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Sample records for west florida shelf

  1. West Florida shelf upwelling: Origins and pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisberg, Robert H.; Zheng, Lianyuan; Liu, Yonggang

    2016-08-01

    Often described as oligotrophic, the west Florida continental shelf supports abundant fisheries, experiences blooms of the harmful alga, Karenia brevis, and exhibits subsurface chlorophyll maxima evident in shipboard and glider surveys. Renewal of inorganic nutrients by the upwelling of deeper ocean water onto the shelf may account for this, but what are the origins and pathways by which such new water may broach the shelf break and advance toward the shoreline? We address these questions via numerical model simulations of pseudo-Lagrangian, isopycnic water parcel trajectories. Focus is on 2010, when the west Florida shelf was subjected to an anomalously protracted period of upwelling caused by Gulf of Mexico Loop Current interactions with the shelf slope. Origins and pathways are determined by integrating trajectories over successive 45 day intervals, beginning from different locations along the shelf break and at various locations and depths along the shelf slope. Waters upwelling across the shelf break are found to originate from relatively shallow depths along the shelf slope. Even for the anomalous 2010 year, much of this upwelling occurs from about 150 m and above, although waters may broach the shelf break from 300 m depth, particularly in the Florida Panhandle. Such interannual renewal of west Florida shelf waters appears to have profound effects on west Florida shelf ecology.

  2. Persistent Transport Barrier on the West Florida Shelf

    CERN Document Server

    Olascoaga, M J; Brand, L E; Brown, M G; Halliwell, G R; Rypina, I I; Shay, L K

    2006-01-01

    Analysis of drifter trajectories in the Gulf of Mexico has revealed the existence of a region on the southern portion of the West Florida Shelf (WFS) that is not visited by drifters that are released outside of the region. This so-called ``forbidden zone'' (FZ) suggests the existence of a persistent cross-shelf transport barrier on the southern portion of the WFS. In this letter a year-long record of surface currents produced by a Hybrid-Coordinate Ocean Model simulation of the WFS is used to identify Lagrangian coherent structures (LCSs), which reveal the presence of a robust and persistent cross-shelf transport barrier in approximately the same location as the boundary of the FZ. The location of the cross-shelf transport barrier undergoes a seasonal oscillation, being closer to the coast in the summer than in the winter. A month-long record of surface currents inferred from high-frequency (HF) radar measurements in a roughly 60 km $\\times$ 80 km region on the WFS off Tampa Bay is also used to identify LCSs,...

  3. West Florida Shelf: A natural laboratory for the study of ocean acidificiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallock, Pamela; Robbins, Lisa L.; Larson, Rebekka A.; Beck, Tanya; Schwing, Patrick; Martinez-Colon, Michael; Gooch, Brad

    2010-01-01

    Declining oceanic pH and carbonate-ion concentrations are well-known consequences of increased atmospheric and surface-ocean partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2). The possible subject of shifts in seawater carbonate chemistry on biocalcification and survival rates of marine organisms provides questions amenable to both experimental and field study (Kleypas and Langdon, 2006). To date, limited quantitative data exist with which to formalize and test hypotheses regarding such impacts, particularly in continental-shelf settings. The continental shelves of Florida provide an ideal natural laboratory in which to test latitudinal (and temperature and depth) shifts in habitat ranges of calcifying organisms. Both the east and west Florida shelves extend from warm temperate to subtropical latitudes; additionally, the west Florida shelf has very little siliciclastic influx to mask the carbonate production. This study utilizes the natural laboratory of the west and southwest Florida shelf (fig 1.1) to examine the transition from foramol (predominately foraminifera and molluscan) carbonate sediments, characteristic of the west-central Florida shelf, to chlorozoan (algal and coral) sediments characteristic of the southwest Florida shelf. The west Florida shelf is a mixed siliciclastic carbonate ramp that to the south transitions to the carbonate-dominated southwest Florida shelf (Enos, 1977; Brooks and others, 2003). The west Florida shelf is a distally steepened carbonate ramp that is ~250 kilometers (km) wide (Read, 1985). It is covered by a veneer of unconsolidated sediment consisting of mainly biogenic carbonate and quartz in the near shore, with subordinate amounts of phosphate. The sediment-distribution pattern is largely a function of proximity to source, with physical processes playing a minor role in distribution. The carbonate sand-and-gravel fraction is produced by organisms within the depositional basin of the west Florida shelf (Brooks and others, 2003). The

  4. Multibeam Mapping of the West Florida Shelf, Gulf of Mexico, Twin Ridges Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XYZ ASCII format high-resolution bathymetry data generated from the 2002 multibeam sonar survey of the West Florida Shelf, Gulf of Mexico.

  5. Backscatter Mapping of the West Florida Shelf (Southern Region), Gulf of Mexico (NODC Accession 0001410)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XYZ ASCII format data generated from the 2001 multibeam sonar survey of the West Florida Shelf, Gulf of Mexico. The data include high-resolution bathymetry and...

  6. Bathymetry Mapping of the West Florida Shelf (Northern Region), Gulf of Mexico (NODC Accession 0001410)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XYZ ASCII format data generated from the 2001 multibeam sonar survey of the West Florida Shelf, Gulf of Mexico. The data include high-resolution bathymetry and...

  7. Backscatter Mapping of the West Florida Shelf (Northern Region), Gulf of Mexico (NODC Accession 0001410)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XYZ ASCII format data generated from the 2001 multibeam sonar survey of the West Florida Shelf, Gulf of Mexico. The data include high-resolution bathymetry and...

  8. Multibeam Mapping of the West Florida Shelf, Gulf of Mexico, Madison Swanson Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XYZ ASCII format high-resolution bathymetry data generated from the 2002 multibeam sonar survey of the West Florida Shelf, Gulf of Mexico.

  9. Bathymetry Mapping of the West Florida Shelf (Steamboat Lumps), Gulf of Mexico (NODC Accession 0001410)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XYZ ASCII format data generated from the 2001 multibeam sonar survey of the West Florida Shelf, Gulf of Mexico. The data include high-resolution bathymetry and...

  10. Backscatter Mapping of the West Florida Shelf (Steamboat Lumps), Gulf of Mexico (NODC Accession 0001410)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XYZ ASCII format data generated from the 2001 multibeam sonar survey of the West Florida Shelf, Gulf of Mexico. The data include high-resolution bathymetry and...

  11. Bathymetry Mapping of the West Florida Shelf (Southern Region), Gulf of Mexico (NODC Accession 0001410)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XYZ ASCII format data generated from the 2001 multibeam sonar survey of the West Florida Shelf, Gulf of Mexico. The data include high-resolution bathymetry and...

  12. Bathymetry Mapping of the West Florida Shelf (Central Region), Gulf of Mexico (NODC Accession 0001410)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XYZ ASCII format data generated from the 2001 multibeam sonar survey of the West Florida Shelf, Gulf of Mexico. The data include high-resolution bathymetry and...

  13. Backscatter Mapping of the West Florida Shelf (Central Region), Gulf of Mexico (NODC Accession 0001410)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XYZ ASCII format data generated from the 2001 multibeam sonar survey of the West Florida Shelf, Gulf of Mexico. The data include high-resolution bathymetry and...

  14. Multibeam mapping of the West Florida Shelf, Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, James V.; Dartnell, Peter; Sulak, Kenneth J.

    2002-01-01

    A zone of deep-water reefs is thought to extend from the mid and outer shelf south of Mississippi and Alabama to at least the northwestern Florida shelf off Panama City, Florida (Figure 1). The reefs off Mississippi and Alabama are found in water depths of 60 to 120 m (Ludwick and Walton, 1957; Gardner et al., 2001, in press) and were the focus of a multibeam echosounder (MBES) mapping survey by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in 2000 (Gardner et al., 2000, Gardner et al., 2001, in press). If this deep-water-reef trend does exist along the northwestern Florida shelf, then it is critical to determine the accurate geomorphology and reef type that occur because of their importance as benthic habitats for fisheries. Georeferenced high-resolution mapping of bathymetry is a fundamental first step in the study of areas suspected to be critical habitats. Morphology is thought to be critical to defining the distribution of dominant demersal plankton/planktivores communities. Fish faunas of shallow hermatypic reefs have been well studied, but those of deep ahermatypic reefs have been relatively ignored. The ecology of deep-water ahermatypic reefs is fundamentally different from hermatypic reefs because autochthonous intracellular symbiotic zooxanthellae (the carbon source for hermatypic corals) do not form the base of the trophic web in ahermatypic reefs. Instead, exogenous plankton, transported to the reef by currents, serves as the primary carbon source. Thus, one of the principle uses of the morphology data will be to identify whether any reefs found are hermatypic or ahermatypic in origin.

  15. Diurnal/Inertial Oscillations on the West Florida Shelf in the Eastern Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksimova, E. V.; Weisberg, R. H.

    2015-12-01

    Oscillations of diurnal/inertial frequency on the West Florida Shelf in the Eastern Gulf of Mexico are thought to be seasonally important for mixing the shelf waters because of their tendency to have large vertical shear and to be quite energetic. Such oscillations are also thought to seasonally affect the ecology of the region through daily vertical thermocline migration. The presentation will focus on some novel findings about the diurnal/inertial coastal current fluctuations based on unique observational and modeled data sets on the West Florida Shelf. The properties of the oscillations, including spatial and temporal characteristics, and mechanisms of generation and propagation will be discussed. This presentation is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation Ocean Sciences Postdoctoral Research Fellowship under Grant OCE-1421180 (E. V. Maksimova).

  16. Bathymetric Survey of the West Florida Shelf, Gulf of Mexico 2001 (NODC Accession 0001410)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A zone of deep-water reefs is thought to extend from the mid and outer shelf south of Mississippi and Alabama to at least the northwestern Florida shelf off Panama...

  17. Surface-water radon-222 distribution along the west-central Florida shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C.G.; Robbins, L.L.

    2012-01-01

    In February 2009 and August 2009, the spatial distribution of radon-222 in surface water was mapped along the west-central Florida shelf as collaboration between the Response of Florida Shelf Ecosystems to Climate Change project and a U.S. Geological Survey Mendenhall Research Fellowship project. This report summarizes the surface distribution of radon-222 from two cruises and evaluates potential physical controls on radon-222 fluxes. Radon-222 is an inert gas produced overwhelmingly in sediment and has a short half-life of 3.8 days; activities in surface water ranged between 30 and 170 becquerels per cubic meter. Overall, radon-222 activities were enriched in nearshore surface waters relative to offshore waters. Dilution in offshore waters is expected to be the cause of the low offshore activities. While thermal stratification of the water column during the August survey may explain higher radon-222 activities relative to the February survey, radon-222 activity and integrated surface-water inventories decreased exponentially from the shoreline during both cruises. By estimating radon-222 evasion by wind from nearby buoy data and accounting for internal production from dissolved radium-226, its radiogenic long-lived parent, a simple one-dimensional model was implemented to determine the role that offshore mixing, benthic influx, and decay have on the distribution of excess radon-222 inventories along the west Florida shelf. For multiple statistically based boundary condition scenarios (first quartile, median, third quartile, and maximum radon-222 inshore of 5 kilometers), the cross-shelf mixing rates and average nearshore submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) rates varied from 100.38 to 10-3.4 square kilometers per day and 0.00 to 1.70 centimeters per day, respectively. This dataset and modeling provide the first attempt to assess cross-shelf mixing and SGD on such a large spatial scale. Such estimates help scale up SGD rates that are often made at 1- to 10-meter

  18. Observing Red Tide Algal Blooms From Satellite Ocean Color Imagery: West Florida Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, E. T.; Jose, F.

    2016-12-01

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) from Karenia brevis occur along the west Florida shelf (WFS) almost every year, producing a brevetoxin that is harmful to birds, fish, marine mammals, shellfish, and humans. These HABs are commonly known as "red tide" from the reddish discoloration in the water, but color can vary from yellow to deep brown depending on other parameters. Ocean color data is a viable tool for monitoring the outbreak and persistence of these ecological phenomena. Also, the spatial extend of this outbreak could be evaluated effectively from satellite imagery. Chlorophyll (Chl) and sea surface temperature (SST) data from four satellites during the period from 2010 to 2013 were analyzed, and compared the monthly composite data with in situ observation on K. brevis cell counts collected by the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission (FWC). Remote sensing data were extracted from the NASA Ocean Color data servers and were processed using WimSoft, a Windows-based remote sensing data analysis program. Based on the comparison of data from 26 transects from the WFS, which were extended from nearshore to 400 km offshore, highest Chl concentrations were observed in the sector from St. Petersburg to Sanibel Island. FWC data also showed that highest K. brevis cell counts were concentrated in this region during the 2011 to 2012 period. Additionally, a high Chl concentration was observed for the Big Bend region, particularly during the spring and early summer. The inter-annual variability of Chl, SST, and red tide occurrence are also discussed in this study.

  19. Winds on the West Florida Shelf: Regional comparisons between observations and model estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Dennis A.; Weisberg, Robert H.; Zheng, Lianyuan; Liu, Yonggang

    2017-02-01

    Wind fields on the West Florida Continental Shelf are investigated using observations from five University of South Florida Coastal Ocean Monitoring and Prediction System buoys and seven of NOAA's National Ocean Service and National Weather Service, National Data Buoy Center stations or buoys spanning the 10 year period, 2004-2013. These observations are compared with NOAA's National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis wind fields (NCEP winds). The analyses consist of vector correlations in both the time and frequency domains. The primary findings are that winds observed on and near the coastline underestimate those observed offshore and that NCEP winds derived from assimilating mostly land-based observations also underestimate winds observed offshore. With regard to wind stress, and depending upon location, wind stress derived from NCEP winds are 6%-49% lower than what is computed from observations over open water. A corollary is that wind forcing fields that are underestimated may result in coastal ocean model circulation fields that are also underestimated. These analyses stress the importance of having offshore wind observations, and suggest that adding more offshore wind observations will lead to improved coastal ocean wind fields and hence to improved model renditions of coastal ocean model circulation and related water property fields.

  20. Offshore forcing on the "pressure point" of the West Florida Shelf: Anomalous upwelling and its influence on harmful algal blooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yonggang; Weisberg, Robert H.; Lenes, Jason M.; Zheng, Lianyuan; Hubbard, Katherine; Walsh, John J.

    2016-08-01

    Gulf of Mexico Loop Current (LC) interactions with the West Florida Shelf (WFS) slope play an important role in shelf ecology through the upwelling of new inorganic nutrients across the shelf break. This is particularly the case when the LC impinges upon the shelf slope in the southwest portion of the WFS near the Dry Tortugas. By contacting shallow water isobaths at this "pressure point" the LC forcing sets the entire shelf into motion. Characteristic patterns of LC interactions with the WFS and their occurrences are identified using unsupervised neural network, self-organizing map, from 23 years (1993-2015) of altimetry data. The duration of the occurrences of such LC patterns is used as an indicator of offshore forcing of anomalous upwelling. Consistency is found between the altimetry-derived offshore forcing and the occurrence and severity of WFS coastal blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis: years without major blooms tend to have prolonged LC contact at the "pressure point," whereas years with major blooms tend not to have prolonged offshore forcing. Resetting the nutrient state of the shelf by the coastal ocean circulation in response to deep-ocean forcing demonstrates the importance of physical oceanography in shelf ecology. A satellite altimetry-derived seasonal predictor for major K. brevis blooms is also proposed.

  1. Phytoplankton response to intrusions of slope water on the West Florida Shelf: Models and observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, John J.; Weisberg, Robert H.; Dieterle, Dwight A.; He, Ruoying; Darrow, Brian P.; Jolliff, Jason K.; Lester, Kristen M.; Vargo, Gabriel A.; Kirkpatrick, Gary J.; Fanning, Kent A.; Sutton, Tracey T.; Jochens, Ann E.; Biggs, Douglas C.; Nababan, Bisman; Hu, Chuanmin; Muller-Karger, Frank E.

    2003-06-01

    Previous hypotheses had suggested that upwelled intrusions of nutrient-rich Gulf of Mexico slope water onto the West Florida Shelf (WFS) led to formation of red tides of Karenia brevis. However, coupled biophysical models of (1) wind- and buoyancy-driven circulation, (2) three phytoplankton groups (diatoms, K. brevis, and microflagellates), (3) these slope water supplies of nitrate and silicate, and (4) selective grazing stress by copepods and protozoans found that diatoms won in one 1998 case of no light limitation by colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM). The diatoms lost to K. brevis during another CDOM case of the models. In the real world, field data confirmed that diatoms were indeed the dominant phytoplankton after massive upwelling in 1998, when only a small red tide of K. brevis was observed. Over a 7-month period of the CDOM-free scenario the simulated total primary production of the phytoplankton community was ˜1.8 g C m-2 d-1 along the 40-m isobath of the northern WFS, with the largest accumulation of biomass on the Florida Middle Ground (FMG). Despite such photosynthesis, these models of the WFS yielded a net source of CO2 to the atmosphere during spring and summer and suggested a small sink in the fall. With diatom losses of 90% of their daily carbon fixation to herbivores the simulation supported earlier impressions of a short, diatom-based food web on the FMG, where organic carbon content of the surficial sediments is tenfold those of the surrounding seabeds. Farther south, the simulated near-bottom pools of ammonium were highest in summer, when silicon regeneration was minimal, leading to temporary Si limitation of the diatoms. Termination of these upwelled pulses of production by diatoms and nonsiliceous microflagellates mainly resulted from nitrate exhaustion in the model, however, mimicking most del15PON observations in the field. Yet, the CDOM-free case of the models failed to replicate the observed small red tide in December 1998, tagged

  2. Neural network retrievals of Karenia brevis harmful algal blooms in the West Florida Shelf (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Samir; El-Habashi, Ahmed

    2016-10-01

    Effective detection and tracking of Karenia brevis Harmful Algal Blooms (KB HAB) that frequently plague the coasts and beaches of the West Florida Shelf (WFS) is important because of their negative impacts on ecology. They pose threats to fisheries, human health, and directly affect tourism and local economies. Detection and tracking capabilities are needed for use with the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) satellite, so that HABs monitoring capabilities, which previously relied on imagery from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Aqua, can be extended to VIIRS. Unfortunately, VIIRS, unlike its predecessor MODIS-A, does not have a 678 nm channel to detect chlorophyll fluorescence, which is used in the normalized fluorescence height (nFLH) algorithm, or in the Red Band Difference (RBD) algorithm. Both these techniques have demonstrated that the remote sensing reflectance signal from the MODIS-A fluorescence band (Rrs 678 nm) helps in effectively detecting and tracking KB HABs in the WFS. To overcome the lack of a fluorescence channel on VIIRS, the approach described here, bypasses the need for measurements at 678nm, and permits extension of KB HABs satellite monitoring to VIIRS. The essence of the approach is the application of a standard multiband neural network (NN) inversion algorithm, previously developed and reported by us, that takes VIIRS Rrs measurements at the 486, 551 and 671nm bands as inputs, and produces as output the related Inherent Optical Properties (IOPs), namely: absorption coefficients of phytoplankton (aph443) dissolved organic matter (ag) and non-algal particulates (adm) as well as the particulate backscatter coefficient, (bbp) all at 443nm. We next need to relate aph443 in the VIIRS NN retrieved image to equivalent KB HABs concentrations. To do this, we apply additional constraints, defined by (i) low backscatter manifested as a maximum Rrs551 value and (ii) a minimum [Chla] threshold (and hence an equivalent

  3. Isolation on the West Florida Shelf with implications for red tides and pollutant dispersal in the Gulf of Mexico

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    M. J. Olascoaga

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of year-long drifter trajectories and records of simulated surface Lagrangian Coherent Structures (LCSs have suggested the presence of a resilient Cross-Shelf Transport Barrier (CSTB on the West Florida Shelf (WFS. The CSTB was conjectured to provide a large degree of isolation, which is consequential for the fueling of red tides on the southern WFS by nutrients possibly released by rivers and canals directly on the region. Here this conjecture is thoroughly tested by identifying LCSs as well as performing tracer advection calculations based on seven-year-long records of surface and subsurface currents produced by a HYbrid-Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM simulation of the Gulf of Mexico (GoM. The identified LCSs suggest that the CSTB extends downward in the water column. The tracer calculations suggest that, while the majority of the nutrients possibly released by rivers and canals directly on the southern WFS are retained within the region for long times, only a small fraction of the nutrients possibly released by rivers outside the WFS reach the southern WFS, mainly accompanying shoreward excursions of the CSTB. These results add importance to the role played by the CSTB in controlling red tide development on the WFS. Implications of the results for the dispersal of pollutants, such as oil, in the GoM are discussed.

  4. The west-central Florida inner shelf and coastal system: A geologic conceptual overview and introduction to the special issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hine, A.C.; Brooks, G.R.; Davis, R.A.; Duncan, D.S.; Locker, S.D.; Twichell, D.C.; Gelfenbaum, G.

    2003-01-01

    This paper provides an overview for this special publication on the geologic framework of the inner shelf and coastal zone of west-central Florida. This is a significant geologic setting in that it lies at the center of an ancient carbonate platform facing an enormous ramp that has exerted large-scale control on coastal geomorphology, the availability of sediments, and the level of wave energy. In order to understand the Holocene geologic history of this depositional system, a regional study defined by natural boundaries (north end of a barrier island to the apex of a headland) was undertaken by a group of government and university coastal geologists using a wide variety of laboratory and field techniques. It is the purpose of this introductory paper to define the character of this coastal/inner shelf system, provide a historical geologic perspective and background of environmental information, define the overall database, present the collective objectives of this regional study, and very briefly present the main aspects of each contribution. Specific conclusions are presented at the end of each paper composing this volume. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Environmental conditions and catch rates of predatory fishes associated with a mass mortality on the West Florida Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driggers, W. B.; Campbell, M. D.; Debose, A. J.; Hannan, K. M.; Hendon, M. D.; Martin, T. L.; Nichols, C. C.

    2016-01-01

    While conducting a standardized fisheries-independent longline survey in the northern Gulf of Mexico on August 20-21, 2014, dead and/or moribund fishes, estimated to number in the thousands, were observed within a well-defined area of the West Florida Shelf. Fishes from 15 families were identified; however, numerous individuals of relatively large-bodied serranid species were decomposed beyond a state that would allow for identification below the family level. Based on survey catch data from previous years and morphological characteristics associated with the decomposing fishes, it was determined that most of the large unidentified fishes were red grouper (Epinephelus morio). Water profiler cast data collected within the area demonstrated that when compared to previous years (1995-2013) bottom temperature and salinity were consistent with what would be expected; however, dissolved oxygen concentration was lower than normal, and in some cases, hypoxic and chlorophyll a and transmissivity values were anomalously high and low, respectively. Hypoxia, high chlorophyll a concentrations and low transmissivity are thought to have resulted from a bloom of Karenia brevis, which was documented to have occurred in close proximity to the sampling area. As necropsies were not performed, it was not possible to state a definitive cause of death as the effects of brevetoxins are species-specific. However, numerous individuals of most impacted species were observed floating incapacitated, yet alive, in normoxic surface waters suggesting that the impacts we observed were due to the neurotoxicological and/or hemolytic effects of a harmful algal bloom.

  6. Harmful Algal Blooms of the West Florida Shelf and Campeche Bank: Visualization and Quantification using Remote Sensing Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto Ramos, Inia Mariel

    Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) are natural phenomena that can have negative impacts on marine ecosystems on which human health and the economy of some Gulf States depends. Many of the HABs in the GOM are dominated by the toxic dinoflagellate Karenia brevis. Non-toxic phytoplankton taxa such as Scrippsiella sp. also form intense blooms off the Mexican coast that result in massive fish mortality and economic losses, particularly as they may lead to anoxia. The main objectives of this dissertation were to (1) evaluate and improve the techniques developed for detection of Karenia spp. blooms on the West Florida Shelf (WFS) using satellite remote sensing methods, (2) test the use of these methods for waters in the GOM, and (3) use the output of these techniques to better understand the dynamics and evolution of Karenia spp. blooms in the WFS and off Mexico. The first chapter of this dissertation examines the performance of several Karenia HABs detection techniques using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite images and historical ground truth observations collected on the WFS from August 2002 to December 2011. A total of 2323 in situ samples collected by the Florida Fish and Wildlife Research Institute to test for Karenia spp. matched pixels with valid ocean color satellite observations over this period. This dataset was used to systematically optimize variables and coefficients used in five published HAB detection methods. Each technique was tested using a set of metrics that included the F-Measure (FM). Before optimization, the average FM for all techniques was 0.47. After optimization, the average FM increased to 0.59, and false positives decreased ~50%. The addition of a Fluorescence Line Height (FLH) criterion improved the performance of every method. A new practical method was developed using a combination of FLH and Remote Sensing Reflectance at 555 nm (Rrs555-FLH). The new method resulted in an FM of 0.62 and 3

  7. An investigation of submarine groundwater-borne nutrient fluxes to the west Florida shelf and recurrent harmful algal blooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Christopher G.; Swarzenski, Peter W.

    2012-01-01

    A cross-shelf, water-column mass balance of radon-222 (222Rn) provided estimates of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD), which were then used to quantify benthic nutrient fluxes. Surface water and groundwater were collected along a shore-normal transect that extended from Tampa Bay, Florida, across the Pinellas County peninsula, to the 10-m isobath in the Gulf of Mexico. Samples were analyzed for 222Rn and radium-223,224,226 (223,224,226Ra) activities as well as inorganic and organic nutrients. Cross-shore gradients of 222Rn and 223,224,226Ra activities indicate a nearshore source for these isotopes, which mixes with water characterized by low activities offshore. Radon-based SGD rates vary between 2.5 and 15 cm d-1 proximal to the shoreline and decrease offshore. The source of SGD is largely shallow exchange between surface and pore waters, although deeper groundwater cycling may also be important. Enrichment of total dissolved nitrogen and soluble reactive phosphorus in pore water combined with SGD rates results in specific nutrient fluxes comparable to or greater than estuarine fluxes from Tampa Bay. The significance of these fluxes to nearshore blooms of Karenia brevis is highlighted by comparison with prescribed nutrient demands for bloom maintenance and growth. Whereas our flux estimates do not indicate SGD and benthic fluxes as the dominant nutrient source to the harmful algal blooms, SGD-derived loads do narrow the deficit between documented nutrient supplies and bloom demands.

  8. Exploration of the West Florida Shelf Blue Holes Investigation of Physical and Biological Characteristics and Archaeological Implications of Unique Karst Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culter, J. K.

    2006-12-01

    The west Florida continental shelf is nearly as large as peninsular Florida and embraces a vast mosaic of marine habitats. The dominant shelf habitats have been described and studied to some degree. However, the offshore submerged sinkhole and spring features (blue holes) have not been scientifically described or studied, with the exception of one site called the Mudhole, a saltwater spring off Ft. Myers Beach. These features are relatively small habitats by standards of aerial coverage, but are probably more common than previously thought. These habitats are very unique shelf features, a reef in reverse, representing island habitats on the Florida shelf. This study was initiated in summer 2005 to describe the biota associated with the offshore blue hole features of this region and search for new sites. Eleven sites off the west central Florida coast have been verified and data has been collected at eight locations, all greater than 30 miles offshore. Most blue holes exhibit similar structural features, which divide the biota into zones. Pelagic species, such as amberjack, occupy the water column above the holes and reef species populate the rim. All of the sites investigated harbor one or more goliath grouper (Epinephelus itajara) and most of the features have resident nurse sharks (Ginglymostoma cirratum). Pelagic sharks periodically visit the sites and sea turtles are frequently observed at or near the holes. Whale sharks (Rhincodon typus) also seem to have an affinity for these features. The reef fauna that occupy the rim rapidly decline in abundance and diversity deeper into the holes with the deepest fauna being calcareous tube dwelling polychaetes that grow down to the edges of the hydrogen sulfide layer. There is pronounced temperature stratification within all holes. All of the sites investigated to date are relatively deep, by standards of recreational scuba diving, and divers utilized open circuit trimix to conduct the investigations. The key components

  9. USGS field activities 11BHM03 and 11BHM04 on the west Florida shelf, Gulf of Mexico, September and November 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Lisa L.; Knorr, Paul O.; Daly, Kendra L.; Barrera, Kira E.

    2014-01-01

    During September and November 2011 the (USGS), in cooperation with (USF), conducted geochemical surveys on the west Florida Shelf to investigate the effects of climate change on ocean acidification within the northern Gulf of Mexico, specifically, the effect of ocean acidification on marine organisms and habitats. The first cruise was conducted from September 20 to 28 (11BHM03) and the second was from November 2 to 4 (11BHM04). To view each cruise's survey lines, please see the Trackline page. Each cruise took place aboard the Research Vessel (R/V) Weatherbird II, a ship of opportunity led by Dr. Kendra Daly (USF), which departed from and returned to Saint Petersburg, Florida. Data collection included sampling of the surface and water column with lab analysis of pH, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) or total carbon dioxide (TCO2), and total alkalinity (TA). lLb analysis was augmented with a continuous flow-through system (referred to as sonde data) with a conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) sensor, which also recorded salinity and pH. Corroborating the USGS data are the vertical CTD profiles (referred to as station samples) collected by USF. The CTD casts measured continuous vertical profiles of oxygen, chlorophyll fluorescence and optical backscatter. Discrete samples for nutrients, chlorophyll, and particulate organic carbon/nitrogen were also collected during the CTD casts. Two autonomous flow-through (AFT) instruments recorded pH and CO2 every 3-5 minutes on each cruise (referred to as AFT data).

  10. USGS field activities 11BHM01 and 11BHM02 on the west Florida shelf, Gulf of Mexico, May and June 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Lisa L.; Knorr, Paul O.; Daly, Kendra L.; Taylor, Carl A.; Barrera, Kira E.

    2014-01-01

    During May and June 2011 the (USGS), in cooperation with (USF), conducted geochemical surveys on the west Florida Shelf to investigate the effects of climate change on ocean acidification within the northern Gulf of Mexico, specifically, the effect of ocean acidification on marine organisms and habitats. The first cruise was conducted from May 3 to 9 (11BHM01) and the second was from June 25 to 30 (11BHM02). To view each cruise's survey lines, please see the Trackline page. Each cruise took place aboard the Research Vessel (R/V) Weatherbird II, a ship of opportunity led by Dr. Kendra Daly (USF), which departed from and returned to Saint Petersburg, Florida. Data collection included sampling of the surface and water column with lab analysis of pH, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) or total carbon dioxide (TCO2), and total alkalinity (TA). lLb analysis was augmented with a continuous flow-through system (referred to as sonde data) with a conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) sensor, which also recorded salinity and pH. Corroborating the USGS data are the vertical CTD profiles (referred to as station samples) collected by USF. The CTD casts measured continuous vertical profiles of oxygen, chlorophyll fluorescence and optical backscatter. Discrete samples for nutrients, chlorophyll, and particulate organic carbon/nitrogen were also collected during the CTD casts. Two autonomous flow-through (AFT) instruments recorded pH and CO2 every 3-5 minutes on each cruise (referred to as AFT data).

  11. Southwest Florida Shelf Ecosystems Analysis Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Southwest Florida Shelf Ecosystems Analysis Study produced grain size analyses in the historic 073 format for 299 sea floor samples collected from October 25,...

  12. Isotopic evidence for dead fish maintenance of Florida red tides, with implications for coastal fisheries over both source regions of the West Florida shelf and within downstream waters of the South Atlantic Bight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, J. J.; Weisberg, R. H.; Lenes, J. M.; Chen, F. R.; Dieterle, D. A.; Zheng, L.; Carder, K. L.; Vargo, G. A.; Havens, J. A.; Peebles, E.; Hollander, D. J.; He, R.; Heil, C. A.; Mahmoudi, B.; Landsberg, J. H.

    2009-01-01

    Toxic Florida red tides of the dinoflagellate Kareniabrevis have downstream consequences of 500-1000 km spatial extent. Fish stocks, shellfish beds, and harmful algal blooms of similar species occupy the same continental shelf waters of the southeastern United States, amounting to economic losses of more than 25 million dollars in some years. Under the aegis of the Center for Prediction of Red tides, we are now developing coupled biophysical models of the conditions that lead to red tides and impacted coastal fisheries, from the Florida Panhandle to Cape Hatteras. Here, a nitrogen isotope budget of the coastal food web of the West Florida shelf (WFS) and the downstream South Atlantic Bight (SAB) reaffirms that diazotrophs are the initial nutrient source for onset of red tides and now identifies clupeid fish as the major recycled nutrient source for their maintenance. The recent isotope budget of WFS and SAB coastal waters during 1998-2001 indicates that since prehistoric times of Timacua Indian settlements along the Georgia coast during 1075, ∼50% of the nutrients required for large red tides of >1 μg chl l -1 of K.brevis have been derived from nitrogen-fixers, with the other half from decomposing dead sardines and herrings. During 2001, >90% of the harvest of WFS clupeids was by large ichthyotoxic red tides of >10 μg chl l -1 of K.brevis, rather than by fishermen. After onset of the usual red tides in summer of 2006 and 2007, the simulated subsequent fall exports of Florida red tides in September 2007 to North Carolina shelf waters replicate observations of just ∼1 μg chl l -1 on the WFS that year. In contrast, the earlier red tides of >10 μg chl l -1 left behind off West Florida during 2006, with less physical export, are instead 10-fold larger than those of 2007. Earlier, 55 fish kills were associated with these coastal red tides during September 2006, between Tampa and Naples. Yet, only six fish kills were reported there in September 2007. With little

  13. Satellite Retrievals of Karenia brevis Harmful Algal Blooms in the West Florida Shelf Using Neural Networks and Comparisons with Other Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed El-habashi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We describe the application of a Neural Network (NN previously developed by us, to the detection and tracking, of Karenia brevis Harmful Algal Blooms (KB HABs that plague the coasts of the West Florida Shelf (WFS using Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS satellite observations. Previous approaches for the detection of KB HABs in the WFS primarily used observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Aqua (MODIS-A satellite. They depended on the remote sensing reflectance signal at the 678 nm chlorophyll fluorescence band (Rrs678 needed for both the normalized fluorescence height (nFLH and Red Band Difference algorithms (RBD currently used. VIIRS which has replaced MODIS-A, unfortunately does not have a 678 nm fluorescence channel so we customized the NN approach to retrieve phytoplankton absorption at 443 nm (aph443 using only Rrs measurements from existing VIIRS channels at 486, 551 and 671 nm. The aph443 values in these retrieved VIIRS images, can in turn be correlated to chlorophyll-a concentrations [Chla] and KB cell counts. To retrieve KB values, the VIIRS NN retrieved aph443 images are filtered by applying limiting constraints, defined by (i low backscatter at Rrs 551 nm and (ii a minimum aph443 value known to be associated with KB HABs in the WFS. The resulting filtered residual images, are then used to delineate and quantify the existing KB HABs. Comparisons with KB HABs satellite retrievals obtained using other techniques, including nFLH, as well as with in situ measurements reported over a four year period, confirm the viability of the NN technique, when combined with the filtering constraints devised, for effective detection of KB HABs.

  14. A 1-D simulation analysis of the development and maintenance of the 2001 red tide of the ichthyotoxic dinoflagellate Karenia brevis on the West Florida shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenes, J. M.; Darrow, B. P.; Walsh, J. J.; Jolliff, J. K.; Chen, F. R.; Weisberg, R. H.; Zheng, L.

    2012-06-01

    A one-dimensional (1-D) ecological model, HABSIM, examined the initiation and maintenance of the 2001 red tide on the West Florida shelf (WFS). Phytoplankton competition among toxic dinoflagellates (Karenia brevis), nitrogen fixing cyanophytes (Trichodesmium erythraeum), large siliceous phytoplankton (diatoms), and small non-siliceous phytoplankton (microflagellates) explored the sequence of events required to support the observed red tide from August to December 2001. The ecological model contained 24 state variables within five submodels: circulation, atmospheric (iron deposition), bio-optics, pelagic (phytoplankton, nutrients, bacteria, zooplankton, and fish), and benthic (nutrient regeneration). The 2001 model results reaffirmed that diazotrophs are the basis for initiation of red tides of K. brevis on the WFS. A combination of selective grazing pressure, iron fertilization, low molar nitrogen to phosphorus ratios, and eventual silica limitation of fast-growing diatoms set the stage for dominance of nitrogen fixers. "New" nitrogen was made available for subsequent blooms of K. brevis through the release of ammonium and urea during nitrogen fixation, as well as during cell lysis, by the Trichodesmium population. Once K. brevis biomass reached ichthyotoxic levels, rapid decay of subsequent fish kills supplied additional organic nutrients for utilization by these opportunistic toxic algae. Both nutrient vectors represented organic non-siliceous sources of nitrogen and phosphorus, further exacerbating silica limitation of the diatom population. The model reproduced this spring transition from a simple estuarine-driven, diatom-based food chain to a complex summer-fall system of Trichodesmium and toxic dinoflagellates. While the model was able to replicate the initiation and maintenance of the 2001 red tide, bloom termination was not captured by this 1-D form on the WFS. Here, horizontal advection and perhaps cell lysis loss terms might play a significant role, to be

  15. 2006 Multibeam Mapping of cross-shelf corridor, North of Madison-Swanson - Florida

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This disk or set of disks contain high-resolution multibeam and backscatter maps of an area North of Madison-Swanson (29.1667N, 85.6667W), in the West-Florida shelf,...

  16. Paleogeographic Study of the West Florida Panhandle Coast and Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, J. L.; Donoghue, J. F.; Niedoroda, A. W.; Hatchett, L.; Clark, R. R.

    2001-12-01

    The dominant factors in the evolution of a passive margin shelf and coast are sea-level change and fluvial-marine sediment transport processes. On many U.S. coasts, beach nourishment sand has become an increasingly scarce and expensive resource. A regional sand search has recently been undertaken to identify offshore targets for beach nourishment sand along the western Florida Panhandle coast. A major task of the project has been the development of a conceptual model for finding potential nourishment sand. The modeling work has involved the collection of existing data, including published literature, sediment samples, sub-bottom seismic data, and paleogeographic analyses. Paleogeography was recognized as a potentially powerful tool for use in identifying shelf sand bodies, because they are products of sea-level change and shelf evolution. As part of the project, a more detailed study has been undertaken to acquire and assemble all available paleogeographic and paleoshoreline data for the western Florida shelf. These data include studies of the Quaternary paleogeography of the Panhandle coast, still-stand paleoshorelines, high-resolution bathymetry, global and eustatic sea-level curves, beach ridge systems, coastal river and inlet retreat paths, and barrier island evolution. The data have been compiled into a Geographic Information System (GIS) database from which maps of the shelf paleogeography can be created, representing selected periods in the Quaternary evolution of the West Florida Panhandle coast and margin.

  17. Temperature, salinity and fluorometry profile data from CTD casts from the west Florida shelf during the ECOHAB program, 1998-1999 (NODC Accession 0000540)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The USF, College of Marine Science, Ocean Circulation Group under the direction of Dr. R.H. Weisberg is maintaining an array of moored instruments on the west...

  18. Neural network algorithms for retrieval of harmful algal blooms in the west Florida shelf from VIIRS satellite observations and comparisons with other techniques, without the need for a fluorescence channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-habashi, A.; Ahmed, S.

    2015-10-01

    New approaches are described that use of the Ocean Color Remote Sensing Reflectance readings (OC Rrs) available from the existing Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) bands to detect and retrieve Karenia brevis (KB) Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) that frequently plague the coasts of the West Florida Shelf (WFS). Unfortunately, VIIRS, unlike MODIS, does not have a 678 nm channel to detect Chlorophyll fluorescence, which is used with MODIS in the normalized fluorescence height (nFLH) algorithm which has been shown to help in effectively detecting and tracking KB HABs. We present here the use of neural network (NN) algorithms for KB HABS retrievals in the WFS. These NNs, previously reported by us, were trained, using a wide range of suitably parametrized synthetic data typical of coastal waters, to form a multiband inversion algorithm which models the relationship between Rrs values at the 486, 551 and 671nm VIIRS bands against the values of phytoplankton absorption (aph), CDOM absorption (ag), non-algal particles (NAP) absorption (aNAP) and the particulate backscattering bbp coefficients, all at 443nm, and permits retrievals of these parameters. We use the NN to retrieve aph443 in the WFS. The retrieved aph443 values are then filtered by applying known limiting conditions on minimum Chlorophyll concentration [Chla] and low backscatter properties associated with KB HABS in the WFS, thereby identifying, delineating and quantifying the aph443 values, and hence [Chl] concentrations representing KB HABS. Comparisons with in-situ measurements and other techniques including MODIS nFLH confirm the viability of both the NN retrievals and the filtering approaches devised.

  19. 75 FR 17463 - Key West Bank, Key West, Florida; Notice of Appointment of Receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision Key West Bank, Key West, Florida; Notice of Appointment of Receiver Notice... sole Receiver for Key West Bank, Key West, Florida, (OTS No. 14929) on March 26, 2010. Dated: March...

  20. Key West, Florida Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Key West, Florida Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model. MOST...

  1. Deep ocean exchange with west-European shelf seas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Huthnance

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available We review mechanisms and studies of exchange between the north-east Atlantic and the adjacent shelf sea. Mechanisms include: well-developed summer upwelling and associated filaments off Portugal and north-west Spain giving exchange O(3 m2/s per unit length of shelf; prevailing westerly winds further north driving exchange O(1 m2/s; poleward flow along most of the upper slope with associated secondary circulation O(1 m2/s; meanders and eddies in this poleward flow; eddies shed from slope waters into the Bay of Biscay; local exchanges at shelf spurs and depressions or canyons (e.g. dense-water cascading of order 1 m2/s. Tidal transports are larger; their reversal every six hours makes exchange largely ineffective except where internal tides are large and non-linear, as in the Celtic Sea where solitons carry water with exchange O(1 m2/s. These various physical exchanges amount to an estimated 2–3 m2/s per unit length of shelf, between ocean and shelf; a numerical model estimate is comparable: 2.5×106 m3/s onto and off the shelf from Brittany to Norway. Mixing controls the seasonal thermocline, affecting primary production and hence fluxes and fate of organic matter. Specifically, CO2 take-up by primary production, settling below the thermocline before respiration, and then off-shelf transport, make an effective shelf-sea "pump" (for CO2 from the atmosphere to the deep ocean. However, knowledge of biogeochemical fluxes is generally sparse; there is scope for more measurements, model validation and estimates from models.

  2. Deep ocean exchange with west-European shelf seas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Huthnance

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We review mechanisms and studies of exchange between the north-east Atlantic and the adjacent shelf seas. Well-developed summer upwelling and associated filaments off Portugal and north-west Spain give exchange O(3 m2/s per unit length of shelf. Prevailing westerly winds further north drive exchange O(1 m2/s. Poleward flow along most of the upper slope has associated secondary circulation O(1 m2/s, meanders and eddies. Eddies are shed from slope waters into the Bay of Biscay, and local exchanges occur at shelf spurs and depressions or canyons (e.g. dense-water cascading of order 1 m2/s. Tidal transports are larger, but their reversal every six hours makes exchange largely ineffective except where internal tides are large and non-linear, as in the Celtic Sea where solitons carry water with exchange O(1 m2/s. These various physical exchanges amount to an estimated 2–3 m2/s per unit length of shelf, between ocean and shelf. A numerical model estimate is comparable: 2.5×106 m3/s onto and off the shelf from Brittany to Norway. Mixing controls the seasonal thermocline, affecting primary production and hence fluxes and fate of organic matter. Specifically, CO2 take-up by primary production, settling below the thermocline before respiration, and then off-shelf transport, make an effective shelf-sea "pump" (for CO2 from the atmosphere to the deep ocean. However, knowledge of biogeochemical fluxes is generally sparse, giving scope for more measurements, model validation and estimates from models.

  3. Polychaete community structure of Indian west coast shelf, Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joydas, T.V.; Jayalakshmy, K.V.; Damodaran, R.

    CURRENT SCIENCE, VOL. 97, NO. 5, 10 SEPTEMBER 2009 634 Polychaete community structure of Indian west coast shelf, Arabian Sea Ellis 1 introduced the concept of taxono- mic sufficiency (TS) in which identifica- tion is required only to the level... the effects of pollution on marine communities. As TS moves progressively to species, costs, in terms of the expertise and time needed to identify organisms, decrease 4 . It is quicker and easier to train personnel to sort higher taxonomic levels than...

  4. Impacts of combined overfishing and oil spills on the plankton trophodynamics of the West Florida shelf over the last half century of 1965-2011: A two-dimensional simulation analysis of biotic state transitions, from a zooplankton- to a bacterioplankton-modulated ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, J. J.; Lenes, J. M.; Darrow, B.; Parks, A.; Weisberg, R. H.

    2016-03-01

    Over 50 years of multiple anthropogenic perturbations, Florida zooplankton stocks of the northeastern Gulf of Mexico declined ten-fold, with increments of mainly dominant toxic dinoflagellate harmful algal blooms (HABs), rather than diatoms, and a shift in loci of nutrient remineralization and oxygen depletion by bacterioplankton, from the sea floor to near surface waters. Yet, lytic bacterial biomass and associated ammonification only increased at most five-fold over the same time period, with consequently little indication of new, expanded "dead zones" of diatom-induced hypoxia. After bacterial lysis of intact cells of these increased HABs, the remaining residues of zooplankton biomass decrements evidently instead exited the water column as malign aerosolized HAB asthma triggers, correlated by co-traveling mercury aerosols, within wind-borne sea sprays. To unravel the causal mechanisms of these inferred decadal food web transitions, a 36-state variable plankton model of algal, bacterial, protozoan, and copepod component communities replicated daily time series of each plankton group's representatives on the West Florida shelf (WFS) during 1965-2011. At the lower phytoplankton trophic levels, 52% of the ungrazed HAB increments, between 1965-1967 and 2001-2002 before recent oil spills, remained in the water column to kill fishes and fuel bacterioplankton. But, another 48% of the WFS primary production then left the ocean's surface as a harbinger of increased public health hazards during continuing sea spray exports of salts, HAB toxins, and Hg poisons. Following the Deepwater Horizon petroleum releases in 2010, little additional change of element partition among the altered importance of WFS food web components of the trophic pyramid then pertained between 2001-2002 and 2010-2011, despite when anomalous upwelled nutrient supplies instead favored retrograde benign, oil-tolerant diatoms over the HABs during 2010. Indeed, by 2011 HABs were back, with biomass

  5. Deliberate Tracer Injections of Sulfur Hexafluoride on the West Florida Shelf in Support of: An AUV-based Investigation of the Role of Nutrient Variability in the Predictive Modeling of Physical Processes in the Littoral Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-09-30

    hexafluoride and it includes development of sampling methods to characterize the tracer field with high spatial and temporal resolution in near real...tracer in essence "freezes" the processes under investigation in space in this dynamic shelf region. APROACH A cruise was performed on the...hexafluoride and it includes development of sampling methods to characterize the tracer field with high spatial and temporal resolution in near real-time

  6. Ocean mixing beneath Pine Island Glacier ice shelf, West Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Satoshi; Jenkins, Adrian; Dutrieux, Pierre; Forryan, Alexander; Naveira Garabato, Alberto C.; Firing, Yvonne

    2016-12-01

    Ice shelves around Antarctica are vulnerable to an increase in ocean-driven melting, with the melt rate depending on ocean temperature and the strength of flow inside the ice-shelf cavities. We present measurements of velocity, temperature, salinity, turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate, and thermal variance dissipation rate beneath Pine Island Glacier ice shelf, West Antarctica. These measurements were obtained by CTD, ADCP, and turbulence sensors mounted on an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV). The highest turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate is found near the grounding line. The thermal variance dissipation rate increases closer to the ice-shelf base, with a maximum value found ˜0.5 m away from the ice. The measurements of turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate near the ice are used to estimate basal melting of the ice shelf. The dissipation-rate-based melt rate estimates is sensitive to the stability correction parameter in the linear approximation of universal function of the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory for stratified boundary layers. We argue that our estimates of basal melting from dissipation rates are within a range of previous estimates of basal melting.

  7. 40 CFR 81.96 - West Central Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false West Central Florida Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.96 West Central Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The West Central Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area...

  8. Regional flood-frequency relations for west-central Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seijo, M.A.; Giovannelli, R.F.; Turner, J.F.

    1979-01-01

    This report presents regional relations for estimating the magnitude and frequency of floods on streams in west-central Florida. Flood prediction equations derived cover 20, 5-, 25-, 100-, 200-, and 500-year recurrence intervals. Annual floods for three geographic areas of west-central Florida were found to relate significantly to basin characteristics. Basin characteristics include drainage area, soils index, slope, and lake area. The average standard error of estimate for regional flood relations ranged from 38.4 to 52.1 percent with a mean of 43.5 percent. The average multiple correlation coefficient if 0.94. Regional relations apply to gaged and ungaged sites whose drainage areas are greater than 10 but less than 2,500 square miles. Tables of maximum known floods for 64 streamflow stations used in the analysis are included. Tables comparing station, weighted, and regional flood-peak discharges are also included. (Kosco-USGS)

  9. Geophysical and Geotechnical Determination of Sand Resources on the Florida Atlantic Continental Shelf: Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkl, C. W.; Andrews, J. L.; Suthard, B. C.; Robertson, W.

    2007-12-01

    The State of Florida is committed to maintaining beaches to sustain beach width and protect coastal infrastructure. Nearshore sand resources must be identified and cataloged for potential beach nourishment projects in response to sea-level rise and increased tropical storm activity. Given the vast length of Florida coastline, application of a variety of remote sensing techniques are required for measuring large areas in a short amount of time. The study area encompasses a shelf area of about 2,053,220 ha (20,532 km2) from Miami to the Georgia State line (about 653 km shoreline length) and extends up to 27 km offshore to about the 45 m isobath offshore Jacksonville. The continental shelf along the east coast of the Florida peninsula contains a wide range of seafloor environments that lie above the Florida-Hatteras Slope on the shoreface and inner, middle, and outer shelf floors. This study used Airborne Laser Bathymetry (ALB), 3D digital terrain models based on reformatted NOAA bathymetric data, sidescan sonar, and seismic reflection profiling to map seafloor geomorphological conditions that range from coralline-algal reef systems to drowned karst, submerged paleo shorelines (drowned beach ridge plains), and buried paleo channels. Seatruthing of morphosedimentary features is achieved via jetprobe and vibracore surveys in the study of inter-reefal sand troughs, ebb-tidal deltas, transverse bars, shoals, sand waves, ridges, and banks. Preliminary results, which visualize seafloor topography as color-ramped morphoforms, indicate the presence of sedimentary deposits that may constitute viable sand resources for shore protection in the form of beach renourishment. Use of ALB and reformatted NOAA bathymetric data in the form of 3D terrain models permits classification of submarine landform topologies that was heretofore not possible using isobaths. The combination of multiple remote sensing methods showed the spatial distribution of morphosedimentary features and provided

  10. The hydrology of Lake Rousseau, west-central Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, E.R.

    1978-01-01

    Lake Rousseau, about 4 miles southwest of Inglis, Florida, was formed in 1909 by impoundment of the Withlacooche River by Inglis Dam, west of Dunnellon, Florida. The lake was to have been part of the Cross-Florida Barge Canal; a lock and channel associated with the presently inactive project were completed in 1969. Lake Rousseau is about 11 miles long, covers about 4,000 acres, and contains about 34,000 acre-feet of water at the normal pool elevation of 27.5 feet above mean sea level. Inflow to the lake is relatively constant and responds slowly to rainfall. The estimated 100-year peak inflow, 10,400 cubic feet per second, is only 19 percent higher than the 100-year high monthly inflow. Water in Lake Rousseau is a calcium-bicarbonate type and is hard. Mean total phosphorus and organic nitrogen concentrations are considerably lower in Lake Rousseau than in north-central Florida lakes which have been considered to be eutrophic by other investigators, however, the lake supports of prolific aquatic plant community. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations near the water surface are occasionally less than 3 mg/liter. (Woodard-USGS)

  11. The ecology of the seagrass meadows of the west coast of Florida: A community profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zieman, J.C.; Zieman, R.T. (Virginia Univ., Charlottesville, VA (USA). Dept. of Environmental Sciences)

    1989-09-01

    This report summarizes information on the ecology of seagrass meadows on the west coast of Florida, from south of Tampa Bay to Pensacola. This area contains more than 3500 ha of seagrass beds, dominated by three species, Thalasia testudinum (turtle grass), Syringodium filiforme (manatee grass), and Halodule wrightii (shoal grass). Beds occur both on the shallow, zero-energy Continental Shelf and in inshore bays and estuaries. Species ecology, distribution, biomass, and productivity of these dominant seagrass species are discussed. Seagrass beds support a very diverse and abundant algal flora and fauna, and these organisms, and seagrass detritus form the base of a productive food chain. Seagrass beds are important nursery areas providing both cover and food, for a number of commercial and sports fishery species. Along the west Florida coast, estuarine grass beds are noticeably more stressed and impacted by human activities than the more pristine nearshore beds. Urban development and dredging and filling are the major threates to seagrass beds in this region. 500 refs., 28 figs., 14 tabs.

  12. Cathodoluminescent bimineralic ooids from the Pleistocene of the Florida continental shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, R. P.; Halley, Robert B.; Lukas, Karen J.

    1988-01-01

    A bored and encrusted late Pleistocene ooid grainstone was recovered from the seafloor at a depth of approximately 40 m on the outer continental shelf of eastern Florida. Ooid cortices are dominantly bimineralic, generally consisting of inner layers of radial magnesian calcite and outer layers of tangential aragonite. Ooid nuclei are dominantly rounded cryptocrystalline grains, although quartz grains and a variety of skeletal grains also occur as nuclei. Ooids are partially cemented by blocky calcite, and interparticle porosity is partially filled by micrite.

  13. Predicting Upwelling Radiance on the West Florida Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-07

    Cullen and R. Roesler (Editors), MANUAL ON HARMFUL MARINE MICROALGAE . UNESCO MONOGRAPHS ON OCEANOGRAPHIC METHODOLOGY, pp. (in press). Bissett, W.P...Methodology- Manual on Harmful Marine Microalgae , UNESCO [submitted, refereed]. Mobley, C. D., L. K. Sundman, C. O. Davis, T. V. Downes, R. A...Optics Help The Field-Going and Sample-Poor Biologist? UNESCO Monographs on Oceanographic Methodology- Manual on Harmful Marine Microalgae , UNESCO

  14. Response of Florida shelf ecosystems to climate change: from macro to micro scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Lisa; Raabe, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) research in St. Petersburg, Fla., is focusing attention on marine environments of the Florida shelf at three levels, from regional to estuarine to the individual organism. The USGS is partnering on this project with the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services (DACS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and the University of South Florida (USF) in marine studies. The specific goals of these combined efforts are an improved understanding of the effects of ocean acidification on regional carbonate processes, changes in individual estuaries, and organism-level response. This understanding will assist in developing appropriate Federal, State, and local management responses to climate change in coastal areas.

  15. Heavy minerals occurrences in the continental shelf inner/mean west of CearÃ

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Borges de Aguiar Neto

    2015-01-01

    This study embraces the west continental shelf of Cearà (147 samples of marine sediments) and two fluvial courses (4 sediment samples of Curu and SÃo GonÃalo rivers) to determine heavy minerals distribution with their possible provenances and economic potential. Sedimentary facies on the continental shelf were distinguished through the particle size and calcium carbonate content. Heavy minerals were investigated for their total content (%), relative abundance (%) of each mineral species, conc...

  16. Modelling the ocean circulation on the West Greenland shelf with special emphasis on northern shrimp recruitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvid Ribergaard, Mads; Anker Pedersen, Søren; Ådlandsvik, Bjørn; Kliem, Nicolai

    2004-08-01

    The ocean circulation on the West Greenland shelf are modelled using a 3D finite element circulation model forced by wind data from the Danish Meteorological Institute-High-Resolution Limited Area Model operational atmospheric model for the Greenland area and tides at the open boundary. Residual anticyclonic eddies are generated around the shelf banks north of 64∘N and areas of permanent upwelling are located west of the shelf banks. The potential distances of shrimp larvae transport from larval release to settling at the bottom were studied, using a particle-tracking model. Particles released (hatched shrimp larvae) south of 62∘N had a probability of about 2% of being lost to the Canadian Shelf, whereas for particles released north of 64∘N almost none were lost from the West Greenland Shelf. The particles tended to have long retention times at the shelf banks caused by the residual anticyclonic eddies. The retention times increased slightly for particles tracked at depths from 80 to 30 m with minor implications for potential transport distances of larval shrimp and plankton.

  17. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: West Florida, maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0006249)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps in Portable Document Format (.PDF) for the shoreline of West Florida (to encompass the coastal...

  18. Impact of model resolution for on-shelf heat transport along the West Antarctic Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Jennifer A.; Dinniman, Michael S.; Klinck, John M.

    2016-10-01

    The flux of warm deep water onto Antarctic continental shelves plays a vital role in determining water mass properties adjacent to the continent. A regional model, with two different grid resolutions, has been used to simulate ocean processes along the West Antarctic Peninsula. At both 4 km and 1.5 km resolution, the model reproduces the locations of warm intrusions, as shown through comparison with observations from instrumented seals. However, the 1.5 km simulation shows greater on-shelf heat transport, leading to improved representation of heat content on the shelf. This increased heat transport is associated with increased eddy activity, both at the shelf-break and in the deep ocean off-shore. Cross-shelf troughs are key locations of on-shelf heat transport. Comparison of two troughs, Belgica and Marguerite, shows differing responses to increased resolution. At higher resolution, there is an increased on-shelf volume transport at Belgica Trough, but not at Marguerite Trough. This is likely related to the differing structure of the shelf-break jet between these two locations. The increased heat flux at Marguerite Trough is attributed to increased heat content in the on-shelf transport. Increased eddy activity off-shelf may lead to greater cross-front heat transport, and therefore increased heat available above the continental slope. While these simulations differ in their magnitude of heat transport, both show similar patterns of variability. Variations in wind stress lead to variations in speed of the shelf-break jet, and therefore on-shelf heat transport. These results demonstrate the importance of model resolution for understanding cross-shelf transport around Antarctica.

  19. Genetic relatedness of dengue viruses in Key West, Florida, USA, 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Jordán, Jorge L; Santiago, Gilberto A; Margolis, Harold; Stark, Lillian

    2013-04-01

    Sequencing of dengue virus type 1 (DENV-1) strains isolated in Key West/Monroe County, Florida, indicate endemic transmission for >2 years of a distinct and predominant sublineage of the American-African genotype. DENV-1 strains isolated elsewhere in Florida grouped within a separate Central American lineage. Findings indicate endemic transmission of DENV into the continental United States.

  20. Dissolved and Bubble Gas Concentrations in Sandy Surficial Sediments of the West Florida Sand Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-21

    Dissolved and Bubble Gas Concentrations in Sandy Surficial Sediments of the West Florida Sand Sheet Christopher Martens Dept. of Marine Sciences CB...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Dissolved and Bubble Gas Concentrations in Sandy Surficial Sediments of the West Florida Sand Sheet 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...was noted that there was substantially higher organic material in the shallow troughs of the sand ripples than on the crests. Most of this appears

  1. Stable isotopes differentiate bottlenose dolphins off west-central Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Nélio B.; Ostrom, P. H.; Stricker, Craig A.; Wells, R.S.

    2010-01-01

    Distinguishing discrete population units among continuously distributed coastal small cetaceans is challenging and crucial to conservation. We evaluated the utility of stable isotopes in assessing group membership in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) off west-central Florida by analyzing carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur isotope values (δ13C, δ15N, and δ34S) of tooth collagen from stranded dolphins. Individuals derived from three putative general population units: Sarasota Bay (SB), nearshore Gulf of Mexico (GULF), and offshore waters (OFF). Animals of known history (SB) served to ground truth the approach against animals of unknown history from the Gulf of Mexico (GULF, OFF). Dolphin groups differed significantly for each isotope. Average δ13C values from SB dolphins (−10.6‰) utilizing sea grass ecosystems differed from those of GULF (−11.9‰) and OFF (−11.9‰). Average δ15N values of GULF (12.7‰) and OFF (13.2‰) were higher than those of SB dolphins (11.9‰), consistent with differences in prey trophic levels. δ34S values showed definitive differences among SB (7.1‰), GULF (11.3‰), and OFF (16.5‰) dolphins. This is the first application of isotopes to population assignment of bottlenose dolphins in the Gulf of Mexico and results suggest that isotopes may provide a powerful tool in the conservation of small cetaceans.

  2. Carbon exchange between a shelf sea and the ocean: The Hebrides Shelf, west of Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Stuart C.; Hartman, Susan E.; Kivimäe, Caroline; Salt, Lesley A.; Clargo, Nicola M.; Bozec, Yann; Daniels, Chris J.; Jones, Sam C.; Hemsley, Victoria S.; Munns, Lucie R.; Allen, Stephanie R.

    2016-07-01

    Global mass balance calculations indicate the majority of particulate organic carbon (POC) exported from shelf seas is transferred via downslope exchange processes. Here we demonstrate the downslope flux of POC from the Hebrides Shelf is approximately 3- to 5-fold larger per unit length/area than the global mean. To reach this conclusion, we quantified the offshore transport of particulate and dissolved carbon fractions via the "Ekman Drain," a strong downwelling feature of the NW European Shelf circulation, and subsequently compared these fluxes to simultaneous regional air-sea CO2 fluxes and onshore wind-driven Ekman fluxes to constrain the carbon dynamics of this shelf. Along the shelf break, we estimate a mean offshelf total carbon (dissolved + particulate) flux of 4.2 tonnes C m-1 d-1 compared to an onshelf flux of 4.5 tonnes C m-1 d-1. Organic carbon represented 3.3% of the onshelf carbon flux but 6.4% of the offshelf flux indicating net organic carbon export. Dissolved organic carbon represented 95% and POC 5% of the exported organic carbon pool. When scaled along the shelf break the total offshelf POC flux (0.007 Tg C d-1) was found to be 3 times larger than the regional air-sea CO2 ingassing flux (0.0021 Tg C d-1), an order of magnitude larger than the particulate inorganic carbon flux (0.0003 Tg C d-1) but far smaller than the DIC (2.03 Tg C d-1) or DOC (0.13 Tg C d-1) fluxes. Significant spatial heterogeneity in the Ekman drain transport confirms that offshelf carbon fluxes via this mechanism are also spatially heterogeneous.

  3. Organic matter distribution in the continental shelf sediments, off Kochi, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Reddy, N.P.C.

    Organic matter was analysed on the silt-clay fraction of forty eight sediment samples from the continental shelf off Kochi, west coast of India. It was found to be high in the recent, near shore silt-clay predominant sediments towards Alleppey...

  4. Estimation of colored dissolved organic matter and salinity fields in case 2 waters using SeaWiFS: Examples from Florida Bay and Florida Shelf

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E J D'Sa; C Hu; F E Muller-Karger; K L Carder

    2002-09-01

    Estimates of water quality variables such as chlorophyll concentration (Chl), colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM), or salinity from satellite sensors are of great interest to resource managers monitoring coastal regions such as the Florida Bay and the Florida Shelf. However, accurate stimates of these variables using standard ocean color algorithms have been di#cult due to the complex nature of the light field in these environments. In this study, we process SeaWiFS satellite data using two recently developed algorithms; one for atmospheric correction and the other a semi-analytic bio-optical algorithm and compare the results with standard SeaWiFS algorithms. Overall, the two algorithms produced more realistic estimates of Chl and CDOM distributions in Florida Shelf and Bay waters. Estimates of surface salinity were obtained from the CDOM absorption field assuming a conservative mixing behavior of these waters. A comparison of SeaWiFS-derived Chl and CDOM absorption with field measurements in the Florida Bay indicated that although well correlated, CDOM was underestimated, while Chl was overestimated. Bottom reflectance appeared to affect these estimates at the shallow central Bay stations during the winter. These results demonstrate the need for new bio-optical algorithms or tuning of the parameters used in the bio-optical algorithm for local conditions encountered in the Bay.

  5. Variability of Basal Melt Beneath the Pine Island Glacier Ice Shelf, West Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindschadler, Robert; Vaughan, David G.; Vornberger, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Observations from satellite and airborne platforms are combined with model calculations to infer the nature and efficiency of basal melting of the Pine Island Glacier ice shelf, West Antarctica, by ocean waters. Satellite imagery shows surface features that suggest ice-shelf-wide changes to the ocean s influence on the ice shelf as the grounding line retreated. Longitudinal profiles of ice surface and bottom elevations are analyzed to reveal a spatially dependent pattern of basal melt with an annual melt flux of 40.5 Gt/a. One profile captures a persistent set of surface waves that correlates with quasi-annual variations of atmospheric forcing of Amundsen Sea circulation patterns, establishing a direct connection between atmospheric variability and sub-ice-shelf melting. Ice surface troughs are hydrostatically compensated by ice-bottom voids up to 150m deep. Voids form dynamically at the grounding line, triggered by enhanced melting when warmer-than-average water arrives. Subsequent enlargement of the voids is thermally inefficient (4% or less) compared with an overall melting efficiency beneath the ice shelf of 22%. Residual warm water is believed to cause three persistent polynyas at the ice-shelf front seen in Landsat imagery. Landsat thermal imagery confirms the occurrence of warm water at the same locations.

  6. Proceedings of the Coastal Benthic Boundary Layer Key West Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-06-24

    plates of aragonitic green algae (Halimeda, Penicillus, and Udeota), molluscan shells, benthic and planktonic foraminifera , echinoid spines, sponge...Florida Shelf ( Gulf of Mexico waters) to the north, and the Florida Straits to the south. Seismic data from the shelf surrounding the Dry Tortugas...the west Florida carbonate platform. It is bordered to the north by the Gulf of Mexico and to the south by the Straits of Florida. The site is well

  7. Mapping and classifying the seabed of the West Greenland continental shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gougeon, S.; Kemp, K. M.; Blicher, M. E.; Yesson, C.

    2017-03-01

    Marine benthic habitats support a diversity of marine organisms that are both economically and intrinsically valuable. Our knowledge of the distribution of these habitats is largely incomplete, particularly in deeper water and at higher latitudes. The western continental shelf of Greenland is one example of a deep (more than 500 m) Arctic region with limited information available. This study uses an adaptation of the EUNIS seabed classification scheme to document benthic habitats in the region of the West Greenland shrimp trawl fishery from 60°N to 72°N in depths of 61-725 m. More than 2000 images collected at 224 stations between 2011 and 2015 were grouped into 7 habitat classes. A classification model was developed using environmental proxies to make habitat predictions for the entire western shelf (200-700 m below 72°N). The spatial distribution of habitats correlates with temperature and latitude. Muddy sediments appear in northern and colder areas whereas sandy and rocky areas dominate in the south. Southern regions are also warmer and have stronger currents. The Mud habitat is the most widespread, covering around a third of the study area. There is a general pattern that deep channels and basins are dominated by muddy sediments, many of which are fed by glacial sedimentation and outlets from fjords, while shallow banks and shelf have a mix of more complex habitats. This first habitat classification map of the West Greenland shelf will be a useful tool for researchers, management and conservationists.

  8. Exchanges between the open Black Sea and its North West shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Georgy; Wobus, Fred; Zhou, Feng

    2014-05-01

    Exchanges between the vast NW shelf and the deep basin of the Black Sea play a significant role in maintaining the balance of nutrients, heat content and salinity of the shelf waters. Nearly 87 % of the Black Sea is entirely anoxic below 70 to 200m and contains high levels of hydrogen sulphide (Zaitsev et al, 2001), and this makes the shelf waters particularly valuable for maintaining the Black Sea ecosystem in good health. The increase in salinity of shelf waters occurs partially due to exchanges with more saline open sea waters and represents a threat to relics and endemic species. The shelf-break is commonly considered the bottle-neck of the shelf-deep sea exchanges (e.g. (Huthnance, 1995, Ivanov et al, 1997). Due to conservation of potential vorticity, the geostrophic currents flow along the contours of constant depth. However the ageostrophic flows (Ekman drift, mesoscale eddies, filaments, internal waves) are not subject to the same constraints. It has been shown that during the winter well mixed cold waters formed on the North West shelf propagate into the deep sea, providing an important mechanism for the replenishment of the Cold Intermediate Layer ( Staneva and Stanev, 1997). However, much less is known about exchanges in the warm season. In this study, the transports of water, heat and salt between the northwestern shelf and the adjacent deep basin of the Black Sea are investigated using a high-resolution three-dimensional primitive equation model, NEMO-SHELF-BLS (Shapiro et al, 2013). It is shown that during the period from April to August, 2005, both onshore and offshore cross-shelf break transports in the top 20 m were as high as 0.24 Sv on average, which was equivalent to the replacement of 60% of the volume of surface shelf waters (0 - 20 m) per month. Two main exchange mechanisms are studied: (i) Ekman transport, and (ii) transport by mesoscale eddies and associated meanders of the Rim Current. The Ekman drift causes nearly uniform onshore or

  9. Hydrogeology and Analysis of Aquifer Characteristics in West-Central Pinellas County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    the Study Area Pinellas County is a peninsula in west-central Florida bounded by Tampa Bay to the east and the Gulf of Mexico to the west (fig. 1). The...packstones. The foraminiferal limestones in the unit commonly contain benthic foraminifera , bryozoan, echinoid, and mollusk fossils. The Ocala Limestone...county is part of the Gulf Coastal Lowlands physiographic region described by White (1970) which consists of low angle scarps and terraces formed

  10. University of West Florida Work Plan, 2013-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Board of Governors, State University System of Florida, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The State University System of Florida has developed three tools that aid in guiding the System's future: (1) The Board of Governors' new Strategic Plan 2012-2025 is driven by goals and associated metrics that stake out where the System is headed; (2) The Board's Annual Accountability Report provides yearly tracking for how the System is…

  11. Awareness and Support of Release of Genetically Modified “Sterile” Mosquitoes, Key West, Florida, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Ernst, Kacey C; Haenchen, Steven; Dickinson, Katherine; Doyle, Michael S.; Walker, Kathleen; Andrew J Monaghan; Hayden, Mary H.

    2015-01-01

    After a dengue outbreak in Key West, Florida, during 2009–2010, authorities, considered conducting the first US release of male Aedes aegypti mosquitoes genetically modified to prevent reproduction. Despite outreach and media attention, only half of the community was aware of the proposal; half of those were supportive. Novel public health strategies require community engagement.

  12. Lower and middle Guadalupian shelf carbonates, eastern margin of Central Basin platform, Permian basin, west Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, R.F.; Chalcraft, R.G.

    1988-01-01

    Lower and middle Guadalupian shelf carbonates serve as the reservoir for a nearly continuous band of oil fields extending 100 mi along the eastern margin of the Central Basin platform of west Texas. Approximately 5 billion bbl of oil have been produced from stratigraphic-structural traps within the Upper Permian (Gaudalupian Series) dolomites of the San Andrea and Grayburg Formations in Upton, Crane, Ector, Pecos, and Andrews Counties, Texas. The San Andrea and Grayburg Formations are cyclical shallowing-upward carbonate sequences of open shelf through sabkha facies whose depositional strike parallels the eastern margin of the Central Basin platform. Porosity and permeability of reservoir rock are governed by diagenetic processes such as dolomitization, anhydrite porosity occlusion, leaching, silicification, and authigenic clay formation. Self sediments are primarily burrowed wackestones and packstones that locally contain pelletal, skeletal, and ooid grainstones. Typical subtidal shelf sediments are capped by algal-laminated dolomite, nodular anhydritic dolomite, and bedded anhydrite. The fauna is normally sparse and dominated by foraminifera and algae. Less common faunal components include pelecypods, crinoids, sponges, Bryozoa, brachiopods, gastropods, and coral that are associated with the development of small scattered patch reefs. Lowering the sea level during the early Guadalpian initiated basinward progradation of San Andres carbonate facies with hydrocarbon reservoirs best developed in shallow self fusulinid wackestones to packstone and oolitic grainstone. Reservoir dolomites of the Grayburg formation are present east of San Andres fields with optimal reservoir properties occurring near the San Andreas outer shelf margin.

  13. Cartographic production for the Florida Shelf Habitat (FLaSH) map study: generation of surface grids, contours, and KMZ files

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Lisa L.; Hansen, Mark; Raabe, Ellen; Knorr, Paul O.; Browne, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    The Florida shelf represents a finite source of economic resources, including commercial and recreational fisheries, tourism, recreation, sand and gravel resources, phosphate, and freshwater reserves. Yet the basic information needed to locate resources, or to interpret and utilize existing data, comes from many sources, dates, and formats. A multi-agency effort is underway to coordinate and prioritize the compilation of suitable datasets for an integrated information system of Florida’s coastal and ocean resources. This report and the associated data files represent part of the effort to make data accessible and useable with computer-mapping systems, web-based technologies, and user-friendly visualization tools. Among the datasets compiled and developed are seafloor imagery, marine sediment data, and existing bathymetric data. A U.S. Geological Survey-sponsored workshop in January 2007 resulted in the establishment of mapping priorities for the state. Bathymetry was identified as a common priority among agencies and researchers. State-of-the-art computer-mapping techniques and data-processing tools were used to develop shelf-wide raster and vector data layers. Florida Shelf Habitat (FLaSH) Mapping Project (http://coastal.er.usgs.gov/flash) endeavors to locate available data, identify data gaps, synthesize existing information, and expand our understanding of geologic processes in our dynamic coastal and marine systems.

  14. Decadal reanalysis of biogeochemical indicators and fluxes in the North West European shelf-sea ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciavatta, S.; Kay, S.; Saux-Picart, S.; Butenschön, M.; Allen, J. I.

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents the first decadal reanalysis simulation of the biogeochemistry of the North West European shelf, along with a full evaluation of its skill, confidence, and value. An error-characterized satellite product for chlorophyll was assimilated into a physical-biogeochemical model of the North East Atlantic, applying a localized Ensemble Kalman filter. The results showed that the reanalysis improved the model simulation of assimilated chlorophyll in 60% of the study region. Model validation metrics showed that the reanalysis had skill in matching a large data set of in situ observations for 10 ecosystem variables. Spearman rank correlations were significant and higher than 0.7 for physical-chemical variables (temperature, salinity, and oxygen), ˜0.6 for chlorophyll and nutrients (phosphate, nitrate, and silicate), and significant, though lower in value, for partial pressure of dissolved carbon dioxide (˜0.4). The reanalysis captured the magnitude of pH and ammonia observations, but not their variability. The value of the reanalysis for assessing environmental status and variability has been exemplified in two case studies. The first shows that between 325,000 and 365,000 km2 of shelf bottom waters were vulnerable to oxygen deficiency potentially threatening bottom fishes and benthos. The second application confirmed that the shelf is a net sink of atmospheric carbon dioxide, but the total amount of uptake varies between 36 and 46 Tg C yr-1 at a 90% confidence level. These results indicate that the reanalysis output data set can inform the management of the North West European shelf ecosystem, in relation to eutrophication, fishery, and variability of the carbon cycle.

  15. Improving modeling of tides on the continental shelf off the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Testut, L.; Unnikrishnan, A.S.

    shows RMS misfit around 11 cm). Compared to all others bathymetries, the unmodified versions of ETOPO (5’, 2’ and 1’) gave relatively poor results in the northern part of the shelf with up to 23 cm RMS error for ETOPO5.This gives an indicationof... of semi-diurnal tides off the central west coast of India. In these regions, the error in M2 tidal correction reachs upto 15 cm, which is too large to derive accurate sea level anomalies from altimetric data. In this paper, we propose a simple approach...

  16. 2006 Multibeam Mapping of along-shelf corridor, between Madison-Swanson and Steamboat Lumps Florida

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This disk or set of disks contain high-resolution multibeam and backscatter maps of a long thin corridor at the shelf edge near he 74-m isobath spanning from...

  17. A numerical analysis of landfall of the 1979 red tide of Karenia brevis along the west coast of Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, John J.; Haddad, Kenneth D.; Dieterle, Dwight A.; Weisberg, Robert H.; Li, Zhenjiang; Yang, Huijun; Muller-Karger, Frank E.; Heil, Cynthia A.; Bissett, W. Paul

    2002-01-01

    A simple ecological model, coupled to a primitive equation circulation model, is able to replicate the observed alongshore transport of the toxic dinoflagellate Karenia brevis on the West Florida shelf during a fall red tide in 1979. Initial land fall of these populations at the coast in our model matches shoreline data sets as well. The simulated vertical movement of K. brevis, in response to light-cued migration and nocturnal mixing, also mimics these aspects of the next fall red tide in 1980, suggesting that sunrise populations may provide the strongest surface signal, for detection of red tides by remote sensors aboard aircraft and satellites. Once a mature red tide is formed, a light-regulated maximal growth rate of 0.15 day -1, reflecting nutrient-limitation, and no other loss processes may be an adequate description of population dynamics above the 30-40 m isobaths, where blooms of K. brevis originate. Within shallow waters at the 10-m isobath, however, an apparent larger growth rate of 0.80 day -1—as a presumed consequence of frontal aggregations—must be offset by unknown processes of algal mortality. Likely candidates for cumulative, biomass-dependent losses are UV-B irradiation, microbial-induced lysis, and unselective grazing pressure from copepods, protozoans and heterotrophic dinoflagellates.

  18. Near-inertial ocean response to tropical cyclone forcing on the Australian North-West Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayson, M. D.; Ivey, G. N.; Jones, N. L.; Lowe, R. J.; Wake, G. W.; McConochie, J. D.

    2015-12-01

    The Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) was applied to the Australian North-West Shelf (NWS) to hindcast the ocean response to four intense historical tropical cyclones (TCs). While the four cyclones had very different trajectories across the NWS, all passed within 150 km of a long-term vertical mooring located on the continental shelf in 125 m depth. The observed ocean response at this relatively shallow, Southern Hemisphere shelf site was characterized by the development of a peak in the counter-clockwise (CCW) near-inertial kinetic energy, mixed layer deepening, and subsequent restratification. Strong near-inertial isotherm oscillations were also observed following two of the cyclones. ROMS reproduced these features and also showed that the peak in the near-inertial CCW kinetic energy was observed on the left side of each cyclone trajectory. The time rate of change of near-inertial kinetic energy depended strongly on the storm Rossby number, i.e., defined based on the storm speed, the storm length scale, and the Coriolis frequency. The shallow water depth on the NWS resulted in first, a more rapid decay of near-inertial oscillations than in the deep ocean, and second a generation efficiency (the ratio of near-inertial power to the rate of wind work) of up to 10%, smaller than found for cyclones propagating across deeper water. The total energy put into near-inertial motions is nevertheless large compared to the background tidal energy. The rapid decay of near-inertial motions emphasizes the importance of frictional effects in characterizing the response to cyclone forcing in shallow seas.

  19. Modelling temporal and spatial dynamics of benthic fauna in North-West-European shelf seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessin, Gennadi; Bruggeman, Jorn; Artioli, Yuri; Butenschön, Momme; Blackford, Jerry

    2017-04-01

    Benthic zones of shallow shelf seas receive high amounts of organic material. Physical processes such as resuspension, as well as complex transformations mediated by diverse faunal and microbial communities, define fate of this material, which can be returned to the water column, reworked within sediments or ultimately buried. In recent years, numerical models of various complexity and serving different goals have been developed and applied in order to better understand and predict dynamics of benthic processes. ERSEM includes explicit parameterisations of several groups of benthic biota, which makes it particularly applicable for studies of benthic biodiversity, biological interactions within sediments and benthic-pelagic coupling. To assess model skill in reproducing temporal (inter-annual and seasonal) dynamics of major benthic macrofaunal groups, 1D model simulation results were compared with data from the Western Channel Observatory (WCO) benthic survey. The benthic model was forced with organic matter deposition rates inferred from observed phytoplankton abundance and model parameters were subsequently recalibrated. Based on model results and WCO data comparison, deposit-feeders exert clear seasonal variability, while for suspension-feeders inter-annual variability is more pronounced. Spatial distribution of benthic fauna was investigated using results of a full-scale NEMO-ERSEM hindcast simulation of the North-West European Shelf Seas area, covering the period of 1981-2014. Results suggest close relationship between spatial distribution of biomass of benthic faunal functional groups in relation to bathymetry, hydrodynamic conditions and organic matter supply. Our work highlights that it is feasible to construct, implement and validate models that explicitly include functional groups of benthic macrofauna. Moreover, the modelling approach delivers detailed information on benthic biogeochemistry and food-web at spatial and temporal scales that are unavailable

  20. Ice shelf-ocean interactions, mechanisms of change in the Amundsen Sea, West Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutrieux, P.

    2015-12-01

    Over the length of the observational record, the Antarctic Ice Sheet has been loosing ice to the ocean, significantly contributing to global sea level rise. This signal is largely due to glacial flow acceleration in West Antarctica, driven by oceanic melting at its margin and the induced thinning of the glacier buttressing ice shelves. Pine Island Glacier is one stellar example where vigorous oceanic melting fundamentally modifies the geometry of the ice-ocean interface and the associated ice dynamics. Since the early 1970's, the glacier terminating ice shelf has thinned, its grounding line has retreated, and its speed has doubled, now reaching close to 11 m/day. During that time, oceanic melting has increased, injecting fresh and nutrient-rich waters between the surface and intermediate depth in the coastal southern ocean. Using autonomous platforms, ship-borne ocean observations, ground-based and airborne radar observations, satellite observations and numerical modelling, this talk will review the mechanisms behind this trajectory of change and open perspectives on its potential impacts in the Southern Ocean.

  1. Coupling of Wave and Circulation Models in the Atlantic European North-West Shelf Predicting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staneva, Joanna; Krüger, Oliver; Behrens, Arno; Lewis, Huw; Castillo, Juan M.

    2017-04-01

    This study addresses the coupling between wind wave and circulation models on the example of the Atlantic - European North-West Shelf (NWS). This topic reflects the increased interest in operational oceanography to reduce prediction errors of state estimates at coastal scales. The uncertainties in most of the presently used models result from the nonlinear feedback between strong tidal currents and wind-waves, which can no longer be ignored, in particular in the coastal zone where its role seems to be dominant. Coupled circulation (NEMO) and wave model (WAM) system was used to study the effects of surface ocean waves on thermohaline distribution and ocean circulation at the NWS. Four scenarios - including Stokes-Coriolis force, sea-state dependent energy flux (additional turbulent kinetic energy due to breaking waves), sea-state dependent momentum flux and the combination of the three wave-induced forcing were performed to study the role of the wave-induced processes on model simulations. The individual and collective role of those processes is quantified and the results are compared with the NWS circulation model results without wave effects as well as against various in-situ measurements. The performance of the forecasting system is illustrated for the cases of several extreme events. The improved skills resulting from the new developments in the forecasting system, in particular during extreme events, justify further enhancements of the coastal operational systems. The study is performed in the frame of the COPERNICUS CMEMS Service Evolution Projects Wave2NEMO and OWAIRS.

  2. Feedbacks between ice and ocean dynamics at the West Antarctic Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf in future global warming scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goeller, Sebastian; Timmermann, Ralph

    2016-04-01

    The ice flow at the margins of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet is moderated by large ice shelves. Their buttressing effect substantially controls the mass balance of the WAIS and thus its contribution to sea level rise. The stability of these ice shelves results from the balance of mass gain by accumulation and ice flow from the adjacent ice sheet and mass loss by calving and basal melting due to the ocean heat flux. Recent results of ocean circulation models indicate that warm circumpolar water of the Southern Ocean may override the submarine slope front of the Antarctic Continent and boost basal ice shelf melting. In particular, ocean simulations for several of the IPCC's future climate scenarios demonstrate the redirection of a warm coastal current into the Filchner Trough and underneath the Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf within the next decades. In this study, we couple the finite elements ocean circulation model FESOM and the three-dimensional thermomechanical ice flow model RIMBAY to investigate the complex interactions between ocean and ice dynamics at the Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf. We focus on the impact of a changing ice shelf cavity on ocean dynamics as well as the feedback of the resulting sub-shelf melting rates on the ice shelf geometry and implications for the dynamics of the adjacent marine-based Westantarctic Ice Sheet. Our simulations reveal the high sensitivity of grounding line migration to ice-ocean interactions within the Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf and emphasize the importance of coupled model studies for realistic assessments of the Antarctic mass balance in future global warming scenarios.

  3. Establishment of the green mussel, Perna viridis (Linnaeus 1758) (Mollusca: Mytilidae) on the West Coast of Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, A.J.; Marelli, D.C.; Frischer, M.E.; Danforth, J.M.; Williams, J.D.

    2001-01-01

    In 1999, the green mussel, Perna viridis, was first observed in Tampa Bay, Florida. This was the first reported occurrence of this Indo-Pacific marine bivalve in North America. The mussels found in Tampa Bay were confirmed to be P. viridis based on both morphological and genetic characteristics. Since the initial discovery, surveys in Tampa Bay and on the west coast of Florida have documented the growth, recruitment, and range expansion of P. viridis. From November 1999 to July 2000, the mean shell length of a Tampa Bay population increased from 49.0 mm to 94.1 mm, an increase of 97%. Populations of P. viridis are successfully reproducing in Tampa Bay. Recruitment was observed on sampling plates in May and continued through July 2000. The full extent of mussel colonization is not clear, but mussels were found outside Tampa Bay in St. Petersburg, Florida, south to Venice. Based on these studies it is evident that P. viridis has successfully invaded Tampa Bay and the west coast of Florida. The long-term impact of P. viridis on native communities off the west coast of Florida cannot be predicted at this time.

  4. Protection of West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus) in Florida. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, J.E.; Gluckman, C.J.

    1988-05-01

    Research and management actions necessary for the recovery of endangered West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus) have received considerable attention over the past decade from many individuals, institutions, and agencies. A new Manatee Recovery Plan is being developed by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service and promises to provide research goals and timetables to enhance further recovery of manatees in Florida. Recommendations are made in the following areas; implementing local, site-specific management plans that specifically address manatee protection and habitat conservation; increasing research funding to allow better assessment of manatee critical habitat, life history parameters, mortality, and movement patterns; acquiring or restricting access to critical manatee habitat to create a system of reserves; expanding enforcement capability to protect manatees and their habitat; and coordinating education and awareness programs that target specific user groups.

  5. Solar hot water system installed at Quality Inn, Key West, Florida. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-04-01

    The solar energy hot water system installed in the Quality Inn, Key West, Florida, which consists of four buildings, is described. Three buildings are low-rise, two-story buildings containing 100 rooms. The fourth is a four-story building with 48 rooms. The solar system was designed to provide approximately 50% of the energy required for the domestic hot water system. The solar system consists of approximately 1400 ft/sup 2/ of flat plate collector, two 500 gal storage tanks, a circulating pump, and a controller. Operation of the system was begun in April 1978, and has continued to date with only three minor interruptions for pump repair. In the first year of operation, it was determined that the use of the solar facility resulted in 40% fuel savings.

  6. Reproductive biology and susceptibility of Florida Culex coronator to infection with West Nile virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alto, Barry W; Connelly, C Roxanne; O'Meara, George F; Hickman, Dustin; Karr, Nicholas

    2014-08-01

    Abstract Ornithophilic Culex species are considered the primary amplification vectors of West Nile virus (WNV) in bird hosts as well as vectors responsible for epidemic transmission. Culex coronator was first collected from Okaloosa, Santa Rosa, Walton, and Washington Counties in Florida in 2005 and has since spread throughout the state. The vector competence of Cx. coronator for WNV, known to be infected in nature, has not been assessed. Without this knowledge, we are unable to assess this species' potential as an enzootic and epidemic vector of WNV in Florida. In the current study, we investigate the reproductive biology and susceptibility to WNV infection, dissemination, and transmission by Cx. coronator. We show that Cx. coronator is capable of delaying oviposition for several weeks after blood feeding and that the number of eggs laid is greater for avian than mammalian hosts. Cx. coronator were highly susceptible to infection (∼80-100%) and dissemination (∼65-85% by 18 days since exposure) with lower rates of transmission (0-17% at 25°C and 28-67% at 28°C), suggesting that it is a competent vector of WNV under some conditions. The proportion of mosquitoes with disseminated infections related to the time since exposure and was higher at 28°C than at 25°C. The rapid and statewide distribution of Cx. coronator throughout Florida poses as a potential public health risk. This baseline knowledge is essential information for mosquito control and public health agencies to assess current and future disease risk to Southeastern United States.

  7. Autonomous ocean observations beneath Pine Island Glacier Ice Shelf, West Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutrieux, P.; Jenkins, A.; Jacobs, S.; Heywood, K. J.

    2015-12-01

    Warm circumpolar deep water reaching 3.5ºC above the in situ freezing point pervasively fills a network of glacially carved troughs in the Amundsen sea, West Antarctica, and melts and thins neighbouring ice shelves, including Pine Island glacier Ice Shelf (PIIS). Hydrographic, current, and microstructure observations obtained in austral summer 2009 and 2014 by an autonomous underwater vehicle beneath the PIIS are used here to detail the complex ice-ocean interaction and resulting ocean circulation. The theoretical schematic of deeply incoming warm and saline water melting the grounding line and generating a buoyant plume upwelling along the ice draft is generally consistent with observations. The cavity beneath PIIS is clearly divided in two by a seabed ridge, constraining the oceanic circulation and water masses distribution. On the seaward side of the ridge, a thick warm deep water layer circulates cyclonically and is overlaid by a thin meltwater layer. Only intermediate depth waters are allowed to overflow from the ridge top into the inner cavity, where a much thinner warm water layer is now overlaid by a thicker meltwater layer. At the ice/ocean interface, melt induced freshening is forcing an upwelling which in turn injects cyclonic vorticity and participates in creating a vigorous cyclonic recirculation in the inner cavity. The top of the ridge, where warm waters overflow in the inner cavity, is a dynamical boundary characterized by northward along-ridge currents up to 0.2 m/s and enhanced shear, thermal gradient, and mixing. Observations at two points at the ice interface indicate that the ocean remains stratified within 2 meters of the ice.

  8. Abbot Ice Shelf, structure of the Amundsen Sea continental margin and the southern boundary of the Bellingshausen Plate seaward of West Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, James R; Tinto, Kirsty J; Bell, Robin E

    2015-05-01

    Inversion of NASA Operation IceBridge airborne gravity over the Abbot Ice Shelf in West Antarctica for subice bathymetry defines an extensional terrain made up of east-west trending rift basins formed during the early stages of Antarctica/Zealandia rifting. Extension is minor, as rifting jumped north of Thurston Island early in the rifting process. The Amundsen Sea Embayment continental shelf west of the rifted terrain is underlain by a deeper, more extensive sedimentary basin also formed during rifting between Antarctica and Zealandia. A well-defined boundary zone separates the mildly extended Abbot extensional terrain from the deeper Amundsen Embayment shelf basin. The shelf basin has an extension factor, β, of 1.5-1.7 with 80-100 km of extension occurring across an area now 250 km wide. Following this extension, rifting centered north of the present shelf edge and proceeded to continental rupture. Since then, the Amundsen Embayment continental shelf appears to have been tectonically quiescent and shaped by subsidence, sedimentation, and the advance and retreat of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. The Bellingshausen Plate was located seaward of the Amundsen Sea margin prior to incorporation into the Antarctic Plate at about 62 Ma. During the latter part of its independent existence, Bellingshausen plate motion had a clockwise rotational component relative to Antarctica producing convergence across the north-south trending Bellingshausen Gravity Anomaly structure at 94°W and compressive deformation on the continental slope between 94°W and 102°W. Farther west, the relative motion was extensional along an east-west trending zone occupied by the Marie Byrd Seamounts. Abbot Ice Shelf is underlain by E-W rift basins created at ∼90 Ma Amundsen shelf shaped by subsidence, sedimentation, and passage of the ice sheet Bellingshausen plate boundary is located near the base of continental slope and rise.

  9. Results of Environmental Measurements on the North-West Shelf and Eastern Indian Ocean (April-May 1979).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-11-01

    Measurements 2.1 Cruise Summary The ship departed HMAS Stirling at 1400 on 26/4/79. Figure 1 shows the cruise track and positions of stations occupied. only...450 XBT probes and recording system . 2.3 Results Station 1: This was a trial run en route between Cockburn Sound and the North-West Shelf area, and...temperature trace over land appears to be of order 3OC cooler than that over the sea at all height[, while over the sea the low level inversion between 950mb

  10. Buried late Pleistocene fluvial channels on the inner continental shelf off Vengurla, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SubbaRaju, L.V.; Krishna, K.S.; Chaubey, A.K.

    Analysis of echosounding, side-scan sonar and shallow seismic data collected west of Burnt islands off Vengurla, west coast of India, revealed a featureless seabed, thicknesses of subsurface layers, and presence of buried channels filled...

  11. Clay mineral distribution in the continental shelf and slope off Saurashtra, West coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, V.P.

    the Deccan trap coastal province is the predominant clay mineral in the sediments of the continental shelf south of the Gulf of Kutch. Lateral variations reveal that the montmorillonite contents are high in the innershelf and on the continental slope...

  12. Cluster analysis and ecology of living benthonic foraminiferids from inner shelf off Ratnagiri, West Coast, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nigam, R.; Sarupria, J.S.

    Q-mode cluster analysis explains the spatial distribution data of living benthonic foraminiferids from the inner shelf off Ratnagiri. Two main biotopes and two sub-biotopes are revognised within the study area; biotope A, characterised by @i...

  13. Outer Continental Shelf Lease Blocks - Pacific Region - West Coast NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains Outer Continental Shelf block outlines in ArcGIS shape file format for the BOEM Pacific Region. OCS blocks are used to define small geographic...

  14. Distribution of total phosphorus in the shelf sediments off the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murty, P.S.N.; Reddy, C.V.G.; Varadachari, V.V.R.

    The total phosphorus content in the sediment samples collected from different stations on the continental shelf along five sections normal to the coast near Bombay, Karwar, Mangalore, Cochin and Alleppey has been determined and the distribution...

  15. Regional tectonic trends on the inner continental shelf off Konkan and central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramana, M.V.

    Satellite imagery and offshore magnetic data were analysed to correlate regional tectonic elements on the inner continental shelf off Konkan and the adjacent Deccan plateau. Three statistically important lineament trends N-S, WNW-ESE and ENE...

  16. Manganese in the shelf sediments off the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murty, P.S.N.; Rao, Ch.M.; Reddy, C.V.G.

    shows that the contribution is practically from land. Higher rates of sedimentation was also observed on the inner shelf particularly between Alleppey and Karwar. The sediments in the slope region were slightly enriched in their manganese content than...

  17. Preliminary assessment of habitat protection needs for West Indian manatees on the east coast of Florida and Georgia. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-12-01

    The report assesses information on the status of endangered West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus) on the east coast of Florida and Georgia in the southeastern United States and recommends actions to improve protection of the species and its habitat in that area. Manatees on the east coast of Florida and Georgia appear to constitute a discrete population numbering perhaps 700 to 900 animals. Based on carcass-salvage data, recent annual mortality rates of between 8% and 10% are indicated. Perhaps 3% to 4% of the population was killed as a result of collisions with boats during 1987, and this threat appears to be increasing. Collisions with boats and destruction of essential habitat are the principal threats to the population. Recommendations include: quadruple the size of the boat-speed regulatory system on the east coast of Florida; limit development in essential manatee habitats; acquire additional manatee habitat as additions to Federal and State refuges and preserves.

  18. Comparing Two Numerical Models in Simulating Hydrodynamics and Sediment Transport at a Dual Inlet System, West-Central Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-15

    1 COMPARING TWO NUMERICAL MODELS IN SIMULATING HYDRODYNAMICS AND SEDIMENT TRANSPORT AT A DUAL INLET SYSTEM, WEST-CENTRAL FLORIDA PING WANG1...numerical modeling systems, CMS and DELFT3D, in simulating the hydrodynamic and sediment transport processes. The model results are compared with...Introduction Simulating complex fields of wave, current, sediment transport , and morphology change in the vicinity of tidal inlets is a

  19. The Relationship between Phytoplankton Distribution and Water Column Characteristics in North West European Shelf Sea Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Keith; Bolch, Christopher J. S.; Brand, Tim D.; Narayanaswamy, Bhavani E.

    2012-01-01

    Phytoplankton underpin the marine food web in shelf seas, with some species having properties that are harmful to human health and coastal aquaculture. Pressures such as climate change and anthropogenic nutrient input are hypothesized to influence phytoplankton community composition and distribution. Yet the primary environmental drivers in shelf seas are poorly understood. To begin to address this in North Western European waters, the phytoplankton community composition was assessed in light of measured physical and chemical drivers during the “Ellett Line” cruise of autumn 2001 across the Scottish Continental shelf and into adjacent open Atlantic waters. Spatial variability existed in both phytoplankton and environmental conditions, with clear differences not only between on and off shelf stations but also between different on shelf locations. Temperature/salinity plots demonstrated different water masses existed in the region. In turn, principal component analysis (PCA), of the measured environmental conditions (temperature, salinity, water density and inorganic nutrient concentrations) clearly discriminated between shelf and oceanic stations on the basis of DIN∶DSi ratio that was correlated with both salinity and temperature. Discrimination between shelf stations was also related to this ratio, but also the concentration of DIN and DSi. The phytoplankton community was diatom dominated, with multidimensional scaling (MDS) demonstrating spatial variability in its composition. Redundancy analysis (RDA) was used to investigate the link between environment and the phytoplankton community. This demonstrated a significant relationship between community composition and water mass as indexed by salinity (whole community), and both salinity and DIN∶DSi (diatoms alone). Diatoms of the Pseudo-nitzschia seriata group occurred at densities potentially harmful to shellfish aquaculture, with the potential for toxicity being elevated by the likelihood of DSi limitation

  20. The relationship between phytoplankton distribution and water column characteristics in North West European shelf sea waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehling, Johanna; Davidson, Keith; Bolch, Christopher J S; Brand, Tim D; Narayanaswamy, Bhavani E

    2012-01-01

    Phytoplankton underpin the marine food web in shelf seas, with some species having properties that are harmful to human health and coastal aquaculture. Pressures such as climate change and anthropogenic nutrient input are hypothesized to influence phytoplankton community composition and distribution. Yet the primary environmental drivers in shelf seas are poorly understood. To begin to address this in North Western European waters, the phytoplankton community composition was assessed in light of measured physical and chemical drivers during the "Ellett Line" cruise of autumn 2001 across the Scottish Continental shelf and into adjacent open Atlantic waters. Spatial variability existed in both phytoplankton and environmental conditions, with clear differences not only between on and off shelf stations but also between different on shelf locations. Temperature/salinity plots demonstrated different water masses existed in the region. In turn, principal component analysis (PCA), of the measured environmental conditions (temperature, salinity, water density and inorganic nutrient concentrations) clearly discriminated between shelf and oceanic stations on the basis of DIN:DSi ratio that was correlated with both salinity and temperature. Discrimination between shelf stations was also related to this ratio, but also the concentration of DIN and DSi. The phytoplankton community was diatom dominated, with multidimensional scaling (MDS) demonstrating spatial variability in its composition. Redundancy analysis (RDA) was used to investigate the link between environment and the phytoplankton community. This demonstrated a significant relationship between community composition and water mass as indexed by salinity (whole community), and both salinity and DIN:DSi (diatoms alone). Diatoms of the Pseudo-nitzschia seriata group occurred at densities potentially harmful to shellfish aquaculture, with the potential for toxicity being elevated by the likelihood of DSi limitation of

  1. Measuring Beach Profiles along a Low-Wave Energy Microtidal Coast, West-Central Florida, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Cheng

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring storm-induced dramatic beach morphology changes and long-term beach evolution provides crucial data for coastal management. Beach-profile measurement using total station has been conducted along the coast of west-central Florida over the last decade. This paper reviews several case studies of beach morphology changes based on total-station survey along this coast. The advantage of flexible and low-cost total-station surveys is discussed in comparison to LIDAR (light detection and ranging method. In an attempt to introduce total-station survey from a practical prospective, measurement of cross-shore beach profile in various scenarios are discussed, including: (1 establishing a beach profile line with known instrument and benchmark locations; (2 surveying multiple beach profiles with one instrument setup; (3 implementation of coordinate rotation to convert local system to real-earth system. Total-station survey is a highly effective and accurate method in documenting beach profile changes along low-energy coasts.

  2. Genome sequence analysis of dengue virus 1 isolated in Key West, Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dongyoung; Richards, Stephanie L; Alto, Barry W; Bettinardi, David J; Smartt, Chelsea T

    2013-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is transmitted to humans through the bite of mosquitoes. In November 2010, a dengue outbreak was reported in Monroe County in southern Florida (FL), including greater than 20 confirmed human cases. The virus collected from the human cases was verified as DENV serotype 1 (DENV-1) and one isolate was provided for sequence analysis. RNA was extracted from the DENV-1 isolate and was used in reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to amplify PCR fragments to sequence. Nucleic acid primers were designed to generate overlapping PCR fragments that covered the entire genome. The DENV-1 isolate found in Key West (KW), FL was sequenced for whole genome characterization. Sequence assembly, Genbank searches, and recombination analyses were performed to verify the identity of the genome sequences and to determine percent similarity to known DENV-1 sequences. We show that the KW DENV-1 strain is 99% identical to Nicaraguan and Mexican DENV-1 strains. Phylogenetic and recombination analyses suggest that the DENV-1 isolated in KW originated from Nicaragua (NI) and the KW strain may circulate in KW. Also, recombination analysis results detected recombination events in the KW strain compared to DENV-1 strains from Puerto Rico. We evaluate the relative growth of KW strain of DENV-1 compared to other dengue viruses to determine whether the underlying genetics of the strain is associated with a replicative advantage, an important consideration since local transmission of DENV may result because domestic tourism can spread DENVs.

  3. Genome sequence analysis of dengue virus 1 isolated in Key West, Florida.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongyoung Shin

    Full Text Available Dengue virus (DENV is transmitted to humans through the bite of mosquitoes. In November 2010, a dengue outbreak was reported in Monroe County in southern Florida (FL, including greater than 20 confirmed human cases. The virus collected from the human cases was verified as DENV serotype 1 (DENV-1 and one isolate was provided for sequence analysis. RNA was extracted from the DENV-1 isolate and was used in reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR to amplify PCR fragments to sequence. Nucleic acid primers were designed to generate overlapping PCR fragments that covered the entire genome. The DENV-1 isolate found in Key West (KW, FL was sequenced for whole genome characterization. Sequence assembly, Genbank searches, and recombination analyses were performed to verify the identity of the genome sequences and to determine percent similarity to known DENV-1 sequences. We show that the KW DENV-1 strain is 99% identical to Nicaraguan and Mexican DENV-1 strains. Phylogenetic and recombination analyses suggest that the DENV-1 isolated in KW originated from Nicaragua (NI and the KW strain may circulate in KW. Also, recombination analysis results detected recombination events in the KW strain compared to DENV-1 strains from Puerto Rico. We evaluate the relative growth of KW strain of DENV-1 compared to other dengue viruses to determine whether the underlying genetics of the strain is associated with a replicative advantage, an important consideration since local transmission of DENV may result because domestic tourism can spread DENVs.

  4. Oceanography of the Southeastern Continental Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    This volume, the second in the Coastal and Estuarine Sciences series, provides a synthesis of the physical, chemical, and biological oceanography of the South Atlantic Bight (SAB). The results presented derive from a decade-long multidisciplinary investigation of the SAB continental shelf regime.The SAB extends from West Palm Beach, Fla., where the narrow south Florida shelf begins to broaden, to Cape Hatteras, N.C., where the shelf again narrows. This broad and shallow area is distinguished by the proximity of the Gulf Stream to the shelf break. Large contrasts in the distribution of properties, the strength of oceanic and atmospheric forces, and the high frequency (4-12 days) at which these forces vary have created a unique natural laboratory in which a variety of oceanic processes may be studied.

  5. Schizammina andamana n.sp., a large foraminiferan (Protozoa, Granuloreticulosa) from the shelf west of Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tendal, Ole Secher; Cedhagen, Tomas

    2007-01-01

    A new species of Schizammina is described from the mid-shelf of the Andaman Sea at depths between 60 and 85 m. The test is agglutinating, up to about 30 mm high, and consists of dichotomously branching tubes. Tube diameter varies between 0.8 and 1.2 mm. The most closely related species are S. atl...

  6. Zooplankton from the shelf watrs off the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, V.R.; Peter, G.

    Zooplankton in the shelf waters of India from Dabhol to Tuticorin was studied during the 17th cruise of R.V. Gaveshani in March 1977. Biomass values were relatively high in the central zone between Mangalore and Alleppey. In the region between...

  7. M sub(2) tidal currents on the shelf off Goa, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shenoi, S.S.C.; Gouveia, A.D.; Shetye, S.R.

    Current meter records collected during three different months from a site off Goa (15 degrees 08'N, 73 degrees 16'E) over the western continental shelf of India have been used to describe the M sub(2) tidal structure in a water column of depth about...

  8. Surface-Water and Groundwater Interactions along the Withlacoochee River, West-Central Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trommer, J.T.; Yobbi, D.K.; McBride, W.S.

    2009-01-01

    A study of the Withlacoochee River watershed in west-central Florida was conducted from October 2003 to March 2007 to gain a better understanding of the hydrology and surface-water and groundwater interactions along the river. The Withlacoochee River originates in the Green Swamp area in north-central Polk County and flows northerly through seven counties, emptying into the Gulf of Mexico. This study includes only the part of the watershed located between the headwaters in the Green Swamp and the U.S. Geological Survey gaging station near Holder, Florida. The Withlacoochee River within the study area is about 108 miles long and drains about 1,820 square miles. The Withlacoochee River watershed is underlain by thick sequences of carbonate rock that are covered by thin surficial deposits of unconsolidated sand and sandy clay. The clay layer is breached in many places because of the karst nature of the underlying limestone, and the degree of confinement between the Upper Florida aquifer and the surficial aquifer is highly variable throughout the watershed. The potential for movement of water from the surface or shallow deposits to deeper deposits, or from deeper deposits to the shallow deposits, exists throughout the Withlacoochee River watershed. Water levels were higher in deeper Upper Floridan aquifer wells than in shallow Upper Floridan aquifer wells or surficial aquifer wells at 11 of 19 paired or nested well sites, indicating potential for discharge to the surface-water system. Water levels were higher in shallow Upper Floridan aquifer or surficial aquifer wells than in deeper Upper Floridan aquifer wells at five other sites, indicating potential for recharge to the deeper Upper Floridan aquifer. Water levels in the surficial aquifer and Upper Floridan aquifer wells at the remaining three sites were virtually the same, indicating little or no confinement at the sites. Potentiometric-surface maps of the Upper Floridan aquifer indicate the pattern of groundwater

  9. Development and application of a new comprehensive image-based classification scheme for coastal and benthic environments along the southeast Florida continental shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makowski, Christopher

    The coastal (terrestrial) and benthic environments along the southeast Florida continental shelf show a unique biophysical succession of marine features from a highly urbanized, developed coastal region in the north (i.e. northern Miami-Dade County) to a protective marine sanctuary in the southeast (i.e. Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary). However, the establishment of a standard bio-geomorphological classification scheme for this area of coastal and benthic environments is lacking. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis and answer the research question of whether new parameters of integrating geomorphological components with dominant biological covers could be developed and applied across multiple remote sensing platforms for an innovative way to identify, interpret, and classify diverse coastal and benthic environments along the southeast Florida continental shelf. An ordered manageable hierarchical classification scheme was developed to incorporate the categories of Physiographic Realm, Morphodynamic Zone, Geoform, Landform, Dominant Surface Sediment, and Dominant Biological Cover. Six different remote sensing platforms (i.e. five multi-spectral satellite image sensors and one high-resolution aerial orthoimagery) were acquired, delineated according to the new classification scheme, and compared to determine optimal formats for classifying the study area. Cognitive digital classification at a nominal scale of 1:6000 proved to be more accurate than autoclassification programs and therefore used to differentiate coastal marine environments based on spectral reflectance characteristics, such as color, tone, saturation, pattern, and texture of the seafloor topology. In addition, attribute tables were created in conjugation with interpretations to quantify and compare the spatial relationships between classificatory units. IKONOS-2 satellite imagery was determined to be the optimal platform for applying the hierarchical classification scheme

  10. Ice-Shelf Flexure and Tidal Forcing of Bindschadler Ice Stream, West Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Ryan T.; Parizek, Bryron R.; Alley, Richard B.; Brunt, Kelly M.; Anandakrishnan, Sridhar

    2014-01-01

    Viscoelastic models of ice-shelf flexure and ice-stream velocity perturbations are combined into a single efficient flowline model to study tidal forcing of grounded ice. The magnitude and timing of icestream response to tidally driven changes in hydrostatic pressure and/or basal drag are found to depend significantly on bed rheology, with only a perfectly plastic bed allowing instantaneous velocity response at the grounding line. The model can reasonably reproduce GPS observations near the grounding zone of Bindschadler Ice Stream (formerly Ice Stream D) on semidiurnal time scales; however, other forcings such as tidally driven ice-shelf slope transverse to the flowline and flexurally driven till deformation must also be considered if diurnal motion is to be matched

  11. Observational evidence from direct current measurements for propagation of remotely forced waves on the shelf off the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Amol, P.; Shankar, D.; Aparna, S.G.; Shenoi, S.S.C.; Fernando, V.; Shetye, S.R.; Mukherjee, A.; Agarvadekar, Y.; Khalap, S.; Satelkar, N.P.

    QuikSCAT wind data, we show that the contribution of remote forcing to the shelf West Indian Coastal Current (WICC) is significant even when the local alongshore wind is strong, as during the summer-monsoon onset during May–June, and forces a strong...

  12. Long-term evaluation of three satellite ocean color algorithms for identifying harmful algal blooms (Karenia brevis) along the west coast of Florida: A matchup assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Gustavo A; Minnett, Peter J; Banzon, Viva F; Baringer, Warner; Heil, Cynthia A

    2011-01-17

    We present a simple algorithm to identify Karenia brevis blooms in the Gulf of Mexico along the west coast of Florida in satellite imagery. It is based on an empirical analysis of collocated matchups of satellite and in situ measurements. The results of this Empirical Approach is compared to those of a Bio-optical Technique - taken from the published literature - and the Operational Method currently implemented by the NOAA Harmful Algal Bloom Forecasting System for K. brevis blooms. These three algorithms are evaluated using a multi-year MODIS data set (from July, 2002 to October, 2006) and a long-term in situ database. Matchup pairs, consisting of remotely-sensed ocean color parameters and near-coincident field measurements of K. brevis concentration, are used to assess the accuracy of the algorithms. Fair evaluation of the algorithms was only possible in the central west Florida shelf (i.e. between 25.75°N and 28.25°N) during the boreal Summer and Fall months (i.e. July to December) due to the availability of valid cloud-free matchups. Even though the predictive values of the three algorithms are similar, the statistical measure of success in red tide identification (defined as cell counts in excess of 1.5 × 10(4) cells L(-1)) varied considerably (sensitivity-Empirical: 86%; Bio-optical: 77%; Operational: 26%), as did their effectiveness in identifying non-bloom cases (specificity-Empirical: 53%; Bio-optical: 65%; Operational: 84%). As the Operational Method had an elevated frequency of false-negative cases (i.e. presented low accuracy in detecting known red tides), and because of the considerable overlap between the optical characteristics of the red tide and non-bloom population, only the other two algorithms underwent a procedure for further inspecting possible detection improvements. Both optimized versions of the Empirical and Bio-optical algorithms performed similarly, being equally specific and sensitive (~70% for both) and showing low levels of

  13. Feeding preferences of West Indian manatees in Florida, Belize, and Puerto Rico as indicated by stable isotope analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves-Stanley, Christy D.; Worthy, Graham A.J.; Bonde, Robert K.

    2010-01-01

    The endangered West Indian manatee Trichechus manatus has 2 recognized subspecies: the Florida T. m. latirostris and Antillean T. m. manatus manatee, both of which are found in freshwater, estuarine, and marine habitats. A better understanding of manatee feeding preferences and habitat use is essential to establish criteria on which conservation plans can be based. Skin from manatees in Florida, Belize, and Puerto Rico, as well as aquatic vegetation from their presumed diet, were analyzed for stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios. This is the first application of stable isotope analysis to Antillean manatees. Stable isotope ratios for aquatic vegetation differed by plant type (freshwater, estuarine, and marine), collection location, and in one instance, season. Carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios for manatee skin differed between collection location and in one instance, season, but did not differ between sex or age class. Signatures in the skin of manatees sampled in Belize and Puerto Rico indicated a diet composed primarily of seagrasses, whereas those of Florida manatees exhibited greater regional variation. Mixing model results indicated that manatees sampled from Crystal River and Homosassa Springs (Florida, USA) ate primarily freshwater vegetation, whereas manatees sampled from Big Bend Power Plant, Ten Thousand Islands, and Warm Mineral Springs (Florida) fed primarily on seagrasses. Possible diet-tissue discrimination values for 15N were estimated to range from 1.0 to 1.5 per mil. Stable isotope analysis can be used to interpret manatee feeding behavior over a long period of time, specifically the use of freshwater vegetation versus seagrasses, and can aid in identifying critical habitats and improving conservation efforts.

  14. Ocean circulation drives heterogeneous recruitments and connectivity among coral populations on the North West Shelf of Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ming; Colberg, Frank; Slawinski, Dirk; Berry, Oliver; Babcock, Russ

    2016-12-01

    The North West Shelf (NWS) of Australia features extensive and globally significant fringing coral reef ecosystems with high levels of endemism and consequently has received significant conservation efforts in the form of Marine Parks. The shelf circulation on the NWS is dominated by the southwestward-flowing Holloway Current during austral autumn-winter and by the northeastward monsoonal currents during austral summer. Intraseasonal Oscillation and short-term wind variability also influence advection processes on the NWS. These circulation processes are likely to determine demographic inter-dependencies among reef systems in the region, but the extent and spatial variability of the inter-dependence are not well understood. In this study, we used a 3-dimensional, hydrostatic, primitive equations model, to simulate the shelf circulation on the NWS at 1 km horizontal resolution during 2004-2009. We then used a particle tracking model based on the shelf circulation model to simulate larval dispersal in a representative coral species, Acropora millepora, among the 3430 coral reefs on the NWS during its autumn mass spawning. Model results predicted that settling larvae typically reach suitable reef within 10 days of spawning, with a predominantly southwestward tendency of transport. There was significant spatial heterogeneity in larval settlements and the Dampier Archipelago areas seemed to be more isolated from the rest of the NWS. Year-to-year variations of larval dispersals were sensitive to the seasonal and intraseasonal variations of alongshore winds: mass spawning in late March would expose the Dampier Archipelago area to the Holloway Current onset, resulting in it being an occasional source region of larval supply for the rest of the NWS to the southwest; intraseasonal northeastward wind pulses coinciding with the mass larval spawning would bring larvae from coastal regions to the Dampier Archipelago on rare occasions. By aggregating the reefs into 47 subregions

  15. Deep-sea coral and hardbottom habitats on the west Florida slope, eastern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Steve W.; Rhode, Mike; Brooke, Sandra

    2017-02-01

    Until recently, benthic habitats dominated by deep-sea corals (DSC) appeared to be less extensive on the slope of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) than in the northeast Atlantic Ocean or off the southeastern US. There are relatively few bioherms (i.e., coral-built mounds) in the northern GOM, and most DSCs are attached to existing hard substrata (e.g., authigenically formed carbonate). The primary structure-forming, DSC in the GOM is Lophelia pertusa, but structure is also provided by other living and dead scleractinians, antipatharians (black corals), octocorals (gorgonians, soft corals), hydrocorals and sponges, as well as abundant rocky substrata. The best development of DSCs in the GOM was previously documented within Viosca Knoll oil and gas lease blocks 826 and 862/906 (north-central GOM) and on the Campeche Bank (southern GOM in Mexican waters). This paper documents extensive deep reef ecosystems composed of DSC and rocky hard-bottom recently surveyed on the West Florida Slope (WFS, eastern GOM) during six research cruises (2008-2012). Using multibeam sonar, CTD casts, and video from underwater vehicles, we describe the physical and oceanographic characteristics of these deep reefs and provide size or area estimates of deep coral and hardground habitats. The multibeam sonar analyses revealed hundreds of mounds and ridges, some of which were subsequently surveyed using underwater vehicles. Mounds and ridges in <525 m depths were usually capped with living coral colonies, dominated by L. pertusa. An extensive rocky scarp, running roughly north-south for at least 229 km, supported lower abundances of scleractinian corals than the mounds and ridges, despite an abundance of settlement substrata. Areal comparisons suggested that the WFS may exceed other parts of the GOM slope in extent of living deep coral coverage and other deep-reef habitat (dead coral and rock). The complex WFS region warrants additional studies to better understand the influences of oceanography and

  16. Investigation of Immature Sea Turtles in the Coastal Waters of West Florida

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To survey immature sea turtles that inhabit the Ten Thousand Islands. Program funding came from South Florida Ecosystem Restoration. This project provided base-line...

  17. Late glacial-Holocene shelf evolution of the Sea of Marmara west of Istanbul

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakilcik, Hatice; Unlugenc, Ulvi Can; Okyar, Mahmut

    2014-12-01

    We present an investigation the Late Quaternary seismic stratigraphy of the shelf area of the northern the Sea of Marmara extending from its northern coast (between Silivri and Kumkapı) to approximately 100 m depth, using shallow high-resolution seismic reflection data along 73 N-S and 15 E-W lines. Seismic sequence analysis is used to identify the depositional systems, associated sedimentation conditions, and relative sea level changes. Seismic stratigraphic interpretations indicate the presence of four distinct seismic units (SU I, II, III and IV) underlying the shelf area. Seismic units are bounded by erosional unconformities overlying an acoustic basement. Seismic unit I constitutes the acoustic basement (AB), which is characterized by chaotic, subparallel, and wavy reflections that out locally off the rocky shorelines and along the crests of the positive structures where the sedimentary cover is absent. Seismic unit II is interpreted to represent the pre-Holocene deposits and exhibits subparallel reflections. Seismic unit II is interpreted to have been subjected to sub-aerial erosion during the Last Glacial Maximum. Seismic unit III-IV are interpreted to have formed during the Holocene (Flandrian) transgression and have parallel/subparallel internal reflection patterns. The top of seismic unit IV forms the present-day sea floor. As a result of the presence of fill, seismic facies within seismic unit IV reflect differences in depositional processes. The bathymetry of the study area has a close relation with sedimentation dynamics, tectonic, wave and flow dynamics and palaeotopograpy. Particularly, sudden dip changes determined at the shelf area might have been due to fault and/or fault systems that control the bottom topography. Seismic activity in the Sea of Marmara region has a key role the northern branch of the North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ) affecting on the tectonic activity of the study area. The last two earthquakes in İzmit and Duzce, Turkey, in

  18. Phylogenetic analysis of dengue virus types 1 and 4 circulating in Puerto Rico and Key West, Florida, during 2010 epidemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Añez, Germán; Heisey, Daniel A R; Espina, Luz M; Stramer, Susan L; Rios, Maria

    2012-09-01

    We describe sequences of six strains of dengue virus (DENV): three DENV-1 isolates and two DENV-4 isolates from Puerto Rico, and a DENV-1 strain from Key West, Florida, obtained from blood donors during 2010 epidemics. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the Puerto Rico DENV-1 strains constitute a new lineage within genotype V different from those that circulated in Puerto Rico during the past two decades. The newer Puerto Rico DENV-1 strains associated with strains from the Caribbean and South America. The DENV-1 strain from Key West, Florida clustered with a strain isolated from mosquito pools collected in that area and with a number of strains from Nicaragua and Mexico circulating during 2006-2009. The Puerto Rico DENV-4 isolates of genotype II associated with strains that have circulated on the island throughout the 1980s and 1990s and with strains from the Caribbean region and Central America. Introduction and circulation of novel DENV lineages in dengue-endemic regions have the potential to increase the severity of dengue cases.

  19. Limited grounding-line advance onto the West Antarctic continental shelf in the easternmost Amundsen Sea Embayment during the last glacial period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klages, Johann P; Kuhn, Gerhard; Hillenbrand, Claus-Dieter; Smith, James A; Graham, Alastair G C; Nitsche, Frank O; Frederichs, Thomas; Jernas, Patrycja E; Gohl, Karsten; Wacker, Lukas

    2017-01-01

    Precise knowledge about the extent of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM; c. 26.5-19 cal. ka BP) is important in order to 1) improve paleo-ice sheet reconstructions, 2) provide a robust empirical framework for calibrating paleo-ice sheet models, and 3) locate potential shelf refugia for Antarctic benthos during the last glacial period. However, reliable reconstructions are still lacking for many WAIS sectors, particularly for key areas on the outer continental shelf, where the LGM-ice sheet is assumed to have terminated. In many areas of the outer continental shelf around Antarctica, direct geological data for the presence or absence of grounded ice during the LGM is lacking because of post-LGM iceberg scouring. This also applies to most of the outer continental shelf in the Amundsen Sea. Here we present detailed marine geophysical and new geological data documenting a sequence of glaciomarine sediments up to ~12 m thick within the deep outer portion of Abbot Trough, a palaeo-ice stream trough on the outer shelf of the Amundsen Sea Embayment. The upper 2-3 meters of this sediment drape contain calcareous foraminifera of Holocene and (pre-)LGM age and, in combination with palaeomagnetic age constraints, indicate that continuous glaciomarine deposition persisted here since well before the LGM, possibly even since the last interglacial period. Our data therefore indicate that the LGM grounding line, whose exact location was previously uncertain, did not reach the shelf edge everywhere in the Amundsen Sea. The LGM grounding line position coincides with the crest of a distinct grounding-zone wedge ~100 km inland from the continental shelf edge. Thus, an area of ≥6000 km2 remained free of grounded ice through the last glacial cycle, requiring the LGM grounding line position to be re-located in this sector, and suggesting a new site at which Antarctic shelf benthos may have survived the last glacial period.

  20. Willingness to Pay for Mosquito Control in Key West, Florida and Tucson, Arizona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Katherine L; Hayden, Mary H; Haenchen, Steven; Monaghan, Andrew J; Walker, Kathleen R; Ernst, Kacey C

    2016-04-01

    Mosquito-borne illnesses like West Nile virus (WNV) and dengue are growing threats to the United States. Proactive mosquito control is one strategy to reduce the risk of disease transmission. In 2012, we measured the public's willingness to pay (WTP) for increased mosquito control in two cities: Key West, FL, where there have been recent dengue outbreaks, and Tucson, AZ, where dengue vectors are established and WNV has been circulating for over a decade. Nearly three quarters of respondents in both cities (74% in Tucson and 73% in Key West) would be willing to pay $25 or more annually toward an increase in publicly funded mosquito control efforts. WTP was positively associated with income (both cities), education (Key West), and perceived mosquito abundance (Tucson). Concerns about environmental impacts of mosquito control were associated with lower WTP in Key West. Expanded mosquito control efforts should incorporate public opinion as they respond to evolving disease risks.

  1. University of West Florida Work Plan Presentation for 2014-15 Board of Governors Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Board of Governors, State University System of Florida, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The State University System of Florida has developed three tools that aid in guiding the System's future: (1) The Board of Governors' new "Strategic Plan 2012-2025" is driven by goals and associated metrics that stake out where the System is headed; (2) The Board's "Annual Accountability Report" provides yearly tracking for how…

  2. University of West Florida Work Plan Presentation for 2012-13 Board of Governors Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Board of Governors, State University System of Florida, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The State University System of Florida has developed three tools that aid in guiding the System's future: (1) The Board of Governors' new "Strategic Plan 2012-2025" is driven by goals and associated metrics that stake out where the System is headed; (2) The Board's "Annual Accountability Report" provides yearly tracking for how…

  3. Modeling the evolution of climate-sensitive Arctic subsea permafrost in regions of extensive gas expulsion at the West Yamal shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnov, Alexey; Mienert, Jurgen; Serov, Pavel

    2014-11-01

    Thawing subsea permafrost controls methane release from the Russian Arctic shelf having a considerable impact on the climate-sensitive Arctic environment. Expulsions of methane from shallow Russian Arctic shelf areas may continue to rise in response to intense degradation of relict subsea permafrost. Here we show modeling of the permafrost evolution from the Late Pleistocene to present time at the West Yamal shelf. Modeling results suggest a highly dynamic permafrost system that directly responds to even minor variations of lower and upper boundary conditions, e.g., geothermal heat flux from below and/or bottom water temperature changes from above permafrost. Scenarios of permafrost evolution show a potentially nearest landward modern extent of the permafrost at the West Yamal shelf limited by ~17 m isobaths, whereas its farthest seaward extent coincides with ~100 m isobaths. The model also predicts seaward tapering of relict permafrost with a maximal thickness of 275-390 m near the shoreline. Previous field observations detected extensive emissions of free gas into the water column at the transition zone between today's shallow water permafrost (20 m). The model adapts well to corresponding heat flux and ocean temperature data, providing crucial information about the modern permafrost conditions. It shows current locations of upper and lower permafrost boundaries and evidences for possible release of methane from the seabed to the hydrosphere in a warming Arctic.

  4. Lacaziosis and lacaziosis-like prevalence among wild, common bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus from the west coast of Florida, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdett Hart, Leslie; Rotstein, Dave S; Wells, Randall S; Bassos-Hull, Kim; Schwacke, Lori H

    2011-05-24

    Lacaziosis (lobomycosis; Lacazia loboi) is a fungal skin disease that naturally occurs only in humans and dolphins. The first reported case of lacaziosis in a bottlenose dolphin Tursiops truncatus occurred in 1970 in Sarasota Bay, Florida, USA, and subsequent photo-ID monitoring of the Sarasota Bay dolphin population has revealed persistence of the disease. The objectives of this study were to estimate lacaziosis prevalence (P) in 2 bottlenose dolphin populations on the west coast of Florida (Sarasota Bay and Charlotte Harbor) and compare disease occurrence to other published estimates of lacaziosis in dolphin populations across the globe. Historic photographic records of dolphins captured and released for health assessment purposes (Sarasota Bay) and photo-ID studies (Charlotte Harbor) were screened for evidence of lesions consistent with lacaziosis. Health assessment data revealed a prevalence of lacaziosis in the Sarasota Bay bottlenose dolphin population between 2 and 3%, and analyses of photo-ID data provided a lacaziosis-like prevalence estimate of 2% for Charlotte Harbor dolphins. With the exception of lacaziosis prevalence estimates for dolphins inhabiting the Indian River Lagoon (P = 0.068; P = 0.12), no statistically significant differences were seen among Sarasota Bay, Charlotte Harbor, and other published estimates. Although lacaziosis is a rare disease among these dolphin populations, studies that assess disease burden among different populations can assist with the surveillance of this zoonotic pathogen.

  5. Municipal solid-waste disposal and ground-water quality in a coastal environment, west-central Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Mario

    1983-01-01

    Solid waste is defined along with various methods of disposal and the hydrogeologic factors to be considered when locating land-fills is presented. Types of solid waste, composition, and sources are identified. Generation of municipal solid waste in Florida has been estimated at 4.5 pounds per day per person or about 7.8 million tons per year. Leachate is generated when precipitation and ground water percolate through the waste. Gases, mainly carbon dioxide and methane, are also produced. Leachate generally contains high concentrations of dissolved organic and inorganic matter. The two typical hydrogeologic conditions in west-central Florida are (1) permeable sand overlying clay and limestone and (2) permeable sand overlying limestone. These conditions are discussed in relation to leachate migration. Factors in landfill site selection are presented and discussed, followed by a discussion on monitoring landfills. Monitoring of landfills includes the drilling of test holes, measuring physical properties of the corings, installation of monitoring wells, and water-quality monitoring. (USGS)

  6. Archive of Digitized Analog Boomer Seismic Reflection Data Collected from the Mississippi-Alabama-Florida Shelf During Cruises Onboard the R/V Kit Jones, June 1990 and July 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Jordan M.; Harrison, Arnell S.; Wiese, Dana S.; Flocks, James G.

    2009-01-01

    In June of 1990 and July of 1991, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted geophysical surveys to investigate the shallow geologic framework of the Mississippi-Alabama-Florida shelf in the northern Gulf of Mexico, from Mississippi Sound to the Florida Panhandle. Work was done onboard the Mississippi Mineral Resources Institute R/V Kit Jones as part of a project to study coastal erosion and offshore sand resources. This report is part of a series to digitally archive the legacy analog data collected from the Mississippi-Alabama SHelf (MASH). The MASH data rescue project is a cooperative effort by the USGS and the Minerals Management Service (MMS). This report serves as an archive of high-resolution scanned Tagged Image File Format (TIFF) and Graphics Interchange Format (GIF) images of the original boomer paper records, navigation files, trackline maps, Geographic Information System (GIS) files, cruise logs, and formal Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) metadata.

  7. Observed internal tides and near-inertial waves on the continental shelf and slope off Jaigarh, central west coast of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subeesh, M. P.; Unnikrishnan, A. S.

    2016-05-01

    The characteristics of internal tides (ITs) and near-inertial waves (NIWs) on the continental shelf and slope off Jaigarh (17∘N), central west coast of India were studied. Eight-month (March-October) long Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) measurements made in the year 2008 were used in the present study. Analysis of sea surface heights from satellite altimeter data, where the tracks of the satellites are oriented nearly in the direction of the semimajor axis of barotropic tides, reveals the presence of diurnal and semidiurnal internal tides with surface amplitudes of about 2 cm. Baroclinic current spectra of horizontal velocities show peaks in IT frequencies of M2, S2, K1 and O1 and in inertial frequency (f). The observed current spectra show higher energies than those in Garrett-Munk reference spectra by about 2-3 times. Based on the estimates of "critical topography" (where the topographic slope is equal to the slope of IT) and computed barotropic body force (Baines, 1982), the shelf-edge, mid-slope and deep part of the slope region are found to be the possible generation sites of internal tides in the region. Over the period of observation, the IT on the slope is found to be energetic, with a strong IT during March to mid-April (pre-monsoon period). Whereas, on the shelf, IT is weak during the pre-monsoon and found to be strong in the southwest monsoon. The available hydrographic data and model simulated hydrography suggest that this difference is linked with the stratification changes on the shelf and slope during these seasons, where the stratification is found to be weak on the shelf and strong on the slope during pre-monsoon. Strong low-mode NIW is observed on the shelf associated with the storm events while the NIW is found to be less energetic on the slope.

  8. Sedimentology and chronology of the advance and retreat of the last British-Irish Ice Sheet on the continental shelf west of Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Jared L.; Benetti, Sara; Dunlop, Paul; Ó Cofaigh, Colm; Moreton, Steven G.; Wheeler, Andrew J.; Clark, Christopher D.

    2016-05-01

    The last British-Irish Ice Sheet (BIIS) had extensive marine-terminating margins and was drained by multiple large ice streams and is thus a useful analogue for marine-based areas of modern ice sheets. However, despite recent advances from investigating the offshore record of the BIIS, the dynamic history of its marine margins, which would have been sensitive to external forcing(s), remain inadequately understood. This study is the first reconstruction of the retreat dynamics and chronology of the western, marine-terminating, margin of the last (Late Midlandian) BIIS. Analyses of shelf geomorphology and core sedimentology and chronology enable a reconstruction of the Late Midlandian history of the BIIS west of Ireland, from initial advance to final retreat onshore. Five AMS radiocarbon dates from marine cores constrain the timing of retreat and associated readvances during deglaciation. The BIIS advanced without streaming or surging, depositing a bed of highly consolidated subglacial traction till, and reached to within ˜20 km of the shelf break by ˜24,000 Cal BP. Ice margin retreat was likely preceded by thinning, grounding zone retreat and ice shelf formation on the outer shelf by ˜22,000 Cal BP. This ice shelf persisted for ≤2500 years, while retreating at a minimum rate of ˜24 m/yr and buttressing a >150-km long, 20-km wide, bathymetrically-controlled grounding zone. A large (˜150 km long), arcuate, flat-topped grounding-zone wedge, termed here the Galway Lobe Grounding-Zone Wedge (GLGZW), was deposited below this ice shelf and records a significant stillstand in BIIS retreat. Geomorphic relationships indicate that the BIIS experienced continued thinning during its retreat across the shelf, which led to increased topographic influence on its flow dynamics following ice shelf break up and grounding zone retreat past the GLGZW. At this stage of retreat the western BIIS was comprised of several discrete, asynchronous lobes that underwent several readvances

  9. Autonomous Flow-Thru (AFT) pH data of the West Florida Shelf: USGS Cruise 11BHM01

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The United States Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting a study on the effects of climate change on ocean acidification within the Gulf of Mexico; dealing...

  10. Navigation and environmental data from R/V Weatherbird II for the West Florida Shelf: USGS Cruise 11BHM01

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The United States Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting a study on the effects of climate change on ocean acidification within the Gulf of Mexico; dealing...

  11. Surface water data for samples collected approximately hourly along the West Florida Shelf: USGS Cruise 11CEV01

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The United States Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting a study on the effects of climate change on ocean acidification within the Gulf of Mexico; dealing...

  12. Sonde data of continuous surface water flow-through system for the West Florida Shelf: USGS Cruise 11BHM01

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The United States Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting a study on the effects of climate change on ocean acidification within the Gulf of Mexico; dealing...

  13. Water column sample data from predefined locations of the West Florida Shelf: USGS Cruise 11BHM02

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The United States Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting a study on the effects of climate change on ocean acidification within the Gulf of Mexico; dealing...

  14. Navigation and environmental data from R/V Weatherbird II for the West Florida Shelf: USGS Cruise 11CEV02

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The United States Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting a study on the effects of climate change on ocean acidification within the Gulf of Mexico; dealing...

  15. Surface water data for samples collected approximately hourly along the West Florida Shelf: USGS Cruise 11BHM03

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The United States Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting a study on the effects of climate change on ocean acidification within the Gulf of Mexico; dealing...

  16. Sonde data of continuous surface water flow-through system for the West Florida Shelf: USGS Cruise 11BHM02

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The United States Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting a study on the effects of climate change on ocean acidification within the Gulf of Mexico; dealing...

  17. Sonde data of continuous surface water flow-through system for the West Florida Shelf: USGS Cruise 11CEV02

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The United States Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting a study on the effects of climate change on ocean acidification within the Gulf of Mexico; dealing...

  18. Sonde data of continuous surface water flow-through system for the West Florida Shelf: USGS Cruise 11BHM04

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The United States Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting a study on the effects of climate change on ocean acidification within the Gulf of Mexico; dealing...

  19. Water column sample data from predefined locations of the West Florida Shelf: USGS Cruise 11BHM01

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The United States Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting a study on the effects of climate change on ocean acidification within the Gulf of Mexico; dealing...

  20. Sonde data of continuous surface water flow-through system for the West Florida Shelf: USGS Cruise 11BHM01

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The United States Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting a study on the effects of climate change on ocean acidification within the Gulf of Mexico; dealing...

  1. Autonomous Flow-Thru (AFT) CO2 data of the West Florida Shelf: USGS Cruise 11BHM02

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The United States Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting a study on the effects of climate change on ocean acidification within the Gulf of Mexico; dealing...

  2. Navigation and environmental data from R/V Weatherbird II for the West Florida Shelf: USGS Cruise 11BHM04

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The United States Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting a study on the effects of climate change on ocean acidification within the Gulf of Mexico; dealing...

  3. Autonomous Flow-Thru (AFT) pH data of the West Florida Shelf: USGS Cruise 11BHM04

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The United States Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting a study on the effects of climate change on ocean acidification within the Gulf of Mexico; dealing...

  4. Sonde data of continuous surface water flow-through system for the West Florida Shelf: USGS Cruise 11BHM03

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The United States Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting a study on the effects of climate change on ocean acidification within the Gulf of Mexico; dealing...

  5. Autonomous Flow-Thru (AFT) pH data of the West Florida Shelf: USGS Cruise 11BHM02

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The United States Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting a study on the effects of climate change on ocean acidification within the Gulf of Mexico; dealing...

  6. Navigation and environmental data from R/V Weatherbird II for the West Florida Shelf: USGS Cruise 11CEV02

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The United States Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting a study on the effects of climate change on ocean acidification within the Gulf of Mexico; dealing...

  7. Sonde data of continuous surface water flow-through system for the West Florida Shelf: USGS Cruise 11BHM03

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The United States Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting a study on the effects of climate change on ocean acidification within the Gulf of Mexico; dealing...

  8. Navigation and environmental data from R/V Weatherbird II for the West Florida Shelf: USGS Cruise 11BHM03

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The United States Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting a study on the effects of climate change on ocean acidification within the Gulf of Mexico; dealing...

  9. Navigation and environmental data from R/V Weatherbird II for the West Florida Shelf: USGS Cruise 11BHM04

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The United States Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting a study on the effects of climate change on ocean acidification within the Gulf of Mexico; dealing...

  10. Autonomous Flow-Thru (AFT) pH data of the West Florida Shelf: USGS Cruise 11BHM04

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The United States Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting a study on the effects of climate change on ocean acidification within the Gulf of Mexico; dealing...

  11. Water column sample data from predefined locations of the West Florida Shelf: USGS Cruise 11BHM04

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The United States Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting a study on the effects of climate change on ocean acidification within the Gulf of Mexico; dealing...

  12. Surface water data for samples collected approximately hourly along the West Florida Shelf: USGS Cruise 11BHM04

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The United States Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting a study on the effects of climate change on ocean acidification within the Gulf of Mexico; dealing...

  13. Water column sample data from predefined locations of the West Florida Shelf: USGS Cruise 11BHM03

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The United States Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting a study on the effects of climate change on ocean acidification within the Gulf of Mexico; dealing...

  14. Water column sample data from predefined locations of the West Florida Shelf: USGS Cruise 11CEV02

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The United States Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting a study on the effects of climate change on ocean acidification within the Gulf of Mexico; dealing...

  15. Autonomous Flow-Thru (AFT) pH data of the West Florida Shelf: USGS Cruise 11BHM01

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The United States Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting a study on the effects of climate change on ocean acidification within the Gulf of Mexico; dealing...

  16. Autonomous Flow-Thru (AFT) CO2 data of the West Florida Shelf: USGS Cruise 11BHM01

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The United States Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting a study on the effects of climate change on ocean acidification within the Gulf of Mexico; dealing...

  17. Surface water data for samples collected approximately hourly along the West Florida Shelf: USGS Cruise 11CEV01

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The United States Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting a study on the effects of climate change on ocean acidification within the Gulf of Mexico; dealing...

  18. Autonomous Flow-Thru (AFT) CO2 data of the West Florida Shelf: USGS Cruise 11BHM01

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The United States Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting a study on the effects of climate change on ocean acidification within the Gulf of Mexico; dealing...

  19. Autonomous Flow-Thru (AFT) CO2 data of the West Florida Shelf: USGS Cruise 11BHM02

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The United States Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting a study on the effects of climate change on ocean acidification within the Gulf of Mexico; dealing...

  20. Navigation and environmental data from R/V Weatherbird II for the West Florida Shelf: USGS Cruise 11BHM02

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The United States Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting a study on the effects of climate change on ocean acidification within the Gulf of Mexico; dealing...

  1. Surface water data for samples collected approximately hourly along the West Florida Shelf: USGS Cruise 11BHM02

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The United States Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting a study on the effects of climate change on ocean acidification within the Gulf of Mexico; dealing...

  2. Water column sample data from predefined locations of the West Florida Shelf: USGS Cruise 11BHM01

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The United States Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting a study on the effects of climate change on ocean acidification within the Gulf of Mexico; dealing...

  3. Navigation and environmental data from R/V Weatherbird II for the West Florida Shelf: USGS Cruise 11BHM02

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The United States Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting a study on the effects of climate change on ocean acidification within the Gulf of Mexico; dealing...

  4. Navigation and environmental data from R/V Weatherbird II for the West Florida Shelf: USGS Cruise 11CEV01

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The United States Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting a study on the effects of climate change on ocean acidification within the Gulf of Mexico; dealing...

  5. Surface water data for samples collected approximately hourly along the West Florida Shelf: USGS Cruise 11BHM01

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The United States Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting a study on the effects of climate change on ocean acidification within the Gulf of Mexico; dealing...

  6. Sonde data of continuous surface water flow-through system for the West Florida Shelf: USGS Cruise 11CEV02

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The United States Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting a study on the effects of climate change on ocean acidification within the Gulf of Mexico; dealing...

  7. Autonomous Flow-Thru (AFT) pH data of the West Florida Shelf: USGS Cruise 11BHM02

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The United States Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting a study on the effects of climate change on ocean acidification within the Gulf of Mexico; dealing...

  8. Regional Model Studies Nested in HYCOM. Application to the West Florida Shelf and the Cariaco Basin using ROMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-30

    Marchesiello, P. (1995). Thermal forcing for global ocean circulation model using a 3-year climatology of ECMWF analyses. Journal of Marine Systems 6...R. (2007). The HYCOM (Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model) Data Assimilative System. Journal of Marine Systems 65 (1-4), 60–83. Ducet, N., Le Traon, P

  9. Surface water data for samples collected approximately hourly along the West Florida Shelf: USGS Cruise 11BHM02

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The United States Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting a study on the effects of climate change on ocean acidification within the Gulf of Mexico; dealing...

  10. Surface water data for samples collected approximately hourly along the West Florida Shelf: USGS Cruise 11BHM03

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The United States Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting a study on the effects of climate change on ocean acidification within the Gulf of Mexico; dealing...

  11. Sonde data of continuous surface water flow-through system for the West Florida Shelf: USGS Cruise 11BHM02

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The United States Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting a study on the effects of climate change on ocean acidification within the Gulf of Mexico; dealing...

  12. Navigation and environmental data from R/V Weatherbird II for the West Florida Shelf: USGS Cruise 11BHM03

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The United States Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting a study on the effects of climate change on ocean acidification within the Gulf of Mexico; dealing...

  13. Water column sample data from predefined locations of the West Florida Shelf: USGS Cruise 11BHM02

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The United States Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting a study on the effects of climate change on ocean acidification within the Gulf of Mexico; dealing...

  14. Navigation and environmental data from R/V Weatherbird II for the West Florida Shelf: USGS Cruise 11BHM01

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The United States Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting a study on the effects of climate change on ocean acidification within the Gulf of Mexico; dealing...

  15. Surface water data for samples collected approximately hourly along the West Florida Shelf: USGS Cruise 11BHM04

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The United States Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting a study on the effects of climate change on ocean acidification within the Gulf of Mexico; dealing...

  16. Water column sample data from predefined locations of the West Florida Shelf: USGS Cruise 11BHM03

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The United States Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting a study on the effects of climate change on ocean acidification within the Gulf of Mexico; dealing...

  17. Surface water data for samples collected approximately hourly along the West Florida Shelf: USGS Cruise 11BHM01

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The United States Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting a study on the effects of climate change on ocean acidification within the Gulf of Mexico; dealing...

  18. Water column sample data from predefined locations of the West Florida Shelf: USGS Cruise 11BHM04

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The United States Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting a study on the effects of climate change on ocean acidification within the Gulf of Mexico; dealing...

  19. Navigation and environmental data from R/V Weatherbird II for the West Florida Shelf: USGS Cruise 11CEV01

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The United States Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting a study on the effects of climate change on ocean acidification within the Gulf of Mexico; dealing...

  20. Water column sample data from predefined locations of the West Florida Shelf: USGS Cruise 11CEV02

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The United States Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting a study on the effects of climate change on ocean acidification within the Gulf of Mexico; dealing...

  1. Sonde data of continuous surface water flow-through system for the West Florida Shelf: USGS Cruise 11BHM04

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The United States Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting a study on the effects of climate change on ocean acidification within the Gulf of Mexico; dealing...

  2. Distribution of some biochemical compounds in sediments of the shelf and slope regions of the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N.B.; Dhargalkar, V.K.; Braganca, A.

    Surficial sediment samples collected from the continental shelf and slope of the Bay of Bengal were studied for the distribution of organic carbon and its constituent fractions such as carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids and lipids. Organic carbon...

  3. Heavy minerals in the sediments on the outer continental shelf between Vengurla and Mangalore on the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kidwai, R.M.; Nair, R.R.; Hashimi, N.H.

    Fifty-eight sediment samples from the outer continental shelf between Vengurla and Mangalore were analysed for heavy minerals consist of principally opaques, hornblende, epidote, garnet, sillimanite, hypersthene and zircon, with minor amounts...

  4. An unusual early Holocene diatom event north of the Getz Ice Shelf (Amundsen Sea): Implications for West Antarctic Ice Sheet development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esper, O.; Gersonde, R.; Hillenbrand, C.; Kuhn, G.; Smith, J.

    2011-12-01

    Modern global change affects not only the polar north but also, and to increasing extent, the southern high latitudes, especially the Antarctic regions covered by the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS). Consequently, knowledge of the mechanisms controlling past WAIS dynamics and WAIS behaviour at the last deglaciation is critical to predict its development in a future warming world. Geological and palaeobiological information from major drainage areas of the WAIS, like the Amundsen Sea Embayment, shed light on the history of the WAIS glaciers. Sediment records obtained from a deep inner shelf basin north of Getz Ice Shelf document a deglacial warming in three phases. Above a glacial diamicton and a sediment package barren of microfossils that document sediment deposition by grounded ice and below an ice shelf or perennial sea ice cover (possibly fast ice), respectively, a sediment section with diatom assemblages dominated by sea ice taxa indicates ice shelf retreat and seasonal ice-free conditions. This conclusion is supported by diatom-based summer temperature reconstructions. The early retreat was followed by a phase, when exceptional diatom ooze was deposited around 12,500 cal. years B.P. [1]. Microscopical inspection of this ooze revealed excellent preservation of diatom frustules of the species Corethron pennatum together with vegetative Chaetoceros, thus an assemblage usually not preserved in the sedimentary record. Sediments succeeding this section contain diatom assemblages indicating rather constant Holocene cold water conditions with seasonal sea ice. The deposition of the diatom ooze can be related to changes in hydrographic conditions including strong advection of nutrients. However, sediment focussing in the partly steep inner shelf basins cannot be excluded as a factor enhancing the thickness of the ooze deposits. It is not only the presence of the diatom ooze but also the exceptional preservation and the species composition of the diatom assemblage

  5. Brevetoxin in blood, biological fluids, and tissues of sea turtles naturally exposed to Karenia brevis blooms in central west Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauquier, Deborah A; Flewelling, Leanne J; Maucher, Jennifer; Manire, Charles A; Socha, Victoria; Kinsel, Michael J; Stacy, Brian A; Henry, Michael; Gannon, Janet; Ramsdell, John S; Landsberg, Jan H

    2013-06-01

    In 2005 and 2006, the central west Florida coast experienced two intense Karenia brevis red tide events lasting from February 2005 through December 2005 and August 2006 through December 2006. Strandings of sea turtles were increased in the study area with 318 turtles (n = 174, 2005; n = 144, 2006) stranding between 1 January 2005 and 31 December 2006 compared to the 12-yr average of 43 +/- 23 turtles. Live turtles (n = 61) admitted for rehabilitation showed clinical signs including unresponsiveness, paresis, and circling. Testing of biological fluids and tissues for the presence of brevetoxin activity by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay found toxin present in 93% (52 of 56) of live stranded sea turtles, and 98% (42 of 43) of dead stranded sea turtles tested. Serial plasma samples were taken from several live sea turtles during rehabilitation and toxin was cleared from the blood within 5-80 days postadmit depending upon the species tested. Among dead animals the highest brevetoxin levels were found in feces, stomach contents, and liver. The lack of significant pathological findings in the majority of animals necropsied supports toxin-related mortality.

  6. A note on the occurrence of ortho-amphibolites on the inner shelf off Bhatkal, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Siddiquie, H.N.; Karisiddaiah, S.M.; Subrahmanyam, V.

    The total magnetic intensity map of the area shows that the inner shelf to a depth of 50m is marked by a zone of magnetic closures. The occurrence of offshore orthoamphibolites and the qualitative interpretation of the magnetic map indicate...

  7. Periodic anoxic shelf in the Early-Middle Ordovician transition: ichnosedimentologic evidence from west-central Utah, USA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG; Yiming

    2001-01-01

    stratigraphic sections for western Utah, Utah Geological and Mineralogical Survey Bulletin, 1951, 39: 1-99.[11]Hintze, L. F.. Lower and Middle Ordovician stratigraphic sections in the Ibex area, Millard county, Utah., Brigham Young University Geology Studies, 1973, 20(4): 3-36.[12]Droser, M. L., Bottjer. D. J., Trends and patterns of Phanerozoic ichnofabrics, Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci., 1993, 21: 205-225.[13]Bromley, R. G., Ekdale, A. A., Composite ichnofabrics and tiering of burrows, Geological Magazine, 1986, 123 (1): 59- 65.[14]Goldring, R., Organisms and the substrate: response and effect, in Marine Palaeoenvironmental Analysis from Fossils (eds.Bosence. D. W. J., Allison, P. A.), Geological Society Special Publication, London, 1995, 83:151-180.[15]Bromley, R. G., Ekdale, A. A., Chondrites: a trace fossil indicator of anoxia in sediments, Science, 1984, 224: 872-874.[16]Ekdale, A. A., Bromley, R. G., Analysis of composite ichnofabrics: an example in uppermost Cretaceous chalk of Denmark, Palaios, 1991, 6: 232-249.[17]Ekdale. A. A.. Mason, T. R.. Characteristic trace fossil associations in oxygen-poor sedimentary environments, Geology, 1988. 16: 720-723.[18]Savrda, C. E., Trace fossils and bethic oxygenation, in Trace Fossils (eds. Maples, C. G., West, R. R.), Knoxville: Paleontological Society, Short Courses in Paleontology, 1992, 5: 172- 196.[19]Gong, Y. M., Li, B. H., Wang, Ch. Y. et al., Orbital cyclostratigraphy of the Devonian Frasnian-Famennian transition in South China, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 2001, 168(3-4): 237-248.[20]Hallam, A., Wignall, P. B., Mass extinctions and their aftermath, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997, 1-320.[21]Savrda, C. E., Bottjer, D. J., Trace fossil model for reconstruction of paleo-oxygenation in bottom waters, Geology, 1986,14: 3--6.[22]Savrda, C. E., Bottjer, D, J., Oxygen-related biofacies in marine strata: overview and update, in Modem and Ancient

  8. Petroleum hydrocarbon concentration in surface sediments in continental shelf region along the central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ram, A.; Kadam, A.N.

    Gas chromatography revealed that nonpolar material extracted from surface sediments collected along the northern west coast of India was originated from petroleum hydrocarbon residue. Petroleum hydrocarbon levels as determinEd. by fluorescence...

  9. Distribution of nutrients in the shelf waters of the Arabian sea along the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Reddy, C.V.G.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.

    point of view, characterised by nutrient deficient surface layers in the post-monsoon period and nutrient rich surface layers in the south-west monsoon period These conditions are well reflected in the corresponding variations of the hydrographical...

  10. Reprint of - Deep-sea coral and hardbottom habitats on the west Florida slope, eastern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Steve W.; Rhode, Mike; Brooke, Sandra

    2017-09-01

    Until recently, benthic habitats dominated by deep-sea corals (DSC) appeared to be less extensive on the slope of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) than in the northeast Atlantic Ocean or off the southeastern US. There are relatively few bioherms (i.e., coral-built mounds) in the northern GOM, and most DSCs are attached to existing hard substrata (e.g., authigenically formed carbonate). The primary structure-forming, DSC in the GOM is Lophelia pertusa, but structure is also provided by other living and dead scleractinians, antipatharians (black corals), octocorals (gorgonians, soft corals), hydrocorals and sponges, as well as abundant rocky substrata. The best development of DSCs in the GOM was previously documented within Viosca Knoll oil and gas lease blocks 826 and 862/906 (north-central GOM) and on the Campeche Bank (southern GOM in Mexican waters). This paper documents extensive deep reef ecosystems composed of DSC and rocky hard-bottom recently surveyed on the West Florida Slope (WFS, eastern GOM) during six research cruises (2008-2012). Using multibeam sonar, CTD casts, and video from underwater vehicles, we describe the physical and oceanographic characteristics of these deep reefs and provide size or area estimates of deep coral and hardground habitats. The multibeam sonar analyses revealed hundreds of mounds and ridges, some of which were subsequently surveyed using underwater vehicles. Mounds and ridges in <525 m depths were usually capped with living coral colonies, dominated by L. pertusa. An extensive rocky scarp, running roughly north-south for at least 229 km, supported lower abundances of scleractinian corals than the mounds and ridges, despite an abundance of settlement substrata. Areal comparisons suggested that the WFS may exceed other parts of the GOM slope in extent of living deep coral coverage and other deep-reef habitat (dead coral and rock). The complex WFS region warrants additional studies to better understand the influences of oceanography and

  11. Copper and Other Contaminants in King's Bay and Crystal River (Florida) Sediments: Implications for Impact on the West Indian Manatee

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Contaminant concentrations were measured in 25 sediment samples collected from King's Bay, the headwaters of the Crystal River, Florida. Total organic carbon content...

  12. Periodic anoxic shelf in the Early-Middle Ordovician transition: ichnosedimentologic evidence from west-central Utah, USA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Ichnosedimentologic evidence of periodic anoxic shelf in the Early-Middle Ordovician transition includes lower ichnodiversity, shallower bioturbation and burrowing depth (<4 cm ), rare domichnia, tiny Chondrites occupying shallower or shallowest tiering, widely distributed nodules of limonite pseudomorphs after pyrite, occurrence of trace fossils being closely associated with the storm event layers, and stratigraphic successions with orbital cyclostratigraphic architecture. It is suggested that lower atmospheric oxygen level during the Early Paleozoic, the Ordovician radiation, dramatic transgression and warmer temperatures would result in the periodic anoxia in the Early-Middle Ordovician transition. This episode began at the later Early Ordovician and lasted about 3.4 Ma on the basis of orbital cyclostratigraphy.

  13. Aeromagnetic and gravity investigations of the Coastal Area and Continental Shelf of Liberia, West Africa, and their relation to continental drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrendt, John C.; Wotorson, Cletus S.

    1970-01-01

    An aeromagnetic survey has shown the existence of several basins in which magnetic basement depths are greater than 5 km on the continental shelf off Liberia. Magnetic diabase of 176 to 192 m.y. (Jurassic) in age intruding the Paleozoic (?) rocks and overlain by younger rocks onshore requires the distinction between “magnetic basement” and “basement.” Several lines of evidence suggest that the Paleozoic(?) rocks are less than 1 km thick; this implies that the diabase does not introduce a large error in depth-to-basement estimates. The dikes or their extrusive equivalents are traceable, on the basis of the magnetic data, beneath the younger sedimentary rock in the basins to the edge of the continental slope. The magnetic data also delineate a second zone of diabase dikes 90 km inland, parallel to the coast, which cross the entire country. The intrusion of the younger dikes probably coincides with rifting at the beginning of the separation of Africa and South America, and the associated magnetic anomaly zones appear to be parallel with and continuous into the anomaly bands in the Atlantic. A major northeast-trending break in the magnetic fabric intersects the coast near 9° W. and is associated with Eburnean age rocks (about 2000 m.y.) to the southeast as contrasted with Liberian-age rocks (about 2700 m.y.) to the northwest. Change in magnetic fabric direction inland from northeast to northwest in the coastal area allows recognition of a boundary between the Liberian-age rocks inland and Pan-African-age (about 550 m.y.) rocks in the coastal area northwest of about 9° 20'W. Sets of north-northwest-and west-northwest—trending faults of 1 to 2 km vertical displacement cut the Cretaceous sedimentary rocks onshore and can be traced into the offshore basins. Vertical displacements of several kilometers in the magnetic basement underlying the continental shelf suggest a pattern of block faulting all along the coast and continental shelf. Negative Bouguer

  14. NOAA TIFF Image - SouthWest Shelf, St. Croix, USVI - Benthic Habitat Characterization - NOAA Ship Nancy Foster - M-1907-NF-14 (2014), UTM 20N NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This Geotiff represents a 1 meter resolution backscatter mosaic of the reef shelf and the steep slopes of the Southwest Shelf (H12640) of St. Croix, US Virgin...

  15. NOAA TIFF Image - SouthWest Shelf, St. Croix, USVI - Benthic Habitat Characterization - NOAA Ship Nancy Foster - M-1907-NF-14 (2014), UTM 20N NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a 1 meter resolution bathymetry of the reef shelf and the steep slopes of the Southwest Shelf (H12640) of St. Croix, US Virgin Islands. The...

  16. Sediment Transport Processes in a West-central Florida Open Marine Marsh Tidal Creek; the Role of Tides and Extra-tropical Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Lynn A.; Hine, Albert C.; Luther, Mark E.; Stumpf, Richard P.; Wright, Eric E.

    1995-08-01

    . This study identifies the important processes controlling suspended solid transport in the broad expanses of Juncus roemerianusdominated marsh adjacent to the large arcuate embayments prevalent along the west-central Florida marsh coast as described by Hine and Belknap (1988). The processes exerting control over sediment transport in the Cedar Creek drainage basin are similar to those documented in other marsh systems.

  17. The West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus) in Florida: a summary and analysis of biological, ecological, and administrative problems affecting preservation and restoration of the population. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wray, P.

    1978-09-01

    The population of the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus), an endangered species, is estimated at 800-1,000 individuals in peninsular Florida. Observed annual mortality between 1974 and 1977 was 6-8% of the estimated population. Human activities are implicated in much of this mortality. Direct and indirect threats include boat collisions, diver harassment, creation of artificial warm water refuges, vandalism, entanglement in fishing gear, herbicides in food resources, and possible effects of offshore oil exploration. Lack of federal commitment to manatee protection is evidenced by an absence of implementing regulations under the Marine Mammal Protection Act and the Endangered Species Act, absence of a recovery plan for the species, faulty interagency communication, and a lack of law enforcement. Problems are discussed, with recommendations for conservation. (Color illustrations reproduced in black and white)

  18. Baseline reference range for trace metal concentrations in whole blood of wild and managed West Indian Manatees (Trichechus manatus) in Florida and Belize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Noel Y.; Walsh, Michael T; Bonde, Robert K.; Powell, James A.; Bass, Dean A.; Gaspard, Joseph C.; Barber, David S.

    2016-01-01

    The West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus) is exposed to a number of anthropogenic influences, including metals, as they inhabit shallow waters with close proximity to shore. While maintaining homeostasis of many metals is crucial for health, there is currently no baseline reference range that can be used to make clinical and environmental decisions for this endangered species. In this study, whole blood samples from 151 manatees were collected during health assessments performed in Florida and Belize from 2008 through 2011. Whole blood samples (n = 37) from managed care facilities in Florida and Belize from 2009 through 2011 were also used in this study. The concentrations of 17 metals in whole blood were determined, and the data were used to derive a baseline reference range. Impacts of capture location, age, and sex on whole blood metal concentrations were examined. Location and age were related to copper concentrations as values were significantly higher in habitats near urban areas and in calves. Copper may also be a husbandry concern as concentrations were significantly higher in managed manatees (1.17 ± 0.04 ppm) than wild manatees (0.73 ± 0.02 ppm). Zinc (11.20 ± 0.30 ppm) was of special interest as normal concentrations were two to five times higher than other marine mammal species. Arsenic concentrations were higher in Belize (0.43 ± 0.07 ppm), with Placencia Lagoon having twice the concentration of Belize City and Southern Lagoon. Selenium concentrations were lower (0.18 ± 0.09 ppm) than in other marine mammal species. The lowest selenium concentrations were observed in rehabilitating and managed manatees which may warrant additional monitoring in managed care facilities. The established preliminary baseline reference range can be used by clinicians, biologists, and managers to monitor the health of West Indian manatees.

  19. Dynamics of air–sea CO2 fluxes in the North-West European Shelf based on Voluntary Observing Ship (VOS and satellite observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Marrec

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available From January 2011 to December 2013, we constructed a comprehensive pCO2 dataset based on voluntary observing ship (VOS measurements in the Western English Channel (WEC. We subsequently estimated surface pCO2 and air–sea CO2 fluxes in north-west European continental shelf waters using multiple linear regressions (MLRs from remotely sensed sea surface temperature (SST, chlorophyll a concentration (Chl a, the gas transfer velocity coefficient (K, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR and modeled mixed layer depth (MLD. We developed specific MLRs for the seasonally stratified northern WEC (nWEC and the permanently well-mixed southern WEC (sWEC and calculated surface pCO2 with relative uncertainties of 17 and 16 μatm, respectively. We extrapolated the relationships obtained for the WEC based on the 2011–2013 dataset (1 temporally over a decade and (2 spatially in the adjacent Celtic and Irish Seas (CS and IS, two regions which exhibit hydrographical and biogeochemical characteristics similar to those of WEC waters. We validated these extrapolations with pCO2 data from the SOCAT database and obtained relatively robust results with an average precision of 4 ± 22 μatm in the seasonally stratified nWEC and the southern and northern CS (sCS and nCS, but less promising results in the permanently well-mixed sWEC, IS and Cap Lizard (CL waters. On an annual scale, seasonally stratified systems acted as a sink of CO2 from the atmosphere of −0.4, −0.9 and −0.4 mol C m−2 year−1 in the nCS, sCS and nWEC, respectively, whereas, permanently well-mixed systems acted as source of CO2 to the atmosphere of 0.2, 0.4 and 0.4 mol C m−2 year−1 in the sWEC, CL and IS, respectively. Air–sea CO2 fluxes showed important inter-annual variability resulting in significant differences in the intensity and/or direction of annual fluxes. We scaled the mean annual fluxes over six provinces for the last decade and obtained the first annual average uptake of

  20. Variation in the number and position of siphonal setae in Culex quinquefasciatus from Key West and Vero Beach, Florida, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Jorge R; O'Meara, George F; O'Oonnell, Sheila M; Darsie, Richard F

    2006-09-01

    Variations in diagnostic siphonal characters of Culex quinquefasciatus larvae collected in Key West and Vero Beach, FL, are described. We observed specimens with 3, 4, and 5 sets of siphonal setae and also observed frequent variation in the insertion point of the proximal and subapical setae.

  1. Southeast Offshore Storage Resource Assessment (SOSRA): Evaluation of CO2 Storage Potential on the Continental Shelf from North Carolina to Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, J. H.; Knapp, C. C.; Brantley, D.; Lakshmi, V.; Howard, S.

    2016-12-01

    The Southeast Offshore Storage Resource Assessment (SOSRA) project is part of a major new program, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy for the next two and a half years, to evaluate the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico offshore margins of the United States for geologic storage capacity of CO2. Collaborating organizations include the Southern States Energy Board, Virginia Polytechnic Institute, University of South Carolina, Oklahoma State University, Virginia Department of Mines, Minerals, and Energy, South Carolina Geological Survey, and Geological Survey of Alabama. Team members from South Carolina are focused on the Atlantic offshore, from North Carolina to Florida. Geologic sequestration of CO2 is a major research focus globally, and requires robust knowledge of the porosity and permeability distribution in upper crustal sediments. Using legacy seismic reflection, refraction, and well data from a previous phase of offshore petroleum exploration on the Atlantic margin, we are analyzing the rock physics characteristics of the offshore Mesozoic and Cenozoic stratigraphy on a regional scale from North Carolina to Florida. Major features of the margin include the Carolina Trough, the Southeast Georgia Embayment, the Blake Plateau basin, and the Blake Outer Ridge. Previous studies indicate sediment accumulations on this margin may be as thick as 12-15 km. The study will apply a diverse suite of data analysis techniques designed to meet the goal of predicting storage capacity to within ±30%. Synthetic seismograms and checkshot surveys will be used to tie well and seismic data. Seismic interpretation and geophysical log analysis will employ leading-edge software technology and state-of-the art techniques for stratigraphic and structural interpretation and the definition of storage units and their physical and chemical properties. This approach will result in a robust characterization of offshore CO2 storage opportunities, as well as a volumetric analysis that is

  2. Satellite-Observed Black Water Events off Southwest Florida: Implications for Coral Reef Health in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Lapointe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A “black water” event, as observed from satellites, occurred off southwest Florida in 2012. Satellite observations suggested that the event started in early January and ended in mid-April 2012. The black water patch formed off central west Florida and advected southward towards Florida Bay and the Florida Keys with the shelf circulation, which was confirmed by satellite-tracked surface drifter trajectories. Compared with a previous black water event in 2002, the 2012 event was weaker in terms of spatial and temporal coverage. An in situ survey indicated that the 2012 black water patch contained toxic K. brevis and had relatively low CDOM (colored dissolved organic matter and turbidity but high chlorophyll-a concentrations, while salinity was somewhat high compared with historical values. Further analysis revealed that the 2012 black water was formed by the K. brevis bloom initiated off central west Florida in late September 2011, while river runoff, Trichodesmium and possibly submarine groundwater discharge also played important roles in its formation. Black water patches can affect benthic coral reef communities by decreasing light availability at the bottom, and enhanced nutrient concentrations from black water patches support massive macroalgae growth that can overgrow coral reefs. It is thus important to continue the integrated observations where satellites provide synoptic and repeated observations of such adverse water quality events.

  3. Mapping giant mass transport deposits (MTDs) for delineating the extended Continental Shelf of Spain to the West of Canary Islands according UNCLOS Art. 76

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somoza, Luis; Medialdea, Teresa; León, Ricardo; Vázquez, Juan T.; González, Javier; Palomino, Desiree; González-Aller, Daniel; Fernández-Salas, Luis M.; Espinosa, Salvador

    2017-04-01

    On 19 December 2014, Spain presented a third partial submission for the delineation of the Extended Continental in the area west of the Canary Islands to the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf (CLCS) according to the United Nations Convention on the Law of Sea (UNCLOS). The Canary Islands are located within a NE-SW 1,350 km long ridge of hotspot-inferred volcanic islands and seamounts (composed by more of 100, from Lars to Tropic seamounts). This submission has been documented with an extensive dataset specifically obtained for the project during ten oceanographic cruises between 2010 and 2014 aboard the Spanish research vessels Hespérides, Sarmiento de Gamboa and Miguel Oliver. This new dataset allows to investigate an area of 440,000 km2 with acoustic backscatter images and multibeam echosounder bathymetric (MBES) data (Simrad EM-12, EM-120 and EM-302, and Atlas HYDROSWEEP DS), a dense network of 65,800 km of very-high resolution (VHR) seismic lines (including chirp parametric source TOPAS PS-18 and Atlas PARASOUND P-35) and 4,471 km of multichannel seismic reflection lines (MCS) acquired with an array of air-guns yielding a total volume of 4,600 inch3 (75.38 L) and a 3,500 m long streamer composed of 280 channels. In order to determine the Foot of Slope (FoS), the Base of Slope (BoS) region has been traced following geomorphological arguments based on the morphology of the mass transport deposits (MTDs) extended downslope west of the Canary Islands. Based on backscatter and MBEs mapping, and VHR lines, the BoS has been traced by means of a detailed mapping of the debris flow deposits widespread along the slope. Therefore, the seaward limit of the BoS has been traced following the termination of the debris flow sourced from the Canary Island. Otherwise, the landward limit of the BoS has been defined following the morphological changes in the debris flow forced by the breaking in the slope gradient, which form distributary lobes downslope. Finally

  4. A 1-D Simulation Analysis of the Development and Maintenance of the 2001 Red Tide of the Ichthyotoxic Dinoflagellate Karenia brevis on the West Florida Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-26

    excretion; grazing; settling; and migration for each group of phytoplankton and benthic microalgae (Table 1). In this complex ecological model, the carbon...Results 3.1. Phytoplankton The phytoplankton community of the model’s baseline case reproduced initiation of the spring transition of microalgae ...of the zooplankton herbivores, which both eat these microalgae and, in turn, are subject to predation by clupeid and chaetognath carnivores. Proper

  5. From shelf to shelf: assessing historical and contemporary genetic differentiation and connectivity across the Gulf of Mexico in Gag, Mycteroperca microlepis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathaniel K Jue

    Full Text Available Describing patterns of connectivity among populations of species with widespread distributions is particularly important in understanding the ecology and evolution of marine species. In this study, we examined patterns of population differentiation, migration, and historical population dynamics using microsatellite and mitochondrial loci to test whether populations of the epinephelid fish, Gag, Mycteroperca microlepis, an important fishery species, are genetically connected across the Gulf of Mexico and if so, whether that connectivity is attributable to either contemporary or historical processes. Populations of Gag on the Campeche Bank and the West Florida Shelf show significant, but low magnitude, differentiation. Time since divergence/expansion estimates associated with historical population dynamics indicate that any population or spatial expansions indicated by population genetics would have likely occurred in the late Pleistocene. Using coalescent-based approaches, we find that the best model for explaining observed spatial patterns of contemporary genetic variation is one of asymmetric gene flow, with movement from Campeche Bank to the West Florida Shelf. Both estimated migration rates and ecological data support the hypothesis that Gag populations throughout the Gulf of Mexico are connected via present day larval dispersal. Demonstrating this greatly expanded scale of connectivity for Gag highlights the influence of "ghost" populations (sensu Beerli on genetic patterns and presents a critical consideration for both fisheries management and conservation of this and other species with similar genetic patterns.

  6. Observed internal tides and near-inertial waves on the continental shelf and slope off Jaigarh, central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Subeesh, M.P.; Unnikrishnan, A

    , with a strong IT during March to mid-April (pre-monsoon period). Whereas, on the shelf, IT is weak during the pre-monsoon and found to be strong in the southwest monsoon. The available hydrographic data and model simulated hydrography suggest...

  7. Influence of estuaries on shelf foraminiferal species

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nigam, R.

    Dabhol-bhatkal stretch of the west coast of India is marked by a number of estuaries. Cavarotalia annectens is selected to monitor the influence of these estuaries on the inner shelf foraminiferal fauna. The percentage distribution of this species...

  8. A Geochemical Mass-Balance Method for Base-Flow Separation, Upper Hillsborough River Watershed, West-Central Florida, 2003-2005 and 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kish, G.R.; Stringer, C.E.; Stewart, M.T.; Rains, M.C.; Torres, A.E.

    2010-01-01

    Geochemical mass-balance (GMB) and conductivity mass-balance (CMB) methods for hydrograph separation were used to determine the contribution of base flow to total stormflow at two sites in the upper Hillsborough River watershed in west-central Florida from 2003-2005 and at one site in 2009. The chemical and isotopic composition of streamflow and precipitation was measured during selected local and frontal low- and high-intensity storm events and compared to the geochemical and isotopic composition of groundwater. Input for the GMB method included cation, anion, and stable isotope concentrations of surface water and groundwater, whereas input for the CMB method included continuous or point-sample measurement of specific conductance. The surface water is a calcium-bicarbonate type water, which closely resembles groundwater geochemically, indicating that much of the surface water in the upper Hillsborough River basin is derived from local groundwater discharge. This discharge into the Hillsborough River at State Road 39 and at Hillsborough River State Park becomes diluted by precipitation and runoff during the wet season, but retains the calcium-bicarbonate characteristics of Upper Floridan aquifer water. Field conditions limited the application of the GMB method to low-intensity storms but the CMB method was applied to both low-intensity and high-intensity storms. The average contribution of base flow to total discharge for all storms ranged from 31 to 100 percent, whereas the contribution of base flow to total discharge during peak discharge periods ranged from less than 10 percent to 100 percent. Although calcium, magnesium, and silica were consistent markers of Upper Floridan aquifer chemistry, their use in calculating base flow by the GMB method was limited because the frequency of point data collected in this study was not sufficient to capture the complete hydrograph from pre-event base-flow to post-event base-flow concentrations. In this study, pre-event water

  9. Sand Ripple Dynamics on the Inner Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Sand Ripple Dynamics on the Inner Shelf Donald N. Slinn Department of Civil and Coastal Engineering, University of Florida Gainesville, FL 32611...Florida,Department of Civil and Coastal Engineering,Gainesville,FL,32611-6590 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY...2002. 452: p. 1-24. Acrivos, A., Shear-Induced Particle Diffusion in Concentrated Suspensions of Noncolloidal Particles. Journal of Rheology , 1995

  10. Continuous bottom temperature measurements in strategic areas of the Florida Reef Tract at Key West Channel, 1991 - 2005 (NODC Accession 0012739)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The purpose of this project is to document bottom seawater temperature in strategic areas of the Florida Reef Tract on a continuing basis and make that information...

  11. Continuous bottom temperature measurements in strategic areas of the Florida Reef Tract at Key West Channel, 1991 - 2005 (NODC Accession 0012739)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The purpose of this project is to document bottom seawater temperature in strategic areas of the Florida Reef Tract on a continuing basis and make that information...

  12. Hydrographic cruises to provide the seasonal cross-isobath and along-isobath descriptions of the physical, chemical and biological descriptors of the shelf ecosystem of the West Florida shelf to support ECOHAB, June 1998 - December 1999 (NODC Accession 0000539)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Harmful algal blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis, have caused massive fish kills in the Gulf of Mexico since the 1500's, with most occurrences on the...

  13. Archive of Digital Boomer Sub-bottom Data Collected During USGS Field Activities 97LCA01, 97LCA02, and 97LCA03, West-Central and East Coast Florida, February through July 1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forde, Arnell S.; Dadisman, Shawn V.; Metz, Patricia A.; Tihansky, Ann B.; Davis, Jeffrey B.; Wiese, Dana S.

    2011-01-01

    From February through July of 1997, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted geophysical surveys of several Florida water bodies as part of the USGS Lakes and Coastal Aquifers (LCA) study. These areas include Lakes Dosson, Halfmoon and Round in west-central Florida and Sebastian Inlet and Indian River Lagoon on the east coast of the State. Field activity 97LCA01 was conducted in cooperation with the Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD), and field activities 97LCA02 and 97LCA03 were conducted in cooperation with the St. Johns River Water Management District (SJRWMD). This report serves as an archive of unprocessed digital boomer sub-bottom data, trackline maps, navigation files, Geographic Information System (GIS) files, observer's logbook, and formal Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) metadata. Filtered and gained (showing a relative increase in signal amplitude) digital images of the seismic profiles are also provided. Refer to the Acronyms page for expansions of acronyms and abbreviations used in this report.

  14. Preliminary Study on Mg content of hard part(Test) of a benthic foraminifer from the inner shelf, off West Coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Khare, N.; Nigam, R.; Iyer, S.D.

    A preliminary study has been made for trace element (Mg) in the test of benthic species Bulimina exilis from a shallow sediment core (at 22 m water depth) off west coast of India using Electron Probe Microanalyser (EPMA) The Mg content is selected...

  15. The MAFLA (Mississippi, Alabama, Florida) Study, Grain Size Analyses

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The MAFLA (Mississippi, Alabama, Florida) Study was funded by NOAA as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Program. Dr. L.J. Doyle produced grain size analyses in the...

  16. NOAA TIFF Image - SouthWest Shelf, St. Croix, USVI - Benthic Habitat Characterization - NOAA Ship Nancy Foster - M-1907-NF-14 (2014), UTM 20N NAD83 (NCEI Accession 0128255)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a 1 meter resolution bathymetry of the reef shelf and the steep slopes of the Southwest Shelf (H12640) of St. Croix, US Virgin Islands. The...

  17. NOAA TIFF Image - SouthWest Shelf, St. Croix, USVI - Benthic Habitat Characterization - NOAA Ship Nancy Foster - M-1907-NF-14 (2014), UTM 20N NAD83 (NCEI Accession 0128255)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This Geotiff represents a 1 meter resolution backscatter mosaic of the reef shelf and the steep slopes of the Southwest Shelf (H12640) of St. Croix, US Virgin...

  18. Processing of the reflection seismic data which were acquired in the continental shelf off the north-west Australia; Australia hokusei tairikudana chiiki ni oite shutokusareta hanshaho chishitsu tansa data no shori ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amano, H. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    Reflection exploration of earthquakes was conducted in the continental shelf off the north-west Australia, and a report is made concerning the processing of the acquired data. A GI gun was used as the vibration source, and a wave quite similar to a pulse was generated. Hydrophones were arranged with group intervals of 12.5m, and high-resolution field data were acquired. An analog low cut filter was used to suppress the large-amplitude swell noise attributable to sea conditions. A digital filter was designed for the purpose of eliminating coherent noises from other survey ships. At the ultimate stage the f-k filter was applied to each of the shot records, and the effectiveness was verified. The traverse line was as long as 6700km and therefore the design window was set relatively long at 2.0-4.0s in the residual static correction phase. It was found that this setup is effective in improving the continuity of the reflection surface. 5 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Cruise Report; RV Moana Wave cruise M1-01-GM; the bathymetry and acoustic backscatter of the mid shelf to upper slope off Panama City, Florida, northeastern Gulf of Mexico; September 3, through October 12, 2001, Panama City, FL to Panama City, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, James V.; Mayer, Larry A.; Hughes-Clarke, John E.; Dartnell, Peter; Sulak, Kenneth J.

    2001-01-01

    A zone of deep-water reefs is thought to extend from the mid and outer shelf south of Mississippi and Alabama to at least the northwestern Florida shelf off Panama City, Florida (Figure 1, 67kb). The reefs off Mississippi and Alabama are found in water depths of 60 to 120 m (Ludwick and Walton, 1957; Gardner et al., in press) and were the focus of a multibeam echosounder (MBES) mapping survey by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in 2000 (Gardner et al., 2000; in press). If this deep-water-reef trend does exist along the northwestern Florida shelf, then it is critical to determine the accurate geomorphology and type of the reefs that occur because of their importance as benthic habitats for fisheries. Precisely georeferenced high-resolution mapping of bathymetry is a fundamental first step in the study of areas suspected to be critical habitats. Morphology is thought to be critical to defining the distribution of dominant demersal plankton/planktivores communities. Fish faunas of shallow hermatypic reefs have been well studied, but those of deep ahermatypic reefs have been relatively ignored. The ecology of deep-water ahermatypic reefs is fundamentally different from hermatypic reefs because autochthonous intracellular symbiotic zooxanthellae (the carbon source for hermatypic corals) do not form the base of the trophic web in ahermatypic reefs. Instead, exogenous plankton, transported to the reef by currents, serves as the primary carbon source. Thus, one of the principle uses of the morphology data will be to identify whether any reefs found are hermatypic or ahermatypic in origin. Community structure and trophodynamics of demersal fishes of the outer continental of the northeastern Gulf of Mexico presently are the focus of a major USGS reseach project. A goal of the project is to answer questions concerning the relative roles played by morphology and surficial geology in controling biological differentiation. Deep-water reefs are important because they are fish

  20. A Hybrid Remote Sensing Approach for Detecting the Florida Red Tide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, G. A.; Minnett, P. J.; Banzon, V.; Baringer, W.

    2008-12-01

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) have caused major worldwide economic losses commonly linked with health problems for humans and wildlife. In the Eastern Gulf of Mexico the toxic marine dinoflagellate Karenia brevis is responsible for nearly annual, massive red tides causing fish kills, shellfish poisoning, and acute respiratory irritation in humans: the so-called Florida Red Tide. Near real-time satellite measurements could be an effective method for identifying HABs. The use of space-borne data would be a highly desired, low-cost technique offering the remote and accurate detection of K. brevis blooms over the West Florida Shelf, bringing tremendous societal benefits to the general public, scientific community, resource managers and medical health practitioners. An extensive in situ database provided by the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission's Research Institute was used to examine the long-term accuracy of two satellite- based algorithms at detecting the Florida Red Tide. Using MODIS data from 2002 to 2006, the two algorithms are optimized and their accuracy assessed. It has been found that the sequential application of the algorithms results in improved predictability characteristics, correctly identifying ~80% of the cases (for both sensitivity and specificity, as well as overall accuracy), and exhibiting strong positive (70%) and negative (86%) predictive values.

  1. Holocene marine tephrochronology on the Iceland shelf

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guomundsdottir, Esther Ruth; Eiriksson, Jón; Larsen, Guorun

    2012-01-01

    Currently the Late-glacial and Holocene marine tephrochronology on the shelf around Iceland comprises 130 tephra layers from 30 sediment cores ranging in age from 15,000 years cal. BP to AD 1947. A vast majority of the cores and tephra layers are from the North Iceland shelf Much fewer tephra...... layers have been found on the South and West Iceland shell The early Holocene Saksunarvatn ash and Vedde Ash are the only tephra layers identified on all investigated shelf areas. For the last 15,000 years correlated tephra layers from the shelf sediments around Iceland to their terrestrial counterparts...... both in Iceland and overseas are 40 of which 26 are terrestrially dated tephra markers. Thirty correlations are within the last 7050 years. The terrestrially dated tephra markers found on the shelf have been used to constrain past environmental variability in the region, as well as marine reservoir age...

  2. Roosevelt Island Climate Evolution Project (RICE): A 65 Kyr ice core record of black carbon aerosol deposition to the Ross Ice Shelf, West Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Ross; Bertler, Nancy; Tuohy, Andrea; Neff, Peter; Proemse, Bernedette; Feiteng, Wang; Goodwin, Ian; Hogan, Chad

    2015-04-01

    Emitted by fires, black carbon aerosols (rBC) perturb the atmosphere's physical and chemical properties and are climatically active. Sedimentary charcoal and other paleo-fire records suggest that rBC emissions have varied significantly in the past due to human activity and climate variability. However, few paleo rBC records exist to constrain reconstructions of the past rBC atmospheric distribution and its climate interaction. As part of the international Roosevelt Island Climate Evolution (RICE) project, we have developed an Antarctic rBC ice core record spanning the past ~65 Kyr. The RICE deep ice core was drilled from the Roosevelt Island ice dome in West Antarctica from 2011 to 2013. The high depth resolution (~ 1 cm) record was developed using a single particle intracavity laser-induced incandescence soot photometer (SP2) coupled to an ice core melter system. The rBC record displays sub-annual variability consistent with both austral dry-season and summer biomass burning. The record exhibits significant decadal to millennial-scale variability consistent with known changes in climate. Glacial rBC concentrations were much lower than Holocene concentrations with the exception of several periods of abrupt increases in rBC. The transition from glacial to interglacial rBC concentrations occurred over a much longer time relative to other ice core climate proxies such as water isotopes and suggests . The protracted increase in rBC during the transition may reflected Southern hemisphere ecosystem / fire regime changes in response to hydroclimate and human activity.

  3. Distribution and abundance of the west Indian manatee Trichechus manatus around selected Florida power plants following winter cold fronts: 1984-85

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, J.E. III, Wilcox, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    Ten one-day aerial surveys were conducted in winter, 1984-85, to assess manatee distribution and abundance around five Florida Power and Light Company (FPL) plants: Cape Canaveral (PCC), Riviera (PRV), Port Everglades (PPE), Lauderdale (PFL) and Fort Myers (PFM). A total of 3804 manatees was observed, with a maximum of 636 animals for a single survey. Individual surveys for 1984-84 produced higher combined counts for all plants than in previous years. Maximum counts for PRV, PPE and PFM were the highest recorded for those particular plants. The maximum count for PCC in 1984-85 was lower than counts from most previous years, and the maximum from PFL was intermediate, relative to maxima from previous years. The counts along the east coast of Florida probably reflected a southward redistribution of manatees as well as very cold January weather after warm December conditions. The high count at PFM probably resulted from cold January weather and surface resting behavior by the manatees which made them more visible than usual. Calves represented 10 x 3% of the animals observed near the FPL plants and in Hobe Sound. PFM had a higher percentage of calves than did other plants.

  4. Potential for Suboxic Ammonium Oxidation in Louisiana Continental Shelf Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sediments deposited onto the Louisiana continental shelf (LCS) west of the Mississippi River Delta form mobile muds varying in thickness from meters near the outfall to centimeters on the western portion of the shelf. The muds have high concentrations of iron which promote rapid...

  5. Geology and biology of the "Sticky Grounds", shelf-margin carbonate mounds, and mesophotic ecosystem in the eastern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locker, Stanley D.; Reed, John K.; Farrington, Stephanie; Harter, Stacey; Hine, Albert C.; Dunn, Shane

    2016-08-01

    Shelf-margin carbonate mounds in water depths of 116-135 m in the eastern Gulf of Mexico along the central west Florida shelf were investigated using swath bathymetry, side-scan sonar, sub-bottom imaging, rock dredging, and submersible dives. These enigmatic structures, known to fisherman as the "Sticky Grounds", trend along slope, are 5-15 m in relief with base diameters of 5-30 m, and suggest widespread potential for mesophotic reef habitat along the west Florida outer continental shelf. Possible origins are sea-level lowstand coral patch reefs, oyster reefs, or perhaps more recent post-lowstand biohermal development. Rock dredging recovered bioeroded carbonate-rock facies comprised of bored and cemented bioclastics. Rock sample components included calcified worm tubes, pelagic sediment, and oysters normally restricted to brackish nearshore areas. Several reef sites were surveyed at the Sticky Grounds during a cruise in August 2010 with the R/V Seward Johnson using the Johnson-Sea-Link II submersible to ground truth the swath-sonar maps and to quantify and characterize the benthic habitats, benthic macrofauna, fish populations, and coral/sponge cover. This study characterizes for the first time this mesophotic reef ecosystem and associated fish populations, and analyzes the interrelationships of the fish assemblages, benthic habitats and invertebrate biota. These highly eroded rock mounds provide extensive hard-bottom habitat for reef invertebrate species as well as essential fish habitat for reef fish and commercially/recreationally important fish species. The extent and significance of associated living resources with these bottom types is particularly important in light of the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the northeastern Gulf and the proximity of the Loop Current. Mapping the distribution of these mesophotic-depth ecosystems is important for quantifying essential fish habitat and describing benthic resources. These activities can improve ecosystem

  6. Using SPOT and Aerial False-Color Infrared (fCIR Imagery to Verify Floodplain Model Results in West Central Florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvan Karlin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Tropical Storm Debby brought severe flooding to portions of southwestern Florida during the summer of 2012. Remotely-sensed images were collected to document the flooding and test the results of Hydrologic and Hydraulic (H & H storm water models constructed by the Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD. One image, a satellite, multi-band SPOT image was provided to the SWFWMD by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA. This image was collected within 48 h of the storm event. The SWFWMD also contracted for a very high resolution (60 cm Ground Sample Distance (GSD fCIR image to be captured for selected watersheds in Citrus, Hernando and Pasco counties, the areas most impacted by the flooding. Modeled floodplain results were compared to remotely-sensed images that were georeferenced and analyzed using remote sensing techniques. The higher resolution fCIR images more clearly identified flooding for better comparison with modeled results. Although the fCIR images, which were collected three to four days after the storm event, under predicted the overall extent of the modeled floodplain, as the images could not confirm the presence of flooding in areas obscured by dense vegetation, they did consistently confirm both the location and shape of flooding simulated by the model. By using image analysis methods on the Near-Infrared (NIR band of the fCIR image in conjunction with the Digital Elevation Model (DEM, however, it was possible to identify the extent of flooding in those obscured areas. Field surveys of high water elevations indicated that many locations had receded within hours of the storm event, limiting the ability of the fCIR image from capturing peak flood level in all areas. Overall, these remotely-sensed images provided a good validation of predicted flood levels for a design storm of the magnitude of Tropical Storm Debby.

  7. Evaluation of fluralaner and afoxolaner treatments to control flea populations, reduce pruritus and minimize dermatologic lesions in naturally infested dogs in private residences in west central Florida USA

    OpenAIRE

    Dryden, Michael W.; Canfield, Michael S.; Kalosy, Kimberly; Smith, Amber; Crevoiserat, Lisa; McGrady, Jennifer C.; Foley, Kaitlin M.; Green, Kathryn; Tebaldi, Chantelle; Smith, Vicki; Bennett, Tashina; Heaney, Kathleen; Math, Lisa; Royal, Christine; Sun, Fangshi

    2016-01-01

    Background A study was conducted to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of two different oral flea and tick products to control flea infestations, reduce pruritus and minimize dermatologic lesions over a 12 week period on naturally infested dogs in west central FL USA. Methods Thirty-four dogs with natural flea infestations living in 17 homes were treated once with a fluralaner chew on study day 0. Another 27 dogs living in 17 different homes were treated orally with an afoxolaner chewable...

  8. Hurricane Wilma Aerial Photography: High-Resolution Imagery of the Florida Coast After Landfall

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The imagery posted on this site is of the Florida coast after Hurricane Wilma made landfall. The regions photographed range from Key West to Sixmile Bend, Florida....

  9. 76 FR 68314 - Special Local Regulations; Key West World Championship, Atlantic Ocean; Key West, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-04

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Key West World Championship, Atlantic Ocean; Key West, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast... Key West, Florida during the Key West World Championship, a series of high-speed boat races. The...

  10. 77 FR 24734 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Renewable Energy Program Leasing for Marine Hydrokinetic Technology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Renewable Energy Program Leasing for Marine Hydrokinetic Technology Testing Offshore Florida AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management...

  11. Microhabitat associations of a semi-terrestrial fish, Kryptolebias marmoratus (Poey 1880) in a mosquito-ditched mangrove forest, west-central Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Travis M.; Krebs, Justin M.; McIvor, Carole C.

    2011-01-01

    Mangrove rivulus (Kryptolebias marmoratus) is one of the few species of fish that is semi-terrestrial and able to use exposed intertidal and potentially supratidal habitats for prolonged periods of time. Based on previous work demonstrating frequent use of subterranean crab burrows as well as damp leaf litter and logs, we examined the microhabitat associations of rivulus in a mosquito-ditched mangrove forest on the Gulf coast of Florida near the northern limit of its distribution. We captured 161 rivulus on 20 dates between late April and mid-December 2007 using trench traps. Fish ranged in size from 7 to 35 mm SL. Peak abundance in mid-summer coincided with recruitment of a new year-class. The three study sites occurred within 0.5 km of one another, and experienced similar water temperatures and salinities. Nevertheless, they differed in their degree of tidal inundation, standing stock of leaf litter, and density of entrances to fiddler crab burrows. We consistently observed the highest mean catches of rivulus away from permanent subtidal waters of mosquito ditches, at intermediate relative elevations, and where leaf litter was locally abundant. Density of entrances to crab burrows was apparently unrelated to rivulus distribution or abundance in these forests.

  12. Tidal propagation off the central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Unnikrishnan, A.S.

    Present study reviews the characteristics of tidal propagation on the continental shelf off the central west coast of India. Available observations from tide gauges are used to describe the variations of tidal ranges along the west coast. Amplitudes...

  13. Glacier surge after ice shelf collapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Angelis, Hernán; Skvarca, Pedro

    2003-03-07

    The possibility that the West Antarctic Ice Sheet will collapse as a consequence of ice shelf disintegration has been debated for many years. This matter is of concern because such an event would imply a sudden increase in sea level. Evidence is presented here showing drastic dynamic perturbations on former tributary glaciers that fed sections of the Larsen Ice Shelf on the Antarctic Peninsula before its collapse in 1995. Satellite images and airborne surveys allowed unambiguous identification of active surging phases of Boydell, Sjögren, Edgeworth, Bombardier, and Drygalski glaciers. This discovery calls for a reconsideration of former hypotheses about the stabilizing role of ice shelves.

  14. Marketing Fresh Produce to Local Schools: The North Florida Cooperative Experience [and] Cultivating Schools as Customers in a Local Market: The New North Florida Cooperative Experience [and] Acquiring Capital and Establishing a Credit History: The North Florida Cooperative Experience [and] Success of the New North Florida Cooperative: A Progress Report on Producer Direct Sales to School Districts. Small Farmer Success Story. Bulletins 1-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    These four bulletins describe how a group of limited-resource small farmers in northern Florida's Jackson County, the USDA, the West Florida Resource Conservation and Development Council, Florida A&M University, and the Federation of Southern Cooperatives organized the New North Florida Cooperative to increase farm income by introducing…

  15. 78 FR 2916 - Special Local Regulation; West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship, Intracoastal Waterway, West...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; West Palm Beach Triathlon... Intracoastal Waterway, in West Palm Beach, Florida, during the West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship, on Saturday, June 1, 2013. Approximately 1,500 participants are anticipated to participate in the...

  16. Dengue in Florida (USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge R. Rey

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Florida (USA, particularly the southern portion of the State, is in a precarious situation concerning arboviral diseases. The geographic location, climate, lifestyle, and the volume of travel and commerce are all conducive to arbovirus transmission. During the last decades, imported dengue cases have been regularly recorded in Florida, and the recent re-emergence of dengue as a major public health concern in the Americas has been accompanied by a steady increase in the number of imported cases. In 2009, there were 28 cases of locally transmitted dengue in Key West, and in 2010, 65 cases were reported. Local transmission was also reported in Martin County in 2013 (29 cases, and isolated locally transmitted cases were also reported from other counties in the last five years. Dengue control and prevention in the future will require close cooperation between mosquito control and public health agencies, citizens, community and government agencies, and medical professionals to reduce populations of the vectors and to condition citizens and visitors to take personal protection measures that minimize bites by infected mosquitoes.

  17. The role of vermetid gastropods in the development of the Florida Middle Ground, northeast Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Christopher D.; Poore, Richard Z.; Hickey, Todd D.

    2013-01-01

    The Florida Middle Ground is a complex of north to northwest trending ridges that lie approximately 180 km northwest of Tampa Bay, Florida. The irregular ridges appear on the otherwise gently sloping West Florida shelf and exhibit between 10-15 m of relief. Modern studies interpret the ridges as remnants of a Holocene coral-reef buildup that today provide a hard substrate for growth of a variety of benthic organisms including hydrocorals, scleractinians, alcyonarians, and algae. Recent rotary coring reveals that the core of the eastern ridge of the Florida Middle Ground complex consists of unconsolidated marine calcareous muddy sand that is capped by a boundstone composed primarily of the sessile vermetid gastropod Petaloconchus sp., and overlays a weathered, fossiliferous limestone. Accelerator Mass Spectrometry radiocarbon ages (uncalibrated) on the 3.6-m thick vermetid worm rock indicate that it developed during a sea-level stillstand in the early Holocene (8,225 ±30-8,910 ± 25 yr B.P.). Our observations suggest that the Florida Middle Ground is a remnant of a series of shore parallel bars that formed in the early Holocene and were capped by a 3.6-m thick unit of vermetid gastropods. During a rapid sea-level rise that began ~8,000 yr B.P. the vermetids growth ceased and the worm rock preserved the ridges structure. Diver observations document that the edges of the ridges are currently being eroded and undermined by biological activity and current action, leading to calving of large capstone blocks.

  18. West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    With its vast expanses of sand, framed by mountain ranges and exposed rock, northwestern Africa makes a pretty picture when viewed from above. This image was acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The Canary Islands can be seen on the left side of the image just off Africa's Atlantic shore. The light brown expanse running through the northern two thirds of the image is the Sahara Desert. The desert runs up against the dark brown Haut Atlas mountain range of Morocco in the northwest, the Atlantic Ocean to the west and the semi-arid (light brown pixels) Sahelian region in the South. The Sahara, however, isn't staying put. Since the 1960s, the desert has been expanding into the Sahelian region at a rate of up to 6 kilometers per year. In the 1980s this desert expansion, combined with over cultivation of the Sahel, caused a major famine across west Africa. Over the summer months, strong winds pick up sands from the Sahara and blow them across the Atlantic as far west as North America, causing air pollution in Miami and damaging coral reefs in the Bahamas and the Florida Keys. The white outlines on the map represent country borders. Starting at the top-most portion of the map and working clockwise, the countries shown are Morocco, Western Sahara, Mauritania, Senegal, Mali, Burkina Fasso, Nigeria, Mali (again), and Algeria. Image by Reto Stockli, Robert Simmon, and Brian Montgomery, NASA Earth Observatory, based on data from MODIS

  19. USGS Field Activities 12BHM01, 12BHM02, 12BHM03, 12BHM04, and 12BHM05 on the West Florida Shelf, in February, April, May, June, and August 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Lisa L.; Knorr, Paul O.; Daly, Kendra L.; Barrera, Kira E.

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) is absorbed by the ocean’s surface where it combines with seawater to form a weak, naturally occurring acid called carbonic acid (H2CO3).   Increasing carbon dioxide in the atmosphere results in the absorption of more CO2 by the ocean and, therefore, increases in the acidity of seawater.  This process, known as ocean acidification, has the potential to elicit change in ecosystems and organisms by disrupting biological processes.   For example, ocean acidification is a problem for marine organisms such as corals, foraminifera, and algae that precipitate calcium carbonate to form their skeletons and shells (Kleypas and others, 2006). The effects are related to corresponding changes in the carbonate saturation state (Ω), where Ω is the ratio of the ion concentration product (Ca2+ x CO32-) to the stoichiometric aragonite solubility product (K*sp) (Langdon and Atkinson, 2005). Because pH and CO32- are strongly interdependent through the inorganic carbon system, the decrease in pH will cause a proportionally greater decrease in CO32-.   

  20. Thermostabilized Shelf Life Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchonok, Michele H.; Catauro, Patricia M.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this project is to determine the shelf life end-point of various food items by means of actual measurement or mathematical projection. The primary goal of the Advanced Food Technology Project in these long duration exploratory missions is to provide the crew with a palatable, nutritious and safe food system while minimizing volume, mass, and waste. The Mars missions could be as long as 2.5 years with the potential of the food being positioned prior to the crew arrival. Therefore, it is anticipated that foods that are used during the Mars missions will require a 5 year shelf life. Shelf life criteria are safety, nutrition, and acceptability. Any of these criteria can be the limiting factor in determining the food's shelf life. Due to the heat sterilization process used for the thermostabilized food items, safety will be preserved as long as the integrity of the package is maintained. Nutrition and acceptability will change over time. Since the food can be the sole source of nutrition to the crew, a significant loss in nutrition may determine when the shelf life endpoint has occurred. Shelf life can be defined when the food item is no longer acceptable. Acceptability can be defined in terms of appearance, flavor, texture, or aroma. Results from shelf life studies of the thermostabilized food items suggest that the shelf life of the foods range from 0 months to 8 years, depending on formulation.

  1. Thermostable Shelf Life Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchonok, M. H.; Antonini, D. K.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this project is to determine the shelf life end-point of various food items by means of actual measurement or mathematical projection. The primary goal of the Advanced Food Technology Project in these long duration exploratory missions is to provide the crew with a palatable, nutritious and safe food system while minimizing volume, mass, and waste. The Mars missions could be as long as 2.5 years with the potential of the food being positioned prior to the crew arrival. Therefore, it is anticipated that foods that are used during the Mars missions will require a 5 year shelf life. Shelf life criteria are safety, nutrition, and acceptability. Any of these criteria can be the limiting factor in determining the food's shelf life. Due to the heat sterilization process used for the thermostabilized food items, safety will be preserved as long as the integrity of the package is maintained. Nutrition and acceptability will change over time. Since the food can be the sole source of nutrition to the crew, a significant loss in nutrition may determine when the shelf life endpoint has occurred. Shelf life can be defined when the food item is no longer acceptable. Acceptability can be defined in terms of appearance, flavor, texture, or aroma. Results from shelf life studies of the thermostabilized food items suggest that the shelf life of the foods range from 0 months to 8 years, depending on formulation.

  2. Key West, Florida Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  3. Effect of Landscape-Watershed Attributes on CDOM in Florida's Gulf Coast Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conmy, R. N.; Lehrter, J. C.; Jackson, J.; Coble, P. G.; Hastings, R. H.

    2010-12-01

    Florida’s Gulf Coast has multiple river systems with unique landscape and watershed attributes. Systems that supply water and material to the West Florida Shelf include the Apalachicola, Suwannee, Tampa Bay, Charlotte Harbor and the Shark Rivers. Northern riversheds have large watershed size and are dominated by forest and agricultural land cover, whereas riversheds in Central Florida are primarily urbanized landscapes (Tampa Bay system) that transition to agricultural landscapes (Charlotte Harbor) to the south. The southernmost rivershed in the Everglades is tidally driven and has landcover dominated by water and wetlands. Despite uniqueness amongst systems, Landscape Development Intensity (LDI) scores and precipitation patterns; magnitude of river discharge can be used to explain quantity of CDOM and DOC within headwaters with data collected during 2003-2005, as well as with historic data in Tampa Bay collected through the Environmental Protection Commission of Hillsborough County (EPCHC) monitoring program. Beyond organic matter concentration within the rivers, the quality of the material, as per absorption and fluorescence properties, are correlated with the characteristics of the watershed itself, including land-use/land cover. Implications of utilizing discharge and landscape-watershed attributes in estimating flux and quality of terrestrial DOM exported to estuaries and the coastal ocean will be addressed.

  4. Australian Continental Shelf as an Inverse Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahjabin, T.; Pattiaratchi, C. B.; Hetzel, Y.

    2016-02-01

    Transport of inshore waters and suspended material off the continental shelf by Dense Shelf Water Cascades (DSWC) has important ecological and biogeochemical implications in Australian waters. Because of high rates of evaporation, denser saline water along the sea bed occurs in a majority of the shallow coastal regions around Australia, setting up horizontal density gradients that can form DSWC. This study uses data available from the Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS), which is operated by the Australian National Facility for Ocean Gliders (ANFOG) located at the University of Western Australia, to measure cross-shelf density profiles under varying conditions around the entire continent. Analysis of 143 transects of 97 sets of spatial and temporal resolution data from the ocean gliders under varying wind and tide conditions for seven contrasting regions surrounding Australia has allowed us to confirm that DSWC occurs on a regular basis during autumn and winter seasons. Results indicate that cascades occur during these seasons mainly due to cooling of the coastal water which already have higher salinity due to evaporation during the summer months. The cascades were present under different wind and tidal energy conditions and the controlling parameter for cascade formation is the cross-shelf density gradient. The cross-shelf density gradient in North-West Australia is maximum in July (14.23x10-6 kgm-4); whereas it is a maximum in June in South Australia (18.78x10-6 kgm-4) and in May in South-West Australia (25.884x10-6 kgm-4). Greater knowledge of the occurrence of DSWC will enhance understanding of the offshore transport of larvae, nutrients, salt, heat, carbon, low-oxygen water, sediment, and pollutants in Australian waters.

  5. Surface winds over West Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromwich, David

    1993-01-01

    Five winter months (April-August 1988) of thermal infrared satellite images were examined to investigate the occurrence of dark (warm) signatures across the Ross Ice Shelf in the Antarctic continent. These features are inferred to be generated by katabatic winds that descend from southern Marie Byrd Land and then blow horizontally across the ice shelf. Significant mass is added to this airstream by katabatic winds blowing from the major glaciers that flow through the Transantarctic Mountains from East Antarctica. These negatively buoyant katabatic winds can reach the northwestern edge of the shelf - a horizontal propagation distance of up to 1,000 km - 14 percent of the time. Where the airstream crosses from the ice shelf to the ice-covered Ross Sea, a prominent coastal polynya is formed. Because the downslope buoyancy force is near zero over the Ross Ice Shelf, the northwestward propagation of the katabatic air mass requires pressure gradient support. The study shows that the extended horizontal propagation of this atmospheric density current occurred in conjunction with the passage of synoptic cyclones over the southern Amundsen Sea. These cyclones can strengthen the pressure gradient in the interior of West Antarctica and make the pressure field favorable for northwestward movement of the katabatic winds from West Antarctica across the ice shelf in a geostrophic direction. The glacier winds from East Antarctica are further accelerated by the synoptic pressure gradient, usually undergo abrupt adjustment beyond the exit to the glacier valley, and merge into the mountain-parallel katabatic air mass.

  6. NODC Standard Product: Naval Surface Weapons Center (NSWC) moored ADCP data 1994-1995 (Straits of Florida) (NODC Accession 0095602)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This database contains Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) data collected during 1994-1995 on the eastern shelf of Florida. The data were collected at...

  7. Mineralogy and Origin of Sediments From Drill Holes on the Continental Margin Off Florida, 1965-1969 (NODC Accession 7100714)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Drill cores obtained during the Joint Oceanographic Institutions' Deep Earth Sampling Program from the continental shelf, the Florida-Hatteras Slope, and the Blake...

  8. Octocoral Species Richness for the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary from 1999-2009 (NODC Accession 0123059)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The dataset includes species richness of benthic branching and encrusting gorgonians collected from multiple habitat types across the south Florida shelf, inside and...

  9. Mass Balance and Structure of the Ross Ice Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, I.; Padman, L.; Chu, W.; Fricker, H. A.; Becker, M. K.; Bell, R. E.; Tinto, K. J.; Millstein, J. D.

    2016-12-01

    Changes in ice shelf mass balance is key to the long term stability of the Antarctic ice sheet. Although the most extensive thinning occurs on the Amundsen Sea sector of West Antarctica, recent studies indicate that many other ice shelves are also experiencing widespread thinning. Here, we focus on the Ross Ice Self. An 18-year record (1994-2012) of satellite radar altimetry shows elevation change 1 m/yr across the shelf. Significant variability in ice shelf height on interannual time scales makes it difficult to detect a long-term mass budget trend of this ice shelf. Variability of radar signal penetration into the ice-shelf snow and firn layers further complicates assessment of mass changes. In this work, we investigate the Ross Ice Shelf mass balance using aerogeophyical data from the ROSETTA-ICE IcePod and NASA's Operation IceBridge. ROSSETTA-ICE is an aerogeophysical program planned to survey the ice shelf at a 10 km spacing over the course of two field seasons-2015 and 2016. This NSF/Moore Foundation supported multi-University collaborative project is designed to provide an integrated view of the ice shelf and the underlying bathymetry using the IcePod system including its ice-penetrating radars, laser altimetry, gravity meters and magnetometers. We present preliminary results from our ongoing efforts of quantifying the mass balance of the ice shelf using IcePod ice penetrating radars and laser altimetry along with satellite data. We will use internal layers traced from ice penetrating radars to outline the structure of the ice shelf. Airborne laser altimetry measurements from this IcePod survey and IceBridge will be used to study the elevation change of the ice shelf. Spatial variations of thickness of the internal layers in the first few meters of the ice shelf, particularly near the grounding line, will indicate the impact of wind-blown snow coming from the continent onto the ice shelf. In order to infer conditions of melt and freeze-on at the ice

  10. Sponges of the Guyana Shelf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VAN Soest, Rob W M

    2017-01-12

    Sponges collected on the Guyana Shelf, predominantly in Suriname offshore waters, by Dutch HMS 'Snellius' O.C.P.S. 1966, HMS 'Luymes' O.C.P.S. II 1969, and HMS 'Luymes' Guyana Shelf 1970 expeditions are described in this study. Sponges were obtained by trawling, dredging or grabbing on sandy, muddy, shelly, and fossil reef bottoms at 88 stations between 19 and 681 m depth. A total of 351 samples were identified to species level, each consisting of one or more specimens of a given species from each individual station (together comprising 547 individuals and fragments). The collection yielded 119 species together belonging to all sponge classes, but in large majority are Demospongiae. All species are identified to species level, occasionally tentatively, and all are described and illustrated. A new subgenus is proposed, Tedania (Stylotedania) subgen. nov. and a previously synonymized genus, Tylosigma Topsent, 1894 is revived. Thirtysix species were found to be new to science, excluding the first Central West Atlantic record of the genus Halicnemia, not named at the species level because of lack of sufficient material. The new species erected are, in alphabetical order: Amphoriscus ancora sp. nov., Biemna rhabdotylostylota sp. nov., Callyspongia (Callyspongia) scutica sp. nov., Chelonaplysilla americana sp. nov., Cladocroce guyanensis sp. nov., Clathria (Axosuberites) riosae sp. nov., Clathria (Clathria) gomezae sp. nov., Clathria (Microciona) snelliusae sp. nov., Clathria (Thalysias) complanata sp. nov., Clathria (Thalysias) zeai sp. nov., Coelosphaera (Coelosphaera) lissodendoryxoides sp. nov., Craniella crustocorticata sp. nov., Diplastrella spirastrelloides sp. nov., Epipolasis tubulata sp. nov., Erylus rhabdocoronatus sp. nov., Erylus surinamensis sp. nov., Geodia pocillum sp. nov., Geodia sulcata sp. nov., Hemiasterella camelus sp. nov., Hymedesmia (Stylopus) alcoladoi sp. nov., Hymenancora cristoboi sp. nov., Penares sineastra sp. nov., Hymerhabdia kobluki sp

  11. Estimation of capture zones and drawdown at the Northwest and West Well Fields, Miami-Dade County, Florida, using an unconstrained Monte Carlo analysis: recent (2004) and proposed conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brakefield, Linzy K.; Hughes, Joseph D.; Langevin, Christian D.; Chartier, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Travel-time capture zones and drawdown for two production well fields, used for drinking-water supply in Miami-Dade County, southeastern Florida, were delineated by the U.S Geological Survey using an unconstrained Monte Carlo analysis. The well fields, designed to supply a combined total of approximately 250 million gallons of water per day, pump from the highly transmissive Biscayne aquifer in the urban corridor between the Everglades and Biscayne Bay. A transient groundwater flow model was developed and calibrated to field data to ensure an acceptable match between simulated and observed values for aquifer heads and net exchange of water between the aquifer and canals. Steady-state conditions were imposed on the transient model and a post-processing backward particle-tracking approach was implemented. Multiple stochastic realizations of horizontal hydraulic conductivity, conductance of canals, and effective porosity were simulated for steady-state conditions representative of dry, average and wet hydrologic conditions to calculate travel-time capture zones of potential source areas of the well fields. Quarry lakes, formed as a product of rock-mining activities, whose effects have previously not been considered in estimation of capture zones, were represented using high hydraulic-conductivity, high-porosity cells, with the bulk hydraulic conductivity of each cell calculated based on estimates of aquifer hydraulic conductivity, lake depths and aquifer thicknesses. A post-processing adjustment, based on calculated residence times using lake outflows and known lake volumes, was utilized to adjust particle endpoints to account for an estimate of residence-time-based mixing of lakes. Drawdown contours of 0.1 and 0.25 foot were delineated for the dry, average, and wet hydrologic conditions as well. In addition, 95-percent confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for the capture zones and drawdown contours to delineate a zone of uncertainty about the median estimates

  12. The Myanmar continental shelf

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaswamy, V.; Rao, P.S.

    conditions, and neotectonic activity. The most prominent bathymetric feature on the Ayeyarwady continental shelf is the 120 km-wide Martaban Depression, at the centre of which is located the Martaban Canyon. Most of the suspended sediment discharge...

  13. Geology and biology of the "Sticky Grounds," shelf-margin carbonate mounds, and mesophotic ecosystem in the eastern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locker, Stanley D.; Reed, John K.; Farrington, Stephanie; Harter, Stacey; Hine, Albert C.; Dunn, Shane

    2016-01-01

    Shelf-margin carbonate mounds in water depths of 116–135 m in the eastern Gulf of Mexico along the central west Florida shelf were investigated using swath bathymetry, side-scan sonar, sub-bottom imaging, rock dredging, and submersible dives. These enigmatic structures, known to fisherman as the “Sticky Grounds”, trend along slope, are 5–15 m in relief with base diameters of 5–30 m, and suggest widespread potential for mesophotic reef habitat along the west Florida outer continental shelf. Possible origins are sea-level lowstand coral patch reefs, oyster reefs, or perhaps more recent post-lowstand biohermal development. Rock dredging recovered bioeroded carbonate-rock facies comprised of bored and cemented bioclastics. Rock sample components included calcified worm tubes, pelagic sediment, and oysters normally restricted to brackish nearshore areas. Several reef sites were surveyed at the Sticky Grounds during a cruise in August 2010 with the R/V Seward Johnson using the Johnson-Sea-Link II submersible to ground truth the swath-sonar maps and to quantify and characterize the benthic habitats, benthic macrofauna, fish populations, and coral/sponge cover. This study characterizes for the first time this mesophotic reef ecosystem and associated fish populations, and analyzes the interrelationships of the fish assemblages, benthic habitats and invertebrate biota. These highly eroded rock mounds provide extensive hard-bottom habitat for reef invertebrate species as well as essential fish habitat for reef fish and commercially/recreationally important fish species. The extent and significance of associated living resources with these bottom types is particularly important in light of the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the northeastern Gulf and the proximity of the Loop Current. Mapping the distribution of these mesophotic-depth ecosystems is important for quantifying essential fish habitat and describing benthic resources. These activities can improve

  14. Geology and hydrogeology of the Florida Keys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halley, Robert B.; Vacher, H. L.; Shinn,

    1997-01-01

    This chapter discusses the geology and hydrogeology of the Florida Keys, and focuses on the islands formed of Pleistocene limestone. These islands, which are crossed when driving from Miami to Key West, are typically regarded as "the Florida Keys." The outstanding and fragile character of ecosystems on and around the Florida Keys has prompted State and Federal efforts to protect and preserve the remaining public portions of the region. The Florida Keys were largely ignored during the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries, although the waters just offshore provided a major shipping thoroughfare to and from the New World. The Florida Keys are now recognized as one of the great recreational and environmental resources of the United States. The islands are outposts of a laid-back, tropical resort culture that has as its foundation warmth and clear water. A significant part of the attraction is fishing, diving, and boating around the area's coral reefs, which the islands protect. But the reefs were not always so highly valued. The Florida Keys that have protected the reefs for millennia, may now be the source of the agents that may accomplish what Agassiz thought was beyond man's power a century ago.

  15. Mangos of Florida, country contribution: Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    The book chapter presents a review of the historical importance of mango in Florida; geographical distribution of mangos in Florida; statistical data including total and seasonal production, main cultivars and their descriptors; cultural practices (i.e. propagation, fertilization, pruning); pests an...

  16. Exploring the Eastern United States Continental Shelf with the NOAA Cooperative Institute for Ocean Exploration, Research, and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glickson, D.; Pomponi, S.

    2015-12-01

    The Cooperative Institute for Ocean Exploration, Research, and Technology (CIOERT) serves NOAA priorities in three theme areas: exploring the eastern U.S. continental shelf, improving the understanding of coral and sponge ecosystems, and developing advanced underwater technologies. CIOERT focuses on the exploration and research of ecosystems and habitats along frontier regions of the eastern U.S. continental shelf that are of economic, scientific, or cultural importance or of natural hazards concern. One particular focus is supporting ocean exploration and research through the use of advanced underwater technologies and techniques in order to improve the understanding of vulnerable deep and shallow coral and sponge ecosystems. CIOERT expands the scope and efficiency of exploration and research by developing, testing, and applying new and/or innovative uses of existing technologies to ocean exploration and research activities. In addition, CIOERT is dedicated to expanding ocean literacy and building NOAA's technical and scientific workforce through hands-on, at-sea experiences. A recent CIOERT cruise characterized Gulf of Mexico mesophotic and deepwater reef ecosystems off the west Florida shelf, targeting northern Pulley Ridge. This project created and ground-truthed new sonar maps made with an autonomous underwater vehicle; conducted video and photographic transects of benthic habitat and fish using a remotely operated vehicle; and examined the connectivity of fauna from shallow to deep reef ecosystems. CIOERT was established in 2009 by FAU-Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institute, with University of North Carolina, Wilmington, SRI International, and the University of Miami. The primary NOAA partner is the Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research's Office of Ocean Exploration and Research.

  17. 78 FR 22193 - Special Local Regulations; West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship, Intracoastal Waterway; West...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-15

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; West Palm Beach Triathlon... Palm Beach, Florida, during the West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship, on Saturday, June 1, 2013. Approximately 1,500 participants are anticipated to participate in the triathlon. The special local...

  18. Evidence for basal marine ice in the Filchner-Ronne ice shelf

    OpenAIRE

    Oerter, Hans; kipfstuhl, J.; Determann, Jürgen; Miller, Heinrich; Wagenbach, D.; Minikin, A; Graf, W.

    1992-01-01

    The Filchner-Ronne ice shelf, which drains most of the marine-based portions of the West Antarctic ice sheet, is the largest ice shelf on Earth by volume. The origin and properties of the ice that constitutes this shelf are poorly understood, because a strong reflecting interface within the ice and the diffuse nature of the ice-ocean interface make seismic and radio echo sounding data difficult to interpret(1,2). Ice in the upper part of the shelf is of meteoric origin, but it has been propos...

  19. Sediment Chemistry and Meiofauna from the Northern Gulf of Mexico Continental Shelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceil C. Martinec

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined sediment chemistry, granulometry, and meiofauna on the northern Gulf of Mexico continental shelf from central Louisiana to Apalachicola, Florida. Sediment samples were collected in October/November 2012 with a Shipek grab sampler from 26 locations (extending from 28°18′46.079′′N, 91°10′44.471′′W to 29°3′48.383′′N, 85°28′25.679′′W at depths ranging from 49 to 361 m. Sediment analysis revealed two distinct profiles to the east and west of the Mississippi River Delta at approximately 88°30′W. The concentrations of silt + clay, organic carbon, Ba, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn were higher in western sites and positively correlated with Al concentrations. Eastern sites contained sandier sediments with lower organic carbon concentrations and higher Sr and Ca concentrations. Nematode densities were higher at western sites and positively correlated with Al, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Zn, silt + clay, and organic carbon concentrations. Copepod densities correlated with very coarse + coarse sand, exhibiting higher densities at eastern sites. PAH concentrations were relatively low, with all sites having <1700 µg/kg total PAHs. This study has revealed two distinct sediment profiles in the eastern and western zones of the study, which appear to influence the nematode and copepod densities.

  20. Spatial distribution of Ice Shelf Water in front of the Amery Ice Shelf, Antarctica in summer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Shaojun; SHI Jiuxin; JIAO Yutian; GE Renfeng

    2011-01-01

    As a unique low-temperature water mass in Antarctic coastal region,the Ice Shelf Water (ISW) is an important component for the formation of the Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW).In this paper,we present a criterion for ISW identification based on freezing point at the sea surface,and we study spatial distribution of ISW in front of the Amery Ice Shelf (AIS) and its flow path in Prydz Bay by analyzing hydrographic data from Australian cruises in 2001 and 2002,as well as Chinese cruises in 2003,2005,2006,and 2008,all being made in the austral summer.The relatively cold and fresh ISW occurred as several discrete water blocks with cold cores in front of the AIS,within the depth range of 100-600 m,under the seasonal thermocline.ISW had obvious temporal and spatial variations and the spatial distribution pattern changed greatly after 2005.Most of ISW was concentrated west of 73°E during 2001 to 2003 and 2006,but it was widespread to east in 2005 and 2008.In all observation years,a small amount of cold ISW always occurs at the west end of the AIS front section,where the coldest ISW in the whole section also occurred in 2001,2003 and 2006.Considering general cyclonic circulation pattern under the AIS,the ISW flowing out from west end of the AIS front might have experienced the longest cooling period under ice shelf,so it would have the lowest temperature.Analysis of data from meridian sections in Prydz Bay in 2003 implied that ISW in the west could spread north to the continental break along the east flank of the Fram Bank near 70.5°E,mix with the upwelling Circumpolar Deep Water and possibly contribute to the formation of AABW.

  1. 78 FR 11094 - Safety Zone; Lake Worth Dredge Operations, Lake Worth Inlet; West Palm Beach, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-15

    ... Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on Lake Worth Inlet, West Palm Beach, Florida, to provide..., February 20, 2013, dredging operations will be conducted on Lake Worth Inlet in West Palm Beach, Florida... the southwestern corner of Singer Island and then due south across the inlet to Palm Beach...

  2. Occurrence of a novel mastrevirus in sugarcane germplasm collections in Florida, Guadeloupe and Reunion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wardatou Boukari; Ricardo I Alcala-Briseno; Simona Kraberger; Emmanuel Fernandez; Denis Filloux; Jean-Heinrich Daugrois; Jack C Comstock; Jean-Michel Lett; Darren P Martin; Arvind Varsani; Philippe Roumagnac; Jane E Polston; Philippe C Rott

    2017-01-01

    .... Methods A virion-associated nucleic acids (VANA)-based metagenomics approach was used to detect mastrevirus sequences in 717 sugarcane samples from Florida (USA), Guadeloupe (French West Indies), and Reunion (Mascarene Islands...

  3. Studies on sound signal scattering from varying seabed sediments of the western continental shelf of India: Cochin to Mangalore

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chakraborty, B.; Pathak, D.

    A study on the interaction effect of the acoustic signal with three different sediment type seabottoms off the shelf area between Cochin and Mangalore of the west coast of India is performed. Analyses by means of Probability Density Function (PDF...

  4. Florida Energy Assurance Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Niescja E.; Murtagh, William; Guthrie, Kevin; Nykyri, Katariina; Radasky, William A.; Senkowicz, Eric

    2012-08-01

    This spring, Florida held the nation's first statewide emergency preparedness training and exercises geared specifically to the aftermath of severe geomagnetic events. Funded by the State of Florida Division of Emergency Management (FDEM) via a Department of Energy grant and held in collaboration with Watch House International, Inquesta Corporation, and the Florida Institute of Technology, the 17-19 April 2012 workshop had 99 on-site attendees in an oceanfront hotel in Melbourne, Florida, as well as 16 over live Web streaming. The workshop was the capstone to a three-month season of 21 regional space weather training sessions and workshops serving 386 attendees in total.

  5. Southeast continental shelf studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, D.W.

    1979-02-12

    Research efforts on the southeast continental shelf currently describe the manner in which fluctuations in Gulf Stream motion influence biological and chemical processes. Current meter arrays are maintained in the Georgia Bight and in Onslow Bay to describe general circulation patterns and to identify forcing functions. biological studies describe processes affecting temporal and spatial variations on the shelf and have attempted to track the biological history of intruded Gulf Stream water masses. Chemical studies examine the influence of both physical and biological variables on the distribution and fate of trace elements. The current state of knowledge is reviewed, the hypotheses developed and are described, a rationale for testing these hypotheses is given. 1 figure, 1 table.

  6. Ocean mixing beneath Pine Island Glacier Ice Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Satoshi; Dutrieux, Pierre; Jenkins, Adrian; Forryan, Alexander; Naveira Garabato, Alberto; Firing, Yvonne

    2016-04-01

    Ice shelves around Antarctica are vulnerable to increase in ocean-driven melting, with the melt rate depending on ocean temperature and strength of sub-ice-shelf-cavity circulations. We present repeated measurements of velocity, temperature, salinity, turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate and thermal variance dissipation rate beneath Pine Island Glacier Ice Shelf, collected by CTD, ADCP and turbulence sensors mounted on an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV). The turbulence quantities measured by the AUV outside the ice shelf are in good agreement with ship-based measurements. The highest rate of turbulent kinetic energy dissipation is found near the grounding line, while its temporal fluctuation over seabed ridge within the cavity corresponds to the tidal fluctuation predicted in the Pine Island Bay to the west. The highest thermal variance dissipation rate is found when the AUV was 0.5 m away from the ice, and the thermal variance dissipation generally increases with decreasing distance between the AUV and ice.

  7. Assemblages of fish larvae and mesozooplankton across the continental shelf and shelf slope of the Andaman Sea (NE Indian Ocean)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Peter; Bjørnsen, Peter Koefoed; Boonruang, P.

    2004-01-01

    We studied the cross-shelf variation in hydrography and plankton dynamics off west Thailand, focusing on physical- biological linkages. The overall research programme investigated linkages between physics, chemistry and plankton biology; in the present paper we consider the findings based...... on the sampling of fish larvae and mesozooplankton. Surveys were carried out during 2 monsoon periods in March and August 1996, using 3 cross-bathymetric transects extending to the deeper part of the shelf slope of the Andaman Sea. Station distances were either 5 or 10 n miles apart, and at each station a series...... of net tows were carried out, targeting different size ranges of organisms. Plankton were identified to order (invertebrates) or family (fish larvae), and their abundances and biomass estimated. The abundance of both mesozooplankton and fish larvae peaked mid-shelf (50 to 65 m bottom depth) coinciding...

  8. Hurricanes, submarine groundwater discharge, and Florida's red tides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chuanmin; Muller-Karger, Frank E.; Swarzenski, Peter W.

    2006-06-01

    A Karenia brevis Harmful Algal Bloom affected coastal waters shallower than 50 m off west-central Florida from January 2005 through January 2006, showing a sustained anomaly of ~1 mg chlorophyll m-3 over an area of up to 67,500 km2. Red tides occur in the same area (approximately 26-29°N, 82-83°W) almost every year, but the intense 2005 bloom led to a widespread hypoxic zone (dissolved oxygen marine mammals. Runoff alone provided insufficient nitrogen to support this bloom. We pose the hypothesis that submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) provides the missing nutrients, and indeed can trigger and support the recurrent red tides off west-central Florida. SGD inputs of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) in Tampa Bay alone are ~35% of that discharged by all central Florida rivers draining west combined. We propose that the unusual number of hurricanes in 2004 resulted in high runoff, and in higher than normal SGD emerging along the west Florida coast throughout 2005, initiating and fueling the persistent HAB. This mechanism may also explain recurrent red tides in other coastal regions of the Gulf of Mexico.

  9. Analysis of the timber situation in Florida, 1995- 2025

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger C. Conner; Raymond M. Sheffield

    2005-01-01

    The demand for wood fiber nationwide is expected to increase in the foreseeable future. Harvesting restrictions on forest lands in the West have increased pressure on the South's forest resources to provide more wood. The ability of Florida and other Southern States to respond is uncertain. The authors describe the current extent, condition, and availability of...

  10. Antarctica - Ross Ice Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    This color picture of Antarctica is one part of a mosaic of pictures covering the entire polar continent taken during the hours following Galileo's historic first encounter with its home planet. The view shows the Ross Ice Shelf to the right and its border with the sea. An occasional mountain can be seen poking through the ice near the McMurdo Station. It is late spring in Antarctica, so the sun never sets on the frigid, icy continent. This picture was taken about 6:20 p.m. PST on December 8, 1990. From top to bottom, the frame looks across about half of Antarctica.

  11. Cross-shelf subtidal variability in San Pedro Bay during summer, 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, P.; Noble, M.A.; Largier, J.; Rosenfeld, L.K.; Robertson, G.

    2006-01-01

    A total of 16 moorings were deployed across the San Pedro shelf, one of the two wider embayments in the Southern California Bight, from near the surfzone to the upper-slope. On the middle and outer shelf in the summer of 2001, the currents flowed strongly equatorward at the surface and had large vertical shears through the well-stratified water column. This equatorward flow differs from predominantly poleward flow found in previous studies of the coastal margin further west. In deeper water, near the shelf break, the shears were such that near-bottom flows were poleward and incorporated into the upper parts of the Southern California Undercurrent over the slope. Mid-shelf current fluctuations, with periods of 10-25 days, along with upwelling over the shelf, were not related to local winds, but were significantly correlated with the large-scale alongshore pressure gradient. Shorter period (???7-10 days) inner shelf alongshore currents, however, were significantly correlated with the alongshore wind at the shelf break. A CEOF analysis gives two significant modes, with the first mode dominant over the outer and middle shelf. The wind-forced second mode connects the inner shelf to the poleward undercurrent over the slope such that increases in the poleward flow over the slope are correlated with increases in the equatorward current inshore of the 15 m isobath.

  12. West Indian Sojourners in Guatemala and Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald N. Harpelle

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Race, Nation, and West Indian Immigration to Honduras, 1890-1940. Glenn A. Chambers. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2010. xii +202 pp. (Cloth US$ 35.00Black Labor Migration in Caribbean Guatemala, 1882-1923. Frederick Douglass Opie. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2009. 145 pp. (Cloth US$ 65.00

  13. On the difficulty of modeling Circumpolar Deep Water intrusions onto the Amundsen Sea continental shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Y.; Timmermann, R.; Schröder, M.; Hellmer, H. H.

    2014-12-01

    In the Amundsen Sea, warm Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW) intrudes onto the continental shelf and flows into the ice shelf cavities of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet, resulting in high basal melt rates. However, none of the high resolution global models resolving all the small ice shelves around Antarctica can reproduce a realistic CDW flow onto the Amundsen Sea continental shelf, and previous studies show simulated bottom potential temperature at the Pine Island Ice Shelf front of about -1.8 °C. In this study, using the Finite-Element Sea ice-ice shelf-Ocean Model (FESOM), we reproduce warm CDW intrusions onto the Amundsen Sea continental shelf and realistic melt rates of the ice shelves in West Antarctica. To investigate the importance of horizontal resolution, forcing, horizontal diffusivity, and the effect of grounded icebergs, eight sensitivity experiments are conducted. To simulate the CDW intrusion realistically, a horizontal resolution of about 5 km or smaller is required. The choice of forcing is also important and the cold bias in the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis over the eastern Amundsen Sea prevents warm CDW from intruding onto the continental shelf. On the other hand, the CDW intrusion is not highly sensitive to the strength of horizontal diffusion. The effect of grounded icebergs located off Bear Peninsula is minor, but may act as a buffer to an anomalously cold year.

  14. Cosmetics Safety Q&A: Shelf Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources for You Consumers Cosmetics Safety Q&A: Shelf Life Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Email Print FAQs Main Page What is the shelf life of cosmetics? The shelf life for eye- ...

  15. Florida Abandoned Vessel Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Florida. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral...

  16. Late Gale in Florida

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A severe gale in August of 1856 caused a lot of destruction in Florida. Ships and warehouses were damaged, a lighthouse was destroyed, crops were ruined, and several...

  17. New Jersey shallow shelf

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Expedition 313 Scientists; Bjerrum, Christian J.

    2009-01-01

    Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 313 to the New Jersey Shallow Shelf off the east coast of the United States is the third IODP expedition to use a mission-specific platform. It was conducted by the European Consortium for Ocean Research Drilling (ECORD) Science Operator (ESO...... to sea level change. We drilled at three locations in 35 m of water 45–67 km offshore, targeting the topsets, foresets, and toesets of several clinoforms at 180–750 m core depth below seafloor (CSF-A). Seismic correlations to previously drilled holes on the continental slope and extrapolations of depths...... successions to as many as 16 surfaces and/or sequence-bounding unconformities mapped in the regional seismic grid. Eight lithologic units are recognized that contain important physical and biofacies indicators of paleobathymetry. Reliable zonations of multiple fossil groups, Sr isotopic ages measured...

  18. Phylogeography of Aedes aegypti (yellow fever mosquito) in South Florida: mtDNA evidence for human-aided dispersal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damal, Kavitha; Murrell, Ebony G; Juliano, Steven A; Conn, Jan E; Loew, Sabine S

    2013-09-01

    The invasive dengue vector Aedes aegypti has persisted for > 200 years in South Florida in the United States. We tested the hypotheses that Florida's landscape creates dispersal barriers and corridors and that long-distance human-aided dispersal structures populations of Ae. aegypti. We evaluated the phylogeography of 362 individuals from Florida's East and West Coasts with a 760-bp (418- and 342-bp fragments of ND5 and ND4, respectively) mitochondrial sequence. Populations from these two coasts were not significantly differentiated, suggesting that limited urbanization in central Florida is not a strong barrier to gene flow. Evidence for long-distance dispersal between Ft. Lauderdale and the West and Ft. Myers and the East indicates the importance of human-aided dispersal. West Coast populations showed no genetic differentiation, indicating that West Coast rivers and bays did not significantly impede gene flow. Phylogeographic analysis of haplotypes showed two distinct matrilines with no geographic patterns, suggesting multiple introductions or balancing selection.

  19. Ross Ice Shelf Seismic Survey and Future Drilling Recommendation

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Haastrecht, Laurine; Ohneiser, Christian; Gorman, Andrew; Hulbe, Christina

    2016-04-01

    The Ross Ice Shelf (RIS) is one of three gateways through which change in the ocean can be propagated into the interior of West Antarctica. Both the geologic record and ice sheet models indicate that it has experienced widespread retreat under past warm climates. But inland of the continental shelf, there are limited data available to validate the models. Understanding what controls the rate at which the ice shelf will respond to future climate change is central to making useful climate projections. Determining the retreat rate at the end of the last glacial maximum is one part of this challenge. In November 2015, four lines of multi-channel seismic data, totalling over 45 km, were collected on the Ross Ice Shelf, approximately 300 km south of Ross Island using a thumper seismic source and a 96 channel snow streamer. The seismic survey was undertaken under the New Zealand Antarctic Research Institute (NZARI) funded Aotearoa New Zealand Ross Ice Shelf Programme to resolve bathymetric details and to image sea floor sediments under a proposed drilling site on the ice shelf, at about 80.7 S and 174 E. The thumper, a purpose-built, trailer mounted, weight-drop seismic source was towed behind a Hägglund tracked vehicle to image the bathymetry and sediments underneath the RIS. Seismic data collection on an ice shelf has unique challenges, in particular strong attenuation of the seismic energy by snow and firn, and complex multiple ray paths. The thumper, which consists of a heavy weight (250kg) that is dropped on a large, ski mounted steel plate, produced a consistent, repeatable higher energy signal when compared to sledge hammer source and allowed for a greater geographic coverage and lower environmental impact than an explosive source survey. Our survey revealed that the seafloor is smooth and that there may be up to 100 m of layered sediments beneath the seafloor and possibly deeper, more complex structures. A multiple generated by internally reflected seismic energy

  20. CRED 10 m Gridded multibeam bathymetry of Wake Island, West Central Pacific

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry shelf, bank and slope environments of Wake Island, West Central Pacific, under joint management of the United States Dept. of Interior and Air...

  1. CRED 60 m Gridded multibeam bathymetry of Wake Island, West Central Pacific

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry shelf, bank and slope environments of Wake Island, West Central Pacific, under joint management of the United States Dept. of Interior and Air...

  2. On the distribution of batch shelf lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlan, Michelle; Stroup, Walter; Christopher, David; Schwenke, James

    2013-01-01

    Implicit in ICH Q1E (International Conference on Harmonization [ICH], 2003b ) are definitions of batch shelf life (the time the batch mean crosses the acceptance limit) and product shelf life (the minimum batch shelf life). The distribution of batch means over time projects to a distribution of batch shelf lives on the x-axis. Assuming multivariate normality, shelf life is the ratio of correlated Gaussian variables. Using Hinkley ( 1969 ), we describe the relationship between quantiles of the distributions of batch shelf lives and batch means. Exploiting this relationship, a linear mixed model is used to estimate a target quantile of batch shelf lives to address the ICH objective.

  3. Florida Hydrogen Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Block, David L

    2013-06-30

    The Florida Hydrogen Initiative (FHI) was a research, development and demonstration hydrogen and fuel cell program. The FHI program objectives were to develop Florida?s hydrogen and fuel cell infrastructure and to assist DOE in its hydrogen and fuel cell activities The FHI program funded 12 RD&D projects as follows: Hydrogen Refueling Infrastructure and Rental Car Strategies -- L. Lines, Rollins College This project analyzes strategies for Florida's early stage adaptation of hydrogen-powered public transportation. In particular, the report investigates urban and statewide network of refueling stations and the feasibility of establishing a hydrogen rental-car fleet based in Orlando. Methanol Fuel Cell Vehicle Charging Station at Florida Atlantic University ? M. Fuchs, EnerFuel, Inc. The project objectives were to design, and demonstrate a 10 kWnet proton exchange membrane fuel cell stationary power plant operating on methanol, to achieve an electrical energy efficiency of 32% and to demonstrate transient response time of less than 3 milliseconds. Assessment of Public Understanding of the Hydrogen Economy Through Science Center Exhibits, J. Newman, Orlando Science Center The project objective was to design and build an interactive Science Center exhibit called: ?H2Now: the Great Hydrogen Xchange?. On-site Reformation of Diesel Fuel for Hydrogen Fueling Station Applications ? A. Raissi, Florida Solar Energy Center This project developed an on-demand forecourt hydrogen production technology by catalytically converting high-sulfur hydrocarbon fuels to an essentially sulfur-free gas. The removal of sulfur from reformate is critical since most catalysts used for the steam reformation have limited sulfur tolerance. Chemochromic Hydrogen Leak Detectors for Safety Monitoring ? N. Mohajeri and N. Muradov, Florida Solar Energy Center This project developed and demonstrated a cost-effective and highly selective chemochromic (visual) hydrogen leak detector for safety

  4. 78 FR 42902 - Safety Zone; Olympus Tension Leg Platform, Mississippi Canyon Block 807, Outer Continental Shelf...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-18

    ... Canyon Block 807, Outer Continental Shelf on the Gulf of Mexico AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice.... Department of Transportation, West Building Ground Floor, Room W12-140, 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE... federal holidays. The telephone number is 202-366-9329. See the ``Public Participation and Request for...

  5. Migrant Programs in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Migrant Information Clearinghouse, Austin, TX. Juarez-Lincoln Center.

    As the last of 3 directories, this lists services available to migrants in Florida. Migrant programs, Community Action Agencies, and labor camps in the state are identified by county. Information for each county includes total population, estimated migrant population, migrant labor demand, estimated migrant wages, crops, work periods, migrant…

  6. The Maya of Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Allan F.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the Maya people who fled Guatemala due to a civil war and illegally entered the U.S. and settled in Florida. Presents a picture of their living conditions, employment opportunities, cultural traditions, community development, and family organization. Discusses a Kanjobal Association and the CORN-MAYA program, and explains immigration…

  7. The Maya of Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Allan F.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the Maya people who fled Guatemala due to a civil war and illegally entered the U.S. and settled in Florida. Presents a picture of their living conditions, employment opportunities, cultural traditions, community development, and family organization. Discusses a Kanjobal Association and the CORN-MAYA program, and explains immigration…

  8. Conservation: saving Florida's manatees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonde, Robert K.

    2008-01-01

    Robert K. Bonde of the U.S. Geological Survey writes about the protected population of manatees in Crystal River, Florida, including information about the threats they face as they migrate in and out of protected waters. Photographer Carol Grant shares images of "Angel," a newborn manatee she photographed early one winter morning.

  9. Adapting Bulls to Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    The adaptation of bulls used for natural breeding purposes to the Gulf Coast region of the United States including all of Florida is an important topic. Nearly 40% of the U.S. cow/calf population resides in the Gulf Coast and Southeast. Thus, as A.I. is relatively rare, the number of bulls used for ...

  10. Explicit representation and parametrised impacts of under ice shelf seas in the z∗ coordinate ocean model NEMO 3.6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiot, Pierre; Jenkins, Adrian; Harris, Christopher; Madec, Gurvan

    2017-07-01

    Ice-shelf-ocean interactions are a major source of freshwater on the Antarctic continental shelf and have a strong impact on ocean properties, ocean circulation and sea ice. However, climate models based on the ocean-sea ice model NEMO (Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean) currently do not include these interactions in any detail. The capability of explicitly simulating the circulation beneath ice shelves is introduced in the non-linear free surface model NEMO. Its implementation into the NEMO framework and its assessment in an idealised and realistic circum-Antarctic configuration is described in this study. Compared with the current prescription of ice shelf melting (i.e. at the surface), inclusion of open sub-ice-shelf cavities leads to a decrease in sea ice thickness along the coast, a weakening of the ocean stratification on the shelf, a decrease in salinity of high-salinity shelf water on the Ross and Weddell sea shelves and an increase in the strength of the gyres that circulate within the over-deepened basins on the West Antarctic continental shelf. Mimicking the overturning circulation under the ice shelves by introducing a prescribed meltwater flux over the depth range of the ice shelf base, rather than at the surface, is also assessed. It yields similar improvements in the simulated ocean properties and circulation over the Antarctic continental shelf to those from the explicit ice shelf cavity representation. With the ice shelf cavities opened, the widely used three equation ice shelf melting formulation, which enables an interactive computation of melting, is tested. Comparison with observational estimates of ice shelf melting indicates realistic results for most ice shelves. However, melting rates for the Amery, Getz and George VI ice shelves are considerably overestimated.

  11. Chloroplast and microsatellite DNA diversities reveal the introduction history of Brazilian peppertree (Schinus terebinthifolius) in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Dean A; Overholt, William A; Cuda, James P; Hughes, Colin R

    2005-10-01

    Brazilian peppertree (Schinus terebinthifolius) is a woody perennial that has invaded much of Florida. This native of northeastern Argentina, Paraguay, and Brazil was brought as an ornamental to both the west and east coasts of Florida at the end of the 19th century. It was recorded as an invader of natural areas in the 1950s, and has since extended its range to cover over 280 000 ha. Our goals were to understand the history of this invasion, as one step toward understanding why this exotic was so successful, and ultimately to improve development of biological control agents. We sampled plants from the native and exotic ranges, particularly Florida, and genotyped these individuals at nuclear and chloroplast loci. Nuclear microsatellite and cpDNA loci reveal strong genetic population structure consistent with limited dispersal in the introduced and native ranges. Bayesian clustering of microsatellite data separates the east and west coast plants in Florida into distinct populations. The two chloroplast haplotypes found in Florida are also concordant with this separation: one predominates on the east coast, the other on the west coast. Analysis of samples collected in South America shows that haplotypes as distinct as the two in Florida are unlikely to have come from a single source population. We conclude that the genetic evidence supports two introductions of Brazilian peppertree into Florida and extensive hybridization between them. The west coast genotype likely came from coastal Brazil at about 27 degrees south, whereas the east coast genotype probably originated from another, as yet unidentified site. As a result of hybridization, the Florida population does not exhibit low genetic variation compared to populations in the native range, possibly increasing its ability to adapt to novel environments. Hybridization also has important consequences for the selection of biocontrol agents since it will not be possible to identify closely co-adapted natural enemies in

  12. Assessment of acreage and vegetation change in Florida`s Big Bend tidal wetlands using satellite imagery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raabe, E.A.; Stumpf, R.P. [Geological Survey, St. Petersburg, FL (United States)

    1997-06-01

    Fluctuations in sea level and impending development on the west coast of Florida have aroused concern for the relatively pristine tidal marshes of the Big Bend. Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images for 1986 and 1995 are processed and evaluated for signs of change. The images cover 250 km of Florida`s Big Bend Gulf Coast, encompassing 160,000 acres of tidal marshes. Change is detected using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and land cover classification. The imagery shows negligible net loss or gain in the marsh over the 9-year period. However, regional changes in biomass are apparent and are due to natural disturbances such as low winter temperatures, fire, storm surge, and the conversion of forest to marsh. Within the marsh, the most prominent changes in NDVI and in land cover result from the recovery of mangroves from freezes, a decline of transitional upland vegetation, and susceptibility of the marsh edge and interior to variations in tidal flooding.

  13. Florida Hydrogen Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Block, David L

    2013-06-30

    The Florida Hydrogen Initiative (FHI) was a research, development and demonstration hydrogen and fuel cell program. The FHI program objectives were to develop Florida?s hydrogen and fuel cell infrastructure and to assist DOE in its hydrogen and fuel cell activities The FHI program funded 12 RD&D projects as follows: Hydrogen Refueling Infrastructure and Rental Car Strategies -- L. Lines, Rollins College This project analyzes strategies for Florida's early stage adaptation of hydrogen-powered public transportation. In particular, the report investigates urban and statewide network of refueling stations and the feasibility of establishing a hydrogen rental-car fleet based in Orlando. Methanol Fuel Cell Vehicle Charging Station at Florida Atlantic University ? M. Fuchs, EnerFuel, Inc. The project objectives were to design, and demonstrate a 10 kWnet proton exchange membrane fuel cell stationary power plant operating on methanol, to achieve an electrical energy efficiency of 32% and to demonstrate transient response time of less than 3 milliseconds. Assessment of Public Understanding of the Hydrogen Economy Through Science Center Exhibits, J. Newman, Orlando Science Center The project objective was to design and build an interactive Science Center exhibit called: ?H2Now: the Great Hydrogen Xchange?. On-site Reformation of Diesel Fuel for Hydrogen Fueling Station Applications ? A. Raissi, Florida Solar Energy Center This project developed an on-demand forecourt hydrogen production technology by catalytically converting high-sulfur hydrocarbon fuels to an essentially sulfur-free gas. The removal of sulfur from reformate is critical since most catalysts used for the steam reformation have limited sulfur tolerance. Chemochromic Hydrogen Leak Detectors for Safety Monitoring ? N. Mohajeri and N. Muradov, Florida Solar Energy Center This project developed and demonstrated a cost-effective and highly selective chemochromic (visual) hydrogen leak detector for safety

  14. QTL mapping for Cold Tolerance and Flower Type in a Reciprocal F1 Florida Avocado Mapping population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avocado (Persea americana Mill.) farmers in South Florida have traditionally grown West Indian and Guatemalan x West Indian hybrid cultivars because they are more suitable to prevalent growing conditions. Currently, there is a growing interest in expanding the avocado production to other areas of t...

  15. The geomorphology of a glaciated continental shelf, Western Scotland, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, John; Dove, Dayton; Bradwell, Tom

    2013-04-01

    We present recently collected swath bathymetry and legacy seismic data from two regions of the north-west UK continental shelf: the Sea of the Hebrides; and the Firth of Lorn, western Scotland. Both regions have experienced extensive Pleistocene ice sheet glaciation and both provide abundant geomorphological evidence of subglacial and postglacial processes. The Sea of the Hebrides bathymetry data cover 2200 km2 and provide new geomorphological evidence for an ice stream flowing from western Scotland and the Inner Hebrides focusing towards a trough-mouth fan (the Barra Fan) at the continental shelf break during the height of the last glaciation. Notably, bedrock structures provide a control on the location and orientation of glacially overdeepened basins and troughs on the inner shelf. Whilst around the Islands of Canna and Rum, convergent seabed glacial lineations and other subglacially streamlined features eroded in bedrock preserve the direction of ice sheet movement - indicating ice streaming in a south-westerly direction across the continental shelf. We propose that this fast-flow zone formed part of a larger convergent ice stream system draining much of western Scotland and the north of Ireland. The Firth of Lorn bathymetry acquisition comprises 553km2 of data, collected as part of the INIS Hydro program (Ireland, Northern Ireland and Scotland Hydrographic Survey). This region of nearshore continental shelf is revealed as predominantly bedrock-dominated seabed, characterised by a series of narrow, strongly fault-controlled troughs, part of the Great Glen Fault Zone complex. Evidence for glaciation is widespread and well preserved in the Firth of Lorn and surrounding seabed with moraines, bedrock lineations (?megagrooves?) and overdeepened basins common across the area. Initial mapping shows that our understanding of the configuration and style of deglaciation in these sectors of the former British-Irish Ice Sheet can be greatly improved by the collection of

  16. Orlando, Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Much of central Florida, including this detailed view of Orlando (28.5N, 81.0W) can be seen in this single photo. Disney World is at the top center of the scene and the crescent shaped Lake Tohopekaliga is near the bottom. The large round lakes are believed to be sinkholes formed during glacial times when ocean levels were several hundred feet lower than the present. Linear patterns east of Orlando are thought to be ancient shoreline ridges.

  17. Explicit representation and parametrised impacts of under ice shelf seas in the z∗ coordinate ocean model NEMO 3.6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Mathiot

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Ice-shelf–ocean interactions are a major source of freshwater on the Antarctic continental shelf and have a strong impact on ocean properties, ocean circulation and sea ice. However, climate models based on the ocean–sea ice model NEMO (Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean currently do not include these interactions in any detail. The capability of explicitly simulating the circulation beneath ice shelves is introduced in the non-linear free surface model NEMO. Its implementation into the NEMO framework and its assessment in an idealised and realistic circum-Antarctic configuration is described in this study. Compared with the current prescription of ice shelf melting (i.e. at the surface, inclusion of open sub-ice-shelf cavities leads to a decrease in sea ice thickness along the coast, a weakening of the ocean stratification on the shelf, a decrease in salinity of high-salinity shelf water on the Ross and Weddell sea shelves and an increase in the strength of the gyres that circulate within the over-deepened basins on the West Antarctic continental shelf. Mimicking the overturning circulation under the ice shelves by introducing a prescribed meltwater flux over the depth range of the ice shelf base, rather than at the surface, is also assessed. It yields similar improvements in the simulated ocean properties and circulation over the Antarctic continental shelf to those from the explicit ice shelf cavity representation. With the ice shelf cavities opened, the widely used three equation ice shelf melting formulation, which enables an interactive computation of melting, is tested. Comparison with observational estimates of ice shelf melting indicates realistic results for most ice shelves. However, melting rates for the Amery, Getz and George VI ice shelves are considerably overestimated.

  18. Water masses of Visakhapatnam shelf

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RamaRaju, V.S.; Sarma, V.V.; Rao, B.P.; Rao, V.S.

    The T-S relationships of shelf waters off Visakhapatnam in the Bay of Bengal are studied for the different seasons with the data collected during February 1979 to January 1981. The T-S relationships indicate distinct characteristics of the water...

  19. Deglacial History and Paleoceanography of the Umanak System, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sheldon, Christina; Jennings, Anne; Andrews, John

    2012-01-01

    A record of Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS) and ice-stream history, ice-sheet ocean interactions and paleoclimate from the Last Glacial Maximum to present is preserved in the sediments of the Umanak fjord, shelf trough and trough mouth fan system of central West Greenland. The objective of this study i...

  20. Ice Shelf Modeling: A Cross-Polar Bayesian Statistical Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, N.; Furrer, R.; Jakobsson, M.; Zwally, H. J.

    2010-12-01

    Ice streams interlink glacial terrestrial and marine environments: embedded in a grounded inland ice such as the Antarctic Ice Sheet or the paleo ice sheets covering extensive parts of the Eurasian and Amerasian Arctic respectively, ice streams are major drainage agents facilitating the discharge of substantial portions of continental ice into the ocean. At their seaward side, ice streams can either extend onto the ocean as floating ice tongues (such as the Drygalsky Ice Tongue/East Antarctica), or feed large ice shelves (as is the case for e.g. the Siple Coast and the Ross Ice Shelf/West Antarctica). The flow behavior of ice streams has been recognized to be intimately linked with configurational changes in their attached ice shelves; in particular, ice shelf disintegration is associated with rapid ice stream retreat and increased mass discharge from the continental ice mass, contributing eventually to sea level rise. Investigations of ice stream retreat mechanism are however incomplete if based on terrestrial records only: rather, the dynamics of ice shelves (and, eventually, the impact of the ocean on the latter) must be accounted for. However, since floating ice shelves leave hardly any traces behind when melting, uncertainty regarding the spatio-temporal distribution and evolution of ice shelves in times prior to instrumented and recorded observation is high, calling thus for a statistical modeling approach. Complementing ongoing large-scale numerical modeling efforts (Pollard & DeConto, 2009), we model the configuration of ice shelves by using a Bayesian Hiearchial Modeling (BHM) approach. We adopt a cross-polar perspective accounting for the fact that currently, ice shelves exist mainly along the coastline of Antarctica (and are virtually non-existing in the Arctic), while Arctic Ocean ice shelves repeatedly impacted the Arctic ocean basin during former glacial periods. Modeled Arctic ocean ice shelf configurations are compared with geological spatial

  1. Libraries in Florida: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Library → Libraries in Florida URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/florida.html Libraries in Florida ... Pancake Atlantis, FL 33462-1197 561-548-3480 http://opac.libraryworld.com/cgi-bin/opac.pl?command= ...

  2. The surficial aquifer in Pinellas County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Causseaux, K.W.

    1985-01-01

    The surficial aquifer in Pinellas County, Florida, contains potable water throughout most of the county and is a potential source of water to augment the public supply that is presently imported from adjacent counties. The county accounts for 38 percent of the public supply consumption of ground water in the 11-county area of west-central Florida and 68 percent of this water is imported from two adjacent counties. The surficial aquifer has a saturated thickness of more than 30 feet throughout most of the county. Specific capacity per foot of screen for wells is less than 0.1 gallon per minute per foot of drawdown in some parts of the county, but yield is sufficient in most of the county for many small uses with shallow-well pumps. Minimum potential yield varies from 5 gallons per minute in the northern part of the county to more than 30 gallons per minute in the south. Concentrations of iron are high enough in parts of the county to cause staining. Chloride concentrations are less than 100 milligrams per liter in most of the county and do not pose a problem for many uses. (USGS)

  3. Diversity, abundance and community structure of benthic macro- and megafauna on the Beaufort shelf and slope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nephin, Jessica; Juniper, S Kim; Archambault, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Diversity and community patterns of macro- and megafauna were compared on the Canadian Beaufort shelf and slope. Faunal sampling collected 247 taxa from 48 stations with box core and trawl gear over the summers of 2009-2011 between 50 and 1,000 m in depth. Of the 80 macrofaunal and 167 megafaunal taxa, 23% were uniques, present at only one station. Rare taxa were found to increase proportional to total taxa richness and differ between the shelf (shelf and maldanid polychaetes (up to 92% in relative abundance/station) dominant on the slope. The megafauna principally comprised echinoderms with Ophiocten sp. (up to 90% in relative abundance/station) dominant on the shelf and Ophiopleura sp. dominant on the slope. Macro- and megafauna had divergent patterns of abundance, taxa richness (α diversity) and β diversity. A greater degree of macrofaunal than megafaunal variation in abundance, richness and β diversity was explained by confounding factors: location (east-west), sampling year and the timing of sampling with respect to sea-ice conditions. Change in megafaunal abundance, richness and β diversity was greatest across the depth gradient, with total abundance and richness elevated on the shelf compared to the slope. We conclude that megafaunal slope taxa were differentiated from shelf taxa, as faunal replacement not nestedness appears to be the main driver of megafaunal β diversity across the depth gradient.

  4. Hydrological character and sea-current structure in the front of Amery Ice Shelf

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Hongxia; Pan Zengdi; Jiao Yutian; Xiang Baoqiang

    2005-01-01

    Hydrological character and Sea-current profiles structure are studied and analyzed in sea-area of the front of Amery Ice Shelf, Prydz Bay with LADCP, CTD dana. These LADCP, CTD data were acquired during the 19th Chinese Antarctic Scientific Expedition. Results of this study agree with that, there exist four different kinds of water masses in the area of the front of Amery Ice Shelf in the summer of Antarctica. Current distribution presents a semi-circumfluence which flows in at the east and flows out in the west. Moreover, clockwise andd anti -clockwise vortices were found in upper layer and mid-layer in the Prydz Bay. Western areas of these anticlockwise vortices are positions of inflows from Prydz Bay to Amery Ice Shelf. The source of these inflows is the coastal westward current originated in the east of Prydz Bay. All these characteristics come down to the pattern of circumfluence, ice melt rate under Ice Shelf, scale of Ice Shelf water production and form of water exchanges between area of Ice Shelf and area of Prydz Bay.

  5. Firn structure of Larsen C Ice Shelf, Antarctic Peninsula, from in-situ geophysical surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulessa, B.; Brisbourne, A.; Kuipers Munneke, P.; Bevan, S. L.; Luckman, A. J.; Hubbard, B. P.; Ashmore, D.; Holland, P.; Jansen, D.; King, E. C.; O'Leary, M.; McGrath, D.

    2015-12-01

    Rising surface temperatures have been causing firn layers on Antarctic Peninsula ice shelves to compact, a process that is strongly implicated in ice shelf disintegration. Firn compaction is expected to warm the ice column and given sufficiently wet and compacted firn layers, to allow meltwater to penetrate into surface crevasses and thus enhance the potential for hydrofracture. On Larsen C Ice Shelf a compacting firn layer has previously been inferred from airborne radar and satellite data, with strongly reduced air contents in Larsen C's north and north-west. The hydrological processes governing firn compaction, and the detailed firn structures they produce, have so far remained uncertain however. Using integrated seismic refraction, MASW (Multi-Channel Analysis of Surface Waves), seismoelectric and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) data, we reveal vertical and horizontal changes in firn structure across Larsen C Ice Shelf. Particular attention is paid to the spatial prevalence of refrozen meltwaters within firn, such as the massive subsurface ice layer discovered recently by the NERC-funded MIDAS project in Cabinet Inlet in Larsen C's extreme northwest. Such ice layers or lenses are particularly dramatic manifestations of increased ice shelf densities and temperatures, and contrast sharply with the relatively uncompacted firn layers present in the ice shelf's southeast. We consider our observations in the context of a one-dimensional firn model for Larsen C Ice Shelf that includes melt percolation and refreezing, and discuss temporal changes in firn layer structures due to surface melt and ponding.

  6. West Florida, 1993-1995 Environmental Sensitivity Index Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  7. West Peninsular Florida 2, 1996 Environmental Sensitivity Index Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  8. West Peninsular Florida I 1996 Environmental Sensitivity Index Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  9. The Florida Library History Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasper, Catherine; McCook, Kathleen de la Pena

    The Florida Library History Project (FLHP) began in January 1998. Letters requesting histories were sent to all public libraries in Florida with follow-up letters sent after an initial response was received from the libraries. E-mail messages were sent out to FL-LIB listservs encouraging participation in the project. A poster session was presented…

  10. Biotechnology's new wave in Florida

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Marine biotechnology is a new economic sector globally, and is in its infancy in Florida. As an industry, it is still a very small part of biotechnology overall, but one where Florida has potential and real advantages over many areas for developing a robust commercial, technical and educational investment. (8pp.)

  11. FLORIDA TOWER FOOTPRINT EXPERIMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WATSON,T.B.; DIETZ, R.N.; WILKE, R.; HENDREY, G.; LEWIN, K.; NAGY, J.; LECLERC, M.

    2007-01-01

    The Florida Footprint experiments were a series of field programs in which perfluorocarbon tracers were released in different configurations centered on a flux tower to generate a data set that can be used to test transport and dispersion models. These models are used to determine the sources of the CO{sub 2} that cause the fluxes measured at eddy covariance towers. Experiments were conducted in a managed slash pine forest, 10 km northeast of Gainesville, Florida, in 2002, 2004, and 2006 and in atmospheric conditions that ranged from well mixed, to very stable, including the transition period between convective conditions at midday to stable conditions after sun set. There were a total of 15 experiments. The characteristics of the PFTs, details of sampling and analysis methods, quality control measures, and analytical statistics including confidence limits are presented. Details of the field programs including tracer release rates, tracer source configurations, and configuration of the samplers are discussed. The result of this experiment is a high quality, well documented tracer and meteorological data set that can be used to improve and validate canopy dispersion models.

  12. Shelf Stable Epoxy Repair Adhesive

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    manufacturing operations are more efficient , discarding less expired film. Commercial and military aircraft repair operations at Boeing experience very similar...successfully encapsulated at concentrations greater than 50 wt% within four N N = CC Infoscitex Corporation Shelf Stable Epoxy Resin Adhesive WP-1763 8...affects the composition of the encapsulant , which in turn affects the ability of the encapsulant to wet the core phase, the barrier properties of the

  13. Earth - Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    This color picture of Antarctica is one part of a mosaic of pictures covering the entire Antarctic continent taken during the hours following Galileo's historic first encounter with its home planet. The view shows the Ross Ice Shelf. An occasional mountain can be seen poking through the ice. It is late spring in Antarctica, so the sun never sets on the frigid, icy continent. This picture was taken on December 8, 1990.

  14. Satellite remote sensing of harmful algal blooms: A new multi-algorithm method for detecting the Florida Red Tide (Karenia brevis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Gustavo A.; Minnett, Peter J.; Fleming, Lora E.; Banzon, Viva F.; Baringer, Warner

    2010-01-01

    In a continuing effort to develop suitable methods for the surveillance of Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) of Karenia brevis using satellite radiometers, a new multi-algorithm method was developed to explore whether improvements in the remote sensing detection of the Florida Red Tide was possible. A Hybrid Scheme was introduced that sequentially applies the optimized versions of two pre-existing satellite-based algorithms: an Empirical Approach (using water-leaving radiance as a function of chlorophyll concentration) and a Bio-optical Technique (using particulate backscatter along with chlorophyll concentration). The long-term evaluation of the new multi-algorithm method was performed using a multi-year MODIS dataset (2002 to 2006; during the boreal Summer-Fall periods – July to December) along the Central West Florida Shelf between 25.75°N and 28.25°N. Algorithm validation was done with in situ measurements of the abundances of K. brevis; cell counts ≥1.5×104 cells l−1 defined a detectable HAB. Encouraging statistical results were derived when either or both algorithms correctly flagged known samples. The majority of the valid match-ups were correctly identified (~80% of both HABs and non-blooming conditions) and few false negatives or false positives were produced (~20% of each). Additionally, most of the HAB-positive identifications in the satellite data were indeed HAB samples (positive predictive value: ~70%) and those classified as HAB-negative were almost all non-bloom cases (negative predictive value: ~86%). These results demonstrate an excellent detection capability, on average ~10% more accurate than the individual algorithms used separately. Thus, the new Hybrid Scheme could become a powerful tool for environmental monitoring of K. brevis blooms, with valuable consequences including leading to the more rapid and efficient use of ships to make in situ measurements of HABs. PMID:21037979

  15. Satellite remote sensing of harmful algal blooms: A new multi-algorithm method for detecting the Florida Red Tide (Karenia brevis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Gustavo A; Minnett, Peter J; Fleming, Lora E; Banzon, Viva F; Baringer, Warner

    2010-06-01

    In a continuing effort to develop suitable methods for the surveillance of Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) of Karenia brevis using satellite radiometers, a new multi-algorithm method was developed to explore whether improvements in the remote sensing detection of the Florida Red Tide was possible. A Hybrid Scheme was introduced that sequentially applies the optimized versions of two pre-existing satellite-based algorithms: an Empirical Approach (using water-leaving radiance as a function of chlorophyll concentration) and a Bio-optical Technique (using particulate backscatter along with chlorophyll concentration). The long-term evaluation of the new multi-algorithm method was performed using a multi-year MODIS dataset (2002 to 2006; during the boreal Summer-Fall periods - July to December) along the Central West Florida Shelf between 25.75°N and 28.25°N. Algorithm validation was done with in situ measurements of the abundances of K. brevis; cell counts ≥1.5×10(4) cells l(-1) defined a detectable HAB. Encouraging statistical results were derived when either or both algorithms correctly flagged known samples. The majority of the valid match-ups were correctly identified (~80% of both HABs and non-blooming conditions) and few false negatives or false positives were produced (~20% of each). Additionally, most of the HAB-positive identifications in the satellite data were indeed HAB samples (positive predictive value: ~70%) and those classified as HAB-negative were almost all non-bloom cases (negative predictive value: ~86%). These results demonstrate an excellent detection capability, on average ~10% more accurate than the individual algorithms used separately. Thus, the new Hybrid Scheme could become a powerful tool for environmental monitoring of K. brevis blooms, with valuable consequences including leading to the more rapid and efficient use of ships to make in situ measurements of HABs.

  16. 75 FR 51040 - Issuance of an Experimental Use Permit by the State of Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti, in Key West, Florida. The program is authorized only in the State of... insecticide 2-methyl -3-yl) methyl-3-(2-chloro-3,3,3,-trifluoro-1-propenyl)-2,2 on 1 acre of residential...

  17. Cryolithozone of Western Arctic shelf of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholmyanskii, Mikhail; Vladimirov, Maksim; Snopova, Ekaterina; Kartashev, Aleksandr

    2017-04-01

    We propose a new original version of the structure of the cryolithozone of west Arctic seas of Russia. In contrast to variants of construction of sections and maps based on thermodynamic modeling, the authors have used electrometric, seismic, and thermal data including their own profile measurements by near-field transient electromagnetic technique and seismic profile observations by reflection method. As a result, we defined the spatial characteristics of cryolithozone and managed to differentiate it to several layers, different both in structure and formation time. We confirmed once again that the spatial boundary of cryolithozone, type and thickness of permafrost, chilled rocks and thawed ground are primarily determined by tectonic and oceanographic regimes of the Arctic Ocean and adjacent land in different geological epochs. Permafrost formed on the land in times of cold weather, turn to submarine during flooding and overlap, in the case of the sea transgression, by marine sediments accumulating in the period of warming. We have been able to establish a clear link between the permafrost thickness and the geomorphological structure of the area. This can be explained by the distribution of thermodynamic flows that change the temperature state of previously formed permafrost rocks. Formation in the outer parts of the shelf which took place at ancient conversion stage can be characterized by the structure: • permafrost table - consists of rocks, where the sea water with a temperature below 0 °C has replaced the melted ice; • middle horizon - composed of undisturbed rocks, and the rocks chilled through the lower sieving underlay; As a result of the interpretation and analysis of all the available data, the authors created a map of types of cryolithozone of the Western Arctic shelf of Russia. The following distribution areas are marked on the map: • single-layer cryolithozone (composed of sediments upper Pleistocene and Holocene); • monosyllabic relict

  18. H08155: NOS Hydrographic Survey , West Coast of Florida, Florida, 1955-10-28

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  19. H08357: NOS Hydrographic Survey , West Coast of Florida, Florida, 1957-04-11

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  20. H08192: NOS Hydrographic Survey , West Coast of Florida, Florida, 1956-05-22

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  1. H08193: NOS Hydrographic Survey , West Coast of Florida, Florida, 1956-08-07

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  2. H08099: NOS Hydrographic Survey , West Coast of Florida, Florida, 1954-11-29

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  3. H08100: NOS Hydrographic Survey , West Coast of Florida, Florida, 1954-12-20

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  4. H08152: NOS Hydrographic Survey , West Coast of Florida, Florida, 1955-09-30

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  5. Distribution of DDT and Other Persistent Organic Contaminants in Canyons and on the Continental Shelf off the Central California Coast

    OpenAIRE

    Hartwell, S. Ian

    2008-01-01

    Distribution of DDT and Other Persistent Organic Contaminants in Canyons and on the Continental Shelf off the Central California Coast correspondence: Corresponding author. Tel.: +301 713 3028; fax: +301 713 4388. (Hartwell, S. Ian) (Hartwell, S. Ian) NOAA/NOS/NCCOS Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment 1305 East West Hwy Silver Spring - MD 20910--> - (Hartwell, S. Ian) UNITED STATES (Hartwell, S. Ia...

  6. Gravity anomalies over a segment of Pratap ridge and adjoining shelf margin basin, western continental margin of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Subrahmanyam, V.; Rao, D.G.; Ramprasad, T.; KameshRaju, K.A.; Rao, M.G.

    Bathymetric and gravity data totalling 2000 line km on the continental margin off Goa and Mulki, west of India have been studied. The free-air gravity anomalies vary between -60 to 25 mgals with prominent NNW-SSE trends in the outer shelf region...

  7. Puerto Rico and Florida manatees represent genetically distinct groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Margaret E.; Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A.; Tucker, Kimberly Pause; King, Timothy L.; Bonde, Robert K.; Gray, Brian A.; McGuire, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    The West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus) populations in Florida (T. m. latirostris) and Puerto Rico (T. m. manatus) are considered distinct subspecies and are listed together as endangered under the United States Endangered Species Act. Sustained management and conservation efforts for the Florida subspecies have led to the suggested reclassification of the species to a threatened or delisted status. However, the two populations are geographically distant, morphologically distinct, and habitat degradation and boat strikes continue to threaten the Puerto Rico population. Here, 15 microsatellite markers and mitochondrial control region sequences were used to determine the relatedness of the two populations and investigate the genetic diversity and phylogeographic organization of the Puerto Rico population. Highly divergent allele frequencies were identified between Florida and Puerto Rico using microsatellite (F ST = 0.16; R ST = 0.12 (P ST = 0.66; Φ ST = 0.50 (P E = 0.45; NA = 3.9), were similar, but lower than those previously identified in Florida (HE = 0.48, NA = 4.8). Within Puerto Rico, the mitochondrial genetic diversity values (π = 0.001; h = 0.49) were slightly lower than those previously reported (π = 0.002; h = 0.54) and strong phylogeographic structure was identified (F ST global = 0.82; Φ ST global = 0.78 (P manatee population.

  8. Age & reproduction in three reef - dwelling serranid fishes of the northeastern Gulf of Mexico outer continental shelf: Pronotogrammus martinicensis, Hemanthias vivanus & Serranus phoebe (with preliminary observations on the Pomacentrid fish, Chromis enchrysurus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurman, Paul E.; McBride, Richard S.; Sulak, Kenneth J.; Dennis, George D.

    2004-01-01

    Specimens of the four study species were collected during cruises to outer-continental shelf reefs of the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Age was estimated for all serranid species using whole otoliths and C. enchrysurus ages were determined from transverse sections of sagittal otoliths. Ring structure observed on otoliths was validated as having an annual periodicity for P. martinicensis using marginal increment analysis. Ring structure on remaining species was assumed to correspond to age (years). Pronotogrammus martinicensis, H. vivanus, S. phoebe, and C. enchrysurus exhibited maximum ages of 9, 8, 5, and 11, respectively. Spatial variations in size-at-age were observed in P. martinicensis populations. Individuals inhabiting reefs in the Madison-Swanson Reserve area on the West Florida Shelf edge exhibited the fastest growth rates, while the slowest growing P. martinicensis were collected from the Alabama Alps Reef, the farthest west study reef. Pronotogrammus martinicensis and H. vivanus are both protogynous hermaphrodites. Evidence of active spawning was observed in the months from February through July for P. martinicensis, and March and May for H. vivanus. Serranus phoebe was observed to be a simultaneous hermaphroditic capable of spawning year-round. Batch fecundity estimates for P. martinicensis ranged from 149-394 oocytes per fish. Size selectivity was evident in our primary sampling method, hook and line using small tandem bait hooks. Smaller size-classes of all species examined were under-represented in our samples, hindering accurate growth modeling. Due to the protogynous nature of P. martinicensis and H. vivanus, hook and line sampling also tended to select for males. Future descriptions of the reproductive biology of both protogynous species would be more complete if less selective sampling methods could be successfully employed. The data presented here contribute to a better assessment of the fish community of the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. Little

  9. Temporal variability of the Circumpolar Deep Water inflow onto the Ross Sea continental shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castagno, Pasquale; Falco, Pierpaolo; Dinniman, Michael S.; Spezie, Giancarlo; Budillon, Giorgio

    2017-02-01

    The intrusion of Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW) is the primary source of heat, salt and nutrients onto Antarctica's continental shelves and plays a major role in the shelf physical and biological processes. Different studies have analyzed the processes responsible for the transport of CDW across the Ross Sea shelf break, but until now, there are no continuous observations that investigate the timing of the intrusions. Also, few works have focused on the effect of the tides that control these intrusions. In the Ross Sea, the CDW intrudes onto the shelf in several locations, but mostly along the troughs. We use hydrographic observations and a mooring placed on the outer shelf in the middle of the Drygalski Trough in order to characterize the spatial and temporal variability of CDW inflow onto the shelf. Our data span from 2004 to the beginning of 2014. In the Drygalski Trough, the CDW enters as a 150 m thick layer between 250 and 400 m, and moves upward towards the south. At the mooring location, about 50 km from the shelf break, two main CDW cores can be observed: one on the east side of the trough spreading along the west slope of Mawson Bank from about 200 m to the bottom and the other one in the central-west side from 200 m to about 350 m depth. A signature of this lighter and relatively warm water is detected by the instruments on the mooring at bottom of the Drygalski Trough. High frequency periodic CDW intrusion at the bottom of the trough is related to the diurnal and spring/neap tidal cycles. At lower frequency, a seasonal variability of the CDW intrusion is noticed. A strong inflow of CDW is observed every year at the end of December, while the CDW inflow is at its seasonal minimum during the beginning of the austral fall. In addition an interannual variability is also evident. A change of the CDW intrusion before and after 2010 is observed.

  10. Low-Frequency Response Following the Passage of Hurricane Andrew on the Texas-Louisiana Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, S. M.; Smith, D. C.; Dimarco, S. F.

    2009-12-01

    During August 24th through 27th in 1992, Hurricane Andrew passed through the Gulf Of Mexico almost directly over several moorings on the easternmost Louisiana shelf portion of the Texas-Louisiana Shelf (LATEX) coastal ocean monitoring program. Examination of the current meter time-series showed the existence of fast moving, long shelf waves over the entire Texas-Louisiana shelf west of the storm passage for up to 12 days after direct forcing ceased. The LATEX program featured 31 moorings each with 3 current meters over the 10, 20, 50, and 200 meter isobaths in 5 cross sectional lines with additional coverage on the 200 meter isobath from the Louisiana-Mississippi River delta, to Corpus Christi, Texas. Additionally, several pressure records from LATEX and several NOAA historical coastal tide gauge data from Sabine Pass to Port Isabella, Texas were incorporated. Raw, 3-hour low pass filtered, and 40-hour low pass filtered versions of the current data were analyzed. The pressure data used were detided using a least squares fit, and the tidal records were detided using the NOAA predicted tides for that location. All data were analyzed using a wavelet analysis to determine the spectra over time. The analyzed data shows that the shelf response was largely dominated in the internal Kelvin wave mode. The wave propagated towards the west on the shelf at approximately 400 km/day. These results are contrasted and compared with wave modes predicted for coastal trapped wave solutions. The output of a coastal ocean model simulation using a forced wind field similar to the storm are also contrasted and compared with the observed data.

  11. Circulation in the Hudson Shelf Valley: MESA Physical Oceanographic Studies in New York Bight, 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Dennis A.; Han, Gregory C.; Hansen, Donald V.

    1982-11-01

    Over 900 days of current velocity data were obtained at mainly two locations in the inner and outer Hudson Shelf Valley (HSV). The large cross-axis depth gradients in the HSV, together with the strong winter cyclones and the baroclinic density distribution over the shelf, are primarily responsible for the major circulation features observed in the valley. CSTD data from 12 cruises and meteorological data from JFK International Airport and an environmental buoy were collected concurrently with the current meter data. Although the mean cross-shelf pressure gradient is generally seaward in the Middle Atlantic Bight, it is shoreward in the HSV below the level of the adjacent continental shelf (shelf horizon), thus imposing a bias toward upvalley flow. The average velocity below the surrounding shelf horizon in the HSV is upvalley or shoreward (west-northwestward ≈ 290° T) in the range of 2-5 cm/s. The circulation in the HSV is seasonal and individual events can drastically alter the mean picture. The several day average upvalley flow can sometimes approach 20 cm/s when intense winter cyclones pass over the bight and can sometimes also be directed downvalley depending upon the path of the winter cyclone. A topographically controlled barotropic flow commonly opposes the dominant (southeast-ward) wind direction even near the surface in the winter. In the context of circulation on the open shelf, upvalley (downvalley) flow events generated by winter cyclones are associated with reduced (enhanced) southwestward flow or flow reversals that are northeastward in the lower half of the water column at LTM, a typical mid/shelf site (Mayer et al., 1979). Current meter data suggest that whether or not reversals occur on the open shelf depends upon the interannual variability of the winter wind regime. Upvalley flow events are not confined only to the winter (unstratified) season but are stronger in the winter and can last for several days and longer. During the summer

  12. Coordination: southeast continental shelf studies. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, D.W.

    1980-03-01

    The GABEX I experiment is designed to provide synoptic coverage of a series of Gulf Stream wave-like disturbances, the effect of these on the circulation of the entire shelf, and on biological and chemical processes. This study was initiated in February 1980 when current meter arrays were deployed. These meters will be removed in July 1980. In April three ships will simultaneously study the effects of Gulf Stream disturbances on the hydrography, chemistry, and biology of the shelf. One vessel will track a specific wave-like disturbance and provide synoptic coverage of the shelf area. The second vessel will determine the effect of shelf break processes on adjacent shelf water; and the third will study trace metal distributions in and outside of disturbances. Research progress is reported in continental shelf studies, nearshore and estuarine studies (diffusion of freshwater out of nearshore zone), tidal currents and material transport, and mixing of inlet plumes.

  13. A three-dimensional model of wind-driven circulation on the shelf: application to the storm of January 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Alan M.; Kwong, Simon C. M.; Flather, Roger A.

    A three-dimensional hydrodynamic model covering the NorthWest European Continental Shelf is used to examine the wind-induced circulation on the shelf during early January 1993, the time of the oil spill due to the grounding of the tanker Braer on the Shetlands. The model is used to study the response of the wind-driven currents on the shelf to changes in the wind stress which occurred on a number of time scales during this period. The sensitivity of the currents to various formulations of vertical eddy viscosity is considered in detail with particular emphasis on surface currents. Although the prime aim of the calculations is a study of the wind-driven flow over the whole shelf and not a study of oil movement, some of the flow fields in the vicinity of the Shetlands help to explain the movement and eventual fate of the oil in that region.

  14. Epidemiology of Ciguatera in Florida

    OpenAIRE

    Radke, Elizabeth G.; Reich, Andrew; Morris, John Glenn

    2015-01-01

    Ciguatera is the most commonly reported marine food-borne illness worldwide. Because there is a biological plausibility that ciguatera may be impacted by long-term climate variability and Florida is on the northern border of the geographic distribution of ciguatera, it is important to update our understanding of its epidemiology in Florida. We performed an analysis of 291 reports in Florida from 2000 to 2011 and an e-mail survey of 5,352 recreational fishers to estimate incidence and underrep...

  15. Impacts of warm water on Antarctic ice shelf stability through basal channel formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alley, Karen E.; Scambos, Ted A.; Siegfried, Matthew R.; Fricker, Helen Amanda

    2016-04-01

    Antarctica's ice shelves provide resistance to the flow of grounded ice towards the ocean. If this resistance is decreased as a result of ice shelf thinning or disintegration, acceleration of grounded ice can occur, increasing rates of sea-level rise. Loss of ice shelf mass is accelerating, especially in West Antarctica, where warm seawater is reaching ocean cavities beneath ice shelves. Here we use satellite imagery, airborne ice-penetrating radar and satellite laser altimetry spanning the period from 2002 to 2014 to map extensive basal channels in the ice shelves surrounding Antarctica. The highest density of basal channels is found in West Antarctic ice shelves. Within the channels, warm water flows northwards, eroding the ice shelf base and driving channel evolution on annual to decadal timescales. Our observations show that basal channels are associated with the development of new zones of crevassing, suggesting that these channels may cause ice fracture. We conclude that basal channels can form and grow quickly as a result of warm ocean water intrusion, and that they can structurally weaken ice shelves, potentially leading to rapid ice shelf loss in some areas.

  16. On the shelf life of pharmaceutical products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capen, Robert; Christopher, David; Forenzo, Patrick; Ireland, Charles; Liu, Oscar; Lyapustina, Svetlana; O'Neill, John; Patterson, Nate; Quinlan, Michelle; Sandell, Dennis; Schwenke, James; Stroup, Walter; Tougas, Terrence

    2012-09-01

    This article proposes new terminology that distinguishes between different concepts involved in the discussion of the shelf life of pharmaceutical products. Such comprehensive and common language is currently lacking from various guidelines, which confuses implementation and impedes comparisons of different methodologies. The five new terms that are necessary for a coherent discussion of shelf life are: true shelf life, estimated shelf life, supported shelf life, maximum shelf life, and labeled shelf life. These concepts are already in use, but not named as such. The article discusses various levels of "product" on which different stakeholders tend to focus (e.g., a single-dosage unit, a batch, a production process, etc.). The article also highlights a key missing element in the discussion of shelf life-a Quality Statement, which defines the quality standard for all key stakeholders. Arguments are presented that for regulatory and statistical reasons the true product shelf life should be defined in terms of a suitably small quantile (e.g., fifth) of the distribution of batch shelf lives. The choice of quantile translates to an upper bound on the probability that a randomly selected batch will be nonconforming when tested at the storage time defined by the labeled shelf life. For this strategy, a random-batch model is required. This approach, unlike a fixed-batch model, allows estimation of both within- and between-batch variability, and allows inferences to be made about the entire production process. This work was conducted by the Stability Shelf Life Working Group of the Product Quality Research Institute.

  17. Bathymetry and acoustic backscatter of the mid and outer continental shelf, head of De Soto Canyon, northeastern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, James V.; Hughes-Clarke, John E.; Meyer, Larry A.

    2002-01-01

    The mid to outer continental shelf off Mississippi-Alabama and off northwest Florida were the focus of US Geological Survey (USGS) multibeam echosounder (MBES) mapping cruises in 2000 and 2001, respectively. These areas were mapped to investigate the extent of "deep-water reefs" first suggested by Ludwick and Walton (1957). The reefs off Mississippi and Alabama were initially described in water depths of 60 to 120 m (Ludwick and Walton, 1957) but the 2000 mapping found reef and hardgrounds to be much more extensive than previously thought (Gardner et al., 2001). The persistent trend of reef-like features along the outer shelf of Mississippi-Alabama suggested the trend might continue along the northwest Florida mid and outer shelf so a MBES-mapping effort was mounted in 2001 to test this suggestion. It is critical to determine the accurate location, geomorphology, and types of the ridges and reefs that occur in this region to understand the Quaternary history of the area and to assess their importance as benthic habitats for fisheries. The 2001 survey found a series of shelf-depth platforms with ridges (possibly reefs) constructed on their surfaces (Gardner et al., 2002). The area known as the "head of De Soto Canyon" is the large unmapped region between the 2000 and 2001 mapped areas. The head of De Soto Canyon is an outer shelf zone with a relatively steep western wall and a much gentler eastern wall. It was unknown prior to this cruise whether the reefs of the Mississippi-Alabama shelf continue eastward into the head of De Soto Canyon and connect with the ridges and reefs mapped on the northwest Florida outer shelf. The existence of carbonate-cemented latest Quaternary to Holocene sandstones along the western wall of the head of De Soto Canyon (Shipp and Hopkins, 1978; Benson et al., 1997; W.W. Schroeder, personnel comm., 2002) is of interest because of the potential benthic habitats they may represent. Precisely georeferenced high-resolution mapping of

  18. The weeding handbook a shelf-by-shelf guide

    CERN Document Server

    Vnuk, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    "No! We can't rid of that!" Vnuk, author of the popular "Weeding Tips" column on Booklist Online, is here to show you that yes, you can. A library is an ever-changing organism; when done the right way, weeding helps a library thrive by focusing its resources on those parts of the collection that are the most useful to its users. Her handbook takes the guesswork out of this delicate but necessary process, giving public and school library staff the knowledge and the confidence to effectively weed any collection, of any size. Going through the proverbial stacks shelf by shelf, Vnuk: Explains why weeding is important for a healthy library, demonstrating that a vibrant collection leads to robust circulation, which in turn affects library budgets Walks readers through a library's shelves by Dewey area, with recommended weeding criteria and call-outs in each area for the different considerations of large collections and smaller collections Features a chapter addressing reference, media, magazines and newspapers, e-b...

  19. 26 CFR 1.638-1 - Continental Shelf areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Continental Shelf areas. 1.638-1 Section 1.638-1...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Continental Shelf Areas § 1.638-1 Continental Shelf areas. (a) General rule. For.... The terms Continental Shelf of the United States and Continental Shelf of a possession of the United...

  20. Sea turtle distribution along the boundary of the Gulf Stream current off eastern Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, W.; Fritts, T.H.

    1982-01-01

    Aerial surveys, out to 222 km off the east coast of central Florida during August 1980, revealed that marine turtles were distributed in a narrow zone west of the Gulf Stream. Of 255 loggerhead turtles, Caretta caretta, only three were observed east of the western boundary of the Gulf Stream. Radiometric thermometry revealed that the waters occupied by most Caretta were markedly cooler than the nearby waters of the Gulf Stream. Of 18 leatherback turtles, Dermochelys coriacea, all were seen west of the Gulf Stream in waters less than 70 m in depth. Marine turtles off eastern Florida are confined seasonally to nearshore waters west of the Gulf Stream. The records of Dermochelys in nearshore waters are in contrast with a deep water oceanic ecology often hypothesized for this species.

  1. Ice stream retreat following the LGM and onset of the west Greenland current in Uummannaq Trough, west Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Christina; Jennings, Anne; Andrews, John T.; Ó Cofaigh, Colm; Hogan, Kelly; Dowdeswell, Julian A.; Seidenkrantz, Marit-Solveig

    2016-09-01

    The deglacial history and oceanography of Uummannaq Trough, central West Greenland continental shelf, was investigated using foraminiferal, sedimentological, and bathymetric records together with a radiocarbon chronology, providing a timeline for the retreat of glacial ice after the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). To map ice stream retreat, data were collected from cores from the outer (JR175-VC45 and JR175-VC43) and inner (JR175-VC42) Uummannaq Trough. A large ice stream, fed by confluent glaciers draining the interior of the Greenland Ice Sheet, extended across the outer shelf during the LGM and was in retreat by 15.0 cal kyr BP. Foraminiferal data indicate that the 'warm' West Greenland Current (WGC) was established prior to 14.0 cal kyr BP, which is the hitherto earliest record of Atlantic Water found on the West Greenland shelf. For each of the cores, foraminifera indicate that ice sheet retreat was followed quickly by incursion of the WGC, suggesting that the warm water may have enhanced ice retreat. Prior to the Younger Dryas cold event, the radiocarbon chronology indicates that the ice sheet retreated to the mid-shelf, where it subsequently stabilised and formed a large grounding-zone wedge (GZW). After the Younger Dryas, around 11.5 cal kyr BP, the ice retreated rapidly from the GZW and into the fjords.

  2. CatQC and Shelf-Ready Material: Speeding Collections to Users While Preserving Data Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Jay

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Libraries contract with vendors to provide shelf-ready material, but is it really shelf-ready? It arrives with all the physical processing needed for immediate shelving, then lingers in back offices while staff conduct itemby-item checks against the catalog. CatQC, a console application for Microsoft Windows developed at the University of Florida, builds on OCLC services to get material to the shelves and into the hands of users without delay and without sacrificing data quality. Using standard C programming, CatQC identifies problems in MARC record files, often applying complex conditionals, and generates easy-to-use reports that do not require manual item review.

  3. 2006 Volusia County, Florida Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is the lidar data for Volusia County, Florida, approximately 1,432 square miles, acquired in early March of 2006. A total of 143 flight lines of Lidar...

  4. Teaching CPR to Florida's Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varnes, Jill W.; Crone, Ernest G.

    1980-01-01

    A program in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) instruction for Florida's school children is described. Program guidelines and support services are detailed for other schools wishing to implement such a program. (JN)

  5. Florida's Panhandle : A Quiet Appeal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This article discusses the quiet appeal, abundant history, and untouched outdoors of Florida's Panhandle. A description of St. Vincent National Wildlife Refuge is...

  6. Backtalk: Adult Services in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giblon, Della L.

    1979-01-01

    Initiates a new state emphasis for the column by highlighting recent public library programs and services for adults in Florida. Music, photography, and women's programs offered by the Leon County Public Library are described in more detail. (JD)

  7. Florida Panther Reintroduction Feasibility Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Summary and final report of a Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission study to evalaute initial stocking of mountain lion populations in northern...

  8. Phytoplankton blooms on the western shelf of Tasmania: evidence of a highly productive ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kämpf

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Analyses of >10 years of satellite-derived ocean-color data reveal the existence of a highly productive ecosystem on the west Tasmanian shelf. A closer event-based analysis indicates that the nutrient supply for this system has two different dynamical origins: (a wind-driven coastal upwelling and (b river plumes. During austral summer months, the west Tasmanian shelf forms a previously unknown upwelling center of the "Great South Australian Coastal Upwelling System", presumably injecting nutrient-rich water into western Bass Strait. Surprisingly, river discharges render the study region productive during other seasons of the year, except when nutrient-poor water of the South Australian Current reaches the region. Overall, the west Tasmanian shelf is more phytoplankton-productive than the long-known coastal upwelling along the Bonney Coast. The existence of phytoplankton blooms during the off-upwelling-season may explain the wintertime spawing aggregations of the blue grenadier (Macruronus novaezelandiae and the associated regionally high abundance of Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus.

  9. Shelf waves with diurnal tidal frequency at the Greenland shelf edge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lam, F.P.A

    1999-01-01

    Tidal analysis was carried out on current measurements at a 'cross-shelf' transect off Greenland at 71°N. The diurnal tides manifest themselves mainly as a barotropic continental shelf wave, travelling southward along the shelf slope. This follows from the amplitude distribution of the diurnal tidal

  10. Exchanges between the shelf and the deep Black Sea: an integrated analysis of physical mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Georgy; Wobus, Fred; Zatsepin, Andrei; Akivis, Tatiana; Zhou, Feng

    2017-04-01

    This study provides an integrated analysis of exchanges of water, salt and heat between the north-western Black Sea shelf and the deep basin. Three contributing physical mechanisms are quantified, namely: Ekman drift, transport by mesoscale eddies at the edge of the NW Black Sea shelf and non-local cascading assisted by the rim current and mesoscale eddies. The semi-enclosed nature of the Black Sea together with its unique combination of an extensive shelf area in the North West and the deep central part make it sensitive to natural variations of fluxes, including the fluxes between the biologically productive shelf and predominantly anoxic deep sea. Exchanges between the shelf and deep sea play an important role in forming the balance of waters, nutrients and pollution within the coastal areas, and hence the level of human-induced eutrophication of coastal waters (MSFD Descriptor 5). In this study we analyse physical mechanisms and quantify shelf-deep sea exchange processes in the Black Sea sector using the NEMO ocean circulation model. The model is configured and optimized taking into account specific features of the Black Sea, and validated against in-situ and satellite observations. The study uses NEMO-BLS24 numerical model which is based on the NEMO codebase v3.2.1 with amendments introduced by the UK Met Office. The model has a horizontal resolution of 1/24×1/24° and a hybrid s-on-top-of-z vertical coordinate system with a total of 33 layers. The horizontal viscosity/diffusivity operator is rotated to reduce the contamination of vertical diffusion/viscosity by large values of their horizontal counterparts. The bathymetry is processed from ETOPO5 and capped to 1550m. Atmospheric forcing for the period 1989-2012 is given by the Drakkar Forcing Set v5.2. For comparison, the NCEP atmospheric forcing also used for 2005. The climatological runoff from 8 major rivers is included. We run the model individually for 24 calendar years without data assimilation. For

  11. Spaceport Florida Authority: Business Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The Spaceport Florida Authority (SFA) was established under Florida Statute by the Governor and Legislature to assist the development of our nation's space transportation industry and to generate new space-related jobs, investment and opportunities statewide. Included in the Authorities' business plan is the statement of work and list of team members involved in creating the report, SFA's current operating concept, market analysis, assessment of accomplishments, a sample operating concept and a "roadmap to success".

  12. 75 FR 61512 - Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-05

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement Outer Continental Shelf Official... Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagrams (OPDs) located within Atlantic Ocean areas, with... informational purposes only. Outer Continental Shelf Official Protraction Diagrams in the North Atlantic,...

  13. 78 FR 43197 - Duke Energy Florida, Inc.; Florida Power & Light Company; Tampa Electric Company; Orlando...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-19

    ... Company; Orlando Utilities Commission; Notice of Compliance Filings Take notice that on July 10, 2013, Duke Energy Florida, Inc., Florida Power & Light Company, Tampa Electric Company, and Orlando...

  14. Ants of the Florida Keys: species accounts, biogeography, and conservation (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Corrie S; Deyrup, Mark A; Davis, Lloyd R

    2014-01-01

    As a tropical archipelago, the Florida Keys provide an ideal environment to examine the historic and short-term processes that structure and influence biological diversity. Through a new survey of the ants of the Florida Keys, we increase our knowledge of the number of species to 94 representing 34 genera and 8 subfamilies. Through detailed collection information, we provide an in depth picture of the distribution of each species across the Keys. On the basis of these data and information on the native and known distributions of each species, we confirm the historical trend toward continued immigration of nonnative species into the Florida Keys and present these findings in the context of the proportion of native to nonnative species. We find a similar number of species introduced from the Old World and Neotropical mainland and discuss the probable immigration of mainland Florida species during the exposure of the Florida Shelf during the last glacial episode and the subsequent isolation of some populations as sea level rose following the last glaciation. Lastly, we discuss the possible threats to these populations due to rapid climate change and other human influences. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  15. Mesozoic evolution of northeast African shelf margin, Libya and Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aadland, R.K.; Schamel, S.

    1989-03-01

    The present tectonic features of the northeast African shelf margin between the Nile delta and the Gulf of Sirte are products of (1) precursory late Paleozoic basement arches, (2) early Mesozoic rifting and plate separation, and (3) Late Cretaceous structural inversion. The 250 km-wide and highly differentiated Mesozoic passive margin in the Western Desert region of Egypt is developed above a broad northwest-trending Late Carboniferous basement arch. In northeastern Libya, in contrast, the passive margin is restricted to just the northernmost Cyrenaica platform, where subsidence was extremely rapid in the Jurassic and Early Cretaceous. The boundary between the Western Desert basin and the Cyrenaica platform is controlled by the western flank of the basement arch. In the middle Cretaceous (100-90 Ma), subsidence accelerated over large areas of the Western desert, further enhancing a pattern of east-west-trending subbasins. This phase of rapid subsidence was abruptly ended about 80 Ma by the onset of structural inversion that uplifted the northern Cyrenaica shelf margin and further differentiated the Western Desert subbasin along a northeasterly trend.

  16. Hydrology of Hunters Lake, Hernando County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, S.E.

    1986-01-01

    The size and shape of Hunters Lake, Florida has been significantly altered by development of the surrounding Spring Hill residential community. The lake is the largest in Hernando County, enlarged by lakeshore excavation and connection to nearby ponds to an area of 360 acres at an average stage of 17.2 ft above sea level. Hunters Lake is naturally a closed lake, but development of Spring Hill has resulted in a surface water outflow from the lake in its southwest corner. Inflow to the lake could occur on the east side during extreme high-water periods. The karst terrain of the Hunters Lake area is internally drained through permeable soils, depressions, and sinkholes, and natural surface drainage is absent. The underlying Floridan aquifer system is unconfined except locally near coastal springs. Flow in the groundwater system is to the west regionally and to the southwest in the immediate area of Hunters Lake. Water level gradients in the groundwater system increase from 1.4 ft/mi east of the lake to about 8 ft/mi southwest of the lake. Hunters Lake is hydraulically connected to the groundwater system, receiving groundwater on the northeast side and losing water to the groundwater system on the southwest side. This close relationship with the groundwater system is demonstrated by graphical and numerical comparison of Hunters Lake stage with water levels in nearby groundwater sites. During 1965-84, the stage of Hunters Lake fluctuated between 12.48 and 20.7 ft above sea level. Because area lakes are all directly affected by groundwater levels, they also show a close relationship with water levels in Hunters Lake. Analysis of water quality data for Hunters Lake indicates that the water of the lake is a soft calcium bicarbonate type with ionic concentrations higher than in water from nearby shallow wells and lower than in water from the Upper Floridan aquifer. Samples collected in 1981-1983 indicate slightly higher levels of ionic concentration than in 1965

  17. Coastal geophysical data collected in 2016 nearshore Cape Canaveral, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buster, Noreen A.; Miselis, Jennifer L.; Okano, Shinobu; Gayes, Paul T.; Hill, Jenna C.

    2017-01-01

    Geophysical data including multibeam bathymetry and backscatter, side scan sonar, and chirp subbottom were collected by Coastal Carolina University (CCU) Center for Marine and Wetland Studies (CMWS), Conway, South Carolina, in June 2016 in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center (SPCMSC) in the nearshore environment of Cape Canaveral, Florida. The goal of the effort was to broadly characterize the geology of the shelf to identify spatial linkages with previously measured coastal change and bathymetric variability (https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/ofr20151180). This USGS Data Release includes the: 1) processed elevation point data (xyz) and digital elevation model (DEM), 2) processed images of backscatter and side scan sonar (SSS), and 3) chirp subbottom profile data (segy and jpg). For further information regarding data collection and/or processing please see the metadata associated with this data release.

  18. Epidemiology of Ciguatera in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radke, Elizabeth G; Reich, Andrew; Morris, John Glenn

    2015-08-01

    Ciguatera is the most commonly reported marine food-borne illness worldwide. Because there is a biological plausibility that ciguatera may be impacted by long-term climate variability and Florida is on the northern border of the geographic distribution of ciguatera, it is important to update our understanding of its epidemiology in Florida. We performed an analysis of 291 reports in Florida from 2000 to 2011 and an e-mail survey of 5,352 recreational fishers to estimate incidence and underreporting and identify high risk demographic groups, fish types, and catch locations. Incidence was 5.6 per 100,000 adjusted for underreporting. Hispanics had the highest incidence rate (relative risk [RR] = 3.4) and were more likely to eat barracuda than non-Hispanics. The most common catch locations for ciguatera-causing fish were the Bahamas and Florida Keys. Cases caused by fish from northern Florida were infrequent. These results indicate that ciguatera incidence is higher than estimated from public health reports alone. There is little evidence that incidence or geographic range has increased because of increased seawater temperatures since earlier studies.

  19. Cross-shelf transport of pink shrimp larvae: Interactions of tidal currents, larval vertical migrations and internal tides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criales, Maria M.; Browder, Joan A.; Mooers, C.N.K.; Robblee, M.B.; Cardenas, H.; Jackson, Thomas L.

    2007-01-01

    Transport and behavior of pink shrimp Farfantepenaeus duorarum larvae were investigated on the southwestern Florida (SWF) shelf of the Gulf of Mexico between the Dry Tortugas spawning grounds and Florida Bay nursery grounds. Stratified plankton samples and hydrographic data were collected at 2 h intervals at 3 stations located on a cross-shelf transect. At the Marquesas station, midway between Dry Tortugas and Florida Bay, internal tides were recognized by anomalously cool water, a shallow thermocline with strong density gradients, strong current shear, and a high concentration of pink shrimp larvae at the shallow thermocline. Low Richardson numbers occurred at the pycnocline depth, indicating vertical shear instability and possible turbulent transport from the lower to the upper layer where myses and postlarvae were concentrated. Analysis of vertically stratified plankton suggested that larvae perform vertical migrations and the specific behavior changes ontogenetically; protozoeae were found deeper than myses, and myses deeper than postlarvae. Relative concentrations of protozoea in the upper, middle and bottom layers were consistent with a diel vertical migration, whereas that of postlarvae and myses were consistent with the semidiurnal tides in phase with the flood tide. Postlarvae, the shallowest dwellers that migrate with a semidiurnal periodicity, experienced the largest net onshore flux and larval concentrations were highly correlated with the cross-shelf current. These results provide the first evidence of an onshore tidal transport (a type of selective tidal stream transport, STST), in decapod larvae migrating in continental shelf waters offshore, ca. 100 km from the coast and at a depth of 20 m, while approaching the coastal nursery grounds. Longer time series would be necessary to establish whether internal tides play any role in the larval onshore transport of this species and determine if the STST is the dominant onshore transport mechanism.

  20. Sub-ice-shelf sediments record history of twentieth-century retreat of Pine Island Glacier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J A; Andersen, T J; Shortt, M; Gaffney, A M; Truffer, M; Stanton, T P; Bindschadler, R; Dutrieux, P; Jenkins, A; Hillenbrand, C-D; Ehrmann, W; Corr, H F J; Farley, N; Crowhurst, S; Vaughan, D G

    2017-01-05

    The West Antarctic Ice Sheet is one of the largest potential sources of rising sea levels. Over the past 40 years, glaciers flowing into the Amundsen Sea sector of the ice sheet have thinned at an accelerating rate, and several numerical models suggest that unstable and irreversible retreat of the grounding line-which marks the boundary between grounded ice and floating ice shelf-is underway. Understanding this recent retreat requires a detailed knowledge of grounding-line history, but the locations of the grounding line before the advent of satellite monitoring in the 1990s are poorly dated. In particular, a history of grounding-line retreat is required to understand the relative roles of contemporaneous ocean-forced change and of ongoing glacier response to an earlier perturbation in driving ice-sheet loss. Here we show that the present thinning and retreat of Pine Island Glacier in West Antarctica is part of a climatically forced trend that was triggered in the 1940s. Our conclusions arise from analysis of sediment cores recovered beneath the floating Pine Island Glacier ice shelf, and constrain the date at which the grounding line retreated from a prominent seafloor ridge. We find that incursion of marine water beyond the crest of this ridge, forming an ocean cavity beneath the ice shelf, occurred in 1945 (±12 years); final ungrounding of the ice shelf from the ridge occurred in 1970 (±4 years). The initial opening of this ocean cavity followed a period of strong warming of West Antarctica, associated with El Niño activity. Thus our results suggest that, even when climate forcing weakened, ice-sheet retreat continued.

  1. Five years of Florida Current structure and transport from the Royal Caribbean Cruise Ship Explorer of the Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beal, Lisa M.; Hummon, Julia M.; Williams, Elizabeth; Brown, Otis B.; Baringer, Warner; Kearns, Edward J.

    2008-06-01

    Using ship-of-opportunity platform Explorer of the Seas, five years of full-depth velocity data have been collected across the Florida Straits at 26°N. Between May 2001 and May 2006 the mean transport of the Florida Current was 31.0 ± 4.0 Sv. This compares to a mean transport of 32.4 ± 3.2 Sv inferred from cable voltages at 27°N over the same period, implying an average 1.4 Sv transport into the Straits through the Northwest Providence Channel. The climatological core of the Florida Current is 170 cms-1 and is positioned at 79.8°W, about 10 km east of the shelf break. The largest variability in velocity occurs over the shelf and shelf break and is likely related to shelf waves. A secondary maximum occurs across much of the Straits over the top 100 m of the water column and may be associated with wind events. The annual cycle of Florida Current transports has a range of 4.7 Sv, with a maximum in May-June-July and a minimum in January. The difference between the summer and winter current structure appears as a first baroclinic mode with zero crossing at 150 m. The maximum difference is about 15 cms-1 at the surface and is centered just offshore of the mean current core. On interannual timescales, low-pass filtered Explorer and cable transports show similar downward trends between 2002 and 2005, but diverge over the last year or so of the record.

  2. Winter-time circulation and sediment transport in the Hudson Shelf Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, C.K.; Butman, B.; Traykovski, P.

    2003-01-01

    The Hudson Shelf Valley is a bathymetric low that extends across the continental shelf offshore of New York and New Jersey. From December 1999 to April 2000 a field experiment was carried out to investigate the transport of sediment in the shelf and valley system. Near-bed tripods and water-column moorings were deployed at water depths from 38 to 75 m in the axis of the shelf valley and at about 26 m on the adjacent shelves offshore of New Jersey and Long Island, New York. These measured suspended sediment concentrations, current velocities, waves, and water column properties. This paper analyzes observations made during December 1999 and January 2000, and presents the first direct near-bed measurements of suspended sediment concentration and sediment flux from the region. Sediment transport within the Hudson Shelf Valley was coherent over tens of kilometers, and usually aligned with the axis of the shelf valley. Down-valley (off-shore) transport was associated with energetic waves, winds from the east, moderate current velocities (5-10 cm/s), and sea level setup at Sandy Hook, NJ. Up-valley (shoreward) transport occurred frequently, and was associated with winds from the west, low wave energy, high current velocities (20-40 cm/s), and sea level set-down at the coast. Within the shelf valley, net sediment flux (the product of near-bed concentration and velocity) was directed shoreward, up the axis of the valley. Current velocities and suspended sediment fluxes on the New York and New Jersey continental shelves were lower than within the shelf valley, and exhibited greater variability in alignment. Longer term meteorological data indicate that wind, setup, and wave conditions during the study period were more conducive to up-valley transport than seasonal data suggest as average. To relate the observed up-valley sediment flux to observed accumulation of contaminants within the Hudson Shelf Valley requires consideration of transport over longer timescales than those

  3. 78 FR 43881 - Florida Petroleum Reprocessors Site, Davie, Broward County, Florida; Notice of Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-22

    ... AGENCY Florida Petroleum Reprocessors Site, Davie, Broward County, Florida; Notice of Settlement AGENCY... Protection Agency has entered into a settlement with Jap. Tech, Inc. concerning the Florida Petroleum... Ms. Paula V. Painter. Submit your comments by Site name Florida Petroleum Reprocesssors Site by one...

  4. Deglacial History and Paleoceanography of the Umanak System, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sheldon, Christina; Jennings, Anne; Andrews, John

    2012-01-01

    is to document the timing and rate of ice retreat and the role of the West Greenland Current (WGC) in initiating or sustaining ice retreat. During cruise JR175 of the UK ship RRS James Clark Ross in 2009, sediment cores and geophysical data were collected from the Umanak System to document the glacial history......A record of Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS) and ice-stream history, ice-sheet ocean interactions and paleoclimate from the Last Glacial Maximum to present is preserved in the sediments of the Umanak fjord, shelf trough and trough mouth fan system of central West Greenland. The objective of this study...

  5. Diversity, abundance and community structure of benthic macro- and megafauna on the Beaufort shelf and slope.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Nephin

    Full Text Available Diversity and community patterns of macro- and megafauna were compared on the Canadian Beaufort shelf and slope. Faunal sampling collected 247 taxa from 48 stations with box core and trawl gear over the summers of 2009-2011 between 50 and 1,000 m in depth. Of the 80 macrofaunal and 167 megafaunal taxa, 23% were uniques, present at only one station. Rare taxa were found to increase proportional to total taxa richness and differ between the shelf (< 100 m where they tended to be sparse and the slope where they were relatively abundant. The macrofauna principally comprised polychaetes with nephtyid polychaetes dominant on the shelf and maldanid polychaetes (up to 92% in relative abundance/station dominant on the slope. The megafauna principally comprised echinoderms with Ophiocten sp. (up to 90% in relative abundance/station dominant on the shelf and Ophiopleura sp. dominant on the slope. Macro- and megafauna had divergent patterns of abundance, taxa richness (α diversity and β diversity. A greater degree of macrofaunal than megafaunal variation in abundance, richness and β diversity was explained by confounding factors: location (east-west, sampling year and the timing of sampling with respect to sea-ice conditions. Change in megafaunal abundance, richness and β diversity was greatest across the depth gradient, with total abundance and richness elevated on the shelf compared to the slope. We conclude that megafaunal slope taxa were differentiated from shelf taxa, as faunal replacement not nestedness appears to be the main driver of megafaunal β diversity across the depth gradient.

  6. Detecting changes in the eastern Scotian shelf ecosystem -- what changes and why?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zwanenburg, K. [Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Dartmouth, NS (Canada). Bedford Inst. of Oceanography

    2000-07-01

    Changes in the species and size composition of fish communities and changes in the physical environment have been tracked on the Scotian shelf for the past 30 years. Until very recently, bottom temperatures on the Shelf have been very cold since the late 1980s, resulting in the colonization of the area by cold-water fish and shell-fish species such as capelin, turbot, northern shrimp, and snow crabs. It is also believed that the reduced number of cod and other predators which feed on these species also contributed to the increase in these populations. Since the 1970s the average weights of commercially targeted fish decreased by 51 per cent on the eastern shelf and by 41 per cent on the western shelf. The decline in average weight occurred during a period when fishing effort has doubled; this too, is seen as a contributory factor, especially when combined with the fact that the declines in biomass and weight were found to be more prevalent for commercially targeted species than for non-target species. Average weights and integrated community size structure have stabilized since the closure of the cod fishery in 1993 and the restrictions on landings on the western shelf. In the east, the stability is associated with a warming of bottom temperatures and reduced fishing effort, while in the west the increase in stability is believed to be the result of reduced landings and increase in bottom temperature. Readers are cautioned that the annual sampling rate on the Sable Island Bank was designed to monitor large scale changes in abundance and distribution of a shelf-wide basis. It is therefore unlikely that these surveys would detect changes due to local oil and gas exploration. To do so, it would be necessary to conduct high resolution surveys of at least fish and benthic invertebrates. 1 fig.

  7. Hydrology of Southeast Florida and Associated Topics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsour, William, Comp.; Moyer, Maureen, Comp.

    This booklet deals with the hydrology of southeastern Florida. It is designed to provide the citizen, teacher, or student with hydrological information, to promote an understanding of water resources, and to initiate conservation practices within Florida communities. The collection of articles within the booklet deal with Florida water resources…

  8. Sediments, structural framework, petroleum potential, environmental conditions, and operational considerations of the United States South Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1975-01-01

    The area designated for possible oil and gas lease sale in Bureau of Land Management memorandum 3310 #43 (722) and referred to therein as part of the United States South Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) contains about 98,000 square kilometres of the continental margin seaward of the 3 mile offshore limit and within the 600 metre isobath. The designated area, offshore of North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida, encompasses parts of three physiographic provinces: the Continental Shelf, the Florida-Hatteras Slope, and the Blake Plateau. The structural framework of the U.3. South Atlantic region is dominated by the Southeast Georgia Embayment --an east-plunging depression recessed into the Atlantic Coastal Plain and shelf between Cape Fear, North Carolina and Jacksonville, Florida. The embayment is bounded to the north by the Cape Fear Arch and to southeast by the Peninsular Arch. Refraction data indicate a minor basement(?) ridge beneath the outer shelf between 30? and 32?N at 80?W. Drill hole data also suggest a gentle fold or accretionary structure (reef?) off the east coast of Florida. Several other structural features have been identified by refraction and reflection techniques and drilling. These are the Yamacraw Uplift, Burton High, Stone Arch, and the Suwannee Channel. Gravity and magnetic anomalies within the area probably result from emplacement of magma bodies along linear features representing fundamental crustal boundaries. Of these anomalies, the most prominent, is a segment of the East Coast Magnetic Anomaly which crosses the coast at Brunswick, Georgia. This anomaly has been interpreted as representing an ancient continental boundary where two formerly separate continental plates collided and were welded together. There may be as much as 5,000 m of sedimentary rocks in the Southeast Georgia Embayment out to the 600 m isobath. Basement rocks beneath the Southeast Georgia Embayment are expected to be similar to those exposed in the

  9. 41 CFR 101-27.205 - Shelf-life codes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-Management of Shelf-Life Materials § 101-27.205 Shelf-life codes. Shelf-life items shall be identified by use... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Shelf-life codes. 101-27.205 Section 101-27.205 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management...

  10. Uncertainty in climate projections for the 21st century northwest European shelf seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinker, Jonathan; Lowe, Jason; Pardaens, Anne; Holt, Jason; Barciela, Rosa

    2016-11-01

    There are a number of sources of uncertainty that impact climate projections for regional seas. We have assessed the impact that uncertain large-scale climate forcings have on the projections for the north-west European shelf seas. An ensemble of global Atmosphere-Ocean climate model (GCM) projections made by perturbed (atmospheric) parameter model variants which were designed to span uncertainty in climate sensitivity, was dynamically downscaled with the shelf seas model POLCOMS. The simulations were run as transient experiments (from 1952 to 2098) under a medium emissions scenario (SRES A1B). This study has focused on centennial changes over the period 2069-2098 relative to 1960-1989, but also refers to the full transient simulation to assess the significance of projected changes given interannual and low-frequency variability. The ensemble mean of the POLCOMS projections showed a shelf and annual mean Sea Surface Temperature (SST) rise of 2.90 °C (±2σ = 0.82 °C), and a Sea Surface Salinity (SSS) freshening of -0.41 psu (±2σ = 0.47 psu) between these periods. We described the spread in a field for a particular period using the variances associated with both the time mean ensemble dispersion (ensemble variance) and with the interannual variability. For SST in the present-day period, the magnitudes of both ensemble and interannual variance were fairly spatially homogenous. While the future interannual variance is of similar magnitude to that of the present day, the ensemble variance increased considerably into the future period. For SSS, both sources of variance were more spatially heterogeneous, and both increased into the future period. We investigated relationships between the projected shelf seas changes across the ensemble and changes in the large-scale climate forcing. We found that the near surface-air temperature from the driving GCM (averaged over the domain) and the GCM surface salinity to the west of the POLCOMS domain are good proxies for the

  11. Atlantic NAD 83 Continental Shelf Boundary (CSB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains Continental Shelf Boundary (CSB) lines in ESRI shapefile format for the BOEM Atlantic Region. The CSB defines the seaward limit of federally...

  12. Continental Shelf Boundary - Alaska NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains Continental Shelf Boundaries (CSB) lines in ESRI shapefile format for the BOEM Alaska Region. The CSB defines the seaward limit of federally...

  13. The shelf life of dyed polymethylmethacrylate dosimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bett, R.; Watts, M. F.; Plested, M. E.

    2002-03-01

    The long-term stability of the radiation response of Harwell Red 4034 and Amber 3042 Perspex Dosimeters has been monitored for more than 15 years, and the resulting data used in the justification of their shelf-life specifications.

  14. Shelf-Life Prediction of Chilled Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudmundsson, Gudmundur; Kristbergsson, Kristberg

    All foods have a finite shelf life. Even foods, which mature with time, will in the end deteriorate, although their life span can exceed 100 years. Definitions of shelf life of food products differ. Some stress the suitability of the product for consump¬tion, others for how long the product can be sold. The Institute of Food Science and Technology emphasizes safety in its definition of shelf life: "The period of time under defined conditions of storage, after manufacture or packing, for which a food product will remain safe and be fit for use" ( http://www.ifst.org ). This definition does not describe what makes a food product "safe" or "fit" for use, but one can say all factors which restrict the shelf life of a food product either affect safety or quality or both.

  15. Shelf life of electronic/electrical devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polanco, S. (Commonwealth Edison Co., Downers Grove, IL (United States)); Behera, A.K. (Illinois Inst. of Tech., Chicago, IL (United States))

    1993-08-01

    This paper discusses inconsistencies which exist between various industry practices regarding the determination of shelf life for electrical and electronic components. New methodologies developed to evaluate the shelf life of electrical and electronic components are described and numerous tests performed at Commonwealth Edison Company's Central Receiving Inspection and Testing (CRIT) Facility are presented. Based upon testing and analysis using the Arrhenius methodology and typical materials used in the manufacturing of electrical and electronic components, shelf life of these devices was determined to be indefinite. Various recommendations to achieve an indefinite. Various recommendations to achieve an indefinite shelf life are presented to ultimately reduce inventory and operating costs at nuclear power plants.

  16. Geospatial characteristics of Florida's coastal and offshore environments: Coastal habitats, artificial reefs, wrecks, dumping grounds, harbor obstructions and offshore sand resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demopoulos, Amanda W.J.; Foster, Ann M.; Jones, Michal L.; Gualtieri, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    The Geospatial Characteristics GeoPDF of Florida's Coastal and Offshore Environments is a comprehensive collection of geospatial data describing the political boundaries and natural resources of Florida. This interactive map provides spatial information on bathymetry, sand resources, coastal habitats, artificial reefs, shipwrecks, dumping grounds, and harbor obstructions. The map should be useful to coastal resource managers and others interested in marine habitats and submerged obstructions of Florida's coastal region. In particular, as oil and gas explorations continue to expand, the map may be used to explore information regarding sensitive areas and resources in the State of Florida. Users of this geospatial database will have access to synthesized information in a variety of scientific disciplines concerning Florida's coastal zone. This powerful tool provides a one-stop assembly of data that can be tailored to fit the needs of many natural resource managers. The map was originally developed to assist the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation, and Enforcement (BOEMRE) and coastal resources managers with planning beach restoration projects. The BOEMRE uses a systematic approach in planning the development of submerged lands of the Continental Shelf seaward of Florida's territorial waters. Such development could affect the environment. BOEMRE is required to ascertain the existing physical, biological, and socioeconomic conditions of the submerged lands and estimate the impact of developing these lands. Data sources included the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, BOEMRE, Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Florida Geographic Data Library, Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Florida Natural Areas Inventory, and the State of Florida, Bureau of Archeological Research. Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) compliant metadata are provided as attached xml files for all geographic information system (GIS) layers.

  17. Geospatial characteristics of Florida's coastal and offshore environments: Distribution of important habitats for coastal and offshore biological resources and offshore sand resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demopoulos, Amanda W.J.; Foster, Ann M.; Jones, Michal L.; Gualtieri, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    The Geospatial Characteristics GeoPDF of Florida's Coastal and Offshore Environments is a comprehensive collection of geospatial data describing the political boundaries and natural resources of Florida. This interactive map provides spatial information on bathymetry, sand resources, and locations of important habitats (for example, Essential Fish Habitats (EFH), nesting areas, strandings) for marine invertebrates, fish, reptiles, birds, and marine mammals. The map should be useful to coastal resource managers and others interested in marine habitats and submerged obstructions of Florida's coastal region. In particular, as oil and gas explorations continue to expand, the map can be used to explore information regarding sensitive areas and resources in the State of Florida. Users of this geospatial database will have access to synthesized information in a variety of scientific disciplines concerning Florida's coastal zone. This powerful tool provides a one-stop assembly of data that can be tailored to fit the needs of many natural resource managers. The map was originally developed to assist the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation, and Enforcement (BOEMRE) and coastal resources managers with planning beach restoration projects. The BOEMRE uses a systematic approach in planning the development of submerged lands of the Continental Shelf seaward of Florida's territorial waters. Such development could affect the environment. BOEMRE is required to ascertain the existing physical, biological, and socioeconomic conditions of the submerged lands and estimate the impact of developing these lands. Data sources included the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, BOEMRE, Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Florida Geographic Data Library, Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Florida Natural Areas Inventory, and the State of Florida, Bureau of Archeological Research. Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) compliant metadata are

  18. Diversification of West Nile virus in a subtropical region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mores Christopher N

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background West Nile virus (WNV has spread across North, Central, and South America since its introduction in 1999. At the start of this spread, Florida was considered a potentially important area with regards to transmission due to its geographic, climatological, and demographic conditions. Curiously, the anticipated high levels of transmission or disease outbreaks have not been observed. As other studies have predicted that the lack of intense WNV transmission is not due to vector incompetence, we sought to evaluate the role of viral strain diversity in WNV transmission in Florida. Therefore, a phylogentic analysis was carried out on several isolates collected from three distinct locations in Florida. Results Contrasting with a positive control collected in Indian River County, Florida during 2003 that contains the original NY99 genotype with valanine at amino acid 159 of the envelope region, all of the isolates collected in 2005 contain the WN02 genotype composed of a substation with alanine at that position indicating the window of introduction of the WN02 genotype occurred between 2003 and 2005. From the eight isolates collected in Duval, Indian River, and Manatee Counties; there is also a silent nucleotide substitution that differentiates the isolates collected on the Atlantic side of the state compared to the isolate collected on the Gulf side, which groups closer to isolates from other locations near the Gulf. Conclusion As a whole, the Florida isolates contained numerous variable nucleotide and amino acid sites from the reference sequences, as well as each other; indicating greater nucleotide diversity within the Florida 2005 isolates than within other regions. Finally, a series of three amino acid substitutions surrounding a set of histidines located in the envelope coding region that hypothesized to play a role in conformational changes was found in the isolate collected in Indian River County, perhaps changing the

  19. New age control on a mid-shelf grounding event in Eastern Basin, Ross Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cone, A. N.; Bart, P. J.

    2009-12-01

    It is widely accepted that the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) was grounded at the continental shelf edge in the eastern Ross Sea during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), but the precise chronology is debated. Post-LGM ice retreat chronologies have been developed using radiocarbon dating, mainly of acid-insoluble organics (AIO). Foraminifer tests yield more accurate radiocarbon dates than AIO because forams are less likely to be contaminated by allochthonous carbon, but unfortunately forams are sparse in Antarctic marine sediment cores. Here we show four consistent radiocarbon dates from forams in cored intervals within the foreset of a mid-continental-shelf grounding-zone wedge in Eastern Basin, Ross Sea. Our new radiocarbon dates reveal that the WAIS was grounded on the mid continental shelf circa 32,000 14C yr B.P., suggesting that retreat from this position began more than 10,000 years prior to the maximum sea level fall and global cooling associated with LGM. The dates contradict previous studies, which concluded that the WAIS was at its maximum shelf edge extent during LGM.

  20. Storm-Generated Sediment Distribution Along the Northwest Florida Inner Continental Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-04

    as the wave-induced return flows through the troughs seaward causes ridge crest aggradation . Ridge detachment from the shoreface occurred during...depositional events following hurricanes and major storm events. Sand is typically deposited or aggraded onto sand ridges as a result of long-shore

  1. Acidification and Increasing CO2 Flux Associated with Five, Springs Coast, Florida Springs (1991-2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, Kira E.; Robbins, Lisa L.

    2017-01-01

    Scientists from the South West Florida Management District (SWFWMD) acquired and analyzed over 20 years of seasonally-sampled hydrochemical data from five first-order-magnitude (springs that discharge 2.83 m3 s-1 or more) coastal springs located in west-central Florida. These data were subsequently obtained by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for further analyses and interpretation. The spring study sites (Chassahowitzka, Homosassa, Kings Bay, Rainbow, and Weeki Wachee), which are fed by the Floridan Aquifer system and discharge into the Gulf of Mexico were investigated to identify temporal and spatial trends of pH, alkalinity, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) and CO2 flux.

  2. Taxonomy Icon Data: Florida lancelet (amphioxus) [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Florida lancelet (amphioxus) Branchiostoma floridae Chordata/Urochordata,Cephalochorda...ta Branchiostoma_floridae_L.png Branchiostoma_floridae_NL.png Branchiostoma_floridae_S.png Branchiostoma_florida...e_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Branchiostoma+floridae&t=L http://bioscienc...edbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Branchiostoma+floridae&t=NL http://biosciencedbc....jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Branchiostoma+floridae&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Branchiostoma+florida

  3. Ice-shelf – ocean interactions at Fimbul Ice Shelf, Antarctica from oxygen isotope ratio measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. W. Nicholls

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Melt water from the floating ice shelves at the margins of the southeastern Weddell Sea makes a significant contribution to the fresh water budget of the region. In February 2005 a multi-institution team conducted an oceanographic campaign at Fimbul Ice Shelf on the Greenwich Meridian as part of the Autosub Under Ice programme. This included a mission of the autonomous submarine Autosub 25 km into the cavity beneath Fimbul Ice Shelf, and a number of ship-based hydrographic sections on the continental shelf and adjacent to the ice shelf front. The measurements reveal two significant sources of glacial melt water at Fimbul Ice Shelf: the main cavity under the ice shelf and an ice tongue that protrudes from the main ice front and out over the continental slope into deep water. Glacial melt water is concentrated in a 200 m thick Ice Shelf Water (ISW layer below the base of the ice shelf at 150–200 m, with a maximum glacial melt concentration of up to 1.16%. Some glacial melt is found throughout the water column, and much of this is from sources other than Fimbul Ice Shelf. However, at least 0.2% of the water in the ISW layer cannot be accounted for by other processes and must have been contributed by the ice shelf. Just downstream of Fimbul Ice Shelf we observe locally created ISW mixing out across the continental slope. The ISW formed here is much less dense than that formed in the southwest Weddell Sea, and will ultimately contribute a freshening (and reduction in δ18O to the upper 100–150 m of the water column in the southeast Weddell Sea.

  4. Ice-shelf – ocean interactions at Fimbul Ice Shelf, Antarctica from oxygen isotope ratio measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. W. Nicholls

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Melt water from the floating ice shelves at the margins of the southeastern Weddell Sea makes a significant contribution to the fresh water budget of the region. In February 2005 a multi-institution team conducted an oceanographic campaign at Fimbul Ice Shelf on the Greenwich Meridian as part of the Autosub Under Ice programme. This included a mission of the autonomous submarine Autosub 25 km into the cavity beneath Fimbul Ice Shelf, and a number of ship-based hydrographic sections on the continental shelf and adjacent to the ice shelf front. The measurements reveal two significant sources of glacial melt water at Fimbul Ice Shelf: the main cavity under the ice shelf and an ice tongue, Trolltunga, that protrudes from the main ice front and out over the continental slope into deep water. Glacial melt water is concentrated in a 200 m thick Ice Shelf Water (ISW layer below the base of the ice shelf at 150–200 m, with a maximum glacial melt concentration of up to 1.16%. Some glacial melt is found throughout the water column, and much of this is from sources other than Fimbul Ice Shelf. However, at least 0.2% of the water in the ISW layer cannot be accounted for by other processes and must have been contributed by the ice shelf. Just downstream of Fimbul Ice Shelf we observe locally created ISW mixing out across the continental slope. The ISW formed here is much less dense than that formed in the southwest Weddell Sea, and will ultimately contribute a freshening (and reduction in δ18O to the upper 100–150 m of the water column in the southeast Weddell Sea.

  5. Bathymetry and acoustic backscatter of the mid and outer continental shelf, head of De Soto Canyon, northeastern Gulf of Mexico: data, images, and GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, James V.; Hughes-Clarke, John E.; Mayer, Larry A.; Dartnell, Peter

    2003-01-01

    The mid to outer continental shelf off Mississippi-Alabama and off northwest Florida were the focus of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) multibeam echosounder (MBES) mapping cruises in 2000 and 2001, respectively. These areas were mapped to investigate the extent of "deep-water reefs" first suggested by Ludwig and Walton (1957). The reefs off Mississippi and Alabama were initially described in water depths of 60 to 120 m (Ludwig and Walton, 1957) but the 2000 mapping found reef and hardgrounds to be much more extensive than previously thought (Gardner et al., 2001). The persistent trend of reef-like features along the outer shelf of Mississippi-Alabama suggested the trend might continue along the northwest Florida mid and outer shelf so a MBES-mapping effort was mounted in 2001 to test this suggestion. It is critical to determine the accurate location, geomorphology, and types of the ridges and reefs that occur in this region to understand the Quaternary history of the area and to assess their importance as benthic habitats for fisheries. The area known as the "Head of De Soto Canyon" is the large unmapped region between the 2000 and 2001 mapped areas. It was unknown whether the reefs of the Mississippi-Alabama shelf continue eastward into the head of De Soto Canyon and connect with the ridges and reefs mapped on the northwest Florida outer shelf. The existence of carbonate-cemented Quaternary to Holocene sandstones along the western wall of the head of De Soto Canyon (Shipp and Hopkins, 1978; Benson et al., 1997; W.W. Schroeder, personal commun., 2002) is of interest because of the potential benthic habitats they may represent. In the summer of 2002, the USGS, in cooperation with Minerals Management Service (MMS), the University of New Hampshire, and the University of New Brunswick, conducted a MBES survey of the Head of De Soto Canyon Region connecting the 2000 and 2001 mapped regions.

  6. Contributions of the Siberian shelf polynyas to the Arctic Ocean intermediate and deep water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Seelye; Cavalieri, Donald J.

    1989-01-01

    To investigate the role of Siberian Shelf polynyas in water mass formation, and that of Whalers Bay in the cooling of the West Spitsbergen Current, satellite observations from the Nimbus 7 scanning multichannel microwave radiometer are used to determine the size and location of polynyas for November-March, 1978-1982. If salt contributes only to the Arctic Intermediate Water, the results show that the continental shelves can produce 20-60 percent of this water. Alternatively, if the salt contributes only to the deep water of the Eurasian Basin, then without consideration of the mixing of the bottom water with the Greenland and Norwegian Sea water, the contribution from the shelves yields a renewal time of about 100 years. These results imply that there is insufficient water produced in the shelf polynyas to perform all of the roles that have historically been assigned to it.

  7. Ocean heat drives rapid basal melt of the Totten Ice Shelf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rintoul, Stephen Rich; Silvano, Alessandro; Pena-Molino, Beatriz; van Wijk, Esmee; Rosenberg, Mark; Greenbaum, Jamin Stevens; Blankenship, Donald D

    2016-12-01

    Mass loss from the West Antarctic ice shelves and glaciers has been linked to basal melt by ocean heat flux. The Totten Ice Shelf in East Antarctica, which buttresses a marine-based ice sheet with a volume equivalent to at least 3.5 m of global sea-level rise, also experiences rapid basal melt, but the role of ocean forcing was not known because of a lack of observations near the ice shelf. Observations from the Totten calving front confirm that (0.22 ± 0.07) × 10(6) m(3) s(-1) of warm water enters the cavity through a newly discovered deep channel. The ocean heat transport into the cavity is sufficient to support the large basal melt rates inferred from glaciological observations. Change in ocean heat flux is a plausible physical mechanism to explain past and projected changes in this sector of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet and its contribution to sea level.

  8. Florida Coast Deep Corals 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data collected included AIR TEMPERATURE, BAROMETRIC PRESSURE, BENTHIC COMMUNITIES, BENTHIC SPECIES, CONDUCTIVITY, CURRENT METER - EAST-WEST COMPONENT (U), CURRENT...

  9. What's West Nile Virus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Puberty Train Your Temper What's West Nile Virus? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's West Nile Virus? Print A A A en español ¿Qué es el Virus del Nilo Occidental? What exactly is the West ...

  10. Interaction Between Shelf Layout and Marketing Effectiveness and Its Impact on Optimizing Shelf Arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nierop, Erjen; Fok, Dennis; Franses, Philip Hans

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we propose and operationalize a new method for optimizing shelf arrangements. We show that there are important dependencies between the layout of the shelf and stock-keeping unit (SKU) sales and marketing effectiveness. The importance of these dependencies is further shown by the

  11. Shelf waves with diurnal tidal frequency at the Greenland shelf edge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lam, F.P.A.

    1999-01-01

    Tidal analysis has been carried out on current measurements at a “cross-shelf” transect off Greenland at 71o N. The diurnal tides manifest themselves mainly as a barotropic continental shelf wave, travelling southward along the shelf slope. This follows from the amplitude distribution of the diurnal

  12. Interaction Between Shelf Layout and Marketing Effectiveness and Its Impact On Optimizing Shelf Arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.E.M. van Nierop; D. Fok (Dennis); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractAllocating the proper amount of shelf space to stock keeping units [SKUs] is an increasingly relevant and difficult topic for managers. Shelf space is a scarce resource and it has to be distributed across a larger and larger number of items. It is in particular important because the

  13. Interaction Between Shelf Layout and Marketing Effectiveness and Its Impact On Optimizing Shelf Arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.E.M. van Nierop; D. Fok (Dennis); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractAllocating the proper amount of shelf space to stock keeping units [SKUs] is an increasingly relevant and difficult topic for managers. Shelf space is a scarce resource and it has to be distributed across a larger and larger number of items. It is in particular important because the amou

  14. Interaction Between Shelf Layout and Marketing Effectiveness and Its Impact on Optimizing Shelf Arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nierop, Erjen; Fok, Dennis; Franses, Philip Hans

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we propose and operationalize a new method for optimizing shelf arrangements. We show that there are important dependencies between the layout of the shelf and stock-keeping unit (SKU) sales and marketing effectiveness. The importance of these dependencies is further shown by the subs

  15. Interaction Between Shelf Layout and Marketing Effectiveness and Its Impact on Optimizing Shelf Arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nierop, Erjen; Fok, Dennis; Franses, Philip Hans

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we propose and operationalize a new method for optimizing shelf arrangements. We show that there are important dependencies between the layout of the shelf and stock-keeping unit (SKU) sales and marketing effectiveness. The importance of these dependencies is further shown by the subs

  16. Interaction Between Shelf Layout and Marketing Effectiveness and Its Impact On Optimizing Shelf Arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.E.M. van Nierop; D. Fok (Dennis); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractAllocating the proper amount of shelf space to stock keeping units [SKUs] is an increasingly relevant and difficult topic for managers. Shelf space is a scarce resource and it has to be distributed across a larger and larger number of items. It is in particular important because the amou

  17. Feeding ecology of Greenland halibut and sandeel larvae off West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenberg, Claus; Munk, Peter; Folkvord, A.

    2006-01-01

    Feeding ecology of Greenland halibut (Gr. halibut) (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides) and sandeel (Ammodytes sp.) larvae on the West Greenland shelf was studied during the main part of the productive season (May, June and July). Copepods were the main prey item for larval Gr. halibut and sandeel, con...

  18. Northern Shrimp (Pandalus borealis) Recruitment in West Greenland Waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, S. A.; Storm, L. M.

    2002-01-01

    Lipid class and fatty acid compositions were determined in shrimp larvae (Pandalus borealis and P. montagui) collected along transects across banks on the West Greenland shelf in June 1999, May and July 2000. The lipid class contents were investigated as indices of larval shrimp lipid condition a...

  19. Shelf Life Prediction for Canned Gudeg using Accelerated Shelf Life Testing (ASLT) Based on Arrhenius Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurhayati, R.; Rahayu NH, E.; Susanto, A.; Khasanah, Y.

    2017-04-01

    Gudeg is traditional food from Yogyakarta. It is consist of jackfruit, chicken, egg and coconut milk. Gudeg generally have a short shelf life. Canning or commercial sterilization is one way to extend the shelf life of gudeg. This aims of this research is to predict the shelf life of Andrawinaloka canned gudeg with Accelerated Shelf Life Test methods, Arrhenius model. Canned gudeg stored at three different temperature, there are 37, 50 and 60°C for two months. Measuring the number of Thio Barbituric Acid (TBA), as a critical aspect, were tested every 7 days. Arrhenius model approach is done with the equation order 0 and order 1. The analysis showed that the equation of order 0 can be used as an approach to estimating the shelf life of canned gudeg. The storage of Andrawinaloka canned gudeg at 30°C is predicted untill 21 months and 24 months for 25°C.

  20. The wind- and wave-driven inner-shelf circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentz, Steven J; Fewings, Melanie R

    2012-01-01

    The inner continental shelf, which spans water depths ofa few meters to tens of meters, is a dynamically defined region that lies between the surf zone (where waves break) and the middle continental shelf (where the along-shelf circulation is usually in geostrophic balance). Many types of forcing that are often neglected over the deeper shelf-such as tides, buoyant plumes, surface gravitywaves, and cross-shelfwind stress-drive substantial circulations over the inner shelf. Cross-shelf circulation over the inner shelf has ecological and geophysical consequences: It connects the shore to the open ocean by transporting pollutants, larvae, phytoplankton, nutrients, and sediment. This review of circulation and momentum balances over the inner continental shelf contrasts prior studies, which focused mainly on the roles of along-shelfwind and pressure gradients, with recent understanding of the dominant roles of cross-shelf wind and surface gravity waves.

  1. Connecting Florida Bay algal blooms to freshwater nutrient sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakey, T.; Melesse, A. M.

    2013-12-01

    In this study, monthly water quality data collected in the Everglades by the Southeast Environmental Research Center (SERC) and the South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD) from 1991 to 2008 at 28 sampling stations distributed across Florida Bay was analyzed within the context of local geomorphology and seasonal wind and current regimes in order to evaluate the feasibility of the various purported nutrient sources for reoccurring algal blooms. The in situ chlorophyll-a (chl-a) measurements from the SERC dataset were evaluated as the indicator of algal biomass. Significant differences in average monthly chl-a concentrations at stations indicated a seasonality of algal blooms in the north central and west areas that is not evidenced in stations exhibiting low levels of chl-a throughout the typical year. Tukey's pairwise comparisons of monthly chl-a indicated, at the 95% confidence level, peak algal biomass occurs in October and November at the end of the wet season with minimums occurring between February and August depending on the location of the station. By month comparison of chl-a levels across stations suggest seasonal trends in the geographic focus and extent of blooms. Significant differences from Tukey's pairwise comparisons at the 95% confidence level showed stations to the west as having higher levels of chl-a in March through May with north central stations dominating from June to January. The month of February shows no significant difference in chl-a levels across this area. The results support hypotheses centering on a western source of nutrients that are delivered to the bay over the course of the rainy season. Mapping water quality sampling station locations on top of the bathymetry of Florida Bay illustrates the importance of considering coastal morphology in explaining trends in estuarine algal blooms. Coastal geomorphology along with seasonal changes in the direction of winds and magnitude of rains are demonstrated to be the predominant

  2. Study on the linear sand ridges on shelf of the East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    WU, Z.; Jin, X.; Li, M.; Shang, J.; Li, S.

    2013-12-01

    The linear sand ridges (LSR) revealed by newest multi-beam echo soundings bathymetric data (MBES) are distributed extensively on shelf of the East China Sea (ECS). It is not only a kind of ubiquitous geological phenomenon on tide-dominated shelf but also a key step in paleo-environment evolvement history of the ECS. Based on the MBES, high-resolution single-channel seismic profiles, analyzed results of boreholes and numerical simulation of paleo-tidal current fields, the distribution, 3D fine structures , space-time spreading regulars and developing tendencies of the LSR on ECS shelf were studied by quantitative synthetic statistical analysis method. The relationship between LSR and paleo-tidal current field, sea-level curve and the evolution stages of LSR such as formation, growth and buried stages were discussed. The strikes of LSR on ECS shelf emerge at a normal distribution. The azimuth of N155°E is the central point and the azimuth of N125°E,N130°E,N140°E and N180°E are convergent points respectively for the normal distribution. The LSR are aggregating in the centre part of ECS shelf, rarefying at the north and south part, dispersing and bifurcating to the east, aggregating and converging to the west. The LSR on ECS shelf are distributed landward to the isobath of 60m, and seaward to the water depth of 120m at northeast and 150m at southwest. Immature LSR are firstly observed at water depth of 130-180m in the southwestern depressions. Lithology analysis and dating of 4 boreholes and 12 cores have indicated that the widely distributed transgressive sand layers with high content of shell debris which formed in the early to middle Holocene are the main compositions of the LSR on the ECS shelf. The top boundaries of buried LSR in unit 14 are distinguished, and a 3D map of these buried LSR in local area is reconstructed. The features such as length, width, height and strikes of these buried LSR are analyzed quantitatively and compared with those of LSR in unit

  3. Phage therapy for Florida corals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, Christina A.

    2007-01-01

    Coral disease is a major cause of reef decline in the Florida Keys. Bacterium has been defined as the most common pathogen (disease-causing organism). Although much is being done to catalog coral diseases, map their locations, determine the causes of disease, or measure the rates of coral demise, very little research has been directed toward actually preventing or eliminating the diseases affecting coral and coral reef decline.

  4. Sensory shelf life of dulce de leche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garitta, L; Hough, G; Sánchez, R

    2004-06-01

    The objectives of this research were to determine the sensory cutoff points for dulce de leche (DL) critical descriptors, both for defective off-flavors and for storage changes in desirable attributes, and to estimate the shelf life of DL as a function of storage temperature. The critical descriptors used to determine the cutoff points were plastic flavor, burnt flavor, dark color, and spreadability. Linear correlations between sensory acceptability and trained panel scores were used to determine the sensory failure cutoff point for each descriptor. To estimate shelf life, DL samples were stored at 25, 37, and 45 degrees C. Plastic flavor was the first descriptor to reach its cutoff point at 25 degrees C and was used for shelf-life calculations. Plastic flavor vs. storage time followed zero-order reaction rate. Shelf-life estimations at different temperatures were 109 d at 25 degrees C, 53 d at 37 degrees C, and 9 d at 45 degrees C. The activation energy, necessary to calculate shelf lives at different temperatures, was 14,370 +/- 2080 cal/mol.

  5. Sub-ice-shelf sediments record history of twentieth-century retreat of Pine Island Glacier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. A.; Andersen, T. J.; Shortt, M.; Gaffney, A. M.; Truffer, M.; Stanton, T. P.; Bindschadler, R.; Dutrieux, P.; Jenkins, A.; Hillenbrand, C.-D.; Ehrmann, W.; Corr, H. F. J.; Farley, N.; Crowhurst, S.; Vaughan, D. G.

    2016-11-01

    The West Antarctic Ice Sheet is one of the largest potential sources of rising sea levels. Over the past 40 years, glaciers flowing into the Amundsen Sea sector of the ice sheet have thinned at an accelerating rate, and several numerical models suggest that unstable and irreversible retreat of the grounding line—which marks the boundary between grounded ice and floating ice shelf—is underway. Understanding this recent retreat requires a detailed knowledge of grounding-line history, but the locations of the grounding line before the advent of satellite monitoring in the 1990s are poorly dated. In particular, a history of grounding-line retreat is required to understand the relative roles of contemporaneous ocean-forced change and of ongoing glacier response to an earlier perturbation in driving ice-sheet loss. Here we show that the present thinning and retreat of Pine Island Glacier in West Antarctica is part of a climatically forced trend that was triggered in the 1940s. Our conclusions arise from analysis of sediment cores recovered beneath the floating Pine Island Glacier ice shelf, and constrain the date at which the grounding line retreated from a prominent seafloor ridge. We find that incursion of marine water beyond the crest of this ridge, forming an ocean cavity beneath the ice shelf, occurred in 1945 (±12 years); final ungrounding of the ice shelf from the ridge occurred in 1970 (±4 years). The initial opening of this ocean cavity followed a period of strong warming of West Antarctica, associated with El Niño activity. Thus our results suggest that, even when climate forcing weakened, ice-sheet retreat continued.

  6. GIS Assessment of Wind Energy Potential in California and Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, R. K.; Snow, M. M.

    2008-05-01

    Energy efficiency coupled with renewable energy technologies can provide most of the U.S. carbon emissions reductions needed to contain atmospheric carbon concentrations at 450-500 parts per million, considered by many to be a tipping point in mitigating climate change. Among the leaders in the alternative energy sector is wind power, which is now one of the largest sources of new power generation in the U.S. creating jobs and revenue for rural communities while powering our economy with an emissions-free source of energy. In 2006, wind turbines capable of generating more than 2,400 megawatts of electricity were installed in the U.S. and by 2007 this number had risen to 3,000 megawatts. The U.S. generated 31 billion kilowatt-hours of wind power in 2007, which is enough electricity to power the equivalent of nearly 3 million average homes. It is estimated that generating the same amount of electricity would require burning 16 million tons of coal or 50 million barrels of oil. This study examines the wind power potential of sites near populated areas in Florida and California to determine the practicability of installing wind turbines at these locations. A GIS was developed in order to conduct a spatial analysis of these sites based on mean annual wind speed measured in meters per second and wind power density ratings measured in watts per square meter. The analysis indicates that coastal areas of Cocoa Beach, Key West, Hollywood, and West Palm Beach, respectively, possess the greatest potential for wind energy in Florida with mean annual wind speeds of 4.9 m/s and average wind power density ratings of 171 w/m2 peaking at Cocoa Beach followed by wind speeds of 4.64 m/s and wind power ratings of 115 w/m2 at Key West. California wind energy potential is even greater than that of Florida with Fairfield exhibiting mean annual wind speeds of 5.9 m/s and average wind power density ratings of 327 w/m2 followed by the Mojave and Palmdale areas with mean annual wind speeds of

  7. Amery ice shelf DEM and its marine ice distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The Amery Ice Shelf is the largest ice shelf in East Antarctica. A new DEM was generated for this ice shelf, using kriging to interpolate the data from ICESat altimetry and the AIS-DEM. The ice thickness distribution map is converted from the new DEM, assuming hydrostatic equilibrium. The Amery Ice Shelf marine ice, up to 230 m thick, is concentrated in the northwest of the ice shelf. The volume of the marine ice is 2.38×103 km3 and accounts for about 5.6% of the shelf volume.

  8. An East Siberian ice shelf during the Late Pleistocene glaciations: Numerical reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colleoni, Florence; Kirchner, Nina; Niessen, Frank; Quiquet, Aurélien; Liakka, Johan

    2016-09-01

    A recent data campaign in the East Siberian Sea has revealed evidence of grounded and floating ice dynamics in regions of up to 1000 m water depth, and which are attributed to glaciations older than the Last Glacial Maximum (21 kyrs BP). The main hypothesis based on this evidence is that a small ice cap developed over Beringia and expanded over the East Siberian continental margin during some of the Late Pleistocene glaciations. Other similar evidence of ice dynamics that have been previously collected on the shallow continental shelves of the Arctic Ocean have been attributed to the penultimate glaciation, i.e. Marine Isotopes Stage 6 (≈140 kyrs BP). We use an ice sheet model, forced by two previously simulated MIS 6 glacial maximum climates, to carry out a series of sensitivity experiments testing the impact of dynamics and mass-balance related parameters on the geometry of the East Siberian ice cap and ice shelf. Results show that the ice cap developing over Beringia connects to the Eurasian ice sheet in all simulations and that its volume ranges between 6 and 14 m SLE, depending on the climate forcing. This ice cap generates an ice shelf of dimensions comparable with or larger than the present-day Ross ice shelf in West Antarctica. Although the ice shelf extent strongly depends on the ice flux through the grounding line, it is particularly sensitive to the choice of the calving and basal melting parameters. Finally, inhibiting a merging of the Beringia ice cap with the Eurasian ice sheet affects the expansion of the ice shelf only in the simulations where the ice cap fluxes are not large enough to compensate for the fluxes coming from the Eurasian ice sheet.

  9. Footprints of Obliquely Incident Internal Solitary Waves near the Shelf Break, northern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, X.; Yan, J.; Hou, Y.; Lin, F.; Zheng, X.

    2016-12-01

    The northern South China Sea provides prominent examples of internal waves, however, rare studies have been done on the associated bedforms and sediment transport near the shelf break. Here, we report the unique data of bedform details which probably caused by the internal solitary waves and internal tides near the shelf break in the areas west of Dongsha Atoll. In the study area, most internal solitary waves (ISWs) are found to propagate onto the shelf obliquely in an approximately 290° through the MODIS image. Several typical events of ISWs were also captured during our observation by an mooring system on the continental slope. Bottom current data near the shelf break showed that extremely strong speed (exceeding 80 cm/s) occurred when the obliquely incident ISWs propagated. The strong currents have the capability to move coarse grains or suspend and transport fine grains but, cannot change the long-term trend of sediment transport on the slope (γ/c>1). Two types of sand waves were also found on the seabed. The upslope-dipping sand waves (type 1) are only found at depths of 120-150 m with flat crests and intersecting the depth contours, being ascribed to the obliquely incident ISWs. In contrast, the downslope-dipping sand waves (type 2) are parallel to the depth contours and obviously migrated over eight months, which were probably caused by internal tides. The ISWs could also produce along-slope currents to form and maintain channels on seabed with a larger gradient (γ>0.8°). The bedforms are likely widespread near the shelf break in the northern South China Sea and other seas but are limited on mild slopes where ISWs do not break. Additional detailed research needs to be deployed on wave behaviors, sediment transport, and the bedforms associated with obliquely incident ISWs.

  10. Flux of energy and essential elements through the continental shelf ecosystem. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomeroy, L.R.

    1981-11-30

    There are three distinct but not mutually exclusive areas of research in this contract, studies of intrusions of the west wall of the Gulf Stream onto the outer continental shelf, studies of the flux of materials across nearshore density fronts, and advances in understanding of the planktonic food web of the continental shelf. Studies of frontal events on the outer and inner continental shelf involve distinctive physical and chemical regimes and have proven to require distinctive biological approaches. The studies of the food web run through our work on both of the frontal regimes, but certain aspects have become subjects in their own right. We have developed a simulation model of the flux of energy through the continental shelf food web which we believe to be more realistic than previous ones of its type. We have examined several of the many roles of dissolved organic compounds in sea water which originate either from release by phytoplankton, digestive processes or metabolites of zooplankton, or extracellular digestion of microorganisms. Methods have been developed under this contract to measure both the chelating capacity of naturally occurring organic materials and the copper concentration in the water. It has been possible to characterize the effects, both toxic and stimulatory, of copper on photosynthesis of naturally occurring phytoplankton populations. It is possible to characterize in considerable detail the course of biological events associated with meanders of the Gulf Stream. We are now in a position to explain the limits to biological productivity of the outer continental shelf of the southeastern US and the reasons why that biological production moves through the food web in the characteristic way that it does.

  11. Fish assemblages associated with oil industry structures on the continental shelf of north-western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradella, N; Fowler, A M; Booth, D J; Macreadie, P I

    2014-01-01

    This study provides the first assessment of fish associations with oil and gas structures located in deep water (85-175 m) on Australia's north-west continental shelf, using rare oil industry video footage obtained from remotely operated vehicles. A diverse range of taxa were observed associating with the structures, including reef-dependent species and transient pelagic species. Ten commercially fished species were observed, the most abundant of which was Lutjanus argentimaculatus, with an estimated biomass for the two deepest structures (Goodwyn and Echo) of 109 kg.

  12. Woody biomass production systems for Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rockwood, D.L.; Pathak, N.N.; Satapathy, P.C. (Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Forestry)

    1993-01-01

    Woody biomass production research in Florida has addressed genetic improvement, coppice productivity, clonal propagation, biomass properties, and economics of Eucalyptus and other species in short rotation, intensive culture systems. Improved E. grandis seedlings could more than double productivity, but exceptional clones offer more immediate potential in southern Florida. E. tereticornis and E. camaldulensis appear to have frost-resistance and good growth in central and southern Florida. For northern Florida, E. amplifolia has good frost-resilience and coppicing ability. Eucalytpus species are suitable for fermentation processes. Other promising species include Casuarina glauca and Taxodium distichum in southern Florida, and Sapium sebiferum state-wide. Break-even costs for biomass production systems with Eucalyptus range from approximately $2.00 to $4.00 GJ[sup -1]; short rotation culture appears feasible for slash pine in northern and central Florida but cannot yet be advised for sand pine. (author)

  13. 2008 NWFWMD (Northwest Florida Water Management District) Florida LiDAR: Inland Okaloosa County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) LAS dataset is a survey of inland Okaloosa County, Florida not covered in the 2008 Florida Department of Emergency...

  14. Variability in along-shelf and cross-shelf circulation in the South Atlantic Bight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yeping; Castelao, Renato M.; He, Ruoying

    2017-02-01

    Variability in along-shelf and cross-shelf circulation in the South Atlantic Bight (SAB) is investigated using altimetry observations. Satellite-derived along-shelf velocity anomalies are in good agreement with independent near-surface current measurements from moored acoustic Doppler current profilers and surface velocities from high frequency radar at adjacent locations. This is especially true if wind-driven Ekman velocities are added to the geostrophic velocities, suggesting that the influence of Ekman dynamics to surface along-shelf flow in the SAB is unusually large. The decade-long time series reveals substantial seasonal variability in surface velocities, with peak poleward anomalies during late spring and summer and strong equatorward flow during autumn. Convergences and divergences in the along-shelf transport between two cross-sections are compared with three-dimensional numerical model results and used to estimate cross-shelf transport across the 50 m isobath in the SAB. The calculation suggests a pattern of weak offshore flow during spring followed by prolonged and relatively stronger offshore flow during summer and early autumn, while cross-shelf velocity anomalies during winter are weak and slightly onshore. Prolonged offshore flow following the peak in river discharge that generally occurs in spring indicates the potential for the establishment of a conduit for offshore export of riverine material. The long-term time series also reveals several large events of interannual variability, including the 2003 cold event observed in the SAB.

  15. Tidal Modulation of Ice-shelf Flow: a Viscous Model of the Ross Ice Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunt, Kelly M.; MacAyeal, Douglas R.

    2014-01-01

    Three stations near the calving front of the Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica, recorded GPS data through a full spring-neap tidal cycle in November 2005. The data revealed a diurnal horizontal motion that varied both along and transverse to the long-term average velocity direction, similar to tidal signals observed in other ice shelves and ice streams. Based on its periodicity, it was hypothesized that the signal represents a flow response of the Ross Ice Shelf to the diurnal tides of the Ross Sea. To assess the influence of the tide on the ice-shelf motion, two hypotheses were developed. The first addressed the direct response of the ice shelf to tidal forcing, such as forces due to sea-surface slopes or forces due to sub-ice-shelf currents. The second involved the indirect response of ice-shelf flow to the tidal signals observed in the ice streams that source the ice shelf. A finite-element model, based on viscous creep flow, was developed to test these hypotheses, but succeeded only in falsifying both hypotheses, i.e. showing that direct tidal effects produce too small a response, and indirect tidal effects produce a response that is not smooth in time. This nullification suggests that a combination of viscous and elastic deformation is required to explain the observations.

  16. The Impact of One Florida Initiative on Florida's Public Law Schools: A Critical Race Theory Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Adriel A.; Gasman, Marybeth; Wood, J. Luke

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of the One Florida Initiative (OFI) on racial diversity in Florida's public law schools and legal profession using the lens of Critical Race Theory (CRT). This study seeks to determine what, if any, impact this event has had on recruitment, admissions, and enrollment of Florida's public schools of…

  17. Magnetic surveys of the continental shelf off Visakhapatnam

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, T.C.S.; Murthy, K.S.R.

    shelf. Quantitative estimates made for the anomalies over the inner shelf using the graphical method and by computing the analytical signal suggest the existence of a fault in the nearshore region and a possible zone of heavy mineral concentration off...

  18. Federal Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Production Statistics

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — Federal Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Production Statistics by month and summarized annually. Outer Continental Shelf consists of Gulf of Mexico, Pacific and...

  19. Holocene sea levels of Visakhapatnam shelf, east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, K.M.; Rao, T.C.S.

    The Holocene sea level changes in the shelf areas off Visakhapatnam was studied from sediment distribution pattern and shallow seismic profiling. Morphological features on the shelf indicate a Late Pleistocene regression down to about -130 m below...

  20. Response of zooplankton to physical changes in the environment: coastal upwelling along central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Madhupratap, M.; Nair, S.R.S.; Haridas, P.; Padmavati, G.

    Research 413-426 Fort Lauderdale, Florida Response of Zooplankton to Physical Changes in the Environment: Coastal Upwelling Along the Central West Coast of India b~ M. Madhupratap,t S.R. Sreekumaran Nair/ P. Haridas,* and Gadi PadmavatP tNational Institute... of zooplankton to physical changes in the environment: COlistlil upwelling along the central west coast of India. Journal of Coastal Research, 6(2), 413-426. Fort Lauderdale (Florida). ISSN 0749-0208. Zooplankton composition lind abundance were studied in a...

  1. Benthic Habitats of Estero Bay Area, Florida 1999 Geodatabase

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data produced for the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission's Florida Marine Research Institute (FMRI) in partnership with the South Florida Water...

  2. Benthic Habitats of Estero Bay Area, Florida 1999 Biotic

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data produced for the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission's Florida Marine Research Institute (FMRI) in partnership with the South Florida Water...

  3. Benthic Habitats of Estero Bay Area, Florida 1999 Geoform

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data produced for the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission's Florida Marine Research Institute (FMRI) in partnership with the South Florida Water...

  4. Benthic Habitats of Estero Bay Area, Florida 1999 Substrate

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data produced for the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission's Florida Marine Research Institute (FMRI) in partnership with the South Florida Water...

  5. Influence of estuaries on shelf sediment texture

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, R.R.; Hashimi, N.H.

    on the coast. Offshore from regions where there are a large number of estuaries, the inner shelf sediments are fine grained (average mean size 5.02 phi, 0.03 mm), rich in organic matter ( 2%) and low in calcium carbonate ( 25%). In contrast, in regions...

  6. Elephant teeth from the atlantic continental shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, F.C.; Emery, K.O.; Cooke, H.B.S.; Swift, D.J.P.

    1967-01-01

    Teeth of mastodons and mastodons have been recovered by fishermen from at least 40 sites on the continental shelf as deep as 120 meters. Also present are submerged shorelines, peat deposits, lagoonal shells, and relict sands. Evidently elephants and other large mammals ranged this region during the glacial stage of low sea level of the last 25.000 years.

  7. Sedimentologic Events on the Eel River Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-09-30

    PROJECTS Research into shelf processes is being conducted by a number of researchers, including: D. Drake (USGS), E. Leithold (NCSU), C. Nittrouer (SUNY...D. Swift (ODU) and R. Wheatcroft (WHOI). REFERENCES Wheatcroft, R.A., Borgeld, J.C., Born. R.S., Drake, D.E., Leithold , E.L. and Nittrouer, C.A

  8. Nature of the observed oscillatory flows in shelf waters of the western continental shelf of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shenoi, S.S.C.; Antony, M.K.; Sundar, D.

    of internal waves. Semidiurnal characteristics computed from hydrographic data collected during the period of mooring across the shelf combined with the distribution of phases and amplitudes of horizontal velocities are found to be consistent...

  9. 49 CFR 192.10 - Outer continental shelf pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Outer continental shelf pipelines. 192.10 Section... NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS General § 192.10 Outer continental shelf pipelines. Operators of transportation pipelines on the Outer Continental Shelf (as defined in...

  10. 49 CFR 195.9 - Outer continental shelf pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Outer continental shelf pipelines. 195.9 Section... HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE General § 195.9 Outer continental shelf pipelines. Operators of transportation pipelines on the Outer Continental Shelf must identify on all their respective pipelines the specific...

  11. 75 FR 1076 - Outer Continental Shelf Civil Penalties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-08

    ...: 2010-119] DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Minerals Management Service Outer Continental Shelf Civil... maximum daily civil penalty assessment. SUMMARY: The Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act requires the MMS to... operations in the Outer Continental Shelf at least once every 3 years. This review ensures that the...

  12. Sonograph patterns of the central western continental shelf of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, P.S.

    sediments. The sonographs of the outer shelf, from beyond 60 m depth, to the shelf edge, exhibit bedforms such as reef outcrops (algal and oolitic ridges) and minor topographic undulations. Towards the shelf edge these give way to isolated colonies of algal...

  13. The Connemara Fan: a major glacial grounding line fan west of Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarron, Stephen; Praeg, Daniel; Monteys, Xavier; Scott, Gill

    2014-05-01

    Glacigenic topography on the mid-shelf (~130-350 m water depth) west of Galway, Ireland appears to have the morphological form, internal architecture and sediments associated with a large glacial grounding-line fan. Seismic data collected in 2009 and 2012 (during the GLAMAR and GATEWAYS 1 campaigns) reveal that the broad, arcuate ridges of the 'Olex moraine' form the landward part of a fan system which prograded beyond the mid-shelf break (defining the outer margin of the 'Clare Platform') westwards into the Porcupine Seabight. The topography is comparable to larger shelf-edge trough-mouth fans found further north along the same margin, however no discernible 'trough' has been identified on the Clare Platform. The ridge and fan topographic assemblage is renamed the 'Connemara Fan' in its entirety, based on its genetic relations and geographic location due west of Connemara, western Ireland. A macrofossil recovered from within a debris flow on the outer fan slope comprised of remobilised plumites dates to ~ 20 ka Cal B.P., indicating sediment reworking downslope following deglacial sediment input to at least that time. The Connemara Fan is the most southerly glacigenic fan identified along the north-east Atlantic margin. Its identification also adds to our knowledge of possibly multiple generations of ice sheets feeding onto the Irish shelf from west-central Ireland and the occurrence of ice sheet geometries and dynamics that evacuated ice, melt-water and sediment (ice streams?) westwards across the Clare Platform during past glaciations.

  14. Variation in the hindgut microbial communities of the Florida manatee, Trichechus manatus latirostris over winter in Crystal River, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merson, Samuel D.; Ouwerkerk, Diane; Gulino, Lisa-Maree; Klieve, Athol; Bonde, Robert K.; Burgess, Elizabeth A.; Lanyon, Janet M.

    2014-01-01

    The Florida manatee, Trichechus manatus latirostris, is a hindgut-fermenting herbivore. In winter, manatees migrate to warm water overwintering sites where they undergo dietary shifts and may suffer from cold-induced stress. Given these seasonally induced changes in diet, the present study aimed to examine variation in the hindgut bacterial communities of wild manatees overwintering at Crystal River, west Florida. Faeces were sampled from 36 manatees of known sex and body size in early winter when manatees were newly arrived and then in mid-winter and late winter when diet had probably changed and environmental stress may have increased. Concentrations of faecal cortisol metabolite, an indicator of a stress response, were measured by enzyme immunoassay. Using 454-pyrosequencing, 2027 bacterial operational taxonomic units were identified in manatee faeces following amplicon pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene V3/V4 region. Classified sequences were assigned to eight previously described bacterial phyla; only 0.36% of sequences could not be classified to phylum level. Five core phyla were identified in all samples. The majority (96.8%) of sequences were classified as Firmicutes (77.3 ± 11.1% of total sequences) or Bacteroidetes (19.5 ± 10.6%). Alpha-diversity measures trended towards higher diversity of hindgut microbiota in manatees in mid-winter compared to early and late winter. Beta-diversity measures, analysed through permanova, also indicated significant differences in bacterial communities based on the season.

  15. Variation in the hindgut microbial communities of the Florida manatee, Trichechus manatus latirostris over winter in Crystal River, Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merson, Samuel D; Ouwerkerk, Diane; Gulino, Lisa-Maree; Klieve, Athol; Bonde, Robert K; Burgess, Elizabeth A; Lanyon, Janet M

    2014-03-01

    The Florida manatee, Trichechus manatus latirostris, is a hindgut-fermenting herbivore. In winter, manatees migrate to warm water overwintering sites where they undergo dietary shifts and may suffer from cold-induced stress. Given these seasonally induced changes in diet, the present study aimed to examine variation in the hindgut bacterial communities of wild manatees overwintering at Crystal River, west Florida. Faeces were sampled from 36 manatees of known sex and body size in early winter when manatees were newly arrived and then in mid-winter and late winter when diet had probably changed and environmental stress may have increased. Concentrations of faecal cortisol metabolite, an indicator of a stress response, were measured by enzyme immunoassay. Using 454-pyrosequencing, 2027 bacterial operational taxonomic units were identified in manatee faeces following amplicon pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene V3/V4 region. Classified sequences were assigned to eight previously described bacterial phyla; only 0.36% of sequences could not be classified to phylum level. Five core phyla were identified in all samples. The majority (96.8%) of sequences were classified as Firmicutes (77.3 ± 11.1% of total sequences) or Bacteroidetes (19.5 ± 10.6%). Alpha-diversity measures trended towards higher diversity of hindgut microbiota in manatees in mid-winter compared to early and late winter. Beta-diversity measures, analysed through PERMANOVA, also indicated significant differences in bacterial communities based on the season.

  16. Florida Has Power-Library Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds-Mixon, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about the Florida Power-Library School (FPLS) program. She describes the why, who, what and how of the Florida Power-Library School initiative, as well as the favorable results for schools. Schools successfully completing this process see relationships among staff and community members strengthened. Library media…

  17. Florida Has Power-Library Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds-Mixon, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about the Florida Power-Library School (FPLS) program. She describes the why, who, what and how of the Florida Power-Library School initiative, as well as the favorable results for schools. Schools successfully completing this process see relationships among staff and community members strengthened. Library media…

  18. Telecommunications in Florida: Training Materials for Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eason, Mike; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Describes the use of the Florida Information Resource Network (FIRN) in Florida public schools. Highlights include electronic mail exchanges; online conferences; remote research; classroom resources; training initiatives for teachers to learn about telecommunications; access to other systems and databases; and inservice, hands-on teacher training.…

  19. Lessons Learned from the Florida Teletraining Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Barbara L.; And Others

    The Florida Teletraining Project (FTP) was funded by the Department of Defense to test the feasibility of using a video teletraining network (VTT) (two-way audio/two-way compressed video) to present military instruction to reservists in Florida. The program was to be conducted by two-year community colleges in collaboration with armed forces…

  20. Competing connections between the Ross Ice Shelf with the Southern Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jendersie, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    The stability of the Ross Ice Shelf (RIS) is critical to both the East Antarctic Ice Sheet, and the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. Results from a climatological ice shelf-ocean coupled numerical model (ROMS) suggest a new circulation mechanism associated with High Salinity Water (HSSW) production in the Ross Sea Polynya (RSP) that controls oceanic heat access to the RIS cavity. Within the RSP the dense water-saturated water column contracts during winter and causes a seasonal drop in Sea Surface Height (SSH) localised to a convection chimney under the RSP. The SSH gradients of up to 1.5 mm per km are sufficient to generate a barotropic pressure gradient that can counteract the wide scale horizontal baroclinic force and reverse the geostrophic circulation. In water depths between 600 and 800 m north of the western RIS the effect causes the seasonal occurrence of a cyclonic circulation cell with transports greater than 1Sv. Appearing with the beginning of winter sea ice formation in the RSP it significantly changes the dynamics at the ice shelf front. The new mechanism is described as one element in a framework of oceanographic processes that mitigate the exchange between the deep ocean and the ocean cavity under the RIS. Our study links local circulation features that are known from observation and previous model studies, and for the first time establishes a coherent system of responsible physical forcing processes in the Ross Sea.​

  1. Call From China West

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Wei; Guo Jin

    2008-01-01

    @@ The 12th East-West China Cooperation and Investment and Trade Fair was held from April 5 to 8 at the International Conference and Exhibition Center in Qu-jiang,Xi'an.Shaanxi province,in the west of China.

  2. Lithology, monsoon and sea-surface current control on provenance, dispersal and deposition of sediments over the Andaman continental shelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karri Damodararao

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Sediments deposited on the Northern and Eastern Andaman Shelf along with a few sediments from the Irrawaddy and the Salween Rivers are studied for their elemental, Sr and Nd concentrations and their isotope composition to identify their sources, constrain their transport pathways and assess the factors influencing the erosion in the catchment and their dispersal and deposition over the Andaman Shelf region. Major elemental compositions of the shelf sediments suggest mafic lithology such as ophiolites and ultrabasic rocks in the Irrawaddy drainage and over Indo – Burman – Arakan (IBA ranges as their dominant source. 87Sr/86Sr ratios in sediments of the Northern and Eastern Andaman Shelf range between 0.712245 and 0.742183 whereas, εNd varies from -6.29 to -17.25. Sediments around Mergui have the highest 87Sr/86Sr and the lowest εNd values. Sr and Nd isotope composition of these sediments along with that in the potential sources suggest four major sources of these sediments to the Andaman Shelf, (i the Irrawaddy River, (ii the Salween River, (iii Rivers draining the IBA ranges and (vi Rivers draining the Western/Central granitic ranges of the Southern Myanmar and Western Thailand such as the Tavoy and the Tanintharyi Rivers. Erosion in the catchment is controlled by the precipitation and topography. Intensely focused precipitation over the higher relief of the western slopes of the IBA and western/central granitic ranges causes higher erosion over this mountainous region, supplying huge sediments through the Kaladan, Irrawaddy, Salween, and the Tanintharyi Rivers to the western Myanmar Shelf, Northern, and Eastern Andaman Shelves respectively. The majority of the sediments produced in the drainage are delivered to the shelf during the south-west monsoon which is dispersed eastward by sea-surface circulation from the mouth of the Irrawaddy Rivers towards the Gulf of Martaban and further southward. The Andaman Shelf receives very little

  3. Seismic analysis of clinoform depositional sequences and shelf-margin trajectories in Lower Cretaceous (Albian) strata, Alaska North Slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houseknecht, D.W.; Bird, K.J.; Schenk, C.J.

    2009-01-01

    Lower Cretaceous strata beneath the Alaska North Slope include clinoform depositional sequences that filled the western Colville foreland basin and overstepped the Beaufort rift shoulder. Analysis of Albian clinoform sequences with two-dimensional (2D) seismic data resulted in the recognition of seismic facies inferred to represent lowstand, transgressive and highstand systems tracts. These are stacked to produce shelf-margin trajectories that appear in low-resolution seismic data to alternate between aggradational and progradational. Higher-resolution seismic data reveal shelf-margin trajectories that are more complex, particularly in net-aggradational areas, where three patterns commonly are observed: (1) a negative (downward) step across the sequence boundary followed by mostly aggradation in the lowstand systems tract (LST), (2) a positive (upward) step across the sequence boundary followed by mostly progradation in the LST and (3) an upward backstep across a mass-failure d??collement. These different shelf-margin trajectories are interpreted as (1) fall of relative sea level below the shelf edge, (2) fall of relative sea level to above the shelf edge and (3) mass-failure removal of shelf-margin sediment. Lowstand shelf margins mapped using these criteria are oriented north-south in the foreland basin, indicating longitudinal filling from west to east. The shelf margins turn westward in the north, where the clinoform depositional system overstepped the rift shoulder, and turn eastward in the south, suggesting progradation of depositional systems from the ancestral Brooks Range into the foredeep. Lowstand shelf-margin orientations are consistently perpendicular to clinoform-foreset-dip directions. Although the Albian clinoform sequences of the Alaska North Slope are generally similar in stratal geometry to clinoform sequences elsewhere, they are significantly thicker. Clinoform-sequence thickness ranges from 600-1000 m in the north to 1700-2000 m in the south

  4. Moisture and shelf life in sugar confections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergun, R; Lietha, R; Hartel, R W

    2010-02-01

    From hardening of marshmallow to graining of hard candies, moisture plays a critical role in determining the quality and shelf life of sugar-based confections. Water is important during the manufacturing of confections, is an important factor in governing texture, and is often the limiting parameter during storage that controls shelf life. Thus, an understanding of water relations in confections is critical to controlling quality. Water content, which is controlled during candy manufacturing through an understanding of boiling point elevation, is one of the most important parameters that governs the texture of candies. For example, the texture of caramel progresses from soft and runny to hard and brittle as the moisture content decreases. However, knowledge of water content by itself is insufficient to controlling stability and shelf life. Understanding water activity, or the ratio of vapor pressures, is necessary to control shelf life. A difference in water activity, either between candy and air or between two domains within the candy, is the driving force for moisture migration in confections. When the difference in water activity is large, moisture migration is rapid, although the rate of moisture migration depends on the nature of resistances to water diffusion. Barrier packaging films protect the candy from air whereas edible films inhibit moisture migration between different moisture domains within a confection. More recently, the concept of glass transition, or the polymer science approach, has supplemented water activity as a critical parameter related to candy stability. Confections with low moisture content, such as hard candy, cotton candy, and some caramels and toffees, may contain sugars in the amorphous or glassy state. As long as these products remain below their glass transition temperature, they remain stable for very long times. However, certain glassy sugars tend to be hygroscopic, rapidly picking up moisture from the air, which causes

  5. Export of Dissolved Lignin from Coastal Wetlands to the Louisiana Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, T. S.; Dimarco, S. F.; Smith, R. W.; Schreiner, K. M.

    2008-12-01

    Here we report on spatial and temporal changes in the concentration and composition of dissolved lignin- phenols in surface and bottom waters off the Louisiana coast (USA). Samples were collected at 7 stations on 2 cruises (April, and July, 2008) along a transect that spanned from inside Terrebonne Bay, Louisiana (12 m water depth) to the outer-most station on the inner Louisiana shelf (21 m water depth). The highest average concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved lignin, during both cruises, occurred at the interface between Terrebonne Bay and the inner shelf. Average DOC and dissolved lignin concentrations were significantly higher in April than in July across most stations. Based on hydrologic data, these higher concentrations clearly reflect a combined mixing of DOM from plume waters to the west and local marsh inputs. The cinnamyl/vanillyl (C/V) and syringyl/vanillyl (S/V) ratios indicated that the predominant source of lignin was from non-woody angiosperms - likely the dominant species of wetland plants Spartina alterniflora and S. patens (Spartina spp.) that border the entire bay. The high vanillic acid to vanillin (Ad/Al)v ratios for all stations were typical of that found near estuarine boundaries, where biologically- and photochemically-mediated lignin decay processes are important. This preliminary data indicates that wetlands provide another source of dissolved organic matter (DOM) to the Louisiana shelf that likely contributes to microbial food resources and hence hypoxia, especially in the context of the instability and extensive erosion of these marshes over the past ca. 50 years. This has important implications for the current management plan to reduce hypoxia in the GOM, particularly in those regions that extend west of the nutrient-rich highly productive near-field zones of Atchafalaya-Mississippi river plumes.

  6. Validation of the Antarctic Snow Accumulation and Ice Discharge Basal Stress Boundary in the South Eastern Region of the Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, C. B.; King, K.

    2015-12-01

    The largest ice shelf in Antarctic, Ross Ice Shelf, was investigated over the years of (1970-2015). Near the basal stress boundary between the ice shelf and the West Antarctic ice sheet, ice velocity ranges from a few meters per year to several hundred meters per year in ice streams. Most of the drainage from West Antarctica into the Ross Ice Shelf flows down two major ice streams, each of which discharges more than 20 km3 of ice each year. Along with velocity changes, the warmest water below parts of the Ross Ice Shelf resides in the lowest portion of the water column because of its high salinity. Vertical mixing caused by tidal stirring can thus induce ablation by lifting the warm water into contact with the ice shelf. This process can cause melting over a period of time and eventually cause breakup of ice shelf. With changes occurring over many years a validation is needed for the Antarctic Snow Accumulation and Ice Discharge (ASAID) basal stress boundary created in 2003. After the 2002 Larsen B Ice Shelf disintegration, nearby glaciers in the Antarctic Peninsula accelerated up to eight times their original speed over the next 18 months. Similar losses of ice tongues in Greenland have caused speed-ups of two to three times the flow rates in just one year. Rapid changes occurring in regions surrounding Antarctica are causing concern in the polar science community to research changes occurring in coastal zones over time. During the research, the team completed study on the Ross Ice Shelf located on the south western coast of the Antarctic. The study included a validation of the ABSB vs. the natural basal stress boundary (NBSB) along the Ross Ice Shelf. The ASAID BSB was created in 2003 by a team of researchers headed by National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA GSFC), with an aim of studying coastal deviations as it pertains to the mass balance of the entire continent. The point data file was aimed at creating a replica of the

  7. Community structure of rhodolith-forming beds on the central Brazilian continental shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villas-Boas, Alexandre B.; Riosmena-Rodriguez, Rafael; de Oliveira Figueiredo, Marcia Abreu

    2014-03-01

    The community structure of rhodoliths beds in the central Brazilian continental shelf was studied under the hypothesis that nongeniculate coralline algae are the major contributors of the individual rhodoliths. Samples were collected from five localities within a single area at 17-18 m depth. At each locality, rhodoliths were collected in 10 random quadrat samples along a 20-m transect. Our results show that dead cores of rhodoliths were significantly composed by nongeniculate coralline red algae rather than bryozoans, corals, or inorganic material. The live outer layers of the rhodoliths are composed mainly of 7 species of nongeniculate red coralline algae ( Lithophyllum coralline, L. johansenii, L. depressum, L. stictaeformis, Neogoniolithon brassica- florida, Spongites fruticosus, and Lithothamnion muellerii) associated with other encrusting organisms such as bryozoans, sponges, corals, barnacles, and Peyssonnelia red algae. Significant differences were found in the proportion of Lithophyllum species in relation to other red coralline algae found in this study. Our results show that on the Brazilian continental shelf, the rhodolith-forming species are quite higher in size than in any other studied areas in the world. There was no difference in the proportion of live-to-dead rhodolith materials, suggesting an old bed deposit. Also, the amount of calcium carbonate material in the specimens is relevant to take in account in terms of the CO2 balance worldwide.

  8. Analysis of Water Dynamics in Banda Sea and its Influences on Continental Shelf Fishing Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irawan Muripto

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Over the rise of the Arafura Sea of the vertical configuration results shown curves which easy to understand about its water dynamics. The water character is oceanic’s as cool, salty and stable DO were maintaining by the variability of thermal structure in the continental shelf. The pattern of water masses is the current system surrounding the Banda Sea as an upwelling from undercurrent those enhances and nitrified the shelf.  Along the coast of western part of Papua was conducted the parcel of water masses traveling across the fishing area where’s kind of fishing boat catches the fish in the whole year, and almost confining in the continental shelf has low current from the southern part. The current flows from west to east at the southern part of Nusa Tenggara Islands bringing water and curve to the southwestern coast of Australia. These water masses characterized the temperature, salinity and oxygen gradients from some points where may have an important implication to the slopes area between the deepest and the shallow water near the coast. The lower temperature ranges from 10.0˚C to 8.0˚C at 300m depth and 34.50‰ to 34.85‰ conducted was circulated back to the deepest layer were higher salinity and stable dissolved oxygen. This continental shelf as a fishing area boundary water dynamic may cause by these water dynamic,  especially from data catches of the two fishing vessels catches 17,4 to 39,21kg/haul in the western area and 44.0 to 80kg/haul in eastern coast area.

  9. Kinematic first-order calving law implies potential for abrupt ice-shelf retreat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levermann, A.; Albrecht, T.; Winkelmann, R.; Martin, M. A.; Haseloff, M.; Joughin, I. R.

    2012-12-01

    Recently observed large-scale disintegration of Antarctic ice shelves has moved their fronts closer towards grounded ice. In response, ice-sheet discharge into the ocean has accelerated, contributing to global sea-level rise and emphasizing the importance of calving-front dynamics. The position of the ice front strongly influences the stress field within the entire sheet-shelf-system and thereby the mass flow across the grounding line. While theories for an advance of the ice-front are readily available, no general rule exists for its retreat, making it difficult to incorporate the retreat in predictive models. Here we extract the first-order large-scale kinematic contribution to calving which is consistent with large-scale observation. We emphasize that the proposed equation does not constitute a comprehensive calving law but represents the first-order kinematic contribution which can and should be complemented by higher order contributions as well as the influence of potentially heterogeneous material properties of the ice. When applied as a calving law, the equation naturally incorporates the stabilizing effect of pinning points and inhibits ice shelf growth outside of embayments. It depends only on local ice properties which are, however, determined by the full topography of the ice shelf. In numerical simulations the parameterization reproduces multiple stable fronts as observed for the Larsen A and B Ice Shelves including abrupt transitions between them which may be caused by localized ice weaknesses. We also find multiple stable states of the Ross Ice Shelf at the gateway of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet with back stresses onto the sheet reduced by up to 90% compared to the present state. Eigencalving: Universal kinematic contribution to iceberg calving of ice shelves. Calving rate C is proportional to the eigenvalues of the horizontal spreading rate tensor.

  10. Breakup of the Larsen Ice Shelf, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Recent Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite imagery analyzed at the University of Colorado's National Snow and Ice Data Center revealed that the northern section of the Larsen B ice shelf, a large floating ice mass on the eastern side of the Antarctic Peninsula, has shattered and separated from the continent. This particular image was taken on March 5, 2002. The shattered ice formed a plume of thousands of icebergs adrift in the Weddell Sea. A total of about 3,250 square kilometers of shelf area disintegrated in a 35-day period beginning on January 31, 2002. Over the last five years, the shelf has lost a total of 5,700 square kilometers and is now about 40 percent the size of its previous minimum stable extent. Ice shelves are thick plates of ice, fed by glaciers, that float on the ocean around much of Antarctica. The Larsen B shelf was about 220 meters thick. Based on studies of ice flow and sediment thickness beneath the ice shelf, scientists believe that it existed for at least 400 years prior to this event and likely existed since the end of the last major glaciation 12,000 years ago. For reference, the area lost in this most recent event dwarfs Rhode Island (2,717 square kilometers) in size. In terms of volume, the amount of ice released in this short time is 720 billion tons--enough ice for about 12 trillion 10-kilogram bags. This is the largest single event in a series of retreats by ice shelves along the peninsula over the last 30 years. The retreats are attributed to a strong climate warming in the region. The rate of warming is approximately 0.5 degrees Celsius per decade, and the trend has been present since at least the late 1940s. Overall in the peninsula, the extent of seven ice shelves has declined by a total of about 13,500 square kilometers since 1974. This value excludes areas that would be expected to calve under stable conditions. Ted Scambos, a researcher with the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) at

  11. Off-the-Shelf Gaze Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    San Agustin, Javier

    People with severe motor-skill disabilities are often unable to use standard input devices such as a mouse or a keyboard to control a computer and they are, therefore, in strong need for alternative input devices. Gaze tracking offers them the possibility to use the movements of their eyes...... of the challenges introduced by the use of low-cost and off-the-shelf components for gaze interaction. The main contributions are: - Development and performance evaluation of the ITU Gaze Tracker, an off-the-shelf gaze tracker that uses an inexpensive webcam or video camera to track the user’s eye. The software...... is readily available as open source, offering the possibility to try out gaze interaction for a low price and to analyze, improve and extend the software by modifying the source code. - A novel gaze estimation method based on homographic mappings between planes. No knowledge about the hardware configuration...

  12. Mass Balance of the Northern Antarctic Peninsula and its Ongoing Response to Ice Shelf Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scambos, T. A.; Berthier, E.; Haran, T. M.; Shuman, C. A.; Cook, A. J.; Bohlander, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    An assessment of the most rapidly changing areas of the Antarctic Peninsula (north of 66°S) shows that ice mass loss for the region is dominated by areas affected by eastern-Peninsula ice shelf losses in the past 20 years. Little if any of the mass loss is compensated by increased snowfall in the northwestern or far northern areas. We combined satellite stereo-image DEM differencing and ICESat-derived along-track elevation changes to measure ice mass loss for the Antarctic Peninsula north of 66°S between 2001-2010, focusing on the ICESat-1 period of operation (2003-2009). This mapping includes all ice drainages affected by recent ice shelf loss in the northeastern Peninsula (Prince Gustav, Larsen Inlet, Larsen A, and Larsen B) as well as James Ross Island, Vega Island, Anvers Island, Brabant Island and the adjacent west-flowing glaciers. Polaris Glacier (feeding the Larsen Inlet, which collapsed in 1986) is an exception, and may have stabilized. Our method uses ASTER and SPOT-5 stereo-image DEMs to determine dh/dt for elevations below 800 m; at higher elevations ICESat along-track elevation differencing is used. To adjust along-track path offsets between its 2003-2009 campaigns, we use a recent DEM of the Peninsula to establish and correct for cross-track slope (Cook et al., 2012, doi:10.5194/essdd-5-365-2012; http://nsidc.org/data/nsidc-0516.html) . We reduce the effect of possible seasonal variations in elevation by using only integer-year repeats of the ICESat tracks for comparison. Mass losses are dominated by the major glaciers that had flowed into the Prince Gustav (Boydell, Sjorgren, Röhss), Larsen A (Edgeworth, Bombardier, Dinsmoor, Drygalski), and Larsen B (Hektoria, Jorum, and Crane) embayments. The pattern of mass loss emphasizes the significant and multi-decadal response to ice shelf loss. Areas with shelf losses occurring 30 to 100s of years ago seem to be relatively stable or losing mass only slowly (western glaciers, northernmost areas). The

  13. A high resolution hydrodynamic 3-D model simulation of the malta shelf area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Drago

    Full Text Available The seasonal variability of the water masses and transport in the Malta Channel and proximity of the Maltese Islands have been simulated by a high resolution (1.6 km horizontal grid on average, 15 vertical sigma layers eddy resolving primitive equation shelf model (ROSARIO-I. The numerical simulation was run with climatological forcing and includes thermohaline dynamics with a turbulence scheme for the vertical mixing coefficients on the basis of the Princeton Ocean Model (POM. The model has been coupled by one-way nesting along three lateral boundaries (east, south and west to an intermediate coarser resolution model (5 km implemented over the Sicilian Channel area. The fields at the open boundaries and the atmospheric forcing at the air-sea interface were applied on a repeating "perpetual" year climatological cycle.

    The ability of the model to reproduce a realistic circulation of the Sicilian-Maltese shelf area has been demonstrated. The skill of the nesting procedure was tested by model-modelc omparisons showing that the major features of the coarse model flow field can be reproduced by the fine model with additional eddy space scale components. The numerical results included upwelling, mainly in summer and early autumn, along the southern coasts of Sicily and Malta; a strong eastward shelf surface flow along shore to Sicily, forming part of the Atlantic Ionian Stream, with a presence throughout the year and with significant seasonal modulation, and a westward winter intensified flow of LIW centered at a depth of around 280 m under the shelf break to the south of Malta. The seasonal variability in the thermohaline structure of the domain and the associated large-scale flow structures can be related to the current knowledge on the observed hydrography of the area. The level of mesoscale resolution achieved by the model allowed the spatial and temporal evolution of the changing flow patterns, triggered by

  14. Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctic Ice and Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    In this view of Antarctic ice and clouds, (56.5S, 152.0W), the Ross Ice Shelf of Antarctica is almost totally clear, showing stress cracks in the ice surface caused by wind and tidal drift. Clouds on the eastern edge of the picture are associated with an Antarctic cyclone. Winds stirred up these storms have been known to reach hurricane force.

  15. aromaticus: Its Development and Shelf Life Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawan Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant rich products are valued due to their health benefits and appetizers are required in several pathological and geographical stress situations such as prolonged exposure to altitude. The paper deals with the development of a shelf stable RTE (ready-to-eat antioxidant rich herbal appetizer convenient to the consumer. Using ginger and Karpurvalli (Coleus aromaticus as two independent variables, a central composite design with 13 experimental combinations was obtained. These combinations were processed by concentration and dehydration into the appetizer RTE munches using preprocessed ingredients and evaluated for antioxidant activity, vitamin C, and sensory characteristics. The product optimized using Design Expert Statistical Software had the proximate composition of 11.4% fat, 2.3% protein, and 75.0% carbohydrates, supplying about 82.36 Kcals per munch of 20 g. The munches packed in metalized polyester pouches had a shelf life of 10 months at 28 ± 5°C as well as 37°C storage. The RTE appetizer based on Coleus aromaticus was developed with excellent sensory properties and shelf stability.

  16. Along-shelf current variability on the Catalan inner-shelf (NW Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grifoll, Manel; Aretxabaleta, Alfredo L.; Espino, Manuel; Warner, John C.

    2012-01-01

    We examine the circulation over the inner shelf of the Catalan Sea using observations of currents obtained from three ADCPs within the inner-shelf (24 and 50 m depth) during March-April 2011. The along-shelf current fluctuations during that period are mainly controlled by the local wind stress on short time scales and by remote pressure gradients on synoptic time scales. Different forcing mechanisms are involved in the along-shelf momentum balance. During storm conditions, wind stress, sea level gradients and the non-linear terms dominate the balance. During weak wind conditions, the momentum balance is controlled by the pressure gradient, while during periods of moderate wind in the presence of considerable stratification, the balance is established between the Coriolis and wind stress terms. Vertical variations of velocity are affected by the strong observed density gradient. The increased vertical shear is accompanied by the development of stratified conditions due to local heating when the wind is not able to counteract (and destroy) stratification. The occasional influence of the Besòs river plume is observed in time scales of hours to days in a limited area in front of Barcelona. The area affected by the plume depends on the vertical extend of the fresher layer, the fast river discharge peak, and the relaxation of cross-shore velocities after northeast storm events. This contribution provides a first interpretation of the inner-shelf dynamics in the Catalan Sea.

  17. Multidisciplinary Investigations of Submarine Flow to Biscayne Bay, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halley, R. B.; Reich, C. D.; Swarzenski, P. W.; Langevin, C. D.

    2005-05-01

    Biscayne Bay and Biscayne National Park (BNP) are located next to the Miami-Dade urban complex and are adjacent to the Dade County South Dade Landfill Facility and the Miami-Dade Water and Sewer South District Plant. The base of the landfill is lined to separate it from the underlying Miami Limestone, the host rock for the surficial Biscayne Aquifer. The sewage-treatment facility injects treated sewage into the lower Florida Aquifer (750 m) that is overlain by an aquitard termed the Middle Confining Unit (450 m). The Biscayne Aquifer (up to 50 m thick) borders the western margin of BNP, and the Floridan Aquifer underlies the entire park. There is concern about leakage of contaminated aquifer water into BNP and its potential effects on water quality. Groundwater flux to Biscayne Bay is being studied using pressure measurements and geochemical analyses from submarine wells, electromagnetic seepage meters, streaming resistivity profiling, and local and regional model simulations. Both seepage meters and water analyses provide point information that can be placed into the regional context provided by flow models and geochemical and geophysical profiling, which, in turn, constrain the groundwater contribution. Water samples were collected approximately quarterly from August 2002 until March 2004 from submarine wells along a transect through Biscayne Bay and across the reef to the shelf edge. Samples were analyzed for conductivity (salinity), dissolved oxygen, temperature, redox potential, nutrients, metals, strontium isotopes, radon, sulfate, and wastewater compounds. Low-salinity water was identified from nearshore wells and indicates seepage from the Biscayne Aquifer and/or surface-water intrusion into the rocks along western Biscayne Bay. Analyses of water samples (n = 109) collected from wells across the Florida shelf show no consistent evidence of wastewater contaminants occurring in groundwater beneath BNP. No significant leakage from the Floridan Aquifer

  18. Northern Shrimp (Pandalus borealis) Recruitment in West Greenland Waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, S. A.; Storm, L. M.

    2002-01-01

    Lipid class and fatty acid compositions were determined in shrimp larvae (Pandalus borealis and P. montagui) collected along transects across banks on the West Greenland shelf in June 1999, May and July 2000. The lipid class contents were investigated as indices of larval shrimp lipid condition...... and food type. Fatty acid compositions were investigated for lipid biomarkers to establish trophic relationships between larval shrimp and potential prey. Phospholipids were the dominant lipid class in all six pelagic development stages of larval P. borealis and P. montagui, accounting for 80 to 92...

  19. Bathymetry of the Amundsen Sea Embayment sector of West Antarctica from Operation IceBridge gravity and other data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millan, Romain; Rignot, Eric; Bernier, Vincent; Morlighem, Mathieu; Dutrieux, Pierre

    2017-02-01

    We employ airborne gravity data from NASA's Operation IceBridge collected in 2009-2014 to infer the bathymetry of sub-ice shelf cavities in front of Pine Island, Thwaites, Smith, and Kohler glaciers, West Antarctica. We use a three-dimensional inversion constrained by multibeam echo sounding data offshore and bed topography from a mass conservation reconstruction on land. The seamless bed elevation data refine details of the Pine Island sub-ice shelf cavity, a slightly thinner cavity beneath Thwaites, and previously unknown deep (>1200 m) channels beneath the Crosson and Dotson ice shelves that shallow (500 m and 750 m, respectively) near the ice shelf fronts. These sub-ice shelf channels define the natural pathways for warm, circumpolar deep water to reach the glacier grounding lines, melt the ice shelves from below, and constrain the pattern of past and future glacial retreat.

  20. Mississippi Waters Reaching South Florida Reefs Under No Flood Conditions: Synthesis of Observing and Modeling System Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Henaff, M.; Kourafalou, V.

    2016-02-01

    In August 2014, in situ measurements revealed an intense salinity drop impacting South Florida coral reefs. Satellite observations showed that this drop in salinity was due to a southeastward export of Mississippi waters from the Northern Gulf of Mexico. Unlike previous events of long-distance Mississippi water export, this episode is not marked by Mississippi flooding conditions, which makes it a unique study case.We have developed a high-resolution ( 2 km) numerical model of the Gulf of Mexico to study the conditions that controlled the 2014 Mississippi water export episode. It is based on the HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM), which has a detailed representation of coastal physics (especially river plume dynamics) and employs high frequency river discharge and atmospheric forcing. In addition, it assimilates remotely sensed altimetry and sea surface temperature observations. The simulation reveals a unique pathway that brought Mississippi waters along the Northern Gulf continental shelf, before reaching the deep Gulf. In the Florida Straits, Mississippi waters were advected from the deep ocean to the continental shelf under the influence of both deep sea (frontal dynamics of the local western boundary current) and shelf flows (wind-induced Ekman transport). The combined use of a regional, data-assimilative nested simulation and available observations followed best practices recommended under the Coastal Ocean and Shelf Seas Task Team of the GODAE (Global Data Assimilation Experiment) OceanView initiative. It allowed identifying key processes and features that characterize the unique episode of Mississippi River waters export of 2014, and helped analyze the wide range of processes affecting the connectivity at both the local and basin scale in the Gulf of Mexico.

  1. Molecular characterization of benthic foraminifera communities from the Northeastern Gulf of Mexico shelf and slope following the Deepwater Horizon event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Joseph A.; McCurry, Chelsea; Schwing, Patrick; Jeffrey, Wade H.; Romero, Isabel C.; Hollander, David J.; Snyder, Richard A.

    2016-09-01

    Benthic foraminifera are globally distributed protozoa in the world's oceans, which have been used as ecological indicators in both current and palaeo oceanography. The ecological properties and distribution of these organisms in various regions of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) have been evaluated using microscopy; however molecular approaches for these purposes have been limited, especially in deeper regions. The BP Deepwater Horizon oil well failure in the northern Gulf of Mexico highlighted the need to better understand the distribution and abundance of these organisms relative to environmental factors and ecosystem perturbations such as the oil spill. Sediment samples were collected using a Shipek grab along transects on the northwest Florida GOM shelf (18-270 m depth). Clone libraries were developed from PCR amplified 18S rDNA genes for sequence analysis. Analysis of random clones from libraries were used as a proxy for community structure (presence and relative abundance) to document the spatial and temporal dynamics of benthic foraminifera on the Northwest Florida Shelf in the NE GOM shelf. Additional continental slope samples (200-1600 m depth) were obtained by a multicorer and treated in similar fashion. Mean species diversity in this study (H=2.49-3.36), agreed with pre-DWH event estimates, however the dominant agglutinated species in the deep-water samples did not match previous studies. Additionally, the dominant calcareous taxa from this study such as Allogromida sp. and Psammophaga sp., were inconsistent with previous reports. The dominant taxa in both coastal and deep-water sites include Glabratellina sp., Trochammina hadai, and Trochammina sp., and Textularia sagittula and Bathysiphon argenteus as well as members of genera Astrammina, Bolivina, Cibicides and Cibicidoides.

  2. Mineral resource assessment map of the Big Gum Swamp Roadless Area, Columbia and Baker counties, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathcart, J.B.; Cameron, C.C.; Patterson, S.H.

    1986-01-01

    The Big Gum Swamp Roadless Area (figs, 1 and 2) comprises 13,600 acres in the north-central part of the Osceola National Forest in Columbia and Baker Counties, about 12 airline miles northeast of Lake City, Fla. The area is bounded by Forest Service road 211 and Florida highway 250 on the south, Forest Service roads 233 and 232 on the west and north, and Forest Service road 235 on the east. The area can be reached by traveling 11.7 mi on Florida Highway 250 northeast from its junction with U.S. Highway 441, north of Lake City to the junction of Highway 250 and Forest Service road 233, thence north 1.3 mi on the Forest Service road to the southern corner of the area.

  3. Safety of West Nile Virus vaccines in sandhill crane chicks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, G.H.; Miller, K.J.; Docherty, D.E.; Bochsler, V.S.; Folk, Martin J.; Nesbitt, Stephen A.

    2008-01-01

    West Nile virus arrived in North America in 1999 and has spread across the continent in the ensuing years. The virus has proven deadly to a variety of native avian species including sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis). In order to provide safe and efficacious protection for captive and released populations of whooping cranes (G. americana), we have conducted a series of four research projects. The last of these was a study of the effects of two different West Nile virus vaccines on young Florida sandhill crane (G. c. pratensis) chicks and subsequent challenge with the virus. We found that vaccinating crane chicks as early as day 7 post-hatch caused no adverse reactions or noticeable morbidity. We tested both a commercial equine vaccine West Nile - Innovator (Fort Dodge Laboratories, Fort Dodge, Iowa) and a new recombinant DNA vaccine (Centers for Disease Control). We had a 33% mortality in control chicks (n =6) from West Nile virus infection, versus 0% mortality in two groups of vaccinated chicks (n = 12), indicating the two vaccines tested were not only safe but effective in preventing West Nile virus.

  4. US west coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aerial surveys are conducted along the US west coast to determine distribution and abundance of endangered leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea), loggerhead...

  5. WEST Physics Basis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdelle, C.; Artaud, J. F.; Basiuk, V.; Bécoulet, M.; Brémond, S.; Bucalossi, J.; Bufferand, H.; Ciraolo, G.; Colas, L.; Corre, Y.; Courtois, X.; Decker, J.; Delpech, L.; Devynck, P.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Doerner, R. P.; Douai, D.; Dumont, R.; Ekedahl, A.; Fedorczak, N.; Fenzi, C.; Firdaouss, M.; Garcia, J.; Ghendrih, P.; Gil, C.; Giruzzi, G.; Goniche, M.; Grisolia, C.; Grosman, A.; Guilhem, D.; Guirlet, R.; Gunn, J.; Hennequin, P.; Hillairet, J.; Hoang, T.; Imbeaux, F.; Ivanova-Stanik, I.; Joffrin, E.; Kallenbach, A.; Linke, J.; Loarer, T.; Lotte, P.; Maget, P.; Marandet, Y.; Mayoral, M. L.; Meyer, O.; Missirlian, M.; Mollard, P.; Monier-Garbet, P.; Moreau, P.; Nardon, E.; Pégourié, B.; Peysson, Y.; Sabot, R.; Saint-Laurent, F.; Schneider, M.; Travère, J. M.; Tsitrone, E.; Vartanian, S.; Vermare, L.; Yoshida, M.; Zagorski, R.; Contributors, JET

    2015-06-01

    With WEST (Tungsten Environment in Steady State Tokamak) (Bucalossi et al 2014 Fusion Eng. Des. 89 907-12), the Tore Supra facility and team expertise (Dumont et al 2014 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 56 075020) is used to pave the way towards ITER divertor procurement and operation. It consists in implementing a divertor configuration and installing ITER-like actively cooled tungsten monoblocks in the Tore Supra tokamak, taking full benefit of its unique long-pulse capability. WEST is a user facility platform, open to all ITER partners. This paper describes the physics basis of WEST: the estimated heat flux on the divertor target, the planned heating schemes, the expected behaviour of the L-H threshold and of the pedestal and the potential W sources. A series of operating scenarios has been modelled, showing that ITER-relevant heat fluxes on the divertor can be achieved in WEST long pulse H-mode plasmas.

  6. Purge at West Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Warren

    1977-01-01

    Tells how the adviser of the student newspaper at West Valley College (Saratoga, California) was dismissed after the newspaper published stories based on investigations into alleged wrongdoings by administration members. (GW)

  7. Dracaena in West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    This taxonomic revision of the genus Dracaena L. (Liliaceae) in West Africa is another contribution towards a monograph on this group.Short general chapters contain historical, phytogeographical, morphological and phylogenetic observations. The taxonomic treatment contains a revised genus descriptio

  8. Ice shelf structure derived from dispersion curve analysis of ambient seismic noise, Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez, A.; Bromirski, P. D.; Gerstoft, P.; Stephen, R. A.; Anthony, R. E.; Aster, R. C.; Cai, C.; Nyblade, A.; Wiens, D. A.

    2016-05-01

    An L-configured, three-component short period seismic array was deployed on the Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica during November 2014. Polarization analysis of ambient noise data from these stations shows linearly polarized waves for frequency bands between 0.2 and 2 Hz. A spectral peak at about 1.6 Hz is interpreted as the resonance frequency of the water column and is used to estimate the water layer thickness below the ice shelf. The frequency band from 4 to 18 Hz is dominated by Rayleigh and Love waves propagating from the north that, based on daily temporal variations, we conclude were generated by field camp activity. Frequency-slowness plots were calculated using beamforming. Resulting Love and Rayleigh wave dispersion curves were inverted for the shear wave velocity profile within the firn and ice to ˜150 m depth. The derived density profile allows estimation of the pore close-off depth and the firn-air content thickness. Separate inversions of Rayleigh and Love wave dispersion curves give different shear wave velocity profiles within the firn. We attribute this difference to an effective anisotropy due to fine layering. The layered structure of firn, ice, water and the seafloor results in a characteristic dispersion curve below 7 Hz. Forward modelling the observed Rayleigh wave dispersion curves using representative firn, ice, water and sediment structures indicates that Rayleigh waves are observed when wavelengths are long enough to span the distance from the ice shelf surface to the seafloor. The forward modelling shows that analysis of seismic data from an ice shelf provides the possibility of resolving ice shelf thickness, water column thickness and the physical properties of the ice shelf and underlying seafloor using passive-source seismic data.

  9. Eastern Culture Gone West

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGHONG

    2005-01-01

    THE implication of one of British 19th century writer Rudyard Kipling's most famous quotations: “East is East,West is West and never the twain shall meet” is endorsed by contemporary scholar Dr Samuel Huntington in his work The Clash of Civilizations, in which he asserts that future wars will not be between individual states and political unions but between differing civilizations.

  10. Combining genetic and distributional approaches to sourcing introduced species: a case study on the Nile monitor (Varanus niloticus) in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowell, Stephanie A; Wood, Jared P; Campbell, Todd S; Kolokotronis, Sergios-Orestis; Hekkala, Evon R

    2016-04-01

    Three separate breeding populations of the Nile monitor (Varanus niloticus) have been identified in Florida, USA, located in Cape Coral, West Palm Beach and Homestead Air Reserve Base. This large, predatory lizard could have negative effects on Florida's native wildlife. Here, we infer the source of the introduced populations using genetic and statistical approaches, as well as estimate the potential non-native distribution of V. niloticus in North America. We collected genetic data from 25 Florida individuals as well as utilized genetic datasets from reference individuals spanning the full native distribution throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Using occurrence data from the inferred source population and the full species range, we built ecological niche models (ENMs) and projected them onto North America to determine regions with suitable climate. Our results indicated that the introduced populations resulted from three separate introduction events, and all originated from the southern coastal region of West Africa. The ENM built from the West African source population predicted only the southernmost portions of North America to be suitable. Conversely, the model derived from the full species' range predicted suitable climates across a large portion of the United States. This information can be used to focus management and eradication efforts.

  11. 78 FR 19195 - RH International, LLC, 2531 West Maryland Avenue, Tampa, FL 33629, Respondent, Mohammad Reza (a/k...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security RH International, LLC, 2531 West Maryland Avenue, Tampa, FL 33629...; Order Denying Export Privileges A. Denial of Export Privileges of RH International, LLC On October 18, 2012, in the U.S. District Court, Middle District of Florida Tampa Division, RH International, LLC...

  12. Contaminant concentrations in Florida raptor eggs

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Inviable eggs from the nests of Florida bald eagles and ospreys were collected opportunistically from 1987 through 1989. Egg contents were analyzed for...

  13. Mammal Research: Exotic Ungulates in Florida

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A review, of the exotic ungulate industry in Florida was made by mailing questionnaires to exotic ungulate permittees, phone interviews, interviews with exotic...

  14. Benthic Habitats of the Florida Keys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The benthic habitats of the Florida Keys were mapped from a series of 450 aerial photographs. Ecologists outlined the boundaries of specific habitat types by...

  15. Peninsular Florida future scenarios integrated project

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a integrated scenario project to the Florida state line that incorporates updated critical land and water identification project layers with a decision...

  16. 2004 St. Johns County, Florida Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is the bare earth lidar data for St. Johns County, Florida, acquired in early January and February of 2004. This data was collected to develop...

  17. 2006 Volusia County Florida LiDAR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is the lidar data for Volusia County, Florida, approximately 1,432 square miles, acquired in early March of 2006. A total of 143 flight lines of Lidar...

  18. 2004 St. Johns County, Florida Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is the bare earth lidar data for St. Johns County, Florida, acquired in early January and February of 2004. This data was collected to develop...

  19. Biscayne Bay Florida Bottlenose Dolphin Studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data sets include a compilation of small vessel based studies of bottlenose dolphins that reside within Biscayne Bay, Florida, adjacent estuaries and nearshore...

  20. Permit Review - Florida Gas Transmission Company (FGT)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Branch of Air Quality Permit Review for Florida Gas Transmission Company and their expansion of Compressor Station Number 10 in Wiggins, Mississippi. The facility is...

  1. Mercury contamination in Florida panthers [Draft

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — As a result of the death of an apparently healthy, radio-collared female Florida panther (Felis concolor qoryi) (FP#27) in Everglades National Park in July 1989, we...

  2. Water withdrawals, use, and trends in Florida, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marella, Richard L.

    2014-01-01

    . Fresh-water withdrawals for public supply, agricultural self-supplied use, and commercial-industrial-mining self-supplied use all decreased between 2000 and 2010 and between 2005 and 2010, whereas freshwater withdrawals for domestic self-supplied use, recreational-landscape irrigation use, and power generation use either remained the same or changed slightly during the decade. The use of highly mineralized groundwater (referred to as nonpotable water) as a source of drinking water has increased in Florida. Nonpotable water use for public supply has increased from nearly 2 Mgal/d in 1970 to about 165 Mgal/d in 2010. Nonpotable water is either blended or treated to meet drinking-water standards and is mostly used along the east and west coasts of central and southern Florida. The use of reclaimed wastewater increased from about 206 Mgal/d in 1986 to nearly 659 Mgal/d in 2010. More than three-quarters (79 percent) of reclaimed wastewater in 2010 was used to supplement potable-quality water withdrawals for urban irrigation, agricultural irrigation, and industrial use.

  3. Amundsen Sea sector ice shelf thickness, melt rates, and inland response from annual high-resolution DEM mosaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shean, D. E.; Joughin, I. R.; Smith, B. E.; Alexandrov, O.; Moratto, Z.; Porter, C. C.; Morin, P. J.

    2014-12-01

    Significant grounding line retreat, acceleration, and thinning have occurred along the Amundsen Sea sector of West Antarctica in recent decades. These changes are driven primarily by ice-ocean interaction beneath ice shelves, but existing observations of the spatial distribution, timing, and magnitude of ice shelf melt are limited. Using the NASA Ames Stereo Pipeline, we generated digital elevation models (DEMs) with ~2 m posting from all ~450 available WorldView-1/2 along-track stereopairs for the Amundsen Sea sector. A novel iterative closest point algorithm was used to coregister DEMs to filtered Operation IceBridge ATM/LVIS data and ICESat-1 GLAS data, offering optimal sub-meter horizontal/vertical accuracy. The corrected DEMs were used to produce annual mosaics for the entire ~500x700 km region with focused, sub-annual products for ice shelves and grounding zones. These mosaics provide spatially-continuous measurements of ice shelf topography with unprecedented detail. Using these data, we derive estimates of ice shelf thickness for regions in hydrostatic equilibrium and map networks of sub-shelf melt channels for the Pine Island (PIG), Thwaites, Crosson, and Dotson ice shelves. We also document the break-up of the Thwaites ice shelf and PIG rift evolution leading up to the 2013 calving event. Eulerian difference maps document 2010-2014 thinning over fast-flowing ice streams and adjacent grounded ice. These data reveal the greatest thinning rates over the Smith Glacier ice plain and slopes beyond the margins of the fast-flowing PIG trunk. Difference maps also highlight the filling of at least two subglacial lakes ~30 km upstream of the PIG grounding line in 2011. Lagrangian difference maps reveal the spatial distribution of ice shelf thinning, which can primarily be attributed to basal melt. Preliminary results show focused ice shelf thinning within troughs and large basal channels, especially along the western margin of the Dotson ice shelf. These new data

  4. Florida, Bahamas, Cuba and Gulf Stream, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This unique photo offers a view of the Florida peninsula, western Bahamas, north central Cuba and the deep blue waters of the Gulf Stream, that hugs the east coast of Florida (27.0N, 82.0W). In addition to being an excellent photograph for showing the geographical relationships between the variety of landforms in this scene, the typical effect of the land-sea breeze is very much in evidence as few clouds over water, cumulus build up over landmass.

  5. NW Iberia Shelf Dynamics. Study of the Douro River Plume.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Iglesias

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available River plumes are one of the most important mechanisms that transport the terrestrial materials to the coast and the ocean. Some examples of those materials are pollutants, essential nutrients, which enhance the phytoplankton productivity or sediments, which settle on the seabed producing modifications on the bathymetry affecting the navigation channels. The mixing between the riverine and the oceanic waters can induce instabilities, which might generate bulges, filaments, and buoyant currents over the continental shelf. Offshore, the buoyant riverine water could form a front with the oceanic waters often related with the occurrence of current-jets, eddies and strong mixing. The study and modelling of the river plumes is a key factor for the complete understanding of sediment transport mechanisms and patterns, and of coastal physics and dynamic processes. On this study the Douro River plume will be simulated. The Douro River is located on the north-west Iberian coast and its daily averaged freshwater discharge can range values from 0 to 13000 m3/s. This variability impacts the formation of the river plumes and its dispersion along the continental shelf. This study builds on the long-term objective of generate a Douro River plume forecasting system as part of the RAIA and RAIA.co projects. Satellite imagery was analyzed showing that the river Douro is one of the main sources of suspended particles, dissolved material and chlorophyll in the NW Iberian Shelf. The Regional Oceanic Modeling System (ROMS model was selected to reproduce scenarios of plume generation, retention and dispersion. Whit this model, three types of simulations were performed: (i schematic winds simulations with prescribed river flow, wind speed and direction; (ii multi-year climatological simulation, with river flow and temperature change for each month; (iii extreme case simulation, based on the Entre-os-Rios accident situation. The schematic wind case-studies suggest that the

  6. The ARM West Antarctic Radiation Experiment (AWARE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubin, Dan; Bromwich, David; Vogelmann, Andrew; Verlinde, Johannes; Russell, Lynn

    2016-04-01

    West Antarctica is one of the most rapidly warming regions on Earth, and its changing climate in both atmosphere and ocean is linked to loss of Antarctic ice mass and global sea level rise. The specific mechanisms for West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) warming are not fully understood, but are hypothesized to involve linkage between moisture from Southern Ocean storm tracks and the surface energy balance over the WAIS, and related teleconnections with subtropical and tropical meteorology. This present lack of understanding has motivated a climate science and cloud physics campaign jointly supported by the US National Science Foundation (NSF) and Department of Energy (DOE), called the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) West Antarctic Radiation Experiment (AWARE). The DOE's second ARM Mobile Facility (AMF2) was deployed to McMurdo Station on Ross Island in November 2015 and will operate through December 2016. The AMF2 includes (1) cloud research radars, both scanning and zenith, operating in the Ka- and X-bands, (2) high spectral resolution and polarized micropulse lidars, and (3) a suite of shortwave and longwave broadband and spectral radiometers. A second suite of instruments is deployed at the WAIS Divide Ice Camp on the West Antarctic plateau during December 2015 and January 2016. The WAIS instrument suite provides (1) measurement of all surface energy balance components, (2) a polarized micropulse lidar and shortwave spectroradiometer, (3) microwave total water column measurement, and (4) four times daily rawinsonde launches which are the first from West Antarctica since 1967. There is a direct linkage between the WAIS instrument suite and the AMF2 at McMurdo, in that air masses originating in Southern Ocean storm tracks that are driven up over the WAIS often subsequently descend over the Ross Ice Shelf and arrive at Ross Island. Preliminary data are already illustrating the prevalence of mixed-phase clouds and their role in the surface energy balance

  7. The ARM West Antarctic Radiation Experiment (AWARE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, R. C.; Lubin, D.; Bromwich, D. H.; Vogelmann, A. M.; Verlinde, J.; Russell, L. M.

    2016-12-01

    West Antarctica is one of the most rapidly warming regions on Earth, and its changing climate in both atmosphere and ocean is linked to loss of Antarctic ice mass and global sea level rise. The specific mechanisms for West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) warming are not fully understood, but are hypothesized to involve linkage between moisture from Southern Ocean storm tracks and the surface energy balance over the WAIS, and related teleconnections with subtropical and tropical meteorology. This present lack of understanding has motivated a climate science and cloud physics campaign jointly supported by the US National Science Foundation (NSF) and Department of Energy (DOE), called the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) West Antarctic Radiation Experiment (AWARE). The DOE's second ARM Mobile Facility (AMF2) was deployed to McMurdo Station on Ross Island in November 2015 and will operate through December 2016. The AMF2 includes (1) cloud research radars, both scanning and zenith, operating in the Ka- and X-bands, (2) high spectral resolution and polarized micropulse lidars, and (3) a suite of shortwave and longwave broadband and spectral radiometers. A second suite of instruments is deployed at the WAIS Divide Ice Camp on the West Antarctic plateau during December 2015 and January 2016. The WAIS instrument suite provides (1) measurement of all surface energy balance components, (2) a polarized micropulse lidar and shortwave spectroradiometer, (3) microwave total water column measurement, and (4) four times daily rawinsonde launches which are the first from West Antarctica since 1967. There is a direct linkage between the WAIS instrument suite and the AMF2 at McMurdo, in that air masses originating in Southern Ocean storm tracks that are driven up over the WAIS often subsequently descend over the Ross Ice Shelf and arrive at Ross Island. Preliminary data are already illustrating (1) the prevalence of single- versus mixed-phase clouds and their role in the

  8. Disseminated toxoplasmosis Toxoplasma gondii in a wild Florida manatee Trichechus manatus latirostris and seroprevalence in two wild populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lauren N; Waltzek, Thomas B; Rotstein, David S; Francis-Floyd, Ruth; Walsh, Michael T; Wellehan, James F X; Gerhold, Rick; Chapman, Alycia E; de Wit, Martine

    2016-11-22

    Marine mammals are important indicators for ecosystem health and serve as sentinel species for infectious agents including zoonoses. Histological examination of tissues from a stranded Florida manatee Trichechus manatus latirostris revealed protozoal cysts in the cerebrum and intrahistiocytic tachyzoites in the liver and caudal mesenteric lymph node. Disseminated Toxoplasma gondii infection was confirmed by immunohistochemistry and sequencing of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region of formalin-fixed tissues. The lack of baseline information on Florida manatees' exposure to this pathogen prompted a study into the seroprevalence of T. gondii in 2 separate geographic habitats in Florida, USA, during the winters from 2011-2014. Serum was collected during routine health assessments of 44 apparently healthy manatees from Crystal River (n = 26) on the west central coast of Florida and Brevard County (n = 18) on the east coast of Florida. Serum was screened for detection of T. gondii immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies via the modified agglutination test. Two animals from Crystal River from 2011 and 2012 (7.7%) and one animal from Brevard County from 2011 (5.6%) tested positive for T. gondii antibodies. Overall seroprevalence for T. gondii was low in the 2 sampled populations and may reflect a low seroprevalence or animal susceptibility. However, continued monitoring of this pathogen in aquatic ecosystems is warranted due to both possible anthropogenic sources and zoonotic potential.

  9. Footprints of obliquely incident internal solitary waves and internal tides near the shelf break in the northern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaochuan; Yan, Jun; Hou, Yijun; Lin, Feilong; Zheng, Xufeng

    2016-12-01

    A mooring system and two sites of bottom currents were deployed over the slope and near the shelf break on the propagating paths of internal solitary waves (ISWs), west off Dongsha Atoll in the northern South China Sea. Data indicated that energetic ISWs obliquely shoaled onto the shelf west off Dongsha Atoll in an approximately 290° direction, causing strong reversing currents (some exceeding 80 cm/s) near the bottom. Two types of sandwaves and short scour channels are discernible on the seafloor near the shelf break, which have reasonable correlations with the obliquely incident ISWs and internal tides. Type 1 sandwaves, featured by ISWs at the depths of 130-150 m, have flat crests interacting with the isobaths at an angle of nearly 45° which slightly incline and migrate upslope. Type 2 sandwaves are associated with internal tides, which have crests parallel to the isobaths and distinctly incline and migrate downslope. Short channels are parallel to the depth contours and truncate the strata, which could be formed and maintained by along-slope currents that are probably produced by the obliquely ISWs on a large gradient (γ > 0.8°). The ISWs can move coarse grains or suspend fine grains but do not change the long-term trend of sediment transport on the seabed with larger gradients (γ/c > 1), which is dominated by internal tides. These features are likely widespread near the shelf break in the northern South China Sea and other seas but are limited on mild slopes where ISWs do not break.

  10. Victoria Land, Ross Sea, and Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    On December 19, 2001, MODIS acquired data that produced this image of Antarctica's Victoria Land, Ross Ice Shelf, and the Ross Sea. The coastline that runs up and down along the left side of the image denotes where Victoria Land (left) meets the Ross Ice Shelf (right). The Ross Ice Shelf is the world's largest floating body of ice, approximately the same size as France. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  11. Application of Reservoir Characterization and Advanced Technology to Improve Recovery and Economics in a Lower Quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate Reservoir, Class II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hickman, T. Scott; Justice, James J.; Egg, Rebecca

    2001-08-07

    The Oxy operated Class 2 Project at West Welch Project is designed to demonstrate how the use of advanced technology can improve the economics of miscible CO2 injection projects in lower quality Shallow Shelf Carbonate reservoirs. The research and design phase (Budget Period 1) primarily involved advanced reservoir demonstration characterization. The current demonstration phase (Budget Period 2) is the implementation of the reservoir management plan for an optimum miscible CO2 flood design based on the reservoir characterization.

  12. Water withdrawals in Florida, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marella, Richard L.

    2015-09-01

    In 2012, the total amount of water withdrawn in Florida was estimated to be 14,237 million gallons per day (Mgal/d). Saline water accounted for 7,855 Mgal/d (55 percent), and freshwater accounted for 6,383 Mgal/d (45 percent). Groundwater accounted for 4,167 Mgal/d (65 percent) of freshwater withdrawals, and surface water accounted for the remaining 2,216 Mgal/d (35 percent). Surface water accounted for nearly all (99.9 percent) saline-water withdrawals. Freshwater withdrawals were greatest in Palm Beach County (682 Mgal/d), and saline-water withdrawals were greatest in Pasco County (1,822 Mgal/d). Fresh groundwater provided drinking water (through either public supply or private domestic wells) for 17.699 million residents (93 percent of Florida’s population), and fresh surface water provided drinking water for 1.375 million residents (7 percent). The statewide public-supply gross per capita water use for 2012 was estimated at 136 gallons per day.

  13. Confirmatory factor analysis of the Maslach Burnout Inventory among Florida nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckstead, Jason W

    2002-11-01

    Burnout among human service professionals, such as nurses, has been studied in various countries for years using the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI). This paper reports on confirmatory factor analyses using LISREL that examined the factorial validity of the MBI. The sample consisted of 151 registered nurses from west-central Florida. Modifications of the initial hypothesized three-factor structure were necessary to adequately fit the data. Findings are compared to the published normative values for the MBI and to similar studies of European nurses. Recommendations for measurement models of the MBI in future studies that use structural equation modeling techniques are offered.

  14. Modelling the shelf circulation off eastern Tasmania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Eric C. J.; Herzfeld, Mike; Holbrook, Neil J.

    2016-11-01

    The marine waters across Tasmanian's eastern continental shelf are biologically productive and home to economically important fisheries and aquaculture industries. However, the marine climate there is poorly understood. We use a high-resolution (∼2 km in the horizontal), three-dimensional ocean model for eastern Tasmania (ETAS) to examine the simulated mean state and seasonal cycle of temperature, salinity and three-dimensional flow field, and the evaluation of daily model outputs against in situ and remote observations for the 1993-2014 period. We also use the model to examine the roles of river input and tidal forcing. The model is evaluated against remotely-sensed sea surface temperature and in-situ observations of sea level and subsurface temperature, salinity, and currents. The mean state demonstrates the influence of two well-known boundary currents (the East Australian Current, EAC, and the Zeehan Current, ZC) as well as the effects of local freshwater input from river runoff. The EAC is dominant in summer and the ZC in winter; the influence of the EAC also increases northwards and in the offshore direction. In addition, the model indicates the presence of a semi-permanent subsurface (50-100 m depth) northward flow trapped near the coast. Cool freshwater runoff from the Derwent and Huon Rivers directly impacts the temperature and salinity in their estuaries but has little influence further across the shelf. Tidal forcing impacts the mean state through tide-river interactions which flush Frederick Henry Bay and Norfolk Bay with freshwater. Tidal forcing also impacts the variability of temperature all along the coastline, most likely due to changes in the turbulent mixing near to the coast. The ETAS model output data are available as a high-resolution representation of the mean state, seasonal variations, and interannual variability of Tasmania's eastern continental shelf marine climate.

  15. Brevetoxin persistence in sediments and seagrass epiphytes of east Florida coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitchcock, Gary L; Fourqurean, James W; Drake, Jeana L; Mead, Ralph N; Heil, Cynthia A

    2012-01-01

    A bloom of Karenia brevis Davis developed in September 2007 near Jacksonville, Florida and subsequently progressed south through east Florida coastal waters and the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway (ICW). Maximum cell abundances exceeded 10(6) cells L(-1) through October in the northern ICW between Jacksonville and the Indian River Lagoon. The bloom progressed further south during November, and terminated in December 2007 at densities of 10(4) cells L(-1) in the ICW south of Jupiter Inlet, Florida. Brevetoxins were subsequently sampled in sediments and seagrass epiphytes in July and August 2008 in the ICW. Sediment brevetoxins occurred at concentrations of 11-15 ng PbTx-3 equivalents (g dry wt sediment)(-1) in three of five basins in the northern ICW during summer 2008. Seagrass beds occur south of the Mosquito Lagoon in the ICW. Brevetoxins were detected in six of the nine seagrass beds sampled between the Mosquito Lagoon and Jupiter Inlet at concentrations of 6-18 ng (g dry wt epiphytes)(-1). The highest brevetoxins concentrations were found in sediments near Patrick Air Force Base at 89 ng (g dry wt sediment)(-1). In general, brevetoxins occurred in either seagrass epiphytes or sediments. Blades of the resident seagrass species have a maximum life span of less than six months, so it is postulated that brevetoxins could be transferred between epibenthic communities of individual blades in seagrass beds. The occurrence of brevetoxins in east Florida coast sediments and seagrass epiphytes up to eight months after bloom termination supports observations from the Florida west coast that brevetoxins can persist in marine ecosystems in the absence of sustained blooms. Furthermore, our observations show that brevetoxins can persist in sediments where seagrass communities are absent.

  16. Shelf Circulation in the Gulf of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    phase speeds while narrow shelf regions, such as between Puerto Angel and Manzanillo , have weaker wind coupling coefficients. Frictional decay length...at Puerto Pefiasco and Guaymas respectively that are probably associated with localized gales. In later comparisons with moored observations, the...So.Califomia 250 - 0.01 -0.46 (summer) 35 -,4;~ a) SAN FELIPE 4’. PUERTO APE&ASCO WI ANGEL IS JoJ OE LA $Gota uya 30’ SAN/ 6W oai FRANCISQUIT04.1

  17. Clay mineral distribution on tropical shelf: an example from the western shelf of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Hashimi, N.H.; Nair, R.R.

    Seventy-five sediment samples collected from the Kerala continental shelf and slope during the 17th and 71st Cruises of RV Gaveshani were analysed by X-ray diffraction for clay mineral content. The distribution of total clay ( 4 mu fraction...

  18. Carbon Dynamics on the Louisiana Continental Shelf and Cross-Shelf Feeding of Hypoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Large-scale hypoxia regularly develops during the summer on the Louisiana continental shelf. Traditionally, hypoxia has been linked to the vast winter and spring nutrient inputs from the Mississippi River and its distributary, the Atchafalaya River. However, recent studies indica...

  19. REMOTE OPERATION OF THE WEST COAST AND ALASKA TSUNAMI WARNING CENTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alec H. Medbery

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The remote control of real time derivation of earthquake location and magnitude and the issuance of tsunami and earthquake bulletins was done using off-the-shelf remote control software and hardware. Such remote operation of the West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center can decrease the time needed to respond to an earthquake by eliminating travel from the duty standers’ home to the tsunami warning center.

  20. Icepod Plus Potential Field: An Integrated Approach For Understanding Ice Shelf Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frearson, N.

    2015-12-01

    Warm water flowing beneath the large floating ice shelves in Antarctica will play an important role in how fast sea level rises. The lack of detailed bathymetry beneath the large ice shelves and lack of understanding of their internal structure inherently limits our knowledge of how ice shelves will thin and collapse. Understanding the bathymetry beneath the remaining ice shelves is critical to understanding how ice shelves will thin in the future and how that will impact the flux of ice into the global ocean. The Ross Ice Shelf, the largest ice shelf remaining on our planet, buttresses the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. The bathymetry beneath the Ross Ice Shelf is the least explored piece of ocean floor on our planet. The IcePod is a compact integrated ice imaging system developed for use on any C-130 aircraft developed with NSF support. The initial development program was targeted towards investigating glacial and ice-sheet processes. In this program, deep and shallow ice radars were developed. Optical instruments, including a scanning laser, Infra-red camera and visible wave camera were integrated into the pod. We have expanded the IcePod instrument suite to include the potential field measurements of magnetic and gravity anomalies with support from the Moore Foundation. During the development, a total field cesium sensor magnetometer and 3-axis fluxgate from previously funded work were also incorporated into the pod. Their behavioral response to being located close to high-frequency electronics, power supplies and metallic objects were studied. We describe in part some of that development process and the positive findings that resulted. The Icepod group is also actively pursuing the development, modification and incorporation of a new gravimeter into the suite of instruments available to the program and is investigating reduction in size of this that may eventually lead to incorporating the gravimeter into the pod itself. As part of this program we are also