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Sample records for west greenland including

  1. Verbal aspects in West Greenlandic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trondhjem, Naja Blytmann

    2017-01-01

    In this article, lexical aspectual types in West Greenlandic are investigated in the five aspectual types, states, achievements, semelfactives, activities and accomplishments. It is shown that derivational verbalizing affixes include aspectual type congruent with the lexical aspect and how...

  2. Population Structure of West Greenland Narwhals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riget, F.; Dietz, R.; Møller, P.

    The hypothesis that different populations of narwhals in the West Greenland area exist has been tested by different biomarkers (metal and organochlorine concentrations, stable isotopes and DNA). Samples of muscle, liver, kidney, blubber and skin tissues of narwhals from West Greenland have been...... isotopes could not support the population structure with two West Greenland populations suggested by the genetic study....... analysed for heavy metals, organochlorines, stable isotopes and DNA. The obtained results of metal concentrations and DNA were included in the existing database, whereas no previous data on organochlorines and stable isotopes in West Greenland narwhals existed. The metal and POP concentrations and stable...

  3. Verbal aspects in West Greenlandic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trondhjem, Naja Blytmann

    2017-01-01

    In this article, lexical aspectual types in West Greenlandic are investigated in the five aspectual types, states, achievements, semelfactives, activities and accomplishments. It is shown that derivational verbalizing affixes include aspectual type congruent with the lexical aspect and how the as...

  4. West Greenlandic antipassive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodil Kappel Schmidt

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of syntactic and morphological evidence from West Greenlandic (WG antipassive (AP constructions, I argue against the view that the AP affix is nominal. The fact that the transitivizing and the antipassive affixes in a number of verbs are in complementary distribution, leads me to conclude that they both realize a light verb, transitivizing v, one on the ERG-NOM pattern, the other on the NOM-ACC pattern. Nominalization facts of the two clause types indicate their syntactic structure, with possible implications for the semantic interpretation of the object and the position of the ergative subject.

  5. Permafrost degradation in West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Niels Nielsen; Ingeman-Nielsen, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Important aspects of civil engineering in West Greenland relate to the presence of permafrost and mapping of the annual and future changes in the active layer due to the ongoing climatically changes in the Arctic. The Arctic Technology Centre (ARTEK) has worked more than 10 years on this topic...... and the first author has been involved since 1970 in engineering geology, geotechnical engineering and permafrost related studies for foundation construction and infrastructures in towns and communities mainly in West Greenland. We have since 2006 together with the Danish Meteorological Institute, Greenland...... by HIRHAM climate projections for Greenland up to 2075. The engineering modelling is based on a risk assessment methodology based on a flow diagram which classify the risk of permafrost degradation causing settlement and stability problems for buildings and infrastructures based on relatively simple...

  6. Future markers of the West Greenlandic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trondhjem, Naja Blytmann

    2010-01-01

    and aspect grammaticalization in West Greenlandic and Chukchi. In: La dynamique et la culture inuit. /Nicole Tersis et Michèle Terrien (eds.) p. 151-175. Kristoffersen, Lars (1991) Verbal derivation and inflection in a functional grammar of West Greenlandic. Magisterkonferens, Københavns Universitet...

  7. The lithospheric mantle below southern West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sand, Karina Krarup; Waight, Tod Earle; Pearson, D. Graham

    2009-01-01

    Geothermobarometry of primarily garnet lherzolitic xenoliths from several localities in southern West Greenland is applied to address the diamond potential, pressure and temperature distribution and the stratigraphy of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle ~600 Ma ago. The samples are from...

  8. The Ramsar Sites of Disko, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egevang, C.; Boertmann, D.

    The three Ramsar sites of Disko Island in West Greenland were surveyed for breeding and staging waterbirds in July 2001. Two of the areas (no. 1 and 2) held a high diversity of waterbirds and proved to be of international importance for the Greenland white-fronted goose, while the third (no. 3......) held very few waterbirds and hardly meet any of the specific waterbird criteria of the Ramsar convention...

  9. Ecosystem variability in west Greenland waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, E.; Pedersen, Søren Anker; Ribergaard, M. H.

    2004-01-01

    A review of the climate conditions off West Greenland during the past 50 years shows large variability in the atmospheric, oceanographic and sea-ice variables, as well as in fish stocks. A positive relationship is found between water temperature and the recruitment of cod and redfish, whereas the...

  10. Markers of futurity and aspect in West Greenlandic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trondhjem, Naja Blytmann

    2014-01-01

    . Fortescue, M. (1996). Tense, mood and aspect grammaticalization in West Greenlandic an Chukchi.La dynamique dans la langue et la culture inuit. N. T. M. Terrien. Paris, Peeters: 151-175. Kristoffersen, L. (1991). Verbal Derivation and Inflection in a Functional Grammar of West Greenlandic. Institut......-278. Fortescue, M. (1984b). West Greenlandic. London, Croon Hellm. Fortescue, M. (1996). Tense, mood and aspect grammaticalization in West Greenlandic an Chukchi.La dynamique dans la langue et la culture inuit. N. T. M. Terrien. Paris, Peeters: 151-175. Kristoffersen, L. (1991). Verbal Derivation and Inflection...

  11. Contaminants in two West Greenland caribou populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamberg, Mary, E-mail: mary.gamberg@gmail.com [Gamberg Consulting, 708 Jarvis St., Whitehorse, Yukon Y1A 2J2 (Canada); Cuyler, Christine [Greenland Institute of Natural Resources, PO Box 570, 3900 Nuuk, Greenland (Denmark); Wang, Xiaowa [Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Rd., Burlington, ON L7S 1A1 (Canada)

    2016-06-01

    Two caribou populations in West Greenland were sampled and the kidneys, liver and muscle analyzed for contaminants, including aluminum, arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, selenium and zinc. Although close in proximity, the two populations are topographically separated by an ice cap, which creates different climates and vegetation types in each region. Contaminant levels reflected the differing diets of the two caribou populations. To the south in the wetter lichen-rich region, caribou had significantly more aluminum, arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury, selenium and zinc, likely due to atmospheric deposition on lichens. To the north in the dry desert steppe where grasses predominate, caribou had higher levels of copper. Cows collected in late winter had significantly less hepatic copper, lead and mercury if pregnant, indicating placental transfer of these elements. Our results suggest that hepatic copper levels < 200 μg g{sup −1} dry weight may result in copper depletion in pregnant cows and hepatic mercury concentrations above 0.5 μg g{sup −1} dry weight may negatively affect fertility in caribou cows. Hepatic mercury levels were negatively correlated with cow body weight, suggesting an adverse effect on body condition. Element concentrations found in tissues from these caribou are not considered to be of a health concern for those consuming this traditional food. - Highlights: • Caribou tissue contaminant profiles may reflect different diets. • Low hepatic copper may result in copper depletion in pregnant caribou. • High hepatic mercury may negatively affect fertility in caribou cows. • Hepatic mercury is negatively correlated with body condition in caribou cows. • Metal levels in tissues are not a health concern to people consuming caribou.

  12. A genetic comparison of West Greenland and Baffin Island (Canada walruses: Management implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liselotte Wesley Andersen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Until recently Atlantic walruses (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus have been subject to relatively intense exploitation in West Greenland. Animals in this stock have also been hunted in Nunavut/Canada. However, the demographic identity of these animals and their connection with walruses in neighbouring areas is poorly resolved, hampering the determination of sustainable harvest levels. It has been suggested that walruses in West Greenland are genetically linked with walruses at SE Baffin Island (Canada where they are also hunted for subsistence purposes. To determine the relationship(s between walruses in these areas we conducted a genetic analysis including recent samples from West Greenland, Southeast Baffin Island in western Davis Strait, Hudson Strait in Canada and Northwest Greenland in northern Baffin Bay. Seventeen microsatellite markers were applied to all samples. Walruses in West Greenland and at Southeast Baffin Island did not differ from each other and therefore may be regarded as belonging to the same stock. However, walruses in these two areas differed genetically from both Northwest Greenland and Hudson Strait walruses. These findings support (1 that there are subunits within the range of walruses in the Hudson Strait-Davis Strait-Baffin Bay region and (2 that walruses along E Baffin Island and W Greenland constitute a common population that receive some influx from Hudson Strait. Thus, sustainable catch levels in Southeast Baffin Island (Nunavut and in West Greenland must be set in light of the finding that they belong to the same stock, which is exploited in these two areas. This requires Canadian-Greenlandic co-management of the W Greenland-SE Baffin Island walrus stock.

  13. Coral by-catch in shrimp bottom trawl surveys in West Greenland waters (2010 – 2012)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensbye, Helle; Arboe, Nanette Hammeken

    There have been zoological expeditions in Greenland waters since the 19th century documenting the sea life, including cold water corals. Coral trees (vernacular name for Paragorgia arborea) are mentioned as early as 1741 in the first natural history book about Greenland (Egede 1741). Due...... to the many expeditions and opportunistic collections by Greenlandic fisheries surveys, the species composition of West Greenlandic corals is fairly well known (Tendal and Heiner 2002), although observations of species new to Greenland are still being made (Jørgensen et al. 2013, Tendal et al. 2013......). The earlier collections of corals were not systematic and distribution patterns are poorly understood. Thus, more recently the Greenland Institute of Natural Resources started to collect cold water corals in a more systematic way to document the occurrence of corals in the bottom trawls made for the annual...

  14. Mass balance of the Amitsulôq ice cap, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlstrøm, Andreas P.; Bøggild, Carl Egede; Olesen, Ole B.

    2007-01-01

    We present detailed mass balance measurements from the Amitsulôq ice cap in West Greenland spanning from 1982 to 1990. The data includes summer and winter balances from 26 stake locations distributed over five transects covering the whole ice cap. The mass balance measurements are combined...... meltwater, linking the hydropower potential of the basin closely to the fate of the adjoining Greenland ice-sheet margin....

  15. Climate variability in West Greenland during the past 1500 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    dos Santos Ribeiro, Sofia Isabel; Moros, Matthias; Ellegaard, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    document late-Holocene climate variability in West Greenland as inferred from a marine sediment record from the outer Disko Bay. Organic-walled dinoflagellate cysts and other palynomorphs were used to reconstruct environmental changes in the area through the last c. 1500 years at 30–40 years resolution......-surface temperatures in Disko Bay are out-of-phase with Greenland ice-core reconstructed temperatures and marine proxy data from South and East Greenland. This is probably governed by an NAO-type pattern, which results in warmer sea-surface conditions with less extensive sea ice in the area for the later part...

  16. Distribution and abundance of West Greenland humpback whales ( Megaptera novaeangliae )

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Finn; Hammond, P.S.

    2004-01-01

    Photo-identification surveys of humpback whales Megaptera novaeangliae were conducted at West Greenland during 1988-93, the last 2 years of which were part of the internationally coordinated humpback whale research programme YoNAH, with the primary aim of estimating abundance for the West Greenland...... effort. A total of 670 groups of humpback whales was encountered leading to the identification of 348 individual animals. Three areas of concentration were identified: an area off Nuuk; an area at c. 63degrees30'N; and an area off Frederikshab. Sequential Petersen capture-recapture estimates of abundance.......070). These calculations lead us to conclude that between 1988 and 1993 there were 360 humpbacks (CV = 0.07) in the West Greenland feeding aggregation. Using the Cormack-Jolly-Seber model framework non-calf survival rate was estimated at 0.957 (SE = 0.028). Our data have low power (P

  17. Satellite Tracking of Humpback Whales in West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietz, R.; Teilmann, J.; Heide-Jørgensen, M.-P.

    In June 2000, 6 humpback whales (Megaptere novaeangliae) were tagged with satellite transmitters off West Greenland. Contact remained for up to 42 days. The tagging revealed that within the month of June, humpback whales off West Greenland moved between Fiskenæs Banke, Fyllas Banke, Tovqussaq Banke......, Sukkertop Banke and Lille Hellefiske Banke. The whales showed a preference for the continental slopes with depths less than 200 m, however, few dives were recorded down to 500 m. The whales had a preference for dives lasting 7-8 min. (15%) and no dives lasted longer than 15 min....

  18. Evidence of Quick-Clay Deposit at Kangerlussuaq, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingeman-Nielsen, Thomas; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie; Jørgensen, Anders Stuhr

    2010-01-01

    In 2007 a large Ice dammed lake at the Russel Glacier, near Kangerlussuaq, West Greenland, drained in a catastrophic flood event – a jökulhlaup. The draining was made possible by a general retreat of the glacier due to climate amelioration. Under normal circumstances such jökulhlaups go relativel...... problematic for the future infrastructural development in the region. Here we present the results of recent research, including a study of mineralogy of the quick clay using SEM and XRD. We also discuss the effect of climate warming on permafrost thaw in the area....... eroded and destroyed by the river. In the wake of the catastrophic flood, a previously unknown permafrozen fingrained marine deposit was observed in the erosional bank of the river. Laboratory studies have proven this material to have extremely high sensitivity, with natural water content much higher...

  19. Unusual features caused by lightning impact in West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appel, P.; Abrahamsen, N.; Rasmussen, T.

    2006-01-01

       Two lightning impacts are described from an area near the Inland Ice in West Greenland. The first lightning blasted an outcrop of metacherts. It subsequently split into two branches, which traversed rock outcrops and boulders, leaving behind two white almost straight lines, 30 m and 14 m long ...

  20. Northern Shrimp (Pandalus borealis) Recruitment in West Greenland Waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, S. A.; Storm, L. M.

    2002-01-01

    Lipid class and fatty acid compositions were determined in shrimp larvae (Pandalus borealis and P. montagui) collected along transects across banks on the West Greenland shelf in June 1999, May and July 2000. The lipid class contents were investigated as indices of larval shrimp lipid condition a...

  1. Genetic structure of West Greenland populations of lumpfish Cyclopterus lumpus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayoral, Elsa Garcia; Olsen, M.; Hedeholm, R.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, 11 microsatellite markers were used to determine the structure of West Greenlandic lumpfish Cyclopterus lumpus populations across six spawning locations spanning >1500 km and compared with neighbouring populations in Canada and Iceland. To evaluate whether data allow for identifica...

  2. Brief communication "Historical glacier length changes in West Greenland"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leclercq, P.W.; Weidick, A.; Paul, F.; Bolch, T.; Citterio, M.; Oerlemans, J.

    2012-01-01

    Past glacier fluctuations provide insight into glacier dynamics, climate change, and the contribution of glaciers to sea-level rise. Here, the length fluctuations since the 19th century of 18 local glaciers in West and South Greenland are presented, extending and updating the study by Weidick

  3. Caribou, individual-based modeling and mega-industry in central West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raundrup, Katrine; Nymand, Josephine; Nabe-Nielsen, Jacob

    distribution and caribou in a realistic but manipulable “virtual world” of an IBM it is possible to examine the plausible effects of different environmental impacts on the population dynamics of caribou in West Greenland. The simulations will include introduction of mega-industry, roads, and transmission lines...

  4. Rapid dynamic thinning on Upernavik Icestream, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Kjær, Kurt H.; Korsgaard, Niels Jákup

    2011-01-01

    , and Jakobshavn Isbræ (JI) in West Greenland) as a result of significant accelerations in flow speed. The situation across Greenland continues to evolve. Evidence from GRACE (Velicogna, 2009), GPS (Khan, 2010) and ICESat (Pritchard, 2009) suggest that there is an ongoing northward migration of increasing ice loss......) laser altimetry data supplemented with altimeter surveys from NASA’s Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM). To assess thinning prior to 2003, we analyze 1985 aerial photos and derived a 2x2 m grid digital elevation model (DEM)....

  5. Tributyltin accumulation and effects in marine molluscs from West Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strand, J.; Asmund, G

    2003-05-01

    Tributyltin is accumulated in marine molluscs living in Greenland, with the highest levels found in harbour areas. - The levels of the antifouling agent tributyltin (TBT) and its breakdown products in bivalves were investigated in 1999-2000 at six areas along the west coast of Greenland with focus on locations inside and outside harbours. In addition female gastropods were examined for the development of TBT-induced masculine characteristics in form of imposex or intersex. The highest TBT concentration, 254 ng g{sup -1} ww, was found in the bivalve Mytilus edulis sampled inside Nuuk harbour, but significant TBT concentrations were also present in bivalves from the other harbour areas. Only low levels of TBT were detected in bivalves sampled outside the harbours and in several of the samples the TBT level was below the detection limit. The examination of neogastropods like Buccinum revealed that imposex development occurred in all the harbours. In contrast, imposex was not found in any neogastropods sampled outside the harbour areas. However, the value of marine neogastropods as indicators of TBT contamination in West Greenland seems limited, because of large species diversity and the difficulties in sampling enough specimens at least with the current sampling strategy. No effects, which could be related to TBT contamination, were found in the most abundant tidal gastropod in West Greenland, Littorina saxatilis.

  6. West Greenland caribou explosion: What happened? What about the future?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Cuyler

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available In West Greenland, the 1993 caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus population size estimate was 7000 to 9000 animals. Eight years later in 2001, the estimate was ca. 140 000. Relatively rapid rise and fall cycles of abundance in West Greenland caribou have been noted since the 1700s. Caribou have no natural predators in West Greenland. Combined with their high fertility and recruitment, this suggests that overabundance might be their greatest threat to stability. The 2005 population surveys indicate poor recruitment in two major populations and decreasing abundance in one. Given stocking densities are three to six-times the value considered sustainable, we expect strong competition between individuals for available food resources. Although the management goal is sustainable harvest of natural resources, if populations continue at their current size or increase further, there is a clear risk of range overgrazing and trampling. Unsustainable range use may result in density-dependent forage limitation with subsequent relatively rapid population decline over a series of years, e.g. a decade. As in the past, populations are expected to recover, and if true to the past, recovery will take the better part of a century. Furthermore, the role of catastrophic weather events may be of major importance. Abrupt collapse could be precipitated by a disastrous single year event, e.g. thaw-freeze icing or deep snow, because possibilities for dispersal to new ranges are limited. Regardless of management initiatives taken now, population declines or crashes may be inevitable for some West Greenland herds in the foreseeable future, but accurate predictions about herd trends are impossible. To understand the potential impact of future developments, Greenland caribou and their range must be studied within the wider context of climate change.

  7. Climate variability in West Greenland during the past 1500 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    dos Santos Ribeiro, Sofia Isabel; Moros, Matthias; Ellegaard, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    . Sea ice cover and primary productivity were identified as the two main factors driving dinoflagellate cyst community changes through time. Our data provide evidence for an opposite climate trend in West Greenland relative to the NE Atlantic region from c. AD 500 to 1050. For the same period, sea...... of the Dark Ages cold period (c. AD 500 to 750) and cooler conditions with extensive sea ice inferred for the first part of the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) (c. AD 750 to 1050). After c. AD 1050, the marine climate in Disko Bay becomes in-phase with trends described for the NE Atlantic, reflected......-surface temperatures in Disko Bay are out-of-phase with Greenland ice-core reconstructed temperatures and marine proxy data from South and East Greenland. This is probably governed by an NAO-type pattern, which results in warmer sea-surface conditions with less extensive sea ice in the area for the later part...

  8. Offshore Seabird Distributions during Summer and Autumn at West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boertmann, D.; Mosbech, A.

    This report presents the phenological and distributional results of seabird surveys carried out by ship in West Greenland waters. In 1977 observations were carried out from stationary platforms (oil exploration supply ships) and in the period 1992 to 2000 observations were carried out from sailing....... During the autumn the numbers of seabirds increase as migrants from local and international populations of mainly thick-billed murre and little auk arrive to spend the winter in West Greenland waters. Huge concentrations of thick-billed murres, common eiders and king-eiders may occur then......, and such concentrations are vulnerable to oil spills. A crude estimate of the numbers of thickbilled murres present in the areas surveyed in 1992-2000 in September-October reach 693,000 birds....

  9. Impact of deep-sea fishery for Greenland halibut (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides) on non-commercial fish species off West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ole A; Bastardie, Francois; Eigaard, Ole Ritzau

    2014-01-01

    Since the late 1980s, a deep-sea fishery for Greenland halibut (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides) has been developing gradually in West Greenland. Deep-sea fish species are generally long-lived and characterized by late age of maturity, low fecundity, and slow growth, features that probably cause low...

  10. Catch statistics for belugas in West Greenland 1862 to 1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MP Heide-Jørgensen

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Information and statistics including trade statistics on catches of white whales or belugas (Delphinapterus leucas in West Greenland since 1862 are presented. The period before 1952 was dominated by large catches south of 66o N that peaked with 1,380 reported kills in 1922. Catch levels in the past five decades are evaluated on the basis of official catch statistics, trade in mattak (whale skin, sampling of jaws and reports from local residents and other observers. Options are given for corrections of catch statistics based upon auxiliary statistics on trade of mattak, catches in previous decades for areas without reporting and on likely levels of loss rates in different hunting operations. The fractions of the reported catches that are caused by ice entrapments of whales are estimated. During 1954-1999 total reported catches ranged from 216 to 1,874 and they peaked around 1970. Correcting for underreporting and killed-but-lost whales increases the catch reports by 42% on average for 1954-1998. If the whales killed in ice entrapments are removed then the corrected catch estimate is on average 28% larger than the reported catches.

  11. Feeding ecology of Greenland halibut and sandeel larvae off West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenberg, Claus; Munk, Peter; Folkvord, A.

    2006-01-01

    Feeding ecology of Greenland halibut (Gr. halibut) (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides) and sandeel (Ammodytes sp.) larvae on the West Greenland shelf was studied during the main part of the productive season (May, June and July). Copepods were the main prey item for larval Gr. halibut and sandeel......, constituting between 88 and 99% of the ingested prey biomass. For both species, absolute size of preferred prey increased during ontogeny. However, preferred copepod size in relation to larval length differed markedly. In Gr. halibut, the relative size of the prey declined during growth of the larvae, while...... Strait. In June and July, the prey-rich areas for both species were mainly located at the slopes of the banks and at the shelf break area. Gut fullness was higher in these areas than in neighbouring areas, suggesting that the larval food resource could be scarce. The feeding ecology of Gr. halibut...

  12. Ice-sheet mass balance in central West Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greuell, W.; Denby, B. [Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Research IMAR, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2001-04-01

    Volume changes of the Greenland ice sheet in response to climate change may form a significant contribution to variations in sea level. However, still the sign of the present volume change is unknown. The aim of this project was to increase our understanding of present state of the Greenland ice sheet and of its sensitivity to climate change, with emphasis on the Kangerlussuaq transect (West Greenland, 67 {sup o}N). We have performed mass-balance, meteorological and ice-velocity measurements along the transect. With a record length of 10 years, the mass-balance measurements constitute the longest series of this kind on the Greenland ice sheet. A crucial parameter for the determination of the amount of melt is the albedo (this is the fraction of the solar radiation reflected by the surface). Therefore, we have improved the retrieval methods used to estimate the surface albedo from satellite data. For that purpose we have, among others, measured the albedo from a helicopter. The resulting data were used for validation of the satellite-derived albedos. With the satellite-derived albedos and the mass-balance data we have developed a method for estimating the surface mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet from satellite data. Furthermore, we have developed an atmospheric boundary-layer model, specifically designed for glaciers and ice sheets. The model was used to study the relation between the climate of the free atmosphere and conditions near the surface of the ice sheet, which determine the amount of melt. refs.

  13. Strategic environmental impact assessment of hydrocarbon activities in the Disko West area[Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosbech, A.; Boertmann, D.; Jespersen, Martin

    2007-05-15

    This publication is a strategic environmental impact assessment of activities related to exploration, development and exploitation of hydrocarbons in the sea of West Greenland between 67 deg. and 71 deg. N (= the Disko West Area). (au)

  14. A comparison of geoid undulations for west central Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roman, D.R.; Csatho, B.; Jezek, K.C.

    1997-01-01

    The accuracy of a new local gravity field model, GEOID94A, is examined at a site on the western Greenland ice sheet. The model, developed by the Danish National Survey and Cadastre, incorporates several new gravity data sets including an extensive amount of airborne gravity data. Model...... improved (+/-5 cm RMS) when GEOID94A undulations were adjusted by local gravity observations also acquired at the site. Our comparisons demonstrate that GEOID94A adequately models the long to intermediate wavelengths of the gravity field. We conclude that GEOID94A constitutes a reliable reference model...... for studies of Greenland's gravity field....

  15. Measurement campaign for wind power potential in west Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rønnow Jakobsen, Kasper

    2013-04-01

    Experiences and results from a wind resource exploring campaign 2003- in west Greenland. Like many other countries, Greenland is trying to reduce its dependency of fossil fuel by implementing renewable energy. The main challenge is that the people live on the coast in scattered settlements, without power infrastructure. Based on this a wind power potential project was established in 2002, funded by the Greenlandic government and the Technical University of Denmark. We present results and experiences of the campaign. 1 Field campaign There were only a few climate stations in or close to settlements and due to their positioning and instrumentation, they were not usable for wind resource estimation. To establish met stations in Arctic areas with complex topography, there are some challenges to face; mast positioning in complex terrain, severe weather conditions, instrumentation, data handling, installation and maintenance budget. The terrain in the ice free and populated part, mainly consists of mountains of different heights and shapes, separated by deep fjords going from the ice cap to the sea. With a generally low wind resource the focus was on the most exposed positions close to the settlements. Data from the nearest existing climate stations was studied for background estimations of predominant wind directions and extreme wind speeds, and based on that the first 10m masts were erected in 2003. 2 Instruments The first installations used standard NRG systems with low cost NRG instruments. For most of the sites this low cost setup did a good job, but there were some problems with the first design, including instrument and boom strains. In subsequent years, the systems were updated several times to be able to operate in the extreme conditions. Different types of instruments, data logger and boom systems were tested to get better data quality and reliability. Today 11 stations with heights ranging from 10-50m are installed and equipped according to the IEC standard

  16. Rapid population increase in an introduced muskox population, West Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten Riis Olesen

    1993-10-01

    Full Text Available In 1962 and 1965, 27 (13 and 14 muskox yearlings were translocated from East Greenland (71°N to the Angujaartorfiup Nunaa range in West Greenland (67°N. Angujaartorfiup Nunaa is a 6600 km2 icefree, continental area where caribou are indigenous. The climate is strictly continental with a minimum of precipitation but with abundant vegetation. Aerial surveys in 1990 documented that the muskox population has increased to 2600 heads despite quota-based harvesting since 1988. The annual quota was 200, 300 and 400 for 1988, 1989 and 1990, respectively. Distribution of muskoxen shows a significant preference for low altitude habitats southeast of Kangerlussuaq Airport and around Arnangarnup Qoorua (Paradise valley. Annual population increment averages 30% and the calf crop is around 24% of the population. Yearling recruitment in the population reveals that calf mortality during winter is very limited. About half of the 1-year-old females are served and they eventually give birth to their first calf when they turn 2 years old. With half of the 2-year-old females reproducing, the calf/cow ration ranges between 0.9 and 1.0.

  17. Movement patterns and resource selection - insights from West Greenland caribou

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raundrup, Katrine

    2017-01-01

    Caribou in the Akia-Maniitsoq population were found to be partial migrators as ca. 85% were migrators or mixed-migrators while ca. 10% were resident. The average distance between summer and winter home ranges depended on individual movement type as migrators and mixed migrators on average moved 57...... plasticity seen in both movement type and variability in home range sizes is likely to favor the long-term survival of the AM caribou, the increasing shrubification of the AM region combined with the declining abundance of this caribou population, suggest that West Greenland caribou in general may become......km between ranges, resident animals only moved 7km. Average home ranges sizes were larger in summer than winter (96km2 vs. 35km2), and the home range size was dependent on caribou body length. Furthermore, migrators had larger home ranges than residents. The caribou selected annual home ranges which...

  18. Recurring dynamically induced thinning during 1985 to 2010 on Upernavik Isstrom, West Greenland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Kjaer, Kurt H.; Korsgaard, Niels J.; Wahr, John; Joughin, Ian R.; Timm, Lars H.; Bamber, Jonathan L.; van den Broeke, Michiel R.; Stearns, Leigh A.; Hamilton, Gordon S.; Csatho, Bea M.; Nielsen, Karina; Hurkmans, Ruud; Babonis, Greg

    Many glaciers along the southeast and northwest coasts of Greenland have accelerated, increasing the ice sheet's contribution to global sea-level rise. In this article, we map elevation changes on Upernavik Isstrom (UI), West Greenland, during 2003 to 2009 using high-resolution ice, cloud and land

  19. Rapid dynamic thinning events during 1985-2010 on Upernavik Isstrøm, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Kjær, Kurt H.; Korsgaard, Niels Jákup

    Many glaciers along the southeast and northwest coast of Greenland have accelerated, increasing the ice sheet's contribution to global sea-level rise. Here, we map elevation changes on Upernavik Isstrøm (UI), West Greenland, during 2003-2009 using high-resolution Ice, Cloud and land Elevation...

  20. Investigation of Changes in Active Glaciers at Small and Large Scales: Observations from Helheimgletscher, East Greenland, Compared to Results from Jakobshavn Isbr\\ae , West Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, H.; Mayer, H.; Herzfeld, U. C.; Herzfeld, U. C.

    2001-12-01

    Active outlet glaciers are the instability points in the Greenland Ice Shield. Study of ice dynamics, surface processes, productivity, advance/retreat, and elevation change requires a combination of satellite and field observations to cover a range of scales. Sufficient regional coverage is needed as much as detailed measurements of high-resolution ice-surface processes. We employ a suite of technologies, data, and methods. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data are analyzed by application of geostatistical surface classification. Structural glaciology, an approach combining structural geology and continuum mechanics principles, promotes an understanding of ice-dynamical provinces, in particular of fast-moving glaciers, based on analysis of SAR data, videographic data, and GPS-registered photography. Microtopographic measurements of the ice surface (Glacier Roughness Sensor (GRS) data) provide subscale information for satellite data not otherwise obtainable. Changes in location and extension of surface provinces, including ablation areas, blue ice fields, sastrugi fields, and crevasse fields can be mapped and monitored. Largely due to logistical advantages, West Greenlandic glaciers have been favored by scientific expeditions in the past. While glaciers with the largest calving rate are located in West Greenland, significant mass discharge and elevation change is occurring also along the eastern margin of the inland ice. This summer (2001) we investigated Helheimgletscher and neighboring glaciers in the Sermilik area. Helheimgletscher is one of the most active East Greenlandic glaciers. It is distinguished as the glacier with the highest velocity and the largest calf-ice production in the area with maximal thinning rates along the East Greenlandic coast. While all other glaciers in the Sermilik area have been retreating, Helheimgletscher has experienced a substantial advance during the 20th century. Results from the Helheimgletscher data are compared to results from

  1. Vegetation phenology gradients along the west and east coasts of Greenland from 2001 to 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karami, Mojtaba; Hansen, Birger; Westergaard-Nielsen, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    , as well as the climatic response. The date of the start of season (SOS) was significantly earlier (24 days), length of season longer (25 days), and time-integrated NDVI higher in West Greenland. The sea ice concentration during May was found to have a significant effect on the date of the SOS only in West...

  2. Runoff simulations from the Greenland ice sheet at Kangerlussuaq from 2006-2007 to 2007/08. West Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mernild, Sebastian Haugard [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hasholt, Bent [UNIV OF COPENHAGEN; Van Den Broeke, Michiel [UTRECHT UNIV; Liston, Glen [COLORADO STATE UNIV

    2009-01-01

    This study focuses on runoff from a large sector of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) - the Kangerlussuaq drainage area, West Greenland - for the runoff observation period 2006/07 to 2007/08. SnowModel, a state-of-the-art snow-evolution modeling system, was used to simulate winter accumulation and summer ablation processes, including runoff. Independent in situ end-of-winter snow depth and high-resolution runoff observations were used for validation of simulated accumulation and ablation processes. Runoff was modeled on both daily and hourly time steps, filling a data gap of runoff exiting part of the GrIS. Using hourly meteorological driving data instead of smoothed daily-averaged data produced more realistic meteorological conditions in relation to snow and melt threshold surface processes, and produced 6-17% higher annual cumulative runoff. The simulated runoff series yielded useful insights into the present conditions of inter-seasonal and inter-annual variability of Kangerlussuaq runoff, and provided an acceptable degree of agreement between simulated and observed runoff. The simulated spatial runoff distributions, in some areas of the GrIS terminus, were as high as 2,750 mm w.eq. of runoff for 2006/07, while only 900 mm w.eq was simulated for 2007/08. The simulated total runoff from Kangerlussuaq was 1.9 km{sup 3} for 2006/07 and 1.2 km{sup 3} for 2007/08, indicating a reduction of 35-40% caused by the climate conditions and changes in the GrIS freshwater storage. The reduction in runoff from 2006/07 to 2007/08 occurred simultaneously with the reduction in the overall pattern of satellite-derived GrIS surface melt from 2007 to 2008.

  3. Rapid dynamic thinning on Upernavik Icestream, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Kjær, Kurt H.; Korsgaard, Niels Jákup

    The main outlet glaciers in Greenland have more than doubled their contribution to global sea level rise over the last decade. Several studies have shown increase in ice discharge from the main outlet glaciers (notably Kangerdlugssuaq (KG) and Helheim glaciers (HG) in Southeast Greenland, and Jak...

  4. Multibeam Bathymetry Surveys in Fjords and Coastal Areas of West-Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinrebe, W.; Kuijpers, A.; Klaucke, I.; Fink, M.

    2009-12-01

    High-resolution bathymetric maps are not available for many of the sparsely populated fjords in West-Greenland as those areas are remote and difficult to navigate. During a recent (2007) cruise of RV Maria S. Merian large coastal areas of West-Greenland including some of these fjords were mapped in detail with multibeam bathymetry, among them many parts which never had been investigated before. The surveys covered the Godthabfjord, Nordre Stroemfjord, Disko Bay, Vaigat, Uumannaq-Fjord and the Marmorilik area. The data acquired by a Kongsberg EM120 deep water multibeam and a Kongsberg EM1002 shallow water multibeam system were of very good quality. In summer 2008 the survey in the Disko Bay area was extended far into the Ilulissat Icefjord using a local boat and a portable Seabeam 1180 multibeam system. The seafloor in these areas is intensively shaped by glacial processes which create characteristic submarine landforms. Revealing the morphology helps to understand these processes, high-resolution bathymetry displays the relief and morphology of the seafloor. In particular, rims and sills which may mark ancient ice margins have been identified in the bathymetry. Multibeam mapping was continued also during transits off the coast in the Davis Strait. Here areas sculptured intensively by iceberg plough marks were found. Several distinct patterns of directions can be identified which probably represent different phases of drift. The water depth here is generally greater than 240 m documenting rather deep going icebergs.

  5. Recurring dynamically induced thinning during 1985 to 2010 on Upernavik Isstrom, West Greenland

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Kjaer, Kurt H; Korsgaard, Niels J.; Wahr, John; Joughin, Ian R.; Timm, Lars H.; Bamber, Jonathan L.; VAN DEN BROEKE, MICHIEL R.; Stearns, Leigh A.; Hamilton, Gordon S.; Csatho, Bea M.; Nielsen, Karina; Hurkmans, Ruud; Babonis, Greg

    2013-01-01

    Many glaciers along the southeast and northwest coasts of Greenland have accelerated, increasing the ice sheet's contribution to global sea-level rise. In this article, we map elevation changes on Upernavik Isstrom (UI), West Greenland, during 2003 to 2009 using high-resolution ice, cloud and land elevation satellite laser altimeter data supplemented with altimeter surveys from NASA's Airborne Topographic Mapper during 2002 to 2010. To assess thinning prior to 2002, we analyze aerial photogra...

  6. One million years of glaciation and denudation history in west Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strunk, Astrid; Knudsen, Mads Faurschou; Egholm, David Lundbek

    2017-01-01

    The influence of major Quaternary climatic changes on growth and decay of the Greenland Ice Sheet, and associated erosional impact on the landscapes, is virtually unknown beyond the last deglaciation. Here we quantify exposure and denudation histories in west Greenland by applying a novel Markov...... different glacial landforms caused by variations in ice thickness across the landscape. We furthermore show that the present day ice-free areas only were ice covered ca. 45% of the past 1 million years, and even less at high-elevation sites, implying that the Greenland Ice Sheet for much of the time...

  7. Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gad, Ulrik Pram

    2014-01-01

    for status as an ‘overseas country or territory’. The manner in which Greenland had to follow Denmark into the EEC in 1973 – whereby Greenlanders saw control over their fisheries move from distant Copenhagen to even-more-distant Brussels – was pivotal for the Greenlandic demands for home rule that succeeded...... in 1979 and made the 1985 withdrawal possible. On 25 November 2008, a majority of the people of Greenland voted in favour of enhanced home rule – ‘self-government’ – still within formal Danish sovereignty. Denmark and Greenland alike are preparing for a future envisioned as involving climate change...... to sovereignty – and the tensions involved – structures the triangular relationship between the EU, Greenland and Denmark. The article concludes that the visions of sovereign equality might, on the one hand, create greater expectations than Greenland will immediately be able to live up to – at home and in the EU...

  8. Precambrian crustal evolution and Cretaceous–Palaeogene faulting in West Greenland: Evolution of Neoarchaean supracrustal belts at the northern margin of the North Atlantic Craton, West Greenland

    OpenAIRE

    Stensgaard, Bo Møller; Keiding, Marie; Hollis, Julie A; van Gool, Jeroen A.M.; Garde, Adam A.

    2006-01-01

    The Archaean North Atlantic Craton of West Greenland collided at c. 1.9 Ga with a lesser-known Archaean craton to the north, to form the Nagssugtoqidian orogen. The Palaeoproterozoic metamorphic grade and strain intensity decrease northward through the orogen, allowing investigation of the reworked Archaean components in its northern part. Two Archaean supracrustal belts in this region – the Ikamiut and Kangilinaaq belts – are investigated here using field mapping, aeromagnetic data, zircon g...

  9. The Vaigat Rock Avalanche Laboratory, west-central Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunning, S.; Rosser, N. J.; Szczucinski, W.; Norman, E. C.; Benjamin, J.; Strzelecki, M.; Long, A. J.; Drewniak, M.

    2013-12-01

    Rock avalanches have unusually high mobility and pose both an immediate hazard, but also produce far-field impacts associated with dam breach, glacier collapse and where they run-out into water, tsunami. Such secondary hazards can often pose higher risks than the original landslide. The prediction of future threats posed by potential rock avalanches is heavily reliant upon understanding of the physics derived from an interpretation of deposits left by previous events, yet drawing comparisons between multiple events is normally challenging as interactions with complex mountainous terrain makes deposits from each event unique. As such numerical models and the interpretation of the underlying physics which govern landslide mobility is commonly case-specific and poorly suited to extrapolation beyond the single events the model is tuned to. Here we present a high-resolution LiDAR and hyperspectral dataset captured across a unique cluster of large rock avalanche source areas and deposits in the Vaigat straight, west central Greenland. Vaigat offers the unprecedented opportunity to model a sample of > 15 rock avalanches of various age sourced from an 80 km coastal escarpment. At Vaigat many of the key variables (topography, geology, post-glacial history) are held constant across all landslides providing the chance to investigate the variations in dynamics and emplacement style related to variable landslide volume, drop-heights, and thinning/spreading over relatively simple, unrestricted run-out zones both onto land and into water. Our data suggest that this region represents excellent preservation of landslide deposits, and hence is well suited to calibrate numerical models of run out dynamics. We use this data to aid the interpretation of deposit morphology, structure lithology and run-out characteristics in more complex settings. Uniquely, we are also able to calibrate our models using a far-field dataset of well-preserved tsunami run-up deposits, resulting from the 21

  10. Feeding ecology of capelin (Mallotus villosus Müller) in West Greenland waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedeholm, R.; Grønkjær, P.; Rysgaard, Søren

    2012-01-01

    collected along 1500 km of the Greenland west coast, this study aims to provide knowledge on capelin feeding ecology and the role that diet composition and biomass may have in generating the observed latitudinal growth differences in Greenland capelin. In total, 572 stomachs were sampled. The most dominant...... prey by wet weight was euphausiids (61 %) followed by amphipods (18 %) and copepods (10 %). The most common species were Thysanoessa raschii, Themisto libulla, Calanus finmarchicus and Calanus hyperboreus. Copepods dominated in smaller capelin but were replaced by euphausiids in larger fish. A similar...... than in the south, as would be expected with increasing importance of euphausiids. These significant feeding differences along the Greenland west coast are likely impacting capelin growth and condition as they show parallel trends along the same gradient. © 2012 Springer-Verlag....

  11. Geology and assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the West Greenland-East Canada Province, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Moore, Thomas E.; Gautier, Donald L.

    2018-01-05

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently assessed the potential for undiscovered oil and gas resources of the West Greenland-East Canada Province as part of the USGS Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal program. The province lies in the offshore area between western Greenland and eastern Canada and includes Baffin Bay, Davis Strait, Lancaster Sound, and Nares Strait west of, and including, part of Kane Basin. A series of major tectonic events led to the formation of several distinct structural domains that are the geologic basis for defining five assessment units (AU ) in the province, all of which are within the Mesozoic-Cenozoic Composite Total Petroleum System (TPS). Potential petroleum source rocks within the TPS include strata of Ordovician, Lower and Upper Cretaceous, and Paleogene ages. The five AUs defined for this study—the Eurekan Structures AU, Northwest Greenland Rifted Margin AU, Northeast Canada Rifted Margin AU, Baffin Bay Basin AU, and the Greater Ungava Fault Zone AU— encompass the entire province and were assessed for undiscovered, technically recoverable resources. The estimated mean volumes of undiscovered resources for the West GreenlandEast Canada Province are 10.7 billion barrels of oil, 75 trillion cubic feet of gas, and 1.7 billion barrels of natural gas liquids. For the part of the province that is north of the Arctic Circle, the estimated mean volumes of these undiscovered resources are 7.3 billion barrels of oil, 52 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 1.1 billion barrels of natural-gas liquids.

  12. Effect of acidification on an Arctic phytoplankton community from Disko Bay, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoisen, Christina; Riisgaard, Karen; Lundholm, Nina

    2015-01-01

    . Our findings show that coastal phytoplankton from Disko Bay is naturally exposed to pH fluctuations exceeding the experimental pH range used in most ocean acidification studies. We emphasize that studies on ocean acidification should include in situ pH before assumptions on the effect of acidification...... on marine organisms can be made. KEY WORDS: Ocean acidification · Coastal · Arctic phytoplankton · Growth rate · pH · CO2 · DIC......ABSTRACT: Long-term measurements (i.e. months) of in situ pH have not previously been reported from the Arctic; this study shows fluctuations between pH 7.5 and 8.3 during the spring bloom 2012 in a coastal area of Disko Bay, West Greenland. The effect of acidification on phytoplankton from...

  13. Photobiology of sea ice algae during initial spring growth in Kangerlussuaq, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hawes, Ian; Lund-Hansen, Lars Chresten; Sorrell, Brian Keith

    2012-01-01

    We undertook a series of measurements of photophysiological parameters of sea ice algae over 12 days of early spring growth in a West Greenland Fjord, by variable chlorophyll fluorescence imaging. Imaging of the ice–water interface showed the development of ice algae in 0.3–0.4 mm wide brine chan...

  14. Twenty-one years of mass balance observations along the K-transect, West Greenland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Wal, R.S.W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/101899556; Boot, W.; Smeets, C.J.P.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/191522236; Snellen, H.; van den Broeke, M.R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073765643; Oerlemans, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/06833656X

    2012-01-01

    A 21-yr record is presented of surface mass balance measurements along the Ktransect. The series covers the period 1990–2011. Data are available at 8 sites along a transect over an altitude range of 390–1850m at approximately 67 N in West Greenland. The surface mass balance gradient is on average

  15. Melt compositions and processes in the kimberlite provience of southern West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilbeam, Llewellyn; Nielsen, Troels; Waight, Tod Earle

    2011-01-01

    The kimberlite province of southern West Greenland (600- 560Ma) comprises kimberlite sensu stricto on the Archean craton and aillikites on the paleoproterzoic sheild to the North. Carbonatite melt and xenocrystic olivine dominate the kimberlite sensu stricto occurrences of the Manitsoq region [1]...

  16. Vegetation phenology gradients along the west and east coasts of Greenland from 2001 to 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karami, Mojtaba; Hansen, Birger Ulf; Westergaard-Nielsen, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to characterize the spatiotemporal variations of vegetation phenology along latitudinal and altitudinal gradients in Greenland, and to examine local and regional climatic drivers. Time-series from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) were analyzed...... to obtain various phenological metrics for the period 2001–2015. MODIS-derived land surface temperatures were corrected for the sampling biases caused by cloud cover. Results indicate significant differences between West and East Greenland, in terms of both observed phenology during the study period...

  17. Meltwater chemistry and solute export from a Greenland ice sheet catchment, Watson River, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yde, Jacob C.; Knudsen, N. Tvis; Hasholt, Bent

    2014-01-01

    –2010 for the Watson River sector of the GrIS that drains into the fjord Kangerlussuaq. The hydrochemistry is dominated by Ca2+ and HCO3− with a relatively high molar K+/Na+ ratio of 0.6 ± 0.1, typical for meltwaters draining a gneissic lithology. Low molar Ca2+/Na+ and Mg2+/Na+ ratios indicate that weathering....... However, when normalized by discharge the denudation rates are comparable to other Arctic sites. When extrapolating the results from the Watson River catchment to the entire Greenland for 2007–2010, the solute export from Greenland meltwater varied between 7.1 × 106 and 7.8 × 106 tons, whilst the major...

  18. Rapid dynamic thinning events during 1985-2010 on Upernavik Isstrøm, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Kjær, Kurt H.; Korsgaard, Niels Jákup

    , increased ice speed, and a retreat of the calving front. The most recent event coincides with the speedup of several glaciers along the northwest coast of Greenland in 2005, and with changes in the rate of mass loss observed using data from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite......Many glaciers along the southeast and northwest coast of Greenland have accelerated, increasing the ice sheet's contribution to global sea-level rise. Here, we map elevation changes on Upernavik Isstrøm (UI), West Greenland, during 2003-2009 using high-resolution Ice, Cloud and land Elevation...... gravity mission. The first event of increased ice loss could have also taken place along the extended northwest coast. The total dynamic induced ice volume loss on the frontal portion of UI caused by the two events is 45.5 +/- 5.4 km3 (during 1985-2010), while the total melt induced ice volume loss during...

  19. West Greenland ice sheet melt lake observations and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryzgis, G.; Box, J. E.

    2005-12-01

    This study examines the spatial and temporal variability of supraglacial melt lakes over the western ablation zone of the Greenland ice sheet. Based on mid-lake automatic weather station surface energy budget measurements, automatic camera imagery, and inflatable boat measurements, we derive lake volume estimates from daily 250 m MODIS imagery for this region. We investigate the correlation of the timing and location of lake water volume and correlation with local-scale climate anomalies from Polar MM5 regional climate model output. Implications for water supply to melt-induced ice sheet acceleration are discussed.

  20. A new regional high-resolution map of basal and surface topography for the Greenland ice-sheet margin at Paakitsoq, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mottram, R.; Nielsen, C.; Ahlstrøm, A. P.

    2009-01-01

    In 2005 an airborne survey was carried out from a Twin Otter aircraft at Pâkitsup Akuliarusersua (Paakitsoq) near Ilulissat in West Greenland. The survey aimed to measure ice thickness with a 60 MHz cohrent radar and surface elevation with a scanning laser altimeter.......In 2005 an airborne survey was carried out from a Twin Otter aircraft at Pâkitsup Akuliarusersua (Paakitsoq) near Ilulissat in West Greenland. The survey aimed to measure ice thickness with a 60 MHz cohrent radar and surface elevation with a scanning laser altimeter....

  1. Mountain glaciers vs Ice sheet in Greenland - learning from a new monitoring site in West Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abermann, Jakob; van As, Dirk; Wacker, Stefan; Langley, Kirsty

    2017-04-01

    Only 5 out of the 20.000 peripheral glaciers and ice caps surrounding Greenland are currently monitored due to logistical challenges and despite their significance for sea level rise. Large spatial coast-to-icesheet mass and energy balance gradients limit simple upscaling methods from ice-sheet observations, which builds the motivation for this study. We present results from a new mass and energy balance time series at Qasigiannguit glacier (64°09'N; 51°21'W) in Southwest Greenland. Inter-annual variability is discussed and the surface energy balance over two summers is quantified and a ranking of the main drivers performed. We find that short-wave net radiation is by far the most dominant energy source during summer, followed by similar amounts of net longwave radiation and sensible heat, respectively. We then relate these observations to synchronous measurements at similar latitude on an outlet glacier of the ice sheet a mere 100 km away. We find very pronounced horizontal surface mass balance gradients, with generally more positive values closer to the coast. We conclude that despite minor differences of atmospheric parameters (i.e. humidity, radiation, and temperature) the main reason for the strongly different signal is a pronounced winter precipitation gradient that translates in a different duration of ice exposure and through that an albedo gradient. Modelled energy balance gradients converted into mass changes show good agreement to measured surface mass balance gradients and we explore a latitudinal signal of these findings.

  2. Lineament mapping and geological history of the Kangerlussuaq region, southern West Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klint, K.E.S.; Engstroem, J.; Parmenter, A.; Ruskeeniemi, T.; Claesson Liljedahl, L.; Lehtinen, A.; Collaboration: Ministry of Climate, Energy and Building. Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2013-07-01

    How could future ice ages affect deep nuclear waste repositories in crystalline basement rocks? Deep repositories may be affected by a number of glacially induced processes including, but not limited to, (1) fault activation or re-activation and associated seismicity, (2) changing hydraulic and chemical groundwater dynamics and (3) enhanced erosion. Such processes are likely to affect not only man-made barriers in spent fuel repositories such as copper canisters and bentonite clay buffers, but also the rock masses that contain and isolate the repositories. In order to increase our understanding of this problem, an international study (the Greenland Analogue Project) was set up in 2008. The aim of the study was to use crystalline bedrock at the margin of the Inland Ice near Kangerlussuaq airport in West Greenland as an analogue for future nuclear fuel waste repositories affected by glaciation in Fennoscandia and Canada. Accordingly, a wide range of field surveys were conducted for the analogue project (Fig. 1). This paper describes a detailed structural investigation of lineament zones and the establishment of an event succession for fault and fracture zone evolution in central parts of the study area (Figs 1B, 2), as well as an interpretation of the distribution of fracture and fault zones with potentially increased permeability. Three deep holes were drilled in the study area, and instruments were installed in two of them for subsequent down-hole sampling and monitoring of groundwater to a depth of c. 600 m. The cores were used to compare the subsurface fracture patterns with those established on the basis of surface mapping. (Author)

  3. Gravity changes in mid-west Greenland from GOCE gravity model and gradient data using ground and airborne gravity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tscherning, Carl Christian; Herceg, Matija; Fredenslund Levinsen, Joanna

    GOCE TRF (terrestrial reference frame) vertical anomalous gradients (Tzz) from two periods have been used to determine gravity anomalies changes in mid-west Greenland, where a large mass-loss has been detected using GRACE (Fig. 1). As additional data were used the GOCE DIR-3 model and ground...... gravity at the coast on solid rock, where no mass loss is expected. The methods of Least-Squares Collocation (LSC) and the Reduced Point Mass (RPM) methods have been used, however only LSC included the ground data....

  4. Time trends of mercury in feathers of West Greenland birds of prey during 1851-2003

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietz, Rune; Riget, Frank Farsø; Boertmann, David

    2006-01-01

    Temporal trends of mercury (Hg) in West Greenland gyrfalcons, peregrine falcons, and white-tailed eagles were determined over 150 years from 1851 to 2003. Hg was measured in the fifth primary feather. Results showed that Hg increased in the order gyrfalcon (lowest)...) analysis. Of eight time trend analyses (three species and three age groups of which one was missing), seven showed an increase in primary feather concentrations. Of these...

  5. Three recent ice entrapments of Arctic cetaceans in West Greenland and the eastern Canadian High Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MP Heide-Jørgensen

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Three ice entrapments of Monodontids have been reported in the western North Atlantic since 1993. Hunters in Disko Bay, West Greenland, discovered one in March 1994 that included about 150 narwhals (Monodon monoceros. The entrapment occurred during a sudden cold period which caused ice to form rapidly. The trapped whales were subject to hunting, but about 50 of the killed whales could not be retrieved in the ice. The whales were trapped in a small opening in the ice and because of that they would probably have succumbed even if not discovered by hunters. Two entrapments involving white whales or belugas (Delphinapterus leucas occurred in the eastern Canadian Arctic in May 1999; one in Lancaster Sound discovered by polar bear (Ursus maritimus researchers and one in Jones Sound discovered by hunters. The first included one bowhead whale (Balaena mysticetus and about 40 belugas that were being preyed upon by polar bears. The second involved at least 170 belugas, of which about 100 were killed by polar bears and 17 were taken by hunters. The entrapments in Disko Bay and Jones Sound both occurred in areas where entrapments have previously been reported, whereas the one in Lancaster Sound was in a new area.

  6. Suicides in the midnight sun--a study of seasonality in suicides in West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björkstén, Karin Sparring; Bjerregaard, Peter; Kripke, Daniel F

    2005-01-01

    Greenland is the most extreme of human habitats in regard to annual changes in natural light. From being very low, the rate of suicides in Greenland has increased during the past few decades to be among the highest in the world. Several studies have shown seasonality in suicides with spring...... or summer peaks, but this has not been previously shown in Greenland. Official data from 1968 to 1995 from West Greenland were pooled. A significant seasonality in the 833 suicides was found using Rayleigh's test, a peak in June and a trough in the winter. Suicides increased during the period, and reached...... high rates in most age groups, up to 577 per 100,000 person-years in men aged 15-24 years in 1990, and up to 147 per 100,000 person-years in women aged 15-24 years in 1995. Violent methods of suicide were used by 93%. Depression has been reported uncommonly. High alcohol intake and extended periods...

  7. Mapping and classifying the seabed of the West Greenland continental shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gougeon, S.; Kemp, K. M.; Blicher, M. E.; Yesson, C.

    2017-03-01

    Marine benthic habitats support a diversity of marine organisms that are both economically and intrinsically valuable. Our knowledge of the distribution of these habitats is largely incomplete, particularly in deeper water and at higher latitudes. The western continental shelf of Greenland is one example of a deep (more than 500 m) Arctic region with limited information available. This study uses an adaptation of the EUNIS seabed classification scheme to document benthic habitats in the region of the West Greenland shrimp trawl fishery from 60°N to 72°N in depths of 61-725 m. More than 2000 images collected at 224 stations between 2011 and 2015 were grouped into 7 habitat classes. A classification model was developed using environmental proxies to make habitat predictions for the entire western shelf (200-700 m below 72°N). The spatial distribution of habitats correlates with temperature and latitude. Muddy sediments appear in northern and colder areas whereas sandy and rocky areas dominate in the south. Southern regions are also warmer and have stronger currents. The Mud habitat is the most widespread, covering around a third of the study area. There is a general pattern that deep channels and basins are dominated by muddy sediments, many of which are fed by glacial sedimentation and outlets from fjords, while shallow banks and shelf have a mix of more complex habitats. This first habitat classification map of the West Greenland shelf will be a useful tool for researchers, management and conservationists.

  8. The influence of climatic and physiological performance on population dynamics of Mytilus edulis in West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyrring, Jakob; Blicher, Martin; Sejr, Mikael Kristian

    2014-01-01

    data on current distribution and physiological performance of blue mussels in the Arctic is lacking, and knowledge of how “climate” in a broad sense specifically influence population dynamics of this species is unknown. Here, we present data on abundance, age and mortality of blue mussels in West...... Greenland. We supplement our data with physiological measurements on freezing tolerance and aerobic metabolic performance of intertidal specimens. We hereby attempt to identify links between temperature and physiology and how this might translate into population dynamics in this region of the Arctic....... Results show an overall decline in blue mussel abundance along the coast from south to north Greenland. Physiological adaptation and plasticity of blue mussels was found across latitudes spanning from the temperate to the High Arctic region. Combined our results indicate that low ocean temperature per se...

  9. Impact of fine debris on ice melt rates at Russell Glacier, central-west Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Rachel; Linighan, James; Cumming, Alex M. J.

    2017-04-01

    Losses from the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) have increased sharply in recent years, due to accelerated glacier discharge and increased surface melting. In 2012, 99% of the Greenland ice sheet experienced melt, which was exceptional on centennial timescales, but is expected to occur frequently in the future, as climate warms. Ice albedo is a primary control on melt rates and remotely sensed data shows that the GrIS has darkened substantial in recent decades, due to both inorganic and biological material. This has been particularly marked in south- and central-west Greenland and can lead to the development of positive feedbacks. Consequently, it is important to understand the relationship between melt and surface albedo on the GrIS. Here we use a combination of satellite remote sensing and field data to assess the impact of fine debris on melt rates at Russell Glacier, central-west Greenland. Our field data demonstrate that areas with a greater percentage coverage of fine, largely inorganic debris experienced higher melt rates than in areas with a sparse coverage. However, the relationship between melt and debris cover was highly spatially variable. Furthermore, the debris cover evolved substantially over time and we saw marked changes over a period of a few days. Using ASTER imagery, we show that the spatial extent of debris has expanded markedly in this section of the GrIS during the last decade, which could substantially accelerate melting. However, the complex and variable relationship between debris cover and melt rates highlights the need for further research, in order to accurately forecast its impact on GrIS melt rates.

  10. Automated Ground-based Time-lapse Camera Monitoring of West Greenland ice sheet outlet Glaciers: Challenges and Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Y.; Box, J. E.; Balog, J.; Lewinter, A.

    2008-12-01

    Monitoring Greenland outlet glaciers using remotely sensed data has drawn a great attention in earth science communities for decades and time series analysis of sensory data has provided important variability information of glacier flow by detecting speed and thickness changes, tracking features and acquiring model input. Thanks to advancements of commercial digital camera technology and increased solid state storage, we activated automatic ground-based time-lapse camera stations with high spatial/temporal resolution in west Greenland outlet and collected one-hour interval data continuous for more than one year at some but not all sites. We believe that important information of ice dynamics are contained in these data and that terrestrial mono-/stereo-photogrammetry can provide theoretical/practical fundamentals in data processing along with digital image processing techniques. Time-lapse images over periods in west Greenland indicate various phenomenon. Problematic is rain, snow, fog, shadows, freezing of water on camera enclosure window, image over-exposure, camera motion, sensor platform drift, and fox chewing of instrument cables, and the pecking of plastic window by ravens. Other problems include: feature identification, camera orientation, image registration, feature matching in image pairs, and feature tracking. Another obstacle is that non-metric digital camera contains large distortion to be compensated for precise photogrammetric use. Further, a massive number of images need to be processed in a way that is sufficiently computationally efficient. We meet these challenges by 1) identifying problems in possible photogrammetric processes, 2) categorizing them based on feasibility, and 3) clarifying limitation and alternatives, while emphasizing displacement computation and analyzing regional/temporal variability. We experiment with mono and stereo photogrammetric techniques in the aide of automatic correlation matching for efficiently handling the enormous

  11. Warble infestations by Hypoderma tarandi (Diptera; Oestridae) recorded for the first time in West Greenland muskoxen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelsson, Fredrik; Nejsum, Peter; Raundrup, Katrine; Hansen, Tina Vicky Alstrup; Kapel, Christian Moliin Outzen

    2013-12-01

    In the northern hemisphere, Caribou (Rangifer spp.) populations are known to be infested with the skin-penetrating ectoparasite, Hypoderma tarandi (Diptera; Oestridae). Although regarded as host specific, H. tarandi has been reported from other species, and has become of increasing concern as a zoonosis infecting humans. In February 2012, concurrent with the hunting of muskoxen, we examined carcasses for muscle and tissue parasites, and recorded warble larvae infestations. DNA extracted from samples of larvae was amplified targeting 579 bp of the COI gene, and subsequently sequenced, to be confirmed as H. tarandi. Infestation by oestrid flies has not previously been reported in muskoxen in West Greenland.

  12. Warble infestations by Hypoderma tarandi (Diptera; Oestridae) recorded for the first time in West Greenland muskoxen☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelsson, Fredrik; Nejsum, Peter; Raundrup, Katrine; Hansen, Tina Vicky Alstrup; Kapel, Christian Moliin Outzen

    2013-01-01

    In the northern hemisphere, Caribou (Rangifer spp.) populations are known to be infested with the skin-penetrating ectoparasite, Hypoderma tarandi (Diptera; Oestridae). Although regarded as host specific, H. tarandi has been reported from other species, and has become of increasing concern as a zoonosis infecting humans. In February 2012, concurrent with the hunting of muskoxen, we examined carcasses for muscle and tissue parasites, and recorded warble larvae infestations. DNA extracted from samples of larvae was amplified targeting 579 bp of the COI gene, and subsequently sequenced, to be confirmed as H. tarandi. Infestation by oestrid flies has not previously been reported in muskoxen in West Greenland. PMID:24533338

  13. The pollen stratigraphy of late Quaternary lake sediments of South-West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelly, Michael; Funder, Svend Visby

    1974-01-01

    Pollen analysis and radiocarbon dating of lake sediment cores from four localities in the Frederikshab district, South-West Greenland, provide a chronology of vegetation changes in the area since c. 10000 B.P. An initial pioneer phase with the early development of some heath communities is followed...... composition of the vegetation however is influenced by immigration phenomena, with the appearance of many species lagging behind the attainment of their climatic thresholds. Detailed consideration is given to the possibility of Alnus crispa being present as a scrub component during the climatic optimum....

  14. Mapping ice-bonded permafrost with electrical methods in Sisimiut, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingeman-Nielsen, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Permafrost delineation and thickness determination is of great importance in engineering related projects in arctic areas. In this paper, 2D geoelectrical measurements are applied and evaluated for permafrost mapping in an area in West Greenland. Multi-electrode resistivity profiles (MEP) have been...... of horizontal ice-lenses in the frozen clay deposits. It is concluded that where the resistivity method perform well for lateral permafrost mapping, great care should be taken in evaluating permafrost thickness based on 2D resistivity profiles alone. Additional information from boreholes or other geophysical...

  15. Estimating ice-melange properties with repeat UAV surveys over Store Glacier, West Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toberg, Nick; Ryan, Johnny; Christoffersen, Poul; Snooke, Neal; Todd, Joe; Hubbard, Alun

    2016-04-01

    In the past decade, tidewater outlet glaciers of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) have thinned and retreated when compared to the 1980s when the ice sheet was in a state of dynamic balance. With a growing amount of ice discharged into the sea by tidewater glaciers as well as more ice melting on the surface, the Greenland Ice Sheet has become the single largest cryospheric source of global sea level rise. Today, the ice sheet causes sea level rise of 1 mm per year, highlighting the need to understand the ice sheet's response to climate change. Atmospheric warming will inevitably continue to increase surface meltwater production, but the dynamic response, which includes hundreds of fast-flowing tidewater glaciers, is largely unknown. To develop new understanding of ice sheet dynamics, we investigated the mechanism whereby icebergs break off tidewater glaciers and form a proglacial ice melange. This melange is rigid in winter when sea ice and friction along the sidewalls of the fjord, or even at the sea floor, hold it together. The result is a resistive force, which reduces the rate of iceberg calving when the ice melange is rigid and is lost when the melange disappears in the summer. From early May to late July 2014, we launched unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) from a basecamp on a bluff overlooking the calving front of Store Glacier, a 5 km wide tidewater glacier flowing into Uummannaq Fjord in West Greenland. The Skywalker X8 UAVs had a wing-span of 2.1m and a payload containing a high resolution camera, an autopilot system and a GPS data logger. We generated almost 70,000 georeferenced images during 63 sorties over the glacier during a 10 week field season starting 13 May 2014. The images were used to construct orhorectified mosaics and digital elevation models of the proglacial melange with Photoscan structure-from-motion software. The imagery and the DEMs were analysed statistically to understand the spatial characteristics of the ice melange. By combining the

  16. Observations of runoff and sediment and dissolved loads from the Greenland Ice Sheet at Kangerlussuaq, West Greenland, 2007 to 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasholt, Bent; Mikkelsen, Andreas Peter Bech; Nielsen, Morten Holtegaard

    2012-01-01

    Observations from 2007 to 2010 of runoff, sediment and solute delivery from a segment of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) and the proglacial landscape draining into the fjord at Kangerlussuaq are presented. The observations include at least three jökulhlaups and extreme recordings from 2010...... previously published for 2007 and 2008. The average effective erosion from the catchment was 0.28 mm (min. 0.18 and max. 0.45 mm). The erosion is larger than indicated from most other locations along the GrIS, but in the same order of magnitude as erosion in other glaciated areas at the same latitude, e.......g. Norway. The sandur in the proglacial area acts as a sediment sink for a lot of the sediments from the GrIS....

  17. Occurrence of anisakid nematodes in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and Greenland cod (Gadus ogac), West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritsen, Kim N.; Hedeholm, Rasmus; Schack, Henriette B.

    2010-01-01

    larvae (L3) of three anisakid species were found, including Contracaecum osculatum (Rudolphi, 1802), Anisakis simplex (Rudolphi, 1809) and Hysterothylacium aduncum (Rudolphi, 1802). Molecular identification by PCR-RFLP indicated the presence of A. simplex s.s. and the sibling species C. osculatum B and C...

  18. Mesozooplankton biomass data from Disko Bay, West Greenland, 2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    . During sampling from the ice, mesozooplankton was collected using a modified WP-2 net (45 µm) equipped with a closing mechanism (Hydrobios). Samples were collected in 3 depth strata (0-50, 50-100, and 100-150 m). During ship-based sampling, mesozooplankton was collected with a multinet (50 µm) equipped...... with a flow meter (Multinet, Hydrobios type midi), and 2 additional depth strata (150-200m and 200-250 m) were included. In addition to the seasonal study one diurnal investigation with sampling every 6 h was conducted from 29 April at 12:00 h to 30 April 30 at 12:00 h. Samples were immediately preserved...

  19. Mesozooplankton size data from Disko Bay, West Greenland, 2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    . During sampling from the ice, mesozooplankton was collected using a modified WP-2 net (45 µm) equipped with a closing mechanism (Hydrobios). Samples were collected in 3 depth strata (0-50, 50-100, and 100-150 m). During ship-based sampling, mesozooplankton was collected with a multinet (50 µm) equipped...... with a flow meter (Multinet, Hydrobios type midi), and 2 additional depth strata (150-200m and 200-250 m) were included. In addition to the seasonal study one diurnal investigation with sampling every 6 h was conducted from 29 April at 12:00 h to 30 April 30 at 12:00 h. Samples were immediately preserved...

  20. Mesozooplankton abundance data from Disko Bay, West Greenland, 2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    . During sampling from the ice, mesozooplankton was collected using a modified WP-2 net (45 µm) equipped with a closing mechanism (Hydrobios). Samples were collected in 3 depth strata (0-50, 50-100, and 100-150 m). During ship-based sampling, mesozooplankton was collected with a multinet (50 µm) equipped...... with a flow meter (Multinet, Hydrobios type midi), and 2 additional depth strata (150-200m and 200-250 m) were included. In addition to the seasonal study one diurnal investigation with sampling every 6 h was conducted from 29 April at 12:00 h to 30 April 30 at 12:00 h. Samples were immediately preserved...

  1. Deglacial History and Paleoceanography of the Umanak System, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sheldon, Christina; Jennings, Anne; Andrews, John

    2012-01-01

    of the Umanak Ice Stream (UIS) from its greatest extent on the shelf edge to the inner shelf. Evidence used to determine changes in environmental conditions as the core sites transitioned from subglacial to ice-proximal to marine conditions after the LGM include foraminiferal assemblage analyses, lithofacies...... changes, mineralogy and IRD. The sediment sequence in the cores is comprised of basal diamictons that represent either glacigenic debris flows or glacial till that transition to stratified and massive pebbly mud to an upper bioturbated unit. Radiocarbon dates on foraminifers and molluscs constrain......-distal conditions were established on the mid-shelf by 11,350 cal kyr BP (VC43). By 8480 cal yr BP, the UIS had retreated from the inner shelf. Foraminiferal assemblages with distinct Atlantic Water associations are found in the bioturbated mud unit 18 cm above the glacigenic debris flow deposit in VC46...

  2. Reconstructing the late Holocene expansion of mountain ice caps in west-central Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briner, J. P.; Schweinsberg, A.; Miller, G. H.; Bennike, O.; Lifton, N. A.

    2013-12-01

    The retreat of glaciers is one of the most profound visual manifestations of global warming. Yet without the longer-term context of glacier history, the magnitude of retreat observed today is less meaningful. We are reconstructing the late Holocene history of mountain ice caps in west-central Greenland to determine: 1) the precedence of their current size, 2) the pattern of Neoglaciation across the northwestern North Atlantic, and 3) how their record of Neoglaciation compares with that of the adjacent Greenland Ice Sheet. Our chronology is built on radiocarbon ages from in situ surface moss emerging from receding ice cap margins. We assert that the moss died during ice cap expansion across tundra surfaces, and has since been entombed beneath non-erosive ice cap sectors that we strategically target. Although this project is in its beginning stages, two initial radiocarbon ages from in situ moss that recently were exposed in front of Lyngmarksbræen, a plateau ice cap on southern Disko island, are 3580-3700 and 3450-3570 cal yr BP. The moss became ice free sometime during the summer in which they were collected, and historical imagery shows the sites are tens of meters behind the ice margin in August 23, 2004. The radiocarbon ages indicate that Lyngmarksbræen has not been as small as it is today since ~3500 yr ago. Other age constraints on Neoglaciation from the Disko Bugt region are similar to the ages we obtained here: reworked marine fauna in Greenland Ice Sheet moraines indicate ice sheet growth at this time, and relative sea level records indicate that landscape submergence (due to ice sheet growth) initiated around this time. Furthermore, ice cap melt records demonstrate that ice caps in this sector of the Arctic are melting more today than they have in the past 4000 years. Additional ages from multiple ice cap margins on Disko island, the Nuussuaq peninsula and various locations in the Uummannaq region will be presented. This dataset of ice cap expansion in

  3. Bacterial communities hitching a hike - a guide to the river system of the Red river, Disko Island, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauptmann, Aviaja Zenia Edna Lyberth; Markussen, Thor N.; Stibal, Marek

    Glacier melting and altered precipitation patterns influence Arctic freshwater and coastal ecosystems. Arctic rivers are central to Arctic water ecosystems linking glacier meltwaters and precipitation with the ocean through transport of particulate matter and microorganisms. However, the impact...... of different water sources on the microbial communities in Arctic rivers and estuaries remains unknown. In this study we used 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing to assess a small river and its estuary on Disko Island, West Greenland (69°N). We describe the bacterial community through a river into the estuary......, including communities originating in a glacier and a proglacial lake. Our results show that water from the glacier and lake transports distinct communities into the river in terms of diversity and community composition. Bacteria of terrestrial origin were among the dominating OTUs in the main river, while...

  4. Drowning of a nearshore peat-forming environment, Atane Formation (Cretaceous) at Asuk, West Greenland: sedimentology, organic petrography and geochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bojesen-Koefoed, J.A.; Dam, G.; Nytoft, H.P.; Pedersen, G.K.; Petersen, H.I. [Geological Survey of Denmark & Greenland, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2001-07-01

    The Cretaceous Atane Formation, Nuussuaq basin, West Greenland, is dominated by non-marine sandstones, shales, coals, and delta-front deposits. Marine incursions are frequent, however, and near Asuk, Disko, a coal seam is encased in shallow marine deposits. Notable changes in both petrography and geochemistry occur through the seam. At the base and top of the seam, the proportions of inertinite and liptinite increase at the expense of the huminite maceral group, and within all maceral groups proportions of detrital macerals increase. Geochemical changes include systematic variations in TOC, TS, n-alkane, acyclic isoprenoid, aromatic hydrocarbon, and di- and triterpenoid biomarkers. The variations reflect diagenetic changes related to the availability of clay, as well as changes in depositional environment going from shallow marine conditions.

  5. Ice-margin and meltwater dynamics during the mid-Holocene in the Kangerlussuaq area of west Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrivick, Jonathan L.; Yde, Jacob; Russell, Andrew J.

    2017-01-01

    Land-terminating parts of the west Greenland ice sheet have exhibited highly dynamic meltwater regimes over the last few decades including episodes of extremely intense runoff driven by ice surface ablation, ponding of meltwater in an increasing number and size of lakes, and sudden outburst floods...... analysis of the landforms reveals a mid-Holocene land-terminating ice margin that was predominantly cold-based. This ice margin underwent sustained active retreat but with multiple minor advances. Over c.1000years meltwater runoff became impounded within numerous and extensive proglacial lakes...... perched fans and deltas and perched braidplain terraces. Overall, meltwater sourcing, routing and the proglacial runoff regime during the mid-Holocene in this land-terminating part of the ice sheet was spatiotemporally variable, but in a manner very similar to that of the present day....

  6. Ocean forcing of Ice Sheet retreat in central west Greenland from LGM to the early Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Anne E.; Andrews, John T.; Ó Cofaigh, Colm; Onge, Guillaume St.; Sheldon, Christina; Belt, Simon T.; Cabedo-Sanz, Patricia; Hillaire-Marcel, Claude

    2017-08-01

    Three radiocarbon dated sediment cores from trough mouth fans on the central west Greenland continental slope were studied to determine the timing and processes of Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS) retreat from the shelf edge during the last deglaciation and to test the role of ocean forcing (i.e. warm ocean water) thereon. Analyses of lithofacies, quantitative x-ray diffraction mineralogy, benthic foraminiferal assemblages, the sea-ice biomarker IP25, and δ18 O of the planktonic foraminifera Neogloboquadrina pachyderma sinistral from sediments in the interval from 17.5-10.8 cal ka BP provide consistent evidence for ocean and ice sheet interactions during central west Greenland (CWG) deglaciation. The Disko and Uummannaq ice streams both retreated from the shelf edge after the last glacial maximum (LGM) under the influence of subsurface, warm Atlantic Water. The warm subsurface water was limited to depths below the ice stream grounding lines during the LGM, when the GIS terminated as a floating ice shelf in a sea-ice covered Baffin Bay. The deeper Uummannaq ice stream retreated first (ca. 17.1 cal ka BP), while the shallower Disko ice stream retreated at ca. 16.2 cal ka BP. The grounding lines were protected from accelerating mass loss (calving) by a buttressing ice shelf and by landward shallowing bathymetry on the outer shelf. Calving retreat was delayed until ca. 15.3 cal ka BP in the Uummannaq Trough and until 15.1 cal ka BP in the Disko Trough, during another interval of ocean warming. Instabilities in the Laurentide, Innuitian and Greenland ice sheets with outlets draining into northern Baffin Bay periodically released cold, fresh water that enhanced sea ice formation and slowed GIS melt. During the Younger Dryas, the CWG records document strong cooling, lack of GIS meltwater, and an increase in iceberg rafted material from northern Baffin Bay. The ice sheet remained in the cross-shelf troughs until the early Holocene, when it retreated rapidly by calving and strong

  7. Modeling of ocean-induced ice melt rates of five west Greenland glaciers over the past two decades

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rignot, E.; Xu, Y.; Menemenlis, D.; Mouginot, J.; Scheuchl, B.; Li, X.; Morlighem, M.; Seroussi, H.; van den Broeke, M.; Fenty, I.; Cai, C.; An, L.; de Fleurian, B.

    2016-01-01

    High-resolution, three-dimensional simulations from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model ocean model are used to calculate the subaqueous melt rate of the calving faces of Umiamako, Rinks, Kangerdlugssup, Store, and Kangilerngata glaciers, west Greenland, from 1992 to

  8. Regional and inter annual patterns of heavy metals, organochlorines and stable isotopes in narwhals (Monodon monoceros) from West Greenland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietz, R.; Riget, F.; Hobson, K.A.; Heide-Jorgensen, M.P.; Moller, P.; Cleemann, M.; Boer, de J.; Glasius, M.

    2004-01-01

    Samples of 150 narwhals obtained in different years from two West Greenland areas, Avanersuaq and Uummannaq, were compared for concentrations of and regional differences in heavy metals and organochlorines and stable-carbon and nitrogen isotopes. Cadmium, Hg, and Se concentrations increased in the

  9. Age and sex distributions in the catches of belugas, Delphinapterus leucas , in West Greenland and in western Russia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heide-Jørgensen, M.P.; Lockyer, C.

    2001-01-01

    for beluga populations in the White and Kara seas and in Alaska for comparable age truncations. Since the exploitation levels are much Lower in these areas the low apparent survival rate from West Greenland strongly supports the evidence of a population decline. Colour change from grey to white occurs...

  10. Remnants of early Archean hydrothermal methane and brines in pillow-brecia from Isua Greenstone belt, West Greenland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Touret, J.L.R.

    2003-01-01

    Fluid inclusions containing high-density methane and saline waters (brines), associated with carbonates, have been found in undeformed, annealed quartz-bearing vesicles from pillow-breccia at Isua (West Greenland). Massive quartz veins cementing the pillow fragments contain the same type of

  11. Horizontal and vertical dynamics of zooplankton and larval fish communities during mid-summer in Disko Bay, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Peter; Nielsen, Torkel Gissel; Hansen, Benni Winding

    2015-01-01

    Disko Bay is a highly productive inlet at the border between high- and low-arctic sectors of west Greenland. The physical/chemical conditions in the bay have changed during recent decades, specifically during an inflow event in 1996–1997 that led to increased deep-water temperatures. To further...

  12. Recurring dynamically induced thinning during 1985 to 2010 on Upernavik Isstrøm, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Kjaer, K.H.; Korsgaard, N.J.

    2013-01-01

    Many glaciers along the southeast and northwest coasts of Greenland have accelerated, increasing the ice sheet's contribution to global sea-level rise. In this article, we map elevation changes on Upernavik Isstrøm (UI), West Greenland, during 2003to 2009 using high-resolution ice, cloud and land...... characterized by a rapid retreat of the calving front, increased ice speed, and lowering of the ice surface. The first period occurred before 1991, whereas the latter occurred during 2005 to 2009. Analyses of air and sea-surface temperature suggest a combination of relatively warm air and ocean water...... as a potential trigger for the dynamically induced ice loss. We estimate a total catchment-wide ice-mass loss of UI caused by the two events of 72.3 ± 15.8 Gt during 1985 to 2010, whereas the total melt-induced ice-mass loss during this same period is 19.8 ± 2.8 Gt. Thus, 79% of the total ice-mass loss of the UI...

  13. Multi-decadal and seasonal variability of dust observations in West Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullard, Joanna E.; Mockford, Tom

    2017-04-01

    Since the early 1900s expedition records from west Greenland have reported local dust storms. The Kangerlussuaq region, near the inland ice, is dry (mean annual precipitation snow-free days per year. The main local dust sources are active, proglacial outwash plains although reworking of loess deposits may also be important. This paper presents an analysis of 70-years of dust storm observations (1945-2015) based on WMO weather codes 6 (dust haze), 7 (raised dust or sand) and 9 (distant or past dust storm) and associated wind data. The 70-year average number of dust observations days is 5 per year but variable ranging from 0 observations to 23 observations in 1985. Over the past 7 decades the number of dust days has increased from 75 in 1995-2004 and 2005-2015. The seasonality of dust observations has remained consistent throughout most of the period. Dust days occur all year round but are most frequent in May-June and September-October and are associated with minimum snow cover and glacial meltwater-driven sediment supply to the outwash plains during spring and fall flood events. Wind regime is bimodal dominated by katabatic winds from the northeast, which are strongest and most frequent during winter months (Nov-Jan), with less frequent, southwesterly winds generated by Atlantic storms mostly confined to spring (May, June). The southwesterly winds are those most likely to transport dust onto the Greenland ice sheet.

  14. Ice-dammed lake drainage in west Greenland: Drainage pattern and implications on ice flow and bedrock motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Kristian Kjellerup; Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Bjørk, Anders

    2017-01-01

    Ice-dammed lakes drain frequently in Greenland, but the impacts of these events differ between sites. Here we study the quasi-cyclic behavior of the ~40 km2 Lake Tininnilik in west Greenland and its impact on ice flow and crustal deformation. Data reveal rapid drainage of 1.83 ± 0.17 km3 of water...... of surface loading in addition to ice mass change, when assessing glacial isostatic adjustment or elastic rebound using geodetic data. Moreover, the results illustrates a linkage between subglacial discharge and ice surface velocity, important for assessing ice flux, and thus mass balance, in a future...

  15. Antler possession by west Greenland female caribou in relation to population characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning Thing

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available The frequency of antlerless adult female caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus was studied in four separate populations in west Greenland. Between the herds antlerlessness varied from 21% to 79%. An inverse relationship between winter range quality and percentage of unantlered cows is demonstrated. Relationship between calf percentage and maternal antler status was studied in one population and antlerless cows showed higher reproductive rate than antlered ones. In another population antlerless cows were almost absent outside the calving area. Calves of antlerless mothers were more susceptible to diseases and had significantly higher summer mortality than other calves, 42% and 27% respectively. The relative importance of factors influencing antler development under various environmental conditons are assessed and a close relationship between antlerlessness, physical condition, lactation, and length of period between calving and midsummer is discussed.

  16. Marine meiofauna, carbon and nitrogen mineralization in sandy and soft sediments of Disko Bay, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rysgaard, S.; Christensen, P.B.; Sørensen, Martin Vinther

    2000-01-01

    layers of the sediment. Algal photosynthetic activity and nitrogen uptake reduced nitrogen effluxes and denitrification rates. Sulfate reduction was the most important pathway for carbon mineralization in the sediments of the shallow-water station. In contrast, high bottom-water NO3- concentrations...... and was, together with organotrophic O-2 respiration, the most important pathway for carbon mineralization within these sediments. The obtained process rates were comparable to mineralization rates from much warmer localities, suggesting that benthic mineralization in arctic marine environments......Organic carbon mineralization was studied in a shallow-water (4 m), sandy sediment and 2 comparatively deep-water (150 and 300 m), soft sediments in Disko Bay, West Greenland. Benthic microalgae inhabiting the shallow-water locality significantly affected diurnal O-2 conditions within the surface...

  17. Using reflection seismics to identify and monitor the basal conditions of Russell Glacier South West Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstede, Coen; Kleiner, Thomas; Bondzio, Johannes; Eisen, Olaf; Wilhelms, Frank; Bohleber, Pascal; Fritzsche, Diedrich; Hubbard, Alun

    2015-04-01

    Russell Glacier is a land terminating glacier in South West Greenland. Survey site SHR lies at several kilometers from the terminus and is closely monitored. In recent years in Summer months, site SHR has seen unusual high ice velocities of up to 400m/a which have been linked to increased Summer melt. To capture the probably changing basal conditions of Russell Glacier at SHR we carried out two seismic surveys at site SHR, one in September 2013 at the end of the melt season and one in May 2014 at the start of the melt season. The seismic data were recorded using a 300m snow streamer and explosives. The data reveal an ice thickness of about 550m and 30 to 40m thick accreted subglacial sediments with varying degrees of water saturation in both ice and sediment. We speculate the increased ice velocity is caused by sediments that become temporarily liquefied in the Summer months.

  18. Contamination of arctic Fjord sediments by Pb-Zn mining at Maarmorilik in central West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perner, Kerstin; Leipe, Thomas; Dellwig, O

    2010-01-01

    This study focuses on heavy metal contamination of arctic sediments from a small Fjord system adjacent to the Pb-Zn "Black Angel" mine (West Greenland) to investigate the temporal and spatial development of contamination and to provide baseline levels before the mines re-opening in January 2009....... For this purpose we collected multi-cores along a transect from Affarlikassaa Fjord, which received high amounts of tailings from 1973 to 1990, to the mouth of Qaumarujuk Fjord. Along with radiochemical dating by Pb-210 and Cs-137, geochemical analyses of heavy metals (e.g. As, Cd, Hg, Pb, and Zn) were carried out....... Maximum contents were found at 12 cm depth in Affarlikassaa. After 17 years the mine last closed, specific local hydrographic conditions continue to disperse heavy metal enriched material derived from the Affarlikassaa into Qaumarujuk. Total Hg profiles from multi-cores along the transect clearly...

  19. A statistical evaluation of the design and precision of the shrimp trawl survey off West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folmer, Ole; Pennington, M.

    2000-01-01

    Stocks of Pandalus borealis off West Greenland have been assessed using a research trawl survey since 1988. The survey has used a design of randomly placed stations, stratified ton depth data where available, using small blocks elsewhere), with sampling effort proportional to stratum area. In some...... years, a two-stage adaptive sampling scheme was used to place more stations into strata with large first-stage variation in catches. The design of the survey was reviewed in 1998. Modifications in survey design suggested were to shorten tow duration, to pool strata so that effort could be allocated more...... efficiently, to put a higher proportion of stations in high- density areas and to abandon two-stage sampling. All these changes were implemented for the 1998 survey, except that tow duration was reduced to 30 min at 25% of the stations. To analyze the-efficiency of the present survey design, various...

  20. Magnetotelluric investigation in West Greenland - considering the polar electrojet, ocean and fjords

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritsen, Nynne Louise Berthou

    data originating from other sources than the plane wave by removing incoherent noise between stations and selecting time periods from an eigenvalue criteria. It is successful for periods below 55 s, but has to undergo further investigation at longer periods. The two processing techniques show similar......A magnetotelluric survey has been conducted in North West Greenland, with the purpose of investigating the subsurface. The results of two processing techniques are presented, a single station robust processing and a multiple station processing. The multiple station processing tries to eliminate...... results, however the multiple station technique improves the data quality around 1 s compared to the single station technique. Different challenges are connected with the survey location, where ocean and fjord systems have a large impact on the transferfunctions. A 3D model study of the impact of fjords...

  1. The effect of sea-ice loss on beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) in West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heide-Jørgensen, M.P.; Laidre, K.L.; Simon, Malene Juul

    2009-01-01

    of ca. 125 000 km2. The abundance of belugas was 10 595 (95% confidence interval 4904-24 650). The largest abundance was found at the northern part of Store Hellefiske Bank, at the eastern edge of the Baffin Bay pack ice, a pattern similar to that found in eight systematic surveys conducted since 1981....... A clear relationship between decreasing sea-ice cover and increasing offshore distance of beluga sightings was established from all previous surveys, suggesting that belugas expand their distribution westward as new areas on the banks of West Greenland open up earlier in spring with reduced sea......-ice coverage or early annual ice recession. This is in contrast to the relatively confined distribution of belugas near the coast in limited open areas in the early 1980s, when sea-ice cover was greater. However, the effects of the changes in coastal availability of belugas can also be observed...

  2. Paleomagnetism of Eocene Talerua Member Lavas on Hareøen Island, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, N.; Schmidt, Anne G.; Riisager, P.

    2005-01-01

    in the West Greenland flood volcanic province. Rock magnetic experiments and microprobe analysis show that the dominant magnetic mineral in all studied lavas is titanomagnetite that has experienced variable amounts of high temperature deuteric oxidation as well as low temperature hydro-thermal oxidation....... Based on detailed demagnetisation experiments, well-defined paleomagnetic site-mean directions were isolated from all 19 lavas. The composite profile contains two magnetic polarity zones suggesting a maximum duration of Talerua Member volcanism of ~1.4 Myr. After grouping flows indicating the same......The results of a palaeomagnetic sampling carried out along two vertical profiles (altogether 19 lavaflows, 126 samples) covering the entire stratigraphy of the Talerua Member lavas (~39 Myr old) that outcrop on the island Hareøen are presented and represent some of the youngest volcanism...

  3. High basal melt rates observed on Store Glacier, West Greenland, using phase-sensitive FMCW radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, T. J.; Christoffersen, P.; Nicholls, K. W.; Lok, L. B.; Doyle, S. H.; Hubbard, B. P.; Stewart, C.; Hofstede, C. M.; Bougamont, M. H.; Todd, J.; Brennan, P. V.; Hubbard, A.

    2016-12-01

    The Greenland ice sheet is losing mass, and is currently contributing 1 mm/year to global sea level rise. The large majority of these changes can be attributed to the recent acceleration in flow of marine-terminating outlet glaciers within the last several decades. Such fast ice flow is characterised by ice deformation, as well as basal motion. However, there are few direct observations of either of these contributing mechanisms due to the difficulty of accessing the subglacial environment. In particular, although basal melt rates have been measured on ice shelves for decades, there exist almost no equivalent observations for grounded ice sheets. We present the first time series of directly-measured rates of basal melting at the bed of Store Glacier, a major outlet glacier flowing into Uummannaq Fjord in West Greenland. The measurements were obtained using a phase-sensitive, frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW) radar system installed 30 km upflow of the calving terminus at a location where the surface velocity of the glacier is 700 m/year. Radar data were recorded every 4 hours from 26 July to 11 December 2014. The same site was used to instrument 610-m-deep boreholes drilled to the bed as part of the Subglacial Access and Fast Ice research Experiment (SAFIRE). With internal and basal reflector ranges captured at high spatial (millimetre) and temporal (hourly) resolutions, we obtained a unique, 6-month-long time series of ice deformation and basal melting coincident with englacial and subglacial borehole measurements. Here, we report sustained basal melting of 3 m/year during winter, and maxima of 20 m/year during summer when basal motion is enhanced by surface water delivered to the bed. The lower, but more constant rate of winter basal melting is likely to be driven by frictional heat generated from basal sliding. These discoveries indicate that basal melting beneath Greenland's fast flowing outlet glaciers is considerably higher than basal melting reported

  4. Size and trends of the bowhead whale, beluga and narwhal stocks wintering off West Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MP Heide-Jørgensen

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available To assess the size and trends of the abundance of the bowhead whale (Balaena mysticetus, the beluga, or white whale (Delphinapterus leucas, and the narwhal (Monodon monoceros visual aerial surveys were conducted in West Greenland in March 1998 and 1999. An estimated 49 bowhead whales (95% CI: 13 to 188 were present at the surface in 1998. Data from land-based observations enabled correction for bowhead whales that were not available at the surface to be seen during the survey. By applying a rounded average of 80% (SE=3 for submergence an estimate of 246 bowhead whales (95% CI: 62 to 978 in 1998 was obtained. The 76 and 47 sightings of beluga pods in 1998 and 1999, respectively, had distributions similar to those of previous surveys with the highest concentration at the northern edge of the northern part of Store Hellefiskebanke. No belugas were seen in the southernmost area between Maniitsoq and Paamiut. The index estimate of the abundance of belugas comparable with previous surveys was 929 (95% CI: 563 to 1,533 in 1998 and 735 (95% CI: 436 to 1,239 in 1999. When analysing the sightings as a line-transect survey and correcting for whales that were either submerged or at the surface but missed by the observers an estimated 7,941 (95% CI: 3,650 to 17,278 belugas wintered in West Greenland in 1998-1999. The uncorrected estimate of narwhal abundance was 524 (95% CI: 214 to 1,284 and correcting for the same biases as for the belugas gives a total abundance of 2,861 (95% CI: 954 to 8,578 narwhals in 1998-1999.

  5. Precambrian crustal evolution and Cretaceous–Palaeogene faulting in West Greenland: Evolution of Neoarchaean supracrustal belts at the northern margin of the North Atlantic Craton, West Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stensgaard, Bo Møller

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The Archaean North Atlantic Craton of West Greenland collided at c. 1.9 Ga with a lesser-known Archaean craton to the north, to form the Nagssugtoqidian orogen. The Palaeoproterozoic metamorphic grade and strain intensity decrease northward through the orogen, allowing investigation of the reworked Archaean components in its northern part. Two Archaean supracrustal belts in this region – the Ikamiut and Kangilinaaq belts – are investigated here using field mapping, aeromagnetic data, zircon geochronology, and geochemistry. Both belts comprise quartzo-feldspathic and pelitic metasedimentary rocks, amphibolite, and minor calc-silicate rocks, anorthosite and ultramafic rocks. Pb-Pb and U-Pb dating of detrital zircons and host orthogneisses suggest deposition at c. 2800 Ma (Kangilinaaq belt and after 2740 Ma (Ikamiut belt; both belts have zircons with Neoarchaean metamorphic rims. Metasedimentary rocks and orthogneisses at Ikamiut share similar steep REE signatures with strong LREE enrichment, consistent with local derivation of the sediment and deposition directly onto or proximal to the regional orthogneiss precursors. Zircon age data from Kangilinaaq indicate both local and distal sources for the sediment there. Geochemical data for Kangilinaaq amphibolites indicate bimodal, mixed felsic–mafic source rocks with island-arc basaltic affinities, consistent with a shelf or arc setting. Both belts experienced a similar tectono-metamorphic history involving Neoarchaean amphibolite facies peak metamorphism at c. 2740–2700 Ma, possibly due to continued emplacement of tonalitic and granodioritic magmas. Nagssugtoqidian lower amphibolite facies metamorphism at c. 1850 Ma was associated with development of the large-scale F2 folds and shear zones that control the present outcrop pattern. The observed differences in the sources of the Kangilinaaq and Ikamiut belts and their shared post-Archaean history suggest they were formed in different

  6. Neoglacial and historical glacier changes around Kangersuneq fjord in southern West Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weidick, Anker

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Nuup Kangerlua region in southern West Greenland became eglaciated in the early Holocene and by the mid-Holocene, the margin of the Inland Ice was located east of its present position. Discussion of late Holocene changes in the frontal positions of outlets relies on descriptions, paintings, photographs, maps, data from investigations of Norse ruins, aerial photographs and satellite images.The Kangiata Nunaata Sermia glacier system has receded over 20 km during the last two centuries, indicating a marked response to climatic fluctuations during and since the Little Ice Age (LIA. A large advance between 1700 and 1800 was followed by rapid recession in the first half of the 1800s. Limited data from c. 1850–1920 indicate that although the long-term position of the glacier front remained c. 10–12 km behind the LIA maximum, the late 1800s and the early 1900s may have seen a recession followed by an advance that resulted in a pronounced moraine system. The ice-dammed lake Isvand formed during the LIA maximum when meltwater from the western side of Kangiata Nunaata Sermia drained to the Ameralla fjord in the west. This is in contrast to the drainage pattern before the 1700s, when water probably drained to Kangersuneq in the north. Thinning of Kangiata Nunaata Sermia resulted in total drainage of Isvand between 2000 and 2010 and the discharge of water through Austmannadalen has now returned to the same level as that in medieval times.Other outlets in the region, such as Akullersuup Sermia and Qamanaarsuup Sermia have varied in phase with Kangiata Nunaata Sermia, but with amplitudes of only a few kilometres. In contrast, Narsap Sermia has been nearly stationary and Kangilinnguata Sermia may have advanced until the middle of the 1900s.Lowland marine outlets in south-western Greenland were characterised by large amplitude changes during the Neoglacial. Extreme examples, in addition to Kangiata Nunaata Sermia, are Eqalorutsit Killiit Sermiat at the

  7. Continuous monitoring of deep groundwater at the ice margin, Kangerlussuaq, West Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claesson Liljedahl, L.; Lehtinen, A. M.; Ruskeeniemi, T.; Engström, J.; Hansson, K.; Sundberg, J.; Henkemans, E.; Frape, S.; Johansson, S.; Acuna, J.

    2012-12-01

    The deep geologic repository (DGR) concept for the long-term management of used nuclear fuel involves the containment and isolation of used nuclear fuel at depths of approximately 500-1000 m below ground surface within a suitable geological formation for hundreds of thousands of years. A key objective of the used fuel DGR research programs of the Swedish, Finnish and Canadian nuclear waste management organizations (SKB, POSIVA and NWMO, respectively) is to further understanding of geosphere stability and long-term evolution. Future glaciation represents an intense external perturbation of a DGR situated in northern latitudes. To advance the understanding of processes associated with glaciation and their impact on the long-term performance of a DGR, the Greenland Analogue Project (GAP) was initiated by SKB, POSIVA and NWMO. The GAP was initiated in 2008 as a four-year field and modelling study utilizing the Greenland ice sheet and sub-surface conditions in West Greenland as an analogue for the conditions expected to prevail in Fennoscandia and Canada during future glacial cycles. One of the main aims of the GAP is to improve the understanding of how groundwater flow and water chemistry is influenced by an existing ice sheet and continuous permafrost. One way to study this is by monitoring deep drillholes. A 645 m deep drillhole (DH-GAP04) was drilled and instrumented in July 2011 at the ice-sheet margin in Kangerlussuaq, West Greenland to investigate the hydrogeochemical and hydrogeological conditions of a subglacial environment. Of particular interest is the recharge of glacial meltwater, and understanding to what depth it intrudes into the bedrock and whether it affects the chemistry and physico-chemical properties of the deep groundwater. DH-GAP04 is instrumented with a two-packer multi-sensor system, installed at a depth of 560 m, dividing the hole into three sections. The upper section extends from the base of permafrost (about 350 m) down to the upper packer

  8. Paleo- and environmental magnetic record of Holocene marine sediments from West Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, R. G.; Stoner, J. S.; Jennings, A. E.

    2013-12-01

    High resolution records of paleosecular variation (PSV) and relative paleointensity (RPI) are useful relative dating tools and provide opportunities to understand patterns in the apparently stochastic behavior of the earth's geodynamo. The quality of these records is dependent upon sedimentological and environmental conditions that permit the complex, and still poorly understood, sediment magnetic acquisition process; changes to these conditions potentially impacts the fidelity of these records and our interpretation of the paleogeomagnetic field. To understand the potential influence of these effects we measured the paleo- and environmental-magnetic properties of a 12kyr marine record from Disko Bugt, West Greenland which experiences large sedimentological changes related to deglaciation and retreat of the Greenland ice sheet. Proximity of the ice margin to the core site during the early Holocene provided abundant terrigenous fine-grained sediment, resulting in high sedimentation rate, high magnetic susceptibility (MS) and coercivity typical of PSD size magnetite. Maximum angular deviation (MAD) values <1° indicate that the paleomagnetic record is well defined, and PSV and RPI records agree well with well-established regional analogues (e.g. MD99-2269 and MD99-2322) and field models (e.g. CALS10k). Ice-sheet retreat during the mid-late Holocene reduced the flux of terrigenous sediment resulting in lower values of MS and coercivity and consistently higher MAD values (ranging from 2-14°) indicating possible sediment source changes and a less well defined paleomagnetic record. While both PSV and RPI are affected by environmental changes the PSV record appears more resilient, maintaining relatively strong coherence to regional analogues, whereas the RPI record becomes less well defined. These results highlight the dependence of the paleomagnetic record on the environmental regime in which it was deposited, the sensitivity of PSV, and particularly RPI to these

  9. The Subglacial Access and Fast Ice Research Experiment - SAFIRE - on Store Glacier, West Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoffersen, P.; Hubbard, B. P.; Doyle, S. H.; Young, T. J.; Hofstede, C. M.; Bougamont, M. H.; Todd, J.; Toberg, N.; Nicholls, K. W.; Box, J.; Walter, J. I.; Hubbard, A.

    2015-12-01

    Marine-terminating outlet glaciers drain 90 percent of the Greenland Ice Sheet and are responsible for about half of the ice sheet's net annual mass loss, which currently raises global sea level by 1 mm per year. The basal controls on these fast-flowing glaciers are, however, poorly understood, with the implication that numerical ice sheet models needed to predict future dynamic ice loss from Greenland relies on uncertain and often untested basal parameterizations. The Subglacial Access and Fast Ice Research Experiment - SAFIRE - is addressing this paucity of observational constraints by drilling to the bed of Store Glacier, a fast-flowing outlet glacier terminating in Uummannaq Fjord, West Greenland. In 2014, we gained access to the bed in four boreholes drilled to depths of 603-616 m near the center of the glacier, 30 km inland from the calving terminus where ice flows at a rate of 700 m/year. A seismic survey showed the glacier bed to consist of water-saturated, soft sediment. The water level in all four boreholes nevertheless dropped rapidly to 80 m below the ice surface when the drill connected with a basal water system, indicating effective drainage over a sedimentary bed. We were able to install wired sensor strings at the bed (water pressure, temperature, electrical conductivity and turbidity) and within the glacier (temperature and tilt) in three boreholes. The sensors operated for up to 80+ days before cables stretched and ultimately snapped due to high internal strain. The data collected during this sensor deployment show ice as cold as -21 degrees Celcius; yet, temperature of water in the basal water system was persistently above the local freezing point. With diurnal variations detected in several sensor records, we hypothesise that surface water lubricates the ice flow while also warming basal ice. The fast basal motion of Store Glacier not only occurs by basal sliding, but from high rates of concentrated strain in the bottom third of the glacier

  10. Land cover heterogeneity and soil respiration in a west Greenland tundra landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley-Cook, J. I.; Burzynski, A.; Hammond, C. R.; Virginia, R. A.

    2011-12-01

    Multiple direct and indirect pathways underlie the association between land cover classification, temperature and soil respiration. Temperature is a main control of the biological processes that constitute soil respiration, yet the effect of changing atmospheric temperatures on soil carbon flux is unresolved. This study examines associations amongst land cover, soil carbon characteristics, soil respiration, and temperature in an Arctic tundra landscape in western Greenland. We used a 1.34 meter resolution multi-spectral WorldView2 satellite image to conduct an unsupervised multi-staged ISODATA classification to characterize land cover heterogeneity. The four band image was taken on July 10th, 2010, and captures an 18 km by 15 km area in the vicinity of Kangerlussuaq. The four major terrestrial land cover classes identified were: shrub-dominated, graminoid-dominated, mixed vegetation, and bare soil. The bare soil class was comprised of patches where surface soil has been deflated by wind and ridge-top fellfield. We hypothesize that soil respiration and soil carbon storage are associated with land cover classification and temperature. We set up a hierarchical field sampling design to directly observe spatial variation between and within land cover classes along a 20 km temperature gradient extending west from Russell Glacier on the margin of the Greenland Ice Sheet. We used the land cover classification map and ground verification to select nine sites, each containing patches of the four land cover classes. Within each patch we collected soil samples from a 50 cm pit, quantified vegetation, measured active layer depth and determined landscape characteristics. From a subset of field sites we collected additional 10 cm surface soil samples to estimate soil heterogeneity within patches and measured soil respiration using a LiCor 8100 Infrared Gas Analyzer. Soil respiration rates varied with land cover classes, with values ranging from 0.2 mg C/m^2/hr in the bare soil

  11. Holocene glacial history of the west Greenland Ice Sheet inferred from cosmogenic exposure ages and threshold lakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Nicolaj Krog; Kjaer, K. H.; Colding, Sune Oluf

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we use a combination of 10Be exposure ages and threshold lakes to constrain the ice sheet history in Godthåbs- and Buksefjorden, west Greenland (63-64°N) during the Holocene. The 10Be cosmogenic exposure ages have been used to quantify both the ice retreat and thinning of the west....... Boulder samples from the highest peaks demonstrate that the ice was warm-based whereas bedrock samples often contain an inherited signal. These results may have implications for other studies in Greenland, which have inferred thin LGM ice based on 10Be ages of bedrock samples. The threshold lakes are used...... margin remained close to the present ice margin until around 7 cal. ka BP before it retreated behind the present extent during the Holocene Thermal Maximum (HTM). Here it remained until the Little Ice Age (LIA) where it readvanced to the present position around 0.5 cal. ka BP. Our results correspond...

  12. Retention of fish larvae in a fjord system - a seasonal study of the larval life in a West Greenlandic fjord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swalethorp, Rasmus; Munk, Peter; Nielsen, Torkel Gissel

    The Godthåbsfjord is the largest fjord system on the West Greenlandic coast and an important spawning site for several fish species. It houses the largest inshore stock of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) on the west coast but also key species like Capelin (Mallotus villosus) and American plaice...... (Hippoglossoides platessoides) are abundant. The innermost part of the fjord branch Kapisigdlit is the principal spawning site for the fjord population of Atlantic cod, and in 2010 a seasonal study was carried out on the early life of this population. Abundance and distribution of this and other occurring fish...

  13. Environmental oil spill sensitivity atlas for the West Greenland (68 deg.-72 deg. N) coastal zone, 2nd revised edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clausen, D.; Johansen, Kasper L.; Mosbech, A.; Boertmann, D.; Wegeberg, S.

    2012-12-15

    This oil spill sensitivity atlas covers the shoreline and the offshore areas of West Greenland between 68 deg. N and 72 deg. N. The coastal zone is divided into 199 shoreline segments and the offshore zone into 8 areas. A sensitivity index value is calculated for each segment/area, and each segment/area is subsequently ranked according to four degrees of sensitivity. Besides this general ranking a number of smaller areas are especially selected as they are of particular significance, they are especially vulnerable to oil spills and they have a size making oil spill response possible. The shoreline sensitivity ranking are shown on 37 maps (in scale 1:250,000), which also show the different elements included and the selected areas. Coast types, logistics and proposed response methods along the coasts are shown on another 37 maps. The sensitivities of the offshore zones are depicted on 4 maps, one for each season. Based on all the information, appropriate oil spill response methods have been assessed for each area. (Author)

  14. Meltwater flux and runoff modeling in the abalation area of jakobshavn Isbrae, West Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mernild, Sebastian Haugard [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chylek, Petr [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Liston, Glen [COLORADO STATE UNIV.; Steffen, Konrad [UNIV OF COLORADO

    2009-01-01

    The temporal variability in surface snow and glacier melt flux and runoff were investigated for the ablation area of lakobshavn Isbrae, West Greenland. High-resolution meteorological observations both on and outside the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) were used as model input. Realistic descriptions of snow accumulation, snow and glacier-ice melt, and runoff are essential to understand trends in ice sheet surface properties and processes. SnowModel, a physically based, spatially distributed meteorological and snow-evolution modeling system was used to simulate the temporal variability of lakobshavn Isbrre accumulation and ablation processes for 2000/01-2006/07. Winter snow-depth observations and MODIS satellite-derived summer melt observations were used for model validation of accumulation and ablation. Simulations agreed well with observed values. Simulated annual surface melt varied from as low as 3.83 x 10{sup 9} m{sup 3} (2001/02) to as high as 8.64 x 10{sup 9} m{sup 3} (2004/05). Modeled surface melt occurred at elevations reaching 1,870 m a.s.l. for 2004/05, while the equilibrium line altitude (ELA) fluctuated from 990 to 1,210 m a.s.l. during the simulation period. The SnowModel meltwater retention and refreezing routines considerably reduce the amount of meltwater available as ice sheet runoff; without these routines the lakobshavn surface runoff would be overestimated by an average of 80%. From September/October through May/June no runoff events were simulated. The modeled interannual runoff variability varied from 1.81 x 10{sup 9} m{sup 3} (2001/02) to 5.21 x 10{sup 9} m{sup 3} (2004/05), yielding a cumulative runoff at the Jakobshavn glacier terminus of {approx}2.25 m w.eq. to {approx}4.5 m w.eq., respectively. The average modeled lakobshavn runoff of {approx}3.4 km{sup 3} y{sup -1} was merged with previous estimates of Jakobshavn ice discharge to quantify the freshwater flux to Illulissat Icefiord. For both runoff and ice discharge the average trends are

  15. Age of Tertiary volcanic rocks on the West Greenland continental margin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lotte M.; Pedersen, Asger K.; Tegner, Christian

    2016-01-01

    across the entire North Atlantic Igneous Province. A quiescent 58–56 Ma period correlates with similar periods in East Greenland and the Faroes, and the Naqerloq Formation is coeval with the Eocene basalts in East Greenland. The Paleocene and Eocene tholeiitic basalts are distinguishable chemically...

  16. Paleo-Eskimo kitchen midden preservation in permafrost under future climate conditions at Qajaa, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elberling, Bo; Matthiesen, Henning; Jørgensen, Christian Juncher

    2011-01-01

    Remains from Paleo-Eskimo cultures are well-documented, but complete preservation is rare. Two kitchen middens in Greenland are known to hold extremely well-preserved organic artefacts. Here, we assess the fate of the Qajaa site in Western Greenland under future climate conditions based on site...

  17. Ice-Dammed Lake Drainage Evolution at Russell Glacier, West Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan L. Carrivick

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available KEY POINTS/HIGHLIGHTSTwo rapid ice-dammed lake drainage events gauged and ice dam geometry measured.A melt enlargement model is developed to examine the evolution of drainage mechanism(s.Lake temperature dominated conduit melt enlargement and we hypothesize a flotation trigger.Glaciological and hydraulic factors that control the timing and mechanisms of glacier lake outburst floods (GLOFs remain poorly understood. This study used measurements of lake level at 15 min intervals and known lake bathymetry to calculate lake outflow during two GLOF events from the northern margin of Russell Glacier, west Greenland. We used measured ice surface elevation, interpolated subglacial topography and likely conduit geometry to inform a melt enlargement model of the outburst evolution. The model was tuned to best-fit the hydrograph rising limb and timing of peak discharge in both events; it achieved Mean Absolute Errors of <5%. About one third of the way through the rising limb, conduit melt enlargement became the dominant drainage mechanism. Lake water temperature, which strongly governed the enlargement rate, preconditioned the high peak discharge and short duration of these floods. We hypothesize that both GLOFs were triggered by ice dam flotation, and localized hydraulic jacking sustained most of their early-stage outflow, explaining the particularly rapid water egress in comparison to that recorded at other ice-marginal lakes. As ice overburden pressure relative to lake water hydraulic head diminished, flow became confined to a subglacial conduit. This study has emphasized the inter-play between ice dam thickness and lake level, drainage timing, lake water temperature and consequently rising stage lake outflow and flood evolution.

  18. Molecular diversity patterns among various phytoplankton size-fractions in West Greenland in late summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elferink, Stephanie; Neuhaus, Stefan; Wohlrab, Sylke; Toebe, Kerstin; Voß, Daniela; Gottschling, Marc; Lundholm, Nina; Krock, Bernd; Koch, Boris P.; Zielinski, Oliver; Cembella, Allan; John, Uwe

    2017-03-01

    Arctic regions have experienced pronounced biological and biophysical transformations as a result of global change processes over the last several decades. Current hypotheses propose an elevated impact of those environmental changes on the biodiversity, community composition and metabolic processes of species. The effects on ecosystem function and services, particularly when invasive or toxigenic harmful species become dominant, can be expressed over a wide range of temporal and spatial scales in plankton communities. Our study focused on the comparison of molecular biodiversity of three size-fractions (micro-, nano-, picoplankton) in the coastal pelagic zone of West Greenland and their association with environmental parameters. Molecular diversity was assessed via parallel amplicon sequencing the 28S rRNA hypervariable D1/D2 region. We showed that biodiversity distribution within the area of Uummannaq Fjord, Vaigat Strait and Disko Bay differed markedly within and among size-fractions. In general, we observed a higher diversity within the picoplankton size fraction compared to the nano- and microplankton. In multidimensional scaling analysis, community composition of all three size fractions correlated with cell size, silicate and phosphate, chlorophyll a (chl a) and dinophysistoxin (DTX). Individually, each size fraction community composition also correlated with other different environmental parameters, i.e. temperature and nitrate. We observed a more homogeneous community of the picoplankton across all stations compared to the larger size classes, despite different prevailing environmental conditions of the sampling areas. This suggests that habitat niche occupation for larger-celled species may lead to higher functional trait plasticity expressed as an enhanced range of phenotypes, whereas smaller organisms may compensate for lower potential plasticity with higher diversity. The presence of recently identified toxigenic harmful algal bloom (HAB) species (such

  19. Are warbles and bots related to reproductive status in West Greenland caribou?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Cuyler

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In March-April 2008-09, using CARMA protocols, 81 cows and 16 calves were collected in West Greenland from two caribou populations; Akia-Maniitsoq (AM and Kangerlussuaq-Sisimiut (KS. In both populations, warble larvae numbers were highest in calves and higher in non-pregnant than pregnant cows. Nose bots showed no relationship with pregnancy or lactation; KS calves had higher nose bot loads than cows, a pattern not observed in AM. Pregnant cows had more rump fat than non-pregnant cows. KS cows lacking rump fat entirely had the highest warble burdens. We observed lactating pregnant cows with moderate larval burdens. Projected energy cost of the heaviest observed combined larvae burdens was equivalent to 2-5 days basal metabolic rate (BMR for a cow, and 7-12 days BMR for a calf. Foregone fattening in adult cows with average burdens was 0.2 to 0.5 kg, but almost doubled with the heaviest infestations to 0.4 and 0.8 kg. Average burdens in calves resulted in forgone fattening of about 0.5 kg, with peak costs equivalent to 0.7 and 1.1 kg fat for AM and KS calves respectively. Although modest, these projected energy costs of hosting larvae for cows support the negative relationship between rump fat and larvae burden. For calves, hosting high burdens of warble larvae could affect winter survival, specifically those weaned normally in October or in early winter. Harmful effects of oestrid larvae burdens may remain subtle but clearly cumulative in relation to seasonal forage availability and incidence of other parasites.

  20. Dark ice dynamics of the south-west Greenland Ice Sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Tedstone

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Runoff from the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS has increased in recent years due largely to changes in atmospheric circulation and atmospheric warming. Albedo reductions resulting from these changes have amplified surface melting. Some of the largest declines in GrIS albedo have occurred in the ablation zone of the south-west sector and are associated with the development of dark ice surfaces. Field observations at local scales reveal that a variety of light-absorbing impurities (LAIs can be present on the surface, ranging from inorganic particulates to cryoconite materials and ice algae. Meanwhile, satellite observations show that the areal extent of dark ice has varied significantly between recent successive melt seasons. However, the processes that drive such large interannual variability in dark ice extent remain essentially unconstrained. At present we are therefore unable to project how the albedo of bare ice sectors of the GrIS will evolve in the future, causing uncertainty in the projected sea level contribution from the GrIS over the coming decades. Here we use MODIS satellite imagery to examine dark ice dynamics on the south-west GrIS each year from 2000 to 2016. We quantify dark ice in terms of its annual extent, duration, intensity and timing of first appearance. Not only does dark ice extent vary significantly between years but so too does its duration (from 0 to > 80 % of June–July–August, JJA, intensity and the timing of its first appearance. Comparison of dark ice dynamics with potential meteorological drivers from the regional climate model MAR reveals that the JJA sensible heat flux, the number of positive minimum-air-temperature days and the timing of bare ice appearance are significant interannual synoptic controls. We use these findings to identify the surface processes which are most likely to explain recent dark ice dynamics. We suggest that whilst the spatial distribution of dark ice is best explained by

  1. Dark ice dynamics of the south-west Greenland Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedstone, Andrew J.; Bamber, Jonathan L.; Cook, Joseph M.; Williamson, Christopher J.; Fettweis, Xavier; Hodson, Andrew J.; Tranter, Martyn

    2017-11-01

    Runoff from the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) has increased in recent years due largely to changes in atmospheric circulation and atmospheric warming. Albedo reductions resulting from these changes have amplified surface melting. Some of the largest declines in GrIS albedo have occurred in the ablation zone of the south-west sector and are associated with the development of dark ice surfaces. Field observations at local scales reveal that a variety of light-absorbing impurities (LAIs) can be present on the surface, ranging from inorganic particulates to cryoconite materials and ice algae. Meanwhile, satellite observations show that the areal extent of dark ice has varied significantly between recent successive melt seasons. However, the processes that drive such large interannual variability in dark ice extent remain essentially unconstrained. At present we are therefore unable to project how the albedo of bare ice sectors of the GrIS will evolve in the future, causing uncertainty in the projected sea level contribution from the GrIS over the coming decades. Here we use MODIS satellite imagery to examine dark ice dynamics on the south-west GrIS each year from 2000 to 2016. We quantify dark ice in terms of its annual extent, duration, intensity and timing of first appearance. Not only does dark ice extent vary significantly between years but so too does its duration (from 0 to > 80 % of June-July-August, JJA), intensity and the timing of its first appearance. Comparison of dark ice dynamics with potential meteorological drivers from the regional climate model MAR reveals that the JJA sensible heat flux, the number of positive minimum-air-temperature days and the timing of bare ice appearance are significant interannual synoptic controls. We use these findings to identify the surface processes which are most likely to explain recent dark ice dynamics. We suggest that whilst the spatial distribution of dark ice is best explained by outcropping of particulates from

  2. The impact of local topography on glacial geomorphological records in West Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Kathryn; Lane, Tim

    2015-04-01

    The Holocene glacial record of Lyngmarksbræen, an ice cap in West Greenland, has been used to explore the impacts of local topography on landform generation and preservation. It is well-established that glacial response to regional climate drivers may be locally modulated by local-scale topography, but there has been little systematic investigation of its impacts on the geomorphological record. Establishing the relative influence of regional and local-scale drivers on landform development is important as it will allow us to make more robust reconstructions of past ice dynamics. Detailed geomorphological analysis of seven outlet valleys from Lyngmarksbræen, Disko Island has been undertaken. Satellite imagery and field mapping have been used to explore the topographic variations of neighbouring valleys, and the resulting geomorphological record. Comparisons between valleys are made on the basis of existing morphostratigraphic correlations (Ingólfsson, 1990) and recent surface exposure ages (Lane et al., In prep), which indicate that the majority of the landforms were deposited during the Little Ice Age (LIA). The valleys draining Lyngmarksbræen vary considerably in terms of geometry, landform characteristics (type, size, location), and ice extent (Holocene to present day). This allows us to explore geomorphological dynamics in contrasting, but geographically proximal, settings. During the LIA, ice extended up to 3 km beyond the present ice margins. In all outlets, glacial landforms are confined to the radial valleys and there is only limited evidence of deposition in the larger trunk valleys. To the north and east of Lyngmarksbræen, large latero-frontal moraines are well-preserved and often impound small proglacial lakes. In the west, the LIA and present day ice margins are more diffuse, and there is evidence of ice-cored moraine, kettle holes, and buried ice. To the south of the ice cap, landform preservation is limited. We discuss the extent to which these

  3. Regional and inter annual patterns of heavy metals, organochlorines and stable isotopes in narwhals (Monodon monoceros) from West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietz, R.; Riget, F.; Hobson, K.A.

    2004-01-01

    , indicating a temporal decrease of SigmaPCBs. SigmaPCBs, DDTs, HCHs and toxaphenes seem to be at similar levels in West Greenland and Arctic Canada, which can be explained by the close winter distributions of populations as well as large ranges in concentrations, time span, number of analyses and the size...... they became relatively stable. delta(15) N values were significantly higher in samples from Uummarmaq in 1993 compared to samples from Avanersuaq in 1984 and 1985 indicating that the diet of the narwhals in Uummannaq was at a higher trophic level. However, only a few significant correlations were found...

  4. Parasites as biological tags to track an ontogenetic shift in the feeding behaviour of Gadus morhua off West and East Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münster, Julian; Klimpel, Sven; Fock, Heino O; MacKenzie, Ken; Kuhn, Thomas

    2015-07-01

    Parasites, being an integral part of every ecosystem and trophically transmitted along the food webs, can provide detailed insights into the structure of food webs and can close the information gap between short-term stomach content analyses and long-term fish otolith analyses. They are useful for tracking ontogenetic shifts in the host's diet, the occurrence of specific organisms or migratory behaviour of their hosts, even in inaccessible environments. In the present study, stomach content analyses and parasitological examinations were performed on 70 Atlantic cod Gadus morhua, one of the most important high-level predators of small fish in the North Atlantic, caught during one research vessel cruise from West and East Greenlandic waters. Analyses revealed significant differences in fish size with higher values for East Greenland (average total length (TL) of 50.5 cm) compared to West Greenland (average TL of 33.3 cm). Clear differences were also present in prey and parasite composition. Crustacea was the main food source for all fish (IRI = 10082.70), while the importance of teleosts increased with fish size. With a prevalence of 85 % in West Greenland and 100 % in East Greenland, Nematoda were the most abundant parasite group. The results indicate an ontogenetic shift in the diet, which are discussed in the context of the common distribution theory, stock dynamics and migratory behaviour.

  5. Field and geochemical characterisitics of the Mesoarchean (~3075 ma) Ivisaartoq greenstone belt, southern West Greenland: Evidence for seafloor hydrothermal alteration in a supra-subduction oceanic crust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polat, A.; Appel, P.W.U.; Frei, Robert

    2006-01-01

    The Mesoarchean (ca. 3075 Ma) Ivisaartoq greenstone belt in southern West Greenland includes variably deformed and metamorphosed pillow basalts, ultramafic flows (picrites), serpentinized ultramafic rocks, gabbros, sulphide-rich siliceous layers, and minor siliciclastic sedimentary rocks. Primary...... magmatic features such as concentric cooling-cracks and drainage cavities in pillows, volcanic breccia, ocelli interpreted as liquid immiscibility textures in pillows and gabbros, magmatic layering in gabbros, and clinopyroxene cumulates in ultramafic flows are well preserved in low-strain domains....... The belt underwent at least two stages of calc-silicate metasomatic alteration and polyphase deformation between 2963 and 3075 Ma. The stage I metasomatic assemblage is composed predominantly of epidote (now mostly diopside) + quartz + plagioclase ± hornblende ± scapolite, and occurs mainly in pillow cores...

  6. The seasonal cycle and interannual variability of surface energy balance and melt in the ablation zone of the west Greenland ice sheet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broeke, M.R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073765643; Smeets, C.J.P.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/191522236; van de Wal, R.S.W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/101899556

    2011-01-01

    We present the seasonal cycle and interannual variability of the surface energy balance (SEB) in the ablation zone of the west Greenland ice sheet, using seven years (September 2003–August 2010) of hourly observations from three automatic weather stations (AWS). The AWS are situated along the 67◦ N

  7. A combined DNA-microsatellite and isozyme analysis of the population structure of the harbour porpoise in Danish waters and west Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, L W; Holm, L E; Siegismund, Hans Redlef

    1997-01-01

    deviations from the expected Hardy-Weinberg distribution were only observed in the total sample and at a single locus in the North Sea-summer sample and at two loci in the West Greenland sample. Whenever this occurred a surplus of homozygotes was observed, suggesting a Wahlund effect, a null allele...

  8. Northern Shrimp (Pandalus borealis) Recruitment in West Greenland Waters. Part I. Distribution of Pandalus Shrimp Larvae in Relation to Hydrography and Plankton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, S. A.; Storm, L. M.; Simonsen, C. S.

    2002-01-01

    Plankton samples and oceanographic data were obtained during transect studies across fishing banks over the West Greenland shelf areas in June 1999, May, and July 2000. The hypothesis that larval shrimp are linked to the behaviour of hydrographic fronts was tested by determining whether larval sh...

  9. The MajuagaaA Kimberlite Dike, Maniitsoq Regio, West Greenland: Constraints on an Mg-rich Silicocarbonatitic Melt Composition from Groundmass Mineralogy and Bulk Compositions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Troels F. D.; Sand, Karina Krarup

    2008-01-01

    The Majuagaa kimberlite dike in the Maniitsoq region, southern West Greenland, is 564 Ma old, 2.5 km long, and up to 2 m wide. It is well exposed and very fresh, allowing detailed petrographic and chemical investigations. Little or no serpentinization is observed, and primary petrographic charact...

  10. Evaluation of fatty acids as biomarkers for a natural plankton community. A field study of a spring bloom and a post-bloom period off West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reuss, N.; Poulsen, Louise K.

    2002-01-01

    An investigation of the fatty acid composition of a natural arctic plankton community was carried out over two fishing banks located between 63degreesN and 65degreesN off the West Greenland coast. Samples for fatty acid analyses, species determination and biomass assessments of the plankton commu...

  11. Sediment plumes as a proxy for local ice-sheet runoff in Kangerlussuaq Fjord, West Greenland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McGRATH, D.; Steffen, K.; Overeem, I.; Mernild, S. H.; Hasholt, B.; van den Broeke, M.R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073765643

    2010-01-01

    Meltwater runoff is an important component of the mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) and contributes to eustatic sea-level rise. In situ measurements of river runoff at the ∼325 outlets are nonexistent due to logistical difficulties. We develop a novel methodology using satellite

  12. Changing surface-atmosphere energy exchange and refreezing capacity of the lower accumulation area, West Greenland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charalampidis, C.; van As, D.; Box, J. E.; van den Broeke, M. R.; Colgan, W. T.; Doyle, S. H.; Hubbard, A. L.; MacFerrin, M.; Machguth, H.; Smeets, C. J. P. P.

    2015-01-01

    We present 5 years (2009–2013) of automatic weather station measurements from the lower accumulation area (1840 m a.s.l. – above sea level) of the Greenland ice sheet in the Kangerlussuaq region. Here, the summers of 2010 and 2012 were both exceptionally warm, but only 2012 resulted in a strongly

  13. Preliminary results from hot-water drilling and borehole instrumentation on Store Glacier, West Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, S. H.; Christoffersen, P.; Hubbard, B. P.; Young, T. J.; Hofstede, C. M.; Box, J.; Todd, J.; Bougamont, M. H.; Hubbard, A.

    2015-12-01

    As part of the Subglacial Access and Fast Ice Research Experiment (SAFIRE) pressurised hot water was used to drill four 603-616 m-long boreholes to the bed of the Greenland Ice Sheet at a site located 30 km from the calving front of fast-flowing, marine-terminating Store Glacier (70° N, ~1000 m elevation). Despite the boreholes freezing within hours, 4 wired sensor strings were successfully deployed in three of the boreholes. These included a thermistor string to obtain the englacial temperature profile installed in the same borehole as a string of tilt sensors to measure borehole deformation, and two sets of water pressure, electrical conductivity and turbidity sensors installed just above the bed in separate, adjacent boreholes. The boreholes made a strong hydrological connection to the bed during drilling, draining rapidly to ~80 m below the ice surface. The connection of subsequent boreholes was observed as a perturbation in water pressure and temperature recorded in neighbouring boreholes, indicating an effective hydrological sub- or en-glacial connection between them. The sensors, which were all connected to loggers at the surface by cables, operated for between ~30 and 80+ days before indications suggest that the cables stretched and then snapped - with the lowermost sensors failing first. The records obtained from these sensors reveal (i) high and increasing water pressure varying diurnally close to overburden albeit of a small magnitude (~ 0.3 m H2O), (ii) a minimum extrapolated englacial temperature of -21°C with above-freezing temperatures at the bed, and (iv) high rates of internal deformation and strain increasing towards the bed as evinced by increasing tilt with depth. These borehole observations are complemented by GPS measurements of ice motion, meteorological data, and seismic and radar surveys.

  14. A diatom-based sea-ice reconstruction of the last 5000 years in Vaigat Strait, Disko Bugt, West Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Longbin; Jiang, Hui; Seidenkrantz, Marit-Solveig; Luise Knudsen, Karen; Olsen, Jesper; Kuijpers, Antoon; Liu, Yanguang

    2013-04-01

    Sea ice is a major component of the climate system, because it influences the planetary albedo and the exchanges of heat, moisture and gases between the ocean and the atmosphere. Thus, sea ice is a key parameter in atmospheric and ocean models assessing future climate change. However, observed reliable data on sea-ice cover, such as satellite data, are only available as far back as 30 years with the exception of records from ship logs, which are sporadic and irregular. To obtain longer time series of Arctic SIC, microfossils such as diatoms and dinoflagellate cysts are commonly used. We have developed a diatom-based sea-ice concentration (SIC) transfer function using 72 surface samples from west of Greenland and around Iceland, and through comparison with the associated modern SIC. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) on surface sediment diatoms and monthly average of SIC reveals that April SIC is the most important environmental factor controlling the distribution of diatoms in the area, and permits the development of a diatom-based SIC transfer function. The consistency between reconstructed SIC based on diatoms from West Greenland core GA306-BC4 and the instrumental and documentary data during the last ~75 years demonstrates that the diatom-based SIC reconstruction is reliable for studying the palaeoceanography off West Greenland. Based on the diatom record from a 446 cm long gravity core DA06-139G, collected from Vaigat Strait in Disko Bugt (water depth 384 m), the reconstructed April SIC varies between 40 and 70% with a mean value around 55% over the last 5000 years. Relatively warm conditions with strong influence of the IC are indicated for the early part of the record (~5000-3860 cal. yr BP), corresponding in time to the latest part of the Holocene Thermal Maximum. The April SIC oscillated around the mean value between 3860 and 1510 cal. yr BP and was above mean afterwards, particularly during the time interval 1510-1120 cal. yr BP and after 650 cal. yr

  15. Precambrian crustal evolution and Cretaceous–Palaeogene faulting in West Greenland: The Nordre Strømfjord shear zone and the Arfersiorfik quartz diorite in Arfersiorfik, the Nagssugtoqidian orogen, West Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stensgaard, Bo Møller

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The Nordre Strømfjord shear zone in the fjord Arfersiorfik, central West Greenland, consists of alternating panels of supracrustal rocks and orthogneisses which together form a vertical zone up to 7 km wide with sinistral transcurrent, ductile deformation, which occurred under middle amphibolite facies conditions. The pelitic and metavolcanic schists and paragneisses are all highly deformed, while the orthogneisses appear more variably deformed, with increasing deformation evident towards the supracrustal units. The c. 1.92 Ga Arfersiorfik quartz diorite is traceable for a distance of at least 35 km from the Inland Ice towards the west-south-west. Towards its northern contact with an intensely deformed schist unit it shows a similar pattern of increasing strain, which is accompanied by chemical and mineralogical changes. The metasomatic changes associated with the shear zone deformation are superimposed on a wide range of original chemical compositions, which reflect magmatic olivine and/or pyroxene as well as hornblende fractionation trends. The chemistry of the Arfersiorfik quartz diorite suite as a whole is comparable to that of Phanerozoic plutonic and volcanic rocks of calc-alkaline affinity.

  16. Stock identity of beluga (Delphinapterus leucas in Eastern Canada and West Greenland based on organochlorine contaminants in their blubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Innes

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Belugas (Delphinapterus leucas caught by hunters from various hamlets in the Arctic differed in the concentrations of organochlorine contaminants in their blubber. By applying Canonical Discriminant Analysis (CDA it was possible to separate all seven sampling locations from each other. Over 90% of the samples could be classified back to their landing location based on the data transformations developed by CDA. This analysis suggested that “stock” or management unit for belugas is best described by the culturally transmitted behaviour of their migration route. The analysis also provides evidence that most belugas caught by hunters from Grise Fiord are not the same as belugas caught while migrating along West Greenland; that some belugas caught in Sanikiluaq are not the same as beluga caught in the Nastapoka River estuary; and that the belugas caught in Kimmirut are not the same as belugas caught in Cumberland Sound. There is a need to redefine the stock descriptions of some belugas in Canada and Greenland.

  17. Spatiotemporal distribution and composition of mixed stock fishery of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in West Greenlandic waters based on retrospective genetic analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonanomi, Sara; Therkildsen, Nina Overgaard; Hedeholm, Rasmus Berg

    Historical samples of fish are a unique source of DNA to investigate the temporal dynamics of fish population structure and distribution over time. During the last century Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) stocks have declined dramatically in Greenlandic Waters. Recent genetic investigations have...... in the contribution from the different spawning groups in population mixtures of cod in West Greenland Waters in response to climate variability and fisheries. Performing genetic assignment test, we found stable genetic composition of feeding aggregations over decades in some areas, whereas shifts in composition were...

  18. Overlap in diet and distribution of two goose species suggests potential for competition at a common moulting area in West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raundrup, Katrine; Levermann, Nette; Poulsen, Michael

    2012-01-01

    on activity budgets and spatial distribution were obtained from observations of behaviour, and diet selection was determined through analyses of plant epidermal fragments in faecal samples that were subsequently genotyped to goose species. No differences in diet or spatial distribution of the two species were......Inter-specific competition can occur where two or more species overlap in diet and/or spatial distribution. Such interactions might be most prevalent where a species invades areas previously occupied by another species. In West Greenland, the number of native Greenland White-fronted Geese has...... may reflect population fluctuations for reasons other than the increased presence of the Canada Goose....

  19. Environmental Oil Spill Sensitivity Atlas for the West Greenland (68°-72° N) Coastal Zone, 2nd revised edition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Daniel Spelling; Johansen, Kasper Lambert; Mosbech, Anders

    This oil spill sensitivity atlas covers the shoreline and the offshore areas of West Greenland between 68º N and 72º N. The coastal zone is divided into 199 shoreline segments and the offshore zone into 8 areas. A sensitivity index value is calculated for each segment/area, and each segment....../area is subsequently ranked according to four degrees of sensitivity. Besides this general ranking a number of smaller areas are especially selected as they are of particular significance, they are especially vulnerable to oil spills and they have a size making oil spill response possible. The shoreline sensitivity....... Based on all the information, appropriate oil spill response methods have been assessed for each area....

  20. Environmental Oil Spill Sensitivity Atlas for the Northern West Greenland (72°-75° N) Coastal Zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stjernholm, Michael; Boertmann, David; Mosbech, Anders

    This oil spill sensitivity atlas covers the shoreline and the offshore areas of West Greenland between 72º N and 75º N. The coastal zone is divided into 118 shoreline segments and the offshore zone into 3 areas. A sensitivity index value is calculated for each segment/area, and each segment....../area is subsequently ranked according to four degrees of sensitivity. Besides this general ranking a number of smaller areas are especially selected as they are of particular significance, they are especially vulnerable to oil spills and they have a size making oil spill response possible. The shoreline sensitivity....... Based on all the information, appropriate oil spill response methods have been assessed for each area...

  1. Resource assessment and projections for the belugas off West Greenland using the population model of HITTER-FITTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doug S Butterworth

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The population model of the HITTER-FITTER package is applied to compute trajectories for single and two stock scenarios for the beluga population wintering off West Greenland. Values of MSYR1+ from 1% to 4% are considered, with results computed to hit best estimates and lower 5%-iles for total abundance in 1999. Twenty year projections show that even for the most optimistic of these options in the single stock case, the resource is rendered extinct within 20 years if recent estimated annual catch levels of some 700 are continued. A time series of relative abundance information from surveys indicates that MSYR1+ may be no more than 0.5%. All scenarios considered are suggestive of a heavily depleted resource for which catch levels need to be substantially reduced to secure against possible further reduction of the population.

  2. Gas records from the West Greenland ice margin covering the Last Glacial termination: a horizontal ice core

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrenko, V.; Severinghaus, J.P.; Brook, E.J.

    2006-01-01

    Certain sites along ice sheet margins provide an easily accessible and almost unlimited supply of ancient ice at the surface. Measurements of gases in trapped air from ice outcropping at Pakitsoq, West Greenland, demonstrate that ancient air is mostly well preserved. No alterations in delta O-18......(atm) and delta N-15 of N-2 are apparent, and alterations in methane are found in only a few ice sections. Using measurements of these gases, we have unambiguously identified a stratigraphic section containing ice from the end of last glacial period as well as Bolling-Allerod, Younger Dryas......-uniformly thinned, with many cross-cutting bands of bubble-free ice and dust. The cross-cutting features are associated with anomalies in both the gas and the ice records. With careful sampling to avoid these, the ice at Pakitsoq is suitable for recovery of large-volume samples of the ancient atmosphere...

  3. Geochemical evidence for subduction in the early Archaean from quartz-carbonate-fuchsite mineralization, Isua Supracrustal Belt, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pope, Emily Catherine; Rosing, Minik Thorleif; Bird, Dennis K.

    of this metasomatic-tectonic relationship requires that 1) Phanerozoic orogenic Au-deposits form in subduction-zone environments, and 2) the geochemical similarity of Precambrian orogenic deposits to their younger counterparts is the result of having the same petrogenetic origin. Hydrogen and oxygen isotope...... compositions of fuchsite and quartz from auriferous mineralization in the ca. 3.8 Ga Isua Supracrustal Belt (ISB) in West Greenland, in conjunction with elevated concentrations of CO2, Cr, Al, K and silica relative to protolith assemblages, suggest that this mineralization shares a common petro-tectonic origin......, are the result of seawater-derived fluids liberated from subducting lithosphere interacting with ultramafic rocks in the mantle wedge and lower crust, before migrating up crustal-scale vertical fracture zones. Thus, the presence of quartz-carbonate-fuchsite mineralization in the Isua supracrustal belt and other...

  4. Impairment of cellular immunity in west Greenland sledge dogs (Canis familiaris) dietary exposed to polluted minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) blubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonne, Christian; Dietz, Rune; Larsen, Hans J S; Loft, Klaus Earl; Kirkegaard, Maja; Letcher, Robert J; Shahmiri, Soheila; Móller, Per

    2006-03-15

    Minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) blubber is rich in organohalogen contaminants, mercury, and n-3 fatty acids. In the present study we show that a daily intake of 50-200 g of minke whale blubber causes an impairment of the nonspecific and specific cellular immune system in the West Greenland sledge dog (Canis familiaris). Immune reactions were measured by mitogen (PHA, Con A) and antigen (KLH) intradermal testing, and as the study used exposure levels similar to those of Inuits and polar bears (Ursus maritimus), it is reasonable to infer that Inuits and polar bears suffer from similar decreased resistance to diseases. It is speculated that food sources are depleted by thinning sea ice due to climate change and that more research should assess the forecasted rise in additive immunopathy effects in polar bears. Additionally, our study suggests that the fatty acid composition may be of importance when investigating combined immunotoxic effects of contaminated food resources in future Inuit and polar bear studies.

  5. Spatial statistical analysis of contamination level of 241Am and 239Pu, Thule, North-West Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strodl Andersen, J. (JSA EnviroStat (Denmark))

    2011-10-15

    A spatial analysis of data on radioactive pollution on land at Thule, North-West Greenland is presented. The data comprises levels of 241Am and 239,240Pu on land. Maximum observed level of 241Am is 2.8x105 Bq m-2. Highest levels were observed near Narsaarsuk. This area was also sampled most intensively. In Groennedal the maximum observed level of 241Am is 1.9-104 Bq m-2. Prediction of the overall amount of 241Am and 239,240Pu is based on grid points within the range from the nearest measurement location. The overall amount is therefore highly dependent on the model. Under the optimal spatial model for Narsaarsuk, within the area of prediction, the predicted total amount of 241Am is 45 GBq and the predicted total amount of 239,240Pu is 270 GBq. (Author)

  6. The crustal uplift determined at the Jakobshavn glacier (West Greenland) using ATM and GPS data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muresan, Ioana Stefania; Frumosu, Flavia Dalia; Khan, Shfaqat Abbas

    The Greenland ice sheet has experienced record melting in recent years. In order to estimate the ice loss we can make use of the earth’s natural elasticity to weigh the ice. Ice bends down the bedrock so when the ice melts away, the bedrock rises measurably in response. Throughout this abstract we...... been taken into account when computingthe observed results and also due to the fact that, perhaps, ice is melting in Greenland muchfaster than predicted........ The total ice mass loss inkm3 of water predicted from the ATM dataconcerning the Jakobshavn area is -88.815between 2010 and 2005 and -83.599between 2005 and 1997. It seems fair to state that this differences, between the predicted and observed rates, mayalso be due to the fact that not all the errors have...

  7. Seasonal and interannual phytoplankton production in a sub-arctic tidewater outlet glacier fjord, west Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul-Pedersen, T.; Arendt, K.; Mortensen, J.

    2015-01-01

    This study describes seasonal patterns and proposes likely drivers of an unusual phytoplankton primary production pattern in the outer-sill region of a tidewater outlet glacierinfluenced fjord (Godthåbsfjord) in SW Greenland. It is based on monthly measurements of pelagic primary production...... and hydrographic conditions during a 7 yr period. Total annual primary production during 2005 to 2012 was between 84.6 and 139.1 g C m−2 yr−1. Two phytoplankton blooms of similar magnitude reoccur in the fjord every year. A ‘classical’ spring bloom of up to 1743 mg C m−2 d−1 occurred in late April/early May...... the Greenland Ice Sheet are thus likely to affect phytoplankton dynamics in the fjord....

  8. Contaminants in the atmosphere. AMAP-Nuuk, West Greenland 2002-2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skov, H.; Bossi, S.; Waehlin, P. [and others

    2005-08-15

    This report presents the results of atmospheric monitoring in Nuuk, Greenland. A long series of heavy metals and persistent organic Pollutants (POPs) have been measured and model calculations have been carried out supporting the interpretation of the results. Financially, the Danish Environmental Protection Agency supported this work with means from the MIKA/DANCEA funds for Environmental Support to the Arctic Region and the work is part of the Danish contribution to Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme, AMAP. (au)

  9. Migration and breeding biology of Arctic terns in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egevang, Carsten

    , the study produced the first estimates of the key prey species of the Arctic tern in Greenland. Although zooplankton and various fish species were present in the chick diet of terns breeding in Disko Bay, Capelin (Mallotus villosus) was the single most important prey species found in all age groups...... (Sandøen) in high-Arctic Northeast Greenland. The level of knowledge of the Arctic tern in Greenland before 2002 was to a large extent poor, with aspects of its biology being completely unknown in the Greenland population. This thesis presents novel findings for the Arctic tern, both on an international...... by the distribution of breeding Arctic terns as suggested by Egevang et al. (2004). Included in the thesis are furthermore results with an appeal to the Greenland management agencies. Along with estimates of the Arctic tern population size at the two most important Arctic tern colonies in West Greenland and East...

  10. Migration and breeding biology of arctic terns in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egevang, Carsten

    , the study produced the first estimates of the key prey species of the Arctic tern in Greenland. Although zooplankton and various fish species were present in the chick diet of terns breeding in Disko Bay, Capelin (Mallotus villosus) was the single most important prey species found in all age groups...... (Sandøen) in high-Arctic Northeast Greenland. The level of knowledge of the Arctic tern in Greenland before 2002 was to a large extent poor, with aspects of its biology being completely unknown in the Greenland population. This thesis presents novel findings for the Arctic tern, both on an international...... by the distribution of breeding Arctic terns as suggested by Egevang et al. (2004). Included in the thesis are furthermore results with an appeal to the Greenland management agencies. Along with estimates of the Arctic tern population size at the two most important Arctic tern colonies in West Greenland and East...

  11. Seasonal variability of the circulation system in a West Greenland tidewater outlet glacier fjord, Godthåbsfjord (64°N)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, John; Bendtsen, Jørgen; Lennert, Kunuk

    2014-01-01

    circulation phases are identified during the period, and they are related to exchange processes with coastal waters, tidal mixing, and melt processes on the Greenland Ice Sheet. During early summer, warm intermediate water is transported toward the glacier at an average velocity of about 7 cm s−1. In late...... due to melting of the ice sheet. However, very few observational studies describe the seasonal dynamics of fjord circulation. Here we present the first continuous current measurements (April–November) from a deep mooring deployed in a west Greenland tidewater outlet glacier fjord. Four distinct......Many tidewater outlet glacier fjords surround the coast of Greenland, and their dynamics and circulation are of great importance for understanding the heat transport toward glaciers from the ice sheet. Thus, fjord circulation is a critical aspect for assessing the threat of global sea level rise...

  12. Estimating the future ice sheet hydropower potential in Paakitsoq, Ilulissat, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlstrøm, Andreas P.; Mottram, R.H.; Nielsen, C.

    2008-01-01

    of meltwater during the summer season. However, geometrical changes in the ice sheet, for example due to a retreat or an advance of the ice sheet margin, could change the hydrological catchment within the ice sheet. Such a change would have a devastating economical impact as a hydropower plant is a significant...... long-term investment for an Arctic community of modest population. Here we present a new bedrock and surface map of the Paakitsoq/Swiss Camp part of the Greenland ice sheet and a prediction of the future discharge up to 2080 AD using regional climate model output, dynamic ice sheet modelling...

  13. Drainage of the ice-dammed Lake Tinninilik, West Greenland; implication on bedrock uplift

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Kristian Kjellerup; Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Bjørk, Anders Anker

    Drainage of ice-dammed lakes is regularly observed along the margin of the Greenland Ice Sheet. However, the speed of the drainage events and implications can vary depending on the size of the lakes and the local settings. Here, we assess the drainage pattern of Lake Tinninilik, dammed...... months. Preliminary GPS results suggest instantaneous motion of a few centimeters of the solid bedrock in response the rapid drainage of the lake and thus support previous findings derived from radar interferograms that attribute vertical land motion to lake drainage....

  14. Towards multi-decadal to multi-millennial ice core records from coastal west Greenland ice caps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sarah B.; Osman, Matthew B.; Trusel, Luke D.; McConnell, Joseph R.; Smith, Ben E.; Evans, Matthew J.; Frey, Karen E.; Arienzo, Monica; Chellman, Nathan

    2017-04-01

    The Arctic region, and Greenland in particular, is undergoing dramatic change as characterized by atmospheric warming, decreasing sea ice, shifting ocean circulation patterns, and rapid ice sheet mass loss, but longer records are needed to put these changes into context. Ice core records from the Greenland ice sheet have yielded invaluable insight into past climate change both regionally and globally, and provided important constraints on past surface mass balance more directly, but these ice cores are most often from the interior ice sheet accumulation zone, at high altitude and hundreds of kilometers from the coast. Coastal ice caps, situated around the margins of Greenland, have the potential to provide novel high-resolution records of local and regional maritime climate and sea surface conditions, as well as contemporaneous glaciological changes (such as accumulation and surface melt history). But obtaining these records is extremely challenging. Most of these ice caps are unexplored, and thus their thickness, age, stratigraphy, and utility as sites of new and unique paleoclimate records is largely unknown. Access is severely limited due to their high altitude, steep relief, small surface area, and inclement weather. Furthermore, their relatively low elevation and marine moderated climate can contribute to significant surface melting and degradation of the ice stratigraphy. We recently targeted areas near the Disko Bay region of central west Greenland where maritime ice caps are prevalent but unsampled, as potential sites for new multi-decadal to multi-millennial ice core records. In 2014 & 2015 we identified two promising ice caps, one on Disko Island (1250 m. asl) and one on Nuussuaq Peninsula (1980 m. asl) based on airborne and ground-based geophysical observations and physical and glaciochemical stratigraphy from shallow firn cores. In spring 2015 we collected ice cores at both sites using the Badger-Eclipse electromechanical drill, transported by a medley

  15. Inuit health in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, P; Curtis, T; Borch-Johnsen, K

    2003-01-01

    During 1997-2001 a population survey was carried out amongst Greenland Inuit living in Denmark and West Greenland (Nuuk, Sisimiut, Qasigiannguit and four villages in Uummannaq municipality). Data collection comprised an interview, a questionnaire, clinical examinations and sampling of biological ...

  16. Investigating near-glacier circulation and plume theory with high-resolution fjord surveys in West Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, R. H.; Nash, J. D.; Shroyer, E.; Sutherland, D.; Fried, M.; Catania, G. A.; Carroll, D.; Bartholomaus, T. C.; Stearns, L. A.

    2016-12-01

    The plumes that emanate from Greenland's glaciers are hotspots of mixing between meltwater and ambient fjord waters. The dynamics of these plumes affect both submarine melting of glacier termini and the dilution of freshwater as it is exported into the ocean. Modeling studies often rely on buoyant plume theory to represent the circulation and mixing at the ocean/ice interface. However, a dearth of measurements in the near-glacier region has left open many questions about glacial plumes, entrainment, and the applicability of idealized plume theory to these environments. Here, we present near-glacier ocean surveys from Kangerdlugssuaq Sermerssua in central West Greenland in three consecutive summers (2013-2015). High-resolution measurements of velocity and water properties were collected by ship, by surface drifters, and by a remotely operated surface vessel - all focusing on the region within 2 km of the glacier terminus. These novel measurements of the 3D circulation capture a persistent near-surface plume, along with its time-evolution over a tidal cycle and between different summers. Concurrent multibeam sonar measurements of the submarine terminus morphology show that the plume emerges from a large undercut subglacial channel outlet. Plume theory, when applied with this fjord's stratification and any flux of subglacial discharge, cannot match the observed plume's volume flux and water properties. The discrepancy between our observations and plume theory suggests that there is enhanced entrainment at depth that is not adequately represented in plume theory. The details of this entrainment have important consequences for submarine melt rates, terminus morphology, and fjord circulation.

  17. Palaeoecology of Holocene peat deposits from Nordvestø, north-west Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennike, Ole; Goodsite, Michael Evan; Heinemeier, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Two extensive peat deposits on Nordvestø, between Greenland and Canada, were examined for macroscopic remains of plants and animals. One of the peat deposits accumulated during the period from c. 7,100 to 5,100 cal. years BP. This peat is guanogenic and completely dominated by the coprophilous...... bryophyte Aplodon wormskioldii, and also contains frequent remains of feathers. The peat formed close to a large former sea bird colony, probably a puffin (Fratercula arctica) colony. Puffins are now rare in the region, but the population may have been larger during the mid Holocene, when the sea was ice......-free for a longer period than at present. The other peat deposit is dated to c. 9,300-7,400 cal. years BP, it is minerogenic and the macrofossils reflect deposition in a shallow, richly vegetated pond. This peat formed during warmer summers than at present....

  18. Structure and annual increase in a population of West Greenland caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning Thing

    1982-05-01

    Full Text Available During 1977-80 a large scale research program was carried out in West Greenland to study caribou ecology and population dynamics. Papers dealing with feeding ecology, range condition, calf mortality, and behaviour have been published elsewhere (Strandgaard 1980; Holt 1980; Clausen et al. 1980; Thing & Clausen 1980; Thing 1980; Roby 1980; Thing 1981; Roby & Thing 1982; Thing & Thing 1982. The present study deals with some dynamic parameters in the Sisimiut herd (Fig. 1, viz. group size, sex and age composition, calf/cow ratio, calf increment, and annual recruitment. Caribou in the Sisimiut region are mainly found in very small groups of one to five animals in most seasons. Aggregations of more than 50 animals are rarely seen except in the calving and summer seasons (Fig. 2. A distinct annual cycle is apparent in the mean group size with a steady increase from a mid winter minimum of 1.4 caribou/group towards a maximum of almost 25 caribou/group in the post-calving season (Fig. 3. The absence of important predators (especially wolves and the fact that winter food resources in the region have been depleted seem to reduce group size. Consequently, Sisimiut caribou are characterized year round by forming very small groups as compared to most other wild Rangifer populations. Caribou cows (females 2 years + make up approx. 50% of the herd, while bulls (males 2 years + average only 10% (Fig. 4. The number of bulls in the herd shows a significant decline caused by a selective hunting pressure as well as natural winter mortality (Fig. 5. The rut takes place in October during the fall migration from the inland ranges adjacent to the Inland Ice towards the coast line. The cows are apparently served mainly by 1 1/2 and 2 year old bulls. Despite scarcity of adequate food on the winter ranges there is a high calf production. This is probably explained by excellent forage conditions on the inland range prior to and during the calving season (May - June

  19. Partitioning of melt energy and meltwater fluxes in the ablation zone of the west Greenland ice sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. van den Broeke

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available We present four years (August 2003–August 2007 of surface mass balance data from the ablation zone of the west Greenland ice sheet along the 67° N latitude circle. Sonic height rangers and automatic weather stations continuously measured accumulation/ablation and near-surface climate at distances of 6, 38 and 88 km from the ice sheet margin at elevations of 490, 1020 and 1520 m a.s.l. Using a melt model and reasonable assumptions about snow density and percolation characteristics, these data are used to quantify the partitioning of energy and mass fluxes during melt episodes. The lowest site receives very little winter accumulation, and ice melting is nearly continuous in June, July and August. Due to the lack of snow accumulation, little refreezing occurs and virtually all melt energy is invested in runoff. Higher up the ice sheet, the ice sheet surface freezes up during the night, making summer melting intermittent. At the intermediate site, refreezing in snow consumes about 10% of the melt energy, increasing to 40% at the highest site. The sum of these effects is that total melt and runoff increase exponentially towards the ice sheet margin, each time doubling between the stations. At the two lower sites, we estimate that radiation penetration causes 20–30% of the ice melt to occur below the surface.

  20. Methane fluxes and the functional groups of methanotrophs and methanogens in a young Arctic landscape on Disko Island, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Jesper Riis; Barrera Romero, Alejandro Jose; Jørgensen, Niels O. G.

    2015-01-01

    Arctic soils are known to be important methane (CH4) consumers and sources. This study integrates in situ fluxes of CH4 between upland and wetland soils with potential rates of CH4 oxidation and production as well as abundance and diversity of the methanotrophs and methanogens measured...... with pyrosequencing of 16S DNA and rRNA fragments in soil and permafrost layers. Here, the spatial patterns of in situ CH4 fluxes for a 2,000 years old Arctic landscape in West Greenland reveal similar CH4 uptake rates (-4 ± 0.3 lmol m-2 h-1) as in other Arctic sites, but lower CH4 emissions (14 ± 1.5 lmol m-2 h-1...... as methanogens were detected. This study indicates that the magnitude of CH4 oxidation and the direction of the flux, i.e. uptake or emission, are linked to different methanotrophic communities in upland and wetland soils. Also, the observed link between production/consumption rates and the microbial abundance...

  1. The interplay between local and wider geographical uses of directional terms in West Greenlandic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trondhjem, Naja Blytmann; Fortescue, Michael David

    referring to a wider geographical area. This is in part due to the influence of the cardinal system of Danish (and the other European languages), but is also inherent in the native system itself as it can be reconstructed prior to contact with the West. How this ambiguity pans out (and is contextually...

  2. Fluid flow and methane occurrences in the Disko Bugt area offshore West Greenland: indications for gas hydrates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Tove; Laier, Troels; Kuijpers, Antoon; Rasmussen, Tine L.; Mikkelsen, Naja E.; Nørgård-Pedersen, Niels

    2014-12-01

    The present study is the first to directly address the issue of gas hydrates offshore West Greenland, where numerous occurrences of shallow hydrocarbons have been documented in the vicinity of Disko Bugt (Bay). Furthermore, decomposing gas hydrate has been implied to explain seabed features in this climate-sensitive area. The study is based on archive data and new (2011, 2012) shallow seismic and sediment core data. Archive seismic records crossing an elongated depression (20×35 km large, 575 m deep) on the inner shelf west of Disko Bugt (Bay) show a bottom simulating reflector (BSR) within faulted Mesozoic strata, consistent with the occurrence of gas hydrates. Moreover, the more recently acquired shallow seismic data reveal gas/fluid-related features in the overlying sediments, and geochemical data point to methane migration from a deeper-lying petroleum system. By contrast, hydrocarbon signatures within faulted Mesozoic strata below the strait known as the Vaigat can be inferred on archive seismics, but no BSR was visible. New seismic data provide evidence of various gas/fluid-releasing features in the overlying sediments. Flares were detected by the echo-sounder in July 2012, and cores contained ikaite and showed gas-releasing cracks and bubbles, all pointing to ongoing methane seepage in the strait. Observed seabed mounds also sustain gas seepages. For areas where crystalline bedrock is covered only by Pleistocene-Holocene deposits, methane was found only in the Egedesminde Dyb (Trough). There was a strong increase in methane concentration with depth, but no free gas. This is likely due to the formation of gas hydrate and the limited thickness of the sediment infill. Seabed depressions off Ilulissat Isfjord (Icefjord) previously inferred to express ongoing gas release from decomposing gas hydrate show no evidence of gas seepage, and are more likely a result of neo-tectonism.

  3. Comparison of remote sensing reflectance from above-water and in-water measurements west of Greenland, Labrador Sea, Denmark Strait, and west of Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaba, Shungudzemwoyo P; Zielinski, Oliver

    2013-07-01

    The need to obtain ocean color essential climate variables (OC-ECVs) using hyperspectral technology has gained increased interest in recent years. Assessing ocean color on a large scale in high latitude environments using satellite remote sensing is constrained by polar environmental conditions. Nevertheless, on a small scale we can assess ocean color using above-water and in-water remote sensing. Unfortunately, above-water remote sensing can only determine apparent optical properties leaving the sea surface and is susceptible to near surface environmental conditions for example sky and sunglint. Consequently, we have to rely on accurate in-water remote sensing as it can provide both synoptic inherent and apparent optical properties of seawater. We use normalized water leaving radiance LWN or the equivalent remote sensing reflectance RRS from 27 stations to compare the differences in above-water and in-water OC-ECVs. Analysis of above-water and in-water RRS spectra provided very good match-ups (R2 > 0.97, MSE < 1.8*10(-7)) for all stations. The unbiased percent differences (UPD) between above-water and in-water approaches were determined at common OC-ECVs spectral bands (410, 440, 490, 510 and 555) nm and the classic band ratio (490/555) nm. The spectral average UPD ranged (5 - 110) % and band ratio UPD ranged (0 - 12) %, the latter showing that the 5% uncertainty threshold for ocean color radiometric products is attainable. UPD analysis of these stations West of Greenland, Labrador Sea, Denmark Strait and West of Iceland also suggests that the differences observed are likely a result of environmental and instrumental perturbations.

  4. The Subglacial Access and Fast Ice Research Experiment (SAFIRE): 2. High magnitude englacial strain detected with autonomous phase-sensitive FMCW radar on Store Glacier, West Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Tun Jan; Christoffersen, Poul; Nicholls, Keith; Bun Lok, Lai; Doyle, Samuel; Hubbard, Bryn; Stewart, Craig; Hofstede, Coen; Bougamont, Marion; Todd, Joseph; Brennan, Paul; Hubbard, Alun

    2016-04-01

    Fast-flowing outlet glaciers terminating in the sea drain 90% of the Greenland Ice Sheet. It is well-known that these glaciers flow rapidly due to fast basal motion, but its contributing processes and mechanisms are, however, poorly understood. In particular, there is a paucity of data to quantify the extent to which basal sliding and internal ice deformation by viscous creep contribute to the fast motion of Greenland outlet glaciers. To study these processes, we installed a network of global positioning system (GPS) receivers around an autonomous phase-sensitive radio-echo sounder (ApRES) capable of imaging internal reflectors and the glacier bed. The ApRES system, including antennas, were custom-designed to monitor and image ice sheets and ice shelves in monostatic and multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) modes. Specifically, the system transmits a frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) that increases linearly from 200 to 400 MHz over a period of 1 second. We installed this system 30 km up-flow of the tidewater terminus of Store Glacier, which flows into Uummannaq Fjord in West Greenland, and data were recorded every hour from 06 May to 16 July 2014 and every 4 hours from 26 July to 11 December 2014. The same site was used to instrument 600 m deep boreholes drilled to the bed as part of the SAFIRE research programme. With range and reflector distances captured at high temporal (hourly) and spatial (millimetre) resolutions, we obtained a unique, 6-month-long time series of strain through the vertical ice column at the drill site where tilt was independently recorded in a borehole. Our results show variable, but persistently high vertical strain. In the upper three-fourths of the ice column, we have calculated strain rates on the order of a few percent per year, and the strain regime curiously shifts from vertical thinning in winter to vertical thickening at the onset of summer melt. In the basal ice layer we observed high-magnitude vertical strain rates on

  5. Difference flow measurements under permafrost conditions in the Kangerlussuaq area, West Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtinen, A. M.; Rouhiainen, P.; Pöllänen, J.; Heikkinen, P.; Ruskeeniemi, T.; Claesson Liljedahl, L.

    2012-12-01

    To advance the understanding of the impact of glacial processes on the long-term performance of a deep geologic repository, the Greenland Analogue Project (GAP), a four-year field and modeling study of the Greenland ice sheet (2009-2012), was established collaboratively by the Swedish, Finnish and Canadian nuclear waste management organizations (SKB, POSIVA and NWMO, respectively). In order to study how groundwater flow and water chemistry is influenced by an existing ice sheet and continuous permafrost, a 645 m deep drillhole (DH-GAP04) was drilled, hydraulically tested using the Posiva Difference Flowmeter (PFL DIFF) method and instrumented at the ice margin in the Kangerlussuaq area in July 2011. PFL DIFF allows the quick and reliable characterization of flow-yielding fractures in bedrock. PFL DIFF measures the flow rate into or out of defined drillhole sections. The advantage that follows from measuring the flow rate in isolated sections is improved detection of incremental changes of flow along the drillhole. PFL DIFF can measure flows in the range 30 - 300 000 mLh-1. In addition, the PFL DIFF probe can be used to measure the electrical conductivity of both the drillhole water and fracture-specific water, the single point resistance (SPR) of the bedrock, the water pressure profile in a drillhole and the temperature of the drillhole water. Normally, PFL DIFF measurements in a new drillhole are conducted a week after the end of drilling in order to let the groundwater state recover in the drillhole. The PFL DIFF measurements were done in DH-GAP04 already three days after the drilling was completed. This measurement was the first PFL DIFF measurement ever conducted in an area of continuous permafrost and therefore, the measurement program was carefully designed. The length of the section in the flow logging measurements was 10 m and the interval spacing was two meters. Flow into the drillhole or from the drillhole into the bedrock was measured within the section

  6. Ice-ocean interaction and calving front morphology at two west Greenland tidewater outlet glaciers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauché, N.; Hubbard, A.; Gascard, J.-C.; Box, J. E.; Bates, R.; Koppes, M.; Sole, A.; Christoffersen, P.; Patton, H.

    2014-08-01

    Warm, subtropical-originating Atlantic water (AW) has been identified as a primary driver of mass loss across the marine sectors of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS), yet the specific processes by which this water mass interacts with and erodes the calving front of tidewater glaciers is frequently modelled and much speculated upon but remains largely unobserved. We present a suite of fjord salinity, temperature, turbidity versus depth casts along with glacial runoff estimation from Rink and Store glaciers, two major marine outlets draining the western sector of the GrIS during 2009 and 2010. We characterise the main water bodies present and interpret their interaction with their respective calving fronts. We identify two distinct processes of ice-ocean interaction which have distinct spatial and temporal footprints: (1) homogenous free convective melting which occurs across the calving front where AW is in direct contact with the ice mass, and (2) localised upwelling-driven melt by turbulent subglacial runoff mixing with fjord water which occurs at distinct injection points across the calving front. Throughout the study, AW at 2.8 ± 0.2 °C was consistently observed in contact with both glaciers below 450 m depth, yielding homogenous, free convective submarine melting up to ~200 m depth. Above this bottom layer, multiple interactions are identified, primarily controlled by the rate of subglacial fresh-water discharge which results in localised and discrete upwelling plumes. In the record melt year of 2010, the Store Glacier calving face was dominated by these runoff-driven plumes which led to a highly crenulated frontal geometry characterised by large embayments at the subglacial portals separated by headlands which are dominated by calving. Rink Glacier, which is significantly deeper than Store has a larger proportion of its submerged calving face exposed to AW, which results in a uniform, relatively flat overall frontal geometry.

  7. Glacigenic landform features in marginal zone of Russell and Leverett glaciers, West Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šinkūnas, Petras; Česnulevičius, Algimantas; Karmaza, Bronislavas; Baltrūnas, Valentinas

    2009-06-01

    During glacial ice melting, the sedimentation of transported material creates a variety of landforms depending on bedrock surface, glaciodynamic processes and features of sedimentation in glacial and periglacial environments in the ice marginal zone. The landforms created during sedimentation in glacial and periglacial environments are greatly dependent on the location or subenvironment of the sedimentation process, i. e. on whether it is taking place in subglacial, englacial, supraglacial, terminoglacial or proglacial subenvironments. The landform study at the marginal zone of the Russell and the Leverett glaciers in Western Greenland near Kangerlussuaq was carried out in glacial and periglacial environments. Besides morphological observations, the architecture of glacially accumulated forms was studied in outcrops. All these studies enabled to analyse the landforms in relation to glacial and periglacial facies. Marginal and proglacial forms in front of the Leverett Glacier were mapped in detail. Sedimentation of lodgement, basal, ablation and flow till deposits was observed in different subenvironments of the glacial environment in the marginal part of the glacier. These deposits in the form of till complexes in the periglacial environment were studied as landforms - lateral and end moraines formed in a terminoglacial subenvironment and basal till plains in a proglacial subenvironment left after ice retreat. Ice-cored moraines with a washboard moraine type surface of kettled topography with water ponds in kettle holes were studied in the ice divide area between the Russell and the Isunnguata glaciers. The whole complex of landforms of different origin was studied in the ice marginal zone of the Leverett Glacier, the south-western branch of the Russell Glacier. The data collected during this study indicate the importance of the climatological factors lying behind the exceptional geodiversity of the area and the glaciodynamic contribution to the richness of

  8. The intertidal community in West Greenland: Large-scale patterns and small-scale variation on ecosystem dynamics along a climate gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyrring, Jakob; Blicher, Martin; Sejr, Mikael Kristian

    Global warming occurs at elevated rates in the Arctic. Continued warming is predicted to suppress endemic Arctic species while facilitating a northward expansion of temperate species. However, in Greenland, current species distribution and knowledge of drivers affecting population dynamics...... are largely unknown. The West Greenland coast is north - south orientated. This provides an ideal setting to study the impact of climate change on marine species population dynamics and distribution. We investigated the latitudinal changes in the rocky intertidal community along 18° latitudes (59-77°N...... by merging complex species interactions with large-scale processes and small-scale variation, can we understand how climate change is affecting species now and in the future....

  9. Hydrologic exchange and chemical weathering in a proglacial watershed near Kangerlussuaq, west Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deuerling, Kelly M.; Martin, Jonathan B.; Martin, Ellen E.; Scribner, Cecilia A.

    2018-01-01

    The exchange of proglacial river water with active layer pore water could alter water chemical compositions in glacial outwash plains and oceanic solute fluxes. To evaluate effects of this exchange, we sampled Watson River and adjacent pore water during the 2013 melt season at two sandurs in western Greenland; one in Sandflugtdalen and the other near the confluence with Søndre Strømfjord. We measured temperature, specific conductivity, and head gradients between the river and bank over a week-long period at Sandflugtdalen, as well as sediment hydraulic conductivity and chemical compositions of waters from both sites. Specific conductivity of pore water is four to ten times greater than river water as solutes are concentrated from weathering reactions, cryoconcentration, and evaporation. Pore water compositions are predominantly altered by carbonate dissolution and sulfide mineral oxidation. High concentrations of HCO3 and SO4 result from solute recycling and dissolution of secondary Ca-Mg carbonate/sulfate salts initially formed by near-surface evaporation in the summer and at depth by freeze-in of the active layer and cryoconcentration in the winter. High hydraulic conductivity (10-5 to 10-4 m/s) and diurnal fluctuations of river stage during our study caused exchange of river and pore water immediately adjacent to the river channel, with a net loss of river water to the bank. Pore water >6 m from the river continuously flowed away from the river. Approximately 1-8% of the river discharge through the Sandflugtdalen was lost to the river bank during our 6.75 day study based on calculations using Darcy's Law. Although not sampled, some of this water should discharge to the river during low river stage early and late in the melt season. Elevated pore water solute concentrations in sandurs and water exchange at diurnal and seasonal frequency should impact fluxes of solutes to the ocean, although understanding the magnitude of this effect will require long

  10. Environmental Oil Spill Sensitivity Atlas for the West Greenland (68º-72º N) Coastal Zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosbech, A.; Boertmann, D.; Olsen, B. Ø.

    This oil spill sensitivity atlas covers the shoreline and the offshore areas of West Greenlandbetween 68º N and 72º N. The coastal zone is divided into nearly 200 areas and the offshorezone into 8 areas. A sensitivity index value is calculated for each area, and each area issubsequently ranked...... according to four degrees of sensitivity. Besides this general ranking anumber of smaller areas are especially selected because they are of particular significance, theyare particularly vulnerable to oil spill and, an effective oil spill response can be performed. Theshoreline sensitivity ranking is shown....... Based on all the information,appropriate oil spill response methods have been assessed for each area. Web site environmental-atlas.dmu.dk/...

  11. Transient variations in glacial mass near Upernavik Isstrøm (west Greenland) detected by the combined use of GPS and GRACE data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Bao; Liu, Lin; Khan, Shfaqat Abbas

    2017-01-01

    independent datasets. Using the GPS and GRACE data near Upernavik Isstrøm in West Greenland as an example, we demonstrate that this method successfully detects two transient signals in ice mass variations during 2008 and 2014. Our forward modeling of loading displacements due to changes in surface mass...... balance (SMB) and ice dynamics suggests that the transient change starting in mid-2008 was due to the combined contributions from dynamically-induced mass loss and SMB. The transient change starting in mid-2011 was mainly due to ablation Specifically, the ice melted more in 2012 and less in 2013...

  12. Changes in recruitment, growth, and stock size of northern shrimp (Pandalus borealis) at West Greenland: temperature and density-dependent effects at released predation pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieland, Kai

    2005-01-01

    increased in all survey regions since the mid-1990s. Length-at-age was positively correlated with temperature in general, but a trend towards slower growth was observed in areas with the highest stock densities in the most recent years. It is concluded that the moderate increase in temperature above a lower......Stock size of northern shrimp (Pandalus borealis) in West Greenland waters has been fairly stable from the late 1980s to the mid-1990s. Thereafter, survey estimates of biomass increased substantially, and the exploitation rate declined slightly in the most recent years. The present analysis...

  13. The plankton community on Sukkertop and Fylla Banks off West Greenland during a spring bloom and post-bloom period: Hydrography, phytoplankton and protozooplankton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Louise K.; Reuss, N.

    2002-01-01

    The plankton community structure was investigated on Sukkertop and Fylla Banks off West Greenland during the spring bloom in May 2000 and the post-bloom period in June 1999. In May a small change in density, clearly illustrated by the profile of potential energy, was sufficient to support a spring...... the phytoplankton community. Heterotrophic biomass was low (5 +/- 1 mg C m(-3)) and an important part was comprised by heterotrophic nanoflagellates (24 +/- 1%). Protozooplankters (heterotrophic dinoflagellates and ciliates) were important grazers of the phytoplankton community in the post-bloom period (estimated...

  14. Growth, condition, and mortality of caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus in the Sisimiut Population, West Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidar Holthe

    1984-05-01

    Full Text Available Growth and condition of the Sisimiut caribou was anlysed by means of mandible length, carcass weight, and back fat indices. Mandible lenght showed unchanged growth conditions since the late 1960s, and growth stops at 4 years of age. The Sisimiut caribou seems to be smaller than North American caribous, Greenlandic semi-domesticated reindeer and of same size or smaller than Scandinavian reindeer. Carcass weight showed similar results, however cow growth rate seems not to prolong sexual maturation. Back fat deposits were less than what is known from other reindeer and caribou populations. Sex and age distribution of mandibles from various materials and survival curves based on the same material shows — an uneven distribution between bulls and cows and a relatively large proportion of old cows in the bag from the last years, which seems to be caused by a light hunting pressure when the population peaked in the 1960s. Heavy natural mortality for animals born before or after a winter with unfavorable snow conditions was also showed.Vækst, kondition og dødelighed hos vildren (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus i Sisimiut-bestanden, Vestgrønland.Abstract in Danish / Sammendrag: Vækst- og konditionsforhold for Sisimiut-vildrenbestanden i Vestgrønland er beskrevet ved hjæip af underkæbelængde, slagtevægt og rygfedt. Undersøgelsen af kæbelængde viste, at vækstforholdene havde været uforandret siden sidste halvdel af 1960-erne, at væksten standser ved 4-års alderen, samt at Sisimiut-vildrenen er mindre end de nordamerikanske caribou, Itinnera-tamrenen og på størrelse med eller mindre end skandinaviske rensdyr. Dette viste sig også ved sammenligninger af slagtevægt. Vægten af simlerne er dog ikke så ringe, at der kan iagttages nogen forsinkelse i kønsmodningen. Fedtreserverne ved indgangen til vinteren synes at være dårligere end i andre undersøgte rensdyrbestande. Køns- og aldersfordelingen blandt forskellige typer af indsamlet k

  15. Abrupt Holocene climate change as an important factor for human migration in West Greenland

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    William J. D'Andrea; Yongsong Huang; Sherilyn C. Fritz; N. John Anderson

    2011-01-01

    .... However, the explanations for these large-scale human migrations are varied, including climatic factors, resistance to adaptation, economic marginalization, mercantile exploration, and hostile neighborhood interactions...

  16. Plate Tectonics at 3.8-3.7 Ga: Field Evidence from the Isua Accretionary Complex, Southern West Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komiya; Maruyama; Masuda; Nohda; Hayashi; Okamoto

    1999-09-01

    A 1&rcolon;5000 scale mapping was performed in the Isukasia area of the ca. 3.8-Ga Isua supracrustal belt, southern West Greenland. The mapped area is divided into three units bounded by low-angle thrusts: the Northern, Middle, and Southern Units. The Southern Unit, the best exposed, is composed of 14 subunits (horses) with similar lithostratigraphy, bound by layer-parallel thrusts. Duplex structures are widespread in the Isua belt and vary in scale from a few meters to kilometers. Duplexing proceeded from south to north and is well documented in the relationship between link- and roof-thrusts. The reconstructed lithostratigraphy of each horse reveals a simple pattern, in ascending order, of greenstone with low-K tholeiitic composition with or without pillow lava structures, chert/banded iron-formation, and turbidites. The cherts and underlying low-K tholeiites do not contain continent- or arc-derived material. The lithostratigraphy is quite similar to Phanerozoic "oceanic plate stratigraphy," except for the abundance of mafic material in the turbidites. The evidence of duplex structures and oceanic plate stratigraphy indicates that the Isua supracrustal belt is the oldest accretionary complex in the world. The dominantly mafic turbidite composition suggests that the accretionary complex was formed in an intraoceanic environment comparable to the present-day western Pacific Ocean. The duplex polarity suggests that an older accretionary complex should occur to the south of the Isua complex. Moreover, the presence of seawater (documented by a thick, pillow, lava unit at the bottom of oceanic plate stratigraphy) indicates that the surface temperature was less than ca. 100 degrees C in the Early Archean. The oceanic geotherm for the Early Archean lithosphere as a function of age was calculated based on a model of transient half-space cooling at given parameters of surface and mantle temperatures of 100 degrees and 1450 degrees C, respectively, suggesting that the

  17. Evaluation of the use of common sculpin (Myoxocephalus scorpius) organ histology as bioindicator for element exposure in the fjord of the mining area Maarmorilik, West Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonne, Christian, E-mail: csh@dmu.dk [Aarhus University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Bioscience, Arctic Research Centre (ARC), Frederiksborgvej 399, P.O. Box 358, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Bach, Lis; Søndergaard, Jens; Rigét, Frank F.; Dietz, Rune; Mosbech, Anders [Aarhus University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Bioscience, Arctic Research Centre (ARC), Frederiksborgvej 399, P.O. Box 358, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Leifsson, Pall S. [University of Copenhagen, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Department of Veterinary Disease Biology, Bülowsvej 17, DK-1870 Frederiksberg (Denmark); Gustavson, Kim [Aarhus University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Bioscience, Arctic Research Centre (ARC), Frederiksborgvej 399, P.O. Box 358, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark)

    2014-08-15

    The former Black Angel lead–zinc mine in Maarmorilik, West Greenland, is a historic example of how mining activity may result in a significant impact on the surrounding fjord system in terms of elevated concentrations of especially lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) in seawater, sediments and surrounding biota. In order to shed light on the present contamination and possible effects in the fjord we initiated a range of studies including a pilot study on gill and liver morphology of common sculpins (Myoxocephalus scorpius) around Maarmorilik. Sculpins were caught and sampled at five different stations known to represent a gradient of Pb concentrations. Fish livers from all specimens were analyzed for relevant elements in the area: Fe, Zn, As, Cu, Se, Cd, Pb, Ag, Hg, Co and Ni. Lead, As and Hg showed significant differences among the five stations. For 20% of the sculpins, Hg concentrations were in the range of lowest observed effect dose (LOED) of 0.1–0.5 μg/g ww for toxic threshold on reproduction and subclinical endpoints. Likewise LOEDs for tissue lesions, LOEDs for biochemistry, growth, survival and reproduction were exceeded for Cd (0.42–1.8 μg/g ww) and for As (11.6 μg/g ww) in 28% and 85% of the sculpins, respectively. Similar to this, the no observed effect dose (NOED) for biochemistry was exceeded for Pb (0.32 μg/g ww) and for growth, mortality and reproduction for Zn (60–68 μg/g ww) in 33% and 24% of the sculpins, respectively. For all sculpins, females were significantly larger than males and for five of the elements (Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Se) females had higher concentrations. The chronic lesions observed in liver (mononuclear cell infiltrates, necrosis, vacuolar hepatocytes, portal fibrosis, bile duct hyperplasia, active melanomacrophage centers) and gills (fusion and edema of secondary lamellae, laminar telangiectasis, mononuclear cell infiltrates, blebs) were similar to those in the literature studies for both wild and laboratory exposed sculpins and

  18. Mass balance of the Amitsulôg ice cap, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlstrøm, Andreas P.; Bøggild, Carl Egede; Olesen, Ole B.

    2007-01-01

    Includes bibliographical references and index Proceedings of a workshop on Andean Glaciology and a symposium on the Contribution from Glaciers and Snow Cover to Runoff from Mountains in Different Climates held during the 7th Scientific Assembly of the International Association of Hydrological Sci...... Sciences in Foz do Iguaçu, Brazil (4-9 April 2005). The workshop and symposium were convened by the former IAHS International Commission on Snow and Ice (ICSI)...

  19. A modeling study of the effect of runoff variability on the effective pressure beneath Russell Glacier, West Greenland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Fleurian, Basile; Morlighem, M.; Seroussi, Helene; Rignot, Eric; van den Broeke, M.R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073765643; Kuipers Munneke, P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304831891; Mouginot, Jeremie; Smeets, C.J.P.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/191522236; Tedstone, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Basal sliding is a main control on glacier flow primarily driven by water pressure at the glacier base. The ongoing increase in surface melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet warrants an examination of its impact on basal water pressure and in turn on basal sliding. Here we examine the case of Russell

  20. Rates of volcanic deposition, facies changes and movements in a dynamic basin: the Nuussuaq Basin, West Greenland, around the C27n-C26r transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, A. K.; Larsen, L. M.; Riisager, P.

    2002-01-01

    The initial stages of Palaeogene volcanism in the Nuussuaq Basin in West Greenland were characterized by eruption of basaltic and picritic magmas through sediments of Cretaceous to early Paleocene age into a marine or lowlying coastal environment. Recent magnetostratigraphic work has recognized......, subsidence c. 25 m ka−1. If the volcanism evolved continuously at this high aggradation rate, all of the Vaigat Formation could have erupted in 70 ka. However, the complex geological record indicates a much longer total duration, and the volcanism must have had an intermittent character....... the C27n-C26r transition (estimated duration less than 10 ka and here assumed to be 5 ka) as a c. 170 m thick zone within a succession of thin picritic lava flows. Multimodel photogrammetry combined with chemical and lithological analysis of the volcanic rocks has allowed detailed 3D analysis...

  1. Mapping of a Hydrological Ice Sheet Drainage Basin on the West Greenland Ice Sheet Margin from ERS-1/2 SAR Interferometry, Ice-Radar Measurement, and Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlstrøm, Andreas P.; Bøggild, C.E.; Stenseng, L.

    2002-01-01

    importance of the potential of the ice overburden pressure compared to the bedrock topography. The meltwater run-off for the basin delineations was modelled with an energy-balance model calibrated with observed ice-sheet ablation and compared to a 25 year time series of measured basin run-off. The standard......The hydrological ice-sheet basin draining into the Tasersiaq lake, West Greenland (66°13'N, 50°30'W), was delineated, First using standard digital elevation models (DEMs) for ice-sheet surface and bedrock, and subsequently using a new high-resolution dataset, with a surface DEM derived from repeat......-track interferometric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and a bedrock topography derived from an airborne 60 MHz ice-penetrating radar. The extent of the delineation was calculated from a water-pressure potential as a function of the ice-sheet surface and bedrock elevations and a hydraulic factor κ describing the relative...

  2. Variable influx of West Greenland Current water into the Labrador Current through the last 8000 years, based on a multiproxy study from Trinity Bay, NE Newfoundland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sheldon, Christina; Seidenkrantz, Marit-Solveig; Frandsen, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This multi-proxy study of marine sediment gravity core AI07-06G from Trinity Bay, Newfoundland, recorded changes in the strength of the Labrador Current (LC) during the Holocene. From ca. 8-5 cal kyr BP, Trinity Bay's seafloor was influenced by cooled Atlantic water derived from the West Greenland....... This may be explained by a weaker North Atlantic subpolar gyre, transporting less Atlantic Water from the WGC to the (outer) LC. Arctic meltwater transport was reduced as glacial melting decreased at the end of the Holocene Thermal Optimum. At ca. 3 cal kyr BP, bottom waters returned to colder, more stable...... Current (WGC) Davis Strait branch, merging into the relatively cold LC. This Atlantic water influence gradually decreased after ca. 6 cal kyr BP, reaching a minimum at 5 cal kyr BP. In contrast, surface temperatures were relatively low due to cold surface water dominated by sea ice and meltwater carried...

  3. A preliminary strategic environmental impact assessment of mineral and hydrocarbon activities on the Nuussuaq peninsula, West Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boertmann, D.; Asmund, G.; Glahder, C.; Tamstorf, M.

    2008-01-15

    There is an increasing interest for mineral and hydrocarbon exploration in Greenland and in both regards the Nuussuaq peninsula is in focus. This preliminary strategic environmental impact assessment describes the status of the biological knowledge from the area and designates potential conflicts between activities and the biological environment. Furthermore biological knowledge gaps are identified. These should be filled before specific environmental impacts assessments can be carried out and relevant studies to fill these data gaps are proposed. (au)

  4. 78 FR 12358 - Cardinal Health, Financial Shared Services West, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Aerotek...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ... Employment and Training Administration Cardinal Health, Financial Shared Services West, Including On- Site..., Financial Shared Services West, including on-site leased workers from Aerotek, eXcel Staffing, and Experis... these workers were sufficiently under the control of Cardinal Health, Financial Shared Services West to...

  5. The value of Inuit participation when conserving the common eider duck in Arctic Canada and Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilchrist, Grant; Merkel, Flemming Ravn; Sonne, Christian

    The northern common eider duck nests in the eastern Canadian Arctic and west Greenland, and migrates to winter in Atlantic Canada and southwest Greenland. The eider is harvested for its meat, feather down and eggs and its ongoing conservation is the shared responsibility of Canada, Greenland......, Denmark, and northerners. This presentation will review the meaningful involvement and direct participation of Inuit during many aspects of historical and ongoing eider duck conservation efforts. These include studies that examined the sustainability of harvest, the establishment of new harvest...

  6. Envisioning Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Carina Bregnholm

    2012-01-01

    Currently, the traditional ‘cool’ representation of Greenland as a frozen landscape devoid of people and human structures is being challenged by an emerging vision of Greenland as ‘hot’. This article presents and describes these two versions of Greenland, showing how demarcations of what is ‘nature......’ and what is ‘culture’ play active roles in representing and performing Greenland in very different ways. The visions of a ‘cool’ and ‘hot’ Greenland may be seen as contesting and contested naturecultures (Latour 1993) that enact Greenland through shifting configurations, making some elements visible while...... of resources, whether of a human or non-human kind, may contribute to visions which are able to sustainably integrate and bring forward Greenlandic - and global - naturecultures....

  7. The Subglacial Access and Fast Ice Research Experiment (SAFIRE): 1. Programme of investigation on Store Glacier, West Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoffersen, Poul; Hubbard, Bryn; Bougamont, Marion; Doyle, Samuel; Young, Tun Jan; Hofstede, Coen; Nicholls, Keith; Todd, Joe; Box, Jason; Ryan, Johnny; Toberg, Nick; Walter, Jacob; Hubbard, Alun

    2015-04-01

    Marine-terminating outlet glaciers drain 90 percent of the Greenland Ice Sheet and are responsible for about half of the ice sheet's net annual mass loss, which currently raises global sea level by almost 1 mm per year. Understanding the processes that drive the fast flow of these glaciers is crucial because a growing body of evidence points to a strong, but spatially varied and often complex, response to oceanographic as well as atmospheric forcing. While the bed of glaciers elsewhere is known to strongly influence the flow of ice, no observations have ever been made at the bed of a marine-terminating glacier in Greenland. The flow of ice in numerical models of the Greenland Ice Sheet consequently rely on untested basal parameterisations, which form a likely and potentially significant source of error in the prediction of sea level rise over the coming decades and century. The Subglacial Access and Fast Ice Research Experiment (SAFIRE) is addressing this paucity of observational constraints by gaining access to the bed of Store Glacier, a marine-terminating outlet of the Greenland Ice Sheet which has a drainage basin of 35,000 square kilometres and terminates in Uummannaq Fjord. In 2014, the SAFIRE programme drilled four boreholes in a region where ice flows at a rate of 700 m per year and where a seismic survey revealed a bed consisting of soft sediment. (See joint abstract by Hofstede et al. for details.) The boreholes were 603-616 m deep and direct access to the bed was confirmed by a clear hydrological connectivity with a basal water system. (See joint abstract by Doyle et al. for details.) With sensors deployed englacially (temperature and tilt) and at the bed (water pressure, turbidity, electrical conductivity), the SAFIRE will inform the ratio of internal ice deformation and basal slip, vertical strain, ice temperature, and fluctuations in water pressure linked to supraglacial lake drainage as well as diurnal drainage into moulins. In 2015, we plan to

  8. Heat sources for glacial ice melt in a West Greenland tidewater outlet glacier fjord: The role of subglacial freshwater discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Jørgen; Mortensen, John; Lennert, Kunuk

    2015-01-01

    The melting of tidewater outlet glaciers from the Greenland Ice Sheet contributes significantly to global sea level rise. Accelerated mass loss is related to melt-processes in front of calving glaciers, yet the role of ocean heat transports is poorly understood. Here we present the first direct...... measurements from a subglacial plume in front of a calving tidewater outlet glacier. Surface salinity in the plume corresponded to a meltwater content of 7 %, which is indicative of significant entrainment of warm bottom water and, according to plume model calculations, significant ice melt. Energy balance...... of the area near the glacier showed that ice melt was mainly due to ocean heat transport and that direct plume-associated melt was only important in periods with high meltwater discharge rates of ~100 m3 s−1. Ocean mixing outside of the plume area was thus the primary heat source for melting glacier ice....

  9. Phytoplankton growth and microzooplankton grazing along a sub-Arctic fjord (Godthåbsfjord, West Greenland)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calbet, A.; Riisgaard, Karen; Saiz, E.

    2011-01-01

    we established four zones: i) Fyllas Bank, characterized by deep chl a maxima (ca. 30-40 m) consisting of large cells; ii) the mouth and main branch of the fjord, where phytoplankton was relatively homogeneously distributed in the upper 30 m layer; iii) inner waters influenced by glacial melt water......We evaluated the role of microzooplankton (sensu latto, grazers Greenland subarctic fjord, Godthåbfjord. Based on the distribution of size fractionated chlorophyll a (chl a) concentrations...... the nutrient rich waters in the upwelling area in the vicinity of the glacier. Most of the grazing impact was on the 20 µm microzooplankton, as deducted from additional dilution experiments removing > 20 µm. Overall, little...

  10. Q fever in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Anders; Svendsen, Claus Bo; Christensen, Jens Jorgen

    2010-01-01

    We report a patient with Q fever endocarditis in a settlement in eastern Greenland (Isortoq, Ammassalik area). Likely animal sources include sled dogs and seals. Q fever may be underdiagnosed in Arctic areas but may also represent an emerging infection.......We report a patient with Q fever endocarditis in a settlement in eastern Greenland (Isortoq, Ammassalik area). Likely animal sources include sled dogs and seals. Q fever may be underdiagnosed in Arctic areas but may also represent an emerging infection....

  11. Pneumatization and otitis media in Greenlandic Inuit before European colonization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Homøe, P; Lynnerup, N; Skovgaard, L T

    1995-01-01

    A total of 127 Greenlandic Inuit crania from before the European colonization of Greenland and deriving from the West (W), Southeast (SE), and Northeast (NE) coast of Greenland were examined for sequelae of infectious middle ear disease (IMED) and for a relationship between the size of the pneuma...

  12. The Subglacial Access and Fast Ice Research Experiment (SAFIRE): 3. Englacial and subglacial conditions revealed by seismic reflection data on Store Glacier, West Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstede, Coen; Eisen, Olaf; Young, Tun Jan; Doyle, Samuel; Hubbard, Bryn; Christoffersen, Poul; Hubbard, Alun

    2015-04-01

    Basal conditions have a profound influence on the dynamics of outlet glaciers. As part of the SAFIRE research programme, we carried out a seismic survey on Store Glacier, a tidewater glacier terminating in Uummanaq Fjord in West Greenland (see joint abstracts by Christoffersen et al. and Doyle et al. for details). At the survey site the ice moves 700m/a making the terrain crevassed and bumpy. Despite the rough terrain we collected two 1.5 km long survey lines parallel and perpendicular to the ice flow direction using a 300m snow streamer and explosives as a source. The seismic data reveal an ice thickness of about 620m and 20 to 30m of subglacial sediment on the upstream side of the area thinning in the downstream direction. From polarity reversals seen along the ice-bed contact we speculate that the sediments have varying degrees of water content. The ice itself has several englacial reflections parallel and close to the bed. At approximately 475m depth, a clear single englacial reflection is observed in the parallel survey line. Thermistor data installed at this location show a clear increase in ice temperature starting at this depth. We speculate that the observed englacial reflection is caused by a change in crystal orientation fabric allowing greater ice deformation below this depth causing increased strain heating.

  13. Pb isotopes as tracers of mining-related Pb in lichens, seaweed and mussels near a former Pb-Zn mine in West Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sondergaard, Jens, E-mail: jens@dmu.d [Department of Arctic Environment, National Environmental Research Institute, Aarhus University, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Asmund, Gert; Johansen, Poul [Department of Arctic Environment, National Environmental Research Institute, Aarhus University, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Elberling, Bo [Institute of Geography and Geology, University of Copenhagen, Oster Voldgade 10, DK-1350 Copenhagen K (Denmark); University Centre in Svalbard, NO-9171 Longyearbyen (Norway)

    2010-05-15

    Identification of mining-related contaminants is important in order to assess the spreading of contaminants from mining as well as for site remediation purposes. This study focuses on lead (Pb) contamination in biota near the abandoned 'Black Angel Mine' in West Greenland in the period 1988-2008. Stable Pb isotope ratios and total Pb concentrations were determined in lichens, seaweed and mussels as well as in marine sediments. The results show that natural background Pb ({sup 207}Pb/{sup 206}Pb: 0.704-0.767) and Pb originating from the mine ore ({sup 207}Pb/{sup 206}Pb: 0.955) have distinct isotopic fingerprints. Total Pb in lichens, seaweed, and mussels was measured at values up to 633, 19 and 1536 mg kg{sup -1} dry weight, respectively, and is shown to be a mixture of natural Pb and ore-Pb. This enables quantification of mining-related Pb and shows that application of Pb isotope data is a valuable tool for monitoring mining pollution. - Lead isotopes can be used to monitor uptake of mining-related lead in lichens, seaweed and mussels.

  14. Pb isotopes as tracers of mining-related Pb in lichens, seaweed and mussels near a former Pb-Zn mine in West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Jens; Asmund, Gert; Johansen, Poul

    2010-01-01

    Identification of mining-related contaminants is important in order to assess the spreading of contaminants from mining as well as for site remediation purposes. This study focuses on lead (Pb) contamination in biota near the abandoned ‘Black Angel Mine’ in West Greenland in the period 1988......–2008. Stable Pb isotope ratios and total Pb concentrations were determined in lichens, seaweed and mussels as well as in marine sediments. The results show that natural background Pb (207Pb/206Pb: 0.704–0.767) and Pb originating from the mine ore (207Pb/206Pb: 0.955) have distinct isotopic fingerprints. Total...... Pb in lichens, seaweed, and mussels was measured at values up to 633, 19 and 1536 mg kg-1 dry weight, respectively, and is shown to be a mixture of natural Pb and ore-Pb. This enables quantification of mining-related Pb and shows that application of Pb isotope data is a valuable tool for monitoring...

  15. Average sedimentary rock rare Earth element patterns and crustal evolution: Some observations and implications from the 3800 Ma ISUA supracrustal belt, West Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dymek, R. F.; Boak, J. L.; Gromet, L. P.

    1983-01-01

    Rare earth element (REE) data is given on a set of clastic metasediments from the 3800 Ma Isua Supracrustal belt, West Greenland. Each of two units from the same sedimentary sequence has a distinctive REE pattern, but the average of these rocks bears a very strong resemblance to the REE pattern for the North American Shale Composite (NASC), and departs considerably from previous estimates of REE patterns in Archaean sediments. The possibility that the source area for the Isua sediments resembled that of the NASC is regarded as highly unlikely. However, REE patterns like that in the NASC may be produced by sedimentary recycling of material yielding patterns such as are found at Isua. The results lead to the following tentative conclusions: (1) The REE patterns for Isua Seq. B MBG indicate the existence of crustal materials with fractionated REE and negative Eu anomalies at 3800 Ma, (2) The average Seq. B REE pattern resembles that of the North American Shale Composite (NASC), (3) If the Seq. B average is truly representative of its crustal sources, then this early crust could have been extensively differentiated. In this regard, a proper understanding of the NASC pattern, and its relationship to post-Archaean crustal REE reservoirs, is essential, (4) The Isua results may represent a local effect.

  16. Pb isotopes as tracers of mining-related Pb in lichens, seaweed and mussels near a former Pb-Zn mine in West Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søndergaard, Jens; Asmund, Gert; Johansen, Poul; Elberling, Bo

    2010-05-01

    Identification of mining-related contaminants is important in order to assess the spreading of contaminants from mining as well as for site remediation purposes. This study focuses on lead (Pb) contamination in biota near the abandoned 'Black Angel Mine' in West Greenland in the period 1988-2008. Stable Pb isotope ratios and total Pb concentrations were determined in lichens, seaweed and mussels as well as in marine sediments. The results show that natural background Pb ((207)Pb/(206)Pb: 0.704-0.767) and Pb originating from the mine ore ((207)Pb/(206)Pb: 0.955) have distinct isotopic fingerprints. Total Pb in lichens, seaweed, and mussels was measured at values up to 633, 19 and 1536 mg kg(-1) dry weight, respectively, and is shown to be a mixture of natural Pb and ore-Pb. This enables quantification of mining-related Pb and shows that application of Pb isotope data is a valuable tool for monitoring mining pollution. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Resilience and Renewable Energy Planning in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carruth, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Using a combination of thematic analysis and studio-based planning proposals in West Greenland, this paper proposes that there is more than one interpretation of resilience in renewable energy planning. All energy transitions, from one system to another, are protracted and unpredictable, and the ......Using a combination of thematic analysis and studio-based planning proposals in West Greenland, this paper proposes that there is more than one interpretation of resilience in renewable energy planning. All energy transitions, from one system to another, are protracted and unpredictable......, and the transition to a renewable energy system is proving no exception. Such a transition is particularly amplified in the context of Greenland – a country undergoing rapid transformation in many fields, including energy. Resilience theory offers an approach for how to plan for this energy transition, but how...... to translate resilience theory into planning practices remains underdeveloped. The paper begins by outlining some of the challenges in planning a transition to renewable energy, and sketching Greenland’s energy landscape. It then discusses the key characteristics of resilience thinking, before proposing...

  18. Resilience and Renewable Energy Planning in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carruth, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Using a combination of thematic analysis and studio-based planning proposals in West Greenland, this paper proposes that there is more than one interpretation of resilience in renewable energy planning. All energy transitions, from one system to another, are protracted and unpredictable......, and the transition to a renewable energy system is proving no exception. Such a transition is particularly amplified in the context of Greenland – a country undergoing rapid transformation in many fields, including energy. Resilience theory offers an approach for how to plan for this energy transition, but how...... to translate resilience theory into planning practices remains underdeveloped. The paper begins by outlining some of the challenges in planning a transition to renewable energy, and sketching Greenland’s energy landscape. It then discusses the key characteristics of resilience thinking, before proposing...

  19. Hydrologic Outlets of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Hydrologic Outlets of the Greenland Ice Sheet data set contains GIS point shapefiles that include 891 observed and potential hydrologic outlets of the Greenland...

  20. Continental Collision Structures and Post-Orogenic Geological History of the Kangerlussuaq Area in the Southern Part of the Nagssugtoqidian Orogen, Central West Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Engström

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Deep-seated continental collision sutures, formed at a depth of more than 20 km, are exposed near Kangerlussuaq, close to the Greenland ice cap, on the southern margin of the Nagssugtoqidian orogen in Central West Greenland, thus offering a rare opportunity to study the tectonic deformation style of such an orogen. This paper adds new information on the tectonic history of the southern flank of the Nagssugtoqidian orogen. It focuses on (1 the results of a detailed structural investigation of lineament zones revealed from remote sensing of geophysical and topographic data and aerial photo interpretation, (2 detailed geological mapping at key locations and (3 a tectonic structural model describing the geological development of the area. The area has undergone several episodes of deformation, which have been compiled into an event succession that recognizes eight tectonic events overprinting each other: Two stages of folding (F1 and F2 have been identified along with one major episode of intrusion of the Kangâmiut mafic dyke swarm (2.05 Ga into the Archaean continent. These dyke intrusions are very important, since by examining the style of deformation for these intrusions it is possible to define the transition from the North Atlantic Craton in the south to the mobile belts in the Nagssugtoqidian orogen in the north. Five different types of pronounced lineaments and one less pronounced lineament post-dating the Kangâmiut dykes extending from ductile deformation shearing events to brittle deformation with extensive faulting. These lineaments cover both the collisional and post-collisional tectonic history of the area. The study focused on two types of lineaments: one semi-ductile type trending E–W with a dextral sense of shear and a second, a pronounced lineament outlining the Kangerlussuaq–Russell thrust fault. These two features are interpreted to be related to the Nagssugtoqidian orogeny, while the latter lineaments have a more brittle

  1. Surface mass balance and runoff modeling using HIRHAM4 RCM at Kangerlussuaq (Søndre Strømfjord), West Greenland, 1950-2080

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mernild, Sebastian H.; Liston, Glen E.; Hiemstra, Christopher A.

    2011-01-01

    Greenland's Kangerlussuaq drainage. Projected changes in the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) surface mass balance (SMB) and runoff are relevant for potential hydropower production and prediction of ecosystem changes in sensitive Kangerlussuaq Fjord systems. Mean annual surface air temperatures and precipitation...

  2. Phytoplankton Productivity in an Arctic Fjord (West Greenland: Estimating Electron Requirements for Carbon Fixation and Oxygen Production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasper Hancke

    Full Text Available Accurate quantification of pelagic primary production is essential for quantifying the marine carbon turnover and the energy supply to the food web. Knowing the electron requirement (Κ for carbon (C fixation (ΚC and oxygen (O2 production (ΚO2, variable fluorescence has the potential to quantify primary production in microalgae, and hereby increasing spatial and temporal resolution of measurements compared to traditional methods. Here we quantify ΚC and ΚO2 through measures of Pulse Amplitude Modulated (PAM fluorometry, C fixation and O2 production in an Arctic fjord (Godthåbsfjorden, W Greenland. Through short- (2h and long-term (24h experiments, rates of electron transfer (ETRPSII, C fixation and/or O2 production were quantified and compared. Absolute rates of ETR were derived by accounting for Photosystem II light absorption and spectral light composition. Two-hour incubations revealed a linear relationship between ETRPSII and gross 14C fixation (R2 = 0.81 during light-limited photosynthesis, giving a ΚC of 7.6 ± 0.6 (mean ± S.E. mol é (mol C-1. Diel net rates also demonstrated a linear relationship between ETRPSII and C fixation giving a ΚC of 11.2 ± 1.3 mol é (mol C-1 (R2 = 0.86. For net O2 production the electron requirement was lower than for net C fixation giving 6.5 ± 0.9 mol é (mol O2-1 (R2 = 0.94. This, however, still is an electron requirement 1.6 times higher than the theoretical minimum for O2 production [i.e. 4 mol é (mol O2-1]. The discrepancy is explained by respiratory activity and non-photochemical electron requirements and the variability is discussed. In conclusion, the bio-optical method and derived electron requirement support conversion of ETR to units of C or O2, paving the road for improved spatial and temporal resolution of primary production estimates.

  3. Phytoplankton Productivity in an Arctic Fjord (West Greenland): Estimating Electron Requirements for Carbon Fixation and Oxygen Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancke, Kasper; Dalsgaard, Tage; Sejr, Mikael Kristian; Markager, Stiig; Glud, Ronnie Nøhr

    2015-01-01

    Accurate quantification of pelagic primary production is essential for quantifying the marine carbon turnover and the energy supply to the food web. Knowing the electron requirement (Κ) for carbon (C) fixation (ΚC) and oxygen (O2) production (ΚO2), variable fluorescence has the potential to quantify primary production in microalgae, and hereby increasing spatial and temporal resolution of measurements compared to traditional methods. Here we quantify ΚC and ΚO2 through measures of Pulse Amplitude Modulated (PAM) fluorometry, C fixation and O2 production in an Arctic fjord (Godthåbsfjorden, W Greenland). Through short- (2h) and long-term (24h) experiments, rates of electron transfer (ETRPSII), C fixation and/or O2 production were quantified and compared. Absolute rates of ETR were derived by accounting for Photosystem II light absorption and spectral light composition. Two-hour incubations revealed a linear relationship between ETRPSII and gross 14C fixation (R2 = 0.81) during light-limited photosynthesis, giving a ΚC of 7.6 ± 0.6 (mean ± S.E.) mol é (mol C)-1. Diel net rates also demonstrated a linear relationship between ETRPSII and C fixation giving a ΚC of 11.2 ± 1.3 mol é (mol C)-1 (R2 = 0.86). For net O2 production the electron requirement was lower than for net C fixation giving 6.5 ± 0.9 mol é (mol O2)-1 (R2 = 0.94). This, however, still is an electron requirement 1.6 times higher than the theoretical minimum for O2 production [i.e. 4 mol é (mol O2)-1]. The discrepancy is explained by respiratory activity and non-photochemical electron requirements and the variability is discussed. In conclusion, the bio-optical method and derived electron requirement support conversion of ETR to units of C or O2, paving the road for improved spatial and temporal resolution of primary production estimates.

  4. Reproductive factors, lifestyle and dietary habits among pregnant women in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terkelsen, Anne Seneca; Long, Manhai; Hounsgaard, Lise

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: During past decades the formerly active lifestyle in Greenland has become sedentary, and the intake of traditional food has gradually been replaced with imported food. These lifestyle and dietary habits may affect pregnant women. AIM: To describe age and regional differences...... in reproductive factors, lifestyle and diet among Greenlandic pregnant women in their first trimester. METHODS: A cross-sectional study during 2013-2015 including 373 pregnant women was conducted in five Greenlandic regions (West, Disko Bay, South, North and East). Interview-based questionnaires on reproductive...... and intake of sauce with hot meals and fast-food. Future recommendations aimed at pregnant women in Greenland should focus on these health issues....

  5. Thin-layer effects in glaciological seismic amplitude-versus-angle (AVA analysis: implications for characterising a subglacial till unit, Russell Glacier, West Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Booth

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Seismic amplitude-versus-angle (AVA methods are a powerful means of quantifying the physical properties of subglacial material, but serious interpretative errors can arise when AVA is measured over a thinly-layered substrate. A substrate layer with a thickness less than 1/4 of the seismic wavelength, λ, is considered "thin", and reflections from its bounding interfaces superpose and appear in seismic data as a single reflection event. AVA interpretation of subglacial till can be vulnerable to such thin-layer effects, since a lodged (non-deforming till can be overlain by a thin (metre-scale cap of dilatant (deforming till. We assess the potential for misinterpretation by simulating seismic data for a stratified subglacial till unit, with an upper dilatant layer between 0.1–5.0 m thick (λ / 120 to > λ / 4, with λ = 12 m. For dilatant layers less than λ / 6 thick, conventional AVA analysis yields acoustic impedance and Poisson's ratio that indicate contradictory water saturation. A thin-layer interpretation strategy is proposed, that accurately characterises the model properties of the till unit. The method is applied to example seismic AVA data from Russell Glacier, West Greenland, in which characteristics of thin-layer responses are evident. A subglacial till deposit is interpreted, having lodged till (acoustic impedance = 4.26±0.59 × 106 kg m−2 s−1 underlying a water-saturated dilatant till layer (thickness < 2 m, Poisson's ratio ~ 0.5. Since thin-layer considerations offer a greater degree of complexity in an AVA interpretation, and potentially avoid misinterpretations, they are a valuable aspect of quantitative seismic analysis, particularly for characterising till units.

  6. Atuarfitsialak: Greenland's Cultural Compatible Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Tasha R.

    2012-01-01

    In 2002, Greenlandic reform leaders launched a comprehensive, nation-wide reform to create culturally compatible education. Greenland's reform work spans the entire educational system and includes preschool through higher education. To assist their efforts, reform leaders adopted the Standards for Effective Pedagogy developed at the Center for…

  7. South Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This report is a preliminary strategic environmental impact assessment of activities related to exploration, development and exploitation of oil in the Greenland sector of the Labrador Sea and the southeast Davis Strait......This report is a preliminary strategic environmental impact assessment of activities related to exploration, development and exploitation of oil in the Greenland sector of the Labrador Sea and the southeast Davis Strait...

  8. Contrasts in the response of adjacent fjords and glaciers to ice-sheet surface melt in West Greenland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartholomaus, Timothy C.; Stearns, Leigh A.; Sutherland, David A.; Shroyer, Emily L.; Nash, Jonathan D.; Walker, Ryan T.; Catania, Ginny; Felikson, Denis; Carroll, Dustin; Fried, Mason J.; Noël, Brice P.Y.; Van Den Broeke, Michiel R.

    Neighboring tidewater glaciers often exhibit asynchronous dynamic behavior, despite relatively uniform regional atmospheric and oceanic forcings. This variability may be controlled by a combination of local factors, including glacier and fjord geometry, fjord heat content and circulation, and

  9. New Perspectives on Long Run-out Rock Avalanches: A Dynamic Analysis of 20 Events in the Vaigat Strait, West Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, J.; Rosser, N. J.; Dunning, S.; Hardy, R. J.; Karim, K.; Szczucinski, W.; Norman, E. C.; Strzelecki, M.; Drewniak, M.

    2014-12-01

    Risk assessments of the threat posed by rock avalanches rely upon numerical modelling of potential run-out and spreading, and are contingent upon a thorough understanding of the flow dynamics inferred from deposits left by previous events. Few records exist of multiple rock avalanches with boundary conditions sufficiently consistent to develop a set of more generalised rules for behaviour across events. A unique cluster of 20 large (3 x 106 - 94 x 106 m3) rock avalanche deposits along the Vaigat Strait, West Greenland, offers a unique opportunity to model a large sample of adjacent events sourced from a stretch of coastal mountains of relatively uniform geology and structure. Our simulations of these events were performed using VolcFlow, a geophysical mass flow code developed to simulate volcanic debris avalanches. Rheological calibration of the model was performed using a well-constrained event at Paatuut (AD 2000). The best-fit simulation assumes a constant retarding stress with a collisional stress coefficient (T0 = 250 kPa, ξ = 0.01), and simulates run-out to within ±0.3% of that observed. Despite being widely used to simulate rock avalanche propagation, other models, that assume either a Coulomb frictional or a Voellmy rheology, failed to reproduce the observed event characteristics and deposit distribution at Paatuut. We applied this calibration to 19 other events, simulating rock avalanche motion across 3D terrain of varying levels of complexity. Our findings illustrate the utility and sensitivity of modelling a single rock avalanche satisfactorily as a function of rheology, alongside the validity of applying the same parameters elsewhere, even within similar boundary conditions. VolcFlow can plausibly account for the observed morphology of a series of deposits emplaced by events of different types, although its performance is sensitive to a range of topographic and geometric factors. These exercises show encouraging results in the model's ability to

  10. An overview of the lithological and geochemical characteristics of the Mesoarchean (ca. 3075) Ivisaartoq greenstone belt, southern West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polat, A.; Frei, Robert; Appel, P.W.U.

    2008-01-01

    Archean greenstone belts in the area. The Ivisaartoq greenstone belt is the largest Mesoarchean supracrustal lithotectonic assemblage in the Nuuk region. The belt contains well-preserved primary magmatic structures including pillow lavas, volcanic breccias, and cumulate (picrite) layers. It also includes......, we suggest that the Ivisaartoq greenstone belt represents a relic of dismembered Mesoarchean suprasubduction zone oceanic crust. The Sm-Nd isotope system appears to have remained relatively undisturbed in picrites, tholeiitic pillow lavas, gabbros, and diorites. As a group, picrites have more...

  11. Chemostratigraphy of Late Cretaceous deltaic and marine sedimentary rocks from high northern palaeolatitudes in the Nuussuaq Basin, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenniger, Marc; Pedersen, Gunver Krarup; Bjerrum, Christian J.

    in the Late Cretaceous–Early Paleocene prior to the continental break-up and the beginning of sea-floor spreading in the Early Paleocene. The Nuussuaq Group comprises a more than 6 km thick succession of Cretaceous–Paleocene sedimentary rocks and includes the Atane Formation and the Itilli Formation, which...... consist of Late Cretaceous deposits from a major delta system and slope environment. The ongoing work will establish the chemostratigraphy in different depositional environments in the Nuussuaq Basin and investigate the palaeoceanography that prevailed during the Cenomanian–Turonian oceanic anoxic event...

  12. Petrology and geochemistry of the ~2.9 Ga Itilliarsuk banded iron formation and associated supracrustal rocks, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Rasmus; Frei, Robert; Stendal, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    unconformably on a basement of tonalite–trondhjemite–granodiorite (TTG) lithologies. Felsic metagreywackes, meta-semipelites and thinly bedded ferruginous shales were identified intercalated with the Itilliarsuk BIF. Other associated rocks include metapelites, acidic metavolcanics and metagabbroic sills...... seawater features with Post-Archaean Average Shale (PAAS)-normalised positive La- and Eu-anomalies, enrichment in heavy rare earth elements (HREE) relative to light rare earth elements (LREE) [(Pr/Yb)PAAS ... or outer shelf environment, with frequent fluctuations of epiclastic and volcanogenic sediments derived from adjacent bimodal sources. The TDM model ages and the use of Th–Sc–Zr and La–Th–Sc tectonic discrimination plots indicate that the metasediments were sourced from a juvenile ocean island arc setting....

  13. Possible Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    at Greenland's structure, and ask some threshold questions. Which aspects of society are rooted in our human hardware? And, if we had the rare opportunity to build a new nation, what would we choose for ourselves? We hope this will inspire an open, imaginative and thoroughly human discussion about how...

  14. Norse Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arneborg, Jette

    2015-01-01

    The story about Norse Greenland is the story of virgin land being colonized, settled for half a millennium, and then abandoned. The enigma of the abandonment of the settlements has attracted the attention of researchers and the public for centuries and many explanations have been put forward. Today...

  15. Climate versus in-lake processes as controls on the development of community structure in a low-arctic lake (South-West Greenland)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, N. John; Brodersen, Klaus Peter; Ryves, David B.

    2008-01-01

    The dominant processes determining biological structure in lakes at millennial timescales are complex. In this study, we used a multi-proxy approach to determine the relative importance of in-lake versus indirect processes on the Holocene development of an oligotrophic lake in SW Greenland (66.99°N...

  16. The Subglacial Access and Fast Ice Research Experiment (SAFIRE): 2. Preliminary outcomes from hot-water drilling and borehole instrumentation on Store Glacier, West Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Samuel; Hubbard, Bryn; Christoffersen, Poul; Young, Tun Jan; Hofstede, Coen; Todd, Joe; Bougamont, Marion; Hubbard, Alun

    2015-04-01

    As part of the SAFIRE research programme, pressurised hot water was used to drill four 603-616 m-long boreholes to the bed of the Greenland Ice Sheet at a site located 30 km from the calving front of marine-terminating Store Glacier (70° N, ~1000 m elevation). Despite the boreholes freezing within hours, 4 wired sensor strings were successfully deployed in three of the boreholes. These included a thermistor string to obtain the englacial temperature profile installed in the same borehole as a string of tilt sensors to measure borehole deformation, and two sets of water pressure, electrical conductivity and turbidity sensors installed just above the bed in separate, adjacent boreholes. The boreholes made a strong hydrological connection to the bed during drilling, draining rapidly to ~80 m below the ice surface. The connection of subsequent boreholes was observed as a perturbation in water pressure and temperature recorded in neighbouring boreholes, indicating an effective hydrological sub- or en-glacial connection between them. The short (week long) records obtained from these sensors in summer 2014 tentatively reveal (i) water pressure varying diurnally close to overburden albeit of a small magnitude (~0.3 m H2O), (ii) a minimum extrapolated englacial temperature of -21° C, (iii) and thermistors in the lowest 10 m of the borehole recorded temperatures above the pressure melting point indicating the presence of water. Data loggers were left running and longer records should become available in the near future. Differential drilling and instrument installation depths together with observations of discrete, diurnal turbidity events provisionally suggest the presence of sediment at the bed. These preliminary borehole observations will be complemented by GPS measurements of ice motion, meteorological data, and seismic and radar surveys to be undertaken over the next two years.

  17. Precambrian crustal evolution and Cretaceous–Palaeogene faulting in West Greenland: Presentation and interpretation of structural data from the Nagssugtoqidian orogen using a GIS platform: general trends and features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Gool, Jeroen A.M.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution we present data collected by more than 50 international geologists involved ingeological mapping and research projects in the Nagssugtoqidian orogen of West Greenland, organised by the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland and the Danish Lithosphere Centre. Using a geographical information system (GIS as a framework for visualisation and analysis of structural and lithological data, it is now possible to give a unique overview of thousands of data points, employedhere within a study area of approximately 160 × 180 km in the central and northern Nagssugtoqidian orogen. The GIS methodology allows comparison, integration and analysis of datasets interms of subject, space, and scale. This is extremely helpful in the recognition of geological patterns,such as terrain or domain boundaries and map-scale structures. Analysis of the available structuraldata shows clear differences in deformation patterns between the core and the northern segment ofthe Nagssugtoqidian orogen. One of the most prominent features is the ENE-striking Nordre Strømfjord shear zone, which transects the orogen from the coast to the Inland Ice. The data also clearly document a change from predominantly steeply dipping, ENE–WSW-trending fabrics and large,elongate structural domains in the core of the orogen, to large, open fold patterns and moderately to shallowly dipping fabrics in smaller structural domains in the north.

  18. Measuring bioavailable metals using diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) and transplanted seaweed (Fucus vesiculosus), blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) and sea snails (Littorina saxatilis) suspended from monitoring buoys near a former lead-zinc mine in West Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søndergaard, Jens; Bach, Lis; Gustavson, Kim

    2014-01-15

    Measuring loads of bioavailable metals is important for environmental assessment near mines and other industrial sources. In this study, a setup of monitoring buoys was tested to assess loads of bioavailable metals near a former Pb-Zn mine in West Greenland using transplanted seaweed, mussels and sea snails. In addition, passive DGT samplers were installed. After a 9-day deployment period, concentrations of especially Pb, Zn and Fe in the species were all markedly elevated at the monitoring sites closest to the mine. Lead concentrations in all three species and the DGT-Pb results showed a significant linear correlation. Zinc and Fe concentrations were less correlated indicating that the mechanisms for Zn and Fe accumulation in the three species are more complex. The results show that there is still a significant load of metals from the mine and that such buoys can be an adequate method to assess present loads of bioavailable metals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Hydrologic Outlets of the Greenland Ice Sheet, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Hydrologic Outlets of the Greenland Ice Sheet data set contains GIS point shapefiles that include 891 observed and potential hydrologic outlets of the Greenland...

  20. Late Quaternary glaciation history of northernmost Greenland - Evidence of shelf-based ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Nicolaj Krog; Kjær, Kurt H; Funder, Svend

    2010-01-01

    -flow along the coastal plain. Volcanic erratic boulders document ice-transport from 80 to 100 km west of the study area. We argue that these findings are best explained by local outlet glaciers from the Greenland Ice Sheet and local ice caps that merged to form a shelf-based ice in the Arctic Ocean......We present the mapping of glacial landforms and sediments from northernmost Greenland bordering 100 km of the Arctic Ocean coast. One of the most important discoveries is that glacial landforms, sediments, including till fabric measurements, striae and stoss-lee boulders suggest eastward ice...... and possibly confirming an extensive ice shelf in the Lincoln Sea between Greenland and Ellesmere Island. It is speculated that the shelf-based ice was largely affected by the presence of thick multiyear sea ice in the Arctic Ocean that prevented it from breaking up and forced the outlet glaciers to flow...

  1. Strategic environmental assessment (SEA) as a means to include environmental knowledge in decision making in the case of an aluminium reduction plant in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Merrild

    2011-01-01

    assessments. As there was no conflict between economic and environmental recommendations, and hence no visible proof of SEA’s influence on the outcome of the decision, it is discussed whether environmental knowledge, in this decision making process, equals influence. The investigation was carried out......The purpose and means of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) can vary depending on the case investigated and interests of actors involved. Based on the objective for the SEA of a proposed aluminium reduction plant (ARP) in Greenland, this paper evaluates the SEA’s effectiveness in securing...... environmental knowledge in a decision-making process. It is concluded that the SEA secured inclusion of environmental knowledge in three out of four key decision arenas, which determined the direction and outcome of the process. The results from the SEA did not oppose the recommendations based on the economic...

  2. Suspended Matter, Chl-a, CDOM, Grain Sizes, and Optical Properties in the Arctic Fjord-Type Estuary, Kangerlussuaq, West Greenland During Summer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Hansen, L. C.; Andersen, T. J.; Nielsen, Morten Holtegaard

    2010-01-01

    Optical constituents as suspended particulate matter (SPM), chlorophyll (Chl-a), colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM), and grain sizes were obtained on a transect in the arctic fjord-type estuary Kangerlussuaq (66A degrees) in August 2007 along with optical properties. These comprised diffuse...... attenuation coefficient of downwelling PAR (K (d)(PAR)), upwelling PAR (K (u)(PAR)), particle beam attenuation coefficient (c (p)), and irradiance reflectance R(-0, PAR). PAR is white light between 400 and 700 nm. The estuary receives melt water from the Greenland Inland Ice and stations covered a transect...

  3. Productivity Studies in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Gorm

    2005-01-01

    Presentation of research project 'Productitivity Studies in Greenland', methodologies, work place relations, employee participation.......Presentation of research project 'Productitivity Studies in Greenland', methodologies, work place relations, employee participation....

  4. The impact of calving front retreat on Jakobshavn Isbræ, West Greenland , using a 3D thermodynamically coupled numerical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondzio, J. H.; Seroussi, H. L.; Morlighem, M.; Kleiner, T.; Rückamp, M.; Larour, E. Y.; Humbert, A.

    2016-12-01

    Jakobshavn Isbræ is a major marine terminating outlet glacier of the Greenland Ice Sheet. Since the breakup of its floating ice tongue in the late 1990's, the glacier has been thinning, accelerating and its calving front has been retreating by about 20 km. It is currently a major contributor to global sea level rise. Understanding the processes involved in and driving these changes is important to improve the predictive skills of numerical models and improve estimates of future dynamic ice discharge of the Greenland Ice Sheet. However, the limited amount of observations when the glacier underwent these strong changes does not allow us to fully understand the interplay and significance of the processes involved. Numerical modelling can be used to improve our understanding, but ice flow model studies so far suffered from lacking technical capabilities, poorly constrained input data sets and insufficient computational resources. Here, we use the Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM) to perform, for the first time, a high-resolution, 3D thermodynamically coupled model study of Jakobshavn Isbræ with a dynamically evolving ice front. We perform several sensitivity studies by analyzing the influence of submarine melt, calving and thermal regime on the glacier's thermodynamics to determine the processes that control the response of the glacier to climate change. We find that increased submarine melt significantly contributed to the initial speed-up of the glacier, but that today's flow regime is almost entirely controlled by it's calving front position, which agrees well with observations. The glacier's acceleration causes a substantial increase in internal and basal friction, which increases subglacial melt rates. Sustained higher submarine discharge might increase undercutting of the calving front through melt, leading to higher calving rates even in case of a glacier slow down, creating a potential positive feedback.

  5. First record of Centromerus arcanus (O. P.-Cambridge, 1873) from Greenland (Araneae, Linyphiidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lissner, Jørgen; Gravesen, Eigil Vestergaard

    2017-01-01

    The linyphiid spider Centromerus arcanus (O. P.-Cambridge, 1873) is reported new to Greenland. A single female was pitfall trapped in South-West Greenland at Kobbefjord in the summer of 2016 constituting the first record of this species in the Nearctic ecozone. The habitat in which the Greenland ...

  6. The peopling of Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pereira, Vania; Tomas Mas, Carmen; Sanchez, Juan J

    2015-01-01

    The peopling of Greenland has a complex history shaped by population migrations, isolation and genetic drift. The Greenlanders present a genetic heritage with components of European and Inuit groups; previous studies using uniparentally inherited markers in Greenlanders have reported evidence of ...

  7. Success and failure of reindeer herding in Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Cuyler

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Animal husbandry is a recent innovation in Greenland, specifically reindeer husbandry is less than 50 years old. Reindeer husbandry was first established in mid-west Greenland and later in southern Greenland. The Greenland hunter tradition and culture is, however, still dominant in many communities. During the 1980s and 1990s, the incompatibility of these two traditions resulted in the failure of reindeer husbandry in mid-west Greenland. There were neither herding nor seasonal herd movements. Animals remained year round on the winter range, which was destroyed as lichens were trampled every summer. Without seasonal herd movements both sustainable range use and control of the herd were lost. Today, there are just two semi-domestic reindeer herds left, and both are in southern Greenland. One herd is commercially successful, and the other is under development. In mid-west Greenland, semi-domestic reindeer husbandry officially ended in 1998, and a hunt was initiated to remove the remaining population. Possibly, by the year 2000 any animals left in this region will be considered wild caribou.

  8. Age of Magmatism and Eurekan Deformation in North Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegner, Christian; Storey, Michael; Holm, Paul M.; Thorarinsson, Sigurjon; Knudsen, Mads F.

    2014-05-01

    The alpine mountains of Northernmost Greenland are composed of Phanerozoic sediments and volcanic rocks that make up a broadly East-West striking orogenic belt. The major components include: 1) Cambrian-Devonian sediments deposited in the Franklinian Basin; 2) Ellesmerian (365-345 Ma) deformation of these sediments into a fold belt; 3) renewed extension and deposition of Carboniferous-Cretaceous sediments and Cretaceous-Paleogene volcanic rocks of the Kap Washington Group; and 4) Eurekan deformation of sediments and volcanic rocks. We present results of 40Ar-39Ar, U-Pb and Rb-Sr dating of volcanic rocks of the Kap Washington Group. This volcanic succesion is part of the High Arctic Large Igneous Province, exceeds 5 km in thickness, and is composed of bimodal alkaline flows, agglomerates and ignimbrites including peralkaline compositions typical of continental rifts such as the East African Rift. Based on zircon U-Pb and amphibole 40Ar-39Ar ages most volcanics were emplaced at 71-68 Ma, but activity continued down to 61 Ma. A thermal resetting age of 49-47 Ma is also identified in 40Ar-39Ar whole-rock data for trachyte flows. Patch perthite feldspars and coeval resetting of Rb-Sr isotopes by hydrothermal fluids provide further support for thermal overprinting, interpreted as a result of Eurekan compressional tectonism. It is striking that North Greenland volcanism terminated at about the same time (c. 61 Ma) as magmatism in the North Atlantic Large Igneous Province began. We suggest that this was a corollary of a change from extensional to compressional tectonism in the High Arctic. In the period when Greenland moved together with Eurasia (>60 Ma), the separation from North America resulted in rift-related alkaline magmatism in the High Arctic. When Greenland subsequently moved as a separate plate (60-35 Ma), overlapping spreading on both sides pushed it northwards and volcanism in the High Arctic stopped due to compression. Evaluation of plate kinematic models

  9. Weather Test Reference Year of Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Jesper; Pedersen, Frank; Svendsen, Svend

    2005-01-01

    The building code of Greenland from 1982 is to be revised in the coming years fulfilling the increased demand of more energy efficient buildings. To establish appropriate levels of energy consumption for heating the weather conditions have to be analyzed. The purpose of this paper is to describe...... test reference year is constructed using measurements from the town Uummannaq located in the north part of Greenland on the west coast. The construction of the test reference years fulfills the procedures described in the standard EN ISO 15927-4 using the following main weather parameters: Dry bulb...

  10. Hydrologic Sub-basins of Greenland

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Hydrologic Sub-basins of Greenland data set contains Geographic Information System (GIS) polygon shapefiles that include 293 hydrologic sub-basins of the...

  11. Mineral resources of the Precambrian shield of central West Greenland (66 deg. to 70 deg. 15'N). Part 3. Implications of potential field data for the tectonic framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller Nielsen, B.; Rasmussen, Thorkild M.

    2004-07-01

    Magnetic and gravity field data are presented from regional geophysical surveys in central West Greenland that cover the northernmost part of the Archaean North Atlantic craton, the Palaeoproterozoic Nagssugtoqidian orogen and the southernmost part of the Palaeoproterozoic Rinkian orogen. The data are described and interpreted and the results are discussed within the framework of plate-tectonic models established for the region. The geophysical data are presented as maps in the report and provided as images in digital form on the enclosed CD-ROM in order to facilitate future use and easy access to the data. Enhancement of data signatures is made through the application of geophysical filtering and transformation techniques. The techniques are described in some detail, but the results from the applications are in focus. Foundations of the petrophysical properties of rocks are given and petrophysical data from in situ measurements and laboratory work are presented and discussed. The geology in central West region is well exposed and suitable for correlation with the geophysical data. A pronounced correlation between surface geology and magnetic data is established. This allows the extrapolation and interpolation of geological features from known mapped regions to more cursorily mapped or inaccessible regions. The course of the southern Nagssugtoqidian front and the Ikertoq thrust zone is delineated and are found to represent the two most pronounced tectonic features in the region. From separation filtering a continuation of these two features to great depths are suggested. From gravimetric data is a thickening of the crust south of the front indicated. Throughout the region are patterns in the aeromagnetic data and gravimetric data linked with geological features. The geological division into orogenic segments or tectonometamorphic domains is addressed by the use of the potential field data. Geological explanations of the differences in patterns of the potential

  12. Popular music from Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otte, Andreas Roed

    Popular music from Greenland – Globalization, nationalism and performance of place. This thesis is based on fieldwork done within the popular music scene in Greenland from 2008 to 2014. It engages with the question of how music and conceptions of the nation (Greenland) affect each other in social...... spaces, and analyses on how popular music can be used to construct senses of place and situate individuals within these places. The thesis is centered on four articles that engage with Greenlandic popular music from different perspectives. The first article looks at the historical development in inducing...... scene. These topics are mainly discussed by use of globalization, nationalism and performance theory, while also looking towards human geography to explain how places can be experienced through music. It is concluded in this thesis, that Greenlandic popular music, to a large extent, gains social...

  13. Isotopes in Greenland Precipitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Anne-Katrine

    ) Constructing a new Greenland database of observations and present-day ice core measurements, and (3) Performance test of isotope-enabled CAM5 for Greenland. The recent decades of rapid Arctic sea ice decline are used as a basis for an observational-based model experiment using the isotope-enabled CAM model 3....... The simulation of Greenland isotopes is tested for the isotope-enabled model CAM5. Here the importance of model resolution is investigated. A positive bias of 6-10 ‰ is found for the annual mean δ18O on the central part of the Greenland Ice Sheet. The amplitude of the seasonal cycle of Greenland δ18O is highly...

  14. Life history parameters of narwhals (Monodon monoceros) from Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, Eva; Hansen, Steen H; Ditlevsen, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    assessed based on data from reproductive organs and was estimated to be 8–9 years for females and 12–20 years for males. Pregnancy rates for East and West Greenland were estimated to be 0.38–0.42 and 0.38, respectively. Maximum life span expectancy was found to be approximately 100 years. A population......Life history parameters for narwhals (Monodon monoceros) were estimated based on age estimates from aspartic acid racemization of eye lens nuclei. Eyes, reproductive organs, and measures of body lengths were collected from 282 narwhals in East and West Greenland in the years 1993, 2004, and 2007...

  15. East Greenland Ridge in the North Atlantic Ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Arne Døssing; Dahl-Jensen, T.; Thybo, Hans

    2008-01-01

    The combined Greenland-Senja Fracture Zones (GSFZ) represent a first-order plate tectonic feature in the North Atlantic Ocean. The GSFZ defines an abrupt change in the character of magnetic anomalies with well-defined seafloor spreading anomalies in the Greenland and Norwegian basins to the south...... but ambiguous and weak magnetic anomalies in the Boreas Basin to the north. Substantial uncertainty exists concerning the plate tectonic evolution of the latter area, including the role of the East Greenland Ridge, which is situated along the Greenland Fracture Zone. In 2002, a combined ocean-bottom seismometer...

  16. Building sustained partnerships in Greenland through shared science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culler, L. E.; Albert, M. R.; Ayres, M. P.; Grenoble, L. A.; Virginia, R. A.

    2013-12-01

    Greenland is a hotspot for polar environmental change research due to rapidly changing physical and ecological conditions. Hundreds of international scientists visit the island each year to carry out research on diverse topics ranging from atmospheric chemistry to ice sheet dynamics to Arctic ecology. Despite the strong links between scientific, social, and political issues of rapid environmental change in Greenland, communication with residents of Greenland is often neglected by researchers. Reasons include language barriers, difficulties identifying pathways for communication, balancing research and outreach with limited resources, and limited social and cultural knowledge about Greenland by scientists. Dartmouth College has a legacy of work in the Polar Regions. In recent years, a National Science Foundation (NSF) Integrative Graduate Education and Research Traineeship (IGERT) in Polar Environmental Change funded training for 25 Ph.D. students in the Ecology, Earth Science, and Engineering graduate programs at Dartmouth. An overarching goal of this program is science communication between these disciplines and to diverse audiences, including communicating about rapid environmental change with students, residents, and the government of Greenland. Students and faculty in IGERT have been involved in the process of engaging with and sustaining partnerships in Greenland that support shared cultural and educational experiences. We have done this in three ways. First, a key component of our program has been hosting students from Ilisimatusarfik (the University of Greenland). Since 2009, five Greenlandic students have come to Dartmouth and formed personal connections with Dartmouth students while introducing their Greenlandic culture and language (Kalaallisut). Second, we have used our resources to extend our visits to Greenland, which has allowed time to engage with the community in several ways, including sharing our science via oral and poster presentations at Katuaq

  17. A long-term increase in eggshell thickness of Greenlandic Peregrine Falcons Falco peregrinus tundrius

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falk, Knud; Møller, Søren; Matox, William G.

    2006-01-01

    Thickness of eggshell fragments and whole eggs from the Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus collected in South and West Greenland between 1972 and 2003 was measured and compared to shell thickness of pre-DDT eggs, also collected in Greenland. Linear regression yields a significant increase in the a......Thickness of eggshell fragments and whole eggs from the Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus collected in South and West Greenland between 1972 and 2003 was measured and compared to shell thickness of pre-DDT eggs, also collected in Greenland. Linear regression yields a significant increase...... in the average thickness of eggshells over the period of 0.19% per year, corresponding to a change in eggshell thinning from 13.9% in 1972 to 7.8% in 2003. Backwards extrapolation of the data, suggests that the Greenlandic Peregrine population probably was never critically affected by DDT-induced eggshell...

  18. Traveltime and dispersion data, including associated discharge and water-surface elevation data, Kanawha River West Virginia, 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, J.B.

    1993-01-01

    This report presents results of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Virginia Environmental Endowment, Marshall University Research Corporation, and the West Virginia Depart- ment of Environmental Protection, to evaluate traveltime of a soluble dye on the Kanawha River. The Kanawha River originates in south-central West Virginia and flows northwestward to the Ohio River. Knowledge of traveltime and dispersion of a soluble dye could help river managers mitigate effects of an accidental spill. Traveltime and dispersion data were collected from June 20 through July 4, 1991, when river discharges decreased from June 24 through July 3, 1991. Daily mean discharges decreased from 5,540 ft 3/s on June 24 to 2,790 ft3/s on July 2 at Kanawha Falls and from 5,680 ft3/s on June 24 to 3,000 ft3/s on July 2 at Charleston. Water-surface elevations in regulated pools indicated a loss of water storage during the period. A spill at Gauley Bridge under similar streamflow conditions of this study is estimated to take 15 days to move beyond Winfield Dam. Estimated time of passage (elapsed time at a particular location) at Marmet Dam and Winfield Dam is approximately 2.5 days and 5.5 days, respectively. The spill is estimated to spend 12 days in the Winfield pool.

  19. Telemedicine in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lasse Overballe; Krebs, Hans Jørgen; Albert, Nancy M.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Telemedicine may have the possibility to provide better access to healthcare delivery for the citizens. Telemedicine in arctic remote areas must be tailored according to the needs of the local population. Therefore, we need more knowledge about their needs and their view of telemedicine....... OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study has been to explore how citizens living in the Greenlandic settlements experience the possibilities and challenges of telemedicine when receiving healthcare delivery in everyday life. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Case study design was chosen as the overall research design......: Data collected on citizens' views about the possibilities of using telemedicine in Greenland revealed the following findings: Greenlandic citizens are positive toward telemedicine, and telemedicine can help facilitate improved access to healthcare for residents in these Greenlandic settlements...

  20. African Journals Online: Greenland

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... France, MEtropolitan, French Guiana, French Polynesia, French Southern Territories, Gabon, Gambia, The, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Gibraltar, Greece, Greenland, Grenada, Guam, Guatemala, Guernsey, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hong Kong SAR, China, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Iran, ...

  1. Greenland climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masson-Delmotte, Valérie; Swingedouw, Didier; Landais, Amaëlle

    2012-01-01

    Climate archives available from deep-sea and marine shelf sediments, glaciers, lakes and ice cores in and around Greenland allow us to place the current trends in regional climate, ice sheet dynamics, and land surface changes in a broader perspective. We show that during the last decade (2000s...... regional climate and ice sheet dynamics. The magnitude and rate of future changes in Greenland temperature, in response to increasing greenhouse gas emissions, may be faster than any past abrupt events occurring under interglacial conditions. Projections indicate that within one century Greenland may......), atmospheric and sea-surface temperatures are reaching levels last encountered millennia ago when northern high latitude summer insolation was higher due to a different orbital configuration. Concurrently, records from lake sediments in southern Greenland document major environmental and climatic conditions...

  2. Holocene insect remains from south-western Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøcher, Jens Jensenius; Bennike, Ole; Wagner, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    Remains of plants and invertebrates from Holocene deposits in south-western Greenland include a number of insect fragments from Heteroptera and Coleoptera. Some of the finds extend the known temporal range of the species considerably back in time, and one of the taxa has not previously been found...... of terrestrial insects complement the scarce fossil Greenland record of the species concerned....

  3. The Greenland shark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costantini, David; Smith, Shona; Killen, Shaun S.

    2017-01-01

    the oxidative status of the Greenland shark (Somniosus microcephalus), which has recently been found as the longest living vertebrate animal known to science with a lifespan of at least 272years. As compared to other species, the Greenland shark had body mass-corrected values of muscle glutathione peroxidase...... that the values of metrics of oxidative status we measured might be linked to ecological features (e.g., adaptation to cold waters and deep dives) of this shark species rather to its lifespan....

  4. Phylogenetic and microscopic studies in the genus Lactifluus (Basidiomycota, Russulales) in West Africa, including the description of four new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maba, Dao Lamèga; Guelly, Atsu K; Yorou, Nourou S; Verbeken, Annemieke; Agerer, Reinhard

    2015-06-01

    Despite the crucial ecological role of lactarioid taxa (Lactifluus, Lactarius) as common ectomycorrhiza formers in tropical African seasonal forests, their current diversity is not yet adequately assessed. During the last few years, numerous lactarioid specimens have been sampled in various ecosystems from Togo (West Africa). We generated 48 ITS sequences and aligned them against lactarioid taxa from other tropical African ecozones (Guineo-Congolean evergreen forests, Zambezian miombo). A Maximum Likelihood phylogenetic tree was inferred from a dataset of 109 sequences. The phylogenetic placement of the specimens, combined with morpho-anatomical data, supported the description of four new species from Togo within the monophyletic genus Lactifluus: within subgen. Lactifluus (L. flavellus), subgen. Russulopsis (L. longibasidius and L. pectinatus), and subgen. Edules (L. melleus). This demonstrates that the current species richness of the genus is considerably higher than hitherto estimated for African species and, in addition, a need to redefine the subgenera and sections within it.

  5. Presence and Pathways of Atlantic water inflow to Northwest Greenland fjords: collaborative science with the Ocean Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenholm, N.; Richards, C.; Fenty, I. G.

    2016-02-01

    Recent glacial mass loss and acceleration of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS) has been hypothesized to be the result of an overall warming of the subpolar North Atlantic Gyre. Such warming has the potential to deliver increased heat to the face of marine-terminating glaciers, thereby enhancing melt and leading to glacial retreat and a loss of buttressing. However many parts of the Greenland coast, particularly in the Northwest, remain relatively unexplored and few oceanographic observations exist to track warm water pathways into the numerous fjords. Further, much of the bathymetry of the region is unknown, leading to uncertainty over whether or not warm Atlantic sourced water is capable of reaching the glacier margins. To fill this gap the R/V Ault, flagship of the Ocean Research Project (ORP, an incorporated 501(c)3), sailed between Nuuk and 78N from June to September 2015. Among several independent sampling programs, ORP data collected during the cruise included sea-surface salinity (through a thermosalinograph system), CTD casts, and over 2600 km of reconnaissance bathymetric surveys of the west Greenland continental shelf and fjords. CTD data from this data-sparse region indicate pathways of warm-water inflow, and will be used to supplement water column sampling for NASA's Ocean Melting Greenland project. Results obtained from the 2015 field season will be used to inform and plan for a second field program in summer 2016.

  6. Use of clay from kangerlussuaq in the Greenlandic construction industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belmonte, Louise Josefine; Villumsen, Arne; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2010-01-01

    Clay material from Kangerlussuaq in West Greenland was characterised and its possible use for the production of bricks, expanded clay products and inert filler material was investigated. It was generally found that it was possible to use the clay in all of the above mentioned materials, although...

  7. Fatal outbreak of botulism in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Tóra Hedinsdottir; Jespersen, Sanne; Kanstrup, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    respiratory muscle paralysis. We present five cases of foodborne botulism occurring in Greenland, two with fatal outcome, caused by ingestion of tradionally preserved eider fowl. In the cases of the survivors, antitoxin and supportive care, including mechanical ventilation, were administered. In these cases...... recovery was complete. Microbiological assays, including toxin neutralization bioassay, demonstrated the presence of neurotoxin E in two survivors. The third survivor was shown by PCR to have the BoNT type E gene in faeces. This is the first report of cases of fatal botulism in Greenland. It underscores...

  8. A Retrospective Summary of Raptor Mortality in Ontario, Canada (1991-2014), Including the Effects of West Nile Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kathryn A; Campbell, G Douglas; Pearl, David L; Jardine, Claire M; Salgado-Bierman, Fernando; Nemeth, Nicole M

    2017-11-20

    The causes of mortality of free-ranging raptors range from anthropogenic (e.g., trauma) to dynamic environmental conditions that may affect habitat suitability and prey availability. The province of Ontario, Canada, is vulnerable to anthropogenic and environmental changes because of its northern latitudes and expanding human populations, both of which may impact wildlife. We retrospectively evaluated diagnostic data from raptors submitted to the Ontario-Nunavut node of the Canadian Wildlife Health Cooperative (CWHC) from 1991 to 2014 (n=1,448). Submissions encompassed 29 species, most commonly the Red-tailed Hawk (Buteo jamaicensis; n=308) and Great Horned Owl (Bubo virginianus; n=237). Trauma (n=716) accounted for the majority of deaths among all species, followed by emaciation (n=241). Traumatic deaths were most commonly attributed to collisions with stationary objects, and the odds of a diagnosis of trauma were significantly higher in adult versus immature raptors. The odds of being diagnosed with emaciation were significantly higher in males than in females but not in any age class or season. Mortality was less commonly attributed to infectious diseases (n=214), for which West Nile virus (WNV) was the most common etiology, making up 53.1% of infectious diagnoses after its 2001 arrival in Ontario. The odds of a raptor being diagnosed with an infectious disease were significantly greater in summer and fall versus spring. Immature Red-tailed Hawks had significantly greater odds of being diagnosed with WNV compared to adults. These results reveal that human- and potentially environmentally associated deaths (e.g., trauma and emaciation, respectively) are commonly diagnosed among Ontario raptors submitted to the CWHC. Infectious diseases are less commonly diagnosed, but WNV may have underlying, ongoing impacts on the health of some raptor species.

  9. How Greenland melts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van den Broeke M.R.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Satellite altimetry and gravimetry show that the Greenland ice sheet has been losing volume and mass since the beginning of this century. However, from these short time series of direct measurements we cannot infer what the causes of the mass loss are, i.e. ice dynamics or surface processes, or that maybe the ice sheet returns to normal after a period of volume increase and mass gain. By modelling and observing the individual components of the ice sheet mass balance, i.e. snowfall, meltwater runoff and iceberg production, we are able to identify the processes that led to the recent mass loss. We conclude that the Greenland ice sheet is significantly out of balance. Acceleration of outlet glaciers and increased runoff have contributed equally to recent Greenland mass loss. The potential for mass loss by surface processes, however, was three times greater than actually observed, due to refreezing and enhanced snowfall.

  10. Spirometry in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lasse Overballe; Olsen, Sequssuna; Jarbøl, D. E.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is globally increasing in frequency and is expected to be the third largest cause of death by 2020. Smoking is the main risk factor of developing COPD. In Greenland, more than half of the adult population are daily smokers, and COPD may...... be common. International guidelines recommend the usage of spirometry as a golden standard for diagnosing COPD. The current number of spirometries performed among patients treated with medication targeting obstructive pulmonary disease in Greenland remains unexplored. Objective. To estimate the prevalence...... of patients aged 50 years or above treated with medication targeting obstructive pulmonary disease and the extent to which spirometry was performed among them within 2 years. Design. An observational, cross-sectional study based on the review of data obtained from electronic medical records in Greenland...

  11. Children in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kløvgaard, Marius; Nielsen, Nina Odgaard; Sørensen, Thomas Lund

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies of Greenlandic children's disease pattern and contacts to the health care system are sparse and have focused on the primary health care sector. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to identify the disease pattern and use of health care facilities of children aged 0-10 in two Greenlandic...... cohorts. METHODS AND DESIGN: In a retrospective, descriptive follow-up of the Ivaaq (The Greenland Child Cohort) and the CLEAR (climate changes, environmental contaminants and reproductive health) birth cohorts (total n=1,000), we reviewed medical records of children aged 6-10 in 2012 with residence...... in Nuuk or Ilulissat (n=332). Data on diseases and health care system contacts were extracted. Diagnoses were validated retrospectively. Primary health care contacts were reviewed for a random sample of 1:6. RESULTS: In 311 children with valid social security number, the total number of health care system...

  12. Child health in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niclasen, Birgit V L; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2007-01-01

    of problems might differ. The child mortality is relatively high and unevenly distributed. The acute disease pattern is dominated by infections, mostly airway infections. Otitis and its sequelae is a problem. An increase in chronic conditions such as atopy, asthma, obesity, and disabilities has taken place......AIM: To review the knowledge on child health and child health problems in Greenland. METHOD: The review was based on theses, national statistics, national and international reports, and a search in Pub Med, PsycINFO, Web of Science, and WHOLIB databases from 1985 to 2005. The resulting articles...... were sorted by topic, type, quality of study, and relevance for child health today, providing 47 articles. RESULTS: Children in Greenland have become taller and have improved their general health. The morbidity found in Greenlandic children is similar to that found elsewhere even though the magnitude...

  13. An evaluation of teeth of ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from Greenland as a matrix to monitor spatial and temporal trends of mercury and stable isotopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aubail, Aurore; Dietz, Rune; Riget, Frank Farsø

    2010-01-01

    Total mercury (Hg) concentrations were measured in teeth of ringed seals from Qeqertarsuaq, central West Greenland (1982 to 2006) and Ittoqqortoormiit, central East Greenland (1986 to 2006). Stable isotopic ratios of carbon (13C/12C) and nitrogen (15N/14N) were determined as well to provide...... West Greenland compared to those from central East Greenland. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopic values measured in the animals differed also significantly between the two regions. Increasing temporal trends of dental Hg concentrations between 1994 and 2006 were observed in ringed seals from both...

  14. Bourdieu in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Naimah

    2017-01-01

    . There is almost no previous research on Greenlandic media in general and journalism practice in particular. Mapping this small but contested field allows us to highlight some of the key analytical strengths of Bourdieu’s field theory and its ability to capture the dynamic actor relationships in such a complex......, structured space. At the same time, however, the “post-colonial” realities of Greenlandic journalism can help us to pose some questions about the limits – or the need for further development – of Bourdieu’s initial sketch about the journalistic field. This chapter tests the analytical concepts of capital...

  15. CNS infections in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordholm, Anne Christine; Søborg, Bolette; Andersson, Mikael

    2017-01-01

    ), but equally high among Inuits in Greenland and Denmark (38.2 and 35.4, respectively). Mortality from CNS infections was 2 fold higher among Inuits (10.5%) than among non-Inuits (4.8%) with a fivefold higher case fatality rate in Inuit toddlers. CONCLUSION: Overall, Inuits living in Greenland and Denmark...... suffer from twice the rate of CNS infections compared with non-Inuits, and Inuit toddlers carried the highest risk of mortality. Further studies regarding risk factors such as genetic susceptibility, life style and socioeconomic factors are warranted....

  16. Evaluation of the Doll Project in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen

    2013-01-01

    objective of the evaluation study is to determine the short-term impact of the family and sex education including evaluating the effectiveness of this education strategy to influence Greenland teenagers' perceptions of pregnancy and parenting. The study is a pre-/posttest questionnaire survey design...

  17. Towards Introducing a Geocoding Information System for Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siksnans, J.; Pirupshvarre, Hans R.; Lind, M.; Mioc, D.; Anton, F.

    2011-08-01

    Currently, addressing practices in Greenland do not support geocoding. Addressing points on a map by geographic coordinates is vital for emergency services such as police and ambulance for avoiding ambiguities in finding incident locations (Government of Greenland, 2010) Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the current addressing practices in Greenland. Asiaq (Asiaq, 2011) is a public enterprise of the Government of Greenland which holds three separate databases regards addressing and place references: - list of locality names (towns, villages, farms), - technical base maps (including road center lines not connected with names, and buildings), - the NIN registry (The Land Use Register of Greenland - holds information on the land allotments and buildings in Greenland). The main problem is that these data sets are not interconnected, thus making it impossible to address a point in a map with geographic coordinates in a standardized way. The possible solutions suffer from the fact that Greenland has a scattered habitation pattern and the generalization of the address assignment schema is a difficult task. A schema would be developed according to the characteristics of the settlement pattern, e.g. cities, remote locations and place names. The aim is to propose an ontology for a common postal address system for Greenland. The main part of the research is dedicated to the current system and user requirement engineering. This allowed us to design a conceptual database model which corresponds to the user requirements, and implement a small scale prototype. Furthermore, our research includes resemblance findings in Danish and Greenland's addressing practices, data dictionary for establishing Greenland addressing system's logical model and enhanced entity relationship diagram. This initial prototype of the Greenland addressing system could be used to evaluate and build the full architecture of the addressing information system for Greenland. Using software engineering

  18. TOWARDS INTRODUCING A GEOCODING INFORMATION SYSTEM FOR GREENLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Siksnans

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Currently, addressing practices in Greenland do not support geocoding. Addressing points on a map by geographic coordinates is vital for emergency services such as police and ambulance for avoiding ambiguities in finding incident locations (Government of Greenland, 2010 Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the current addressing practices in Greenland. Asiaq (Asiaq, 2011 is a public enterprise of the Government of Greenland which holds three separate databases regards addressing and place references: – list of locality names (towns, villages, farms, – technical base maps (including road center lines not connected with names, and buildings, – the NIN registry (The Land Use Register of Greenland - holds information on the land allotments and buildings in Greenland. The main problem is that these data sets are not interconnected, thus making it impossible to address a point in a map with geographic coordinates in a standardized way. The possible solutions suffer from the fact that Greenland has a scattered habitation pattern and the generalization of the address assignment schema is a difficult task. A schema would be developed according to the characteristics of the settlement pattern, e.g. cities, remote locations and place names. The aim is to propose an ontology for a common postal address system for Greenland. The main part of the research is dedicated to the current system and user requirement engineering. This allowed us to design a conceptual database model which corresponds to the user requirements, and implement a small scale prototype. Furthermore, our research includes resemblance findings in Danish and Greenland's addressing practices, data dictionary for establishing Greenland addressing system's logical model and enhanced entity relationship diagram. This initial prototype of the Greenland addressing system could be used to evaluate and build the full architecture of the addressing information system for Greenland. Using

  19. The Greenland Ramsar Sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egevang, C.; Boertmann, D.

    The eleven Ramsar sites in Greenland are reviewed in terms of their status as habitats for waterbirds and other fauna. Management and monitoring is proposed, as well as revisions of their boundaries. A number of potential new Ramsar sites are described...

  20. How Greenland melts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broeke, M.R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073765643

    2010-01-01

    Satellite altimetry and gravimetry show that the Greenland ice sheet has been losing volume and mass since the beginning of this century. However, from these short time series of direct measurements we cannot infer what the causes of the mass loss are, i.e. ice dynamics or surface processes, or that

  1. Cool or hot Greenland?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Carina Bregnholm

    2016-01-01

    In a current stage of ‘Arctic fever’, former representations of Greenland as ‘cool’ are increasingly joined by ‘hot’ scenarios based on an assumption of the nation as a ‘climate winner’. Using examples from the exhibition ‘Possible Greenland’ at the Venice Architectural Biennale of 2012, this pap...

  2. China and Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Uffe

    2014-01-01

    More thorough analysis and outreach on facts about Chinese activities in the Arctic are highly needed, not least in view of the almost alarmist response in Danish political debate to the prospects of growing Chinese interest in the Arctic in general and especially in Greenland...

  3. Studying health in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Mulvad, Gert; Olsen, Jørn

    2003-01-01

    Health research in Greenland has contributed with several findings of interest for the global scientific community and has documented health problems and risk factors of importance for planning the local health care system. The study of how health develops in small, scattered communities during...

  4. Commentary: Future Greenland 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørst, Lill Rastad

    2015-01-01

    Every second year the Greenlandic Business Association host the two-day conference “Future Greenland” in Nuuk. The main theme of this year conference was “Growth and welfare – scenarios for the development of Greenland”. The conference had more than 400 participants - mostly from Denmark and Gree...

  5. Spatiotemporal distribution of rabies in Arctic foxes in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raundrup, Katrine; Moshøj, Charlotte Margaret; Wennerberg, Sanne

    2015-01-01

    The temporal occurrence, spatial distribution, spread, and prevalence of rabies in Arctic foxes, Vulpes lagopus, in Greenland were studied using historical observations from 1969 to 2011 and survey data collected in the winters 1992 and 1993. Regionally, the prevalence of rabies ranged between 0...... and 7.1 %. Wavelet analysis was used to identify periodicities in the abundance of rabies cases based on the historical observations. No general length of the cyclic interval of rabies occurrences in Greenland could be demonstrated. The frequency of outbreaks was found to be variable but can be grouped...... as short (less than 5 years), medium (5–10 years), and long (more than 10 years). Moreover, rabies outbreaks in neighboring regions were found to be more closely correlated compared to regions further apart. In West Greenland, the temporal outbreaks of rabies were found to occur along a north...

  6. Hydrologic Sub-basins of Greenland, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Hydrologic Sub-basins of Greenland data set contains Geographic Information System (GIS) polygon shapefiles that include 293 hydrologic sub-basins of the...

  7. Timing of millennial-scale climate change in Antarctica and Greenland during the last glacial period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blunier, T; Brook, E J

    2001-01-01

    A precise relative chronology for Greenland and West Antarctic paleotemperature is extended to 90,000 years ago, based on correlation of atmospheric methane records from the Greenland Ice Sheet Project 2 and Byrd ice cores. Over this period, the onset of seven major millennial-scale warmings....... This pattern provides further evidence for the operation of a "bipolar see-saw" in air temperatures and an oceanic teleconnection between the hemispheres on millennial time scales....

  8. Before the Bonanza: Hydrocarbons in Greenland

    OpenAIRE

    Meinild, Ebbe Dam

    2010-01-01

    The issue of Greenlandic hydrocarbons gradually moved towards the centre of the creation of autonomous Greenland. Hydrocarbons in Greenland and the Greenlandic nation were co-produced in the same process. Thus, when hydrocarbons were connected to an ecological modernisation it allowed the newly formed Home Rule administration, in a joint Danish-Greenlandic effort, to adopt this, not only as a road to independence, but as something giving credibility to Greenland as a distinct society.

  9. The Greenland shark (Somniosus microcephalus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Julius

    This PhD project has aimed at investigating longevity of the Greenland shark. The largest Greenland sharks measure at least 550 cm, and ever since Poul Marinus Hansen in 1963 presented that a recaptured medium-sized Greenland shark had grown 8 cm in 16 year, longevity of the species has been...... subject for speculation. Conventional age determination techniques for teleost or elasmobranchs are not applicable on the Greenland shark and its longevity has thus remained a mystery for decades. Inspired by alternative age estimation techniques applied on other sharks and whales, I have used bomb...... radiocarbon dating and a Bayesian calibration model to estimate longevity of the Greenland shark. The analyzed tissue stems from the eye lens nucleus – unique material which presumably reflects age 0 of the shark, as it has not undergone metabolic changes during the animal’s life. By studying 28 Greenland...

  10. Modelling Greenland icebergs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marson, Juliana M.; Myers, Paul G.; Hu, Xianmin

    2017-04-01

    The Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) is well known for carrying heat from low to high latitudes, moderating local temperatures. Numerical studies have examined the AMOC's variability under the influence of freshwater input to subduction and deep convections sites. However, an important source of freshwater has often been overlooked or misrepresented: icebergs. While liquid runoff decreases the ocean salinity near the coast, icebergs are a gradual and remote source of freshwater - a difference that affects sea ice cover, temperature, and salinity distribution in ocean models. Icebergs originated from the Greenland ice sheet, in particular, can affect the subduction process in Labrador Sea by decreasing surface water density. Our study aims to evaluate the distribution of icebergs originated from Greenland and their contribution to freshwater input in the North Atlantic. To do that, we use an interactive iceberg module coupled with the Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean (NEMO v3.4), which will calve icebergs from Greenland according to rates established by Bamber et al. (2012). Details on the distribution and trajectory of icebergs within the model may also be of use for understanding potential navigation threats, as shipping increases in northern waters.

  11. The Greenland Ice Sheet Monitoring Network (GLISN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, K. R.; Beaudoin, B. C.; Butler, R.; Clinton, J. F.; Dahl-Jensen, T.; Ekstrom, G.; Giardini, D.; Govoni, A.; Hanka, W.; Kanao, M.; Larsen, T.; Lasocki, S.; McCormack, D. A.; Mykkeltveit, S.; Nettles, M.; Agostinetti, N. P.; Stutzmann, E.; Tsuboi, S.; Voss, P.

    2010-12-01

    The GreenLand Ice Sheet monitoring Network (GLISN) is an international, broadband seismic capability for Greenland, being installed and implemented through the collaboration of Denmark, Canada, Germany, Italy, Japan, Norway, Poland, Switzerland, and USA. GLISN is a real-time sensor array of seismic stations to enhance and upgrade the performance of the sparse Greenland seismic infrastructure for detecting, locating, and characterizing glacial earthquakes and other cryo-seismic phenomena, and contributing to our understanding of Ice Sheet dynamics. Complementing data from satellites, geodesy, and other sources, and in concert with these technologies, GLISN will provide a powerful tool for detecting change, and will advance new frontiers of research in the glacial systems; the underlying geological and geophysical processes affecting the Greenland Ice Sheet; interactions between oceans, climate, and the cryosphere; and other multidisciplinary areas of interest to geoscience and climate dynamics. The glacial processes that induce seismic events (internal deformation, sliding at the base, disintegration at the calving front, drainage of supra-glacial lakes) are all integral to the overall dynamics of glaciers, and seismic observations of glaciers therefore provide a quantitative means for monitoring changes in their behavior over time. Long-term seismic monitoring of the Greenland Ice Sheet will contribute to identifying possible unsuspected mechanisms and metrics relevant to ice sheet collapse, and will provide new constraints on Ice Sheet dynamic processes and their potential roles in sea-level rise during the coming decades. GLISN will provide a new, fiducial reference network in and around Greenland for monitoring these phenomena in real-time, and for the broad seismological study of Earth and earthquakes. The 2010 summer field season saw the installation or upgrade of 9 stations in the GLISN network. Sites visited under the GLISN project include Station Nord (NOR

  12. Exploration history and place names of northern East Greenland: Colophon, abstract, introduction, official place names in Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Higgins, Anthony K.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The first recorded landing by Europeans on the coast of northern East Greenland (north of 69°N was that of William Scoresby Jr., a British whaler, in 1822. This volume includes a chronological summary of the pioneer 19th century exploration voyages made by British, Danish, Norwegian, Swedish, French and German expeditions – all of whom reported that the region had previously been occupied by the Inuit or Eskimo; also included are brief outlines of the increasing number of government and privately sponsored expeditions throughout the 20th century, whose objectives included cartography, geology, zoology, botany, trapping and the ascent of the highest mountain summits. In 1934 the Place Name Committee for Greenland was established, the tasks of which included a review of all place names hitherto recorded on published maps of Greenland, their formal adoption in danicised form, and the approval or rejection of new name proposals. In northern East Greenland, by far the largest numbers of new place names were those proposed by scientists associated with Lauge Koch’s geological expeditions that lasted from 1926 until 1958. This volume records the location and origin of more than 3000 officially approved place names as well as about 2650 unapproved names.The author’s interest in the exploration history and place names of northern East Greenland started in 1968, when the Geological Survey of Greenland initiated a major five-year geological mapping programme in the Scoresby Sund region. Systematic compilation of names began about 1970, initially with the names given by William Scoresby Jr., and subsequently broadened in scope to include the names proposed by all expeditions to northern East Greenland. The author has participated in 16 summer mapping expeditions with the Survey to northern East Greenland. Publication of this volume represents the culmination of a lifetime working in the Arctic.

  13. Sonification of cryoconite landscapes over the Greenland ice sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedesco, M.

    2015-12-01

    Sonification is the use of non-speech audio to convey information. In sonification, several elements can be altered, modified or manipulated to change the perception of the sound, and in turn, the perception of the information being transmitted. For example, an increase or decrease in pitch, tempo and amplitude can be used to convey the information but this can also happen by varying other less commonly used components. One of the advantages of using sonification lies in the temporal, spatial, amplitude, and frequency resolution that offer complementary and supplementary possibilities with respect to visualization techniques. Two years ago, the outcomes of the PolarSEEDS project (www.polaseeds.org), consisting of sonification of time series of albedo, melting and surface temperature over the Greenland ice sheet, were presented in this very same session. The work that I will discuss in this presentation builds on the PolarSEEDS experience, focusing on the fascinating microcosm of cryoconite. Cryoconite is a unique and extremely fascinating form of glacial cover consisting of aggregated rock dust, inorganic and detrital organic matter, and active microbial colonies. It can be seen as 'living stones', with this ecosystem containing the only form of life that is sustained on the majestic surface of the Greenland ice sheet. Microbes are, indeed, the catalyst for cryoconite formation and growth. The cryoconite constituents radiate metabolic heat promoting glacier hole development, melt water formation, and decreasing glacier surface albedo. Lower albedos cause a positive feedback that further contributes to glacier ablation. Despite their importance, cryoconite systems are poorly studied and little is known about their evolution. In the talk, I will first present and discuss previous sonification projects whose main focus was on the polar regions; then, I will present new sonifications based on data quantifying the distribution and evolution of cryoconite over the west

  14. The right of indigenous peoples to education in their own language – Greenlanders in Denmark and in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næsborg-Andersen, Ayo; Khalaf, Bassah

    2018-01-01

    Both language and culture are interdependent pillars on which the identity of a people is maintained, including indigenous peoples. Without the appropriate linguistic terminology available to express indigenous philosophies and concepts, indigenous peoples lose some of their ability to accurately...... and in Denmark. As a part of this examination the paper also gives an overview of history of the Greenlandic school system. Finally the paper compares the current situation of Greenlanders in Denmark with the Sami peoples in Norway....

  15. Trends of perfluorochemicals in Greenland ringed seals and polar bears: indications of shifts to decreasing trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigét, Frank; Bossi, Rossana; Sonne, Christian; Vorkamp, Katrin; Dietz, Rune

    2013-11-01

    Time-series of perfluorinated alkylated substances (PFASs) in East Greenland polar bears and East and West Greenland ringed seals were updated in order to deduce whether a response to the major reduction in perfluoroalkyl production in the early 2000s had occurred. Previous studies had documented an exponential increase of perfluorooctane sulphonate (PFOS) in liver tissue from both species. In the present study, PFOS was still the far most dominant compound constituting 92% (West Greenland ringed seals), 88% (East Greenland ringed seals) and 85% (East Greenland polar bears). The PFOS concentrations increased up to 2006 with doubling times of approximately 6 years for the ringed seal populations and 14 years in case of polar bears. Since then a rapid decrease has occurred with clearing half-lives of approximately 1, 2 and 4 years, respectively. In polar bears perfluorohexane sulphonate (PFHxS) and perfluorooctane sulphonamide (PFOSA) also showed decreasing trends in recent years as do perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnA). For the West Greenland ringed seal population perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), PFDA and PFUnA peaked in the mid 2000s, whereas PFNA, PFDA and PFUnA in the East Greenland population have been stable or increasing in recent years. The peak of PFASs in Greenland ringed seals and polar bears occurred at a later time than in Canadian seals and polar bears and considerably later than observed in seal species from more southern latitudes. We suggest that this could be explained by the distance to emission hot-spots and differences in long-range transport to the Arctic. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Crustal structure beneath Eastern Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reiche, Sönke; Thybo, H.; Kaip, G.

    2011-01-01

    The conjugate Atlantic passive margins of western Norway and eastern Greenland are characterized by the presence of coast-parallel mountain ranges with peak elevations of more than 3.5 km close to Scoresby Sund in Eastern Greenland. Knowledge about crustal thickness and composition below these mo...

  17. Population genetics of the native caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus) and the semi-domestic reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) in Southwestern Greenland: evidence of introgression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, B.I.; Siegismund, Hans Redlef; Fredholm, Merete

    2002-01-01

    samples were collected, which included samples from caribou of four different regions and samples from two different reindeer herds. Based on the genetic variation of the five markers, our results shows that the caribou and the reindeer populations in the six regions sampled are genetically differentiated...... within each group and the two subspecies are differentiated from each other. A likely explanation for the genetic isolation of the populations investigated is that natural barriers (glaciers and wide fjords) exists in the area. Furthermore we found that introduced Norwegian domestic reindeer hybridized......Over the past centuries the native caribou of West Greenland has gone through extensive population size fluctuations, with reductions as great as 90% in less than 20 years. Norwegian semi-domestic reindeer were introduced to the Nuuk area in 1952 because of the small number of caribou in Greenland...

  18. TopoGreenland: A seismological investigation of central-eastern Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, H. A.; Thybo, H.

    2013-12-01

    The TopoGreenland project has the objectives of understanding the background for substantial recent uplift around the North Atlantic ocean. Understanding these processes requires knowledge of the lithospheric structure. So far only very sparse information on the crustal structure in interior Greenland is available. The up to 3.4 km thick ice cap incurs to logistic challenges and the TopoGreenland seismic data acquisition is the first regional seismic array in the interior of Greenland. In this study we present crustal and upper mantle structure derived from receiver functions (RF) and results from a finite-frequency tomography in a 200 km x 600 km large area in central-eastern Greenland. Our models are based on data from 28 broadband seismometers. In detail these are 10 temporary stations, which have operated on the ice cap, and 12 stations, which have operated on bedrock in the 200 km wide zone, that is only snow covered during the winter. 16 of the stations formed a 600 km long profile at 70°N from Scorsby Sund to close to the centre of the ice cap. 6 additional stations cover a 200 km wide area north of the profile. All these stations operated on ice and bedrock between June 2009 and May 2012. Furthermore data from 6 permanent and longterm stations, mainly from the GLISN network, is integrated. Here we present models for the crustal structure from RF calculations. The area of study is characterized by considerable short wavelength variations in crustal thickness, ranging from 20 km in the east to 55 km in the western part. The Vp/Vs ratio is in general low, varying from 1.63 to 1.8, also with an increase from east to west, and relatively high values in the west. The final model from RF is used to correct for the crust in finite-frequency tomography, which we will use to obtain images of velocity perturbations in the upper mantle. The results are compared to tectonic features and topography in the area with the objective of assessing isostatic balance of the

  19. Shrub expansion in SW Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Rasmus Halfdan

    , and has a range of ecosystem effects where it occurs. Shrub expansion has to a large extend been attributed to increasing temperatures over the past century, while grazing and human disturbance have received less attention. Alnus viridis ssp. crispa is a common arctic species that contributes...... including only undisturbed sites. Shrub cover increased most on E and SE facing slopes, in sites with stable substrate, in areas characterised by human disturbance and in areas without muskoxen grazing. Aspect and human disturbances had the strongest effect on shrub expansion, followed by muskoxen...... locations. A. viridis represents an interesting case to study these effects. SW Greenland is a subarctic to low-arctic region with only limited increases in temperatures during the past decades, and observed climate trends being largely dependent on the observation period. In this region there is limited...

  20. Greenland and Natural Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyck, Lise

    be achieved peacefully through negotiations. How the international society and international organisations (mainly the UN) can facilitate a target oriented process achieving solutions. How a gradual development process can be successful and in a dynamic process lead to economic development. How domestic......The Greenland development is a story about: Having a hinterland position in relation to the global development. An indigenous people achieving more political influence. How conflicts and discussions on power and ownership of the subsurface resources between a state and an autonomy (Home Rule) can...

  1. Comparing Norse animal husbandry practices: paleoethnobotanical analyses from Iceland and Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Julie M; Zutter, Cynthia

    2007-01-01

    The popular view of the Norse settlement across the North Atlantic describes colonies with similar subsistence practices being established from the Faroe Islands in the west to L'Anse aux Meadows in the east. The importance of plant resources to the Norse animal husbandry strategies implemented by settlers upon arrival are not well established, nor are the changes these strategies underwent, eventually resulting in different cultural solutions to varying environmental and social factors. This paper compares archaeobotanical samples from two Icelandic archaeological sites, Svalbarð and Gjögur, and one Greenlandic site, Gården Under Sandet (GUS). Results of this comparison suggest that heathland shrubs were an important fodder resource for caprines in both Iceland and Greenland while apophytes ("weedy taxa") were part of the cattle fodder in Greenland. Further, the results indicate that mucking out of cattle barns to provide fertilizer was likely practiced at the GUS site in the Western Norse settlement of Greenland.

  2. Instrument for Analysis of Greenland's Glacier Mills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar, Alberto E.; Matthews, Jaret B.; Tran, Hung B.; Steffen, Konrad; McGrath, Dan; Phillips, Thomas; Elliot, Andrew; OHern, Sean; Lutz, Colin; Martin, Sujita; hide

    2010-01-01

    A new instrument is used to study the inner workings of Greenland s glacier mills by riding the currents inside a glacier s moulin. The West Greenland Moulin Explorer instrument was deployed into a tubular shaft to autonomously record temperature, pressure, 3D acceleration, and location. It is built with a slightly positive buoyancy in order to assist in recovery. The unit is made up of several components. A 3-axis MEMS (microelectromechanical systems) accelerometer with 0.001-g resolution forms the base of the unit. A pressure transducer is added that is capable of withstanding 500 psi (=3.4 MPa), and surviving down to -40 C. An Iridium modem sends out data every 10 minutes. The location is traced by a GPS (Global Positioning System) unit. This GPS unit is also used for recovery after the mission. Power is provided by a high-capacity lithium thionyl chloride D-sized battery. The accelerometer is housed inside a cylindrical, foot-long (=30 cm) polyvinyl chloride (PVC) shell sealed at each end with acrylic. The pressure transducer is attached to one of these lids and a MEMS accelerometer to the other, recording 100 samples per second per axis.

  3. Greenland Telescope (GLT Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakamura M.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The GLT project is deploying a new submillimeter (submm VLBI station in Greenland. Our primary scientific goal is to image a shadow of the supermassive black hole (SMBH of six billion solar masses in M87 at the center of the Virgo cluster of galaxies. The expected SMBH shadow size of 40-50 μas requires superbly high angular resolution, suggesting that the submm VLBI would be the only way to obtain the shadow image. The Summit station in Greenland enables us to establish baselines longer than 9,000 km with ALMA in Chile and SMA in Hawaii as well as providing a unique u–v coverage for imaging M87. Our VLBI network will achieve a superior angular resolution of about 20 μas at 350 GHz, corresponding to ∼ 2.5 times of the Schwarzschild radius of the supermassive black hole in M87. We have been monitoring the atmospheric opacity at 230 GHz since August. 2011; we have confirmed the value on site during the winter season is comparable to the ALMA site thanks to high altitude of 3,200 m and low temperature of −50°C. We will report current status and future plan of the GLT project towards our expected first light on 2015–2016.

  4. Studying health in Greenland: Obligations and challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Mulvad, Gert; Olsen, Jørn

    2003-01-01

    Health research in Greenland has contributed with several findings of interest for the global scientific community and has documented health problems and risk factors of importance for planning the local health care system. The study of how health develops in small, scattered communities during...... rapid epidemiological transition carries prospects of global significance. The Inuit are a genetically distinct people living under extreme physical conditions. Their traditional living conditions and diet are currently undergoing a transformation, which may approach their disease pattern...... to that of the industrialized world, while still including local outbreaks of tuberculosis. Health research in Greenland is logistically difficult and costly, but offers opportunities not found elsewhere in the world. A long tradition of registration enhances the possibilities for research. A number of research institutions...

  5. Characterization of household waste in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eisted, Rasmus; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    . The collection bags were sorted manually into 10 material fractions. The household waste composition consisted primarily of biowaste (43%) and the combustible fraction (30%), including anything combustible that did not belong to other clean fractions as paper, cardboard and plastic. Paper (8%) (dominated......The composition of household waste in Greenland was investigated for the first time. About 2tonnes of household waste was sampled as every 7th bag collected during 1week along the scheduled collection routes in Sisimiut, the second largest town in Greenland with about 5400 inhabitants...... by magazine type paper) and glass (7%) were other important material fractions of the household waste. The remaining approximately 10% constituted of steel (1.5%), aluminum (0.5%), plastic (2.4%), wood (1.0%), non-combustible waste (1.8%) and household hazardous waste (1.2%). The high content of biowaste...

  6. Violence, sexual abuse and health in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Curtis, Tine; Larsen, Finn B; Helweg-Larsen, Karin

    2002-01-01

    The purposes of the study were to analyse the lifetime prevalence of violence and sexual abuse among the Inuit in Greenland and to study the associations between health and having been the victim of violence or sexual abuse. Associations were studied with specific attention to possible differences...... between women and men. Further, response rates were analysed specifically in order to understand consequences of including questions on violence and sexual abuse in the questionnaire survey. The analyses were based on material from a cross-sectional health interview survey conducted during 1993......-94 with participation from a random sample of the Inuit population in Greenland (N = 1393). The prevalence of ever having been a victim of violence was 47% among women and 48% among men. Women had more often than men been sexually abused (25% and 6%) (p abused in childhood (8...

  7. Feeding habits of harp and hooded seals in Greenland waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finn O Kapel

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Results of stomach contents analyses of harp and hooded seals collected in West Greenland waters in the period 1986-1993 are reviewed, and compared with published data and circumstantial information from local hunters.  The diet of harp seals in this region is variable but consists mainly of pelagic crustaceans (Thysanoessa spp. and Parathemisto libellula and small fish species like capelin (Mallotus villosus, sandeel (Ammodytes spp., polar cod (Boreogadus saida and Arctic cod (Arctogadus glacialis. Species of importance for commercial fisheries in Greenland, such as Northern prawn (Pandalus borealis, Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua, and Greenland halibut (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides play a minor role in the diet of harp seals in this area. Variation in the diet of hooded seals is less well documented, but in addition to the species also taken by harp seals, larger demersal fishes like Greenland halibut, redfish (Sebastes spp., cod, and wolffish (Anarhichas minor are apparently important prey items.

  8. Mid- to late-Holocene NAO-type variability and the impacts of climate change on Paleo- Eskimo and Norse occupation in West Greenland based on lacustrine alkenones and compound-specific hydrogen isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Andrea, W. J.; Huang, Y.; Fritz, S. C.; Anderson, N. J.

    2008-12-01

    Mid- to late-Holocene climate in the North Atlantic region has been highly variable over millennial and centennial timescales and reveals global teleconnections. To understand the forcing and feedback mechanisms that control centennial-scale climate variability will require decadally resolved quantitative climate reconstructions from throughout the North Atlantic Sector. Here we use the alkenone unsaturation index (UK37) to quantitatively reconstruct lake water temperature for the Kangerlussuaq region of Southwestern Greenland at decadal timescales over the past 6,000 yrs. We apply a temperature calibration based on new in situ measurements and previously published data to convert UK37 to degrees C. Major reductions in Kangerlussuaq lake water temperature ca. 6-5 and 3-2.7 kyrs BP correspond to periods of decreased Meridional Overturning Circulation, expansion of the North Polar Vortex and advection of cold waters from north of Iceland into the North Atlantic Ocean. Beginning ca. 4.2 kyrs BP the alkenone record reveals centennial-scale temperature variability opposite in sign to Southwestern Ireland, suggesting centennial-scale variability in the dominant mode of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and the position of the Baffin Trough. This mid- to late-Holocene transition is likely related to the waning climatological influence of the shrinking northern ice sheets and reorganization of oceanographic conditions in the North Atlantic. The timing and severity of temperature changes depicted in the Kangerlussuaq alkenone record ca. 3.0-2.7, 2.0- 1.8, and 0.85-0.55 kyrs BP support hypotheses that climate and environmental change played a fundamental role in the final abandonment of settlements by the Saqqaq and Dorset Paleo-Eskimo cultures, and the Iron Age Norse culture. D/H ratios from sedimentary short-chain and long-chain n-alkanoic acids, reflecting lake water and precipitation D/H, respectively, provide additional insight into Holocene temperature and

  9. SKB studies of the periglacial environment - report from field studies in Kangerlussuaq, Greenland 2008 and 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarhaell, Anders

    2011-03-15

    In order to reduce uncertainties in safety assessments of the planned repository of spent nuclear fuel, SKB identified the need to increase the understanding of glacial and periglacial environments. In collaboration with Posiva OY (Finland) and NWMO (Canada), SKB started the Greenland Analogue Project (GAP) in order to study the effect of climate cooling and glaciation on repository safety. GAP chose an area northeast of Kangerlussuaq, West Greenland, to be studied as a present-day analogue of a future glacial environment in both Scandinavia and Canada. The GAP, planned to run from 2009 until 2012, conducts in situ investigations of some of the parameters and processes needed to achieve a realistic understanding of how an ice sheet may impact a deep repository. In addition, the GAP will provide measurements, observations and data that may significantly improve safety assessments and risk analyses of glaciation scenarios /SKB 2011/. Issues regarding the periglacial surface environment are not included in GAP's primary focus, which has led SKB to initiate parallel activities in the same area. This new project is named The Greenland Analogue Surface Project (GRASP), and will conduct conceptual and numerical modelling of ecosystems, hydrology and near surface hydrogeology. Choosing the same investigation area for the two projects will facilitate common usage of base-line data and logistics in the field. Information from the GRASP will be applied for a better understanding of ecological and hydrological processes in a future periglacial environment in Forsmark. Annual and long-term dynamics of the permafrost are of special interest, as well as the impact of taliks on the transport of matter from the bedrock up towards the surface. This report primarily describes findings from the field season of 2010, but does also report on field work conducted by SKB in 2008. The report provides some background information on the area, describes preliminary results and set-up for

  10. Modeling the sensitivity of coastal ocean Primary Production to Extreme Melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, H.; Luo, H.; Mattingly, K. S.; Rosen, J. J.; Yager, P. L.

    2016-02-01

    Responding to the July 2012 extreme melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet, this study investigates how marine primary productivity of the region may be affected by changes resulting from increasing meltwater discharge. The freshwater melt from the ice sheet flows primarily to the sea, where wind and ocean currents then distribute and mix it with ocean water. Depending on its delivery, meltwater may increase stratification in the coastal ocean, which is often beneficial to the light-limited phytoplankton typically found in polar regions. While plumes of buoyant meltwater can reduce light limitation by creating a shallower mixed layer, they may also increase nutrient limitation by isolating the phytoplankton from deep nitrogen supplies. Turbidity in the plume would also dampen any meltwater-driven relief from light limitation. To characterize and quantify these responses to melt in the coastal ocean west of Greenland, we created a bottom-up (nutrient-and-light-influenced) marine ecosystem model using model output generated as a part of a larger interdisciplinary Ice Sheet Impact Study. The collaborative project includes an examination of the changes of Greenland's surface mass balance, a hydrological runoff model of glacial meltwater, and a Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS). Meltwater distributions and mixed layer depths from the ROMS model were used to analyze the potential effects on marine phytoplankton. The ROMS produced ocean output for two cases over a ten-year period: with and without meltwater runoff. Using these two cases, we determined the perturbation in mixed layer depth, light availability, and the expected phytoplankton biomass, due to meltwater over different regions and melting conditions. Results are compared to remote sensing data analyzed by other members of the Ice Sheet Impact Study. The sensitivity results indicate an increase in variability of mixed layer depths with increasing meltwater input, and that the increased light availability caused

  11. Cryospheric science: Muddying Greenland's meltwaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charette, Matthew A.

    2017-11-01

    Satellite measurements indicate that Greenland's meltwater rivers are exporting one billion tons of sediment annually, a process that is controlled by the sliding rate of glaciers. This rate is nearly 10% of the fluvial sediment discharge to the ocean.

  12. Differences in plankton community structure and carbon cycling along a climate gradient from the Greenland Ice Sheet to offshore waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendt, K.E.; Nielsen, Torkel Gissel; Rysgaard, S.

    . Protozooplankton accounts for 20-38% of the carbon turnover in the offshore and inland areas. However, protozooplankton like copepods has low ability to turn over the primary production close to the Ice Sheet. Increased run of from the Greenland Ice Sheet due to global warming could displace the existing climate......Huge differences in plankton community structures and biomasses are observed along a climate gradient from the Greenland Ice Sheet to offshore waters at the West Greenland coast. The offshore region has a high biomass of copepods dominated by Calanus spp., which are capable of consuming 55...

  13. Wastewater Treatment in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsdottir, Ragnhildur

    collection systems, and be more economically and environmentally sustainable than traditional wastewater collection and treatment systems. Possible alternative wastewater treatment methods for Greenlandic communities are dry composting or anaerobic digestion of excreta, collected at household level using dry...... treatment, even by utilizing waste heat from the waste incinerators. For the seweraged parts of the towns it might be most beneficial to maintain the flush toilet solutions, while introducing a treatment step prior to discharging to the recipient, such as simple mechanical treatment which might even...... treatment in these regions. However, designing, constructing and operating wastewater collection systems in the Arctic is challenging because of e.g. permafrost conditions, hard rock surfaces, freezing, limited quantity of water and high costs of electricity, fuel and transportation, as well as a settlement...

  14. Greenland from Archaean to Quaternary, Descriptive text to the 1995 Geological Map of Greenland 1:2 500 000, 2nd edition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalsbeek, Feiko

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The geological development of Greenland spans a period of nearly 4 Ga, from Eoarchaean to the Quaternary. Greenland is the largest island on Earth with a total area of 2 166 000 km2, but only c. 410 000 km2 are exposed bedrock, the remaining part being covered by a major ice sheet (the Inland Ice reaching over 3 km in thickness. The adjacent offshore areas underlain by continental crust have an area of c. 825 000 km2. Greenland is dominated by crystalline rocks of the Precambrian shield, which formed during a succession of Archaean and Palaeoproterozoic orogenic events and stabilised as a part of the Laurentian shield about 1600 Ma ago. The shield area can be divided into three distinct types of basement provinces: (1 Archaean rocks (3200–2600 Ma old, with local older units up to >3800Ma that were almost unaffected by Proterozoic or later orogenic activity; (2 Archaean terrains reworked during the Palaeoproterozoic around 1900–1750 Ma ago; and (3 terrains mainly composed of juvenile Palaeoproterozoic rocks (2000–1750 Ma in age.Subsequent geological developments mainly took place along the margins of the shield. During the Proterozoic and throughout the Phanerozoic major sedimentary basins formed, notably in North and North-East Greenland, in which sedimentary successions locally reaching 18 km in thickness were deposited. Palaeozoic orogenic activity affected parts of these successions in the Ellesmerian fold belt of North Greenland and the East Greenland Caledonides; the latter also incorporates reworked Precambrian crystalline basement complexes. Late Palaeozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary basins developed along the continent–ocean margins in North, East and West Greenland and are now preserved both onshore and offshore. Their development was closely related to continental break-up with formation of rift basins. Initial rifting in East Greenland in latest Devonian to earliest Carboniferous time and succeeding phases culminated with the

  15. Gestational diabetes mellitus in Greenland: a national study of prevalence and testing efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Lynge Pedersen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Within the last 20 years, the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM has been reported to be increasing worldwide in correlation with ethnic and geographic variations. The actual prevalence of GDM throughout all of Greenland remains unknown. Objective: The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of GDM among Greenlanders and non-Greenlanders living in Greenland and to estimate the efficacy of testing for GDM. Design: This study was performed as an observational, cross-sectional study including all women with permanent address in Greenland who had given birth to a singleton during 2014. The prevalence of GDM was calculated as the proportion of all pregnant women tested with a 75-g 2-h glucose tolerance test who had a 2-h capillary whole-blood glucose value of 8.5 mmol/l or above. Testing efficacy was calculated as the proportion of women who fulfilled the testing criteria who were actually tested in Greenland in 2014. Results: A total of 794 women (727 Greenlanders and 67 non-Greenlanders were included in the study. The prevalence of GDM among tested women was 3.3% (confidence interval, CI: 0.9–5.6 among Greenlanders and 12.5% (CI: 0–25.7 among non-Greenlanders, corresponding, respectively, to 1.0% (CI: 0.3–1.3 and 4.5% (CI: 0–9.4 of all singleton pregnancies in Greenland in 2014. The overall testing efficacy was 69.0% among all eligible residents of Greenland and 85.1% among eligible residents in the capital city, Nuuk. Conclusion: In conclusion, the prevalence of GDM seems quite low in Greenland. Although diagnostic testing activity has improved within the last 6 years, still around one-third of all pregnant women in all Greenland fulfilling the testing criteria were not tested. Universal testing for GDM may be needed to improve testing of GDM in Greenland.

  16. First record of a white rough-toothed dolphin (Steno bredanensis) off West Africa including notes on rough-toothed dolphin surface behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de M.N.

    2010-01-01

    In June 2009, a white rough-toothed dolphin (Steno bredanensis) calf was photographed in a group of at least 50 dolphins in the southern Gulf of Guinea, 95 nauticol miles off the Gabon coast (01°45'S 007°29'E), West Africa. Reports of unusually pigmented cetaceans are infrequent and this record

  17. Post-colonial identity in Greenland?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gad, Ulrik Pram

    2009-01-01

    In the gradual unravelling of Greenland’s colonial relationship to Denmark, an essentialist conceptualization of Greenlandic identity has played a significant role. However, both our scholarly understanding of post-colonial Greenlandic identity and the process towards independence for Greenland...... could be furthered by bringing politics back in. Based on a discourse analysis of the Greenlandic debate on language, this paper makes three claims: First, the identity projects promoted in Greenland are based on an essentialist conception of identity. Secondly, Greenlandic identity discourse combines...... elements of traditional Inuit culture and elements of colonial modernity. Thirdly, monolingual Greenlanders are those with the most to gain from abandoning the dichotomy of essentialist identities. Strategically, the paper suggests a post-post-colonial Greenlandic identity as a means of avoiding...

  18. Plasma amino acids in Greenlanders and Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Erling B; Jørgensen, Marit E; Siggaard, Charlotte

    2006-01-01

    Basal metabolic rate is elevated among circumpolar populations. It has been our hypotheses that this is reflected in the levels of plasma amino acids, that amino acid concentration in plasma differs between Greenlanders and Danes, and that this difference is related to residence, ethnicity, diet......, and season. The purpose of the study was to measure plasma amino acids in Greenlanders and Danes and to analyze the influence of residence, ethnicity, diet, and season. Amino acids in plasma were measured in four groups of healthy subjects both during summer and winter: Group 1, Danes living in Denmark...... consuming European food; Group 2, Greenlanders living in Denmark consuming European food; Group 3, Greenlanders living in Greenland consuming European food; and Group 4, Greenlanders living in Greenland consuming mainly traditional Greenlandic food. Amino acids were determined by pre-column derivatization...

  19. Indigenous identity in post-colonial Greenland

    OpenAIRE

    Auzane, Agnese; Wegens, caroline; Andersen, Amalie; Arendt, Katarzyna

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This project examines how Greenlandic Inuit assert and negotiate their indigenous identity in contemporary, postcolonial Greenland. We analyse modernisation, urbanisation and nation-building patterns and developments, as well as their meaning for the indigenous identity of Greenlandic Inuit. We also examine the new forms of expression among Inuit youth. Greenlandic Inuit constitute a contemporary and highly urbanised society, as urban life has become a way of life for the majority...

  20. Inuit dietary patterns in modern Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Jeppesen, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to apply two different approaches of dietary pattern definition to data from Greenland and to analyse the contemporary dietary patterns of the Inuit in Greenland in relation to urbanization and socio-economic positions.......The purpose of the study was to apply two different approaches of dietary pattern definition to data from Greenland and to analyse the contemporary dietary patterns of the Inuit in Greenland in relation to urbanization and socio-economic positions....

  1. Late Quaternary glaciation history of northernmost Greenland - Evidence of shelf-based ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Nicolaj K.; Kjær, Kurt H.; Funder, Svend; Möller, Per; van der Meer, Jaap J. M.; Schomacker, Anders; Linge, Henriette; Darby, Dennis A.

    2010-12-01

    We present the mapping of glacial landforms and sediments from northernmost Greenland bordering 100 km of the Arctic Ocean coast. One of the most important discoveries is that glacial landforms, sediments, including till fabric measurements, striae and stoss-lee boulders suggest eastward ice-flow along the coastal plain. Volcanic erratic boulders document ice-transport from 80 to 100 km west of the study area. We argue that these findings are best explained by local outlet glaciers from the Greenland Ice Sheet and local ice caps that merged to form a shelf-based ice in the Arctic Ocean and possibly confirming an extensive ice shelf in the Lincoln Sea between Greenland and Ellesmere Island. It is speculated that the shelf-based ice was largely affected by the presence of thick multiyear sea ice in the Arctic Ocean that prevented it from breaking up and forced the outlet glaciers to flow eastwards. During the initial retreat the coastal area was dammed by the shelf-based ice and kame and glaciolacustrine sediments were deposited up to 50 m above the marine limit before the final deglaciation and marine transgression. The timing of the shelf-based ice is constrained on land by dating glaciolacustrine sediments with OSL and marine molluscs with radiocarbon and by re-evaluating IRD events in cores from the Fram Strait. Results show that the shelf-based ice started to build-up as early as 30 cal ka BP and reached a maximum during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). The shelf-based ice began to retreat ca 16 ka to 10.3 cal ka BP before the final break-up, which took place ca 10.1 cal ka BP probably as a combined result of increased inflow of warm Atlantic water through the Fram Strait, a shallower halocline and higher summer temperatures, corresponding to orbital maximum solar insolation at this time. The existence of extensive shelf-based ice north of Greenland provides an important contribution to the understanding of the LGM glaciation history of the Arctic Ocean.

  2. Bed topography under Greenland outlet glaciers revealed by Operation IceBridge data and mass conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morlighem, M.; Rignot, E. J.; Mouginot, J.; Seroussi, H. L.; Larour, E. Y.

    2012-12-01

    Detailed maps of bed elevation and ice thickness are essential to many glaciological applications, including ice sheet numerical models. These maps are typically obtained using airborne radar-sounding profiler data interpolated onto regular grids using geostatistical techniques, such as kriging. While this approach provides continuous maps of bedrock elevation, it generates products that are not consistent with ice flow dynamics and are impractical for high-resolution ice flow simulations. Here, we first analyze radar-sounding data from a dense survey of Russell Glacier, in central-west Greenland, collected in 2010 and 2011 by NASA's Operation IceBridge. We compare gridded maps of bed elevation obtained using (1) radar tomography, (2) ordinary kriging and (3) mass conversation. Radar tomography eliminates radar-sounding profiler errors caused by off-nadir bed reflections to yield reference bed elevations. Ordinary kriging yields a standard error of 50 m at 500 m resolution, but with model artifacts in between tracks and flux divergence errors larger than 200 m/yr, which confound ice sheet flow models. Mass conservation optimally combines radar-sounding profiler data with independently gridded ice velocity data to lower the standard error to 30 m and flux divergence errors smaller than 1 m/yr. More importantly, mass conservation uniquely reveals complex structural features in bed elevation, e.g. valleys, ridges, bumps and hollows, that play a central role in channelizing ice flow toward the ice sheet margin. We then apply this technique to other outlet glaciers along the west coast of Greenland. The application of the mass conservation method to the entire ice sheet periphery, combined with radar tomography, promises to be transformative in our knowledge of basal topography in coastal Greenland, especially for the modeling of its outlet glaciers. This work was performed at the University of California Irvine and the California Institute of Technology's Jet

  3. The peripheral olfactory organ in the Greenland shark Somniosus microcephalus (Bloch and Schneider, 1801

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Ghigliotti

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Greenland shark Somniosus microcephalus (Bloch and Schneider, 1801 is the largest predatory fish in Arctic waters. The socio-economic significance of Greenland shark is demonstrated by its impact on the fishing cultures in Greenland, Scandinavia and Iceland for centuries. The fundamental biology and ecological role of Greenland shark, on the other hand, is virtually unknown. Although knowledge of its life history is limited, increasing evidence indicates that the Greenland shark may undertake long-distance migrations and perform vertical movements from the surface to the deep sea. It is an omnivorous species feeding on carrion and a wide variety of pelagic and bottom-dwelling organisms ranging from invertebrates to mammals, and including active species such as fishes and seals. Accordingly, Greenland shark should be recognized as a top predator, with a strong potential to influence the trophic dynamics of the Arctic marine ecosystem. The sensory biology of Greenland shark is scarcely studied, and considering the importance of olfaction in chemoreception, feeding and other behavioral traits, we examined the architecture of the peripheral olfactory organ where olfactory cues are received from the environment – the olfactory rosette. The structural organization of the olfactory rosette, in terms of histological features of the sensory epithelium, number of primary lamellae and total sensory surface area, provides a first proxy of the olfactory capability of Greenland shark. Based on own results and published studies, the overall morphology of the olfactory rosette is viewed in context of the functional and trophic ecology among other elasmobranch species.

  4. The public’s preferences for establishing nephrology facilities in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, T.; Bech, M.; Kronborg, C.

    2013-01-01

    At present there are no nephrology facilities in Greenland. Greenlandic patients with renal failure needing dialysis thus have to travel to Denmark to obtain treatment. For patients in haemodialysis this necessitates a permanent residence in Denmark. Our study was aimed at examining Greenlanders......' preferences for establishing nephrology facilities in Greenland at Queen Ingrid's Hospital in Nuuk, and to estimate the associated change in welfare. Preferences were elicited using a discrete choice experiment (DCE). A random sample of 500 individuals of the general population was sent a postal questionnaire...... in which they were asked to consider the trade-offs of establishing nephrology facilities in Greenland as opposed to the current situation. This involved trading off the benefits of having such facilities in their home country against the costs of the intervention. Besides including a payment attribute...

  5. Three Decades of Volume Change of a Small Greenlandic Glacier Using Ground Penetrating Radar, Structure from Motion, and Aerial Photogrammetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcer, M.; Stentoft, Peter Alexander; Bjerre, Elisa

    2017-01-01

    topography, the approach constitutes a viable alternative where the use of drones is not possible. Our investigations constitute the first glacier on Greenland's west coast where ice volume was determined and volume change calculated. The glacier's thinning rate is comparable to, for example, the Swiss Alps......Glaciers in the Arctic are losing mass at an increasing rate. Here we use surface topography derived from Structure from Motion (SfM) and ice volume from ground penetrating radar (GPR) to describe the 2014 state of Aqqutikitsoq glacier (2.85 km) on Greenland's west coast. A photogrammetrically...

  6. Distance learning in the arctic wilderness of northeast Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langebæk, Rikke

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT In North East Greenland, the Danish Sirius Sledge Patrol conducts long-range patrolling in pairs of two soldiers and a team of sled dogs. Trips last 4 months or more and soldiers have no outside human contact. Each year seven new soldiers are selected to undergo seven months training...... before being sent off to Greenland. This pre-school training includes a basic veterinary course at The Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen. In 2010 it was decided to provide the Sirius Sledge Patrol and the pre-school with material for mobile...

  7. Shrub expansion in SW Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Rasmus Halfdan

    of firewood collection. A delayed reaction to the ending of the little ice age cannot be excluded, but seems rather unlikely considering other studies from Greenland. Effects of global warming in SW Greenland must be studied over even longer time periods than the 120 years of the current study. To answer......, and has a range of ecosystem effects where it occurs. Shrub expansion has to a large extend been attributed to increasing temperatures over the past century, while grazing and human disturbance have received less attention. Alnus viridis ssp. crispa is a common arctic species that contributes...... by factors like grazing and human disturbance; II. which climatic factors control shrub growth in SW Greenland and whether these have improved sufficiently over the past century to allow shrub expansion; III. whether growth of A. viridis is promoted by experimental warming; IV. and whether plant genotypes...

  8. Bowhead whale songs sung by females in Disko Bay, Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tervo, Outi; Christoffersen, Mads; FØrasier, Timothy

    2011-01-01

    , and more rarely mate attraction. In the North Atlantic right whale, Eubalaena glacialis, a closely related species to the bowhead whale, the female produces simple calls during sexual interactions that attract other males to mating groups. We suggest that our results may indicate that the elaborate songs...... for this species. Bowhead whale song has long been hypothesized to be produced by male whales as a reproductive advertisement; however, no data on the sex of singers has ever been reported. In this study, we determine the sex of singing bowhead whales Balaena mysticetus in Disko Bay, West Greenland, by localizing...

  9. Topography drives strong winds at Greenland's Cape Farewell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Colin

    2013-02-01

    Jutting out into the northern Atlantic Ocean, the southernmost tip of Greenland—known as Cape Farewell—is the windiest oceanic site in the world, with gale-force winds whipping nearly a sixth of the time. The strong winds at Cape Farewell, called "tip jets," blow from both the east and the west. Along with another set of anomalously strong winds that blow along the country's southeast coast, the powerful flows are thought to have a strong effect on sea ice behavior, coastal ocean circulation patterns, the melt rate of Greenland's coastal glaciers, and North Atlantic deep ocean convection.

  10. East Greenland Caledonides: stratigraphy, structure and geochronology: The Neoproterozoic Rivieradal Group of Kronprins Christian Land, eastern North Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith, M. Paul

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The Rivieradal Group, formally defined here, is confined to the Vandredalen thrust sheet of the Caledonian orogen in Kronprins Christian Land, eastern North Greenland. It comprises a successionof Neoproterozoic siliciclastic sediments that represent the fill of a half-graben basin. The syn-rift Rivieradal Group is overlain by post-rift sediments of the Hagen Fjord Group. The latter succession is present in both the thrust sheet and the Caledonian foreland to the west. In the foreland, where the Rivieradal Group is not represented, the Hagen Fjord Group disconformably overlies Palaeoproterozoic–Mesoproterozoic sandstones of the IndependenceFjord Group.

  11. The Neoproterozoic Tillite Group from Ella Ø, East Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchardt, Bjørn; Kristiansen, Kasper K.; Houmark-Nielsen, Michael

    The Neoproterozoic sediments in East Greenland are found in an N-S trending belt in the Fjord Region. Overlying the Eleonora Bay Supergroup is the Tillite Group, which for long has been interpreted as a series of glacially derived deposits including two diamictitic units. The Tillite Group itself...

  12. The Greenland ice sheet in a warming climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Angelen, J.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/325922470

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis we assess multiple aspects of the Greenland climate, including the surface energy and mass balance of the ice sheet for the contemporary and near future climate. For these purposes we used output of the extensively and well-evaluated regional atmospheric climate model RACMO2. The

  13. Use of Greenlandic resources for the production of bricks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belmonte, Louise Josefine

    (including bricks) were dismissed in Greenland in the early 1950’s, due to low frost resistance of the mortar. Although this dismissal might have been technically warranted at the time, the ceramic industry has since experienced extensive development, and today clay-based brick constructions can therefore...

  14. Gestational diabetes mellitus in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Lynge; Olesen, Jesper; Jørgensen, Marit Eika

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Within the last 20 years, the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has been reported to be increasing worldwide in correlation with ethnic and geographic variations. The actual prevalence of GDM throughout all of Greenland remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study...

  15. Partitioning recent Greenland mass loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broeke, M.R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073765643; Bamber, Jonathan L.; Ettema, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304831913; Rignot, Eric; Schrama, Ernst; van de Berg, W.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304831611; Velicogna, I.; Wouters, Bert|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304120146

    2009-01-01

    Mass budget calculations, validated with satellite gravity observations [from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites], enable us to quantify the individual components of recent Greenland mass loss. The total 2000–2008 mass loss of ~1500 gigatons, equivalent to 0.46

  16. A high detail benchmark dataset of mid-1980's ice margin positions for all Greenland ice masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citterio, M.; Ahlstrom, A. P.

    2012-12-01

    We introduce the first complete high resolution aerophotogrammetric map of Greenland ice masses, including both the ice sheet and all local glaciers and ice caps (GIC). This PROMICE (Programme for Monitoring of the Greenland Ice Sheet) product is based on 1:150.000 scale vertical aerial photographs acquired between 1978 and 1987. The flight campaigns covered N and most of NE Greenland in 1978, E and SE Greenland in 1981, all of the west coast from 60°N to 87°N in 1985, and the remaining part of NE Greenland in 1987. Over the following decades, 1:100,000 and 1:250,000 scale topographic maps were produced by GEUS (Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland), formerly GGU (Greenland Geological Survey) and by KMS (Danish National Survey and Cadastre). KMS also surveyed the vast majority of geodetic ground control points used for aerotriangulation. We manually edited the vector polygons from these topographic maps to correct issues related to debris covered ice, medial moraines, supraglacial lakes and ice contact lakes. The local ice masses in topological contact with the ice sheet but clearly independent in their ablation and accumulation areas were separated from the ice sheet by manually digitizing ice divides based on surface topography, resulting in all polygons belonging to one of the 'disconnected ice mass', 'local ice mass' or 'ice sheet' classes. The total glacierized area of the ice sheet and GIC in the 1980's was 1,804,638 km2 ± 27,268 km2 and the GIC alone covered 88,083 ± 1,240 km2. This GIC extent is significantly larger than most previously reported estimates, and it is in line with the area of 89,273 ± 2,767 km2 found independently by Rastner et al. (The Cryosphere Discuss., in review) using 1999-2002 30 m Landsat 7 imagery for ice masses with 'no or weak connection' to the ice sheet. It is not possible to assess glacier change by comparing these two aggregate totals because they are indistinguishable within the reported uncertainties, and also

  17. Relations between Arctic large-scale TEC changes and scintillations over Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durgonics, Tibor; Høeg, Per; von Benzon, Hans-Henrik

    The increasing dependence on GNSS-based methods and technologies for global or regionalnavigation and communication has raised concerns about the impact of space weather on thesesystems. Temporal and spatial ionosphere variations caused by driving forces, such as changes insolar radiation, solar...... of stations in Greenland are analyzed and geophysicalvariables such as such as TEC, amplitude scintillation indices (S4), and phase scintillation indices (σϕ), are calculated together with 2D/3D electron density and scintillation maps. For the TEC weapplied data from the Greenland GNET network of stations...... – consisting of 62 stations, while thescintillations data are based on 50 Hz sampled data from a set of sites on the west coast ofGreenland (i.e., Thule, Sisimiut, and Kangerlussuaq).The GNSS-derived data is augmented by ground-based geomagnetic measurements, such as theDst-index and magnetic H-component data...

  18. AWI Moored ULS Data, Greenland Sea and Fram Strait, 1991-2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of Upward Looking Sonar (ULS) data from 11 moorings in the Greenland Sea. Parameters in the processed data files include ice draft, water...

  19. Robots could assist scientists working in Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2011-07-01

    GREENLAND—Tom Lane and Suk Joon Lee, recent graduates of Dartmouth University's Thayer School of Engineering, in Hanover, N. H., are standing outside in the frigid cold testing an autonomous robot that could help with scientific research and logistics in harsh polar environments. This summer, Lane, Lee, and others are at Summit Station, a U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF)-sponsored scientific research station in Greenland, fine-tuning a battery-powered Yeti robot as part of a team working on the NSF-funded Cool Robot project. The station, also known as Summit Camp, is located on the highest point of the Greenland Ice Sheet (72°N, 38°W, 3200 meters above sea level) near the middle of the island. It is a proving ground this season for putting the approximately 68-kilogram, 1-cubic-meter robot through its paces, including improving Yeti's mobility capabilities and field-testing the robot. (See the electronic supplement to this Eos issue for a video of Yeti in action (http://www.agu.org/eos_elec/).) During field-testing, plans call for the robot to collect data on elevation and snow surface characteristics, including accumulation. In addition, the robot will collect black carbon and elemental carbon particulate matter air samples around Summit Camp's power generator to help study carbon dispersion over snow.

  20. The Greenland-Iceland-Faroe Ridge Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlendsson, Ögmundur; Hjartarson, Árni; Blischke, Anett

    2017-04-01

    thick layers of sediments, 8-10 km inside the bathymetric shelf break. Several seamounts were observed on multibeam datasets from the Vesturdjúp Basin West of Iceland, just south of the Greenland - Iceland Ridge at around 1200 m depth. Most of them are cone shaped but ridges and table mountains are also found. These seamounts appear to be much less eroded and younger than the neighbouring ocean floor and might indicate a still active flank or intra plate volcanic zone. Young tectonism with faults, grabens and transverse ridges also characterize the area and most of the volcanic cones are located along fault plans or/and within the grabens of the Vesturdjúp, giving a good example of the complexity of the GIFRC in comparison to simple ocean floor areas.

  1. Exposure of Inuit in Greenland to organochlorines through the marine diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, P; Dewailly, E; Ayotte, P

    2001-01-01

    High organochlorine concentrations have been found among the Inuit in eastern Canada and in Greenland. The present study was undertaken to assess the exposure to organochlorines in relation to age, sex, and diet in a general population sample of Inuit from Greenland. Survey data and plasma...... concentrations of 14 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and 16 pesticides, including 5 toxaphene congeners, were recorded in a random population survey of 408 adult indigenous Greenlanders. In a two-stage design, the survey response rate was 66%, and 90% of those randomly selected for blood testing...

  2. Diabetes in Population Isolates: Lessons from Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grarup, Niels; Moltke, Ida; Albrechtsen, Anders; Hansen, Torben

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is an increasing health problem worldwide with particularly high occurrence in specific subpopulations and ancestry groups. The high prevalence of T2D is caused both by changes in lifestyle and genetic predisposition. A large number of studies have sought to identify the genetic determinants of T2D in large, open populations such as Europeans and Asians. However, studies of T2D in population isolates are gaining attention as they provide several advantages over open populations in genetic disease studies, including increased linkage disequilibrium, homogeneous environmental exposure, and increased allele frequency. We recently performed a study in the small, historically isolated Greenlandic population, in which the prevalence of T2D has increased to more than 10%. In this study, we identified a common nonsense variant in TBC1D4, which has a population-wide impact on glucose-stimulated plasma glucose, serum insulin levels, and T2D. The variant defines a specific subtype of non-autoimmune diabetes characterized by decreased post-prandial glucose uptake and muscular insulin resistance. These and other recent findings in population isolates illustrate the value of performing medical genetic studies in genetically isolated populations. In this review, we describe some of the advantages of performing genetic studies of T2D and related cardio-metabolic traits in a population isolate like the Greenlandic, and we discuss potentials and perspectives for future research into T2D in this population.

  3. Sustainable Mobile Tourist Hut for Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qu, Jing; Villumsen, O.; Villumsen, Arne

    Greenland is experiencing growing tourism in recent years, which increases demand for tourists’ accommodation. Small huts are a traditional way for overnight stays in Greenland due to scattered population and lack of infrastructure. However, the existing huts in Greenland cannot provide satisfact......Greenland is experiencing growing tourism in recent years, which increases demand for tourists’ accommodation. Small huts are a traditional way for overnight stays in Greenland due to scattered population and lack of infrastructure. However, the existing huts in Greenland cannot provide...... satisfactory service for tourists. Meanwhile, climate change is threatening the arctic environment and causing retreating of ice so tourist attractions might change in years. Therefore mobility and sustainability are two key factors of new tourist huts....

  4. Holocene environmental changes and climate development in Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engels, Stefan; Helmens, Karin (Dept. of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology, Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    The primary aim of this report is to give an overview of the Holocene environmental and climatic changes in Greenland and to describe the development of the periglacial environment during the Holocene. Special emphasis is given to the influence of the ice sheet on its surroundings, both in terms of time (with respect to the response of the biosphere to deglaciation or ice sheet proximity) and in space (through the influence of the ice sheet on the regional climate, more specifically on temperature and aridity). Published records are reviewed, and regional trends are summarized. A range of different natural archives is available for such studies, including ice-core data, marine records, and continental sources of information, including peat profiles and lacustrine records. Because of the high number of lakes in all ice-free areas of Greenland, the lacustrine records offer the opportunity to get a spatial overview of past changes in environment and climate as well. This report focuses on (palaeo-) ecological studies, as it is intended to assemble basic information for future studies on adaptation of the biosphere to changes in climate. There is a bias towards pollen- and macro-remain-based reconstructions of past changes, as these dominate performed palaeoecological studies in Greenland; unfortunately, only a limited number of studies exist that include more modern proxies such as diatoms or chironomids (climate-indicators), but where available in the literature, these have been included. The report starts with an introduction where the current climatic and biological zonation of Greenland is discussed together with an overview of the geology of Greenland (on the full geological timescale) in order to put the following sections in perspective. Chapter 2 discusses the ice sheet history of Greenland from the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) onward where special emphasis is given to the spatial variability of deglaciation at the onset of the Holocene. To enhance the

  5. Sedimentation in arctic proglacial lakes: Mittivakkat Glacier, SE Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasholt, Bent; Walling, Desmond Eric; Owens, P.N.

    2000-01-01

    lake sedimentation, sediment yields, sediment sources, calcium-137, lead-210, archz, proglacial, Greenland......lake sedimentation, sediment yields, sediment sources, calcium-137, lead-210, archz, proglacial, Greenland...

  6. The Jan Mayen whaling industry - Its exploitation of the Greenland right whale and its impact on the marine ecosystem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hacquebord, L; Skreslet, S

    2004-01-01

    After a relatively late discovery of the island, Dutch whalers used Jan Mayen as a base for their whaling industry. They built stations on the west coast of the island where they rendered whale oil from the blubber of the Greenland right whales. Altogether the whalers stayed for twenty-two years on

  7. Late-Holocene environment and climatic changes in Ameralik Fjord, southwest Greenland: evidence from the sedimentary record

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Henrik S.; Jensen, Karin G.; Kuijpers, Antoon

    2006-01-01

      Sedimentological and geochemical (XRF) data together with information from diatom and benthic foraminifera records of a 3.5 m long gravity core from Ameralik fjord, southern West Greenland, is used for reconstructing late Holocene environmental changes in this area. The changes are linked to la...

  8. Greenland ice sheet motion insensitive to exceptional meltwater forcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedstone, Andrew J; Nienow, Peter W; Sole, Andrew J; Mair, Douglas W F; Cowton, Thomas R; Bartholomew, Ian D; King, Matt A

    2013-12-03

    Changes to the dynamics of the Greenland ice sheet can be forced by various mechanisms including surface-melt-induced ice acceleration and oceanic forcing of marine-terminating glaciers. We use observations of ice motion to examine the surface melt-induced dynamic response of a land-terminating outlet glacier in southwest Greenland to the exceptional melting observed in 2012. During summer, meltwater generated on the Greenland ice sheet surface accesses the ice sheet bed, lubricating basal motion and resulting in periods of faster ice flow. However, the net impact of varying meltwater volumes upon seasonal and annual ice flow, and thus sea level rise, remains unclear. We show that two extreme melt events (98.6% of the Greenland ice sheet surface experienced melting on July 12, the most significant melt event since 1889, and 79.2% on July 29) and summer ice sheet runoff ~3.9 σ above the 1958-2011 mean resulted in enhanced summer ice motion relative to the average melt year of 2009. However, despite record summer melting, subsequent reduced winter ice motion resulted in 6% less net annual ice motion in 2012 than in 2009. Our findings suggest that surface melt-induced acceleration of land-terminating regions of the ice sheet will remain insignificant even under extreme melting scenarios.

  9. The East Greenland rifted volcanic margin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Kent Brooks

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Palaeogene North Atlantic Igneous Province is among the largest igneous provinces in the world and this review of the East Greenland sector includes large amounts of information amassed since previous reviews around 1990.The main area of igneous rocks extends from Kangerlussuaq (c. 67°N to Scoresby Sund (c. 70°N, where basalts extend over c. 65 000 km2, with a second area from Hold with Hope (c. 73°N to Shannon (c. 75°N. In addition, the Ocean Drilling Project penetrated basalt at five sites off South-East Greenland. Up to 7 km thickness of basaltic lavas have been stratigraphically and chemically described and their ages determined. A wide spectrum of intrusions are clustered around Kangerlussuaq, Kialeeq (c. 66°N and Mesters Vig (c. 72°N. Layered gabbros are numerous (e.g. the Skaergaard and Kap Edvard Holm intrusions, as are under- and oversaturated syenites, besides small amounts of nephelinite-derived products, such as the Gardiner complex (c. 69°N with carbonatites and silicate rocks rich in melilite, perovskite etc. Felsic extrusive rocks are sparse. A single, sanidine-bearing tuff found over an extensive area of the North Atlantic is thought to be sourced from the Gardiner complex.The province is famous for its coast-parallel dyke swarm, analogous to the sheeted dyke swarm of ophiolites, its associated coastal flexure, and many other dyke swarms, commonly related to central intrusive complexes as in Iceland. The dyke swarms provide time markers, tracers of magmatic evolution and evidence of extensional events. A set of dykes with harzburgite nodules gives unique insight into the Archaean subcontinental lithosphere.Radiometric dating indicates extrusion of huge volumes of basalt over a short time interval, but the overall life of the province was prolonged, beginning with basaltic magmas at c. 60 Ma and continuing to the quartz porphyry stock at Malmbjerg (c. 72°N at c. 26 Ma. Indeed, activity was renewed in the Miocene with

  10. Prevalence and molecular characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus, including methicillin resistant strains, isolated from bulk can milk and raw milk products in pastoral communities of South-West Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiimwe, Benon B; Baldan, Rossella; Trovato, Alberto; Cirillo, Daniela M

    2017-06-13

    Staphylococcus aureus strains are now regarded as zoonotic agents. In pastoral settings where human-animal interaction is intimate, multi-drug resistant microorganisms have become an emerging zoonotic issue of public health concern. The study of S. aureus prevalence, antimicrobial resistance and clonal lineages in humans, animals and food in African settings has great relevance, taking into consideration the high diversity of ethnicities, cultures and food habits that determine the lifestyle of the people. Little is known about milk carriage of methicillin resistant S. aureus strains (MRSA) and their virulence factors in Uganda. Here, we present the prevalence of MRSA in bulk can milk and raw milk products in pastoral communities of south-west Uganda. We also present PFGE profiles, spa-types, as well as frequency of enterotoxins genes. S. aureus was identified by the coagulase test, susceptibility testing by the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion and E-test methods and MRSA by detection of the mecA gene and SCCmec types. The presence of Panton - Valentine Leucocidin (PVL) genes and staphylococcal enterotoxins was determined by PCR, while genotyping was by PFGE and spa typing. S. aureus were isolated from 30/148 (20.3%) milk and 11/91(12%) sour milk samples. mecA gene carriage, hence MRSA, was detected in 23/41 (56.1%) of the isolates, with 21 of the 23 (91.3%) being SCCmec type V; while up to 30/41 (73.2%) of the isolates were resistant to tetracycline. Only five isolates carried the PVL virulence gene, while PFGE typing revealed ten clusters (ranging from two seven isolates each) that comprised 83% of the sample, and only eight isolates with unique pulsotypes. The largest PFGE profile (E) consisted of seven isolates while t7753, t1398, and t2112 were the most common spa-types. Thirty seven of the 41 strains (90.2%) showed at least one of the eight enterotoxin genes tested, with sem 29 (70.7%), sei 25 (61%) and seg 21 (51.2%) being the most frequently observed genes. This

  11. Seabird Colonies in Western Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boertmann, D.; Mosbech, A.; Falk, K.

    colonies in Greenland is compiled in a database maintained by NERI-AE. This report presents data on distribution, population numbers and population trends of 19 species of breeding colonial seabirds in western Greenland. Distributions are depicted on maps in Fig. 18-39. It is apparent that the major...... and range on the basis of the present material, due to too few and incomparable surveys. Only the Brünnich's guillemot is adequately studied to make conclusions on population trends (Kampp et al. 1994). However, our impressions of trends are given in Tab. 5. Species with decreasing populations are common...... eider, Brünnich's guillemot and Arctic tern, while at least great cormorant and great black-backed gull have shown range expansions and probably also population increases in recent years. The most important areas to breeding colonial seabirds are indicated on Fig. 40. Fig. 41 shows coastlines where...

  12. Bioaccumulation of nonylphenols and bisphenol A in the Greenland shark Somniosus microcephalus from the Greenland seawaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ademollo, N.; Patrolecco, L.; Rauseo, J.

    2018-01-01

    and on the loss of biodiversity. In this work, we report the occurrence and bioaccumulation of selected endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) in muscle and liver of the Greenland shark . Somniosus microcephalus, an arctic species of interest for biogeography, migration, physiology, long- and short...... been performed on the Greenland shark. Totally, muscles and liver samples were analyzed from 23 Greenland sharks (TL range 149-442. cm) sampled in W, SW, SE, and NE Greenland. Extraction of analytes from biological matrices were performed by ASE (Accelerated Solvent Extraction), followed by HPLC......-Fluorescence (FLD) detection. Results showed higher contamination levels in muscle than in liver in the sharks from SE and NE Greenland, while in specimens from W and SW Greenland the liver was the tissue more contaminated. In fact, the 4-NP, NP1-2EO and BPA mean content in liver of SW Greenland specimens was 43...

  13. Greenland and Antarctica Ice Sheet Mass Changes and Effects on Global Sea Level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsberg, René; Sørensen, Louise Sandberg; Simonsen, Sebastian Bjerregaard

    2017-01-01

    Thirteen years of GRACE data provide an excellent picture of the current mass changes of Greenland and Antarctica, with mass loss in the GRACE period 2002–2015 amounting to 265 ± 25 GT/year for Greenland (including peripheral ice caps), and 95 ± 50 GT/year for Antarctica, corresponding to 0.......72 and 0.26 mm/year average global sea level change. A significant acceleration in mass loss rate is found, especially for Antarctica, while Greenland mass loss, after a corresponding acceleration period, and a record mass loss in the summer of 2012, has seen a slight decrease in short-term mass loss trend....... The yearly mass balance estimates, based on point mass inversion methods, have relatively large errors, both due to uncertainties in the glacial isostatic adjustment processes, especially for Antarctica, leakage from unmodelled ocean mass changes, and (for Greenland) difficulties in separating mass signals...

  14. Improving the Greenlandic Greenhouse Gas Inventory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Baunbæk, Lene; Gyldenkærne, Steen

    The project to improve the Greenlandic greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory was undertaken due to the recommendations made by the UNFCCC review team in connection with the 2008 and 2009 submissions by the Kingdom of Denmark. The improvements made to the Greenlandic GHG emission inventory were substantial...

  15. Balance velocities of the Greenland ice sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joughin, I.; Fahnestock, M.; Ekholm, Simon

    1997-01-01

    We present a map of balance velocities for the Greenland ice sheet. The resolution of the underlying DEM, which was derived primarily from radar altimetery data, yields far greater detail than earlier balance velocity estimates for Greenland. The velocity contours reveal in striking detail......, the balance map is useful for ice-sheet modelling, mass balance studies, and field planning....

  16. Record Summer Melt in Greenland in 2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tedesco, M.; Fettweis, X.; van den Broeke, M.R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073765643; van de Wal, R.S.W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/101899556; Smeets, C.J.P.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/191522236; van de Berg, W.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304831611; Serreze, M.C.; Box, J.E.

    2011-01-01

    As Arctic temperatures increase, there is growing concern about the melting of the Greenland ice sheet, which reached a new record during the summer of 2010. Understanding the changing surface mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet requires appreciation of the close links among changes in surface

  17. Geologic mapping in Greenland with polarimetric SAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dall, Jørgen; Madsen, Søren Nørvang; Brooks, C. K.

    1995-01-01

    The application of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) for geologic mapping in Greenland is investigated by the Danish Center for Remote Sensing (DCRS) in co-operation with the Danish Lithosphere Centre (DLC). In 1994 a pilot project was conducted in East Greenland. The Danish airborne SAR, EMISAR...

  18. Changes in Greenland's peripheral glaciers linked to the North Atlantic Oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørk, A. A.; Aagaard, S.; Lütt, A.; Khan, S. A.; Box, J. E.; Kjeldsen, K. K.; Larsen, N. K.; Korsgaard, N. J.; Cappelen, J.; Colgan, W. T.; Machguth, H.; Andresen, C. S.; Peings, Y.; Kjær, K. H.

    2018-01-01

    Glaciers and ice caps peripheral to the main Greenland Ice Sheet contribute markedly to sea-level rise1-3. Their changes and variability, however, have been difficult to quantify on multi-decadal timescales due to an absence of long-term data4. Here, using historical aerial surveys, expedition photographs, spy satellite imagery and new remote-sensing products, we map glacier length fluctuations of approximately 350 peripheral glaciers and ice caps in East and West Greenland since 1890. Peripheral glaciers are found to have recently undergone a widespread and significant retreat at rates of 12.2 m per year and 16.6 m per year in East and West Greenland, respectively; these changes are exceeded in severity only by the early twentieth century post-Little-Ice-Age retreat. Regional changes in ice volume, as reflected by glacier length, are further shown to be related to changes in precipitation associated with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), with a distinct east-west asymmetry; positive phases of the NAO increase accumulation, and thereby glacier growth, in the eastern periphery, whereas opposite effects are observed in the western periphery. Thus, with projected trends towards positive NAO in the future5,6, eastern peripheral glaciers may remain relatively stable, while western peripheral glaciers will continue to diminish.

  19. Active predation by Greenland shark Somniosus microcephalus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Julius; hedeholm, Rasmus; Simon, Malene

    2013-01-01

    Dansk Havforskermøde 2013 Julius Nielsen, Rasmus Hedeholm, Malene Simon og John Fleng Steffensen The Greenland shark is ubiquitous in the northern part of the North Atlantic ranging from eastern Canada to northwest Russia . Although knowledge is scarce it is believed to be abundant and potentially...... important part of the ecosystem. Whether Greenland sharks in general should be considered opportunistic scavengers or active predators is therefore important in understanding ecosystem dynamics. Due to its sluggish appearance and a maximum reported swimming speed of 74 cm per second scavenging seems...... the most likely feeding strategy. However, recent studies suggest that Greenland sharks in some areas feed actively upon seals . Feeding ecology is poorly described in Greenland waters. In this study we provide information on feeding habits of 29 sharks caught in Greenland waters in the summer 2012...

  20. Short-term impacts of enhanced Greenland freshwater fluxes in an eddy-permitting ocean model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Marsh

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In a sensitivity experiment, an eddy-permitting ocean general circulation model is forced with realistic freshwater fluxes from the Greenland Ice Sheet, averaged for the period 1991–2000. The fluxes are obtained with a mass balance model for the ice sheet, forced with the ERA-40 reanalysis dataset. The freshwater flux is distributed around Greenland as an additional term in prescribed runoff, representing seasonal melting of the ice sheet and a fixed year-round iceberg calving flux, for 8.5 model years. By adding Greenland freshwater fluxes with realistic geographical distribution and seasonality, the experiment is designed to investigate the oceanic response to a sudden and spatially/temporally uniform amplification of ice sheet melting and discharge, rather than localized or gradual changes in freshwater flux. The impacts on regional hydrography and circulation are investigated by comparing the sensitivity experiment to a control experiment, without additional fluxes. By the end of the sensitivity experiment, the majority of additional fresh water has accumulated in Baffin Bay, and only a small fraction has reached the interior of the Labrador Sea, where winter mixed layer depth is sensitive to small changes in salinity. As a consequence, the impact on large-scale circulation is very slight. An indirect impact of strong freshening off the west coast of Greenland is a small anti-cyclonic component to the circulation around Greenland, which opposes the wind-driven cyclonic circulation and reduces net southward flow through the Canadian Archipelago by ~10%. Implications for the post-2000 acceleration of Greenland mass loss are discussed.

  1. Shoreline changes and its impact on activities in the coastal zone in Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroon, A.; Bendixen, M.; Elberling, B.

    2015-12-01

    Almost all coastal environments in Greenland are developed in high-relief areas, along fjords, or hard-rock cliffs. The sedimentary shores often fringe these areas and a large number of small deltas (areal delta surface snow. There is a seasonal variation with open waters and active rivers in summer and ice-covered coastal waters and frozen rivers in winter. The coastal processes by waves and tides are thus often limited to summer and early fall. Nowadays, global climate changes induce many changes along the arctic coasts. Global sea-levels are rising due to thermal expansion and an increased fresh water flux from the glaciers and land ice masses, while ice coverage of the coastal waters decreases and the open water periods in summer extend. However, it is still unknown if the extra input of fluvial sediments can cope with increased erosion rates at the shores. Besides, the rate of actual sea-level rise in West Greenland is probably less than the local rate of isostatic uplift, leading to local relative sea level fall.The focus in this presentation is on shoreline changes and its impact on two coastal environments in Greenland: the Young Sound area (fjord environment in North-East Greenland), and the southern shore of Disko Island (open sea embayment in West Greenland). These coastal environments exhibit a wide variety of coastal landforms like deltas, spits, barriers, etc. The coastal landforms were mapped and aerial images, orthogonal photos, and satellite images were used to digitize successive shorelines. The shoreline changes were estimated using the digital shoreline analysis system (DSAS) of the USGS. The spatial variability of accumulation and erosion patterns was detected and shows a surprising thread for ancient settlements and present-day activities in the coastal zone. The same patterns are finally discussed in terms of coastal risk assessment.

  2. Greenland Blocking As a Mechanism for Recent Arctic/Mid-Latitude Weather Linkages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overland, J. E.; Hanna, E.; Wang, M.

    2014-12-01

    High-latitude blocking (HLB) located near and west of Greenland and in northeastern Siberia is a process that links Arctic processes to mid-latitude weather. HLB lies north of the jet stream and tends to bifurcate or divert the jet stream southward, rather than providing a complete block to the westerly flow. It is differentiated from mid-latitude blocking located in the central Atlantic to Europe and the western Pacific along eddy-driven jet streams. It is important to identify and understand an increase in recent HLB in early winter during the last five years relative to time series since 1948, even though this length is too short to robustly distinguish the influence of Arctic forcing from random events. In the last five early winters (December-January 2009-10 through 2013-14), two record and four other negative Arctic Oscillation atmospheric circulation index events have been observed, with positive Greenland Blocking Indices (GBI, greater 500 hPa geopotential heights) and increased geopotential thickness west of Greenland. Cold air penetrated into the southeastern United States in December 2009 and 2010 and January 2014 related to amplification in the long-wave upper-level atmospheric wind pattern. Northward air flow over Davis Strait acts as a positive feedback to maintain the Greenland air temperature anomalies. Extreme negative GBI were observed in December 2011-January 2012. Increased thickness associated with positive GBI can be a response to external (local sea ice loss, Greenland surface warming, or even equatorial teleconnections) or internal (advection and orientation of the long wave patterns) processes. A similar blocking feature is observed in Siberia/eastern Asia. A Bayesian approach to an Arctic/mid-latitude weather linkage emphasizes the nearly irresolvable uncertainty surrounding causation of recent major weather events; yet it drives scientific understanding of linkages and potential impacts on seasonal forecasting.

  3. Calosota Curtis (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea, Eupelmidae – review of the New World and European fauna including revision of species from the West Indies and Central and North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Gibson

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Two of three species previously classified in Calosota Curtis (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae from the Neotropical region are transferred to Eupelminae. Calosota eneubulus (Walker from Galapagos Islands is transferred to Eupelmus Dalman as Eupelmus (Eupelmus eneubulus (Walker, comb. n., and Calosota silvai (Brèthes from Chile is transferred to Brasema Cameron as Brasema silvai comb. n. Calosota cecidobius (Kieffer from Argentina is retained in Calosota, with reservation, as an unrecognized species. The species of Calosota from the New World excluding South America are revised. Eleven species are recognized, including the seven newly described species Calosota albipalpus sp. n. (Costa Rica, Mexico, USA, Venezuela, Calosota bicolorata sp. n. (USA, Calosota elongata sp. n. (USA, Calosota longivena sp. n. (USA, Calosota panamaensis sp. n. (Panama, Calosota setosa sp. n. (Bahamas, Dominican Republic, USA, and Calosota speculifrons sp. n. (Costa Rica, USA. The 11 regional species and the Palaearctic species Calosota vernalis Curtis are keyed and illustrated. Calosota vernalis is not known to occur in the New World but is included in the key and diagnosed because it has been intercepted in quarantine in Canada. Calosota pseudotsugae Burks is placed in synonymy under Calosota acron (Walker, syn. n., and Calosota kentra Burks, Calosota montana Burks and Calosota septentrionalis Hedqvist are placed in synonymy under Calosota aestivalis Curtis syn. n. Calosota modesta Bolívar y Pieltain is removed from synonymy under Calosota viridis Masi, stat. rev., and Calosota viridis, Calosota matritensis Bolívar y Pieltain, and Calosota coerulea Nikol’skaya are placed in synonymy under Calosota metallica (Gahan, syn. n. Calosota grylli Erdös is confirmed as a separate species from Calosota metallica based on features of both sexes. It is suggested that Calosota ariasi Bolívar y Pieltain may be a synonym of Calosota aestivalis, Calosota bolivari Askew may be a synonym

  4. Infant simulation in parental and sexuality education in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This article examines processes related to teaching and learning through implementation of a new dialogue-based parental and sexuality education program using infant simulators. Aim: The purpose is to examine the ways in which infant simulators used in sexuality education in Greenland...... operate to include and exclude, embrace and marginalize, offer access to and create barriers to students’ learning of parental roles and responsibility, pregnancy and sexuality. Methodology: The empirical findings are draw from the account of the education effects observed in schools geographically spread...... organiser and the local educators. Additionally, figures on teenage pregnancy, abortion and sexually transmitted diseases were collected from the Greenlandic statistics to get an overview of (presumed) health effects. Findings: The short-term impact of the program, including the effectiveness of infant...

  5. L3 English acquisition in Denmark and Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spellerberg, Stine Marie

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents findings of gender-related tendencies found in a study of factors influential in third language acquisition of English in Denmark and Greenland. A survey consisting of a questionnaire and an English test was carried out amongst pupils in their last year of compulsory schooling...... in Copenhagen, Denmark, and Nuuk, Greenland. In total, responses from 187 pupils were included, some of which were responses from pupils learning English as a second language; these respondents were included for comparisons (Copenhagen: L2 learners N =59, L3 learners N=32; Nuuk: L3 learners N=96; age: 14......–16 years). The results showed significant gender-related differences with different patterns between the three learner groups (L2 and L3 learners in Copenhagen, L3 learners in Nuuk) with regard to the level of English proficiency, the degree to which pupils like English as a school subject and the pupils...

  6. Simulated Internal Storage Buildup, Release, and Runoff from Greenland Ice Sheet at Kangerlussuaq, West Greenland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mernild, S. H.; Liston, G. E.; van den Broeke, M.R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073765643

    2012-01-01

    This study focused on simulated glacier surface conditions (simulated Surface Melt and liquid Precipitation available for supra-, en-, sub-, and proglacial flow processes [after vertical percolation and potential storage within the snowpack] [henceforth SMP]), internal water storage and release, and

  7. Linguistic expressions of emotion in Kalaallisut (West Greenlandic)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trondhjem, Naja Blytmann

    How are emotions expressed in Kalaallisut In Kalaallisut the expressions of emotions are expressed by verbal stems, verbal as well as nominal affixes, and of ‘metaphorical’ expressions. Within verbal stems there are both mono morphemic ‘basic’ emotion terms and also ‘metaphorical’ terms which...... consist of compound verbal stems. Besides these it seems there are specific aspectual markers with concrete emotional meanings, and some verbal modifying affixes with emotional meanings also, and finally a group of nominal modifiers which express the speakers emotional evaluation of another person....... In this paper I’ll consider these questions: -do emotions terms have special linguistic constructions or not? - do emotions verbs have specificity in comparison with other verbs, for example in telicity? -are special affixes linked with the verbs of emotion? - do emotions verbs have special temporal...

  8. Freshwater discharge and sediment transport to Kangerlussuaq Fjord, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Andreas Peter Bech

    to these processes. It was shown that the specific sediment transport from the Watson River catchment (WRC) was 940, 470 and 1830 t km-2 yr-1 for average, minimum and maximum respectively which corresponds erosion rates of 0.3, 0.2 and 0.7 mm yr-1 when averaging the total sediment load over the entire catchment area...

  9. Jokulhlaups and sediment transport in Watson River, Kangerlussuaq, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, A. B.; Hasholt, Bent; Knudsen, N. T.

    2013-01-01

    For 3 years, during a 4-year observation period (2007-2010), jokulhlaups were observed from a lake at the northern margin of Russells Gletscher. At a gauging station located on a bedrock sill near the outlet of Watson River into Sdr Stromfjord, discharge and sediment transport was monitored during...

  10. Effects of future Arctic sea ice decline on Greenland ice sheet melt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizcaino, Miren; Michailidou, Egli

    2017-04-01

    CMIP5 models project substantial reduction of the Arctic sea ice cover during the current century, including the onset of a seasonally ice free Arctic. In this study we explore the effects of future Arctic sea-ice change on the mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS). For this, we use 1850-2100 simulations from the Community Earth System Model version 1.0 corresponding to historical and RCP8.5 scenarios. We examine the impact of Arctic change on the surface energy and mass budgets of the Greenland ice sheet. We distinguish between winter Arctic change and Greenland-melt-season (Spring and Summer) future climate change. We find a substantial reduction in summer incoming shortwave radiation over the GrIS both for clear-sky and all-sky conditions, that reduces the energy available for melt. Because of the large amount of energy that is used during summer to melt sea-ice, we find no amplified summer warming in the ocean around Greenland, except where summer-long ice-free conditions develop. The different nature of the processes controlling sea-ice change along the western and eastern Greenland coast is examined. We find no links in the timing of major sea-ice change and Greenland snow and ice melt, and justify why such a linkage is absent.

  11. Investigating the local-scale influence of sea ice on Greenland surface melt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Stroeve

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Rapid decline in Arctic sea ice cover in the 21st century may have wide-reaching effects on the Arctic climate system, including the Greenland ice sheet mass balance. Here, we investigate whether local changes in sea ice around the Greenland ice sheet have had an impact on Greenland surface melt. Specifically, we investigate the relationship between sea ice concentration, the timing of melt onset and open-water fraction surrounding Greenland with ice sheet surface melt using a combination of remote sensing observations, and outputs from a reanalysis model and a regional climate model for the period of 1979–2015. Statistical analysis points to covariability between Greenland ice sheet surface melt and sea ice within Baffin Bay and Davis Strait. While some of this covariance can be explained by simultaneous influence of atmospheric circulation anomalies on both the sea ice cover and Greenland melt, within Baffin Bay we find a modest correlation between detrended melt onset over sea ice and the adjacent ice sheet melt onset. This correlation appears to be related to increased transfer of sensible and latent heat fluxes from the ocean to the atmosphere in early sea ice melt years, increasing temperatures and humidity over the ice sheet that in turn initiate ice sheet melt.

  12. Investigating the local-scale influence of sea ice on Greenland surface melt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroeve, Julienne C.; Mioduszewski, John R.; Rennermalm, Asa; Boisvert, Linette N.; Tedesco, Marco; Robinson, David

    2017-10-01

    Rapid decline in Arctic sea ice cover in the 21st century may have wide-reaching effects on the Arctic climate system, including the Greenland ice sheet mass balance. Here, we investigate whether local changes in sea ice around the Greenland ice sheet have had an impact on Greenland surface melt. Specifically, we investigate the relationship between sea ice concentration, the timing of melt onset and open-water fraction surrounding Greenland with ice sheet surface melt using a combination of remote sensing observations, and outputs from a reanalysis model and a regional climate model for the period of 1979-2015. Statistical analysis points to covariability between Greenland ice sheet surface melt and sea ice within Baffin Bay and Davis Strait. While some of this covariance can be explained by simultaneous influence of atmospheric circulation anomalies on both the sea ice cover and Greenland melt, within Baffin Bay we find a modest correlation between detrended melt onset over sea ice and the adjacent ice sheet melt onset. This correlation appears to be related to increased transfer of sensible and latent heat fluxes from the ocean to the atmosphere in early sea ice melt years, increasing temperatures and humidity over the ice sheet that in turn initiate ice sheet melt.

  13. Modelled Precipitation Over Greenland

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes the annual total precipitation from 1985 to 1999 and monthly total precipitation from January 1985 to December 1999. The data is derived from...

  14. The Greenland gravitational constant experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumberge, M. A.; Ander, M. E.; Lautzenhiser, T. V.; Parker, R. L.; Aiken, C. L. V.; Gorman, M. R.; Nieto, M. M.; Cooper, A. P. R.; Ferguson, J. F.; Fisher, E.; Greer, J.; Hammer, P.; Hansen, B. L.; McMechan, G. A.; Sasagawa, G. S.; Sidles, C.; Stevenson, J. M.; Wirtz, J.

    1990-09-01

    An Airy-type geophysical experiment was conducted in a 2-km-deep hole in the Greenland ice cap at depths between 213 m and 1673 m to test for possible violations of Newton's inverse square law. Gravity measurements were made at eight depths in 183-m intervals with a LaCoste & Romberg borehole gravity meter. An anomalous variation in gravity totaling 3.87 mGal (3.87x10-5m/s2) in the depth interval of 1460 m was observed. This may be attributed either to a breakdown of Newtonian gravity or to unexpected density variations in the rock below the ice.

  15. Gestational diabetes mellitus in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Lynge; Olesen, Jesper; Jørgensen, M. E.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Within the last 20 years, the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has been reported to be increasing worldwide in correlation with ethnic and geographic variations. The actual prevalence of GDM throughout all of Greenland remains unknown. Objective. The aim of this study...... during 2014. The prevalence of GDM was calculated as the proportion of all pregnant women tested with a 75-g 2-h glucose tolerance test who had a 2-h capillary whole-blood glucose value of 8.5 mmol/l or above. Testing efficacy was calculated as the proportion of women who fulfilled the testing criteria...

  16. Diversity in Secondary Metabolites Including Mycotoxins from Strains of Aspergillus Section Nigri Isolated from Raw Cashew Nuts from Benin, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamboni, Yendouban; Nielsen, Kristian F; Linnemann, Anita R; Gezgin, Yüksel; Hell, Kerstin; Nout, Martinus J R; Smid, Eddy J; Tamo, Manuele; van Boekel, Martinus A J S; Hoof, Jakob Blæsbjerg; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2016-01-01

    In a previous study, raw cashew kernels were assayed for the fungal contamination focusing on strains belonging to the genus Aspergillus and on aflatoxins producers. These samples showed high contamination with Aspergillus section Nigri species and absence of aflatoxins. To investigate the diversity of secondary metabolites, including mycotoxins, the species of A. section Nigri may produce and thus threaten to contaminate the raw cashew kernels, 150 strains were isolated from cashew samples and assayed for their production of secondary metabolites using liquid chromatography high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS). Seven species of black Aspergilli were isolated based on morphological and chemical identification: A. tubingensis (44%), A. niger (32%), A. brasiliensis (10%), A. carbonarius (8.7%), A. luchuensis (2.7%), A. aculeatus (2%) and A. aculeatinus (0.7%). From these, 45 metabolites and their isomers were identified. Aurasperone and pyranonigrin A, produced by all species excluding A. aculeatus and A. aculeatinus, were most prevalent and were encountered in 146 (97.3%) and 145 (95.7%) isolates, respectively. Three mycotoxins groups were detected: fumonisins (B2 and B4) (2.7%) ochratoxin A (13.3%), and secalonic acids (2%), indicating that these mycotoxins could occur in raw cashew nuts. Thirty strains of black Aspergilli were randomly sampled for verification of species identity based on sequences of β-tubulin and calmodulin genes. Among them, 27 isolates were positive to the primers used and 11 were identified as A. niger, 7 as A. tubingensis, 6 as A. carbonarius, 2 as A. luchuensis and 1 as A. welwitschiae confirming the species names as based on morphology and chemical features. These strains clustered in 5 clades in A. section Nigri. Chemical profile clustering also showed also 5 groups confirming the species specific metabolites production.

  17. Spaceborne measurement of Greenland ice sheet changes: the ESA Greenland CCI project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsberg, René; Sørensen, Louise Sandberg; Meister, Rakia

    The ESA “Greenland_ice_sheet_cci” project is currently making past and present space measurements of Greenland ice sheet changes available for use by scientists, stakeholders and the general public. The data are part of a large set of ECV’s (Essential Climate Variables) made available by the ESA...... Climate Initiative, as a contribution to the global Climate Observing System. The ECV data produced for the Greenlandice sheet include detailed grids of elevation changes and ice flow velocities, as well as line data of grounding lines and calving front locations for major outlet glaciers. The “ice_sheets......_cci” goal is to generate a consistent, validated, long-term and timely set of ECV’s, a.o. to improve the impact of satellite data on climate research and coupled ice sheet/climate models. Special focus is on use of data from ESA missions such as ERS, Envisat and the new Sentinel missions, but in the 2nd...

  18. Oceanic Transport of Surface Meltwater from the Southern Greenland Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hao; Castelao, Renato M.; Rennermalm, Asa K.; Tedesco, Marco; Bracco, Annalisa; Yager, Patricia L.; Mote, Thomas L.

    2016-01-01

    The Greenland ice sheet has undergone accelerating mass losses during recent decades. Freshwater runoff from ice melt can influence fjord circulation and dynamic1 and the delivery of bioavailable micronutrients to the ocean. It can also have climate implications, because stratification in the adjacent Labrador Sea may influence deep convection and the strength of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. Yet, the fate of the meltwater in the ocean remains unclear. Here, we use a high-resolution ocean model to show that only 1-15% of the surface meltwater runoff originating from southwest Greenland is transported westwards. In contrast, up to 50-60% of the meltwater runoff originating from southeast Greenland is transported westwards into the northern Labrador Sea, leading to significant salinity and stratification anomalies far from the coast. Doubling meltwater runoff, as predicted in future climate scenarios, results in a more-than-double increase in anomalies offshore that persists further into the winter. Interannual variability in offshore export of meltwater is tightly related to variability in wind forcing. The new insight that meltwaters originating from the west and east coasts have different fates indicates that future changes in mass loss rates and surface runoff will probably impact the ocean differently, depending on their Greenland origins.

  19. Impact of public health research in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Curtis, Tine

    2004-01-01

    research. Two health surveys have been carried out in Greenland by the National Institute of Public Health, and a follow-up is being planned together with the Directorate of Health. The results have been widely used by politicians, administrators, and health care professionals.......In 1992, the Greenland Home Rule Government took over the responsibility for health care. There has since been a growing cooperation between the Directorate of Health and researchers in Denmark and Greenland, for instance by the Directorate supporting workshops and funding a chair in health...

  20. The influence of winter and summer atmospheric circulation on the variability of temperature and sea ice around Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayo Ogi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Most peripheral seas of the Arctic Ocean have seen a pronounced rise in sea surface temperatures in the past century, and this signature of Arctic amplification in proximity to the land suggests that the observed marine and terrestrial changes might be connected to each other. Using in situ observations of temperature from nine coastal meteorological stations around Greenland (GrSTs and remotely sensed fields of sea ice extent (SIE, we examine the interannual variations of surface air temperature (T2m and sea level pressure (SLP anomalies associated with the GrSTs and SIEs surrounding Greenland, specifically within Baffin Bay, the Greenland Sea and Kara-Barents Seas. During winter, the interannual variation in T2m and SLP of the west and south coasts of GrSTs and the Baffin Bay SIE are different from that of the east coast of GrSTs and the SIEs in the Greenland Sea and Kara-Barents Seas. The GrSTs on the west and south coasts of Greenland and the Baffin Bay SIE are associated with the T2m anomalies over Baffin Bay and Davis Strait. The winter SLP patterns associated with these GrSTs and SIEs show positive anomalies over the Arctic and negative anomalies over the North Atlantic with a large-scale atmospheric circulation such as the winter NAO. On the contrary, the east coast of GrSTs and the SIEs in the Greenland Sea and Kara-Barents Seas are correlated with the T2m anomalies over the Greenland Sea and Barents Sea. The surface wind pattern associated with the SIEs in the Greenland Sea and Kara-Barents Seas has a cyclonic circulation in the Greenland Sea and Barents Sea. At the local scale the cyclonic circulation could induce negative SIE anomalies and contribute to increasing open water in the Greenland Sea and Barents Sea. The effect of the loss of sea ice and the heat from the open ocean warming to the atmosphere may influence the GrSTs in the east coast of Greenland. As a result, the T2m pattern associated with the GrSTs in the east coast of

  1. Greenland Radar Ice Sheet Thickness Measurements

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Two 150-MHz coherent radar depth sounders were developed and flown over the Greenland ice sheet to obtain ice thickness measurements in support of PARCA...

  2. Hepatitis B prevalence and incidence in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børresen, Malene Landbo; Andersson, Mikael; Wohlfahrt, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Greenland remains a highly endemic area for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. This is in sharp contrast to other modern societies, such as Denmark. To address this discrepancy, we investigated the natural history of HBV infection in Greenland by estimating the age-specific incidence of HBV...... infection, the proportion of chronic carriers, and the rates of hepatitis B surface antigen seroclearance. In total, 8,879 Greenlanders (16% of the population) from population-based surveys conducted in 1987 and 1998 were followed through March 2010. Data on HBV status were supplemented by HBV test results...... from all available HBV registries in Greenland to determine changes in HBV status over time. Incidence rates of HBV infection and hepatitis B surface antigen seroclearance were estimated after taking into account interval censoring. The incidence of HBV infection in 5-14-year-old subjects was less than...

  3. Small-scale fisheries in Greenlandic planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Rikke Becker

    2013-01-01

    This article analyses an ongoing planning process in Greenlandic fisheries governance aiming to reform the coastal Greenland halibut fishery. It examines the way certain truths about this fishery and the need for reform are produced up to and in the final policy document ‘regulation concerning...... the coastal fishery for Greenland halibut’. Findings highlight the way the small-scale Greenland halibut fishery system becomes a particular governance problem with respect to particular contextual meanings of sustainability and long-term planning. The article then examines whether this governance problem...... could also be understood as primarily a problem to a certain ‘governmentality’ mode of governance. Whereas some fishery studies document how governmentality modes of governance in fisheries succeeds in transforming subjectivities, this study offers a view into the process that might go before successful...

  4. Land Ice: Greenland & Antarctic ice mass anomaly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Data from NASA's Grace satellites show that the land ice sheets in both Antarctica and Greenland are losing mass. The continent of Antarctica (left chart) has been...

  5. Trends of cervical cancer in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Bente B; Rebolj, Matejka; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Due to its extraordinarily fast economic and social transition, virtually closed borders before 1940 and, moreover, that 85% of the population has the distinctive genetics of the Inuit, Greenland is a very interesting country to study cervical cancer from a historical perspective....... Nevertheless, little has been reported about long-term cancer trends in Greenland. Our aim was to describe and interpret the incidence of cervical cancer from 1950 to 2009. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We systematically searched PubMed for articles reporting the incidence of cervical cancer in Greenland. We...... supplemented this with data for 1980-2009 obtained from the Chief Medical Officer of Greenland. RESULTS: Incidence of cervical cancer was around 10 per 100 000 women (age-standardised, world population, ASW) in the 1950s, 30 per 100 000 in the 1960s, and in the 1980s around 60 per 100 000. From 1985 onwards...

  6. The Greenlandic Economy – Structure and Prospects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben M.

    (fish) but also on non-renewable natural resources (minerals). As a background for discussing these issues, the paper first briefly lays out the historical development of Greenland. The overall structure of the Greenlandic economy is laid out, and the major challenges to achieve a self......Greenland is a vast country with a small and geographically dispersed population. These conditioning factors pose a particular challenge for a natural resource-based economy. Greenland is thus in many respects unique and yet has to find a way to ensure a self-sustaining economy. This requires...... an economic development which addresses current economic and social problems, makes the economy independent of transfers from outside, and provides for a satisfactory increase in living standards. Essential for this is a transformation such that the economy does not only rely on renewable natural resources...

  7. Evidence of meltwater retention within the Greenland ice sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Rennermalm

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Greenland ice sheet mass losses have increased in recent decades with more than half of these attributed to surface meltwater runoff. However, the magnitudes of englacial storage, firn retention, internal refreezing and other hydrologic processes that delay or reduce true water export to the global ocean remain less understood, partly due to a scarcity of in situ measurements. Here, ice sheet surface meltwater runoff and proglacial river discharge between 2008 and 2010 near Kangerlussuaq, southwestern Greenland were used to establish sub- and englacial meltwater storage for a small ice sheet watershed (36–64 km2. This watershed lacks significant potential meltwater storage in firn, surface lakes on the ice sheet and in the proglacial area, and receives limited proglacial precipitation. Thus, ice sheet surface runoff not accounted for by river discharge can reasonably be attributed to retention in sub- and englacial storage. Evidence for meltwater storage within the ice sheet includes (1 characteristic dampened daily river discharge amplitudes relative to ice sheet runoff; (2 three cold-season river discharge anomalies at times with limited ice sheet surface melt, demonstrating that meltwater may be retained up to 1–6 months; (3 annual ice sheet watershed runoff is not balanced by river discharge, and while near water budget closure is possible as much as 54% of melting season ice sheet runoff may not escape to downstream rivers; (4 even the large meltwater retention estimate (54% is equivalent to less than 1% of the ice sheet volume, which suggests that storage in en- and subglacial cavities and till is plausible. While this study is the first to provide evidence for meltwater retention and delayed release within the Greenland ice sheet, more information is needed to establish how widespread this is along the Greenland ice sheet perimeter.

  8. Diabetes in Greenland and its relationship with urbanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, M E; Borch-Johnsen, K; Witte, D R; Bjerregaard, P

    2012-06-01

    Most studies show that diabetes increases with migration and urbanization. Previous studies from Greenland have shown inconsistent associations between cardiovascular risk and urbanization. Thus, the aim was to study the association between diabetes and urbanization among Greenland Inuit. A total of 3089 adult Inuit aged 18 years and older participated in a geographically representative, population-based study 'Inuit Health in Transition Study'. The examination included a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test and anthropometric measurements. Information on socio-demographic characteristic and health behaviour was obtained by interview or questionnaire. The participants were categorized according to degree of urbanization into three groups based on current place of residence: (1) participants living in towns (> 2000 inhabitants), (2) participants living in small towns (small towns [OR(diabetes) = 1.5 (1.0-2.3), OR(IFG) = 1.9 (1.2-2.3)] and villages [OR(diabetes) = 1.2 (0.8-1.9), OR(IFG) = 1.3 (0.9-2.0)], whereas no association was seen for impaired glucose tolerance. The inverse association between urbanization and diabetes and impaired fasting glycaemia persisted after adjustment for relevant confounders. Diabetes and impaired fasting glycaemia decreased with urbanization contrary to the results of most studies. It appears that Greenland Inuit follow the pattern usually observed in industrialized countries with the highest risk of diabetes in the lower socio-economic groups. © 2011 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2011 Diabetes UK.

  9. Modelling the response of stable water isotopes in Greenland precipitation to orbital configurations of the previous interglacial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesper Sjolte

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The relation between δ 18O of precipitation and temperature has been used in numerous studies to reconstruct past temperatures at ice core sites in Greenland and Antarctica. During the past two decades, it has become clear that the slope between δ 18O and temperature varies in both space and time. Here, we use a general circulation model driven by changes in orbital parameters to investigate the Greenland δ 18O–temperature relation for the previous interglacial, the Eemian. In our analysis, we focus on changes in the moisture source regions, and the results underline the importance of taking the seasonality of climate change into account. The orbitally driven experiments show that continental evaporation over North America increases during summer in the warm parts of the Eemian, while marine evaporation decreases. This likely flattens the Greenland δ 18O response to temperature during summer. Since the main climate change in the experiments occurs during summer this adds to a limited response of δ 18O, which is more strongly tied to temperature during winter than during summer. A south–west to north–east gradient in the δ 18O–temperature slope is also evident for Greenland, with low slopes in the south–west and steeper slopes in the north–east. This probably reflects the proportion of continental moisture and Arctic moisture arriving in Greenland, with more continental moisture in the south–west and less in the north–east, and vice versa for the Arctic moisture.

  10. Fluxes of microbes, organic aerosols, dust, sea-salt Na ions, non-sea-salt Ca ions, and methanesulfonate onto Greenland and Antarctic ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. B. Price

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Using a spectrofluorimeter with 224-nm laser excitation and six emission bands from 300 to 420 nm to measure fluorescence intensities at 0.3-mm depth intervals in ice cores, we report results of the first comparative study of concentrations of microbial cells (using the spectrum of protein-bound tryptophan (Trp as a proxy and of aerosols with autofluorescence spectra different from Trp (denoted "non-Trp" as a function of depth in ice cores from West Antarctica (WAIS Divide and Siple Dome and Greenland (GISP2. The ratio of fluxes of microbial cells onto West Antarctic (WAIS Divide versus Greenland sites is 0.13±0.06; the ratio of non-Trp aerosols onto WAIS Divide versus Greenland sites is 0.16±0.08; and the ratio of non-sea-salt Ca2+ ions (a proxy for dust grains onto WAIS Divide versus Greenland sites is 0.06±0.03. All of these are roughly comparable to the ratio of fluxes of dust onto Antarctic versus Greenland sites (0.08±0.05. By contrast to those values, which are considerably lower than unity, the ratio of fluxes of methanesulfonate (MSA onto Antarctic versus Greenland sites is 1.9±0.4 and the ratio of sea-salt Na2+ ions onto WAIS Divide versus Greenland sites is 3.0±2. These ratios are more than an order of magnitude higher than those in the first grouping. We infer that the correlation of microbes and non-Trp aerosols with non-sea-salt Ca and dust suggests a largely terrestrial rather than marine origin. The lower fluxes of microbes, non-Trp aerosols, non-sea-salt Ca and dust onto WAIS Divide ice than onto Greenland ice may be due to the smaller areas of their source regions and less favorable wind patterns for transport onto Antarctic ice than onto Greenland ice. The correlated higher relative fluxes of MSA and marine Na onto Antarctic versus Greenland ice is consistent with the view that both originate largely on or around sea ice, with the Antarctic sea ice being far more extensive than that around Greenland.

  11. Shifts in the Source and Composition of Dissolved Organic Matter in Southwest Greenland Lakes Along a Regional Hydro-climatic Gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osburn, Christopher L.; Anderson, Nicholas J.; Stedmon, Colin A.

    2018-01-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) concentration and quality were examined from Arctic lakes located in three clusters across south-west (SW) Greenland, covering the regional climatic gradient: cool, wet coastal zone; dry inland interior; and cool, dry ice-marginal areas. We hypothesized that differe...

  12. The HIV epidemic in Greenland - a slow spreading infection among adult heterosexual Greenlanders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn-Mortensen, Karen; Ladefoged, Karin; Obel, Niels

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to characterise the HIV epidemic in Greenland and to determine incidence, prevalence, mortality rates (MR) and specific causes of deaths.......We aimed to characterise the HIV epidemic in Greenland and to determine incidence, prevalence, mortality rates (MR) and specific causes of deaths....

  13. Experience with cochlear implants in Greenlanders with profound hearing loss living in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Homøe, Preben; Andersen, Ture; Grøntved, Aksel

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Cochlear implant (CI) treatment was introduced to the world in the 1980s and has become a routine treatment for congenital or acquired severe-to-profound hearing loss. CI treatment requires access to a highly skilled team of ear, nose and throat specialists, audiologists and speech...... years are in need of a CI every second year in Greenland often due to sequelae from meningitis, which may cause postinfectious deafness. Screening of new-borns for hearing has been started in Greenland establishing the basis for early diagnosis of congenital hearing impairment and subsequent...... intervention. The logistics and lack of availability of speech therapists in Greenland hampers possibilities for optimal language and speech therapy of CI patients in Greenland. This study aims at describing the results of CI treatment in Greenlanders and the outcome of the CI operations along...

  14. The Greenland Analogue Project. Yearly Report 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-12-15

    A deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel needs to be designed to keep used nuclear fuel isolated from mankind and the environment for a million years. Within this time frame glacial conditions are expected in regions that have been glaciated in the past two to ten million years. Climate induced changes such as the growth of ice sheets and permafrost will influence and alter the ground surface and subsurface environment, including its hydrology, which may impact repository safety. Glaciation impact assessments have to-date used over-simplified models and conservative assumptions, for example in the representation of ice sheet hydrology, that do not reflect the complexity of natural systems and processes. This is largely due to lack of direct observations of such processes from existing ice sheets, which if more readily available could help reduce uncertainties and provide a strong scientific basis for the treatment of glacial impacts in safety assessments. Our current understanding of the hydrological, hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical processes associated with glacial cycles and their impact on the long-term performance of deep geological repositories for spent nuclear fuel will be significantly improved by studying a modern analogue. To advance the understanding of processes associated with glaciation and their impact on the long-term performance of a deep geological repository, the Greenland Analogue Project (GAP), a four-year field and modelling study of the Greenland ice sheet and sub-surface conditions, has been initiated collaboratively by SKB, Posiva and NWMO. The study site encompasses a land terminus portion of the Greenland ice sheet east of Kangerlussuaq and is in many ways considered to be an appropriate analogue of the conditions that are expected to prevail in much of Canada and Fennoscandia during future glacial cycles. The project is planned to run from 2009 until 2012. The GAP will conduct the first in situ investigations of some of

  15. Multi-sensor detection of glacial lake outburst floods in Greenland from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citterio, M.

    2015-12-01

    GLOFs cause substantial erosion, transport and delivery of sediment along the river system from the glaciated parts of the hydrologic catchment to the sea, and have been found to control the riverine export dynamics of some pollutants like mercury in NE Greenland. GLOFs also pose a risk to human presence and infrastracture. Ice-dammed lakes at the margin of the ice sheet and of local glaciers and ice caps are common features of Greenland's landscape. The occasional or periodic emptying of some of these lakes have been described as early as the 18thcentury. Thinning glaciers in a warming climate are already changing the behaviour of some of these lakes. However, little is known of the frequency and seasonality of glacier lake outburst floods (GLOF) outside of the relatively more densely populated parts of West and South Greenland. This contribution demonstrates automatic multi-sensor detection of ice-dammed lake emptying events from space for three test regions in West, South and Northeast Greenland, using visible imagery from Landsat, ASTER, PROBA-V and MODIS. The current detection algorithm relies on prior knowledge of lakes location and approximate shape from a topographic map at the scale of 1:250.000, and it is meant as a prototype for a future operational product. For the well documented case of the glacier-dammed lake of A.P. Olsen Ice Cap (NE Greenland), where GLOF's observations at Zackenberg Research Station started in 1996, the remote sensing and in situ records are compared, showing good agreement. ICESat altimetry, MODIS and AVHRR thermal imagery, and the ENVISAR ASAR signature of two detected GLOFs that took place late autumn and winter are also discussed to demonstrate the potential for successful retrievals during the polar night. The upcoming Sentinel-3 missions will alleviate what is currently the major drawback of implementing this prototype into an operational service, namely the limited availability of high resolution imagery. This is of special

  16. Nivation forms and processes in unconsolidated sediments, NE Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Hanne Hvidtfeldt

    1998-01-01

    Nivation, Nivation Hollow, Nival Backwall Faliure, Active layer Interflow, Pronival alluvial fans, NE Greenland......Nivation, Nivation Hollow, Nival Backwall Faliure, Active layer Interflow, Pronival alluvial fans, NE Greenland...

  17. Greenland and Antarctica Ice Sheet Mass Changes and Effects on Global Sea Level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsberg, René; Sørensen, Louise Sandberg; Simonsen, Sebastian Bjerregaard

    2017-01-01

    Thirteen years of GRACE data provide an excellent picture of the current mass changes of Greenland and Antarctica, with mass loss in the GRACE period 2002–2015 amounting to 265 ± 25 GT/year for Greenland (including peripheral ice caps), and 95 ± 50 GT/year for Antarctica, corresponding to 0...... from the Greenland ice sheet and the adjacent Canadian ice caps. The limited resolution of GRACE affects the uncertainty of total mass loss to a smaller degree; we illustrate the “real” sources of mass changes by including satellite altimetry elevation change results in a joint inversion with GRACE...... major glacier accelerations have been observed after the 2002 collapse of the Larsen B Ice Shelf....

  18. Effects of organohalogen pollutants on haematological and urine clinical-chemical parameters in Greenland sledge dogs (Canis familiaris)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Christian; Dietz, Rune; Kirkegaard, Maja

    2008-01-01

    :05) in the control group, while glucose was signi.cantly highest (ANCOVA: po0:05) in the exposed group. Furthermore, the blood cholesterol levels indicate that exposure via the diet to marine mammal blubber has a preventive effect on the development of cardiovascular diseases. We therefore suggest......:creatinine ratio, protein:creatinine ratio, alkaline phosphatase, cholesterol and inorganic phosphate were signi.cantly highest (ANCOVA: all po0:05) in the pup generation. The cortisol:creatinine ratio, cholesterol, lactate dehydrogenase and creatinine kinase were signi.cantly higher (ANCOVA: all po0......Seven West Greenland sledge dog bitches (Canis familiaris) and their three pups were fed 50-200 g of contaminated West Greenland minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) blubber, and in a control cohort eight sister bitches and their .ve pups were fed a similar amount pork fat. Blood plasma...

  19. Three Decades of Volume Change of a Small Greenlandic Glacier Using Ground Penetrating Radar, Structure from Motion, and Aerial Photogrammetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcer, M.; Stentoft, Peter Alexander; Bjerre, Elisa

    2017-01-01

    topography, the approach constitutes a viable alternative where the use of drones is not possible. Our investigations constitute the first glacier on Greenland's west coast where ice volume was determined and volume change calculated. The glacier's thinning rate is comparable to, for example, the Swiss Alps......Glaciers in the Arctic are losing mass at an increasing rate. Here we use surface topography derived from Structure from Motion (SfM) and ice volume from ground penetrating radar (GPR) to describe the 2014 state of Aqqutikitsoq glacier (2.85 km) on Greenland's west coast. A photogrammetrically...... derived 1985 digital elevation model (DEM) was subtracted from a 2014 DEM obtained using land-based SfM to calculate geodetic glacier mass balance. Furthermore, a detailed 2014 ground penetrating radar survey was performed to assess ice volume. From 1985 to 2014, the glacier has lost 49.8 ± 9.4 10 m...

  20. Human exposure to contaminants in the traditional Greenland diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansen, Poul; Muir, Derek; Asmund, Gert; Riget, Frank

    2004-09-20

    The traditional diet is a significant source of contaminants to people in Greenland, although contaminant levels vary widely among species and tissue from very low in many to very high in a few. Our study has included cadmium, mercury, selenium, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), dichlorophenyltrichloroethane (DDT), chlordane, hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCH), chlorobenzenes, dieldrin and toxaphene in the major species and tissues consumed by Greenlanders. In general, the levels of these are very low in terrestrial species and in muscle of many marine species. High organochlorines concentrations are typically found in blubber of marine mammals and high metal levels in liver and kidney of seals and whales. In this study, the mean intakes of cadmium, chlordanes and toxaphene significantly exceed 'acceptable/tolerable intakes' (ADI/TDI) by a factor between 2.5 and 6. Mean intakes of mercury, PCB and dieldrin also exceed ADI/TDI by up to approximately 50%. However as these figures are mean intakes and as variation in both food intake and contaminant levels is large, the variation of contaminant intake among individuals is also large, and some individuals will be exposed to significantly higher intakes. The mean intakes of DDT, HCH and chlorobenzenes are well below the ADI/TDI values, and it seems unlikely that the TDI for these contaminants normally is exceeded in the Greenland population. The evaluation of contaminant intake in this study points to seal muscle, seal liver, seal kidney, seal blubber and whale blubber as the dominant contributors of contaminants in the traditional diet. Levels in liver from Greenland halibut, snow crab, king eider, kittiwake, beluga and narwhal and kidney of beluga and narwhal are also high but were, with the exception of toxaphene in Greenland halibut liver, not important sources in this study, because they were eaten in low quantities. A way to minimize contaminant intake would be to avoid or limit the consumption of diet items

  1. Lime Stabilization of Fine-Grained Greenlandic Sediments in Relation to Construction Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anders Stuhr; Ingeman-Nielsen, Thomas; Nielsen, Hans Rasmus

    2010-01-01

    Thick deposits of fine-grained marine sediments exist in large areas of western Greenland. Many places these sediments are located above sea-level, and now complicate construction projects in urban areas. The mineralogy of the sediments is very different from that of European sediments, mainly due...... to the cold climate, and it is therefore of great interest to study possible methods to improve the stability of the fine-grained sediments. This presentation will include results of laboratory studies of lime stabilization on a clay soil from Kangerlussuaq, western Greenland. The result includes tests...

  2. Greenland warming of 1920-1930 and 1995-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chylek, Petr; Dubey, M. K.; Lesins, G.

    2006-06-01

    We provide an analysis of Greenland temperature records to compare the current (1995-2005) warming period with the previous (1920-1930) Greenland warming. We find that the current Greenland warming is not unprecedented in recent Greenland history. Temperature increases in the two warming periods are of a similar magnitude, however, the rate of warming in 1920-1930 was about 50% higher than that in 1995-2005.

  3. Physical activity patterns in Greenland: A country in transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl-Petersen, Inger; Jørgensen, Marit E; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2011-01-01

    To examine differences in physical activity patterns among Inuit in Greenland in relation to social transition. The Inuit in Greenland are an indigenous population in the circumpolar north who are experiencing rapid social transition.......To examine differences in physical activity patterns among Inuit in Greenland in relation to social transition. The Inuit in Greenland are an indigenous population in the circumpolar north who are experiencing rapid social transition....

  4. Freshwater fluxes from Greenland into the ocean: A Case Study of Sermilik Fjord

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straneo, Fiamma; Beaird, Nicholas; Catania, Ginny; Felikson, Denis; Heimbach, Patrick; Moon, Twila; Sutherland, Dave; Masina, Simona; Colleoni, Florence

    2017-04-01

    Mass loss from the Greenland Ice Sheet quadrupled from 1992 to 2011, discharging an additional 2700 cubic kilometers of freshwater into the Arctic and North Atlantic Oceans. Future projections are for continued and enhanced mass loss, implying an even larger freshwater discharge into the ocean. Given the potential impact of this additional freshwater on the regional circulation, dense water formation and the marine ecosystems, it is important to include it in past model reconstructions and future model projections. At present, studies investigating the impact of Greenland freshwater on the ocean largely assume that it enters the ocean as a distributed, surface freshwater flux. Observation and model studies, however, show that much of Greenland's freshwater discharge into the ocean occurs subsurface via the melting of deep icebergs and glaciers and through the injection of seasonal surface melt from the base of glaciers hundreds of meters below the surface. Spatially, the discharge is concentrated around the major glacier/fjord systems. Here, we develop a framework to account for the different components of Greenland's freshwater discharge (ice sheet and glacier runoff, non-glaciated margin runoff, and ice discharge from marine terminating glaciers) for the period 1958-2015 and apply it to Sermilik Fjord, southeast Greenland, where present day discharge estimates can be compared to extensive observations. This effort is led by the GRISO Research Coordination Network.

  5. Three decades of volume change of a small greenlandic glacier using ground penetrating radar, structure from motion, and aerial photogrammetry

    OpenAIRE

    Marcer, M.; Stentoft, Peter Alexander; Bjerre, Elisa; Cimoli, E.; A. A. Bjørk; Stenseng, Lars; MACHGUTH, HORST

    2017-01-01

    Glaciers in the Arctic are losing mass at an increasing rate. Here we use surface topography derived from Structure from Motion (SfM) and ice volume from ground penetrating radar (GPR) to describe the 2014 state of Aqqutikitsoq glacier (2.85 km2) on Greenland's west coast. A photogrammetrically derived 1985 digital elevation model (DEM) was subtracted from a 2014 DEM obtained using land-based SfM to calculate geodetic glacier mass balance. Furthermore, a detailed 2014 ground penetrating...

  6. A national study on weight classes among children in Greenland at school entry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsten F. Rex

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To estimate the proportion of gender-specific thinness, overweight and obesity among children born in 2005 at school entry in Greenland and to compare figures between the capital, Nuuk, with the rest of Greenland. Study design: A cross-sectional study based on data from Electronic Medical Records (EMR. Methods: All children born in 2005 with permanent address in Greenland at the time of data extraction with a registered weight and height in EMR from January 1st 2011 to January 31st 2013 were included in the study. Information about height without shoes and weight in light indoor clothing was obtained. Body Mass Index (BMI was calculated. Participants were categorized into age and gender-specific weight classes based on the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF cut-offs for child overweight, obesity and thinness. Results: A total of 842 children born in 2005 were identified. Of those, 72% (N=607, 308 boys and 299 girls had a recorded weight and height in the study period. In total, 74.6% (71.2–78.1 were categorized as of normal weight. The proportion of children with overweight was 15.8% (12.9–18.7 while 6.8% (4.8–8.8 were obese. In all, 2.9% were categorized as thin. The proportion of overweight among boys (12.7% was lower (p=0.031 than among girls (19.1%, and boys in Nuuk had a lower median BMI compared to the rest of Greenland. No differences in distribution of age and gender-specific overweight and obesity were observed between the capital and the rest of Greenland. Conclusion: Nearly 1 quarter of Greenlandic children are overweight or obese at school entry. No differences were observed between Nuuk and the rest of Greenland. Information about weight and height is available in the EMR for the majority of all children at school entry in Greenland. Continuous monitoring of the proportion of overweight and obesity among children using data from the EMR in Greenland is recommended.

  7. Reuse of harbour sediments in the Greenlandic construction industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belmonte, Louise Josefine; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate possibilities of using harbour sediments from the Greenlandic harbours as substitutes in the Greenlandic construction industry, mainly for concrete production and road construction. Materials for use in the Greenlandic construction industry are shipped...

  8. Marginal thinning in Northwest Greenland during 2002-2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Kjær, K. H.; Wahr, J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Many glaciers along the southeast and northwest coast of Greenland have accelerated, increasing the Greenland ice sheet's (GrIS) contribution to global sea-level rise. Here, we map elevation changes in northwest Greenland during 2003-2009 using high-resolution Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satell...

  9. Peopling of the North Circumpolar Region--insights from Y chromosome STR and SNP typing of Greenlanders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill Katharina Olofsson

    Full Text Available The human population in Greenland is characterized by migration events of Paleo- and Neo-Eskimos, as well as admixture with Europeans. In this study, the Y-chromosomal variation in male Greenlanders was investigated in detail by typing 73 Y-chromosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms (Y-SNPs and 17 Y-chromosomal short tandem repeats (Y-STRs. Approximately 40% of the analyzed Greenlandic Y chromosomes were of European origin (I-M170, R1a-M513 and R1b-M343. Y chromosomes of European origin were mainly found in individuals from the west and south coasts of Greenland, which is in agreement with the historic records of the geographic placements of European settlements in Greenland. Two Inuit Y-chromosomal lineages, Q-M3 (xM19, M194, L663, SA01 and L766 and Q-NWT01 (xM265 were found in 23% and 31% of the male Greenlanders, respectively. The time to the most recent common ancestor (TMRCA of the Q-M3 lineage of the Greenlanders was estimated to be between 4,400 and 10,900 years ago (y. a. using two different methods. This is in agreement with the theory that the North Circumpolar Region was populated via a second expansion of humans in the North American continent. The TMRCA of the Q-NWT01 (xM265 lineage in Greenland was estimated to be between 7,000 and 14,300 y. a. using two different methods, which is older than the previously reported TMRCA of this lineage in other Inuit populations. Our results indicate that Inuit individuals carrying the Q-NWT01 (xM265 lineage may have their origin in the northeastern parts of North America and could be descendants of the Dorset culture. This in turn points to the possibility that the current Inuit population in Greenland is comprised of individuals of both Thule and Dorset descent.

  10. Human health. Greenland and the Faroe Islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjerregaard, P.; Weihe, P.

    1997-07-01

    In the absence of local point sources of pollution the major routes of exposure for environmental pollution in Greenland are consumption of meat and organs from sea mammals (Methylmercury, cadmium, persistent organic pollutants) and smoking (cadmium). The population of Greenland is exposed to lead at approximately the same level as the populations of Western Europe and North America but the vehicle of exposure is not known with certainty. Exposure to contaminants of concern through the diet and through smoking is very high. Exposure to methylmercury and POPs is at a level where negative consequences for health may be expected. While there are no examples of overt toxic effects from environmental pollutants in the Greenlandic population, the subtle effects that might occur are very difficult to detect and can be easily overlooked or masked by other factors. More detailed information on diet is still missing from Greenland both concerning species, organs and amounts eaten. In addition to this, information is needed about the relationship between diet and body burden of pollutants. In the appendix statistical data on organic chlorinated pollutants measured in Greenland during 1994-96 are compared. (EG)

  11. Ice mass change in Greenland and Antarctica between 1993 and 2013 from satellite gravity measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talpe, Matthieu J.; Nerem, R. Steven; Forootan, Ehsan; Schmidt, Michael; Lemoine, Frank G.; Enderlin, Ellyn M.; Landerer, Felix W.

    2017-11-01

    We construct long-term time series of Greenland and Antarctic ice sheet mass change from satellite gravity measurements. A statistical reconstruction approach is developed based on a principal component analysis (PCA) to combine high-resolution spatial modes from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission with the gravity information from conventional satellite tracking data. Uncertainties of this reconstruction are rigorously assessed; they include temporal limitations for short GRACE measurements, spatial limitations for the low-resolution conventional tracking data measurements, and limitations of the estimated statistical relationships between low- and high-degree potential coefficients reflected in the PCA modes. Trends of mass variations in Greenland and Antarctica are assessed against a number of previous studies. The resulting time series for Greenland show a higher rate of mass loss than other methods before 2000, while the Antarctic ice sheet appears heavily influenced by interannual variations.

  12. Time trend by region of suicides and suicidal thoughts among Greenland Inuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Larsen, Christina Viskum Lytken

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Suicides remain a major public health problem in Greenland. Their increase coincides with the modernization since 1950. Serious suicidal thoughts are reported by a significant proportion of participants in countrywide surveys. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the time trend by region of suicides...... and suicidal thoughts among the Inuit in Greenland. DESIGN: Data included the Greenland registry of causes of death for 1970-2011 and 2 cross-sectional health surveys carried out in 1993-1994 and 2005-2010 with 1,580 and 3,102 Inuit participants, respectively. RESULTS: Suicide rates were higher among men than...... women while the prevalence of suicidal thoughts was higher among women. Suicide rates for men and women together increased from 1960 to 1980 and have remained around 100 per 100,000 person-years since then. The regional pattern of time trend for suicide rates varied with an early peak in the capital...

  13. Ice Mass Change in Greenland and Antarctica Between 1993 and 2013 from Satellite Gravity Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talpe, Matthieu J.; Nerem, R. Steven; Forootan, Ehsan; Schmidt, Michael; Lemoine, Frank G.; Enderlin, Ellyn M.; Landerer, Felix W.

    2017-01-01

    We construct long-term time series of Greenland and Antarctic ice sheet mass change from satellite gravity measurements. A statistical reconstruction approach is developed based on a principal component analysis (PCA) to combine high-resolution spatial modes from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission with the gravity information from conventional satellite tracking data. Uncertainties of this reconstruction are rigorously assessed; they include temporal limitations for short GRACE measurements, spatial limitations for the low-resolution conventional tracking data measurements, and limitations of the estimated statistical relationships between low- and high-degree potential coefficients reflected in the PCA modes. Trends of mass variations in Greenland and Antarctica are assessed against a number of previous studies. The resulting time series for Greenland show a higher rate of mass loss than other methods before 2000, while the Antarctic ice sheet appears heavily influenced by interannual variations.

  14. Environmental and social benefits of improved handling and disposal of black wastewater in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsdottir, Ragnhildur; Jenssen, Petter Deinboll; Nyborg, Ingrid L.P.

    2010-01-01

    chemicals including medicine residues. Such compounds may accumulate in the food chain, can act as endocrine disruptors, and are shown to promote formation of bacteria resistant to antibiotics. In addition to the environmental and health issues the current practice of wastewater handling in Greenland can......Wastewater collection and treatment is difficult in arctic climate due to, i.e. permafrost and cold climate. Currently all toilet wastewater (blackwater) in Greenland is discharged untreated, mainly to the sea. Water from bathing, washing and kitchen (greywater) is usually not collected...... in Greenland causes visual contamination of the coast near many towns and settlements. Furthermore the nutrients in the wastewater may cause local eutrophication where the water exchange is poor. Another and maybe more serious consequence of discharging untreated wastewater into the arctic waters are organic...

  15. Foraging strategy of little auks during chick rearing in northwest Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosbech, Anders; Møller, Eva Friis; Johansen, Kasper Lambert

    Foraging strategy of little auks during chick rearing in northwest Greenland Anders Mosbech, Kasper Johansen, Eva Friis Møller & Peter Lyngs Department of Biology and Arctic Center, Aarhus University, Denmark An estimated 80 % of the global little auk population breeds in the coastal landscape...... of the ongoing warming of the Arctic. Here we present the first results from GPS tracking of breeding little auks in northwest Greenland, involving data from four different breeding colonies. We examine time budgets, foraging trip patterns and habitat preferences at foraging areas, including comparison...

  16. The summer 2012 Greenland heat wave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonne, Jean-Louis; Steen-Larsen, Hans Christian; Risi, Camille

    2015-01-01

    During 7–12 July 2012, extreme moist and warm conditions occurred over Greenland, leading to widespread surface melt. To investigate the physical processes during the atmospheric moisture transport of this event, we study the water vapor isotopic composition using surface in situ observations....... Simulations using Lagrangian moisture source diagnostic and water tagging in a regional model showed that Greenland was affected by an atmospheric river transporting moisture from the western subtropical North Atlantic Ocean, which is coherent with observations of snow pit impurities deposited at NEEM...... but underestimate the background deuterium excess at NEEM. Cloud liquid water content parametrization in LMDz-iso poorly impacts the vapor isotopic composition. Our data demonstrate that during this atmospheric river event the deuterium excess signal is conserved from the moisture source to northwest Greenland....

  17. Cultural change and mental health in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Curtis, Tine; Greenland, Population Study

    2002-01-01

    In Greenland, the rapid sociocultural change of the last 50 years has been paralleled by an epidemiological transition characterized by a reduction in infectious diseases, an increase in cancer and cardiovascular diseases, and an increased prevalence of mental health problems. During 1993......-94 and 1997-98, two health interview surveys were conducted among Inuit in Greenland and Inuit migrants in Denmark. The response rates were 71 and 55%. Information on mental health was obtained from 1388 and 1769 adults. As indicators of mental health, the prevalence of potential psychiatric cases according...... of poor mental health: as a result of successful integration into the modern Greenlandic society, some population groups have better mental health compared to other groups....

  18. Lead sources in human diet in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Johansen, Poul; Mulvad, Gert

    2004-01-01

    Although blood lead levels have declined in Greenland, they are still elevated despite the fact that lead levels in the Greenland environment are very low. Fragments of lead shot in game birds have been suggested as an important source of dietary exposure, and meals of sea birds, particularly eider......, contain high concentrations of lead. In a cross-sectional population survey in Greenland in 1993-1994, blood lead adjusted for age and sex was found to be associated with the reported consumption of sea birds. Participants reporting less than weekly intake of sea birds had blood lead concentrations...... of approximately 75 microg/L, whereas those who reported eating sea birds several times a week had concentrations of approximately 110 microg/L, and those who reported daily intake had concentrations of 170 microg/L (p = 0.01). Blood lead was not associated with dietary exposure to other local or imported food...

  19. Iron status markers in 224 indigenous Greenlanders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milman, N; Byg, K E; Mulvad, G

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate iron status in indigenous Greenlanders and its relationship to gender, age and intake of traditional Greenlandic foods. Methods: Serum ferritin, serum transferrin saturation and haemoglobin were evaluated in a population survey in 1993-1994 comprising 224 Greenlandic...... ferritin levels were lowest in Nuuk (men, 92 microg/L; women, 40 microg/L), higher in Ilulissat (men, 104 microg/L; women, 69 microg/L) and in Uummannaq (men, 118 microg/L; women, 46 microg/L) (piron load (ferritin >200 microg/L) was lowest in Nuuk (men: 13.8%, women: 2.......3%) intermediate in Ilulissat (men, 11.1%; women, 9.1%) and highest in Uummannaq (men, 32.1%; women, 21.1%). The prevalence of iron depletion (ferritin

  20. Modeling Greenland's Climate Response to the Presence of Biomass Burning Aerosols in the Atmosphere and Snow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, J. L.; Flanner, M.; Bergin, M. H.; Courville, Z.; Dibb, J. E.; Polashenski, C.; Soja, A. J.; Strellis, B. M.

    2015-12-01

    Biomass burning events are known to produce large emissions of aerosol particles, including light-absorbing black carbon (BC) and brown carbon. Once exported from fire-based source regions to the Arctic via atmospheric transport mechanisms, these particles can change the regional climate through solar absorption while suspended at various heights in the atmosphere or once deposited onto the terrain (through the reduction of surface albedo). Greenland is particularly vulnerable to positive aerosol forcing due to its perennial ice cover and high surface albedo. Surface measurements and remote sensing observations indicate that Greenland is occasionally impacted by smoke from North American and Eurasian wildfires, including during the summer of 2011 when aerosol optical depth (AOD) over central Greenland exceeded 0.20 and aerosol single scattering albedo (SSA) dropped below 0.90. Measurements of impurities in snow pits also indicate that wildfires exerted transient influence on surface albedo during the summers of 2012 and 2013, with average peak BC concentrations of 4 and 15 ng/g, respectively. Here, we apply idealized climate simulations to study how Greenland surface temperature and melt are affected by elevated levels of light-absorbing particles above and on the ice sheet. We apply the Community Earth System Model (CESM) in a configuration with prescribed sea surface temperatures and active atmosphere and land model components. In one set of experiments, we prescribe constant values of AOD and SSA in the troposphere over Greenland, informed by measurements from 2011. In a second set of experiments we prescribe constant mass mixing ratios of BC and dust in surface snow based on measurements of snow that fell during 2012-2014. These simulations will inform on the amount of excess snow melt that may occur on Greenland due to biomass burning, and on the relative impacts of atmospheric and snow-deposited smoke.

  1. Vitamins and minerals in the traditional Greenland diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S. M.

    The relative importance of traditional Greenlandic food items has diminished during the last decades. Today these account for 25% of the Greenland diet with a dominance of fish, seabirds, and marine mammals. This report synthesises the available information on concentrations of vitamins and miner......The relative importance of traditional Greenlandic food items has diminished during the last decades. Today these account for 25% of the Greenland diet with a dominance of fish, seabirds, and marine mammals. This report synthesises the available information on concentrations of vitamins...... of contaminants, the information about vitamins and minerals will potentially make it possible to adjust the diet in Greenland, taking both nutrients and contaminants into account...

  2. Diabetes in Greenland and its relationship with urbanization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, M E; Borch-Johnsen, K; Witte, D R

    2012-01-01

    Greenland Inuit. Methods:  A total of 3089 adult Inuit aged 18 years and older participated in a geographically representative, population-based study 'Inuit Health in Transition Study'. The examination included a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test and anthropometric measurements. Information on socio-demographic...... characteristic and health behaviour was obtained by interview or questionnaire. The participants were categorized according to degree of urbanization into three groups based on current place of residence: (1) participants living in towns (> 2000 inhabitants), (2) participants living in small towns (...

  3. Greenlandic Inuit show genetic signatures of diet and climate adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fumagalli, Matteo; Moltke, Ida; Grarup, Niels

    2015-01-01

    The indigenous people of Greenland, the Inuit, have lived for a long time in the extreme conditions of the Arctic, including low annual temperatures, and with a specialized diet rich in protein and fatty acids, particularly omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). A scan of Inuit genomes......, with the effect on height replicated in Europeans. By analyzing membrane lipids, we found that the selected alleles modulate fatty acid composition, which may affect the regulation of growth hormones. Thus, the Inuit have genetic and physiological adaptations to a diet rich in PUFAs....

  4. Developing renewable energy in discontiguous Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carruth, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Infrastructural Urbanism’s advocacy of creating synergies between technological, economical, and ecological processes holds great potential for guiding domestic energy planning in a transforming Greenland. However, the movement has largely been conceived in the context of regional paradigms very...... of the synergistic relationships it promotes. It aims to contribute an alternative reading of Infrastructural Urbanism, arguing that incorporating and reinterpreting existing material practices through a network of interventions in the urban realm is a necessary interpretation of the theory in Greenland, and one...

  5. Homicide in Greenland 1985-2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Martin Rune; Thomsen, Asser Hedegård; Høyer, Christian Bjerre

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Homicide in Greenland has not often been investigated. The latest published study documented a dramatic rise in the homicide rate from around 1/100,000 inhabitants to more than 23/100,000 inhabitants from 1946 to 1984. The aim of our study was to characterize homicides in Greenland from ...... higher compared to that seen in Denmark and northern Europe. However, it resembles the rate seen in the rest of the Arctic. Liberal gun laws do not affect the proportion of gun-related killings. Despite the high homicide rate, women account for almost half the victims....

  6. Tomographic SAR analysis of subsurface ice structure in Greenland: first results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banda, Francesco; Dall, Jørgen; Tebaldini, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Due to the increased melting of ice sheets over the last decades, monitoring of ice dynamics and structure with remote sensing instruments is of extreme importance to achieve a deeper insight on related environmental issues. The study presented in this paper documents an attempt of mapping ice...... structure with P-band SAR tomography. First results from ESA IceSAR 2012 campaign carried out in south-west Greenland are presented. It is found that significant penetration in the upper layers of glacial subsurface can be achieved up to an extent of about 20–60 m, conditional on the different type...

  7. Levels and treatment options for enteric and antibiotic resistant bacteria in sewage from Sisimiut, Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Erland; Gunnarsdottir, Ragnhildur; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus

    2013-01-01

    the presence of Total coliforms, Escherichia coli (Ecoli), enterococci, streptococci, antibiotic resistant enteric bacteria, and toxicity in sewage from two sewer outlets in Sisimiut, West-Greenland, as well as in a sub-stream from the local hospital. According to the content of streptococci and enterococci...... marine environment negatively. Both peracetic acid treatment and UV-C radiation shows potential for disinfection of the wastewater after removal of solids >60μm. E-coli was most susceptible to peracetic acid treatment, while a maximum possible reduction of enterococci and coliforms of 2-3 size orders...

  8. Greenland glacier retreat: Resource pulses and their effects on predators, prey and plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravesen, Eigil Vestergaard; Dreyer, Jamin

    During the summer of 2015 and 2016 we have sampled live arthropod predators in dry pitfall traps and performed some prelaminary DNA gut content analysis on these arthropod predators from a glacier foreland area near Nuuk in West Greenland. Preliminary results from the analysis done in 2015 shows...... for this could be that the predators had already eaten the aphids, while searching for them in vegetated plots. Our plan is to show the whole prey spectrum of the pioneer predators in this glacier foreland area....

  9. Melting beneath Greenland outlet glaciers and ice streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, David; Perrette, Mahé; Beckmann, Johanna

    2015-04-01

    Basal melting of fast-flowing Greenland outlet glaciers and ice streams due to frictional heating at the ice-bed interface contributes significantly to total glacier mass balance and subglacial meltwater flux, yet modelling this basal melt process in Greenland has received minimal research attention. A one-dimensional dynamic ice-flow model is calibrated to the present day longitudinal profiles of 10 major Greenland outlet glaciers and ice streams (including the Jakobshavn Isbrae, Petermann Glacier and Helheim Glacier) and is validated against published ice flow and surface elevation measurements. Along each longitudinal profile, basal melt is calculated as a function of ice flow velocity and basal shear stress. The basal shear stress is dependent on the effective pressure (difference between ice overburden pressure and water pressure), basal roughness and a sliding parametrization. Model output indicates that where outlet glaciers and ice streams terminate into the ocean with either a small floating ice tongue or no floating tongue whatsoever, the proportion of basal melt to total melt (surface, basal and submarine melt) is 5-10% (e.g. Jakobshavn Isbrae; Daugaard-Jensen Glacier). This proportion is, however, negligible where larger ice tongues lose mass mostly by submarine melt (~1%; e.g. Nioghalvfjerdsfjorden Glacier). Modelled basal melt is highest immediately upvalley of the grounding line, with contributions typically up to 20-40% of the total melt for slippery beds and up to 30-70% for resistant beds. Additionally, modelled grounding line and calving front migration inland for all outlet glaciers and ice streams of hundreds of metres to several kilometres occurs. Including basal melt due to frictional heating in outlet glacier and ice stream models is important for more accurately modelling mass balance and subglacial meltwater flux, and therefore, more accurately modelling outlet glacier and ice stream dynamics and responses to future climate change.

  10. The Greenland Analogue Project (GAP). Literature review of hydrogeology/ hydrogeochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallroth, Thomas; Lokrantz, Hanna; Rimsa, Andrius (Bergab Consulting Geologists, Goeteborg (Sweden))

    2010-09-15

    This report is produced as part of the Greenland Analogue Project (GAP), carried out as a collaboration project with the Canadian Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO), Posiva Oy and the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB). The overall aim of the project is to improve the current understanding of hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical processes associated with continental-scale glacial periods including with the presence of permafrost and the advance/retreat of ice sheets. The project will focus on studying how an ice sheet affects groundwater flow and water chemistry around a deep geological repository in crystalline bedrock. The Greenland Analogue Project consists of three active sub-projects (A-C) with individual objectives. Field studies are conducted in the Kangerlussuaq region, in central Western Greenland. Sub-projects A and B collectively aim at improving the understanding of ice sheet hydrology by combining investigations on surface water processes with ice sheet drilling and instrumentation. In sub-project C, the penetration of glacial melt water into the bedrock, groundwater flow and the chemical composition of water will be studied. Main planned activities in sub-project C include drilling of a deep borehole in front of the ice sheet, in which different downhole surveys, sampling and monitoring will be carried out. The primary aim of this report is to review available information about hydrogeology and hydrogeochemistry in central Western Greenland, with special emphasis on the area around Kangerlussuaq. The relevant information about this area is however very limited, and it was decided to extend the review to briefly include studies made in other regions with similar conditions in terms of geology, climate and glaciology. The number of published studies made in other areas with glaciers, ice sheets or permafrost is very large, and the review and list of references in this report is far from complete. It is also obvious that both

  11. Oceans Melting Greenland: Early Results from NASA's Ocean-Ice Mission in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenty, Ian; Willis, Josh K.; Khazendar, Ala

    2016-01-01

    Melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet represents a major uncertainty in projecting future rates of global sea level rise. Much of this uncertainty is related to a lack of knowledge about subsurface ocean hydrographic properties, particularly heat content, how these properties are modified across...... melting due to ocean-ice interaction. OMG will track ocean conditions and ice loss at glaciers around Greenland through the year 2020, providing critical information about ocean-driven Greenland ice mass loss in a warming climate....... the continental shelf, and about the extent to which the ocean interacts with glaciers. Early results from NASA's five-year Oceans Melting Greenland (OMG) mission, based on extensive hydrographic and bathymetric surveys, suggest that many glaciers terminate in deep water and are hence vulnerable to increased...

  12. Impacts of food web structure and feeding behavior on mercury exposure in Greenland Sharks (Somniosus microcephalus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMeans, Bailey C; Arts, Michael T; Fisk, Aaron T

    2015-03-15

    Benthic and pelagic food web components in Cumberland Sound, Canada were explored as sources of total mercury (THg) to Greenland Sharks (Somniosus microcephalus) via both bottom-up food web transfer and top-down shark feeding behavior. Log10THg increased significantly with δ(15)N and trophic position from invertebrates (0.01 ± 0.01 μg · g(-1) [113 ± 1 ng · g(-1)] dw in copepods) to Greenland Sharks (3.54 ± 1.02 μg · g(-1)). The slope of the log10THg vs. δ(15)N linear regression was higher for pelagic compared to benthic food web components (excluding Greenland Sharks, which could not be assigned to either food web), which resulted from THg concentrations being higher at the base of the benthic food web (i.e., in benthic than pelagic primary consumers). However, feeding habitat is unlikely to consistently influence shark THg exposure in Cumberland Sound because THg concentrations did not consistently differ between benthic and pelagic shark prey. Further, size, gender and feeding behavior (inferred from stable isotopes and fatty acids) were unable to significantly explain THg variability among individual Greenland Sharks. Possible reasons for this result include: 1) individual sharks feeding as generalists, 2) high overlap in THg among shark prey, and 3) differences in turnover time between ecological tracers and THg. This first assessment of Greenland Shark THg within an Arctic food web revealed high concentrations consistent with biomagnification, but low ability to explain intra-specific THg variability. Our findings of high THg levels and consumption of multiple prey types, however, suggest that Greenland Sharks acquire THg through a variety of trophic pathways and are a significant contributor to the total biotic THg pool in northern seas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Coupled regional climate–ice-sheet simulation shows limited Greenland ice loss during the Eemian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Helsen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available During the last interglacial period (Eemian, 130–115 kyr BP eustatic global sea level likely peaked at > 6 m above the present-day level, but estimates of the contribution of the Greenland Ice Sheet vary widely. Here we use an asynchronously two-way-coupled regional climate–ice-sheet model, which includes physically realistic feedbacks between the changing ice sheet topography and climate forcing. Our simulation results in a contribution from the Greenland Ice Sheet to the Eemian sea level highstand between 1.2 and 3.5 m, with a most likely value of 2.1 m. Simulated Eemian ice loss in Greenland is dominated by the rapid retreat of the southwestern margin; two-thirds of the ice loss occurred south of 70° N. The southern dome survived the Eemian and remained connected to the central dome. Large-scale ice sheet retreat is prevented in areas with high accumulation. Our results broadly agree with ice-core-inferred elevation changes and marine records, but it does not match with the ice-core-derived temperature record from northern Greenland. During maximum Eemian summertime insolation, Greenland mass loss contributed ~ 0.5 m kyr−1 to sea level rise, 24% of the reconstructed total rate of sea level rise. Next to that, a difference of > 3 m remains between our maximum estimate of the Greenland contribution and the reconstructed minimum value of the global eustatic Eemian highstand. Hence, the Antarctic Ice Sheet must also have contributed significantly to this sea level highstand.

  14. GAD65 antibodies among Greenland Inuit and its relation to glucose intolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Lynge; Bjerregaard, Peter; Jørgensen, Marit Eika

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of circulating Glutamin-Acid-decarboxylase 65 antibodies in a sample of Greenlanders (Inuit) with clinically verified diabetes with samples of participants from a population survey. The study population included participants with known diabetes ...

  15. Evaluation of the potential for using Greenlandic marine sediments for brick production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belmonte, Louise Josefine; Bertelsen, Ida Maria Gieysztor

    2016-01-01

    Fine grained marine sediments from near the Greenlandic towns of Ilulissat, Kangerlussuaq and Sisimiut were assessed as raw materials for local production of building bricks. The assessment included both analysis of the sediment characteristics and physical properties of miniature test brick...

  16. Exposure to Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers and Male Reproductive Function in Greenland, Poland and Ukraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Gunnar; Lenters, Virissa; Vermeulen, Roel

    2013-01-01

    of environmental exposure to BDE-47 and BDE-153 on reproductive hormones and semen quality, including markers of DNA damage and apoptosis, in 299 spouses of pregnant women from Greenland, Poland and Ukraine. Adjusted linear regression models indicated no strong associations between BDE-47 or BDE-153 exposure...

  17. A new bed elevation dataset for Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Bamber

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a new bed elevation dataset for Greenland derived from a combination of multiple airborne ice thickness surveys undertaken between the 1970s and 2012. Around 420 000 line kilometres of airborne data were used, with roughly 70% of this having been collected since the year 2000, when the last comprehensive compilation was undertaken. The airborne data were combined with satellite-derived elevations for non-glaciated terrain to produce a consistent bed digital elevation model (DEM over the entire island including across the glaciated–ice free boundary. The DEM was extended to the continental margin with the aid of bathymetric data, primarily from a compilation for the Arctic. Ice thickness was determined where an ice shelf exists from a combination of surface elevation and radar soundings. The across-track spacing between flight lines warranted interpolation at 1 km postings for significant sectors of the ice sheet. Grids of ice surface elevation, error estimates for the DEM, ice thickness and data sampling density were also produced alongside a mask of land/ocean/grounded ice/floating ice. Errors in bed elevation range from a minimum of ±10 m to about ±300 m, as a function of distance from an observation and local topographic variability. A comparison with the compilation published in 2001 highlights the improvement in resolution afforded by the new datasets, particularly along the ice sheet margin, where ice velocity is highest and changes in ice dynamics most marked. We estimate that the volume of ice included in our land-ice mask would raise mean sea level by 7.36 m, excluding any solid earth effects that would take place during ice sheet decay.

  18. Periodontal status among patients with diabetes in Nuuk, Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schjetlein, Amanda Lamer; Jørgensen, Marit Eika; Lauritzen, Torsten; Pedersen, Michael Lynge

    2014-01-01

    Background Diabetes is becoming more common in the Greenlandic population. Patients with diabetes are more prone to periodontal disease. Periodontal status may have an effect on metabolic control. Objective The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of periodontitis amongst patients with diabetes in Nuuk, Greenland, and secondly, to observe if dental care was associated with improved periodontal status and metabolic control. Study design Observational cross-sectional study and a pilot study of a dental care intervention. Methods Sixty-two Greenlandic patients with diabetes were included in the study. Data were collected from the Electronic Medical Records (EMR), in addition to a telephone interview. Patients were offered 3 dental examinations with a 3-month interval. The dental examinations consisted of a full-mouth assessment of number of remaining teeth and assessment of periodontal status. Patients received scaling and root planing, together with information and instructions on oral hygiene. Information on glycated haemoglobin (HbA1C) values was collected from the EMR at each dental examination. Results In this study, 21.0% (13/62) of patients with diabetes had periodontitis. About 42% had less than 20 teeth. The association between diabetes and periodontitis was known by 20 out of the 62 patients. Over half of the patients had been to a dental examination within the last year. The prevalence of periodontitis decreased significantly from 21.0 to 0% (pPeriodontitis was common among patients with diabetes in Nuuk. Dental health status based on Periodontal Screening Index (PSI) and bleeding on probing (BOP) seemed to improve after dental health care, indicating a need for increased awareness among patients and health care professionals. HbA1C levels were not improved among the patients. PMID:25498562

  19. Periodontal status among patients with diabetes in Nuuk, Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Lamer Schjetlein

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes is becoming more common in the Greenlandic population. Patients with diabetes are more prone to periodontal disease. Periodontal status may have an effect on metabolic control. Objective: The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of periodontitis amongst patients with diabetes in Nuuk, Greenland, and secondly, to observe if dental care was associated with improved periodontal status and metabolic control. Study design: Observational cross-sectional study and a pilot study of a dental care intervention. Methods: Sixty-two Greenlandic patients with diabetes were included in the study. Data were collected from the Electronic Medical Records (EMR, in addition to a telephone interview. Patients were offered 3 dental examinations with a 3-month interval. The dental examinations consisted of a full-mouth assessment of number of remaining teeth and assessment of periodontal status. Patients received scaling and root planing, together with information and instructions on oral hygiene. Information on glycated haemoglobin (HbA1C values was collected from the EMR at each dental examination. Results: In this study, 21.0% (13/62 of patients with diabetes had periodontitis. About 42% had less than 20 teeth. The association between diabetes and periodontitis was known by 20 out of the 62 patients. Over half of the patients had been to a dental examination within the last year. The prevalence of periodontitis decreased significantly from 21.0 to 0% (p<0.001 after 3 dental examinations. No change in HbA1C levels was observed (p=0.440. Conclusion: Periodontitis was common among patients with diabetes in Nuuk. Dental health status based on Periodontal Screening Index (PSI and bleeding on probing (BOP seemed to improve after dental health care, indicating a need for increased awareness among patients and health care professionals. HbA1C levels were not improved among the patients.

  20. A 70-year record of outlet glacier retreat in northern Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Emily; Carr, Rachel; Stokes, Chris; Gudmundsson, Hilmar

    2017-04-01

    Over the past two decades, the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) has undergone accelerated mass loss increasing its contribution to sea level rise. This is partly attributed to increased mass loss from dynamic marine-terminating outlet glaciers. Despite marine-terminating outlet glaciers in northern Greenland draining 40% of the ice sheet by area, they are comparatively less well-studied than other regions of the ice sheet (e.g. central west or south-east). This region could be susceptible to marine-ice sheet instability due to large proportions of the bedrock rested below sea level and is also unique in the presence of large floating ice tongues. Here, we use a range of satellite imagery sources, accompanied by historical maps, to examine multi-decadal front position changes at 21 outlet glaciers in northern Greenland between 1948 and 2016. We accompany these terminus changes, with annual records of ice velocity, climate-ocean forcing data, and glacier-specific factors (e.g. fjord-width and basal topography) to understand the dominant forcing on glacier dynamics in the region. Over the last 70 years, there has been a clear pattern of glacier retreat in northern Greenland. This is particularly notable during the last two decades, where 62% of our study glaciers showed accelerated retreat. This was most notable at Humboldt, Tracy, Hagen Brae, C. H. Ostenfeld and Petermann Glaciers, and in the case of the latter three glaciers, this involved substantial retreat of their floating ice tongues (> 10 km). Alongside retreat, several study glaciers underwent simultaneous velocity increases. However, the collapse of floating ice tongues did not always result in increased velocity. Similar to other regions of the ice sheet, recent glacier retreat in the northern regions of the Greenland Ice Sheet could be linked to climatic-oceanic forcing, but at this stage this remains largely unknown. This response to external forcing is further complicated by the presence of glacier

  1. Population surveys in Greenland 1993-2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Pedersen, Henning Sloth; Nielsen, Nina O

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to analyse temporal trends (1993-2009) of the concentrations of organochlorine contaminants (14 congeners of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and 11 pesticides) in the blood of Greenland Inuit according to age and urbanisation. Statistical determinants for the contamin...

  2. Ellesmere Island (Canada) and Northern Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    In late July, our planet.s northernmost land masses appear to finally be responding to the warmth of Northern Hemisphere summer. Ellesmere Island, Canada, (top left) and northern Greenland (right) have decided kick off their snowy winter garments in this true-color Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image from July 3, 200. Bare brown soils are exposed along the coasts of the still frozen (but thawing!) Arctic waters. Several large, permanent ice caps and glaciers will remain on Ellesmere Island year-round, and Greenland does little more than remove her mittens, but thinning, blue ice is showing up in the many fjords and inlets in the rocky coastlines, showing that temperatures are on the rise. The Nares Strait, which separates the two land masses, still has a way to go before a passage opens up between Baffin Bay to the south and the Artic Ocean to the north. Although Ellesmere Island appears to be 'higher' or farther north than Greenland, that is simply a result of the way the high-latitude scene was projected into an image. To better picture the terrain, imagine that you took a printed copy of the rectangular image and rolled it into a cylinder along its northeast-southwest axis. If you held that cylinder straight up in front of you, you would find that Peary Land, Greenland (right of center), is actually the more northern terrain. In fact Peary Land is the northernmost point on land on the Earth.

  3. Alcohol in Greenland 1951-2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aage, Hans

    2012-01-01

    -2010 as a background for the evaluation of the impact of various types of policy. Design. Time series for Greenland 1951-2010 for alcohol prices, consumption and mortality are compiled, and variation and correlations are discussed in relation to various policies aimed at limiting alcohol consumption. Corresponding...

  4. Polar Lows Over the Northeast Greenland Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    Danmarks Havn in North East Greenland near 77 N. However, as pointed out by Rasmussen L (1989) the climate in this region is extremely cold, and katabatic...Satellite images. Satel ite images from 16th Novembe~r 1987 when the polar low was best developed show such a "katabatic signiature’ .1 the Danmarks

  5. Impacts of food web structure and feeding behavior on mercury exposure in Greenland Sharks (Somniosus microcephalus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMeans, Bailey C., E-mail: bcmcmeans@gmail.com [Great Lakes Institute for Environmental Research, University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario N9B 3P4 (Canada); Arts, Michael T. [Great Lakes Institute for Environmental Research, University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario N9B 3P4 (Canada); National Water Research Institute, Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Road, PO Box 5050, Burlington, Ontario L7R 4A6 (Canada); Fisk, Aaron T. [Great Lakes Institute for Environmental Research, University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario N9B 3P4 (Canada)

    2015-03-15

    Benthic and pelagic food web components in Cumberland Sound, Canada were explored as sources of total mercury (THg) to Greenland Sharks (Somniosus microcephalus) via both bottom-up food web transfer and top-down shark feeding behavior. Log{sub 10}THg increased significantly with δ{sup 15}N and trophic position from invertebrates (0.01 ± 0.01 μg·g{sup −1} [113 ± 1 ng·g{sup −1}] dw in copepods) to Greenland Sharks (3.54 ± 1.02 μg·g{sup −1}). The slope of the log{sub 10}THg vs. δ{sup 15}N linear regression was higher for pelagic compared to benthic food web components (excluding Greenland Sharks, which could not be assigned to either food web), which resulted from THg concentrations being higher at the base of the benthic food web (i.e., in benthic than pelagic primary consumers). However, feeding habitat is unlikely to consistently influence shark THg exposure in Cumberland Sound because THg concentrations did not consistently differ between benthic and pelagic shark prey. Further, size, gender and feeding behavior (inferred from stable isotopes and fatty acids) were unable to significantly explain THg variability among individual Greenland Sharks. Possible reasons for this result include: 1) individual sharks feeding as generalists, 2) high overlap in THg among shark prey, and 3) differences in turnover time between ecological tracers and THg. This first assessment of Greenland Shark THg within an Arctic food web revealed high concentrations consistent with biomagnification, but low ability to explain intra-specific THg variability. Our findings of high THg levels and consumption of multiple prey types, however, suggest that Greenland Sharks acquire THg through a variety of trophic pathways and are a significant contributor to the total biotic THg pool in northern seas. - Highlights: • THg significantly increased with δ{sup 15}N from invertebrates to Greenland Sharks. • THg increased with δ{sup 15}N at a faster rate through the pelagic than

  6. The IMBIE assessment of sea level rise due to Antarctica and Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, A.; Ivins, E. R.

    2016-12-01

    The Ice Sheet Mass Balance Inter-Comparison Exercise (IMBIE) is a joint-initiative of ESA and NASA aimed at producing a single estimate of the global sea level contribution due to the polar ice sheets. Within IMBIE, estimates of ice sheet mass balance are developed from satellite altimetry, gravimetry, and mass budget surveys using common spatial and temporal reference frames and using a common appreciation of the contributions due to glacial isostatic adjustment and surface mass balance. The project brings together the laboratories and space agencies that have been instrumental in developing independent estimates of ice sheet mass balance to date. In its first phase, IMBIE involved 27 teams, and delivered a first community assessment of ice sheet mass balance spanning a 20-year period up to 2012. There are now new satellite missions with longer data records, new geophysical corrections, and new teams producing assessments, and the period of overlap between independent satellite techniques has increased from 5 to 12 years. It is also clear that multiple satellite techniques are required to confidently separate mass changes associated with snowfall and ice dynamical imbalance. The second phase of IMBIE began in 2016, and the project now involves 70 teams from 14 nations including Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Chile, Denmark, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, Sweden, the UK, and the USA. These teams are now working across five experimental groups, including 46 teams contributing independent satellite estimates of ice sheet mass balance and 24 teams contributing independent assessments of glacial isostatic adjustment and surface mass balance. Among the satellite surveys are 12 estimates of mass balance for the Antarctic Peninsula, 18 for West Antarctica, 15 for East Antarctica, and 7 for Greenland. These data sets will be contrasted and combined over summer to produce a single estimate of ice sheet mass balance for each of the polar ice sheets

  7. Continuous, Pulsed Export of Methane-Supersaturated Meltwaters from the Bed of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamarche-Gagnon, G.; Wadham, J.; Beaton, A.; Fietzek, P.; Stanley, K. M.; Tedstone, A.; Sherwood Lollar, B.; Lacrampe Couloume, G.; Telling, J.; Liz, B.; Hawkings, J.; Kohler, T. J.; Zarsky, J. D.; Stibal, M.; Mowlem, M. C.

    2016-12-01

    Both past and present ice sheets have been proposed to cap large quantities of methane (CH4), on orders of magnitude significant enough to impact global greenhouse gas concentrations during periods of rapid ice retreat. However, to date most evidence for sub-ice sheet methane has been indirect, derived from calculations of the methanogenic potential of basal-ice microbial communities and biogeochemical models; field-based empirical measurements are lacking from large ice sheet catchments. Here, we present the first continuous, in situ record of dissolved methane export from a large catchment of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) in South West Greenland from May-July 2015. Our results indicate that glacial runoff was continuously supersaturated with methane over the observation period (dissolved CH4 concentrations of 30-700 nM), with total methane flux rising as subglacial discharge increased. Periodic subglacial drainage events, characterised by rapid changes (i.e. pulses) in meltwater hydrochemistry, also coincided with a rise in methane concentrations. We argue that these are likely indicative of the flushing of subglacial reservoirs of CH4 beneath the ice sheet. Total methane export was relatively modest when compared to global methane budgets, but too high to be explained by previously determined methanogenic rates from Greenland basal ice. Discrepancies between estimated Greenland methane reserves and observed fluxes stress the need to further investigate GrIS methane fluxes and sources, and suggest a more biogeochemically active subglacial environment than previously considered. Results indicate that future warming, and a coincident increase in ice melt rates, would likely make the GrIS, and by extension the Antarctic Ice Sheet, more significant sources of atmospheric methane, consequently acting as a positive feedback to a warming climate.

  8. Oxygen isotope ratios in the shell of Mytilus edulis: archives of glacier meltwater in Greenland?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. D. Als

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS is accelerating and will contribute significantly to global sea level rise during the 21st century. Instrumental data on GrIS melting only cover the last few decades, and proxy data extending our knowledge into the past are vital for validating models predicting the influence of ongoing climate change. We investigated a potential meltwater proxy in Godthåbsfjord (West Greenland, where glacier meltwater causes seasonal excursions with lower oxygen isotope water (δ18Ow values and salinity. The blue mussel (Mytilus edulis potentially records these variations, because it precipitates its shell calcite in oxygen isotopic equilibrium with ambient seawater. As M. edulis shells are known to occur in raised shorelines and archaeological shell middens from previous Holocene warm periods, this species may be ideal in reconstructing past meltwater dynamics. We investigate its potential as a palaeo-meltwater proxy. First, we confirmed that M. edulis shell calcite oxygen isotope (δ18Oc values are in equilibrium with ambient water and generally reflect meltwater conditions. Subsequently we investigated if this species recorded the full range of δ18Ow values occurring during the years 2007 to 2010. Results show that δ18Ow values were not recorded at very low salinities (Mytilus edulis δ18Oc values are suitable in reconstructing past meltwater amounts in most cases, but care has to be taken that shells are collected not too close to a glacier, but rather in the mid-region or mouth of the fjord. The focus of future research will expand on the geographical and temporal range of the shell measurements by sampling mussels in other fjords in Greenland along a south–north gradient, and by sampling shells from raised shorelines and archaeological shell middens from prehistoric settlements in Greenland.

  9. Seasonal Greenland Ice Sheet ice flow variations in regions of differing bed and surface topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sole, A. J.; Livingstone, S. J.; Rippin, D. M.; Hill, J.; McMillan, M.; Quincey, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    The contribution of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) to future sea-level rise is uncertain. Observations reveal the important role of basal water in controlling ice-flow to the ice sheet margin. In Greenland, drainage of large volumes of surface meltwater to the ice sheet bed through moulins and hydrofracture beneath surface lakes dominates the subglacial hydrological system and provides an efficient means of moving mass and heat through the ice sheet. Ice surface and bed topography influence where meltwater can access the bed, and the nature of its subsequent flow beneath the ice. However, no systematic investigation into the influence of topographic variability on Greenland hydrology and dynamics exists. Thus, physical processes controlling storage and drainage of surface and basal meltwater, and the way these affect ice flow are not comprehensively understood. This presents a critical obstacle in efforts to predict the future evolution of the GrIS. Here we present high-resolution satellite mapping of the ice-surface drainage network (e.g. lakes, channels and moulins) and measurements of seasonal variations in ice flow in south west Greenland. The region is comprised of three distinct subglacial terrains which vary in terms of the amplitude and wavelength and thus the degree to which basal topography is reflected in the ice sheet surface. We find that the distribution of surface hydrological features is related to the transfer of bed topography to the ice sheet surface. For example, in areas of thinner ice and high bed relief, moulins occur more frequently and are more uniformly dispersed, indicating a more distributed influx of surface-derived meltwater to the ice sheet bed. We investigate the implications of such spatial variations in surface hydrology on seasonal ice flow rates.

  10. Temperature and conductivity data collected by CTDs on moored buoys in the Sermilik Fjord, Greenland from 2008-07 to 2009-08 (NODC Accession 0123217)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data included in this dataset were collected in the Sermilik Fjord, located in East Greenland in the Ammassalik district close to the town of Tasiilaq. Data...

  11. A chemical and biological study of the impact of a suspected oil seep at the coast of Marraat, Nuussuaq, Greenland. With a summary of other environmental studies of hydrocarbons in Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosbech, A.; Hansen, Asger B.; Asmund, G.; Dahlloef, I.; Groth Petersen, D.; Strand, J.

    2007-08-15

    These studies were conducted on the Nuussuaq Peninsula at Marraat, where GEUS discovered oil in porous volcanics in the early 1990s. This oil was also found in the Marraat-1 core drilled in 1993. At Marraat the presence of oil stained stones scattered along the coast indicates oil bearing strata and the existence of potential oil seeps. The studies reported here had the objective to see, if the suspected seep had a local impact on the chemistry and biological communities in the marine environment at Marraat. The study included sediments, blue mussels and fish that were analyzed for hydrocarbons, a Pollution Induced Community Test (PICT), a sediment toxicity test and a measurement of PAH metabolites in fish gall. The hydrocarbon pattern found in sediment and biota samples indicates input from both immature petrogenic hydrocarbons of possible terrestrial origin and local pollution by fuel oil. But the hydrocarbon levels found were low and do not indicate an input from a natural local oil seep at Marraat. The results of the PICT, the sediment toxicity test and the PAH metabolite study do not either indicate the presence of an oil seep. However, compared to sediments from a larger area of West Greenland the sediments close to Nuussuaq and Disko have higher concentrations of PAH expressed on basis of their content of organic matter. This could be a result of natural seepage of oil in the Nuusuuaq/Disko region. (au)

  12. Detecting the sea level fingerprint of accelerated Greenland mass loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradova, Nadya; Davis, James

    2017-04-01

    The tide-gauge record from the North American east coast reveals significant accelerations in sea level starting in the late 20th century. We analyze the tide-gauge data using a model in which the accelerations are assumed to be zero prior to 1990. The estimated accelerations range from near zero to 0.3 mm yr-2 and exhibit a systematic spatial variability. We model this variability using several processes: ongoing mass change in Greenland and Antarctica as measured by the GRACE satellites; ocean dynamic and steric variability provided by the GECCO2 ocean synthesis; and the inverted barometer effect. Because we are using accelerations over several decades, the contribution from glacial isostatic adjustment is negligible, a substantial benefit of this approach. This approach also enables us to estimate admittances for any of these processes. By including an admittance for the Greenland mass loss, we test the hypothesis that the self-attraction and loading sea level fingerprint associated with accelerated mass loss is real and observable in the sea level data. An admittance of zero indicates a rejection of this process. Our estimated admittance is 0.75 ± 0.16, a clear positive detection at the level of 4-5 standard deviations.

  13. An Intensive Observation of Calving at Helheim Glacier, East Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, David M.; Voytenko, Denis; Christianson, Knut; Dixon, Timothy H.; Mei, M. Jeffrey; Parizek, Byron R.; Vankova, Irena; Walker, Ryan T.; Walter, Jacob I.; Nicholls, Keith; hide

    2016-01-01

    Calving of glacial ice into the ocean from the Greenland Ice Sheet is an important component of global sea-level rise. The calving process itself is relatively poorly observed, understood, and modeled; as such, it represents a bottleneck in improving future global sea-level estimates in climate models. We organized a pilot project to observe the calving process at Helheim Glacier in east Greenland in an effort to better understand it. During an intensive one-week survey, we deployed a suite of instrumentation, including a terrestrial radar interferometer, global positioning system (GPS) receivers, seismometers, tsunameters, and an automated weather station. We were fortunate to capture a calving process and to measure various glaciological, oceanographic, and atmospheric parameters before, during, and after the event. One outcome of our observations is evidence that the calving process actually consists of a number of discrete events, spread out over time, in this instance over at least two days. This time span has implications for models of the process. Realistic projections of future global sea level will depend on an accurate parametrization of calving, and we argue that more sustained observations will be required to reach this objective.

  14. Monitoring natural vegetation in Southern Greenland using NOAA AVHRR and field measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Birger Ulf

    1991-01-01

    vegetation, sheep farming, biomass production, Remote Sensing, NOAA AVHRR, Southern Greenland, NDVI......vegetation, sheep farming, biomass production, Remote Sensing, NOAA AVHRR, Southern Greenland, NDVI...

  15. Climate Change and Baleen Whale Trophic Cascades in Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-30

    DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Climate Change and Baleen Whale Trophic Cascades in Greenland...SUBTITLE Climate Change And Baleen Whale Trophic Cascades In Greenland 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...2009. Polar bears in Northwest Greenland – An interview survey about the catch and the climate . Meddelelser om Grønland. [In Press, refereed] Heide

  16. Family as a child development context and smoking behaviour among schoolchildren in Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granado Alcon, M C; Pedersen, J M

    2001-01-01

    Smoking among greenlandic schoolchildren is considered a major health hazard. Greenland is a modern society susceptible to social changes, including changes in family structure. The objective was to investigate if changes in the family, as a child development context, were affecting schoolchildren's smoking behaviour. The survey was carried out in February 1998 in all schools in Greenland in the context of the WHO Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children study. 3081 questionnaires were received, which gave a response rate of 68% of the total study population. The present sample from the HBSC study consists of 1648 students, 826 boys and 822 girls in the age groups 11, 13 and 15 years old. Descriptive statistics and a logistic regression model were applied. The results were that smoking prevalence among Greenlandic schoolchildren increased with age and was lower in boys than in girls. Daily smoking prevalence among 15 year olds was high, namely 50% among boys and 56% among girls. With regard to family structure, it was found that the odds ratio for smoking was higher when the child was living in an broken/restructured family versus living in a biological family. The influence of socio-economic class on smoking behaviour was weak and statistically insignificant, and age proved to be the strongest predictor of prevalence in smoking behaviour.

  17. Interdisciplinary Graduate Training in Polar Environmental Change: Field-based learning in Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virginia, R. A.; Holm, K.; Whitecloud, S.; Levy, L.; Kelly, M. A.; Feng, X.; Grenoble, L.

    2009-12-01

    The objective of the NSF-funded Integrative Graduate Education Research Traineeship (IGERT) program at Dartmouth College is to develop a new cohort of environmental scientists and engineers with an interdisciplinary understanding of polar regions and their importance to global environmental change. The Dartmouth IGERT challenges Ph.D. students to consider the broader dimensions of their research and to collaborate with scientists from other disciplines, educators, and policy makers. IGERT students will focus on research questions that are relevant to the needs of local people experiencing climate change and on understanding the ethical responsibilities and benefits of conducting research in partnership with northern residents and institutions. Seven Ph.D. students from the departments of Earth Sciences, Engineering, and Ecology and Evolutionary Biology at Dartmouth College make up the first IGERT cohort for the five-year program. The Dartmouth IGERT curriculum will focus on three main components of polar systems responding to recent climate change: the cryosphere, terrestrial ecosystems, and biogeochemical cycles. The integrating experience of the core curriculum is the Greenland Field Seminar that will take place in Kangerlussuaq (terrestrial and aquatic systems), Summit Camp (snow and ice) and Nuuk, Greenland (human dimensions of change). In Nuuk, IGERT students will share their science and develop partnerships with students, educators, and policy makers at the University of Greenland, the Inuit Circumpolar Council (ICC), and other Greenlandic institutions. In summer 2009 the authors conducted preliminary fieldwork near Kangerlussuaq, Greenland to develop aspects of the science curriculum for the 2010 Greenland Field Seminar and to explore research topics for IGERT Fellows (Levy and Whitecloud). Examples of results presented here are designed to develop field-based learning activities. These include soil and vegetation relationships as a function of aspect

  18. The European Union’s Relations with Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomala Magdalena

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Greenland has a special relationship with the European Union due to its link with the Kingdom of Denmark - Greenland’s mother country. As a result, Greenland shares some parts of the EU’s internal market via association agreements. Greenland, has become a meeting place of American, European and Asian interests in the Arctic. It is therefore essential that the EU doesn’t lose the North and keeps strengthening its relationship with Greenland. After having focused its attention on the East and the South, it is high time that the European Union looks further North, notably through a more ambitious Arctic Window in its Northern sphere of influence.

  19. Migration and breeding biology of Arctic terns in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egevang, Carsten

    (Sandøen) in high-Arctic Northeast Greenland. The level of knowledge of the Arctic tern in Greenland before 2002 was to a large extent poor, with aspects of its biology being completely unknown in the Greenland population. This thesis presents novel findings for the Arctic tern, both on an international...... scale and on a national scale. The study on Arctic tern migration (Manus I) – the longest annual migration ever recorded in any animal – is a study with an international appeal. The study documented how Greenland and Iceland breeding terns conduct the roundtrip migration to the Weddell Sea in Antarctica...

  20. Hyperspectral, photogrammetric and morphological characterization of surface impurities over the Greenland ice sheet from remote sensing observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedesco, M.; Alexander, P. M.; Briggs, K.; Linares, M.; Mote, T. L.

    2016-12-01

    The spatial and temporal evolution of surface impurities over the Greenland ice sheet plays a crucial role in modulating the meltwater production in view of the associated feedback on albedo. Recent studies have pointed to a `darkening' of the west portion of the ice sheet with this reduction in albedo likely associated with the increasing presence of surface impurities (e.g., soot, dust) and biological activity (e.g., cryoconite holes, algae, bacteria). Regional climate models currently do not account for the presence, evolution and impact on albedo of such impurities, mostly because the underlying processes driving the spectral and morphological evolution of impurities are poorly known. One for the reasons for this is the lack of hyperspectral and high-spatial resolution data over specific regions of the Greenland ice sheet. To put things in perspective: there is more hyperspectral data at high spatial resolution for the planet Mars than for the Greenland ice sheet. In this presentation, we report the results of an analysis using the few available hyperspectral data collected over Greenland by the HYPERION and AVIRIS sensors, in conjunction with visible (RGB) helicopter-based high resolution images and LANDSAT/WorldView data for characterizing the spectral and morphological evolution of surface impurities and cryoconite holes over western Greenland. The hyperspectral data is used to characterize the abundance of different `endmembers' and the temporal evolution (inter-seasonal and intra-seasonal) of surface impurities composition and concentration. Digital photographs from helicopter are used to characterize the size and distribution of cryoconite holes as a function of elevation and, lastly, LANDSAT/WV images are used to study the evolution of `mysterious' shapes that form as a consequence of the accumulation of impurities and the ice flow.

  1. Ice age plant refugia in East Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funder, Svend Visby

    1979-01-01

    From the distribution of plants it has been inferred by some botanists that ice-free areas existed in East Greenland accommodating a flora which survived one or several ice ages in the area. Comparing this evidence with recent information on the chronology of glaciations and post-glacial vegetation...... of Greenland. 14 C dating and amino-acid age estimates of marine sediments show that lowland areas near the outer coast have been ice-free for at least 40,000 years. The vegetation history, as reflected in pollen diagrams extending back to ca. 10,000 yr. B.P., has shown that many of the extant species...... development, there is both significant agreement and disagreement. The early hypothesis of survival of organisms since Tertiary times is refuted by the ubiquitous occurrence of glacigene deposits. However, some of the areas pointed out as sites for survival have remained ice-free longer than adjacent parts...

  2. Uncertainty in Greenland glacial isostatic adjustment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milne, G. A.; Lecavalier, B.; Kjeldsen, K. K.

    It is well known that the interpretation of geodetic data in Greenland to constrain recent ice mass changes requires knowledge of isostatic land motion associated with past changes in the ice sheet. In this talk we will consider a variety of factors that limit how well the signal due to past mass...... of the ice history with a focus on the past few thousand years. In particular, we will show predictions of contemporary land motion and gravity changes due to loading changes following the Little Ice Age computed using a new reconstruction of ice thickness changes based largely on empirical data. A primary...... changes (commonly referred to as glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA)) can be defined. Predictions based on a new model of Greenland GIA will be shown. Using these predictions as a reference, we will consider the influence of plausible variations in some key aspects of both the Earth and ice load components...

  3. Secret Science: Exploring Cold War Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, K.

    2013-12-01

    During the early Cold War - from the immediate postwar period through the 1960s - the United States military carried out extensive scientific studies and pursued technological developments in Greenland. With few exceptions, most of these were classified - sometimes because new scientific knowledge was born classified, but mostly because the reasons behind the scientific explorations were. Meteorological and climatological, ionospheric, glaciological, seismological, and geological studies were among the geophysical undertakings carried out by military and civilian scientists--some in collaboration with the Danish government, and some carried out without their knowledge. This poster will present some of the results of the Exploring Greenland Project that is coming to a conclusion at Denmark's Aarhus University.

  4. Net accumulation of the Greenland ice sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiilsholm, Sissi; Christensen, Jens Hesselbjerg; Dethloff, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    improvement compared to the driving OAGCM. Estimates of the regional net balance are also better represented by the RCM. In the future climate the net balance for the Greenland Ice Sheet is reduced in all the simulation, but discrepancies between the amounts when based on ECHAM4/OPYC3 and HIRHAM are found....... In both scenarios, the estimated melt rates are larger in HIRHAM than in the driving model....

  5. West Virginia: Library Automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Thomas M., Ed.

    1996-01-01

    Reviews library automation efforts in West Virginia. Topics include information equity and rural areas, library systems and resource sharing, statewide connectivity, a higher education telecomputing network that has expanded to include elementary and secondary school libraries, multitype library cooperation and staff training, and academic library…

  6. Subannual layer variability in Greenland firn cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjær, Helle Astrid; Vallelonga, Paul; Vinther, Bo; Winstrup, Mai; Simonsen, Marius; Maffezzoli, Niccoló; Jensen, Camilla Marie

    2017-04-01

    Ice cores are used to infer information about the past and modern techniques allow for high resolution (CFA) of the ice. Such analysis is often used to inform on annual layers to constrain dating of ice cores, but can also be extended to provide information on sub-annual deposition patterns. In this study we use available high resolution data from multiple shallow cores around Greenland to investigate the seasonality and trends in the most often continuously measured components sodium, insoluble dust, calcium, ammonium and conductivity (or acidity) from 1800 AD to today. We evaluate the similarities and differences between the records and discuss the causes from different sources and transport to deposition and post-deposition effects over differences in measurement set up. Further we add to the array of cores already published with measurements from the newly drilled ReCAP ice core from a coastal ice cap in eastern Greenland and from a shallow core drilled at the high accumulation site at the Greenland South Dome.

  7. Human papillomavirus and oropharyngeal cancer in Greenland in 1994–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Balslev Avnstorp

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. Oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC is associated with the sexually transmitted human papillomavirus (HPV, smoking and alcohol. In Greenland, a high rate of HPV-induced cervical cancer and venereal diseases are found, which exposes the population for high risk of HPV infection. In Greenland, only girls are included in the mandatory HPV vaccination program. Objective. To investigate the annual incidence of OPSCC and the proportion of HPV-associated OPSCC (HPV+ OPSCC in Greenland in 1994–2010. Design. At Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, we identified all Greenlandic patients diagnosed and treated for OPSCC from 1994 to 2010. Sections were cut from the patient's paraffin-embedded tissue blocks and investigated for p16 expression by immunohistochemistry. HPV analyses were performed with 2 sets of general HPV primers and 1 set of HPV16-specific primer. HPV+ OPSCC was defined as both >75% p16+ cells and PCR positive for HPV. Results. Of 26 Greenlandic patients diagnosed with OPSCC, 17 were males and 9 were females. The proportion of HPV+ OPSCC in the total study period was 22%, without significant changes in the population in Greenland. We found an increase in the proportion of HPV+ OPSCC from 14% in 1994–2001 to 25% in 2002–2010 (p=0.51. Among males from 20 to 27% (p=0.63 and in females from 0 to 20% (p=0.71. The annual OPSCC incidence increased from 2.3/100,000 (CI=1.2–4.2 in 1994–2001 to 3.8/100,000 (CI=2.4–6.2 in 2002–2010: among males from 2.4/100,000 (CI=1.0–5.7 to 5.0/100,000 (CI=2.9–8.9. Conclusion. Even though the population is at high risk of HPV infection, the proportion of 22% HPV+ OPSCC in the total study period is low compared to Europe and the United States. This might be explained by our small study size and/or by ethnic, geographical, sexual and cultural differences. Continuing observations of the OPSCC incidence and the proportion of HPV+ OPSCC in Greenland are needed.

  8. Observations from the Programme for Monitoring of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, S. B.; Ahlstrom, A. P.; Andersen, M. L.; Box, J. E.; Citterio, M.; Colgan, W. T.; Fausto, R. S.; van As, D.; Forsberg, R.; Skourup, H.; Sandberg Sørensen, L.; Kristensen, S. S.; Dall, J.; Kusk, A.; Petersen, D.

    2014-12-01

    The Programme for Monitoring of the Greenland Ice Sheet (PROMICE) is as an on-going effort initiated in 2007 to monitor changes in the mass budget of the Greenland Ice Sheet. The aim of the programme is to quantify the mass loss of the Greenland ice sheet and track changes in the extent of the glaciers, ice caps and ice sheet margin. Specifically, PROMICE aims to estimate the mass loss derived from three fundamentally different sources: Surface melt water runoff from the ice sheet margin Iceberg production Mass loss of individual glaciers and ice caps surrounding the ice sheet The first is observed by a network of automatic weather stations (AWS) on the ice sheet margin measuring ice ablation as well as meteorological parameters. The second is determined by establishing a so-called 'flux gate' along the entire ice sheet margin and keeping track of the ice passing through this gate. The flux gate is obtained from airborne surveys of ice sheet surface elevation and thickness. The volume of the ice passing through the gate is derived from maps of the surface velocity of the ice sheet, produced from satellite radar. The third is investigated through regular mapping of area and elevation of the approximately 20.000 individual glaciers and ice caps in Greenland. Mapping is carried out using recent satellite imagery as well as aerial ortho-photos. Within PROMICE data sets from these activities are collected. They include observations from the network of currently about 20 AWS on the margin of the Greenland ice sheet. Airborne surveys, yielding surface elevation and ice depth along the entire margin of the Greenland ice sheet carried out in 2007 and 2011. A map of all Greenland ice masses, based on the highest detail aero-photogrammetric maps produced from mid-80's aerial photographs. Real-time data from the PROMICE AWS network is shown at the web site www.promice.org and the data is freely available for download. Data from the airborne surveys and mapping activities are

  9. Experience with cochlear implants in Greenlanders with profound hearing loss living in Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preben Homøe

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Cochlear implant (CI treatment was introduced to the world in the 1980s and has become a routine treatment for congenital or acquired severe-to-profound hearing loss. CI treatment requires access to a highly skilled team of ear, nose and throat specialists, audiologists and speech-language pathologists for evaluation, surgery and rehabilitation. In particular, children treated with CI are in need of long-term post-operative auditory training and other follow-up support. Design. The study is retrospective with updated information on present performance. Results. Since 2001, a total of 11 Greenlandic patients living in Greenland have been treated with CI, 7 children and 4 adults. Of these children, 4 use oral communication only and are full-time CI-users, 2 with full-time use of CI are still in progress with use of oral communication, and 1 has not acquired oral language yet, but has started auditory and speech training. Six children attend mainstream public school while one child is in kindergarten. Of the adults, only 1 has achieved good speech perception with full-time use of CI while 3 do not use the CI. Discussion. From an epidemiological point of view, approximately 1–3 children below 6 years are in need of a CI every second year in Greenland often due to sequelae from meningitis, which may cause postinfectious deafness. Screening of new-borns for hearing has been started in Greenland establishing the basis for early diagnosis of congenital hearing impairment and subsequent intervention. The logistics and lack of availability of speech therapists in Greenland hampers possibilities for optimal language and speech therapy of CI patients in Greenland. This study aims at describing the results of CI treatment in Greenlanders and the outcome of the CI operations along with the auditory and speech/language outcomes. Finally, we present a suggestion for the future CI treatment and recommendations for an increased effort in the

  10. Quantification of the Greenland ice sheet contribution to Last Interglacial sea level rise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. J. Stone

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available During the Last Interglacial period (~ 130–115 thousand years ago the Arctic climate was warmer than today, and global mean sea level was probably more than 6.6 m higher. However, there are large discrepancies in the estimated contributions to this sea level change from various sources (the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets and smaller ice caps. Here, we determine probabilistically the likely contribution of Greenland ice sheet melt to Last Interglacial sea level rise, taking into account ice sheet model parametric uncertainty. We perform an ensemble of 500 Glimmer ice sheet model simulations forced with climatologies from the climate model HadCM3, and constrain the results with palaeodata from Greenland ice cores. Our results suggest a 90% probability that Greenland ice melt contributed at least 0.6 m, but less than 10% probability that it exceeded 3.5 m, a value which is lower than several recent estimates. Many of these previous estimates, however, did not include a full general circulation climate model that can capture atmospheric circulation and precipitation changes in response to changes in insolation forcing and orographic height. Our combined modelling and palaeodata approach suggests that the Greenland ice sheet is less sensitive to orbital forcing than previously thought, and it implicates Antarctic melt as providing a substantial contribution to Last Interglacial sea level rise. Future work should assess additional uncertainty due to inclusion of basal sliding and the direct effect of insolation on surface melt. In addition, the effect of uncertainty arising from climate model structural design should be taken into account by performing a multi-climate-model comparison.

  11. Oakland, West

    OpenAIRE

    Kwamille, Tasion Shawniece

    2013-01-01

    “Oakland, West” Produced by: Tasion Kwamilele          After World War II, many blacks from the south migrated to Oakland to work in the shipyards; housing discrimination forced blacks to move to West Oakland. But when those jobs died out many Blacks moved from West Oakland and the area became deserted and filled with crime, drugs, violence, and poverty.         The 7.0 Loma Prueta Earthquake, also known as the World Series Quake of 1989, shook the Bay Are...

  12. Increasing runoff and sediment load from the Greenland ice sheet at kangerlussuaq (Sonder Stromfjord) in a 30-year perspective, 1979-2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mernild, Sebastian Haugard [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Liston, Glen [COLORADO STATE UNIV.; Hasholt, Bent [UNIV OF COPENGAGEN; Steffen, Konrad [UNIV OF COLORADO; Van Den Broeke, Michiel [UTRECHT UNIV; Mcgrath, Daniel [UNIV OF COLORADO; Yde, Jacob [UNIV OF AARHUS

    2009-01-01

    This observation and modeling study provides insights into runoff and sediment load exiting the Watson River drainage basin, Kangerlussuaq, West Greenland during a 30 year period (1978/79-2007/08) when the climate experienced increasing temperatures and precipitation. The 30-year simulations quantify the terrestrial freshwater and sediment output from part of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) and the land between the GrIS and the ocean, in the context of global warming and increasing GrIS surface melt. We used a snow-evolution modeling system (SnowModel) to simulate the winter accumulation and summer ablation processes, including runoff and surface mass balance (SMB), of the Greenland ice sheet. Observed sediment concentrations were related to observed runoff, producing a sediment-load time series. To a large extent, the SMB fluctuations could be explained by changes in net precipitation (precipitation minus evaporation and sublimation), with 8 out of 30 years having negative SMB, mainly because of relatively low annual net precipitation. The overall trend in net precipitation and runoff increased significantly, while 5MB increased insignificantly throughout the simulation period, leading to enhanced precipitation of 0.59 km{sup 3} w.eq. (or 60%), runoff of 0.43 km{sup 3} w.eq (or 54%), and SMB of 0.16 km3 w.eq. (or 86%). Runoff rose on average from 0.80 km{sup 3} w.eq. in 1978/79 to 1.23 km{sup 3} w.eq. in 2007/08. The percentage of catchment oudet runoff explained by runoff from the GrIS decreased on average {approx} 10%, indicating that catchment runoff throughout the simulation period was influenced more by precipitation and snowmelt events, and less by runoff from the GrIS. Average variations in the increasing Kangerlussuaq runoff from 1978/79 through 2007/08 seem to follow the overall variations in satellite-derived GrIS surface melt, where 64% of the variations in simulated runoff were explained by regional melt conditions on the GrIS. Throughout the simulation

  13. Glacier dynamics over the last quarter of a century at Helheim, Kangerdlugssuaq and 14 other major Greenland outlet glaciers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Bevan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Greenland ice sheet is experiencing increasing rates of mass loss, the majority of which results from changes in discharge from tidewater glaciers. Both atmospheric and ocean drivers have been implicated in these dynamic changes, but understanding the nature of the response has been hampered by the lack of measurements of glacier flow rates predating the recent period of warming. Here, using Landsat-5 data from 1985 onwards, we extend back in time the record of surface velocities and ice-front position for 16 of Greenland's fastest-flowing tidewater glaciers, and compare these to more recent data from Landsat-7 and satellite-borne synthetic-aperture radar. Climate re-analysis data and sea surface temperatures from 1982 show that since 1995 most of Greenland and its surrounding oceans have experienced significant overall warming, and a switch to a warming trend. During the period from 1985 to 1995 when Greenland and the surrounding oceans were not warming, major tidewater outlet glaciers around Greenland, including Kangerdlugssuaq and Helheim, were dynamically stable. Since the mid-1990s, glacier discharge has consistently been both greater and more variable. Together, these observations support the hypothesis that recent dynamic change is a rapid response to climate forcing. Both air and ocean temperatures in this region are predicted to continue to warm, and will therefore likely drive further change in outlet glacier discharge.

  14. Late Pliocene to Pleistocene sensitivity of the Greenland Ice Sheet in response to external forcing and internal feedbacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenig, Sebastian J.; DeConto, Robert M. [University of Massachusetts, Department of Geosciences, Amherst, MA (United States); Pollard, David [Pennsylvania State University, Earth and Environmental Systems Institute, College of Earth and Mineral Sciences, University Park, PA (United States)

    2011-09-15

    The timing and nature of ice sheet variations on Greenland over the last {proportional_to}5 million years remain largely uncertain. Here, we use a coupled climate-vegetation-ice sheet model to determine the climatic sensitivity of Greenland to combined sets of external forcings and internal feedbacks operating on glacial-interglacial timescales. In particular, we assess the role of atmospheric pCO{sub 2}, orbital forcing, and vegetation dynamics in modifying thresholds for the onset of glaciation in late Pliocene and Pleistocene. The response of circum-Arctic vegetation to declining levels of pCO{sub 2} (from 400 to 200 ppmv) and decreasing summer insolation includes a shift from boreal forest to tundra biomes, with implications for the surface energy balance. The expansion of tundra amplifies summer surface cooling and heat loss from the ground, leading to an expanded summer snow cover over Greenland. Atmospheric and land surface fields respond to forcing most prominently in late spring-summer and are more sensitive at lower Pleistocene-like levels of pCO{sub 2}. We find cold boreal summer orbits produce favorable conditions for ice sheet growth, however simulated ice sheet extents are highly dependent on both background pCO{sub 2} levels and land-surface characteristics. As a result, late Pliocene ice sheet configurations on Greenland differ considerably from late Pleistocene, with smaller ice caps on high elevations of southern and eastern Greenland, even when orbital forcing is favorable for ice sheet growth. (orig.)

  15. Uncertainty of GIA models across the Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggieri, Gabriella

    2013-04-01

    In the last years various remote sensing techniques have been employed to estimate the current mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet (GIS). In this regards GRACE, laser and radar altimetry observations, employed to constrain the mass balance, consider the glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) a source of noise. Several GIA models have been elaborated for the Greenland but they differ from each other for mantle viscosity profile and for time history of ice melting. In this work we use the well know ICE-5G (VM2) ice model by Peltier (2004) and two others alternative scenarios of ice melting, ANU05 by Lambeck et al. (1998) and the new regional ice model HUY2 by Simpson et al. (2009) in order to asses the amplitude of the uncertainty related to the GIA predictions. In particular we focus on rates of vertical displacement field, sea surface variations and sea-level change at regional scale. The GIA predictions are estimated using an improved version of SELEN code that solve the sea-level equation for a spherical self-gravitating, incompressible and viscoelastic Earth structure. GIA uncertainty shows a highly variable geographic distribution across the Greenland. Considering the spatial pattern of the GIA predictions related to the three ice models, the western sector of the Greenland Ice Sheets (GrIS) between Thule and Upernavik and around the area of Paamiut, show good agreement while the northeast portion of the Greenland is characterized by a large discrepancy of the GIA predictions inferred by the ice models tested in this work. These differences are ultimately the consequence of the different sets of global relative sea level data and modern geodetic observations used by the authors to constrain the model parameters. Finally GPS Network project (GNET), recently installed around the periphery of the GrIS, are used as a tool to discuss the discrepancies among the GIA models. Comparing the geodetic analysis recently available, appears that among the GPS sites the

  16. Risk factors for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection among children in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søborg, Bolette; Andersen, Aase Bengaard; Melbye, Mads

    2011-01-01

    To examine the risk factors for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (MTI) among Greenlandic children for the purpose of identifying those at highest risk of infection.......To examine the risk factors for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (MTI) among Greenlandic children for the purpose of identifying those at highest risk of infection....

  17. Eemian interglacial reconstructed from a Greenland folded ice core

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dahl-Jensen, D.; Albert, M.; Roeckmann, T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304838233; Zheng, J.

    2013-01-01

    Efforts to extract a Greenland ice core with a complete record of the Eemian interglacial (130,000 to 115,000 years ago) have until now been unsuccessful. The response of the Greenland ice sheet to the warmer-than-present climate of the Eemian has thus remained unclear. Here we present the new North

  18. Offshore oil exploration and impact assessment in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Merrild

    2016-01-01

    Greenland needs development. Oil and mineral extraction is pursued as a means to achieve economical growth. Fisheries, hunting and tourism are the main pillars in the Greenland economy in 2015. These businesses are however sensitive to potential negative impacts from oil and gas development. Local...

  19. A first isotopic dietary study of the Greenlandic Thule Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nelson, D.E.; Lynnerup, Niels; Arneborg, J.

    2012-01-01

    The isotopic dietary method has been applied to samples of some 65 Thule Culture individuals from existing archaeological collections of Greenlandic human skeletal material. The aim was to use the Greenlandic Thule Culture as a test of the isotopic method, in that we know they were heavily...

  20. Norse agriculture in Greenland? Farming in a remote medieval landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Peter Steen

    The aim of the project Norse Farming in Greenland: Agriculture on the edge was to determine whether the Norse farmers actually cultivated crops in Greenland during colonisation in the Viking age and the medieval period. This was investigated by analysing macrofossils extracted from soil samples...

  1. Continuity and discontinuity in the Inuit culture of Greenland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kylstra, Hans P.

    1977-01-01

    In november 1976 the Arctic Centre of the University of Gronlngen organized its third symposium. The third symposium was a Dutch-Danish one on the Greenlandic Inuit: 'Continuity and Discontinuity In Greenlandic Arctic Culture'. As on the two previous occasions, an exhibition was organized.

  2. Greenland surface albedo changes 1981-2012 from satellite observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Significant melt over Greenland has been observed during the last several decades associated with extreme warming events over the northern Atlantic Ocean. An analysis of surface albedo change over Greenland is presented, using a 32-year consistent satellite albedo product from the Global Land Surfac...

  3. Hunting and fishing settlements in Upernavik district of Northern Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, Kåre; Jørgensen, Ulrik

    2015-01-01

    Inuit in the Upernavik district of Northern Greenland has in generations used the winter sea ice as the basis for the essential hunting of seals, white- and narwhales. Since the late 1980’ies hunting has been combined with increasing fishery of Greenland halibut during summer from dinghies...

  4. Eemian interglacial reconstructed from a Greenland folded ice core

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe; Albert, M. R.; Aldahan, A.

    2013-01-01

    , the thickness of the northwest Greenland ice sheet decreased by 400 ± 250 metres, reaching surface elevations 122,000 years ago of 130 ± 300 metres lower than the present. Extensive surface melt occurred at the NEEM site during the Eemian, a phenomenon witnessed when melt layers formed again at NEEM during......Efforts to extract a Greenland ice core with a complete record of the Eemian interglacial (130,000 to 115,000 years ago) have until now been unsuccessful. The response of the Greenland ice sheet to the warmer-than-present climate of the Eemian has thus remained unclear. Here we present the new...... North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling ('NEEM') ice core and show only a modest ice-sheet response to the strong warming in the early Eemian. We reconstructed the Eemian record from folded ice using globally homogeneous parameters known from dated Greenland and Antarctic ice-core records. On the basis...

  5. Brief communication "The aerophotogrammetric map of Greenland ice masses"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Citterio

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The PROMICE (Programme for Monitoring of the Greenland Ice Sheet aerophotogrammetric map of Greenland ice masses is the first high resolution dataset documenting the mid-1980s areal extent of the Greenland Ice Sheet and all the local glaciers and ice caps. The total glacierized area excluding nunataks was 1 804 638 km2 ± 2178 km2, of which 88 083 ± 1240 km2 belonged to local glaciers and ice caps (GIC substantially independent from the Greenland Ice Sheet. This new result of GIC glacierized area is higher than most previous estimates, 81% greater than Weng's (1995 measurements, but is in line with contemporary findings based on independent data sources. A comparison between our map and the recently released Rastner et al. (2012 inventory and GIMP (Greenland Ice Mapping Project Ice-Cover Mask (Howat and Negrete, 2013 shows potential for change-assessment studies.

  6. Greenlandic postcoloniality and the predicament of prosperity inducing climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars

    mining consultant who used to work for the Greenlandic government to collaborate with the Greenlandic self-government. This requires us to think across a huge complexity of race, whiteness, climate change – and the postcolonial condition. I haven’t decided on the precise focus yet, as the case......In my paper I will be looking at how climate change has contributed to the rapidly changing Greenlandic response to globalization. One of the most convoluted processes is the possible opening of a Chinese mine (to be operated by the London Mining company(!)), which has made use of a Greenlandic...... to in the agreement laying the foundation for Greenland’s self-government (2009), another part has been whether Denmark should allow Chinese workers, not working under Danish conditions, to immigrate to Greenland – an area where Denmark can still exercise its sovereignty. And there are, of course, several other...

  7. Lifestyle, reproductive factors and food intake in Greenlandic pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Ane-Kersti Skaarup; Long, Manhai; Pedersen, Henning S

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In the past decades, Greenland has changed from a hunter society to a more western lifestyle, causing less intake of traditional food, such as marine mammals, fish and seabirds. These changes in the living conditions and food habits might impact the maternal health in Greenland....... OBJECTIVES: To describe lifestyle, reproductive factors and food intake in Greenlandic pregnant women, and to assess possible age and geographical differences. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study of 189 Greenlandic pregnant women. Inclusion criteria were ≥18 years and lived >50% of their life in Greenland. Data...... were collected in 2010-2011, and information was obtained from lifestyle and food frequency questionnaires. Two age groups for comparison were given for the pregnant women (

  8. East Greenland Caledonides: stratigraphy, structure and geochronology: Lower Palaeozoic stratigraphy of the East Greenland Caledonides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith, M. Paul

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The Lower Palaeozoic stratigraphy of the East Greenland Caledonides, from the fjord region of North-East Greenland northwards to Kronprins Christian Land, is reviewed and a number of new lithostratigraphical units are proposed. The Slottet Formation (new is a Lower Cambrian quartzite unit, containing Skolithos burrows, that is present in the Målebjerg and Eleonore Sø tectonic windows, in the nunatak region of North-East Greenland. The unit is the source of common and often-reported glacial erratic boulders containing Skolithos that are distributed throughout the fjord region. The Målebjerg Formation (new overlies the Slottet Formation in the tectonic windows, and comprises limestones and dolostones of assumed Cambrian–Ordovician age. The Lower Palaeozoic succession of the fjord region of East Greenland (dominantly limestones and dolostones is formally placed in the Kong Oscar Fjord Group (new. Amendments are proposed for several existing units in the Kronprins Christian Land and Lambert Land areas, where they occur in autochthonous, parautochthonous and allochthonous settings.

  9. The East Greenland Caledonides—teleseismic signature, gravity and isostasy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffer, Christian; Jacobsen, Bo Holm; Balling, Niels

    2015-01-01

    . The western part of the section, with topography of >1000 m, is clearly supported by the 40 km thick crust. The eastern part requires additional buoyancy as provided by the hydrated mantle wedge. The geometry, velocities and densities are consistent with interpretation of the lithospheric structure...... surrounding the North Atlantic. Teleseismic receiver function interpretation in the Central Fjord Region of East Greenland recently suggested the presence of a fossil Caledonian subduction complex, including a slab of eclogitised mafic crust and an overlying wedge of serpentinised mantle peridotite. Here we...... further investigate this topic using inverse receiver functions modelling. The obtained velocity models are tested with regard to their consistency with the regional gravity field and topography. We find that the obtained receiver function model is generally consistent with gravity and isostasy...

  10. Relatives' level of satisfaction with advanced cancer care in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Augustussen, Mikaela; Hounsgaard, Lise; Pedersen, Michael Lynge

    2017-01-01

    Palliative cancer care in Greenland is provided by health professionals at local level, the national Queen Ingrid's Hospital and at Rigshospitalet in Denmark. To improve and develop care for relatives of patients with advanced cancer, we conducted a mixed method study examining relatives' level...... from health professionals. They experienced a lack of security, worries about the future and a lack of support at home. The study showed a substantial level of dissatisfaction among relatives of patients with advanced cancer. We strongly recommend a focus on psychosocial care, more access...... to information and to include relatives in decision making and in the future planning of palliative care services. An assessment of relatives' needs is essential to develop an adequate palliative care in a range of settings....

  11. Greenlandic Inuit show genetic signatures of diet and climate adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumagalli, Matteo; Moltke, Ida; Grarup, Niels; Racimo, Fernando; Bjerregaard, Peter; Jørgensen, Marit E; Korneliussen, Thorfinn S; Gerbault, Pascale; Skotte, Line; Linneberg, Allan; Christensen, Cramer; Brandslund, Ivan; Jørgensen, Torben; Huerta-Sánchez, Emilia; Schmidt, Erik B; Pedersen, Oluf; Hansen, Torben; Albrechtsen, Anders; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2015-09-18

    The indigenous people of Greenland, the Inuit, have lived for a long time in the extreme conditions of the Arctic, including low annual temperatures, and with a specialized diet rich in protein and fatty acids, particularly omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). A scan of Inuit genomes for signatures of adaptation revealed signals at several loci, with the strongest signal located in a cluster of fatty acid desaturases that determine PUFA levels. The selected alleles are associated with multiple metabolic and anthropometric phenotypes and have large effect sizes for weight and height, with the effect on height replicated in Europeans. By analyzing membrane lipids, we found that the selected alleles modulate fatty acid composition, which may affect the regulation of growth hormones. Thus, the Inuit have genetic and physiological adaptations to a diet rich in PUFAs. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  12. Does Greenland need a guideline on how to deal with moisture in the construction phase?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place

    2012-01-01

    and gives examples of moisture-related problems in buildings in Greenland. Requirements and guidelines are needed in Greenland in order to deal with moisture in the construction phase, but as the conditions for constructing houses and the way that houses are used in Greenland are different from Denmark......, an adaptation to the specific conditions in Greenland is needed....

  13. What controls the isotopic composition of Greenland surface snow?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. C. Steen-Larsen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Water stable isotopes in Greenland ice core data provide key paleoclimatic information, and have been compared with precipitation isotopic composition simulated by isotopically enabled atmospheric models. However, post-depositional processes linked with snow metamorphism remain poorly documented. For this purpose, monitoring of the isotopic composition (δ18O, δD of near-surface water vapor, precipitation and samples of the top (0.5 cm snow surface has been conducted during two summers (2011–2012 at NEEM, NW Greenland. The samples also include a subset of 17O-excess measurements over 4 days, and the measurements span the 2012 Greenland heat wave. Our observations are consistent with calculations assuming isotopic equilibrium between surface snow and water vapor. We observe a strong correlation between near-surface vapor δ18O and air temperature (0.85 ± 0.11‰ °C−1 (R = 0.76 for 2012. The correlation with air temperature is not observed in precipitation data or surface snow data. Deuterium excess (d-excess is strongly anti-correlated with δ18O with a stronger slope for vapor than for precipitation and snow surface data. During nine 1–5-day periods between precipitation events, our data demonstrate parallel changes of δ18O and d-excess in surface snow and near-surface vapor. The changes in δ18O of the vapor are similar or larger than those of the snow δ18O. It is estimated using the CROCUS snow model that 6 to 20% of the surface snow mass is exchanged with the atmosphere. In our data, the sign of surface snow isotopic changes is not related to the sign or magnitude of sublimation or deposition. Comparisons with atmospheric models show that day-to-day variations in near-surface vapor isotopic composition are driven by synoptic variations and changes in air mass trajectories and distillation histories. We suggest that, in between precipitation events, changes in the surface snow isotopic composition are driven by these changes in near

  14. The East Greenland Ridge - a continental sliver along the Greenland Fracture Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlings, Joanna; Funck, Thomas; Castro, Carlos F.; Hopper, John R.

    2014-05-01

    The East Greenland Ridge (EGR), situated along the Greenland Fracture Zone in the northern part of the Greenland-Norwegian Sea, is a NW-SE trending 250-km-long and up to 50-km-wide bathymetric high that separates the Greenland Basin in the south from the Boreas Basin in the north. Previous seismic work established that the EGR is primarily continental in nature. Detailed swath bathymetric data revealed a complex internal structure of the ridge with two main overstepping ridge segments. These segments were not adequately covered by the GEUS2002NEG seismic survey as the detailed structure was not known at that time. The crustal affinity of the northwestern, landward-most ridge segment, and how it is attached to the Northeast Greenland continental shelf, remained unclear. The GEUS-EAGER2011 survey was designed to address these issues and to provide further constraints on the structural development of the EGR. During the GEUS-EAGER2011 survey, additional seismic refraction and reflection data were acquired on the EGR and the Northeast Greenland shelf. The data set consists of two strike lines covering the seaward-most part of the Northeast Greenland shelf and the landward-most part of the EGR, and one cross line extending from the Boreas Basin, across the ridge and into the Greenland Basin. A total of 15 ocean bottom seismometers and 46 sonobuoys were deployed along the three seismic refraction lines. P-wave velocity models for the crust and upper mantle were derived by forward and inverse modelling of the travel times of the observed seismic phases using the raytracing algorithm RAYINVR. Seismic reflection data, coinciding with the seismic refraction data were used to guide the modelling of the sedimentary layers down to basement. The velocity models confirm that the crust has a continental nature along both ridge segments with a velocity structure that significantly differs from that of normal oceanic crust. The models also show that the crust of the EGR is linked to

  15. Field Measurements and Modeling of the Southeast Greenland Firn Aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, O. L.; Solomon, D. K.; Miège, C.; Voss, C. I.; Koenig, L.; Forster, R. R.; Schmerr, N. C.; Montgomery, L. N.; Legchenko, A.; Ligtenberg, S.

    2016-12-01

    An extensive firn aquifer forms in southeast Greenland as surface meltwater percolates through the upper seasonal snow and firn layers to depth and saturates open pore spaces. The firn aquifer is found at depths from about 10 to 35 m below the snow surface in areas with high accumulation rates and high melt rates. The firn aquifer retains significant volume of meltwater and heat within the ice sheet. The first-ever hydrologic and geochemical measurements from several boreholes drilled into the aquifer have been made 50 km upstream of Helheim Glacier terminus in SE Greenland. This field data is used with a version of the SUTRA groundwater simulator that represents the freeze/thaw process to model the hydrologic and thermal conditions of the ice sheet, including aquifer water recharge, lateral flow, and discharge. Meltwater generation during the summer season is modeled using degree day methods, and meltwater recharge to the aquifer (10-70 cm/year) is calculated using water level fluctuations and volumetric flow measurements (3e-7 to 5e-6 m3/s). Aquifer hydrologic parameters, including hydraulic conductivity (2e-5 to 4e -4 m/s), storativity, and specific discharge (3e-7 to 5e-6 m/s), are estimated from aquifer pumping tests and tracer experiments. In situ measurements were obtained using a novel heated piezometer, which advances downward through the unsaturated and saturated zones of the aquifer by melting the surrounding firn. Innovative modeling approaches blending unsaturated and saturated groundwater flow modeling and ice thermodynamics indicate the importance of surface topography controls on fluid flow within the aquifer, and forecast the nature and volume of aquifer water discharge into crevasses at the edge of the ice sheet. This pioneering study is crucial to understanding the aquifer's influence on mass balance estimates of the ice sheet.

  16. Two decades of spaceborne measurements of Greenland ice sheet changes, validated by airborne and in-situ data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, R.; Simonsen, S.; Sandberg Sorensen, L.; Meister, R.; Barletta, V. R.; Nagler, T.; Hetzenecker, M.; Hauglund, K.; Khvorostovsky, K.; Shepherd, A.; Andersen, S. B.; Hvidberg, C. S.; Horwath, M.; Engdahl, M.

    2016-12-01

    The ESA "Greenland_ice_sheet_cci" project are currently making past and present space measurements of Greenland ice sheet changes available for use by scientists, stakeholders and the general public. The data are part of a large set of ECV's (Essential Climate Variables) made available by the ESA Climate Initiative, as a contribution to the Global Climate Observing System. The ECV data produced for the Greenland ice sheet include detailed grids of elevation changes, yearly ice flow velocities, GRACE mass balance, as well as grounding lines and calving front locations for major outlet glaciers In the presentation the current CCI results are highlighted, including Greenland-wide elevation change results across 23 years of radar altimetry from ERS, Envisat and CryoSat, ice velocity time series major outlet glaciers and coastal regions, new Greenland-wide ice velocities from the ESA Sentinel-1 mission, together with 14 years of mass changes from GRACE. The data are validated by comparison to IceBridge and CryoVEx data, in-situ data from PROMICE and other campaigns, as well as methodology intercomparisons. The ECV data confirm a consistent overall picture of accelerating mass loss of the Greenland ice sheet, a mass loss which has more the doubled in the last decade. Current rates of changes are well above 250 GT/year, corresponding to 0.7 mm/year global sea level rise. As an example of data use, high resolution mass change products are derived from the CCI data by combination of GRACE, altimetry, and firn models. By further combination with routine S-1 derived velocity fields, it is possible to extend such time series to very high temporal resolutions as well (12 days for S-1A alone, 6 days in future).

  17. Public preferences for establishing nephrology facilities in Greenland: estimating willingness-to-pay using a discrete choice experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjær, Trine; Bech, Mickael; Kronborg, Christian; Mørkbak, Morten Raun

    2013-10-01

    At present there are no nephrology facilities in Greenland. Greenlandic patients with renal failure needing dialysis thus have to travel to Denmark to obtain treatment. For patients in haemodialysis this necessitates a permanent residence in Denmark. Our study was aimed at examining Greenlanders' preferences for establishing nephrology facilities in Greenland at Queen Ingrid's Hospital in Nuuk, and to estimate the associated change in welfare. Preferences were elicited using a discrete choice experiment (DCE). A random sample of 500 individuals of the general population was sent a postal questionnaire in which they were asked to consider the trade-offs of establishing nephrology facilities in Greenland as opposed to the current situation. This involved trading off the benefits of having such facilities in their home country against the costs of the intervention. Besides including a payment attribute described in terms of incremental tax payment, the DCE included two interventions attributes related to (1) the organisation of labour, and (2) the physical settings of the patients. Respondents succeeded in answering the DCE despite cultural and linguistic disparity. We found that all the included attributes had a significant effect on respondents' choices, and that respondents' answers to the DCE were in keeping with their values as stated in the questionnaire. DCE data was analyzed using a random parameter logit model reparametrized in willingness-to-pay space. The results showed that establishing facilities in Greenland were preferred to the current treatment in Denmark. The welfare estimate from the DCE, at DKK 18.74 million, exceeds the estimated annual costs of establishing treatment facilities for patients with chronic renal failure. Given the estimated confidence interval this result seems robust. Establishing facilities in Greenland therefore would appear to be welfare-improving, deriving positive net benefits. Despite the relatively narrow policy focus, we

  18. The Greenland analogue project. Yearly report 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harper, J.; Brinkerhoff, D.; Johnson, J. [University of Montana, Missoula (United States); Ruskeeniemi, T.; Engstroem, J.; Kukkonen, I. [Geological Survey of Finland (Finland)] [and others

    2012-04-15

    A four-year field and modelling study of the Greenland ice sheet and subsurface conditions, Greenland Analogue Project (GAP), has been initiated collaboratively by SKB, Posiva and NWMO to advance the understanding of processes associated with glaciation and their impact on the long-term performance of a deep geological repository. The study site encompasses a land terminus portion of the Greenland ice sheet, east of Kangerlussuaq, and is in many ways considered to be an appropriate analogue of the conditions that are expected to prevail in much of Canada and Fennoscandia during future glacial cycles. The project begins in 2009 and is scheduled for completion in 2012. Our current understanding of the hydrological, hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical processes associated with cold climate conditions and glacial cycles, and their impact on the long-term performance of deep geological repositories for spent nuclear fuel, will be significantly improved by studying a modern analogue. The GAP will conduct the first in situ investigations of some of the parameters and processes needed to achieve a better understanding of how an ice sheet may impact a deep repository, and will provide measurements, observations and data that may significantly improve our safety assessments and risk analyses of glaciation scenarios. This report was produced by the GAP team members and presents an overview of the activities within the GAP during the interval January 1 to December 31, 2010, as well as research results obtained during this time frame. Research for the GAP is ongoing, and additional results related to the data presented here may become available in the future and will be presented in subsequent annual reports. (orig.)

  19. Homicide in Greenland 1985-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Martin R; Thomsen, Asser H; Høyer, Christian B; Gregersen, Markil; Banner, Jytte

    2016-03-01

    Homicide in Greenland has not often been investigated. The latest published study documented a dramatic rise in the homicide rate from around 1/100,000 inhabitants to more than 23/100,000 inhabitants from 1946 to 1984. The aim of our study was to characterize homicides in Greenland from 1985 to 2010 and to compare trends during this period with those in previous studies and with homicide characteristics in Denmark, northern Europe, and other Arctic regions. We identified a total of 281 homicides by legal definition and 194 by medical definition, the latter from the years 1990 to 2010. We procured case files for a total of 129 victims (71 male, 58 female) and 117 perpetrators (85 male, 32 female). We identified an overall decrease in the homicide rate during our study period. The decrease in the medical homicide rate was significant (p = 0.007). The homicide rate ranged from 25/100,000 inhabitants to 13/100,000 inhabitants when results were grouped within 5-year periods. There were significantly more male perpetrators (p victims (p homicide methods (41 and 29% respectively), with sharp force deaths increasing throughout the investigation period. Altercations were the main motive (49%). Alcohol-related homicides decreased in our study period. While the Greenlandic homicide rate has decreased, it is markedly higher compared to that seen in Denmark and northern Europe. However, it resembles the rate seen in the rest of the Arctic. Liberal gun laws do not affect the proportion of gun-related killings. Despite the high homicide rate, women account for almost half the victims.

  20. Trichinella infections in arctic foxes from Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kapel, C. M O; Henriksen, S. A.; Berg, T. B.

    1995-01-01

    Studies were carried out to determine the predilection sites of Trichinella nativa muscle larvae in arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus) caught in Greenland. The highest number of larvae per gram of tissue was found in the muscles of the eyes and the legs. With regard to predilection sites no significant...... differences were demonstrated either between age groups or between foxes with high and low total parasite burdens. Predilection sites were comparable with those recorded earlier in experimentally infected caged foxes and in other carnivorous species. Hypotheses on predilection sites of Trichinella muscle...

  1. Wastewater Characterization Survey, Thule Air Base, Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-03-01

    wastewater . A large amount of the phosphorus that is discharged is likely to be removed by the algae and plant life in the ditch before reaching the...continuous). The high concentration of algae can be expected to deplete oxygen in the bay during the dark respiration cycle. If a wastewater treatment...APR 15 1993 AD,-A262 806 S C I WASTEWATER CHARACTERIZATION SURVEY, A THULE AIR BASE, GREENLAND R M S T Richard P. McCoy, Captain, USAF, BSC R

  2. Seasonal migration, vertical activity and winter temperature experience of Greenland halibut Reinhardtius hippoglossoides (Walbaum) in West Greenland waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boje, Jesper; Neuenfeldt, Stefan; Sparrevohn, Claus Reedtz

    2014-01-01

    resident in Disko Bay (mean range 2.6°C) than when resident in the ice fjord (mean range 1.4°C). Using the tagged halibut as a 'live tool,' we show that parts of the ice fjord are hundreds of meters deeper than previously thought. We also document the first seawater temperature measurements made beneath...

  3. Greenland and Chinese outbound investments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouyal, Lone Wandahl; Mortensen, Bent Ole Gram; Su, Jingjing

    2017-01-01

    -Government seeks to develop new business sectors and to attract foreign investment, including investments from China, to develop especially its mineral resources. China now is the second largest economy in the world and the outbound investments by Chinese companies presents unprecedented opportunities for both...

  4. Evaluation of the updated regional climate model RACMO2.3 : Summer snowfall impact on the Greenland Ice Sheet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noël, B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/370612345; Van De Berg, W. J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304831611; Van Meijgaard, E.; Kuipers Munneke, P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304831891; Van De Wal, R. S W|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/101899556; Van Den Broeke, M. R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073765643

    2015-01-01

    We discuss Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) surface mass balance (SMB) differences between the updated polar version of the RACMO climate model (RACMO2.3) and the previous version (RACMO2.1). Among other revisions, the updated model includes an adjusted rainfall-to-snowfall conversion that produces

  5. Estimations of Soil organic carbons pools in Southern Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogric, Mateja; Chellasamy, Menaka; Knadel, Maria; Greve, Mogens H.; Adhikari, Kabindra; Jakobsen, Bjarne H.; Kristiansen, Søren M.

    2015-04-01

    available published and unpublished SOC data from the area were included. An upscaled model for SOC prediction developed for the study area is based on the SOC analytical data and recently created land use maps. ArcGIS 10.2 (Esri, 2014) was used for the spatial analysis and its visualization. The created maps form the basis for a re-assessment of SOC pools. We will present novel maps and compare them with published estimations based on datasets with considerably lower sampling density from Southern Greenland, as well as relate our findings to SOC pool estimations from comparable subarctic settings in the circumpolar region. References: ELBERLING, B. et al. (2004) Arc. Antarc. Alp. Res. 36: 528-538. OGRIC, M. et al. (2014). 4th Slovenian Geol. Congress, October 2014. Abstract.

  6. Public Consultation Processes in Greenland Regarding the Mining Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ackrén

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the Greenland Self-Government Act came into force in 2009, economic development and the right to utilize natural resources in Greenland lies in the hands of the Self-Government. Earlier efforts to establish this authority were made back in the 1970s, when discussions on Home Rule were first on the agenda. Mining industries are not a new activity in Greenland. During the Second World War, Greenlandic cryolite was used to produce aluminum for the North American aircraft industry. Other essential natural resources, such as gold and gemstones, have also received international interest over the years. Greenland's new development aim is to build up a large-scale mining industry. This article elucidates the form of public consultation processes followed in Greenland in connection with two large-scale mining projects and the different views various actors have regarding these events. How did the deliberative democratic process unfold in Greenland regarding these projects? Was the process followed an effective way to manage these kinds of projects? The article shows that two projects that received a lot of media attention: the 2005 iron ore mine project in Isukasia, and the 2001 TANBREEZ-project to extract rare earth elements, used highly different approaches when it comes to deliberative democracy. In the former case, a limited degree of deliberative democracy was used, while in the latter case, the opposite applies.

  7. Ten years of tuberculosis intervention in Greenland – has it prevented cases of childhood tuberculosis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Birch

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The incidence of tuberculosis (TB disease in Greenland doubled in the 1990s. To combat the increase, national TB interventions were initiated in 2000 and strengthened in 2007. Objective: To determine whether the effect of interventions could be detected, we estimated the TB disease risk among children≤15 years before and after interventions were implemented. Design: For a study cohort, we recruited all children ≤15 years of age included in the Greenlandic Civil Registration System (CRS from 1990 to 2010. The CRS identifier was used to link cohort participants with TB cases identified based on the Greenlandic National TB registry. Bacille Calmette Guerin (BCG vaccination status was identified through year of birth, as BCG was offered to newborns born either before 1991 or after 1996. Years with interventions were defined as 2000–2006 (primary interventions and 2007–2010 (intensified interventions. Risk of TB was estimated using Poisson regression. Results: The study included 35,858 children, of whom 209 had TB disease. The TB disease incidence decreased after interventions were implemented (2007–2010: IRR [incidence rate ratios] 0.62, 95% CI: 0.39–0.95, p=0.03, compared with the 1995–1999 period. The TB disease risk was inversely associated with BCG vaccination (IRR: 0.54, 95% CI: 0.41–0.72, p<0.001. Conclusions: Years with national TB interventions in Greenland, including neonate BCG vaccination, are associated with a lower TB disease incidence among children ≤15 years of age.

  8. Observation Bias Correction Reveals More Rapidly Draining Lakes on the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, Sarah W.; Christoffersen, Poul

    2017-10-01

    Rapid drainage of supraglacial lakes on the Greenland Ice Sheet enables the establishment of surface-to-bed hydrologic connections and subsequent basal water delivery. Estimates of the number and spatial distribution of rapidly draining lakes vary widely, and no study has so far quantified the impact of observation bias due to cloud cover in satellite imagery on reported frequency of rapid lake drainage. To better understand the rapid drainage mechanism, we map and track an average of 515 supraglacial lakes per year in central West Greenland from 2000 to 2015. We test four previously published definitions of rapid lake drainage and find the proportion of rapidly draining lakes to vary from 3% to 38% and to be strongly dependent on observation frequency. We then apply an observation bias correction and test three new drainage criteria, which reveal a bias-corrected rapid drainage probability of 36-45%. When observation bias is addressed, we can also show that lakes above 1,600 m are as likely to drain rapidly as lakes located at lower elevations. We conclude that inconsistent detection methodologies and observation bias have obscured the true frequency of rapidly draining lakes and that the rapid lake drainage mechanism will establish surface-to-bed hydrologic connections at increasing distance from the margin as supraglacial lakes expand inland under climate warming.

  9. Glaciologist studies Greenland snow conditions and helps calibrate CryoSat instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2011-08-01

    GREENLAND—On a typically frigid mid-July day at Summit Station, almost smack in the middle of Greenland, with the temperature hovering around -10°C, Elizabeth Morris and John Sweeny were bundled up against the cold atop their black Ski-Doo snowmobiles, which Morris described as being similar to motorcycles on ski tracks. They drove the vehicles—without yet attaching three wooden sleds that would be pulled during their summer scientific traverse across part of central Greenland—on a practice spin along the perimeter of Summit's groomed, approximately 4600-meter × 60-meter snow runway. One of the longest runways in the world, it lies atop 3.2 kilometers of ice, with the horizon stretching in every direction. Morris, a glaciologist who is a senior associate at the Scott Polar Research Institute at Cambridge University, United Kingdom, and Sweeny, her polar guide, were taking advantage of an unexpected extra day at Summit, a scientific research station sponsored by the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF), before the traverse began. They hoped that the socked-in visibility just a few hours earlier that morning, 16 July, would not be repeated the following day so that a U.S. Air National Guard 109th Airlift Wing C-130 cargo plane would be cleared to fly to Summit from Kangerlussuaq on Greenland's west coast with needed supplies. Morris and Sweeny would load up each sled with about 270 kilograms of gear.

  10. Links Between Acceleration, Melting, and Supraglacial Lake Drainage of the Western Greenland Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, M. J.; Catania, G. A.; Newmann, T. A.; Andrews, L. C.; Rumrill, J. A.

    2012-01-01

    The impact of increasing summer melt on the dynamics and stability of the Greenland Ice Sheet is not fully understood. Mounting evidence suggests seasonal evolution of subglacial drainage mitigates or counteracts the ability of surface runoff to increase basal sliding. Here, we compare subdaily ice velocity and uplift derived from nine Global Positioning System stations in the upper ablation zone in west Greenland to surface melt and supraglacial lake drainage during summer 2007. Starting around day 173, we observe speedups of 6-41% above spring velocity lasting approximately 40 days accompanied by sustained surface uplift at most stations, followed by a late summer slowdown. After initial speedup, we see a spatially uniform velocity response across the ablation zone and strong diurnal velocity variations during periods of melting. Most lake drainages were undetectable in the velocity record, and those that were detected only perturbed velocities for approximately 1 day, suggesting preexisting drainage systems could efficiently drain large volumes of water. The dynamic response to melt forcing appears to 1) be driven by changes in subglacial storage of water that is delivered in diurnal and episodic pulses, and 2) decrease over the course of the summer, presumably as the subglacial drainage system evolves to greater efficiency. The relationship between hydrology and ice dynamics observed is similar to that observed on mountain glaciers, suggesting that seasonally large water pressures under the ice sheet largely compensate for the greater ice thickness considered here. Thus, increases in summer melting may not guarantee faster seasonal ice flow.

  11. Submarine melt rates under Greenland's ice tongues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Nat; Straneo, Fiametta; Heimbach, Patrick; Cenedese, Claudia

    2017-04-01

    The few remaining ice tongues (ice-shelf like extensions) of Greenland's glaciers are undergoing rapid changes with potential implications for the stability of the ice sheet. Submarine melting is recognized as a major contributor to mass loss, yet the magnitude and spatial distribution of melt are poorly known or understood. Here, we use high resolution satellite imagery to infer the magnitude and spatial variability of melt rates under Greenland's largest remaining ice tongues: Ryder Glacier, Petermann Glacier and Nioghalvfjerdsbræ (79 North Glacier). We find that submarine plus aerial melt approximately balance the ice flux from the grounded ice sheet for the first two while at Nioghalvfjerdsbræ the total melt flux exceeds the inflow of ice indicating thinning of the ice tongue. We also show that melt rates under the ice tongues vary considerably, exceeding 60 m yr-1 near the grounding zone and decaying rapidly downstream. Channels, likely originating from upstream subglacial channels, give rise to large melt variations across the ice tongues. Using derived melt rates, we test simplified melt parameterizations appropriate for ice sheet models and find the best agreement with those that incorporate ice tongue geometry in the form of depth and slope.

  12. The recent warming trend in North Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsi, Anais J.; Kawamura, Kenji; Masson-Delmotte, Valerie; Fettweis, Xavier; Box, Jason E.; Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe; Clow, Gary D.; Landais, Amaelle; Severinghaus, Jeffrey P.

    2017-06-01

    The Arctic is among the fastest warming regions on Earth, but it is also one with limited spatial coverage of multidecadal instrumental surface air temperature measurements. Consequently, atmospheric reanalyses are relatively unconstrained in this region, resulting in a large spread of estimated 30 year recent warming trends, which limits their use to investigate the mechanisms responsible for this trend. Here we present a surface temperature reconstruction over 1982-2011 at NEEM (North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling Project, 51°W, 77°N), in North Greenland, based on the inversion of borehole temperature and inert gas isotope data. We find that NEEM has warmed by 2.7 ± 0.33°C over the past 30 years, from the long-term 1900-1970 average of -28.55 ± 0.29°C. The warming trend is principally caused by an increase in downward longwave heat flux. Atmospheric reanalyses underestimate this trend by 17%, underlining the need for more in situ observations to validate reanalyses.

  13. Mass balance of Greenland and the Canadian Ice Caps from combined altimetry and GRACE inversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsberg, René; Simonsen, Sebastian Bjerregaard; Sørensen, Louise Sandberg

    The combination of GRACE and altimetry data may yield a high resolution mass balance time series of the Greenlandice sheet, highlighting the varying individual mass loss behaviour of major glaciers. By including the Canadian arctic ice caps in the estimation, a more reliable estimate of the mass...... loss of both Greenlandand the Canadian ice caps may be obtained, minimizing the leakage errors otherwise unavoidable by GRACE. Actually, the absolute value of the Greenlandice sheet mass loss is highly dependent on methods and how the effects of Arctic Canadian ice caps are separated in the GRACE...... loss of the ice caps and ice sheet basins for the period 2003-15. This period shows a marked increase of ice sheet melt, especially in NW and NE Greenland, but also show large variability, with the melt anomaly year of 2012 showing a record mass loss, followed by 2013 with essentially no Greenland mass...

  14. Investigation and Retrofitting Proposal for a Panbo Type House in Sisimiut, Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qu, Jing; Vladyková, Petra; Villumsen, Arne

    since December 2010. The results of the investigation show that the house has some serious problems influencing proper functions, such as thermal bridges, poor thermal comfort and high energy consumption. A retrofitting plan, including having an additional paper insulation layer and exterior climate......The ‘Blue House’ is a standard family detached house built by Panbo Huse A/S in 1985 in Sisimiut, Greenland. As an old building, it has many problems such as poor thermal comfort and high energy consumption, and therefore, the house has a potential to be retrofitted. The investigation of the ‘Blue...... shield, has been proposed and will be carried out in 2012. Although the blower-door test shows that comparing with the considerably large number of houses built in past times in Greenland, the ‘Blue House’ has a relatively high air tightness, the thermal performance of the house needs to be improved. Due...

  15. Algae Drive Enhanced Darkening of Bare Ice on the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stibal, Marek; Box, Jason E.; Cameron, Karen A.; Langen, Peter L.; Yallop, Marian L.; Mottram, Ruth H.; Khan, Alia L.; Molotch, Noah P.; Chrismas, Nathan A. M.; Calı Quaglia, Filippo; Remias, Daniel; Smeets, C. J. P. Paul; van den Broeke, Michiel R.; Ryan, Jonathan C.; Hubbard, Alun; Tranter, Martyn; van As, Dirk; Ahlstrøm, Andreas P.

    2017-11-01

    Surface ablation of the Greenland ice sheet is amplified by surface darkening caused by light-absorbing impurities such as mineral dust, black carbon, and pigmented microbial cells. We present the first quantitative assessment of the microbial contribution to the ice sheet surface darkening, based on field measurements of surface reflectance and concentrations of light-absorbing impurities, including pigmented algae, during the 2014 melt season in the southwestern part of the ice sheet. The impact of algae on bare ice darkening in the study area was greater than that of nonalgal impurities and yielded a net albedo reduction of 0.038 ± 0.0035 for each algal population doubling. We argue that algal growth is a crucial control of bare ice darkening, and incorporating the algal darkening effect will improve mass balance and sea level projections of the Greenland ice sheet and ice masses elsewhere.

  16. Outbreak of eczema and rhinitis in a group of office workers in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbehøj, Niels E; Agner, Tove; Zimerson, Erik

    2015-01-01

    the office of the Bank of Greenland had a total renovation of the building, including new furniture and carpets. Symptoms developed within the first year after moving back into the renewed buildings. After removal of carpets in the building, symptoms significantly improved. Workers were examined in 2009......INTRODUCTION: Disturbed indoor climate may in some cases be associated with illness. In the present paper, we report the results from a thorough investigation of office workers in Greenland, who developed skin and/or airway problems after moving into renewed offices. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In 2009......: In total, 32 out of 80 workers (40%) developed symptoms; 27 reported eczema, 20 rhinitis and 4 urticaria. Eczema was located on the hands and/or lower arms in 18 workers, on the face in 10 workers and on legs/trunk in 12 workers. After intervention in the office, 22 workers with eczema reported significant...

  17. Initial in Situ Measurements of Perennial Meltwater Storage in the Greenland Firn Aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Lora S.; Miege, Clement; Forster, Richard R.; Brucker, Ludovic

    2014-01-01

    A perennial storage of water in a firn aquifer was discovered in southeast Greenland in 2011. We present the first in situ measurements of the aquifer, including densities and temperatures. Water was present at depths between approx. 12 and 37m and amounted to 18.7 +/- 0.9 kg in the extracted core. The water filled the firn to capacity at approx. 35m. Measurements show the aquifer temperature remained at the melting point, representing a large heat reservoir within the firn. Using model results of liquid water extent and aquifer surface depth from radar measurements, we extend our in situ measurements to the Greenland ice sheet. The estimated water volume is 140 +/- 20 Gt, representing approx. 0.4mm of sea level rise (SLR). It is unknown if the aquifer temporary buffers SLR or contributes to SLR through drainage and/or ice dynamics.

  18. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among the Inuit in Greenland. A comparison between two proposed definitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, P; Gyntelberg, F; Borch-Johnsen, K

    2004-01-01

    AIMS: To estimate the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among Greenland Inuit according to the World Health Organization (WHO) definition and the definition suggested by the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP). METHODS: From 1999 to 2001, 917 adult Inuit participated in a health survey...... in Greenland. The examination included a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio and blood pressure were measured. Plasma glucose, serum insulin, lipids and urine albumin/creatinine ratio were measured. The metabolic syndrome was diagnosed...... according to the WHO criteria 1999 and to the working definition suggested by the NCEP 2001. RESULTS: Using the WHO and the NCEP criteria, 20.7% and 17.9% of the participants had the metabolic syndrome, respectively. There was a moderate agreement between the two definitions, kappa = 0.56 (95% CI 0...

  19. Greenlandic adoptees' psychiatric inpatient contact. A comparative register-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laubjerg, Merete; Petersson, Birgit

    2010-01-01

    and international research stressing that adoptees demonstrate reverse health outcomes. The cohort is in-ward patients (> 24 hours), born between 1973 and 2005. Correlation between various dependent and independent variables are analysed. The research makes different comparative statements of psychiatric admissions......  The aim is to highlight adoptees' and stepchildren's psychiatric contact and diagnoses compared to non-adoptees. The setting is Greenland and the methodology is a comparative in-ward patient register-based study. The background is the Greenlandic tradition for adoption and community child care...... and diagnoses related to adoptees and stepchildren compared to non-adoptees with respect to demographic and socio-economic indicators. The psychiatric data material is collected from 1992 to 2008 and the socio-economic indicators are included from 1996. The findings show, contrary to findings related...

  20. Host choice and West Nile virus infection rates in blood-fed mosquitoes, including members of the Culex pipiens complex, from Memphis and Shelby County, Tennessee, 2002-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Harry M; Aggarwal, Deepak; Apperson, Charles S; Katholi, Charles R; Gordon, Emily; Hassan, Hassan K; Anderson, Michael; Charnetzky, Dawn; McMillen, Larry; Unnasch, Emily A; Unnasch, Thomas R

    2007-01-01

    The source of bloodmeals in 2,082 blood-fed mosquitoes collected from February 2002 through December 2003 in Memphis and surrounding areas of Shelby County, Tennessee were determined. Members of the genus Culex and Anopheles quadrimaculatus predominated in the collections. Members of the Cx. pipiens complex and Cx. restuans were found to feed predominately upon avian hosts, though mammalian hosts made up a substantial proportion of the bloodmeals in these species. No significant difference was seen in the host class of bloodmeals in mosquitoes identified as Cx. pipiens pipiens, Cx. p. quinquefasciatus, or hybrids between these two taxa. Anopheles quadrimaculatus and Cx. erraticus fed primarily upon mammalian hosts. Three avian species (the American Robin, the Common Grackle, and the Northern Cardinal) made up the majority of avian-derived bloodmeals, with the American Robin representing the most frequently fed upon avian host. An analysis of these host feeding data using a modification of a transmission model for Eastern Equine encephalitis virus suggested that the American Robin and Common Grackle represented the most important reservoir hosts for West Nile virus. A temporal analysis of the feeding patterns of the dominant Culex species did not support a shift in feeding behavior away from robins to mammals late in the summer. However, a significant degree of temporal variation was noted in the proportion of robin-derived bloodmeals when the data were analyzed by semi-monthly periods throughout the summers of 2002 and 2003. This pattern was consistent with the hypothesis that the mosquitoes were preferentially feeding upon nesting birds.