the end of an uncompleted sentence) to take a glimpse of the place he occupies in the great history of the Universe. An unusual perspective on what it means to be a human being... This wondrous show in the Globe of Science and Innovation, specially created by the Miméscope* company for the official ceremony marking CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is a gift from the Government of the Republic and Canton of Geneva, which also wishes to share this moment of wonder with the local population. There will be three perfo...

  8. "Point de suspension"

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    http://www.cern.ch/cern50/ CERN - Globe of Science and Innovation 20 and 21 October Acrobatics, mime, a cappella singing, projections of images, a magical setting... a host of different tools of a grandeur matching that of the Universe they relate. A camera makes a massive zoom out to reveal the multiple dimensions of Nature. Freeze the frame: half way between the infinitesimally small and the infinitesimally large, a man suspends his everyday life (hence the title "Point de Suspension", which refers to the three dots at the end of an uncompleted sentence) to take a glimpse of the place he occupies in the great history of the Universe. An unusual perspective on what it means to be a human being... This wondrous show in the Globe of Science and Innovation, specially created by the Miméscope* company for the official ceremony marking CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is a gift from the Government of the Republic and Canton of Geneva, which also wishes to share this moment of wonder with the local pop...

  9. "Point de suspension"

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    CERN - Globe of Science and Innovation 20 and 21 October Acrobatics, mime, a cappella singing, projections of images, a magical setting... a host of different tools of a grandeur matching that of the Universe they relate. A camera makes a massive zoom out to reveal the multiple dimensions of Nature. Freeze the frame: half way between the infinitesimally small and the infinitesimally large, a man suspends his everyday life (hence the title "Point de Suspension", which refers to the three dots at the end of an uncompleted sentence) to take a glimpse of the place he occupies in the great history of the Universe. An unusual perspective on what it means to be a human being... This spectacle in the Globe of Science and Innovation, specially created by the Miméscope* company for the official ceremony marking CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is a gift from the Government of the Republic and Canton of Geneva, which also wishes to share this moment of wonder with the local population. There will be three performances for...

  10. Feasibility study of a novel dew point air conditioning system for China building application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Xudong; Yang, Shuang; Duan, Zhiyin; Riffat, Saffa B. [School of the Built Environment, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)

    2009-09-15

    The paper investigated the feasibility of a novel dew point evaporative cooling for air conditioning of buildings in China regions. The issues involved include analyses of China weather conditions, investigation of availability of water for dew point cooling, and assessment of cooling capacity of the system within various regions of China. It is concluded that the dew point system is suitable for most regions of China, particularly northern and west regions of China where the climate is hot and dry during the summer season. It is less suitable for Guangzhou and Shanghai where climates are hot and humid. However, an air pre-treatment process involving a silica-gel dehumidification will enable the technology to be used for these humid areas. Lower humidity results in a higher difference between the dry bulb and dew point of the air, which benefits the system in terms of enhancing its cooling performance. Tap water has adequate temperature to feed the system for cooling and its consumption rate is in the range 2.6-3 litres per kWh cooling output. The cooling output of the system ranges from 1.1 to 4.3 W per m{sup 3}/h air flow rate in China, depending on the region where the system applies. For a unit with 2 kW of cooling output, the required air volume flow rate varies with its application location and is in the range 570-1800 m{sup 3}/h. For a 50 m{sup 2} building with 60 W/m{sup 2} cooling load, if the system operates at working hours, i.e., 09:00 to 17:00 h, its daily water consumption would be in the range of 60-70 litres. Compared with mild or humid climates, the dry and hot climates need less air volume flow rate and less water. (author)

  11. Response of Competing Vegetation to Site Preparation on West Gulf Coastal Plain Commercial Forest Land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale L. Wolters; Henry A. Pearson; Ronald E. Thill; V. Clark Baldwin; Alton Martin

    1995-01-01

    The response of woody and herbaceous vegetation to site preparation, subsoil texture, and fertilization was measured on the West Gulf Coastal Plain. The influences of these treatments on competing vegetation were short-term. Drastic soil disturbance and fertilization briefly increased herbage production. Shear-windrow and shear-disk were generally the most effective...

  12. Distribution of protein fraction in the milk of West African dwarf goat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Milks from lactating West African dwarf goat and white Fulani cow were analysed for total protein, casein, whey protein, non protein nitrogen, Globulin and albumin and proteose peptone contents. Milk samples were from healthy goats and cows (n=24) in mid-lactation. The data were grouped and analysed as treatment 1 ...

  13. Design of equipment used for high-level waste vitrification at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vance, R.F.; Brill, B.A.; Carl, D.E.

    1997-06-01

    The equipment as designed, started, and operated for high-level radioactive waste vitrification at the West Valley Demonstration Project in western New York State is described. Equipment for the processes of melter feed make-up, vitrification, canister handling, and off-gas treatment are included. For each item of equipment the functional requirements, process description, and hardware descriptions are presented

  14. Practice points in gynecardiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maas, Angela H E M; Euler, Mia von; Bongers, Marlies Y

    2015-01-01

    A growing number of premenopausal women are currently using antithrombotic and/or (dual) antiplatelet therapy for various cardiovascular indications. These may induce or exacerbate abnormal uterine bleeding and more awareness and knowledge among prescribers is required. Heavy and irregular....... In this article we summarize the scope of the problem and provide practical recommendations for the care for young women taking anticoagulants and/or (dual) antiplatelet therapy. We also recommend that more safety data on uterine bleeding with novel anticoagulants in premenopausal women should be obtained....... menstrual bleeding is common in women in their forties and may have a variety of underlying causes that require different treatment options. Thus using anticoagulants in premenopausal women demands specific expertise and close collaboration between cardiovascular physicians and gynecologists...

  15. Grizzly West: A Failed Attempt to Reintroduce Grizzly Bears in the Mountain West

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas M. Richardson

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Reviewed: Grizzly West: A Failed Attempt to Reintroduce Grizzly Bears in the Mountain West. By Michael M. Dax. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 2015. x + 289 pp. US$ 37.50. ISBN 978-0-8032-6673-5.

  16. Tuberculose: tratamento supervisionado nas Coordenadorias de Saúde Norte, Oeste e Leste do Município de São Paulo Tuberculosis: tratamiento supervisionado en las Coordinaciones Norte, Oeste y Este de la Municipalidad de São Paulo Tuberculosis: supervised treatment in North, West and East Health Departments of São paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisangela Martins de Queiroz

    2010-06-01

    mbitos biológico e individual, apuntándose como fundamental el hecho de que los trabajadores de la salud reconozcan a los pacientes como portadores de necesidades que no se restringen al tratamiento de la tuberculosis.This study had as objective to analyze the strengths and weaknesses of the Directly Supervised Treatment strategy (DOTS from the view of patients and workers from the North, West and East Health Departments of São Paulo. The analysis of the statements was based on the Social Determination Theory of the Health-Disease process. In general, the DOTS makes it possible to establish attachments and that treatment adherence is associated with the need of returning to work. The identified weaknesses were the health professionals' lack of involvement in the treatment and the irregular distribution of incentives. Results show that treatment adherence transcends the biological and individual scope, and that it is central that health professionals recognize patients as people who have specific needs that are not limited to the tuberculosis treatment.

  17. Prognostic value of SPECT in newly diagnosed symptomatic west syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, Megumi; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Kato, Tomomi; Futagi, Yasuyuki [Osaka Medical Center and Research Inst. for Maternal and Child Health, Izumi (Japan)

    1999-07-01

    In 19 cases with newly diagnosed symptomatic West syndrome, we assessed interictal regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) before ACTH therapy with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Based on the SPECT findings, we divided these cases into 3 groups: normal rCBF (Group A, 7 cases), abnormal rCBF corresponding to cerebral lesions on MRI and CT (Group B, 6 cases), and abnormal rCBF in areas different from lesions on MRI and CT (Group C, 6 cases). We compared clinical features, response to initial treatment, and short-term outcome among these 3 groups. No significant differences were found in clinical characteristics (sex, age of onset, prior seizures before onset of spasms, EEG findings). Four cases in Group B (67%) and 5 in Group C (83%) showed complete cessation of spasms after initial treatment (high dose vitamin B{sub 6}{yields}zonisamide{yields}ACTH therapy), while in Group A only 2 patients (29%, p>0.05; compared to Group B or Group C) responded. Although not statistically significant, short-term prognosis (both seizures and development) after a mean follow-up of 2 years and 8 months was also worst in Group A. Our results suggest that normal SPECT findings may be predictive of unfavorable prognosis in infants with symptomatic West syndrome. (author)

  18. Comparing India and the West

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.N. Balagangadhara

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available During the last two decades, I have been pursuing an unorthodox way of studying cultural differences, focusing mainly on the Indian and the western cultures. Because I believe that one can answer questions about the circumscription of the words ‘Indian’ and ‘western’ cultures satisfactorily (Balangangadhara, 1994, I will assume their intelligibility in what follows. In this paper, I want to raise a rather intriguing problem about comparing these two cultures. I shall do that without looking at other approaches to the issue and in the form of an argument. In order to come to the point quickly, let me make use of Said’s 'Orientalism.'

  19. WEST AFRICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICINE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    evaluate intra-oral pressure (IOP), mean oral air flow (MOAF) and laryngeal ... in patients compared with control subjects was also noted. CONCLUSION:Our results ... treatment and thereby posing additional difficulties in .... Dopamine deficiency induces a dysfunction of .... Hearing Research 1969, 12: 246–269. 2. Darley FL ...

  20. Potency of Thorium and Uranium in West Bangka Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngadenin; Heri Syaeful; Kurnia Setiawan Widana; Muhammad Nurdin

    2014-01-01

    Thorium and uranium in Bangka Island are mainly found in monazite mineral. In the geological point of view the monazite formed in S type granite, sandstones and alluvial deposits. In Bangka Barat where several S types granite and also alluvial deposits and this area considered as a potential area for monazite placer. S type granites are predicted as a source of monazite while alluvial deposits are considered as a dispersion place for deposition of monazite. The purpose of this study is to determine the geological information and to know the hypothetical potency of thorium and uranium resources in alluvial deposits. The methods used in this study are geological mapping, measurement of thorium and uranium contents in the rock, sampling of granite for petrographic analysis, sampling of heavy mineral in alluvial deposits for grain size analysis. Results of the research show that the lithology of West Bangka region composed of schist unit, meta-sandstone unit, granite intrusion, diabase intrusion, sandstone unit and alluvial deposits. Monazite is found in granite intrusion, sandstone unit and alluvial deposits. Evolving fault strand to northwest-southeast, northeast-southwest and west-east. The results of the grain size analysis of heavy mineral shows the average percentage of monazite in the heavy mineral is 6.34%. Other potential minerals contained in placer deposits are zircon 36.65%, ilmenite 19.67% and cassiterite 14.75%. (author)