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Sample records for west midlands experience

  1. Colposcopy services in the West Midlands region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, C B; Jordan, J A

    1989-10-07

    A survey of all 72 consultant gynaecologists in the West Midlands region was carried out to determine their views on colposcopy services. All districts provided a colposcopy service and 47 consultants practised colposcopy. The consultants differed considerably in their views on criteria for referring women for investigation after smears. All but one thought that a positive smear result was an indication for immediate referral but whereas 55 thought that women with one or more inflammatory smear should be referred, 17 did not believe this to be necessary. Sixty seven consultants thought a preoperative colposcopic assessment desirable, but 10 had to ration referrals because of limited resources. Four forms of treatment were used: 17 districts had a carbon dioxide laser, eight used low voltage diathermy loop excision, two had only a cold coagulator, and one used only cold cautery. There was widespread dissatisfaction with resources and about the increasing amount of time spent on the service at the expense of other work. Consultants were also concerned about the relevance of much of what was done to the aim of the screening programme--reducing mortality from cervical cancer. Although additional resources are needed in some districts, referral policies, indications for colposcopic assessment, training, choice of treatment, and the value of follow up need to be reviewed if the service is to be improved.

  2. Migrant maternity in an era of superdiversity: New migrants' access to, and experience of, antenatal care in the West Midlands, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillimore, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    Rapid increase in the scale, speed and spread of immigration over the past two decades has led to an increase in complexity of populations termed superdiversity. Concerns have been expressed about impacts of the pressure that superdiversity is said to place upon maternity services. High migrant fertility and infant and maternal mortality rates have long been observed in diverse areas with inadequate antenatal monitoring seen as a major causal factor in migrants' maternity outcomes. Using qualitative data from a study of new migrants' access to maternity services in the UK's West Midlands region, with some of the highest infant and maternal mortality rates in Europe, this paper looks at the reasons migrants' access to antenatal care is poor. The paper finds that contrary to earlier studies which pointed to a lack of priority placed on such care by migrants, a combination of structural, legal and institutional barriers prevent migrant women accessing effective antenatal care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Review of Westward on the High-Hilled Plains. The Later Prehistory of the West Midlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Martin Ramos

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available 'Westward on the High-Hilled Plains. The Later Prehistory of the West Midlands' is the second volume of the project 'The Making of the West Midlands'. This is an ambitious six-volume series which puts together the proceedings originally presented at the seminars held, between June 2002 and June 2003, under the title the 'West Midlands Regional Research Framework for Archaeology'. This second book of the series, edited by Derek Hurst, complements the assessment and research agenda for later prehistory (Hurst 2011 more recently published in 'The Archaeology of West Midlands: a framework for research' (Watt 2011 and focuses on the Late Prehistory of the West Midland region, from the Middle Bronze age to the Late Iron Age.

  4. An audit on HIV antibody test uptake amongst GUM clinic attendees in the West Midland region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Satyajit; Huengsberg, Mia; Natin, Dan; Walzman, Mike

    2004-08-01

    We audited the practice of offering, and the uptake of, an HIV antibody test amongst genitourinary medicine clinic patients in the West Midlands region. There were wide variations in the offering (from 14 to 100%) and uptake (18 to 64%) of the test in the different clinics within the same region.

  5. Participation Motivation In Martial Artists In The West Midlands Region Of England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Gareth W.; Mackay, Ken S.; Peters, Derek M.

    2006-01-01

    The objectives were to identify the participation motivations and the perceived importance of certain participation factors in martial artists in the West Midlands, England, UK. A 28-item adapted version of the Participation Motivation Questionnaire with additional demographic questions was distributed to 30 martial arts clubs in the West Midlands region. Eight questions that assessed the perceived importance for participation of progression through grades, learning self defence skills, technical ability of instructors, cost of participating, development of confidence, underpinning philosophy and instructional style were included. Seventy-five questionnaires were returned from a total of 11 clubs from across representing practitioners in Tai Chi, Karate, Kung fu, Aikido, Jeet Kune Do, British Free Fighting, Taekwon-Do and Jujitsu. Results indicated that the rank order in terms of participation motives was: 1-Affiliation; 2-Friendship; 3-Fitness; 4-Reward/status; 5-Competition; 6-Situational and 7-Skill development. Participants who trained for more than 4 hours per week placed greater importance on the underpinning philosophy of the martial art. Findings suggest that whilst there is a gender discrepancy in participation level, once engaged, females were equally committed to weekly training. The 'style' of the instructor is of paramount importance for enhancing student motivation to participate. High volume practitioners would appear to be fully immersed in the holistic appreciation of the martial art through increased value placed on its underpinning philosophy. Key Points Whilst there is a gender discrepancy in participation level, once engaged, females were equally committed to weekly training. The four most important participation motivations evident were 'Affiliation', 'Fitness', 'Skill Development' and 'Friendship'. The three least influential motives were 'Rewards/status; 'Situational' and 'Competition'. “ There were no significant gender or experience

  6. A revision of tetrapod footprints from the late Carboniferous of the West Midlands, UK

    OpenAIRE

    Luke E. Meade; Andrew S. Jones; Richard J. Butler

    2016-01-01

    A series of sandstone slabs from Hamstead, Birmingham (West Midlands, UK), preserve an assemblage of tetrapod trackways and individual tracks from the Enville Member of the Salop Formation (late Carboniferous: late Moscovian?Kasimovian). This material has received limited previous study, despite being one of the few British sites to preserve Carboniferous tetrapod footprints. Here, we restudy and revise the taxonomy of this material, and document it using 3D models produced using photogrammet...

  7. A study of the Ag factors in a British (West Midland) population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, K W; Valente, A J

    1976-10-01

    168 sera from a British (West Midlands) population of normal blood donors were typed for the factors Ag (x, y, a1, d, t, c, g and h). The results were compared with the published data from other populations. The 8 factors were found in 27 different phenotypic combinations including a single instance of the combination Ag (y-h+) not previously reported. The occurrence of this phenotype is discussed in relation to the theoretical models of the genetic control of the Ag system.

  8. PARTICIPATION MOTIVATION IN MARTIAL ARTISTS IN THE WEST MIDLANDS REGION OF ENGLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek M. Peters

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The objectives were to identify the participation motivations and the perceived importance of certain participation factors in martial artists in the West Midlands, England, UK. A 28-item adapted version of the Participation Motivation Questionnaire with additional demographic questions was distributed to 30 martial arts clubs in the West Midlands region. Eight questions that assessed the perceived importance for participation of progression through grades, learning self defence skills, technical ability of instructors, cost of participating, development of confidence, underpinning philosophy and instructional style were included. Seventy-five questionnaires were returned from a total of 11 clubs from across representing practitioners in Tai Chi, Karate, Kung fu, Aikido, Jeet Kune Do, British Free Fighting, Taekwon-Do and Jujitsu. Results indicated that the rank order in terms of participation motives was: 1-Affiliation; 2-Friendship; 3-Fitness; 4-Reward/status; 5-Competition; 6-Situational and 7-Skill development. Participants who trained for more than 4 hours per week placed greater importance on the underpinning philosophy of the martial art. Findings suggest that whilst there is a gender discrepancy in participation level, once engaged, females were equally committed to weekly training. The 'style' of the instructor is of paramount importance for enhancing student motivation to participate. High volume practitioners would appear to be fully immersed in the holistic appreciation of the martial art through increased value placed on its underpinning philosophy

  9. A revision of tetrapod footprints from the late Carboniferous of the West Midlands, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade, Luke E; Jones, Andrew S; Butler, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    A series of sandstone slabs from Hamstead, Birmingham (West Midlands, UK), preserve an assemblage of tetrapod trackways and individual tracks from the Enville Member of the Salop Formation (late Carboniferous: late Moscovian-Kasimovian). This material has received limited previous study, despite being one of the few British sites to preserve Carboniferous tetrapod footprints. Here, we restudy and revise the taxonomy of this material, and document it using 3D models produced using photogrammetry. The assemblage is dominated by large tracks assigned to Limnopus isp., which were made by early amphibians (temnospondyls). A number of similar but smaller tracks are assigned to Batrachichnus salamandroides (also made by temnospondyls). Dimetropus leisnerianus (made by early synapsids) and Dromopus lacertoides (made by lizard-like sauropsids such as araeoscelids) are also present. This ichnofauna contrasts with a slightly stratigraphically older, more extensive and better-studied assemblage from Alveley (Shropshire), which is dominated by small amphibians with relatively rare reptiliomorphs, but which lacks Dromopus tracks. The presence of Dromopus lacertoides at Hamstead is consistent with the trend towards increasing aridity through the late Carboniferous. It is possible that the assemblage is the stratigraphically oldest occurrence of this important amniote ichnotaxon.

  10. A revision of tetrapod footprints from the late Carboniferous of the West Midlands, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke E. Meade

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A series of sandstone slabs from Hamstead, Birmingham (West Midlands, UK, preserve an assemblage of tetrapod trackways and individual tracks from the Enville Member of the Salop Formation (late Carboniferous: late Moscovian–Kasimovian. This material has received limited previous study, despite being one of the few British sites to preserve Carboniferous tetrapod footprints. Here, we restudy and revise the taxonomy of this material, and document it using 3D models produced using photogrammetry. The assemblage is dominated by large tracks assigned to Limnopus isp., which were made by early amphibians (temnospondyls. A number of similar but smaller tracks are assigned to Batrachichnus salamandroides (also made by temnospondyls. Dimetropus leisnerianus (made by early synapsids and Dromopus lacertoides (made by lizard-like sauropsids such as araeoscelids are also present. This ichnofauna contrasts with a slightly stratigraphically older, more extensive and better-studied assemblage from Alveley (Shropshire, which is dominated by small amphibians with relatively rare reptiliomorphs, but which lacks Dromopus tracks. The presence of Dromopus lacertoides at Hamstead is consistent with the trend towards increasing aridity through the late Carboniferous. It is possible that the assemblage is the stratigraphically oldest occurrence of this important amniote ichnotaxon.

  11. Model simulation of meteorology and air quality during the summer PUMA intensive measurement campaign in the UK West Midlands conurbation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggott, Sarah; Cai, Xiaoming; McGregor, Glenn; Harrison, Roy M

    2006-05-01

    The Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) and Urban Airshed Model (UAM IV) have been implemented for prediction of air pollutant concentrations within the West Midlands conurbation of the United Kingdom. The modelling results for wind speed, direction and temperature are in reasonable agreement with observations for two stations, one in a rural area and the other in an urban area. Predictions of surface temperature are generally good for both stations, but the results suggest that the quality of temperature prediction is sensitive to whether cloud cover is reproduced reliably by the model. Wind direction is captured very well by the model, while wind speed is generally overestimated. The air pollution climate of the UK West Midlands is very different to those for which the UAM model was primarily developed, and the methods used to overcome these limitations are described. The model shows a tendency towards under-prediction of primary pollutant (NOx and CO) concentrations, but with suitable attention to boundary conditions and vertical profiles gives fairly good predictions of ozone concentrations. Hourly updating of chemical concentration boundary conditions yields the best results, with input of vertical profiles desirable. The model seriously underpredicts NO2/NO ratios within the urban area and this appears to relate to inadequate production of peroxy radicals. Overall, the chemical reactivity predicted by the model appears to fall well below that occurring in the atmosphere.

  12. Mobile telecommunications and health: report of an investigation into an alleged cancer cluster in Sandwell, West Midlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Antony; Rao, Jammi N; Middleton, John D; Pearmain, Philippa; Evans, Tim

    2012-11-01

    Residents of one street expressed concern about the number of incident cancers, following the installation of a nearby mobile phone base station. The investigation explored whether the base station could be responsible for the cancers. Data were collected from residents' medical records. GPs and oncologists provided further information. Ward-level cancer incidence and mortality data were also obtained, over four three-year time periods. A total of 19 residents had developed cancer. The collection of cancers did not fulfil the criteria for a cancer cluster. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) for all malignant neoplasms (excluding non-melanoma skin cancers) in females (1.38 (95% CI, 1.08-1.74)) and all persons (1.27 (CI, 1.06-1.51)) were significantly higher than in the West Midlands during 2001-3. There were no significant differences for colorectal, female breast and prostate cancers, for any time period. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) for non-melanoma skin cancers in males and all persons was significantly lower than in the West Midlands during 1999-2001, and significantly lower in males, females and all persons during 2002-4. We cannot conclude that the base station was responsible for the cancers. It is unlikely that information around a single base station can either demonstrate or exclude causality.

  13. Acceptability of clinics for sexually transmitted diseases among users of the "gay scene" in the West Midlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, V D; MacArthur, C

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the acceptability of genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinics (for STDs) to homosexual and bisexual men. DESIGN: A cross sectional survey of men using "gay" venues and groups in the West Midlands region of the UK. Data were collected using an anonymous self-completed questionnaire. RESULTS: 848 completed questionnaires were returned. Two thirds of the respondents reported "safer" sexual behaviour. Those who had ever attended a GUM clinic (55%) differed little in their safer sexual behaviour from those who had never attended. The acceptability of the service was assessed using a range of indicators: the majority of the attendees had told a doctor, nurse or health adviser they have sex with men; and just over half had found all staff to be friendly, helpful or not homophobic. A quarter of attendees found talking about sexual matters difficult; these were less likely to have found the service acceptable. Over half (54%) of the study respondents had not been vaccinated against hepatitis B. Those who had been vaccinated were more likely: to have found the service acceptable; to have found talking about sexual matters easy; and to report safer sexual behaviour. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that many homosexual and bisexual men who may need to use the GUM service have not done so. There is a need to improve the acceptability of the service and to further promote hepatitis B vaccination. PMID:9389955

  14. ¿Accidente industrial o amputación deliberada? : Tres estudios de caso de una población victoriana de Wolverhampton, West Midlands, Inglaterra

    OpenAIRE

    Ponce, Paola; Arabaoloza, Iraia; Boylston, Anthea

    2005-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar los diferentes aspectos de la práctica de amputaciones durante el período victoriano de Inglaterra tales como: las causas que llevaron a tal práctica, los métodos y técnicas quirúrgicos usados durante el S. XIX así como la evidencia de atrofia y/o asimetría por causa del desuso. Tres casos de amputaciones fueron encontrados en una población industrial en el cementerio Victoriano de St. Pete s Collegiate Church en Wolverhampton (West Midlands), Inglaterr...

  15. Will the NHS continue to function in an influenza pandemic? a survey of healthcare workers in the West Midlands, UK

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    Parry Jayne

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background If UK healthcare services are to respond effectively to pandemic influenza, levels of absenteeism amongst healthcare workers (HCWs must be minimised. Current estimates of the likelihood that HCWs will continue to attend work during a pandemic are subject to scientific and predictive uncertainty, yet an informed evidence base is needed if contingency plans addressing the issues of HCW absenteeism are to be prepared. Methods This paper reports the findings of a self-completed survey of randomly selected HCWs across three purposively sampled healthcare trusts in the West Midlands. The survey aimed to identify the factors positively or negatively associated with willingness to work during an influenza pandemic, and to evaluate the acceptability of potential interventions or changes to working practice to promote the continued presence at work of those otherwise unwilling or unable to attend. 'Likelihood' and 'persuadability' scores were calculated for each respondent according to indications of whether or not they were likely to work under different circumstances. Binary logistic regression was used to compute bivariate and multivariate odds ratios to evaluate the association of demographic variables and other respondent characteristics with the self-described likelihood of reporting to work. Results The survey response rate was 34.4% (n = 1032. Results suggest absenteeism may be as high as 85% at any point during a pandemic, with potential absence particularly concentrated amongst nursing and ancillary workers (OR 0.3; 95% CI 0.1 to 0.7 and 0.5; 95% CI 0.2 to 0.9 respectively. Conclusion Levels of absenteeism amongst HCWs may be considerably higher than official estimates, with potential absence concentrated amongst certain groups of employees. Although interventions designed to minimise absenteeism should target HCWs with a low stated likelihood of working, members of these groups may also be the least receptive to such

  16. Perceptions of Psychological Coercion and Human Trafficking in the West Midlands of England: Beginning to Know the Unknown.

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    Coral J Dando

    Full Text Available Modern slavery is less overt than historical state-sanctioned slavery because psychological abuse is typically used to recruit and then control victims. The recent UK Draft Modern Slavery Bill, and current UK government anti-slavery strategy relies heavily on a shared understanding and public cooperation to tackle this crime. Yet, UK research investigating public understanding of modern slavery is elusive. We report community survey data from 682 residents of the Midlands of England, where modern slavery is known to occur, concerning their understanding of nonphysical coercion and human trafficking (one particular form of modern slavery. Analysis of quantitative data and themed categorization of qualitative data revealed a mismatch between theoretical frameworks and understanding of psychological coercion, and misconceptions concerning the nature of human trafficking. Many respondents did not understand psychological coercion, believed that human trafficking did not affect them, and confused trafficking with immigration. The public are one of the most influential interest groups, but only if well informed and motivated towards positive action. Our findings suggest the need for strategically targeted public knowledge exchange concerning this crime.

  17. Perceptions of Psychological Coercion and Human Trafficking in the West Midlands of England: Beginning to Know the Unknown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dando, Coral J; Walsh, David; Brierley, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Modern slavery is less overt than historical state-sanctioned slavery because psychological abuse is typically used to recruit and then control victims. The recent UK Draft Modern Slavery Bill, and current UK government anti-slavery strategy relies heavily on a shared understanding and public cooperation to tackle this crime. Yet, UK research investigating public understanding of modern slavery is elusive. We report community survey data from 682 residents of the Midlands of England, where modern slavery is known to occur, concerning their understanding of nonphysical coercion and human trafficking (one particular form of modern slavery). Analysis of quantitative data and themed categorization of qualitative data revealed a mismatch between theoretical frameworks and understanding of psychological coercion, and misconceptions concerning the nature of human trafficking. Many respondents did not understand psychological coercion, believed that human trafficking did not affect them, and confused trafficking with immigration. The public are one of the most influential interest groups, but only if well informed and motivated towards positive action. Our findings suggest the need for strategically targeted public knowledge exchange concerning this crime.

  18. ONBOARDING AT MIDLAND.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jeffrey; Cross, Leonie

    2016-09-01

    The onboarding of 1,200 people for the opening of the 307-bed St John of God Midland Public Hospital (Midland) was a massive undertaking. From the onset we wanted to ensure that the onboarding effectively provided cultural alignment, technical expertise and a safe opening.

  19. Management of acute coronary syndromes, a questionnaire survey of the clinical practice of cardiologists and other medical physicians belonging to west midland hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, S U; Davies, M K; Quinn, Tom

    2005-03-10

    To assess the management of acute coronary syndromes by cardiologists and other medical physicians in a clinical setting. Questionnaire survey consisting of 10 hypothetical clinical scenarios and four possible therapeutic options for each scenario. Consultants and specialist registrars in Cardiology (with or without access to interventional facilities) and consultant physicians belonging to various hospitals in the west midland region of United Kingdom. Respondents' ability to recognise high risk patients and their management of the hypothetical clinical cases. To establish any differences in management strategy between cardiologists and general physicians, and whether these differences, if any, relate to access to interventional cardiac facilities. Overall no significant differences were found in the responses between cardiologists and general physicians with or without access to cardiac interventional facilities. However, cardiologists were more inclined to use percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) compared to other physicians (scenario 8, 18.4% vs. 6.7%, p = 0.05 and scenario 9, 44.9% vs. 26.7%, p = 0.01). In two other situations, physicians from institutions with access to interventional facilities were more inclined to use 'other' treatment strategies (intravenous nitrates, antiplatelet treatment, inotropes, Intra-aortic balloon pump) compared to their colleagues from non-tertiary hospitals with no interventional facility on site (scenario 3, 21.7% vs. 2.4%, p = 0.04) and more use of PTCA ( scenario 6, 52.2% vs. 26.8%, p = 0.04). The management of acute coronary syndromes in this questionnaire survey was satisfactory and evidence based. No real differences were found between the management strategies adopted by cardiologists or non-cardiologists. Physicians working in centres with interventional facilities were no more inclined towards using primary PTCA or rescue angioplasty than those working in centres without such facilities.

  20. How does the outcome of research training fellowships funded via the NHS compare with that from competitively funded fellowships from the MRC and other charities: a cross-sectional retrospective survey of trainees undertaking research training in the West Midlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maybury, Charlotte; Morgan, Matthew David; Smith, Russell

    2018-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to investigate the impact of research training funded via the National Health Service (NHS) on medical trainees compared with traditional clinical research training fellowships (CRTFs). Design, setting and participants Online survey of 221 clinical trainees who had completed a period of research during their clinical training between 2009 and 2015 in the West Midlands. Main outcome measures Research outcomes. Results Overall response rate was 59%, of whom 72 participants were funded by CRTFs and 51 funded by the NHS. Although participants with CRTFs were more likely to be awarded a higher degree compared with those on NHS-administered funding (66/72 CRTFs and 37/51 NHS, P=0.005), similar proportions of NHS-funded and CRTF-funded participants entered clinical lecturer posts on completing initial research training (8/51 NHS and 16/72 CRTF, P=0.37). 77% of participants had three or more publications (CRTF 57 and NHS 39, P=0.72). 57 participants had completed clinical training; similar proportions of CRTF-funded and NHS-funded trainees had research included in their consultant contract (12/22 NHS and 14/26 CRTF, P=0.96) or were appointed to academic posts (3 of 25 NHS funded and 6 of 32 CRTF, P>0.05). 95% of participants would recommend to colleagues and 82% of participants felt the research experience improved their provision of clinical care with no difference between CRTF-funded and NHS-funded participants (P=0.49). Continuing to participate in clinical work during the research reduced reports of trainee difficulty on returning to clinical work (23/108 continued clinical work vs 12/22 no clinical work, P=0.001). Conclusion Research training funded by the NHS provides a quality experience and contributes to the clinical academic capacity within the UK. More needs to be done to support NHS participants to successfully achieve a higher degree. PMID:29362273

  1. Assessing the extent of drug interactions among patients with multimorbidity in primary and secondary care in the West Midlands (UK): a study protocol for the Mixed Methods Multimorbidity Study (MiMMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backman, Ruth; Weber, Philip; Turner, Alice M; Lee, Mark; Litchfield, Ian

    2017-09-18

    The numbers of patients with three or more chronic conditions (multimorbidity) are increasing, and will rise to 2.9 million by 2018 in the UK alone. Currently in the UK, conditions are mainly managed using over 250 sets of single-condition guidance, which has the potential to generate conflicting recommendations for lifestyle and concurrent medication for individual patients with more than one condition. To address some of these issues, we are developing a new computer-based tool to help manage these patients more effectively. For this tool to be applicable and relevant to current practice, we must first better understand how existing patients with multimorbidity are being managed, particularly relating to concerns over prescribing and potential polypharmacy. Up to four secondary care centres, two community pharmacies and between four and eight primary care centres in the West Midlands will be recruited. Interviewees will be purposively sampled from these sites, up to a maximum of 30. In this mixed methods study, we will perform a dual framework analysis on the qualitative data; the first analysis will use the Theoretical Domains Framework to assess barriers and enablers for healthcare professionals around the management of multimorbid patients; the second analysis will use Normalisation Process Theory to understand how interventions are currently being successfully implemented in both settings. We will also extract quantitative anonymised patient data from primary care to determine the extent of polypharmacy currently present for patients with multimorbidity in the West Midlands. We aim to combine these data so that we can build a useful, fully implementable tool which addresses the barriers most amenable to change within both primary and secondary care contexts. Favourable ethical approval has been granted by The University of Birmingham Research Ethics Committee (ERN_16-0074) on 17 May 2016. Our work will be disseminated through peer-reviewed literature, trade

  2. West Nile virus: North American experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeister, Erik K.

    2011-01-01

    West Nile virus, a mosquito-vectored flavivirus of the Japanese encephalitis serogroup, was first detected in North America following an epizootic in the New York City area in 1999. In the intervening 11 years since the arrival of the virus in North America, it has crossed the contiguous USA, entered the Canadian provinces bordering the USA, and has been reported in the Caribbean islands, Mexico, Central America and, more recently, South America. West Nile virus has been reported in over 300 species of birds in the USA and has caused the deaths of thousands of birds, local population declines of some avian species, the clinical illness and deaths of thousands of domestic horses, and the clinical disease in over 30 000 Americans and the deaths of over 1000. Prior to the emergence of West Nile virus in North America, St. Louis encephalitis virus and Dengue virus were the only other known mosquito-transmitted flaviviruses in North America capable of causing human disease. This review will discuss the North American experience with mosquito-borne flavivirus prior to the arrival of West Nile virus, the entry and spread of West Nile virus in North America, effects on wild bird populations, genetic changes in the virus, and the current state of West Nile virus transmission.

  3. The Midland Institute of Otology and its founder: William Stirk Adams (1896-1978).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahor, A L; Stansbie, J M

    1997-12-01

    To celebrate the 50th Anniversary of the establishment of the Midland Institute of Otology (MIO) a meeting was held in the Belfry Hotel, West Midlands, 19-21 September 1997. The meeting comprised an excellent academic conference, social events and a golf tournament. A report on the academic conference has been published (Stansbie and Pahor, 1997). The MIO has been established to further the cause of ENT in the Midlands and it has succeeded in its aim to a great extent. An historical overview of the Institute is of interest and would serve perhaps as a model for similar organizations, especially in the provinces. The Institute was the brainchild of William Stirk Adams. He remained the President from the conception of the Institute till his death. It is befitting to present a biography of such a dedicated personality.

  4. Economics of oil discovery in west Africa: the Nigerian experience ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Economics of oil discovery in west Africa: the Nigerian experience. ... Regional Maritime University Journal ... Despite the endowment of West Africa with oil reserves, socio-economic development, especially in oil producing countries, is unsatisfactory in delivering its citizenry from extreme poverty and improve social ...

  5. Palestinian nurses' lived experiences working in the occupied West Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, A A; Westlake, C

    2017-03-01

    Since the construction of the separation wall between Israel and the West Bank, Palestinians living in occupied West Bank have endured intense conflict, and severe restrictions on people's movement, trade and healthcare access, all of which resulted in spiralling poverty. These issues have created challenges for nurses that, to date, have not been explored. To explore the lived experience of Palestinian nurses working in the occupied West Bank. Qualitative phenomenological study using interviews with Palestinian nurses working in public hospitals in the West Bank. Seventeen nurses were interviewed. Despite ongoing experiences of trauma and humiliation, personal/professional role conflicts, political workplace bias and blurred role boundaries, these nurses persevered because of their commitment to caring and sense of moral duty to 'the people of this land'. Nurses in conflict areas are subject to layers of trauma. Palestinian nurses in the West Bank not only experience ongoing personal trauma, loss and humiliation of living in a conflict zone but they also experience additional professional trauma. The findings provide first-person reports of the unique challenges of nurses working in the occupied West Bank. Understanding the experiences of nurses working in occupied territories provides authentic information for local authorities and the global healthcare community. Practice improvements must be addressed and implemented. Local and global organizations that mobilize support, invest in human capital, and protect human rights in areas of conflict may benefit from understanding the experiences of nurses in this study. © 2016 International Council of Nurses.

  6. Positive deviance--the West Bengal experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustaphi, P; Dobe, M

    2005-01-01

    There are 11.1 million children in the age group 0-6 years in West Bengal. Of these, every second child under 3 years of age is underweight, more than four out of ten are stunted, and one out of eight are wasted. The Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) programme in West Bengal has 355 operational projects covering 53,064 operational anganwadi centers reaching out to more than four million beneficiaries--approximately half of whom are children in the age group 0-3 years. The Department of Women and Child Development (DWCD) is trying to identify and replicate innovative, community-based, sustainable approaches. One such innovative initiative has been the "Keno Parbo Na" project based on the Positive Deviance (PD) approach which aims to reduce and prevent malnutrition among children under 3 years of age by focusing on local solutions and resources, local behaviors and practices. Behavior change is emphasized through participatory learning and community mobilization. The pilot phase of the project has been completed in two districts [Four blocks (2 in each District) and 32 villages/AWCs (8 in each block)] of West Bengal (Murshidabad and South 24 Parganas). The analysis of the project activities so far reveals that the issue of malnutrition and its prevention is now visible in the villages covered. Acceptance of desirable behavioral practices is observed within the community. A steady reduction in the moderate and severe level of malnutrition was noted across four districts. A general preponderance of girl children was noted at the entry stage indicating higher levels of severe and moderate malnutrition among girl children to begin with but also suggesting PD as an important strategy in reducing the gender gap in malnutrition. The boys gain in terms of nutritional status faster than the girls so in the intermediate phase malnourished girls are more in number. However, by the sixth / ninth round, as the malnutrition levels decline substantially, the gender gap

  7. CAUSE Resiliency (West Coast) Experiment Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    par le ministre de la Défense nationale, 2012 Page 2 CAUSE Resiliency West Coast Final report v17 dh edits.docx 1. Acknowledgements: The...and summary of the findings and recommendations. Resume En juin 2011, des organismes de gestion des urgences opérationnelles en Colombie...Britannique et dans l’État de Washington ont participé au projet expérimental CAUSE Resiliency (côte ouest), parrainé conjointement par le département de

  8. West Valley facility spent fuel handling, storage, and shipping experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, W.J.

    1990-11-01

    The result of a study on handling and shipping experience with spent fuel are described in this report. The study was performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and was jointly sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The purpose of the study was to document the experience with handling and shipping of relatively old light-water reactor (LWR) fuel that has been in pool storage at the West Valley facility, which is at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center at West Valley, New York and operated by DOE. A subject of particular interest in the study was the behavior of corrosion product deposits (i.e., crud) deposits on spent LWR fuel after long-term pool storage; some evidence of crud loosening has been observed with fuel that was stored for extended periods at the West Valley facility and at other sites. Conclusions associated with the experience to date with old spent fuel that has been stored at the West Valley facility are presented. The conclusions are drawn from these subject areas: a general overview of the West Valley experience, handling of spent fuel, storing of spent fuel, rod consolidation, shipping of spent fuel, crud loosening, and visual inspection. A list of recommendations is provided. 61 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. The Fredegonde (V-57) Quadrangle, Venus: Characterization of the Venus Midlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, M. A.; Head, James W.

    2008-01-01

    The Fredegonde quadrangle (V-57, 50-75degS, 60-120degE) in the southern hemisphere of Venus represents a typical region of midlands (0-2 km above MPR). Midlands are the most widespread topographic province on Venus (approx.80%) and display the richest variety of features. Geological mapping in the V-57 quadrangle provides the possibility of defining and characterizing units that make up a region of midlands and to establish the general sequence of events there and thus address questions about the modes of formation and chronology of midlands on Venus. The map area is in contact with the uplands in the central portion of Lada Terra to the west and the lowlands of Aino Planitia to the northeast. This position also provides a transitional zone between the other two major topographic provinces, similar to that of the Meskhent Tessera (V-3) area. Here we report on the results of our mapping in the V-57 quadrangle, describe the major features, units, and structural assemblages exposed there, and outline the main episodes of geologic history.

  10. Initial Experience With Neuroendoscopic Surgery In West Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Initial Experience With Neuroendoscopic Surgery In West Africa. ... African Journal of Neurological Sciences ... Introduction Neuroendoscopic surgery is commonly utilized for the management of intracranial cystic lesions, hydrocephalus, tumor resections and biopsies and for all types of microsurgical procedures that can ...

  11. Assessment of continuous oil resources in the Wolfcamp shale of the Midland Basin, Permian Basin Province, Texas, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaswirth, Stephanie B.

    2017-03-06

    The U.S. Geological Survey completed a geology-based assessment of undiscovered, technically recoverable continuous petroleum resources in the Wolfcamp shale in the Midland Basin part of the Permian Basin Province of west Texas. This is the first U.S. Geological Survey evaluation of continuous resources in the Wolfcamp shale in the Midland Basin. Since the 1980s, the Wolfcamp shale in the Midland Basin has been part of the “Wolfberry” play. This play has traditionally been developed using vertical wells that are completed and stimulated in multiple productive stratigraphic intervals that include the Wolfcamp shale and overlying Spraberry Formation. Since the shift to horizontal wells targeting the organic-rich shale of the Wolfcamp, more than 3,000 horizontal wells have been drilled and completed in the Midland Basin Wolfcamp section. The U.S. Geological Survey assessed technically recoverable mean resources of 20 billion barrels of oil and 16 trillion cubic feet of associated gas in the Wolfcamp shale in the Midland Basin.

  12. What Difference Does "Difference" Make? A Discussion with Ethnic Minority Students about Their Learning Experience in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Housee, Shirin

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the everyday experiences of minority ethnic students at a university in the West Midlands. Based on interviews with 23 second-level students taking Sociology modules, it seeks to highlight the key social, personal and pedagogic issues for this group of minority ethnic students and to deepen understandings of cultural identity…

  13. 75 FR 47677 - CSX Transportation, Inc.-Corporate Family Merger Exemption-Gainesville Midland Railroad Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    ... Midland Railroad Company CSX Transportation, Inc. (CSXT) and Gainesville Midland Railroad Company (GMRR... (1980) and Seaboard Air-Line R.R.--Control--Gainesville Midland R.R., FD 20296 (ICC decided Mar. 26...

  14. ARM West Antarctic Radiation Experiment (AWARE) Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubin, Daniel [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States). Scripps Inst. of Oceanography; Bromwich, David H [Ohio State University; Vogelmann, Andrew M [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Verlinde, Johannes [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Russell, Lynn M [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States). Scripps Inst. of Oceanography

    2017-09-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) West Antarctic Radiation Experiment (AWARE) is the most technologically advanced atmospheric and climate science campaign yet fielded in Antarctica. AWARE was motivated be recent concern about the impact of cryospheric mass loss on global sea level rise. Specifically, the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) is now the second largest contributor to rising sea level, after the Greenland Ice Sheet. As steadily warming ocean water erodes the grounding lines of WAIS components where they meet the Amundsen and Bellingshausen Seas, the retreating grounding lines moving inland and downslope on the underlying terrain imply mechanical instability of the entire WAIS. There is evidence that this point of instability may have already been reached, perhaps signifying more rapid loss of WAIS ice mass. At the same time, the mechanical support provided by adjacent ice shelves, and also the fundamental stability of exposed ice cliffs at the ice sheet grounding lines, will be adversely impacted by a warming atmosphere that causes more frequent episodes of surface melting. The surface meltwater damages the ice shelves and ice cliffs through hydrofracturing. With the increasing concern regarding these rapid cryospheric changes, AWARE was motivated by the need to (a) diagnose the surface energy balance in West Antarctica as related to both summer season climatology and potential surface melting, and (b) improve global climate model (GCM) performance over Antarctica, such that future cryospheric projections can be more reliable.

  15. Compendium of NASA data base for the global tropospheric experiment's Pacific Exploratory Mission West-B (PEM West-B)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Gerald L.; Scott, A. Donald, Jr.

    1995-01-01

    This compendium describes aircraft data that are available from NASA's Pacific Exploratory Mission West-B (PEM West-B). PEM West is a component of the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry's (IGAC) East Asia/North Pacific Regional Study (APARE) project. Objectives of PEM West are to investigate the atmospheric chemistry of ozone over the northwest Pacific -- natural budgets and the impact of anthropogenic/continental sources; and to investigate sulfur chemistry -- continental and marine sulfur sources. The PEM West program encompassed two expeditions. PEM West-A was conducted in September 1991 during which the predominance of tropospheric air was from mid-Pacific (marine) regions, but (at times) was modified by Asian outflow. PEM West-B was conducted during February 1994, a period characterized by maximum Asian outflow. Results from PEM West-A and B are public domain. PEM West-A data are summarized in NASA TM 109177 (published February 1995). Flight experiments were based at Guam, Hong Kong, and Japan. This document provides a representation of NASA DC-8 aircraft data that are available from NASA Langley's Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The DAAC includes numerous other data such as meteorological and modeling products, results from surface studies, satellite observations, and sonde releases.

  16. Compendium of NASA data base for the Global Tropospheric Experiment's Pacific Exploratory Mission West-A (PEM West-A)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, G. L.; Scott, A. D., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    This compendium describes aircraft data that are available from NASA's Pacific Exploratory Mission West-A (PEM West-A). PEM West is a component of the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry's (IGAC) East Asia/North Pacific Regional Study (APARE) project. The PEM- West program encompassed two expeditions to study contrasting meteorological regimes in the Pacific. Objectives of PEM West are to investigate the atmospheric chemistry of ozone over the northwest Pacific -- natural budgets and the impact of anthropogenic sources; and to investigate sulfur chemistry -- continental versus marine sulfur sources. PEM West-A was conducted in September 1991 during which the predominance of tropospheric air is from the mid-Pacific (marine) regions, but (at times) is modified/mixed with Asian continental outflow. PEM West-B was conducted during February 1994, a period characterized by maximum continental outflow. PEM-B data (not included) will become public domain during the Summer of 1995. PEM West-A flight experiments were based at Japan, Hong Kong, and Guam. This document provides a representation of NASA DC-8 aircraft data that are available from NASA Langley's Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC), which include numerous data such as meteorological observations, modeling products, results from surface studies, satellite observations, and sonde releases.

  17. Characterization of the Lower Wolfcamp, Midland Basin, Texas, using subsurface stratigraphic and geochemical datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, Z. S.; Ryan, P. T.; Baldwin, P.; Lucas, J.; McGlue, M. M.; Waite, L.; Woodruff, O. P.

    2016-12-01

    In recent years, the Midland Basin of west Texas has resurfaced as a strong and viable unconventional oil field, especially within the late Pennsylvanian-Early Permian section. In addition to exploring for hydrocarbons, studying this basin allows for a better understanding of the paleoceanographic and paleoenvironmental conditions that prevailed during deposition. This research focuses on subsurface data from the Lower Wolfcamp interval of the northern Midland Basin proximal to the Horseshoe Atoll. Chemostratigraphic and lithostratigraphic analyses were conducted on 388 ft of continuous drill core extracted from Martin County, Texas. Comprehensive analyses revealed repetitive stacking of organic-rich siliceous mudrocks, aluminum-rich clayey mudrocks, and diverse carbonate facies. High resolution energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence data demonstrate cyclic variability in silicon, aluminum, and calcium weight percentages. These data suggest that during the time of deposition, the Midland Basin was a mixed siliciclastic-carbonate system influenced by a global icehouse climate with high frequency glacio-eustatic sea level fluctuations. Organic carbon preservation at this time was at least partially influenced by bottom water redox conditions. Elemental trace metal data suggests the potential for anoxia and possibly euxinia, likely influenced by recharge from the Panthalassic Ocean. Stratal evidence for bottom water conditions and patterns of organic enrichment vary across the basin and in vertical succession; these factors may be explained by evolving oceanographic processes and environmental gradients within the basin. The timing of Lower Wolfcamp deposition may be Late Pennsylvanian, based on correlations to fusulinids in shelfal carbonates. Thus, our preliminary interpretations focus on Lower Wolfcamp strata as a condensed package of deep-basin cyclothems.

  18. Natural resources endowment and economic growth: The West African Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Jalloh

    2013-01-01

    This study aims at investigating the nexus between natural resource endowment and economic growth using a sample of West African countries. The study adopted a Barrow-type growth model to analyse the impact of natural resource wealth on economic growth. A dynamic panel estimation technique was employed using relevant data from West African Countries. The results from the panel regressions indicate that natural resource endowments have very minimal impact in terms of promoting economic growth ...

  19. 77 FR 26603 - Central Midland Railway Company and Progressive Rail Inc.-Intra-Corporate Family Transaction...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-04

    ... Surface Transportation Board Central Midland Railway Company and Progressive Rail Inc.--Intra- Corporate Family Transaction Exemption Central Midland Railway Company (CMR) and Progressive Rail Inc. (PGR), both... Exemption-- Cent. Midland Ry., FD 35051 (STB served July 5, 2007). \\2\\ See Progressive Rail Inc.--Intra...

  20. 40 CFR 81.137 - Midland-Odessa-San Angelo Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Midland-Odessa-San Angelo Intrastate... Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.137 Midland-Odessa-San Angelo Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Midland-Odessa-San Angelo Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Texas) consists of the...

  1. 76 FR 34805 - Arkansas Midland Railroad Company, Inc., Trackage Rights Exemption; Caddo Valley Railroad Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-14

    ... Surface Transportation Board Arkansas Midland Railroad Company, Inc., Trackage Rights Exemption; Caddo... (CVR) has agreed to grant local trackage rights to Arkansas Midland Railroad Company, Inc. (AKMD) over... transaction from those listed in the emergency service proceeding involving the same line. See Ark. Midland R...

  2. West Africa Ebola Virus Disease Epidemic: The Africa Experience ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ebola Virus Disease (EVD), formerly known as Ebola haemorrhagic fever, is a severe acute viral illness characterized by sudden onset of fever, myalgia, malaise, and severe headache, followed by vomiting and diarrhea and, in some instances, bleeding. The 2014 West Africa outbreak is the largest in history, affecting ...

  3. High School Science Technology Additions, Midland Public Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Design Cost Data, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Discusses design goals, space requirements, and need for mobile furniture and "imagination stations" at Michigan's Midland Public High School science technology addition. Describes the architectural design, costs, and specifications. Includes floor plans, general description, photos and a list of consultants, manufacturers, and suppliers…

  4. ARM West Antarctic Radiation Experiment (AWARE) Science Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubin, D [National Science Foundation; Bromwich, DH [Ohio State University; Russell, LM [Scripps Institution of Oceanography; Verlinde, J [The Pennsylvania State University; Vogelmann, AM [Brookhaven National Laboratory

    2015-10-01

    West Antarctica is one of the most rapidly warming regions on Earth, and this warming is closely connected with global sea level rise. The discovery of rapid climate change on the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) has challenged previous explanations of Antarctic climate change that focused on strengthening of circumpolar westerlies in response to the positive polarity trend in the Southern Annular Mode. West Antarctic warming does not yet have a comprehensive explanation: dynamical mechanisms may vary from one season to the next, and these mechanisms very likely involve complex teleconnections with subtropical and tropical latitudes. The prime motivation for this proposal is that there has been no substantial atmospheric science or climatological field work on West Antarctica since the 1957 International Geophysical Year and that research continued for only a few years. Direct meteorological information on the WAIS has been limited to a few automatic weather stations for several decades, yet satellite imagery and meteorological reanalyses indicate that West Antarctica is highly susceptible to advection of warm and moist maritime air with related cloud cover, depending on the location and strength of low pressure cells in the Amundsen, Ross, and Bellingshausen Seas. There is a need to quantify the role of these changing air masses on the surface energy balance, including all surface energy components and cloud-radiative forcing. More generally, global climate model simulations are known to perform poorly over the Antarctic and Southern Oceans, and the marked scarcity of cloud information at southern high latitudes has so far inhibited significant progress. Fortunately, McMurdo Station, where the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Facility’s (ARM’s) most advanced cloud and aerosol instrumentation is situated, has a meteorological relationship with the WAIS via circulation patterns in the Ross and Amundsen Seas. We can therefore gather sophisticated data with cloud

  5. Early Career Preparation, Experiences, and Commitment of Female and Male West Point Graduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    report. Data Collection All participants in the study were graduates in the Class of 1980, the v first coeducational class at West Point. The sampling...Class of 1980 has been regarded as an unique entity because of its destiny as the first coeducational class. These data will show where this is true and...understand the experiences of the graduates from West Point. This is the first systematic program to assess the effects of coeducation by using as 5-5 .*:. 0

  6. A Qualitative Study of the Impact of the London 2012 Olympics on Families in the East Midlands of England: Lessons for Sports Development Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackintosh, Chris; Darko, Natalie; Rutherford, Zoe; Wilkins, Hetty-May

    2015-01-01

    The dynamics and culture of families are central to individual and community sport and physical activity participation. This research project examined the lived experiences and day-to-day realities of the London 2012 Olympics from the perspectives of five families in the East Midlands region of England. The aims of the project were to assess the…

  7. Prevalence of bovine trypanosomosis in Wemberma district of West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional survey of bovine trypanosomosis was carried out in Wemberma district of west Gojjam zone, North West Ethiopia. From three peasant associations in the district (one from the midland and two from lowland), 384 cattle were randomly selected and examined for trypanosomosis. The prevalence of the ...

  8. Prevalence of bovine trypanosomosis in Wemberma district of West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional survey of bovine trypanosomosis was carried out in Wemberma district of west Gojjam zone, North West Ethiopia. From three peasant associations in the district (one from the midland and two from lowland), 384 cattle were randomly selected and examined for trypanosomosis. The prevalence of the.

  9. West Twin Creek Alaska Subsurface Bromide Tracer Experiment, 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data was produced as part of a subsurface tracer experiment performed on a boreal hillslope in July, 2015. The data is separated into three files: 'Well...

  10. 77 FR 16585 - Arkansas Midland Railroad Company, Inc.-Abandonment Exemption-in Phillips County, AK

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Arkansas Midland Railroad Company, Inc.--Abandonment Exemption-- in Phillips County, AK Arkansas Midland Railroad Company, Inc. (AKMD) filed a verified notice of exemption under 49...

  11. Sub-optimal asthma control in teenagers in the midland region of Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, I; Fitzpatrick, P

    2011-12-01

    Internationally, many children with asthma are not attaining achievable asthma control. To examine the prevalence of asthma in teenagers in four midland counties, their asthma control and the barriers, if any, to gaining control of asthma. International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Children (ISAAC) methodology was used in a survey of Junior Cycle Year 2 second-level students. The prevalence of "wheeze ever" was 49.8%, "wheeze in the last 12 months" was 32.6% and "asthma ever" was 23.5%. Of teenagers with current asthma, 96% had evidence of sub-optimal asthma control during the previous year. For the majority of the teenagers with asthma, treatment was not guideline concordant; infrequent lung function testing, insufficient review after acute care and poor use of written asthma action plans. Barriers included lack of awareness of need for treatment. If asthma guidelines are implemented fully, these children may experience better health.

  12. 75 FR 71487 - Norfolk Southern Railway Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Crawford County, GA; Georgia Midland...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-23

    ... County, GA; Georgia Midland Railroad, Inc.\\1\\--Discontinuance of Service Exemption--in Crawford County... discontinuing railroad-- not Georgia Midland Railroad Company, as indicated in the notice. Norfolk Southern Railway Company (NSR) and Georgia Midland Railroad, Inc. (GMR) (collectively, applicants) have jointly...

  13. Midland Health Board staff and impact of cuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, M P

    1990-01-01

    An analysis of the 2,719 staff of the Midland Health Board at 31 December, 1988 was made, on the basis of work done. This showed that 7.4% of the staff were engaged on administrative work. The pay cost of the administrative staff was 5.2% of total remuneration and 3.3% of all direct payments made by the health board. Between January, 1986 and the end of 1988, staff numbers were reduced by 293 (9.7%). Of these, 189 (64.5%) were catering, housekeeping and maintenance staff. In the same period medical staff increased by 5 (3.3%), paramedicals increased by 11 (10.4%) and administrators were reduced by 12 (4.2%).

  14. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2005 Greener Synthetic Pathways Award (Archer Daniels Midland Company/Novozymes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2005 award winners, Archer Daniels Midland (ADM) and Novozymes, developed an enzymatic interesterification process to make edible fats and oils containing low trans fatty acids and oils.

  15. Walking the Spiritual Ways – West of Ireland experience of modern pilgrimage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary Power

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the modern phenomenon of pilgrim walking along routes in the west of Ireland county of Clare. It relates it to possible medieval practice; to traditional practices by local people on one hand and the reconstruction of the international medieval pilgrim routes to places like Compostela. It suggests the reasons why people may walk in search of spiritual growth and experience, the resources they may wish for, the ways in which the contemporary search functions in a largely post-Catholic manner, and the position of those from other Christina, or religious traditions

  16. Simulation of West African air pollution during the DACCIWA experiment with the GEOS-Chem West African regional model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Eleanor; Evans, Mathew

    2017-04-01

    Pollutant emissions from West African cities are forecast to increase rapidly in future years because of extensive economic and population growth, together with poorly regulated industrialisation and urbanisation. Observational constraints in this region are few, leading to poor understanding of present-day air pollution in this region. To increase our understanding of the processes controlling air pollutants over the region, airborne observations were made from three research aircraft based out of Lomé, Togo during the DACCIWA field campaign in June-July 2016. A new 0.25x0.3125 degree West Africa regional version of the GEOS-Chem offline chemical transport model has also been developed to explore the processes controlling pollutants over the region. We evaluate the model using the aircraft data and focus on primary (CO, SO2, NOx, VOCs) and secondary pollutants (O3, aerosol). We find significant differences between the model and the measurements for certain primary compounds which is indicative of significant uncertainties in the base (EDGAR) emissions. For CO (a general tracer of pollution) we evaluate the role of different emissions sources (transport, low temperature combustion, power generation) in determining its concentration in the region. We conclude that the leading cause of uncertainty in our simulation is associated with the emissions datasets and explore the impact of using differing datasets.

  17. Exploration applications of geochemistry in the Midland Basin, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dow, W.G.; Talukdar, S.C. (DGSI, Woodlands, TX (USA)); Harmon, L. (Mobil Exploration and Producing US, Inc., Midland, TX (USA))

    1990-05-01

    Reservoirs, source rocks, and crude oils were studied at Pegasas field on the eastern flank of the Central Basin platform. The field is a faulted anticlinal structure and produces oil and gas from seven geologically complex reservoirs ranging from the Ordovician Ellenburger to the Permian San Andres formations. A better understanding of the petroleum systems present should lead to improved exploration and development opportunities. Good to excellent-quality, mature oil-prone source rocks occur at numerous horizons between the Permian Spraberry and Ordovician Ellenburger formations. Oil-rock correlations indicate three major petroleum systems: Ordovician sources for oil in Ordovician, Silurian and Devonian reservoirs; Mississippian to Pennsylvanian sources for Pennsylvanian reservoired oils; and Permian sources for oils in Permian reservoirs. The Ordovician to Devonian system experienced peak oil generation, extensive vertical oil migration, and in-reservoir oil maturation in Triassic time; the Mississippian-Pennsylvanian system reached peak oil generation with limited vertical oil migration in Jurassic time; and the Permian system is just reaching peak oil generation and has had little or no vertical oil migration. The total amount of oil available to charge the field is several times the oil in place, and all available traps were filled to capacity. This implies substantial accumulations remain undiscovered in subtle stratigraphic and combination traps in the Pegasus field area. The same is probably true throughout the Midland basin. Integrated studies with geological, geophysical, engineering, and geochemical input can provide valuable exploration information on local as well as regional scales. Pegasus field examples include fault-block isolation reservoir segregation and waterflood or gas cycling efficiency. Such studies may also contribute information leading to lateral and vertical field extension wells.

  18. 76 FR 69719 - Gregory R. Swecker and Beverly F. Swecker v. Midland Power Cooperative and State of Iowa; Notice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Gregory R. Swecker and Beverly F. Swecker v. Midland Power Cooperative and... by Midland Power Cooperative (Respondent) and request for an expedited order for reconnection. In...

  19. 76 FR 28019 - Gregory R. Swecker, Beverly F. Swecker v. Midland Power Cooperative, State of Iowa; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Gregory R. Swecker, Beverly F. Swecker v. Midland Power Cooperative, State... the requirements of PURPA against Midland Power Cooperative and the State of Iowa (Respondents...

  20. 76 FR 36532 - Gregory R. Swecker, Beverly F. Swecker v. Midland Power Cooperative, State of Iowa; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Gregory R. Swecker, Beverly F. Swecker v. Midland Power Cooperative, State... Utility Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA) against Midland Power Cooperative and the State of Iowa...

  1. 78 FR 15714 - Welch Motel, Inc., Welch Oil, Inc., Boondocks USA Truck Stop, Bob Welch v. Midland Power...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ... ] Complainant's wind turbine located at 3065 220th Street, Williams, IA 50271-7518 before drawing power from Midland, (2) require Midland to install a mechanical meter without any blockers or detents to allow parallel operation, and (3) use this mechanical meter for registering and keeping track of the KWH consumed...

  2. My American Dream: The Interplay Between Structure and Agency in West African Immigrants' Educational Experiences in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Michelle G.; Roegman, Rachel; Edstrom, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    This article presents findings of a qualitative, interpretive case study of the experiences of 1.5- and 2nd-generation West African immigrants who self-identify as pursuing the American Dream, defined by them as academic attainment and career success. Employing structuration theory, the authors examine the interplay between structures and agency…

  3. Experiences of mothers of sexually abused children in North-West province, post disclosure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaboipolelwe M. Masilo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sexual violence against children is increasing at an alarming rate in South Africa. In 2010 the South African Police Service (SAPS reported 21 538 rape cases of children under 18 years. In the North-West province (NWP 5039 incidents of rape cases were reported in 2009. Mothers often experience emotional pain following child sexual abuse disclosure. It is seldom acknowledged that these mothers experience trauma and need support, post disclosure. The researcher has no known evidence of research conducted on the experiences of these mothers in NWP. Objective: The objective of the study was to explore and describe the experiences of mothers of sexually abused children post disclosure of the abuse. Method: The research design was qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual. Purposive sampling was used to select mothers of sexually abused children aged 23 to 59 years whose children ranged from 0 to 16 years. Permission to conduct the study was sought from the Provincial Department of Health and informed consent was obtained from the mothers. Interviews were conducted with a sample of n = 17 until data saturation. Data were collected through in-depth interviews using a voice recorder and field notes to enhance triangulation. Tesch’s method of open coding was used to analyse data. Results: Findings indicated that mothers experienced emotional pain post sexual abuse. They expressed shock, anger and guilt for not noticing the abuse. They showed significant depression as a result of lack of support by stakeholders. Conclusion: Mothers experienced secondary trauma that poses social and psychological challenges with far-reaching implications.

  4. Spending the Primary Physical Education and Sport Premium: A West Midlands Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griggs, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    In March 2013 the government announced that it was to provide funding to improve provision of Physical Education and sport in primary schools in England. Entitled The Primary Physical Education and Sport Premium, this ring-fenced annual funding has been allocated to schools that are free to choose how the money is spent but are accountable for its…

  5. Oil field experiments of microbial improved oil recovery in Vyngapour, West Siberia, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murygina, V.P.; Mats, A.A.; Arinbasarov, M.U.; Salamov, Z.Z.; Cherkasov, A.B.

    1995-12-31

    Experiments on microbial improved oil recovery (MIOR) have been performed in the Vyngapour oil field in West Siberia for two years. Now, the product of some producing wells of the Vyngapour oil field is 98-99% water cut. The operation of such wells approaches an economic limit. The nutritious composition containing local industry wastes and sources of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium was pumped into an injection well on the pilot area. This method is called {open_quotes}nutritional flooding.{close_quotes} The mechanism of nutritional flooding is based on intensification of biosynthesis of oil-displacing metabolites by indigenous bacteria and bacteria from food industry wastes in the stratum. 272.5 m{sup 3} of nutritious composition was introduced into the reservoir during the summer of 1993, and 450 m3 of nutritious composition-in 1994. The positive effect of the injections in 1993 showed up in 2-2.5 months and reached its maximum in 7 months after the injections were stopped. By July 1, 1994, 2,268.6 tons of oil was produced over the base variant, and the simultaneous water extraction reduced by 33,902 m{sup 3} as compared with the base variant. The injections in 1994 were carried out on the same pilot area.

  6. Pasture-use patterns on dairy and beef farms in the Natal Midlands ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pasture sites for each of the species grown are classified for both dryland and irrigated pastures in the Natal Midlands. Only six species viz. Kikuyu, Italian ryegrass, Eragrostis curvula, Festuca arundinacea (tall fescue), Dactylis glomerata (cocksfoot) and Trifolium repens (white clover) are widely used. Italian ryegrass ...

  7. Living and Learning as an International Postgraduate Student at a Midlands University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busher, Hugh; Lewis, Gareth; Comber, Chris

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the views of 20 full-time international postgraduate students, many of whom were Chinese, on living, learning and becoming successful students at one university in a multicultural city in the Midlands of England. The qualitative study built on findings from the International Students' Barometer (ISB) survey for the…

  8. Theorising "Sacred" Space in Educational Contexts: A Case Study of Three English Midlands Sixth Form Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Stephen G.

    2009-01-01

    Sixth Form Colleges (along with the general Further Education sector) in England and Wales have of late begun to appoint new chaplains and to set aside space for quiet, prayer and reflection. This article explores this phenomenon as exhibited by three colleges in the English Midlands, utilising spatial theory and the sociology of…

  9. Exploring Management Strategies to Reduce Cheating in Written Examinations: Case Study of Midlands State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taderera, Ever; Nyikahadzoi, Loveness; Matamande, Wilson; Mandimika, Elinah

    2014-01-01

    This study was concerned about cheating in written examinations at Midlands State University (MSU). The study revealed that both male and female students cheat in written examination; business studies students cheat more than other faculties, and younger (lower class) students cheat more than (upper class) older students. Factors influencing…

  10. A 6-YEAR EXPERIENCE OF HEART TRANSPLANTATION IN FEDERAL ALMAZOV NORTH-WEST MEDICAL RESEARCH CENTRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Shlyakhto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To estimate the results of 6-year experience of heart transplantation (HT in Federal Almazov North-West Medical Research Centre. Methods. From 2010 to 2015 we have performed 65 HT. Mean age was 44.3 ± 14 years old (from 10 to 64 years old. We used biventricular assist device (BIVAD, Berlin Heart Excor support in 7 heart transplant candidates before HT. 19 patients (29% received thymoglobulin, whereas 46 patients (71% had basiliximab to induce immunosuppression.Results. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation machines were implanted in 5 patients (7.7% after HT due to acute right ventricular failure. Suture annuloplasty (the Batista procedure for tricuspid valve repair was carried out in 3 cases (4.6%. Venovenous hemodiafi ltration was used in 11 patients (16.9%. A total of 598 endomyocardial biopsies (EMB were performed after HT. Evidence of cellular rejection (R1 and R2 was presented in 286 biopsies (48%. The 30-day in-hospital mortality rate was 3.1%. The 6-month survival rate after HT was 92%, 1-year – 91% and overall survival for the 6-year period of observation – 89.2%. Maximum observation period was 71 months.Conclusions. The 6-year experience of HT in our Center has shown a high level of survival. BIVAD Excor support can be effectively used as a «bridge» to HT. Prevention of graft loss due to acute rejection in heart transplant recipients can be achieved only through regular EMB monitoring. The rate of viral infection increased in 2 months after HT.

  11. The experience of postnatal depression in West African mothers living in the United Kingdom: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Philippa L; Bunton, Penny; Edge, Dawn; Wittkowski, Anja

    2014-06-01

    to explore the lived experience of postnatal depression (PND) in West African mothers living in the United Kingdom (UK). using a qualitative design, semi-structured interviews were undertaken. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) was used to explore and analyse the data. community health services within inner-city suburbs in Manchester, England. six West African mothers (Nigeria=3; Ghana=3), who were experiencing low mood in the postnatal period. five overarching themes emerged: (1) conceptualising PND, (2) isolation, (3) loss of identity, (4) issues of trust and (5) relationships as a protective factor. Women exhibited symptoms of PND but did not regard it as an illness. In their view, postnatal depression and distress resulted from social stress. Participants stated that their cultural background made it difficult to disclose feelings of depression thus adversely influencing their help-seeking behaviour. this is the first study to investigate the experiences of West African mothers with PND who live in the UK, and how they perceive and make sense of their experiences. The themes generated add to the body of existing research on PND in Black and ethnic minority populations and offer insight into the lived experience of West African women residing in England. Such insights are vital in order to deliver effective, culturally sensitive care. these findings have implications on how services should be designed to increase their accessibility to African women, by using a community psychology approach alongside systemic and group interventions. Challenges to help seeking and language used to describe experiences are considered. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Symptom experience and subsequent mortality: results from the West of Scotland Twenty-07 study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wyke Sally

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Associations between symptom experience and mortality have rarely been investigated. One study has suggested that the number of symptoms people experience may be an important predictor of mortality. This novel and potentially important finding may have important implications but needs to be tested in other cohorts. Methods 858 people aged around 58 years were interviewed by nurses in 1990/1 as part of the West of Scotland Twenty-07 Study. They were asked about the presence of symptoms in the last month from a checklist of 33 symptoms. Measures of morbidity included symptom type (respiratory, musculoskeletal, gastrointestinal, mental health, neurological, systemic and symptom summary measures looking at the number and impact of symptoms (total number; number participants tended to have; number participants did not tend to have; number which restricted usual activities; number which led to GP consultation. Hazard ratios for thirteen-year all-cause mortality were calculated for symptom types, symptom summary measures, and self-assessed health with and without adjustment. Results On unadjusted analysis, and after adjusting for gender, socio-economic status and smoking, mortality was elevated in individuals reporting respiratory, systemic and mental health symptoms. After additional adjustment for chronic conditions and self-assessed health, only the association between mental health symptoms and mortality remained significant. On unadjusted analysis, and after adjusting for gender, socio-economic status and smoking, mortality was elevated in individuals with many (≥ 6 symptoms in four of the symptom summary measures examined. These relationships were no longer significant after additional adjustment for chronic conditions and self-assessed health. A clear trend of increasing mortality as self-assessed health became poorer was observed. This pattern remained statistically significant after adjustment for gender, socio

  13. The University of Michigan Dioxin Exposure Study: Predictors of Human Serum Dioxin Concentrations in Midland and Saginaw, Michigan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    David H. Garabrant; Alfred Franzblau; James Lepkowski; Brenda W. Gillespie; Peter Adriaens; Avery Demond; Elizabeth Hedgeman; Kristine Knutson; Lynn Zwica; Kristen Olson; Timothy Towey; Qixuan Chen; Biling Hong; Chiung-Wen Chang; Shih-Yuan Lee; Barbara Ward; Kathy LaDronka; William Luksemburg; Martha Maier

    2009-01-01

    Background: We conducted a population-based human exposure study in response to concerns among the population of Midland and Saginaw counties, Michigan, that discharges by the Dow Chemical Company of dioxin-like...

  14. Optimal screening mammography reading volumes; evidence from real life in the East Midlands region of the NHS Breast Screening Programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornford, E., E-mail: eleanor.cornford@nuh.nhs.u [Nottingham Breast Institute, Nottingham University Hospitals, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Reed, J.; Murphy, A. [East Midlands QA Reference centre, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Bennett, R. [Cancer Screening Evaluation Unit, Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton (United Kingdom); Evans, A. [Centre for Oncology and Molecular Medicine, University of Dundee (United Kingdom)

    2011-02-15

    Aim: To assess real-life reader performance as a function of both volume of mammograms read and reading experience in a multicentre cohort. Materials and methods: Thirty-seven film readers from the East Midlands Breast Screening Programme had 3 years of consecutive screen reading results available for comparison. Markers of screening performance as the first film reader [cancer detection rates, small cancer detection rates, recall rates, positive predictive value of recall (PPV), and missed cancers] were compared with both volume of films read and years of film reading experience. For reading volume, readers were categorized according to film reading volume over the 3 year period: <15,000 (i.e., on average less than the recommended 5000/year); 15-<20,000; 20-<25,000; and {>=}25,000. For years of experience, readers were categorized into the following groups: <5 years, 5-<10 years, 10-<15 years, and 15-<20 years. Results: There was no evidence to suggest a relationship between years of film reading experience and film-reading performance. For reading volume, there was a significant difference in the distribution of cancer-detection rate between the four groups (p = 0.01); however, there was no difference in small cancer-detection rates, missed cancers or PPV. The median cancer detection rate in the high-volume group ({>=}25,000 mammograms/3 years) was significantly lower than the other groups combined (6.9 per 1000 women screened versus 7.9 per 1000 women screened). The lowest median recall rate was also in the high-volume group, whilst those readers not meeting the NHSBSP minimum requirement had the highest median recall rate; however, there was borderline evidence to suggest a difference in the distribution of recall rates between the four groups. Conclusion: The data from the East Midlands do not provide any evidence for reducing the threshold volume of 5000 cases /year. However, there appears to be an upper limit above which reader performance deteriorates in

  15. The Subglacial Access and Fast Ice Research Experiment - SAFIRE - on Store Glacier, West Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoffersen, P.; Hubbard, B. P.; Doyle, S. H.; Young, T. J.; Hofstede, C. M.; Bougamont, M. H.; Todd, J.; Toberg, N.; Nicholls, K. W.; Box, J.; Walter, J. I.; Hubbard, A.

    2015-12-01

    Marine-terminating outlet glaciers drain 90 percent of the Greenland Ice Sheet and are responsible for about half of the ice sheet's net annual mass loss, which currently raises global sea level by 1 mm per year. The basal controls on these fast-flowing glaciers are, however, poorly understood, with the implication that numerical ice sheet models needed to predict future dynamic ice loss from Greenland relies on uncertain and often untested basal parameterizations. The Subglacial Access and Fast Ice Research Experiment - SAFIRE - is addressing this paucity of observational constraints by drilling to the bed of Store Glacier, a fast-flowing outlet glacier terminating in Uummannaq Fjord, West Greenland. In 2014, we gained access to the bed in four boreholes drilled to depths of 603-616 m near the center of the glacier, 30 km inland from the calving terminus where ice flows at a rate of 700 m/year. A seismic survey showed the glacier bed to consist of water-saturated, soft sediment. The water level in all four boreholes nevertheless dropped rapidly to 80 m below the ice surface when the drill connected with a basal water system, indicating effective drainage over a sedimentary bed. We were able to install wired sensor strings at the bed (water pressure, temperature, electrical conductivity and turbidity) and within the glacier (temperature and tilt) in three boreholes. The sensors operated for up to 80+ days before cables stretched and ultimately snapped due to high internal strain. The data collected during this sensor deployment show ice as cold as -21 degrees Celcius; yet, temperature of water in the basal water system was persistently above the local freezing point. With diurnal variations detected in several sensor records, we hypothesise that surface water lubricates the ice flow while also warming basal ice. The fast basal motion of Store Glacier not only occurs by basal sliding, but from high rates of concentrated strain in the bottom third of the glacier

  16. Sawah Rice Eco-technology and Actualization of Green Revolution in West Africa: Experience from Nigeria and Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.I. OLADELE

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The development and dissemination of sawah rice eco-technology in Nigeria and Ghana as prerequisites for the actualization of green revolution in West Africa were described. It showed that the neglect of the eco-technology and the overemphasis of the biotechnology have rendered the ineffective transferability of the green revolution process from Asia to Africa. The sawah eco-technology increases yield up to 5 t/hm2 through bunding and the use of inlet and outlet connecting irrigation and drainage, which enhances effective water control and management, improves the efficiency of fertilizer, improves nitrogen fixation by soil microbes and algae, increases the use of wetlands, improves soil organic matter accumulation, suppresses weed growth, and enhances immune mechanism of rice through nutrient supply. The current experience has therefore established that the technology overcomes the constraints that have limited the realization of green revolution in West Africa.

  17. Visual acuity of the midland banded water snake estimated from evoked telencephalic potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Robert A; Gawne, Timothy J; Loop, Michael S; Pullman, Sheena

    2007-08-01

    The visual acuity of seven midland banded water snakes was measured by recording evoked responses from telencephalon to temporally modulated square wave grating patterns. Using conventional electrophysiological techniques and signal averaging, high contrast square wave gratings of different spatial frequencies were presented. Acuity was estimated by extrapolating relative response amplitude/log(10) spatial frequency functions which yielded an average acuity of 4.25 cycles/degree. Refractive state was also estimated by recording evoked potentials to intermediate spatial frequencies with different lenses in front of the eye. Polynomial fits indicated that under the experimental conditions the snakes were around 6.4 diopters hyperopic suggesting a corrected acuity of 4.89 cycles/degree. Reduction of grating luminance resulted in a reduction in evoked potential acuity measurements. These results indicate that the spatial resolution of midland banded water snakes is the equal of cat; about 20/120 in human clinical terms.

  18. A study of leadership and implementing a regional trauma care network in the East Midlands

    OpenAIRE

    Lees-Manning, Edward M.

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on issues of innovation and leadership in healthcare. It examines these issues in the context of the reorganisation of trauma care services in the East Midlands into a regionalised trauma network. It is a qualitative study using a general inductive theoretical approach to examine interview data from a sample of 6 members of the network as they discuss issues of management and leadership.\\ud \\ud Trauma care services are a significant area of study, because the long te...

  19. Seven years' experience with Cryptosporidium parvum in Guinea-Bissau, West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perch, M; Sodemann, Morten; Jakobsen, M S

    2001-01-01

    In community-based studies conducted from 1991 to 1997 in Guinea-Bissau, West Africa, stool specimens from children aged less than 5 years with diarrhoea were routinely examined for enteric parasites. Cryptosporidium parvum, found in 7.7% of 4,922 samples, was the second most common parasite, exc...... consistently at the beginning of or just before the rainy seasons, May through July. By contrast, no seasonality was found for the enteric parasites Giardia lamblia or Entamoeba histolytica. We conclude that Cryptosporidium parvum is an important pathogen in children with diarrhoea....

  20. West African Monsoon Decadal Variability and Surface-Related Forcings: Second West African Monsoon Modeling and Evaluation Project Experiment (WAMME II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yongkang; De Sales, Fernando; Lau, William K-M; Boone, Aaron; Kim, Kyu-Myong; Mechoso, Carlos R.; Wang, Guiling; Kucharski, Fred; Schiro, Kathleen; Hosaka, Masahiro; hide

    2016-01-01

    The second West African Monsoon Modeling and Evaluation Project Experiment (WAMME II) is designed to improve understanding of the possible roles and feedbacks of sea surface temperature (SST), land use land cover change (LULCC), and aerosols forcings in the Sahel climate system at seasonal to decadal scales. The WAMME II strategy is to apply prescribed observationally based anomaly forcing, i.e., idealized but realistic forcing, in simulations by climate models to test the relative impacts of such forcings in producingamplifying the Sahelian seasonal and decadal climate variability, including the great 20th century drought. This is the first multi-model experiment specifically designed to simultaneously evaluate relative contributions of multiple external forcings to the Sahel decadal precipitation anomalies between the 1980s and the 1950s that is used to characterize the Sahel 1980s drought in this study. The WAMME II models have consistently demonstrated that SST is the major contributor to the 20th century Sahel drought. Under the influence of the maximum possible SST forcing, WAMME II model ensemble mean can produce up to 60 of the precipitation difference between the 1980s and the 1950s. The present paper also delineated the role of SSTs in triggering and maintaining the Sahel drought. The impact of SSTs in individual oceans is also examined and consensus and discrepancies are reported. Among the different ocean basins, the WAMME II models show the consensus that the Indian Ocean SST has the largest impact on the precipitation temporal evolution associated with the ITCZ movement before the WAM onset while the Pacific Ocean SST greatly contributes to the summer WAM drought. This paper also compares the SST effect with the LULCC effect. Results show that with prescribed land forcing the WAMME II model ensemble mean produces about 40 of the precipitation difference between the 1980s and the 1950s, which is less than the SST contribution but still of first order

  1. Archaea dominate ammonia oxidizers in the permian water ecosystem of midland basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yiguo; Youshao, Wang; Chen, Feng

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the existence and characteristics of ammonia oxidizers in Permian water from Midland Basin. Molecular surveys targeting the amoA gene showed that only ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) exist and have potential activity in this special environment. In contrast, no ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) were detected in the water. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that 72-89% of the total screened AOA clones were affiliated with those found in underground water, and 10-24% of the AOA clones were related to those found in marine water or sediments. Our results indicate AOA might be the most abundant ammonia-oxidizing microbes in this ecological niche.

  2. New data on sedimentation and pedogenesis in the Selenga Midland (western Transbaikalia) during Late Glacial and Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryzhov, Yu. V.; Golubtsov, V. A.; Kobylkin, D. V.; Snytko, V. A.

    2016-04-01

    The investigation of soil-sedimentary sequences formed in different erosional and depositional environments in the central part of the Selenga Midland (western Transbaikalia region) during Late Glacial and Holocene made it possible to reveal nine periods of activation of exogenic processes and sedimentation and eight stages of intense pedogenesis, to define the specific features of these pedogenesis and sedimentation epochs, and to assess their duration. The data on the intensity of sedimentation and its influence on pedogenesis is demonstrated. Asynchronous development of exogenic processes and pedogenesis related to the landscapeâ "climate heterogeneity of the Selenga Midland have been revealed. The latter is reflected in more distinct epochs of intense exogenic processes in more arid southern areas of the midland and more durable periods of pedogenesis in humid climatic environments of its central part.

  3. West African monsoon decadal variability and surface-related forcings: second West African Monsoon Modeling and Evaluation Project Experiment (WAMME II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Yongkang; de Sales, Fernando; Lau, Willliam; Boone, Aaron; Kim, Kyu-Myong; Mechoso, C. R.; Wang , Guiling; Kucharski, Fred; Schiro, Kathleen; Hosaka, Masahiro; Li, Suosuo; Druyan, Leonard M.; Sanda, Ibrah S.; Thiaw, Wassila; Zeng, Ning; Comer, Ruth E.; Lim, Young-Kwon; Mahanama, Sarith; Song, Guoqiong; Gu, Yu; Hagos, Samson M.; Chin, Mian; Schubert, Siefried; Dirmeyer, Paul; Leung, Lai-Yung; Kalnay, Eugenia; Kitoh, Akio; Lu, Cheng-Hsuan; Mahowald, N. M.; Zhang, Zhengqiu J.

    2016-06-13

    The Sahel climate system had experienced one of the strongest interdecadal climate variabilities and the longest drought on the planet in the twentieth century. Most modeling studies on the decadal variability of the Sahel climate so far have focused on the role of anomalies in either sea surface temperature (SST), land surface processes, or aerosols concentration. The Second West African Monsoon Modeling and Evaluation Project Experiment (WAMME II) is designed to improve understanding of the possible roles and feedback of SST, land use land cover change (LULCC), and aerosols forcings in the Sahel climate system at seasonal to decadal scales. The WAMME II strategy is to apply observationally based anomaly forcing, i.e., “idealized but realistic” forcing, in simulations by general circulation models’ (GCMs) and regional climate models’ (RCMs) to test the relative impacts of such forcings in producing/amplifying the Sahelian seasonal and decadal climate variability, including the 20th century drought. To test individual ocean’s SST effect, a special approach in the experimental design is taken to avoid undermine its effect. This is the first multi-model experiment specifically designed to simultaneously evaluate relative contributions of multiple-external forcings to the Sahel drought. This paper presents the major results and preliminary findings of the WAMME II SST experiment, including each ocean’s contribution to the global SST effect, as well as comparison of the SST effect with the LULCC effect. The common empirical orthogonal functions and other analyses are applied to assess and comprehend the discrepancies among the models. In general, the WAMME II models have reached a consensus on SST’s major contribution to the great Sahel drought and show that with the maximum possible SST forcing, it can produce up to 60% of the absolute amount of precipitation difference between the 1980s and the 1950s. This paper has 3 also delineated the role of SSTs in

  4. Cleft lip and palate repair: the experience from two West African sub-regional centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onah, I I; Opara, K O; Olaitan, P B; Ogbonnaya, I S

    2008-08-01

    Compliance with primary surgical treatment in people with cleft lip and palate is a well-known problem, especially in developing countries fraught with poverty and ignorance. Different protocols of treatment exist. In this paper, we retrospectively review a cohort from two centres, with a discussion on the outcome and its implications. The records of all patients with cleft lip and palate seen in the National Orthopaedic Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria, from January 1993 to December 1999, were sought, and all available case notes reviewed retrospectively. This included new cases seen in the period, and also cases operated during this period. Follow up took place until January 2005, when the data were collated. The records of all such patients seen at Ladoke Akintola University Teaching Hospital Osogbo, Nigeria, from September 2004 to June 2006 were also collated and analysed. During this period, 102 patients were seen (93 at Enugu and nine at Osogbo). Fifteen had isolated cleft palate, 42 had isolated cleft lip and 45 had combined cleft lip and palate. Presentation time ranged from 1 day to 43 years. The palate was not repaired in 20 people after lip repair; two patients with cleft lip and palate completely defaulted; and only one person with isolated cleft palate failed to undergo surgery in this period. Two patients in Osogbo absconded. The West African sub-region has a high drop out rate after lip repair.

  5. Characteristics of older adults hospitalised following trauma in the Midland region of New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Katrina; Kool, Bridget; Christey, Grant

    2017-10-06

    To describe the epidemiology of injuries sustained by older adult trauma patients admitted to hospitals in the Midland region (population 886,000) of New Zealand. A review of older adult (≥65 years) trauma cases from the Midland Trauma Registry for the three-year period January 2012 to December 2014 was conducted. Demographics, mechanism of injury, severity of injuries, processes of care and outcomes were analysed. Older adults accounted for 14% (2,278/15,700) of all injury cases captured by the registry during the study period (average annualised incidence 585/100,000 population). The majority of injuries (90%) were minor in nature (ISS 0-12) and 65% resulted from unintentional falls. Falls was the most common mechanism in the major trauma group (38%), followed closely by road traffic crash (30%). Home was the leading place of injury (56%), followed by road/street/highway (15%). Injury rates were significantly higher among non-Māori than Māori. These findings illustrate the growing volumes and changing epidemiology of both major and minor trauma affecting older persons hospitalised following trauma in one of the four health regions of New Zealand. There is a need to prepare for an increase in demand for trauma services to meet the needs of an ageing population in New Zealand.

  6. Teaching a Second Core Course in Information Technology: A West Point Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Wolfe

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available The United States Military Academy (USMA at West Point has the mission to produce officers for the U.S. Army. As part of the curriculum, the Academy requires all non-ABET major cadets (students to take two courses on information technology (IT with both courses focused on problem solving with technology. The first course is an introductory course offered in the freshman year while the second course is a more detailed course offered in the junior year. The Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Department uses an expanded definition of information technology; that is, any technology that acquires, transmits, processes, or displays information. Information technology is becoming increasingly important in the Army with the development and use of sensors, command and control systems, and other technologies to achieve information dominance. The course is divided into six modules: acquisition of data and sensors, transmission of data and networks, processing of data into information, display of information, legal and ethical issues of IT, and information dominance and operations. Cadets use a four-step problem solving methodology to develop and implement the components of an Information System to solve a real-world problem. The short-term impact of the course on the cadets has been very positive, and we are confident that the long-term impact will be substantial on the cadets and the Army. Cadets are exposed to a number of different technologies, gaining an understanding of how these technologies are used to acquire data, transmit data, process data into information, and display information to support decision making. In addition, the course projects help enforce the problem solving methodology where cadets analyze, design, implement, and test their solutions.

  7. Assessing patients’ experience of integrated care: a survey of patient views in the North West London Integrated Care Pilot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Mastellos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Despite the importance of continuity of care and patient engagement, few studies have captured patients’ views on integrated care. This study assesses patient experience in the Integrated Care Pilot in North West London with the aim to help clinicians and policy makers understand patients’ acceptability of integrated care and design future initiatives.Methods: A survey was developed, validated and distributed to 2029 randomly selected practice patients identified as having a care plan.Results: A total of 405 questionnaires were included for analysis. Respondents identified a number of benefits associated with the pilot, including increased patient involvement in decision-making, improved patient-provider relationship, better organisation and access to care, and enhanced inter-professional communication. However, only 22.4% were aware of having a care plan, and of these only 37.9% had a copy of the care plan. Knowledge of care plans was significantly associated with a more positive experience.Conclusions: This study reinforces the view that integrated care can improve quality of care and patient experience. However, care planning was a complex and technically challenging process that occurred more slowly than planned with wide variation in quality and time of recruitment to the pilot, making it difficult to assess the sustainability of benefits.

  8. Assessing patients’ experience of integrated care: a survey of patient views in the North West London Integrated Care Pilot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Mastellos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Despite the importance of continuity of care and patient engagement, few studies have captured patients’ views on integrated care. This study assesses patient experience in the Integrated Care Pilot in North West London with the aim to help clinicians and policy makers understand patients’ acceptability of integrated care and design future initiatives. Methods: A survey was developed, validated and distributed to 2029 randomly selected practice patients identified as having a care plan. Results: A total of 405 questionnaires were included for analysis. Respondents identified a number of benefits associated with the pilot, including increased patient involvement in decision-making, improved patient-provider relationship, better organisation and access to care, and enhanced inter-professional communication. However, only 22.4% were aware of having a care plan, and of these only 37.9% had a copy of the care plan. Knowledge of care plans was significantly associated with a more positive experience. Conclusions: This study reinforces the view that integrated care can improve quality of care and patient experience. However, care planning was a complex and technically challenging process that occurred more slowly than planned with wide variation in quality and time of recruitment to the pilot, making it difficult to assess the sustainability of benefits.

  9. Women's experience of colposcopy: a qualitative investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luesley David M

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The last comprehensive investigation of women's experience of the colposcopy service in the UK was conducted in the 1980's. It highlighted women's anxiety and lack of information, resulting in recommendations for improvements. Since then the colposcopy service has changed substantially. It is therefore time to re-visit women's experience of this service and reflect upon the success of service changes in improving experience and reducing anxiety. The aim of this study was to investigate women's experience of being referred for, and attending, colposcopy appointments, and identify potential service improvements. Methods Qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted with 18 women newly referred for colposcopy in the West Midlands, UK. The interviews were designed to elicit the experience of colposcopy from the patients' perspective. Results The eight emerging themes were catogised as three overarching concepts, which were: feelings of emotional reaction, choices being accommodated and time delays. Women felt very apprehensive before their appointment, but when attending, appreciated being consulted about their preferences. Delays in referral and feeling 'rushed' by staff impacted negatively on women's experience. Conclusions Service changes in information provision and increased respect for dignity seem to have improved the experience that women have of colposcopy, however, this does not appear to have translated into decreased anxiety. Women still have strong emotional reactions to being referred for, and attending, colposcopy appointments. Staff taking time to explain the diagnosis fully, and discuss their preferences about aspects of their consultation can alleviate their anxiety.

  10. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the Spraberry Formation of the Midland Basin, Permian Basin Province, Texas, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Kristen R.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Klett, Timothy R.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Le, Phuong A.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Finn, Thomas M.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Brownfield, Michael E.

    2017-05-15

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean resources of 4.2 billion barrels of oil and 3.1 trillion cubic feet of gas in the Spraberry Formation of the Midland Basin, Permian Basin Province, Texas.

  11. 78 FR 21100 - Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; Dow Corning Corporation (Silicon-Based Products); Midland, MI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-09

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; Dow Corning Corporation (Silicon-Based... subzone with certain manufacturing authority at the silicon- based products manufacturing facility of Dow... facility of Dow Corning Corporation, located in Midland, Michigan (Subzone 140B), as described in the...

  12. Assessment of undiscovered continuous oil resources in the Wolfcamp shale of the Midland Basin, Permian Basin Province, Texas, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Lillis, Paul G.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Le, Phuong A.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Finn, Thomas M.

    2016-11-15

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed technically recoverable mean resources of 20 billion barrels of oil and 16 trillion cubic feet of gas in the Wolfcamp shale in the Midland Basin part of the Permian Basin Province, Texas.

  13. The radiography of foreign bodies in the eye as carried out at the Birmingham and Midland Eye Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truelove, P

    1978-12-01

    An account is given of the following procedures at the Birmingham and Midland Eye Hospital; (a) to show if a foreign body is present in the area of the eye; (b) to demonstrate its possible presence within the globe of the eye; (c) to localise its exact position within the globe, using the limbal ring technique.

  14. Experiences of music listening among rugby players at North-West University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamaryn L. Aslett

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This article documents a study that investigated the reasons why a group of student rugby players habitually listen to music as part of their pre-match routine. The investigation followed a hermeneutic phenomenological approach that allowed the players to verbalise their personal music listening experiences. The investigation links the music listening practices of the players with the concept of musical experience as an innate human capacity directed towards general well-being. For the players, well-being is a basic condition of happiness and optimism. Achieving and maintaining this condition draws on the emotive qualities of musical sound patterns, as well as the powerful, socially situated meanings of song lyrics. Consequent states of mind conceptualise a rewarding existence by integrating experiences in sport as well as in music. Directed towards rugby practice, the study found that music listening is an informal, individual activity that involves the use of earphones. The sense of personal isolation this induces is a prerequisite for generating focus as well as controlled energy, a state of mind regarded as essential for effective participation in rugby. The pervasive use yet informal application of this strategy by rugby players points to an officially undervalued psychological resource. This finding has implications for fuller exploitation and incorporation of music listening into rugby training programmes.

  15. Characterization of bedded salt for storage caverns -- A case study from the Midland Basin, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hovorka, Susan D.; Nava, Robin

    2000-06-13

    The geometry of Permian bedding salt in the Midland Basin is a product of interaction between depositional facies and postdepositional modification by salt dissolution. Mapping high-frequency cycle patterns in cross section and map view using wireline logs documents the salt geometry. Geologically based interpretation of depositional and dissolution processes provides a powerful tool for mapping and geometry of salt to assess the suitability of sites for development of solution-mined storage caverns. In addition, this process-based description of salt geometry complements existing data about the evolution of one of the best-known sedimentary basins in the world, and can serve as a genetic model to assist in interpreting other salts.

  16. Southwest Pacific Ocean Circulation and Climate Experiment (SPICE) scientific advances and future west pacific coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganachaud, A. S.; Sprintall, J.; Lin, X.; Ando, K.

    2016-02-01

    The Southwest Pacific Ocean Circulation and Climate Experiment (SPICE) is an international research program under the auspices of CLIVAR (Climate Variability and Predictability). The key objectives are to understand the Southwest Pacific Ocean circulation and Convergence Zone (SPCZ) dynamics, as well as their influence on regional and basin-scale climate patterns. It was designed to measure and monitor the ocean circulation, and to validate and improve numerical models. South Pacific oceanic waters are carried from the subtropical gyre centre in the westward flowing South Equatorial Current (SEC), towards the southwest Pacific-a major circulation pathway that redistributes water from the subtropics to the equator and Southern Ocean. Water transit through the Coral and Solomon Seas is potentially of great importance to tropical climate prediction because changes in either the temperature or the amount of water arriving at the equator have the capability to modulate ENSO and produce basin-scale climate feedbacks. On average, the oceanic circulation is driven by the Trade Winds, and subject to substantial variability, related with the SPCZ position and intensity. The circulation is complex, with the SEC splitting into zonal jets upon encountering island archipelagos, before joining either the East Australian Current or the New Guinea Costal UnderCurrent towards the equator. SPICE included large, coordinated in situ measurement programs and high resolution numerical simulations of the area. After 8 years of substantial in situ oceanic observational and modeling efforts, our understanding of the region has much improved. We have a refined description of the SPCZ behavior, boundary currents, pathways, and water mass transformation, including the previously undocumented Solomon Sea. The transports are large and vary substantially in a counter-intuitive way, with asymmetries and gating effects that depend on time scales. We will review the recent advancements and discuss

  17. A survey in the West Midlands on the use of the courtesy title 'Dr' by UK dental practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, D J; Allsopp, J

    1997-10-25

    To assess the 1995 General Dental Council's decision to remove restrictions on GDPs using the courtesy title 'Dr'. In 1996 this survey undertook a qualitative analysis of the views of four groups involved in primary dental care: 72 GDPs, 25 medical practitioners, 46 vocational dental practitioners, 89 patients. These indicated that some respondents thought that there would possibly be better quality of patient care due to improved medical history taking, that the public's image of the dental profession might be enhanced and that 87% of newly qualified dentists were in favour of the use of the title 'Dr'. Use of the title appears to be on the increase and if use of the title does become widespread, then all practitioners will need to re-evaluate their choice of personal titles. GDPs need to consider if using the title 'Dr' will encourage patients to give more detailed medical histories.

  18. The West African Health Organization?s experience in improving the health research environment in the ECOWAS region

    OpenAIRE

    Aidam, Jude; Sombi?, Issiaka

    2016-01-01

    Background The West African Health Organization (WAHO) implemented a research development program in West Africa during 2009?2013 using the Knowledge for Better Health Research Capacity Development Framework, developed by Pang et al. (Bull World Health Organ 81(11):815?820, 2003), on strategies used to improve the research environment. The framework has the following components: stewardship, financing, sustainable resourcing and research utilization. This paper describes how WAHO implemented ...

  19. The experiences of Batswana families regarding hospice care of AIDS patients in the Bophirima district, North West province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhele, M F; Mulaudzi, F M

    2012-01-01

    The HIV/AIDS pandemic put significant strain on healthcare services in the country. Hospitals were no longer coping with the escalating number of AIDS patients. This resulted in the early discharge of patients, with some patients, too ill to be nursed at home, being sent to hospices for continued care. The Batswana had mixed feelings about hospice care, because their beliefs on patient care are based on the ubuntu philosophy, which emphasises the principle of caring for one another. The purpose of this study was to explore and describe the experiences of Batswana families regarding hospice care for patients in the Thlabane township in the province of the North West as well as to make recommendations to policy-makers to ensure that hospices are accepted by community members and utilised effectively. A qualitative, explorative, descriptive research design was applied. Purposive sampling was applied to select study participants with whom in-depth unstructured interviews were conducted. A qualitative data analysis was done by categorising, ordering, and summarising the data, and describing the findings. The findings indicated that families of patients in hospice care experienced such care as foreign to their culture. These families also experienced stigmatisation, firstly owing to the stigma associated with AIDS and secondly because they opted for hospice care. However, they also observed the high quality of care provided by the hospice and understood its benefits for AIDS patients. The study concluded that hospice care relieved families of terminally ill AIDS patients of the burden of care and enabled them to keep on working and earning a living. Recommendations to policy-makers included enhancing hospice care and ensuring the provisioning of culturally safe hospice care.

  20. Work-related musculoskeletal injuries amongst obstetrics and gynaecology trainees in East Midland region of the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Arslan Okuyucu, Kubra; Jeve, Yadava; Doshani, Angie

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Work-related musculoskeletal injuries (WRMSI) have been well known amongst obstetrics and gynaecology (O&G) practitioners, but limited data have been reported. Our aim is to determine the prevalence, severity and characteristics of WRMSI amongst O&G trainees. Methods A musculoskeletal ergonomic survey was conducted amongst the O&G trainees in the East-Midlands region of United Kingdom (UK). The survey comprised of demographic details, year of training, previous manual handling trainin...

  1. The University of Michigan Dioxin Exposure Study: predictors of human serum dioxin concentrations in Midland and Saginaw, Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garabrant, David H; Franzblau, Alfred; Lepkowski, James; Gillespie, Brenda W; Adriaens, Peter; Demond, Avery; Hedgeman, Elizabeth; Knutson, Kristine; Zwica, Lynn; Olson, Kristen; Towey, Timothy; Chen, Qixuan; Hong, Biling; Chang, Chiung-Wen; Lee, Shih-Yuan; Ward, Barbara; Ladronka, Kathy; Luksemburg, William; Maier, Martha

    2009-05-01

    We conducted a population-based human exposure study in response to concerns among the population of Midland and Saginaw counties, Michigan, that discharges by the Dow Chemical Company of dioxin-like compounds into the nearby river and air had led to an increase in residents' body burdens of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), here collectively referred to as "dioxins." We sought to identify factors that explained variation in serum dioxin concentrations among the residents of Midland and Saginaw counties. Exposures to dioxins in soil, river sediments, household dust, historic emissions, and contaminated fish and game were of primary interest. We studied 946 people in four populations in the contaminated area and in a referent population, by interview and by collection of serum, household dust, and residential soil. Linear regression was used to identify factors associated with serum dioxins. Demographic factors explained a large proportion of variation in serum dioxin concentrations. Historic exposures before 1980, including living in the Midland/Saginaw area, hunting and fishing in the contaminated areas, and working at Dow, contributed to serum dioxin levels. Exposures since 1980 in Midland and Saginaw counties contributed little to serum dioxins. This study provides valuable insights into the relationships between serum dioxins and environmental factors, age, sex, body mass index, smoking, and breast-feeding. These factors together explain a substantial proportion of the variation in serum dioxin concentrations in the general population. Historic exposures to environmental contamination appeared to be of greater importance than recent exposures for dioxins.

  2. The University of Michigan Dioxin Exposure Study: Predictors of Human Serum Dioxin Concentrations in Midland and Saginaw, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garabrant, David H.; Franzblau, Alfred; Lepkowski, James; Gillespie, Brenda W.; Adriaens, Peter; Demond, Avery; Hedgeman, Elizabeth; Knutson, Kristine; Zwica, Lynn; Olson, Kristen; Towey, Timothy; Chen, Qixuan; Hong, Biling; Chang, Chiung-Wen; Lee, Shih-Yuan; Ward, Barbara; LaDronka, Kathy; Luksemburg, William; Maier, Martha

    2009-01-01

    Background We conducted a population-based human exposure study in response to concerns among the population of Midland and Saginaw counties, Michigan, that discharges by the Dow Chemical Company of dioxin-like compounds into the nearby river and air had led to an increase in residents’ body burdens of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), here collectively referred to as “dioxins.” Objectives We sought to identify factors that explained variation in serum dioxin concentrations among the residents of Midland and Saginaw counties. Exposures to dioxins in soil, river sediments, household dust, historic emissions, and contaminated fish and game were of primary interest. Methods We studied 946 people in four populations in the contaminated area and in a referent population, by interview and by collection of serum, household dust, and residential soil. Linear regression was used to identify factors associated with serum dioxins. Results Demographic factors explained a large proportion of variation in serum dioxin concentrations. Historic exposures before 1980, including living in the Midland/Saginaw area, hunting and fishing in the contaminated areas, and working at Dow, contributed to serum dioxin levels. Exposures since 1980 in Midland and Saginaw counties contributed little to serum dioxins. Conclusions This study provides valuable insights into the relationships between serum dioxins and environmental factors, age, sex, body mass index, smoking, and breast-feeding. These factors together explain a substantial proportion of the variation in serum dioxin concentrations in the general population. Historic exposures to environmental contamination appeared to be of greater importance than recent exposures for dioxins. PMID:19479027

  3. Site-specific toxicity of un-ionized ammonia in the tittabawassee river at midland, michigan: Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Howard C; Latvaitis, P Brad; Hopkins, Daniel L

    1986-05-01

    Site-specific acute and chronic toxicity tests with un-ionized ammonia were conducted in Tittabawassee River water from Midland, Michigan. The results of these tests were used by the State of Michigan Department of Natural Resources (MDNR) to establish site-specific acute and chronic un-ionized ammonia water quality criteria for the portion of the river at Midland. The acute water-quality criterion established by the state using walleye data from this study was 1.0 mg/L un-ionized ammonia nitrogen. The chronic criterion established using fathead minnow embryo-larval data was 0.095 mg/L un-ionized ammonia nitrogen. The chronic criterion was used in determining the assimilative capacity for ammonia in this portion of the river. The MDNR allocated a portion of the assimilative capacity to each discharger and set effluent limitations based on the allocated capacities. Ammonia effluent limits have been set in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permits of the Dow Chemical Company and the City of Midland. Ammonia effluent limits will be set in the NPDES permit of the Consumers Power Company. Copyright © 1986 SETAC.

  4. Reproductive success of three passerine species exposed to dioxin-like compounds near Midland, Michigan, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredricks, Timothy B; Zwiernik, Matthew J; Seston, Rita M; Coefield, Sarah J; Glaspie, Cassandra N; Tazelaar, Dustin L; Kay, Denise P; Newsted, John L; Giesy, John P

    2012-05-01

    Nests of three passerine birds, house wren (HOWR), tree swallow (TRES), and eastern bluebird (EABL) were monitored daily (2005-2007) at study areas (SAs) downstream of Midland, Michigan where soil and sediment concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were significantly greater than the regional background concentrations and upstream reference areas (RAs). Similarly, TRES research conducted at sites contaminated with dioxin-like compounds indicated that concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and PCDFs, expressed as ΣPCDD/DFs and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents observed in the diet and eggs of these three species would be predicted to cause significant effects on reproduction. However, site-specific reproductive parameters including hatching success and fledging success at downstream SAs were similar to or greater than those at upstream RAs. Specifically, hatching success was not significantly different among years, species, locations, or between early and late nesting attempts. Of all initiated clutches, 66% (n = 427), 73% (n = 245), and 64% (n = 122) successfully fledged at least one nestling for HOWR, TRES, and EABL, respectively. Overall reproductive performance was similar between SAs and RAs. The reason for these unexpected results is consistent with the fact that there are species-specific and congener-specific differences in sensitivities to the effects of aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists.

  5. Ecological effects of pipeline construction through deciduous forested wetlands, Midland County, Michigan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zellmer, S.D. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Rastorfer, J.R. (Chicago State Univ., IL (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences ANL/CSU Cooperative Herbarium, Chicago, IL (United States)); Van Dyke, G.D. (Trinity Christian Coll., Palos Heights, IL (United States). Dept. of Biology)

    1991-07-01

    Implementation of recent federal and state regulations promulgated to protect wetlands makes information on effects of gas pipeline rights-of-way (ROWs) in wetlands essential to the gas pipeline industry. This study is designed to record vegetational changes induced by the construction of a large-diameter gas pipeline through deciduous forested wetlands. Two second-growth forested wetland sites mapped as Lenawee soils, one mature and one subjected to recent selective logging, were selected in Midland County, Michigan. Changes in the adjacent forest and successional development on the ROW are being documented. Cover-class estimates are being made for understory and ROW plant species using 1 {times}1-m quadrats. Counts are also being made for all woody species with stems < 2 cm in diameter at breast height (dbh) in the same plots used for cover-class estimates. Individual stem diameters and species counts are being recorded for all woody understory and overstory plants with stems {ge}2 cm dbh in 10 {times} 10-m plots. Although analyses of the data have not been completed, preliminary analyses indicate that some destruction of vegetation at the ROW forest edge may have been avoidable during pipeline construction. Rapid regrowth of many native wetland plant species on the ROW occurred because remnants of native vegetation and soil-bearing propagules of existing species survived on the ROW after pipeline construction and seeding operations. 91 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Film reading in the East Midlands Breast Screening Programme -- are we missing opportunities for earlier diagnosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, J; Murphy, A E; Edmondson-Jones, M; Sibbering, D M; Turnbull, A E

    2014-04-01

    To assess whether there are any significant differences in the film-reading histories of interval or screen-detected cancers, and whether this affects stage at diagnosis. The rates of screen-detected and interval cancers (overall and by radiological categorization) were observed from 268,067 women screened in the East Midlands Breast Screening Programme over 2004-2007 to assess whether there were differences in incidence based on previous film-reading history. Cancers detected at the subsequent screen and film-reading history were analysed to assess whether this affected stage at diagnosis. Analysis undertaken involved cancer detection rates, confidence intervals, and chi-square tests with Monte Carlo simulation. Rates of interval cancers were similar in all groups where at least one reader had indicated recall to assessment (6.1-7.7/1000) and were significantly higher in comparison to women whose previous film-reading outcome was unanimous routine rescreen (2.9/1000; p film-reading history (p = 0.503). The prognosis of screen-detected cancers was similar and few cancers were false negatives regardless of film-reading history at the previous screen. Copyright © 2013 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Time-lapse resistivity analysis of Quaternary sediments in the Midlands of Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellicer, Xavier M.; Zarroca, Mario; Gibson, Paul

    2012-07-01

    Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) data are influenced by a number of factors associated with the subsurface such as porosity, moisture content and lithology; as well as external factors such as rainfall and temperature. Two time-lapse ERT profiles with 5 m and two with 2 m electrode spacings were acquired over a range of Quaternary sediment types encompassing till, esker gravel, glaciofluvial sand and silt and glaciolacustrine silt/clay. Data were collected on a monthly basis during 2006 at a site located in the Midlands of Ireland in order to evaluate the influence of such conditioning factors on the resistivity of the subsurface. Effective recharge, the depth of investigation, the texture and the internal architecture of the different sediment types and temperature variation are the main factors influencing the resistivity seasonal variation. The shallow subsurface (factors influencing the electrical response of the subsurface are the electrode spacing used for data collection and the seasonal temperature variation of the subsurface. Two methods for temperature correction of electrical resistivity data were tested in this study — both gave similar results. Resistivity values recorded in the shallow subsurface (< 5 m) show variations of over 15% subsequent to temperature correction. The results illustrate that seasonal temperature changes and their influence on subsurface temperature have to be accounted for in data interpretation and emphasise the potential of this technique for the estimation of the rate of movement of the wetting/drying front in soft sediments.

  8. “Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: A Single Surgeon’s Experience in some of the Teaching Hospitals of West Bengal”

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharjee, Prosanta Kumar; Halder, Shyamal Kumar; Rai, Himanshu; Ray, Rajendra Pd

    2013-01-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy has revolutionized the management of symptomatic gallstone disease since its introduction more than 20 years ago. It has gained widespread acceptance and is presently the gold standard for its management. This large study spanned over last 10 years and includes prospective data on 950 elective cases of laparoscopic cholecystectomy since 2002. All cases were operated personally by the author in different teaching hospitals of West Bengal. The following were looked ...

  9. Colluvial and alluvial response to land use change in Midland England: An integrated geoarchaeological approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Antony G.

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents geomorphic, soils and palaeoecological data from a small sub-catchment in the English Midlands in an attempt to provide an integrated picture of Holocene landscape change. The area used has also been the focus of a multi-disciplinary and long-term archaeological survey (Raunds Area Project) and so has a wealth of archaeological and historical data which can be related to the environmental record. The paper combines these data, much of which are only published in the archaeological literature with new interpretations based upon unpublished data and new data particularly from the hillslopes and new radiocarbon dating from the valley floor. It is inferred that despite a long history of pastoral and arable agriculture (since the Neolithic/Bronze Age), colluviation on lower slopes, significant soil redistribution and overbank alluviation only began to a measurable extent in the Late Saxon-Medieval period (9th Century AD onwards). It is suggested that this is due to a combination of land-use factors, principally the laying out of an intensive open field system and the establishment of villages combined with a period of extremes in climate well known throughout Europe. Indeed the critical element appears to have been the social changes in this period that created this regionally distinctive landscape which happened to have a high spatial connectivity and facilitated intensive arable production with high tillage rates. Intense rainfall events during this period could therefore detach and mobilize high volumes of soil and the open field system facilitated transport to slope bases and valley floors. The need for detailed and spatially precise land-use data in order to interpret accelerated landscape change is stressed.

  10. Factors influencing base flow in the Swiss Midlands - Can results from different base flow separation methods help to identify these factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Raphael; Schädler, Bruno; Viviroli, Daniel; Weingartner, Rolf

    2010-05-01

    is generally accepted in the literature, secondly in land cover, and, especially for the Swiss Midlands, in aquifer area and aquifer volumes. In this contribution the results of the different methods are presented and conclusions as to control factors are drawn from the results. The data base for river flow analysis in the low flow range is ideal in Switzerland. There are long time series, a dense gauge network and a comprehensive knowledge about uncertainty of the runoff measurements during low flow. This allows, in addition to the obtained process understanding, a well-founded comparison between the methods applied, which is going to be presented as well. Demuth, S. (1993) Untersuchungen zum Niedrigwasser in West-Europa (European low flow study). Freiburger Schriften zur Hydrologie, Band 1, Freiburg, Germany. Institue of Hydrology (1980) Low Flows Studies Report, 3 volumes. Institute of Hydrology, Wallingford, UK. Kille, K. (1970) Das Verfahren MoMNQ, ein Beitrag zur Berechnung der mittleren langjährigen Grundwasserneubildung mit Hilfe der monatlichen Niedrigwasserabflüsse. Zeitschrift der deutschen Geologischen Gesellschaft, Sonderheft Hydrogeologie Hydrogeochemie, 89-95. Wittenberg, H. (1999) Baseflow recession and recharge as nonlinear storage processes. Hydrol. Process., 13, 715-726.

  11. Mitigation of Disasters Due to Severe Climate Events: from Policy to Practice,the West African Coastal Region Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediang, Okuku

    2016-07-01

    The distributive pattern of disaster due to severe climate events over the coast of West Africa especially Nigeria was examined using yearly mean disaster due to severe climatic events for the period of 30 years (1981-2010) from the marine stations in the coastal region of Nigeria. Graphical and isohyetal analyses were used to look into the patter of severe weather events over the area considered and to see if the severe weather events is increasing or not in the coast of West Africa especially the Nigerian coast and how to mitigate ,were policy relating to severe weather events are discussed. The paper conclude that due to the nature of coast of West Africa and Nigeria in particular, it enjoys longer severe weather events season than dry during the wet season, it is common to observe periods of enhanced or suppressed convective activity to persist over the wide areas for somedays. This paper also contributes to the wealth of knowledge already existing on Indigenous people play major roles in preserving the ecosystem especially during severe weather events . This has resulted in the recent calls for the integration of indigenous knowledge systems into global knowledge system strategies. Until now, integrating local knowledge systems into severe weather events and climate change concerns is not a completely new idea. A comprehensive review of literature using electronic and non-electronic databases formed the methodology. The paper conclude also by drawing the attention that by targeting Promoting indigenous people's participation in severe weather events and climate change issues is an important initiative towards adaptation and sustainable development in Africa and around the world. It is increasingly realized that the global knowledge system has dominated research, policies and programmes that address current severe weather events and climate change's challenges,mitigation and adaptation strategies.

  12. Using Seasonal Climate Forecasts to Guide Disaster Management: The Red Cross Experience during the 2008 West Africa Floods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arame Tall

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2008, the seasonal forecast issued at the Seasonal Climate Outlook Forum for West Africa (PRESAO announced a high risk of above-normal rainfall for the July–September rainy season. With probabilities for above-normal rainfall of 0.45, this forecast indicated noteworthy increases in the risk of heavy rainfall. When this information reached the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC West and Central Africa Office, it led to significant changes in the organization’s flood response operations. The IFRC regional office requested funds in advance of anticipated floods, prepositioned disaster relief items in strategic locations across West Africa to benefit up to 9,500 families, updated its flood contingency plans, and alerted vulnerable communities and decision-makers across the region. This forecast-based preparedness resulted in a decrease in the number of lives, property, and livelihoods lost to floods, compared to just one year prior in 2007 when similar floods claimed above 300 lives in the region. This article demonstrates how a science-based early warning informed decisions and saved lives by triggering action in anticipation of forecast events. It analyses what it took to move decision-makers to action, based on seasonal climate information, and to overcome traditional barriers to the uptake of seasonal climate information in the region, providing evidence that these barriers can be overcome. While some institutional, communication and technical barriers were addressed in 2008, many challenges remain. Scientists and humanitarians need to build more common ground.

  13. Large-scale overview of the summer monsoon over West Africa during the AMMA field experiment in 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Janicot

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The AMMA (African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis program is dedicated to providing a better understanding of the West African monsoon and its influence on the physical, chemical and biological environment regionally and globally, as well as relating variability of this monsoon system to issues of health, water resources, food security and demography for West African nations. Within this framework, an intensive field campaign took place during the summer of 2006 to better document specific processes and weather systems at various key stages of this monsoon season. This campaign was embedded within a longer observation period that documented the annual cycle of surface and atmospheric conditions between 2005 and 2007. The present paper provides a large and regional scale overview of the 2006 summer monsoon season, that includes consideration of of the convective activity, mean atmospheric circulation and synoptic/intraseasonal weather systems, oceanic and land surface conditions, continental hydrology, dust concentration and ozone distribution. The 2006 African summer monsoon was a near-normal rainy season except for a large-scale rainfall excess north of 15° N. This monsoon season was also characterized by a 10-day delayed onset compared to climatology, with convection becoming developed only after 10 July. This onset delay impacted the continental hydrology, soil moisture and vegetation dynamics as well as dust emission. More details of some less-well-known atmospheric features in the African monsoon at intraseasonal and synoptic scales are provided in order to promote future research in these areas.

  14. Biochemical composition of organic matter in UK Midlands catchments: implications for drinking water treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieroza, M.; Bridgeman, J.; Baker, A.

    2007-12-01

    Insufficient removal of natural organic matter at treatment works can lead to the formation of potentially carcinogenic disinfection by-products (mainly trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids, THMs and HAAs) due to reactions of residual organic matter with chlorine added at the disinfection stage of water treatment process. However, the total organic carbon (TOC) removal efficiency is controlled by the content and character of organic matter in treated water, spatially and temporally dependent (e.g. the ratio of hydrophylic and hydrophobic fractions). Thus, a better understanding of organic matter composition can affect the treatment process strategies, improving the THM formation prediction and the quantification of coagulant and disinfection dosages. Fluorescence analysis of organic matter composition and treatment efficiency has been carried out on raw and partially-treated water samples from catchments in the Midlands region of the UK. The catchments cover an area of different water sources, ranging from upland, peaty-rich subcatchments with coloured, young waters, to agriculturally transformed lowland subcatchments. From the spectrophotometric analysis of raw water it was found that, the abstraction from river with water storage in reservoirs corresponds with a hydrophilic character of organic matter, rather high microbial fraction and high TOC. Opposite properties (hydrophobic, low microbial and variable TOC) are specific for sites with abstraction and storage processes within reservoirs. For direct abstraction from rivers, without water storing in reservoir, a common pattern is intermediate character of organic matter. The fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) technique was used for the assessment of water treatment works performance (TOC removal) and organic matter characterization. The freshwater organic matter exhibits specific fluorescence properties, with increased intensities of fluorescence in some regions of the EEM, resulting from the water

  15. Passerine exposure to primarily PCDFs and PCDDs in the river floodplains near Midland, Michigan, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredricks, Timothy B; Zwiernik, Matthew J; Seston, Rita M; Coefield, Sarah J; Plautz, Stephanie C; Tazelaar, Dustin L; Shotwell, Melissa S; Bradley, Patrick W; Kay, Denise P; Giesy, John P

    2010-05-01

    House wren (Troglodytes aedon), tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor), and eastern bluebird (Sialia sialis) tissues collected in study areas (SAs) downstream of Midland, Michigan (USA) contained concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) greater than in upstream reference areas (RAs) in the region. The sum of concentrations of PCDD/DFs (SigmaPCDD/DFs) in eggs of house wrens and eastern bluebirds from SAs were 4- to 22-fold greater compared to those from RAs, whereas concentrations in tree swallow eggs were similar among areas. Mean concentrations of SigmaPCDD/DFs and sum 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (SigmaTEQs(WHO-Avian)), based on 1998 WHO avian toxic equivalency factors, in house wren and eastern bluebird eggs ranged from 860 (430) to 1500 (910) ng/kg wet weight (ww) and 470 (150) to 1100 (510) ng/kg ww, respectively, at the most contaminated study areas along the Tittabawassee River, whereas mean concentrations in tree swallow eggs ranged from 280 (100) to 760 (280) ng/kg ww among all locations. Concentrations of SigmaPCDD/DFs in nestlings of all studied species at SAs were 3- to 50-fold greater compared to RAs. Mean house wren, tree swallow, and eastern bluebird nestling concentrations of SigmaPCDD/DFs and SigmaTEQs(WHO-Avian) ranged from 350 (140) to 610 (300) ng/kg ww, 360 (240) to 1100 (860) ng/kg ww, and 330 (100) to 1200 (690) ng/kg ww, respectively, at SAs along the Tittabawassee River. Concentrations of SigmaTEQs(WHO-Avian) were positively correlated with SigmaPCDD/DF concentrations in both eggs and nestlings of all species studied. Profiles of relative concentrations of individual congeners were dominated by furan congeners (69-84%), primarily 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran and 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran, for all species at SAs on the Tittabawassee and Saginaw rivers but were dominated by dioxin congeners at upstream RAs.

  16. The epidemiology of work-related injury admissions to hospitals in the Midland region of New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kool, Bridget; Ameratunga, Shanthi; Scott, Nina; Lawrenson, Ross; Christey, Grant

    2017-11-01

    To describe the epidemiological characteristics of patients with work-related injuries (WRI) admitted to hospitals in New Zealand's Midland Trauma System (MTS) during a four year period. A retrospective review was conducted of trauma registry records for adults (≥15years) admitted to four hospitals in the MTS as a result of WRI between 1 January 2012 and 31 December 2015. We describe the patterns of injury incidence by demographic characteristics, employment industry, mechanism of injury, body regions injured, injury severity score (ISS), month, day and time of injury, duration of hospital stay, domicile District Health Board (DHB), and discharge destination. The 2169 WRI trauma admissions, corresponded to an annualised rate of 205.8 per 100,000 workers or 234.3 per 100,000 full time employment employees (FTE). Injury rates were highest among males (238.0 per 100,000 workers) and those aged 15-24 years (227.1 per 100,000 workers), and lowest among Asians (83 per 100,000 workers). The highest injury rates occurred among the 'agriculture/forestry/fishing', 'manufacturing', and 'transport/postal/warehousing' industries. 'Contact with machinery' was the most common mechanism of injury, and the 'extremities or pelvic girdle' the most common body region injured. The in-hospital case fatality rate was Midland region is consistent with national estimates. The high rate of injuries amongst males, young adults, and Māori requires further exploration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. MAIN CAREGIVER’S EXPERIENCE IN MEETING SELF-CARE NEEDS AMONG ADOLESCENTS WITH ASD IN PONTIANAK MUNICIPALITY, WEST BORNEO, INDONESIA: A QUALITATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilis Lestari

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is a complex developmental disorder, increasing in number, faster than that of other developmental disorders in the world. This complex disorder affects a child’s self-autonomy, which is important for individual self-care. Objective : This study is to explore main caregivers’ experience to meet self-care needs among adolescents with ASD in Pontianak, West Borneo, Indonesia. Methods: Qualitative semi-structured in-depth interviews were done with 7 main caregivers that have lived together and taken care of the adolescents with ASD in Pontianak Municipality, West Borneo Province. Sampling was taken with purposive sampling (maximum variation. Source (interviews and method (observations of self-care activities and documents like photos, learning reports and field notes triangulations were taken on 1 participant and 7 autistic adolescents. Participants’ statements were recorded by using a voice recorder, and then transcribed, coded, interpreted, and categorized in order that sub-topics and main topics could be formed. Results: The study identified five main topics: i.e., 1 Autonomy in self-care; 2 Care effort; 3 Feelings, support, and expectations. Three findings of the study emphasize the potentials of children with autism to be autonomous in daily self-care. Conclusions: Adolescents with ASD can potentially meet the needs of their daily care independently.

  18. Why does it take so long? ‘Lean processing’ in the aseptic compounding unit at the Midland Regional Hospital Tullamore

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Greene, C

    2011-06-01

    Increasing numbers of oncology\\/haematology patients attending Midland Regional Hospital Tullamore (MRHT) has increased the workload of the Regional Oncology Haematology Pharmacy (ROHP) compounding unit. Staff restrictions require optimisation of current workflow practices. This audit (November 2010 and June 2011) focused on workflow in the aseptic compounding unit.\\r\

  19. "How People Read and Write and They Don't Even Notice": Everyday Lives and Literacies on a Midlands Council Estate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Susan

    2014-01-01

    This article presents data from a British Academy-funded study of the everyday literacy practices of three families living on a predominantly white working-class council housing estate on the edge of a Midlands city. The study explored, as one participant succinctly put it, "how people read and write and they don't even notice". This…

  20. Medical center uses web site, print to promote community education. Complementary ad efforts build attendance for classes. MidMichigan Medical Center-Midland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreria, J

    1998-01-01

    MidMichigan Medical Center employs the use of Internet technology and print advertisements to complement each other. Together with advertising agency Bolger + Battle in Midland, the hospital devised a plan to generate awareness and registration for upcoming community education classes.

  1. Spatial variations in the incidence of breast cancer and potential risks associated with soil dioxin contamination in Midland, Saginaw, and Bay Counties, Michigan, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Dajun; Oyana, Tonny J

    2008-10-21

    High levels of dioxins in soil and higher-than-average body burdens of dioxins in local residents have been found in the city of Midland and the Tittabawassee River floodplain in Michigan. The objective of this study is threefold: (1) to evaluate dioxin levels in soils; (2) to evaluate the spatial variations in breast cancer incidence in Midland, Saginaw, and Bay Counties in Michigan; (3) to evaluate whether breast cancer rates are spatially associated with the dioxin contamination areas. We acquired 532 published soil dioxin data samples collected from 1995 to 2003 and data pertaining to female breast cancer cases (n = 4,604) at ZIP code level in Midland, Saginaw, and Bay Counties for years 1985 through 2002. Descriptive statistics and self-organizing map algorithm were used to evaluate dioxin levels in soils. Geographic information systems techniques, the Kulldorff's spatial and space-time scan statistics, and genetic algorithms were used to explore the variation in the incidence of breast cancer in space and space-time. Odds ratio and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals, with adjustment for age, were used to investigate a spatial association between breast cancer incidence and soil dioxin contamination. High levels of dioxin in soils were observed in the city of Midland and the Tittabawassee River 100-year floodplain. After adjusting for age, we observed high breast cancer incidence rates and detected the presence of spatial clusters in the city of Midland, the confluence area of the Tittabawassee, and Saginaw Rivers. After accounting for spatiotemporal variations, we observed a spatial cluster of breast cancer incidence in Midland between 1985 and 1993. The odds ratio further suggests a statistically significant (alpha = 0.05) increased breast cancer rate as women get older, and a higher disease burden in Midland and the surrounding areas in close proximity to the dioxin contaminated areas. These findings suggest that increased breast cancer incidences

  2. Spatial variations in the incidence of breast cancer and potential risks associated with soil dioxin contamination in Midland, Saginaw, and Bay Counties, Michigan, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyana Tonny J

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High levels of dioxins in soil and higher-than-average body burdens of dioxins in local residents have been found in the city of Midland and the Tittabawassee River floodplain in Michigan. The objective of this study is threefold: (1 to evaluate dioxin levels in soils; (2 to evaluate the spatial variations in breast cancer incidence in Midland, Saginaw, and Bay Counties in Michigan; (3 to evaluate whether breast cancer rates are spatially associated with the dioxin contamination areas. Methods We acquired 532 published soil dioxin data samples collected from 1995 to 2003 and data pertaining to female breast cancer cases (n = 4,604 at ZIP code level in Midland, Saginaw, and Bay Counties for years 1985 through 2002. Descriptive statistics and self-organizing map algorithm were used to evaluate dioxin levels in soils. Geographic information systems techniques, the Kulldorff's spatial and space-time scan statistics, and genetic algorithms were used to explore the variation in the incidence of breast cancer in space and space-time. Odds ratio and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals, with adjustment for age, were used to investigate a spatial association between breast cancer incidence and soil dioxin contamination. Results High levels of dioxin in soils were observed in the city of Midland and the Tittabawassee River 100-year floodplain. After adjusting for age, we observed high breast cancer incidence rates and detected the presence of spatial clusters in the city of Midland, the confluence area of the Tittabawassee, and Saginaw Rivers. After accounting for spatiotemporal variations, we observed a spatial cluster of breast cancer incidence in Midland between 1985 and 1993. The odds ratio further suggests a statistically significant (α = 0.05 increased breast cancer rate as women get older, and a higher disease burden in Midland and the surrounding areas in close proximity to the dioxin contaminated areas. Conclusion

  3. Motor neurone disease in Lancashire and South Cumbria in North West England and an 8 year experience with enteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhetri, Suresh Kumar; Bradley, Belinda Fay; Majeed, Tahir; Lea, Robert William

    2016-02-01

    Motor neurone disease (MND) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease of unknown aetiology. Malnutrition is a common occurrence and an independent risk factor for worse prognosis. However, it remains unclear whether provision of enteral nutrition (EN) through a gastrostomy tube offers any survival advantage. Our aim was to describe the demographic and clinical characteristics of MND in Lancashire and South Cumbria in North West England and the impact of EN on survival in the 8 year period of 2005-2012. Four hundred and seven patients with MND were identified through the Preston MND care and research centre registry giving a crude incidence rate of 3.15/100,000. Three hundred and forty patients with adequate information were included in the final analysis of whom 53.2% were male. The presentation was limb/spinal in 62.1% and bulbar in 37.9% of patients, bulbar onset being more common in elderly females. Mean age of onset was 67.28 years (standard deviation 11.06; range 22.78-93.06). Median survival was 1.98 years (range 1.18-3.05). Ninety-one patients received EN of whom 67% had bulbar onset disease. EN was not associated with a statistically significant survival advantage except for the subgroup who received EN more than 500 days after symptom onset. In conclusion, the early requirement for EN may indicate a prognostically less favourable subgroup. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Growing need to study foraminifera in the laboratory culture experiments: An attempt from the central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nigam, R.; Khare, N.; Koli, N.Y.

    generation specimens for further experiments. Results also suggest that small amount of antibiotic can be used for monitoring effect of physico-chemical parameter through growth studies. But the quantity of antibiotic is yet to be determined to obtain...

  5. Living with a disabled child: Experiences of families with disabled children in the Dangme West District (Ghana)  

    OpenAIRE

    Anum, Priscilla

    2011-01-01

    The general observation of the plight of disabled children and their families in Ghana necessitated this study, which aimed to delve into the experiences of families with disabled children in Ghana as a means of bringing to light what it means to have and live with a disabled child in the Ghanaian context. Using semi-structured interviews as guide, participant observations, informal conversations and narrative analysis, this study explored the experiences of four families with disabled childr...

  6. Are residents of mountain-top mining counties more likely to have infants with birth defects? The West Virginia experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamm, Steven H; Li, Ji; Robbins, Shayhan A; Dissen, Elisabeth; Chen, Rusan; Feinleib, Manning

    2015-02-01

    Pooled 1996 to 2003 birth certificate data for four central states in Appalachia indicated higher rates of infants with birth defects born to residents of counties with mountain-top mining (MTM) than born to residents of non-mining-counties (Ahern 2011). However, those analyses did not consider sources of uncertainty such as unbalanced distributions or quality of data. Quality issues have been a continuing problem with birth certificate analyses. We used 1990 to 2009 live birth certificate data for West Virginia to reassess this hypothesis. Forty-four hospitals contributed 98% of the MTM-county births and 95% of the non-mining-county births, of which six had more than 1000 births from both MTM and nonmining counties. Adjusted and stratified prevalence rate ratios (PRRs) were computed both by using Poisson regression and Mantel-Haenszel analysis. Unbalanced distribution of hospital births was observed by mining groups. The prevalence rate of infants with reported birth defects, higher in MTM-counties (0.021) than in non-mining-counties (0.015), yielded a significant crude PRR (cPRR = 1.43; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.36-1.52) but a nonsignificant hospital-adjusted PRR (adjPRR = 1.08; 95% CI = 0.97-1.20; p = 0.16) for the 44 hospitals. So did the six hospital data analysis ([cPRR = 2.39; 95% CI = 2.15-2.65] and [adjPRR = 1.01; 95% CI, 0.89-1.14; p = 0.87]). No increased risk of birth defects was observed for births from MTM-counties after adjustment for, or stratification by, hospital of birth. These results have consistently demonstrated that the reported association between birth defect rates and MTM coal mining was a consequence of data heterogeneity. The data do not demonstrate evidence of a "Mountain-top Mining" effect on the prevalence of infants with reported birth defects in WV. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Increasing Use of Postpartum Family Planning and the Postpartum IUD: Early Experiences in West and Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleah, Tsigue; Hyjazi, Yolande; Austin, Suzanne; Diallo, Abdoulaye; Dao, Blami; Waxman, Rachel; Karna, Priya

    2016-08-11

    A global resurgence of interest in the intrauterine device (IUD) as an effective long-acting reversible contraceptive and in improving access to a wide range of contraceptive methods, as well as an emphasis on encouraging women to give birth in health care facilities, has led programs to introduce postpartum IUD (PPIUD) services into postpartum family planning (PPFP) programs. We describe strategic, organizational, and technical elements that contributed to early successes of a regional initiative in West and Central Africa to train antenatal, maternity, and postnatal care providers in PPFP counseling for the full range of available methods and in PPIUD service delivery. In November 2013, the initiative provided competency-based training in Guinea for providers from the main public teaching hospital in 5 selected countries (Benin, Chad, Côte d'Ivoire, Niger, and Senegal) with no prior PPFP counseling or PPIUD capacity. The training was followed by a transfer-of-learning visit and monitoring to support the trained providers. One additional country, Togo, replicated the initiative's model in 2014. Although nascent, this initiative has introduced high-quality PPFP and PPIUD services to the region, where less than 1% of married women of reproductive age use the IUD. In total, 21 providers were trained in PPFP counseling, 18 of whom were also trained in PPIUD insertion. From 2014 to 2015, more than 15,000 women were counseled about PPFP, and 2,269 women chose and received the PPIUD in Benin, Côte d'Ivoire, Niger, Senegal, and Togo. (Introduction of PPIUD services in Chad has been delayed.) South-South collaboration has been central to the initiative's accomplishments: Guinea's clinical centers of excellence and qualified trainers provided a culturally resonant example of a PPFP/PPIUD program, and trainings are creating a network of regional trainers to facilitate expansion. Two of the selected countries (Benin and Niger) have expanded their PPFP/PPUID training

  8. The Experiences of Long-Term Unemployed Young Adults in the South West of England: Some New Insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawy, Robert; Wheeler, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we explore the experiences of three long-term unemployed young adults from different backgrounds in the 18-24 age range. The data comprise three interviews conducted over an 18-month period with seven of the original 19 participants in the research. At the time of first interview none of the young adults had been in education,…

  9. Use of Skylab EREP data in a sea-surface temperature experiment. [Monroe Reservoir and Key West, Fla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anding, D. C. (Principal Investigator); Walker, J. P.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A sea surface temperature experiment was studied, demonstrating the feasibility of a procedure for the remote measurement of sea surface temperature which inherently corrects for the effect of the intervening atmosphere without recourse to climatological data. The procedure was applied to Skylab EREP S191 spectrometer data, and it is demonstrated that atmospheric effects on the observed brightness temperature can be reduced to less than 1.0 K.

  10. Oakland, West

    OpenAIRE

    Kwamille, Tasion Shawniece

    2013-01-01

    “Oakland, West” Produced by: Tasion Kwamilele          After World War II, many blacks from the south migrated to Oakland to work in the shipyards; housing discrimination forced blacks to move to West Oakland. But when those jobs died out many Blacks moved from West Oakland and the area became deserted and filled with crime, drugs, violence, and poverty.         The 7.0 Loma Prueta Earthquake, also known as the World Series Quake of 1989, shook the Bay Are...

  11. Family caregiver's experiences of providing care to patients with End-Stage Renal Disease in South-West Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyegbile, Yemisi Okikiade; Brysiewicz, Petra

    2017-09-01

    To describe the experiences of family caregivers providing care for patients living with End-Stage Renal Disease in Nigeria BACKGROUND: Family caregiving is where an unpaid volunteer, usually a close family member, attends to the needs of a loved one with a chronic, disabling illness within the home. Much research has been conducted in the area of family caregiving in high-income countries. However, the same cannot be said for many of the low-resource, multicultural African countries. Qualitative descriptive study. This qualitative descriptive study used manifest content analysis to analyse data from semi-structured, individual interviews, with 15 purposively selected family caregivers. Two tertiary institutions providing renal care in South-Western Nigeria: the research setting for this study. Five categories were identified, and these included disconnectedness with self and others, never-ending burden, 'a fool being tossed around', obligation to care and promoting a closer relationship. Experiences associated with the caregiving of patients diagnosed with End-Stage Renal Disease evoked a number of emotions from the family caregivers, and the study revealed that caregiving imposed some burdens that are specific to low-resource countries on participants. Nurses need to engage family caregivers on disease-specific teachings that might promote understanding of the disease process and role expectation. Family caregivers may benefit from social support services. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Ebola exposure, illness experience, and Ebola antibody prevalence in international responders to the West African Ebola epidemic 2014-2016: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houlihan, Catherine F; McGowan, Catherine R; Dicks, Steve; Baguelin, Marc; Moore, David A J; Mabey, David; Roberts, Chrissy H; Kumar, Alex; Samuel, Dhan; Tedder, Richard; Glynn, Judith R

    2017-05-01

    Healthcare and other front-line workers are at particular risk of infection with Ebola virus (EBOV). Despite the large-scale deployment of international responders, few cases of Ebola virus disease have been diagnosed in this group. Since asymptomatic or pauci-symptomatic infection has been described, it is plausible that infections have occurred in healthcare workers but have escaped being diagnosed. We aimed to assess the prevalence of asymptomatic or pauci-symptomatic infection, and of exposure events, among returned responders to the West African Ebola epidemic 2014-2016. We used snowball sampling to identify responders who had returned to the UK or Ireland, and used an online consent and questionnaire to determine their exposure to EBOV and their experience of illness. Oral fluid collection devices were sent and returned by post, and samples were tested using an EBOV IgG capture assay that detects IgG to Ebola glycoprotein. Blood was collected from returnees with reactive samples for further testing. Unexposed UK controls were also recruited. In all, 300 individuals consented, of whom 268 (89.3%) returned an oral fluid sample (OFS). The majority had worked in Sierra Leone in clinical, laboratory, research, and other roles. Fifty-three UK controls consented and provided samples using the same method. Of the returnees, 47 (17.5%) reported that they had had a possible EBOV exposure. Based on their free-text descriptions, using a published risk assessment method, we classified 43 (16%) as having had incidents with risk of Ebola transmission, including five intermediate-risk and one high-risk exposure. Of the returnees, 57 (21%) reported a febrile or diarrhoeal illness in West Africa or within 1 mo of return, of whom 40 (70%) were not tested at the time for EBOV infection. Of the 268 OFSs, 266 were unreactive. Two returnees, who did not experience an illness in West Africa or on return, had OFSs that were reactive on the EBOV IgG capture assay, with similar results

  13. Ebola exposure, illness experience, and Ebola antibody prevalence in international responders to the West African Ebola epidemic 2014-2016: A cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine F Houlihan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Healthcare and other front-line workers are at particular risk of infection with Ebola virus (EBOV. Despite the large-scale deployment of international responders, few cases of Ebola virus disease have been diagnosed in this group. Since asymptomatic or pauci-symptomatic infection has been described, it is plausible that infections have occurred in healthcare workers but have escaped being diagnosed. We aimed to assess the prevalence of asymptomatic or pauci-symptomatic infection, and of exposure events, among returned responders to the West African Ebola epidemic 2014-2016.We used snowball sampling to identify responders who had returned to the UK or Ireland, and used an online consent and questionnaire to determine their exposure to EBOV and their experience of illness. Oral fluid collection devices were sent and returned by post, and samples were tested using an EBOV IgG capture assay that detects IgG to Ebola glycoprotein. Blood was collected from returnees with reactive samples for further testing. Unexposed UK controls were also recruited. In all, 300 individuals consented, of whom 268 (89.3% returned an oral fluid sample (OFS. The majority had worked in Sierra Leone in clinical, laboratory, research, and other roles. Fifty-three UK controls consented and provided samples using the same method. Of the returnees, 47 (17.5% reported that they had had a possible EBOV exposure. Based on their free-text descriptions, using a published risk assessment method, we classified 43 (16% as having had incidents with risk of Ebola transmission, including five intermediate-risk and one high-risk exposure. Of the returnees, 57 (21% reported a febrile or diarrhoeal illness in West Africa or within 1 mo of return, of whom 40 (70% were not tested at the time for EBOV infection. Of the 268 OFSs, 266 were unreactive. Two returnees, who did not experience an illness in West Africa or on return, had OFSs that were reactive on the EBOV IgG capture assay, with

  14. An Assessment of Zimbabwe Secondary School Teachers’ Attitudes towards the Use of Smart Phones in the Classroom: A Case of Midlands Province, Zimbabwe

    OpenAIRE

    Dhliwayo Alice; Muchemwa Stella

    2017-01-01

    While technology has been embraced by most of the people, use of smart phones in the classroom has been received with mixed feelings. Some say it enhances learning while others complain that it disturbs instruction. This research wanted to find out the stance of secondary school teachers on this issue in Zimbabwe. A sample of 50 randomly selected teachers from 10 randomly selected secondary schools in Gweru District, Midlands Province in Zimbabwe was used. Data from self-constructed questionn...

  15. Arranging and negotiating the use of informal interpreters in general practice consultations: experiences of refugees and asylum seekers in the west of Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacFarlane, Anne; Dzebisova, Zhanna; Karapish, Dmitri; Kovacevic, Bosiljka; Ogbebor, Florence; Okonkwo, Ekaterina

    2009-07-01

    This paper focuses on the work involved for service users in arranging and negotiating the use of informal interpreters from their social networks for general practice consultations. The data are drawn from a participatory learning and action research study, carried out in the west of Ireland. Qualitative data were gathered using a peer researcher model from a 'hard to reach' community of Serbo-Croat and Russian refugees and asylum seekers (n=26). The findings elucidate that there is a tension for service users between the experienced benefits of having a trusted friend/family member present to act as their interpreter and the burden of work and responsibility to manage the language barrier. Participants emphasize that, for them, the use of informal interpreters can be inadequate and problematic and can leave them worried, frustrated and with experiences of error and misdiagnosis. Overall, they state a clear preference for the use of professional, trained interpreters in general practice consultations which is currently unavailable to them in routine Irish general practice consultations.

  16. Illness meanings and experiences for pre-ulcer and ulcer conditions of Buruli ulcer in the Ga-West and Ga-South Municipalities of Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackumey, Mercy M; Gyapong, Margaret; Pappoe, Matilda; Kwakye-Maclean, Cynthia; Weiss, Mitchell G

    2012-05-11

    Ghana is a Buruli ulcer (BU) endemic country yet there is paucity of socio-cultural research on BU. Examining distinctive experiences and meanings for pre-ulcers and ulcers of BU may clarify the disease burden, illness experience and local perceptions of causes and spread, and environmental features of BU, which are useful to guide public health programmes and future research. This study aimed to explain local meanings and experiences of BU for persons with pre-ulcers and ulcers in the Ga-West and Ga-South municipalities in Accra. Semi-structured interviews based on the Explanatory Model Interview Catalogue framework were administered to 181 respondents comprising 15 respondents with pre-ulcers and 166 respondents with ulcers. The Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used to compare categories of illness experiences (PD) and perceived causes (PC) among respondents with pre-ulcer and ulcer conditions. The Fisher's exact test was used to compare the most troubling PD and the most important PC variables. Qualitative phenomenological analysis of respondents' narratives clarified illness experiences and meanings with reference to PC and PD variables. Families of respondents with pre-ulcers and the respondents themselves were often anxious about disease progression, while families of respondents with ulcers, who had to give care, worried about income loss and disruption of school attendance. Respondents with pre-ulcers frequently reported swimming in ponds and rivers as a perceived cause and considered it as the most important PC (53.3%). Respondents with ulcers frequently attributed their BU illness to witchcraft (64.5%) and respondents who claimed they had no water contact, questioned the credibility of health messages Affected persons with pre-ulcers are likely to delay treatment because of social and financial constraints and the absence of pain. Scepticism on the role of water in disease contagion and prolonged healing is perceived to make ideas of witchcraft as a PC more

  17. Illness meanings and experiences for pre-ulcer and ulcer conditions of Buruli ulcer in the Ga-West and Ga-South Municipalities of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ackumey Mercy M

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ghana is a Buruli ulcer (BU endemic country yet there is paucity of socio-cultural research on BU. Examining distinctive experiences and meanings for pre-ulcers and ulcers of BU may clarify the disease burden, illness experience and local perceptions of causes and spread, and environmental features of BU, which are useful to guide public health programmes and future research. This study aimed to explain local meanings and experiences of BU for persons with pre-ulcers and ulcers in the Ga-West and Ga-South municipalities in Accra. Methods Semi-structured interviews based on the Explanatory Model Interview Catalogue framework were administered to 181 respondents comprising 15 respondents with pre-ulcers and 166 respondents with ulcers. The Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used to compare categories of illness experiences (PD and perceived causes (PC among respondents with pre-ulcer and ulcer conditions. The Fisher’s exact test was used to compare the most troubling PD and the most important PC variables. Qualitative phenomenological analysis of respondents’ narratives clarified illness experiences and meanings with reference to PC and PD variables. Results Families of respondents with pre-ulcers and the respondents themselves were often anxious about disease progression, while families of respondents with ulcers, who had to give care, worried about income loss and disruption of school attendance. Respondents with pre-ulcers frequently reported swimming in ponds and rivers as a perceived cause and considered it as the most important PC (53.3%. Respondents with ulcers frequently attributed their BU illness to witchcraft (64.5% and respondents who claimed they had no water contact, questioned the credibility of health messages Conclusions Affected persons with pre-ulcers are likely to delay treatment because of social and financial constraints and the absence of pain. Scepticism on the role of water in disease contagion and

  18. A test of the compensatory mortality hypothesis in mountain lions: a management experiment in West-Central Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Hugh S.; Desimone, Richard; Hartway, Cynthia; Gude, Justin A.; Thompson, Michael J.; Mitchell, Michael S.; Hebblewhite, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Mountain lions (Puma concolor) are widely hunted for recreation, population control, and to reduce conflict with humans, but much is still unknown regarding the effects of harvest on mountain lion population dynamics. Whether human hunting mortality on mountain lions is additive or compensatory is debated. Our primary objective was to investigate population effects of harvest on mountain lions. We addressed this objective with a management experiment of 3 years of intensive harvest followed by a 6-year recovery period. In December 2000, after 3 years of hunting, approximately 66% of a single game management unit within the Blackfoot River watershed in Montana was closed to lion hunting, effectively creating a refuge representing approximately 12% (915 km2) of the total study area (7,908 km2). Hunting continued in the remainder of the study area, but harvest levels declined from approximately 9/1,000 km2 in 2001 to 2/1,000 km2 in 2006 as a result of the protected area and reduced quotas outside. We radiocollared 117 mountain lions from 1998 to 2006. We recorded known fates for 63 animals, and right-censored the remainder. Although hunting directly reduced survival, parameters such as litter size, birth interval, maternity, age at dispersal, and age of first reproduction were not significantly affected. Sensitivity analysis showed that female survival and maternity were most influential on population growth. Life-stage simulation analysis (LSA) demonstrated the effect of hunting on the population dynamics of mountain lions. In our non-hunted population, reproduction (kitten survival and maternity) accounted for approximately 62% of the variation in growth rate, whereas adult female survival accounted for 30%. Hunting reversed this, increasing the reliance of population growth on adult female survival (45% of the variation in population growth), and away from reproduction (12%). Our research showed that harvest at the levels implemented in this study did not

  19. The Subglacial Access and Fast Ice Research Experiment (SAFIRE): 1. Programme of investigation on Store Glacier, West Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoffersen, Poul; Hubbard, Bryn; Bougamont, Marion; Doyle, Samuel; Young, Tun Jan; Hofstede, Coen; Nicholls, Keith; Todd, Joe; Box, Jason; Ryan, Johnny; Toberg, Nick; Walter, Jacob; Hubbard, Alun

    2015-04-01

    Marine-terminating outlet glaciers drain 90 percent of the Greenland Ice Sheet and are responsible for about half of the ice sheet's net annual mass loss, which currently raises global sea level by almost 1 mm per year. Understanding the processes that drive the fast flow of these glaciers is crucial because a growing body of evidence points to a strong, but spatially varied and often complex, response to oceanographic as well as atmospheric forcing. While the bed of glaciers elsewhere is known to strongly influence the flow of ice, no observations have ever been made at the bed of a marine-terminating glacier in Greenland. The flow of ice in numerical models of the Greenland Ice Sheet consequently rely on untested basal parameterisations, which form a likely and potentially significant source of error in the prediction of sea level rise over the coming decades and century. The Subglacial Access and Fast Ice Research Experiment (SAFIRE) is addressing this paucity of observational constraints by gaining access to the bed of Store Glacier, a marine-terminating outlet of the Greenland Ice Sheet which has a drainage basin of 35,000 square kilometres and terminates in Uummannaq Fjord. In 2014, the SAFIRE programme drilled four boreholes in a region where ice flows at a rate of 700 m per year and where a seismic survey revealed a bed consisting of soft sediment. (See joint abstract by Hofstede et al. for details.) The boreholes were 603-616 m deep and direct access to the bed was confirmed by a clear hydrological connectivity with a basal water system. (See joint abstract by Doyle et al. for details.) With sensors deployed englacially (temperature and tilt) and at the bed (water pressure, turbidity, electrical conductivity), the SAFIRE will inform the ratio of internal ice deformation and basal slip, vertical strain, ice temperature, and fluctuations in water pressure linked to supraglacial lake drainage as well as diurnal drainage into moulins. In 2015, we plan to

  20. Process-based modeling of coupled energy and water cycle under dry tropical conditions: an experiment at local scale in the cultivated Sahel (South-West Niger)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velluet, C.; Demarty, J.; Cappelaere, B.; Braud, I.; Boulain, N.; Charvet, G.; Chazarin, J.-P.; Mainassara, I.; Boucher, M.; Issoufou, H. B.-A.; Ibrahim, M.; Oi, M.; Ramier, D.; Benarrosh, N.; Yahou, H.

    2012-04-01

    . Main questions raised in this modeling exercise were, whether such a model could be adequately calibrated and validated for the two studied sites, using realistic parameter values and, what uncertainty would result for model outputs (surface fluxes and soil heat/water profiles). The model was calibrated over a 2-year period and then validated over the other three years, for both sites. In both cases, observations are reproduced about as well for the two periods. The variations in water and energy variables, over the five contrasting years and between land covers, are highlighted. Multi-year, field-based estimations of land surface water and energy budgets are hence produced, for the first time in this area to our knowledge. Given model performances, it is felt that it can be applied with reasonable confidence to much longer periods, reflecting the strong variability that characterizes the Sahel climate. This modeling experiment takes part in the ALMIP (AMMA Land Model Intercomparison) project, which aims at comparing land surface models at local and meso scales over a north-south eco-climate gradient represented by three West-African sites of the AMMA-CATCH observatory (RBV network). Reference: Braud et al., 1995. A Simple Soil-Plant-Atmosphere Transfer model (SiSPAT) development and field verification. Journal of Hydrology 166(3-4), 213-250.

  1. The criminal justice system's considerations of so-called near-virtual autopsies: the East Midlands experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, A; Raj, V; Morgan, B; West, K; Rutty, G N

    2011-08-01

    While several research groups champion the potential for postmortem CT (PMCT) to replace the invasive postmortem (PM), many questions still remain. Perhaps the two most important questions are whether PMCT can provide the same level of information as an invasive PM, and arguably more importantly, can it meet the needs of the end users of the PM report. Through a comparative analysis of invasive post-mortem and CT findings and a questionnaire based qualitative thematic analysis, the authors have sought to answer these questions. Here, the authors show that PMCT is good at providing accurate causes of death and that the interpretation of cases is not significantly altered by the absence of histology. The authors show that in straightforward trauma deaths such as road traffic incidents, there exists the potential for the replacement of the invasive PM by PMCT examination. However, as yet, PMCT cannot provide all of the information that is expected by the criminal justice system in complex forensic cases.

  2. Distribution of benthic invertebrates at different depths in a shallow reservoir in the KwaZulu-Natal Midlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. Samways

    1996-02-01

    Full Text Available The bottom of a freshwater reservoir in the KwaZulu-Natal Midlands was sampled for macro-invertebrates and macrophytes at depths of 0.5 m, 1 m, 2 m, and 3 m. The water plants Elodea spp. which did not occur much beyond 1 m appeared to be a major deter-minant for the presence of invertebrates. At 2 m and 3 m, when temperature and light decreased greatly, it was replaced by the algae Chara spp. Over 98 of the macroinvertebrate individuals in 21 species and 14 families occurred in water 1 m or less in depth. At 2 m and deeper, there was a rapid decline of species, with only one, a snail, occurring at 3 m. Odonata species occurred only in water 1 m or less in depth. Among the Ephemeroptera, Caenis sp. was abundant at 0.5 m and the most dominant species of all. At 1 m, the most dominant species was Cleon palidulosum of the Baetidae. Both in terms of food for waterfowl and trout, and as a reserve for aquatic macroin vertebrates, the shallow fringe of the reservoir was playing by far the major role compared with the deeper, open water. It is recommended both for biotic conservation and fishing that reservoirs have a shallow rim and constant water levels.

  3. Analysis of kidney biopsy data from a single center in the midland rural area of china, 1996-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong-Tao; Zhou, Chen-Yan; Zhu, Tie-Chui; Yang, Jun; Zhang, Yan; Xu, Qing-Yu; Guo, Ming-Hao

    2013-06-01

    To survey the clinical epidemiology and correlations between pathology and clinical features of major groups of kidney diseases in a rural area of China. From January 1996 to December 2010, histologic diagnosis of renal disease was made on samples collected from 919 patients from a single center in the midland rural area of China. Demographic data were obtained from all patients, and clinical profiles were analyzed in 917 patients. The mean age of the whole group was 33.13 (14.13) years (range 16-72 years). Men accounted for 55.28% (n = 508) and women made up 45.72% (n = 408). Patients aged 16 to 50 years comprised 83.75% of the sample (n = 770). Lupus nephritis was the predominant diagnosis in women; renal diseases were predominant in men. In patients with nephrotic syndrome, mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis was the most frequent pathologic pattern (39.46%), followed by IgA nephropathy (18.39%), whereas in patients with nephritic syndrome, IgA nephropathy (39.64%) was the most frequent pathologic pattern, followed by mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis (32.38%). The most common pathologic pattern in patients with secondary glomerulonephritis was Henoch-Schoˇnlein purpura nephritis, followed by lupus nephritis. Mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis was the most common renal pathologic pattern. Male adolescents were predominant in this group of patients. The most common clinical syndrome was nephrotic syndrome.

  4. A new coccidian (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae), from midland brown snake, Storeria dekayi wrightorum Trapido (Ophidia: Colubridae) from Arkansas, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Chris T; Seville, R Scott; Connior, Matthew B

    2016-01-01

    A new species of coccidian (Protista: Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) collected from the faeces of a midland brown snake Storeria dekayi wrightorum Trapido (Ophidia: Colubridae) in Arkansas, USA, is described. Oöcysts of Isospora holbrooki n. sp. are subspherical to ovoidal with a smooth, colourless, bi-layered wall, measure on average 27.1 × 24.0 µm, and have a length/width (L/W) ratio of 1.1; both micropyle and oöcyst residuum are absent, but a polar granule is present. Sporocysts are ovoidal, 14.8 × 10.0 µm on average (L/W 1.5); the Stieda body is nipple-like, the sub-Stieda body is ellipsoidal and the sporocyst residuum is composed of coarse granules in a cluster. Sporozoites have a spheroidal anterior refractile body, a subspheroidal posterior refractile body, and one centrally-located nucleus. This is the first description of an isosporan from the snake genus Storeria Baird & Girard as well as the largest oöcysts and sporocysts of any previous snake isosporan to date.

  5. Ecological effects of pipeline construction through deciduous forested wetlands, Midland County, Michigan. Topical report, October 1990--August 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rastorfer, J.R. [Chicago State Univ., IL (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Van Dyke, G.D.; Zellmer, S.D.; Wilkey, P.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1995-04-01

    This study is designed to record vegetational changes induced by the construction of a large-diameter gas pipeline through deciduous forested wetlands. Two second-growth wetland sites mapped Lenawee soils were selected in Midland County, Michigan: Site 1, a younger stand subjected to recent selective logging, and Site 2, a more mature stand. The collection of ecological data to analyze plant succession on the right-of-way (ROW) and the effects of the developing ROW plant communities on adjacent forest communities was initiated in 1989. Cover class estimates were made for understory and ROW plant species on the basis of 1 {times} 1{minus}m quadrats. Individual stem diameters and species counts were recorded for overstory plants in 10{minus}m quadrats. Although long-term studies have not been completed, firm baseline data were established for comparative analyses with future sampling. Current data indicate that vegetation became well-established on the ROW within one year and subsequently increased in coverage. About 65% of the species were wetland indicators, and the dominants included seeded and natural invading species; nevertheless, some elements of the original flora regenerated and persist. The plants of the ecotone understories of both sites changed from their original composition as a result of the installation of the gas pipeline. Although some forest species persist at both sites, the ecotone of Site I was influenced more by the seeded species, whereas the natural invaders were more important at Site 2.

  6. Genetic variation of MHC Class I polymorphic Alu insertions (POALINs) in three sub-populations of the East Midlands, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastana, Sarabjit S; Bhatti, Jasvinder S; Singh, Puneetpal; Wiles, Adam; Holland, Jonathan

    2017-09-01

    Alu elements are highly researched due to their useful nature as markers in the study of human population genetics. Recently discovered Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) polymorphic Alu insertions (POALINs) have not been examined extensively for genetic variation and their HLA associations. The aim of this study is to assess the genetic variation between three populations using five recently discovered POALINs. The study examined 190 healthy, unrelated subjects from three different populations in the East Midlands (UK) for the presence or absence of five Alu elements (AluHG, AluMICB, AluHJ, AluTF and AluHF) via the polymerase chain reaction followed by gel electrophoresis. Data were analysed for genetic variation and phylogenetic analyses. All Alus were polymorphic in study populations. Appreciable allele frequency variation was observed at a number of loci. The British population was significantly different from both the Punjabi Jat Sikh and Gujarati Patel populations, although showing a closer genetic relationship to the Punjabi Jat Sikh population than the Gujarati Patel population (Nei's DA = 0.0031 and 0.0064, respectively). MHC POALINs are useful markers in the investigation of genetic variation and the assessment of population relationships, and may have some bearing on disease associations due to their linkage disequilibrium with HLA loci; this warrants further studies.

  7. Microbial Consortia Development and Microcosm and Column Experiments for Enhanced Bioremediation of Chlorinated Volatile Organic Compounds, West Branch Canal Creek Wetland Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorah, Michelle M.; Majcher, Emily H.; Jones, Elizabeth J.; Voytek, Mary A.

    2008-01-01

    Chlorinated solvents, including 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane, tetrachloroethene, trichloroethene, carbon tetrachloride, and chloroform, are reaching land surface in localized areas of focused ground-water discharge (seeps) in a wetland and tidal creek in the West Branch Canal Creek area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. In cooperation with the U.S. Army Garrison, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, the U.S. Geological Survey is developing enhanced bioremediation methods that simulate the natural anaerobic degradation that occurs without intervention in non-seep areas of the wetland. A combination of natural attenuation and enhanced bioremediation could provide a remedy for the discharging ground-water plumes that would minimize disturbance to the sensitive wetland ecosystem. Biostimulation (addition of organic substrate or nutrients) and bioaugmentation (addition of microbial consortium), applied either by direct injection at depth in the wetland sediments or by construction of a permeable reactive mat at the seep surface, were tested as possible methods to enhance anaerobic degradation in the seep areas. For the first phase of developing enhanced bioremediation methods for the contaminant mixtures in the seeps, laboratory studies were conducted to develop a microbial consortium to degrade 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane and its chlorinated daughter products under anaerobic conditions, and to test biostimulation and bioaugmentation of wetland sediment and reactive mat matrices in microcosms. The individual components required for the direct injection and reactive mat methods were then combined in column experiments to test them under groundwater- flow rates and contaminant concentrations observed in the field. Results showed that both direct injection and the reactive mat are promising remediation methods, although the success of direct injection likely would depend on adequately distributing and maintaining organic substrate throughout the wetland sediment in the seep

  8. The West African experience in establishing steering committees for better collaboration between researchers and decision-makers to increase the use of health research findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keita, Namoudou; Lokossou, Virgil; Berthe, Abdramane; Sombie, Issiaka; Johnson, Ermel; Busia, Kofi

    2017-07-12

    Aware of the advantages of a project steering committee (SC) in terms of influencing the development of evidence-based health policies, the West African Health Organisation (WAHO) encouraged and supported the creation of such SCs around four research projects in four countries (Burkina Faso, Nigeria, Senegal and Sierra Leone). This study was conducted to describe the process that was used to establish these committees and its findings aim to assist other stakeholders in initiating this type of process. This is a cross-sectional, qualitative study of the initiative's four projects. In addition to a literature review and a review of the project documents, an interview guide was used to collect data from 14 members of the SCs, research teams, WAHO and the International Development Research Center. The respondents were selected with a view to reaching data saturation. The technique of thematic analysis by simple categorisation was used. To set up the SCs, a research team in each country worked with health authorities to identify potential members, organise meetings with these members and sought the authorities' approval to formalise the SCs. The SCs' mission was to provide technical assistance to the researchers during the implementation phase and to facilitate the transfer and use of the findings. The 'doing by learning' approach used by each research team, combined with WAHO's catalytic role with each country's Ministry of Health, helped each SC manage its contextual difficulties and function effectively. The involvement of technical and financial partners motivated the researchers and ministries of health, who, in turn, motivated other actors to volunteer on the SCs. The 'doing by learning' approach made it possible to develop strategies adapted to each context to create, facilitate and operate each SC and manage its difficulties. To reproduce such an experience, a strong understanding of the local context and the involvement of strong partners are required.

  9. Work-related musculoskeletal injuries amongst obstetrics and gynaecology trainees in East Midland region of the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan Okuyucu, Kubra; Jeve, Yadava; Doshani, Angie

    2017-07-12

    Work-related musculoskeletal injuries (WRMSI) have been well known amongst obstetrics and gynaecology (O&G) practitioners, but limited data have been reported. Our aim is to determine the prevalence, severity and characteristics of WRMSI amongst O&G trainees. A musculoskeletal ergonomic survey was conducted amongst the O&G trainees in the East-Midlands region of United Kingdom (UK). The survey comprised of demographic details, year of training, previous manual handling training, any work-related orthopaedic injury, the type of injury, any treatment received in addition to any sick leave incurred after the injury were also documented. The response rate for the survey was 76% (59/78). The majority (22%) were senior specialist trainee, seventh year (ST7) and between 30 and 34 age groups. Approximately 90% of the trainees reported to have experienced pain in the last year. The most common site was the back, which was followed by the shoulders and the upper limbs. 63% of trainees reported injuries that were attributed to WRMSI. One in ten of the trainees needed time off work due to injury. A total of 20 days were lost in the last 12 months as a result of pain or discomfort attributed to obstetric work. Our results demonstrate the prevalence of work-related injuries and its detrimental effects. Such injuries are underreported on incident reporting system. Ergonomics and WRMSI prevention in obstetrics and gynaecology is an area seldom discussed. Obstetric training sessions should incorporate ergonomic interventions. Further research is required to establish relevant aetiological factors related to WRMSI in this specialty.

  10. Great horned owl (Bubo virginianus) dietary exposure to PCDD/DF in the Tittabawassee River floodplain in Midland, Michigan, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coefield, Sarah J; Zwiernik, Matthew J; Fredricks, Timothy B; Seston, Rita M; Nadeau, Michael W; Tazelaar, Dustin L; Moore, Jeremy N; Kay, Denise P; Roark, Shaun A; Giesy, John P

    2010-10-01

    Soils and sediments in the floodplain of the Tittabawassee River downstream of Midland, Michigan, USA contain elevated concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD). As a long-lived, resident top predator, the great horned owl (Bubo virginianus; GHO) has the potential to be exposed to bioaccumulative compounds such as PCDD/DF. Site-specific components of the GHO diet were collected along 115 km of the Tittabawassee, Pine, Chippewa, and Saginaw Rivers during 2005 and 2006. The site-specific GHO biomass-based diet was dominated by cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) and muskrats (Ondatra zibethicus). Incidental soil ingestion and cottontail rabbits were the primary contributors of PCDD/DF to the GHO diet. The great horned owl daily dietary exposure estimates were greater in the study area (SA) (3.3 to 5.0 ng 2,3,7,8-TCDD equivalents (TEQ(WHO-avian))/kg body wt/d) than the reference area (RA) (0.07 ng TEQ(WHO-Avian)/kg body wt/d). Hazard quotients (HQs) based on central tendency estimates of the average daily dose and no-observable-adverse effect level (NOAEL) for the screech owl and uncertainty factors were <1.0 for both the RA and the SA. Hazard quotients based on upper end estimates of the average daily dose and NOAEL were <1.0 in the RA and up to 3.4 in the SA. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2010;29:2350-2362. © 2010 SETAC.

  11. Public health action and mass chemoprophylaxis in response to a small meningococcal infection outbreak at a nursery in the West Midlands, England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Antony; Coetzee, Nic; Knapper, Elizabeth; Rajanaidu, Subhadra; Iqbal, Zafar; Duggal, Harsh

    2013-03-01

    Meningococcal infection is fatal in 10% of cases, and age-specific attack rates are highest in infancy. A nursery outbreak was declared just before a bank holiday weekend in August 2010, when two children attending the same nursery were confirmed to have meningococcal infection. Although such outbreaks are rare, they generate considerable public alarm and are challenging to manage and control. This report describes the investigation and public health response to the outbreak. Both cases had relatively mild disease and were confirmed as having serogroup B infection. Chemoprophylaxis and advice were given to most of the 146 children and 30 staff at the nursery. Within 28 hours of declaring the outbreak, over 95% of parents received information, advice and prescriptions for their children. GPs were also given information and the after-hours service provided continuity over the weekend. No further cases were identified and the outbreak was closed four weeks after being declared. Considerable logistical challenges were involved in providing timely advice and chemoprophylaxis to the entire nursery and staff one day before a bank holiday weekend. The speed of the public health response and implementation of preventive measures was crucial in providing assurance to parents and staff, and reducing their anxiety. The decision to provide on-site prescribing at the nursery (coupled with information sessions and individual counselling) proved to be a key implementation-success factor. Effective coordination and management by the outbreak control team was able to rapidly provide leadership, delegate tasks, identify gaps, allocate resources and ensure a proactive media response. A number of useful lessons were learnt and recommendations were made for future local practice.

  12. Evaluating the Outcomes and Implementation of a TaMHS (Targeting Mental Health in Schools) Project in Four West Midlands (UK) Schools Using Activity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cane, Fiona Eloise; Oland, Louise

    2015-01-01

    Government guidance in 2008 endorsed the "Targeting Mental Health in Schools" (TaMHS) agenda, which sets out to promote mental health in schools through the delivery of universal and targeted interventions. This paper initially defines mental health and outlines the TaMHS initiative. It then offers empirical findings from four focus…

  13. Overview of the structural geology and tectonics of the Central Basin Platform, Delaware Basin, and Midland Basin, West Texas and New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoak, T. [Kestrel Geoscience, Littleton, CO (United States); Sundberg, K. [Phillips Petroleum Co., Bartlesville, OK (United States); Ortoleva, P. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States)

    1998-12-31

    The structural geology and tectonics of the Permian Basin were investigated using an integrated approach incorporating satellite imagery, aeromagnetics, gravity, seismic, regional subsurface mapping and published literature. The two primary emphases were on: (1) delineating the temporal and spatial evolution of the regional stress state; and (2) calculating the amount of regional shortening or contraction. Secondary objectives included delineation of basement and shallower fault zones, identification of structural style, characterization of fractured zones, analysis of surficial linear features on satellite imagery and their correlation to deeper structures. Gandu Unit, also known as Andector Field at the Ellenburger level and Goldsmith Field at Permian and younger reservoir horizons, is the primary area of interest and lies in the northern part of Ector county. The field trends northwest across the county line into Andrews County. The field(s) are located along an Ellenburger thrust anticline trap on the eastern margin of the Central Basin Platform.

  14. A detrital zircon provenance study of the Lower Carboniferous sequences in the East Fife section of the Midland Valley of Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murchie, Sean; Robinson, Ruth, ,, Dr; Lancaster, Penelope, ,, Dr

    2014-05-01

    Detrital zircons from the Lower Carboniferous clastic rocks of the Midland Valley of Scotland have been dated using U-Pb laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS) to determine which source areas contributed sediment to the basin during its development, and to investigate whether provenance changed during deposition of these units. Specific provenance detection using U/Pb dating of zircons has never been attempted in these rocks, and there are uncertainties remaining about the regional paleogeographic setting for the Midland Valley. Four samples from the Dinantian Strathclyde Group have been analysed, and the units are locally known as the Fife Ness, Anstruther, Pittenweem, Sandy Craig, and Pathhead formations. The formations are composed of shallow marine, deltaic, fluvial and floodplain deposits and these predominantly siliciclastic sedimentary rocks are interbedded with thin fossiliferous carbonate bands. The samples are quartz arenitic, sub-arkosic and lithic arkosic medium-grained sandstones, predominantly from a fluvial origin. The British Geological Survey developed a lithostratigraphy which is the most used framework for the Strathclyde Group (Browne et al., 1997), but a different biostratigraphical framework based on palynology has been proposed by Owens et al. (2005). In addition to identifying provenance, the zircon age populations for each formation are compared to test which stratigraphic framework is correct. More broadly, the provenance data provides a way to improve the regional palaeogeographic setting for the Midland Valley. Zircon ages in the Strathclyde Group are dominated by Late Mesoproterozoic to Late Palaeoproterozoic (0.9 - 2.0 Ga) and Early Palaeozoic (350 - 450 Ma) ages which reflect Caledonide (Laurentian-Baltica margin including Scotland, Scandinavia, Greenland, Newfoundland), Grampian and internal Midland Valley source areas. Notable peaks occur at 400 Ma, 1.0 --1.1 Ga, 1.3 Ga, 1.6 - 1.7 Ga, and 2.7 Ga, and

  15. Learning from Experience: The Public Health Response to West Nile Virus, SARS, Monkeypox, and Hepatitis A Outbreaks in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    mosquito densities and infection rates over time and space Human • Focus on encephalitis • Aseptic meningitis, Guillain - Barre syndrome , acute flaccid...local health departments to recent disease outbreaks—specifically, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), monkeypox, and West Nile virus—to address...149 Appendix C: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS

  16. West Texas array experiment: Noise and source characterization of short-range infrasound and acoustic signals, along with lab and field evaluation of Intermountain Laboratories infrasound microphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Aileen

    The term infrasound describes atmospheric sound waves with frequencies below 20 Hz, while acoustics are classified within the audible range of 20 Hz to 20 kHz. Infrasound and acoustic monitoring in the scientific community is hampered by low signal-to-noise ratios and a limited number of studies on regional and short-range noise and source characterization. The JASON Report (2005) suggests the infrasound community focus on more broad-frequency, observational studies within a tactical distance of 10 km. In keeping with that recommendation, this paper presents a study of regional and short-range atmospheric acoustic and infrasonic noise characterization, at a desert site in West Texas, covering a broad frequency range of 0.2 to 100 Hz. To spatially sample the band, a large number of infrasound gauges was needed. A laboratory instrument analysis is presented of the set of low-cost infrasound sensors used in this study, manufactured by Inter-Mountain Laboratories (IML). Analysis includes spectra, transfer functions and coherences to assess the stability and range of the gauges, and complements additional instrument testing by Sandia National Laboratories. The IMLs documented here have been found reliably coherent from 0.1 to 7 Hz without instrument correction. Corrections were built using corresponding time series from the commercially available and more expensive Chaparral infrasound gauge, so that the corrected IML outputs were able to closely mimic the Chaparral output. Arrays of gauges are needed for atmospheric sound signal processing. Our West Texas experiment consisted of a 1.5 km aperture, 23-gauge infrasound/acoustic array of IMLs, with a compact, 12 m diameter grid-array of rented IMLs at the center. To optimize signal recording, signal-to-noise ratio needs to be quantified with respect to both frequency band and coherence length. The higher-frequency grid array consisted of 25 microphones arranged in a five by five pattern with 3 meter spacing, without

  17. "The Arrow of Time" in the Experiments in which Alpha-Activity was Measured Using Collimators Directed at East and West

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedenkin N. N.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In our previous paper (Shnoll and Rubinstein, Progress in Physics, 2009, v.2, 83-95, we briefly reported about a phenomenon, which can be called the "arrow of time": when we compared histograms constructed from the results of 239-Pu alpha-activity measurements that were obtained using West- and East-directed collimators, daytime series of the "eastern" histograms were similar to the inverted series of the following night, whereas daytime series of the "western" histograms resembled the inverted series of the preceding night. Here we consider this phenomenon in more detail.

  18. "The Arrow of Time" in the Experiments in which Alpha-Activity was Measured Using Collimators Directed at East and West

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shnoll S. E.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In our previous paper (Shnoll and Rubinstein, Progress in Physics, 2009, v. 2, 83–95, we briefly reported about a phenomenon, which can be called the “arrow of time”: when we compared histograms constructed from the results of 239-Pu alpha-activity measurements that were obtained using West- and East-directed collimators, daytime series of the “eastern” histograms were similar to the inverted series of the following night, whereas daytime series of the “western” histograms resembled the inverted series of the preceding night. Here we consider this phenomenon in more detail.

  19. Factors associated with male involvement in the prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV, Midlands Province, Zimbabwe, 2015 - a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamercy Makoni

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Uptake of and adherence to the prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV (PMTCT interventions are a challenge to most women if there is no male partner involvement. Organizations which include the National AIDS Council and the Zimbabwe AIDS Prevention Project- University of Zimbabwe have been working towards mobilizing men for couple HIV testing and counseling (HTC in antenatal care (ANC. In 2013, Midlands province had 19 % males who were tested together with their partners in ANC, an increase by 9 % from 2011. However, this improvement was still far below the national target, hence this study was conducted to determine the associated factors. Methods A1:1 unmatched case control study was conducted. A case was a man who did not receive HIV testing and counseling together with his pregnant wife in ANC in Midlands province from January to June 2015. A control was a man who received HIV testing and counseling together with his pregnant wife in ANC in Midlands province from January to June 2015. Simple random sampling was used to select 112 cases and 112 controls. Epi Info statistical software was used to analyze data. Written informed consent was obtained from each study participant. Results Independent factors that predicted male involvement in PMTCT were: having been previously tested as a couple (aOR 0.22, 95 % CI = 0.12, 0.41 and having time to visit the clinic (aOR 0.41, 95 % CI = 0.21, 0.80. Being afraid of knowing one’s HIV status (aOR 2.22, 95 % CI = 1.04, 4.76 was independently associated with low male involvement in PMTCT. Conclusion Multiple factors were found to be associated with male involvement in PMTCT. Routine PMTCT educational campaigns in places where men gather, community based couple HTC and accommodating the working class during weekends are essential in fostering male involvement in PMTCT thereby reducing HIV transmission to the baby.

  20. West Nile Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    West Nile virus (WNV) is an infectious disease that first appeared in the United States in 1999. Infected mosquitoes ... and usually go away on their own. If West Nile virus enters the brain, however, it can be life- ...

  1. What's West Nile Virus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... OK for Kids? Your Teeth Heart Murmurs What's West Nile Virus? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's West Nile Virus? Print A A A en español ¿Qué es ... Virus del Nilo Occidental? What exactly is the West Nile virus? And why is everyone talking about mosquitoes ? Even ...

  2. U.S. Geological Survey input-data forms for the assessment of the Spraberry Formation of the Midland Basin, Permian Basin Province, Texas, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Kristen R.

    2017-10-24

    In 2017, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) completed an updated assessment of undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and gas resources in the Spraberry Formation of the Midland Basin (Permian Basin Province) in southwestern Texas (Marra and others, 2017). The Spraberry Formation was assessed using both the standard continuous (unconventional) and conventional methodologies established by the USGS for three assessment units (AUs): (1) Lower Spraberry Continuous Oil Trend AU, (2) Middle Spraberry Continuous Oil Trend AU, and (3) Northern Spraberry Conventional Oil AU. The revised assessment resulted in total estimated mean resources of 4,245 million barrels of oil, 3,112 billion cubic feet of gas, and 311 million barrels of natural gas liquids. The purpose of this report is to provide supplemental documentation of the input parameters used in the USGS 2017 Spraberry Formation assessment.

  3. Impact of infectious disease epidemics on tuberculosis diagnostic, management, and prevention services: experiences and lessons from the 2014–2015 Ebola virus disease outbreak in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid Ansumana

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization (WHO Global Tuberculosis Report 2015 states that 28% of the world's 9.6 million new tuberculosis (TB cases are in the WHO Africa Region. The Mano River Union (MRU countries of West Africa–Guinea, Sierra Leone, and Liberia–have made incremental sustained investments into TB control programmes over the past two decades. The devastating Ebola virus disease (EVD outbreak of 2014–2015 in West Africa impacted significantly on all sectors of the healthcare systems in the MRU countries, including the TB prevention and control programmes. The EVD outbreak also had an adverse impact on the healthcare workforce and healthcare service delivery. At the height of the EVD outbreak, numerous staff members in all MRU countries contracted EBV at the Ebola treatment units and died. Many healthcare workers were also infected in healthcare facilities that were not Ebola treatment units but were national hospitals and peripheral health units that were unprepared for receiving patients with EVD. In all three MRU countries, the disruption to TB services due to the EVD epidemic will no doubt have increased Mycobacterium tuberculosis transmission, TB morbidity and mortality, and decreased patient adherence to TB treatment, and the likely impact will not be known for several years to come. In this viewpoint, the impact that the EVD outbreak had on TB diagnostic, management, and prevention services is described. Vaccination against TB with BCG in children under 5 years of age was affected adversely by the EVD epidemic. The EVD outbreak was a result of global failure and represents yet another ‘wake-up call’ to the international community, and particularly to African governments, to reach a consensus on new ways of thinking at the national, regional, and global levels for building healthcare systems that can sustain their function during outbreaks. This is necessary so that other disease control programmes (like those for TB, malaria

  4. The experience of West Nile virus integrated surveillance system in the Emilia-Romagna region: five years of implementation, Italy, 2009 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellini, R; Calzolari, M; Mattivi, A; Tamba, M; Angelini, P; Bonilauri, P; Albieri, A; Cagarelli, R; Carrieri, M; Dottori, M; Finarelli, A C; Gaibani, P; Landini, M P; Natalini, S; Pascarelli, N; Rossini, G; Velati, C; Vocale, C; Bedeschi, E

    2014-11-06

    Predicting West Nile virus (WNV) circulation and the risk of WNV epidemics is difficult due to complex interactions of multiple factors involved. Surveillance systems that timely detect virus activity in targeted areas, and allow evidence-based risk assessments may therefore be necessary. Since 2009, a system integrating environmental (mosquitoes and birds) and human surveillance has been implemented and progressively improved in the Emilia-Romagna region, Italy. The objective is to increase knowledge of WNV circulation and to reduce the probability of virus transmission via blood, tissue and organ donation. As of 2013, the system has shown highly satisfactory results in terms of early detection capacity (the environmental surveillance component allowed detection of WNV circulation 3–4 weeks before human cases of West Nile neuroinvasive disease (WNND) occurred), sensitivity (capacity to detect virus circulation even at the enzootic level) and area specificity (capacity to indicate the spatial distribution of the risk for WNND). Strong correlations were observed between the vector index values and the number of human WNND cases registered at the province level. Taking into consideration two scenarios of surveillance, the first with environmental surveillance and the second without, the total costs for the period from 2009 to 2013 were reduced when environmental surveillance was considered (EUR 2.093 million for the first scenario vs EUR 2.560 million for the second). Environmental surveillance helped to reduce costs by enabling a more targeted blood unit testing strategy. The inclusion of environmental surveillance also increased the efficiency of detecting infected blood units and further allowed evidence-based adoption of preventative public health measures.

  5. Effects on tree swallows exposed to dioxin-like compounds associated with the Tittabawassee River and floodplain near Midland, Michigan, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredricks, Timothy B; Zwiernik, Matthew J; Seston, Rita M; Coefield, Sarah J; Tazelaar, Dustin L; Roark, Shaun A; Kay, Denise P; Newsted, John L; Giesy, John P

    2011-06-01

    Concentrations of dioxin-like compounds, primarily polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), in soils and sediments downstream of Midland, Michigan (USA) were greater than upstream sites and prompted a site-specific hazard assessment of tree swallows breeding in the associated floodplains. Potential for adverse population-level effects from site-specific contaminant exposures were evaluated at study areas (SAs) along the Tittabawassee and Saginaw rivers downstream of Midland. The site-specific multiple lines of evidence approach to hazard assessment included endpoints for dietary- and tissue-based exposures, and population productivity measurements for tree swallows ([TS]; Tachycineta bicolor) measured during the 2005, 2006, and 2007 breeding seasons. Exposure to dioxin-like compounds in TS eggs were some of the greatest recorded and were similar among all upstream and downstream study sites. Conversely, concentrations in nestlings from SAs were significantly greater compared to reference areas (RAs). The pattern of relative concentrations of PCDD/DFs in eggs and nestlings at RAs was dominated by dioxin congeners, whereas at SAs it was dominated by furan congeners. No statistically significant differences were noted in exposure to PCDD/DFs or in population-level responses when compared among locations, and total clutch failures were rare. Hatching success and fledging success were weakly negatively correlated with concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TEQs) in individual eggs and nestlings, respectively. On-site concentrations of TEQs in floodplain soils were some of the greatest ever reported in the environment, and several lines of evidence indicate potential population-level effects on TS overall reproductive productivity. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  6. Impact of infectious disease epidemics on tuberculosis diagnostic, management, and prevention services: experiences and lessons from the 2014-2015 Ebola virus disease outbreak in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansumana, Rashid; Keitell, Samuel; Roberts, Gregory M T; Ntoumi, Francine; Petersen, Eskild; Ippolito, Giuseppe; Zumla, Alimuddin

    2017-03-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) Global Tuberculosis Report 2015 states that 28% of the world's 9.6 million new tuberculosis (TB) cases are in the WHO Africa Region. The Mano River Union (MRU) countries of West Africa-Guinea, Sierra Leone, and Liberia-have made incremental sustained investments into TB control programmes over the past two decades. The devastating Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak of 2014-2015 in West Africa impacted significantly on all sectors of the healthcare systems in the MRU countries, including the TB prevention and control programmes. The EVD outbreak also had an adverse impact on the healthcare workforce and healthcare service delivery. At the height of the EVD outbreak, numerous staff members in all MRU countries contracted EBV at the Ebola treatment units and died. Many healthcare workers were also infected in healthcare facilities that were not Ebola treatment units but were national hospitals and peripheral health units that were unprepared for receiving patients with EVD. In all three MRU countries, the disruption to TB services due to the EVD epidemic will no doubt have increased Mycobacterium tuberculosis transmission, TB morbidity and mortality, and decreased patient adherence to TB treatment, and the likely impact will not be known for several years to come. In this viewpoint, the impact that the EVD outbreak had on TB diagnostic, management, and prevention services is described. Vaccination against TB with BCG in children under 5 years of age was affected adversely by the EVD epidemic. The EVD outbreak was a result of global failure and represents yet another 'wake-up call' to the international community, and particularly to African governments, to reach a consensus on new ways of thinking at the national, regional, and global levels for building healthcare systems that can sustain their function during outbreaks. This is necessary so that other disease control programmes (like those for TB, malaria, and HIV) are not

  7. West Coast DA Event data - West Coast Toxic Pseudo-nitzschia bloom

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Beginning in the spring of 2015 the US West Coast began to experience the most wide-spread toxic Pseudo-nitzschia bloom to date, after approximately eight years...

  8. Teaching Scandinavian Interaction Design in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jannick Kirk

    2016-01-01

    Methods for interaction design have emerged and established themselves first in a Scandinavian context, later in US context and in the rest of the developed world. While good usability and good user experiences are important to all users of ICT, the question is whether the methods and techniques...... that were mainly developed in Scandinavia, Europe and US are suitable for ICT development in West Africa? Can ideals for user-involvement be directly transferred? This paper aims to initiate a discussion of the communication of interaction design knowledge in West Africa by discussing whether insights from...... Scandinavian Participatory design can be used to localize the learning process and make interaction design methods sensitive to the West African context. The paper is based on the author’s reflection on his experiences teaching interaction design in West Africa....

  9. Host group formation decreases exposure to vector-borne disease: a field experiment in a 'hotspot' of West Nile virus transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Bethany L; Anderson, Tavis K; Goldberg, Tony L; Hamer, Gabriel L; Kitron, Uriel D; Newman, Christina M; Ruiz, Marilyn O; Walker, Edward D; Brawn, Jeffrey D

    2014-12-07

    Animals can decrease their individual risk of predation by forming groups. The encounter-dilution hypothesis extends the potential benefits of gregariousness to biting insects and vector-borne disease by predicting that the per capita number of insect bites should decrease within larger host groups. Although vector-borne diseases are common and can exert strong selective pressures on hosts, there have been few tests of the encounter-dilution effect in natural systems. We conducted an experimental test of the encounter-dilution hypothesis using the American robin (Turdus migratorius), a common host species for the West Nile virus (WNV), a mosquito-borne pathogen. By using sentinel hosts (house sparrows, Passer domesticus) caged in naturally occurring communal roosts in the suburbs of Chicago, we assessed sentinel host risk of WNV exposure inside and outside of roosts. We also estimated per capita host exposure to infected vectors inside roosts and outside of roosts. Sentinel birds caged inside roosts seroconverted to WNV more slowly than those outside of roosts, suggesting that social groups decrease per capita exposure to infected mosquitoes. These results therefore support the encounter-dilution hypothesis in a vector-borne disease system. Our results suggest that disease-related selective pressures on sociality may depend on the mode of disease transmission. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  10. The Subglacial Access and Fast Ice Research Experiment (SAFIRE): 3. Englacial and subglacial conditions revealed by seismic reflection data on Store Glacier, West Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstede, Coen; Eisen, Olaf; Young, Tun Jan; Doyle, Samuel; Hubbard, Bryn; Christoffersen, Poul; Hubbard, Alun

    2015-04-01

    Basal conditions have a profound influence on the dynamics of outlet glaciers. As part of the SAFIRE research programme, we carried out a seismic survey on Store Glacier, a tidewater glacier terminating in Uummanaq Fjord in West Greenland (see joint abstracts by Christoffersen et al. and Doyle et al. for details). At the survey site the ice moves 700m/a making the terrain crevassed and bumpy. Despite the rough terrain we collected two 1.5 km long survey lines parallel and perpendicular to the ice flow direction using a 300m snow streamer and explosives as a source. The seismic data reveal an ice thickness of about 620m and 20 to 30m of subglacial sediment on the upstream side of the area thinning in the downstream direction. From polarity reversals seen along the ice-bed contact we speculate that the sediments have varying degrees of water content. The ice itself has several englacial reflections parallel and close to the bed. At approximately 475m depth, a clear single englacial reflection is observed in the parallel survey line. Thermistor data installed at this location show a clear increase in ice temperature starting at this depth. We speculate that the observed englacial reflection is caused by a change in crystal orientation fabric allowing greater ice deformation below this depth causing increased strain heating.

  11. MODFLOW-2005 and MT3DMS models used to design and evaluate a bioremediation experiment at the former Naval Air Warfare Center, West Trenton, NJ

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — MODFLOW-2005 groundwater flow models and MT3DMS solute transport models were developed to represent conditions in the vicinity of a bioremediation experiment...

  12. Kidney disease in hepatitis B surface antigen-positive children: experience from a centre in south-west Nigeria and a review of the Nigerian literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asinobi, Adanze O; Ademola, Adebowale D; Okolo, Clement A; Adepoju, Adedayo A; Samuel, Susan M; Hoy, Wendy E

    2018-02-01

    Kidney disease is an important extra-hepatic manifestation of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. However, there is paucity of recent literature on kidney disease in children and adolescents with HBV infection from several parts of sub-Saharan Africa including Nigeria. To review the pattern of kidney disease in hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive children and adolescents seen at a tertiary hospital in south-west Nigeria. A retrospective study was undertaken of HBsAg-seropositive children with kidney disease managed at University College Hospital, Ibadan, from January 2004 to December 2015. Patients were identified from the paediatric nephrology unit admissions and the renal histology registers. 24 children and adolescents were studied, 17 of whom were male (70.8%), and the median age was 10.0 years (range 3-15). Ten (41.7%) had nephrotic syndrome, five (20.8%) had non-nephrotic glomerulonephritis, five (20.8%) were in end-stage renal disease (ESRD), including a patient with posterior urethral valves, and four had acute kidney injury secondary to acute tubular necrosis. Renal histology was available for 10 patients: nine had nephrotic syndrome associated with minimal change disease in six, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis in two and one had membanoproliferative glomerulonephritis. The patient with non-nephrotic glomerulonephritis had diffuse global sclerosis. The pattern of kidney disease in HBV-positive children demonstrated a predominance of nephrotic syndrome, followed by non-nephrotic glomerulonephritis, ESRD and acute kidney injury. Better diagnostic facilities and treatment are required. Prevention of HBV infection by universal childhood immunisation is the ultimate goal.

  13. Self-reported school experience as a predictor of self-harm during adolescence: a prospective cohort study in the South West of England (ALSPAC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidger, Judi; Heron, Jon; Leon, David A; Tilling, Kate; Lewis, Glyn; Gunnell, David

    2015-03-01

    Several aspects of school life are thought to be associated with increased risk of self-harm in adolescence, but these have rarely been investigated in prospective studies. Members of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) birth cohort completed postal surveys of school experiences aged 14, and self-harm behaviour aged 16 (n=3939). Associations between school experiences (feeling connected to school, enjoyment of school and perception of teachers as fair) and subsequent self-harm were examined using multivariable logistic regression models. Self-harm aged 16 was associated with earlier perceptions of school, specifically not getting on well with or feeling accepted by others (OR=2.43 [1.76, 3.35] and OR=2.69 [2.16, 3.35] respectively), not liking school or the work done in class (OR=1.40 [1.17, 1.69] and OR=1.36 [1.10, 1.67]), and feeling that teachers are not clear about behaviour or fail to address misbehaviour consistently (OR=1.59 [1.20, 2.12] OR=1.89 [1.51, 2.37]). These associations were partially attenuated in models controlling for mental health concurrent with the outcome. Poor school experiences were related to both suicidal and non-suicidal self-harm, with slightly stronger associations visible for the former. (i) There was some loss to follow up, (ii) experience of bullying was not measured, and (iii) exposure and outcome measures were self-report. Students who feel unconnected to school, unhappy at school, or feel that teachers are unfair are more likely to self-harm in the future. Assessing students' perceptions of school may serve to identify those at risk of self-harm who would benefit from preventative interventions. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. What criteria guide national entrepreneurs' policy decisions on user fee removal for maternal health care services? Use of a best-worst scaling choice experiment in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torbica, Aleksandra; De Allegri, Manuela; Belemsaga, Danielle; Medina-Lara, Antonieta; Ridde, Valery

    2014-10-01

    Several countries in sub-Saharan Africa have implemented policies to remove or reduce user fees. Our aim was to identify criteria guiding such decisions among national policy entrepreneurs, those who link up problem definition, solution development and political processes. We administered a best-worst scaling (BWS) experiment to 89 policy entrepreneurs, asking them to identify the most and the least important criteria on a series of predefined sets. Sets were compiled using a Balance Incomplete Block Design which generated random combinations of all 11 criteria included in the experiment. In turn, those had emerged from a prior set of focus group discussions organized among policy entrepreneurs. Ordered logit models were used to investigate the value of single criteria as well as heterogeneity of preferences. Political commitment was identified as the most important criterion guiding policy decisions on user fee abolition or reduction to the overall sample, but particularly so for more experienced respondents aged over 50 years. International pressure and donor money were identified as least important while equity and institutional capacity were deemed of relatively little importance. Respondents more involved in advising on policy than on formulating policy rated economic issues such as financial sustainability and cost-effectiveness as less important. It is feasible to apply BWS experiments in low-income countries, although whether the technique can be adjusted to elicit preferences among non-literate respondents in these settings is unclear. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  15. The Subglacial Access and Fast Ice Research Experiment (SAFIRE): 2. High magnitude englacial strain detected with autonomous phase-sensitive FMCW radar on Store Glacier, West Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Tun Jan; Christoffersen, Poul; Nicholls, Keith; Bun Lok, Lai; Doyle, Samuel; Hubbard, Bryn; Stewart, Craig; Hofstede, Coen; Bougamont, Marion; Todd, Joseph; Brennan, Paul; Hubbard, Alun

    2016-04-01

    Fast-flowing outlet glaciers terminating in the sea drain 90% of the Greenland Ice Sheet. It is well-known that these glaciers flow rapidly due to fast basal motion, but its contributing processes and mechanisms are, however, poorly understood. In particular, there is a paucity of data to quantify the extent to which basal sliding and internal ice deformation by viscous creep contribute to the fast motion of Greenland outlet glaciers. To study these processes, we installed a network of global positioning system (GPS) receivers around an autonomous phase-sensitive radio-echo sounder (ApRES) capable of imaging internal reflectors and the glacier bed. The ApRES system, including antennas, were custom-designed to monitor and image ice sheets and ice shelves in monostatic and multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) modes. Specifically, the system transmits a frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) that increases linearly from 200 to 400 MHz over a period of 1 second. We installed this system 30 km up-flow of the tidewater terminus of Store Glacier, which flows into Uummannaq Fjord in West Greenland, and data were recorded every hour from 06 May to 16 July 2014 and every 4 hours from 26 July to 11 December 2014. The same site was used to instrument 600 m deep boreholes drilled to the bed as part of the SAFIRE research programme. With range and reflector distances captured at high temporal (hourly) and spatial (millimetre) resolutions, we obtained a unique, 6-month-long time series of strain through the vertical ice column at the drill site where tilt was independently recorded in a borehole. Our results show variable, but persistently high vertical strain. In the upper three-fourths of the ice column, we have calculated strain rates on the order of a few percent per year, and the strain regime curiously shifts from vertical thinning in winter to vertical thickening at the onset of summer melt. In the basal ice layer we observed high-magnitude vertical strain rates on

  16. Genetic analysis of CRHRA1 and CRHRA2 microsatellites and their association with rheumatoid arthritis in South Asian and Caucasian populations of the East Midlands, UK.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anant Ghelani

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Two microsatellites from corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH gene locus (CRHRA1 and CRHRA2 were reported to be associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA in Caucasians. This study aims to replicate the association in a South Asian (SA and Caucasian RA sample from the East Midlands, UK. DNA from 281 South Asians (111 patients, 43 siblings, 127 controls and 287 Caucasians (116 patients, 64 siblings, 107 controls were genotyped. The Odds Ratio for carrying at least one copy of the CRHRA1*10 risk allele was 1.32 (Confidence Interval, CI=0.77-2.28 in Caucasians and 1.55 (CI=0.92-2.63 in South Asians, indicative of a trend for association. The risk allele CRHRA2*14 was lower in South Asians compared to Caucasians (5.5%-8.6% vs. 17.7-18.2 %; P<0.005. Significant linkage disequilibrium was observed between CRHRA1 and CRHRA2 in both cohorts. CRHRA1*10 was the frequently transmitted allele in SA patients. A non-significant association was observed with CRHRA1*10 allele in both RA populations.

  17. Multiple Lines of Evidence Risk Assessment of Terrestrial Passerines Exposed to PCDFs and PCDDs in the Tittabawassee River Floodplain, Midland, Michigan, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredricks, Timothy B; Giesy, John P; Coefield, Sarah J; Seston, Rita M; Tazelaar, Dustin L; Roark, Shaun A; Kay, Denise P; Newsted, John L; Zwiernik, Matthew J

    2011-01-01

    A site-specific multiple lines of evidence risk assessment was conducted for house wrens (Troglodytes aedon) and eastern bluebirds (Sialia sialis) along the Tittabawassee River downstream of Midland, Michigan, where concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) in flood-plain soils and sediments are greater compared to upstream areas and some of the greatest anywhere in the world. Lines of evidence supporting the population-level assessment endpoints included site-specific dietary- and tissue-based exposure assessments and population productivity measurements during breeding seasons 2005-2007. While a hazard assessment based on site-specific diets suggested that populations residing in the downstream floodplain had the potential to be affected, concentrations in eggs compared to appropriate toxicity reference values (TRVs) did not predict a potential for population-level effects. There were no significant effects on reproductive success of either species. The most probable cause of the apparent difference between the dietary- and tissue-based exposure assessments was that the dietary-based TRVs were overly conservative based on intraperitoneal injections in the ring-necked pheasant. Agreement between the risk assessment based on concentrations of PCDFs and PCDDs in eggs and reproductive performance in both species supports the conclusion of a small potential for population-level effects at this site.

  18. An investigation of the genus Mesacanthus (Chordata: Acanthodii from the Orcadian Basin and Midland Valley areas of Northern and Central Scotland using traditional morphometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew G. Baron

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Mesacanthus is a common and speciose genus of acanthodian fish from Lower Old Red Sandstone and Middle Old Red Sandstone assemblages (representing the Lower Devonian and Middle Devonian respectively and is well represented in many palaeoichthyology collections in the UK. Based upon descriptions given during the 19th century, specimens of the genus Mesacanthus from the Orcadian Basin and Midland Valley areas of Northern and Central Scotland have historically been referred to a number of different species; of these, the most frequently discussed in the literature are M. mitchelli, M. peachi and M. pusillus. In order to test the validity of these three species, traditional morphometric analyses were carried out on over 100 specimens of Mesacanthus, from both the Lower Devonian and the Middle Devonian, that cover the full range of known localities for these taxa in Northern and Central Scotland. Based upon morphological and morphometric comparisons, this investigation has found that at least two species of Mesacanthus are valid (M. mitchelli and M. pusillus as specimens from the Lower Devonian and Middle Devonian have been shown to differ significantly in a number of important ways. However, no evidence has been found for the validity of the second and distinct Middle Devonian species, M. peachi.

  19. An investigation of the genus Mesacanthus (Chordata: Acanthodii) from the Orcadian Basin and Midland Valley areas of Northern and Central Scotland using traditional morphometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Matthew G

    2015-01-01

    Mesacanthus is a common and speciose genus of acanthodian fish from Lower Old Red Sandstone and Middle Old Red Sandstone assemblages (representing the Lower Devonian and Middle Devonian respectively) and is well represented in many palaeoichthyology collections in the UK. Based upon descriptions given during the 19th century, specimens of the genus Mesacanthus from the Orcadian Basin and Midland Valley areas of Northern and Central Scotland have historically been referred to a number of different species; of these, the most frequently discussed in the literature are M. mitchelli, M. peachi and M. pusillus. In order to test the validity of these three species, traditional morphometric analyses were carried out on over 100 specimens of Mesacanthus, from both the Lower Devonian and the Middle Devonian, that cover the full range of known localities for these taxa in Northern and Central Scotland. Based upon morphological and morphometric comparisons, this investigation has found that at least two species of Mesacanthus are valid (M. mitchelli and M. pusillus) as specimens from the Lower Devonian and Middle Devonian have been shown to differ significantly in a number of important ways. However, no evidence has been found for the validity of the second and distinct Middle Devonian species, M. peachi.

  20. Characterization of the estrogenicity of Swiss midland rivers using a recombinant yeast bioassay and plasma vitellogenin concentrations in feral male brown trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeirssen, Etiënne L M; Burki, Richard; Joris, Caroline; Peter, Armin; Segner, Helmut; Suter, Marc J F; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia

    2005-09-01

    In our study, we aim to characterize the estrogenicity of 18 independent rivers that receive effluent from sewage treatment works. During the winter and summer of 2003, we collected multiple water samples and measured environmental estrogens with an in vitro yeast-based reporter gene assay; estrogenicity was expressed as ng 17beta-estradiol equivalents (EEQ) per L of water. Estradiol equivalents values in winter ranged from 0.3 to 2.0 ng/L and, in summer, from 0.4 to 7.0 ng/L. Winter and summer EEQ values were not correlated with each other or with the dilution factor of the effluent in the river. Variation in EEQ values was large and correlated from winter to summer. Part of this variation in estrogenicity is explained by water flow rates; variation is larger at reduced flow rates. We measured plasma vitellogenin concentrations in immature male brown trout. At five sites, vitellogenin concentrations exceeded 1 microg/ml; however, at the majority of the sites, plasma vitellogenin concentrations were below 0.5 microg/ml. Our data indicate that the exposure of brown trout to environmental estrogens in Swiss midland rivers is low. However, some sites show reoccurring higher EEQ values and, at some sites, plasma vitellogenin concentrations in male fish clearly are elevated.

  1. Formation and evolution of the midlands of Venus: Geological features and structures, stratigraphic relationships and geologic history of the Fredegonde area (V-57)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Mikhail A.; Head, James W.

    2012-12-01

    The topographic midlands on Venus comprise about 80% of the surface and an understanding of their mode of formation is essential to unraveling the geologic and geodynamic history of the planet. We explore this question by undertaking a comprehensive geological mapping of the Fredegonde Quadrangle (V-57, 50-75°S, 60-120°E, 1:5M scale) that represents the transition zone from the midlands to the lowlands at the edge of Lada Terra. We report on the geologic units and structures and the sequence of events and, thus, the major stages in the evolution of this region of the midlands. At earlier stages of evolution of the long-wavelength topography, broad (hundreds of kilometers wide) and relatively low (1-1.5 km high) topographic ridges formed due to sequential development of deformation zones, first of contractional ridge belts (NW orientation) and then crosscut by extensional groove belts (NE orientation). Arcuate swarms of graben within groove belts often form the rims of coronae and represent their tectonic component. This suggests that groove belts and coronae within the quadrangle formed simultaneously. Intersections of these deformation zones caused separation of the topography of the region into a series of broad, shallow equidimensional basins many hundreds of kilometers across and currently hundreds of meters up to a kilometer deep. Thus, the principal topographic features within the quadrangle were established near the beginning of its observable geological record. The basins then remained sites of accumulation of successive volcanic plains units such as shield plains (psh) and the lower unit of regional plains (rp1). The flows of the younger plains, such as upper unit of regional plains (rp2) and lobate plains (pl), are less voluminous, and flow down the current topographic gradients. This implies that the major topographic pattern of the Fredegonde quadrangle has been stable since its establishment. Further evidence for this is that the vast volcanic plains

  2. A study of the provision of hospital based dental General Anaesthetic services for children in the North West of England: Part 2--the views and experience of families and dentists regarding service needs, treatment and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Michaela; Pretty, Iain A; Sanders, Caroline

    2015-04-09

    Patterns of service delivery and the organisation of Dental General Anaesthesia (DGA) have been found to differ across hospitals. This paper reports on qualitative research aimed to understand the impact of such variation by exploring views and experiences of families receiving care in different hospital sites, as well as dentists involved in referral and delivery of care. Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with 26 people comprising parents (n = 15), dentists working in primary care (n = 6) and operating dentists (n = 5) in relation to DGA. Participants were recruited from areas across the North West of England to ensure a variety referral and treatment experiences were captured. Field notes were made during visits to all settings included in the study and explored alongside interview transcripts to elicit key themes. A variety of positive and negative impacts on children and parents throughout the referral process and operation day were apparent. Key themes established were clustered around three key topics: 1. Organisational and professional concerns regarding referrals, delivery of treatment and prevention. 2. The role of hospital environment and routine on the emotional experiences of children. 3. The influence of the wider social context on dental health. These findings suggest the need and perceived value of: tailored services for children (such as play specialists) and improved information, such as clear guidance regarding wait times and what is to be expected on the day of the procedure. These features were viewed to be helpful in alleviating the stress and anxiety often associated with DGA. While some elements will always be restricted in part to the hospital setting in which they occur, there are several aspects where best practice could be shared amongst hospitals and, where issues such as wait times have been acknowledged, alternative pathways can be explored in order to address areas which can impact negatively on children.

  3. Undergraduate Education Studies students’ experiences of applying for postgraduate Initial Teacher Education (ITE) programmes in 2015/16

    OpenAIRE

    Purves, Ross; Pulsford, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Content: Drawing on preliminary analysis of data from focus group discussions (that will take place in early 2016), this paper explores the experiences of undergraduate Education Studies students applying for ITE courses beginning in September 2016. Students at one East Midlands University will be invited to participate in group discussions about the process of applying and attending interview events for Primary and Secondary school ITE courses. Comparisons will be made between the views ...

  4. The development of exilic poetry in Anglophone West Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Moreover, this study shows that there is a wide range of forms emerging from exilic literary experience in Anglophone West Africa in the explication of personal feelings, nostalgia, alienation, political and socio-cultural disruptions. Keywords: alienation, Anglophone West Africa, exile, exilic poetry, migration.

  5. Performance Of West African Dwarf Sheep Fed Diets Supplemented ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment to investigate the possible growth promoting effect of rare earth elements (REE) in growing West African dwarf sheep as well as their influence on the haematological and blood serum biochemical changes was conducted for 12 weeks. Forty West African dwarf sheep were allotted to four dietary treatments: a ...

  6. West Nile Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Whether Lower Respiratory Tract Infections Improve with Antibacterial Treatment , February 13, 2018 NIH Scientists Adapt New ... ecological patterns in the United States, and insecticide resistance. Read more about West Nile virus biology, genetics ...

  7. US west coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aerial surveys are conducted along the US west coast to determine distribution and abundance of endangered leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea), loggerhead...

  8. West African Journal of Medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The West African Journal of Medicine is owned by the West African College of Physicians and the West African College of Surgeons. Aims: The aims of the Journal are: To provide a medium for international dissemination of information about medical science in West Africa and elsewhere. To furnish a means whereby ...

  9. Glucose intolerance in the West African Diaspora

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jannie; Christensen, Dirk Lund

    2011-01-01

    In the United States, Black Americans are largely descendants of West African slaves; they have a higher relative proportion of obesity and experience a higher prevalence of diabetes than White Americans. However, obesity rates alone cannot explain the higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes. Type 2...

  10. Rethinking West African economic integration: francophone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is both an empirical and historical study of the interface ofinternational trade, law and order, and economic integration from a subaltern perspective. Drawing largely from Nigerian experiences, it interrogates the protocol governing trade across West Africa's international boundaries and confronts this with the ...

  11. Ecological risk assessment of great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) exposed to PCDD/DF in the Tittabawassee River floodplain in Midland, Michigan, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coefield, Sarah J; Fredricks, Timothy B; Seston, Rita M; Nadeau, Michael W; Tazelaar, Dustin L; Kay, Denise P; Newsted, John; Giesy, John P; Zwiernik, Matthew J

    2010-10-01

    Soils and sediments downstream of Midland, Michigan, USA have elevated polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) concentrations. To determine if the PCDD/DF concentrations have the potential to adversely affect terrestrial avian predators, a site-specific, multiple lines of evidence risk assessment was conducted for the great horned owl (Bubo virginianus; GHO). As long-lived resident top predators, the GHO has the potential to be exposed to relatively great concentrations of bioaccumulative compounds such as PCDD/DF. From 2005 to 2008, concentrations of PCDD/DF were measured in blood plasma of adult and nestling GHOs and addled eggs. Indicators of the condition of the population, including abundance and reproductive success, were collected along 115 km of river corridor. Fifty-five active 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD) equivalents (TEQ(WHO-Avian)) nests were monitored in 21 breeding territories from 2005 to 2008. The geometric mean concentration in blood plasma of GHOs was greater in the study area (SA) than in the reference area (RA) for both adults (RA: 3.1; SA: 9.4 ng TEQ(WHO-Avian)/kg) and nestlings (RA: 0.82 ng TEQ(WHO-Avian)/kg, SA: 2.1 ng TEQ(WHO-Avian)/kg) GHOs, but less than concentrations expected to cause adverse effects based on laboratory studies. Concentrations of TEQ(WHO-Avian) in addled GHO eggs were also greater in the SA than the RA (50 and 7.3 ng/kg, wet weight, respectively), but were less than concentrations expected to cause adverse effects. The GHO population condition and productivity were both greater in the study area than in the reference area and were similar to other GHO populations. This result suggests the GHO population in the Tittabawassee River floodplain is consistent with what would be expected for this area. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2010;29:2341-2349. © 2010 SETAC.

  12. Dietary- and tissue-based exposure of belted kingfisher to PCDFs and PCDDs in the Tittabawassee River floodplain, Midland, MI, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seston, Rita M; Giesy, John P; Fredricks, Timothy B; Tazelaar, Dustin L; Coefield, Sarah J; Bradley, Patrick W; Roark, Shaun A; Newsted, John L; Kay, Denise P; Zwiernik, Matthew J

    2012-05-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and other dioxin-like compounds in soils and sediments of the Tittabawassee River and associated floodplains downstream of Midland, Michigan, USA, are greater than upstream sites. As a result of these concentrations, which are some of the greatest ever reported, a site-specific exposure assessment of belted kingfisher breeding in the assessment area was conducted. To reduce the uncertainty associated with predicting exposure from abiotic matrices, concentrations of residues were quantified in site-specific prey items and in eggs and nestlings of belted kingfisher. Dietary exposure, expressed as the potential average daily dose, based on site-specific concentrations of PCDFs, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TEQ(WHO-Avian)) in prey items was consistently greater along the Tittabawassee River than in associated reference areas and further downstream sites in the Saginaw River. Concentrations of PCDD/DFs in eggs and nestlings of belted kingfisher varied among sampling areas, being greater in both eggs and nestlings nesting along the Tittabawassee River compared to those of belted kingfisher from upstream reference areas. Geometric mean concentrations of PCDD/DFs were 130 and 200 ng/kg wet weight in eggs and nestlings of belted kingfisher, respectively. These concentrations are the equivalent of 84 and 95 ng TEQ(WHO-Avian)/kg. Site-specific biomagnification factors for select PCDD/DF congeners ranged from <1.0 to 1.8 in belted kingfisher. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  13. Dietary exposure of three passerine species to PCDD/DFs from the Chippewa, Tittabawassee, and Saginaw River floodplains, Midland, Michigan, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredricks, Timothy B; Giesy, John P; Coefield, Sarah J; Seston, Rita M; Haswell, Melissa M; Tazelaar, Dustin L; Bradley, Patrick W; Moore, Jeremy N; Roark, Shaun A; Zwiernik, Matthew J

    2011-01-01

    Dietary exposure of house wrens (Troglodytes aedon), tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor), and eastern bluebirds (Sialia sialis) to polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) near Midland, Michigan (USA) was evaluated based on site-specific data, including concentrations of residues in bolus samples and individual invertebrate orders and dietary compositions by study species. Site-specific dietary compositions for the three species were similar to those reported in the literature, but differed in their relative proportions of some dietary items. Oligocheata (non-depurated) and Brachycera (Diptera) contained the greatest average concentrations of ΣPCDD/DFs of the major site-specific dietary items collected via food web-based sampling. Average ingestion values of ΣPCDD/DFs from site-specific bolus-based and food web-based dietary concentrations for nestlings at study areas (SAs) were 6- to 20-fold and 2- to 9-fold greater than at proximally located reference areas (RAs), respectively. Average ingestion values of total 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TEQ(WHO - Avian)) from site-specific bolus-based and food web-based dietary concentrations for nestlings at SAs were 31- to 121-fold and 9- to 64-fold greater than at proximally located RAs, respectively. Estimates of ΣPCDD/DFs and TEQ(WHO - Avian) tissue concentrations based on nestling dietary exposures were greater than those measured. Plausible explanations include nestling metabolism of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran and assimilation rates of less than the 70% assumed to occur over the nestling growth period. Profiles of the relative concentrations of individual PCDD/DF congeners in samples of invertebrates and bolus at SAs on the Tittabawassee River downstream of the source of contamination were dominated by 1,2,3,4,6,7,8,9-octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (22% to 44%) and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (18% to 50%).

  14. An Assessment of Zimbabwe Secondary School Teachers’ Attitudes towards the Use of Smart Phones in the Classroom: A Case of Midlands Province, Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhliwayo Alice

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available While technology has been embraced by most of the people, use of smart phones in the classroom has been received with mixed feelings. Some say it enhances learning while others complain that it disturbs instruction. This research wanted to find out the stance of secondary school teachers on this issue in Zimbabwe. A sample of 50 randomly selected teachers from 10 randomly selected secondary schools in Gweru District, Midlands Province in Zimbabwe was used. Data from self-constructed questionnaires were analyzed by SPSS mainly on descriptive statistics and correlation. Findings showed that teachers possess smart phones which they use for researching and other instructional purposes with moderate expertise. Teachers consider smart phones as hand-held computers that can enhance learning for they have high engagement potential and they extend classroom walls allowing students to engage with the global village. A correlation computation showed that there is a significant relationship between perceived problems of smart phones and smart phones integration factors. However, respondents felt that smart phones can cause lower levels of attention during lessons and allows cheating and copying during exams. They also concurred that teachers’ technical skills lag behind those of digital native students. Thus, they foresaw instructional problems on the part of the teachers on the use of smart phones in the classroom and were against their use. They doubted if the use of smart phones can improve the pass rate and whether they wanted their students to bring cell phones and use them during lessons for they perceived problems in controlling students using them. They also doubted if schools in Zimbabwe would ever benefit if students are allowed to use their phones in class. The study concluded that teachers in Zimbabwe are not yet prepared to have students use smart phone in the classroom and recommended for further research on the potential benefits of using

  15. Analysis of bio-obtainable endocrine disrupting metals in river water and sediment, sewage influent/effluent, sludge, leachate, and concentrated leachate, in the irish midlands shannon catchment.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Reid, Antoinette M

    2009-01-01

    The application of an acid digestion and subsequent solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedure were implemented as preliminary treatments prior to quantifying the levels of potentially endocrine disrupting metals (EDMs) in a variety of solid and liquid matrices. These included (solid) river sediment, leachate sediment and sewage sludge and also (liquid) river water, landfill leachate, concentrated leachate, sewage influent, and sewage effluent, sampled in the Irish Midlands. The total concentrations of cobalt (Co), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and manganese (Mn), after extraction and preconcentration, were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Mercury (Hg) in sediment and sludge was determined using cold-vapour atomic fluorescence spectroscopy (AFS). For sewage sludge maximum values (mg\\/kg(dw)) of 4700 Ni, 1642 Mn, 100.0 Cd, 3400 Zn, 36.70 Co, 750.0 Pb, 485.8 Cr, and 1003 Cu were determined whilst in leachate sediment, maximum values (mg\\/kg(dw)) of 32.10 Ni, 815.0 Mn, 32.78 Cd, 230.3 Zn, 26.73 Co, 3525 Pb, 124.9 Cr, and 50.13 Cu were found. Over several months, the data showed elevated levels in sewage influents, effluents, and sludges compared to a battery of adjacent river water samples and corresponding sediments. There was a definite trend for target values for sediments to be exceeded, while intervention values were only exceeded for cadmium. Overall the pattern in terms of concentration was sewage > leachate > river matrices. A nonparametric assessment of the effect of sewage treatment method on median metal levels in sludge revealed statistically significant differences at the 95% level of confidence for Co, Cr, and Hg and at the 90% level of confidence for Cd.

  16. West African crystalline maculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, David J

    2004-05-01

    To report new observations in West African crystalline maculopathy. Retrospective, observational case series. Three patients drawn from a private retina practice. Review of clinical charts and photographic studies. Distribution of intraretinal crystals and changes after laser photocoagulation, and history of ingesting foods typical in a West African diet but atypical for an American diet. All patients were older than 50 years, had diabetic retinopathy, ate green vegetables not found in American diets, and showed no deleterious effects of the crystals. Kola nut ingestion in 2 patients was remote and sparse, and was unknown in a third patient. The first 2 affected patients originating outside the Ibo tribe of Nigeria are reported. The pattern of retinal crystals can be changed, and the quantity of crystals reduced, by laser photocoagulation of associated diabetic retinopathy. West African crystalline retinopathy is distinguishable from other causes of crystalline retinopathy. It may reflect a component of the West African diet, seems to have diabetic retinopathy as a promoting factor via breakdown of the blood-retina barrier, and can be modified by laser photocoagulation of diabetic retinopathy. Increased awareness of the condition will allow physicians seeing West African immigrants to make the diagnosis and treat the patients appropriately.

  17. Variations between post- and pre-harvest seasons in stunting, wasting, and Infant and Young Child Feeding (IYCF) practices among children 6-23 months of age in lowland and midland agro-ecological zones of rural Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roba, Kedir Teji; O'Connor, Thomas Pacelli; Belachew, Tefera; O'Brien, Nora Mary

    2016-01-01

    Food availability and access are strongly affected by seasonality in Ethiopia. However, there are little data on seasonal variation in Infant and Young Child Feeding (IYCF) practices and malnutrition among 6-23 months old children in different agro-ecological zones of rural Ethiopia. Socio-demographic, anthropometry and IYCF indicators were assessed in post- and pre-harvest seasons among children aged 6-23 months of age randomly selected from rural villages of lowland and midland agro-ecological zones. Child stunting and underweight increased from prevalence of 39.8% and 26.9% in post-harvest to 46.0% and 31.8% in pre-harvest seasons, respectively. The biggest increase in prevalence of stunting and underweight between post- and pre-harvest seasons was noted in the midland zone. Wasting decreased from 11.6% post-harvest to 8.5% pre-harvest, with the biggest decline recorded in the lowland zone. Minimum meal frequency, minimum acceptable diet and poor dietary diversity increased considerably in pre-harvest compared to post-harvest season in the lowland zone. Feeding practices and maternal age were predictors of wasting, while women's dietary diversity and children age was predictor of child dietary diversity in both seasons. There is seasonal variation in malnutrition and IYCF practices among children 6-23 months of age with more pronounced effect in midland agro-ecological zone. A major contributing factor for child malnutrition may be poor feeding practices. Health information strategies focused on both IYCF practices and dietary diversity of mothers could be a sensible approach to reduce the burden of child malnutrition in rural Ethiopia.

  18. Floating Breakwater Field Experience, West Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-07-01

    OF PAGES Kingman fluildiny,, Fort Belvoir, Virginia 22960) 64 IS. N-loSSYiNG AGENCY NAME a AOONE5Sit dIove mnI tem CoatUa 3oW.) IS. SECURITY CLASS...speeds of 60 knots are common. However, the annual summary of winds at Japon - * liski Airport (see Table) indicates that 40-knot winds are rare...section in the initial breakwater layout broke during a storm (D. Miller, personal communication ). This connection has been eliminated by the new alinement

  19. Islam and the West

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd. Kamal Hassan

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The scientific and technological developments during the 18th and' the 19th centuries ensured material progress of the West, as well as emergence of the West as the dominating power which colonized the rest of the world. During the post-colonial phase, Islam emerged as a revitalized sociopolitical force. This has been mistaken as a threat by the West, and Islam has been portrayed as the "new enemy after the demise of communism. This is partly an effort to establish a Western identity, which is disintegrating due to lack of a challenge; and partly a reflection of the failure of Muslims to realize the social and ethical ideals of Islam.

  20. West Virginia: Library Automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Thomas M., Ed.

    1996-01-01

    Reviews library automation efforts in West Virginia. Topics include information equity and rural areas, library systems and resource sharing, statewide connectivity, a higher education telecomputing network that has expanded to include elementary and secondary school libraries, multitype library cooperation and staff training, and academic library…

  1. The great West Road

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    From right to centre the 'Nationale 84' relying Meyrin to Saint-Genis. The fence limits Lab I on that side. From bottom the road leading to the double inclined tunnel linking Lab I and Lab II. On the foreground the ISR building (left) and the West Hall (centre).

  2. JPRS Report, West Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-07-20

    Andalusia , along with a revision of its system of financing retirement and health costs. Its rate of macroeconomic growth now looks low compared...between certain factions of Islam (particularly the Shiites) and the open hostility to the West could pose formidable political problems. This is why

  3. From East to West

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ria Vogels; Simone de Roos; Freek Bucx

    2017-01-01

    Original title: Van oost naar west The accession of Poland to the European Union in 2004, followed by Bulgaria and Romania in 2007, has led to an increase in the number of migrants coming from those countries to the Netherlands. How are the children of these migrants faring in the Netherlands? Are

  4. Space Radar Image of West Texas - SAR scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    This radar image of the Midland/Odessa region of West Texas, demonstrates an experimental technique, called ScanSAR, that allows scientists to rapidly image large areas of the Earth's surface. The large image covers an area 245 kilometers by 225 kilometers (152 miles by 139 miles). It was obtained by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) flying aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 5, 1994. The smaller inset image is a standard SIR-C image showing a portion of the same area, 100 kilometers by 57 kilometers (62 miles by 35 miles) and was taken during the first flight of SIR-C on April 14, 1994. The bright spots on the right side of the image are the cities of Odessa (left) and Midland (right), Texas. The Pecos River runs from the top center to the bottom center of the image. Along the left side of the image are, from top to bottom, parts of the Guadalupe, Davis and Santiago Mountains. North is toward the upper right. Unlike conventional radar imaging, in which a radar continuously illuminates a single ground swath as the space shuttle passes over the terrain, a Scansar radar illuminates several adjacent ground swaths almost simultaneously, by 'scanning' the radar beam across a large area in a rapid sequence. The adjacent swaths, typically about 50 km (31 miles) wide, are then merged during ground processing to produce a single large scene. Illumination for this L-band scene is from the top of the image. The beams were scanned from the top of the scene to the bottom, as the shuttle flew from left to right. This scene was acquired in about 30 seconds. A normal SIR-C image is acquired in about 13 seconds. The ScanSAR mode will likely be used on future radar sensors to construct regional and possibly global radar images and topographic maps. The ScanSAR processor is being designed for 1996 implementation at NASA's Alaska SAR Facility, located at the University of Alaska Fairbanks, and will produce digital images from the

  5. Human Rights in the West

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorgen S. Nielsen

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the areas of conflict between Islam and the West in today’s world is the concern for human rights. This has sometimes been criticized in the Muslim world as a form of neo-imperialism. It is therefore necessary to understand the various dimensions of human rights, and the various phases through which this concern has grown. In the earliest form, it was an assertion of the rights of the landed aristocracy against those of the monarch. The French revolution, with its emphasis on "liberty, equality and fraternity," for all individuals, provided another dimension. There were many occasions on which individual and organized religion came into conflict during the Middle Ages. The experience of World War II, particularly the atrocities of the Nazis, led to the internationalization of individual rights.

  6. Teaching the Arab World and the West … as an Arab in the West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abboud, Samer

    2015-01-01

    How do the subjective experiences of faculty and students shape the classroom and the study of global politics? Can our subjective experiences support the pedagogical goal of developing critical thinking skills? In this article, I draw on my experiences teaching an undergraduate course called "The Arab World and the West" with respect to…

  7. East is east and west is west

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Xiangyun; Hansen, Søren; Dahms, Mona-Lisa

    2004-01-01

    The paper looks into a case study with Chinese engineering students and describes their experiences in a Danish learning environment based on project-organised group work.......The paper looks into a case study with Chinese engineering students and describes their experiences in a Danish learning environment based on project-organised group work....

  8. West Virginia's Forests 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard H. Widmann; Gregory W. Cook; Charles J. Barnett; Brett J. Butler; Douglas M. Griffith; Mark A. Hatfield; Cassandra M. Kurtz; Randall S. Morin; W. Keith Moser; Charles H. Perry; Ronald J. Piva; Rachel Riemann; Christopher W. Woodall

    2012-01-01

    The first full annual inventory of West Virginia's forests reports 12.0 million acres of forest land or 78 percent of the State's land area. The area of forest land has changed little since 2000. Of this land, 7.2 million acres (60 percent) are held by family forest owners. The current growing-stock inventory is 25 billion cubic feet--12 percent more than in...

  9. The West Heslerton Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic Powlesland

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available The excavation of the Early Anglo-Saxon or Anglian Settlement at West Heslerton, North Yorkshire, between 1986 and 1995, represents one of the largest excavations conducted in Britain in the last two decades. The project, funded by English Heritage, combined the fundamental needs of rescue and research archaeology. The excavation has produced a wealth of new evidence which is forcing us to re-evaluate much that has been said about the formative period of the English nation.

  10. West and Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lydie, N; Robinson, N J

    1998-01-01

    This article reviews scientific and other literature during the 1990s that links migration and mobility with the spread of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including HIV/AIDS. The focus is on key population groups linked to the spread of HIV and STDs in West and Central Africa: migrant laborers, truck drivers, itinerant traders, commercial sex workers (CSWs), and refugees. Countries with high emigration and immigration tend to have high levels of HIV infection, with the exception of Senegal. The main destination of immigrants are Senegal, Nigeria, and Cote d'Ivoire in West Africa and Cameroon, Congo, Gabon, and Congo in Central Africa. The risk of infection and the spread of HIV is variable among migrants. There is little in the literature that substantiates hypotheses about the strong association between migration and HIV-positive status. Information is needed on the duration, frequency of return visits, living conditions, sexual activities with multiple partners, and information before departure, along the routes, at final destination, and at the time of returns. Action-based research in five West African countries (Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, Mali, Niger, and Senegal) should produce results in late 1998. Comparable studies in Central Africa are unknown. Regional studies should be complemented by local studies. Prevention would benefit from studies on the relative size of these five population groups by geographic location.

  11. FLOODPLAIN, Midland County, MI, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — This Floodplain Mapping Submission includes a new countywide FIS report and a revised flood hazard dataset. Mill Road Engineering restudied the effective approximate...

  12. Vitrinite reflectance data for the Permian Basin, west Texas and southeast New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlewicz, Mark; Barker, Charles E.; McDonald, Sargent

    2005-01-01

    This report presents a compilation of vitrinite reflectance (Ro) data based on analyses of samples of drill cuttings collected from 74 boreholes spread throughout the Permian Basin of west Texas and southeast New Mexico (fig. 1). The resulting data consist of 3 to 24 individual Ro analyses representing progressively deeper stratigraphic units in each of the boreholes (table 1). The samples, Cambrian-Ordovician to Cretaceous in age, were collected at depths ranging from 200 ft to more than 22,100 ft.The R0 data were plotted on maps that depict three different maturation levels for organic matter in the sedimentary rocks of the Permian Basin (figs. 2-4). These maps show depths at the various borehole locations where the R0 values were calculated to be 0.6 (fig. 2), 1.3 (fig. 3), and 2.0 (fig. 4) percent, which correspond, generally, to the onset of oil generation, the onset of oil cracking, and the limit of oil preservation, respectively.The four major geologic structural features within the Permian Basin–Midland Basin, Delaware Basin, Central Basin Platform, and Northwest Shelf (fig. 1) differ in overall depth, thermal history and tectonic style. In the western Delaware Basin, for example, higher maturation is observed at relatively shallow depths, resulting from uplift and eastward basin tilting that began in the Mississippian and ultimately exposed older, thermally mature rocks. Maturity was further enhanced in this basin by the emplacement of early and mid-Tertiary intrusives. Volcanic activity also appears to have been a controlling factor for maturation of organic matter in the southern part of the otherwise tectonically stable Northwest Shelf (Barker and Pawlewicz, 1987). Depths to the three different Ro values are greatest in the eastern Delaware Basin and southern Midland Basin. This appears to be a function of tectonic activity related to the Marathon-Ouachita orogeny, during the Late-Middle Pennsylvanian, whose affects were widespread across the Permian

  13. West Greenlandic antipassive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodil Kappel Schmidt

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of syntactic and morphological evidence from West Greenlandic (WG antipassive (AP constructions, I argue against the view that the AP affix is nominal. The fact that the transitivizing and the antipassive affixes in a number of verbs are in complementary distribution, leads me to conclude that they both realize a light verb, transitivizing v, one on the ERG-NOM pattern, the other on the NOM-ACC pattern. Nominalization facts of the two clause types indicate their syntactic structure, with possible implications for the semantic interpretation of the object and the position of the ergative subject.

  14. 78 FR 12358 - Cardinal Health, Financial Shared Services West, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Aerotek...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ... Employment and Training Administration Cardinal Health, Financial Shared Services West, Including On- Site..., Financial Shared Services West, including on-site leased workers from Aerotek, eXcel Staffing, and Experis... these workers were sufficiently under the control of Cardinal Health, Financial Shared Services West to...

  15. Potential impact of antiarrhythmic drugs versus implantable defibrillators on the management of ventricular arrhythmias: the Midlands trial of empirical amiodarone versus electrophysiologically guided intervention and cardioverter implant registry data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathmanathan, R; Lau, E; Cooper, J; Newton, L; Skehan, J; Garratt, C; Griffith, M

    1998-01-01

    Background—Survival was prolonged in selected patients with sustained ventricular arrhythmias who received implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) in the antiarrhythmics versus implantable defibrillators (AVID) study. The Midlands trial of empirical amiodarone versus electrophysiologically guided intervention and cardioverter implant in ventricular arrhythmias (MAVERIC) registry is a population based trial. 
Objective—To determine the number of patients who satisfy the AVID criteria because of the high cost of ICDs.
Design—Observational study, based on a continuing trial.
Setting—All coronary care units in the Midlands region in the United Kingdom (population 9.1 million).
Patients—Patients presenting to a coronary care unit with sustained ventricular arrhythmias not related to an acute myocardial infarction are entered onto the registry. Those who consent to the MAVERIC study are randomised to receive either empirical amiodarone or electrophysiologically guided treatment. Demographic data, details of clinical presentation, and echocardiographic findings are collected. These data have been used to calculate the number of patients who satisfy the AVID criteria and would benefit from ICD implantation. The financial implications have been calculated for the region and nationally.
Results—132 patients were entered onto the registry during the first five months of the MAVERIC study; 69 patients fulfilled the AVID criteria. Extrapolation of these data over a 12 month period suggests implantation of at least 166 new ICDs (compared with 23 implants in 1996). This would increase the UK ICD implant rate from five to at least 18 per million of the population, costing the National Health Service £24.1 million per annum.
Conclusion—Application of the AVID criteria in the UK will cause a great increase in the ICD implant rate, with serious financial implications.

 Keywords: AVID study;  MAVERIC trial;  implantable cardioverter

  16. Childbirth in East and West German Stepfamilies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available The present paper studies fertility rates in partnerships with and without children from previous partners in East and West Germany. Data from the German "Fertility and Family Survey" is used to estimate piecewise-linear hazard rate models for having another child. It turns out that a proportional-hazard model would give incorrect results because childbirth follows different time patterns for couples who have already a shared child and couples who do not. Therefore, a model with specific clocks for various experiences of parenthood is specified. Based on these model estimations the probability for having another child within a certain time is calculated. In West Germany the estimated likelihood of having another child within six years varies little by child composition. In contrast, East-German couples with no shared child have a higher likelihood than couples with a shared child to have a child within six years.

  17. Aerial view of the West Area complex

    CERN Document Server

    CERN PhotoLab

    1976-01-01

    The SPS lies below ground beyond the top of the picture, and the proton beam from it enters the large West Hall from the right. All hadronic beams but one were concentrated in this hall. The neutrino beam from the underground target Passes through BEBC in the tall structure left of centre. The light-coloured building further left houses the neutrino counter experiments WA1 and WA18, and at the left end of the line, in the small block near the edge of the picture sits Gargamelle on a pedestal, since the beam is rising at an angle of about 2 deg. From right to left: West Hall - Bld 180; BEBC - Bld 191; Neutrino - Bld 182; Gargamelle - Bld 185.

  18. West African Journal of Radiology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The West African Journal of Radiology is an annual publication and the official organ of the Association of Radiologists of West Africa. ... clinical case reports, discoveries and engineering design/fabrication reports related to any branch of imaging modalities, Radiotherapy and allied subjects. ... Table of Contents. Articles ...

  19. Endoscopic capacity in West Africa.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: Background: Levels of endoscopic demand and capacity in West Africa are unclear. Objectives: This paper aims to: 1. describe the current labor and endoscopic capacity, 2. quantify the impact of a mixed-meth- ods endoscopy course on healthcare professionals in West Africa, and 3. quantify the types of diagnoses ...

  20. Ectoparasites of Sheep and Goats in North-West Amhara Regional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Among goats, Linognathus species, ticks, flea and demodectic mange were identified with respective prevalence of 27%, 17.7%, 2.6% and 2.2%. Sheep in midland were 3.7 and 2.3 times more at risk for Damalinia ovis infestation than sheep in highland and lowland, respectively and also goats in midland were 1.8 times at ...

  1. Joseph Carpue's file drawer experiment - A murder mystery from 1801.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freshwater, M Felix

    2015-12-01

    Today unpublished or "file drawer" experiments are the impetus for trial registration and reporting of all results. In 1801, Joseph Carpue, the father of modern plastic surgery, did a file drawer experiment for Benjamin West, who was President of the Royal Academy of Arts. George III had commissioned West to create the largest stained glass window ever created whose theme, the Crucifixion, was based upon Michelangelo's drawing. Subsequently, West suffered a series of political, professional and economic setbacks. In the summer of 1801, West's project was delayed. By the fall, West hoped that independent scientific confirmation of his design could salvage the project. West approached Carpue who obtained a murderer's fresh corpse that he crucified and documented the results with plaster casts created by sculptor Thomas Banks. Carpue's experiment showed that West's window design wrongly depicted the Crucifixion because West had posed the hands and shoulders incorrectly. West died in 1820 without ever being associated with Carpue's experiment. Carpue's obituary in The Lancet in 1846 contained Carpue's handwritten note that described the experiment but not West's Royal commission. As no records or publications associate the cast with West project, this can be considered to be a file drawer experiment. After 1801, West made further drawings of the Crucifixion that showed the figures in the same position as the cast. Nineteenth century auction catalogues suggest that West made a corrected Crucifixion painting, but its current location remains a mystery.

  2. Trade networks in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    To date, most of the literature on trade networks in West Africa has considered networks in a metaphorical way. The aim of this paper is to go one step further by showing how social network analysis may be applied to the study of regional trade in West Africa. After a brief review of the literature......, this exploratory paper investigates two main issues related to regional trade. We start by discussing how recent developments in regional trade in West Africa have contributed to challenging the social structure of traders. We then discuss the changes that have affected the spatiality of regional trade by looking...

  3. Society and Social Justice: Problems of Political Education in West Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Siegfried

    1981-01-01

    Discusses social justice in West Germany within the context of the experience of Nazism, the economic disaster after World War II, and the successful development of the economy and welfare state since 1949. Refers to various textbooks and recent empirical studies on the political attitudes of students in West Germany. (Author/KC)

  4. West Coast Fishing Closures, 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data delineate state and federally managed ocean areas off the West Coast of the United States that are closed to or have restrictions on commercial or...

  5. Verbal aspects in West Greenlandic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trondhjem, Naja Blytmann

    2017-01-01

    In this article, lexical aspectual types in West Greenlandic are investigated in the five aspectual types, states, achievements, semelfactives, activities and accomplishments. It is shown that derivational verbalizing affixes include aspectual type congruent with the lexical aspect and how...

  6. West Coast MPA Valuation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This research employs a stated preference choice experiment survey of households in California, Oregon, and Washington to quantify public preferences and simulate a...

  7. Why the West?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Ferguson

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available La cuestión de cómo "Occidente" llegó a dominar el mundo durante la era moderna se ha debatido recientemente entre los historiadores. El debate se ha polarizado entre quienes ven en la "modernidad" como resultado de un 'milagro', el proceso cultural único generado en el seno del mismo Occidente, y aquellos que cuestionan este "milagro" como paradigma eurocéntrico, y buscan otros factores para entender y explicar el dominio occidental del mundo económico y político. La literatura tradicional, representada por David Landes en su reciente “La riqueza y la pobreza de las naciones”, atribuye el éxito europeo a sus valores culturales únicos, a sus instituciones sociales y sus prácticas políticas. Este éxito fue completamente "impulsado desde dentro” por estas características. Recientemente, varios historiadores han cuestionado este "paradigma del milagro" como eurocéntrica, y miran a otros factores para comprender y explicar el dominio occidental del mundo económico y político. Después de examinar los recientes trabajos de los historiadores frente a este problema, este artículo trata de colocar la expansión europea en un contexto global, y la comprensión de la Revolución Industrial como una transformación global. Esta perspectiva nos permite entender los cambios tecnológicos y económicos Europeos en el contexto más amplio de patrones de interacción económica y cultural de todo el mundo._____________ABSTRACT:The question of how 'the West' came to dominate the globe during the modern era has been debated recently among historians. The debate has been polarized between those who view 'modernity' as the result of a 'European miracle', the culturally unique and internally generated project of the West, and those who question this 'European miracle' paradigm as Eurocentric, and look to other factors to understand and explain Western economic and political world dominance. The traditional narrative, represented by David

  8. Simulation of Rainfall Variability Over West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, J.; Latif, M.

    The impact of sea surface temperature (SST) and vegetation on precipitation over West Africa is investigated with the atmospheric general circulation model ECHAM4.x/T42. Ensemble experiments -driven with observed SST- show that At- lantic SST has a significant influence on JJA precipitation over West Africa. Four- teen experiments were performed in which the climatological SST was enhanced or decreased by one Kelvin in certain ocean areas. Changing SST in the eastern tropi- cal Atlantic only caused significant changes along the Guinea Coast, with a positive SSTA increasing rainfall and a negative reducing it. The response was nearly linear. Changing SST in other ocean areas caused significant changes over West Africa, es- pecially in the Sahel area. The response is found to be non linear, with only negative SSTA leading to significant reduction in Sahel rainfall. Also, the impact of the SSTAs from the different ocean regions was not additive with respect to the rainfall. Four simulations with a coupled model (the simple dynamic vegetation model (SVege) and the ECHAM4-AGCM were coupled) were also performed, driven with observed SST from 1945 to 1998. The standard ECHAM-AGCM -forced by the same observed SST- was able to reproduce the drying trend from the fifties to the mid-eighties in the Sahel, but failed to mirror the magnitude of the rainfall anomalies. The coupled model was not only able to reproduce this drying trend, but was also able to better reproduce the amplitudes of the rainfall anomalies. The dynamic vegetation acted like an amplifier, increasing the SST induced rainfall anomalies.

  9. Learning Across Disciplines: An Approach to West African Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Francine

    2003-01-01

    Describes how to teach about world music, specifically music of West Africa, using an interdisciplinary inquiry approach. Explains that questions are generated and the teacher develops the learning experience. Provides examples at the fourth grade level as well as information on resources and musical examples. (CMK)

  10. Nitrogen utilisation and nitrient digestibility of west African dwarf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment to evaluate and compare the nitrogen utilization and nutrient digestibility of goat fed a pasture species (Cynodon nlemfuensis) or browse plant leaves (Spondias mombin or Gmelina arborea) based diets was conducted with fifteen (15) growing male West African Dwarf goats aged 7 – 7.5 months and ...

  11. Helicobacter pylori infections and gastric cancer: The West African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Helicobacter pylori infections and gastric cancer: The West African experience. ... Although most strains of Hp are positive for the virulent factor cagA gene as well as vacA s1, m1 or s1, m2; there is no consistent association with GC. Some studies have attributed the low incidence of GC to low prevalence of strains with ...

  12. Chemical Composition, Dry Matter Intake by West African Dwarf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experiment was conducted to determine dry matter intake (DMI) by West African dwarf (WAD) goats, chemical composition, in vitro gas production and dry matter digestibility of Panicum maximum (common name: Guinea grass or Panicum) with graded levels of palm kernel cake (PKC). Five diets were evaluated: ...

  13. Airborne Measurements of BrO and the Sum of HOBr and Br2 over the Tropical West Pacific from 1 to 15 Km During the CONvective TRansport of Active Species in the Tropics (CONTRAST) Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dexian; Huey, L. Gregory; Tanner, David J.; Salawitch, Ross J.; Anderson, Daniel C.; Wales, Pamela A.; Pan, Laura L.; Atlas, Elliot L.; Hornbrook, Rebecca S.; Apel, Eric C.; hide

    2016-01-01

    A chemical ionization mass spectrometer was used to measure BrO and HOBr + Br2 over the Tropical West Pacific Ocean within the altitude range of 1 to 15 km, during the CONvective TRansport of Active Species in the Tropics (CONTRAST) campaign in 2014. Isolated episodes of elevated BrO (up to 6.6 pptv) and/or HOBr + Br2 (up to 7.3 pptv) were observed in the tropical free troposphere (TFT) and were associated with biomass burning. However, most of the time we did not observe significant BrO or HOBr + Br2 in the TFT and the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) above our limits of detection (LOD). The 1 min average LOD for BrO ranged from 0.6 to 1.6 pptv and for HOBr + Br2 ranged from 1.3 to 3.5 pptv. During one flight, BrO observations from the TTL to the extratropical lowermost stratosphere were used to infer a profile of inorganic bromine (Br(sub y)). Based on this profile, we estimated the product gas injection of bromine species into the stratosphere to be 2 pptv. Analysis of Br(sub y) partitioning further indicates that BrO levels are likely very low in the TFT environment and that future studies should target the measurement of HBr or atomic Br.

  14. When West Meets East

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulfelt, Flemming; Smith, Irene Skovgaard; Christensen, Kåre G.

    2014-01-01

    managed its transition to the new context of India and the resulting implications for practising consulting in a new environment. In this case, the experience in India changed the firm and challenged preconceptions about the process of globalisation being a one-way export of Western products, knowledge...

  15. Lessons from West Africa

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Corey Piccioni

    protection of local land rights. The multi-stakeholder consultations are informing a participatory process to design and experiment with tools that will enable local communities to engage in advocacy activities to im- prove accountability. In each country, new Legal and. Social Accountability Tools (LSAT) are being tested in.

  16. Multiple lines of evidence risk assessment of American robins exposed to polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFS) and polychlorinated dibenzo-P-dioxins (PCDDS) in the Tittabawassee River floodplain, Midland, Michigan, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazelaar, Dustin L; Fredricks, Timothy B; Seston, Rita M; Coefield, Sarah J; Bradley, Patrick W; Roark, Shaun A; Kay, Denise P; Newsted, John L; Giesy, John P; Bursian, Steven J; Zwiernik, Matthew J

    2013-06-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) in Tittabawassee River floodplain soils and biota downstream of Midland, Michigan, USA, are greater than regional background concentrations. From 2005 to 2008, a multiple lines of evidence approach was utilized to evaluate the potential for effects of PCDD/DFs on American robins (Turdus migratorius) breeding in the floodplains. A dietary-based assessment indicated there was potential for adverse effects for American robins predicted to have the greatest exposures. Conversely, a tissue-based risk assessment based on site-specific PCDD/DF concentrations in American robin eggs indicated minimal potential for adverse effects. An assessment based on reproductive endpoints indicated that measures of hatch success in study areas were significantly less than those of reference areas. However, there was no dose-response relationship between that endpoint and concentrations of PCDD/DF. Although dietary-based exposure and reproductive endpoint assessments predicted potential for adverse effects to resident American robins, the tissue-based assessment indicates minimal to no potential for adverse effects, which is reinforced by the fact the response was not dose related. It is likely that the dietary assessment is overly conservative given the inherent uncertainties of estimating dietary exposure relative to direct tissue-based assessment measures. Based on the available data, it can be concluded that exposure to PCDD/DFs in the Tittabawassee River floodplain would not likely result in adverse population-level effects to American robins. Copyright © 2013 SETAC.

  17. West Europe Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-18

    34 "This new approach arose politically and psychologically through our experience with the nonsocialist government." "I admit that, from 1975 to 1982...VS than for me personally. Some of them have made a quick about-face." "I believe that, in the past, there has been a childish contempt for anything...ah especially high new and replacement demand of infrastructure facili- ties particularly in the field of the (outpatient and in- hospital ) care for

  18. Persian music meets West

    OpenAIRE

    Ardalan, Afshin

    2012-01-01

    I have based my bachelor Thesis on the presentation of a completely different musical world, compared with the western musical world, which is Persian Music. As a Persian, I started to study music as a Persian Setar player; then I followed my musical experience through western classical music by playing classical guitar. As an ambition I have always thought about how to express Persian music in an understandable way for that of non-Persians. In this thesis I began with a short history of Pers...

  19. West African Journal of Radiology: Journal Sponsorship

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    West African Journal of Radiology: Journal Sponsorship. Journal Home > About the Journal > West African Journal of Radiology: Journal Sponsorship. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  20. Team West Virginia/Rome Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korakakis, Dimitris [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2017-04-10

    Overall, the team, West Virginia University (WVU) and University of Rome Tor Vergata (UTV), has a goal of building an attractive, low-cost, energy-efficient solar-powered home that represents both the West Virginian and Italian cultures.

  1. West Indian Prose Fiction in the Sixties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brathwaite, Edward

    1971-01-01

    A Review and critical discussion of the West Indian prose fiction in the sixties by one of the best-known poets of the Carribean and a member of the faculty of the University of West Indies, Jamaica. (JM)

  2. WEST AFRICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICINE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    West African Journal of Medicine Vol. 31, No. 1 January–March, 2012. Departments of *Community Health, University of Uyo Teaching Hospital, Uyo, Nigeria, †Community Medicine, University College. Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria ...... (Okada) crashes in Benin City, Nigeria. Prehosp Disaster Med 2009 Jul–Aug;. 24: 356–9 .

  3. West African Journal of Medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    _ WEST AFRICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICINE. CLINI CAL PRA CTI CE. Pain Management inAdult Acute Sickle Cell Pain Crisis: A Viewpoint. Chagriner la direction dans la crise de douleur de cellule de faucille adulte: un point de Vue . E. Udezue*, E. HerreraT. ABSTRACT. BACKGROUND: The acute pain crisis of sickle cell ...

  4. Upgrading of the West Area

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    The rejigged main hall (EHW1) in the West Area: on background, below the crane, is the brown yoke of the Omega magnet which had been resited. The upgrading was completed by the time in July when 400 GeV protons arrived. See Annual Report 1983 p. 107.

  5. Improvisation in West African Musics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, David

    1980-01-01

    Discussed is music of the sub-Sahara. Vocal, instrumental, and dance drumming from the Sudan Desert, the North Coast, East Horn, Central and West Africa, and contrapuntal yodeling of Pygmies is described. For African musicians, the ability to improvise, and creativity, are gifts from God. Includes selected readings and recordings. (KC)

  6. Verbal aspects in West Greenlandic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trondhjem, Naja Blytmann

    2017-01-01

    In this article, lexical aspectual types in West Greenlandic are investigated in the five aspectual types, states, achievements, semelfactives, activities and accomplishments. It is shown that derivational verbalizing affixes include aspectual type congruent with the lexical aspect and how the as...

  7. Metamorphic Rocks in West Irian

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegen, van der G.

    1971-01-01

    Low-grade metamorphics of West Irian occur to the east of Geelvink Bay associated with two narrow belts of basic and ultrabasic igneous rocks which represent ophiolitic suites of an eugeosynclinical development beginning in Early Mesozoic time. In both of these belts there are indications of

  8. West Nile Virus Neuroinvasive Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological features of West Nile Virus (WNV disease among children (<18 years of age reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention from 1999 through 2007 were analyzed and compared with those of adult WNV neuroinvasive disease (WNND, in a study at CDC&P, Fort Collins, CO.

  9. Africa, Sociocultural Overviews: West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richards, P.

    2015-01-01

    This article offers an overview of social worlds, values, and material and nonmaterial cultures of the region south of the Sahara from Mauritania to Cameroon. Attention is paid, in particular, to modes of social solidarity and the cultural dynamics of community formation in West African settings.

  10. Endoscopic capacity in West Africa.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    edge among participants after didactics, objective data paired with subjective responses was more useful than either alone. Of 23 patients who received endoscopy, 7 required endoscopic intervention with 6 having gastric or esophageal varices. Currently the endoscopic capacity in West Africa is not sufficient. A formal GI ...

  11. Primary Schooling in West Bengal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Amartya

    2010-01-01

    With his Nobel Prize award money, Amartya Sen set up the Pratichi Trust which carries out research, advocacy and experimental projects in basic education, primary health care, and women's development in West Bengal and Bangladesh. Professor Sen himself took active interest in this work--helping set the agenda, looking at the evidence from…

  12. WEST AFRICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICINE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user1

    Mots-clés: maladie de Parkinson, l'homocystéine, le Nigeria, la gravité, le handicap. WEST AFRICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICINE. ORIGINAL ARTICLE. ABSTRACT. BACKGROUND:Hyperhomocysteinaemia (HHcy) is as a long- term sequelum of levodopa therapy in Parkinson's disease. (PD). Information on its frequency and ...

  13. The West in Early Cinema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeff, Nanna

    2006-01-01

    Verhoeff investigates the emergence of the western genre, made in the first two decades of cinema (1895-1915). By analyzing many unknown and forgotten films from international archives she traces the relationships between films about the American West, their surrounding films, and other popular

  14. WEST AFRICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICINE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    be a form of reversal to childhood.11. Among the American Indians dementia is considered to be a ..... to stigma.15. The Hausa- Fulani communities are found in many countries of the West-. African sub-region and cultural and religious inclinations are similar. It is thus reasonable to speculate that the findings of this study ...

  15. Arthurdale: Homesteading in West Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornyak, Deanna

    1996-01-01

    Recounts the history of the first subsistence community founded under the National Industrial Recovery Act during the Great Depression. Arthurdale, West Virginia, provided unemployed workers with rural homes on small plots where they could grow food and supply other needs through part-time industrial employment. A progressive community school…

  16. WEST AFRICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICINE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user1

    Mots-clés: dyspepsie, gastrite, ulcère duodénal, sensibilité, spécificité. WEST AFRICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICINE. ORIGINAL ARTICLE. ABSTRACT. BACKGROUND: Increasing endoscopy workload in open- access services necessitates adoption of appropriateness criteria to check abuse and improve yield. OBJECTIVE: ...

  17. Experiment WA1 (CDHS Neutrino Experiment)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1977-01-01

    Experiment WA1, also known under CDHS (CERN, Dortmund, Heidelberg, Saclay; spokesman Jack Steinberger), was the first neutrino experiment on the SPS, in its West Area. Magnetized iron (with a toroidal field) forms the core of the detector. On its outside we see drift chambers and photomultipliers (detecting the light from the plastic scintillators further in). Peter Schilly is wearing a white coat. See also CERN Annual Report 1976, p.57.

  18. 33 CFR 110.189a - Key West Harbor, Key West, Fla., naval explosives anchorage area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Key West Harbor, Key West, Fla..., Key West, Fla., naval explosives anchorage area. (a) The anchorage ground. A circular area with its... this section shall be enforced by the Commander, U.S. Naval Base, Key West, Fla., and any other...

  19. Usability and Interaction Design in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jannick Kirk

    in the field of interaction design as in the developed world. While good usability and good user experiences are important to all users of ICT, the question is whether the methods and techniques that were mainly developed in Scandinavia, Europe and US are suitable for ICT development in Africa? Can ideals......Good usability is important in all ICT solutions. To achieve good usability, a good praxis for interaction design is needed. Usability and interaction design have however emerged and established itself in a North European and US context. The ICT industry in Africa do not have the same resources...... for user-involvement and participatory design be directly transferred? How can interaction design and usability be cared for in African ICT development context, given the resources available? This paper aims to initiate a discussion of the conditions for interaction design and usability in West Africa...

  20. Permafrost degradation in West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Niels Nielsen; Ingeman-Nielsen, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Important aspects of civil engineering in West Greenland relate to the presence of permafrost and mapping of the annual and future changes in the active layer due to the ongoing climatically changes in the Arctic. The Arctic Technology Centre (ARTEK) has worked more than 10 years on this topic...... and the first author has been involved since 1970 in engineering geology, geotechnical engineering and permafrost related studies for foundation construction and infrastructures in towns and communities mainly in West Greenland. We have since 2006 together with the Danish Meteorological Institute, Greenland...... by HIRHAM climate projections for Greenland up to 2075. The engineering modelling is based on a risk assessment methodology based on a flow diagram which classify the risk of permafrost degradation causing settlement and stability problems for buildings and infrastructures based on relatively simple...

  1. Joseph Carpue's file drawer experiment – A murder mystery from 1801

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Felix Freshwater

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Today unpublished or “file drawer” experiments are the impetus for trial registration and reporting of all results. In 1801, Joseph Carpue, the father of modern plastic surgery, did a file drawer experiment for Benjamin West, who was President of the Royal Academy of Arts. George III had commissioned West to create the largest stained glass window ever created whose theme, the Crucifixion, was based upon Michelangelo's drawing. Subsequently, West suffered a series of political, professional and economic setbacks. In the summer of 1801, West's project was delayed. By the fall, West hoped that independent scientific confirmation of his design could salvage the project. West approached Carpue who obtained a murderer's fresh corpse that he crucified and documented the results with plaster casts created by sculptor Thomas Banks. Carpue's experiment showed that West's window design wrongly depicted the Crucifixion because West had posed the hands and shoulders incorrectly. West died in 1820 without ever being associated with Carpue's experiment. Carpue's obituary in The Lancet in 1846 contained Carpue's handwritten note that described the experiment but not West's Royal commission. As no records or publications associate the cast with West project, this can be considered to be a file drawer experiment. After 1801, West made further drawings of the Crucifixion that showed the figures in the same position as the cast. Nineteenth century auction catalogues suggest that West made a corrected Crucifixion painting, but its current location remains a mystery.

  2. How do experienced GP trainers decide which of their trainees need to be referred to a more senior educator in the East Midlands Healthcare Workforce Deanery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heap, Bevis

    2015-09-01

    To identify experienced trainers' reasons for considering and/or discussing concerns about GP trainees with their local Training Programme Director (TPD). Interviews were carried out with fourteen trainers across Leicestershire and Northamptonshire who volunteered to assist in response to an email request sent out to trainers in these areas; twelve of these had more than five years' training experience. Grounded Theory Method (GTM), with a semi-structured interview process as suggested by Corbin and Strauss, was used to analyse the transcripts. Experienced trainers find it difficult to explain their decision-making in keeping with the Dreyfus Expertise Model; they use their willingness to choose the doctor as their personal doctor, predating the UK Government's 'Friends and Family Test', as well as their experience in consulting and referring patients as concepts which help the decision. For less-experienced trainers, the Milton Keynes Traffic Light System was identified as a tool that might help decision-making. Experienced trainers recognised underperformance and possible underlying causes. The triggers for discussion with TPDs were viewing the trainee either as someone 'they would not like to be their family doctor' or as 'a patient whose problem needed referral to a specialist'. This was done at an 'expert' level. It was sometimes difficult for the trainers to define the processes they used. Less-experienced trainers found that a tool such as the Milton Keynes Traffic Light System was a useful aid.

  3. West syndrome, vigabatrine, adrenocorticotropic hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ünsal Yılmaz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Limited data are available on the etiology, clinical approach, treatment and outcome in West syndrome. In the present study, we aimed to document clinical characteristics, etiology and treatment response in children with West syndrome. Methods: Hospital charts of children who were diagnosed with West syndrome between July-2011 and December- 2013 and who had a follow-up at least 12-month, were reviewed retrospectively. Results: 38 patients (14 females, 24 males, mean aged 27.1±7.60 months were included. The mean age of seizure onset, interval to diagnosis, and follow-up period were 6.23±4.27 months, 1.36±1.58 months, and 19.3±5.86 months respectively. Perinatal asphyxia (13, tuberous sclerosis (2, cortical dysplasia (2, encephalitis (1, asphyxia due to aspiration (1, congenital cytomegalovirus infection (1, perinatal infarct (1, nonketotic hyperglycinemia (1 and Prader Willi syndrome (1 were the identified causes. The etiology could not be ascertained in the remaining 15 children. Psychomotor development was mildly retarded in 12, moderately retarded in 13, and severely in 13 patients at onset, and did not change significantly at month 12. The initial therapy was synthetic adrenocorticotropic hormone in 11, vigabatrin in 17, levetiracetam in 8 and valproate in 2 patients. At 12th month of therapy, 15 patients were seizure-free, 12 patients showed more than 50% decrease in seizure frequency, and remaining 11 patients showed no significant reduction in seizure frequency. Conclusion: Besides the perinatal asphyxia as most frequent cause, a wide variety of disorders can present as West syndrome. Although, a 12-month-long treatment achieves seizure control in half of the patients, not beneficial effect on psychomotor development was seen. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (1: 86-92

  4. ESSEA On-Line Courses and the WestEd Eisenhower Regional Consortium (WERC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rognier, E.

    2001-12-01

    The WestEd Eisenhower Regional Consortium (WERC) is in its second year of offering two Earth Systems Science On-line Graduate courses from IGES - one for High School teachers, and one for Middle School teachers. These high-quality courses support WERC's commitment to "supporting increased scientific and mathematical literacy among our nation's youth through services and other support aimed at enhancing the efforts of those who provide K-12 science and mathematics education." WERC has been able to use its EdGateway online community network to offer these courses to environmental education and science teachers nationwide. Through partnerships with the North American Association for Environmental Education (NAAEE), the National Environmental Education Advancement Project (NEEAP), and other regional, state and local science and environmental education organizations, WERC has a broad reach in connecting with science educators nationwide. WERC manages several state and national listservs, which enable us to reach thousands of educators with information about the courses. EdGateway also provides a private online community in which we offer the courses. WERC partners with two Master Teachers from Utah, who facilitate the courses, and with the Center for Science and Mathematics Education at Weber State University, who provides low-cost graduate credit for the courses. Our students have included classroom teachers from upper elementary through high school, community college science teachers, and environmental science center staff who provide inservice for teachers. Educators from Hawaii to New Jersey have provided diverse personal experiences of Earth Systems Science events, and add richness to the online discussions. Two Earth Science Experts, Dr. Rick Ford from Weber State University, and Dr. Art Sussman from WestEd also contribute to the high caliber of learning the students experience in the courses. (Dr. Sussman's book, Dr. Art's Guide to Planet Earth, is used as one of

  5. France, West Germany, and the Security of the Persian Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-01

    They are also present on Mayotte Island in the Comoros group (where they are well located to exert control over the Mozambique Channel) with its good... fishing areas; areas earmarked for scientific, technical, and military experiments (e.g., the experimental nuclear center in the Pacific, and the...190 or Mayotte . Moreover, West German military power has never been used abroad since 1945 (with the exception of the Mogadishu operation by Bonn’s

  6. The Integrated Care Pilot in North West London

    OpenAIRE

    Steeden, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    In 2011–2012 partners in the provision of health in social care came together in North West London from five local authorities, two major acute trusts, two community trusts, two mental health trusts, two ‘third sector’ organisations and over 100 general practices. Their aim was to support collaborative working in geographic areas of about 50 000 population for improved patient experience, quality of outcomes and cost-efficiency.

  7. Symptoms, social stratification and self-responsibility for health in the United States and West Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockerham, W C; Kunz, G; Leuschen, G; Spaeth, J L

    1986-01-01

    This study compares the responses of a sample of Americans in Illinois and West Germans in North-Rhine Westphalia on the basis of symptom perception, symptom experience, physician utilization and health-locus-of-control. The hypothesis that as socioeconomic status increases, the more likely the individual is to manifest and behavior favorable toward self-control and acceptance of personal responsibility in health care matters was tested. The hypothesis was supported by the American data, but not the West German. Possible trends in West German society accounting for a significant lack of socioeconomic variance in illness behavior are discussed.

  8. Business Case for Online Marketing of Automotive Financing for First West Credit Union

    OpenAIRE

    Sidhu, Amerpreet

    2012-01-01

    This project develops user experience and online marketing strategies for the growth of First West Credit Union, the third largest Credit Union in British Columbia. Several recommendations focus on the Automotive Financing Division of First West Credit Union. The project researches user needs in the automotive finance sector, analyzes operational forces and recommends strategies that affect business operations, customer service, online brand awareness and system usability. Automotive dealersh...

  9. A macroeconometric disequilibrium analysis of current and future migration from Eastern Europe into West Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Franz, Wolfgang; Oser, Ursula; Winker, Peter

    1993-01-01

    This paper attempts to evaluate the impact of current and future immigration flows on major macroeconomic variables of the West German economy. The analysis is based on a macroeconometric disequilibrium model for the West German economy. This model is extended until 1995 and used for several simulation experiments. Special attention is given to the notion that the effects of immigration are regime-specific, i.e., they depend on the type of disequilibrium prevailing on the goods and labor market.

  10. Happy Environments: Bhutan, Interdependence and the West

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randy Schroeder

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing trend to understand economic and environmental policies in terms of multiple dimensions and “interdependence.” Bhutan is increasingly seen as an operational model with its Gross National Happiness (GNH strategy. GNH, which is rooted in Mahayana Buddhism, is a framework and set of policy tools that conceptualizes sustainability as interdependent ecological, economic, social, cultural and good governance concerns. Bhutan’s practical GNH experience illustrates a significant ability to positively couple economic growth with a healthy environment. Can the “West”—with its legacy of either/or economics—learn anything from Bhutan’s multidimensional policy experiment? At first, it would seem not. It is questionable whether the West can replicate Bhutan’s unorthodox policy tools as we do not have a balancing set of Buddhist values rooted in mainstream culture. We are not equipped to respond to the many unintended consequences of interdependent policy because we do not yet understand what “interdependence” actually entails. There is hope, but much of it exists in the grey literature of ecological economics. This literature is in urgent need of greater exposure if we are to imagine and enact sustainability policy tools that are truly sensitive to interdependence, and thus follow Bhutan on its perilous but necessary journey.

  11. Grizzly West: A Failed Attempt to Reintroduce Grizzly Bears in the Mountain West

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas M. Richardson

    2016-01-01

    Reviewed: Grizzly West: A Failed Attempt to Reintroduce Grizzly Bears in the Mountain West. By Michael M. Dax. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 2015. x + 289 pp. US$ 37.50. ISBN 978-0-8032-6673-5.

  12. Population Structure of West Greenland Narwhals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riget, F.; Dietz, R.; Møller, P.

    The hypothesis that different populations of narwhals in the West Greenland area exist has been tested by different biomarkers (metal and organochlorine concentrations, stable isotopes and DNA). Samples of muscle, liver, kidney, blubber and skin tissues of narwhals from West Greenland have been...... isotopes could not support the population structure with two West Greenland populations suggested by the genetic study....... analysed for heavy metals, organochlorines, stable isotopes and DNA. The obtained results of metal concentrations and DNA were included in the existing database, whereas no previous data on organochlorines and stable isotopes in West Greenland narwhals existed. The metal and POP concentrations and stable...

  13. Has East Germany overtaken West Germany? Recent trends in order-specific fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Joshua R; Kreyenfeld, Michaela

    2011-01-01

    Some 20 years after reunification, the contrast between East and West Germany offers a natural experiment for studying the degree of persistence of Communist-era family patterns, the effects of economic change, and fertility postponement. After reunification, period fertility rates plummeted in the former East Germany to record low levels. Since the mid-1990s, however, period fertility rates have been rising in East Germany, in contrast to the nearly constant rates seen in the West. By 2008, the TFR of East Germany had overtaken that of the West. We explore why fertility in East Germany is higher than in West Germany, despite unfavorable economic circumstances in the East. We address this and related questions by (a) presenting an account of the persisting East/West differences in attitudes toward and constraints on childbearing, (b) conducting an order-specific fertility analysis of recent fertility trends, and (c) projecting completed fertility for the recent East and west German cohorts. In addition to using the Human Fertility Database, perinatal statistics allow us to calculate a tempo-corrected TFR for East and West Germany.

  14. FTM-West : fuel treatment market model for U.S. West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Ince; Andrew Kramp; Henry Spelter; Ken Skog; Dennis Dykstra

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents FTM–West, a partial market equilibrium model designed to project future wood market impacts of significantly expanded fuel treatment programs that could remove trees to reduce fire hazard on forestlands in the U.S. West. FTM–West was designed to account for structural complexities in marketing and utilization that arise from unconventional size...

  15. 78 FR 79061 - Noise Exposure Map Notice; Key West International Airport, Key West, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Noise Exposure Map Notice; Key West International Airport, Key West, FL... Administration (FAA) announces its determination that the Noise Exposure Maps submitted by Monroe County for the...: This notice announces that the FAA finds that the Noise Exposure Maps submitted for the Key West...

  16. WRF/ARPEGE-CLIMAT simulated climate trends over West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigaud, N.; Roucou, P.; Fontaine, B.; Sijikumar, S.; Tyteca, S.

    2011-03-01

    The Weather Regional Forecast (WRF) model is used in this study to downscale low-resolution data over West Africa. First, the performance of the regional model is estimated through contemporary period experiments (1981-1990) forced by ARPEGE-CLIMAT GCM output (ARPEGE) and ERA-40 re-analyses. Key features of the West African monsoon circulation are reasonably well represented. WRF atmospheric dynamics and summer rainfall compare better to observations than ARPEGE forcing data. WRF simulated moisture transport over West Africa is also consistent in both structure and variability with re-analyses, emphasizing the substantial role played by the West African Monsoon (WAM) and African Easterly Jet (AEJ) flows. The statistical significance of potential climate changes for the A2 scenario between 2032 and 2041 is enhanced in the downscaling from ARPEGE by the regional experiments, with substantial rainfall increases over the Guinea Gulf and eastern Sahel. Future scenario WRF simulations are characterized by higher temperatures over the eastern Tropical Atlantic suggesting more evaporation available locally. This leads to increased moisture advection towards eastern regions of the Guinea Gulf where rainfall is enhanced through a strengthened WAM flow, supporting surface moisture convergence over West Africa. Warmer conditions over both the Mediterranean region and northeastern Sahel could also participate in enhancing moisture transport within the AEJ. The strengthening of the thermal gradient between the Sahara and Guinean regions, particularly pronounced north of 10°N, would support an intensification of the AEJ northwards, given the dependance of the jet to the position/intensity of the meridional gradient. In turn, mid-tropospheric moisture divergence tends to be favored within the AEJ region supporting southwards deflection of moist air and contributing to deep moist convection over the Sahel where late summer rainfall regimes are sustained in the context of the A2

  17. Initial Experience with Stereotactic Surgery in West Africa (English ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Neurological Sciences. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 21, No 1 (2002) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  18. Uterine rupture: UCH, Ibadan experience | Ogunnowo | West African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -vaginal fistula and prolonged hospital stay. Conclusion: All the indice at the present time are higher than they were 10 years ago. The incidence is still high and is on the increase. Attributable reasons include type I, II, III delays in health care ...

  19. Local Experiences in Decentralization in West and Central Africa ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    But to what extent do current processes of decentralization allow the integration of actors favorable to equitable development in basic social services (water, health, education)? A multidisciplinary team of researchers will undertake two case studies in Ghana and Mali, respectively. They will ... Date de début. 29 mars 2006 ...

  20. Local Experiences in Decentralization in West and Central Africa ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Civil society (associations, private sector) has an essential role to play in the implementation of development activities that fall to local communities. But to what extent do current processes of decentralization allow the integration of actors favorable to equitable development in basic social services (water, health, education)? ...

  1. i initial experience with stereotactic surgery in west africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All the cases were done utilizing local anesthesia M. gobfiwvéell @511 'aucmie lmnsflmone Ie'lhnlq'ue, and intravenous sedation. The average ... local anesthesia and CT imaging performed. Contrast material. (60% meglumine .... ful information to guide the surgeon and should be used whe- never possible (21). We had to ...

  2. Initial Experience With Neuroendoscopic Surgery In West Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction Neuroendoscopic surgery is commonly utilized for the management of intracranial cystic lesions, hydrocephalus, tumor resections and biopsies and for all types of microsurgical procedures that can involve endoscopic assistance. Patients and Methods This study presents a retrospective evaluation of the clinical ...

  3. Experience with Acute Perforated Duodenal Ulcer in a West African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The advent of proton pump inhibitors and helicobacter pylori eradication in the management of chronic peptic ulcer disease has reduced the operative treatment of this condition to its complications. Perforated duodenal ulcer remains a major life threatening complication of chronic peptic ulcer disease.

  4. Escaping Preconceived Notions: One Educator's Teaching Experience in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarestky, Jill

    2016-01-01

    In this essay, Jill Zarestky shares what she learned about creating student-centered adult education programs with those who wish to teach adults internationally or in similar contexts. Prior to traveling, Zarestky repeatedly heard from other Westerners (NGO employees and volunteers) how little the women knew and how desperately they needed her…

  5. Briefing : West Africa and its oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellis, S.

    2003-01-01

    The US war on terrorism and preparations for war against Iraq have enormously increased the strategic value of West African oil reserves. This comes at a time when there have been massive new discoveries in offshore waters. This article focuses on the increased US interests in West African oil. It

  6. West African Journal of Applied Ecology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The focus of the West African Journal of Applied Ecologyis on ecology, agriculture and water pollution. It aims to serve as an avenue for lecturers and researchers in West Africa to publish their work. Other websites related to this journal are http://apps.ug.edu.gh/wajae/.

  7. Future markers of the West Greenlandic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trondhjem, Naja Blytmann

    2010-01-01

    and aspect grammaticalization in West Greenlandic and Chukchi. In: La dynamique et la culture inuit. /Nicole Tersis et Michèle Terrien (eds.) p. 151-175. Kristoffersen, Lars (1991) Verbal derivation and inflection in a functional grammar of West Greenlandic. Magisterkonferens, Københavns Universitet...

  8. Archives: West African Journal of Medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 40 of 40 ... Archives: West African Journal of Medicine. Journal Home > Archives: West African Journal of Medicine. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 40 of ...

  9. West Nile Virus: Prevention and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... R S T U V W X Y Z # West Nile virus Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . West Nile Virus Home Prevention Prevención y control Symptoms, Diagnosis, & Treatment ...

  10. West Nile Virus: Symptoms and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... R S T U V W X Y Z # West Nile virus Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . West Nile Virus Home Prevention Prevención y control Symptoms, Diagnosis, & Treatment ...

  11. Rubella outbreak investigation, Gokwe North District, Midlands ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Rubella is a contagious disease, caused by rubella virus and transmitted via the respiratory route. Rubella in pregnancy may cause Congenital Rubella Syndrome (CRS), characterized by multiple defects to the brain, heart, eyes and ears. Gokwe North experienced an increase in rubella cases from 6 cases (24 ...

  12. Neuromuscular Manifestations of West Nile Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Arturo eLeis

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The most common neuromuscular manifestation of West Nile virus (WNV infection is a poliomyelitis syndrome with asymmetric paralysis variably involving one (monoparesis to four limbs (quadriparesis, with or without brainstem involvement and respiratory failure. This syndrome of acute flaccid paralysis may occur without overt fever or meningoencephalitis. Although involvement of anterior horn cells in the spinal cord and motor neurons in the brainstem are the major sites of pathology responsible for neuromuscular signs, inflammation also may involve skeletal or cardiac muscle (myositis, myocarditis, motor axons (polyradiculitis, peripheral nerve (Guillain-Barré syndrome, brachial plexopathy. In addition, involvement of spinal sympathetic neurons and ganglia provides a plausible explanation for autonomic instability seen in some patients. Many patients also experience prolonged subjective generalized weakness and disabling fatigue. Despite recent evidence that WNV may persist long term in the central nervous system or periphery in animals, the evidence in humans is controversial. WNV persistence would be of great concern in immunosuppressed patients or in those with prolonged or recurrent symptoms. Support for the contention that WNV can lead to autoimmune disease arises from reports of patients presenting with various neuromuscular diseases that presumably involve autoimmune mechanisms (GBS, other demyelinating neu¬ropathies, myasthenia gravis, brachial plexopathies, stiff-person syndrome, and delayed or recurrent symptoms. Although there is no specific treatment or vaccine currently approved in humans, and the standard remains supportive care, drugs that can alter the cascade of immunobiochemical events leading to neuronal death may be potentially useful (high-dose corticosteroids, interferon preparations, and intravenous immune globulin containing WNV-specific antibodies. Human experience with these agents seems promising based on anecdotal

  13. Status of the new WEST plasma control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravene, Nathalie, E-mail: nathalie.ravenel@gmail.com [IRFM, CEA, F-13108 Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Nouailletas, Rémy; Signoret, Jacqueline; Guillerminet, Bernard [IRFM, CEA, F-13108 Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Treutterrer, Wolfgang [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstraße 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Spring, Anett [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Teilinstitut Greifswald, Wendelsteinstraße 1, D-17491 Greifswald (Germany); Masand, Harish; Dhongde, Jasraj; Bhandarkar, Manisha [Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), Near Indira Bridge, Bhat, Gandhinagar, 382 428 Gujarat (India); Rapson, Chris [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstraße 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Laqua, Heike; Lewerentz, Marc [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Teilinstitut Greifswald, Wendelsteinstraße 1, D-17491 Greifswald (Germany); Moreau, Philippe; Brémond, Sylvain; Allegretti, Ludovic [IRFM, CEA, F-13108 Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Raupp, Gerhard [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstraße 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Werner, Andreas [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Teilinstitut Greifswald, Wendelsteinstraße 1, D-17491 Greifswald (Germany); Laurent, François Saint; Nardon, Eric [IRFM, CEA, F-13108 Saint Paul lez Durance (France)

    2016-11-15

    The WEST (W – for Tungsten – Environment in Steady state Tokamak) project is aiming at minimizing technology and operational risks of a full tungsten actively cooled divertor on ITER. It was started in 2013 and consists in transforming the Tore Supra tokamak into an X point divertor device, while taking advantage of its long discharge capability. To operate the next coming operations of WEST, new controllers are required. These developments are an opportunity to develop a new Plasma Control System (PCS) architecture featuring build-in real time handling of both plasma and plants events, thus addressing key ITER needs. The Tore Supra PCS will be refurbished including a new Pulse Schedule Editor (PSE). The main idea is to use a time segmented approach to describe the pulse schedule with a full integration of event handling both on PCS and PSE. Further to detailed requirement specifications and architecture design, two software tools were selected to define and execute a whole plasma discharge defined as a set of time segments. The PCS real-time framework (RTF) is based on an upgraded version of the AUG framework, called DCS (Discharge Control System). The PSE is the Xedit application used on WEGA and under further development for W7-X facility. This paper reports on the status of the new WEST PCS developments. The on-going developments to adapt DCS to the Tore Supra Control infrastructure networks (new real-time network, chronology system and pulse supervision) will be reported. The required preparations for the use of Xedit will be presented, mainly the appropriate formal description of the WEST control system and the implementation of the mapping between the Xedit experiment configuration and DCS configuration files.

  14. Spent fuel treatment at ANL-West

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goff, K.M.; Benedict, R.W.; Levinskas, D.

    1994-12-31

    At Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-West) there are several thousand kilograms of metallic spent nuclear fuel containing bond sodium. This fuel will be treated in the Fuel Cycle Facility at ANL-West to produce stable waste forms for storage and disposal. The treatment operations will employ a pyrochemical process that also has applications for treating most of the fuel types within the Department of Energy complex. The treatment equipment is in its last stage of readiness, and operations will begin in the Fall of 1994.

  15. West Nile Virus Drug Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siew Pheng Lim

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The outbreak of West Nile virus (WNV in 1999 in the USA, and its continued spread throughout the Americas, parts of Europe, the Middle East and Africa, underscored the need for WNV antiviral development. Here, we review the current status of WNV drug discovery. A number of approaches have been used to search for inhibitors of WNV, including viral infection-based screening, enzyme-based screening, structure-based virtual screening, structure-based rationale design, and antibody-based therapy. These efforts have yielded inhibitors of viral or cellular factors that are critical for viral replication. For small molecule inhibitors, no promising preclinical candidate has been developed; most of the inhibitors could not even be advanced to the stage of hit-to-lead optimization due to their poor drug-like properties. However, several inhibitors developed for related members of the family Flaviviridae, such as dengue virus and hepatitis C virus, exhibited cross-inhibition of WNV, suggesting the possibility to re-purpose these antivirals for WNV treatment. Most promisingly, therapeutic antibodies have shown excellent efficacy in mouse model; one of such antibodies has been advanced into clinical trial. The knowledge accumulated during the past fifteen years has provided better rationale for the ongoing WNV and other flavivirus antiviral development.

  16. IAU South West Asian ROAD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickaelian, Areg; Azatyan, Naira; Farmanyan, Sona; Mikayelyan, Gor

    2016-10-01

    Armenia is hosting the IAU South West Asian (SWA) Regional Office of Astronomy for Development (ROAD). It is a county of ancient astronomy and is also rich in modern astronomical facilities and infrastructures, hence may successfully serve as a regional center for various activities. Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory (BAO) has 2.6m and 1m Schmidt, as well as a number of smaller telescopes that are an observational basis for joint projects and collaborations. Armenian Virtual Observatory (ArVO) is hosting astronomical databases, such as the Digitized First Byurakan Survey (DFBS) and may also serve as a basis for development of VO structures in this region. Recently we have conducted a number of new activities; a meeting on ``Relation of Astronomy to other Sciences, Culture and Society" (RASCS) was organized by BAO and Armenian Astronomical Society (ArAS) in Oct 2014 in Byurakan. Activities related to Archaeoastronomy and Astronomy in Culture (AAC) were initiated as well. Discussions on future Armenian-Iranian collaboration in astronomy were carried out, including an Armenian-Iranian Astronomical Workshop held in Oct 2015 in Byurakan. Similar workshops have been carried out between BAO and Abastumani Astronomical Observatory (AbAO, Georgia) since 1974.

  17. Regionalization in West Africa : the process of developing a common West African currency

    OpenAIRE

    Sveen, Heidi Walbye

    2004-01-01

    Monetary integration has been on the West African political agenda for a long time. It has been regarded as an important development strategy by for instance the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) where 15 states are organized. Eight ECOWAS countries have a monetary co-operation through the Franc Zone, which is a unique post-colonial relation between France and former French colonies. In West Africa the Zone is organized in Union Économic et Monetaire Ouest Africaine (UEMOA). ...

  18. Legume Diversity Patterns in West Central Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Estrella, de la M.; Mateo, M.A.; Wieringa, J.J.; Mackinder, B.; Munoz, J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives - Species Distribution Models (SDMs) are used to produce predictions of potential Leguminosae diversity in West Central Africa. Those predictions are evaluated subsequently using expert opinion. The established methodology of combining all SDMs is refined to assess species diversity

  19. West Coast Rockfish Conservation Areas, 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data delineate Rockfish Conservation Areas (RCA) off the West Coast of the United States for 2015. There are three types of areas closures depicted in this...

  20. NNDSS - Table II. West Nile to Zika

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. West Nile to Zika - 2018. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding year), and...

  1. NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease - 2017. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding...

  2. FAQ: West Nile Virus and Dead Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Related Links Mosquito Surveillance Software West Nile Virus & Dead Birds Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... What should I do if I find a dead bird? State and local agencies have different policies ...

  3. West Bank Gaza Geo-MIS System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The Geo-MIS System is USAID/West Bank and Gaza's primary system for capturing and managing projectrelated information. Its purpose is to assist USAID and its...

  4. West Nile Virus Infection in Sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimoldi, G; Mete, A; Adaska, J M; Anderson, M L; Symmes, K P; Diab, S

    2017-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) infection has been detected in many species of birds and mammals, but scant information is available about the disease in small ruminants. West Nile virus was diagnosed in 6 sheep with neurological signs and encephalitis, in California between 2002 and 2014. All sheep had severe lymphoplasmacytic meningoencephalitis. Lymphoplasmacytic myelitis was also detected in 2 sheep where the spinal cord was examined. Brain tissue was positive for WNV detected by polymerase chain reaction in 6 of 6 sheep and by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in 5 of 6 sheep. Viral antigen was not detected by IHC in extraneural tissues in the 3 sheep examined. West Nile virus RNA was sequenced from 2 of 6 sheep, and each one clusters closely with WNV isolated from mosquito pools from nearby locations at similar times. West Nile virus was the most common cause of viral encephalitis in sheep diagnosed at this laboratory between 2002 and 2014, accounting for 6 of 9 sheep.

  5. Libraries in West Virginia: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Morgantown West Virginia University Health Sciences Library/Interlibrary Loan ... http://www.ohiovalleymedicalcenter.com/ Find another library If you need help finding a consumer health information center near ...

  6. West Virginia's Wetlands. Uncommon, Valuable Wildlands.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This booklet summarizes the most up-to-date information on West Virginia's wetlands for the general public. It provides brief descriptions of the state's wetlands,...

  7. The lithospheric mantle below southern West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sand, Karina Krarup; Waight, Tod Earle; Pearson, D. Graham

    2009-01-01

    Geothermobarometry of primarily garnet lherzolitic xenoliths from several localities in southern West Greenland is applied to address the diamond potential, pressure and temperature distribution and the stratigraphy of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle ~600 Ma ago. The samples are from...

  8. Eighteenth annual West Coast theoretical chemistry conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    Abstracts are presented from the eighteenth annual west coast theoretical chemistry conference. Topics include molecular simulations; quasiclassical simulations of reactions; photodissociation reactions; molecular dynamics;interface studies; electronic structure; and semiclassical methods of reactive systems.

  9. NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease - 2015.In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding...

  10. Microbial keratitis in West and East Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Vanitha Ratnalingam; Thiageswari Umapathy; Kala Sumugam; Hanida Hanafi; Shamala Retnasabapathy

    2017-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the epidemiological and etiological factors of microbial keratitis seen in tertiary hospitals in West and East Malaysia.METHODS: A total of 207 patients were enrolled. Patients referred for microbial keratitis to Sungai Buloh Hospital and Kuala Lumpur Hospital in West Malaysia and Queen Elizabeth Hospital and Kuching General Hospital in East Malaysia were recruited. Risk factors were documented. Corneal scrapings for microscopy and culture were performed.RESULTS: The most com...

  11. ‘We may be falling apart but we still keep going’: Retired servicemen’s experiences of their ageing bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    K. Williams, Rachel; Allen-Collinson, Jacquelyn; Evans, Adam Brian

    2018-01-01

    interactionism to explore a topical life history of 20 retired servicemen’s experiences in relation to physical activity (PA), the ageing body and constructions of identity in later life. Participants were aged 60+ and members of the Royal British Legion in a city in the English Midlands. Three semi...... to their former ‘disciplined’, active, military bodies. Corporeal challenges and limitations discouraged some from taking part in PA altogether. Despite their perceived bodily limitations, however, many ex-service personnel still endeavoured to stay physically active. Findings highlight the salience......Currently, there is scant research that investigates in-depth retired servicemen’s perceptions and experiences of ageing and being physically active, particularly in relation to retirement experiences. In this article, we employ a novel theoretical combination of figurational sociology and symbolic...

  12. Microbial keratitis in West and East Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanitha Ratnalingam

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the epidemiological and etiological factors of microbial keratitis seen in tertiary hospitals in West and East Malaysia.METHODS: A total of 207 patients were enrolled. Patients referred for microbial keratitis to Sungai Buloh Hospital and Kuala Lumpur Hospital in West Malaysia and Queen Elizabeth Hospital and Kuching General Hospital in East Malaysia were recruited. Risk factors were documented. Corneal scrapings for microscopy and culture were performed.RESULTS: The most common risk factor in West Malaysia was organic trauma(28.5%followed by non organic trauma(18.3%; 27.7% of trauma cases was work related with 34.2% involving male foreign workers. The most common risk factor in East Malaysia was contact lens wear(32.9%. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the most common organism isolated in both places. The most common fungal pathogen in West Malaysia was Fusarium spp representing 60% of all positive fungal cultures.CONCLUSION: In West Malaysia organic trauma was the most common risk factor seen in public hospitals here whereas, contact lens wear was the most common risk factor in East Malaysia(P<0.05. Fungal keratitis was more commonly seen in West Malaysia.

  13. Motivations of farm tourism hosts and guests in the South West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper describes a phenomenological investigation of the experience of farm tourism in the South West Tapestry Region of Western Australia from the perspective of both hosts and guests. The purpose of the study was to gain an understanding of what motivates people to operate a farm tourism business, and what ...

  14. Milk yield and rectal temperature in West African Dwarf goats as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to investigate milk yield and rectal temperature in West African Dwarf (WAD) goats as affected by wattle and litter size. A total of 28 lactating does were used for the experiment. 13 does had wattle (bilateral) while 15 had no wattle. 14 does had twin birth while the other 14 had single birth. The goats ...

  15. The interaction between nutrition and metabolism in West African dwarf goats, infected with trypanosomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van J.T.P.

    1996-01-01

    In a series of experiments the interaction between nutrition and energy- and nitrogen metabolism of West African Dwarf goats, infected with trypanosomes was studied. Animals were injected with trypanosomes, and feed intake, energy and nitrogen balance and blood metabolites and hormones were measured

  16. Intergenerational Relations in the West of Ireland and Sociocultural Approaches to Wisdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmondson, Ricca

    2012-01-01

    Discussion of intergenerational relationships has perennially questioned how life experience can be transmitted effectively. This article revisits that debate, focusing on the intergenerational role of wisdom in the West of Ireland. Ethnographic reconstructions of wise interaction within families and communities, especially in regions of Irish…

  17. Retraining in Business German through the Goethe Institute in West Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Gudrun; Schutte, Lilith

    A college language instructor recounts his experience in a retraining program in business German at the West Germany's Goethe Institute. Twenty-eight individuals from the United States and from five European countries participated in a program that offered (1) a 14-day immersion into business-related German, (2) establishment of German business…

  18. Fog-water harvesting along the West Coast of South Africa: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many parts of the West Coast of South Africa experience severe water shortages throughout the year. Despite the meager rainfall, however, the region is subject to a high incidence of fog which might provide water for water-poor communities. This paper investigates the fog water potential of the area. Since fog water ...

  19. First Case of West Nile Fever in a Child in Autonomous Republic of Crimea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Rymarenko

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article shows a case report of West Nile fever in 11-year-old boy taken from own clinical experience. The duration of the diseases was typical, with fever, meningism, lymphadenitis, hyperemic of facial and chest skin, conjunctivitis, pain in muscles of low extremities.

  20. Terminal Decline in Well-Being Differs between Residents in East Germany and West Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Nina; Gerstorf, Denis; Ram, Nilam; Goebel, Jan; Wagner, Gert G.

    2017-01-01

    Lifespan research has long been interested in how contexts shape individual development. Using the separation and later reunification of Germany as a kind of natural experiment we examine whether and how living and dying in the former East or West German context has differentially shaped late-life development of well-being. We apply multi-level…

  1. Maternal and adolescent health in West Africa: Toward low-cost ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Maternal and adolescent health in West Africa: Toward low-cost reforms grounded in reality. High numbers of women and adolescent girls continue to ... Researchers will draw lessons from 20 years of reform efforts and from users' and health workers' experiences at the local level. LASDEL will also identify health system ...

  2. Fog-water harvesting along the West Coast of South Africa: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drinie

    2002-10-04

    Oct 4, 2002 ... Department of Anthropology, Archaeology, Geography and Environmental Studies, University of South Africa, PO Box 392,. UNISA 0003, South Africa. Abstract. Many parts of the West Coast of South Africa experience severe water shortages throughout the year. Despite the meager rainfall, however, the ...

  3. The DACCIWA 2016 radiosonde campaign in southern West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Andreas H.; Maranan, Marlon; Knippertz, Peter; Ngamini, Jean-Blaise; Francis, Sabastine

    2017-04-01

    Operational upper-air stations are very sparsely distributed over West Africa, resulting in the necessity to enhance radiosonde observations for the DACCIWA (Dynamics-Aerosol-Chemistry-Cloud Interactions in West Africa) experimental period during June-July 2016. Building on the AMMA (African Monsoon - Multidisciplinary Analyses) experience, existing infrastructures, as well as human networks, the upper air network was successfully augmented to a spatial density that is unprecedented for southern West Africa. Altogether, more than 750 experimental radiosondes were launched at seven stations in three countries along the Guinea Coast. From its outset, the DACCIWA radiosonde campaign had three pillars: (a) enhancing soundings at operational or quiescent AMMA radiosonde stations; (b) launching sondes at DACCIWA supersites and two additional DACCIWA field sites; and (c) collecting standard and - if possible - high-resolution data from other operational RS stations. In terms of (a), it was found during preparing recce visits to West Africa, that the AMMA-activated stations of Cotonou (Benin) and Abuja (Nigeria) were operational though almost "invisible" on the World Meteorological Organisation's Global Teleconnection System (GTS). These and other AMMA legacies facilitated the implementation of enhanced, four-times daily soundings at Abidjan (Ivory Coast), Cotonou and Parakou (both Benin). Two well-instrumented DACCIWA ground sites at Kumasi (Ghana) and Savé (Benin) performed 06 UTC soundings, being enhanced to four-times daily ascents during fifteen Intensive Observing Periods (IOPs). In addition, research staff and students from the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) and African partners conducted up to five-times daily soundings at Lamto (Ivory Coast) and Accra (Ghana). Almost all of the experimental DACCIWA ascents were submitted to the GTS in real time and assimilated at least at three European numerical weather prediction centres that helped to improve their

  4. 77 FR 56125 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; Amendments to West...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    ... West Virginia's Legislative Rule regarding ambient air quality standards (45 CSR 8-- Ambient Air... approval of the revised regulation, 45 CSR 8--Ambient Air Quality Standards, submitted by West Virginia for... Conditions). The revised regulation, 45 CSR 8, incorporates by reference the NAAQS for SO 2 , PM, CO, ozone...

  5. Grizzly West: A Failed Attempt to Reintroduce Grizzly Bears in the Mountain West

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas M. Richardson

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Reviewed: Grizzly West: A Failed Attempt to Reintroduce Grizzly Bears in the Mountain West. By Michael M. Dax. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 2015. x + 289 pp. US$ 37.50. ISBN 978-0-8032-6673-5.

  6. Emigration dynamics in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makinwa-adebusoye, P K

    1995-01-01

    This report on the emigration dynamics at work in Western Africa opens by noting that this region comprises an important migration system with large legal and illegal movements of people within the region and to industrialized countries. Migration has been fueled by high growth rates coupled with lower growth rates of per capital income. Migration takes the form of continuing inflow into receiving countries, such as the Ivory Coast, sudden changes in migration status (in Ghana and Nigeria) reflecting sudden economic changes, a brain drain to developed countries, and an influx of refugees. The second section of the report presents a brief look at historical migratory patterns, including those of nomads which continue today. Data limitations are addressed in section 3, and the drawbacks of census data for migration information are noted. The next section describes the economic and demographic factors in the region which contribute to migration. These include the long lasting effects of colonization in general, the exploitation of minerals, patterns of agricultural development, poverty, and population growth. A closer examination of these forces at work is provided in case studies of Ghana, Nigeria, and the migration stream from Burkina Faso to the Ivory Coast. Section 5 looks at the economic causes and effects of the brain drain. Social and cultural factors are covered in section 6, with an emphasis placed on family and migration networks. Section 7 covers political factors influencing migration, such as the efforts of people to retain contact with other members of their ethnic group who may live on the opposite side of an arbitrarily drawn (by colonizers) international border, the designation of administrative capital cities, and the ease in crossing borders without documentation. The next section describes the 1975 formation of the Economic Community for West Africa (ECOWAS) and its protocols regarding free movement of citizens within the states which comprise the

  7. Namibia [South-West Africa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Namibia, a country of 1,051,700 inhabitants of whom 85.6% are blacks of diverse ethnic and linguistic origins, 7.5% are white, and the rest are of mixed ancestry, has been illegally administered by South Africa since 1966, when a League of Nations mandate was revoked by the UN. The Namibian Desert was a barrier to European expansion until the late 18th century, when the area came under German and British influence. Efforts to bring about an orderly and peaceful transition to independent status are hampered at present by the lack of parallel progress toward withdrawal of Cuban combat forces from Angola. Beginning in 1980, considerable executive power was transferred from the administrator general appointed by the South African Government to an interim 3-tier system of elected representatives dividing responsibility between central, ethnic, and local authorities. The judicial structure has separate overlapping systems for whites, westernized blacks and coloreds and for indigenous blacks. Namibian society is highly politicized, with 4 white and about 40 nonwhite political groups. The South West Africa People's Organization (SWAPO) remains an active party inside Namibia despite simultaneous detention of its entire leadership in 1979 by the South African Government. Namibia's economy is dual, with a modern market sector of mining, ranching and fishing producing most of the wealth and a traditional subsistence sector supporting most of the labor force. About 60% of the work force of 500,000 in 1981 worked in agriculture, 19% in industry and commerce, 6% in mining, 8% in services, and 7% in government. Namibia's gross domestic product in 1980 was $1.712 billion, representing an average growth rate of 2.5% from 1970-80. However, real growth since 1978 has been negative because of persistent drought, political uncertainty, low demand for mineral products, and previous overfishing. Namibia has no separate representation in any international body. The country may have the

  8. WEST AFRICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICINE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2 April–June, 2012. Department of †Surgery, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria ‡Bowen University Iwo, Nigeria. *Correspondence: O. O. Afuwape, Department of Surgery, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria. E-mail: dolafpe@yahoo.co.uk. Preliminary Experience with Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy in a.

  9. Sexuality and everydayness in a transnational context: toward a re-imagined West-China relationship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yingying

    2017-06-01

    This paper examines how Chinese immigrants to Canada perceive and experience sexuality in a transnational context as revealed in a qualitative study. It identifies cultural interactions and tensions between 'the West' and 'China' embedded in participants' sexual narratives. Three thematic aspects of sexuality are explored: different views toward 'relationships' and how sex is involved in different stages of a relationship; physical desire and sexual attraction based on individuals' dialogues with contemporaries and their own cross-racial dating experience; and perceptions of sexual risks associated with an increasing awareness of China's opening up, in particular risks associated with attitudes towards condom use. The paper also discusses how such sexual narratives challenge dichotomous imaginings of 'sexual openness/conservativeness' in the West-China relationship. Findings help us to better understanding how Chinese immigrants to Canada view the West through the lens of sexuality, and how their transnational experiences have challenge the West-China dichotomy in the sexual imagination and shape understandings of sexual risk.

  10. West German Jewry: Guilt, Power and Pluralism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony d. Kauders

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The essay will address the history of West German Jewry using the concept of guilt as its guiding theme. Jews in West Germany had a bad conscience on account of living in the “land of the murderers.” This bad conscience not only distinguished them from other Jewish communities, it also explains much of what characterized West German Jewry from 1945 to 1989: its particular economic structure; its especially close ties to Israel; its preoccupation with democratization; its power arrangements; and its communal life. The essay will address these issues, and trace a development that led from a close-knit, ideologically homogeneous group to one that became ever more pluralistic in the 1970s and 1980s.

  11. West Nile Virus: Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Lyle R.; Brault, Aaron C.; Nasci, Roger S.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Since its introduction in North America in 1999,West Nile virus has produced the 3 largest arboviral neuroinvasive disease outbreaks ever recorded in the United States. OBJECTIVE To review the ecology, virology, epidemiology, clinical characteristics, diagnosis, prevention, and control of West Nile virus, with an emphasis on North America. EVIDENCE REVIEW PubMed electronic database was searched through February 5, 2013. United States national surveillance data were gathered from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. FINDINGS West Nile virus is now endemic throughout the contiguous United States, with 16 196 human neuroinvasive disease cases and 1549 deaths reported since 1999. More than 780 000 illnesses have likely occurred. To date, incidence is highest in the Midwest from mid-July to early September. West Nile fever develops in approximately 25% of those infected, varies greatly in clinical severity, and symptoms may be prolonged. Neuroinvasive disease (meningitis, encephalitis, acute flaccid paralysis) develops in less than 1% but carries a fatality rate of approximately 10%. Encephalitis has a highly variable clinical course but often is associated with considerable long-term morbidity. Approximately two-thirds of those with paralysis remain with significant weakness in affected limbs. Diagnosis usually rests on detection of IgM antibody in serum or cerebrospinal fluid. Treatment is supportive; no licensed human vaccine exists. Prevention uses an integrated pest management approach, which focuses on surveillance, elimination of mosquito breeding sites, and larval and adult mosquito management using pesticides to keep mosquito populations low. During outbreaks or impending outbreaks, emphasis shifts to aggressive adult mosquito control to reduce the abundance of infected, biting mosquitoes. Pesticide exposure and adverse human health events following adult mosquito control operations for West Nile virus appear negligible. CONCLUSIONS AND

  12. Marine fishery possibilities of the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Panikkar, N.K.

    Marine fishery activity of the west coast of India is discussed. Sea fish production from the west coast of India makes three fourths of total fish production from Indian coasts. Kerala accounts for the largest production of fish in India...

  13. Archives: West African Journal of Industrial and Academic Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 15 of 15 ... Archives: West African Journal of Industrial and Academic Research. Journal Home > Archives: West African Journal of Industrial and Academic Research. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  14. Characteristics of waves off Goa, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SanilKumar, V.; AshokKumar, K.; Anand, N.M.

    Directional wave measurements were carried out using Datawell directional waverider buoy off Goa along west coast of India during the south west monsoon period in 1996 and the results are presented. Theoretical joint distribution of wave height...

  15. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-27

    Energy used by West Virginia single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  16. Democracy & Development: Journal of West African Affairs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Public policy research (empirical and theoretical) on the democracy, security, and development nexus. Democracy & Development: Journal of West African Affairs is the only one of its kind entirely devoted to reporting and explaining democratic developments in the sub-region. It is read widely by researchers, journalists, ...

  17. West Indian Sojourners in Guatemala and Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald N. Harpelle

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Race, Nation, and West Indian Immigration to Honduras, 1890-1940. Glenn A. Chambers. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2010. xii +202 pp. (Cloth US$ 35.00Black Labor Migration in Caribbean Guatemala, 1882-1923. Frederick Douglass Opie. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2009. 145 pp. (Cloth US$ 65.00

  18. NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease - 2016. In this Table, provisional* cases of selected†notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding...

  19. Groei en bloei in West-Friesland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremmer, J.; Meulen, van der H.A.B.; Stokkers, R.

    2002-01-01

    De combinatie bloembollenteelt op klei en de bolbloementeelt geeft het complex West-Friesland een geheel eigen plaats in de nationale bloembollensector. In dit rapport wordt een beschrijving gegeven van het bloembollencomplex. Uitgebreid wordt de ontwikkeling van de bollenteelt en de broeierij

  20. IDRC in the West Bank and Gaza

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    biomedical treatment of psychological trauma resulting from violent conflict. The public view on security. In August 2009, the Palestinian authority committed to modernizing public secu- rity services in the West Bank and Gaza. In the months following that commit- ment, the Palestinian Centre for Policy and Survey Research ...

  1. Epidemiology: Malaria in a warmer West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caminade, C.; Jones, A. E.

    2016-11-01

    Malaria risk in West Africa is expected to fall (western region) or remain the same (eastern region) in response to climate change over the twenty-first century. This is primarily due to extreme temperature conditions projected under a high greenhouse gas emissions scenario.

  2. Planning CCS Development in the West Mediterranean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boavida, D.; Carneiro, J.; Martinez, R.; van den Broek, M.A.; Ramirez, Andrea; Rimi, A.; Tosato, G.; Gastine, M.

    2013-01-01

    Transport and storage of CO2 are the elements in the CCS chain with the lowest cost, but they may well prove to be the elements defining the timeline for CCS development. The EU FP7 COMET project aimed to pave the road towards CCS development in the West Mediterranean (Portugal, Spain and Morocco).

  3. Wildlife resources of the West African savanna

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bie, de S.

    1991-01-01

    The wild fauna in Africa is a renewable resource and its overexploitation has led to the depletion of animal populations. This thesis focusses on the ecological characterization of the ungulate community of the West African savanna, with special reference to the Biosphere Reserve 'Boucle du

  4. West African Journal of Medicine: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. The West African Journal of Medicine (WAJM) like any other medical Journal has adopted the “Uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to Biomedical Journals” established by editors in the US, Canada and the United Kingdom (N. Engl J. Med 1997; 336: 309- 315). Papers for publication in this ...

  5. Globalization, migration and underdevelopment in West Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The consequence is that, globalization exacerbates inequality between the developed and the developing nations. This paper demonstrates the various ways by which globalization impacts on migration and in the process engenders underdevelopment in West Africa. In the first place, the unencumbered movement of ...

  6. Solar radiation at Parsons, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    James H. Patric; Stanley Caruso

    1978-01-01

    Twelve years of solar radiation data, measured with a Kipp-Zonen pyranometer, were recorded near Parsons, West Virginia. The data agree well with calculated values of potential and average radiation for the vicinity and are applicable to the central Appalachian region.

  7. Natural Hazards within the West Indies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, John A.

    1992-01-01

    Outlines the vulnerability of the West Indies to various natural hazards, especially hurricanes, earthquakes, and volcanic eruptions. Reviews the geologic and meteorologic causes and consequences of the hazards. Suggests methods of incorporating hazards information in geography classes. Includes maps and a hurricane tracking chart. (DK)

  8. 76 FR 67637 - West Virginia Regulatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-02

    ... 38, Series 2. Enrolled Committee Substitute for Senate Bill No. 121 (SB 121) passed the West Virginia..., annuity or both to guarantee treatment of long-term postmining pollutional discharges in lieu of posting a... public review, we cannot guarantee that we will be able to do so. Public Hearing If you wish to speak at...

  9. Ecosystem variability in west Greenland waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, E.; Pedersen, Søren Anker; Ribergaard, M. H.

    2004-01-01

    A review of the climate conditions off West Greenland during the past 50 years shows large variability in the atmospheric, oceanographic and sea-ice variables, as well as in fish stocks. A positive relationship is found between water temperature and the recruitment of cod and redfish, whereas the...

  10. West African Journal of Applied Ecology: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. Instructions To Authors Papers for submission to the West African Journal of Applied Ecology should be written in English and should not exceed 8,000 words in total length. Papers should not have been submitted or be considered for submission for publication elsewhere. Ideas expressed in papers that ...

  11. Drinking Among West Chester University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Almutairi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available When the theory of reasoned action is perceived in relation to the reduction of binge drinking among West Chester students it will be important to consider the drinking as a behavior which is in need of imminent change.

  12. Vaccines in development against West Nile virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandler, Samantha; Tangy, Frederic

    2013-09-30

    West Nile encephalitis emerged in 1999 in the United States, then rapidly spread through the North American continent causing severe disease in human and horses. Since then, outbreaks appeared in Europe, and in 2012, the United States experienced a new severe outbreak reporting a total of 5,387 cases of West Nile virus (WNV) disease in humans, including 243 deaths. So far, no human vaccine is available to control new WNV outbreaks and to avoid worldwide spreading. In this review, we discuss the state-of-the-art of West Nile vaccine development and the potential of a novel safe and effective approach based on recombinant live attenuated measles virus (MV) vaccine. MV vaccine is a live attenuated negative-stranded RNA virus proven as one of the safest, most stable and effective human vaccines. We previously described a vector derived from the Schwarz MV vaccine strain that stably expresses antigens from emerging arboviruses, such as dengue, West Nile or chikungunya viruses, and is strongly immunogenic in animal models, even in the presence of MV pre-existing immunity. A single administration of a recombinant MV vaccine expressing the secreted form of WNV envelope glycoprotein elicited protective immunity in mice and non-human primates as early as two weeks after immunization, indicating its potential as a human vaccine.

  13. LEISHMANIASIS IN SOUTH WEST AFRICA: PRELIMINARY NOTES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1971-03-13

    Mar 13, 1971 ... Leishmaniasis was first reported from South West. Africa in 1970.' All 4 cases had contracted cutaneous leishmaniasis, and all 4 occurred in White women. These cases appeared over a period of 3 years. Before this the nearest recorded case of leishmaniasis was from south- western Angola.' Cahill' has ...

  14. anaesthesia in west-african dwarf goat

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    0.05/10mg/kg) intramuscularly (1M), xylazine/lignocaine (0.05/10mg/kg) IM lsubcutaneously (SC) and Lignocaine. (lOmg/kg) SC were evaluated in mature, non-fasted West- African Dwarf (WAD) goats for a period of 80 minutes during ...

  15. IDRC in the West Bank and Gaza

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Teenage stress under conflict. Research to promote positive coping mechanisms among Palestinian youth is another way of building peace. Prolonged conflict and political violence have exacerbated normal teenage stress in the West Bank, where adolescents make up nearly half the population. Researchers from.

  16. Go West, Young Man (and Woman)!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byerly, Greg; Brodie, Carolyn S.

    1998-01-01

    Provides an annotated bibliography of Web sites on the American West, the Oregon Trail, Santa Fe Trail, Gold Rush, Donner Party, mountain men and the fur trade, Native Americans, cowboys, and western folklore. Lists related books, activity books, and CD-ROMs on cowboys, migration, and settling. (PEN)

  17. 76 FR 41411 - West Virginia Regulatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-14

    ... Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement 30 CFR Part 948 West Virginia Regulatory Program AGENCY: Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement (OSM), Interior. ACTION: Interim rule; effective date. SUMMARY: On June 29, 2011, OSM published an interim rule approving a program amendment...

  18. SEEDLING SYSTEM OF PADDY IN WEST SULAWESI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Religius Heryanto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reliable technological innovation in improving rice productivity is high yielding improved varieties . At this time there are still many farmers who do not use rice seed quality/certified. One reason is unavailability of quality seeds when needed. To meet needs of seed is "six right" ideal seeding system is necessary to organize existing seed regulations in West Sulawesi. This study aims to determine issues, opportunities and strengths in managing regulation of seed germination in West Sulawesi. Results: (1 productivity and production of rice in West Sulawesi still has potential to be increased from 3.82 tons per hectare to eight tonnes per hectare through use of quality seeds, use of new varieties, application of technology production, harvest and post-harvest handling right and coaching kneed or seed producers in each region, (2 Requirement of seeds in West Sulawesi province each year ranged 2484.183 tons assuming 30 kg per ha, while production capability by seed producers institution only 1,231 tons per year, (3 Some constraints are a problem in performance improvement breeder/seed supply institutions, among others: (a implementing human resource capacity is very low, both quantity and quality, (b building and equipment is not well maintained so as not functioning properly, (c does not the availability of infrastructure in producing seed source.

  19. 40 CFR 81.349 - West Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Monroe County Morgan County Nicholas County Ohio County Pendleton County Pleasants County Pocahontas... the Clean Air Act Amendments, Jefferson County, Ohio; Brooke County, West Virginia; and Hancock County... County Unclassifiable/Attainment Wayne County Unclassifiable/Attainment Parkersburg-Marietta Area: Wood...

  20. Students' Perception of West African Agricultural Productivity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    E M IGBOKWE

    index.php/jae. Email: editorinchief@aesonnigeria.org. 159. Students' Perception of West African Agricultural Productivity Programme. Adopted Schools Programme in Oyo State, Nigeria http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jae.v20i2.12. Samuel, J. E..

  1. East-West Perspectives on Elder Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Maureen

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes and conceptualizes the meaning of lifelong learning from two cultural perspectives--East and West. It examines the different principles underpinning lifelong learning that explain why and how elders in the two cultures engage differently in continued learning. Finally, it discusses the cultural impact on elder learning by…

  2. Students' Perception of West African Agricultural Productivity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was recommended that West African Agricultural Productivity Programme officials should focus more attention on educating students in areas that are more technologically inclined such as in animal breeding, vaccination and crop processing instead of only in areas involving manual labour such as in planting, weeding ...

  3. The herpetogeography of Hispaniola, West Indies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwartz, Albert

    1980-01-01

    The modern West Indian island of Hispaniola is in actuality a fusion of two formerly separate islands, each of which presumably supported a distinctive herpetofauna. With the union of these two paleoislands, there has been extensive to small interchange of these faunas; the purpose of the present

  4. Design and manufacturing of WEST Baffle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batal, Tristan, E-mail: tristan.batal@cea.fr [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Firdaouss, Mehdi; Richou, Marianne; Ferlay, Fabien; Larroque, Sébastien; Gargiulo, Laurent [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Dupas, Timothée [SODITECH Ingénierie SA, 1 bis allée des gabians, 06150 Cannes la Bocca (France); Verger, Jean-Marc; Doceul, Louis; Samaille, Franck; Bucalossi, Jérôme [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Salami, Michael [AVANTIS groupe, 12 route de Saint Mathieu, 06130 Grasse (France)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Disruption's torque in the PFC was simulated thanks to ANSYS. • The ANSYS thermal results comply with WEST project requirements. • The cycling analysis complies with WEST project requirements. • 316L components comply with A level RCC-MRx criteria. - Abstract: The Tore Supra tokamak is being transformed in an X-point divertor fusion device in the frame of the WEST project, launched in support to the Iter tungsten divertor strategy. The WEST Baffle aims to evacuate particles by creating a toroidal pumping throat. It also protects the lower divertor cooling pipes and the passive stabilization plate from heat fluxes. The Baffle is made of actively cooled plasma facing components (PFCs), with underneath a passive stabilization plate and a support beam. The Baffle design is presented in a first part. In a second time the different ANSYS simulations are described: electromagnetic, thermal and mechanical results are presented. The design choices are justified for the different results obtained thanks to the simulation. In a final part, some aspects of the PFC manufacturing are presented.

  5. Costs of Space in the West.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelso, Maurice M.

    Space, in a geographic sense, entails costs when there is too much of it in relation to population and income. In the West, by comparison with more populous areas to the east, the level of personal income per square mile and per capita is low; costs per unit of, and per capita for, transportation, health and medical care, and education are high;…

  6. West Nile virus, Texas, USA, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Kristy O; Ruktanonchai, Duke; Hesalroad, Dawn; Fonken, Eric; Nolan, Melissa S

    2013-11-01

    During the 2012 West Nile virus outbreak in Texas, USA, 1,868 cases were reported. Male patients, persons >65 years of age, and minorities were at highest risk for neuroinvasive disease. Fifty-three percent of counties reported a case; 48% of case-patients resided in 4 counties around Dallas/Fort Worth. The economic cost was >$47.6 million.

  7. A preview of West Virginia's forest resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph E. Barnard; Teresa M. Bowers

    1977-01-01

    Forest land occupies 75 percent of the total land area of West Virginia. Sixty percent of the forest land is classified in the oak-hickory forest type and only 6 percent in all the softwood forest types. Since 1961, growing-stock volume increased 24 percent. Yellow-poplar increased 39 percent in volume and is now the prevalent species in the State.

  8. Children Ask Questions about West African Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abercrombie, Denice; Cochran, Mathilda; Mims, Margaret

    1997-01-01

    Presents a collection of questions that fifth-grade students asked about African artwork and answers provided by staff from the Museum of Fine Arts in Houston, Texas. Observes that students' interest in important visual aspects of the art creates lead-ins to more detailed discussions of West African art and culture. (DSK)

  9. Water supply and needs for West Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation focused on the water supplies and needs of West Texas, Texas High Plains. Groundwater is the most commonly used water resources on the Texas High Plains, with withdrawals from the Ogallala Aquifer dominating. The saturation thickness of the Ogallala Aquifer in Texas is such that t...

  10. West Point student drops out / Jorgen Johansson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Johansson, Jorgen

    2001-01-01

    Läti kohus mõistis välja kahjutasu Juris Matusevics'ilt, kes rikkus Läti kaitsejõududega sõlmitud kokkulepet, mis kohustas teda pärast USA West Pointi sõjaväeakadeemia lõpetamist teenima viis aastat Läti armees

  11. Why We Need West Nile Virus Testing

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-09-27

    Dr. Rodrigo Hasbun, a professor of infectious diseases at McGovern Medical School at UT Health, discusses the need for West Nile virus testing in Texas.  Created: 9/27/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 9/27/2016.

  12. Sultam Thiourea Inhibition of West Nile Virus▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barklis, Eric; Still, Amelia; Sabri, Mohammad I.; Hirsch, Alec J.; Nikolich-Zugich, Janko; Brien, James; Dhenub, Tenzin Choesang; Scholz, Isabel; Alfadhli, Ayna

    2007-01-01

    We have identified sultam thioureas as novel inhibitors of West Nile virus (WNV) replication. One such compound inhibited WNV, with a 50% effective concentration of 0.7 μM, and reduced reporter expression from cells that harbored a WNV-based replicon. Our results demonstrate that sultam thioureas can block a postentry, preassembly step of WNV replication. PMID:17452483

  13. Biological and phylogenetic characteristics of West African lineages of West Nile virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall, Gamou; Di Paola, Nicholas; Faye, Martin; Dia, Moussa; Freire, Caio César de Melo; Loucoubar, Cheikh; Zanotto, Paolo Marinho de Andrade; Faye, Ousmane; Sall, Amadou Alpha

    2017-11-01

    The West Nile virus (WNV), isolated in 1937, is an arbovirus (arthropod-borne virus) that infects thousands of people each year. Despite its burden on global health, little is known about the virus' biological and evolutionary dynamics. As several lineages are endemic in West Africa, we obtained the complete polyprotein sequence from three isolates from the early 1990s, each representing a different lineage. We then investigated differences in growth behavior and pathogenicity for four distinct West African lineages in arthropod (Ap61) and primate (Vero) cell lines, and in mice. We found that genetic differences, as well as viral-host interactions, could play a role in the biological properties in different WNV isolates in vitro, such as: (i) genome replication, (ii) protein translation, (iii) particle release, and (iv) virulence. Our findings demonstrate the endemic diversity of West African WNV strains and support future investigations into (i) the nature of WNV emergence, (ii) neurological tropism, and (iii) host adaptation.

  14. The West African currency board and economic integration of British ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    WACB) as an economic integration effort in British West Africa. Through a collaborative effort between this public institution and a private company, the Bank of British West Africa, British West African colonies were not only unified but also the way ...

  15. Energy Generation Potential of West African Ocean Current ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A review of the West African ocean current energy generating potential is carried out. The peculiarity of the West African ocean characteristic is discussed and the challenges noted. Based on this review, it is found that ocean current represents an alternative source of renewable energy in West Africa in a streamed regular ...

  16. 21 CFR 866.3940 - West Nile virus serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false West Nile virus serological reagents. 866.3940... virus serological reagents. (a) Identification. West Nile virus serological reagents are devices that consist of antigens and antisera for the detection of anti-West Nile virus IgM antibodies, in human serum...

  17. Realities, difficulties, and outcomes for mothers choosing to breastfeed: primigravid mothers experiences in the early postpartum period (6-8 weeks).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinsliff-Smith, Kathryn; Spencer, Rachael; Walsh, Denis

    2014-01-01

    to develop an understanding of primiparous women's experiences and challenges of breast feeding in the early postpartum period at two BFI accredited hospitals in the East Midlands in the UK that has lower rates of sustained breast feeding. a hermeneutic or interpretive phenomenology study was conducted across two hospitals in the East Midlands, UK. 22 primigravid women completed a daily written diary maintained for six weeks post birth. In addition, interviews were conducted with 13 women, nine who had completed a diary and four who did not return a diary but wanted to be interviewed, providing 26 different women's perspectives on their breast feeding experiences either from a diary or interview. three main themes emerged from the interviews and written diaries: (1) mothers experience a 'roller coaster' of emotions in relation to trying to establish breast feeding, (2) mothers perceive health care professionals as the 'experts' on breast feeding and (3) mothers had difficulties in breast feeding their infants in public, including in front of family and family and when away from their homes. women were ill prepared for the realities of breast feeding despite their antenatal intention to breast feed. Mothers had a preconceived idea that breast feeding would be 'natural' and without difficulty. When problems occurred, they perceived this to be a breast feeding problem and so choose artificial milk. Mothers require ongoing support to breast feed, especially in the early postpartum period, but more realistic messages about breast feeding need to be included. there is a clear need for antenatal education to focus on preparing women for the realities of breast feeding, including newborn behaviour, which may affect women's perceptions of breast feeding. Local health care professionals need to draw upon national breast feeding strategies but develop a localised approach in order to address the regional variance. © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd All rights

  18. Demand Response in the West: Lessons for States and Provinces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas C. Larson; Matt Lowry; Sharon Irwin

    2004-06-29

    OAK-B135 This paper is submitted in fulfillment of DOE Grant No. DE-FG03-015F22369 on the experience of western states/provinces with demand response (DR) in the electricity sector. Demand-side resources are often overlooked as a viable option for meeting load growth and addressing the challenges posed by the region's aging transmission system. Western states should work together with utilities and grid operators to facilitate the further deployment of DR programs which can provide benefits in the form of decreased grid congestion, improved system reliability, market efficiency, price stabilization, hedging against volatile fuel prices and reduced environmental impacts of energy production. This report describes the various types of DR programs; provides a survey of DR programs currently in place in the West; considers the benefits, drawbacks and barriers to DR; and presents lessons learned and recommendations for states/provinces.

  19. Ebola viral hemorrhagic disease outbreak in West Africa- lessons from Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbonye, Anthony K; Wamala, Joseph F; Nanyunja, Miriam; Opio, Alex; Makumbi, Issa; Aceng, Jane Ruth

    2014-09-01

    There has been a rapid spread of Ebola Viral Hemorrhagic disease in Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone since March 2014. Since this is the first time of a major Ebola outbreak in West Africa; it is possible there is lack of understanding of the epidemic in the communities, lack of experience among the health workers to manage the cases and limited capacities for rapid response. The main objective of this article is to share Uganda's experience in controlling similar Ebola outbreaks and to suggest some lessons that could inform the control of the Ebola outbreak in West Africa. The article is based on published papers, reports of previous Ebola outbreaks, response plans and experiences of individuals who have participated in the control of Ebola epidemics in Uganda. Lessons learnt: The success in the control of Ebola epidemics in Uganda has been due to high political support, effective coordination through national and district task forces. In addition there has been active surveillance, strong community mobilization using village health teams and other community resources persons, an efficient laboratory system that has capacity to provide timely results. These have coupled with effective case management and infection control and the involvement of development partners who commit resources with shared responsibility. Several factors have contributed to the successful quick containment of Ebola outbreaks in Uganda. West African countries experiencing Ebola outbreaks could draw some lessons from the Uganda experience and adapt them to contain the Ebola epidemic.

  20. West Antarctic Mantle Plume Hypothesis and Basal Water Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivins, Erik; Seroussi, Helene; Wiens, Doug; Bondzio, Johannes

    2017-04-01

    The hypothesis of a deep mantle plume that manifests Pliocene and Quaternary volcanism and present-day seismicity in West Antarctica has been speculated for more than 30 years. Recent seismic images support the plume hypothesis as the cause of Marie Byrd Land (MBL) volcanism and geophysical structure [ Lloyd et al., 2015; Ramirez et al., 2016]. Mantle plumes can more that double the geothermal heat flux, qGHF, above nominal continental values at their axial peak position and raise qGHF in the surrounding plume head to 60 mW/m2 or higher. Unfortunately, there is a dearth of in-situ basal ice sheet data that sample the heat flux. Consequently, we examine a realistic distribution of heat flux associated with a late-Cenozoic mantle plume in West Antarctica and explore its impact on thermal and melt conditions near the ice sheet base. The solid Earth model assumes a parameterized deep mantle plume and head. The 3-D ice flow model includes an enthalpy framework and full-Stokes stress balance. Both the putative plume location and extent are uncertain. Therefore, we perform broadly scoped experiments to characterize plume related basal conditions. The experiments show that mantle plumes have an important local impact on the ice sheet, with basal melting rates reaching several centimeters per year directly above the hotspot. The downstream active lake system of Whillans Ice Stream suggests a rift-related source of anomalous mantle heat. However, the lack of lake and stream activity in MBL suggests a relatively weak plume: one that delivers less flux by 35% below the heat flux to the crustal surface at the site of the Yellowstone hotspot [e.g., DeNosaquo et al., 2009], with peak value no higher than about 145 mW/m2.

  1. Geoscience/engineering characterization of the interwell environment in carbonate reservoirs based on outcrop analogs, Permian Basin, West Texas and New Mexico-stratigraphic hierarchy and cycle stacking facies distribution, and interwell-scale heterogeneity: Grayburg Formation, New Mexico. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnaby, R.J.; Ward, W.B.; Jennings, J.W. Jr.

    1997-06-01

    The Grayburg Formation (middle Guadalupian) is a major producing interval in the Permian Basin and has yielded more than 2.5 billion barrels of oil in West Texas. Grayburg reservoirs have produced, on average, less than 30 percent of their original oil in place and are undergoing secondary and tertiary recovery. Efficient design of such enhanced recovery programs dictates improved geological models to better understand and predict reservoir heterogeneity imposed by depositional and diagenetic controls. The Grayburg records mixed carbonate-siliciclastic sedimentation on shallow-water platforms that rimmed the Delaware and Midland Basins. Grayburg outcrops in the Guadalupe and Brokeoff Mountains region on the northwest margin of the Delaware Basin present an opportunity to construct a detailed, three-dimensional image of the stratigraphic and facies architecture. This model can be applied towards improved description and characterization of heterogeneity in analogous Grayburg reservoirs. Four orders of stratigraphic hierarchy are recognized in the Grayburg Formation. The Grayburg represents a long-term composite sequence composed of four high-frequency sequences (HFS 1-4). Each HFS contains several composite cycles comprising two or more cycles that define intermediate-scale transgressive-regressive successions. Cycles are the smallest scale upward-shoaling vertical facies successions that can be recognized and correlated across various facies tracts. Cycles thus form the basis for establishing the detailed chronostratigraphic correlations needed to delineate facies heterogeneity.

  2. West Africa land use and land cover time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotillon, Suzanne E.

    2017-02-16

    Started in 1999, the West Africa Land Use Dynamics project represents an effort to map land use and land cover, characterize the trends in time and space, and understand their effects on the environment across West Africa. The outcome of the West Africa Land Use Dynamics project is the production of a three-time period (1975, 2000, and 2013) land use and land cover dataset for the Sub-Saharan region of West Africa, including the Cabo Verde archipelago. The West Africa Land Use Land Cover Time Series dataset offers a unique basis for characterizing and analyzing land changes across the region, systematically and at an unprecedented level of detail.

  3. The WASCAL high-resolution climate projection ensemble for West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunstmann, Harald; Heinzeller, Dominikus; Dieng, Diarra; Smiatek, Gerhard; Bliefernicht, Jan; Hamann, Ilse; Salack, Seyni

    2017-04-01

    With climate change being one of the most severe challenges to rural Africa in the 21st century, West Africa is facing an urgent need to develop effective adaptation and mitigation measures to protect its constantly growing population. We perform ensemble-based regional climate simulations at a high resolution of 12km for West Africa to allow a scientifically sound derivation of climate change adaptation measures. Based on the RCP4.5 scenario, our ensemble consist of three simulation experiments with the Weather Research & Forecasting Tool (WRF) and one additional experiment with the Consortium for Small-scale Modelling Model COSMO in Climate Mode (COSMO-CLM). We discuss the model performance over the validation period 1980-2010, including a novel, station-based precipitation database for West Africa obtained within the WASCAL (West African Science Service Centre for Climate Change and Adapted Land Use) program. Particular attention is paid to the representation of the dynamics of the West African Summer Monsoon and to the added value of our high-resolution models over existing data sets. We further present results on the climate change signal obtained for the two future periods 2020-2050 and 2070-2100 and compare them to current state-of-the-art projections from the CORDEX-Africa project. While the temperature change signal is similar to that obtained within CORDEX-Africa, our simulations predict a wetter future for the Coast of Guinea and the southern Soudano area and a slight drying in the northernmost part of the Sahel.

  4. WEST COAST REGIONAL CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry Myer; Terry Surles; Kelly Birkinshaw

    2004-01-01

    The West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership is one of seven partnerships which have been established by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate carbon dioxide capture, transport and sequestration (CT&S) technologies best suited for different regions of the country. The West Coast Region comprises Arizona, California, Nevada, Oregon, Washington, and the North Slope of Alaska. Led by the California Energy Commission, the West Coast Partnership is a consortium of over thirty five organizations, including state natural resource and environmental protection agencies; national labs and universities; private companies working on CO{sub 2} capture, transportation, and storage technologies; utilities; oil and gas companies; nonprofit organizations; and policy/governance coordinating organizations. In an eighteen month Phase I project, the Partnership will evaluate both terrestrial and geologic sequestration options. Work will focus on five major objectives: (1) Collect data to characterize major CO{sub 2} point sources, the transportation options, and the terrestrial and geologic sinks in the region, and compile and organize this data via a geographic information system (GIS) database; (2) Address key issues affecting deployment of CT&S technologies, including storage site permitting and monitoring, injection regulations, and health and environmental risks (3) Conduct public outreach and maintain an open dialogue with stakeholders in CT&S technologies through public meetings, joint research, and education work (4) Integrate and analyze data and information from the above tasks in order to develop supply curves and cost effective, environmentally acceptable sequestration options, both near- and long-term (5) Identify appropriate terrestrial and geologic demonstration projects consistent with the options defined above, and create action plans for their safe and effective implementation A kickoff meeting for the West Coast Partnership was held on Sept 30-Oct

  5. Electrometallurgical treatment demonstration at ANL-West

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goff, K. M.; Benedict, R. W.; Johnson, S. G.; Mariani, R. D.; Simpson, M. F.; Westphal, B. R.

    2000-03-20

    Electrometallurgical treatment (EMT) was developed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to ready sodium-bonded spent nuclear fuel for geological disposal. A demonstration of this technology was successfully completed in August 1999. EMT was used to condition irradiated EBR-II driver and blanket fuel at ANL-West. The results of this demonstration, including the production of radioactive high-level waste forms, are presented.

  6. OUTLINE OF METALLOGENESIS OF THE WEST CARPATHIANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Rozložnik

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available Metallogenesis of the West Carpathians appears to be polycyclic and polygenetic. Its characteristic feature is a superposition of younger mineralization acts on older ones. These processes in some places are accompanied by regenerations. A variability and multicyclic character of the metallogenesis accords with a permanent tectonical mobility of the area which was only interrupted by short episodes of relative stillness in its early Paleosoic to Quaternary development.

  7. SPS beam to the West Hall

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1976-01-01

    One of the two target stations feeding the West Hall (see Annual Report 1976). After the proton beam was split into three branches, the outer two were directed on to targets in the cast iron shielding box, the centre one passing through the box to another target station downstream. Five different targets could be put in each beam, controlled by the mechanism seen on top.

  8. The Ramsar Sites of Disko, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egevang, C.; Boertmann, D.

    The three Ramsar sites of Disko Island in West Greenland were surveyed for breeding and staging waterbirds in July 2001. Two of the areas (no. 1 and 2) held a high diversity of waterbirds and proved to be of international importance for the Greenland white-fronted goose, while the third (no. 3......) held very few waterbirds and hardly meet any of the specific waterbird criteria of the Ramsar convention...

  9. History and the West Indian nation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Birbalsingh

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] The Art of Kamau Brathwaite. STEWART BROWN (ed.. Bridgend, Wales: Seren/Poetry Wales Press, 1995. 275 pp. (Cloth US$ 50.00, Paper US$ 22.95 Atlantic Passages: History, Community, and Language in the Fiction of Sam Selvon. MARK LOOKER. New York: Peter Lang, 1996. x + 243 pp. (Cloth n.p. Caliban's Curse: George Lamming and the Revisioning of History. SUPRIYA NAIR. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1996. viii + 171 pp. (Cloth US$ 34.50 Phyllis Shand Allfrey: A Caribbean Life. LlZABETH PARAVISINI-GEBERT. New Brunswick NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1996. xii + 335 pp. (Cloth US$ 55.00, Paper US$ 18.95 Of the four books to be considered here, those on Brathwaite, Selvon, and Lamming fit snugly together into a natural category of literature that has to do with the emergence of a Creole or African-centered Caribbean culture, and related issues of race, color, class, history, and nationality. The fourth is a biography of Phyllis Shand Allfrey, a white West Indian, who is of an altogether different race, color, and class than from the other three. Yet the four books are linked together by nationality, for Allfrey and the others are all citizens of one region, the English-speaking West Indies, which, as the Federation of the West Indies between 1958 and 1962, formed a single nation.

  10. NGA-West2 Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozorgnia, Yousef; Abrahamson, Norman A.; Al Atik, Linda; Ancheta, Timothy D.; Atkinson, Gail M.; Baker, Jack W.; Baltay, Annemarie S.; Boore, David M.; Campbell, Kenneth W.; Chiou, Brian S.J.; Darragh, Robert B.; Day, Steve; Donahue, Jennifer; Graves, Robert W.; Gregor, Nick; Hanks, Thomas C.; Idriss, I. M.; Kamai, Ronnie; Kishida, Tadahiro; Kottke, Albert; Mahin, Stephen A.; Rezaeian, Sanaz; Rowshandel, Badie; Seyhan, Emel; Shahi, Shrey; Shantz, Tom; Silva, Walter; Spudich, Paul A.; Stewart, Jonathan P.; Watson-Lamprey, Jennie; Wooddell, Kathryn; Youngs, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The NGA-West2 project is a large multidisciplinary, multi-year research program on the Next Generation Attenuation (NGA) models for shallow crustal earthquakes in active tectonic regions. The research project has been coordinated by the Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center (PEER), with extensive technical interactions among many individuals and organizations. NGA-West2 addresses several key issues in ground-motion seismic hazard, including updating the NGA database for a magnitude range of 3.0–7.9; updating NGA ground-motion prediction equations (GMPEs) for the “average” horizontal component; scaling response spectra for damping values other than 5%; quantifying the effects of directivity and directionality for horizontal ground motion; resolving discrepancies between the NGA and the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) site amplification factors; analysis of epistemic uncertainty for NGA GMPEs; and developing GMPEs for vertical ground motion. This paper presents an overview of the NGA-West2 research program and its subprojects.

  11. Geothermal and volcanism in west Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawan, I.; Indarto, S.; Sudarsono; Fauzi I, A.; Yuliyanti, A.; Lintjewas, L.; Alkausar, A.; Jakah

    2018-02-01

    Indonesian active volcanoes extend from Sumatra, Jawa, Bali, Lombok, Flores, North Sulawesi, and Halmahera. The volcanic arc hosts 276 volcanoes with 29 GWe of geothermal resources. Considering a wide distribution of geothermal potency, geothermal research is very important to be carried out especially to tackle high energy demand in Indonesia as an alternative energy sources aside from fossil fuel. Geothermal potency associated with volcanoes-hosted in West Java can be found in the West Java segment of Sunda Arc that is parallel with the subduction. The subduction of Indo-Australian oceanic plate beneath the Eurasian continental plate results in various volcanic products in a wide range of geochemical and mineralogical characteristics. The geochemical and mineralogical characteristics of volcanic and magmatic rocks associated with geothermal systems are ill-defined. Comprehensive study of geochemical signatures, mineralogical properties, and isotopes analysis might lead to the understanding of how large geothermal fields are found in West Java compared to ones in Central and East Java. The result can also provoke some valuable impacts on Java tectonic evolution and can suggest the key information for geothermal exploration enhancement.

  12. ATS-6 engineering performance report. Volume 4: Television experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wales, R. O. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    Experiments sponsored by the US Department of Health Education and Welfare are discussed, including telecommunications, Alaskan health service, Appalachian education satellite project, and the University of the West Indies. The Satellite Instructional Television Experiment in India is reviewed. Independent television experiments are addressed, including AIDSAT and Project Look Up.

  13. "It Could Affect You as a Person, Character-Wise": Promoting Character Development and Preventing Sexual Violence at West Point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbeit, Miriam R.

    2017-01-01

    The United States Military Academy at West Point develops cadets into "leaders of character" who will become Army officers. This focus on character presents an opportunity for the prevention of sexual violence through an emphasis on military values. Using constructivist grounded theory, this study examined how cadets experience their own…

  14. Exploring the Interplay of Cultural Capital, "Habitus," and Field in the Life Histories of Two West African Teacher Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Gloria; Rinke, Carol; Mawhinney, Lynnette

    2016-01-01

    This paper captures the life histories of two West African pre-service teachers pursuing their education in the United States. Based on a larger study examining the life histories of 45 undergraduate pre-service teachers, these narratives focus specifically on international student experiences in the US. Grounded in Bourdieu's theory of…

  15. Use of composts to improve soil properties and crop productivity under low input agricultural system in West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouédraogo, E.; Mando, A.; Zombré, N.P.

    2000-01-01

    Lack of adequate nutrient supply and poor soil structure are the principal constraints to crop production under low input agriculture systems of West Africa. Experiments at two sites (Mediga and Yimtenga) were conducted in Burkina Faso to assess the impact of compost on improving crop production and

  16. Realizing Clean Energy's Potential: Lessons Learned in the U.S. West (Technical Report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-05-01

    NREL Analysis Insights connects the dots between NREL studies, pulling big picture insights from a larger body of work. In the premiere issue of our new periodical Analysis Insights, we explore lessons learned from experience in the U.S. West for realizing clean energy's potential.

  17. Providing Contexts for Understanding Musical Narratives of Power in the Classroom: Music, Politics, and Power in Grenada, West Indies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirek, Danielle

    2016-01-01

    The role of music in Grenada, West Indies has traditionally been to pass on knowledges, values, and ideals; and to provide a means of connecting to one another through expressing commonality of experience, ancestry, and nationhood. This paper explores how Eric Matthew Gairy, during his era of political leadership in Grenada (1951-1979), exploited…

  18. Single versus multiple enemies and the impact on biological control of spider mites in cassava fields in West-Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onzo, A.; Sabelis, M.W.; Hanna, R.

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether to use single or multiple predator species for biological pest control requires manipulative field experiments. We performed such tests in Benin (West Africa) in cassava fields infested by the cassava green mite Mononychellus tanajoa, and the cotton red mite Oligonychus

  19. Surveillance of maternal antibodies against West Nile virus in chicken eggs in South-West Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Börstler, Jessica; Engel, Dimitri; Petersen, Mathis; Poggensee, Claudia; Jansen, Stephanie; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Lühken, Renke

    2016-05-01

    The emergence of West Nile virus (WNV) in several European countries increases the risk of its introduction to Germany. This study evaluated a new method for WNV surveillance by testing for maternal antibodies in chicken eggs. A total of 1,990 eggs were collected in 35 sampling sites in the south-west of Germany and tested for WNV-specific antibodies. The results did not indicate evidence for WNV circulation in the study area. This work serves as a proof-of-concept that such a method is useful and a potential alternative to use of sentinel chicken for regular WNV surveillance. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Y chromosome lineages in men of west African descent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jada Benn Torres

    Full Text Available The early African experience in the Americas is marked by the transatlantic slave trade from ∼1619 to 1850 and the rise of the plantation system. The origins of enslaved Africans were largely dependent on European preferences as well as the availability of potential laborers within Africa. Rice production was a key industry of many colonial South Carolina low country plantations. Accordingly, rice plantations owners within South Carolina often requested enslaved Africans from the so-called "Grain Coast" of western Africa (Senegal to Sierra Leone. Studies on the African origins of the enslaved within other regions of the Americas have been limited. To address the issue of origins of people of African descent within the Americas and understand more about the genetic heterogeneity present within Africa and the African Diaspora, we typed Y chromosome specific markers in 1,319 men consisting of 508 west and central Africans (from 12 populations, 188 Caribbeans (from 2 islands, 532 African Americans (AAs from Washington, DC and Columbia, SC, and 91 European Americans. Principal component and admixture analyses provide support for significant Grain Coast ancestry among African American men in South Carolina. AA men from DC and the Caribbean showed a closer affinity to populations from the Bight of Biafra. Furthermore, 30-40% of the paternal lineages in African descent populations in the Americas are of European ancestry. Diverse west African ancestries and sex-biased gene flow from EAs has contributed greatly to the genetic heterogeneity of African populations throughout the Americas and has significant implications for gene mapping efforts in these populations.

  1. Y chromosome lineages in men of west African descent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Jada Benn; Doura, Menahem B; Keita, Shomarka O Y; Kittles, Rick A

    2012-01-01

    The early African experience in the Americas is marked by the transatlantic slave trade from ∼1619 to 1850 and the rise of the plantation system. The origins of enslaved Africans were largely dependent on European preferences as well as the availability of potential laborers within Africa. Rice production was a key industry of many colonial South Carolina low country plantations. Accordingly, rice plantations owners within South Carolina often requested enslaved Africans from the so-called "Grain Coast" of western Africa (Senegal to Sierra Leone). Studies on the African origins of the enslaved within other regions of the Americas have been limited. To address the issue of origins of people of African descent within the Americas and understand more about the genetic heterogeneity present within Africa and the African Diaspora, we typed Y chromosome specific markers in 1,319 men consisting of 508 west and central Africans (from 12 populations), 188 Caribbeans (from 2 islands), 532 African Americans (AAs from Washington, DC and Columbia, SC), and 91 European Americans. Principal component and admixture analyses provide support for significant Grain Coast ancestry among African American men in South Carolina. AA men from DC and the Caribbean showed a closer affinity to populations from the Bight of Biafra. Furthermore, 30-40% of the paternal lineages in African descent populations in the Americas are of European ancestry. Diverse west African ancestries and sex-biased gene flow from EAs has contributed greatly to the genetic heterogeneity of African populations throughout the Americas and has significant implications for gene mapping efforts in these populations.

  2. "White shoes to a football match!": Female experiences of football's golden age in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacey Pope

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Although many British historians claim that English football in the post–World War II period was substantially the passion of working-class men, oral history accounts also reveal a largely hidden history of active female sports fans, women who keenly followed football. These female fans often faced opposition from fellow supporters and from other women. In many ways, academic research on sports fandom has worked to omit serious discussion of the role of women. Taken from a wider project aimed at making more visible the historical experiences of female spectators in sport in Britain, this paper draws on interviews with 16 older female fans of the Leicester City football club based in the East Midlands in England. It explores their experiences in the so-called golden age of the game with regard to the football stadium, styles of female support, and relationships with and perceptions of football players. Via oral history research, the paper offers a wider context for understanding the sporting experiences of female fans. But it also analyzes and explicates the meaning of sport in the lives of female fans during a period when football players were paradoxically glamorous and unobtainable local figures, but also, in some contexts, still accessible, ordinary members of local communities.

  3. Raw material studies of West Central Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Bogosavljević Petrović

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with raw material problems in the territory of West Central Serbia geologically determined as the Čačak-Kraljevo (or West Morava basin. Our research is presented through the most striking case studies, Lojanik, Vlaška Glava and Lazac.  The Lojanik hill is a silicified forest by origin. It has occasionally been in use from the earliest periods of prehistory until today as a source of black and ochre-coloured flint, opal and silicified wood. A detailed prospection, including the mapping of surface finds using square nets, was conducted during two research campaigns.The Vlaška Glava is an open-air Palaeolithic site at which artefacts made of white, ochre, red, brown and black chert, silicified magnesite, volcanic and metamorphic rocks were found. Our research of primary and secondary geological deposits in the vicinity of the site showed equivalent raw material. We also found an interesting primary deposit of high quality bluish grey flint with outcrop activities (Workshop 1.The Lazac shaft is a contemporary magnesite mine, recently abandoned because of the high percentage of silicon-dioxide. We determined the same raw material in collections found at nearby Neolithic sites. Certain similarities between the wooden support systems of ore exploration in the Middle Ages and modern times were established at the entrance of the shaft.Our research in the territory of the West Morava basin resulted in reconstruction of some links between geological deposits and settlements and also creation of a relevant base for future raw material studies.

  4. Ectrodactyly in a West Highland white terrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrand, K R

    2004-06-01

    A case of monomelic forelimb ectrodactyly (lobster-claw deformity) in a West Highland white terrier is reported. Clinical and radiographic findings are described. The dog was treated with a soft tissue reconstruction of the cleft. It later developed a slight varus-type deformity at the carpus but remained sound with occasional bouts of mild lameness following vigorous exercise. To the author's knowledge, this is the first reported case of canine ectrodactyly treated by simple cleft reconstruction, and only the second report of ectrodactyly in this breed.

  5. Spirit's Surroundings on 'West Spur,' Sol 305

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This 360-degree panorama shows the terrain surrounding NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit as of the rover's 305th martian day, or sol, (Nov. 11, 2004). At that point, Spirit was climbing the 'West Spur' of the 'Columbia Hills.' The rover had just finished inspecting a rock called 'Lutefisk' and was heading uphill toward an area called 'Machu Picchu.' Spirit used its navigational camera to take the images combined into this mosaic. The rover's location when the images were taken is catalogued as the mission's site 89, position 205. The view is presented here as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  6. West Nile virus population genetics and evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesko, Kendra N.; Ebel, Gregory D.

    2015-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) (Flaviviridae: Flavivirus) is transmitted from mosquitoes to birds, but can cause fatal encephalitis in infected humans. Since its introduction into North America in New York in 1999, it has spread throughout the western hemisphere. Multiple outbreaks have also occurred in Europe over the last 20 years. This review highlights recent efforts to understand how host pressures impact viral population genetics, genotypic and phenotypic changes which have occurred in the WNV genome as it adapts to this novel environment, and molecular epidemiology of WNV worldwide. Future research directions are also discussed. PMID:22226703

  7. Orchids inventory in Sintang Regency, West Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ESTI ENDAH ARIYANTI

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Orchid is one of ornamental plants which have commercial value. Therefore most species are becoming threatened or even endangered because of over exploitation. In addition, its natural habitat is also decreasing. Conservation must be done urgently, both by in situ and ex situ conservation, which can be started by orchid inventory. The orchid inventory was done in TWA Bukit Kelam, TWA Baning and several places in Regency of Sintang, West Kalimantan. The result showed that there were 40 species belonged to 27 genera, which 32 species of them (20 genera were epiphytic orchids and 8 species (7 genera were terrestrial orchids.

  8. Lassa fever: another threat from West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosh-Nissimov, Tal

    2016-01-01

    Lassa fever, a zoonotic viral infection, is endemic in West Africa. The disease causes annual wide spread morbidity and mortality in Africa, and can be imported by travelers. Possible importation of Lassa fever and the potential for the use of Lassa virus as an agent of bioterrorism mandate clinicians in Israel and other countries to be vigilant and familiar with the basic characteristics of this disease. The article reviews the basis of this infection and the clinical management of patients with Lassa fever. Special emphasis is given to antiviral treatment and infection control.

  9. Cell-mediated and humoral immunity in west syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Montelli, Terezinha C. B.; Iwasso, Maria Tereza R.; Peraçoli, Maria Terezinha S.; Mota, Norma Gerusa S.

    1981-01-01

    The immunological status of five children with West syndrome consequent to previous cerebral lesions was investigated. Three children had West syndrome and two were in transition from West to Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. All of them showed cellular immunological deficiencies in the following tests: sensitization to DNCB, intracutaneous reaction to PHA, inhibition of leucocyte migration, blastic transformation of lymphocytes, T and B lymphocytes in peripheric blood and levels of serum immunoglobul...

  10. Scrub Typhus in Southern Districts of West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Nilendu; Chakraborty, Sayantani

    2017-01-01

    Scrub typhus has been previously reported from north and eastern Indian states and areas such as Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Assam, Sikkim, and Darjeeling district of West Bengal. It has also been known to be endemic in some parts of South India (Eastern and Western Ghats). However, no cases have ever been reported from the southern districts of West Bengal. Here, we report five cases of scrub typhus from South 24 Parganas and Kolkata, two districts in the southern part of West Bengal, India.

  11. Ohio River Environmental Assessment: Cultural Resources Reconnaissance Report, West Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-08-01

    scattered settlements (McMichael, 1968). Three such groups have been identified: The Grave Creek group at Moundsville , the Little Kanawha-mouth of the...near natural river crossings such as near Wheeling, Moundsville , Parkersburg, and Huntington where shoal areas existed before the development of the...The Hughes Farm Site (46-Oh-9), Ohio County, West Virginia. West Virginia Archaeological Society, Inc., Publication Series No. 7. Moundsville , West

  12. Anthropogenic aerosol emissions and rainfall decline in South-West Australia: coincidence or causality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinzeller, Dominikus; Junkermann, Wolfgang; Kunstmann, Harald

    2017-04-01

    It is commonly understood that the observed decline in precipitation in South-West Australia during the 20th century is caused by anthropogenic factors. Candidates therefore are changes to large-scale atmospheric circulations due to global warming, extensive deforestation and anthropogenic aerosol emissions - all of which are effective on different spatial and temporal scales. This presentation focusses on the role of rapidly rising aerosol emissions from anthropogenic sources in South-West Australia around 1970. An analysis of historical longterm rainfall data of the Bureau of Meteorology shows that South-West Australia as a whole experienced a gradual decline in precipitation over the 20th century. However, on smaller scales and for the particular example of the Perth catchment area, a sudden drop in precipitation around 1970 is apparent. Modelling experiments at a convection-resolving resolution of 3.3km using the Weather and Research Forecasting (WRF) model version 3.6.1 with the aerosol-aware Thompson-Eidhammer microphysics scheme are conducted for the period 1970-1974. A comparison of four runs with different prescribed aerosol emissions and without aerosol effects demonstrates that tripling the pre-1960s atmospheric CCN and IN concentrations can suppress precipitation by 2-9%, depending on the area and the season. This suggests that a combination of all three processes is required to account for the gradual decline in rainfall seen for greater South-West Australia and for the sudden drop observed in areas along the West Coast in the 1970s: changing atmospheric circulations, deforestation and anthropogenic aerosol emissions.

  13. 78 FR 2916 - Special Local Regulation; West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship, Intracoastal Waterway, West...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    ..., Game One Sports Marketing Group is hosting the West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship. The races will... representative. DATES: Comments and related material must be received by the Coast Guard on or before March 1... present during the races. The special local regulation encompasses certain navigable waters of the...

  14. 78 FR 59841 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; West Virginia's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... Virginia; West Virginia's Redesignation Request for the Wheeling, WV-OH 1997 Annual Fine Particulate Matter... particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) nonattainment area (``Wheeling Area'' or ``Area'') be redesignated as attainment... other material, such as copyrighted material, is not placed on the Internet and will be publicly...

  15. Markers of futurity and aspect in West Greenlandic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trondhjem, Naja Blytmann

    2014-01-01

    . Fortescue, M. (1996). Tense, mood and aspect grammaticalization in West Greenlandic an Chukchi.La dynamique dans la langue et la culture inuit. N. T. M. Terrien. Paris, Peeters: 151-175. Kristoffersen, L. (1991). Verbal Derivation and Inflection in a Functional Grammar of West Greenlandic. Institut......-278. Fortescue, M. (1984b). West Greenlandic. London, Croon Hellm. Fortescue, M. (1996). Tense, mood and aspect grammaticalization in West Greenlandic an Chukchi.La dynamique dans la langue et la culture inuit. N. T. M. Terrien. Paris, Peeters: 151-175. Kristoffersen, L. (1991). Verbal Derivation and Inflection...

  16. K West integrated water treatment system subproject safety analysis document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SEMMENS, L.S.

    1999-02-24

    This Accident Analysis evaluates unmitigated accident scenarios, and identifies Safety Significant and Safety Class structures, systems, and components for the K West Integrated Water Treatment System.

  17. Central West Antarctic Glaciochemistry from Ice Cores, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Glaciochemical and accumulation rate records developed from four ice cores in central West Antarctica are used to reconstruct former atmospheric circulation patterns...

  18. Shared decision making in West Africa: The forgotten area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diouf, Ndeye Thiab; Ben Charif, Ali; Adisso, Lionel; Adekpedjou, Rhéda; Zomahoun, Hervé Tchala Vignon; Agbadjé, Titilayo Tatiana; Dogba, Mama Joyce; Garvelink, Mirjam Marjolein

    2017-06-01

    Up to now, little attention has been paid to West Africa when it comes to shared decision making (SDM). West African countries seem to lag behind with regard to SDM initiatives compared to many other countries in the world. There is some interest in informed decision making or informed consent, but little in a full SDM process. Few decision-making tools are available for healthcare professionals and the majority are not designed to support decision-making with patients. Furthermore, to the best of our knowledge, there are no training programs for implementing SDM in healthcare teams. Many barriers exist to implementing SDM in West Africa, including lack of options, few or poor health resources and low levels of education. However, African countries present many opportunities for SDM as well. Existing SDM innovations developed for other populations with low literacy could be explored and adapted to the West African context, and research on implementation and outcomes in West Africa could contribute to SDM worldwide. West African countries are in an excellent position to both learn from other countries and contribute to SDM development in other parts of the world. In this paper we reflect on SDM challenges and opportunities, and propose a research agenda for West Africa. We hope to awaken interest in SDM in West Africa and encourage future collaborations on SDM with various West African stakeholders, including patients, healthcare professionals, policymakers, non-government organisations (NGOs) and academic institutions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  19. Empowerment model of biomass in west java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulyana, C.; Fitriani, N. I.; Saad, A.; Yuliah, Y.

    2017-06-01

    Scarcity of fossil energy accelerates the search of renewable energy sources as the substitution. In West Java, biomass has potential to be developed into bio-briquette because the resources are abundant. The objectives of this research are mapping the potency of biomass as bio-briquette in West Java, and making the model of the empowerment biomass potential involving five fundamental step which are raw material, pre-processing process, conversion mechanism, products, and end user. The main object of this model focused on 3 forms which are solid, liquid, and gas which was made by involving the community component as the owner biomass, district government, academics and researcher communities, related industries as users of biomass, and the central government as the policy holders and investors as a funder. In the model was described their respective roles and mutual relationship one with another so that the bio-briquette as a substitute of fossil fuels can be realized. Application of this model will provide the benefits in renewability energy sources, environmental, socio economical and energy security.

  20. Hydrocarbon habitat of the west Netherlands basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Jager, J. (Nederlandse Aardolie Maatschappij, Assen (Netherlands)); Doyle, M. (Petroleum Development Oman, Muscat (Oman)); Grantham, P. (KSEPL/Shell Research, Rijswijk (Netherlands)); Mabillard, J. (Shell Nigeria, Port Harcourt (Nigeria))

    1993-09-01

    The complex West Netherlands Basin contains oil and gas in Triassic and Upper Jurassic to Cretaceous clastic reservoir sequences. The understanding has always been that the Carboniferous coal measures have generated only gas and the Jurassic marine Posidonia Shale only oil. However, detailed geochemical analyses show that both source rocks have generated oil and gas. Geochemical fingerprinting established a correlation of the hydrocarbons with the main source rocks. The occurrence of these different hydrocarbons is consistent with migration routes. Map-based charge modeling shows that the main phase of hydrocarbon generation occurred prior to the Late Cretaceous inversion of the West Netherlands Basin. However, along the southwest flank of the basin and in lows between the inversion highs, significant charge continued during the Tertiary. Biodegradation of oils in Jurassic and Cretaceous reservoirs occurred during the earliest Tertiary, but only in reservoirs that were at that time at temperatures of less then 70 to 80[degrees]C, where bacteria could survive. This study shows that also in a mature hydrocarbon province an integrated hydrocarbon habitat study with modern analyses and state-of-the-art technology can lead to a much improved understanding of the distribution of oil and gas in the subsurface. The results of this study will allow a better risk assessment for remaining prospects, and an improved prediction of the type of trapped hydrocarbons in terms of gas, oil, and biodegraded oil.

  1. Opioid Overdose Outbreak - West Virginia, August 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Joel; Kilkenny, Michael; Batdorf, Samantha; Sanders, Sarah K; Ellison, Debra; Halpin, John; Gladden, R Matthew; Bixler, Danae; Haddy, Loretta; Gupta, Rahul

    2017-09-22

    On August 15, 2016, the Mayor's Office of Drug Control Policy in Huntington, West Virginia, notified the Cabell-Huntington Health Department (CHHD) of multiple calls regarding opioid overdose received by the emergency medical system (EMS) during 3 p.m.-8 p.m. that day. A public health investigation and response conducted by the West Virginia Bureau for Public Health (BPH) and CHHD identified 20 opioid overdose cases within a 53-hour period in Cabell County; all cases included emergency department (ED) encounters. EMS personnel, other first responders, and ED providers administered the opioid antidote naloxone to 16 (80%) patients, six of whom were administered multiple doses, suggesting exposure to a highly potent opioid. No patients received referral for recovery support services. In addition to the public health investigation, a public safety investigation was conducted; comprehensive opioid toxicology testing of clinical specimens identified the synthetic opioid fentanyl* and novel fentanyl analogs, including carfentanil,† which had been used by patients who overdosed in Huntington. Results of these two investigations highlight the importance of collaboration between public health and public safety agencies to provide in-depth surveillance data from opioid overdose outbreaks that involve high-potency fentanyl analogs. These data facilitated a public health response through increased awareness of powerful opioid substances requiring multiple naloxone doses for reversal, and improved patient linkage to recovery support services and a harm reduction program from the ED after opioid overdose.

  2. Military Officers, Tropical Medicine, and Racial Thought in the Formation of the West India Regiments, 1793-1802.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Michael

    2017-04-01

    The article examines the establishment and growth between 1793 and 1802 of the West India Regiments, British army corps manned by slaves of African descent and commanded by European officers. Focusing on the medical history of British military operations in the West Indies, the article demonstrates that the rationale behind the regiments was medical, but that the impetus for them came from senior military commanders rather than from the medical practitioners whose writings are usually privileged in the historiography. The senior officers who commanded the West Indian expeditions in the French Revolutionary Wars mobilized their own particular brand of medical theory, based explicitly on their experience of the region's epidemiological environment, in support of the policy. This willingness to adopt and adapt medical ideas heavily influenced both military policy regarding the regiments, and commanders' relationships with their medical men. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. GENETIC OF DIVERSITY AND RELATIONSHIP BAMBARA GROUNDNUT (Vigna Subteranea L. GENOTYPE LANDRACES OF WEST JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enceng Sobari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Bambara groundnut (Vigna subteranea L. is one of underutliized crops in Indonesia. Bambara groundnut is potential to be developed and can be utilized as an alternative food source in Indonesia. Bambara groundnut greatly varies and has a very wide area of adaptation. The experiment was conducted at the experimental field station at Ciparanje in Padjadjaran University. Starting on September 2014 until March 2015 with Randomized Block Design (RBD and repeated two times. The research used 30 accessions originally from various locations in West Java (Bandung, Tasikmalaya, Garut, Sumedang, Bogor, Majalengka and East Java (Lamongan, Madura. Genetic variability of Bambara groundnut landrace  in some West Java showed broad criteria on the characters fresh pod weight, dry pod weight, weight of 100 seeds, and weight per plot. Genotypes which had many similarities in some characters based on euclidian distance coefficient had close relationship.

  4. Characterization of Puerto Rican West Nile Virus isolates in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraballo, Elba V; Hunsperger, Elizabeth; Martínez, Idalí

    2015-09-11

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a neurotropic arbovirus that was first isolated in 1937 in the West Nile District of Uganda. The virus emerged in New York in 1999 and is now endemic in North America (2007). The first virus isolates from Puerto Rico were obtained in 2007 from a chicken (PR20wh) and a mosquito pool (PR423). Our study further characterized these viral isolates using in vitro plaque morphology assays and in vivo using a Balb/c mice pathogenesis model. In the in vitro experiments, PR WNV isolates produced significantly smaller plaques in Vero cells compared to the New York 1999 strain (NY99). For the in vivo experiments, PR WNV isolates were propagated in mammalian (Vero) and insect (C6/36) cell lines and then inoculated in Balb/c mice. When WNV was propagated in Vero cells, we observed a trend towards significance in the survival rate with PR20wh compared to NY99 (log rank, p = 0.092). Regardless of whether the viral isolates were propagated in Vero or C6/36 cells, we found a significantly greater survival in mice infected with PR20wh strain, when compared to NY99 (log rank, p = 0.04), while no statistical difference was detected between PR423 and NY99 (p = 0.84). The average survival time (AST) in mice was significantly lower in C6/36-derived PR423 when compared to C6/36-derived NY99 (t-test, p = 0.013), and Vero-derived PR423 (t-test, p Vero-derived PR423 was significantly higher when compared to NY99 and PR20wh. These results suggest that the PR WNV isolate, PR20wh, is a less pathogenic strain in mice than NY99. Moreover, we found that PR423 is a pathogenic isolate that causes faster mortality than NY99, when propagated in C6/36.

  5. 33 CFR 334.610 - Key West Harbor, at U.S. Naval Base, Key West, Fla.; naval restricted areas and danger zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Key West Harbor, at U.S. Naval Base, Key West, Fla.; naval restricted areas and danger zone. 334.610 Section 334.610 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.610 Key West Harbor, at U.S. Naval Base, Key West, Fla.; naval restricted...

  6. ‘This wound has spoilt everything’: emotional capital and the experience of surgical site infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Brian; Tanner, Judith; Padley, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    In this article we explore the experience of suffering from a surgical site infection, a common complication of surgery affecting around 5 per cent of surgical patients, via an interview study of 17 patients in the Midlands in the UK. Despite their prevalence, the experience of surgical site infections has received little attention so far. In spite of the impairment resulting from these iatrogenic problems, participants expressed considerable stoicism and we interpret this via the notion of emotional capital. This idea derives from the work of Pierre Bourdieu, Helga Nowotny and Diane Reay and helps us conceptualise the emotional resources accumulated and expended in managing illness and in gaining the most from healthcare services. Participants were frequently at pains not to blame healthcare personnel or hospitals, often discounting the infection's severity, and attributing it to chance, to ‘germs’ or to their own failure to buy and apply wound care products. The participants' stoicism was thus partly afforded by their refusal to blame healthcare institutions or personnel. Where anger was described, this was either defused or expressed on behalf of another person. Emotional capital is associated with deflecting the possibility of complaint and sustaining a deferential and grateful position in relation to the healthcare system. PMID:25470322

  7. 'This wound has spoilt everything': emotional capital and the experience of surgical site infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Brian; Tanner, Judith; Padley, Wendy

    2014-11-01

    In this article we explore the experience of suffering from a surgical site infection, a common complication of surgery affecting around 5 per cent of surgical patients, via an interview study of 17 patients in the Midlands in the UK. Despite their prevalence, the experience of surgical site infections has received little attention so far. In spite of the impairment resulting from these iatrogenic problems, participants expressed considerable stoicism and we interpret this via the notion of emotional capital. This idea derives from the work of Pierre Bourdieu, Helga Nowotny and Diane Reay and helps us conceptualise the emotional resources accumulated and expended in managing illness and in gaining the most from healthcare services. Participants were frequently at pains not to blame healthcare personnel or hospitals, often discounting the infection's severity, and attributing it to chance, to 'germs' or to their own failure to buy and apply wound care products. The participants' stoicism was thus partly afforded by their refusal to blame healthcare institutions or personnel. Where anger was described, this was either defused or expressed on behalf of another person. Emotional capital is associated with deflecting the possibility of complaint and sustaining a deferential and grateful position in relation to the healthcare system. © 2014 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2014 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Resurgent Military Political Adventurism in West Africa: Implications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The democratization efforts of the 1990s in West Africa appeared to have put paid to military political adventurism which had been the plague of that region since independence in the 1960s. But since the year 2000 there has been a resurgence of military intervention in the politics of some West African states and this calls ...

  9. West African Journal of Applied Ecology: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. The focus of the West African Journal of Applied Ecology is on ecology, agriculture and water pollution. It aims to serve as an avenue for lecturers and researchers in West Africa to publish their work. Section Policies. Articles. Checked Open Submissions, Checked Indexed, Checked Peer Reviewed ...

  10. Strengthening resilient livelihoods to reduce poverty in West Africa's ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-28

    Strengthening resilient livelihoods to reduce poverty in West Africa's semi-arid areas. April 28, 2016. Despite the success of research and development activities in integrating crop and livestock production, few West African communities are adopting these technologies. The challenge in promoting a mixed dairy and market ...

  11. Haematological and serum biochemical parameters of West African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to evaluate the haematological and serum biochemical parameters of West African dwarf goats fed ensiled cassava leaves with molasses and caged layer waste. Eighteen West African dwarf goats were randomly assigned to three experimental diets consisting of cassava leaves ensiled alone ...

  12. West India coastal current and Lakshadweep High/Low

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shetye, S.R.

    , the West India Coastal Current is a superposition of annual and semiannual coastally-trapped Kelvin waves. The Lakshadweep High/Low forms when the Kelvin waves, on turning around Sri Lanka, and propagating northward along the west coast of India, radiate...

  13. Regional Integration and Cooperation in West Africa: A ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Regional Integration and Cooperation in West Africa: A Multidimensional Perspective. Book cover Regional Integration and Cooperation in West Africa: A Multidimensional Perspective. Directeur(s) : R. Lavergne. Maison(s) d'édition : Africa World Press, IDRC. 1 janvier 1997. ISBN : Out of print. 350 pages. e-ISBN :.

  14. Building sustainable peace agreements in West Africa | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Building sustainable peace agreements in West Africa. In West Africa, peace agreements have generally proven fragile and volatile (on average, they do not last more than five years). This cycle of ever-changing conflict and violence hinders development significantly. Research is underway to understand conflict, its source, ...

  15. Future changes in seasonal-mean precipitation over West Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This points to a non - linear effect of intensified greenhouse forcing on precipitation over West Africa; suggesting that after a particular level of greenhouse gas concentrations further increase may have little or no effect on the regions precipitation. Keywords : West Africa, Precipitation, Climate Change Projections, NorESM 1 ...

  16. Genetic relationships among West African okra (Abelmoschus caillei ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-16

    May 16, 2008 ... to a different species. Key words: West African okra, genetic relationship, Abelmoschus caillei, Abelmoschus esculentus. INTRODUCTION. Okra is an important vegetable crop in India, West Africa,. South-East, Asia, U.S.A, Brazil, Australia and Turkey. In some regions, the leaves are also used for human.

  17. Youth Employment and Migration in West Africa | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project aims to help West African nations develop policies based on a better understanding of why youth leave rural areas, and what economic activities they pursue in cities. In rural parts of West Africa prone to drought, many young men and women move away because they lack decent job opportunities.

  18. Enhancing the Framework for Entrepreneurship in the West Bank ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Enhancing the Framework for Entrepreneurship in the West Bank and Gaza. Economic problems facing the West Bank and Gaza include high unemployment, low productivity, and an underperforming private sector. Encouraging entrepreneurship and innovation among small businesses could result in more decent jobs ...

  19. Roundwood markets and utilization in West Virginia and Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawn T. Grushecky; Jan Wiedenbeck; Ben. Spong

    2011-01-01

    West Virginia and Ohio have similar forest resources and extensive forest-based economies. Roundwood is harvested throughout this central Appalachian region and supports a diverse primary and secondary forest products sector. The objective of this research was to investigate the utilization of the forest resource harvested in West Virginia and Ohio. Utilization and...

  20. Customary courts' system in West Cameroon: reforms and conflict ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It further held that it continued without any interference from the Federal Government in West Cameroon until 1966, when the former favoured reforms that could reduce their authority (Customary Courts). It called for the reduction of their powers and a transfer of the control of these institutions from West Cameroon Ministry of ...

  1. Examination of regional hardwood roundwood markets in West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delton Alderman; William Luppold

    2005-01-01

    West Virginia's large and diverse hardwood resource ranges from oak-hickory forests in the southern and northwestern regions of the state to northern hardwood stands in the northeastern region. West Virginia is home to a diverse group of primary hardwood processing industries including hardwood grade mills, industrial hardwood sawmills, engineered wood-product...

  2. Toward a Historical Archaeology of West African Borderlands ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The duo-field of historical archaeology is increasingly being recognized around the world for its contributions. However, most of the existing surveys have concentrated on the coastal and hinterland locations in West Africa. Whereas, the ethnographic cum archival study of West African borderlands abounds in the literature, ...

  3. The West Africa Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The West Africa Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program, a strategy to improve disease surveillance and epidemic control in West Africa. Evariste Mutabaruka, Mamadou Sawadogo, Zekiba Tarnagda, Lauren Ouédraogo, Lassana Sangare, Badolo Ousmane, Yassa Ndjakani, Olivia Namusisi, David Mukanga, ...

  4. Achievements in emergency medical care service, North-West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To analyse the performance of the Emergency Medical Rescue Service (EMRS) in North-West province. Design. A prospective study of the activity of the EMRS. Setting. North-West province, 2002 - 2004. Results. During this period the EMRS response time tended to decrease (reduction of 8 minutes for rural and ...

  5. future changes in seasonal-mean precipitation over west africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    This points to a non-linear effect of intensified greenhouse forcing on precipitation over West. Africa; suggesting that after a particular level of greenhouse gas concentrations further increase may have little or no effect on the regions precipitation. Keywords: West Africa, Precipitation, Climate Change Projections, NorESM1-M ...

  6. Complicating Culturally Relevant Pedagogy: Unpacking West African Immigrants' Cultural Identities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Keisha McIntosh; Jackson, Iesha; Knight, Michelle G.

    2012-01-01

    This study presents findings from a case study of 18 second- and 1.5-generation West African immigrants. We draw upon notions of elusive culture and indigenous knowledges to highlight participants' complex cultural identities and respond to anti-immigration discourses through positioning West African immigrant students as assets in American…

  7. Dateline USA: Settling the West, 1800-1900.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatton, Barbara; O'Laughlin, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of titles related to the theme "Settling the West" which are appropriate for primary, elementary, and middle grades. Topics include overviews of Western history; early 19th century; the gold rush; the pony express; travelers by trail, rail, and ship; settling the West; cowboys and cattle; and the…

  8. An Examination of Regional Hardwood Roundwood Markets in West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    William Luppold; Delton Alderman; Delton Alderman

    2005-01-01

    West Virginia?s hardwood resource is large and diverse ranging from oak-hickory forests in the southern and western portions of the state to northern hardwood stands in the northeastern region. West Virginia also has a diverse group of primary hardwood- processing industries, including hardwood grade mills, industrial hardwood sawmills, engineered wood-product...

  9. future changes in seasonal-mean precipitation over west africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    Atlantic Ocean Dipole on West African Summer. Precipitation. Journal of Climate, 24: 1184-1197. 2011. [5] Rodrigues, L. R. L., García-Serrano, J. and Doblas-. Reyes, F. Seasonal prediction of the intraseasonal variability of the West African monsoon precipitation. Física de la Tierra. 25: 83-97. 2013. [6] Mahmood, R.; Pielke, ...

  10. Why hardwoods do not grow naturally in the west

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. A. Larsen

    1924-01-01

    Unfortunately the beautiful hardwood trees which are native to the Eastern States do not grow naturally in the West. We have here only aspen, cottonwood, small birch, hawthorns, cherry, and alder. On the Pacific coast are oak and maple, but limited largely to lower moist sites such as streams bed and canyons. The general absence of broad leaf trees in the West is most...

  11. The West Africa Initiative to Strengthen Capacities through Health ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    West Africa has many of the lowest development indicators in the world - 10 of the 15 member states of the West African Community number among the world's 35 low-income countries. The World Health Organization reports that 14 of the member states have a high maternal mortality ratio, defined as 300 or more maternal ...

  12. West Virginia ITS/CVO mainstreaming business plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This West Virginia ITS/CVO business plan has been developed with the cooperation of the several state agencies that administer CVO programs as well as the West Virginia Motor Truck Association and its members. The basic tenants of this plan include t...

  13. Highlight: Improving health systems research in West Africa | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-15

    Apr 15, 2016 ... The West African Health Organization (WAHO) held a three-day regional consultation with more than 50 stakeholders from 20 institutions. The goal was to inform their next five-year strategic plan to strengthen health research across the Economic Community of West African States. IDRC funded the ...

  14. Energy Generation Potential of West African Ocean Current ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. OLIVER OSUAGWA

    2015-12-01

    Dec 1, 2015 ... benefit to marine operations with respect to renewable energy conversion system installations offshore. ... extreme wave condition in the West African area is quite .... [6] J. Vincent Cordone, C.K. Cooper and D. Szabo, “A hindcast study of the extreme wave climate of offshore West Africa. (WAX)”, OTC ...

  15. Settlement Studies and Associated Problems in West Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper examines settlement studies in the West African sub-tropics. It discusses the various traditions of settlement studies in West Africa with particular reference to Nigeria .The traditions are: socio-cultural and ecological traditions. The position of the paper is that though these traditions have been introduced and used ...

  16. Delivery patterns among women at the Tamale West Hospital from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research was conducted to assess delivery patterns among women in the Tamale West Hospital for the four years under study. Retrospective cohort study design was used for this study. The data for the research work was from the Public Health Unit of Tamale West Hospital. Findings from the research revealed that for ...

  17. Forest gradients in West Africa : a spatial gradient analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rompaey, van R.S.A.R.

    1993-01-01

    The tropical rain forests of West Africa, west of the Dahomey interval, once covered some 40 million ha. Being on the western fringe of the African continent, they receive abundant rainfall from the SW monsoon. Further inland, rainfall gradually decreases and the forests give way to savanna and

  18. Highlight: Improving health systems research in West Africa | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    26 avr. 2015 ... The West African Health Organization (WAHO) held a three-day regional consultation with more than 50 stakeholders from 20 institutions. The goal was to inform their next five-year strategic plan to strengthen health research across the Economic Community of West African States. IDRC funded the ...

  19. Large-scale Agricultural Land Acquisitions in West Africa | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Large-scale Agricultural Land Acquisitions in West Africa. As agriculture becomes more strategically important in the world, large-scale land acquisition - or "land grabbing" - is a growing concern for West Africa. Recent increases in commodity prices have led some governments and private investors to purchase or lease ...

  20. 76 FR 70350 - West Oahu Offshore Security Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-14

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA87 West Oahu Offshore Security Zone AGENCY: Coast Guard... on the navigable waters of Oahu's western shore. This action is necessary to safeguard the President..., 2011. The security zone area is designated as the West Oahu Offshore Zone and covers all waters...

  1. An end-of-life care nurse service for people with COPD and heart failure: stakeholders' experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Bridget; Coole, Carolyn; Jay Narayanasamy, Melanie

    2016-11-02

    End-of-life care (EOLC) has historically been associated with cancer care. However, demographic changes indicate that future provision must also cater for other long term conditions (LTC). An EOLC-LTC service, delivered by palliative care nurses, is currently being piloted in one area in the East Midlands with patients with cardiac and respiratory disease. In order to inform future commissioning, it is important to gain the views and experiences of those involved with the service. This study aimed to explore patients, and their partners, views and experiences of the EOLC-LTC service. Semi-structured interviews were used as part of a case study design, involving six cases. Each case consisted of the patient, their nominated family member/carer and key healthcare professionals involved in their care as identified by the patient. This paper reports on the findings from the interviews conducted with the six patients and their family member/carers. Data were analysed thematically. From the interviews, the following themes were identified: experiences managing a long term cardio-respiratory condition, the nurse service, building a close/therapeutic relationship and fragmentation and integration. This study has shown that the EOLC-LTC service is welcomed and highly regarded by patients and their family members/carers. Further studies are required to explore the views and experiences of other key stakeholders and to evaluate how well the pilot operates within the wider care pathway.

  2. November 2016 West Hackberry Subsidence Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriarty, Dylan Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lord, Anna C. Snider [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Subsidence monitoring is a critical component to understanding the cavern integrity of salt storage caverns. This report looks at historical and recent data from two of the three West Hackberry dome cavern operators. DOE SPR and LA Storage are coordinating subsidence surveys to create a comprehensive understanding of ground movement above the dome. Data from annual level and rod surveys, GPS, and tiltmeter data show the sites are experiencing typical ground movement. The highest subsidence rate is seen in the middle of the DOE SPR site at just under one inch per year with less ground movement around the edge of the site. A GPS and tiltmeter instrument in the northeast areas of the DOE SPR site has not seen any trend change since the devices were installed in 2013. Comparison between recent ground movement data and historical trends suggest that there is no reason to believe that any DOE SPR or LA Storage caverns have been structurally compromised.

  3. Dry spell frequency in West Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnaningtyas, V. I.; Boer, R.; Faqih, A.

    2017-03-01

    The climatology and variability of dry spells are valuable information for scientists, engineers, planners, and managers working in water-related sectors such as agriculture, ecology, hydrology, and water resources. The dry spell concerns consecutive dry days which are the largest number of consecutive days with less than 1 mm of daily precipitation within a year. The objective of this study is to analyse the spatial and temporal characteristics of dry spells and also specifically investigate the frequency patterns of the dry spell distribution based on historical observed daily precipitation from 1981 to 2010. The longest dry spell occured at Pasirukem with the length of 252 days. The northern coast of West Java have higher probabilities of dry spells more than 5, 10, 15, and 20 days.

  4. Geohydrologic study of the West Lake Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gephart, R.E.; Eddy, P.A.; Arnett, R.C.; Robinson, G.A.

    1976-10-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to (1) collect and interpret geochemical data on the surface, unconfined, and confined waters of the West Lake Basin, and (2) evaluate the potential for radiochemical contamination of the uppermost confined aquifers. The report assesses the suitability of Gable Mountain Pond for receiving waste water from 200 East Area operations and applies a predictive digital computer model to assess the impacts to the groundwater regime of maintaining, increasing, or decreasing water discharge into Gable Mountain Pond. East of the 200 East Area lies a natural depression which has been dammed and used as a liquid waste disposal site (B Pond). B Pond waste waters directly recharge the underlying unconfined aquifer. This report will examine the suitability of using B Pond for receiving additional waste waters which would otherwise be discharged to Gable Mountain Pond. A predictive digital computer model will be used for assessments involving various discharges into B Pond.

  5. [West Nile virus. II. Immunopathophysiology in humans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanteri, Marion C; Diamond, Michael S; Norris, Philip J; Busch, Michael P

    2011-04-01

    Since its emergence in 1999 in America, West Nile virus (WNV) has become the leading cause of arboviral encephalitis in the United States. The infection is often asymptomatic but, when clinical manifestations occur, a broad range of symptoms is observed from flu-like symptoms to more serious neurological disorders that can sometimes lead to death. No treatment or vaccine is available for humans. Ongoing studies are trying to understand the host-virus dynamics that lead to the development of severe neurological symptoms in a minority of infected subjects. The amount of knowledge that was gained from parallel studies in animals and humans, comparing asymptomatic and symptomatic individuals, and using what was known of other Flaviviruses, will eventually translate to the development of potential therapeutic and prophylactic solutions. This review presents a synthesis of the most relevant findings concerning the immune response to WNV and its impact on disease outcome and gives an overview of the most promising therapeutic and prophylactic solutions.

  6. I Chemistry Conference of West Bahia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boaz Galdino de Oliveira

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The I Chemistry Conference of West Bahia [1] is an event carried out by the Núcleo de Ensino, Pesquisa e Extensão de Química (NEPEQ, and aims to disseminate chemical researches developed on the Universidade Federal do Oeste da Bahia (UFOB at undergraduate level as well as on the master’s program. This special issue contains some of works presented throughout the JornaQui, such as those from analytical chemistry, natural products, theoretical chemistry, medicinal chemistry, chemistry teaching, spectroscopy, materials science, catalysis and photochemistry. In this context, we would like to highlight the researches of bioactive compounds is by molecular modeling or phytochemistry, studies of intermolecular systems in the infrared spectrum, environmental monitoring by using experimental techniques, new nanocompounds characterized by X-ray diffraction, photochemical degradation organic material, for example. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17807/orbital.v1i1.844

  7. [Birds, mosquitoes and West Nile virus: little risk of West Nile fever in the Netherlands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duijster, Janneke W; Stroo, C J Arjan; Braks, Marieta A H

    2016-01-01

    Due to increased incidence of West Nile fever (WNF) in Europe and the rapid spread of West Nile virus (WNV) in the US, it is commonly thought that it will only be a matter of time before WNV reaches the Netherlands. However, assessing whether WNV is really a threat to the Dutch population is challenging, due to the numerous factors affecting transmission of the virus. Some of these factors are known to limit the risk of WNF in the Netherlands. This risk is determined by the interaction between the pathogen (WNV), the vectors (Culex mosquitoes), the reservoirs (birds) and the exposure of humans to infected mosquitoes. In this paper, we discuss the factors influencing introduction, establishment and spread of WNV in the Netherlands. The probability that each of these three phases will occur in the Netherlands is currently relatively small, as is the risk of WNF infection in humans in the Netherlands.

  8. BRYOPHYTES OF MOUNT PATUHA, WEST JAVA, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROBBERT GRADSTEIN

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available GRADSTEIN, R.    et al. 2010. Bryophytes of Mount Patuha, West  Java,  Indonesia.  Reinwardtia  13(2:  107–123. This  paper  presents  the  results  of  a  two–day  survey  of  the  bryophyte  flora of Mt.  Patuha  and  its  surroundings  near Bandung, West Java, carried out in the framework of the 5th regional training course on bryophyte and lichen diversity and conservation organized by SEAMEO BIOTROP, Bogor, in July 2009. A total of 159 bryophyte species were identi-fied,  including 98 mosses, 60  liverworts, and 1 hornwort, representing almost 1/6 of the  total bryophyte flora of Java. Three moss species, Bryohumbertia subcomosa (Dix. J.–P. Frahm, Fissidens gymnogynus Besch. and F. polypodioidesHedw., and one liverwort, Lejeunea pectinella Mizut., are new additions to the Javanese flora. The bryophyte diversity of Mt. Patuha is well representative of the Malesian flora and is rich in uncommon species. However, the relatively poor representation of shade epiphytes and commonness of sun epiphytes and generalists reflect disturbance of the forest by anthropogenic activities. Careful attention should be given  to conservation of  the  remaining natural  forest  in order  to prevent further losses of the rich bryophyte diversity of the area.

  9. Teneriffe, an Astronomer's Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazzi Smyth, Charles

    2010-06-01

    Part I. The Voyage and the Climb: 1. Sailing in the Trades; 2. Santa Cruz; 3. Orotava; 4. Begin the ascent; 5. Arrival on Guajara; Part II. On the Crater of Elevation: 1. Securing the station; 2. South-west alarm; 3. Term-day work; 4. The great crater; 5. Solar radiation; 6. Whirlwinds and visitors; 7. Drought and light; 8. End of Guajara; Part III. On the Crater of Eruption: 1. Scaling the central cone; 2. Early experiences of Alta Vista; 3. Bringing up the telescope; 4. Battle of the clouds; 5. Summit of the peak; 6. Autumn in excelsis; 7. The reiterated question; 8. The ice cavern; 9. Last of the mountain; Part IV. Lowlands of Teneriffe: 1. Seasons and plants; 2. Dracoena Draco; 3. Adieu.

  10. Multivariate Prediction of Total Water Storage Changes Over West Africa from Multi-Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forootan, Ehsan; Kusche, Jürgen; Loth, Ina; Schuh, Wolf-Dieter; Eicker, Annette; Awange, Joseph; Longuevergne, Laurent; Diekkrüger, Bernd; Schmidt, Michael; Shum, C. K.

    2014-07-01

    West African countries have been exposed to changes in rainfall patterns over the last decades, including a significant negative trend. This causes adverse effects on water resources of the region, for instance, reduced freshwater availability. Assessing and predicting large-scale total water storage (TWS) variations are necessary for West Africa, due to its environmental, social, and economical impacts. Hydrological models, however, may perform poorly over West Africa due to data scarcity. This study describes a new statistical, data-driven approach for predicting West African TWS changes from (past) gravity data obtained from the gravity recovery and climate experiment (GRACE), and (concurrent) rainfall data from the tropical rainfall measuring mission (TRMM) and sea surface temperature (SST) data over the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. The proposed method, therefore, capitalizes on the availability of remotely sensed observations for predicting monthly TWS, a quantity which is hard to observe in the field but important for measuring regional energy balance, as well as for agricultural, and water resource management. Major teleconnections within these data sets were identified using independent component analysis and linked via low-degree autoregressive models to build a predictive framework. After a learning phase of 72 months, our approach predicted TWS from rainfall and SST data alone that fitted to the observed GRACE-TWS better than that from a global hydrological model. Our results indicated a fit of 79 % and 67 % for the first-year prediction of the two dominant annual and inter-annual modes of TWS variations. This fit reduces to 62 % and 57 % for the second year of projection. The proposed approach, therefore, represents strong potential to predict the TWS over West Africa up to 2 years. It also has the potential to bridge the present GRACE data gaps of 1 month about each 162 days as well as a—hopefully—limited gap between GRACE and the GRACE

  11. Time Series Photometry on Different Scales at the BYU West Mountain Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joner, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    We present multiple examples of differential time series photometry using the 0.9-meter telescope located at the Brigham Young University West Mountain Observatory. The observations include monitoring of a supernova and an AGN over a period of more than 100 days. An extragalactic Cepheid that was observed nightly for two months has also been included as an example in this summary. Finally, we report on target of opportunity observations secured on objects such as delta Scuti stars, eclipsing binaries, and candidate planetary transit stars. The West Mountain Observatory operates using student and faculty observers who participate in several monitoring projects that are scheduled during each observing season in addition to their own primary program. This model has given student observers an opportunity to gain useful experience on a wide variety of different monitoring projects involving carefully timed and executed photometric observations. These observations have proven especially valuable for both observatory support and student training during the May through August portion of the observing season when most regular classes are not a competing activity. Despite the use of a considerable number of different observers at many stages of training, most of the various programs undertaken at the observatory have been successfully completed over the past five years. We wish to thank the Brigham Young University College of Physical and Mathematical Sciences as well as the Department of Physics and Astronomy for their continued support of the research activities at the West Mountain Observatory.

  12. Steering under Conditions of Retrenchment in Higher Education: The British Experiences from a German Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frackmann, Edgar

    1988-01-01

    The West German and British experiences in higher education planning and governance during a period of retrenchment are compared. Changes are interpreted in terms of the underlying characteristics of the two systems and their governance. (Author/MSE)

  13. Structural Preconditions of West Bohemia Earthquake Swarms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotný, M.; Špičák, A.; Weinlich, F. H.

    2013-07-01

    The West Bohemia and adjacent Vogtland are well known for quasi-periodical earthquake swarms persisting for centuries. The seismogenic area near Nový Kostel involved about 90 % of overall earthquake activity clustered here in space and time. The latest major earthquake swarm took place in August-September 2011. In 1994 and 1997, two minor earthquake swarms appeared in another location, near Lazy. Recently, the depth-recursive tomography yielded a velocity image with an improved resolution along the CEL09 refraction profile passing between these swarm areas. The resolution, achieved in the velocity image and its agreement with the inverse gravity modeling along the collateral 9HR reflection profile, enabled us to reveal the key structural background of these West Bohemia earthquake swarms. The CEL09 velocity image detected two deeply rooted high-velocity bodies adjacent to the Nový Kostel and Lazy focal zones. They correspond to two Variscan mafic intrusions influenced by the SE inclined slab of Saxothuringian crust that subducted beneath the Teplá-Barrandian terrane in the Devonian era. In their uppermost SE inclined parts, they roof both focal zones. The high P-wave velocities of 6,100-6,200 m/s, detected in both roofing caps, indicate their relative compactness and impermeability. The focal domains themselves are located in the almost gradient-free zones with the swarm foci spread near the axial planes of profound velocity depressions. The lower velocities of 5,950-6,050 m/s, observed in the upper parts of focal zones, are indicative of less compact rock complexes corrugated and tectonically disturbed by the SE bordering magma ascents. The high-velocity/high-density caps obviously seal the swarm focal domains because almost no magmatic fluids of mantle origin occur in the Nový Kostel and Lazy seismogenic areas of the West Bohemia/Vogtland territory, otherwise rich in the mantle-derived fluids. This supports the hypothesis of the fluid triggering of earthquake

  14. Rural poverty and development in West Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, F

    1981-07-01

    Rural poverty in West Malaysia during the 1957-1970 period is examined. The period covered was 1 of a high rate of growth combined with an increasing inequality of income and worsening poverty. During the 1955-1970 period, a large amount of development funds, manpower, and expertise was directed towards a reduction of West Malaysia's rural poverty. Despite these efforts, rural poverty increased. Over the period under review, the share of income going to the richest 20% of the population increased from 50% to 56%; the share going to the middle 20% of the population remained constant at 20%; the poorest 60% of the population saw their share of income decline from 30% to 24%. The poorest 40% of the population received only 11.6% of income in 1970. They were predominantly rural, with this sector accounting for 87% of all poverty. The 3 development plans of this period set high aggregate growth rates as the primary targets and emphasized productivity and income in the rural sector. Rural development has not been sold short; the total funding figure of $2,209.46 million represents 40% of all development spending between 1956 and 1970. The money funded 3 broad areas of rural development: replanting of smallholder rubber with high-yielding clones; increasing rice production; and opening new land. The strategy has been to concentrate upon raising the yields from existing farmland and expanding into new areas of settlement. The problem of dealing with poverty in West Malaysia was made worse by the rapid rate of population increase. The population increase of 1,657,000 was absorbed into the traditional smallholder sector, very largely in exisitng areas of settlement. Over the same period, the modern sector of agriculture, the rubber estates, reduced their labor force by 30,000 as they moved into the cultivation of oil palm, a crop requiring less labor. Some of the additional agricultural workers were placed on new land under government land-development and resettlement

  15. Assessment of future streamflow changes in major rivers of West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roudier, Philippe; Rojas, Rodrigo; Bisselink, Bernard; Feyen, Luc

    2013-04-01

    Although being one of the most vulnerable regions of the world to climate change, impact studies in West Africa, especially concerning water resources, are still scarce compared to other regions such as Europe, North-America or Asia. Therefore, we investigate in this study how climate change may affect the main rivers of West Africa (Niger, Volta, Senegal) using the global LISFLOOD model. This hydrological rainfall-runoff model, extensively used for pan-European assessments, has been recently set up and calibrated for Africa, allowing such impact analysis. Here, LISFLOOD is set up on a 0.1*0.1 degree grid for the period 1991-2050. Quantifying the uncertainty in climate impact studies is now a fundamental task, especially in West Africa where the agreement among rainfall projections is low. We therefore employ an ensemble of climate experiments originating from 8 different GCM/RCM combinations obtained from the EU FP6 ENSEMBLES project (SRES A1B scenario). Prior to forcing LISFLOOD, bias in the precipitation and temperature fields (Tmin, Tavg and Tmax) is removed with a quantile mapping method using as target the WATCH Forcing Data. In order to take into account the high population growth in West Africa we also account for projected changes in water use. Results first focus on changes in average streamflow conditions and how these changes affect water availability, expressed by the Water Exploitation Index. Second, and as underlined by the recent SREX IPCC report (2012), we show the impacts on extreme events (droughts and floods) using relevant indices such as the 100-year return period flood.

  16. From the conceptual design to the first simulation of the new WEST plasma control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nouailletas, R., E-mail: remy.nouailletas@cea.fr [IRFM, CEA, F-13108 Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Ravenel, N.; Signoret, J. [IRFM, CEA, F-13108 Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Treutterer, W. [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Spring, A.; Lewerentz, M. [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Wendeksteinstr. 1, 17491 Greifswald (Germany); Rapson, C.J. [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Masand, H.; Dhongde, J. [Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), Near Indira Bridge, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382 428, Gujarat (India); Moreau, P.; Guillerminet, B.; Brémond, S.; Allegretti, L. [IRFM, CEA, F-13108 Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Raupp, G. [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Werner, A. [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Wendeksteinstr. 1, 17491 Greifswald (Germany); Saint Laurent, F.; Nardon, E. [IRFM, CEA, F-13108 Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Bhandarkar, M. [Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), Near Indira Bridge, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382 428, Gujarat (India)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • We propose an overview of the future control system of the Tore Supra in WEST configuration. • The control system will be based on DCS (Discharge Control System) of ASDEX Upgrade. • The Pulse Schedule Editor will be based on the experiment program editor of the future W7X facility. • The operation of this new system is illustrated by an example based on a simple plasma current/loop voltage control. - Abstract: The configuration of the Tore Supra WEST project leads to control challenges and event handling close to those of ITER from a plasma scenario point of view (X-point configuration, H mode, long duration pulse) and from a machine protection point of view (metallic environment). Based on previous conceptual studies and to meet the WEST requirements, a sub-project will implement a new plasma control system (PCS) and a new pulse schedule editor (PSE). The main idea is to use a segment approach to describe the pulse scheduling with a full integration of event handling both on the PCS and on the PSE. After detailed specification work, it has been shown that the real-time framework called DCS (Discharge Control System) which is currently used on ASDEX upgrade fulfills the requirements and could be integrated into the WEST global control infrastructure. For the PSE, the Xedit tool, developed for the future W7X facility, has been chosen. This contribution will begin by a short explanation of the concepts proposed for the control of the plasma and the handling of events during the plasma discharge. Then it will focus on the new centralized architecture of the new Tore Supra PCS and an operating principle example showing the efficiency of the approach to handle normal and off-normal events. This later point will illustrate the required modifications of DCS and Xedit to fit with the Tore Supra Control infrastructure.

  17. Interdecadal variation of the West African summer monsoon during 1979-2010 and associated variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Huanlian [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nansen-Zhu International Research Centre, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Beijing (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Chinese Academy of Sciences, Climate Change Research Center, Beijing (China); Wang, Huijun [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nansen-Zhu International Research Centre, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Beijing (China); Chinese Academy of Sciences, Climate Change Research Center, Beijing (China); Yin, Yizhou [Tsinghua University, Center for Earth System Science, Beijing (China)

    2012-12-15

    This paper addresses the interdecadal variation of the West African summer monsoon (WASM) along with its background of atmospheric circulation and possible physical mechanism over the past 32 years (1979-2010). It is indicated that the WASM starts to strengthen from 1998 as the rainfall begins to increase over western West Africa on the whole, which shows a new interdecadal variation. In this interdecadal variation, the strengthened ascending motion corresponding to enhanced divergence (convergence) movement on the upper (lower) troposphere is prone to develop the local circulation of the monsoon. Moreover, the strengthened southwestern (eastern) wind on the lower (upper) level leads to more moisture from the Atlantic and the Gulf of Guinea transported to the West African continent. In addition, the summer subtropical high over the north Atlantic and western West Africa is strong and northward, and the tropical east wind is also strong. Statistically, the weaker (stronger) the spring North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is, the stronger (weaker) the tropical easterly is, and then the WASM is also stronger. But the effect of the NAO on the decadal variation of the WASM is not so significant from the north Atlantic anomaly sensitivity simulation with a single model. This is also an indication that the relationship between the WASM and NAO is complicated in an interdecadal time scale and is needed further study. In terms of sea surface temperature (SST) variation, the tendency is toward warming in the subtropical north Pacific, the south Pacific and north Atlantic. Numerical simulation experiments and data analysis show that the SST variation in the north Pacific plays an important role in the latest interdecadal strengthening of the WASM during the past 32 years, while the influences of the south Pacific and the north Atlantic SST anomalies are not so significant to the associated atmospheric circulation changes. (orig.)

  18. Cross-border Co-operation Networks in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier

    Long seen as artificial barriers inherited from decolonisation, West African borders now lie at the heart of policies designed to encourage regional trade and combat political instability. This rediscovery of the peripheries of the nation state has fostered a proliferation of institutional...... largely unknown across West Africa. The purpose of this paper is to fill that gap, with an analysis of both the social structure and the geography of West African governance networks. On the basis of this structural and geographic analysis, policy recommendations are formulated aimed at implementing...

  19. Scrub typhus in Southern Districts of West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilendu Sarma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Scrub typhus has been previously reported from north and eastern Indian states and areas such as Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Assam, Sikkim, and Darjeeling district of West Bengal. It has also been known to be endemic in some parts of South India (Eastern and Western Ghats. However, no cases have ever been reported from the southern districts of West Bengal. Here, we report five cases of scrub typhus from South 24 Parganas and Kolkata, two districts in the southern part of West Bengal, India.

  20. Seafloor ripples created by waves from hurricane Ivan on the West Florida Shelf

    OpenAIRE

    Bowers, Colleen Marie.

    2006-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that the presence of sand ripples on the seabed improves sonar detection of buried mines at sub-critical angles. Sidescan sonar data of ripples off on the west Florida shelf were collected as part of ONR's Ripples Departmental Research Initiative (DRI) September 26-29th and November 7-9th, 2004. Hurricane Ivan, the strongest storm of the 2004 hurricane season, passed over the experiment site a week before the first data collection. This study focuses on the ripples c...

  1. Beautiful Dark Twisted Pedagogy: Kanye West and the Lessons of Participatory Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antero Garcia

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article builds off of the author’s classroom experience as a high school teacher in South Central Los Angeles and looks at how cultural shifts with regards to media consumption and production impact liberatory pedagogical practice. Using media superstar Kanye West as a case study, this article argues that today’s classroom practices must expand in ways that reflect a more participatory culture. In particular, West’s marketing and engagement with his audience during the release of his 2010 album My Beautiful Dark Twisted Fantasy highlight how mainstream media practices offer pathways for renewing critical pedagogy in the 21st century.

  2. Utilization of the NFS West Valley Installation for spent fuel storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDonald, R W

    1978-04-01

    Several thousand MT of capacity of AFR storage will be required in the 1980's. The pool at NFS has capacity for an additional 60 MT of BWR fuel or 150 MT of PWR assemblies. Zircaloy-clad LWR fuel can be stored in pools for up to 100 years. Environmental effects are discussed. Expansion of the pool capacity for as much as 1000 MT more, either by using more compact storage racks or constructing a new pool or an independent pool, is considered. Some indication of the environmental impacts of expanded fuel storage capacity at West Valley is offered by experience at Barnwell. (DLC)

  3. WASCAL - West African Science Service Center on Climate Change and Adapted Land Use Regional Climate Simulations and Land-Atmosphere Simulations for West Africa at DKRZ and elsewhere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Ilse; Arnault, Joel; Bliefernicht, Jan; Klein, Cornelia; Heinzeller, Dominikus; Kunstmann, Harald

    2014-05-01

    Changing climate and hydro-meteorological boundary conditions are among the most severe challenges to Africa in the 21st century. In particular West Africa faces an urgent need to develop effective adaptation and mitigation strategies to cope with negative impacts on humans and environment due to climate change, increased hydro-meteorological variability and land use changes. To help meet these challenges, the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) started an initiative with institutions in Germany and West African countries to establish together a West African Science Service Center on Climate Change and Adapted Land Use (WASCAL). This activity is accompanied by an establishment of trans-boundary observation networks, an interdisciplinary core research program and graduate research programs on climate change and related issues for strengthening the analytical capabilities of the Science Service Center. A key research activity of the WASCAL Competence Center is the provision of regional climate simulations in a fine spatio-temporal resolution for the core research sites of WASCAL for the present and the near future. The climate information is needed for subsequent local climate impact studies in agriculture, water resources and further socio-economic sectors. The simulation experiments are performed using regional climate models such as COSMO-CLM, RegCM and WRF and statistical techniques for a further refinement of the projections. The core research sites of WASCAL are located in the Sudanian Savannah belt in Northern Ghana, Southern Burkina Faso and Northern Benin. The climate in this region is semi-arid with six rainy months. Due to the strong population growth in West Africa, many areas of the Sudanian Savannah have been already converted to farmland since the majority of the people are living directly or indirectly from the income produced in agriculture. The simulation experiments of the Competence Center and the Core Research Program are

  4. COASTAL DYNAMICS OF SINGKAWANG, WEST KALIMANTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudi Darlan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Morphologically, Singkawang and adjacent area consist of zones beaches, undulating hills, and steep hills. Granitic rocks and alluvium as a based rock of Singkawang coasts. Generally, Singkawang coasts was developed for coastal farms, fishery pond, and beach resorts, where most of these area have been eroded. Geological and physical oceanography condition are the aspects that build the characteristics of Singkawang coast. Human activities also play an important role in managing the equilibrium and dynamics of this coastal region. This research is to determine the dynamics and coastline changes of Singkawang coasts based on the characteristics of the coastal element and sediment. The high erosion was occurred at Semalagi–Cape Bajau. The Cape Bajau - Cape Banjar is relatively stable due to headlands of this coast is characterized by igneous rocks which resistant to the erosion. The Cape Banjar – South Coasts is very intensive erosion coast. Modern shorelines of the Singkawang coast might be as a shallow marine environment which were occurred thousands years ago (pre-Recent. The high of sedimentation process is generated by global sea level change, where was occurred at that time, and might be changed the area become part of the mainland coast of Singkawang. Keywords: coastal dynamics, erosion, sedimentation, Singkawang, West Kalimantan.

  5. GENDERED SPACE IN WEST SUMBA TRADITIONAL HOUSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esti Asih NURDIAH

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Rendell stated that gender representation underlined the production of space in architecture both symbolically and functionally in certain cultures (Rendell et al. 2000. Thus, an exploration on the spatial functionality of traditional houses could show how cultural gender rules and roles generate the spatial arrangements. This empirical research explored the traditional houses in two kampongs: Tarung and Ratenggaro of West Sumba, Indonesia, which spaces are divided into two distinct spaces: male’s space and female’s space, each with its own entrance. This firm division leads to the questions on its relation with the traditional gender roles are represented inside the house. Interestingly, the spatial arrangement is not intended to create separation between men and women inside the house or to pose that the status and roles of men are higher than those of women. The research found that the space separation actually is a manifestation of the dynamic roles of male and female members of the house and the circular arrangement of the space around the fireplace at the centre of the house follows the dynamic of gender duality in Sumba culture.

  6. Natural Resources of Okyeman- an Overview | Owusu | West African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    West African Journal of Applied Ecology. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 20, No 3 (2012) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  7. West Coast Observing System (WCOS) Temperature Data, 2004-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The West Coast Observing System (WCOS) project provides access to temperature and currents data collected at four of the five National Marine Sanctuary sites,...

  8. Longshore sediment transport model for the Indian west coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, P.; Nayak, B.U.

    Longshore sediment transport rates for the Indian west coast from Cochin to Porbandar are estimated from ship observed wave data (1968 to 1986). The sediment transport rate is relatively high during the southwest monsoon period from June...

  9. Littoral transport studies along west coast of India - A reivew

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kunte, P.D.; Wagle, B.G.; Sugimori, Y.

    This article presents an overview of investigations that were carried out to determine the dynamics of littoral transport along the west coast of India, during last three decades. Sedimentological methods, wave refraction diagrams, tracer tracking...

  10. A mathematical model for stock price forecasting | Ogwuche | West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    West African Journal of Industrial and Academic Research. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 11, No 1 (2014) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  11. Implementing the Aquidneck Island West Side Master Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report describes a technical assistance project with Aquidneck Island to develop approaches for mixed-use zoning standards, design guidelines, and review processes to implement the West Side Master Plan.

  12. Spitbase of west coast of India: Potential appraisal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kunte, P.D.; Wagle, B.G.

    of the west coast, is organized. The present study describes this database and demonstrates its usefulness and potential for studying nearshore coastal processes including shore drift directions. SPITBASE is useful in managing, analyzing and in interpreting...

  13. West Knox Pond water budget and water quality

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to analyze the water budget and water quality for West Knox Pond for the May through September period of 2002 and 2003. The...

  14. Herbicide concentrations in wetlands in west central Minnesota, 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Thirty emergent, seasonally to semi-permanently flooded wetlands in an intensively farmed area of west central Minnesota were sampled before and during the 1992 crop...

  15. Nuclear Medicine Practice in Africa | Obioha | West African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    West African Journal of Radiology. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 15, No 1 (2008) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  16. City of West Union, Iowa - Clean Water Act Public Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA is providing notice of a proposed Administrative Penalty Assessment against the City of West Union, IA, a municipality, for alleged violations of its National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit (permit No. IA-0035378) for discharges from

  17. VocEd Goes Underground in West Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgager, David B.

    1979-01-01

    Describes development of a coal mining training curriculum in West Virginia for adults and high school students, as well as programs to retrain people in new equipment repair and in the emergency medical services required by state law. (MF)

  18. Maxillary haemangiopericytoma: A case report | Fatusi | West African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    West African Journal of Medicine ... by wide surgical resection with a careful microscopical examination of the resection margins and the institution of adjuvant radiotherapy in incompletely resected ... Key Words: Haemangiopericytoma, Embolisation, Afferent vessel ligation, Radiotherapy Chemotherapy, Prognostic factors.

  19. Vocational Education Processes of Yoruba Women in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawubya, Maria

    1988-01-01

    Describes traditional training methods for the occupations of Yoruba women of West Africa, such as weaving, dyeing, and pottery-making. Suggests that these vocational training methodologies could be applied to contemporary African economic problems. (SK)

  20. NNDSS - Table II. Varicella to West Nile virus disease

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Varicella to West Nile virus disease - 2014. In this Table, all conditions with a 5-year average annual national total of more than or equals 1,000...