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Sample records for west central sinai

  1. Late Cretaceous - Early Paleogene bio- and sequence stratigraphy of west-central Sinai, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eweda, Shehta; Zakaria, Ahmed; El Bahrawy, Reda

    2017-06-01

    A sequence biostratigraphic analysis has been done for the Upper Cretaceous-Lower Paleogene sedimentary outcrops at Wadi Raha, Sudr El-Hetan and Wadi El-Giddi areas in west-central Sinai. The sequences are subdivided into four carbonate rock units; from base to top: the Wata, Themed, Sudr and Waseiyit formations. The biostratigraphic analysis of the studied samples led to the identification of two main planktonic foraminiferal zones, three benthic foraminiferal zones with the ammonite zone. Eleven microfacies associations are recorded in the rock units. Nine constitutes a limestone facies with one constitutes a dolostone facies and one a claystone facies. The stratigraphic data, and the facies study support the identification of three major breaks (sequence boundaries) and four depositional sequences. The depositional sequences are subdivided into four supercycles and seven cycles of 3rd order. The oldest break (∼90-88.5Ma.) exists at the top of the Wata Formation coincides with the intra Turonian drop in the global sea level with the initiation of the Syrian Arc inversion phase. The second major break (85 - ∼75Ma.) coincides with the major inversion phase and the evolution of the doubly plunging anticlines. The third major break (∼68 through ∼53Ma.) represents the last phase of the Syrian Arc inversion and complete the missing of Paleocene sequences.

  2. Thanetian transgressive-regressive sequences based on foraminiferal paleobathymetry at Gebel Matulla, west-central Sinai, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farouk, Sherif; Elamri, Zaineb; El-Sorogy, Abdelbaset

    2016-09-01

    Qualitative and quantitative analysis of Thanetian foraminiferal assemblages at Gebel Matulla in west-central Sinai has been carried out. Three benthic foraminiferal assemblages are recorded from shallowest to deepest as Cibicidoides pseudoacutus, Angulogavelinella avnimelechi, Gavelinella danica witch evidences of fluctuations from middle neritic to upper bathyal environments. Changes in the foraminiferal population enabled us to classify the Thanetian succession into two fourth order transgressive-regressive (T-R) sequences. Three sequence boundaries are identified, at the Selandian/Thanetian (S/T) boundary, within the Thanetian succession, and the Paleocene/Eocene (P/E) boundary. It occurs at the top part of the maximum regression associated with major discontinuities and changes in depositional regimes as well as vertical facies changes. Broad correlation with eustatic records based upon integrated microplanktonic biostratigraphy suggests that the fluctuations of foraminiferal population were controlled by global sea-level changes.

  3. A-type volcanics in Central Eastern Sinai, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, M. D.; Moussa, H. E.; Azer, M. K.

    2007-04-01

    Alkaline rhyolitic and minor trachytic volcanics were erupted ˜580-530 Ma ago. They occur with their A-type intrusive equivalents in Sinai, southern Negev and southwestern Jordan. At Taba-Nuweiba district, these volcanics outcrop in three areas, namely, Wadi El-Mahash, Wadi Khileifiya and Gebel El-Homra. Mineralogically, they comprise alkali feldspars, iron-rich biotite and arfvedsonite together with rare ferro-eckermannite. Geochemically, the older rhyolitic volcanics are highly evolved, enriched in HFSE including REE and depleted in Ca, Mg, Sr and Eu. The rhyolitic rocks of Wadi El-Mahash and Gebel El-Homra are enriched in K 2O content (5.3-10.1 wt.%) and depleted in Na 2O content (0.08-2.97 wt.%), while the rhyolites of Wadi Khileifiya have normal contents of alkalis. Their REE patterns are uniform, parallel to subparallel, fractionated [(La/Yb) n = 5.4] and show prominent negative Eu-anomalies. They are classified as alkali rhyolites with minor comendites. The younger volcanics are classified as trachyandesite and quartz trachyte (56.6-62.9 wt.% SiO 2). Both older and younger volcanics represent two separate magmatic suites. The overall mineralogical and chemical characteristics of these volcanics are consistent with within plate tectonic setting. It is suggested that partial melting of crustal rocks yielded the source magma. Lithospheric extension and crustal rupture occurred prior to the eruption of these volcanics. The rather thin continental crust (˜35 km) as well as the continental upheaval and extensive erosion that preceded their emplacement favoured pressure release and increasing mantle contribution. The volatiles of the upper mantle were important agents for heat transfer, and sufficient for the anatexis of the crustal rocks. A petrogenetic hypothesis is proposed for the genesis of the recorded potassic and ultrapotassic rhyolitic rocks through the action of dissolved volatiles and their accumulation in the uppermost part of the magma chamber.

  4. West and Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lydie, N; Robinson, N J

    1998-01-01

    This article reviews scientific and other literature during the 1990s that links migration and mobility with the spread of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including HIV/AIDS. The focus is on key population groups linked to the spread of HIV and STDs in West and Central Africa: migrant laborers, truck drivers, itinerant traders, commercial sex workers (CSWs), and refugees. Countries with high emigration and immigration tend to have high levels of HIV infection, with the exception of Senegal. The main destination of immigrants are Senegal, Nigeria, and Cote d'Ivoire in West Africa and Cameroon, Congo, Gabon, and Congo in Central Africa. The risk of infection and the spread of HIV is variable among migrants. There is little in the literature that substantiates hypotheses about the strong association between migration and HIV-positive status. Information is needed on the duration, frequency of return visits, living conditions, sexual activities with multiple partners, and information before departure, along the routes, at final destination, and at the time of returns. Action-based research in five West African countries (Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, Mali, Niger, and Senegal) should produce results in late 1998. Comparable studies in Central Africa are unknown. Regional studies should be complemented by local studies. Prevention would benefit from studies on the relative size of these five population groups by geographic location.

  5. Geoelectric resistivity sounding for delineating salt water intrusion in the Abu Zenima area, west Sinai, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Mohamed H.

    2006-09-01

    A direct current (dc) resistivity geoelectric technique is applied in the Abu Zenima area, West Sinai, Egypt to delineate salt water intrusion from the Gulf of Suez and evaluate the quality and some of the petrophysical parameters of the aquifer. Sixteen Schlumberger vertical electrical soundings (VES) with maximum AB/2 = 3000 m are conducted. The interpretation of the one-dimensional (1D) inversion of the acquired resistivity data could map the fresh to slightly brackish aquifer (true resistivity = 52-71 Ω m, thickness = 17-66 m), which floats on denser, more saline, deeper water (<5 Ω m). A number of water samples of the fresh aquifer are analysed to determine the total dissolved solids (TDS) concentrations (ppm). A good agreement is observed between the resistivity boundaries and the borehole data. The mutual relations between the aquifer layering, the direction of the groundwater flow and the hydrogeophysical conditions of the aquifer are investigated. The geoelectric (Dar-Zarrouk) parameters are determined and interpreted in terms of the hydraulic conductivity, transimissivity, clay content, grain size distribution and potentiality of the aquifer. The integration of the results indicates a high potentiality and a relatively good quality of the fresh to slightly brackish aquifer in the north-eastern part of the study area.

  6. Carbonate platform facies development of the Turonian Wata Formation in central and eastern Sinai, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifa, M. A.; Farouk, S.; Hassan, A. M.

    2016-12-01

    The Wata carbonate platform in central and eastern Sinai show a clear pattern of evolutionary development during sedimentation. Three facies are recognized in the carbonate platform. Inner-platform in the south, inter-platform basin in the middle, and outer-platform in the northwest. Such classification was probably performed by the effect of Syrian Arc System that culminated during Turonian in Sinai. Inner-platform includes fining-upward cycles, each begins with packstone, followed by wackestone and capped by lime-mudstone or claystone or molluscan bioclastic wackestone at the base capped by sandy oolitic packstone or dolostone. The dominant faunal associations are molluscs, and echinoids. Inter-platform basin occurs north of inner-platform and extends northwest-southeast direction and comprises fining-upward cycles, each of which begins with bioclastic ostracodal packstone, calcisphere packstone, bioclastic packstone, capped by wackestone and lime-mudstone The faunal association includes, sponge spines, ostracodes, molluscan debris and calcispheres. They were deposited in shoal marine and barrier. The outer-platform occurs at Gebel Giddi and extended northwestwards. The lithofacies are entirely represented by calcisphere wackestone/packstone, with a reduced thickness of 20 m.

  7. Legume Diversity Patterns in West Central Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Estrella, de la M.; Mateo, M.A.; Wieringa, J.J.; Mackinder, B.; Munoz, J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives - Species Distribution Models (SDMs) are used to produce predictions of potential Leguminosae diversity in West Central Africa. Those predictions are evaluated subsequently using expert opinion. The established methodology of combining all SDMs is refined to assess species diversity withi

  8. New heavy aggregate for offshore petroleum pipeline concrete coating Central West Sinai, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. Abdou

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the local materials used in concrete mix are studied in a manner that they can resist the aggressive marine environment and mechanical damage, which can occur at several stages during transportation, construction and installation of the pipelines. In earlier studies we succeeded in finding the Egyptian ilmenite ore adequate for concrete weight coating and already utilized for many pipeline projects in Egypt. According to the presence of about 30% titanium oxides in ilmenite composition which may be extracted to be used in others strategically fields, the object of this paper is to study and evaluate the mechanical, chemical and physical properties of another local hematite high density iron ore to be used in subsea concrete weight coating for offshore petroleum pipelines. The results indicate that the local material of Um Bogma hematite iron ore can substitute both imported iron ore and local ilmenite from Abu Ghalaga in this field to reduce the cost effective and increased economical value of local ores. Laboratory and field tests were conducted for the hematite ore forming a concrete mix, composed of hematite ore, cement and fresh water according to international concrete coating specification requirements, the ore produces a concrete mix with 190–195 pcf minimum dry density and compressive strength, after 28 days of hydration, varying from 40 to 45 N/mm2 (400–450 kg/cm2 which comply with the international standards and specifications of submarine petroleum pipeline coating. In addition, local hematite shows superior results than local ilmenite and achieves 190 pcf instead of 180 pcf in case of using ilmenite.

  9. Tidal propagation off the central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Unnikrishnan, A.S.

    Present study reviews the characteristics of tidal propagation on the continental shelf off the central west coast of India. Available observations from tide gauges are used to describe the variations of tidal ranges along the west coast. Amplitudes...

  10. Raw material studies of West Central Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Bogosavljević Petrović

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with raw material problems in the territory of West Central Serbia geologically determined as the Čačak-Kraljevo (or West Morava basin. Our research is presented through the most striking case studies, Lojanik, Vlaška Glava and Lazac.  The Lojanik hill is a silicified forest by origin. It has occasionally been in use from the earliest periods of prehistory until today as a source of black and ochre-coloured flint, opal and silicified wood. A detailed prospection, including the mapping of surface finds using square nets, was conducted during two research campaigns.The Vlaška Glava is an open-air Palaeolithic site at which artefacts made of white, ochre, red, brown and black chert, silicified magnesite, volcanic and metamorphic rocks were found. Our research of primary and secondary geological deposits in the vicinity of the site showed equivalent raw material. We also found an interesting primary deposit of high quality bluish grey flint with outcrop activities (Workshop 1.The Lazac shaft is a contemporary magnesite mine, recently abandoned because of the high percentage of silicon-dioxide. We determined the same raw material in collections found at nearby Neolithic sites. Certain similarities between the wooden support systems of ore exploration in the Middle Ages and modern times were established at the entrance of the shaft.Our research in the territory of the West Morava basin resulted in reconstruction of some links between geological deposits and settlements and also creation of a relevant base for future raw material studies.

  11. Digital elevation model of Walker Lake, West-Central Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Walker Lake lies within a topographically closed basin in west-central Nevada and is the terminus of the Walker River. Accurately determining the bathymetry and...

  12. Herbicide concentrations in wetlands in west central Minnesota, 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Thirty emergent, seasonally to semi-permanently flooded wetlands in an intensively farmed area of west central Minnesota were sampled before and during the 1992 crop...

  13. Research needs for lion conservation in West and Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Hans; De Iongh, Hans H; Princée, Frank P; Ngantou, Daniel

    2003-08-01

    The lion has historically probably been widespread at low densities in West and Central Africa, nowadays they are largely restricted to small isolated populations inside protected areas. The total number is probably between 1200 and 2700, the best possible guesstimate would be 1700. Mankind is the main cause for the suspected decline of lion populations, both inside and outside protected areas. Very little research has been done on West and Central African lions a few examples are summarized here. The international community is slowly becoming aware of threats to lions in the region and some initiatives for lion conservation have started.

  14. Beach rocks of the central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wagle, B.G.

    in the intertidal zone or spray zone as well as 2 to 4 m above the present high 112 Iv t l<'igure 1. Map showing the location of beach rock exposures along the central west Clnst of India. water line. They occur as medium thick beds (3-4 m), more often as patches...

  15. Regional flood-frequency relations for west-central Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seijo, M.A.; Giovannelli, R.F.; Turner, J.F.

    1979-01-01

    This report presents regional relations for estimating the magnitude and frequency of floods on streams in west-central Florida. Flood prediction equations derived cover 20, 5-, 25-, 100-, 200-, and 500-year recurrence intervals. Annual floods for three geographic areas of west-central Florida were found to relate significantly to basin characteristics. Basin characteristics include drainage area, soils index, slope, and lake area. The average standard error of estimate for regional flood relations ranged from 38.4 to 52.1 percent with a mean of 43.5 percent. The average multiple correlation coefficient if 0.94. Regional relations apply to gaged and ungaged sites whose drainage areas are greater than 10 but less than 2,500 square miles. Tables of maximum known floods for 64 streamflow stations used in the analysis are included. Tables comparing station, weighted, and regional flood-peak discharges are also included. (Kosco-USGS)

  16. 40 CFR 81.96 - West Central Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false West Central Florida Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.96 West Central Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The West Central Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area...

  17. 9 CFR 93.320 - Horses from Central America and the West Indies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses from Central America and the... PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Central America and the West Indies 17 § 93.320 Horses from Central America and the West Indies. Horses from Central America and...

  18. Multiresolution quantification of deciduousness in West Central African forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Viennois

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The characterization of leaf phenology in tropical forests is of major importance and improves our understanding of earth-atmosphere-climate interactions. The availability of satellite optical data with a high temporal resolution has permitted the identification of unexpected phenological cycles, particularly over the Amazon region. A primary issue in these studies is the relationship between the optical reflectance of pixels of 1 km or more in size and ground information of limited spatial extent. In this paper, we demonstrate that optical data with high to very-high spatial resolution can help bridge this scale gap by providing snapshots of the canopy that allow discernment of the leaf-phenological stage of trees and the proportions of leaved crowns within the canopy. We also propose applications for broad-scale forest characterization and mapping in West Central Africa over an area of 141 000 km2. Eleven years of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI data were averaged over the wet and dry seasons to provide a dataset of optimal radiometric quality at a spatial resolution of 250 m. Sample areas covered at a very-high (GeoEye and high (SPOT-5 spatial resolution were used to identify forest types and to quantify the proportion of leaved trees in the canopy. The dry season EVI was positively correlated with the proportion of leaved trees in the canopy. This relationship allowed the conversion of EVI into canopy deciduousness at the regional level. On this basis, ecologically important forest types could be mapped, including young secondary, open Marantaceae, Gilbertiodendron dewevrei and swamp forests. We show that in west central African forests, a large share of the variability in canopy reflectance, as captured by the EVI, is due to variation in the proportion of leaved trees in the upper canopy, thereby opening new perspectives for biodiversity and carbon-cycle applications.

  19. Serologic survey of West Nile virus in horses from Central-West, Northeast and Southeast Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Jaqueline Raymondi; de Medeiros, Larissa Campos; dos Reis, Vinícius Pinho; Chávez, Juliana Helena; Munhoz, Thiago Demarchi; Borges, Gustavo Puia; Soares, Otavio Augusto Brioschi; de Campos, Carlos Henrique Coelho; Machado, Rosângela Zacarias; Baldani, Cristiane Divan; Silva, Maria Luana Cristiny Rodrigues; Faria, Joice Lara Maia; da Silva, Edson Elias; Figueiredo, Luiz Tadeu Moraes

    2013-01-01

    Since the emergence of West Nile virus (WNV) in North America in 1999, there have been several reports of WNV activity in Central and South American countries. To detect WNV in Brazil, we performed a serological survey of horses from different regions of Brazil using recombinant peptides from domain III of WNV. Positive samples were validated with the neutralisation test. Our results showed that of 79 ELISA-positive horses, nine expressed WNV-specific neutralising antibodies. Eight of the infected horses were from the state of Mato Grosso do Sul and one was from the state of Paraíba. Our results provide additional evidence for the emergence of WNV in Brazil and for its circulation in multiple regions of the country. PMID:24037110

  20. Serologic survey of West Nile virus in horses from Central-West, Northeast and Southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Raymondi Silva

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Since the emergence of West Nile virus (WNV in North America in 1999, there have been several reports of WNV activity in Central and South American countries. To detect WNV in Brazil, we performed a serological survey of horses from different regions of Brazil using recombinant peptides from domain III of WNV. Positive samples were validated with the neutralisation test. Our results showed that of 79 ELISA-positive horses, nine expressed WNV-specific neutralising antibodies. Eight of the infected horses were from the state of Mato Grosso do Sul and one was from the state of Paraíba. Our results provide additional evidence for the emergence of WNV in Brazil and for its circulation in multiple regions of the country.

  1. Structural Controls on Groundwater Flow in Basement Terrains: Geophysical, Remote Sensing, and Field Investigations in Sinai

    KAUST Repository

    Mohamed, Lamees

    2015-07-09

    An integrated [very low frequency (VLF) electromagnetic, magnetic, remote sensing, field, and geographic information system (GIS)] study was conducted over the basement complex in southern Sinai (Feiran watershed) for a better understanding of the structural controls on the groundwater flow. The increase in satellite-based radar backscattering values following a large precipitation event (34 mm on 17–18 January 2010) was used to identify water-bearing features, here interpreted as preferred pathways for surface water infiltration. Findings include: (1) spatial analysis in a GIS environment revealed that the distribution of the water-bearing features (conductive features) corresponds to that of fractures, faults, shear zones, dike swarms, and wadi networks; (2) using VLF (43 profiles), magnetic (7 profiles) techniques, and field observations, the majority (85 %) of the investigated conductive features were determined to be preferred pathways for groundwater flow; (3) northwest–southeast- to north–south-trending conductive features that intersect the groundwater flow (southeast to northwest) at low angles capture groundwater flow, whereas northeast–southwest to east–west features that intersect the flow at high angles impound groundwater upstream and could provide potential productive well locations; and (4) similar findings are observed in central Sinai: east–west-trending dextral shear zones (Themed and Sinai Hinge Belt) impede south to north groundwater flow as evidenced by the significant drop in hydraulic head (from 467 to 248 m above mean sea level) across shear zones and by reorientation of regional flow (south–north to southwest–northeast). The adopted integrated methodologies could be readily applied to similar highly fractured basement arid terrains elsewhere. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht

  2. The hydrology of Lake Rousseau, west-central Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, E.R.

    1978-01-01

    Lake Rousseau, about 4 miles southwest of Inglis, Florida, was formed in 1909 by impoundment of the Withlacooche River by Inglis Dam, west of Dunnellon, Florida. The lake was to have been part of the Cross-Florida Barge Canal; a lock and channel associated with the presently inactive project were completed in 1969. Lake Rousseau is about 11 miles long, covers about 4,000 acres, and contains about 34,000 acre-feet of water at the normal pool elevation of 27.5 feet above mean sea level. Inflow to the lake is relatively constant and responds slowly to rainfall. The estimated 100-year peak inflow, 10,400 cubic feet per second, is only 19 percent higher than the 100-year high monthly inflow. Water in Lake Rousseau is a calcium-bicarbonate type and is hard. Mean total phosphorus and organic nitrogen concentrations are considerably lower in Lake Rousseau than in north-central Florida lakes which have been considered to be eutrophic by other investigators, however, the lake supports of prolific aquatic plant community. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations near the water surface are occasionally less than 3 mg/liter. (Woodard-USGS)

  3. Stable isotopes differentiate bottlenose dolphins off west-central Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Nélio B.; Ostrom, P. H.; Stricker, Craig A.; Wells, R.S.

    2010-01-01

    Distinguishing discrete population units among continuously distributed coastal small cetaceans is challenging and crucial to conservation. We evaluated the utility of stable isotopes in assessing group membership in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) off west-central Florida by analyzing carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur isotope values (δ13C, δ15N, and δ34S) of tooth collagen from stranded dolphins. Individuals derived from three putative general population units: Sarasota Bay (SB), nearshore Gulf of Mexico (GULF), and offshore waters (OFF). Animals of known history (SB) served to ground truth the approach against animals of unknown history from the Gulf of Mexico (GULF, OFF). Dolphin groups differed significantly for each isotope. Average δ13C values from SB dolphins (−10.6‰) utilizing sea grass ecosystems differed from those of GULF (−11.9‰) and OFF (−11.9‰). Average δ15N values of GULF (12.7‰) and OFF (13.2‰) were higher than those of SB dolphins (11.9‰), consistent with differences in prey trophic levels. δ34S values showed definitive differences among SB (7.1‰), GULF (11.3‰), and OFF (16.5‰) dolphins. This is the first application of isotopes to population assignment of bottlenose dolphins in the Gulf of Mexico and results suggest that isotopes may provide a powerful tool in the conservation of small cetaceans.

  4. [Production systems of Spondias purpurea (Anacardiaceae) in Central West Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez Hernández, Blanca C; Barrios Eulogio, Pimienta; Castellanos Ramos, Javier Z; Muñoz Urias, Alejandro; Palomino Hasbach, Guadalupe; Pimienta Barrios, Enrique

    2008-06-01

    Morphological, physical and chemical traits related with fruit quality characteristics of Spondias purpurea L. agroecosystems were studied in Central-West Mexico for wild and cultivated populations. Spondias purpurea regularly thrive in shallow, rocky infertile soils unsuitable for conventional crops. The weight, axial and radial length, pH, total soluble solids (SST), reducing sugars, proteins and mineral content in fruits were recorded. The mean fresh fruit weight was superior in the cultivated varieties (20 g) than in the wild (16 g). Similarly the highest values of pH, SST, reducing sugars and protein content (3.3, 12.15 degrees Brix, 0.38 g/100 g and 1.18 g/100 g, respectively) were observed in the cultivated plantations compared with wild populations (3.0, 8.31 degrees Brix, 0.24 g/100 g and 0.14 g/100 g, respectively). In cultivated plantations, productivity ranged from 0.15 ton ha(-1) to 5.0 ton ha(-1), and must be considered satisfactory, considering the low inputs of fertilizers and pesticides applied to orchards. The fruits of S. purpurea are similar in nutrimental content to more important commercial fruit species; it produces fresh fruits during the dry months of spring, when few fresh fruits are available in the local markets. In addition, S. purpurea is a source of water and food for domestic animals and wild fauna. These traits emphasize their agronomical and ecological importance for tropical and subtropical environments, where it can also be used in reforestation programs because it can grow in infertile rocky soils, and in agroecosystems inhabited by low income farmers that practice subsistence agriculture. In fact, the cultivation of Spondias has helped convert marginal lands into productive lands.

  5. Graphic pattern of foraminiferal dominance in nearshore region of central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Setty, M.G.A.P.; Nigam, R.; Ambre, N.V.

    Within the inner neritic zone (0-55 m depth) along the central west coast of India, some foraminiferal groups such as @iAmmonia, Elphidium, Trochammina, Bulimina, Bolivina, Nonion, Nonionella@@ and Florilus@@ individually (total foraminiferal number...

  6. Classification of tidal inlets along the central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vikas, M.; Reddy, N.A.; Rao, S.; JayaKumar, S.

    Tidal inlets along the Maharashtra coast on the central west coast of India were classified according to three methods available in the literature. Two classification methods viz., (i) Hydrodynamic classification (Hayes, 1979) and (ii...

  7. Shores of the central west coast of India - a case study using remote sensing data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wagle, B.G.

    flats, can be ascribed to the possibilities of its continuous progradation. Whereas, the coastal tract with active cliffs, broad wave-cut terraces etc. indicate the retrograding coast. The shoreline of the central west coast, therefore, can be classified...

  8. Food Habits of Black Ducks Wintering in West Central Tennessee: Annual report 1990-91

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This study was conducted to describe the food habits of black ducks (Anas rubripes) wintering in west central Tennessee and to compare foods of black ducks and...

  9. Contribution from coastal laterites to the nearshore placers of central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gujar, A.R.; Srinivas, K.

    The heavy mineral placers with variable concentrations of ilmenite and magnetite occur in the surface and in the sub-surface sediments of many bays along central west coast of India. These sediments are associated with pebbles of laterite...

  10. CRED 1 meter resolution Reson 8101 multibeam backscatter data of Wake Island, West Central Pacific, 2007.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of Wake Island, West Central Pacific.These data provide coverage between 0 and 200m meters. The...

  11. CRED 10 m Gridded multibeam bathymetry of Wake Island, West Central Pacific

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry shelf, bank and slope environments of Wake Island, West Central Pacific, under joint management of the United States Dept. of Interior and Air...

  12. CRED 60 m Gridded multibeam bathymetry of Wake Island, West Central Pacific

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry shelf, bank and slope environments of Wake Island, West Central Pacific, under joint management of the United States Dept. of Interior and Air...

  13. Herbicide Concentrations in Select Waterfowl Production Area Wetlands in West Central Minnesota, 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Twenty-eight emergent, seasonally to semipermanently flooded wetlands in an intensively farmed area of west central Minnesota were sampled before and during the 1993...

  14. Benthic foraminifera as proxy for oxygen-depleted conditions off the central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nigam, R.; Mazumder, A.; Henriques, P.J.; Saraswat, R.

    In order to study the response of benthic foraminifera, especially the rectilinear bi- and tri-serial benthic foraminifera (RBF) to oxygen-depleted conditions from the Arabian Sea off central west coast of India, 103 surface sediment samples...

  15. Mean Annual Precipitation in West-Central Nevada using the Precipitation-Zone Method

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set contains 1971-2000 mean annual precipitation estimates for west-central Nevada. This is a raster data set developed using the precipitation-zone...

  16. Geographic distribution of phlebotomine sandfly species (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Central-West Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo Silva de Almeida; Andrey José de Andrade; Alan Sciamarelli; Josué Raizer; Jaqueline Aparecida Menegatti; Sandra Cristina Negreli Moreira Hermes; Maria do Socorro Laurentino de Carvalho; Rodrigo Gurgel-Gonçalves

    2015-01-01

    This study updates the geographic distributions of phlebotomine species in Central-West Brazil and analyses the climatic factors associated with their occurrence. The data were obtained from the entomology services of the state departments of health in Central-West Brazil, scientific collections and a literature review of articles from 1962-2014. Ecological niche models were produced for sandfly species with more than 20 occurrences using the Maxent algorithm and eight climate variables. In a...

  17. Hydrogeology of McMullen Valley, west-central Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pool, D.R.

    1987-01-01

    The geohydrology of McMullen Valley, west-central Arizona, was investigated using geologic, geophysical, and hydrologic data and a numerical model of the groundwater system. Interpretation of geologic and geophysical information indicates that the main structure of McMullen Valley is a syncline that has been normal faulted on the southeast side. Basin fill that accumulated in the structural depression during late Miocene to Pleistocene time is the main aquifer and is divided into upper and lower units on the basis of lithologic information. The upper unit is a thin layer of coarse-grained sediments and generally is not saturated. The lower unit is 3,000 to 4,000 ft thick, includes a fine-grained facies in the upper 1,000 ft, and is the main source of water. The fine-grained facies is found in the southwest half of the basin and is further divided into upper and lower parts. The lower part of the fine-grained facies has: a higher percentage of silt and clay than the upper part, contains evaporites, does not yield water to wells, and separates the aquifer into shallow and deep systems. A numerical model was used to analyze the groundwater system for both steady-state and transient conditions. The transient model was used to analyze system response to pumping stress. The transient system is one of storage depletion, and water level declines are controlled by pumping and specific yield distributions. Water level declines are also influenced by hydraulic properties and areal extent of the fine-grained facies. Significant water level declines may extend to aquifer boundaries in most of the basin; in one area, impermeable boundary greatly influences declines. The location of the nearby boundary was estimated through gravity data modeling. Several hydrologic components, including hydraulic properties and areal extent of the fine-grained facies , storage properties, and aquifer boundaries, need better definition in order to develop a more accurate model of the groundwater

  18. The Vaigat Rock Avalanche Laboratory, west-central Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunning, S.; Rosser, N. J.; Szczucinski, W.; Norman, E. C.; Benjamin, J.; Strzelecki, M.; Long, A. J.; Drewniak, M.

    2013-12-01

    Rock avalanches have unusually high mobility and pose both an immediate hazard, but also produce far-field impacts associated with dam breach, glacier collapse and where they run-out into water, tsunami. Such secondary hazards can often pose higher risks than the original landslide. The prediction of future threats posed by potential rock avalanches is heavily reliant upon understanding of the physics derived from an interpretation of deposits left by previous events, yet drawing comparisons between multiple events is normally challenging as interactions with complex mountainous terrain makes deposits from each event unique. As such numerical models and the interpretation of the underlying physics which govern landslide mobility is commonly case-specific and poorly suited to extrapolation beyond the single events the model is tuned to. Here we present a high-resolution LiDAR and hyperspectral dataset captured across a unique cluster of large rock avalanche source areas and deposits in the Vaigat straight, west central Greenland. Vaigat offers the unprecedented opportunity to model a sample of > 15 rock avalanches of various age sourced from an 80 km coastal escarpment. At Vaigat many of the key variables (topography, geology, post-glacial history) are held constant across all landslides providing the chance to investigate the variations in dynamics and emplacement style related to variable landslide volume, drop-heights, and thinning/spreading over relatively simple, unrestricted run-out zones both onto land and into water. Our data suggest that this region represents excellent preservation of landslide deposits, and hence is well suited to calibrate numerical models of run out dynamics. We use this data to aid the interpretation of deposit morphology, structure lithology and run-out characteristics in more complex settings. Uniquely, we are also able to calibrate our models using a far-field dataset of well-preserved tsunami run-up deposits, resulting from the 21

  19. Raccoon roundworm in raccoons in central West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon F. Owen; John W. Edwards; W. Mark Ford; James M. Crum; Petra Bohall. Wood

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the occurrence of raccoon roundworm (Baylisascaris procyonis) in common raccoons (Procyon lotor) in the Allegheny Mountains of West Virginia during spring (n = 9, April-June) and fall (n = 5, August-October) 2001 and spring (n = 1) and fall (n = 4) 2002. We found no evidence of B. procyonis...

  20. Geographic distribution of phlebotomine sandfly species (Diptera: Psychodidae in Central-West Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Silva de Almeida

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study updates the geographic distributions of phlebotomine species in Central-West Brazil and analyses the climatic factors associated with their occurrence. The data were obtained from the entomology services of the state departments of health in Central-West Brazil, scientific collections and a literature review of articles from 1962-2014. Ecological niche models were produced for sandfly species with more than 20 occurrences using the Maxent algorithm and eight climate variables. In all, 2,803 phlebotomine records for 127 species were analysed. Nyssomyia whitmani,Evandromyia lenti and Lutzomyia longipalpiswere the species with the greatest number of records and were present in all the biomes in Central-West Brazil. The models, which were produced for 34 species, indicated that the Cerrado areas in the central and western regions of Central-West Brazil were climatically more suitable to sandflies. The variables with the greatest influence on the models were the temperature in the coldest months and the temperature seasonality. The results show that phlebotomine species in Central-West Brazil have different geographical distribution patterns and that climate conditions in essentially the entire region favour the occurrence of at least one Leishmania vector species, highlighting the need to maintain or intensify vector control and surveillance strategies.

  1. Geographic distribution of phlebotomine sandfly species (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Central-West Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Paulo Silva de; Andrade, Andrey José de; Sciamarelli, Alan; Raizer, Josué; Menegatti, Jaqueline Aparecida; Hermes, Sandra Cristina Negreli Moreira; Carvalho, Maria do Socorro Laurentino de; Gurgel-Gonçalves, Rodrigo

    2015-06-01

    This study updates the geographic distributions of phlebotomine species in Central-West Brazil and analyses the climatic factors associated with their occurrence. The data were obtained from the entomology services of the state departments of health in Central-West Brazil, scientific collections and a literature review of articles from 1962-2014. Ecological niche models were produced for sandfly species with more than 20 occurrences using the Maxent algorithm and eight climate variables. In all, 2,803 phlebotomine records for 127 species were analysed. Nyssomyia whitmani, Evandromyia lenti and Lutzomyia longipalpis were the species with the greatest number of records and were present in all the biomes in Central-West Brazil. The models, which were produced for 34 species, indicated that the Cerrado areas in the central and western regions of Central-West Brazil were climatically more suitable to sandflies. The variables with the greatest influence on the models were the temperature in the coldest months and the temperature seasonality. The results show that phlebotomine species in Central-West Brazil have different geographical distribution patterns and that climate conditions in essentially the entire region favour the occurrence of at least one Leishmania vector species, highlighting the need to maintain or intensify vector control and surveillance strategies.

  2. Bathymetry of Walker Lake, West-Central Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Thomas J.; Smith, J. LaRue

    2007-01-01

    Walker Lake lies within a topographically closed basin in west-central Nevada and is the terminus of the Walker River. Much of the streamflow in the Walker River is diverted for irrigation, which has contributed to a decline in lake-surface altitude of about 150 feet and an increase in dissolved solids from 2,500 to 16,000 milligrams per liter in Walker Lake since 1882. The increase in salinity threatens the fresh-water ecosystem and survival of the Lahontan cutthroat trout, a species listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act. Accurately determining the bathymetry and relations between lake-surface altitude, surface area, and storage volume are part of a study to improve the water budget for Walker Lake. This report describes the updated bathymetry of Walker Lake, a comparison of results from this study and a study by Rush in 1970, and an estimate of the 1882 lake-surface altitude. Bathymetry was measured using a single-beam echosounder coupled to a differentially-corrected global positioning system. Lake depth was subtracted from the lake-surface altitude to calculate the altitude of the lake bottom. A Lidar (light detection and ranging) survey and high resolution aerial imagery were used to create digital elevation models around Walker Lake. The altitude of the lake bottom and digital elevation models were merged together to create a single map showing land-surface altitude contours delineating areas that are currently or that were submerged by Walker Lake. Surface area and storage volume for lake-surface altitudes of 3,851.5-4,120 feet were calculated with 3-D surface-analysis software. Walker Lake is oval shaped with a north-south trending long axis. On June 28, 2005, the lake-surface altitude was 3,935.6 feet, maximum depth was 86.3 feet, and the surface area was 32,190 acres. The minimum altitude of the lake bottom from discrete point depths is 3,849.3 feet near the center of Walker Lake. The lake bottom is remarkably smooth except for mounds near

  3. Hydrogeology and Analysis of Aquifer Characteristics in West-Central Pinellas County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    the Study Area Pinellas County is a peninsula in west-central Florida bounded by Tampa Bay to the east and the Gulf of Mexico to the west (fig. 1). The...packstones. The foraminiferal limestones in the unit commonly contain benthic foraminifera , bryozoan, echinoid, and mollusk fossils. The Ocala Limestone...county is part of the Gulf Coastal Lowlands physiographic region described by White (1970) which consists of low angle scarps and terraces formed

  4. Caribou, individual-based modeling and mega-industry in central West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raundrup, Katrine; Nymand, Josephine; Nabe-Nielsen, Jacob

    Spatial distribution of caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus) in West Greenland is a result of both short and long term changes in the Arctic landscape. To understand present distribution 40 satellite collars were deployed on 40 female caribou in the Akia-Maniitsoq herd, central West Greenland...... in an area. Further, enhanced or lowered hunting pressure, and changed weather conditions can be studied using IBM. Thus, both short and long term changes in the landscape will be studied and provide insights in how the specific spatial changes impact caribou in West Greenland....

  5. Mineral dust variability in central West Antarctica associated with ozone depletion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cataldo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Here we show that mineral dust retrieved from an ice core in the central West Antarctic sector, spanning the last five decades, provides evidence that northerly air mass incursions into Antarctica, tracked by dust microparticles, have slightly declined. This result contrasts with dust in ice core records reported in West/coastal Antarctica, which show significant increases to the present day. We attribute that difference, in part, to changes in the regional climate regime triggered by the ozone depletion and its consequences for the polar vortex intensity. The vortex maintains the Antarctic central region relatively isolated from mid-latitude air mass incursions with implications to the intensification of the Westerlies and to a persistent positive phase of the Southern Annular Mode. We also show that variability of the diameter of insoluble microparticles in central West Antarctica can be modeled by linear/quadratic functions of both cyclone depth (energy and wind intensity around Antarctica.

  6. Autosomal and mtDNA Markers Affirm the Distinctiveness of Lions in West and Central Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura D Bertola

    Full Text Available The evolutionary history of a species is key for understanding the taxonomy and for the design of effective management strategies for species conservation. The knowledge about the phylogenetic position of the lion (Panthera leo in West/Central Africa is largely based on mitochondrial markers. Previous studies using mtDNA only have shown this region to hold a distinct evolutionary lineage. In addition, anthropogenic factors have led to a strong decline in West/Central African lion numbers, thus, the conservation value of these populations is particularly high. Here, we investigate whether autosomal markers are concordant with previously described phylogeographic patterns, and confirm the unique position of the West/Central African lion. Analysis of 20 microsatellites and 1,454 bp of the mitochondrial DNA in 16 lion populations representing the entire geographic range of the species found congruence in both types of markers, identifying four clusters: 1 West/Central Africa, 2 East Africa, 3 Southern Africa and 4 India. This is not in line with the current taxonomy, as defined by the IUCN, which only recognizes an African and an Asiatic subspecies. There are no indications that genetic diversity in West/Central Africa lions is lower than in either East or Southern Africa, however, given this genetic distinction and the recent declines of lion numbers in this region, we strongly recommend prioritization of conservation projects in West/Central Africa. As the current taxonomic nomenclature does not reflect the evolutionary history of the lion, we suggest that a taxonomic revision of the lion is warranted.

  7. The Myth of Central Europe in the East-West Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš Zelenka

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies different conceptions of Central Europe in the literary and historical discourse of the 20th century, and at the same time, compares how the concept of Central Europe is defined in the works of Havel, Kundera, Konrád and others. Central Europe has always been a cultural and geographical crossroads between the East and the West, with shifting centres and peripheries, overlapping ethnic groups, cultures and religions. For simplicity, two conceptions of Central Europe can be distinguished: minimalist and maximalist. The minimalist conception regards Central Europe as part of the West, because of analogous historical structures and cultural values. It partly overlaps the original Habsburg Empire and is opposed to the Balkans and Russia. The maximalist conception applies an axiological approach, regarding Central Europe as a set of historically established ideas, connected with the traditions of Christian civilisation, i.e. it includes the eastern and southern corners of Europe as well. Central Europe then is geographically identified with the symbolism of the Danube, as both a dividing and unifiying feature. According to Kundera, it is the Jewish people who have made the greatest contribution to the multicultural character of Central Europe, which after 1945 was politically aligned with the East, although historically it had been part of the West.

  8. Constraints on the crustal structure beneath the Sinai subplate, SE Mediterranean, from analysis of local and regional travel times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed K. Salah

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Sinai Peninsula has been recognized as a subplate of the African Plate located at the triple junction of the Gulf of Suez rift, the Dead Sea Transform fault, and the Red Sea rift. The upper and lower crustal structures of this tectonically active, rapidly developing region are yet poorly understood because of many limitations. For this reason, a set of P- and S-wave travel times recorded at 14 seismic stations belonging to the Egyptian National Seismographic Network (ENSN from 111 local and regional events are analyzed to investigate the crustal structures and the locations of the seismogenic zones beneath central and southern Sinai. Because the velocity model used for routine earthquake location by ENSN is one-dimensional, the travel-time residuals will show lateral heterogeneity of the velocity structures and unmodeled vertical structures. Seismic activity is strong along the eastern and southern borders of the study area but low to moderate along the northern boundary and the Gulf of Suez to the west. The crustal Vp/Vs ratio is 1.74 from shallow (depth ≤ 10 km earthquakes and 1.76 from deeper (depth > 10 km crustal events. The majority of the regional and local travel-time residuals are positive relative to the Preliminary Reference Earth Model (PREM, implying that the seismic stations are located above widely distributed, tectonically-induced low-velocity zones. These low-velocity zones are mostly related to the local crustal faults affecting the sedimentary section and the basement complex as well as the rifting processes prevailing in the northern Red Sea region and the ascending of hot mantle materials along crustal fractures. The delineation of these low-velocity zones and the locations of big crustal earthquakes enable the identification of areas prone to intense seismotectonic activities, which should be excluded from major future development projects and large constructions in central and southern Sinai.

  9. Ilheus virus isolation in the Pantanal, west-central Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauvolid-Corrêa, Alex; Kenney, Joan L; Couto-Lima, Dinair; Campos, Zilca M S; Schatzmayr, Hermann G; Nogueira, Rita M R; Brault, Aaron C; Komar, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    The wetlands of the Brazilian Pantanal host large concentrations of diverse wildlife species and hematophagous arthropods, conditions that favor the circulation of zoonotic arboviruses. A recent study from the Nhecolândia sub-region of Pantanal reported serological evidence of various flaviviruses, including West Nile virus and Ilheus virus (ILHV). According to the age of seropositive horses, at least three flaviviruses, including ILHV, circulated in the Brazilian Pantanal between 2005 and 2009. To extend this study, we collected 3,234 adult mosquitoes of 16 species during 2009 and 2010 in the same sub-region. Mosquito pool homogenates were assayed for infectious virus on C6/36 and Vero cell monolayers and also tested for flaviviral RNA by a group-specific real-time RT-PCR. One pool containing 50 non-engorged female specimens of Aedes scapularis tested positive for ILHV by culture and for ILHV RNA by real-time RT-PCR, indicating a minimum infection rate of 2.5 per 1000. Full-length genomic sequence exhibited 95% identity to the only full genome sequence available for ILHV. The present data confirm the circulation of ILHV in the Brazilian Pantanal.

  10. Mineral dust variability in central West Antarctica associated with ozone depletion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cataldo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We present here data of mineral dust variability retrieved from an ice core of the central West Antarctic, spanning the last five decades. Main evidence provided by the geochemical analysis is that northerly air mass incursions to the coring site, tracked by insoluble dust microparticles, have declined over the past 50 yr. This result contrasts with dust records from ice cores reported to the coastal West Antarctic that show increases since mid-20th century. We attribute this difference to regional climatic changes due to the ozone depletion and its implications to westerly winds. We found that the diameters of insoluble microparticles in the central West Antarctica ice core are significantly correlated with cyclone depth (energy and wind intensity around Antarctica.

  11. Formalisation of charcoal value chains and livelihood outcomes in Central- and West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schure, J.M.; Ingram, V.J.; Sakho-Jimbira, M.S.; Levang, P.; Wiersum, K.F.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the link between formalisation of charcoal institutions and livelihoodoutcomes in Central- and WestAfrica. The woodfuel trade generally commenced informally, little controlled by legal or bureaucratic means. Developing formal institutions is often considered as a way of managing

  12. Formalisation of charcoal value chains and livelihood outcomes in Central- and West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schure, J.; Ingram, V.; Sakho-Jimbira, M.S.; Levang, P.; Wiersum, K.F.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the link between formalisation of charcoal institutions and livelihood outcomes in Central- and West Africa. The woodfuel trade generally commenced informally, little controlled by legal or bureaucratic means. Developing formal institutions is often considered as a way of managin

  13. Metal distribution in Halophila beccarii (Aschers) and sorrounding environment along the central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jagtap, T.G.

    Halophila beccarii (Aschers), the surrounding water and the sediments showed varying concentrations of Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu, Ni, Sr and Li at different localities along central west coast of India. Iron was found to be maximum in both the plant...

  14. Formalisation of charcoal value chains and livelihood outcomes in Central- and West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schure, J.; Ingram, V.; Sakho-Jimbira, M.S.; Levang, P.; Wiersum, K.F.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the link between formalisation of charcoal institutions and livelihood outcomes in Central- and West Africa. The woodfuel trade generally commenced informally, little controlled by legal or bureaucratic means. Developing formal institutions is often considered as a way of

  15. The genus Epipremnum Schott (Araceae-Monsteroideae-Monstereae) in West and Central Malesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boyce, P.C.

    1998-01-01

    An account of native and introduced Epipremnum species in West and Central Malesia is presented as a precursor to the forthcoming Flora Malesiana Araceae treatment. Seven species and one cultivar, none new, are recognized. Epipremnum grandifolium is returned to Scindapsus, the genus in which it was

  16. Organised labour and neo-liberal economic and political reforms in West and Central Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konings, P.J.J.

    2003-01-01

    This article examines the impact of current neoliberal political reforms on trade union performance in West and Central Africa. To what extent have trade unions been involved in the political restructuring of the State? Has political liberalization constrained or enhanced their political influence a

  17. Efficacy of stem injection treatments on striped maple in central West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey D. Kochenderfer; James N. Kochenderfer

    2008-01-01

    Hack-and-squirt injection treatments were applied to individual striped maple (Acer pennsylvanicum L.) stems and to the largest stem in sprout clumps in a 25-year-old clearcut in central West Virginia to evaluate seasonal efficacy of imazapyr as Arsenal (28.7%) and glyphosate as Glypro Plus (41.0%) in water carriers. Complete control of injected...

  18. Successful and unsuccessful attempts to resolve caribou management and timber harvesting issues in west central Alberta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Hervieux

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Research studies of woodland caribou in west central Alberta began in 1979 in response to proposed timber harvesting on their winter ranges. Using results from initial studies, timber harvest guidelines were developed. A recent review of these guidelines, and the assumptions on which they were based, has resulted in a renegotiation by government and industry of timber harvesting on caribou range in west central Alberta. Caribou range in west central Alberta overlaps many jurisdictional boundaries: federal and provincial lands, four Forest Management Agreement Areas, three Alberta Land and Forest Service Regions and two Alberta Fish and Wildlife Service Regions. This jurisdictional complexity in combination with other factors such as total allocation of the timber resources, high levels of petroleum, natural gas and coal extraction activities, a high level of concern by public groups for caribou conservation and recent understanding of woodland caribou needs for abundant space has made resolution of caribou/timber harvest conflicts exceedingly slow and often relatively unproductive. This paper reviews 10 years of trying to resolve conflicts between timber harvesting and caribou conservation through meetings, committees, integrated resource planning, policy papers and public consultation. We describe what might be learned by other jurisdictions that are trying to resolve similar caribou/timber harvesting issues. We conclude with an overview of recent timber harvest planning initiatives on caribou range in west central Alberta.

  19. Early Cretaceous decapod Crustacea from the Neuquén Basin, west-central Argentina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aguirre-Urreta, Maria Beatriz

    2003-01-01

    Marine deposits of the Neuquén Basin of west-central Argentina (southern South America) are richly fossiliferous; its Mesozoic invertebrate faunas, represented mostly by molluscs, have been extensively studied since the nineteenth century. However, Early Cretaceous decapod crustaceans are far less k

  20. Decapod crustacean assemblages off the West coast of central Italy (western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Fanelli

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Community structure and faunal composition of decapod crustaceans off the west coast of central Italy (western Mediterranean were investigated. Samples were collected during five trawl surveys carried out from June 1996 to June 2000 from 16 to 750 m depth. Multivariate analysis revealed the occurrence of five faunistic assemblages: 1 a strictly coastal community over sandy bottoms at depths

  1. Reservoir characterisation of western Nuussuaq, central West Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soenderholm, Martin; Gregers, Dam

    1998-08-01

    The primary objective of the project was to provide the framework for initial quantitative reservoir models from those parts of the Nuussuaq Basin (West Greenland) which, based on present stratigraphic and structural data, seem to have the best exploration potential. Both existing and newly acquired data from geophysical, sedimentological, petrographical, petrophysical, geochemical and diagenesis studies have been used to characterise potential sandstone reservoirs on western Nuussuaq. It is anticipated that the results of the study will contribute to the planning of future exploration and GEUS activities in the region. The main part of the project has focused on data and material from wells drilled by groenArctic Inc. as part of their exploration commitments. These wells are mainly located in a volcanic terrain characterised by abundant oil seeps and where little or nothing was known about the subsurface geology prior to drilling. The volcanic terrain separates major sedimentary outcrop areas of Nuussuaq showing very different depositional environments. Sedimentological, geochemical and palynostratigraphical analyses of the sediments penetrated in the wells have therefore been essential in basin analysis. Main emphasis has been laid on the evaluation of diagenetic alterations with respect to reservoir properties of the GANT-1 core and on palynostratigraphical, lithological and petrophysical analyses of the GRO-3 well which encountered the so far thickest Cretaceous-Tertiary described section in the basin. This final report on the EFP-96 project `Reservoir modelling of western Nuussuaq` summarises the collection of all studies related to reservoir modelling of the Nuussuaq Basin. The combined results from the geophysical surveys, the organic geochemical and diagenesis studies and from the evaluation of GRO-3 have profound implications for future petroleum exploration activities in the Nuussuaq Basin. The geophysical data indicate that large, rotated fault blocks

  2. Notes on Old Stone Constructions of West and Central Sahara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark MILBURN

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El presente trabajo trata acerca de la tumba de TIN-HUMAN, HOGGAR, y la describe presentándola en relacón con los «monumentos en capilla» de Négrine, Tafilalet y Oeste del Sahara. Además, incluye comentarios sobre la rareza de las tumbas rectangulares con habitaciones interiores. Se hace una razonable exposición de los «monumentos fusiformes», conectados con la tradición del tránsito por barco a la vida futura. La tumba de TIN-HINAN combina características de los monumentos en capilla o habitación con aquellas otras de «monumentos de deambulatorio complejo».ABSTRACT: This work deals with the tomb of Tin-Hinan, Hoggar, and describes it as presenting a relationship with the «monuments à chapelle» of Négrine, Tafilalet and West Sahara which also have very large chambers. It also includes a commentarity on the rarity of rectangular tombs with interior chambers. It proposes a reasonable explanation of the «fusiformes monuments» as being connected with a tradition of a journey by ship to the after-life (this being suggested by their very shape. The tomb of Tin-Hinan combines characteristics of the «monument à chapelle ou à chambre» with those of a «monument à déambulatoire complexe».

  3. Recent crustal deformation in west-central South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Matthew Earl

    I use interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) to create maps of crustal deformation along the coast and within the volcanic arc of central South America. I image deformation associated with six subduction zone earthquakes, four volcanic centers, at least one shallow crustal earthquake, and several salt flats. In addition, I constrain the magnitude and location of post-seismic deformation from the aforementioned subduction zone earthquakes. I combine InSAR observations with data from the Global Positioning System (GPS) and teleseismic data to explore each source of deformation. I use the observations to constrain earthquake and volcanic processes of this subduction zone, including the plumbing system of the volcanoes and the decadal along strike variations in the subduction zone earthquake cycle. I created interferograms of over 900 volcanoes in the central Andes spanning 1992--2002, and found four areas of deformation. I constrained the temporal variability of the deformation, the depth of the sources of deformation assuming a variety of source geometries and crustal structures, and the possible cause of the deformation. I do not observe deformation associated with eruptions at several volcanoes, and I discuss the possible explanations for this lack of deformation. In addition, I constrain the amount of co-seismic and post-seismic slip on the subduction zone fault interface from the following earthquakes: 1995 Mw 8.1 Antofagasta, Chile; 1996 Mw 7.7 Nazca, Peru; 1998 Mw 7.1 Antofagasta, Chile; and 2001 Mw 8.4 Arequipa, Peru. In northern Chile, I compare the location and magnitude of co-seismic slip from 5 Mw > 7 earthquakes during the past 15 years with the post-seismic slip distribution. There is little post-seismic slip from the 1995 and 1996 earthquakes relative to the 2001 event and other recent subduction zone earthquakes.

  4. Tuna longline fishing around West and Central Pacific seamounts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telmo Morato

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Seamounts have been identified as aggregating locations for pelagic biodiversity including tuna; however the topography and prevailing oceanography differ between seamounts and not all are important for tuna. Although a relatively common feature in oceanic ecosystems, little information is available that identifies those that are biologically important. Improved knowledge offers opportunities for unique management of these areas, which may advance the sustainable management of oceanic resources. In this study, we evaluate the existence of an association between seamounts and tuna longline fisheries at the ocean basin scale, identify significant seamounts for tuna in the western and central Pacific Ocean, and quantify the seamount contribution to the tuna longline catch. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We use data collected for the Western and Central Pacific Ocean for bigeye, yellowfin, and albacore tuna at the ocean basin scale. GLMs were applied to a coupled dataset of longline fisheries catch and effort, and seamount location information. The analyses show that seamounts may be associated with an annual longline combined catch of 35 thousand tonnes, with higher catch apparent for yellowfin, bigeye, and albacore tuna on 17%, 14%, and 14% of seamounts respectively. In contrast 14%, 18%, and 20% of seamounts had significantly lower catches for yellowfin, bigeye and albacore tuna respectively. Studying catch data in relation to seamount positions presents several challenges such as bias in location of seamounts, or lack of spatial resolution of fisheries data. Whilst we recognize these limitations the criteria used for detecting significant seamounts were conservative and the error in identification is likely to be low albeit unknown. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Seamounts throughout the study area were found to either enhance or reduce tuna catch. This indicates that management of seamounts is important Pacific-wide, but management

  5. Mount Sinai Hospital's journey into TQM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, T; Mapa, J; Droppo, L

    1994-01-01

    Toronto's Mount Sinai Hospital commenced its total quality management journey in the late 1980s as a complement to its extensive experience in quality assurance. This article focuses on Phase I--the process of setting up teams. This phase includes project nomination and selection; team membership selection and education; and the quality improvement process. The authors share the lessons they learned during the course of the journey and present the directions that TQM at Mount Sinai will take in the future.

  6. Response of arid ecosystems to the Holocene climate variability along west and central Mediterranean gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaouadi, Sahbi; Combourieu Nebout, Nathalie; Azuara, Julien; Lebreton, Vincent

    2017-04-01

    Decadal to millennial climate variability is a common feature recorded by environmental series. However interconnections between climate forcing (i.e. insolation, thermohaline circulation) and large atmospheric circulation patterns (i.e. North Atlantic Oscillation, Mediterranean Oscillation, Monsoon) still remain poorly understood considering their respective impacts on the global climate mechanisms. In the Mediterranean area, joint climatic influences from high temperate and low subtropical latitudes result in a high sensitivity of ecosystems to climate changes and especially to extreme events. Several vegetation records illustrate millennial changes in Mediterranean. Nevertheless notable discrepancies in the environmental response arise between Mediterranean edges (east vs west, north vs south). The new paleoenvironmental record from Sebkha Boujmel (33°N, southern Tunisia) covers the last 8kyr and exhibits eight humid/arid fluctuations with cyclic expansion of the desert, related to Middle and Late Holocene rapid climate changes (RCC) occurring at a centennial scale. Sebkha Boujmel record is replaced in the wider context of west Mediterranean and northern hemisphere. Asynchronies and disparity of the Mediterranean RCC occurrence documents north-south and west-east climate gradients in the west Mediterranean and pinpoint Sebkha Boujmel as the single vegetation record tracing as many climate events during the last 8kyr. Indeed the high sensitivity of arid environments triggers the prompt reaction of the southern Tunisian vegetation to Holocene RCC however tenuous. Pattern of RCC geographical occurrence in west and central Mediterranean is interpreted in the light of climate forcings involved for the Holocene centennial variability.

  7. West Nile Virus Antibodies in Permanent Resident and Overwintering Migrant Birds in South-Central Kansas

    OpenAIRE

    Shelite, Thomas R.; Rogers, Christopher M.; Litzner, Brandon R.; Johnson, R. Roy; Schneegurt, Mark A.

    2008-01-01

    We conducted serological studies, using epitope-blocking ELISAs directed at West Nile virus (WNV) and flavivirus antibodies, of wild birds in south-central Kansas, the first for this state, in the winters of 2003–04 through 2005–06. Overwintering migratory species (primarily the American tree sparrow and dark-eyed junco) consistently showed significantly lower seropositivity than permanent residents (primarily the northern cardinal). The cardinal showed annual variation in seropositivity betw...

  8. Phosphorus Sorption Characteristics of Red Soils from Lampung, West- and Central Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syamsul Arifin Siradz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus Sorption Characteristics of Red Soils from Lampung, West- and Central Java (S.A. Siradz : Red soilis a common name used to identify any soil showing yellowish to reddish colour, these soils mainly occur in tropicaland subtropical regions. The term is frequently used to convey an image of red, infertile, acid soils in the tropics andis associated with tropical and subtropical climates which are characterized by high temperature and humidity. Majorsoil constraints to crop production may include low pH, low available P and high P fixation capacity, toxicity due toAl and sometimes Mn and Fe, deficiencies of N, Ca, Mg, K, and micronutrients e.g. Mo, Zn and Cu, low CEC and lowbase saturation, and very low content of weatherable minerals. The aim of this study was to determine the phosphorussorption characteristics of red soils from Lampung, West Java and Central Java. Soils were sampled at depth of 0-20cm from minimally disturbed sites after discarding the uppermost few cm consisting of an accumulation of litter. Thesamples were air-dried, crushed using a ceramic mortar and pestle and then passed through a 0.5 mm stainless steelsieve. Measurements of P sorption were conducted by equilibrating 200 mg of air dry soil ( West Java and Central Java. Values of pH(NaF, Ald, and exchangeable Ca were most predictive of Psorption in these soils.

  9. The Tayiba Red Beds: Transitional marine-continental deposits in the precursor Suez Rift, Sinai, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refaat, A. A.; Imam, M. M.

    1999-04-01

    The Tayiba Red Beds, exposed in the Abu Zenima area, west-central Sinai, have been intensively studied for their clay mineralogy and charophytes assemblages. Three surface sections exposed at Wadi El-Tayiba and Wadi Nukhul were studied. The Tayiba Formation uncomformably overlies the Middle Eocene Khaboba Formation at Wadi Nukhul and the Late Eocene Tanka Formation at Wadi El-Tayiba and commonly underlies the Early Miocene Nukhul Formation with unconformable relationships. The Tayiba Formation at Wadi Nukhul consists predominantly of continental coarse clastic sediments represented by polymictic conglomerates, alternating with red to pinkish mudstone, ferruginous sandstone and varicoloured mottled siltstone with plant remains. At Wadi El-Tayiba, the Tayiba Formation is represented by marine, yellow mudstone and red siltstone, alternating with greyish and reddish-yellow argillaceous to sandy limestone, highly fossiliferous with reworked Nummulites spp. and molluscan shell fragments. The mineralogical composition of the studied clay size fraction showed that most samples are dominated by illite, together with smectite, kaolinite and illite/smectite mixed layers. The relative proportion of these constituents shows wide variation. Smectite is more abundant than other constituents at Wadi El-Tayiba. The high content of smectite is usually accompanied by a terrigenous influx in the form of kaolinite and illite, reflecting deposition in an inner neritic shallow marine environment. The sediments of Wadi Nukhul are characterised by an appreciable proportion of illite, together with an illite/smectite mixed layer and minor amounts of kaolinite, suggesting deposition in fluviatile environments. The detailed investigation of charophytes (green algae) in the investigated sections showed that Wadi El-Tayiba is nearly barren of these microflorae, except for some benthic foraminifera from a shallow marine environment. In contrast, Wadi Nukhul yielded a high frequency and great

  10. Genetic diversity, evolutionary history and implications for conservation of the lion (Panthera leo) in West and Central Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertola, L. D.; Van Hooft, W. F.; Vrieling, K.; Uit de Weerd, D. R.; York, D. S.; Bauer, H.; Prins, H. H. T.; Funston, P. J.; Udo de Haes, H. A.; Leirs, H.; Van Haeringen, W. A.; Sogbohossou, E.; Tumenta, P. N.; De Iongh, H. H.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: In recent decades there has been a marked decline in the numbers of African lions (Panthera leo), especially in West Africa where the species is regionally endangered. Based on the climatological history of western Africa, we hypothesize that West and Central African lions have a unique evoluti

  11. The uppermost mantle seismic velocity and viscosity structure of central West Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, J. P.; Selway, K.; Nyblade, A. A.; Brazier, R. A.; Wiens, D. A.; Anandakrishnan, S.; Aster, R. C.; Huerta, A. D.; Wilson, T.; Winberry, J. P.

    2017-08-01

    Accurately monitoring and predicting the evolution of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet via secular changes in the Earth's gravity field requires knowledge of the underlying upper mantle viscosity structure. Published seismic models show the West Antarctic lithosphere to be ∼70-100 km thick and underlain by a low velocity zone extending to at least ∼200 km. Mantle viscosity is dependent on factors including temperature, grain size, the hydrogen content of olivine, the presence of partial melt and applied stress. As seismic wave propagation is particularly sensitive to thermal variations, seismic velocity provides a means of gauging mantle temperature. In 2012, a magnitude 5.6 intraplate earthquake in Marie Byrd Land was recorded on an array of POLENET-ANET seismometers deployed across West Antarctica. We modelled the waveforms recorded by six of the seismic stations in order to determine realistic estimates of temperature and lithology for the lithospheric mantle beneath Marie Byrd Land and the central West Antarctic Rift System. Published mantle xenolith and magnetotelluric data provided constraints on grain size and hydrogen content, respectively, for viscosity modelling. Considering tectonically-plausible stresses, we estimate that the viscosity of the lithospheric mantle beneath Marie Byrd Land and the central West Antarctic Rift System ranges from ∼1020-1022 Pa s. To extend our analysis to the sublithospheric seismic low velocity zone, we used a published shear wave model. We calculated that the velocity reduction observed between the base of the lithosphere (∼4.4-4.7 km/s) and the centre of the low velocity zone (∼4.2-4.3 km/s) beneath West Antarctica could be caused by a 0.1-0.3% melt fraction or a one order of magnitude reduction in grain size. However, the grain size reduction is inconsistent with our viscosity modelling constraints, suggesting that partial melt more feasibly explains the origin of the low velocity zone. Considering plausible

  12. Distribution of knock-down resistance mutations in Anopheles gambiae molecular forms in west and west-central Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caccone Adalgisa

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knock-down resistance (kdr to DDT and pyrethroids in the major Afrotropical vector species, Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto, is associated with two alternative point mutations at amino acid position 1014 of the voltage-gated sodium channel gene, resulting in either a leucine-phenylalanine (L1014F, or a leucine-serine (L1014S substitution. In An. gambiae S-form populations, the former mutation appears to be widespread in west Africa and has been recently reported from Uganda, while the latter, originally recorded in Kenya, has been recently found in Gabon, Cameroon and Equatorial Guinea. In M-form populations surveyed to date, only the L1014F mutation has been found, although less widespread and at lower frequencies than in sympatric S-form populations. Methods Anopheles gambiae M- and S-form specimens from 19 sites from 11 west and west-central African countries were identified to molecular form and genotyped at the kdr locus either by Hot Oligonucleotide Ligation Assay (HOLA or allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR. Results The kdr genotype was determined for about 1,000 An. gambiae specimens. The L1014F allele was found at frequencies ranging from 6% to 100% in all S-form samples (N = 628, with the exception of two samples from Angola, where it was absent, and coexisted with the L1014S allele in samples from Cameroon, Gabon and north-western Angola. The L1014F allele was present in M-form samples (N = 354 from Benin, Nigeria, and Cameroon, where both M- and S-forms were sympatric. Conclusion The results represent the most comprehensive effort to analyse the overall distribution of the L1014F and L1014S mutations in An. gambiae molecular forms, and will serve as baseline data for resistance monitoring. The overall picture shows that the emergence and spread of kdr alleles in An. gambiae is a dynamic process and that there is marked intra- and inter-form heterogeneity in resistance allele frequencies. Further studies are needed to

  13. Hepatitis E virus IgG seroprevalence in HIV patients and blood donors, west-central Poland

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    Maciej Bura

    2017-08-01

    Conclusions: Wielkopolska Region in west-central Poland is an area hyperendemic for HEV infection. In this part of Poland, the exposure of HIV-positive persons to this virus is not greater than that of healthy blood donors.

  14. Marine geoscientific surveys in ports and nearshore regions of the Arabian Sea off central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SubbaRaju, L.V.; Naidu, P.D.; Almeida, F.

    Bathymetric, side scan sonar and shallow seismic surveys were carried out in ports and adjacent nearshore regions of the Arabian Sea off the central west coast of India. It is observed that in the regions of rivers confluencing the sea...

  15. Geochemical and diatom records of recent changes in depositional environment of a tropical wetland, central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pande, A.; Nayak, G.N.; Prasad, V.; PrakashBabu, C

    Two mudflat sediment cores collected from a sub-channel (S-61) and the main channel (S-60) of a tropical wetland, along central west coast of India, were investigated for recent changes in depositional environment using geochemical (sediment grain...

  16. Genetic Diversity of Porang Populations (Amorphophallus Muelleri Blume) In Central Java and West Java Based on LEAFY Second Intron Marker

    OpenAIRE

    Isna Arofatun Nikmah; Rodiyati Azrianingsih; Didik Wahyudi

    2016-01-01

    Porang (Amorphophallus muelleri Blume) is dispersed and grew well in Java island. This research aimed to determine the genetic diversity of porang populations in Central Java and West Java based on LEAFY second intron (nuclear genome encoding flower development). DNA samples of porang were from previous study, which were obtained from Central Java (Pamedaran, Grobogan, Wonogiri, Karangtengah) and West Java (Cisompet) as in-group. Amorphophallus variabilis from Pamedaran Brebes, Amorphophallus...

  17. Geologic history and hydrogeologic setting of the Edwards-Trinity aquifer system, west-central Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, R.A.; Bush, P.W.; Baker, E.T.

    1994-01-01

    The Edwards-Trinity aquifer system underlies about 42,000 square miles of west-central Texas. Nearly flat-lying, mostly Comanche (Lower Cretaceous) strata of the aquifer system thin northwestward atop massive pre-Cretaceous rocks that are comparatively impermeable and structurally complex. From predominately terrigenous clastic sediments in the east and fluvialdeltaic (terrestrial) deposits in the west, the rocks of early Trinitian age grade upward into supratidal evaporitic and dolomitic strata, intertidal limestone and dolostone, and shallow-marine, openshelf, and reefal strata of late Trinitian, Fredericksburgian, and Washitan age. A thick, downfaulted remnant of mostly open-marine strata of Eaglefordian through Navarroan age composes a small, southeastern part of the aquifer system.

  18. A tectonically controlled basin-fill within the Valle del Cauca, West-Central Colombia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rine, J.M.; Keith, J.F. Jr.; Alfonso, C.A.; Ballesteros, I.; Laverde, F.; Sacks, P.E.; Secor, D.T. Jr. (Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia (United States)); Perez, V.E.; Bernal, I.; Cordoba, F.; Numpaque, L.E. (Ecopetrol, Bogota (Colombia))

    1993-02-01

    Tertiary strata of the Valle del Cauca reflect a forearc/foreland basin tectonic history spanning a period from pre-uplift of the Cordillera Central to initiation of uplift of the Cordillera Occidental. Stratigraphy of the Valle del Cauca begins with Jurassic-Cretaceous rocks of exotic and/or volcanic provenance and of oceanic origin. Unconformably overlying these are Eocene to Oligocene basal quartz-rich sandstones, shallow marine algal limestones, and fine-grained fluvial/deltaic mudstones and sandstones with coalbeds. These Eocene to Oligocene deposits represent a period of low tectonic activity. During late Oligocene to early Miocene, increased tectonic activity produced conglomeratic sediments which were transported from east to west, apparently derived from uplift of the Cordillera Central, and deposited within a fluvial to deltaic setting. East-west shortening of the Valle del Cauca basin folded the Eocene to early Miocene units, and additional uplift of the Cordillera Central during the later Miocene resulted in syn-tectonic deposition of alluvial fans. After additional fold and thrust deformation of the total Eocene-Miocene basin-fill, tectonic activity abated and Pliocene-Quaternary alluvial and lacustrine strata were deposited. Within the framework of this depositional and tectonic history of the Valle del Cauca, hydrocarbon exploration strategies can be formulated and evaluated.

  19. Sinais e sintomas da disfunção temporomandibular nas diferentes regiões brasileiras Signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders across Brazilian regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamaria Siriani de Oliveira

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a prevalência da severidade de sinais e sintomas de disfunção temporomandibular (DTM em não-pacientes nas diferentes regiões do país. Questionários foram aplicados a 2.396 universitários, dos quais 73,7% mulheres (21±5 anos e 26,3% homens (22±4 anos. Determinado o nível de severidade dos sinais e sintomas da DTM, os dados foram tratados estatisticamente, com nível de significância de 5%. Maior prevalência de sinais e sintomas de DTM foi constatada para o sexo feminino (73,03%. Na região Centro-Oeste não foi observada diferença significante entre estudantes com sinais e sintomas de DTM moderada e severa; mas aí há mais probabilidade de encontrar universitários com sinais e sintomas severos do que nas demais regiões. A região Sul apresentou maior porcentagem de estudantes com sinais e sintomas, porém com menor severidade que nas demais regiões. No Nordeste e no Sul, é mais provável encontrar universitários sem sinais e sintomas que universitárias. Pode-se concluir que a porcentagem de universitários não-pacientes portadores de algum nível de severidade de sinais e sintomas da DTM foi maior que a de não-portadores, em todas as regiões. Diferentes regiões apresentam diferentes probabilidades de se encontrarem universitários com algum sinal ou sintoma de DTM.The aim of this study was to assess prevalence of temporomandibular disorders (TMD signs and symptoms in non-patients from different Brazilian geographic areas. Questionnaires were applied to 2,396 college students, of which 73.7% were women (aged 21±5 and 26.3% men (aged 22±4. Once severity levels were classified, data were statistically treated, and significance level set at 5%. Greater percentage of TMD signs and symptoms was found in women (73.03% than among men. No significant differences between percentages of students with moderate and severe signs and symptoms were found in Central-West region - where chances of

  20. Determination of Water Sensitivity Index in EstakoWest and Esan Central, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipa O. Idogho

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available As world population and industrial-agricultural outputs have increased, the use of water has accelerated. This development leads to extreme difficulty to provide sufficient safe drinking water in Etasko-West and Esan Central. Water sensitivity was measured in six major towns in Etasko-West and Esan Central. Water Measuring Indicators such as Water Poverty Index-Real Time (WPIr, Water Factor Value (WFV and Access-Demand Factor (γ were applied to generate water sensitivity iterations. The outputs of these iterations show that Irrua has the fairest water supply and distribution with WPIr, WFA and γ index value of 0.22; 0.77 and 0.76, while Auchi and Ewu experience acute water shortage with the following index values: WPIr-0.43, 0.39; WFV-0.06, 0.16; and γ-0.64, 0.6 respectively. Results of One-Sample Test and Paired Sample Statistics show that the proportion of monthly income spent on portable water is significant at 0.95 confidence interval in all towns, except Auchi. Comparative analysis indicates strong relationship (R 2=0.667 between the resources spent in procuring clean water and accessibility-demand ratio in the region. Private sector participation recorded highest investment value of 62% on water sector; government and corporate organization recorded 23% and 15% respectively. Since private sector determines the progresses of water sector, this accounts for the exorbitant tariff of 1, 500 N per m 3 in this region. It is deduced that the most significant problems faced with water accessibility-affordability are transportation, finance and power supply with computed constraint index value of 47%, 40% and 13% respectively. Finally, Etasko-West and Esan Central are highly waterstressed. Government, corporate organization and private investors need to establish technically-based measures to ensure perfect accessibility and affordability of this scarce utility.

  1. Mortality of vertebrates in irrigation canals in an area of west-central Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Garcia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Mortality patterns of vertebrates in irrigation canals have been poorly studied despite their potential impact on wildlife. Concrete irrigation canals in a cropland area in west-central Spain were monitored over 13 months to assess their impact on small fauna. A total of 134 vertebrates were found dead. Most were amphibians (86.46% or mammals (20.90%, though fishes, reptiles and a bird were also recorded. Mortality peaked in autumn months. Corrective measurements are needed to reduce this cause of non-natural mortality.

  2. West Nile Virus Infection in the Central Nervous System [version 1; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro R. Winkelmann

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available West Nile virus (WNV, a neurotropic single-stranded flavivirus has been the leading cause of arboviral encephalitis worldwide.  Up to 50% of WNV convalescent patients in the United States were reported to have long-term neurological sequelae.  Neither antiviral drugs nor vaccines are available for humans.  Animal models have been used to investigate WNV pathogenesis and host immune response in humans.  In this review, we will discuss recent findings from studies in animal models of WNV infection, and provide new insights on WNV pathogenesis and WNV-induced host immunity in the central nervous system.

  3. Anthropogenic influence on recent bathymetric change in west-central San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Kvitek, Rikk G.

    2010-01-01

    Two multibeam sonar surveys of west-central San Francisco Bay, California, were conducted in 1997 and 2008. Bathymetric change analysis between the two surveys indicates a loss of 14.1 million cubic meters (-3.1 cm/yr-1) of sediment during this time period, representing an approximately three-fold acceleration of the rate that was observed from prior depth change analysis from 1947 to 1979 for all of Central Bay, using more spatially coarse National Ocean Service (NOS) soundings. The portions of the overlapping survey areas between 1997 and 2008 designated as aggregate mining lease sites lost sediment at five times the rate of the remainder of west-central San Francisco Bay. Despite covering only 28% of the analysis area, volume change within leasing areas accounted for 9.2 million cubic meters of sediment loss, while the rest of the area lost 4.9 million cubic meters of sediment. The uncertainty of this recent analysis is more tightly constrained due to more stringent controls on vertical and horizontal position via tightly coupled, inertially aided differential Global Positioning Systems (GPS) solutions for survey vessel trajectory that virtually eliminate inaccuracies from traditional tide modeling and vessel motion artifacts. Further, quantification of systematic depth measurement error can now be calculated through comparison of static surfaces (e.g., bedrock) between surveys using seafloor habitat maps based on acoustic backscatter measurements and ground-truthing with grab samples and underwater video. Sediment loss in the entire San Francisco Bay Coastal System during the last half-century,as estimated from a series of bathymetric change studies, is 240 million cubic meters, and most of this is believed to be coarse sediment (i.e., sand and gravel) from Central Bay and the San Francisco Bar, which is likely to limit the sand supply to adjacent, open-coast beaches. This hypothesis is supported by a calibrated numerical model in a related study that indicates

  4. Tracing the origin of the east-west population admixture in the Altai region (Central Asia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes González-Ruiz

    Full Text Available A recent discovery of Iron Age burials (Pazyryk culture in the Altai Mountains of Mongolia may shed light on the mode and tempo of the generation of the current genetic east-west population admixture in Central Asia. Studies on ancient mitochondrial DNA of this region suggest that the Altai Mountains played the role of a geographical barrier between West and East Eurasian lineages until the beginning of the Iron Age. After the 7th century BC, coinciding with Scythian expansion across the Eurasian steppes, a gradual influx of East Eurasian sequences in Western steppes is detected. However, the underlying events behind the genetic admixture in Altai during the Iron Age are still unresolved: 1 whether it was a result of migratory events (eastward firstly, westward secondly, or 2 whether it was a result of a local demographic expansion in a 'contact zone' between European and East Asian people. In the present work, we analyzed the mitochondrial DNA lineages in human remains from Bronze and Iron Age burials of Mongolian Altai. Here we present support to the hypothesis that the gene pool of Iron Age inhabitants of Mongolian Altai was similar to that of western Iron Age Altaians (Russia and Kazakhstan. Thus, this people not only shared the same culture (Pazyryk, but also shared the same genetic east-west population admixture. In turn, Pazyryks appear to have a similar gene pool that current Altaians. Our results further show that Iron Age Altaians displayed mitochondrial lineages already present around Altai region before the Iron Age. This would provide support for a demographic expansion of local people of Altai instead of westward or eastward migratory events, as the demographic event behind the high population genetic admixture and diversity in Central Asia.

  5. Population structure of clinical Pseudomonas aeruginosa from West and Central African countries.

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    Pascal Cholley

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA has a non-clonal, epidemic population with a few widely distributed and frequently encountered sequence types (STs called 'high-risk clusters'. Clinical P. aeruginosa (clinPA has been studied in all inhabited continents excepted in Africa, where a very few isolates have been analyzed. Here, we characterized a collection of clinPA isolates from four countries of West and Central Africa.184 non-redundant isolates of clinPA from hospitals of Senegal, Ivory Coast, Nigeria, and Central African Republic were genotyped by MLST. We assessed their resistance level to antibiotics by agar diffusion and identified the extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs and metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs by sequencing. The population structure of the species was determined by a nucleotide-based analysis of the entire PA MLST database and further localized on the phylogenetic tree (i the sequence types (STs of the present collection, (ii the STs by continents, (iii ESBL- and MBL-producing STs from the MLST database.We found 80 distinct STs, of which 24 had no relationship with any known STs. 'High-risk' international clonal complexes (CC155, CC244, CC235 were frequently found in West and Central Africa. The five VIM-2-producing isolates belonged to CC233 and CC244. GES-1 and GES-9 enzymes were produced by one CC235 and one ST1469 isolate, respectively. We showed the spread of 'high-risk' international clonal complexes, often described as multidrug-resistant on other continents, with a fully susceptible phenotype. The MBL- and ESBL-producing STs were scattered throughout the phylogenetic tree and our data suggest a poor association between a continent and a specific phylogroup.ESBL- and MBL-encoding genes are borne by both successful international clonal complexes and distinct local STs in clinPA of West and Central Africa. Furthermore, our data suggest that the spread of a ST could be either due to its antibiotic resistance or to features

  6. Role of west Asian surface pressure in summer monsoon onset over central India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Arindam; Agrawal, Shubhi

    2017-07-01

    Using rain-gauge measurements and reanalysis data sets for 1948-2015, we propose a mechanism that controls the interannual variation of summer monsoon onset over central India. In May, about a month before the onset, the low level jet over the Arabian Sea is about 40% stronger and about 2.5 degrees northward during years of early onset as compared to years of late onset. A stronger and northward shifted low level jet carries about 50% more moisture in early onset years, which increases low level moist static energy over central India in the pre-monsoon season. The increase in low level moist static energy decreases the stability of the atmosphere and makes it conducive for convection. The strength and position of the low level jet are determined by surface pressure gradient between western Asia and the west-equatorial Indian Ocean. Thus, an anomalous surface pressure low over western Asia in the pre-monsoon season increases this gradient and strengthens the jet. Moreover, a stronger low level jet increases the meridional shear of zonal wind and supports the formation of an onset vortex in a stronger baroclinic atmosphere. These developments are favourable for an early onset of the monsoon over the central Indian region. Our study postulates a new physical mechanism for the interannual variation of onset over central India, the core of the Indian monsoon region and relevant to Indian agriculture, and could be tested for real-time prediction.

  7. Hydrologic reconnaissance of the southern Great Salt Lake Desert and summary of the hydrology of west-central Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Joseph S.; Kruer, Stacie A.

    1981-01-01

    This report is the last of 19 hydrologic reconnaissances of the basins in western Utah. The purposes of this series of studies are (1) to analyze available hydrologic data and describe the hydrologic system, (2) to evaluate existing and potential water-resources development, and (3) to identify additional studies that might be needed. Part 1 of this report gives an estimate of recharge and discharge, an estimate of the potential for water-resources development, and a statement on the quality of water in the southern Great Salt Lake Desert part of west-central Utah. Part 2 deals with the same aspects of west-central Utah as a whole. Part 2 also summarizes the evidence of interbasin ground-water flow in west-central Utah and presents a theory for the origin of the water discharged from Fish Springs.

  8. Response of zooplankton to physical changes in the environment: coastal upwelling along central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Madhupratap, M.; Nair, S.R.S.; Haridas, P.; Padmavati, G.

    Research 413-426 Fort Lauderdale, Florida Response of Zooplankton to Physical Changes in the Environment: Coastal Upwelling Along the Central West Coast of India b~ M. Madhupratap,t S.R. Sreekumaran Nair/ P. Haridas,* and Gadi PadmavatP tNational Institute... of zooplankton to physical changes in the environment: COlistlil upwelling along the central west coast of India. Journal of Coastal Research, 6(2), 413-426. Fort Lauderdale (Florida). ISSN 0749-0208. Zooplankton composition lind abundance were studied in a...

  9. Physical characteristics of stream subbasins in the Pomme de Terre River Basin, west-central Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, D.L.; Payne, G.A.

    1994-01-01

    Data describing the physical characteristics of stream subbasins upstream from selected points on streams in the Pomme de Terre River Basin, located in west-central Minnesota, are presented in this report. The physical characteristics are the drainage area of the subbasin, the percentage area of the subbasin covered only by lakes, the percentage area of the subbasin covered by both lakes and wetlands, the main-channel length, and the main-channel slope. The points on the stream include outlets of subbasins of at least 5 square miles, outfalls of sewage treatment plants, and locations of U.S. Geological Survey low-flow, high-flow, and continuous-record gaging stations.

  10. Flood of May 6, 2007, Willow Creek, west-central Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Edward E.; Eash, David A.

    2008-01-01

    Major flooding occurred May 6, 2007, in the Willow Creek drainage basin in Harrison County following severe thunderstorm activity over west-central Iowa. More than 7 inches of rain were recorded for the 72-hour period ending 7 a.m., May 6, at the Logan, Iowa weather station. The peak discharge in Willow Creek at Medford Avenue near Missouri Valley, Iowa, was 17,000 cubic feet per second. The recurrence interval of the flood is 160 years, which was estimated using regional regression equations. Information about the basin, the storms, the flooding, and a profile of high-water marks measured at 10 locations along Willow Creek between the mouth at the Boyer River and State Highway 37 in Monona County, a distance of almost 33 river miles, are presented in this report.

  11. Antimicrobial susceptibility of environmental bovine mastitis pathogens in west central Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Azizollah; Kheirabadi, K H Pirali; Nikookhah, Farzaneh

    2007-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe antimicrobial susceptibility of environmental mastitis pathogens isolated from dairy herds of Chahar Mahal province in west central Iran. Out of the 620 milk samples collected from the four districts, 180 were CMT (California mastitis test) positive that cultured and yield, 7 (3.88%) coagulase negative Staphylococci (CNS), 15 (8.33%) Streptococci other than agalactiae and 17 (9.44%) E. coli. CNS resistance to penicillin was 14.28% but for streptomycin, Oxytetracycline and Colistin, were 28.57%. Non agalactiae Streptococci resistance to Oxytetracycline and Kanamycin were 20 and 13.33%, respectively. E. coli resistance to penicillin, oxytetracycline, streptomycin, erythromycin and Colistin were 88.23, 82.35, 76.47, 76.47 and 52.94%, respectively.

  12. The genus Cephaloleia (Coleoptera:Chrysomelidae) in Central America and the West Indies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staines, C L

    1996-01-01

    The species of Cephaloleia Chevrolat known to occur in Central America and the West Indies are revised and a key to the 88 species is presented. Most species are illustrated. Twenty new species of Cephaloleia are described: amblys, cylindrica, eumorpha, erugatus, facetus, formosus, lepida, scitulus, and weisei from Panamá; delectabilis and presignis from México; brunnea and rubra from Trinidad; immaculata, triangularis, and viltata from Costa Rica; splendida and uhmanni from Costa Rica and Panamá; cyanea from Costa Rica, Colombia, and Venezuela; and varabilis from Panamá and Colombia. Three new synonyms are given: abscissa Uhmann (= dilaticollis Baly), beckeri Weise (= gratiosa Baly), and quadrimaculata Uhmann (= fenestrata Weise). Lectotypes are designated for eleven species: belti Baly, consanguinea Baly, elegantula Baly, fulvicollis Weise, instabilis Baly, nigropicta Baly, postuma Weise, quadrilineata Baly, separata Baly, stenosoma Baly, and vicina Baly. Two species are transferred from Demotispa to Cephaloleia: coeruleata Sanderson and costaricensis Uhmann. Cephaloleia coeruleata (Sanderson) is renamed C. sandersoni.

  13. LIPID PRODUCING MICROALGAE FROM SEVERAL ECOSYSTEMS IN WEST AND CENTRAL JAVA, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DWI ANDREAS SANTOSA

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed to get lipid producing microalgae as feedstock for biofuel production. The microalgae were isolated from 355 collected water samples which represented many distinct ecosystems such as paddy fields, rivers, agricultural dams, ponds, swampy areas and unique ecosystem of volcano and mud-volcano craters in West- and Central Java, Indonesia. A total of 267 strains of microalgae were isolated from the samples of which 221 strains of them have capability to produce lipid. There were four promising strains that produce lipid between 14.7 – 45.7 percent dry weight in optimal condition that were identified as Chlamydomonas sp. KO-7267 and PK-7195, Chlorella sp. KS-7300 and Desmodesmus sp. BK-7291.

  14. Compliance with the guidelines of prescription writing in a central hospital in the West Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayem, Y I; Ibrahim, M A; Qubaja, M M; Shraim, R K; Taha, O B; Abu Shkhedem, E

    2013-09-01

    This retrospective, cross-sectional study was carried out to evaluate the quality of 2208 outpatient prescriptions in a central hospital in the West Bank, Palestine. The physicians' handwriting was poorly readable or illegible in one-third of the prescriptions. The prescriber's name and signature and patient's name were mentioned in almost all orders whereas the patient's age was stated in 54.9%. The vast majority of physicians (95.5%) prescribed drugs using their trade (brand) names. Drug strength, quantity and dose/frequency were stated in 61.1%, 76% and 73.8% of prescriptions respectively. Only 33 prescriptions (1.5%) contained full directions for use for all drugs. Correlation analysis revealed that the presence of certain prescription elements was statistically significantly associated with the clinic of origin and the number of drugs prescribed. The overall poor legibility and incompleteness of the prescriptions is of concern.

  15. Impact of fine debris on ice melt rates at Russell Glacier, central-west Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Rachel; Linighan, James; Cumming, Alex M. J.

    2017-04-01

    Losses from the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) have increased sharply in recent years, due to accelerated glacier discharge and increased surface melting. In 2012, 99% of the Greenland ice sheet experienced melt, which was exceptional on centennial timescales, but is expected to occur frequently in the future, as climate warms. Ice albedo is a primary control on melt rates and remotely sensed data shows that the GrIS has darkened substantial in recent decades, due to both inorganic and biological material. This has been particularly marked in south- and central-west Greenland and can lead to the development of positive feedbacks. Consequently, it is important to understand the relationship between melt and surface albedo on the GrIS. Here we use a combination of satellite remote sensing and field data to assess the impact of fine debris on melt rates at Russell Glacier, central-west Greenland. Our field data demonstrate that areas with a greater percentage coverage of fine, largely inorganic debris experienced higher melt rates than in areas with a sparse coverage. However, the relationship between melt and debris cover was highly spatially variable. Furthermore, the debris cover evolved substantially over time and we saw marked changes over a period of a few days. Using ASTER imagery, we show that the spatial extent of debris has expanded markedly in this section of the GrIS during the last decade, which could substantially accelerate melting. However, the complex and variable relationship between debris cover and melt rates highlights the need for further research, in order to accurately forecast its impact on GrIS melt rates.

  16. The West Central Alberta Woodland Caribou Landscape Plan: Using a Modeling Approach to Develop Alternative Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Hubbs

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus are classified as threatened in Alberta. In support of Canada's Species at Risk Act, a Recovery Plan for Woodland Caribou in Alberta was completed in 2004 which required local implementation plans to be completed within 5 areas of the province. The West Central Alberta Caribou Landscape Plan (WCCLP is the first of these to be initiated and it addresses the recovery strategies for 4 herds. Two aspatial computer models built on the STELLA© modelling platform (ISee Systems, 2007 were used to assist the planning team in evaluating cumulative effects and alternative scenarios for caribou conservation. The ALCES© (Forem Technologies 2008 modelling tool was used to forecast potential changes in the west central Alberta landscape over time. Yearly landscape condition outputs from ALCES© were then exported into a caribou-specific population model, REMUS© (Weclaw, 2004, that was used to project potential population responses by woodland caribou, other primary prey species [moose (Alces alces, elk (Cervus elaphus and deer (Odocoileus sp.] and wolves (Canis lupus (Weclaw & Hudson, 2004. Simulated habitat management strategies that resulted in the highest likelihood of caribou recovery included the maintenance of a high proportion of old forest, the aggregation of industrial footprints and the reclamation of historic seismic lines (although the latter took decades to provide real dividends. Sharing of industrial roads, protection of fragments of old-growth, and expanding an already aggressive fire control strategy in Alberta had little additional effect on caribou recovery. Simulated population management strategies that were successful all involved decades of intensive wolf control, either directly or indirectly through intensive primary prey control (with the exception of woodland caribou until old-growth forests recovered to densities that provided caribou habitat and decreased alternate prey of wolves. Although

  17. Late Neogene slip transfer and extension within the curved Whisky Flat fault system central Walker Lane, west-central Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biholar, Alexander Kenneth Casian

    In Whisky Flat of west-central Nevada, northwest-striking faults in the Walker Lane curve to east-northeast orientations at the northern limits of the Mina deflection. This curve in strike results in the formation of ˜685 m deep depression bounded by north-south convex to the east range-front faults that at the apex of fault curvature are bisected at a high angle by a structural stepover. We use the vertical offset of a late Miocene erosional surface mapped in the highlands and inferred from gravity depth inversion in the basin to measure the magnitude of displacement on faults. A N65°W extensional axis determined through fault-slip inversion is used to constrain the direction in displacement models. Through the use of a forward rectilinear displacement model, we document that the complex array of faults is capable of developing with broadly contemporaneous displacements on all structures since the opening of the basin during the Pliocene.

  18. Raccoon (Procyon lotor) diurnal den use within an intensively managed forest in central West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Sheldon F.; Berl, Jacob L.; Edwards, John W.; Ford, W. Mark; Wood, Petra Bohall

    2015-01-01

    Intensive forest management may influence the availability of suitable den sites for large den-seeking species, such as Procyon lotor (Raccoon). As part of a Raccoon ecology study on an industrial forest in the Allegheny Mountains of central West Virginia, we radio-tracked 32 Raccoons to 175 diurnal den sites to determine relative use of dens that included cavity trees, rock dens, log piles, slash piles, and exposed limbs. Patterns of den use significantly differed between sexes and among seasons. Overall, we recorded 58 cavity dens in 12 tree species with 7 maternal dens found in 5 tree species. Raccoons selected larger-diameter den trees than available cavity trees and non-cavity trees. Because the abundance of suitable tree cavities is known to influence Raccoon densities and recruitment at fine spatial scales and female Raccoons in this study used tree cavities as maternal den sites, the continued harvest of large-diameter trees (i.e., those capable of developing den cavities) without replacement may impact Raccoon recruitment within intensively managed forests throughout the central Appalachians.

  19. Lower and middle Guadalupian shelf carbonates, eastern margin of Central Basin platform, Permian basin, west Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, R.F.; Chalcraft, R.G.

    1988-01-01

    Lower and middle Guadalupian shelf carbonates serve as the reservoir for a nearly continuous band of oil fields extending 100 mi along the eastern margin of the Central Basin platform of west Texas. Approximately 5 billion bbl of oil have been produced from stratigraphic-structural traps within the Upper Permian (Gaudalupian Series) dolomites of the San Andrea and Grayburg Formations in Upton, Crane, Ector, Pecos, and Andrews Counties, Texas. The San Andrea and Grayburg Formations are cyclical shallowing-upward carbonate sequences of open shelf through sabkha facies whose depositional strike parallels the eastern margin of the Central Basin platform. Porosity and permeability of reservoir rock are governed by diagenetic processes such as dolomitization, anhydrite porosity occlusion, leaching, silicification, and authigenic clay formation. Self sediments are primarily burrowed wackestones and packstones that locally contain pelletal, skeletal, and ooid grainstones. Typical subtidal shelf sediments are capped by algal-laminated dolomite, nodular anhydritic dolomite, and bedded anhydrite. The fauna is normally sparse and dominated by foraminifera and algae. Less common faunal components include pelecypods, crinoids, sponges, Bryozoa, brachiopods, gastropods, and coral that are associated with the development of small scattered patch reefs. Lowering the sea level during the early Guadalpian initiated basinward progradation of San Andres carbonate facies with hydrocarbon reservoirs best developed in shallow self fusulinid wackestones to packstone and oolitic grainstone. Reservoir dolomites of the Grayburg formation are present east of San Andres fields with optimal reservoir properties occurring near the San Andreas outer shelf margin.

  20. REGIONAL EMISSIONS OF NITRIC OXIDE (NO) AND CARBON DIOXIDE (CO2) IN AGROECOSYSTEMS IN CENTRAL WEST REGION, BRAZIL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Central West Region in Brazil has been the focus of intense agricultural expansion since the 1970s and, nowadays, a large area of native cerrado has been converted to agricultural use. The expansion was accompanied by intensive use of fertilizer, irrigation and management pra...

  1. Origin of amphibole-rich beach sands from Tila-Mati, Karwar, central-west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mislankar, P.G.; Iyer, S.D.

    The pocket beach at Tila-Mati, Karwar, central west coast of India, is characterised by the occurrence of amphibole-rich (chiefly tremolite-actinolite) coarse sand in the zone of minimal impact of waves and currents. In the total sediment, grain...

  2. Community structure and coral health status across the depth gradients of Grande Island, Central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Manikandan, B.; Ravindran, J.; Mohan, H.; Periasamy, R.; ManiMurali, R.; Ingole, B.S.

    The Grande Island, located at the central west coast of India is one of the less studied coral reef systems in India. In this study, we provide a comprehensive description of the coral community structure and health status of corals across...

  3. REGIONAL EMISSIONS OF NITRIC OXIDE (NO) AND CARBON DIOXIDE (CO2) IN AGROECOSYSTEMS IN CENTRAL WEST REGION, BRAZIL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Central West Region in Brazil has been the focus of intense agricultural expansion since the 1970s and, nowadays, a large area of native cerrado has been converted to agricultural use. The expansion was accompanied by intensive use of fertilizer, irrigation and management pra...

  4. On the distribution of fluoride, calcium and magnesium in the waters off the central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naik, S.; Dias, C.F.M.

    The distribution of fluoride, calcium and magnesium was studied in the waters off the central west coast of India. The averages F/Cl, Ca/Cl and Mg/Cl ratios observed are (6.83 plus or minus 0.023) x 10@u-5@@, (0.02194 plus or minus 0.00068) and (0...

  5. 'Then give him to the crocodiles' : violence, State formation, and cultural discontinuity in west central Zambia, 1600-2000

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binsbergen, van W.M.J.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to explore the extent to which violence can be said to underlie any form of Stae formation in precolonial Africa. This is done by examining the role of violence in State formation in west central Zambia from the 17th century onwards. The chapter shows that State format

  6. An Exploration of the Associations among Hearing Loss, Physical Health, and Visual Memory in Adults from West Central Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay-McCutcheon, Marcia J.; Hyams, Adriana; Yang, Xin; Parton, Jason; Panasiuk, Brianna; Ondocsin, Sarah; James, Mary Margaret; Scogin, Forrest

    Purpose: The purpose of this preliminary study was to explore the associations among hearing loss, physical health, and visual memory in adults living in rural areas, urban clusters, and an urban city in west Central Alabama. Method: Two hundred ninety-seven adults (182 women, 115 men) from rural areas, urban clusters, and an urban city of west…

  7. Tendencies of mortality by prostate cancer in the states of the Central-West Region of Brazil, 1980-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, João Francisco Santos; Mattos, Inês Echenique; Aydos, Ricardo Dutra

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at analyzing the pattern of prostate cancer mortality in the Central-West Region, in the period 1980 - 2011. The quadrennial and annual mortality rates, age-standardized by the world population, were calculated. Polynomial regression models were estimated to analyze trends of mortality in Brazilian regions and in the states of the Central-West Region. Throughout Brazil there was an increase in the magnitude of mortality rates during the study's period. In the Central-West Region, mortality rates from prostate cancer increased from 7.65/100,000 in the period 1980 - 1983, to 14.36/100,000 in the last four years, exceeding the national average. For Mato Grosso do Sul, an increased trend, although not constant, was observed for prostate mortality rates, while those rates showed stability for Mato Grosso and presented a constant trend of increment for Goiás along the studied period. There was a statistically significant negative correlation between mortality rates from prostate cancer and the proportional mortality from ill-defined causes of death in the three states, but no correlations were observed between these rates and the ratios of Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) tests realized. Difficulties in the access to the health services network, better quality of death records with reduction of ill-defined causes and increased use of PSA may have contributed to the mortality pattern observed in the Central-West Region. Further studies are needed to investigate these relationships in order, to better understand the patterns of mortality from this cancer in the Central-West population.

  8. Ocean forcing of Ice Sheet retreat in central west Greenland from LGM to the early Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Anne E.; Andrews, John T.; Ó Cofaigh, Colm; Onge, Guillaume St.; Sheldon, Christina; Belt, Simon T.; Cabedo-Sanz, Patricia; Hillaire-Marcel, Claude

    2017-08-01

    Three radiocarbon dated sediment cores from trough mouth fans on the central west Greenland continental slope were studied to determine the timing and processes of Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS) retreat from the shelf edge during the last deglaciation and to test the role of ocean forcing (i.e. warm ocean water) thereon. Analyses of lithofacies, quantitative x-ray diffraction mineralogy, benthic foraminiferal assemblages, the sea-ice biomarker IP25, and δ18 O of the planktonic foraminifera Neogloboquadrina pachyderma sinistral from sediments in the interval from 17.5-10.8 cal ka BP provide consistent evidence for ocean and ice sheet interactions during central west Greenland (CWG) deglaciation. The Disko and Uummannaq ice streams both retreated from the shelf edge after the last glacial maximum (LGM) under the influence of subsurface, warm Atlantic Water. The warm subsurface water was limited to depths below the ice stream grounding lines during the LGM, when the GIS terminated as a floating ice shelf in a sea-ice covered Baffin Bay. The deeper Uummannaq ice stream retreated first (ca. 17.1 cal ka BP), while the shallower Disko ice stream retreated at ca. 16.2 cal ka BP. The grounding lines were protected from accelerating mass loss (calving) by a buttressing ice shelf and by landward shallowing bathymetry on the outer shelf. Calving retreat was delayed until ca. 15.3 cal ka BP in the Uummannaq Trough and until 15.1 cal ka BP in the Disko Trough, during another interval of ocean warming. Instabilities in the Laurentide, Innuitian and Greenland ice sheets with outlets draining into northern Baffin Bay periodically released cold, fresh water that enhanced sea ice formation and slowed GIS melt. During the Younger Dryas, the CWG records document strong cooling, lack of GIS meltwater, and an increase in iceberg rafted material from northern Baffin Bay. The ice sheet remained in the cross-shelf troughs until the early Holocene, when it retreated rapidly by calving and strong

  9. Morphotectonics of the Central Sagaing fault West of Mandalay: Trace of the 1839 Ava Earthquake Rupture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Tapponnier, P.; Aung, T.; Tun, S. T.; Khaing, S. N.; Aung, L. T.; Sieh, K.

    2014-12-01

    Using high-resolution optical satellite imagery, and a 3-10 m resolution digital elevation model derived from declassified CORONA imagery, we mapped the trace of the central Sagaing fault and associated geomorphic features along the western flank of the Sagaing Hills. This approximately 350-km-long stretch of the Sagaing fault, which slips at about 2 cm/yr, lies only ~ 10 km west of the densely populated city of Mandalay. Much of this stretch of the fault has not produced a major earthquake (M > 7+) for over one century, and therefore is one of the potentially most dangerous seismic sources in SE Asia. Our new geomorphic mapping reveals more complex deformation patterns along the western side of the Sagaing Hills than hitherto pictured on published maps. The CORONA DEM shows clear evidence of on-going dextral transpression along the fault, consistent with the minor shortening component revealed by GPS (e.g., Socquet et al., 2006). Several hundreds of meters long, right-stepping step-overs characterize the fault north of the well-known Yega-In pull-part basin/lake, forming a series of overlapping dextral scarps at the surface. Our preliminary field and remote sensing observations suggest that the 1839 Ava earthquake, which may be the latest, largest destructive event along this section of the fault, was a great earthquake. We found minimum right-lateral displacements of about 5 to 7 meters. Such large amounts of plausibly single event co-seismic offsets suggest that the Mw magnitude of the 1839 earthquake may have ranged between 7.4 to 8+, which could scale with up to 300+ km rupture length (e.g., Biasi and Weldon, 2006) along the central Sagaing fault seismic gap, between Sagaing and Naypyidaw.

  10. Numerical simulation of the groundwater-flow system of the Kitsap Peninsula, west-central Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frans, Lonna M.; Olsen, Theresa D.

    2016-05-05

    A groundwater-flow model was developed to improve understanding of water resources on the Kitsap Peninsula. The Kitsap Peninsula is in the Puget Sound lowland of west-central Washington, is bounded by Puget Sound on the east and by Hood Canal on the west, and covers an area of about 575 square miles. The peninsula encompasses all of Kitsap County, Mason County north of Hood Canal, and part of Pierce County west of Puget Sound. The peninsula is surrounded by saltwater, and the hydrologic setting is similar to that of an island. The study area is underlain by a thick sequence of unconsolidated glacial and interglacial deposits that overlie sedimentary and volcanic bedrock units that crop out in the central part of the study area. Twelve hydrogeologic units consisting of aquifers, confining units, and an underlying bedrock unit form the basis of the groundwater-flow model.Groundwater flow on the Kitsap Peninsula was simulated using the groundwater-flow model, MODFLOW‑NWT. The finite difference model grid comprises 536 rows, 362 columns, and 14 layers. Each model cell has a horizontal dimension of 500 by 500 feet, and the model contains a total of 1,227,772 active cells. Groundwater flow was simulated for transient conditions. Transient conditions were simulated for January 1985–December 2012 using annual stress periods for 1985–2004 and monthly stress periods for 2005–2012. During model calibration, variables were adjusted within probable ranges to minimize differences between measured and simulated groundwater levels and stream baseflows. As calibrated to transient conditions, the model has a standard deviation for heads and flows of 47.04 feet and 2.46 cubic feet per second, respectively.Simulated inflow to the model area for the 2005–2012 period from precipitation and secondary recharge was 585,323 acre-feet per year (acre-ft/yr) (93 percent of total simulated inflow ignoring changes in storage), and simulated inflow from stream and lake leakage was 43

  11. Hydrogeologic framework, groundwater movement, and water budget of the Kitsap Peninsula, west-central Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Wendy B.; Frans, Lonna M.; Olsen, Theresa D.

    2014-01-01

    This report presents information used to characterize the groundwater-flow system on the Kitsap Peninsula, and includes descriptions of the geology and hydrogeologic framework, groundwater recharge and discharge, groundwater levels and flow directions, seasonal groundwater-level fluctuations, interactions between aquifers and the surface‑water system, and a water budget. The Kitsap Peninsula is in the Puget Sound lowland of west-central Washington, is bounded by Puget Sound on the east and by Hood Canal on the west, and covers an area of about 575 square miles. The peninsula encompasses all of Kitsap County, the part of Mason County north of Hood Canal, and part of Pierce County west of Puget Sound. The peninsula is surrounded by saltwater and the hydrologic setting is similar to that of an island. The study area is underlain by a thick sequence of unconsolidated glacial and interglacial deposits that overlie sedimentary and volcanic bedrock units that crop out in the central part of the study area. Geologic units were grouped into 12 hydrogeologic units consisting of aquifers, confining units, and an underlying bedrock unit. A surficial hydrogeologic unit map was developed and used with well information from 2,116 drillers’ logs to construct 6 hydrogeologic sections and unit extent and thickness maps. Unconsolidated aquifers typically consist of moderately to well-sorted alluvial and glacial outwash deposits of sand, gravel, and cobbles, with minor lenses of silt and clay. These units often are discontinuous or isolated bodies and are of highly variable thickness. Unconfined conditions occur in areas where aquifer units are at land surface; however, much of the study area is mantled by glacial till, and confined aquifer conditions are common. Groundwater in the unconsolidated aquifers generally flows radially off the peninsula in the direction of Puget Sound and Hood Canal. These generalized flow patterns likely are complicated by the presence of low

  12. Sinais clínicos, distribuição das lesões no sistema nervoso e epidemiologia da raiva em herbívoros na região Nordeste do Brasil Clinical signs, distribution of the lesions in the central nervous system and epidemiology of rabies in northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everton Ferreira Lima

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Descrevem-se 24 surtos de raiva em bovinos (25 casos, 4 em eqüinos (5 casos, 2 em caprinos (2 casos e 2 em ovinos (4 casos. Todos os surtos ocorreram na Paraíba, exceto um em eqüinos que ocorreu no Rio Grande do Norte. Todos os surtos, com a exceção de um em ovinos, foram transmitidos provavelmente por morcegos hematófagos; no entanto, não se descarta a possibilidade de transmissão por raposas (Dusicyon vetulus. Os sinais clínicos foram representativos da localização das lesões no sistema nervoso central (SNC. Em bovinos os sinais eram, principalmente, da forma paralítica, causados por lesões da medula, tronco encefálico e cerebelo; mas alguns animais apresentaram depressão, excitação e outros sinais associados a lesões cerebrais. Três dos 5 eqüinos apresentaram sinais de lesões cerebrais e 2 apresentaram a forma paralítica. De 4 ovinos e 2 caprinos, 4 apresentaram a forma paralítica, mas em um caprino e um ovino os sinais foram predominantemente de lesões cerebrais. Todos os animais afetados, exceto um caprino, tiveram um curso clínico de 2-8 dias. As únicas lesões macros-cópicas observadas foram a dilatação da bexiga em 4 bovinos e a dilatação da ampola retal em 2. Dois cavalos apresentaram lesões da pele causadas por traumatismos. As lesões histológicas foram de encefalomielite e meningite difusa não supurativa. Nos eqüinos e em um caprino com evolução clínica de 35 dias as lesões foram mais severas, observando-se necrose neuronal, neuronofagia e presença de esferóides axonais. Corpúsculos de Negri foram observados em 87% (20/23 dos bovinos examinados e em 83% (5/6 dos ovinos e caprinos. Nessas 3 espécies os corpúsculos foram mais freqüentes no cerebelo, mas ocorreram também no tronco encefálico, medula e cérebro. Em cavalos, corpúsculos de Negri foram menos numerosos, sendo observados somente no córtex de um animal e no córtex e hipocampo em outro. No gânglio trigeminal, as les

  13. Climate Change in Central and West Asia. Routes to a More Secure, Low-Carbon Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-11-15

    ADB's Central and West Asian countries are Afghanistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. Geoclimatic and environmental factors make this region highly vulnerable to the risks and hazards of climate change. For example, accelerated glacial melt has serious implications for agriculture, water supply, and energy generation - problems exacerbated by overexploitation of natural resources. Countries may find it difficult to shift to low-carbon growth, since many have abundant fossil fuel and tend to use energy inefficiently. ADB is responding to these climate hazards and low-carbon pathways with a comprehensive strategy that strengthens policies, governance, and capacity support; expands the use of clean and renewable energy; encourages sustainable transport and urban development; promotes development that will be more resilient to climate change, especially in water-dependent sectors; and manages land use and forests for carbon sequestration. ADB's support is helping its developing member countries face the challenges of climate change and, with partners, is providing innovative solutions, while continuing to work to reduce poverty.

  14. Paleobiogeographic affinities of emsian (late early devonian) gastropods from farewell terrane (west-central Alaska)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryda, J.; Blodgett, R.B.

    2008-01-01

    The vast majority of Emsian gastropods from Limestone Mountain, Medfra B-4 quadrangle, west-central Alaska (Farewell terrane) belong to species with lecithotrophic larval strategy. The present data show that there is no significant difference in the paleobiogeo-graphic distribution of Emsian gastropod genera with lecithotrophic and planktotrophic larval strategies. Numerical analysis of the faunal affinities of the Emsian gastropod fauna from the Farewell terrane reveals that this terrane has much stronger faunal connections to regions like Variscan Europe, eastern Australia, and the Alexander terrane of southeast Alaska than to cratonic North America (Laurentia). The Canadian Arctic Islands is the only region of cratonic North America (Laurentia) that shows significant faunal affinities to the Emsian gastropod faunas of the Farewell terrane. The analysis also indicates a close faunal link between the Farewell and Alexander terranes. Published paleontological and geological data suggest that the Farewell and Alexander terranes represents tectonic entities that have been rifted away from the Siberia, Baltica, or the paleo-Pacific margin of Australia. The results of the present numerical analysis are not in conflict with any of these possibilities. However, the principle of spatial continuity of the wandering path prefers Siberia as the most probable "parental" paleocontinent for the derivation of both the Farewell and Alexander terranes. ?? 2008 The Geological Society of America.

  15. Measuring Beach Profiles along a Low-Wave Energy Microtidal Coast, West-Central Florida, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Cheng

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring storm-induced dramatic beach morphology changes and long-term beach evolution provides crucial data for coastal management. Beach-profile measurement using total station has been conducted along the coast of west-central Florida over the last decade. This paper reviews several case studies of beach morphology changes based on total-station survey along this coast. The advantage of flexible and low-cost total-station surveys is discussed in comparison to LIDAR (light detection and ranging method. In an attempt to introduce total-station survey from a practical prospective, measurement of cross-shore beach profile in various scenarios are discussed, including: (1 establishing a beach profile line with known instrument and benchmark locations; (2 surveying multiple beach profiles with one instrument setup; (3 implementation of coordinate rotation to convert local system to real-earth system. Total-station survey is a highly effective and accurate method in documenting beach profile changes along low-energy coasts.

  16. Mobile pastoralists in Central and West Africa: between conflict, mobile telephony and (im)mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bruijn, M; Amadou, A; Lewa Doksala, E; Sangaré, B

    2016-11-01

    The livelihoods of the Fulani mobile pastoralists in the Sahel, West and Central Africa are characterised by mobility (related to the needs of their animals), extensive social networks, and a focus on social ties as the basis of status and influence ('wealth in people'). The Sahel environment in which many Fulani nomads live has become embroiled in jihadism, conflict, and violence; at the same time, this region has experienced an increase in opportunities to connect through the wireless mobile communication system. This paper analyses the triangle of mobility, communication, and insecurity in order to understand the present-day situation of the nomadic and semi-nomadic Fulani pastoralists and their identity dynamics. The Fulani find themselves caught in between these conflicts, which end their mobility and often lead to the loss of their herds. Will they be able to keep their mobile lifestyle and identity? This article is based on qualitative case studies and the biographical narratives of nomadic and semi-nomadic pastoralists who have lived through conflict and violence in Cameroon, Chad and Mali. These case studies show that, despite the fact that mobile pastoralism has become difficult as a consequence of the conflicts and loss of cattle, the 'mobile' identity is very present and reinforced with the help of mobile telephony, through which social networks and 'wealth in people' are sustained.

  17. Astrovirus infection in children living in the Central West region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Alessandro Tôgo Santos

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This study presents data regarding the circulation of astrovirus in Goiânia-GO and Brasília-DF. These viruses were detected in fecal samples from hospitalized children up to five years old with and without acute gastroenteritis. A total of 1244 fecal samples were collected in two periods, 1994 to 1996 (Brasília and 1998 to 2002 (Goiânia and Brasília, and were analyzed for viral RNA using the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Positivity rates of 4.3 and 0.5% for astrovirus were observed in children with acute gastroenteritis and those without gastroenteritis, respectively. Among children with gastroenteritis no statistically significant difference was seen with regards to viral positivity rates in relation to gender and age. However, a higher incidence rate was observed for children from Brasília aged 36 months or more. Overall, astroviruses occurred predominantly from September to March in the two cities, suggesting a seasonal pattern for these viruses which coincides with the highest relative air humidity period. The results of this study highlight the importance of astrovirus as an etiologic agent of acute gastroenteritis in children of the Central West region of Brazil.

  18. The circulation of human astrovirus genotypes in the Central West Region of Brazil

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    Paula Andreia Silva

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Out of 1,588 faecal samples of children taken from three locations of the Central West Region of Brazil, 57 were positive for astroviruses (HAstVs using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. They were genotyped by nested RT-PCR and/or genomic sequencing. HAstV-1 (42.8%, HAstV-2 (23.2%, HAstV-3 (3.6%, HAstV-4 (14.3% and HAstVs -5, -6, -7 and -8 (1.8% each were detected. In Goiânia and Campo Grande, HAstV-1 was the most frequently detected genotype while in Brasília (DF it was HAstV-2. Shifts in the circulation of astrovirus genotypes were observed in DF and Campo Grande. All samples collected by rectal swabs were viral negative. The astrovirus genotypes were detected in all age groups and there was no correlation between genotype and age group.

  19. Spatial Variability in Surface Elevation Changes of Central-West Greenland Outlet Glaciers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felikson, D.; Catania, G. A.; Kjaer, K. H.; Korsgaard, N. J.; Stearns, L. A.; Nash, J. D.; Shroyer, E.; Sutherland, D.; Walker, R. T.

    2014-12-01

    The mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) is, in part, governed by the dynamics of ocean-terminating glaciers. GRACE data reveal that along the central-west coast of the GrIS, overall ice loss has been accelerating since 2007. However, we do not know the physical processes controlling the loss here, and the changes observed are not uniform in this region; several glaciers have gone through periods of slow-down in the recent past. To address these uncertainties, we have performed ~30-year DEM differences of outlet glaciers in the region. Present-day DEMs have been created from WorldView-1 and -2 (WV) stereo imagery acquired in 2012 and 2013 using the AMES Stereo Pipeline. A 1985 DEM was created from a Greenland aerial photo survey. The DEM differences between the present-day WV DEMs and the 1985 aerial photo DEM show clearly that spatial variability in the surface elevation and terminus position changes of the glaciers in the region has been ongoing for the last ~30 years. We examine this variability in the context of ocean temperature and surface mass balance estimates to yield further insight into the external controls on these glaciers.

  20. New evidence for hybrid zones of forest and savanna elephants in Central and West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondol, Samrat; Moltke, Ida; Hart, John; Keigwin, Michael; Brown, Lisa; Stephens, Matthew; Wasser, Samuel K

    2015-12-01

    The African elephant consists of forest and savanna subspecies. Both subspecies are highly endangered due to severe poaching and habitat loss, and knowledge of their population structure is vital to their conservation. Previous studies have demonstrated marked genetic and morphological differences between forest and savanna elephants, and despite extensive sampling, genetic evidence of hybridization between them has been restricted largely to a few hybrids in the Garamba region of northeastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Here, we present new genetic data on hybridization from previously unsampled areas of Africa. Novel statistical methods applied to these data identify 46 hybrid samples--many more than have been previously identified--only two of which are from the Garamba region. The remaining 44 are from three other geographically distinct locations: a major hybrid zone along the border of the DRC and Uganda, a second potential hybrid zone in Central African Republic and a smaller fraction of hybrids in the Pendjari-Arli complex of West Africa. Most of the hybrids show evidence of interbreeding over more than one generation, demonstrating that hybrids are fertile. Mitochondrial and Y chromosome data demonstrate that the hybridization is bidirectional, involving males and females from both subspecies. We hypothesize that the hybrid zones may have been facilitated by poaching and habitat modification. The localized geography and rarity of hybrid zones, their possible facilitation from human pressures, and the high divergence and genetic distinctness of forest and savanna elephants throughout their ranges, are consistent with calls for separate species classification.

  1. Structural development of the west-central Grant Range, Nye County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryxell, J. E.

    The Grant Ridge in east central Nevada shows a complex history of Mesozoic and Cenozoic deformation. The oldest structure in the range is a major east vergent overturned anticline, possibly related to a thrust fault at depth. Most of the lower to upper Cambrian rocks exposed in the study area are part of the overturned limb of the anticline. After folding, the Cambrian rocks were metamorphosed, locally to staurolite grade; neomineralization dies out upward through the fold. The older set dips to the southeast, and generally placed slightly to unmetamorphosed units upon more severely deformed units. The younger fault set dips west, cutting east dipping faults and syntectonic conglomerates likely correlative with the Mio-Pliocene Horse Camp Formation. These faults are therefore Pliocene or younger in age. These relationships indicate that, folding, metamorphism, ductile shearing, and low angle normal faulting were geometrically and chronologically independent of each other. Post late Cretaceous and pre late Oligocene low angle north directed shearing occurred, but the relationship of this shearing to the regional structural history is uncertain.

  2. Quaternary Geology and Geomorphology of Terna River Basin in West Central India

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    Mohammad Babar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the morphostratigraphy, lithostratigraphy and sedimentary structures of Terna River basin in the Deccan Basaltic Province (DBP of West Central India. These Quaternary deposits have been divided into three informal formations (i dark grey silt formation – Late Holocene, (ii Light grey silt formations – Early Holocene, (iii Dark grayish brown silt formation – Late Pleistocene with the older Quaternary Alluvial deposits of Upper Pleistocene age. The fine clay and silt formations in the lower reaches reflect that the streams are of low gradient and more sinuous. The river shows evidences of channel movement by avulsion, largely controlled by lineaments. Palaeo-levees, in the form 4–5 m high ridges exist along the Terna River floodplain, specifically in the Ter, Killari, Sastur, Dhuta and Makni villages. Several lineaments occur along NE-SW, NW-SE, E-W and WNW-ESE directions, which control the basement structure in the study area. The values of the Topographic Sinuosity Index (TSI indicate rejuvenation of the area leading to the dominance of topography on the sinuosity of the river channels. The break in slope in the long profile is also indication of the Quaternary tectonic uplift of the area. Radiocarbon dating of some charcoal fragments collected from folded beddings indicates that paleoseismic activity might have taken place along the basin between AD 120 and AD 1671.

  3. Traits associated with winter wheat grain yield in Central and West Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Marta Silva; Saglam, Didem; Ozdogan, Mutlu; Reynolds, Matthew

    2014-07-01

    Improved adaptation of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to drought and heat may be influenced by days to heading, plant height, biomass, canopy temperature (CT) at grain filling, and rate of senescence. This study shows that, under supplemental irrigation or rainfed conditions, days to heading and plant height together explain up to 68% of grain yield (GY) variation, and these associations were further confirmed in several locations across West and Central Asia. Days to heading can be slightly reduced below that of check line Karahan to further improve GY while avoiding the effect of late frosts. Plant height has been decreased in recent germplasm, but further reductions below that of check line Karahan could still improve GY in a wide range of environments. However, in Iranian sites, taller genotypes showed better adaptation with higher biomass and increased reserves for grain filling. Canopy temperature and rate senescence were not associated with GY. A normalized difference vegetation index, used to estimate biomass (Feekes stages 4-5), had intermediate heritability across environments and correlated positively with GY under low plant density and should be explored further as a tool for early selection.

  4. Geothermal potential of West-Central New Mexico from geochemical and thermal gradient data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levitte, D.; Gambill, D.T.

    1980-11-01

    To study the low temperature and Hot Dry Rock (HDR) geothermal potential of west-central New Mexico, 46 water samples were collected and geothermal gradient measurements were made in 29 wells. Water chemistry data indicate that all the samples collected are meteoric waters. High temperatures of samples taken from wells between Gallup and Tohatchi indicate these wells may derive water from a warm aquifer below the depth of the wells. The chemistries of the samples farther south on the Zuni Indian reservation suggest these waters are not circulating below 600 m of the surface. Geothermometry calculations support the conclusion that the waters sampled are meteoric. The geothermometry also indicates that the deep reservoir between Gallup and Tohatchi may be greater than 60/sup 0/C. Thermal gradient data indicate an area of high gradient on the Zuni Indian Reservation with a measured maximum of 67/sup 0/C/km between 181 m and 284 m. This high probably is not hydrologically controlled. The maximum gradients in the study area are 76/sup 0/C/km and 138/sup 0/C/km, measured just east of Springerville, Arizona. These gradients are undoubtedly controlled by circulating water, possibly heated by a magmatic source at depth and circulating back to the surface.

  5. Surface-water radon-222 distribution along the west-central Florida shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C.G.; Robbins, L.L.

    2012-01-01

    In February 2009 and August 2009, the spatial distribution of radon-222 in surface water was mapped along the west-central Florida shelf as collaboration between the Response of Florida Shelf Ecosystems to Climate Change project and a U.S. Geological Survey Mendenhall Research Fellowship project. This report summarizes the surface distribution of radon-222 from two cruises and evaluates potential physical controls on radon-222 fluxes. Radon-222 is an inert gas produced overwhelmingly in sediment and has a short half-life of 3.8 days; activities in surface water ranged between 30 and 170 becquerels per cubic meter. Overall, radon-222 activities were enriched in nearshore surface waters relative to offshore waters. Dilution in offshore waters is expected to be the cause of the low offshore activities. While thermal stratification of the water column during the August survey may explain higher radon-222 activities relative to the February survey, radon-222 activity and integrated surface-water inventories decreased exponentially from the shoreline during both cruises. By estimating radon-222 evasion by wind from nearby buoy data and accounting for internal production from dissolved radium-226, its radiogenic long-lived parent, a simple one-dimensional model was implemented to determine the role that offshore mixing, benthic influx, and decay have on the distribution of excess radon-222 inventories along the west Florida shelf. For multiple statistically based boundary condition scenarios (first quartile, median, third quartile, and maximum radon-222 inshore of 5 kilometers), the cross-shelf mixing rates and average nearshore submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) rates varied from 100.38 to 10-3.4 square kilometers per day and 0.00 to 1.70 centimeters per day, respectively. This dataset and modeling provide the first attempt to assess cross-shelf mixing and SGD on such a large spatial scale. Such estimates help scale up SGD rates that are often made at 1- to 10-meter

  6. The Clinical Evaluation of East-West Medical Management for Central Poststroke Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheong Byung-Shik

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Background : Central poststroke pain(CPSP can occur as a result of lesion or dysfunction of the brain from stroke and may cause many difficulty in the social activities and daily life. In this study, we evaluate the clinical effectiveness of east-west medical management for CPSP through VAS(visual analogue scale, infrared themography, MBI(Moderfied Barthel Index and Rankin scale. Methods : We treated thirty patients with oriental medical treatment method and western & oriental medical treatment method. Each group has fifteen patients of the CPSP. We evaluated their pain(characterizes tingling and burning sensation, aching, hyperalgesia, and allodynia through VAS(visual analog scale pain score, the skin temperature of pain site by infrared thermography and assessed their mobility & rehabilitation ability through MBI(Moderfied Barthel Index, Rankin scale before and after pain treatment. Results : The skin temperature of pain site was lower than non-pain site. The difference of skin temperature improved from 0.65±0.45℃ to 0.39±0.25℃ after oriental medical treatment and 0.68±0.54℃ to 0.27±0.24℃ after western & oriental medical treatment VAS scores improved from 7.9±1.4℃ to 4.7±1.6℃ after oriental medical treatment and 8.1±1.3℃ to 4.6±1.2℃ after western & oriental medical treatment. MBI scores improved from 61.40±13.58℃ to 85.00±13.85℃ after oriental medical treatment and to after western & oriental medical treatment. And Rankin scale scores improved from 3.33±0.72℃ to 2.46±0.74℃ after oriental medical treatment and 3.06±0.82℃ to 2.66±0.81℃ after western & oriental medical treatment Conclusion : The difference of skin temperature and Rankin scale scores more significantly improved after western & oriental medical treatment than oriental medical treatment. According to the results, we thought east-west medical management is very useful treatment for CPSP and rehabilitation of the patients with stroke.

  7. Occult hepatitis B virus infection among injecting drug users in the Central-West Region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Alves Dias de Matos

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of occult hepatitis B virus (HBV infection was investigated in 149 hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg negative injecting drug users (IDUs in the Central-West Region of Brazil. Of these individuals, 19 were positive for HBV DNA, resulting in an occult HBV infection prevalence of 12.7% (19/149; six of these 19 individuals had anti-HBV core and/or anti-HBV surface antibodies and 13 were negative for HBV markers. All IDUs with occult hepatitis B reported sexual and/or parenteral risk behaviours. All HBV DNA-positive samples were successfully genotyped. Genotype D was the most common (17/19, followed by genotype A (2/19. These findings reveal a high prevalence of occult HBV infection and the predominance of genotype D among IDUs in Brazil's Central-West Region.

  8. Historical potentiometric surface of the Edwards-Trinity aquifer system and contiguous hydraulically connected units, west-central Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Peter W.; Ardis, Ann F.; Wynn, Kirby H.

    1993-01-01

    The Edwards-Trinity aquifer system is a sequence of near-surface, hydraulically connected, Cretaceous carbonate and quartzose clastic rocks that underlie about 42,000 mi2 of west-central Texas (fig. 1). The aquifer system is currently (1991) being studied as a part of the U.S. Geological Survey's Regional Aquifer-System Analysis (RASA) program, which is intended to describe the regional hydrogeology of important aquifer systems nationwide.

  9. Comparing Two Numerical Models in Simulating Hydrodynamics and Sediment Transport at a Dual Inlet System, West-Central Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-15

    1 COMPARING TWO NUMERICAL MODELS IN SIMULATING HYDRODYNAMICS AND SEDIMENT TRANSPORT AT A DUAL INLET SYSTEM, WEST-CENTRAL FLORIDA PING WANG1...numerical modeling systems, CMS and DELFT3D, in simulating the hydrodynamic and sediment transport processes. The model results are compared with...Introduction Simulating complex fields of wave, current, sediment transport , and morphology change in the vicinity of tidal inlets is a

  10. Historic impact of watershed change and sedimentation to reefs along west-central Guam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prouty, Nancy G.; Storlazzi, Curt D.; McCutcheon, Amanda L.; Jenson, John W.

    2014-01-01

    Using coral growth parameters (extension, density, calcification rates, and luminescence) and geochemical measurements (barium to calcium rations; Ba/Ca) from coral cores collected in west-central Guam, we provide a historic perspective on sediment input to coral reefs adjacent to the Piti-Asan watershed. The months of August through December are dominated by increased coral Ba/Ca values, corresponding to the rainy season. With river water enriched in barium related to nearshore seawater, coral Ba/Ca ratios are presented as a proxy for input of fine-grained terrigenous sediment to the nearshore environment. The century-long Ba/Ca coral record indicates that the Asan fore reef is within the zone of impact from discharged sediments transported from the Piti-Asan watershed and has experienced increased terrestrial sedimentation since the 1940s. This abrupt shift in sedimentation occurred at the same time as both the sudden denudation of the landscape by military ordinance and the immediate subsequent development of the Asan area through the end of the war, from 1944 through 1945. In response to rapid input of sediment, as determined from coral Ba/Ca values, coral growth rates were reduced for almost two decades, while calcification rates recovered much more quickly. Furthermore, coral luminescence is decoupled from the Ba/Ca record, which is consistent with degradation of soil organic matter through disturbance by forest fires, suggesting a potential index of fire history and degradation of soil organic matter. These patterns were not seen in the cores from nearby reefs associated with watersheds that have not undergone the same degree of landscape denudation. Taken together, these records provide a valuable tool for understanding the compounding effects of land-use change on coral reef health.

  11. Rise in central west Greenland surface melt unprecedented over the last three centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trusel, Luke; Das, Sarah; Osman, Matthew; Evans, Matthew; Smith, Ben; McConnell, Joe; Noël, Brice; van den Broeke, Michiel

    2017-04-01

    Greenland Ice Sheet surface melting has intensified and expanded over the last several decades and is now a leading component of ice sheet mass loss. Here, we constrain the multi-century temporal evolution of surface melt across central west Greenland by quantifying layers of refrozen melt within well-dated firn and ice cores collected in 2014 and 2015, as well as from a core collected in 2004. We find significant agreement among ice core, satellite, and regional climate model melt datasets over recent decades, confirming the fidelity of the ice core melt stratigraphy as a reliable record of past variability in the magnitude of surface melt. We also find a significant correlation between the melt records derived from our new 100-m GC-2015 core (2436 m.a.s.l.) and the older (2004) 150-m D5 core (2472 m.a.s.l.) located 50 km to the southeast. This agreement demonstrates the robustness of the ice core-derived melt histories and the potential for reconstructing regional melt evolution from a single site, despite local variability in melt percolation and refreeze processes. Our array of upper percolation zone cores reveals that although the overall frequency of melt at these sites has not increased, the intensification of melt over the last three decades is unprecedented within at least the last 365 years. Utilizing the regional climate model RACMO 2.3, we show that this melt intensification is a nonlinear response to warming summer air temperatures, thus underscoring the heightened sensitivity of this sector of Greenland to further climate warming. Finally, we examine spatial correlations between the ice core melt records and modeled melt fields across the ice sheet to assess the broader representation of each ice core record. This analysis reveals wide-ranging significant correlations, including to modeled meltwater runoff. As such, our ice core melt records may furthermore offer unique, observationally-constrained insights into past variability in ice sheet mass loss.

  12. Seismic architecture and evolution of the Disko Bay trough-mouth fan, central West Greenland margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Julia C.; Knutz, Paul C.; Nielsen, Tove; Kuijpers, Antoon

    2016-09-01

    The present study is the first to document the large-scale glacigenic evolution of a West Greenland trough-mouth fan (TMF) system, i.e. the Disko Bay TMF, from onset of shelf-based glaciation to present. We have constrained the paleo-ice sheet configuration in the Disko Bay region and determine the controlling factors of ice-stream development using 2D- and 3D-seismic reflection data, seabed bathymetry and stratigraphic information from two exploration wells. This has revealed three stages of the Disko Bay TMF development. The early stage, probably of Pliocene-early Pleistocene age, marks the onset of a central depocentre located below the modern mid-shelf and constructed by sediment progradation delivered through at least two erosive pathways related to fast-flowing, grounded ice. At that time, ice-stream routing in the Disko Bay shelf region was strongly controlled by the pre-glacial topography and structural boundaries associated with fracture zones and deep-seated faults. During the middle evolutionary stage, the focus of deposition shifted from the mid-shelf to two elongate areas fringing the outer margin. The marginal depocentres were not only related to glacial processes but also alongslope deposition by contour currents, which may have developed as a consequence of basin subsidence surrounding the Davis Strait High and the Kangerluk Structure. The late stage of TMF development, presumably representing the late Pleistocene to Holocene, is characterized by the marginal depocentres becoming less significant and sediment aggradation occurring over wide parts of the mid-outer shelf, while features of subglacial erosion are generally absent. In contrast to the inferred fast-flowing ice streams of the early-middle evolutionary stages, this points to the existence of a rather thin and "lightly" grounded ice sheet, i.e. at the threshold of floatation. The "lightly" grounded ice sheet scenario, applying to the late Pleistocene interval of the Disko Bay TMF, was

  13. Serosurvey Reveals Exposure to West Nile Virus in Asymptomatic Horse Populations in Central Spain Prior to Recent Disease Foci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad-Cobo, A; Llorente, F; Barbero, M Del Carmen; Cruz-López, F; Forés, P; Jiménez-Clavero, M Á

    2017-10-01

    West Nile fever/encephalitis (WNF) is an infectious disease affecting horses, birds and humans, with a cycle involving birds as natural reservoirs and mosquitoes as transmission vectors. It is a notifiable disease, re-emerging in Europe. In Spain, it first appeared in horses in the south (Andalusia) in 2010, where outbreaks occur every year since. However, in 2014, an outbreak was declared in horses in central Spain, approximately 200 km away from the closest foci in Andalusia. Before that, evidence of West Nile virus (WNV) circulation in central Spain had been obtained only from wildlife, but never in horses. The purpose of this work was to perform a serosurvey to retrospectively detect West Nile virus infections in asymptomatic horses in central Spain from 2011 to 2013, that is before the occurrence of the first outbreaks in the area. For that, serum samples from 369 horses, collected between September 2011 and November 2013 in central Spain, were analysed by ELISA (blocking and IgM) and confirmed by virus neutralization, proving its specificity using parallel titration with another flavivirus (Usutu virus). As a result, 10 of 369 horse serum samples analysed gave positive results by competitive ELISA, 5 of which were confirmed as positive to WNV by virus neutralization (seropositivity rate: 1.35%). One of these WNV seropositive samples was IgM-positive. Chronologically, the first positive samples, including the IgM-positive, corresponded to sera collected in 2012 in Madrid province. From these results, we concluded that WNV circulated in asymptomatic equine populations of central Spain at least since 2012, before the first disease outbreak reported in this area. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Floods of November 1978 to March 1979 in Arizona and west-central New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge, Byron Neil; Hales, T.A.

    1984-01-01

    Severe flooding occurred in parts of the Little Colorado and Gila River basins as a result of a storm that occurred December 17-20, 1978. The central highlands received 3 to 10 inches of precipitation that was augmented by snowmelt to altitudes of 10,000 feet. The storm was preceded by extremely large amounts of rainfall and runoff in November and was followed by other periods of high runoff in January and March 1979. In some areas flood peaks in November, January, or March were higher than the peak of December 1978. At Winslow, the discharge of the Little Colorado River in December 1978 was the highest since at least 1952. The discharge of the Gila River above the San Francisco River was probably the highest since at least 1891, and in the Safford Valley, the peak was the highest since 1916. The Agua Fria River below Waddell Dam had the highest discharge since 1919. The flood of December 1978 caused 12 deaths and caused damage that was probably in excess of $150 million in Arizona and west-central New Mexico. Damage was estimated to be $51.8 million in Maricopa County, Arizona. Floods caused extensive agricultural damage along the Gila River in Virden Valley in New Mexico and in Duncan, York, and Safford Valleys in Arizona. Duncan, Arizona, was flooded with as much as 7 feet of water. The flood crest on the Gila River in December 1978 moved from Redrock, New Mexico, to Duncan, Arizona, in about 6 hours, which is more rapid than during other recent floods but is comparable to the travel-time recorded in 1941. Travel-time in the reach varies with discharge and is about 14 hours for discharges of 10,000 cubic feet per second and 5 hours for discharges of more than 40,000 cubic feet per second. Water-conservation reservoirs on the Gila, Salt, Verde, and Agua Fria Rivers and a flood-control reservoir on the Gila River had a major influence on the magnitude of floods downstream from the reservoirs. All runoff from the Gila River basin upstream from Coolidge Dam, Arizona

  15. Environmental changes associated with monsoon induced upwelling, off central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DeSousa, S.N.; Sawkar, K.; Rao, P.V.S.S.D.P.

    Coastal upwelling of nutrients during and after the southwest monsoon has been considered to support rich pelagic and demersal fisheries off the west coast of India. Studies indicate occurrence of coastal upwelling assoicated with Ekman transport...

  16. Bathymetry Mapping of the West Florida Shelf (Central Region), Gulf of Mexico (NODC Accession 0001410)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XYZ ASCII format data generated from the 2001 multibeam sonar survey of the West Florida Shelf, Gulf of Mexico. The data include high-resolution bathymetry and...

  17. Backscatter Mapping of the West Florida Shelf (Central Region), Gulf of Mexico (NODC Accession 0001410)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XYZ ASCII format data generated from the 2001 multibeam sonar survey of the West Florida Shelf, Gulf of Mexico. The data include high-resolution bathymetry and...

  18. Overwintering of Uranotaenia Unguiculata Adult Females in Central Europe: A Possible Way of Persistence of the Putative New Lineage of West Nile Virus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolf, Ivo; Šebesta, Oldřich; Straková, Petra; Betášová, Lenka; Blažejová, Hana; VEnclíková, Kristýna; Seidel, Bernhard; Tóth, Sandor; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Schaffner, Francis

    2015-12-01

    We report the overwintering of Uranotaenia unguiculata adult females in Central Europe (Czech Republic, Hungary, Austria). This finding suggests a potential mode of winter persistence of putative novel lineage of West Nile virus in the temperate regions of Europe.

  19. Longshore sediment transport in the surf zone based on different formulae: A case study along the central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SanilKumar, V.; Shanas, P.R.; Dora, G.U.; Johnson, G.; Philip, C.S.

    Understanding longshore sediment transport (LST) is a prerequisite for designing an effective coastal zone management strategy. The present study estimates the LST along the central west coast of India based on four bulk LST formulae: (1...

  20. Near shore waves, long-shore currents and sediment transport along micro-tidal beaches, central west coast of India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sajiv Philip CHEMPALAYIL; V Sanil KUMAR; G Udhaba DORA; Glejin JOHNSON

    2014-01-01

    Coastlines are undergoing constant geomorphologic changes with respect to the incident wave climate. Based on waves measured at 9 m water depth, simulation of near shore wave transformation is done using REFDIF-1 numerical model and the near shore breaker parameters are estimated at two micro-tidal beaches along central west coast of India. Model results are validated with measured values. From the breaker parameters, long-shore current and long-shore sediment transport rates (LSTR) are computed by using semi-empirical equations. Estimated long-shore current and LSTR are showing dramatic variations with respect to seasons. Predominant direction of LSTR is observed towards north since the approach waves are from south-west direction during pre-monsoon and post monsoon. During monsoon season, waves are from west south-west and resulted in southerly transport. The estimated annual net and gross LSTR by Cambridge Environmental Research Consultants (CERC) at two locations are in the same order whereas LSTR estimated by Walton & Bruno and Kamphuis equations are showing different estimations because of difference in surf-zone width and foreshore slope between the two locations. For micro-tidal beaches with length less than 6 km, Kamphuis equation is giving agreeable estimation of LSTR. Sensitivity analysis of LSTR estimate shows that coastal inclination is the prominent factor in determining LSTR than incident wave angle.

  1. Ordovician Intrusive-related Gold-Copper Mineralization in West-Central New South Wales, Australia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Three major types of Ordovician intrusive-related gold-copper deposits are recognized in central-west New South Wales,, Australia: porphyry, skam and high sulphidation epithermal deposits.These deposits are mainly distributed within two Ordovician volcano-intrusive belts of the Lachlan Fold Be1t: the Orange-Wellington Belt and the Parkes-Narromine Belt. Available isotopic age data suggest that mineralization of the three types of deposits is essentially coeval with the Ordovician intrusive rocks (480-430 Ma). Porphyry gold-copper deposits can be further divided into two groups. The first group is associated with monzoniteshowing shoshonitic features represented by Cadia and Goonumbla. The second group is associated with diorite and dacite, including the Copper Hill and Cargo gold-copper deposits. Gold skarn is associated with Late Ordovician (430-439 Ma) monzonitic intrusive complexes in the Junction Reefs area (Sheahan-Grants, Frenchmans, and Cornishmens), Endeavour 6, 7 and 44, Big and Little Cadia. The epithermal gold deposits with high sulphidation including Gidginbung (Temora) and Peak Hill mainly occur within Ordovician andesite and volcaniclastic rocks, and are associated with advanced argillic alteration. Available isotopic age data indicate that both alteration and mineralization of the porphyry, skam and epithermal gold-copper deposits are broadly coeval with the Late Ordovician hoshonitic mangmatism, which is thought to result from the melting of sub-continental lithosphere caused by Palaeozoic subduction events. The Ordovician intrusive-related gold-copper deposits are restricted to two longitudinal parallel volcano-intrusive belts, rarely extending outside them. Diagonal intra-belt trends of mineralization are common, particularly at the intersections of longitudinal and transverse (oblique) fault/fracture zones basedon the authors'review of available geological data. The locations of these gold-copper deposits are obviously influenced by transverse

  2. Standardising visual control devices for tsetse flies: Central and West African species Glossina palpalis palpalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dramane Kaba

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Glossina palpalis palpalis (G. p. palpalis is one of the principal vectors of sleeping sickness and nagana in Africa with a geographical range stretching from Liberia in West Africa to Angola in Central Africa. It inhabits tropical rain forest but has also adapted to urban settlements. We set out to standardize a long-lasting, practical and cost-effective visually attractive device that would induce the strongest landing response by G. p. palpalis for future use as an insecticide-impregnated tool in area-wide population suppression of this fly across its range. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Trials were conducted in wet and dry seasons in the Ivory Coast, Cameroon, the Democratic Republic of Congo and Angola to measure the performance of traps (biconical, monoconical and pyramidal and targets of different sizes and colours, with and without chemical baits, at different population densities and under different environmental conditions. Adhesive film was used as a practical enumerator at these remote locations to compare landing efficiencies of devices. Independent of season and country, both phthalogen blue-black and blue-black-blue 1 m(2 targets covered with adhesive film proved to be as good as traps in phthalogen blue or turquoise blue for capturing G. p. palpalis. Trap efficiency varied (8-51%. There was no difference between the performance of blue-black and blue-black-blue 1 m(2 targets. Baiting with chemicals augmented the overall performance of targets relative to traps. Landings on smaller phthalogen blue-black 0.25 m(2 square targets were not significantly different from either 1 m(2 blue-black-blue or blue-black square targets. Three times more flies were captured per unit area on the smaller device. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Blue-black 0.25 m(2 cloth targets show promise as simple cost effective devices for management of G. p. palpalis as they can be used for both control when impregnated with insecticide and for

  3. Standardising Visual Control Devices for Tsetse Flies: Central and West African Species Glossina palpalis palpalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaba, Dramane; Zacarie, Tusevo; M'Pondi, Alexis Makumyaviri; Njiokou, Flobert; Bosson-Vanga, Henriette; Kröber, Thomas; McMullin, Andrew; Mihok, Steve; Guerin, Patrick M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Glossina palpalis palpalis (G. p. palpalis) is one of the principal vectors of sleeping sickness and nagana in Africa with a geographical range stretching from Liberia in West Africa to Angola in Central Africa. It inhabits tropical rain forest but has also adapted to urban settlements. We set out to standardize a long-lasting, practical and cost-effective visually attractive device that would induce the strongest landing response by G. p. palpalis for future use as an insecticide-impregnated tool in area-wide population suppression of this fly across its range. Methodology/Principal Findings Trials were conducted in wet and dry seasons in the Ivory Coast, Cameroon, the Democratic Republic of Congo and Angola to measure the performance of traps (biconical, monoconical and pyramidal) and targets of different sizes and colours, with and without chemical baits, at different population densities and under different environmental conditions. Adhesive film was used as a practical enumerator at these remote locations to compare landing efficiencies of devices. Independent of season and country, both phthalogen blue-black and blue-black-blue 1 m2 targets covered with adhesive film proved to be as good as traps in phthalogen blue or turquoise blue for capturing G. p. palpalis. Trap efficiency varied (8–51%). There was no difference between the performance of blue-black and blue-black-blue 1 m2 targets. Baiting with chemicals augmented the overall performance of targets relative to traps. Landings on smaller phthalogen blue-black 0.25 m2 square targets were not significantly different from either 1 m2 blue-black-blue or blue-black square targets. Three times more flies were captured per unit area on the smaller device. Conclusions/Significance Blue-black 0.25 m2 cloth targets show promise as simple cost effective devices for management of G. p. palpalis as they can be used for both control when impregnated with insecticide and for population sampling when

  4. Subsurface Fires in Mali: Refutation of Active Volcanism Hypothesis in West-Central Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandlien, E. H.; Svensen, H.; Dysthe, D. K.; Planke, S.

    2002-12-01

    .P. This suggests that subsurface fires might have been common in the Trans-Saharan region previously, and that the stratigraphic record from the Holocene lakes should be correlated with data from areas with modern subsurface fires. We argue that the phenomena previously being attributed to volcanism in the Lac Faguibine area were caused by subsurface combustion of organic material. An important consequence of this conclusion is that west-central Africa should be regarded as volcanologically inactive, and that possible reactivations of the major EW trending Guinea-Nubian lineament is not associated with volcanism.

  5. Environmental history of mangrove vegetation in Pacific west-central Mexico during the last 1300 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Lorena Figueroa-Rangel

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractMangroves are a highly threatened ecosystem due to climate change and human activity, which increases coastal vulnerability. Knowledge about the ecological dynamics of mangroves on a centennial timescale can reveal the different responses in vegetation, which is useful for implementing basic actions for mangrove restoration, conservation and management. A mangrove ecosystem in the Cuyutlán Lagoon area along the Pacific coast of west-central Mexico is significantly altered as a result of industrialization, salt extraction, and road construction. The long-term dynamics of the mangrove ecosystem has also been controlled by Holocene climatic variability. This study reconstructs the environmental history of mangrove vegetation around the Cuyutlán Lagoon during the last ~1300 years in response to periods of human activity and climate change. The reconstruction was performed using paleoecological techniques in sediment cores that include the use of fossil pollen as a proxy for vegetation and magnetic susceptibility and geochemical data (determined by loss-on-ignition and X-ray fluorescence as a proxy for past environmental changes. The chronology was determined using 14C dating and the age-depth model was constructed by linear interpolation. Redundancy analysis and non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS were used to discern patterns of distribution of the different proxies. Results revealed that the mangrove pollen assemblage of the Cuyutlán Lagoon was dominated by the arboreal taxa Rhizophora mangle, Euphorbiaceae, Moraceae and Pinaceae, herbaceous taxa like Poaceae, Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae, and aquatics such as Typhaceae and Cyperaceae. NMDS showed a clear separation between two events of human activity—the Spanish Occupation of Colima (~AD 1523-1524 and the opening of the Manzanillo port (~AD 1824-1825. Climate change events such as the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA (~AD 800-1200 and the Little Ice Age (LIA (~AD 1350-1850 were

  6. Detrital zircon evidence for progressive underthrusting in Franciscan metagraywackes, west-central California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, C.A.; Wakabayashi, J.; Ernst, W.G.; Wooden, J.L.

    2010-01-01

    central Coast Ranges is a classic accretionary prism, where younger, structurally lower allochthons are exposed on the west, and older, structurally higher allochthons occur to the east, in the heavily studied San Francisco Bay area. ?? 2009 Geological Society of America.

  7. Kolmogorov-Sinai and Bekenstein-Hawking entropies

    CERN Document Server

    Ropotenko, K

    2007-01-01

    It is shown that instability of stringy matter near the event horizon of a black hole (the spreading effect) can be characterized by the Lyapunov exponents. For a homogeneous and isotropic horizon the (average) Lyapunov exponent coincides with the Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy of stringy matter. Due to identity of phase space volume of the string with the area of the horizon the relation between the Kolmogorov-Sinai and Bekenstein-Hawking entropies is established. The Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy measures the rate at which information about the string state is lost as the string spreads over the horizon.

  8. Surface-Water and Groundwater Interactions along the Withlacoochee River, West-Central Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trommer, J.T.; Yobbi, D.K.; McBride, W.S.

    2009-01-01

    A study of the Withlacoochee River watershed in west-central Florida was conducted from October 2003 to March 2007 to gain a better understanding of the hydrology and surface-water and groundwater interactions along the river. The Withlacoochee River originates in the Green Swamp area in north-central Polk County and flows northerly through seven counties, emptying into the Gulf of Mexico. This study includes only the part of the watershed located between the headwaters in the Green Swamp and the U.S. Geological Survey gaging station near Holder, Florida. The Withlacoochee River within the study area is about 108 miles long and drains about 1,820 square miles. The Withlacoochee River watershed is underlain by thick sequences of carbonate rock that are covered by thin surficial deposits of unconsolidated sand and sandy clay. The clay layer is breached in many places because of the karst nature of the underlying limestone, and the degree of confinement between the Upper Florida aquifer and the surficial aquifer is highly variable throughout the watershed. The potential for movement of water from the surface or shallow deposits to deeper deposits, or from deeper deposits to the shallow deposits, exists throughout the Withlacoochee River watershed. Water levels were higher in deeper Upper Floridan aquifer wells than in shallow Upper Floridan aquifer wells or surficial aquifer wells at 11 of 19 paired or nested well sites, indicating potential for discharge to the surface-water system. Water levels were higher in shallow Upper Floridan aquifer or surficial aquifer wells than in deeper Upper Floridan aquifer wells at five other sites, indicating potential for recharge to the deeper Upper Floridan aquifer. Water levels in the surficial aquifer and Upper Floridan aquifer wells at the remaining three sites were virtually the same, indicating little or no confinement at the sites. Potentiometric-surface maps of the Upper Floridan aquifer indicate the pattern of groundwater

  9. Genetic evidence of enzootic leishmaniasis in a stray canine and Texas mouse from sites in west and central Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan J Kipp

    Full Text Available We detected Leishmania mexicana in skin biopsies taken from a stray canine (Canis familiaris and Texas mouse (Peromyscus attwateri at two ecologically disparate sites in west and central Texas using polymerase chain reaction (PCR. A single PCR-positive dog was identified from a sample of 96 stray canines and was collected in a peri-urban area in El Paso County, Texas. The PCR-positive P. attwateri was trapped at a wildlife reserve in Mason County, Texas, from a convenience sample of 20 sylvatic mammals of different species. To our knowledge, this represents the first description of L. mexicana in west Texas and extends the known geographic range of the parasite to an area that includes the arid Chihuahuan Desert. Our finding of L. mexicana in P. attwateri represents a new host record and is the first description of the parasite in a wild peromyscid rodent in the United States.

  10. Genetic evidence of enzootic leishmaniasis in a stray canine and Texas mouse from sites in west and central Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipp, Evan J; Mariscal, Jacqueline; Armijos, Rodrigo X; Weigel, Margaret; Waldrup, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    We detected Leishmania mexicana in skin biopsies taken from a stray canine (Canis familiaris) and Texas mouse (Peromyscus attwateri) at two ecologically disparate sites in west and central Texas using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A single PCR-positive dog was identified from a sample of 96 stray canines and was collected in a peri-urban area in El Paso County, Texas. The PCR-positive P. attwateri was trapped at a wildlife reserve in Mason County, Texas, from a convenience sample of 20 sylvatic mammals of different species. To our knowledge, this represents the first description of L. mexicana in west Texas and extends the known geographic range of the parasite to an area that includes the arid Chihuahuan Desert. Our finding of L. mexicana in P. attwateri represents a new host record and is the first description of the parasite in a wild peromyscid rodent in the United States. PMID:27759765

  11. Honey Bee Infecting Lake Sinai Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daughenbaugh, Katie F; Martin, Madison; Brutscher, Laura M; Cavigli, Ian; Garcia, Emma; Lavin, Matt; Flenniken, Michelle L

    2015-06-23

    Honey bees are critical pollinators of important agricultural crops. Recently, high annual losses of honey bee colonies have prompted further investigation of honey bee infecting viruses. To better characterize the recently discovered and very prevalent Lake Sinai virus (LSV) group, we sequenced currently circulating LSVs, performed phylogenetic analysis, and obtained images of LSV2. Sequence analysis resulted in extension of the LSV1 and LSV2 genomes, the first detection of LSV4 in the US, and the discovery of LSV6 and LSV7. We detected LSV1 and LSV2 in the Varroa destructor mite, and determined that a large proportion of LSV2 is found in the honey bee gut, suggesting that vector-mediated, food-associated, and/or fecal-oral routes may be important for LSV dissemination. Pathogen-specific quantitative PCR data, obtained from samples collected during a small-scale monitoring project, revealed that LSV2, LSV1, Black queen cell virus (BQCV), and Nosema ceranae were more abundant in weak colonies than strong colonies within this sample cohort. Together, these results enhance our current understanding of LSVs and illustrate the importance of future studies aimed at investigating the role of LSVs and other pathogens on honey bee health at both the individual and colony levels.

  12. Honey Bee Infecting Lake Sinai Viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie F. Daughenbaugh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Honey bees are critical pollinators of important agricultural crops. Recently, high annual losses of honey bee colonies have prompted further investigation of honey bee infecting viruses. To better characterize the recently discovered and very prevalent Lake Sinai virus (LSV group, we sequenced currently circulating LSVs, performed phylogenetic analysis, and obtained images of LSV2. Sequence analysis resulted in extension of the LSV1 and LSV2 genomes, the first detection of LSV4 in the US, and the discovery of LSV6 and LSV7. We detected LSV1 and LSV2 in the Varroa destructor mite, and determined that a large proportion of LSV2 is found in the honey bee gut, suggesting that vector-mediated, food-associated, and/or fecal-oral routes may be important for LSV dissemination. Pathogen-specific quantitative PCR data, obtained from samples collected during a small-scale monitoring project, revealed that LSV2, LSV1, Black queen cell virus (BQCV, and Nosema ceranae were more abundant in weak colonies than strong colonies within this sample cohort. Together, these results enhance our current understanding of LSVs and illustrate the importance of future studies aimed at investigating the role of LSVs and other pathogens on honey bee health at both the individual and colony levels.

  13. Climate induced variability of suspended matter and nutrient in the discharge of Kali river, central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raghavan, B.R.; Chauhan, O.S.

    of the central west coast of India is not dammed. The river has a small, estuarine mouth and virtually no large scale deltaic activities are reported from the area. Being located in the region of high precipitation (~ 2700 mm y -1 , 80% of which... (Table 1). The precipitation magnitude is highly seasonal, and virtually no meteoric water is available after cessation of the NE and the SW monsoons (Table 1). The river originates in the Western Ghats (elevation ~ 1900 m above mean sea level...

  14. Contamination of arctic Fjord sediments by Pb-Zn mining at Maarmorilik in central West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perner, Kerstin; Leipe, Thomas; Dellwig, O;

    2010-01-01

    This study focuses on heavy metal contamination of arctic sediments from a small Fjord system adjacent to the Pb-Zn "Black Angel" mine (West Greenland) to investigate the temporal and spatial development of contamination and to provide baseline levels before the mines re-opening in January 2009...... illustrate this transport and spatial distribution pattern of the contaminated material....

  15. Late Mississippian gastropods of the Chainman Shale, west-central Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Mackenzie; Yochelson, Ellis L.

    1987-01-01

    The Chainman Shale of Mississippian (Osagean to late Chesterian) age, well exposed in the Confusion Range of western Utah, has yielded a profusion of fossils during investigations conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in the past 30 years. Conspicuous among these fossils are gastropods, which range in age from latest Meramecian to late Chesterian. In west-central Utah, not far from the State boundary, the Chainman outcrop belt stretches from Granite Mountain south to the northern part of the Needle Range, a distance of69 miles (110 km). The Chainman thickens from north to south; the section at Granite Mountain is 1,315 feet (401 m) thick and that at Jensen Wash in the Burbank Hills, 2,203 feet (671 m). The rocks of the Chainman Shale record a general though irregular shallowing of the area from moderate depths of 330 feet (100 m) or so to quite shallow depths of perhaps locally little more than 3-6 feet (1-2 m). Most of the gastropods occur with ammonoids in a facies of shale or shale containing phosphatic limestone concretions, In this lutaceous facies, Glabrocingulum is predominant and Lunulazona and Retispira are common; these genera are represented by a succession of species. A thick limestone unit is present in some areas in the upper part of the formation, particularly in the vicinity of Skunk Spring, where it is 318 feet (97 m) thick. This limestone unit represents a calcareous shoal facies having an entirely different gastropod fauna, characterized by Catazona and species of Naticopsis. The Chainman Shale could be easily zoned by gastropods, but we are not proposing such azonation. A framework of ammonoid and foraminiferal zones already is available, and we prefer to regard the gastropod assemblages as part of this framework. The assemblages are confined to the major ammonoid and foraminiferal zones, and only three of the gastropod species seem to range across major zonal boundaries. These species are Bellerophon (Bellerophon vespertinus Gordon and

  16. Geology of the Northern Part of the Harcuvar Complex, West-Central Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Bruce; Wooden, J.L.

    2008-01-01

    In west-central Arizona near the northeast margin of the Basin and Range Province, the Rawhide detachment fault separates Tertiary and older rocks lacking significant effects of Tertiary metamorphism from Precambrian, Paleozoic, and Mesozoic rocks in the Harcuvar metamorphic core complex below. Much of the northern part of the Harcuvar complex in the Buckskin and eastern Harcuvar Mountains is layered granitic gneiss, biotite gneiss, amphibolite, and minor pelitic schist that was probably deformed and metamorphosed in Early Proterozoic time. In the eastern Buckskin Mountains, Early and Middle Proterozoic plutons having U-Pb zircon ages of 1,683?6.4 mega-annum (Ma) and 1,388?2.3 Ma, respectively, intruded the layered gneiss. Small plutons of alkaline gabbro and diorite intruded in Late Jurassic time. A sample of mylonitized diorite from this unit has a U-Pb zircon age of 149?2.8 Ma. In the Early Cretaceous, amphibolite facies regional metamorphism was accompanied by partial melting and formation of migmatite. Zircon from a granitic layer in migmatitic gneiss in the eastern Harcuvar Mountains has a U-Pb age of 110?3.7 Ma. In the Late Cretaceous, sills and plutons of the granite of Tank Pass were emplaced in both the Buckskin and eastern Harcuvar Mountains. In the Buckskin Mountains those intrusions are locally numerous enough to form an injection migmatite. A pluton of this granite crops out over almost half the area of the eastern Harcuvar Mountains. Paleozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary rocks were caught as slices along south-vergent Cretaceous thrusts related to the Maria fold and thrust belt and were metamorphosed beneath a thick sheet of Proterozoic crustal rocks. Inception of volcanism and basin formation in upper-plate rocks indicates that regional extension started at about 26 Ma, in late Oligocene. The Swansea Plutonic Suite, composed of rocks ranging from gabbro to granite, intruded the lower-plate rocks in the Miocene and Oligocene(?). Granite and a gabbro

  17. 3D-seismic observations of Late Pleistocene glacial dynamics on the central West Greenland margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Julia; Knutz, Paul; Cofaigh, Colm Ó.

    2016-04-01

    suggesting the transition between grounded ice and a glacimarine setting. The back-stepping scarps are suggestive of slide scars that were created as a result of mass movement induced by instabilities along the NW slope. The buried section contains morphologies indicating an asymmetric feature with a steeper side facing south. It comprises a thickness of c. 100 m and a length of c. 28 km. The detailed surface observations and seismic geometries suggest that the northern area represents a relict grounding-zone wedge (GZW). The wedge is covered by stratified deposits suggesting that it was at least occasionally submarine after its formation and may have served as pinning-point for floating ice shelves during periods of the Late TMF Stage. Important implications of the study are the intermittent development of floating ice shelves during the course of the Late Stage of TMF development and the presence of shelf-edge terminating grounded Late Weichselian ice outside of the troughs. Hofmann, J.C., Knutz, P.C., Nielsen, T., Kuijpers, A., submitted. Seismic architecture and evolution of the Disko Bay trough-mouth fan, central West Greenland margin. Quaternary Science Reviews.

  18. High-resolution analysis of Y-chromosomal polymorphisms reveals signatures of population movements from Central Asia and West Asia into India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Namita Mukherjee; Almut Nebel; Ariella Oppenheim; Partha P. Majumder

    2001-12-01

    Linguistic evidence suggests that West Asia and Central Asia have been the two major geographical sources of genes in the contemporary Indian gene pool. To test the nature and extent of similarities in the gene pools of these regions we have collected DNA samples from four ethnic populations of northern India, and have screened these samples for a set of 18 Y-chromosome polymorphic markers (12 unique event polymorphisms and six short tandem repeats). These data from Indian populations have been analysed in conjunction with published data from several West Asian and Central Asian populations. Our analyses have revealed traces of population movement from Central Asia and West Asia into India. Two haplogroups, HG-3 and HG-9, which are known to have arisen in the Central Asian region, are found in reasonably high frequencies (41.7% and 14.3% respectively) in the study populations. The ages estimated for these two haplogroups are less in the Indian populations than those estimated from data on Middle Eastern populations. A neighbour-joining tree based on Y-haplogroup frequencies shows that the North Indians are genetically placed between the West Asian and Central Asian populations. This is consistent with gene flow from West Asia and Central Asia into India.

  19. Retrospective seasonal prediction of summer monsoon rainfall over West Central and Peninsular India in the past 142 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Wang, Bin; Yang, Young-Min

    2016-06-01

    Prediction of Indian summer (June-September) rainfall on regional scales remains an open issue. The operational predictions of West Central Indian summer rainfall (WCI-R) and Peninsular Indian summer rainfall (PI-R) made by the Indian Meteorological Department (IMD) had no skills during 2004-2012. This motivates the present study aiming at better understanding the predictability sources and physical processes governing summer rainfall variability over these two regions. Analysis of 133 year data reveal that although the lower boundary forcing that associated with enhanced WCI-R and PI-R featured a similar developing La-Nina and "east high west low" sea-level pressure (SLP) dipole pattern across the Indo-Pacific, the anomalous high sea surface temperature (SST) over the northern Indian Ocean and weak low pressure over northern Asia tended to enhance PI-R but reduce WCI-R. Based on our understanding of physical linkages with the predictands, we selected four and two causative predictors for predictions of the WCI-R and PI-R, respectively. The intensified summer WCI-R is preceded by (a) Indian Ocean zonal dipole-like SST tendency (west-warming and east-cooling), (b) tropical Pacific zonal dipole SST tendency (west-warming and east-cooling), (c) central Pacific meridional dipole SST tendency (north-cooling and south-warming), and (d) decreasing SLP tendency over northern Asia in the previous season. The enhanced PI-R was lead by the central-eastern Pacific cooling and 2-m temperature cooling tendency east of Lake Balkhash in the previous seasons. These causative processes linking the predictors and WCI-R and PI-R are supported by ensemble numerical experiments using a coupled climate model. For the period of 1871-2012, the physics-based empirical (P-E) prediction models built on these predictors result in cross-validated forecast temporal correlation coefficient skills of 0.55 and 0.47 for WCI-R and PI-R, respectively. The independent forecast skill is significantly

  20. Factors associated with the occurrence of Triatoma sordida (Hemiptera: Reduviidae in rural localities of Central-West Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Chedid Nogared Rossi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study estimates the factors of artificial environments (houses and peridomestic areas associated with Triatoma sordida occurrence. Manual searches for triatomines were performed in 136 domiciliary units (DUs in two rural localities of Central-West Brazil. For each DU, 32 structural, 23 biotic and 28 management variables were obtained. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed in order to identify statistically significant variables associated with occurrence of T. sordida in the study areas. A total of 1,057 specimens (99% in peridomiciles, mainly chicken coops of T. sordida were collected from 63 DUs (infestation: 47%; density: ~8 specimens/DU; crowding: ~17 specimens/infested DU; colonisation: 81%. Only six (0.6% out of 945 specimens examined were infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. The final adjusted logistic regression model indicated that the probability of T. sordida occurrence was higher in DU with wooden chicken coops, presence of > 30 animals in wooden corrals, presence of wood piles and presence of food storeroom. The results show the persistence of T. sordida in peridomestic habitats in rural localities of Central-West Brazil. However, the observed low intradomestic colonisation and minimal triatomine infection rates indicate that T. sordida has low potential to sustain high rates of T. cruzi transmission to residents of these localities.

  1. Detection of calicivirus from fecal samples from children with acute gastroenteritis in the West Central region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Tavares Borges

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to describe the circulation of caliciviruses in the West Central region of Brazil and its correlation with children's gender and age, as well as with the year and months of the sample collection. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction was performed to detect the human calicivirus genome in 1006 fecal samples that were collected in Goiânia (n = 696 and Brasília (n = 310. Viral RNA was detected in 8.6% of the samples. No significant difference in viral prevalence was found regarding gender, age or year of the sample. However, it was observed that in Goiânia, there is a higher incidence of caliciviruses from September to March. The analysis employing three primer pairs demonstrated that the Ni/E3 or JV12/13 primer pairs, which detect norovirus (NoV, detected 41 positive samples while the 289/290 primer pair, which detects NoV or sapovirus, detected the remaining 46 samples. Calicivirus circulates in the West Central region of Brazil and for better detection of this virus it is important to use more than one primer pair. Also, we conclude that the seasonality presented by this virus is related to higher humidity in the period.

  2. Association analysis of photoperiodic flowering time genes in west and central African sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhosale Sankalp U

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Photoperiod-sensitive flowering is a key adaptive trait for sorghum (Sorghum bicolor in West and Central Africa. In this study we performed an association analysis to investigate the effect of polymorphisms within the genes putatively related to variation in flowering time on photoperiod-sensitive flowering in sorghum. For this purpose a genetically characterized panel of 219 sorghum accessions from West and Central Africa was evaluated for their photoperiod response index (PRI based on two sowing dates under field conditions. Results Sorghum accessions used in our study were genotyped for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in six genes putatively involved in the photoperiodic control of flowering time. Applying a mixed model approach and previously-determined population structure parameters to these candidate genes, we found significant associations between several SNPs with PRI for the genes CRYPTOCHROME 1 (CRY1-b1 and GIGANTEA (GI. Conclusions The negative values of Tajima's D, found for the genes of our study, suggested that purifying selection has acted on genes involved in photoperiodic control of flowering time in sorghum. The SNP markers of our study that showed significant associations with PRI can be used to create functional markers to serve as important tools for marker-assisted selection of photoperiod-sensitive cultivars in sorghum.

  3. Changes in Intense Precipitation Events in West Africa and the central U.S. under Global Warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, Kerry H. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Vizy, Edward [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2016-02-08

    The purpose of the proposed project is to improve our understanding of the physical processes and large-scale connectivity of changes in intense precipitation events (high rainfall rates) under global warming in West Africa and the central U.S., including relationships with low-frequency modes of variability. This is in response to the requested subject area #2 “simulation of climate extremes under a changing climate … to better quantify the frequency, duration, and intensity of extreme events under climate change and elucidate the role of low frequency climate variability in modulating extremes.” We will use a regional climate model and emphasize an understanding of the physical processes that lead to an intensification of rainfall. The project objectives are as follows: 1. Understand the processes responsible for simulated changes in warm-season rainfall intensity and frequency over West Africa and the Central U.S. associated with greenhouse gas-induced global warming 2. Understand the relationship between changes in warm-season rainfall intensity and frequency, which generally occur on regional space scales, and the larger-scale global warming signal by considering modifications of low-frequency modes of variability. 3. Relate changes simulated on regional space scales to global-scale theories of how and why atmospheric moisture levels and rainfall should change as climate warms.

  4. Vegetation, Fire and Climate Over the Last 2000 Yrs in Central West Patagonia (45°S)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa-Martinez, R. P.; Simi, E. I.; Moreno, P. I.

    2014-12-01

    We report high-resolution pollen and charcoal records from lake sediments obtained from Lago Mellizas and Lago Churrasco to reconstruct the history of vegetation, fire and past variations of the southern westerly winds (SWW) over the last 2000 years. Both sites are located near to the climate-modulated forest-steppe ecotone in central west Patagonia. In this region the SWW are the only source of precipitation and is ideal for reconstructing past changes in atmospheric circulation. This is facilitated by the marked west-east precipitation gradient across the Patagonian Andes that induces a zonation of the regional vegetation which can be used for inferring past changes in precipitation regimes based on fossil pollen records. Furthermore, the Chilean-European colonization process in central west Patagonia started early in the 20th century, allowing characterization of natural vegetation and climate variability in the absence of human disturbance until the end of the 19th century. The pollen records shows dominance of Nothofagus deciduous forests with minor fluctuations and low herb and aquatics abundances, which suggest humid climate conditions. We detect a major change in the pollen stratigraphy at 200 cal yr BP, when started a sustained decreasing trend in Nothofagus, along with increases of Poaceae and aquatics plants (Cyperaceae, Myriophyllum). We interpret these changes as a forest opening and centripetal expansion of littoral environments toward the lake center driven by lake-level lowering in response to lowered precipitation brought by the SWW. Pinus, Rumex, Plantago, which indicate human perturbation, increase in 1900 AD. Macroscopic charcoal increases at 1750, 1400, 850-700, 500, and 200 cal yr BP, suggesting local fires, followed by sharp increases during the last 100 years. We interpret the pre-20th century charcoal peaks as dry intervals with lowered SWW influence. Acknowledgement: Fondecyt 1121141, Fondap 15110009, and ICM grants P02-51 and NC120066.

  5. HIV/AIDS patient migration in North-Central West Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutsen, Dorothy A; Roidad, Nasira; Sarwari, Arif R; Coombs, Tabatha; Fisher, Melanie A

    2013-01-01

    Many HIV/AIDS patients rely on the Ryan White CARE Act, a federally-funded program to cover the costs of their medical care. The dispersal of this funding is dependent on a complex algorithm, which factors in the number of people that test positive for HIV in each state. However, demographic and migration studies have suggested that HIV/AIDS patients in rural America are first diagnosed in urban areas and then later moved to more rural areas. The participant pool was identified from adult patients who have received care from the West Virginia University (WVU) Positive Health Clinic from January 1, 2004 to July 26, 2012 and knew the location where they had initially tested positive for HIV. The place of initial HIV diagnosis could be determined for 398 out of 433 patients and fewer than half (48%) were initially diagnosed in West Virginia. Because over half of the patients who are treated at WVU were initially tested outside of West Virginia, this could negatively impact the federal funding opportunities for our state through the Ryan White CARE Act using the current algorithm.

  6. Hydrologic Setting and Conceptual Hydrologic Model of the Walker River Basin, West-Central Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Thomas J.; Allander, Kip K.

    2009-01-01

    The Walker River is the main source of inflow to Walker Lake, a closed-basin lake in west-central Nevada. Between 1882 and 2008, agricultural diversions resulted in a lake-level decline of more than 150 feet and storage loss of 7,400,000 acre-ft. Evaporative concentration increased dissolved solids from 2,500 to 17,000 milligrams per liter. The increase in salinity threatens the survival of the Lahontan cutthroat trout, a native species listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act. This report describes the hydrologic setting of the Walker River basin and a conceptual hydrologic model of the relations among streams, groundwater, and Walker Lake with emphasis on the lower Walker River basin from Wabuska to Hawthorne, Nevada. The Walker River basin is about 3,950 square miles and straddles the California-Nevada border. Most streamflow originates as snowmelt in the Sierra Nevada. Spring runoff from the Sierra Nevada typically reaches its peak during late May to early June with as much as 2,800 cubic feet per second in the Walker River near Wabuska. Typically, 3 to 4 consecutive years of below average streamflow are followed by 1 or 2 years of average or above average streamflow. Mountain ranges are comprised of consolidated rocks with low hydraulic conductivities, but consolidated rocks transmit water where fractured. Unconsolidated sediments include fluvial deposits along the active channel of the Walker River, valley floors, alluvial slopes, and a playa. Sand and gravel deposited by the Walker River likely are discontinuous strata throughout the valley floor. Thick clay strata likely were deposited in Pleistocene Lake Lahontan and are horizontally continuous, except where strata have been eroded by the Walker River. At Walker Lake, sediments mostly are clay interbedded with alluvial slope, fluvial, and deltaic deposits along the lake margins. Coarse sediments form a multilayered, confined-aquifer system that could extend several miles from the shoreline

  7. Assessment of coastal wetland resources of central west coast, India, using LANDSAT data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jagtap, T.G.; Naik, S.; Nagle, V.L.

    , productive and sensitive, demands a long term strategy for their sustainable utilization through conservation and protection. The maintenance of biodiversity forms a keystone of sustainable development and hence is emerged as one of the central tenets...

  8. Explosive spread of a neuroinvasive lineage 2 West Nile virus in Central Europe, 2008/2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakonyi, Tamás; Ferenczi, Emőke; Erdélyi, Károly; Kutasi, Orsolya; Csörgő, Tibor; Seidel, Bernhard; Weissenböck, Herbert; Brugger, Katharina; Bán, Enikő; Nowotny, Norbert

    2013-07-26

    For the first time outside sub-Saharan Africa, a lineage 2 West Nile virus (WNV) emerged in Hungary in 2004. It caused sporadic cases of encephalitis in goshawks (Accipiter gentilis), other predatory birds, and in mammals. As a consequence, a surveillance program was initiated in Hungary and in Austria, which included virological, molecular, serological and epidemiological investigations in human beings, birds, horses, and mosquitoes. The virus strain became endemic to Hungary, however only sporadic cases of infections were observed between 2004 and 2007. Unexpectedly, explosive spread of the virus was noted in 2008, when neuroinvasive West Nile disease (WND) was diagnosed all over Hungary in dead goshawks and other birds of prey (n=25), in horses (n=12), and humans (n=22). At the same time this virus also spread to the eastern part of Austria, where it was detected in dead wild birds (n=8). In 2009, recurrent WND outbreaks were observed in Hungary and Austria, in wild birds, horses, and humans in the same areas. Virus isolates of both years exhibited closest genetic relationship to the lineage 2 WNV strain which emerged in 2004. As we know today, the explosive spread of the lineage 2 WNV in 2008 described here remained not restricted to Hungary and Austria, but this virus dispersed further to the south to various Balkan states and reached northern Greece, where it caused the devastating neuroinvasive WND outbreak in humans in 2010.

  9. Diagenesis and reservoir properties of Cretaceous-Lower Tertiary sandstones: the GANT-1 well, western Nuussuaq, central West Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kierkegaard, Thomas

    1998-08-01

    The main purpose of this study is to describe the diagenetic alterations occurring in the Cretaceous to Lower Paleocene sedimentary succession of the GANT-1 well, and to determine the diagenetic and detrital factors which control present porosity and permeability. The GANT-1 well is located on north-western Nuussuaq, central West Greenland. The West Greenland margin is a continental margin subdivided into linked basins where Cretaceous to Lower Tertiary and probably older sediments have been deposited. In the Nuussuaq area these sediments are overlain by a succession of Early Tertiary basaltic volcanic rocks which reaches a combined thickness of around 2-2.5 km. Although the reservoir properties of the sandstone intervals in the GANT-1 and GANE-1 wells are generally relatively poor, it is suggested that moderate to good properties may be found in certain intervals within the Maastrichtian-Paleocene succession. However, the reason for the locally enhanced reservoir properties in GANT-1 was not clarified by this study due to the lack of regional petrographical data. (EG) EFP-96. 41 refs., 3 maps

  10. Hydrogeology of the Hanford Site Central Plateau – A Status Report for the 200 West Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Last, George V.; Thorne, Paul D.; Horner, Jacob A.; Parker, Kyle R.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Mackley, Rob D.; Lanigan, David C.; Williams, Bruce A.

    2009-08-27

    The Remediation Decisions Support (RDS) function of the Soil and Groundwater Remediation Project (managed by CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company [CHPRC]) is responsible for facilitating the development of consistent data, parameters, and conceptual models to resolve technical issues and support efforts to estimate contaminant migration and impacts (i.e., the assessment process). In particular, the RDS function is working to update electronic data sources and conceptual models of the geologic framework and associated hydraulic and geochemical parameters to facilitate traceability, transparency, defensibility, and consistency in support of environmental assessments. This report summarizes the efforts conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) scientists in fiscal year 2008 (FY08) that focused primarily on the 200 West Area, as well as a secondary effort initiated on the 200 East Area.

  11. Interaction of Rahaliya-Ekhedhur groundwater with the aquifer rock, West Razzaza Lake, Central Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dabbas, Moutaz A.

    2016-09-01

    The groundwater of Dammam aquifer in Rahaliya-Ekhedhur area, West Razzaza, Iraq, was studied to identify the main hydrogeochemical processes and the groundwater-rock interaction. The results indicated that Na+ and SO4 2- are the dominant ions in the groundwater. The average contribution of cations in the aquifer is Na+ + K+ (24.7 %), Ca2+ (13.9 %), and Mg2+ (11.4 %), while anions contribution is SO4 2- (23.0 %), Cl- (20.7 %), and HCO3 - (6.3 %). The groundwater characterized by neutral to slightly alkaline hard water, excessively mineralized, and slightly brackish water type. Rock-water interaction processes are identified to include dissolution of carbonates, sulfates, halite, and clay minerals, leaching, and cation exchanges, with little impact of evaporation.

  12. Geochemistry of selected oils and rocks from the central portion of the West Siberian basin, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, K.E.; Huizinga, B.J. (Chevron Overseas Petroleum Inc., San Ramon, CA (United States)); Kontorovich, A.Eh.; Andrusevich, V.E. (Inst. of Geology, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)); Moldowan, J.M. (Chevron Petroleum Technology Co., Richmond, CA (United States)); Demaison, G.J. (Petroscience Inc., Walnut Creek, CA (United States)); Stasova, O.F. (NPO SIBGEO, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation))

    1993-05-01

    Six analyzed oils, produced from Middle jurassic to Upper Cretaceous strata in the Middle Ob region of the West Siberian basin, show biomarker and stable carbon isotope compositions indicating an origin from the Upper Jurassic Bazhenov Formation. The chemical compositions of these oils are representative of more than 85% of the reserves in West Siberia (Kontorovich et al., 1975). Bazhenov-sourced oil in Cenomanian strata in the Van-Egan field underwent biodegradation in the reservoir, resulting in a low API gravity, an altered homohopane distribution, and the appearance of 25-norhopanes without alteration of the steranes. High API gravity oil from the Salym field has surpassed the peak of the oil window, consistent with abnormally high temperatures and pressures in the Bazhenov source rock from which it is produced. The remaining oils are very similar, including samples from Valanginian and Bathonian-Callovian intervals in a sequence of stacked reservoirs in the Fedorov field. Bazhenov rock samples from the study area contain abundant oil-prone, marine organic matter preserved under anoxic conditions. While the Upper Jurassic Vasyugan Formation shows lower oil-regenerative potential than the Bazhenov Formation, it cannot be excluded as a source rock because insufficient sample was available for biomarker analysis. Core from the Lower to Middle Jurassic Tyumen Formation in the YemYegov 15 well was compared with the oils because it is thermally mature and shows TOC and HI values, indicating slightly more favorable oil-generative characteristics than the average for the formation (2.75 wt. % for 270 samples; 95 mg HC/g TOC for 25 samples). The core contains terrigenous, gas-prone organic matter that shows no relationship with the analyzed oils. 59 refs., 15 figs., 8 tabs.

  13. Future energy consumption and emissions in East-, Central- and West-China: Insights from soft-linking two global models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dai, Hancheng; Mischke, Peggy

    2014-01-01

    China's role in the global economy and energy markets is expanding, however many uncertainties with regards to the country's future energy consumption and emissions remain. Large regional disparities between China's provinces exist. Scenario analysis for different sub-regions of China will be use......China's role in the global economy and energy markets is expanding, however many uncertainties with regards to the country's future energy consumption and emissions remain. Large regional disparities between China's provinces exist. Scenario analysis for different sub-regions of China...... will be useful for an improved understanding of China's potential future development and associated global impacts. This study soft-links a global dynamic CGE model and a global technology-rich energy system model. Both models are expanded to include East-, Central-, and West-China. This study shows that soft...

  14. Historical saturated thickness of the Edwards-Trinity aquifer system and selected contiguous hydraulically connected units, west-central Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardis, Ann F.; Barker, Rene A.

    1993-01-01

    The Edwards-Trinity Regional Aquifer-System Analysis (RASA) is one of 25 completed or ongoing studies conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey on regional aquifer systems that individually provide essential quantities of ground water to large parts of the country. Underlying about 42,000 mi2 of west-central Texas, the Edwards-Trinity aquifer system extends approximately from Atascosa County in the southeast to Culberson County in the northwest and from the Rio Grande in the southwest to the Colorado River in the northeast (sheet 2). The Edwards-Trinity aquifer system spans four geographic subareas: Trans-Pecos, Edwards Plateau, Hill Country, and Balcones fault zone (fig. 1). The names of all aquifers in the study area were adopted for RASA purposes directly from nomenclature mandated by the Texas Water Plan (Texas Water Development Board, 1990).

  15. Evaluation of Vertical Electrical Sounding Method for Groundwater Development in Basement Complex Terrain of West-Central Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Olawuyi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This research evaluated the Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES method of groundwater development in the Basement Complex terrain of West Central Nigeria. It was aimed at verifying the reliability of VES in differentiating lithologies, predicting the depth to basement and probably, aquifer in groundwater development. In doing this, the Schlumberger electrode configuration was employed in the surveys while partial curve matching and computer iteration techniques were used to interpret the curves obtained. In all, seventy three VES were carried out and fourteen boreholes constructed. Comparison was made between the predicted depth to basement from VES and the actual depth from the drilling log. A linear relationship between the actual depth and that predicted by VES was established with coefficient of determination of 0.94 confirming the reliability of the VES method. None of the boreholes drilled was abortive.

  16. Mixed-severity fire history at a forest-grassland ecotone in west central British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Jill E; Smith, Dan J; Veblen, Thomas T

    2017-09-01

    This study examines spatially variable stand structure and fire-climate relationships at a low elevation forest-grassland ecotone in west central British Columbia, Canada. Fire history reconstructions were based on samples from 92 fire-scarred trees and stand demography from 27 plots collected over an area of about 7 km(2) . We documented historical chronologies of widespread fires and localized grassland fires between AD 1600 and 1900. Relationships between fire events, reconstructed values of the Palmer Drought Severity Index, and annual precipitation were examined using superposed epoch and bivariate event analyses. Widespread fires occurred during warm, dry years and were preceded by multiple anomalously dry, warm years. Localized fires that affected only grassland-proximal forests were more frequent than widespread fires. These localized fires showed a lagged, positive relationship with wetter conditions. The landscape pattern of forest structure provided further evidence of complex fire activity with multiple plots shown to have experienced low-, mixed-, and/or high-severity fires over the last four centuries. We concluded that this forest-grassland ecotone was characterized by fires of mixed severity, dominated by frequent, low-severity fires punctuated by widespread fires of moderate to high severity. This landscape-level variability in fire-climate relationships and patterns in forest structure has important implications for fire and grassland management in west central British Columbia and similar environments elsewhere. Forest restoration techniques such as prescribed fire and thinning are oftentimes applied at the forest-grassland ecotone on the basis that historically high frequency, low-severity fires defined the character of past fire activity. This study provides forest managers and policy makers with important information on mixed-severity fire activity at a low elevation forest-grassland ecotone, a crucial prerequisite for the effective

  17. Kyllinga cataphyllata (Cyperaceae), a new species from the highlands of West and Central Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huygh, W.; Schouppe, D.; Larridon, I.; Simpson, D.A.; Goetghebeur, P.

    2010-01-01

    Kyllinga cataphyllata, a new species of Cyperaceae from the highlands of Western and Central Africa, is described and illustrated. This new species is easy recognized by the ascending rhizome densely covered by large cataphylls. The head-like inflorescence consisting of a single spike with spikelets

  18. Time-scale of minor HIV-1 complex circulating recombinant forms from Central and West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delatorre, Edson; Bello, Gonzalo

    2016-11-16

    Several HIV-1 circulating recombinant forms with a complex mosaic structure (CRFs_cpx) circulate in central and western African regions. Here we reconstruct the evolutionary history of some of these complex CRFs (09_cpx, 11_cpx, 13_cpx and 45_cpx) and further investigate the dissemination dynamic of the CRF11_cpx clade by using a Bayesian coalescent-based method. The analysis of two HIV-1 datasets comprising 181 pol (36 CRF09_cpx, 116 CRF11_cpx, 20 CRF13_cpx and 9 CRF45_cpx) and 125 env (12 CRF09_cpx, 67 CRF11_cpx, 17 CRF13_cpx and 29 CRF45_cpx) sequences pointed to quite consistent onset dates for CRF09_cpx (~1966: 1958-1979), CRF11_cpx (~1957: 1950-1966) and CRF13_cpx (~1965: 1958-1973) clades; while some divergence was found for the estimated date of origin of CRF45_cpx clade [pol = 1970 (1964-1976); env = 1960 (1952-1969)]. Phylogeographic reconstructions indicate that the HIV-1 CRF11_cpx clade most probably emerged in Cameroon and from there it was first disseminated to the Central Africa Republic and Chad in the early 1970s and to other central and western African countries from the early 1980s onwards. Demographic reconstructions suggest that the CRF11_cpx epidemic grew between 1960 and 1990 with a median exponential growth rate of 0.27 year(-1), and stabilized after. These results reveal that HIV-1 CRFs_cpx clades have been circulating in Central Africa for a period comparable to other much more prevalent HIV-1 group M lineages. Cameroon was probably the epicenter of dissemination of the CRF11_cpx clade that seems to have experienced a long epidemic growth phase before stabilization. The epidemic growth of the CRF11_cpx clade was roughly comparable to other HIV-1 group M lineages circulating in Central Africa.

  19. Regional gravity and magnetic studies over the continental margin of the Central West Coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SubbaRaju, L.V.; KameshRaju, K.A.; Subrahmanyam, V.; Rao, D.G.

    ) have deciphered the nature and structure of the magnetic crystalline base ment in the region. The present gravity (890 km) and magnetic (510 Ion) data, together with bathymetry (890 km) col lected on board RV Sagar Kanya along five regional profiles... covering the Bombay offshore basin are stud ied to decipher the model crustal structure and to un- derstand the regional tectonic framework of central western continental margin of India. Previous Studies The continental margin of western India...

  20. Groundwater lowering and stream incision rates in the Central Appalachian Mountains of West Virginia, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory S. Springer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface channel incision rates are of broad geomorphological interest because they set the boundary conditions for landscape change by affecting changes in local relief and hillslope angles. We report groundwater table lowering rates associated with subsurface Buckeye Creek and the surface channel of Spring Creek in southeastern West Virginia, USA. The mountainous watersheds have drainage areas of 14 km2 and 171 km2, respectively. The lowering rates are derived from U/Th-dating of stalagmites and the paleomagnetostratigraphy of clastic sediments in Buckeye Creek Cave. The oldest stalagmites have a minimum age of 0.54 Ma and we use a minimum age of 0.778 Ma for clastic cave sediments deposited during a period of reversed magnetic polarity. The water table at Buckeye Creek has lowered at a rate of ≤40 m Ma-1. Based on the relative elevations of Buckeye and Spring creeks, the water table at Spring Creek has lowered at a rate of ≤47 m Ma-1. These values are consistent with previously published rates obtained from caves in the region, although those rates were reported as surface channel incision rates, based on the assumption local groundwaters drained to the surface channel of interest. However, the rates we report are almost certainly not simple bedrock incision rates because of autogenic processes within the cave and surrounding, well-developed fluviokarst. Caveats aside, incision rates of ≤47 m Ma-1 now appear typical of landscapes of the Appalachian Mountains and Plateau.

  1. Water resources on the Pueblo of Laguna, west-central New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risser, D.W.; Lyford, F.P.

    1983-01-01

    This study evaluates the quality and quantity of water available on the Pueblo of Laguna, New Mexico. Groundwater for public supply occurs in the valley fill along the Rio San Jose, in the Paguate and Encinal areas, and possibly in the northern part of the Sedillo Grant. The valley fill in the Rio San Jose will supply 50 to 450 gallons per minute of potable water to properly constructed wells. In the alluvium along Rio Paguate, additional development of as much as 250 gallons per minute is possible. Groundwater for irrigation is restricted by available yields and quality to the valley fill along the Rio San Jose and possibly the western part of the Major 's Ranch area. In the Rio San Jose valley yields of 50 to 450 gallons per minute of water containing 500 to 3,000 milligrams per liter are possible. Digital-model simulations of the valley-fill aquifer west of the Village of Laguna show a potential salvage of as much as 900 acre-feet per year of evapotranspiration losses if water levels are lowered. Model studies also indicate that the winter flow of the Rio San Jose could be used to recharge groundwater stored in the valley. (USGS)

  2. An assessment of the occupational and environmental health needs in seven Southeastern European and West-Central Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coman, Alexandru; Cherecheş, Răzvan M; Ungureanu, Marius I; Marton-Vasarhelyi, Emanuela O; Valentine, Marissa A; Sabo-Attwood, Tara; Gray, Gregory C

    2015-12-01

    Eastern European and Central Asian countries are undergoing rapid socioeconomic and political reforms. Many old industrial facilities are either abandoned, or use outdated technologies that severely impact the environment. Emerging industries have less regulation than in developed countries and environmental and occupational problems seem to be increasing. Under a US National Institutes of Health pilot grant, we developed an interdisciplinary One Health research network in Southeastern Europe and West-Central Asia to identify environmental and occupational problems. From 2012 to 2014, this GeoHealth Hub engaged 11 academic centers and 16 public health institutions in eight different countries: Albania, Armenia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Romania, and the United States with a goal of strengthening environmental and occupational research and training capacities. Employing face-to-face interviews and large group meetings, we conducted an evidenced-based needs and opportunities assessment focused on aquatic health, food safety, and zoonotic diseases. Comprehensive reviews of the published literature yielded priority research areas for each of the seven GeoHealth Hub countries including heavy metal and pesticide contamination, tick-borne diseases, rabies, brucellosis, and inadequate public health surveillance.

  3. Late Paleozoic tectonic evolution and concentrated mineralization in Balkhash and West Junggar, western part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Shuwen; Chen, Xuanhua; Chen, Zhengle

    2016-04-01

    The Central Asia Orogenic Belt (CAOB) is an important area with significant growth of the crust and metallogeny in the Late Paleozoic. The Balkhash-Junggar tectono-metallogenic belt consists of the Balkhash, the West Junggar, and the East Junggar tectono-metallogenic belts in western part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). According to the structural geological relationship, the East Junggar, the West Junggar, and the Balkhash belts are considered to be once a continuous E-W-trending tectono-metallogenic belt in Late Carboniferous. The West Junggar belt is featured with NE-trending left-lateral strike-slip faulting tectonic system (WJTS), while the left-lateral strike-slip faults are E-W-trending in the Balkhash belt. The WJTS consists of the Darabut, the Mayile, and the Baerluke faults, and the blocks among them. All these left-lateral strike-slip faults are forming due to the transition of tectonic settings from syn-collisional orogeny to post-collisional extension during the closure of the ocean (the Junggar Sea) in Late Carboniferous, with significant intrusion of batholiths and crust growth occurred in this period. These faults are truncated by the right-lateral strike-slip faults, such as the Chingiz-Junggar fault, and the Central Balkhash fault in Mesozoic. The Balkhash-Junggar tectono-metallogenic belt is important for the occurrence of many well-known super-large and large porphyry Cu-Mo deposits (such as the Kounrad, the Aktogai, the Borly, and the Baogutu deposits), large skarn Cu deposits (in the Sayak ore-filed), large rare metal deposits (such as the East Kounrad, the Zhanet, and the Akshatau deposits), and large gold deposits (such as the Hatu deposit). Zircon U-Pb ages, Re-Os isotopic dating of molybdenites, 40Ar/39Ar thermochronology of hornblendes, muscovites, biotites, and K-feldspars, and zircon and apatite fission track (FT) and (U-Th)/He dating and thermal history modeling, provide a multidisciplinary approach to constrain the whole

  4. Bryophytes from the Republic of Equatorial Guinea (West-Central Africa) : 1., introduction and preliminary checklist

    OpenAIRE

    1996-01-01

    A preliminary list consisting of 159 bryophyte taxa (82 liverworts and 77 mosses) has been compiled from the bryological literature on the Republic of Equatorial Guinea (Central-Western Africa) until 1995. A general overview of the physical features and vegetation of the country, and an account of the history of its bryological exploration are also included. Se han reunido en un catálogo preliminar los 159 táxones de briófitos (82 hepáticas y 77 musgos) de la República de Guinea Ecuatorial...

  5. Spatio-Temporal Identification of Areas Suitable for West Nile Disease in the Mediterranean Basin and Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, Annamaria; Candeloro, Luca; Ippoliti, Carla; Monaco, Federica; De Massis, Fabrizio; Bruno, Rossana; Di Sabatino, Daria; Danzetta, Maria Luisa; Benjelloun, Abdennasser; Belkadi, Bouchra; El Harrak, Mehdi; Declich, Silvia; Rizzo, Caterina; Hammami, Salah; Ben Hassine, Thameur; Calistri, Paolo; Savini, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-transmitted Flavivirus belonging to the Japanese encephalitis antigenic complex of the Flaviviridae family. Its spread in the Mediterranean basin and the Balkans poses a significant risk to human health and forces public health officials to constantly monitor the virus transmission to ensure prompt application of preventive measures. In this context, predictive tools indicating the areas and periods at major risk of WNV transmission are of paramount importance. Spatial analysis approaches, which use environmental and climatic variables to find suitable habitats for WNV spread, can enhance predictive techniques. Using the Mahalanobis Distance statistic, areas ecologically most suitable for sustaining WNV transmission were identified in the Mediterranean basin and Central Europe. About 270 human and equine clinical cases notified in Italy, Greece, Portugal, Morocco, and Tunisia, between 2008 and 2012, have been considered. The environmental variables included in the model were altitude, slope, night time Land Surface Temperature, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, Enhanced Vegetation Index, and daily temperature range. Seasonality of mosquito population has been modelled and included in the analyses to produce monthly maps of suitable areas for West Nile Disease. Between May and July, the most suitable areas are located in Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, and North Cyprus. Summer/Autumn months, particularly between August and October, characterize the suitability in Italy, France, Spain, the Balkan countries, Morocco, North Tunisia, the Mediterranean coast of Africa, and the Middle East. The persistence of suitable conditions in December is confined to the coastal areas of Morocco, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, and Israel. PMID:26717483

  6. Spatio-Temporal Identification of Areas Suitable for West Nile Disease in the Mediterranean Basin and Central Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamaria Conte

    Full Text Available West Nile virus (WNV is a mosquito-transmitted Flavivirus belonging to the Japanese encephalitis antigenic complex of the Flaviviridae family. Its spread in the Mediterranean basin and the Balkans poses a significant risk to human health and forces public health officials to constantly monitor the virus transmission to ensure prompt application of preventive measures. In this context, predictive tools indicating the areas and periods at major risk of WNV transmission are of paramount importance. Spatial analysis approaches, which use environmental and climatic variables to find suitable habitats for WNV spread, can enhance predictive techniques. Using the Mahalanobis Distance statistic, areas ecologically most suitable for sustaining WNV transmission were identified in the Mediterranean basin and Central Europe. About 270 human and equine clinical cases notified in Italy, Greece, Portugal, Morocco, and Tunisia, between 2008 and 2012, have been considered. The environmental variables included in the model were altitude, slope, night time Land Surface Temperature, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, Enhanced Vegetation Index, and daily temperature range. Seasonality of mosquito population has been modelled and included in the analyses to produce monthly maps of suitable areas for West Nile Disease. Between May and July, the most suitable areas are located in Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, and North Cyprus. Summer/Autumn months, particularly between August and October, characterize the suitability in Italy, France, Spain, the Balkan countries, Morocco, North Tunisia, the Mediterranean coast of Africa, and the Middle East. The persistence of suitable conditions in December is confined to the coastal areas of Morocco, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, and Israel.

  7. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and antibiotics prescription trends at a central west bank hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayem, Yasin I; Qubaja, Marwan M; Shraim, Riyad K; Taha, Omar B; Abu Shkheidem, Imadeddin A; Ibrahim, Murad A

    2013-11-01

    We aimed to reliably describe the pattern of outpatient prescription of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and antibiotics (ATBs) at a central hospital in the West Bank, Palestine. This was a retrospective, cross-sectional study investigating a cohort of 2,208 prescriptions ordered by outpatient clinics and the emergency room over one year in Beit Jala Hospital in Bethlehem, West Bank. The orders were analysed for the rate and types of NSAIDs and ATBs utilised, and the appropriateness of these drugs to the diagnosis. Of the total prescriptions, 410 contained NSAIDs (18.6%), including diclofenac (40.2%), low dose aspirin (23.9%), ibuprofen (17.8%) and indomethacin (15.1%). A minority of these prescriptions contained a combination of these agents (2.5%). Only one prescription contained cyclooxyeganse-2 inhibitors (0.2%). The appropriateness of NSAID use to the diagnosis was as follows: appropriate (58.3%), inappropriate (14.4%) and difficult to tell (27.3%). The rate of ATB use was 30.3% (669 prescriptions). The ATBs prescribed were amoxicillin (23.3%), augmentin (14.3%), quinolones (12.7%), first and second generation cephalosporins (9.4% and 12.7%, respectively) and macrolides (7.2%). ATB combinations were identified in 9.4%, with the most common being second-generation cephalopsorins and metronidazole (4.3%). Regarding the appropriateness of prescribing ATBs according to the diagnosis, it was appropriate in 44.8%, inappropriate in 20.6% and difficult to tell in 34.6% of the prescriptions. These findings revealed a relatively large number and inappropriate utilisation of ATBs and NSAIDs. An interventional programme needs to be adopted to reinforce physicians' knowledge of the rational prescription of these agents.

  8. Recent Intermediate Depth Earthquakes in El Salvador, Central Mexico, Cascadia and South-West Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemoine, A.; Gardi, A.; Gutscher, M.; Madariaga, R.

    2001-12-01

    We studied occurence and source parameters of several recent intermediate depth earthquakes. We concentrated on the Mw=7.7 salvadorian earthquake which took place on January 13, 2001. It was a good example of the high seismic risk associated to such kind of events which occur closer to the coast than the interplate thrust events. The Salvadorian earthquake was an intermediate depth downdip extensional event which occured inside the downgoing Cocos plate, next to the downdip flexure where the dip increases sharply before the slab sinks more steeply. This location corresponds closely to the position of the Mw=5.7 1996 and Mw=7.3 1982 downdip extensional events. Several recent intermediate depth earthquakes occured in subduction zones exhibiting a ``flat slab'' geometry with three distinct flexural bends where flexural stress may be enhanced. The Mw=6.7 Geiyo event showed a downdip extensional mechanism with N-S striking nodal planes. This trend was highly oblique to the trench (Nankai Trough), yet consistent with westward steepening at the SW lateral termination of the SW Japan flat slab. The Mw=6.8 Olympia earthquake in the Cascadia subduction zone occured at the downdip termination of the Juan de Fuca slab, where plate dip increases from about 5o to over 30o. The N-S orientation of the focal planes, parallel to the trench indicated downdip extension. The location at the downdip flexure corresponds closely to the estimated positions of the 1949 M7.1 Olympia and 1965 M6.5 Seattle-Tacoma events. Between 1994 and 1999, in Central Mexico, an unusually high intermediate depth seismicity occured where several authors proposed a flat geometry for the Cocos plate. Seven events of magnitude between Mw=5.9 and Mw=7.1 occured. Three of them were downdip compressional and four where down-dip extensional. We can explain these earthquakes by flexural stresses at down-dip and lateral terminations of the supposed flat segment. Even if intermediate depth earthquakes occurence could

  9. Pertussis in the central-west region of Brazil: one decade study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelita Fernandes Druzian

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In many parts of the world, numerous outbreaks of pertussis have been described despite high vaccination coverage. In this article we report the epidemiological characteristics of pertussis in Brazil using a Surveillance Worksheet. Secondary data of pertussis case investigations reported from January 1999 to December 2008 recorded in the Information System for Notifiable Diseases (SINAN and the Central Laboratory for Public Health (LACEN-MS were utilized. The total of 561 suspected cases were reported and 238 (42.4% of these were confirmed, mainly in children under six months (61.8% and with incomplete immunization (56.3%. Two outbreaks were detected. Mortality rate ranged from 2.56% to 11.11%. The occurrence of outbreaks and the poor performance of cultures for confirming diagnosis are problems which need to be addressed. High vaccination coverage is certainly a good strategy to reduce the number of cases and to reduce the impact of the disease in children younger than six months.

  10. Tertiary volcanism of the Galatia province, north-west Central Anatolia, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Marjorie; Tankut, Ayla; Guleç, Nilgün

    1997-12-01

    Large volumes of trachyandesitic-dacitic lava flows and pyroclastics of Miocene age are associated with small volumes of alkali basalt lava flows in the Galatia volcanic province, northwest Central Anatolia, Turkey. The volcanism postdates continental collision, occurring in a transtensional tectonic setting associated with movement along the North Anatolian Fault zone. Major and trace element (including REE) and Sr-Nd isotope data and K-Ar ages for representative samples of mafic-intermediate volcanic rocks have been obtained from a series of localities within the province. The K-Ar age data indicate that alkali basalts were erupted during two distinct time periods in the Early Miocene (17-19 Ma) and Late Miocene (< 10 Ma). The two groups of basalts are inferred to have been derived from different mantle sources, based on their Sr-Nd isotope and geochemical characteristics. The Late Miocene basalts were derived from a more depleted mantle source than the Early Miocene basalts, which were generated by partial melting of an incompatible element enriched, subduction-modified, mantle source. The depleted source component is inferred to reside within the asthenosphere and has some affinities with the source of HIMU oceanic island basalts. On the basis of a comprehensive major and trace element and Nd-Sr isotope dataset for the intermediate-acid volcanics and the alkali basalts, it is possible to demonstrate a cogenetic relationship between the alkali basalts and the intermediate volcanics of Early Miocene age, involving fractional crystallisation and assimilation of a heterogeneous upper crustal component.

  11. Deep Crustal Earthquakes and Repeating Earthquakes in the West-Central Sierra Nevada, Western USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, O.; Frassetto, A.; Zandt, G.; Gilbert, H.; Jones, C.; Owens, T. J.

    2006-12-01

    The Sierra Nevada EarthScope Project (SNEP) is a multiple institution, collaborative research project focused on investigating the structure and evolution of the Sierra Nevada batholith in eastern California. The first phase of the project (summer 2005-summer 2006) saw the deployment of over forty (40) broadband seismometers spanning the central Sierra Nevada from Fresno, California to just south of the Lake Tahoe region. These seismic stations recorded many small, local earthquakes in both the western foothills and high Sierra Nevada that were mostly located from 20 to 120 km north of Fresno and were not present in other regional catalogs. Seismicity in this region is notable because it occurs in the interior of a plate away from major known faults. Ninety (90) events were picked on as many as 20 SNEP stations and located. These events occurred from late May 2005 to late January 2006 at a rate of ~10 per month and were located between 10 and 35 km depth. Many of the events fall within two distinct clusters beneath the array. The first cluster contains ~45 events and is located 30-70 km east of Merced, California and 30-90 km north of Fresno, California. The second represents ~30 events and is centered about the southern Yosemite National Park region. Average depth of the events in the first cluster is ~27 km compared to ~16 km for the events in the second. Past studies have found that events from similar locations in the western Sierra Nevada foothills exhibited ML magnitudes from 0 to 3.2 and had focal mechanisms displaying strike-slip faulting combined with normal and reverse components (Wong and Savage, 1983, BSSA). Direct comparison between waveforms of picked events occurring in small clusters (2-5 events) found that some events had nearly identical waveforms. This suggests similar rupture locations and characteristics despite the events having occurred a couple days to several weeks apart.

  12. Transitive Business Model of Management in Central Europe – Torn between East and West

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur K. MODLIŃSKI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the article is to present the internal and external model of management and how it is connected to the political system and national culture among the Visegrad countries.  The  paper  presents  several  examples  of  transitive models of management. It aims to indicate which advantages and disadvantages can be  identified  in  the  transitive  groups,  how  they  can  influences  the  international investment potential and image of the company. Qualitative research on asample of Polish, German and Ukrainian companies combined with secondary data. Polish business culture can be regarded as transitive –the influence of two bordering civilization (Western and Orthodox is noticeable. This phenomenon has shaped the business values and it is still present in the international context. The  transitive  business  model  of  management allows  to  predict  and  avoid  the  problems  occurring  in  the  internal  and  external relationships  in  the  companies  from  Central  Europe  who  are  involved  into international projects. The  paper  enables  the  clarification  of  the  transitive management  culture;  the  juxtaposition  of  differences  and  similarities  and  their impacts  of  the  internal  and  external  business  relationships;  the  explicitness  of dichotomy and its influence on international business image of Visegrad countries.

  13. Terminal Pleistocene to early Holocene volcanic eruptions at Zuni Salt Lake, west-central New Mexico, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onken, Jill; Forman, Steven

    2017-01-01

    Zuni Salt Lake (ZSL) is a large maar in the Red Hill-Quemado volcanic field located in west-central New Mexico in the southwestern USA. Stratigraphic analysis of sections in and around the maar, coupled with optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) 14C dating, indicate that ZSL volcanic activity occurred between ˜13.4 and 9.9 ka and was most likely confined to a ≤500-year interval sometime between ˜12.3 and 11.0 ka. The basal volcanic unit consists of locally widespread basaltic ash fallout interpreted to represent a violent or wind-aided strombolian eruption tentatively attributed to Cerro Pomo, a scoria cone ˜10 km south of ZSL. Subsequent eruptions emanated from vents near or within the present-day ZSL maar crater. Strombolian eruptions of multiple spatter and scoria cones produced basaltic lava and scoria lapilli fallout. Next, a phreatomagmatic eruption created the maar crater and surrounding tephra rim and apron. ZSL eruptions ended with strombolian eruptions that formed three scoria cones on the crater floor. The revised age range of ZSL is younger and more precise than the 190-24 ka 2-sigma age range derived from previous argon dating. This implies that other morphologically youthful, argon-dated volcanoes on the southern margin of the Colorado Plateau might be substantially younger than previously reported.

  14. A digital model for planning water management at Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge, west-central Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimick, David A.; McCarthy, Peter M.; Fields, Vanessa

    2011-01-01

    Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge is an important area for waterfowl production and migratory stopover in west-central Montana. Eight wetland units covering about 5,600 acres are the essential features of the refuge. Water availability for the wetland units can be uncertain owing to the large natural variations in precipitation and runoff and the high cost of pumping supplemental water. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, has developed a digital model for planning water management. The model can simulate strategies for water transfers among the eight wetland units and account for variability in runoff and pumped water. This report describes this digital model, which uses a water-accounting spreadsheet to track inputs and outputs to each of the wetland units of Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge. Inputs to the model include (1) monthly values for precipitation, pumped water, runoff, and evaporation; (2) water-level/capacity data for each wetland unit; and (3) the pan-evaporation coefficient. Outputs include monthly water volume and flooded surface area for each unit for as many as 5 consecutive years. The digital model was calibrated by comparing simulated and historical measured water volumes for specific test years.

  15. Indices of central and general obesity and cardiometabolic risk among adolescents in three ethnic groups in north-west China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lek, Ngee; Yan, Weili; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Qian; Cheung, Yin Bun

    2016-01-01

    'A Body Shape Index-Adolescents' (ABSI-Adolescents) and waist-to-height ratio are recently proposed indices that quantify central obesity in adolescents. To investigate the scaling exponents to standardise waist circumference (WC) for body mass index (BMI) and height and to investigate the association between BMI, WC-based indices and cardiometabolic outcomes in adolescents of three ethnic groups. A cross-sectional study of 1755 adolescents (516 Hans, 565 Uygurs, 674 Kazakhs) was conducted in north-west China. Correlation between indices of obesity and blood pressure (BP) and fasting blood glucose (FBG) were estimated and compared. Two ethnic groups (Han and Kazakh) had WC-BMI-height profiles different from the previously proposed ABSI-Adolescents and, therefore, required different scaling exponents for WC standardization. After adjustment for age and gender, WC and BMI have similar associations with BP and FBG. After further adjustment for BMI, WC remained significantly associated with FBG in all three ethnic groups (each p adolescents (each p pressure and fasting blood glucose in adolescents of three ethnicities. The WC-based indices did not out-perform WC per se.

  16. Municipal solid-waste disposal and ground-water quality in a coastal environment, west-central Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Mario

    1983-01-01

    Solid waste is defined along with various methods of disposal and the hydrogeologic factors to be considered when locating land-fills is presented. Types of solid waste, composition, and sources are identified. Generation of municipal solid waste in Florida has been estimated at 4.5 pounds per day per person or about 7.8 million tons per year. Leachate is generated when precipitation and ground water percolate through the waste. Gases, mainly carbon dioxide and methane, are also produced. Leachate generally contains high concentrations of dissolved organic and inorganic matter. The two typical hydrogeologic conditions in west-central Florida are (1) permeable sand overlying clay and limestone and (2) permeable sand overlying limestone. These conditions are discussed in relation to leachate migration. Factors in landfill site selection are presented and discussed, followed by a discussion on monitoring landfills. Monitoring of landfills includes the drilling of test holes, measuring physical properties of the corings, installation of monitoring wells, and water-quality monitoring. (USGS)

  17. Brevetoxin in blood, biological fluids, and tissues of sea turtles naturally exposed to Karenia brevis blooms in central west Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauquier, Deborah A; Flewelling, Leanne J; Maucher, Jennifer; Manire, Charles A; Socha, Victoria; Kinsel, Michael J; Stacy, Brian A; Henry, Michael; Gannon, Janet; Ramsdell, John S; Landsberg, Jan H

    2013-06-01

    In 2005 and 2006, the central west Florida coast experienced two intense Karenia brevis red tide events lasting from February 2005 through December 2005 and August 2006 through December 2006. Strandings of sea turtles were increased in the study area with 318 turtles (n = 174, 2005; n = 144, 2006) stranding between 1 January 2005 and 31 December 2006 compared to the 12-yr average of 43 +/- 23 turtles. Live turtles (n = 61) admitted for rehabilitation showed clinical signs including unresponsiveness, paresis, and circling. Testing of biological fluids and tissues for the presence of brevetoxin activity by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay found toxin present in 93% (52 of 56) of live stranded sea turtles, and 98% (42 of 43) of dead stranded sea turtles tested. Serial plasma samples were taken from several live sea turtles during rehabilitation and toxin was cleared from the blood within 5-80 days postadmit depending upon the species tested. Among dead animals the highest brevetoxin levels were found in feces, stomach contents, and liver. The lack of significant pathological findings in the majority of animals necropsied supports toxin-related mortality.

  18. Spatial and temporal variations of wave energy in the nearshore waters of the central west coast of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrutha, M. M.; Sanil Kumar, V.

    2016-12-01

    Assessment of wave power potential at different water depths and time is required for identifying a wave power plant location. This study examines the variation in wave power off the central west coast of India at water depths of 30, 9 and 5 m based on waverider buoy measured wave data. The study shows a significant reduction ( ˜ 10 to 27 %) in wave power at 9 m water depth compared to 30 m and the wave power available at 5 m water depth is 20 to 23 % less than that at 9 m. At 9 m depth, the seasonal mean value of the wave power varied from 1.6 kW m-1 in the post-monsoon period (ONDJ) to 15.2 kW m-1 in the Indian summer monsoon (JJAS) period. During the Indian summer monsoon period, the variation of wave power in a day is up to 32 kW m-1. At 9 m water depth, the mean annual wave power is 6 kW m-1 and interannual variations up to 19.3 % are observed during 2009-2014. High wave energy ( > 20 kW m-1) at the study area is essentially from the directional sector 245-270° and also 75 % of the total annual wave energy is from this narrow directional sector, which is advantageous while aligning the wave energy converter.

  19. Alfalfa nutritive quality for ruminant livestock as influenced by ambient air quality in west-central Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, J.C. [Department of Animal Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); Nosal, M. [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB T2N 1N4 (Canada); Muntifering, R.B. [Department of Animal Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States)]. E-mail: muntirb@auburn.edu; Krupa, S.V. [Department of Plant Pathology, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108 (United States)

    2007-09-15

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) nutritive quality response to ambient ozone (O{sub 3}), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and oxides of nitrogen (NO {sub x} ) were assessed at three locations in west-central Alberta, Canada (1998-2002). Yield data were segregated into high and low relative to overall median yield. Ozone concentrations (hourly median and 95th-percentile) and precipitation (P) contributed 69 and 29%, respectively, to the variability in crude protein (CP) concentration in low-yielding alfalfa, whereas mean temperature (T) and relative humidity (RH) collectively influenced 98% of the variation in CP in high-yielding alfalfa. Three-fourths of the accounted variation in relative feed value (RFV) of low-yielding alfalfa was attributable to P, T and RH, whereas median and 95th-percentile hourly O{sub 3} concentrations and SO{sub 2} and NO {sub x} exposure integrals contributed 25%. In contrast, air quality, (mainly O{sub 3}) influenced 86% of the accounted variation in RFV of high-yielding alfalfa, and T and P collectively contributed 14%. - Exposure to ambient concentrations of phytotoxic air pollutants affected nutritive quality of alfalfa for ruminant livestock in a yield-dependent manner.

  20. Chemical composition of red, brown and green macroalgae from Buarcos bay in Central West Coast of Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Dina; Freitas, Ana C; Pereira, Leonel; Rocha-Santos, Teresa A P; Vasconcelos, Marta W; Roriz, Mariana; Rodríguez-Alcalá, Luís M; Gomes, Ana M P; Duarte, Armando C

    2015-09-15

    Six representative edible seaweeds from the Central West Portuguese Coast, including the less studied Osmundea pinnatifida, were harvested from Buarcos bay, Portugal and their chemical characterization determined. Protein content, total sugar and fat contents ranged between 14.4% and 23.8%, 32.4% and 49.3% and 0.6-3.6%. Highest total phenolic content was observed in Codium tomentosum followed by Sargassum muticum and O. pinnatifida. Fatty acid (FA) composition covered the branched chain C13ai to C22:5 n3 with variable content in n6 and n3 FA; low n6:n3 ratios were observed in O. pinnatifida, Grateloupia turuturu and C. tomentosum. Some seaweed species may be seen as good sources of Ca, K, Mg and Fe, corroborating their good nutritional value. According to FTIR-ATR spectra, G. turuturu was associated with carrageenan seaweed producers whereas Gracilaria gracilis and O. pinnatifida were mostly agar producers. In the brown algae, S. muticum and Saccorhiza polyschides, alginates and fucoidans were the main polysaccharides found.

  1. The west-central Florida inner shelf and coastal system: A geologic conceptual overview and introduction to the special issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hine, A.C.; Brooks, G.R.; Davis, R.A.; Duncan, D.S.; Locker, S.D.; Twichell, D.C.; Gelfenbaum, G.

    2003-01-01

    This paper provides an overview for this special publication on the geologic framework of the inner shelf and coastal zone of west-central Florida. This is a significant geologic setting in that it lies at the center of an ancient carbonate platform facing an enormous ramp that has exerted large-scale control on coastal geomorphology, the availability of sediments, and the level of wave energy. In order to understand the Holocene geologic history of this depositional system, a regional study defined by natural boundaries (north end of a barrier island to the apex of a headland) was undertaken by a group of government and university coastal geologists using a wide variety of laboratory and field techniques. It is the purpose of this introductory paper to define the character of this coastal/inner shelf system, provide a historical geologic perspective and background of environmental information, define the overall database, present the collective objectives of this regional study, and very briefly present the main aspects of each contribution. Specific conclusions are presented at the end of each paper composing this volume. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Aquifer tests at the Jackpile-Paguate uranium mine, Pueblo of Laguna, west-central New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risser, D.W.; Davis, P.A.; Baldwin, J.A.; McaAda, D.P.

    1984-01-01

    The transmissivity of the Jackpile sandstone bed in the Brushy Basin Shale Member of the Morrison Formation, west-central New Mexico, was determined to be 24 sq ft/day at well M2 and 47 sq ft/day at well M3 from constant-discharge aquifer tests conducted at the Jackpile-Paguate Uranium Mine. The storage coefficient of the Jackpile sandstone bed was estimated to be 0.00018 at well M2 and 0.00029 at well M3 from the same tests. An aquifer test conducted at well M21 indicated the transmissivity of the Jackpile sandstone bed was 2.0 sq ft/day and the storage coefficient was 0.00002. The transmissivity of an unnamed sandstone bed in the Brushy Basin Shale Member of the Morrison Formation was estimated from ' slug-test ' results to be about 20 sq ft/day. Water levels in this sandstone probably did not change due to pumping from the overlying Jackpile sandstone bed for 88 hours at an average discharge of 15.3 gallons/min. A constant discharge aquifer test at well M4C indicated that the transmissivity of the alluvium at this location was about 430 sq ft/day. Water levels in the underlying Jackpile sandstone bed began declining within 15 minutes after withdrawals of groundwater from the alluvial aquifer began. (USGS)

  3. Improving a tree-ring reconstruction from west-central Scandinavia: 900 years of warm-season temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunnarson, Bjoern E. [Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Umeaa (Sweden); Stockholm University, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology, Stockholm (Sweden); Linderholm, Hans W. [University of Gothenburg, Regional Climate Group, Department of Earth Sciences, Gothenburg (Sweden); Moberg, Anders [Stockholm University, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2011-01-15

    Dendroclimatological sampling of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) has been made in the province of Jaemtland, in the west-central Scandinavian mountains, since the 1970s. The tree-ring width (TRW) chronology spans several thousand years and has been used to reconstruct June-August temperatures back to 1632 bc. A maximum latewood density (MXD) dataset, covering the period ad 1107-1827 (with gap 1292-1315) was presented in the 1980s by Fritz Schweingruber. Here we combine these historical MXD data with recently collected MXD data covering ad 1292-2006 into a single reconstruction of April-September temperatures for the period ad 1107-2006. Regional curve standardization (RCS) provides more low-frequency variability than ''non-RCS'' and stronger correlation with local seasonal temperatures (51% variance explained). The MXD chronology shows a stronger relationship with temperatures than the TRW data, but the two chronologies show similar multi-decadal variations back to ad 1500. According to the MXD chronology, the period since ad 1930 and around ad 1150-1200 were the warmest during the last 900 years. Due to large uncertainties in the early part of the combined MXD chronology, it is not possible to conclude which period was the warmest. More sampling of trees growing near the tree-line is needed to further improve the MXD chronology. (orig.)

  4. The Six Sigma initiative at Mount Sinai Medical Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassin, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Lean Six Sigma, in various forms, has been used widely in many Fortune 500 companies. Motorola, General Electric, Sony, American Express, and Bechtel all use Six Sigma to improve quality and performance. While the impact of this methodology has been documented extensively by the press in manufacturing and transactional settings, less evidence is available regarding its utility in health care environments. Mount Sinai Medical Center initiated a Six Sigma program in 2000 to determine its applicability and value in a large academic medical center. This article discusses Mount Sinai Medical Center's experience adapting this methodology to improve both patient care and business processes and outcomes. We present an overview of Six Sigma, and offer examples of projects undertaken using this data-driven approach to performance improvement. Lastly, the article provides insights and lessons learned regarding this organization-wide experience.

  5. Shifting shoals and shattered rocks : How man has transformed the floor of west-central San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, John L.; Wong, Florence L.; Carlson, Paul R.

    2004-01-01

    subembayments--north bay (San Pablo and Suisun Bays), central bay, and south bay--each characterized by a central area of open water surrounded by intertidal mudflats and marshes. Central bay includes Alcatraz and Angel Islands and also a number of submerged bedrock knobs that protrude through the sediment of the bay floor and rise to within about 40 feet (12 m) of the water surface. The most prominent of these are Harding, Shag, Arch, and Blossom Rocks. These rocks have been lowered by blasting several times in the past, but they remain a potential hazard to shipping because newer cargo vessels are designed with increasingly deeper drafts. Central bay's location adjacent to two major population and commerce centers, San Francisco and Oakland, subjects it to greater human influences than less developed parts of the estuary. The western part of central San Francisco Bay is adjacent to the Golden Gate, the estuary's outlet to the Pacific Ocean. The changing submarine topography of the west-central bay, as well as its geology, form the main focus of this book.

  6. Geohydrology, Geochemistry, and Ground-Water Simulation-Optimization of the Central and West Coast Basins, Los Angeles County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichard, Eric G.; Land, Michael; Crawford, Steven M.; Johnson, Tyler D.; Everett, Rhett; Kulshan, Trayle V.; Ponti, Daniel J.; Halford, Keith L.; Johnson, Theodore A.; Paybins, Katherine S.; Nishikawa, Tracy

    2003-01-01

    Historical ground-water development of the Central and West Coast Basins in Los Angeles County, California through the first half of the 20th century caused large water-level declines and induced seawater intrusion. Because of this, the basins were adjudicated and numerous ground-water management activities were implemented, including increased water spreading, construction of injection barriers, increased delivery of imported water, and increased use of reclaimed water. In order to improve the scientific basis for these water management activities, an extensive data collection program was undertaken, geohydrological and geochemical analyses were conducted, and ground-water flow simulation and optimization models were developed. In this project, extensive hydraulic, geologic, and chemical data were collected from new multiple-well monitoring sites. On the basis of these data and data compiled and collected from existing wells, the regional geohydrologic framework was characterized. For the purposes of modeling, the three-dimensional aquifer system was divided into four aquifer systems?the Recent, Lakewood, Upper San Pedro, and Lower San Pedro aquifer systems. Most pumpage in the two basins is from the Upper San Pedro aquifer system. Assessment of the three-dimensional geochemical data provides insight into the sources of recharge and the movement and age of ground water in the study area. Major-ion data indicate the chemical character of water containing less than 500 mg/L dissolved solids generally grades from calcium-bicarbonate/sulfate to sodium bicarbonate. Sodium-chloride water, high in dissolved solids, is present in wells near the coast. Stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen provide information on sources of recharge to the basin, including imported water and water originating in the San Fernando Valley, San Gabriel Valley, and the coastal plain and surrounding hills. Tritium and carbon-14 data provide information on relative ground-water ages. Water with

  7. The Kolmogorov-Sinai Entropy for Dilute Gases in Equilibrium

    CERN Document Server

    Van Beijeren, H; Posch, H A; Dellago, C; Dellago, Ch.

    1997-01-01

    We use the kinetic theory of gases to compute the Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy per particle for a dilute gas in equilibrium. For an equilibrium system, the KS entropy, h_KS is the sum of all of the positive Lyapunov exponents characterizing the chaotic behavior of the gas. We compute h_KS/N, where N is the number of particles in the gas. This quantity has a density expansion of the form h_KS/N = a\

  8. Efficiency Of Ground Water Resources In Northeast Sinai Peninsula, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Sewidan, A. S. [احمد صفوت سويدان

    1993-01-01

    The present study deals with actual quantitative and qualitative evaluation of the groundwater resources in El Sheikh Zuwayid-Rafah area, the northeast coast of Sinai Peninsula. The quantitative analysis is achieved by using groundwater contour maps in 1982 and 1988m while the qualitative evaluation is done using an isosalinity contour map in 1988. A resulting modulus contour map (1982-1988) is drawn to show the variations in the groundwater flow condition. An efficiency groundwater map is co...

  9. PREVALENCE OF CONSANGUINEOUS MARRIAGES IN SOUTH SINAI, EGYPT

    OpenAIRE

    YAMAMAH, G.; ABDEL-RAOUF, E.; Talaat, A; SAAD-HUSSEIN, A.; Hamamy, H.; MEGUID, N. A.

    2017-01-01

    A total of 3961 married couples from six major geographical areas representing the South Sinai governorates in Egypt were studied to assess the rate of consanguineous marriage. The population of six selected areas (St Catherines, Nuweiba, Abu Rudeis, Ras Sudr, El Tor and Abu Zenima) were subdivided into Bedouin, urban and mixed populations. A questionnaire-based interview was conducted showing that the consanguinity rate in this region is 37.5%, with the highest rate recorded in Abu Rudeis (5...

  10. Sinai Diffusion at Quasi-1D Topological Phase Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagrets, Dmitry; Altland, Alexander; Kamenev, Alex

    2016-11-01

    We consider critical quantum transport in disordered topological quantum wires at the transition between phases with different topological indices. Focusing on the example of thermal transport in class D ("Majorana") quantum wires, we identify a transport universality class distinguished for anomalous retardation in the propagation of excitations—a quantum generalization of Sinai diffusion. We discuss the expected manifestations of this transport mechanism for heat propagation in topological superconductors near criticality and provide a microscopic theory explaining the phenomenon.

  11. The predominance of Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1 circulating recombinant form 02 (CRF02_AG in West Central Africa may be related to its replicative fitness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Butel Christelle

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CRF02_AG is the predominant HIV strain circulating in West and West Central Africa. The aim of this study was to test whether this predominance is associated with a higher in vitro replicative fitness relative to parental subtype A and G viruses. Primary HIV-1 isolates (10 CRF02_AG, 5 subtype A and 5 subtype G were obtained from a well-described Cameroonian cohort. Growth competition experiments were carried out at equal multiplicity of infection in activated T cells and monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MO-DC in parallel. Results Dual infection/competition experiments in activated T cells clearly indicated that CRF02_AG isolates had a significant replication advantage over the subtype A and subtype G viruses. The higher fitness of CRF02_AG was evident for isolates from patients with CD4+ T cell counts >200 cells/μL (non-AIDS or CD4+ T cell counts Conclusion We observed a higher ex vivo replicative fitness of CRF02_AG isolates compared to subtype A and G viruses from the same geographic region and showed that this was independent of the co-receptor tropism and irrespective of high or low CD4+ T cell count. This advantage in replicative fitness may contribute to the dominant spread of CRF02_AG over A and G subtypes in West and West Central Africa.

  12. INCOME OF WORKERS IN THE AGRICULTURAL SECTOR IN BRAZIL AND IN THE CENTRAL-WEST REGION: AN ANALYSIS BASED ON THE THEORY OF SEGMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Santos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to evaluate the difference in earnings of workers in the production of some agricultural commodities and workers in other crops in Brazil and in the Central-West region. It is mainly used the labor market segmentation theory, and references on the human capital theory and the agricultural labor market. Data from the National Sample Survey of Households (PNAD-IBGE of 2009 is used to present descriptive statistics on income and socioeconomic characteristics of workers, and to estimate a mincerian earnings equation, by the method of robust least squares. Soy, corn, sugar cane, and meat whore chosen to represent de agricultural commodities group. The results show that even controlling for the effect of human capital, there is differential in earnings for workers in commodity production in Brazil and in the Central-West region, indicating that the agricultural labor market is segmented.

  13. Tectonic evolution of kid metamorphic complex and the recognition of Najd fault system in South East Sinai, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Yasser M.; El-Shafei, Mohamed K.; Arnous, Mohamed O.

    2017-03-01

    A low-to medium-grade metamorphic belt of a volcano-sedimentary succession occurs in the eastern side of South Sinai as a part of the northernmost extension of the Arabian-Nubian Shield in Egypt. The belt is known as the Kid metamorphic complex. It is considered as one of the major belt among the other exposed metamorphic belts in South Sinai. Here, we detect and investigate the signature of the Najd Fault system in South Sinai based on detailed structural analysis in field and digital image processing. The enhanced satellite image and the geo-spatial distributions confirm that the Kid belt is essentially composed of nine Precambrian units. Field relations and geometrical analysis of the measured structural data revealed that the study area underwent four successive deformational phases (D1-D4). D1 is an upright tight to isoclinal large-scale folds that caused few F1 small-scale folds and a steeply dipping S1 axial plane foliation. The second deformational event D2 produced dominant of sub-horizontal S2 foliation planes accompanied with recumbent isoclinal folds and NW-SE trending L2 lineations. The main sense during D2 was top-to-the-NW with local reversals to the SE. The third folding generations F3 is recorded as axial plane S3-surfaces and is characterized by open concentric folding that overprinting both F1 and F2 folds and has a flexural-slip mechanism. F3 fold hinges plunge to the west-northwest or east-southeast indicate north-northeast-south-southwest shortening during D3. The fourth deformational event D4 is characterized by NE plunging open concentric folding overprint the pre-existing fold generations and formed under flexural slip mechanism reflecting coaxial deformation and indicating change in the stress regime as a result of the change in shortening from NE-SW to NW-SE. This phase is probably accompanied with the final assembly of east and west Gondwana. The dextral NW-SE shear zone that bounded the southwestern portion of the metamorphic belt is

  14. The landscape configuration of zoonotic transmission of Ebola virus disease in West and Central Africa: interaction between population density and vegetation cover

    OpenAIRE

    Michael G Walsh; MA Haseeb

    2015-01-01

    Ebola virus disease (EVD) is an emerging infectious disease of zoonotic origin that has been responsible for high mortality and significant social disruption in West and Central Africa. Zoonotic transmission of EVD requires contact between susceptible human hosts and the reservoir species for Ebolaviruses, which are believed to be fruit bats. Nevertheless, features of the landscape that may facilitate such points of contact have not yet been adequately identified. Nor have spatial dependencie...

  15. Implications of low-temperature cooling history on a transect across the Colorado Plateau-Basin and Range boundary, west central Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, B.; Naeser, C.W.; Fryxell, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    Fission track ages of apatite and zircon from metamorphic, plutonic, and sedimentary rocks along a 80-km transect across the Colorado Plateau-Basin and Range boundary in west central Arizona show differences in the low-temperature cooling histories between the provinces. The transect extends from Cypress Mountain in the Colorado Plateau transition zone to the eastern Buckskin Mountains in the Basin and Range. -from Authors

  16. Early pictures of global climate change impact to the coastal area (North West of Demak Central Java Indonesia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreas, Heri; Pradipta, Dhota; Abidin, Hasanuddin Z.; Sarsito, Dina A.

    2017-07-01

    In the last several decades we have been realized for the Global Climate Change situation. Some indicators are worldwide increasing temperature, decreasing volume of ice in Antarctica, and the sea level rise. Relating to the decreased of ice volume and the sea level rise, this situation has been predicted to endanger the living at the coastal area in the future. Prediction models have shown some coastal cities area would suffer flood by tidal inundation and even permanent flooding. Coincidently, today in the North West of Demak District Central Java Indonesia we literally can see the early picture of Global Climate Change impact to the coastal areas as mention. The occurrence of tidal inundation in this area was recognized at least in the early 2000 and even earlier, and in the recent years the tidal inundation comes not only at a high tide but even at the regular tide, and in fact some of this area are obviously sinking to the sea through times. This early picture is truly showing a disaster. Adaptation has been made in facing the disaster such as increasing the house and infrastructures, and built dyke. We have been done some investigations to this area by field observations (mapping the flooded area, interviewing people and seeing the adaptations, conduct GPS measurement to see deformation, etc.), gather information from digital media and also using remotely time series of high resolution satellite image data to mapping the tidal inundation in this area. We noted people increased their house and the local goverment elevated the road and the bridge, etc. regulary over less decade periode. Our conclusions said that the adaptation only made temporaly since the sea level keep rising worsening by the land subsidence significantly.

  17. Analysis of ambient air quality trends at selected West Central Airshed Society stations : Tomahawk and Carrot Creek[General Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haque, N.; Gamal El-Din, M. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Kindzierski, W.B. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering]|[SEACOR Environmental Inc., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Ambient air trends were evaluated using data collected over a 10 year period from two West Central Airshed Society monitoring stations in rural Alberta. The pollutants studied included ozone (O{sub 3}), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), and particulate matter (PM{sub 2.5}). Two approaches were used to evaluate the trends. The first approach used various percentiles of hourly concentration distributions from each year, while the second approach used frequencies of the number of hours in which various benchmark concentrations were exceeded each year. These statistics were assumed to be linear over the period of study. Hypothesis tests were conducted on the best-fit lines to check whether slope of the lines was zero in order to indicate change. Results from both approaches were found to be in good agreement. At the Tomahawk Station, no statistically dominant change was detected in air quality with respect to O{sub 3} and PM{sub 2.5}. However, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub 2} showed statistically significant decreasing trends. At the Carrot Creek Station, a pronounced decreasing trend in SO{sub 2} was observed, but there was no change in O{sub 3} and NO{sub 2}. The decreasing trends observed with SO{sub 2} at both stations is consistent with the province's efforts to reduced natural gas flaring and venting. It was cautioned that since the period of study over which trends were examined was short, the changes or lack of changes observed do not necessarily indicate long term trends.

  18. 10Be dating reveals early-middle Holocene age of the Drygalski Moraines in central West Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronauer, Sandra L.; Briner, Jason P.; Kelley, Samuel E.; Zimmerman, Susan R. H.; Morlighem, Mathieu

    2016-09-01

    We reconstruct the history of the Greenland Ice Sheet margin on the Nuussuaq Peninsula in central West Greenland through the Holocene using lake sediment analysis and cosmogenic 10Be exposure dating of the prominent Drygalski Moraines. Erratics perched on bedrock outboard of the Drygalski Moraines constrain local deglaciation to ∼9.9 ± 0.6 ka (n = 2). Three Drygalski Moraine crests yield mean 10Be ages of 8.6 ± 0.4 ka (n = 2), 8.5 ± 0.2 ka (n = 3), and 7.6 ± 0.1 ka (n = 2) from outer to inner. Perched erratics between the inner two moraines average 7.8 ± 0.1 ka (n = 2) and are consistent with the moraine ages. Sediments from a proglacial lake with a catchment area extending an estimated 2 km beneath (inland of) the present ice sheet terminus constrain an ice sheet minimum extent from 5.4 ka to 0.6 ka. The moraine chronology paired with the lake sediment stratigraphy reveals that the ice margin likely remained within ∼2 km of its present position from ∼9.9 to 5.4 ka. This unexpected early Holocene stability, preceded by rapid ice retreat and followed by minimum ice extent between ∼5.4 and 0.6 ka, contrasts with many records of early Holocene warmth and the Northern Hemisphere summer insolation maximum. We suggest ice margin stability may instead be tied to adjacent ocean temperatures, which reached an optimum in the middle Holocene.

  19. Cave bats of the central west coast and southern section of the Northwest Panay Peninsula, Panay Island, the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mould

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Bats (order Chiroptera form a large proportion of the species-rich mammalian fauna of the Philippines, and while the threats posed to these animals are well documented, for many species there is currently insufficient data to enable even a basic assessment of their conservation status. This is true for Panay Island, located in the Western Visayas region of the archipelago, where the need for surveying remaining suitable bat habitat has been identified as a priority. Between 5 April and 9 May 2011 a survey of 21 caves was undertaken on Panay, along the central section of the west coast of the island and within the southern section of the Northwest Panay Peninsula. Survey methods included visual observations, emergence counts and the recording of echolocation calls. Of the caves surveyed, 19 were found to support bats or show signs of their use, and at least 12 different species were observed. Three large maternity colonies of the Common Rousette Rousettus amplexicaudatus and two of the Dusky Roundleaf Bat Hipposideros ater were noted as having particular significance in terms of their conservation value for local populations. Potential maternity colonies of Asian Lesser False Vampire Megaderma spasma, Black-bearded Tomb Bat Taphozous melanopogon and Diadem Roundleaf Bat Hipposideros diadema were also observed but not confirmed. M. spasma was the most frequently encountered species, occurring in small numbers at five different caves. Other species/genera encountered in small numbers were the Arcuate Horseshoe Bat Rhinolophus arcuatus, Common Short-nosed Fruit Bat Cynopterus brachyotis, Philippine Sheath-tailed Bat Emballonura alecto, Yellow-faced Horseshoe Bat Rhinolophus virgo, Bent-wing (Miniopterus and Myotis bat species, and at least one other Horseshoe (Rhinolophus bat species. Ten of the caves were confirmed to support multiple bat species. An indication of current threats and recommendations for further survey and management priorities are

  20. Prevalence and risk factors of obesity and hypertension among students at a central university in the West Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayem, Yasin I; Yaseen, Nagham A; Khader, Wiam T; Abu Rajab, Lama O; Ramahi, Ahmad B; Saleh, Mohammad H

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to determine the prevalence and correlates of obesity and hypertension (HTN) among students at a central university in the West Bank. This cross-sectional study targeted a cohort of 553 students (59.5% males, 40.5% females) aged 17-26 years (median = 21) from Al-Quds University. Body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure (BP) were measured. Participants completed a questionnaire on physical activity, sedentary behavior, dietary factors, smoking and family history of obesity, HTN, and coronary artery disease. The magnitude of correlation was assessed by Spearman's rho (r(s)) and Chi-square tests. The prevalence of overweight was 25% (31.1% males, 15.6% females) and obesity 7.2% (9.4% males, 4% females). Obesity and overweight were associated with family history of obesity in both genders (p<0.001) and physical activity in males (r(s)= - 0.162, p<0.005). No correlation was demonstrated between participants' BMI and sedentary lifestyle or consumption of fast food. Pre-HTN was detected in 27.1% (38% males, 11.2% females) and HTN in 2.2% (3.3% males, 0.4% females). Pre-HTN and HTN were associated with obesity (r(s)=0.252, p<0.001) and smoking (p<0.05). No relationship was detected between students' BP and sedentary behavior, family history of HTN/CAD, or consumption of fast food. The prevalence of increased BMI and BP among males was significantly higher than females (p<0.001). We detected a high prevalence of elevated BP and excess weight gain among students at Al-Quds University. An interventional program is urgently needed to control these cardiovascular risk factors in this community.

  1. Prevalence and risk factors of obesity and hypertension among students at a central university in the West Bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasin I. Tayem

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : We aimed to determine the prevalence and correlates of obesity and hypertension (HTN among students at a central university in the West Bank. Materials and methods : This cross-sectional study targeted a cohort of 553 students (59.5% males, 40.5% females aged 17–26 years (median = 21 from Al-Quds University. Body mass index (BMI and blood pressure (BP were measured. Participants completed a questionnaire on physical activity, sedentary behavior, dietary factors, smoking and family history of obesity, HTN, and coronary artery disease. The magnitude of correlation was assessed by Spearman's rho (r s and Chi-square tests. Results : The prevalence of overweight was 25% (31.1% males, 15.6% females and obesity 7.2% (9.4% males, 4% females. Obesity and overweight were associated with family history of obesity in both genders (p<0.001 and physical activity in males (r s= − 0.162, p<0.005. No correlation was demonstrated between participants’ BMI and sedentary lifestyle or consumption of fast food. Pre-HTN was detected in 27.1% (38% males, 11.2% females and HTN in 2.2% (3.3% males, 0.4% females. Pre-HTN and HTN were associated with obesity (r s=0.252, p<0.001 and smoking (p<0.05. No relationship was detected between students’ BP and sedentary behavior, family history of HTN/CAD, or consumption of fast food. The prevalence of increased BMI and BP among males was significantly higher than females (p<0.001. Conclusions : We detected a high prevalence of elevated BP and excess weight gain among students at Al-Quds University. An interventional program is urgently needed to control these cardiovascular risk factors in this community.

  2. Tectonic stratigraphy near a metamorphic core complex: Lessons from the Castaneda-signal area of west-central Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucchitta, I. (Geological Survey, Flagstaff, AZ (United States)); Suneson, N.H. (Oklahoma Geological Survey, Norman, OK (United States))

    1993-04-01

    A sequence of latest Oligocene through Quaternary sedimentary and volcanic rocks, when analyzed tectonically and combined with lithologically distinctive source terranes, clarifies the character and timing of Neogene extension just north of the Buckskin-Rawhide metamorphic core complex (BRMCC) in west-central Arizona. The oldest strata (basal arkose of Lucchitta and Suneson) reflect regional stability and a southwesterly paleoslope. In latest Oligocene time, this drainage was ponded by an upwarp (now exposed as the BRMCC) rising to the southwest. The resulting lake beds contain a thin 26.6 MA airfall tuff that marks the beginning of volcanic activity in the region. A widespread breccia records the progressive unroofing of the still-rising CC. Mantle-driven crustal heating probably caused the upwarp and allowed the eruption of voluminous mantle-derived basalt and basaltic andesite about 19 MA (early basalts, Artillery Basalt). The overlying syntectonic conglomerate (arkose of Keenan Camp) was deposited during a period of extreme extension, low-angle detachment faulting, and block rotation, typical of highly extended terranes. The conglomerate is interlayered with widespread silicic volcanic rocks (15--10 MA) derived from the lower crust and large gravity-glide sheets lithologically identical to the breccia and similarly derived from the CC to the south. Unconformably overlying the conglomerate are locally derived fanglomerate and 13--8.5 MA (mesa-forming) basalt that accumulated in present-day basins of classic basin-range type. Untilted and nearly unfaulted 7.7--5.4 MA mantle-derived megacryst-bearing basalt marks the cessation of tectonic activity.

  3. A Measure of Intense in West and Central Java Through Manifestation of River Basin Morphometry Development on Quaternary Volcanic Deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Febri Hirnawan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v4i4.88Indications exhibiting active tectonic movements in Java occur in many places, characterized by unstable regions, such as active faults, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, etc. The results of researches conducted at several areas in West and Central Java on tectonic morphometry developments of river basins both in Quaternary deposits and Tertiary sediments exhibit a degree of active tectonic intensity. Such the researches are very important regarding to the spatial development design that is related to a region of active tectonism that should be well understood by planners for decision making mainly through comprehensive approach, in which the phenomena involved explaining the characteristics of the region as part of an active plate margin. Statistic approach as the chosen methodology had been utilized to gain meaningful conclusions through the verification of hypotheses, which are based on valid and reliable tested data obtained from the fields and satellite imagery. Results of regression-correlation tests between azimuths of river segment and lineaments in both chronostratigraphic systems mentioned earlier are significant with several large values of correlation coefficients r of no less than 0.9. On the other hand, results of t-tests are not a significant difference of means of bifurcation ratio (Rb and drainage density (Dd from many to river basins. The results of all tests have verified the effect of active tectonic control on the morphometry development process regarding to river segments and density of drainage patterns development in Tertiary and Quaternary deposits.

  4. Increasing Use of Postpartum Family Planning and the Postpartum IUD: Early Experiences in West and Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleah, Tsigue; Hyjazi, Yolande; Austin, Suzanne; Diallo, Abdoulaye; Dao, Blami; Waxman, Rachel; Karna, Priya

    2016-08-11

    A global resurgence of interest in the intrauterine device (IUD) as an effective long-acting reversible contraceptive and in improving access to a wide range of contraceptive methods, as well as an emphasis on encouraging women to give birth in health care facilities, has led programs to introduce postpartum IUD (PPIUD) services into postpartum family planning (PPFP) programs. We describe strategic, organizational, and technical elements that contributed to early successes of a regional initiative in West and Central Africa to train antenatal, maternity, and postnatal care providers in PPFP counseling for the full range of available methods and in PPIUD service delivery. In November 2013, the initiative provided competency-based training in Guinea for providers from the main public teaching hospital in 5 selected countries (Benin, Chad, Côte d'Ivoire, Niger, and Senegal) with no prior PPFP counseling or PPIUD capacity. The training was followed by a transfer-of-learning visit and monitoring to support the trained providers. One additional country, Togo, replicated the initiative's model in 2014. Although nascent, this initiative has introduced high-quality PPFP and PPIUD services to the region, where less than 1% of married women of reproductive age use the IUD. In total, 21 providers were trained in PPFP counseling, 18 of whom were also trained in PPIUD insertion. From 2014 to 2015, more than 15,000 women were counseled about PPFP, and 2,269 women chose and received the PPIUD in Benin, Côte d'Ivoire, Niger, Senegal, and Togo. (Introduction of PPIUD services in Chad has been delayed.) South-South collaboration has been central to the initiative's accomplishments: Guinea's clinical centers of excellence and qualified trainers provided a culturally resonant example of a PPFP/PPIUD program, and trainings are creating a network of regional trainers to facilitate expansion. Two of the selected countries (Benin and Niger) have expanded their PPFP/PPUID training

  5. Final « pop-up » structural reactivation of the internal part of an orogenic wedge: west-central Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meresse, F.; Jolivet, M.; Labaume, P.; Teixell, A.

    2009-04-01

    Université Montpellier 2, INSU-CNRS, Laboratoire Géosciences Montpellier, cc060, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5, France florian.meresse@gm.univ-montp2.fr Tectonics-sedimentation relationships are often used to describe the tectonic evolution of orogenic wedges. However, does the sedimentary record associated to the build-up of the wedge recall the entire tectonic history? Numerous studies based on tectono-stratigraphic and thermochronological data, as well as numerical modeling, have demonstrated that on the large scale the growth of the Pyrenees is characterized by a southward propagation of the deformation (e.g., Muñoz, 1992; Morris et al., 1998; Fitzgerald et al., 1999; Beaumont et al., 2000). However, in the west-central Pyrenees, recent thermochronological data have suggested that the in-sequence propagation of the basement thrust system was followed by out-of-sequence (re)activation of hinterland structures after the South-Pyrenean Frontal Thrust had been sealed (Jolivet et al., 2007). To better describe the structural evolution of the Pyrenean prism, we focused our work on a NNE-SSW transect from the northern piedmont (Bagnères-de-Bigorre), through the Axial Zone and down to the Jaca basin where tectonics-sedimentation relationships have been extensively described (e.g., Teixell, 1996). A crustal scale cross-section combined with detailed apatite fission track analysis are used as a case study to unravel in detail the deformation history. Apatite fission track data from the Bagnères-de-Bigorre Paleozoic massif (central ages: 41-42 Ma) and the Lesponne Hercynian granite (central age: 31 Ma) located in the North-Pyrenean Zone and in the north of the Axial Zone, respectively, reveal Middle Eocene-Early Oligocene denudation ages of the northern part of the wedge. Immediately to the south, central ages around 24-20 Ma attest to a Latest Oligocene-Early Miocene denudation ages of the Chiroulet granite. According to the structural context, these results suggest a

  6. Sinai Trafficking: Origin and Definition of a New Form of Human Trafficking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam van Reisen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon that is coined “Sinai Trafficking” started in 2009 in the Sinai desert. It involves the abduction, extortion, sale, torture, sexual violation and killing of men, women and children. Migrants, of whom the vast majority are from Eritrean descent, are abducted and brought to the Sinai desert, where they are sold and resold, extorted for very high ransoms collected by mobile phone, while being brutally and “functionally” tortured to support the extortion. Many of them die in Sinai. Over the last five years broadcasting stations, human rights organisations and academics have reported on the practices in the Sinai and some of these reports have resulted in some confusion on the modus operandi. Based on empirical research by the authors and the analysis of data gathered in more than 200 recorded interviews with Sinai hostages and survivors on the practices, this article provides a definition of Sinai Trafficking. It argues that the term Sinai Trafficking can be used to differentiate a particular new set of criminal practices that have first been reported in the Sinai Peninsula. The article further examines how the new phenomenon of Sinai Trafficking can be framed into the legal human trafficking definition. The interconnectedness of Sinai Trafficking with slavery, torture, ransom collection, extortion, sexual violence and other severe crimes is presented to substantiate the use of the trafficking framework. The plight of Sinai survivors in Israel and Egypt is explained to illustrate the cyclical process of the trafficking practices especially endured by Eritreans, introduced as the Human Trafficking Cycle. The article concludes by setting out areas for further research.

  7. Sinai Trafficking: Origin and Definition of a New Form of Human Trafficking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam van Reisen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon that is coined “Sinai Trafficking” started in 2009 in the Sinai desert. It involves the abduction, extortion, sale, torture, sexual violation and killing of men, women and children. Migrants, of whom the vast majority are from Eritrean descent, are abducted and brought to the Sinai desert, where they are sold and resold, extorted for very high ransoms collected by mobile phone, while being brutally and “functionally” tortured to support the extortion. Many of them die in Sinai. Over the last five years broadcasting stations, human rights organisations and academics have reported on the practices in the Sinai and some of these reports have resulted in some confusion on the modus operandi. Based on empirical research by the authors and the analysis of data gathered in more than 200 recorded interviews with Sinai hostages and survivors on the practices, this article provides a definition of Sinai Trafficking. It argues that the term Sinai Trafficking can be used to differentiate a particular new set of criminal practices that have first been reported in the Sinai Peninsula. The article further examines how the new phenomenon of Sinai Trafficking can be framed into the legal human trafficking definition. The interconnectedness of Sinai Trafficking with slavery, torture, ransom collection, extortion, sexual violence and other severe crimes is presented to substantiate the use of the trafficking framework. The plight of Sinai survivors in Israel and Egypt is explained to illustrate the cyclical process of the trafficking practices especially endured by Eritreans, introduced as the Human Trafficking Cycle. The article concludes by setting out areas for further research.

  8. Hydrogeologic framework and occurrence, movement, and chemical characterization of groundwater in Dixie Valley, west-central Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntington, Jena M.; Garcia, C. Amanda; Rosen, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    Dixie Valley, a primarily undeveloped basin in west-central Nevada, is being considered for groundwater exportation. Proposed pumping would occur from the basin-fill aquifer. In response to proposed exportation, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation and Churchill County, conducted a study to improve the understanding of groundwater resources in Dixie Valley. The objective of this report is to characterize the hydrogeologic framework, the occurrence and movement of groundwater, the general water quality of the basin-fill aquifer, and the potential mixing between basin-fill and geothermal aquifers in Dixie Valley. Various types of geologic, hydrologic, and geochemical data were compiled from previous studies and collected in support of this study. Hydrogeologic units in Dixie Valley were defined to characterize rocks and sediments with similar lithologies and hydraulic properties influencing groundwater flow. Hydraulic properties of the basin-fill deposits were characterized by transmissivity estimated from aquifer tests and specific-capacity tests. Groundwater-level measurements and hydrogeologic-unit data were combined to create a potentiometric surface map and to characterize groundwater occurrence and movement. Subsurface inflow from adjacent valleys into Dixie Valley through the basin-fill aquifer was evaluated using hydraulic gradients and Darcy flux computations. The chemical signature and groundwater quality of the Dixie Valley basin-fill aquifer, and potential mixing between basin-fill and geothermal aquifers, were evaluated using chemical data collected from wells and springs during the current study and from previous investigations. Dixie Valley is the terminus of the Dixie Valley flow system, which includes Pleasant, Jersey, Fairview, Stingaree, Cowkick, and Eastgate Valleys. The freshwater aquifer in the study area is composed of unconsolidated basin-fill deposits of Quaternary age. The basin-fill hydrogeologic unit

  9. Petroleum hydrocarbon concentration in surface sediments in continental shelf region along the central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ram, A.; Kadam, A.N.

    Gas chromatography revealed that nonpolar material extracted from surface sediments collected along the northern west coast of India was originated from petroleum hydrocarbon residue. Petroleum hydrocarbon levels as determinEd. by fluorescence...

  10. Quantum chaos inside space-temporal Sinai billiards

    CERN Document Server

    Addazi, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    We discuss general aspects of non-relativistic quantum chaos theory of scattering of a quantum particle on a system of a large number of naked singularities. We define such a system space-temporal Sinai billiard We dis- cuss the problem in semiclassical approach. We show that in semiclassical regime the formation of trapped periodic semiclassical orbits inside the sys- tem is unavoidable. This leads to general expression of survival probabilities and scattering time delays, expanded to the chaotic Pollicott-Ruelle reso- nances. Finally, we comment on possible generalizations of these aspects to relativistic quantum field theory.

  11. Social Mobilization and Community Engagement Central to the Ebola Response in West Africa: Lessons for Future Public Health Emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Amaya M; Obregon, Rafael; El Asawi, Rania; Richey, Catherine; Manoncourt, Erma; Joshi, Kshiitij; Naqvi, Savita; Pouye, Ade; Safi, Naqibullah; Chitnis, Ketan; Quereshi, Sabeeha

    2016-12-23

    Following the World Health Organization (WHO) declaration of a Public Health Emergency of International Concern regarding the Ebola outbreak in West Africa in July 2014, UNICEF was asked to co-lead, in coordination with WHO and the ministries of health of affected countries, the communication and social mobilization component-which UNICEF refers to as communication for development (C4D)-of the Ebola response. For the first time in an emergency setting, C4D was formally incorporated into each country's national response, alongside more typical components such as supplies and logistics, surveillance, and clinical care. This article describes the lessons learned about social mobilization and community engagement in the emergency response to the Ebola outbreak, with a particular focus on UNICEF's C4D work in Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone. The lessons emerged through an assessment conducted by UNICEF using 4 methods: a literature review of key documents, meeting reports, and other articles; structured discussions conducted in June 2015 and October 2015 with UNICEF and civil society experts; an electronic survey, launched in October and November 2015, with staff from government, the UN, or any partner organization who worked on Ebola (N = 53); and key informant interviews (N = 5). After triangulating the findings from all data sources, we distilled lessons under 7 major domains: (1) strategy and decentralization: develop a comprehensive C4D strategy with communities at the center and decentralized programming to facilitate flexibility and adaptation to the local context; (2) coordination: establish C4D leadership with the necessary authority to coordinate between partners and enforce use of standard operating procedures as a central coordination and quality assurance tool; (3) entering and engaging communities: invest in key communication channels (such as radio) and trusted local community members; (4) messaging: adapt messages and strategies continually as patterns

  12. Trends and Bioclimatic Assessment of Extreme Indices: Emerging Insights for Rainfall Derivative Crop Microinsurance in Central-West Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awolala, D. O.

    2015-12-01

    Scientific predictions have forecasted increasing economic losses by which farming households will be forced to consider new adaptation pathways to close the food gap and be income secure. Pro-poor adaptation planning decisions therefore must rely on location-specific details from systematic assessment of extreme climate indices to provide template for most suitable financial adaptation instruments. This paper examined critical loss point to water stress in maize production and risk-averse behaviour to extreme local climate in Central West Nigeria. Trends of extreme indices and bio-climatic assessment based on RClimDex for numerical weather predictions were carried out using a 3-decade time series daily observational climate data of the sub-humid region. The study reveals that the flowering and seed formation stage was identified as the most critical loss point when seed formation is a function of per unit soil water available for uptake. The sub-humid has a bi-modal rainfall pattern but faces longer dry spell with a fast disappearing mild climate measured by budyko evaporation of 80.1%. Radiation index of dryness of 1.394 confirms the region is rapidly becoming drier at an evaporation rate of 949 mm/year and rainfall deficit of 366 mm/year. Net primary production from rainfall is fast declining by 1634 g(DM)/m2/year. These conditions influenced by monthly rainfall uncertainties are associated with losses of standing crops because farmers are uncertain of rainfall probability distribution especially during most important vegetative stage. In a simulated warmer climate, an absolute dryness of months was observed compared with 4 dry months in a normal climate which explains triggers of food deficits and income losses. Positive coefficients of tropical nights (TR20), warm nights (TN90P) and warm days (TX90P), and the negative coefficient of cold days (TX10P) with time are significant at P<0.05. The increasing gradient of warm spell indicator (WSDI), the decreasing

  13. The Barrancas anticline in west-central Argentina: new geomorphic and geologic constraints on the geometry and activity of a fault-related fold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimando, J. M.; Schoenbohm, L. M.

    2016-12-01

    The Barrancas anticline in Mendoza Province, west-central Argentina is a N-NW-oriented, east-vergent fault-bend fold located in the transition from the mainly east-vergent, thin-skinned Argentine Precordillera to the mainly west-vergent, thick-skinned Sierras Pampeanas — one of the most active thrust zones on Earth. Previous studies of the Barrancas anticline interpreted its structure from 2-D and 3-D seismic data. The anticline is a fault-bend fold with multiple segments with different uplift histories and which linked only after 2.3Ma. This study aims to establish the temporal persistence of segmentation and to describe the role, extent and rates of deformation processes involved in the development of the Barrancas anticline from morphometric analyses, geologic and geomorphic mapping, and accurate dating of relevant geomorphic features. Longitudinal profile analysis of streams on the anticline reveals marked differences in normalized steepness index (ksn) between the western and eastern limbs as well as variation along strike. This distribution of ksn values reveals patterns consistent with asymmetry and segmentation of the Barrancas anticline. Swath profiles parallel to the fold axis resemble fault slip distribution profiles which was a basis for segmentation from previous studies. Drainage basin morphometric indices such as hypsometry, drainage density, and basin elongation were also measured. Hypsometric integral values were particularly higher on the west than on the east, possibly indicating younger folding on the western limb. This study will contribute to a better understanding of the nature, extent, timing, and rate of folding at the transition from thin- to thick-skinned thrust deformation in west-central Argentina. Additionally, this study will contribute to assessment of seismic hazards associated with fault-related folds in Argentina and in similar tectonic settings worldwide.

  14. Characterization of HIV-1 CRF90_BF1 and putative novel CRFs_BF1 in Central West, North and Northeast Brazilian regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Mônica Nogueira da Guarda; Bello, Gonzalo; Guimarães, Monick Lindenmeyer; Stefani, Mariane Martins Araújo

    2017-01-01

    The Brazilian AIDS epidemic has been characterized by an increasing rate of BF1 recombinants and so far eight circulating recombinant forms/CRFs_BF1 have been described countrywide. In this study, pol sequences (protease/PR, reverse transcriptase/RT) of 87 BF1 mosaic isolates identified among 828 patients living in six Brazilian States from three geographic regions (Central West, North, Northeast) were analyzed. Phylogenetic and bootscan analyses were performed to investigate the evolutionary relationship and mosaic structure of BF1 isolates. Those analyses showed that 20.7% of mosaics (18 out of 87) were CRFs-like isolates, mostly represented by CRF28/CRF29_BF-like viruses (14 out of 18). We also identified five highly supported clusters that together comprise 42 out of 87 (48.3%) BF1 sequences, each cluster containing at least five sequences sharing a similar mosaic structure, suggesting possible new unidentified CRFs_BF1. The divergence time of these five potential new CRFs_BF1 clusters was estimated using a Bayesian approach and indicate that they probably originated between the middle 1980s and the middle 1990s. DNA was extracted from whole blood and four overlapping fragments were amplified by PCR providing full/near full length genomes (FLG/NFLG) and partial genomes. Eleven HIV-1 isolates from Cluster # 5 identified in epidemiologically unlinked individuals living in Central West and North regions provided FLG/NFLG/partial genome sequences with identical mosaic structure. These viruses differ from any known CRF_BF1 reported to date and were named CRF90_BF1 by the Los Alamos National Laboratory. This is the 9th CRF_BF1 described in Brazil and the first one identified in Central West and North regions. Our results highlight the importance of continued molecular screening and surveillance studies, especially of full genome sequences to understand the evolutionary dynamics of the HIV-1 epidemic in a country of continental dimensions as Brazil.

  15. Evaluation of fluralaner and afoxolaner treatments to control flea populations, reduce pruritus and minimize dermatologic lesions in naturally infested dogs in private residences in west central Florida USA

    OpenAIRE

    Dryden, Michael W.; Canfield, Michael S.; Kalosy, Kimberly; Smith, Amber; Crevoiserat, Lisa; McGrady, Jennifer C.; Foley, Kaitlin M.; Green, Kathryn; Tebaldi, Chantelle; Smith, Vicki; Bennett, Tashina; Heaney, Kathleen; Math, Lisa; Royal, Christine; Sun, Fangshi

    2016-01-01

    Background A study was conducted to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of two different oral flea and tick products to control flea infestations, reduce pruritus and minimize dermatologic lesions over a 12 week period on naturally infested dogs in west central FL USA. Methods Thirty-four dogs with natural flea infestations living in 17 homes were treated once with a fluralaner chew on study day 0. Another 27 dogs living in 17 different homes were treated orally with an afoxolaner chewable...

  16. First Report of Outbreaks of the Fall Armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (J E Smith) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae), a New Alien Invasive Pest in West and Central Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankung, Sagnia B.; Togola, Abou; Tamò, Manuele

    2016-01-01

    The fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda is a prime noctuid pest of maize on the American continents where it has remained confined despite occasional interceptions by European quarantine services in recent years. The pest has currently become a new invasive species in West and Central Africa where outbreaks were recorded for the first time in early 2016. The presence of at least two distinct haplotypes within samples collected on maize in Nigeria and São Tomé suggests multiple introductions into the African continent. Implications of this new threat to the maize crop in tropical Africa are briefly discussed. PMID:27788251

  17. Analysis of magnetic anomalies in relation to Placer deposits and basement configuration off Mirya bay, Central West coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramana, M.V.

    amplitude long wavelength anomalies (250-350 nT, 240-420 m) extending 3 km west of a line joining Mirya head with the Bhagavati Port and (2) low amplitude short wavelength anomalies (100-120 nT, 200-300 m) located to the east in Mirya Bay. Magnetic modelling...

  18. Changes in erosional and depositional processes with time and management of Goa Coast, central west coast of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Ganapati; D'Souza, Joseph

    2010-05-01

    Coastal and estuarine environments, world over are facing immense impact due to both natural and anthropogenic processes. The natural processes include climatic changes, rise in sea level, cyclone, flood, tsunamis, coastal erosion, salinity ingress and siltation. Likewise, anthropogenic pressures include population expansion, ocean traffic, dredging, resource exploitation, pollution, unplanned urbanization and intensive industrialization. Due to these impacts the fragile coastal ecosystem and its entities, like sub ecosystems, resources, morphological units are undergoing unprecedented degradation, rendering these coastal regions vulnerable, impinging risk to human population, livestock, properties, as also, devastation of resourceful lands. This accelerates economic fatalities and irreversible obliteration to the ecosystems. Evidences on the global concern towards this issue have been well established. The countries world over, including India, pledged consensus towards the protection of the fragile coastal ecosystems through UNCED, Agenda-21. India, on 19th February 1991, has designated specified corridors along the landward side of the coastline as "Coastal Regulatory Zones" (CRZ), through appropriate policy and law. In context with the CRZ notification, scientific database at local and site-specific areas, developed. Synergy of ecosystems, landscape and resources with demographic, tourism data, vis-à-vis, economic corridors/sectors aided the paradigms and criterion for local and site specific prescriptions for Goa Coast. The Goa coast is a part of central west coast of India and is characterized by pocket beaches flanked by rocky cliffs, estuaries, bays, and at some places mangroves. Beaches in southern Goa are long and linear in nature with sand dunes. The Mandovi and Zuari estuarine system in Goa is the largest in this part of the coast. Mud flats, swampy marshes and wetlands are found mainly along estuaries and creeks. The beaches of Goa are stable beaches

  19. Classification accuracy analysis of selected land use and land cover products in a portion of West-Central Lower Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Kin Man

    2007-12-01

    Remote sensing satellites have been utilized to characterize and map land cover and its changes since the 1970s. However, uncertainties exist in almost all land use and land cover maps classified from remotely sensed images. In particular, it has been recognized that the spatial mis-registration of land cover maps can affect the true estimates of land use/land cover (LULC) changes. This dissertation addressed the following questions: what are the spatial patterns, magnitudes, and cover-dependencies of classification uncertainty associated with West-Central Lower Michigan's LULC products and how can the adverse effects of spatial misregistration on accuracy assessment be reduced? Two Michigan LULC products were chosen for comparison: 1998 Muskegon River Watershed (MRW) Michigan Resource Information Systems LULC map and a 2001 Integrated Forest Monitoring and Assessment Prescription Project (IFMAP). The 1m resolution 1998 MRW LULC map was derived from U.S. Geological Survey Digital Orthophoto Quarter Quadrangle (USGS DOQQs) color infrared imagery and was used as the reference map, since it has a thematic accuracy of 95%. The IFMAP LULC map was co-registered to a series of selected 1998 USGS DOQQs. The total combined root mean square error (rmse) distance of the georectified 2001 IFMAP was +/-12.20m. A spatial uncertainty buffer of at least 1.5 times the rmse was set at 20m so that polygon core areas would be unaffected by spatial misregistration noise. A new spatial misregistration buffer protocol (SPATIALM_ BUFFER) was developed to limit the effect of spatial misregistration on classification accuracy assessment. Spatial uncertainty buffer zones of 20m were generated around LULC polygons of both datasets. Eight-hundred seventeen (817) stratified random accuracy assessment points (AAPs) were generated across the 1998 MRW map. Classification accuracy and kappa statistics were generated for both the 817 AAPs and 604 AAPs comparisons. For the 817 AAPs comparison, the

  20. Hydrologic, soil, and vegetation gradients in remnant and constructed riparian wetlands in west-central Missouri, 2001-04

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimann, David C.; Mettler-Cherry, Paige A.

    2004-01-01

    A study was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Conservation at the Four Rivers Conservation Area (west-central Missouri), between January 2001 and March 2004, to examine the relations between environmental factors (hydrology, soils, elevation, and landform type) and the spatial distribution of vegetation in remnant and constructed riparian wetlands. Vegetation characterization included species composition of ground, understory, and overstory layers in selected landforms of a remnant bottomland hardwood ecosystem, monitoring survival and growth of reforestation plots in leveed and partially leveed constructed wetlands, and determining gradients in colonization of herbaceous vegetation in a constructed wetland. Similar environmental factors accounted for variation in the distribution of ground, understory, and overstory vegetation in the remnant bottomland forest plots. The primary measured determining factors in the distribution of vegetation in the ground layer were elevation, soil texture (clay and silt content), flooding inundation duration, and ponding duration, while the distribution of vegetation in the understory layer was described by elevation, soil texture (clay, silt, and sand content), total flooding and ponding inundation duration, and distance from the Marmaton or Little Osage River. The primary measured determining factors in the distribution of overstory vegetation in Unit 1 were elevation, soil texture (clay, silt, and sand content), total flooding and ponding inundation duration, ponding duration, and to some extent, flooding inundation duration. Overall, the composition and structure of the remnant bottomland forest is indicative of a healthy, relatively undisturbed flood plain forest. Dominant species have a distribution of individuals that shows regeneration of these species with significant recruitment in the smaller size classes. The bottomland forest is an area whose overall hydrology has

  1. Vestiges of an Ordovician west-vergent thin-skinned Ocloyic thrust belt in the Argentine Precordillera, southern Central Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, William A.; Astini, Ricardo A.

    2007-08-01

    Collision of the down-going, Laurentia-derived Argentine Precordillera terrane with the Gondwanan margin drove the Ordovician Ocloyic orogeny, including subduction volcanism, metamorphism, and top-to-west shearing east of the Precordillera. In the Precordillera, above passive-margin carbonates (Lower Ordovician San Juan Limestone and older carbonates), a Middle to Upper Ordovician westward-prograding synorogenic clastic wedge of black shale (Gualcamayo Shale) and coarser clastic sediment (Las Vacas Conglomerate and Trapiche Formation) fills a peripheral foreland basin. New research has identified vestiges of a west-directed thin-skinned Ocloyic foreland thrust belt that has been fragmented by east-directed Andean thrusting. The El Corral thrust sheet, with hanging-wall detachment in the San Juan Limestone, extends over a west-directed footwall frontal ramp and extensive flat to low-angle footwall cutoff in the Gualcamayo and Las Vacas formations. Las Vacas conglomerates in the footwall include olistoliths (10-m scale) exclusively of San Juan Limestone and Gualcamayo Shale; the beds in some olistoliths are folded. The advancing El Corral thrust sheet successively supplied and overrode the stratigraphically restricted olistoliths. In the El Corral footwall, tight west-vergent folds and faults within an anticlinorium in the San Juan Limestone and Gualcamayo Shale suggest a deeper (unexposed) thrust fault, the Los Celestitos fault. West of the anticlinorium, easterly dip (restored to remove Andean deformation) beneath an angular unconformity between Las Vacas and Trapiche beds is consistent geometrically with the trailing limb of a west-vergent fault-propagation anticline in the hanging wall of the subsurface Los Celestitos fault. The same angular unconformity truncates the El Corral fault and hanging-wall strata. In the Trapiche Formation, contrasting sedimentary facies from sandy turbidites westward to limestone-clast megabeds and olistoliths suggest another frontal

  2. Geochemistry, provenance, and metamorphic evolution of Gabal Samra Neoproterozoic metapelites, Sinai, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu El-Enen, Mahrous M.

    2011-02-01

    Metapelites are exposed at Wadi Ba'ba, east of Abu Zenima city; represent the northwestern extension of the Fieran-Solaf Metamorphic Complex, Sinai Peninsula, Egypt. The metapelites are characterized by qtz + pl (An 24-28) + bt + grt ± crd ± sil mineral assemblage, indicating upper amphibolite facies with peak metamorphic conditions of 700 °C and pressures of 7 kbar, as determined by conventional geothermobarometeric methods. This resulted in incipient migmatization, forms patches of leucosomes and melanosomes. Geochemical investigation indicates that the precursor sediments of the metapelites had been deposited as immature Fe-rich shales from source materials of dominantly intermediate composition. Source area exhibited weak to moderate chemical weathering in a tectonically active continental marginal basin within a continental-arc system. A strong shallow-dipping foliation, characterizing the metapelites, was folded around an open antiform with sub-horizontal south plunging hinge. Phase equilibria calculations in the KFMASH system indicate that the peak metamorphic conditions formed at 730-750 °C and 6.8-7.9 kbar. This was followed by a retrogression formed at 770-785 °C and 3.9-4.5 kbar. Hence, this implies an isothermal decompression and rapid exhumation of the metapelites from depth (25-29 km) in the lower crustal level at peak conditions, continuous to include shallow to middle crustal level (14-17 km), at overprint retrograde conditions. Subsequent isobaric cooling took place at 720-750 °C and 3.6-4.5 kbar. The resulting isothermal decompression followed by isobaric cooling clockwise P-T path of the metapelites is more likely, in which the high-temperatures attained maximum conditions during isothermal decompression were enhanced by heat flux, due to the presence of an active magmatic arc that formed on top of subducting young lithosphere. This is supported by a moderate geothermal gradient of 27-43 °C/km and dating compatibility of the Sinai

  3. Prevalence of consanguineous marriages in South Sinai, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamah, G; Abdel-Raouf, E; Talaat, A; Saad-Hussein, A; Hamamy, H; Meguid, N A

    2013-01-01

    A total of 3961 married couples from six major geographical areas representing the South Sinai governorates in Egypt were studied to assess the rate of consanguineous marriage. The population of six selected areas (St Catherines, Nuweiba, Abu Rudeis, Ras Sudr, El Tor and Abu Zenima) were subdivided into Bedouin, urban and mixed populations. A questionnaire-based interview was conducted showing that the consanguinity rate in this region is 37.5%, with the highest rate recorded in Abu Rudeis (52.3%) and lowest rate in Nuweiba (24.1%). Consanguinity was significantly higher among the Bedouin population compared with the urban population in Abu Rudeis, Ras Sudr, El Tor and Abu Zenima, while in St Catherines and Nuweiba there was no statistically significant difference. Among consanguineous couples, 5%, 60% and 35% were double first cousins, first cousins and second cousins respectively. The mean inbreeding coefficient α of the studied population was 0.01845.

  4. SURDEZ, LÍNGUA DE SINAIS E CULTURA

    OpenAIRE

    Menezes, Denise Costa; Universidade Católica de Pernambuco (UNICAP); Aguiar, Marígia Ana de Moura; Universidade Católica de Pernambuco (UNICAP); Silva, Priscila Gonzaga

    2013-01-01

    Os conceitos de Cultura Surda e Comunidade de Surdos vêm sendo utilizados de diversas formas na literatura da área. Alguns autores consideram que os surdos usuários da Língua de Sinais são pessoas biculturais, pois além de fazer parte da cultura dos ouvintes de sua nação, usam socialmente uma língua própria (manual) e, por isso, possuem traços culturais próprios. O objetivo deste texto é provocar reflexões sobre aspectos relacionados a este grupo linguístico minoritário e suas características...

  5. Diagenesis of Cambrian and lower Carboniferous sandstones, southwest Sinai, Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Wahab, A.A.; Salem, A.M.K. [Tanta Univ., Kafr El-Sheikh (Egypt); McBride, E.F. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Quartzose and feldspathic Cambrian and Lower Carboniferous sandstones (fluvial > marine > eolian) deposited on the Arabian shield in southwestern Sinai were not buried more than 1 to 1.5 km until Late Cretaceous and younger time, when the deepest rocks reached 2.5 km. Porosity was reduced by compaction to about 26%. Grain rearrangement was the main mechanism of compaction; intergranular pressure solution and ductile grain deformation are insignificant. Cementation by iron oxide (5%), quartz (3%), calcite (2%), kaolinite (2%) and K-feldspar (< 1%) reduced porosity to 12-15% except in silcretes and some ferricretes, where porosity was reduced to non-reservoir quality. Cements have no selectivity for certain textures or stratigraphic positions.

  6. Diagenesis of Cambrian and lower Carboniferous sandstones, southwest Sinai, Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Wahab, A.A.; Salem, A.M.K. (Tanta Univ., Kafr El-Sheikh (Egypt)); McBride, E.F. (Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States))

    1996-01-01

    Quartzose and feldspathic Cambrian and Lower Carboniferous sandstones (fluvial > marine > eolian) deposited on the Arabian shield in southwestern Sinai were not buried more than 1 to 1.5 km until Late Cretaceous and younger time, when the deepest rocks reached 2.5 km. Porosity was reduced by compaction to about 26%. Grain rearrangement was the main mechanism of compaction; intergranular pressure solution and ductile grain deformation are insignificant. Cementation by iron oxide (5%), quartz (3%), calcite (2%), kaolinite (2%) and K-feldspar (< 1%) reduced porosity to 12-15% except in silcretes and some ferricretes, where porosity was reduced to non-reservoir quality. Cements have no selectivity for certain textures or stratigraphic positions.

  7. The landscape configuration of zoonotic transmission of Ebola virus disease in West and Central Africa: interaction between population density and vegetation cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Michael G; Haseeb, Ma

    2015-01-01

    Ebola virus disease (EVD) is an emerging infectious disease of zoonotic origin that has been responsible for high mortality and significant social disruption in West and Central Africa. Zoonotic transmission of EVD requires contact between susceptible human hosts and the reservoir species for Ebolaviruses, which are believed to be fruit bats. Nevertheless, features of the landscape that may facilitate such points of contact have not yet been adequately identified. Nor have spatial dependencies between zoonotic EVD transmission and landscape structures been delineated. This investigation sought to describe the spatial relationship between zoonotic EVD transmission events, or spillovers, and population density and vegetation cover. An inhomogeneous Poisson process model was fitted to all precisely geolocated zoonotic transmissions of EVD in West and Central Africa. Population density was strongly associated with spillover; however, there was significant interaction between population density and green vegetation cover. In areas of very low population density, increasing vegetation cover was associated with a decrease in risk of zoonotic transmission, but as population density increased in a given area, increasing vegetation cover was associated with increased risk of zoonotic transmission. This study showed that the spatial dependencies of Ebolavirus spillover were associated with the distribution of population density and vegetation cover in the landscape, even after controlling for climate and altitude. While this is an observational study, and thus precludes direct causal inference, the findings do highlight areas that may be at risk for zoonotic EVD transmission based on the spatial configuration of important features of the landscape.

  8. The landscape configuration of zoonotic transmission of Ebola virus disease in West and Central Africa: interaction between population density and vegetation cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael G. Walsh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ebola virus disease (EVD is an emerging infectious disease of zoonotic origin that has been responsible for high mortality and significant social disruption in West and Central Africa. Zoonotic transmission of EVD requires contact between susceptible human hosts and the reservoir species for Ebolaviruses, which are believed to be fruit bats. Nevertheless, features of the landscape that may facilitate such points of contact have not yet been adequately identified. Nor have spatial dependencies between zoonotic EVD transmission and landscape structures been delineated. This investigation sought to describe the spatial relationship between zoonotic EVD transmission events, or spillovers, and population density and vegetation cover. An inhomogeneous Poisson process model was fitted to all precisely geolocated zoonotic transmissions of EVD in West and Central Africa. Population density was strongly associated with spillover; however, there was significant interaction between population density and green vegetation cover. In areas of very low population density, increasing vegetation cover was associated with a decrease in risk of zoonotic transmission, but as population density increased in a given area, increasing vegetation cover was associated with increased risk of zoonotic transmission. This study showed that the spatial dependencies of Ebolavirus spillover were associated with the distribution of population density and vegetation cover in the landscape, even after controlling for climate and altitude. While this is an observational study, and thus precludes direct causal inference, the findings do highlight areas that may be at risk for zoonotic EVD transmission based on the spatial configuration of important features of the landscape.

  9. Ancient Maya Regional Settlement and Inter-Site Analysis: The 2013 West-Central Belize LiDAR Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlen F. Chase

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available During April and May 2013, a total of 1057 km2 of LiDAR was flown by NCALM for a consortium of archaeologists working in West-central Belize, making this the largest surveyed area within the Mayan lowlands. Encompassing the Belize Valley and the Vaca Plateau, West-central Belize is one of the most actively researched parts of the Maya lowlands; however, until this effort, no comprehensive survey connecting all settlement had been conducted. Archaeological projects have investigated at least 18 different sites within this region. Thus, a large body of archaeological research provides both the temporal and spatial parameters for the varied ancient Maya centers that once occupied this area; importantly, these data can be used to help interpret the collected LiDAR data. The goal of the 2013 LiDAR campaign was to gain information on the distribution of ancient Maya settlement and sites on the landscape and, particularly, to determine how the landscape was used between known centers. The data that were acquired through the 2013 LiDAR campaign have significance for interpreting both the composition and limits of ancient Maya political units. This paper presents the initial results of these new data and suggests a developmental model for ancient Maya polities.

  10. Mount Sinai and Mount Zion: Discontinuity and continuity in the book of Hebrews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hulisani Ramantswana

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The author of Hebrews draws significant contrasts between Mount Sinai and Mount Zion which both played a major role in the old covenant. For the author of Hebrews the former mountain, Mount Sinai, only had limited significance with respect to the new covenant, whereas the latter mountain, Mount Zion, continued to have significance in the new covenant. Mount Zion was viewed as a shadow of the heavenly reality, which is the true destination for the pilgrimage community. Mount Sinai as the locus of encounter or meeting between God and Israel only played a transitory role, whereas Mount Zion had perpetual significance as the destination, the dwelling place of God and his people.Berg Sinai en Berg Sion: Diskontinuïteit en kontinuïteit in die brief aan die Hebreërs. Die skrywer van Hebreërs wys op betekenisvolle teenstellings tussen Berg Sinai en Berg Sion, wat elkeen ’n beduidende rol in die ou verbond gespeel het. Vir die Hebreërskrywer het Berg Sinai egter beperkte betekenis vir die nuwe verbond, terwyl Sion nog steeds betekenis het. Berg Sion word as skaduwee van die hemelse werklikheid beskou, wat die uiteindelike bestemming van die pelgrimsgemeenskap is. Berg Sinai, as die lokus van ontmoeting tussen God en Israel, speel slegs ‘n oorgangsrol, terwyl Berg Sion steeds beduidende betekenis het as bestemming en woonplek van God en sy volk.

  11. ’n Teologiese waardering van die Sinai-tradisie (Eks. 19 - Num. 10:10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.D. Snyman

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available A theological evaluation of the Sinai-tradition (Ex. 19 - Num. 10:10 Among the many and varied angles by means of which the Old Testament are studied, a theological evaluation of it remains valid as there is also need for a global and theological understanding of the Old Testament. This contribution focuses on the theological content of the Sinai-tradition found in Exodus 19 - Numbers 10:10. Furthermore the importance of the Sinai-tradition is pointed out and the literary setting outlined. In this article it is argued that the theological content may be summarized by three concepts: theophany, covenant and Torah.

  12. Sedimentological and petrophysical characteristics of Raha Formation at Wadi Tubia, Northern Gulf of Aqaba, Sinai, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed S. Mousa

    2011-06-01

    Statistical analysis of the measured petrophysical data shows that, the dolomitic lithic arenite and fossiliferous bioclastic grainstone microfacies have a good storage capacity in the Raha Formation of Wadi Tubia, Northern Gulf of Aqaba, Sinai, Egypt.

  13. Avaliação da Amostragem Compressiva em Sinais de ECG e Imagens Digitais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Danilo Miranda Regis

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A amostragem compressiva permite obter representações mais compactadas de sinais do que as obtidas nas arquiteturas baseadas no teorema de Nyquist. Por esse motivo este trabalho, em um primeiro momento, faz uma descrição sucinta desta nova técnica e apresenta a avaliação de sua aplicação para os sinais de Eletrocardiograma (ECG eem imagens. Para sinais de ECG conseguiu-se até 59% de compressão sem perda das características do sinal, e para sinais de imagens obteve-se mais de 50% de compressão para níveis aceitáveis de perdas de qualidade.

  14. Diversity in soil seed bank of Sinai and implications for conservation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Key words: Sinai, soil seed bank, arid environments, diversity indices, conservation, restoration. INTRODUCTION .... germination for the last season was completed and seed dispersal ...... heterogeneity which is common for desert seed banks.

  15. Academic Achievement and Psychosocial Profile of Egyptian Primary School Children in South Sinai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab M. Monir

    2016-10-01

    CONCLUSION: Comorbid academic and psychosocial dysfunction in primary school children were observed in South Sinai. A national strategy to minimise the educational gap between Bedouin and urban areas should be implemented.

  16. Uranium hydrogeochemical survey of well waters from an area around Pie Town, Catron County, West-Central New Mexico, including concentrations of twenty-three additional elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, T.L.; George, W.E.; Hensley, W.K.; Thomas, G.J.; Langhorst, A.L.

    1980-10-01

    As part of the Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) conducted a detailed hydrogeochemical survey of well waters in a 4250-km/sup 2/ area near Pie Town in west-central New Mexico. A total of 300 well samples was collected and analyzed for uranium and 23 other elements. The results of these analyses and carbonate and bicarbonate ion concentrations are presented in the Appendixes of this report. Uranium concentrations range from below the detection limit of 0.02 parts per billion (ppB) to 293.18 ppB and average 8.71 ppB. Samples containing high levels of uranium were collected from the Largo Creek valley west of Quemado, from a small area about 6 km east of Quemado, from a small area surrounding Pie Town, and from scattered locations in the area surrounding Adams Diggings north of Pie Town. Most of the samples containing high uranium concentrations were collected from wells associated with the volcanic sedimentary facies of the Datil formation. This formation is a likely source of mobile uranium that may be precipitating in the underlying Baca formation, a known uranium host unit. Bicarbonate ion concentration, while proportional to uranium concentration in some cases, is not a strong controlling factor in the uranium concentrations in samples from this area.

  17. Precambrian crustal evolution and Cretaceous–Palaeogene faulting in West Greenland: 207Pb-206Pb dating of magnetite, monazite and allanite in the central and northern Nagssugtoqidian orogen, West Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frei, Robert

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Pb-isotopic data for magnetite from amphibolites in the Nagssugtoqidian orogen, central West Greenland, have been used to trace their source characteristics and the timing of metamorphism. Analyses of the magnetite define a Pb-Pb isochron age of 1726 ± 7 Ma. The magnetite is metamorphic in origin, and the 1726 Ma age is interpreted as a cooling age through the closing temperature of magnetite at ~600°C. Some of the amphibolites in this study come from the Naternaq supracrustal rocks in the northern Nagssugtoqidian orogen, which host the Naternaq sulphide deposit and may be part ofthe Nordre Strømfjord supracrustal suite, which was deposited at around 1950 Ma ago.Pb-isotopic signatures of magnetite from the Arfersiorfik quartz diorite in the central Nagssugtoqidian orogen are compatible with published whole-rock Pb-isotopic data from this suite; previous work has shown that it is a product of subduction-related calc-alkaline magmatism between 1920 and 1870 Ma. Intrusion of pegmatites occurred at around 1800 Ma in both the central and the northernparts of the orogen. Pegmatite ages have been determined by Pb stepwise leaching analyses of allanite and monazite, and source characteristics of Pb point to an origin of the pegmatites by melting of the surrounding late Archaean and Palaeoproterozoic country rocks. Hydrothermal activity took place after pegmatite emplacement and continued below the closure temperature of magnetite at 1800–1650 Ma. Because of the relatively inert and refractory nature of magnetite, Pb-isotopic measurements from this mineral may be of help to understand the metamorphic evolution of geologicallycomplex terrains.

  18. Prevalence and genetic characterisation of HTLV-1 and 2 dual infections in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis in Central-West Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Garcia Kozlowski

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV may impact the clinical course of tuberculosis (TB. Both infections are highly endemic in Brazil. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of HTLV-1/2 in TB patients in Central-West Brazil and to perform a genetic characterisation of the respective isolates. Of the 402 patients, six (1.49% were positive for anti-HTLV and five (1.24%; 95% confidence interval: 0.46-3.05 were infected with HTLV-1/2. Genetic characterisation demonstrated that the four HTLV-1 isolates belonged to the Transcontinental subgroup A of the Cosmopolitan subtype a and that the HTLV-2 isolate belonged to subtype a (HTLV-2a/c. The prevalence of HTLV infection observed in this study is higher than that observed in local blood donors and the HTLV-1 and 2 subtypes identified are consistent with those circulating in Brazil.

  19. Challenges facing the elimination of sleeping sickness in west and central Africa: sustainable control of animal trypanosomiasis as an indispensable approach to achieve the goal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simo, Gustave; Rayaisse, Jean Baptiste

    2015-12-16

    African trypanosomiases are infectious diseases caused by trypanosomes. African animal trypanosomiasis (AAT) remains an important threat for livestock production in some affected areas whereas human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is targeted for elimination in 2020. In West and Central Africa, it has been shown that the parasites causing these diseases can coexist in the same tsetse fly or the same animal. In such complex settings, the control of these diseases must be put in the general context of trypanosomiasis control or "one health" concept where the coordination of control operations will be beneficial for both diseases. In this context, implementing control activities on AAT will help to sustain HAT control. It will also have a positive impact on animal health and economic development of the regions. The training of inhabitants on how to implement and sustain vector control tools will enable a long-term sustainability of control operations that will lead to the elimination of HAT and AAT.

  20. Formation of the Upper Cretaceous cherts in northeastern Sinai, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genedi, Adel

    1998-02-01

    The Upper Cretaceous cherts in northeast Sinai, Egypt are found as nodules, tabular sheets and continuous beds within the carbonate dominated successions. They occur in the Halal, Wata and Matulla Formations and become a very conspicuous constituent in the Sudr Chalk. The chert framework is typical of all interstratal structures and is of two types: spotted and brecciated forms. The chert is classified into a fossiliferous and nonfossiliferous variety. The first is likely either to form packstone-grainstone fabrics or to form wackestone fabrics. The packstone-grainstone fabric is interpreted as replacing platform carbonate deposits at relatively lower energy but in an oxygenated environment while the wackestone fabric chert replaces low energy deep water carbonates. This Upper Cretaceous silica cycle was dominated by inorganic reactions involving dissolved silica, and there is much evidence of secondary diagenetic silicification. This process would have started in early diagenesis as opal-A, opal-C and opal-CT precipitated from interstitial waters. Quartz represents the end product of recrystallisation. This transformation from metastable to stable silica phases is explained as a solid-solid diagenetic reaction as emphasised by δ18O. The nodular cherts have formed in coastal mixing zones with opal-CT and quartz supersaturation and calcite undersaturation. The source of silica of the deep water cherts cannot be explained by this mixing zone model and needs further study. On the other hand, there is no evidence of deposition of layered amorphous silica in either shallow or deep environments.

  1. Landscape evolution of the graben of Puerto Vallarta (west-central Mexico) using the analysis of landforms and stream long profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    The analysis of landforms and stream long profiles are useful tools that can provide information about the tectonic activity in the landscape. The west-central portion of Mexico is a region that is mostly dominated by an extensional tectonics initiated in the Miocene and continuing in the Quaternary, where there has also been a vast emission of volcanic products. Of particular importance is the graben of Puerto Vallarta which was formed during the extensional activity that opened the Gulf of California in the Miocene. Nevertheless, the geomorphology and landscape evolution of this structure has not been studied in detail. Here I present a study of the rivers, landforms and topography of Puerto Vallarta graben in order to assess its evolution, focusing on the evidences of its initial phase of formation. The geomorphological map elaborated in this study reveals the presence of lava flows and volcanic structures in the eastern sector of the graben. Here it is proposed that this volcanism occurred during the formation of the graben in the Miocene, nevertheless, radiometric dating of lavas is still required to determine the precise timing of this event. Analysis of stream long profiles confirms that knickpoints are propagating in the fluvial network at a rate of ∼0.07 to ∼0.7 mm yr-1 and these were probably triggered by a drop in the base-level of rivers during the graben formation. The rates of knickpoint retreat in the graben of Puerto Vallarta are slightly lower than those observed in other recent (Quaternary) tectonic areas, however, the migration rates of the graben of Puerto Vallarta were probably higher at the onset of the faulting. Here the analysis of landforms and stream long profiles were useful to elucidate one part of the evolution of the graben of Puerto Vallarta. This study emphasizes the importance of incorporating the tectonic geomorphology in future studies of the extensional zones of west-central Mexico.

  2. Occurrence of the spider crab Acanthonyx euryseroche, a seaweed associate along the central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joshi, S.A.; Savant, S.B.; Kulkarni, V.A.; Shenai-Tirodkar, P.; Emparanza, E.J.M.; Jagtap, T.G.

    , T. J. and Koteeswaran, R., Ploidy induction and sex con- trol in fish. Hydrobiologia, 1998, 384, 167–243. 11. Rao, G. R., Tripathi, S. D. and Sahu, A. K., Breeding and seed production of the Asian catfish Clarias batrachus (Lin.). Central...

  3. Diagenesis of shallowly buried cratonic sandstones, southwest Sinai, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Alaa M. K.; Abdel-Wahab, Antar; McBride, Earle F.

    1998-08-01

    In spite of their age, quartzose and feldspathic Lower Carboniferous sandstones deposited on the Arabian shield in western Sinai remain friable and porous (average of 19%, maximum of 25%) except for strongly cemented ferricretes and silcretes. These fluvial and shallow-marine sandstones were not buried more than 1.5 km until Late Cretaceous and younger time, when the deepest rocks reached 2.5 km. Owing to shallow burial depths and episodic exposure, meteoric water dominated the pore system for most of geologic time: iron oxides had multiple diagenetic stages and yield Carboniferous and Late Cretaceous paleomagnetic signatures, and oxygen isotopic data for authigenic quartz, sparry calcite, and kaolinite yield meteoric signatures. The most significant diagenetic changes were: (1) cementation by iron oxide that locally reaches 40% in groundwater ferricretes; (2) reduction in porosity to 19% from an assumed original porosity 45% (19% porosity was lost by compaction and 7% by cementation); (3) generation of diagenetic quartzarenites by the loss of 7% detrital feldspar by kaolinization and dissolution; and (4) development of three thin mature silcretes apparently by thermal groundwaters. Some outcrop samples have halite and gypsum cements of young but uncertain origin: recycled from topographically higher younger rocks or from aerosols? Mature silcretes are strongly cemented by microcrystalline quartz, multiply zoned syntaxial quartz, and, originally, minor opal. Quartz overgrowths in most sandstones average only 2.2%, but display a variety of textures and in places overprint isopachous opal (now dissolved) grain coats. These features have more in common with incipient silcrete cement than normal burial quartz cement. Most silica was imported in groundwater.

  4. Ecological Forecasting of West Nile Virus Outbreaks in a High-Risk Area of the North-Central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimberly, M. C.; Merkord, C. L.; Kightlinger, L.; Vincent, G.; Hildreth, M. B.

    2015-12-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is the most widespread and important mosquito-borne pathogen in North America. Since its emergence in the western hemisphere in 1999, human WNV disease has continued to exhibit recurrent outbreaks. Perplexingly, the incidence of this tropical disease has been highest in the cold-temperate climates of the Northern Great Plains (NGP). The spatial and temporal distributions of the vector mosquitoes and bird hosts, and consequently the risk of disease in humans, are strongly influenced by temperature, precipitation, vegetation, soils, and land use. We have utilized satellite remote sensing to map these environmental factors through time and develop models of disease risk. Outbreak years in South Dakota were preceded by warm winters, and WNV cases were most likely to occur during the hottest weeks of summer. Hot spots of persistent WNV transmission within the state were associated with rural land cover as well as patterns of physiography and climate. These models are currently being integrated into the South Dakota Mosquito Early Warning system (SDMIS), an automated WNV outbreak detection system that integrates remotely-sensed environmental indicators with vector abundance and infection data from a statewide mosquito surveillance network. The major goal of this effort is to leverage global environmental monitoring datasets to provide up-to-date, locally relevant information that can improve the effectiveness of mosquito control and disease prevention activities. This system was implemented for the first time during the summer of 2015. We will review the outcomes of this implementation, including the underlying influences of temperature on WNV risk, a preliminary statewide WNV risk map, and dynamic risk predictions made during the 2015 WNV season. Lessons learned as well as plans for future years will be discussed.

  5. Geological Studies of the Salmon River Suture Zone and Adjoining Areas, West-Central Idaho and Eastern Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntz, Mel A.; Snee, Lawrence W.

    2007-01-01

    The papers in this volume describe petrologic, structural, and geochemical studies related to geographic areas adjacent to and including the Salmon River suture zone. We therefore start this volume by defining and giving a general description of that suture zone. The western margin of the North American continent was the setting for complex terrane accretion and large-scale terrane translation during Late Cretaceous and Eocene time. In western Idaho, the boundary that separates the Paleozoic-Mesozoic accreted oceanic, island-arc rocks on the west from Precambrian continental metamorphic and sedimentary rocks on the east is called the Salmon River suture zone (SRSZ). Readers will note that the term 'Salmon River suture zone' is used in the title of this volume and in the text of several of the papers and the term 'western Idaho suture zone' is used in several other papers in this volume. Both terms refer to the same geologic feature and reflect historical usage and custom; thus no attempt has been made by the editors to impose or demand a single term by the various authors of this volume. The suture zone is marked by strong lithologic and chemical differences. Rocks adjacent to the suture zone are characterized by high-grade metamorphism and much structural deformation. In addition, the zone was the locus of emplacement of plutons ranging in composition from tonalite to monzogranite during and after the final stages of accretion of the oceanic terrane to the North American continent. The contents of this paper consists of seven chapters.

  6. Characterization of Potential Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria Isolated from Maize (Zea mays L. in Central and Northern Benin (West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadège A. Agbodjato

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Our study aims to characterize Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR isolated from maize roots in five agroecological zones of central and northern Benin. Sixty samples were collected at the rate of four samples per village and three villages per agroecological zone. Rhizobacteria strains were isolated from these samples and biochemically characterized. These strains were analyzed for some of their PGPR traits like ammonia production and hydrogen cyanide following conventional methods. Microbiological investigation of these samples has shown that maize rhizospheres in central and northern Benin contain a high diversity of microorganisms. A total of nine species of maize Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria were identified. Those PGPR include five Bacillus species (B. polymyxa, B. pantothenticus, B. anthracis, B. thuringiensis, and B. circulans, three Pseudomonas species (P. cichorii, P. putida, and P. syringae, and Serratia marcescens. The microbial diversity does not depend on the soil types. The microbial density, generally high, varies according to both soil types and agroecological zones. All Serratia strains (100% have produced ammonia, whereas 80% of Bacillus and 77.77% of Pseudomonas produced this metabolite. The hydrogen cyanide was produced by all isolates (100% independent of their genus. These results suggest the possibility to use these rhizobacteria as biological fertilizers to increase maize production.

  7. Gene diversity, agroecological structure and introgression patterns among village chicken populations across North, West and Central Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leroy Grégoire

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chickens represent an important animal genetic resource for improving farmers’ income in Africa. The present study provides a comparative analysis of the genetic diversity of village chickens across a subset of African countries. Four hundred seventy-two chickens were sampled in 23 administrative provinces across Cameroon, Benin, Ghana, Côte d’Ivoire, and Morocco. Geographical coordinates were recorded to analyze the relationships between geographic distribution and genetic diversity. Molecular characterization was performed with a set of 22 microsatellite markers. Five commercial lines, broilers and layers, were also genotyped to investigate potential gene flow. A genetic diversity analysis was conducted both within and between populations. Results High heterozygosity levels, ranging from 0.51 to 0.67, were reported for all local populations, corresponding to the values usually found in scavenging populations worldwide. Allelic richness varied from 2.04 for a commercial line to 4.84 for one population from Côte d’Ivoire. Evidence of gene flow between commercial and local populations was observed in Morocco and in Cameroon, which could be related to long-term improvement programs with the distribution of crossbred chicks. The impact of such introgressions seemed rather limited, probably because of poor adaptation of exotic birds to village conditions, and because of the consumers’ preference for local chickens. No such gene flow was observed in Benin, Ghana, and Côte d’Ivoire, where improvement programs are also less developed. The clustering approach revealed an interesting similarity between local populations found in regions sharing high levels of precipitation, from Cameroon to Côte d’Ivoire. Restricting the study to Benin, Ghana, and Côte d’Ivoire, did not result in a typical breed structure but a south-west to north-east gradient was observed. Three genetically differentiated areas (P  Conclusions

  8. Significance of zircon U-Pb ages from the Pescadero felsite, west-central California coast ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Robert J.; Moore, Diane E.; ,; Martens, UWE C.; Clark, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    Weathered felsite is associated with the late Campanian–Maastrichtian Pigeon Point Formation near Pescadero, California. Poorly exposed, its age and correlation are uncertain. Is it part of the Pigeon Point section west of the San Gregorio–Hosgri fault? Does it rest on Nacimiento block basement? Is it dextrally offset from the Oligocene Cambria Felsite, ∼185 km to the southeast? Why is a calc-alkaline hypabyssal igneous rock intrusive into the outboard accretionary prism? To address these questions, we analyzed 43 oscillatory-zoned zircon crystals from three incipiently recrystallized pumpellyite ± prehnite ± laumontite-bearing Pescadero felsite samples by sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe–reverse geometry (SHRIMP-RG) and laser ablation–inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) techniques. Thirty-three zircons gave late Mesozoic U-Pb ages, with single-grain values ranging from 81 to 167 Ma; ten have pre-Mesozoic, chiefly Proterozoic ages. A group of the four youngest Pescadero zircons yielded an apparent maximum igneous age of ca. 86–90 Ma. Reflecting broad age scatter and presence of partly digested sandstone inclusions, we interpret the rest of the zircons (perhaps all) as xenocrysts. Twenty-three zircons were separated and analyzed from two samples of the similar Cambria Felsite, yielding a unimodal 27 Ma U-Pb age. Clearly, the origin of the Upper Oligocene Cambria Felsite is different from that of the Upper Cretaceous Pescadero felsite; these rocks are not correlated, and do not constrain displacement along the San Gregorio–Hosgri fault. Peak ages differ slightly, but relative probability curves for Mesozoic and pre-Mesozoic Pescadero zircons compare well, for example, with abundant U-Pb age data for detrital zircons from Franciscan metaclastic strata ∼100 km to the east in the Diablo Range–San Francisco Bay area, San Joaquin Great Valley Group turbidites, Upper Cretaceous Nacimiento block Franciscan strata, and Upper

  9. Reconstruction of Pleistocene Paleo-Hydrology and Climate Variations in Western Asia as Recorded in Speleothems from West-Central Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehterian, S.; Pourmand, A.; Sharifi, A.; Lahijani, H. A. K.; Naderi, M.; Swart, P. K.

    2014-12-01

    Extending from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the northwest Indian Ocean and modern Iran, West Asia represents one of the most climatically dynamic regions in the northern hemisphere. The regional climate of West Asia is governed by interactions between the mid-latitude Westerlies, the Siberian Anticyclone and the Indian Ocean Summer Monsoon. In recent years, sparse records of Pleistocene climate variability have emerged from cave deposits (speleothems) in East Asia, the Arabian Peninsula and eastern Mediterranean. However, there remains a large gap in our understanding of abrupt and long-term climate variability in this region. We present for the first time δ18O data from speleothem and water samples that were collected from two cave systems in west-central Iran at similar latitudes, 60km apart: Qaleh Kord Cave (QKC, 35°47'50"N, 48°51'25"E) and Kataleh Khor Cave (KKC, 35°50'09"N, 48°09'41"E). U-Th geochronometry in two stalagmites from QKC yielded ages that range from 73,000 to 118,000 years B.P. Likewise, two stalagmites dated from KKC yielded ages 214,000-260,000 years B.P. and 300,000-500,000 years B.P. The analysis of additional speleothems from these caves should help to establish a continuous half million year multi-proxy record of δ18O variations, trace metal composition (Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca), and radiogenic Sr isotopes in these cave systems. High-resolution δ18O analyses of QKC stalagmites show patterns of variation that can be attributed to Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5a and 5b. Since both these caves sit at relatively high elevations (QKC: 2,160 masl, KKC: 1,695 masl) far from major seas (1,100km from Mediterranean Sea, 1,500km from North Indian Ocean), this record potentially reflects the synoptic interactions between the Westerlies and the Siberian Anticyclone during this time interval, as opposed to direct variations caused by sea level fluctuations. Measurements of drip water composition and modern environmental parameters (temperature, relative

  10. The research station "Vaskiny Dachi", Central Yamal, West Siberia, Russia – a review of 25 years of permafrost studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina O. Leibman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The research station "Vaskiny Dachi" on the Yamal Peninsula was established in 1988. Activities aimed at monitoring of permafrost and related environmental features under a relatively low level of nature disturbances caused by gas field development. Cryogenic processes that may affect the environment and their structures have been of primary interest. Landslides are the most common cryogenic processes in Central Yamal in general and also in the proximity of the station. Field surveys of numerous landslides, analysis of their dependence on climatic parameters and their fluctuations resulted in novel classification of cryogenic landslides based on mechanisms of their development. Dating by radiocarbon and dendrochronology allows the separation of cycles of landslide activation. Cryogenic landslides control the development of other processes, such as thermal erosion, river channel erosion and thermokarst. It also affects topography, vegetation pattern, geochemistry of vegetation, ground water and soils. As a result, permafrost parameters, specifically active layer depth and ground temperature, moisture and ice content in the active layer, depend indirectly on landsliding. Monitoring within the framework of the main programs of the International Permafrost Association, such as Circumarctic Active Layer Monitoring (CALM, since 1993 and Thermal State of Permafrost (TSP, since 2011, play an important role among the research activities. From the collected data one can conclude that ground temperature increased on average by about 1 °C since the 1990s. At the same time, active layer fluctuations do not exactly follow the air temperature changes. Spatial changes in ground temperature are controlled by the redistribution of snow which is resulting from strong winds characteristic for tundra environments and the highly dissected relief of Central Yamal. Temporal variations rather depend on air temperature fluctuations but the rate differs in various

  11. How many sutures in the southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt: Insights from East Xinjiang–West Gansu (NW China?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjiao Xiao

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available How ophiolitic mélanges can be defined as sutures is controversial with regard to accretionary orogenesis and continental growth. The Chinese Altay, East Junggar, Tianshan, and Beishan belts of the southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB in Northwest China, offer a special natural laboratory to resolve this puzzle. In the Chinese Altay, the Erqis unit consists of ophiolitic mélanges and coherent assemblages, forming a Paleozoic accretionary complex. At least two ophiolitic mélanges (Armantai, and Kelameili in East Junggar, characterized by imbricated ophiolitic mélanges, Nb-enriched basalts, adakitic rocks and volcanic rocks, belong to a Devonian–Carboniferous intra-oceanic island arc with some Paleozoic ophiolites, superimposed by Permian arc volcanism. In the Tianshan, ophiolitic mélanges like Kanggurtag, North Tianshan, and South Tianshan occur as part of some Paleozoic accretionary complexes related to amalgamation of arc terranes. In the Beishan there are also several ophiolitic mélanges, including the Hongshishan, Xingxingxia–Shibangjing, Hongliuhe–Xichangjing, and Liuyuan ophiolitic units. Most ophiolitic mélanges in the study area are characterized by ultramafic, mafic and other components, which are juxtaposed, or even emplaced as lenses and knockers in a matrix of some coherent units. The tectonic settings of various components are different, and some adjacent units in the same mélange show contrasting different tectonic settings. The formation ages of these various components are in a wide spectrum, varying from Neoproterozoic to Permian. Therefore we cannot assume that these ophiolitic mélanges always form in linear sutures as a result of the closure of specific oceans. Often the ophiolitic components formed either as the substrate of intra-oceanic arcs, or were accreted as lenses or knockers in subduction-accretion complexes. Using published age and paleogeographic constraints, we propose the presence of (1 a major

  12. How many sutures in the southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt:Insights from East XinjiangeWest Gansu (NW China)?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenjiao Xiao; Jun Luo; Chunming Han; Wei Liu; Bo Wan; Ji’en Zhang; Songjian Ao; Zhiyong Zhang; Dongfang Song; Zhonghua Tian

    2014-01-01

    How ophiolitic mélanges can be defined as sutures is controversial with regard to accretionary orogenesis and continental growth. The Chinese Altay, East Junggar, Tianshan, and Beishan belts of the southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) in Northwest China, offer a special natural laboratory to resolve this puzzle. In the Chinese Altay, the Erqis unit consists of ophiolitic mélanges and coherent assemblages, forming a Paleozoic accretionary complex. At least two ophiolitic mélanges (Armantai, and Kelameili) in East Junggar, characterized by imbricated ophiolitic mélanges, Nb-enriched basalts, adakitic rocks and volcanic rocks, belong to a DevonianeCarboniferous intra-oceanic island arc with some Paleozoic ophiolites, superimposed by Permian arc volcanism. In the Tianshan, ophiolitic mélanges like Kanggurtag, North Tianshan, and South Tianshan occur as part of some Paleozoic accretionary complexes related to amalgamation of arc terranes. In the Beishan there are also several ophiolitic mélanges, including the Hongshishan, XingxingxiaeShibangjing, HongliuheeXichangjing, and Liuyuan ophiolitic units. Most ophiolitic mélanges in the study area are characterized by ultramafic, mafic and other components, which are juxtaposed, or even emplaced as lenses and knockers in a matrix of some coherent units. The tectonic settings of various components are different, and some adjacent units in the same mélange show contrasting different tectonic settings. The formation ages of these various com-ponents are in a wide spectrum, varying from Neoproterozoic to Permian. Therefore we cannot assume that these ophiolitic mélanges always form in linear sutures as a result of the closure of specific oceans. Often the ophiolitic components formed either as the substrate of intra-oceanic arcs, or were accreted as lenses or knockers in subduction-accretion complexes. Using published age and paleogeographic con-straints, we propose the presence of (1) a major early Paleozoic

  13. Natural contamination with arsenic and other trace elements in groundwater of the Central-West region of Chaco, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanes, Patricia S; Buchhamer, Edgar E; Giménez, María C

    2011-01-01

    This study covered the central agricultural region of the Chaco province, which lacks a permanent river networks. However, during the rainy period there is localized groundwater recharge. About 84 groundwater samples were taken during the period April-December 2007. These groundwater samples were collected from two different depths: 62 samples from shallow wells (4 to 20 m) and 24 samples from deep wells (20 to 100 m). Chemical variables were determined: pH, specific conductance, total dissolved solid, hardness, alkalinity, HCO(3)-, CO(3)(2-), SO(4)(2-), Cl-, NO(3)-, NO(2) -, NH(4)+, F-, As((tot)), Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn. The chemical composition of groundwater in the study area is dominantly sodium bicarbonate and sodium chloride bicarbonate, comprising more than 60% (52/86) of shallow and deep groundwater samples. Of the 86 analyzed groundwater samples, 88% exceeded the WHO (World Health Organization) and CAA (Código Alimentario Argentino) standards (10 μg/L) for As (arsenic) and 9% exceeded the WHO standard (1.5 mg/L) for F(-).Groundwater highly contaminated with As (max. 1,073 μg/L) and F- (max. 4.2 mg/L) was found in shallow aquifer. The contaminated groundwater is characterized by high pH (max. 8.9), alkalinity (max. HCO(3)- 1,932 mg/L), SO(4)(2-) (max. 11,862 mg/L), Na(+) (max. 3,158 mg/L), Cl(-) (max. 10,493 mg/L) and electric conductivity greater than 33.3 μS/cm. Other associated elements (Ni, Pb, Cu and Zn) are present in low concentrations, except for Fe that in 32% of samples exceeded the guideline value of 0.3 mg/L suggested by the CAA.

  14. Academic Achievement and Psychosocial Profile of Egyptian Primary School Children in South Sinai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monir, Zeinab M; El-Din, Ebtissam M Salah; El-Alameey, Inas R; Yamamah, Gamal A; Megahed, Hala S; Salem, Samar M; Ibrahim, Tarek S

    2016-12-15

    Population of South Sinai has suffered from negligence for many years. Solving educational problems of this population is the main concern nowadays. To assess academic achievement in primary school children in South Sinai in relation to intelligence and psychosocial profile. A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted on 407 Bedouin and urban students randomly selected from twelve public primary schools in six cities in South Sinai. Intelligence was assessed using Goodenough-Harris test. The midyear Arabic language and Arithmetic scores were used to assess academic achievement. The teachers completed a Pediatric-Symptom Checklist for evaluation of children behaviour. A statistically significant difference in academic achievement (P gap between Bedouin and urban areas should be implemented.

  15. Human behaviors elevating the risk of exposure to Ixodes ricinus larvae and nymphs in two types of lowland coniferous forests in west-central Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierzbicka, Anna; Rączka, Grzegorz; Skorupski, Maciej; Michalik, Jerzy; Lane, Robert S

    2016-10-01

    Ixodes ricinus L. is the commonest tick encountered by humans in Central Europe and the most important vector of tick-borne diseases (TBD) in Europe. Foresters represent a group at elevated risk of exposure to I. ricinus throughout Europe. Here, we employed an experimental design similar to one used previously to determine what behavioral factors heighten exposure to questing Ixodes pacificus nymphs in a hardwood forest in the far-western United States. Five activities were evaluated systematically in a coniferous forest and a mixed broadleaved forest in west-central Poland: (i) walking in low-cut running shoes; (ii) sitting atop logs; (iii) sitting on leaf litter; (iv) sitting against tree trunks; and (v) gathering firewood. In total, 540 I. ricinus ticks were collected (198 larvae, 327 nymphs, 15 adults) in spring and late summer. Many more ticks were collected in spring than in late summer, and in the mixed broadleaved forest versus the coniferous forest. The riskiest behavior for acquiring nymphs in both spring and late summer was gathering firewood, though sitting atop logs was nearly as perilous in late summer. In contrast, the riskiest behaviors for encountering larvae in spring and late summer were sitting against trunks and sitting on leaf litter, respectively. Pairwise comparisons revealed only two significant associations among the variables explored for the nymphs: season and human gender, and season and type of forest. For larval ticks, the most significant associations were gender and sitting behaviors and for type of forest and sitting on leaf litter or against tree trunks. The most commonly infested body region was the lower legs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Age of Volcanism of the Wolverine Volcanic Center, West-Central Yukon Territory, Canada and its Implications for the History of Yukon River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, L. E.; Huscroft, C. A.; Ward, B. C.; Villeneuve, M.

    2008-12-01

    New Ar-Ar ages determined on the Wolverine Creek volcanic center (WC) establishes a middle Pliocene initiation of volcanism for the Fort Selkirk Volcanic Group (FSVG), Fort Selkirk area, west-central Yukon, Canada. WC was active between 4.34±0.06 and 2.98±0.05 Ma. Lava flows repeatedly descended Wolverine Creek valley and flowed into the Yukon River Valley (YRV) during the eruptive life of WC. The total thickness of WC lava flows in YRV decreases in a northward direction and the overall elevation of the surface of the highest flow at any point descends northward as well. Total thickness is up to 100 m in the canyon of Wolverine Creek with a surface elevation of approximately 550 m a.s.l. WC lava flows extend to the confluence of Yukon River with Pelly River 7 km north of the Wolverine Creek confluence with YRV. The lava fill has a total thickness of about 80 m at this northern limit with a surface elevation of 520 m a.s.l. The youngest flow there is dated at 3.05±0.07 Ma. The flows in this area show a general upward compositional change from basanite to alkali olivine basalt which is characteristic of WC. The thinning of the flows and decrease in elevation in a northward direction in YRV is consistent with the contemporary flow direction of Yukon River. Furthermore, the WC flows presumably extended farther down YRV (north and west) prior to erosional truncation. In contrast, lava flows are absent south (up contemporary flow of Yukon River) from the confluence of Wolverine Creek with YRV. This is consistent with the pattern of quenching that would be expected for any lava flow that enters YRV from Wolverine Creek and encounters a north-flowing Yukon River. This pattern is similar to those of lava flows from the younger Pelly and Black Creek FSVG eruptive centers immediately downstream of the Yukon River-Pelly River confluence. Similar asymmetries in lava flows that entered river canyons have been reported by others in the western Grand Canyon and for the 200 year

  17. Assessing the length of the post-disturbance recovery period for woodland caribou habitat after fire and logging in west-central Manitoba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juha M. Metsaranta

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the habitat characteristics of areas used by woodland caribou and areas disturbed by fire or logging in the Naosap caribou range in west-central Manitoba. The population inhabiting this area is currently considered to be of high conservation concern. The purpose was to determine how long after disturbance forests again resembled caribou habitat and whether there were differences in the recovery period between fire disturbed and logged areas. Sample transects were located in areas used by caribou and areas disturbed by fire or logging. Previously, it was shown that variables positively associated with habitat suitability in this region were species composition (presence of black spruce, an index of arboreal lichen abundance and tree size, while variables negatively associated with habitat suitability were deadfall abundance and species composition (presence of trembling aspen. It was hypothesized that if disturbed sites had become suitable caribou habitat, then they should be statistically indistinguishable from sites used by caribou based on these variables. Using cluster analysis, it was found that 2 statistical clusters showed the highest level of agreement with sampling clusters, with 88% of plots used by caribou classified into one cluster, and 74% of disturbed plots classified into the other. Although a small proportion (12% of disturbed plots resembled used plots, 30 years (the age of the oldest disturbed plot was not enough time, in general, for forest to return to conditions resembling caribou habitat in this region.

  18. Surficial geologic map of the Heath-Northfield-Southwick-Hampden 24-quadrangle area in the Connecticut Valley region, west-central Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Janet R.; DiGiacomo-Cohen, Mary L.

    2010-01-01

    The surficial geologic map layer shows the distribution of nonlithified earth materials at land surface in an area of 24 7.5-minute quadrangles (1,238 mi2 total) in west-central Massachusetts. Across Massachusetts, these materials range from a few feet to more than 500 ft in thickness. They overlie bedrock, which crops out in upland hills and as resistant ledges in valley areas. The geologic map differentiates surficial materials of Quaternary age on the basis of their lithologic characteristics (such as grain size and sedimentary structures), constructional geomorphic features, stratigraphic relationships, and age. Surficial materials also are known in engineering classifications as unconsolidated soils, which include coarse-grained soils, fine-grained soils, and organic fine-grained soils. Surficial materials underlie and are the parent materials of modern pedogenic soils, which have developed in them at the land surface. Surficial earth materials significantly affect human use of the land, and an accurate description of their distribution is particularly important for assessing water resources, construction aggregate resources, and earth-surface hazards, and for making land-use decisions. This work is part of a comprehensive study to produce a statewide digital map of the surficial geology at a 1:24,000-scale level of accuracy. This report includes explanatory text, quadrangle maps at 1:24,000 scale (PDF files), GIS data layers (ArcGIS shapefiles), metadata for the GIS layers, scanned topographic base maps (TIF), and a readme.txt file.

  19. A New Species of Farranula (Copepoda: Cyclopoida: Corycaeidae from the West Central Pacific, with a Key to Species of the Genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wi, Jin Hee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new species of the genus Farranula Wilson, 1942 (Cyclopoida, Corycaeidae is described based on both sexes collected off Chuuk Island in Micronesia (West Central Pacific. The new species F. dahlae differs from its close congener F. gibbula (Giesbrecht, 1891 in the following combination of characters in both sexes: body length is longer, length to width ratio of caudal rami is larger, basal element of maxilliped is distinctly longer, and terminal spine to distal segment ratio of P4 is smaller; while in females, lateral margins of fourth pedigerous somite are extended to mid-region of second urosomal somite, maximum width of the second urosomal somite is located at middle region in dorsal and lateral views, and length ratio of caudal seta III to seta V is much larger; and in males, sharply contracted portion of second somite is located at two-thirds distance from anterior margin. Some additional morphological details of F. gibbula are given and a key to species of the genus Farranula is provided.

  20. Genetics, Morphology, Advertisement Calls, and Historical Records Distinguish Six New Polyploid Species of African Clawed Frog (Xenopus, Pipidae) from West and Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Ben J; Carter, Timothy F; Greenbaum, Eli; Gvoždík, Václav; Kelley, Darcy B; McLaughlin, Patrick J; Pauwels, Olivier S G; Portik, Daniel M; Stanley, Edward L; Tinsley, Richard C; Tobias, Martha L; Blackburn, David C

    2015-01-01

    African clawed frogs, genus Xenopus, are extraordinary among vertebrates in the diversity of their polyploid species and the high number of independent polyploidization events that occurred during their diversification. Here we update current understanding of the evolutionary history of this group and describe six new species from west and central sub-Saharan Africa, including four tetraploids and two dodecaploids. We provide information on molecular variation, morphology, karyotypes, vocalizations, and estimated geographic ranges, which support the distinctiveness of these new species. We resurrect Xenopus calcaratus from synonymy of Xenopus tropicalis and refer populations from Bioko Island and coastal Cameroon (near Mt. Cameroon) to this species. To facilitate comparisons to the new species, we also provide comments on the type specimens, morphology, and distributions of X. epitropicalis, X. tropicalis, and X. fraseri. This includes significantly restricted application of the names X. fraseri and X. epitropicalis, the first of which we argue is known definitively only from type specimens and possibly one other specimen. Inferring the evolutionary histories of these new species allows refinement of species groups within Xenopus and leads to our recognition of two subgenera (Xenopus and Silurana) and three species groups within the subgenus Xenopus (amieti, laevis, and muelleri species groups).

  1. Digital geologic map and Landsat image map of parts of Loralai, Sibi, Quetta, and Khuzar Divisions, Balochistan Province, west-central Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Florian; Menga, Jan Mohammad; Khan, Shabid Hasan; Thomas, Jean-Claude

    2011-01-01

    This generalized digital geologic map of west-central Pakistan is a product of the Balochistan Coal-Basin Synthesis Study, which was part of a cooperative program of the Geological Survey of Pakistan and the United States Geological Survey. The original nondigital map was published by Maldonado and others (1998). Funding was provided by the Government of Pakistan and the United States Agency for International Development. The sources of geologic map data are primarily 1:253,440-scale geologic maps obtained from Hunting Survey Corporation (1961) and the geologic map of the Muslim Bagh Ophiolite Complex and Bagh Complex area. The geology was modified based on reconnaissance field work and photo interpretation of 1:250,000-scale Landsat Thematic Mapper photo image. The descriptions and thicknesses of map units were based on published and unpublished reports and converted to U.S. Geological Survey format. In the nomenclature of the Geological Survey of Pakistan, there is both an Urak Group and an Urak Formation.

  2. Adsorption Kinetics of CO2, CH4, and their Equimolar Mixture on Coal from the Black Warrior Basin, West-Central Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruszkiewicz, Miroslaw {Mirek} S [ORNL; Naney, Michael {Mike} T [ORNL; Blencoe, James {Jim} G [ORNL; Cole, David R [ORNL; Pashin, Jack C. [Geological Survey of Alabama; Carroll, Richard E. [Geological Survey of Alabama

    2009-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the adsorption kinetic behavior of pure and mixed gases (CO2, CH4, approximately equimolar CO2 + CH4 mixtures, and He) on a coal sample obtained from the Black Warrior Basin at the Littleton Mine (Twin Pine Coal Company), Jefferson County, west-central Alabama. The sample was from the Mary Lee coal zone of the Pottsville Formation (Lower Pennsylvanian). Experiments with three size fractions (45-150 m, 1-2 mm, and 5-10 mm) of crushed coal were performed at 40 C and 35 C over a pressure range of 1.4 6.9 MPa to simulate coalbed methane reservoir conditions in the Black Warrior Basin and provide data relevant for enhanced coalbed methane recovery operations. The following key observations were made: (1) CO2 adsorption on both dry and water-saturated coal is much more rapid than CH4 adsorption; (2) water saturation decreases the rates of CO2 and CH4 adsorption on coal surfaces, but it appears to have minimal effects on the final magnitude of CO2 or CH4 adsorption if the coal is not previously exposed to CO2; (3) retention of adsorbed CO2 on coal surfaces is significant even with extreme pressure cycling; and (4) adsorption is significantly faster for the 45-150 m size fraction compared to the two coarser fractions.

  3. Adsorption kinetics of CO2, CH4, and their equimolar mixture on coal from the Black Warrior Basin, West-Central Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruszkiewicz, M.S.; Naney, M.T.; Blencoe, J.G.; Cole, D.R.; Pashin, J.C.; Carroll, R.E.

    2009-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the adsorption kinetic behavior of pure and mixed gases (CO2, CH4, approximately equimolar CO2 + CH4 mixtures, and He) on a coal sample obtained from the Black Warrior Basin at the Littleton Mine (Twin Pine Coal Company), Jefferson County, west-central Alabama. The sample was from the Mary Lee coal zone of the Pottsville Formation (Lower Pennsylvanian). Experiments with three size fractions (45-150????m, 1-2??mm, and 5-10??mm) of crushed coal were performed at 40????C and 35????C over a pressure range of 1.4-6.9??MPa to simulate coalbed methane reservoir conditions in the Black Warrior Basin and provide data relevant for enhanced coalbed methane recovery operations. The following key observations were made: (1) CO2 adsorption on both dry and water-saturated coal is much more rapid than CH4 adsorption; (2) water saturation decreases the rates of CO2 and CH4 adsorption on coal surfaces, but it appears to have minimal effects on the final magnitude of CO2 or CH4 adsorption if the coal is not previously exposed to CO2; (3) retention of adsorbed CO2 on coal surfaces is significant even with extreme pressure cycling; and (4) adsorption is significantly faster for the 45-150????m size fraction compared to the two coarser fractions. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V.

  4. Hepatitis C as a risk factor for diabetes type 2: lack of evidence in a hospital in central-west Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luce Marina Freires Corrêa da Costa

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the importance of HCV infection as a possible risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus, a case-control study was conducted, comparing the prevalence of HCV infection among diabetic and non-diabetic patients. Diabetic outpatients attending to a University Hospital in Central-West Brazil were evaluated between April and October 2005. A control group composed by patients from the same institution was matched by gender and age. Candidates to control group were included only if fasting glucose measures were under 100 mg/dL. Diabetics and controls had blood samples taken in order to test for antibodies against HCV (anti-HCV by enzyme-immunoassay. Polymerase chain reaction and immunoblot were performed to confirm the anti-HCV status. Each group included 206 participants. Despite of the groups were in general comparable. The diabetics had a greater body mass average and smaller family income. The prevalence of confirmed anti-HCV in the diabetic group was of 1.4%, which was similar to the controls (1%. Finding statistical difference may have been hampered by the low frequency of HCV infection in both groups. It was not possible to demonstrate a role of HCV as an etiologic factor in type 2 diabetes, since HCV infected patients represented a small portion of the overall diabetes cases. This finding does not allow to recommend regular screening for HCV infection in type 2 diabetics in this region.

  5. A synthesis and review of geomorphic surfaces of the boundary zone Mt. Taylor to Lucero uplift area, West-Central New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, S.G. [NEOTEC, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1989-01-01

    The Mt. Taylor volcanic field and Lucero uplift of west-central New Mexico occur in a transitional-boundary zone between the tectonically active Basin-and Range province (Rio Grande rift) and the less tectonically active Colorado plateau. The general geomorphology and Cenozoic erosional history has been discussed primarily in terms of a qualitative, descriptive context and without the knowledge of lithospheric processes. The first discussion of geomorphic surfaces suggested that the erosional surface underlying the Mt. Taylor volcanic rocks is correlative with the Ortiz surface of the Rio Grande rift. In 1978 a study supported this hypothesis with K-Ar dates on volcanic rocks within each physiographic province. The correlation of this surface was a first step In the regional analysis of the boundary zone; however, little work has been done to verify this correlation with numerical age dates and quantitatively reconstruct the surface for neotectonic purposes. Those geomorphic surfaces inset below and younger than the ``Ortiz`` surface have been studied. This report provides a summary of this data as well as unpublished data and a conceptual framework for future studies related to the LANL ISR project.

  6. Bathymetric preference of four major genera of rectilinear benthic foraminifera within oxygen minimum zone in Arabian Sea off central west coast of India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abhijit Mazumder; Rajiv Nigam

    2014-04-01

    Fifty two surface sediment samples collected from the region off Goa, central west coast of India from water depths of 15–3300 m were analyzed with special emphasis on foraminiferal content. Rectilinear benthic foraminiferal morphogroup shows a high relative abundance within Oxygen Minimum Zone (OMZ), both shallow marine (50–60 m water depth) and intermediate to deep water (150–1500 m water depth). We gave special emphasis on four rectilinear foraminiferal genera, namely Fursenkoina, Bolivina, Bulimina and Uvigerina to observe their individual distribution among OMZ. We found genus Fursenkoina predominates at the shallow water OMZ, within the water depth zone of 50–60 m. Within 150–1500 m water depth, which is considered as intermediate to deep water OMZ in this region, genus Uvigerina shows its highest abundance above 1000 m water depth, whereas genus Bulimina shows its affinity with deeper water environment (< 1000 m water depth). Genus Bolivina does not show any such depth preference, except its higher abundance in only intermediate to deep water OMZ. This depth differentiation among four rectilinear benthic foraminiferal genera presents the basic data for palaeoclimatic study based on the extent and intensity of OMZ along with the palaeobathymetry study.

  7. Genetics, Morphology, Advertisement Calls, and Historical Records Distinguish Six New Polyploid Species of African Clawed Frog (Xenopus, Pipidae from West and Central Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben J Evans

    Full Text Available African clawed frogs, genus Xenopus, are extraordinary among vertebrates in the diversity of their polyploid species and the high number of independent polyploidization events that occurred during their diversification. Here we update current understanding of the evolutionary history of this group and describe six new species from west and central sub-Saharan Africa, including four tetraploids and two dodecaploids. We provide information on molecular variation, morphology, karyotypes, vocalizations, and estimated geographic ranges, which support the distinctiveness of these new species. We resurrect Xenopus calcaratus from synonymy of Xenopus tropicalis and refer populations from Bioko Island and coastal Cameroon (near Mt. Cameroon to this species. To facilitate comparisons to the new species, we also provide comments on the type specimens, morphology, and distributions of X. epitropicalis, X. tropicalis, and X. fraseri. This includes significantly restricted application of the names X. fraseri and X. epitropicalis, the first of which we argue is known definitively only from type specimens and possibly one other specimen. Inferring the evolutionary histories of these new species allows refinement of species groups within Xenopus and leads to our recognition of two subgenera (Xenopus and Silurana and three species groups within the subgenus Xenopus (amieti, laevis, and muelleri species groups.

  8. Periodic anoxic shelf in the Early-Middle Ordovician transition: ichnosedimentologic evidence from west-central Utah, USA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG; Yiming

    2001-01-01

    stratigraphic sections for western Utah, Utah Geological and Mineralogical Survey Bulletin, 1951, 39: 1-99.[11]Hintze, L. F.. Lower and Middle Ordovician stratigraphic sections in the Ibex area, Millard county, Utah., Brigham Young University Geology Studies, 1973, 20(4): 3-36.[12]Droser, M. L., Bottjer. D. J., Trends and patterns of Phanerozoic ichnofabrics, Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci., 1993, 21: 205-225.[13]Bromley, R. G., Ekdale, A. A., Composite ichnofabrics and tiering of burrows, Geological Magazine, 1986, 123 (1): 59- 65.[14]Goldring, R., Organisms and the substrate: response and effect, in Marine Palaeoenvironmental Analysis from Fossils (eds.Bosence. D. W. J., Allison, P. A.), Geological Society Special Publication, London, 1995, 83:151-180.[15]Bromley, R. G., Ekdale, A. A., Chondrites: a trace fossil indicator of anoxia in sediments, Science, 1984, 224: 872-874.[16]Ekdale, A. A., Bromley, R. G., Analysis of composite ichnofabrics: an example in uppermost Cretaceous chalk of Denmark, Palaios, 1991, 6: 232-249.[17]Ekdale. A. A.. Mason, T. R.. Characteristic trace fossil associations in oxygen-poor sedimentary environments, Geology, 1988. 16: 720-723.[18]Savrda, C. E., Trace fossils and bethic oxygenation, in Trace Fossils (eds. Maples, C. G., West, R. R.), Knoxville: Paleontological Society, Short Courses in Paleontology, 1992, 5: 172- 196.[19]Gong, Y. M., Li, B. H., Wang, Ch. Y. et al., Orbital cyclostratigraphy of the Devonian Frasnian-Famennian transition in South China, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 2001, 168(3-4): 237-248.[20]Hallam, A., Wignall, P. B., Mass extinctions and their aftermath, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997, 1-320.[21]Savrda, C. E., Bottjer, D. J., Trace fossil model for reconstruction of paleo-oxygenation in bottom waters, Geology, 1986,14: 3--6.[22]Savrda, C. E., Bottjer, D, J., Oxygen-related biofacies in marine strata: overview and update, in Modem and Ancient

  9. Aplicação de técnicas de processamento digital de sinais na caracterização de sinais cerebrais de bovinos

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Carolina de Sousa Silva

    2005-01-01

    A aquisição de sinais cerebrais de bovinos adultos, utilizando um equipamento de transmissão telemétrica dos dados e eletrodos de superfície, foi avaliada neste trabalho através de técnicas de processamento digital de sinais. Foram estudados a melhor disposição dos eletrodos, diferentes métodos de remoção de artefatos e as características em freqüência do sinal. A remoção de artefatos foi feita de duas maneiras: (1) uso de um filtro que substituía valores extremos do sinal por seu valor médio...

  10. Geração de sinais vectoriais baseada em FPGA

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Afonso Resende

    2008-01-01

    O trabalho aqui apresentado tem por objectivo o desenvolvimento de um gerador de sinais vectoriais baseado em FPGA, para utilização futura num sistema de modulação de portadoras ópticas. Para isso, foi estudada a ferramenta computacional Xilinx System Generator, para desenvolvimento de sistemas de processamento digital de sinal baseados em FPGA e com recurso a esta foram desenvolvidos e simulados os modelos dos geradores de sinais vectoriais pretendidos. A implementação prática dos r...

  11. Style and age of late Oligocene-early Miocene deformation in the southern Stillwater Range, west central Nevada: Paleomagnetism, geochronology, and field relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Mark R.; John, David A.; Conrad, James E.; McKee, Edwin H.

    2000-01-01

    Paleomagnetic and geochronologic data combined with geologic mapping tightly restrict the timing and character of a late Oligocene to early Miocene episode of large magnitude extension in the southern Stillwater Range and adjacent regions of west central Nevada. The southern Stillwater Range was the site of an Oligocene to early Miocene volcanic center comprising (1) 28.3 to 24.3 Ma intracaldera ash flow tuffs, lava flows, and subjacent plutons associated with three calderas, (2) 24.8 to 20.7 Ma postcaldera silicic dikes and domes, and (3) unconformably overlying 15.3 to 13.0 Ma dacite to basalt lava flows, plugs, and dikes. The caldera-related tuffs, lava flows, and plutons were tilted 60°-70° either west or east during the initial period of Cenozoic deformation that accommodated over 100% extension. Directions of remanent magnetization obtained from these extrusive and intrusive, caldera-related rocks are strongly deflected from an expected Miocene direction in senses appropriate for their tilt. A mean direction for these rocks after tilt correction, however, suggests that they were also affected by a moderate (33.4° ± 11.8°) component of counterclockwise vertical axis rotation. Paleomagnetic data indicate that the episode of large tilting occurred during emplacement of 24.8 to 20.7 Ma postcaldera dikes and domes. In detail, an apparent decrease in rotation with decreasing age of individual, isotopically dated bodies of the postcaldera group indicates that most tilting occurred between 24.4 and 24.2 Ma. The onset of tilting immediately following after the final caldera eruptions suggests that the magmatism and deformation were linked. Deformation was not driven by magma buoyancy, however, because tilting equally affected the caldera systems of different ages, including their plutonic roots. It is more likely that regional extension was focused in the southern Stillwater Range due to magmatic warming and reduction of tensile strength of the brittle crust

  12. Sulfate-reducing bacteria and their activities in cyanobacterial mats of Solar Lake (Sinai, Egypt)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teske, A.; Ramsing, NB; Habicht, K.

    1998-01-01

    The sulfate-reducing bacteria within the surface layer of the hypersaline cyanobacterial mat of Solar Lake (Sinai, Egypt) were investigated with combined microbiological, molecular, and biogeochemical approaches. The diurnally oxic surface layer contained between 10(6) and 10(7) cultivable sulfat...

  13. Transient deformations in the Suez-Sinai area from GPS observations

    CERN Document Server

    Riguzzi, F; Pietrantonio, G; Mahmoud, S M

    2005-01-01

    We analyze data from four GPS campaigns carried out between 1997 and 2002 on a network of 11 sites in the Suez-Sinai, the area of collision between the African and the Arabian plates. This is the key area to understand how and in which way Sinai behaves like a sub-plate of the African plate and the role played between seismic and geodetic (long term) deformation release. Our analysis shows that, on average, the Suez-Sinai area motion (in terms of ITRF00 velocities) matches African plate motion (NNR-NUVEL-1A model). However, the baseline length variations show transient deformations in Sinai and across the Gulf of Suez, reaching up a maximum value of about 1.5 cm in five years. Since current geodynamical models do not predict significant tectonic deformation in this area, we worked under the hypothesis that a contribute may be due to post-seismic relaxation. Under this hypothesis, we compared the baselines length variations with the post-seismic relaxation field associated with five major local earthquakes occ...

  14. Kinematics of the Suez-Sinai area from combined GPS velocity field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrantonio, G.; Devoti, R.; Mahmoud, S.; Riguzzi, F.

    2016-12-01

    A combined GPS velocity solution covering a wide area from Egypt to Middle East allowed us to infer the current rates across the main, already well known, tectonic features. We have estimated 126 velocities from time series of 90 permanent and 36 non permanent GPS sites located in Africa (Egypt), Eurasia and Arabia plates in the time span 1996-2015, the largest available for the Egyptian sites. We have combined our velocity solution in a least-squares sense with two other recent velocity solutions of networks located around the eastern Mediterranean, obtaining a final IGb08 velocity field of about 450 sites. Then, we have estimated the IGb08 Euler poles of Africa, Sinai and Arabia, analyzing the kinematics of the Sinai area, particular velocity profiles, and estimating the 2D strain rate field. We show that it is possible to reliably model the rigid motion of Sinai block only including some GPS sites located south of the Carmel Fault. The estimated relative motion with respect to Africa is of the order of 2-3 mm/yr, however there is a clear mismatch between the modeled and the observed velocities in the southern Sinai sites. We have also assessed the NNE left shear motion along the Dead Sea Transform Fault, estimating a relative motion between Arabia and Africa of about 6 mm/yr in the direction of the Red Sea opening.

  15. Prevalence of infection with Rickettsia helvetica in Ixodes ricinus ticks feeding on non-rickettsiemic rodent hosts in sylvatic habitats of west-central Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biernat, Beata; Stańczak, Joanna; Michalik, Jerzy; Sikora, Bożena; Wierzbicka, Anna

    2016-02-01

    Ixodes ricinus is the most prevalent and widely distributed tick species in European countries and plays a principal role in transmission of a wide range of microbial pathogens. It is also a main vector and reservoir of Rickettsia spp. of the spotted fever group with the infection level ranging in Poland from 1.3% to 11.4%. Nevertheless, little research has been conducted so far to identify reservoir hosts for these pathogens. A survey was undertaken to investigate the presence of Rickettsia spp. in wild small rodents and detached I. ricinus. Rodents, Apodemus flavicollis mice and Myodes glareolus voles were captured in typically sylvatic habitats of west-central Poland. Blood samples and collected ticks were analyzed by conventional, semi-nested and nested PCRs. Rickettsial species were determined by sequence analysis of obtained fragments of gltA and 16S rRNA genes. A total of 2339 immature I. ricinus (mostly larvae) were collected from 158 animals. Proportion of hosts carrying ticks was 84%, being higher for A. flavicollis than for M. glareolus. Rickettsia helvetica, the only species identified, was detected in 8% of 12 nymphs and in at least 10.7% (MIR) of 804 larvae investigated. Prevalence of infected ticks on both rodent species was comparable (10.8 vs. 9%). None of blood samples tested was positive for Rickettsia spp. The results showed that in sylvatic habitats the level of infestation with larval I. ricinus was higher in A. flavicollis mice in comparison with M. glareolus voles. They show that R. helvetica frequently occurred in ticks feeding on rodents. Positive immature ticks were collected from non-rickettsiemic hosts what might suggest a vertical route of their infection (transovarial and/or transstadial) or a very short-lasting rickettsiemia in rodents. A natural vertebrate reservoir host for R. helvetica remains to be determined.

  16. Observed internal tides and near-inertial waves on the continental shelf and slope off Jaigarh, central west coast of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subeesh, M. P.; Unnikrishnan, A. S.

    2016-05-01

    The characteristics of internal tides (ITs) and near-inertial waves (NIWs) on the continental shelf and slope off Jaigarh (17∘N), central west coast of India were studied. Eight-month (March-October) long Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) measurements made in the year 2008 were used in the present study. Analysis of sea surface heights from satellite altimeter data, where the tracks of the satellites are oriented nearly in the direction of the semimajor axis of barotropic tides, reveals the presence of diurnal and semidiurnal internal tides with surface amplitudes of about 2 cm. Baroclinic current spectra of horizontal velocities show peaks in IT frequencies of M2, S2, K1 and O1 and in inertial frequency (f). The observed current spectra show higher energies than those in Garrett-Munk reference spectra by about 2-3 times. Based on the estimates of "critical topography" (where the topographic slope is equal to the slope of IT) and computed barotropic body force (Baines, 1982), the shelf-edge, mid-slope and deep part of the slope region are found to be the possible generation sites of internal tides in the region. Over the period of observation, the IT on the slope is found to be energetic, with a strong IT during March to mid-April (pre-monsoon period). Whereas, on the shelf, IT is weak during the pre-monsoon and found to be strong in the southwest monsoon. The available hydrographic data and model simulated hydrography suggest that this difference is linked with the stratification changes on the shelf and slope during these seasons, where the stratification is found to be weak on the shelf and strong on the slope during pre-monsoon. Strong low-mode NIW is observed on the shelf associated with the storm events while the NIW is found to be less energetic on the slope.

  17. Thrust duplex deformation in the volcaniclastic sequence of the Fatima fold-and-thrust belt in the west-central Arabian Shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shafei, Mohamed K.

    2017-05-01

    In this study, we present a field-based structural analysis of the unmetamorphosed Precambrian volcaniclastic sequences of the west-central Arabian Shield. The study area is known as the Fatima fold-and-thrust belt, which is an overturned synclinorium that developed during the Neoproterozoic era. This belt is composed primarily of green mudstone, green sandstone, an andesite flow, limestone, red mudstone and pyroclastic units. This stratigraphic succession, which presents different rheological multilayers, offers significant mesoscale folding and thrust-related structures. Mechanical anisotropy and thickness contrasts have played significant roles in controlling the style of the deformation. Deformed hinge zones, a simple duplex, a domino-style duplex, and imbricated and antiformal stacks are among the thrust-related structures presented and analyzed. The domino-style duplex observed on the backlimbs of the overturned anticlines formed a unique pattern that developed during thrust propagation. The results of this study indicate that the thrust duplex developed according to a thick-skinned model, and it represents a newly recognized tectonic regime in the Arabian Shield. Comprehensive field mapping and structural analyses revealed that the zone under study area was affected by four phases of deformation (D1-D4). The D1 and D2 phases present ductile deformation that developed during the final cratonization and assembly of the Arabian Shield, and they can be recognized at both the map and outcrop scales. The D1 phase represents a progressive regime and is indicated by a NW-SE stress orientation and the formation of a series of coaxial symmetrical NE-SW-plunging folds. NNW-directed thrust-related structures progressively developed during the D2 phase. An approximately fifty-three percent tectonic shortening can be calculated based on the restored structures. D3 and D4 have a brittle nature and are indicated by shearing and normal faulting, respectively.

  18. KEBIASAAN MEMBERIKAN MAKANAN KEPADA BAYI BARU LAHIR DI PROPINSI JAWA TENGAH DAN JAWA BARAT (NEW BORN INFANT FEEDING HABIT IN CENTRAL JAVA AND WEST JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yekti Widodo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Initiation of breast milk should be given to the baby as soon as possible, not more than half hour after the baby was bora If initiate of breast milk is not early, it will be difficult to avoid introduced other food than breast milk to new bom be infant. The objective of research is to know how the community habit, especially in Central Java and West Java in order with infant feeding for new born infant The result of the research showed 77,0% respondent introduced other food to new born infant and 23% respondents initiated breast milk soon after the baby bora Two reason for mother introduced other food before they give breast milk First, as "baby food' for the new born infant (knowing as prelacteal food. Kind of this food are honey (64,2%, water-honey (11,73%, boiled water (13,5%, and milk formula (10,6%. They gave this food for prelacteal food, because breast milk not flows yet (64,8%, for the baby not hungry (14,8%, suggested by traditional birth attendance (dukun bayi, suggested by grandmother (4,7% and mother not ready yet to give breast milk (3,6%. Second, Not as 'baby food', but because the culture. Usually they give other food just once time, in the first minutes of the baby life. After that, they give breast milk. The kinds of this food are solution water coffee (19,4%, pepper (29,6%, "kurma" (3,7%, onion (21,3%, lime juice (5,6% and salt solution (18,8%, also white egg (1,9%. The reason to give that food are: to bring out dirty things from baby stomach (82,4% as the not cramp (13,9%, and religion (3,7%. Actually, the first reason suggested by traditional birth attendance as a "helping delivery package" . This always doing by the traditional birth attendance

  19. Some Aspects of the Population Biology of the Green Tiger Prawn Penaeus semisulcatus (De Haan, 1844 from Pilar and Capiz Bays, Northern Panay, West Central Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen A Villarta

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This study is a first report on the population biology of the green tiger prawn Penaeus semisulcatus (de Haan from northern Panay, west central Philippines. The study was conducted for eight months (May to December 2002 whereby total lengths of both male and female P. semisulcatus of various sizes were measured monthly from the catches of municipal trawlers operating at Pilar and Capiz Bays. Based on the Bhattacharya method, a mean growth rate of 0.78 ± 0.28 and 1.45 ± 0.39 mm/day were estimated for males and females, respectively. Using the ELEFAN I method, growth parameters derived for males were L∞ = 263 mm, k = 0.7/yr and a growth index (Ø' of 4.69. On the other hand, growth parameters derived for females were L∞ = 271 mm, k = 1.6/yr and a growth index (Ø' of 5.07.Based on length-converted catch curve analysis, the total mortality (Z of the male population is estimated to be 3.61/yr while that of the females is 5.65/yr. Male prawns showed a higher exploitation rate (0.53 compared to that of the females (0.35 indicating the susceptibility of males to fishing. This study also revealed that trawlers in Pilar and Capiz Bays are already getting small sizes of prawns, without allowing them to reach sexual maturity. Hence, there is a need to increase the present mesh size (2.5 cm of the cod end of trawls in order to avoid growth overfishing, which may occur with continued increase in fishing effort. Furthermore, the recruitment pattern showed two pulses of unequal strengths and time, dividing the year into a 7-5 month pattern. The said pattern, especially for females, may have resulted from a major and minor spawning peak of the said species during the months of June-September and January.

  20. Vegetation Control in the Long-term Self-stabilisation of the Liangzhou Oasis of the Upper Shiyang River Watershed of West-central Gansu, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourque, Charles; Hassan, Quazi

    2010-05-01

    Oases are special ecological systems that naturally oppose the encroachment of deserts by staying moist. Oases provide important habitat refugia for plants, animals, and humans alike. Oases in NW China account for only about 5% of the total land area of the region, but give shelter and feed about 95% of the area's growing population. It has been proposed by many scientists and observers of desertification in NW China that rapid economic development in the area is largely unsustainable and is occurring at the very detriment of the oases. This presentation explores the relationship between vegetation in the Liangzhou Oasis in the Upper Shiyang River Watershed (USRW) of west-central Gansu, China, and within-watershed precipitation, soil water storage, and oasis self-support. Oases along the base of the Qilian Mountains receive a significant portion of their water supply (> 90%) from surface and subsurface flow originating from the Qilian Mountains. Investigation of vegetation control on oasis-water conditions in the USRW is based on an application of a process model of soil-water hydrology. The model is used to simulate long-term soil water content in the Liangzhou Oasis as a function of (i) monthly composites of MODIS images of land surface and mean air temperature, (ii) spatiotemporal calculations of monthly precipitation and relative humidity generated with the assistance of genetic algorithms, and (iii) an 80-m resolution digital elevation model of the area. Modelled removal of vegetation is shown to affect within-watershed precipitation and soil water storage by reducing the exchange of water vapour from the land surface to the air, increasing the air's lifting condensation level by promoting drier air conditions, and causing the high-intensity precipitation band in the Qilian Mountains to weaken and to be displaced upward in the watershed, leading to an overall reduction in soil water in the Liangzhou Oasis. Feedback mechanisms of oasis self-support introduced

  1. Contribution of Nutrient-enriched Groundwater to Excessive Algal Growth along a Select Reach of the East Fork Carson River, West-Central Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, N. L.; Pahl, R. A.; Rosen, M. R.

    2016-12-01

    A study during the summers of 2010 and 2012 was conducted to determine if nutrient-enriched groundwater discharge contributed to excessive algal growth observed along a 5,800-foot reach of the East Fork Carson River in Carson Valley, west-central Nevada. Groundwater discharge to the river was determined using flow-net analysis, chloride-mass balance, and differences in measured streamflow. Water samples were collected from the river and shallow groundwater wells located in the river and along the banks for determination of nutrient concentrations and sources; algae samples were collected from the 5,800-foot river reach. Groundwater was found to be discharging to the river from both banks along a 405-foot sub-reach in the middle of the 5,800-foot study reach. High nitrate concentrations (2-3 milligrams per liter as nitrogen) were found in the groundwater along the right bank of the sub-reach. Within this sub-reach, river nitrate loads ranged from 1.3 to 7.9 pounds of nitrogen (N) per day; groundwater nitrate loads were estimated to be 0.07 pounds of N per day. Dissolved orthophosphate river loads ranged from 0.12 to 0.20 pounds of phosphorus (P) per day; groundwater orthophosphate loads were estimated to be 0.005 pounds of P per day. This sub-reach had the highest average algal biomass within the study reach. The data suggest that nutrient rich groundwater discharging to the river may create a favorable microenvironment for periphyton that assimilate available nutrients before the groundwater mixes with overlying river water. The source of nitrate in groundwater is likely anthropogenic as groundwater nitrate concentrations above background concentrations were only found along the right bank of the river adjacent to a housing development. Organic-wastewater compounds detected in groundwater samples collected from wells along the right bank within this sub-reach offer independent support that the elevated nitrate concentrations were human-derived.

  2. Sediment Transport Processes in a West-central Florida Open Marine Marsh Tidal Creek; the Role of Tides and Extra-tropical Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Lynn A.; Hine, Albert C.; Luther, Mark E.; Stumpf, Richard P.; Wright, Eric E.

    1995-08-01

    . This study identifies the important processes controlling suspended solid transport in the broad expanses of Juncus roemerianusdominated marsh adjacent to the large arcuate embayments prevalent along the west-central Florida marsh coast as described by Hine and Belknap (1988). The processes exerting control over sediment transport in the Cedar Creek drainage basin are similar to those documented in other marsh systems.

  3. Epidemiology of HIV among female sex workers, their clients, men who have sex with men and people who inject drugs in West and Central Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Papworth

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The West and Central Africa (WCA sub-region is the most populous region of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA, with an estimated population of 356 million living in 24 countries. The HIV epidemic in WCA appears to have distinct dynamics compared to the rest of SSA, being more concentrated among key populations such as female sex workers (FSWs, men who have sex with men (MSM, people who inject drugs (PWID and clients of FSWs. To explore the epidemiology of HIV in the region, a systematic review of HIV literature among key populations in WCA was conducted since the onset of the HIV epidemic. Methods: We searched the databases PubMed, CINAHL and others for peer-reviewed articles regarding FSWs, MSM and PWID in 24 countries with no date restriction. Inclusion criteria were sensitive and focused on inclusion of any HIV prevalence data among key populations. HIV prevalence was pooled, and in each country key themes were extracted from the literature. Results: The search generated 885 titles, 214 abstracts and 122 full articles, of which 76 met inclusion and exclusion criteria providing HIV prevalence data. There were 60 articles characterizing the burden of disease among FSWs, eight for their clients, one for both, six for MSM and one for PWID. The pooled HIV prevalence among FSWs was 34.9% (n=14,388/41,270, among their clients was 7.3% (n=435/5986, among MSM was 17.7% (n=656/3714 and among PWID from one study in Nigeria was 3.8% (n=56/1459. Conclusions: The disproportionate burden of HIV among FSWs appears to be consistent from the beginning of the HIV epidemic in WCA. While there are less data for other key populations such as clients of FSWs and MSM, the prevalence of HIV is higher among these men compared to other men in the region. There have been sporadic reports among PWID, but limited research on the burden of HIV among these men and women. These data affirm that the HIV epidemic in WCA appears to be far more concentrated among key

  4. Rock magnetic and other geophysical signatures of relative sea level change in the Middle Cambrian Wheeler Formation, Drum Mountains, West-Central Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halgedahl, S. L.; Jarrard, R. D.

    2011-12-01

    The Wheeler Formation of West-Central Utah is a succession of mixed carbonate-siliciclastic rocks deposited during the Middle Cambrian along a passive continental margin of Laurentia (western margin, in today's coordinates). The depositional setting was a gentle ramp, bounded by a normal fault on the south. The present study focuses on the Wheeler Formation in the Drum Mountains, Utah, which is thought to have recorded Middle Cambrian sea level changes and which is known to yield exceptionally-preserved fossils with soft parts, similar to the famed Burgess shale. An integrated approach has been used here to investigate the following: (1) high-resolution changes in water depth (sea level changes?) with stratigraphic position; (2) where exceptionally preserved fossils are most likely to occur; and (3) mineralogical indicators of sea level change, such as magnetic susceptibility and other rock magnetic properties. Rocks consist of limestones, argillaceous limestones, and finely-bedded mudstones (shales). Methods used here are: measurements of magnetic susceptibility, natural remanent magnetization, and viscous remanent magnetization; hysteresis loops; spectral gamma ray; coulometry to determine calcite content; X-ray diffraction; and field mapping. In these rocks, mineralogical analyses indicate primarily a 2-component system of calcite and terrigenous minerals, mainly illite. Magnetic susceptibility, gamma ray, and coulometry results strongly indicate that magnetic susceptibility stems primarily from the paramagnetic clay component, namely, illite. Thus, both magnetic susceptibility and gamma ray increase linearly with decreasing calcite content throughout the section studied. Deep-water shales yield very high values of gamma ray and magnetic susceptibility; by contrast, carbonates with low gamma ray and low magnetic susceptibilities were deposited in relatively shallow water. These results lead to the following conclusions: (1) changes in relative water depth have

  5. Lateglacial and Early Holocene vegetation history of the northern Wetterau and the Amöneburger Basin (Hessen), central-west Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, J A.A.

    2001-06-01

    The Lateglacial and Early Holocene vegetation history of the northern Wetterau and Amöneburger Basin, two intra-montane basins in Hessen, central-west Germany, is reconstructed by means of pollen and macrofossil analyses. Regional pollen assemblage zones are defined for the Lateglacial and Early Holocene. After calibration of the radiocarbon dates and establishment of age/depth relationships, the ages of the pollen zone boundaries are calculated. The regional vegetation changes correlate closely with the major fluctuations in the delta18O curve of the Greenland ice cores spanning the same time period. During the early Lateglacial, the open herbaceous vegetation with dwarf shrubs in the northern Wetterau was replaced by woodlands. Initially these woodlands consisted of birch, but after the immigration of pine, mixed forests of pine and birch developed. Soon after its immigration pine became dominant and pine woodlands largely replaced the birch forests. Only on the locally wetter substrates of the river floodplain did Betula stands persist. Gradually the importance of herbaceous communities declined and the pine woodlands lost their open character. During the Lateglacial two regressive phases in the vegetation succession are reflected in the data which are equated with the Older- and Younger Dryas biozones. At the beginning of the Younger Dryas, the forest-limit was lowered and the importance of herbaceous communities increased. Later, pine woodlands thinned and Ericales became part of the vegetation, indicating the development of more acid, nutrient-poor soils. A subdivision of the Younger Dryas biozone into a wetter, colder first part and a drier, warmer second part is suggested. At the beginning of the Early Holocene, pine woodlands became more closed and soils more stabilised. The transition between the Younger Dryas and Preboreal biozones is indicated by a lithological change to organic (-rich) deposits. Betula stands persisted on the locally wetter substrates

  6. A Geochemical Mass-Balance Method for Base-Flow Separation, Upper Hillsborough River Watershed, West-Central Florida, 2003-2005 and 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kish, G.R.; Stringer, C.E.; Stewart, M.T.; Rains, M.C.; Torres, A.E.

    2010-01-01

    Geochemical mass-balance (GMB) and conductivity mass-balance (CMB) methods for hydrograph separation were used to determine the contribution of base flow to total stormflow at two sites in the upper Hillsborough River watershed in west-central Florida from 2003-2005 and at one site in 2009. The chemical and isotopic composition of streamflow and precipitation was measured during selected local and frontal low- and high-intensity storm events and compared to the geochemical and isotopic composition of groundwater. Input for the GMB method included cation, anion, and stable isotope concentrations of surface water and groundwater, whereas input for the CMB method included continuous or point-sample measurement of specific conductance. The surface water is a calcium-bicarbonate type water, which closely resembles groundwater geochemically, indicating that much of the surface water in the upper Hillsborough River basin is derived from local groundwater discharge. This discharge into the Hillsborough River at State Road 39 and at Hillsborough River State Park becomes diluted by precipitation and runoff during the wet season, but retains the calcium-bicarbonate characteristics of Upper Floridan aquifer water. Field conditions limited the application of the GMB method to low-intensity storms but the CMB method was applied to both low-intensity and high-intensity storms. The average contribution of base flow to total discharge for all storms ranged from 31 to 100 percent, whereas the contribution of base flow to total discharge during peak discharge periods ranged from less than 10 percent to 100 percent. Although calcium, magnesium, and silica were consistent markers of Upper Floridan aquifer chemistry, their use in calculating base flow by the GMB method was limited because the frequency of point data collected in this study was not sufficient to capture the complete hydrograph from pre-event base-flow to post-event base-flow concentrations. In this study, pre-event water

  7. Short-Time Effects on Eigenstate Structure in Sinai Billiards and Related Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kaplan, L

    1999-01-01

    There is much latitude between the requirements of Schnirelman's theorem regarding the ergodicity of individual high-energy eigenstates of classically chaotic systems on the one hand, and the extreme requirements of random matrix theory on the other. It seems likely that some eigenstate statistics and long-time transport behavior bear nonrandom imprints of the underlying classical dynamics while simultaneously obeying Schnirelman's theorem. Indeed this was shown earlier in the case of systems which approach classical ergodicity slowly, and is also realized in the scarring of eigenstates, even in the $\\hbar \\to 0$ limit, along unstable periodic orbits and their manifolds. Here we demonstrate the nonrandom character of eigenstates of Sinai-like systems. We show that mixing between channels in Sinai systems is dramatically deficient compared to random matrix theory predictions. The deficit {\\it increases} as $|\\log \\hbar|$ for $\\hbar\\to 0$, and is due to the vicinity of the measure zero set of orbits which never...

  8. How many Babinski's signs are there? Quantos sinais de Babinski existem?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio T Kakitani

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In addition to the famous sign described by Joseph Babinski, which is also known as Babinski's reflex, there are references in the literature to various other signs described by this famous disciple of J-M Charcot. This article reviews all the neurological signs described by Babinski.Além do famoso sinal descrito por Joseph Babinski, também definido como reflexo de Babinski, existem referências na literatura mundial de vários outros sinais descritos pelo famoso discípulo de J-M Charcot. Este artigo apresenta uma revisão de todos os sinais neurológicos descritos pelo professor Babinski.

  9. Naked eye determination of the dawn for Sinai and Assiut of Egypt

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    A.H. Hassan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Twilight observations were carried out by naked eye in the period (2010–2012 for north Sinai (Lat. 31°4′N, Long. 32°52′E where the background is desert, and for Assiut (Lat. 27°10′N, Long. 31°10′E in the period (2012–2014 where the background is agricultural land. The purpose of these observations is to calculate the depression of the sun below the horizon at which the normal eye can discriminate the dawn (morning white thread for two sites. The results indicated that this discrimination takes place at vertical sun depression angles, Do = 14.61° and 13.665° at Sinai and Assiut respectively.

  10. Lyapunov Exponents and Kolmogorov-Sinai Entropy for the Lorentz Gas at Low Densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beijeren, Henk; Dorfman, J. R.

    1995-05-01

    The Lyapunov exponents and the Kolmogorov-Sinai (KS) entropy for a two-dimensional Lorentz gas at low densities are defined for general nonequilibrium states and calculated with the use of a Lorentz-Boltzmann type equation. In equilibrium the density dependence of these quantities, predicted by Krylov, is recovered and explicit expressions are obtained. The relationship between KS entropy, Lyapunov exponents, and diffusion coefficients, developed by Gaspard and Nicolis, is generalized to a wide class of nonequilibrium states.

  11. Effect of Sinai San decoction on the development of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Zhang; Yan Zhao; Deng-Ben Zhang; Li-Jun Sun

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To explore the effect of Sinai san decoction on the development of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis induced by CCL4 combined with a fat-rich diet in rats.METHODS: Twenty-seven Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups randomly: control group (n = 9),model group (n = 9) and treatment group (n = 9). The rats of model group and treatment group were given small dosage of CCL4 combined with a fat-rich diet, andthose of control group were given normal diet. After four weeks of fat-rich diet feeding, the rats of treatment group were given Sinai san decoction. The serum levels of aminotransferase and lipid were measured, and the pathology of livers was observed by HE staining after the rats were sacrificed at eight weeks.RESULTS: The rats' livers presented the pathology of steatosis and inflammation with higher serum levels of ALT and AST in the model group. In the treatment group the serum ALT and AST levels decreased significantly and were close to the control group. The hepatic inflammation scores also decreased markedly, but were still higher than those of control group. And the degree of hepatocyte steatosis was similar to that of model group.CONCLUSION: Sinai san decoction may ameliorate the hepatic inflammation of rats with steatohepatitis induced by small dosage of CCL4 combined with a fat-rich diet,but does not prevent the development of hepatocyte steatosis.

  12. Dynamics and thermalization of a Bose-Einstein condensate in a Sinai-oscillator trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermann, Leonardo; Vergini, Eduardo; Shepelyansky, Dima L.

    2016-07-01

    We study numerically the evolution of Bose-Einstein condensate in the Sinai-oscillator trap described by the Gross-Pitaevskii equation in two dimensions. In the absence of interactions, this trap mimics the properties of Sinai billiards where the classical dynamics is chaotic and the quantum evolution is described by generic properties of quantum chaos and random matrix theory. We show that, above a certain border, the nonlinear interactions between atoms lead to the emergence of dynamical thermalization which generates the statistical Bose-Einstein distribution over eigenmodes of the system without interactions. Below the thermalization border, the evolution remains quasi-integrable. Such a Sinai-oscillator trap, formed by the oscillator potential and a repulsive disk located in the vicinity of the center, had been already realized in first experiments with the Bose-Einstein condensate formation by Ketterle group in 1995 and we argue that it can form a convenient test bed for experimental investigations of dynamical of thermalization. Possible links and implications for Kolmogorov turbulence in absence of noise are also discussed.

  13. Environmental factors underlying spatial patterns of sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) associated with leishmaniasis in southern Sinai, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Hala A; Siri, Jose; Kamal, Hany A; Wilson, Mark L

    2012-07-01

    Although Leishmania major is endemic in parts of the Sinai of Egypt, the ecology and distribution of Leishmania sand fly vectors in southern Sinai has not been well characterized. Accordingly, additional sand fly samples were obtained at 41 sites in the southern Sinai region during 1996-1997, and analyzed to improve the characterization of risk of sand fly-borne pathogens. Using a Geographic Information System (GIS), species-specific spatial distributions that might suggest zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) risk areas were determined in relation to contextual environmental factors, including geology, hydrogeology, climate variables and elevation. Southern Sinai was characterized by a diverse sand fly fauna (eight Phlebotomus species), probably attributable to highly variable landscape and environmental factors. Phlebotomus alexandri, Phlebotomus kazeruni and Phlebotomus sergenti were widespread and abundant, Phlebotomus papatasi and Phlebotomus bergeroti were less frequent, and Phlebotomus arabicus, Phlebotomus major and Phlebotomus orientalis had highly restricted distributions. Logistic regression models indicated that elevation and climatic conditions were limiting determinants for the distributions of sand flies in southern Sinai. Based on the predicted distribution of P. papatasi, a recognized vector of L. major, about one-quarter of southern Sinai may be at high risk of ZCL. Risk areas for the suspected ZCL vector P. bergeroti had a more patchy distribution. Results suggest that future studies should include other factors related to vector abundance, vector competence, human population, and parasite and reservoir host(s) to produce more comprehensive ZCL transmission risk maps, thus helping in planning effective prevention and control strategies.

  14. Precipitation and runoff simulations of select perennial and ephemeral watersheds in the middle Carson River basin, Eagle, Dayton, and Churchill Valleys, west-central Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeton, Anne E.; Maurer, Douglas K.

    2011-01-01

    The effect that land use may have on streamflow in the Carson River, and ultimately its impact on downstream users can be evaluated by simulating precipitation-runoff processes and estimating groundwater inflow in the middle Carson River in west-central Nevada. To address these concerns, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation, began a study in 2008 to evaluate groundwater flow in the Carson River basin extending from Eagle Valley to Churchill Valley, called the middle Carson River basin in this report. This report documents the development and calibration of 12 watershed models and presents model results and the estimated mean annual water budgets for the modeled watersheds. This part of the larger middle Carson River study will provide estimates of runoff tributary to the Carson River and the potential for groundwater inflow (defined here as that component of recharge derived from percolation of excess water from the soil zone to the groundwater reservoir). The model used for the study was the U.S. Geological Survey's Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System, a physically based, distributed-parameter model designed to simulate precipitation and snowmelt runoff as well as snowpack accumulation and snowmelt processes. Models were developed for 2 perennial watersheds in Eagle Valley having gaged daily mean runoff, Ash Canyon Creek and Clear Creek, and for 10 ephemeral watersheds in the Dayton Valley and Churchill Valley hydrologic areas. Model calibration was constrained by daily mean runoff for the 2 perennial watersheds and for the 10 ephemeral watersheds by limited indirect runoff estimates and by mean annual runoff estimates derived from empirical methods. The models were further constrained by limited climate data adjusted for altitude differences using annual precipitation volumes estimated in a previous study. The calibration periods were water years 1980-2007 for Ash Canyon Creek, and water years 1991-2007 for Clear Creek. To

  15. Surgical pathology in the 20th century at the Mount Sinai Hospital, New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Stephen A

    2008-08-01

    How did the education of surgical pathology, and pathology in general, differ at Mount Sinai? Passing the examination of the American Board of Pathology was never the focus of the department. Learning criteria or quoting references was de-emphasized, but mastery of macroscopic pathology was required, supported in both word and action by two brilliant surgical pathologists, Otani and Kaneko, and by two extraordinary medical pathologists, Klemperer and Popper. Meticulous microscopy emphasized pattern rather than reliance on lists of discrete features. Otani developed a regular "problem case" meeting for a community of pathologists, made up of alumni and other interested pathologists, as well as active department members. These monthly sessions provided the highest level of "continuing medical education." Otani and Kaneko unequivocally believed in learning from cases, and Mount Sinai residents were fortunate both in the one-to-one teaching and in the wealth of material, in all systems, that came to surgical pathology. Outstanding pathologists who came from Mount Sinai settled throughout the country and provided the highest level of diagnoses, but, with the exception of Bernard Wagner, Emanuel Rubin, Fiorenzo Paronetto, Richard Horowitz, Michael Gerber, Marc Rosenblum, Bruce Wenig, Jaishree Jagirdar, Swan Thung, Cesar Moran, Hideko Kamino, Philip LeBoit, Alberto Marchevsky, and others, there were relatively few academic leaders. Otani and Kaneko did not have national reputations. Klemperer, although world renowned, was relatively unassuming, and his disciples numbered almost as many nonpathologists as pathologists. Popper did establish a major center for liver pathology, with students coming from around the world, but did not particularly promote general surgical pathology. Can the Mount Sinai approach still be applied? The decline in the numbers of autopsies performed, the demands for rapid turnaround time, the de-emphasis of gross pathology as newer technologies (eg

  16. Effect of land-use types on soil enzymatic activities and chemical properties in semi-deciduous forest areas of Central-West Côte d'Ivoire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonnety, JT.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Enzymatic activities play a key role in the biochemical functioning of soils. As a consequence, they have been proposed as indicators of soil quality. This study was conducted at the Oumé benchmark site (Central-West, Côte d'Ivoire, and aimed at measuring the enzymatic activities involved in the phosphorus (acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase, nitrogen (N-acetyl-β-D glucosaminidase and carbon (β-glucosidase and N-acetyl-β-D glucosaminidase cycles. Soil from four main agro-ecological units (a secondary forest, a 20 year-old cocoa plantation, a 2 year-old Chromolaena odorata-based fallow and a continuous maize crop, representative of land-use systems in the area, were sampled for the measurement of enzymatic activities and chemical characteristics. Results showed that the enzymatic activity values were the highest in the fallow soil, whereas the maize crop displayed the lowest levels of enzymatic activity in soil. Moreover, soil from C. odorata fallow displayed the highest values of C, N, exchangeable bases (Mg2+, K+ contents, and CEC, and the lowest C:N ratio, which are characteristics of good quality soil. A Principal Component Analysis revealed a marked relationship between C, N and enzymatic activity levels, showing that these enzymes are suitable for monitoring soil quality in semi-deciduous forest areas in Central-West Côte d'Ivoire.

  17. Mapping potential landfill sites for North Sinai cities using spatial multicriteria evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala A. Effat

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The exponential rise in the urban population of the developing countries during the past decades accelerated the urbanization phenomenon and the great need for solid waste management. This fact brought awareness of the necessity to develop efficient solid waste management systems in land use planning. Due to insufficient funds, poor planning and growing needs for solid waste management systems, many Egyptian cities dispose their solid wastes in open sites. In Sinai Peninsula, cities are located either on the coastal zones or in deserts. Motivated by the Government objective in developing the cities of Sinai, this paper tries to participate in finding a solution using a spatial multi-criteria decision support system for locating potential landfill sites for North Sinai cities. Criteria concerning three themes were combined to produce three scenarios. Environmental theme related to soil characteristics; permeability and groundwater as well as vulnerable land cover units, faults and streams. Economic theme includes slope, road network, and power lines. Social theme includes distance from airports, archaeology sites and land aspect. Prioritizing the weight of a specific theme or giving an equal weight to the three themes produced different scenarios. A suitability index map was produced for each case. Comparing the three suitability indexes; zones with the highest values were selected resulting in a set of candidate sites for each city in the investigated region. According to the characteristic of a location, a scenario could be preferred. More than an option resulted and are available to the decision makers according to their strategies and objectives.

  18. Development of 13 Microsatellite Markers in the Endangered Sinai Primrose (Primula boveana, Primulaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Mansour

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: We developed microsatellite markers for the endangered plant Primula boveana, the Sinai primrose, and assessed the cross-transferability of these markers to six related taxa. Methods and Results: DNA sequences containing microsatellites were isolated from a microsatellite-enriched library. We obtained successful amplification of 13 microsatellite primer pairs, seven of which were polymorphic in P. boveana. Eleven of these primers successfully cross-amplified to related taxa. Conclusions: The markers reported herein will be useful to characterize the genetic diversity of the endangered P. boveana and to evaluate its mating system, and have the potential to be useful for similar studies in close relatives.

  19. On the decay of correlations in Sinai billiards with infinite horizon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlqvist, Per; Artuso, Roberto

    1996-02-01

    We compute the decay of the autocorrelation function of the observable | vx| in the Sinai billiard and of the observable vx in the associated Lorentz gas with an approximation due to Baladi, Eckmann and Ruelle. We consider the standard configuration where the disk is centered inside a unit square. The asymptotic decay is found to be C( t) ∼ c( R)/ t. An explicit expression is given for the prefactor c( R) as a function of the radius of the scatterer. For the small scatterer case we also present expressions for the preasymptotic regime. Our findings are supported by numerical computations.

  20. On the decay of correlations in Sinai billiards with infinite horizon

    OpenAIRE

    Dahlqvist, Per; Artuso, Roberto

    1996-01-01

    We compute the decay of the autocorrelation function of the observable $|v_x|$ in the Sinai billiard and of the observable $v_x$ in the associated Lorentz gas with an approximation due to Baladi, Eckmann and Ruelle. We consider the standard configuration where the disks is centered inside a unit square. The asymptotic decay is found to be $C(t) \\sim c(R)/t$. An explicit expression is given for the prefactor $c(R)$ as a function of the radius of the scatterer. For the small scatterer case we a...

  1. Understanding Patient Experience Using Internet-based Email Surveys: A Feasibility Study at Mount Sinai Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Matthew; Lau, Davina; Jivraj, Tanaz; Principi, Tania; Dietrich, Sandra; Bell, Chaim M

    2015-01-01

    Email is becoming a widely accepted communication tool in healthcare settings. This study sought to test the feasibility of Internet-based email surveys of patient experience in the ambulatory setting. We conducted a study of email Internet-based surveys sent to patients in selected ambulatory clinics at Mount Sinai Hospital in Toronto, Canada. Our findings suggest that email links to Internet surveys are a feasible, timely and efficient method to solicit patient feedback about their experience. Further research is required to optimally leverage Internet-based email surveys as a tool to better understand the patient experience.

  2. Anomalous Fluctuations of Currents in Sinai-Type Random Chains with Strongly Correlated Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshanin, Gleb; Rosso, Alberto; Schehr, Grégory

    2013-03-01

    We study properties of a random walk in a generalized Sinai model, in which a quenched random potential is a trajectory of a fractional Brownian motion with arbitrary Hurst parameter H, 0segment of length L of such a chain decay as L-(1-H), independently of k, which suggests that despite a logarithmic confinement the average current is much higher than its Fickian counterpart in homogeneous systems. Our results reveal a paradoxical behavior such that, for fixed n and L, the mean-square displacement decreases when one varies H from 0 to 1, while the average current increases. This counterintuitive behavior is explained via an analysis of representative realizations of disorder.

  3. Psammomys obesus Cretzschmar, 1828 and zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in Sinai Peninsula, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsy, T A; Sabry, A H; Rifaat, M M; Wahba, M M

    1996-08-01

    In the Middle East, the fat sand rat Psammomys obesus is the most important reservoir host of zoonotic cutaneous leishmamiasis (ZCL). It is the most incriminated host in outbreaks. Two P. obesus caught in Wadi El Gedeiret (Al Arish, North Sinai) were found naturally infected with Leishmania major as indicated by enzyme electrophoresis. In Egypt, the already known reservoir hosts are Gerbillus pyramidum I. Geoffroy St. Hilaire, 1825; Meriones crassus Sundevall, 1984 and Meriones sacramenti Thomas, 1922. The hostal role of P. obesus was discussed.

  4. Negative Magnetic Anomalies Observed in the Central West Antarctica (CWA) Aerogeophysical Survey Over the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS), Whose Sources are Volcanic Centers (e.g. Mt Resnik) at the Base of the ice >780 Ka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrendt, J. C.; Finn, C. A.; Morse, D. L.; Blankenship, D. D.

    2005-12-01

    Analysis of a block of coincident aeromagnetic and radar ice-sounding data (from the CWA aerogeophysical survey) over the WAIS reveals ~1000 50->1000-nT, shallow -source, ``volcanic" magnetic anomalies, interpreted as caused by late Cenozoic alkaline magmatism associated with the West Antarctic rift system (WR). About 400 of these anomalies (conservatively selected) have topographic expression at the bed of the WAIS; >80% of these topographic features have Resnik, marked by a complex negative anomaly, is a conical peak 300 m below the surface of the WAIS, and has ~2 km topographic relief. We interpret a magnetic model fit to this anomaly as comprising reversely magnetized (in the present field direction), 0.5-2.5-km thick volcanic flows at the summit overlying normally magnetized flows. Published models (1996) reported for the Hut Point anomaly, at Ross Island, Antarctica, a similar anomaly to Mt. Resnik, also required both normal and reversed magnetizations correlated with drill holes into dated volcanic flows (also part of the late Cenozoic WR) crossing the Brunhes-Matuyama boundary (780 Ka). Because of their form similar to exposed volcanoes in the WAIS area with edifices primarily comprising subaerially-erupted, very magnetic volcanic flows, which have resisted glacial erosion, Behrendt et al. (2004) interpreted that these 18 high-topograpy, high-relief sources are subglacial volcanoes (including the five >780 Ka) erupted subaerially during a period when the WAIS was absent.

  5. Gastrointestinal nematode community of spiny mice (Acomys dimidiatus) from St. Katherine, South Sinai, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Maha F M; Ibrahim, Mohamed M; Zalat, Samy M

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this work was to study gastrointestinal nematode community infecting Acomys dimidiatus in different wadis of St. Katherine, South Sinai, Egypt. Fieldwork was conducted in three Wadis over a 4 weeks period during April-May, 2003 in St. Katherine, South Sinai, Egypt. Faecal samples from 47 spiny mice were analysed for gastrointestinal nematode community. The nematodes community consisted of four genera Dentostomella spp., Syphacia spp., Aspicularis spp. and Spirurids species. The overall prevalence of infection was 55.3 %. A significant difference in prevalence was found per wadis. Wadi Toffaha showed the highest diversity when compared to other Wadis. Mean species richness was higher in Wadi Tlah (0.87) when compared to other Wadis. Syphacia spp. was frequently found coexisting with other nematodes. A significant interaction was found between both site and co-infection for Aspicularis spp. The spatial stability of nematode community was discussed compared to other related studies. In terms of similarity, the nematode community from Wadi Toffaha was closest to Wadi Tlah. In conclusion, this study showed that there is spatial variation in the distribution of nematode community. Possible factors affecting the stability of parasite community were discussed and further studies are needed.

  6. Prevalence of Visual Impairment and Refractive Errors in Children of South Sinai, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamah, Gamal Abdel Naser; Talaat Abdel Alim, Ahmed Ahmed; Mostafa, Yehia Salah El Din; Ahmed, Rania Ahmed Abdel Salam; Mohammed, Asmaa Mahmoud; Mahmoud, Asmaa Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    To assess the prevalence and causes of visual impairment in children of South Sinai, and to evaluate outcomes of rehabilitation programs. Population-based, cross-sectional analysis of 2070 healthy school children screened for visual impairment from 2009 through 2010 in cities of South Sinai and their surrounding Bedouin settlements. Visual acuity (VA) was tested using Snellen charts followed by cycloplegic autorefractometry for cases with presenting VA ≤ 6/9. Appropriate eyeglasses were prescribed and VA re-evaluated. This study included 1047 boys and 1023 girls, mean age 10.7 ± 3.1 years. Visual impairment (uncorrected VA ≤ 6/9) was detected in 29.4% of children, while 2.0% had moderate-severe visual impairment (uncorrected VA ≤ 6/24). There were statistically significant differences in prevalence of visual impairment between the studied cities (p visual impairment was significantly higher among girls (p visual impairment. Only age was a reliable predictor of visual impairment (odds ratio 0.94, p visual impairment, 90.32% of which comprised refractive errors (mainly astigmatism) which were significantly corrected with eyeglasses. VA screening and correction of refractive errors are of the utmost importance for ensuring better visual outcomes and improved school performance.

  7. Natural and experimental evidence of viscerotropic infection caused by Leishmania tropica from North Sinai, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doha, Said A; Shehata, Magdi G; Fahmy, Adel R; Samy, Abdallah M

    2014-08-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a neglected clinical form that is quite prevalent in Eastern North parts of the country in Sinai Peninsula. Leishmania tropica was identified by previous reports as the causative agent responsible for viscerotropic infections in-patients and experimental animals. Here, we reported the viscerotropic infections from naturally infected rodent Gerbillus pyramidum floweri collected from North-Sinai. Footpad and tail lesions, spleenomegaly, and malformed dark-colored spleen were the characteristic CL symptoms. The spleen of the rodent found positive to amastigote impression smear. ITS-1 DNA was sequenced and revealed 100% identity of the strain in the current study to the other L. tropica sequences identified from the patients with the suspected CL and inhabited the same study area. The current findings confirmed the susceptibility of gerbil to L. tropica, and raise the concerns for the role of rodents as accidental host suffering the infections. The susceptibility of wild and experimental rodents to the same L. tropica strain was also investigated; BALB/c and G. pyramidum were more susceptible to L. tropica (24.33 ± 4.37 and 25 ± 4.58 days post-infection, respectively). Similar viscerotropic pathologies were reported in experimental infection of only golden hamster (≈ 120 days post-infection), and G. p. floweri (≈ 160 days post-infection).

  8. Holocene evolution of Dahab coastline - Gulf of Aqaba, Sinai Peninsula, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdy, Torab

    2016-04-01

    Dahab was a little Bedouin-village in Sinai Peninsula at the mid-western coast of Gulf of Aqaba approx. 90 km north of Sharm-el-Sheikh City and it means "gold" in Arabic language. But in the past 20 years ago it becomes one of the most tourist sites in Egypt. The basement complex is composed mostly of biotiteaplite-granite, mica-aplitegranite, granodiorite, quartzdiorite, alaskite, and diorite. Based on correlation with similar igneous in the most southern part of Sinai and the Red Sea area. Wadi Dahab composed of igneous and metamorphic rocks and the coastline is formed of the fragments of its rocks, mixed with fragments of coral reef and fluvial deposits of Wadi Dahab. The morphology of Dahab coastline is characterized by hooked marine spit, which composed of fluvial sediments carried by marine current from wadi Dahab mouth, this spit encloses shallow lagoon, but the active deposition on the lagoon bottom will evaluate it into saline marsh. This paper dealing with the evolution of Dahab spit and lagoon during the Holocene in addition to the recent time for last 100 years, and it impacts of the future management of the coast area. The coastline mapping during the period of study depends upon GIS technique for data were collected during field measuring by using total station, aerial photo and satellite image interpretation as well as soil sample dating. Suggested geomorphological evolution of Dahab area during the Holocene depending upon geomorphic investigation of the sedimentological process into 6 stages.

  9. From Mount Sinai to Mount Scopus: differences in the role and value of fine needle aspiration for evaluating thyroid nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazeh, Haggi; Greenstein, Alexander; Swedish, Kristin; Arora, Shalini; Hermon, Hila; Ariel, Ilana; Divino, Celia; Freund, Herbert R; Weber, Kaare

    2009-05-01

    Fine needle aspiration is the main diagnostic tool used to assess thyroid nodules. To correlate FNA cytology results with surgical pathological findings in two teaching medical centers across the Atlantic. We retrospectively identified 484 patients at Hadassah Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem and Mount Sinai Hospital, New York, by means of both preoperative FNA cytology and a final histopathological report. Results compared FNA diagnosis, histological findings and frozen section results (Mt. Sinai only). The sensitivity value of FNA at Hadassah was 83.0% compared with 79.1% at Mt. Sinai (NS). Specificity values were 86.6 vs. 98.5% (P < 0.05), negative predictive value 78.7 vs. 77.6% (NS) and positive predictive value 89.7 vs. 98.6% (P < 0.05), respectively. "Follicular lesion" was diagnosed on FNA in 33.1% of the patients at Hadassah and in 21.5% at Mt Sinai (P < 0.005) with a malignancy rate of 42.5 vs. 23.1% (P < 0.05), respectively. Frozen section was used in 190 patients at Mt. Sinai (78.5%) with sensitivity and specificity values of 72.3% and 100%. Frozen section results altered the planned operative course in only 6 patients (2.5%). Follicular carcinoma was diagnosed in 12 patients at Hadassah vs. 2 patients at Mt. Sinai (P < 0.05). The sensitivity of FNA at the two institutions was comparable. While malignancy on frozen section is highly specific, it should be used selectively for suspicious FNA results. Follicular lesions and the rate of malignancy in such lesions were more common at Hadassah, favoring a more aggressive surgical approach.

  10. Middle Triassic magma mixing in an active continental margin: Evidence from mafic enclaves and host granites from the Dewulu pluton in West Qinling, central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, X.; Mo, X.; Yu, X.

    2015-12-01

    The Qinling-Dabie-Sulu orogen was formed through the collision of the North and South China blocks, but the precise timing of the closure of the Paleo-Tethys ocean between the two blocks remains debated. Large volumes of Triassic granites associated with mafic microgranular enclaves (MMEs) were emplaced in the Qinling terrane. This paper presents field observations, petrography, geochronology and geochemistry of the MMEs and their host granites from the Dewulu pluton in West Qinling. The host rocks comprise granodiorite and granodioritic porphyry, and the The MMEs range in composition from gabbroic diorite to diorite. Zircon LA-ICP-MS U-Pb ages suggest that the granites and MMEs were coeval at ca. 245 Ma. The granites are relatively enriched in LILE and depleted in HFSE, and have evolved Sr-Nd-Pb and zircon Hf isotopic compositions [initial 87Sr/86Sr = 0.7070-0.7076, ɛNd(t) = -7.5 to -6.8, ɛHf(t) = -8.2 to -4.2], indicative of an origin from the amphibolitic lower crust. The near-primitive gabbro-dioritic MMEs bear a remarkable geochemical resemblance to the high-magnesium andesite (HMA), such as moderate SiO2 (~55 wt.%), low FeOT/MgO (~0.75), high Cr (268-308 ppm) and MgO (8.58-8.77 wt.%) with Mg# of ~70. Additionally, they exhibit lower initial 87Sr/86Sr, higher ɛNd(t) and ɛHf(t), and more radiogenic Pb isotopes than the dioritic MMEs which share similar isotopic compositions with the granites. These features, together with the presence of the specific minerals in the MMEs (e.g., felsic xenocrysts and acicular apatite), point to mixing process between the lower crust-derived magmas and the melts produced by the reaction of the subducting sediment-derived components and the overlying mantle. Taking into account the regional occurrence of synchronous plutonic-volcanic complexes (250-234 Ma) ranging from basaltic to granitic variants, we suggest that the Dewulu pluton formed in an active continental margin in response to the local extension triggered by the

  11. Kinetic Theory Estimates for the Kolmogorov-Sinai Entropy, and the Largest Lyapunov Exponents for Dilute, Hard-Ball Gases and for Dilute, Random Lorentz Gases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijeren, H. van; Zon, R. van; Dorfman, J.R.

    2000-01-01

    The kinetic theory of gases provides methods for calculating Lyapunov exponents and other quantities, such as Kolmogorov-Sinai entropies, that characterize the chaotic behavior of hard-ball gases. Here we illustrate the use of these methods for calculating the Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy, and the

  12. Glacial retreat in the Amundsen Sea sector, West Antarctica - first cosmogenic evidence from central Pine Island Bay and the Kohler Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindow, Julia; Castex, Marion; Wittmann, Hella; Johnson, Joanne S.; Lisker, Frank; Gohl, Karsten; Spiegel, Cornelia

    2014-08-01

    The Amundsen Sea Embayment of West Antarctica hosts one of the most rapidly changing sectors of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. With the fastest-flowing ice streams in Antarctica, the region around Pine Island Bay is characterized by rapid ice-sheet thinning and grounding-line retreat. Published surface-exposure data are limited to a few isolated nunataks making it difficult to assess the long-term deglacial history of the area. To address this, we correlate existing records of lateral ice-stream retreat from marine sediment cores with onshore glacial thinning in two key areas of eastern Marie Byrd Land: the Kohler Range and Pine Island Bay. Our 10Be surface-exposure ages are the first from the isolated Kohler Range and show that the nunataks there became ice-free between 8.6 and 12.6 ka. This implies a minimum long-term average thinning rate of 3.3 ± 0.3 cm/yr, which is one order of magnitude lower than recent rates based on satellite data. We also present pre- to early Holocene 10Be surface-exposure ages from two islands located approximately 80 km downstream of the Pine Island Glacier ice-shelf front to constrain the lateral deglacial history in the Pine Island Bay area. This study provides insight into the significance of local ice sheet variations and suggests that the post-LGM history in the Amundsen Sea sector was characterized by glacial thinning as well as lateral retreat in pre- to early Holocene times.

  13. 中国文论的正名%Shifting Chinese literary theory:on the recent ideological trend of "counter-West centralism"in Chinese literary theory research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡晓明

    2007-01-01

    The ideological trend of "counter-West centralism" is becomingmore and more obvious in the academic circle of Chinese literary theory fromthe 1980s to the beginning of this century.This article regards a certain numberof phenomena as surveying targets,and analyzes that this ideological trendis embodied not only in evident purposes,slogans and views,but also in there-thinking of education history and in the work of literary material and thereestablishing of criticism history.This article holds that the combination of twokinds of opposed learning trends for study and application respectively would behelpful in breaking through the barriers of single-sided logic,emphasizing nativeliterary tradition,participating in contemporary literature practice and definingChinese literary theory in the 21 st century.

  14. Bathymetric preference of four major genera of rectilinear benthic foraminifera within oxygen minimum zone in Arabian Sea off central west coast of India.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mazumder, A.; Nigam, R.

    Congress, XXI Session (Copenhagen) 22 7–19. Bernhard J M 1992 Benthic foraminiferal distribution and biomass related to porewater oxygen content: Central California continental slope and rise; Deep-Sea Res. 39 585–605. Bernhard J M 1993 Experimental...

  15. Spatial and temporal seed dispersal of squarrose knapweed (Centaurea virgata Lam. ssp. squarrosa (Willd.) Gugler) in west central Utah, a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott L. Jensen; Stephen B. Monsen; Pat Fosse

    2008-01-01

    This case study documents temporal and spatial squarrose knapweed (Centaurea virgata Lam. spp. squarrosa (Willd.) Gugler) seed dispersal from study sites in central Utah. Felt seed traps were placed along transects extending from sites occupied by squarrose knapweed into adjacent plant communities. Seed dispersal from knapweed...

  16. Rowing the Weaves of Community Participation: Good Practices in Early Childhood Development (ECD) Program in Rural Central Lombok, West Nusa Tenggara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdillah, Ali

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the rural community participation within the context of an integrated early childhood development program initiated by the government of Indonesia in partnership with UNICEF and AusAID in Central Lombok (2008-2010). Based on purposive interviews with relevant stakeholders, as well as an analysis of past documents, researchers'…

  17. A LÍNGUA BRASILEIRA DE SINAIS E O ENSINO DO ALUNO SURDO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RIBEIRO, H. M

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Sign Language - Pounds has been of great importance for the inclusion process actually happen, allowing language development, social and intellectual deaf, favoring their access to cultural and scientific knowledge, as well as integration into the group social belongs. Before learning that occurs in the Portuguese language, shall be guaranteed to the deaf, first the acquisition of sign language, which will allow it to establish itself as subject and hence provide a linguistic support to be able to learn a second language. This article aims to analyze the importance of sign language in the educational development of students in the regular school system. The methodology adopted for this study were research literature, qualitative and exploratory. Data collection was performed by the researcher, using virtual sources indexed in the database Google Scholar. A Língua Brasileira de Sinais - Libras tem sido de grande relevância para que o processo de inclusão realmente aconteça, permitindo o desenvolvimento linguístico, social e intelectual dos surdos, favorecendo o seu acesso ao conhecimento cultural-científico, bem como a integração no grupo social ao qual pertence. Antes que ocorra o aprendizado da língua portuguesa, deve ser garantida ao surdo, primeiro a aquisição da Língua de Sinais, que possibilitará a ele constituir-se como sujeito e, consequentemente fornecerá um suporte linguístico para ser capaz de aprender uma segunda língua. Este artigo tem por objetivo analisar a importância da língua de sinais no desenvolvimento educativo dos alunos da rede regular de ensino. A metodologia adotada para este trabalho foi pesquisa bibliográfica, exploratória e qualitativa. A coleta das informações foi realizada pela pesquisadora, utilizando-se de fontes virtuais indexadas na base de dados do Google Acadêmico.

  18. Migratory movements of waterfowl in Central Asia and avian influenza emergence: sporadic transmission of H5N1 from east to west

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Samuel A.; Gavrilov, Andrei; Katzner, Todd E.; Takekawa, John Y.; Miller, Tricia A.; Hagemeijer, Ward; Mundkur, Taej; Sivananinthaperumal, Balachandran; DeMattos, Carlos C.; Ahmed, Lu'ay S.; Newman, Scott H.

    2011-01-01

    Waterfowl in the genera Anas and Tadorna are suspected as vectors in the long-distance transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1. The former Soviet Republics of Central Asia are situated at an important migratory crossroads for these and other species of birds that bridges regions where the disease is prevalent. However, waterfowl movements through Central Asia are poorly quantified. In this study, historical data derived from over 80 years of bird ringing are combined with recent satellite tracking data to delineate migration routes, movement chronology and habitat use patterns of waterfowl in relation to H5N1 outbreak locations. Results confirm migratory linkage between breeding and moulting areas in northern Kazakhstan and southern Siberia, with nonbreeding areas in the Caspian, Black and eastern Mediterranean Sea basins, as well as with South Asia. However, unlike the situation in neighbouring regions, most notably western China, H5N1 outbreaks have not been recurrent in Central Asia after they were first reported during summer 2005 and spring 2006. These findings have implications in relation to potential sampling biases, species-specific variation in migratory behaviour and continuing regional H5N1 transmission risks.

  19. Associações entre Sinais Precoces de Autismo, Atenção Compartilhada e Atrasos no Desenvolvimento Infantil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia da Conceição Costa Zaqueu

    Full Text Available RESUMOOs Transtornos do Espectro do Autismo (TEA costumam comprometer o funcionamento adaptativo e desenvolvimento psicossocial na infância. O objetivo deste estudo foi buscar associações entre: sinais precoces dos TEA, falhas na atenção compartilhada-AC e atrasos de desenvolvimento. Participaram do estudo 92 crianças (16-24 meses de cinco creches de Barueri-SP. Instrumentos utilizados: Development Screening Test-DENVER-II (desenvolvimento neuropsicomotor, Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers-M-CHAT (sinais precoces de TEA, Pictorial Infant Communication Scales-PICS(comunicação social. Identificou-se 28,3% de atrasos no desenvolvimento neuropsicomotor. Cinco crianças apresentaram sinais precoces dos TEA; todas falharam nas provas de AC (PICS. Nas crianças que apresentaram sinais indicativos de TEA, os déficits mais comuns foram relacionados à atenção compartilhada, área que deve ser privilegiada em avaliações precoces.

  20. ACHADOS RADIOGRÁFICOS, SINAIS E SINTOMAS NAS DISFUNÇÕES DA ARTICULAÇÃO TEMPOROMANDIBULAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PALACIOS-MORENO Ana Maria

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Os achados radiográficos e os sinais e sintomas de pacientes com disfunções da articulação temporomandibular (ATM foram estudados. Através da incidência transcranial para ATM, foram verificadas a presença de alterações degenerativas e a estimativa de excursão condilar. Pelo exame clínico, foram avaliados dados como queixa principal, padrão de ocorrência de dor, sinais de dor muscular e sinais articulares de disfunção. As alterações radiográficas mais freqüentes foram as degenerativas. As alterações degenerativas mais freqüentes foram, em ordem decrescente, facetamento, eburnação e osteofito. As alterações degenerativas foram mais freqüentes no côndilo do que na eminência articular. A estimativa de excursão condilar foi, em ordem decrescente, normo, hiper e hipoexcursão. Não foi observada relação entre achados radiográficos e sinais ou sintomas específicos

  1. Sedimentary response to orogenic exhumation in the northern rocky mountain basin and range province, flint creek basin, west-central Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portner, R.A.; Hendrix, M.S.; Stalker, J.C.; Miggins, D.P.; Sheriff, S.D.

    2011-01-01

    Middle Eocene through Upper Miocene sedimentary and volcanic rocks of the Flint Creek basin in western Montana accumulated during a period of significant paleoclimatic change and extension across the northern Rocky Mountain Basin and Range province. Gravity modelling, borehole data, and geologic mapping from the Flint Creek basin indicate that subsidence was focused along an extensionally reactivated Sevier thrust fault, which accommodated up to 800 m of basin fill while relaying stress between the dextral transtensional Lewis and Clark lineament to the north and the Anaconda core complex to the south. Northwesterly paleocurrent indicators, foliated metamorphic lithics, 64 Ma (40Ar/39Ar) muscovite grains, and 76 Ma (U-Pb) zircons in a ca. 27 Ma arkosic sandstone are consistent with Oligocene exhumation and erosion of the Anaconda core complex. The core complex and volcanic and magmatic rocks in its hangingwall created an important drainage divide during the Paleogene shedding detritus to the NNW and ESE. Following a major period of Early Miocene tectonism and erosion, regional drainage networks were reorganized such that paleoflow in the Flint Creek basin flowed east into an internally drained saline lake system. Renewed tectonism during Middle to Late Miocene time reestablished a west-directed drainage that is recorded by fluvial strata within a Late Miocene paleovalley. These tectonic reorganizations and associated drainage divide explain observed discrepancies in provenance studies across the province. Regional correlation of unconformities and lithofacies mapping in the Flint Creek basin suggest that localized tectonism and relative base level fluctuations controlled lithostratigraphic architecture.

  2. Evolution of the 2014-2015 sea surface temperature warming in the central west coast of Baja California, Mexico, recorded by remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Carlos J.

    2016-07-01

    Extraordinarily warm sea surface temperatures were present in the California Current System during 2014-2015. In several locations surface waters temperature registered new record high in the recent time series. This study focuses in the evolution of the warming in the southern part of the California Current System (CCS), off the west coast of Baja California, Mexico. Analysis of monthly sea surface temperature (SST), sea level pressure, and wind speed as measured by satellite from January 1988 to December 2015 show that recent warming occurred during two distinct periods. From May 2014 to April 2015, SST warming was related to weak coastal winds not associated to El Niño. During this period occurred the longest sustained record of 15 months of negative wind anomalies in the series. A reduction of wind stress suggests a weakened coastal upwelling, and consequently, cold water not transported into the surface. The second process of warming occurred from September to December 2015, during a strong El Niño condition.

  3. Maximum Entropy Production vs. Kolmogorov-Sinai Entropy in a Constrained ASEP Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Mihelich

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric simple exclusion process (ASEP has become a paradigmatic toy-model of a non-equilibrium system, and much effort has been made in the past decades to compute exactly its statistics for given dynamical rules. Here, a different approach is developed; analogously to the equilibrium situation, we consider that the dynamical rules are not exactly known. Allowing for the transition rate to vary, we show that the dynamical rules that maximize the entropy production and those that maximise the rate of variation of the dynamical entropy, known as the Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy coincide with good accuracy. We study the dependence of this agreement on the size of the system and the couplings with the reservoirs, for the original ASEP and a variant with Langmuir kinetics.

  4. Sinais precoces de escoliose em crianças pré-escolares

    OpenAIRE

    Débora Beckner de Almeida Leitão Prado Vieira

    2013-01-01

    Introdução: A alta incidência de desvios posturais na população infantil, estimada em 20%, além de preocupante, torna-se problema de saúde pública. Objetivo: O presente estudo teve como objetivo identificar sinais de escoliose em crianças na idade pré-escolar da rede municipal de ensino de Londrina-PR. Método: Participaram do estudo 377 crianças, entre 5 e 6 anos de idade, de ambos os sexos. O exame postural foi dividido em dois momentos: (1) obtenção dos dados antropométricos, o equilíbrio f...

  5. Correlation between the Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy and the self-diffusion coefficient in simple liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Hyunsoo; Shin, Young-Han; Ihm, Dongchul; Lee, Eok Kyun; Kum, Oyeon

    2000-11-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations were performed for soft- and hard-sphere systems, for number densities ranging from 0.5 to 1.0, and the Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy (KS entropy) and self-diffusion coefficients were calculated. It is found that the KS entropy, when expressed in terms of average collision frequency, is uniquely related to the self-diffusion coefficient by a simple scaling law. The dependence of the KS entropy on average collision frequency and number density was also explored. Numerical results show that the scaling laws proposed by Dzugutov, and by Beijeren, Dorfman, Posch, and Dellago, can be applied to both soft- and hard-sphere systems by changing to more generalized forms.

  6. Processamento digital de sinais em circuitos ópticos interferométricos.

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio Marcelo Delgado Butrón

    1997-01-01

    Apresenta-se um estudo sobre o uso de técnicas de processamento digital de sinais para analisar circuitos ópticos interferométricos de tipo Sagnac e Mach-Zehnder. Os circuitos ópticos investigados utilizam um modulador de fase óptica em um dos seus braços interferométricos o qual proporciona o controle de suas funções de transferências visando aplicações em giroscópio a fibra óptica, GFO, e analisador de circuitos ópticos. No caso do GFO ênfase especial é dedicada à configuração tipo malha ab...

  7. Sulfate-reducing bacteria and their activities in cyanobacterial mats of Solar Lake (Sinai, Egypt)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teske, A.; Ramsing, NB; Habicht, K.

    1998-01-01

    The sulfate-reducing bacteria within the surface layer of the hypersaline cyanobacterial mat of Solar Lake (Sinai, Egypt) were investigated with combined microbiological, molecular, and biogeochemical approaches. The diurnally oxic surface layer contained between 10(6) and 10(7) cultivable sulfate......-reducing bacteria ml(-1) and showed sulfate reduction rates between 1,000 and 2,200 nmol ml-l day(-1), both in the same range as and sometimes higher than those in anaerobic deeper mat layers. In the oxic surface layer and in the mat layers below, filamentous sulfate-reducing Desulfonema bacteria were found...... in variable densities of 10(4) to 106 cells ml(-1). A Desulfonema-related, diurnally migrating bacterium was detected with PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis within and below the oxic surface layer. Facultative aerobic respiration, filamentous morphology, motility, diurnal migration...

  8. Environmentally controlled succession in a late Pleistocene coral reef (Sinai, Egypt)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mewis, H.; Kiessling, W.

    2013-03-01

    The concept of ecological succession has been frequently applied in the study of ancient reefs. Whereas Paleozoic and Mesozoic reefs are commonly thought to reveal an autogenic primary—climax zonation, patterns in Neogene and Quaternary reefs are much more diverse. Here, we describe a well-preserved late Pleistocene coral reef from Dahab on Sinai Peninsula (Egypt), which shows a distinct zonation that resembles an ecological succession. In contrast to classical examples of ecological successions, species composition, paleoenvironmental conditions, and coral biodiversity of the Dahab reef indicate an allogenic, sea-level controlled community change, from marginal marine to reef slope and back reef. A review of the literature confirms that autogenic, short-term successions are virtually absent in Quaternary reefs. We predict that long generation times of corals make it unlikely that classical autogenic successions develop in reefs at all, unless environmental conditions are unusually stable.

  9. Diversity of bacteria nesting the plant cover of north Sinai deserts, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira L. Hanna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available North Sinai deserts were surveyed for the predominant plant cover and for the culturable bacteria nesting their roots and shoots. Among 43 plant species reported, 13 are perennial (e.g. Fagonia spp., Pancratium spp. and 30 annuals (e.g. Bromus spp., Erodium spp.. Eleven species possessed rhizo-sheath, e.g. Cyperus capitatus, Panicum turgidum and Trisetaria koelerioides. Microbiological analyses demonstrated: the great diversity and richness of associated culturable bacteria, in particular nitrogen-fixing bacteria (diazotrophs; the majority of bacterial residents were of true and/or putative diazotrophic nature; the bacterial populations followed an increasing density gradient towards the root surfaces; sizeable populations were able to reside inside the root (endorhizosphere and shoot (endophyllosphere tissues. Three hundred bacterial isolates were secured from studied spheres. The majority of nitrogen-fixing bacilli isolates belonged to Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus polymexa, Bacillus macerans, Bacillus circulans and Bacillus licheniformis. The family Enterobacteriaceae represented by Enterobacter agglomerans, Enterobacter sackazakii, Enterobacter cloacae, Serratia adorifera, Serratia liquefaciens and Klebsiella oxytoca. The non-Enterobacteriaceae population was rich in Pantoae spp., Agrobacterium rdiobacter, Pseudomonas vesicularis, Pseudomonas putida, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Ochrobactrum anthropi, Sphingomonas paucimobilis and Chrysemonas luteola. Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus were reported inside root and shoot tissues of a number of tested plants. The dense bacterial populations reported speak well to the very possible significant role played by the endophytic bacterial populations in the survival, in respect of nutrition and health, of existing plants. Such groups of diazotrophs are good candidates, as bio-preparates, to support the growth of future field crops grown in deserts of north Sinai and irrigated by the

  10. Diversity of bacteria nesting the plant cover of north Sinai deserts, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Amira L; Youssef, Hanan H; Amer, Wafaa M; Monib, Mohammed; Fayez, Mohammed; Hegazi, Nabil A

    2013-01-01

    North Sinai deserts were surveyed for the predominant plant cover and for the culturable bacteria nesting their roots and shoots. Among 43 plant species reported, 13 are perennial (e.g. Fagonia spp., Pancratium spp.) and 30 annuals (e.g. Bromus spp., Erodium spp.). Eleven species possessed rhizo-sheath, e.g. Cyperus capitatus, Panicum turgidum and Trisetaria koelerioides. Microbiological analyses demonstrated: the great diversity and richness of associated culturable bacteria, in particular nitrogen-fixing bacteria (diazotrophs); the majority of bacterial residents were of true and/or putative diazotrophic nature; the bacterial populations followed an increasing density gradient towards the root surfaces; sizeable populations were able to reside inside the root (endorhizosphere) and shoot (endophyllosphere) tissues. Three hundred bacterial isolates were secured from studied spheres. The majority of nitrogen-fixing bacilli isolates belonged to Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus polymexa, Bacillus macerans, Bacillus circulans and Bacillus licheniformis. The family Enterobacteriaceae represented by Enterobacter agglomerans, Enterobacter sackazakii, Enterobacter cloacae, Serratia adorifera, Serratia liquefaciens and Klebsiella oxytoca. The non-Enterobacteriaceae population was rich in Pantoae spp., Agrobacterium rdiobacter, Pseudomonas vesicularis, Pseudomonas putida, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Ochrobactrum anthropi, Sphingomonas paucimobilis and Chrysemonas luteola. Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus were reported inside root and shoot tissues of a number of tested plants. The dense bacterial populations reported speak well to the very possible significant role played by the endophytic bacterial populations in the survival, in respect of nutrition and health, of existing plants. Such groups of diazotrophs are good candidates, as bio-preparates, to support the growth of future field crops grown in deserts of north Sinai and irrigated by the water of El

  11. Intestinal helminths of spiny mice (Acomys cahirinus dimidiatus) from St Katherine's Protectorate in the Sinai, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behnke, J M; Barnard, C J; Mason, N; Harris, P D; Sherif, N E; Zalat, S; Gilbert, F S

    2000-03-01

    Spiny mice, Acomys cahirinus dimidiatus, inhabiting the wadis close to St Katherine in the mountains of the Sinai peninsula, were trapped and their helminth parasites were studied. Sixty one mice provided faeces for analysis and 27 were killed and autopsied. Six species of helminths were recorded (the spirurid nematodes, Protospirura muricola (74.1%) and Mastophorus muris (11.1%), the oxyuroid nematodes, Dentostomella kuntzi (59.3%), Aspiculuris africana (3.7%), and Syphacia minuta (3.7%) and the hymenolepidid cestode Rodentolepis negevi (18.5%)). The spirurids were the dominant species present, accounting for up to 0.87% of total host body weight. Analysis of worm weights and lengths suggested that transmission had been taking place in the months preceding our study. No sex difference in the prevalence or abundance of spirurids was detected. Significant differences were identified in the abundance of total nematode burdens and the mean helminth species richness between the three wadis which provided multiple captures of mice. There was also a marked effect of host age on both parameters. A highly significant positive correlation between spirurid egg counts and total worm biomass indicated that non-invasive techniques based on egg counts could be used to quantify worm burdens and when this technique was applied to a larger sample size (n = 61), a significant difference between sites but no host sex or age effects were detected for spirurid faecal egg counts. The data suggest that there are differences between helminth component communities infecting spiny mice in different neighbouring wadis, a hypothesis which will be explored further through our continuing studies in the Sinai.

  12. Fault Zone Hydrogeology of Crystalline and Sedimentary Aquifers in Arid Regions: The Case Sinai Peninsula, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, M.; Mohamed, L.; Sultan, M.; Farag, A. Z. A.

    2015-12-01

    Structural control on the groundwater flow in arid regions is still poorly understood. Understanding the distribution of structural discontinuities (i.e. faults, joints and shear zones), their cross cutting relationships, and their relation with the regional hydraulic gradient are critical for deciphering the complexity of water resources distribution in the highly fractured crystalline and sedimentary aquifers in Sinai. In order to achieve that, we conducted an integrated approach using remote sensing, geophysical and hydrogeological datasets: (1) identification of the spatial and temporal rainfall events using Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) data; (2) delineation of major faults and shear zones using Landsat 8 and ASTER image ratioing, geological datasets and field investigation; (3) generation of a normalized difference ratio image using Envisat radar images before and after the rain events to identify preferential water-channeling discontinuities in the crystalline terrain; (4) validation of the water-channeling discontinuities using Very Low Frequency (VLF) method; (5) generation of regional groundwater flow and isotopic (18O and 2H ) distribution maps for the sedimentary aquifer and an approximation flow map for the crystalline aquifer; (6) developing a conceptual model for the groundwater flow in the fractured crystalline and sedimentary aquifers; (7) testing the model accuracy using Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) method in seven locations. Our findings include: (1) in the crystalline aquifer, discontinuities that are sub-parallel to groundwater flow direction act as preferred pathways for groundwater flow, whereas those that intersect groundwater flow directions at high angles act as barriers causing considerable groundwater accumulations at the upstream side; (2) in the sedimentary aquifer, high angle E-W discontinuities (i.e. Themed shear zone and Sinai Hinge Belt) cause a considerable groundwater elevation, redirection of the groundwater

  13. A Pilot Study Integrating Visual Form and Anthropological Content for Teaching Children Ages 6 to 11 about Cultures and Peoples of the World; Specifically, the Preparation of a Danced Presentation with Lecture Interpreting Some of the Cultural Values in West and Central African Communities. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primus, Pearl E.

    A pilot study was conducted to demonstrate the use of dance as a method for improving and extending curriculum content of world cultures in elementary schools. The secondary objectives emphasized nonverbal experience as a means of interpreting the patterns of cultural values in West and Central Africa. Most of the 41 presentations of the dance…

  14. Epidemics of the central nervous system infections caused by West Nile virus in the territory of the South Bačka District, Vojvodina, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sević Siniša

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. West Nile virus (WNV is a neurotropic RNA virus particle which belongs to the Flaviviridae family, genus Flavivirus. It is sustained in arthropods within the transmission cycle between the mosquitoes and birds. Most commonly (80% of cases WNV infections are asymptomatic among people. Less than 1% of patients develop neuroinvasive forms of the disease - meningitis, encephalitis, or acute flaccid paralysis. The aim of the research is to determine most common clinical and laboratory manifestations, to emphazise the presence of comorbidities and outcomes of treatment among patients with WNV infection. Methods. This retrospective study, which was conducted in the period from January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2013, evaluated 32 patients who were diagnosed with WNV infection based on clinical findings, laboratory, and serological tests. To assess statistical significance we used χ2, and t-test. Results. The study involved 22 (69% males and 10 (31% females aged from 31 to 65 years. On admission, there were 16 (50% febrile individuals, 27 (84.4% with positive meningeal signs, 17 (53.2% with pathological neurological signs, and 10 (31.3% with consciousness disorders. WNV infection was confirmed by the method enzyme linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA in all the patients, while Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR test was positive in 3 (30% of the tested patients. Cardiovascular comorbidities dominated in 7 (21.9% of the cases. Full recovery was accomplished in 87.5 % of the cases. Conclusion. The results of our study show that the absence of meningeal signs and fever on the day 7 of hospital treatment are indicators of good course and prognosis of neuroinvasive forms of WNV infection. Comorbidities do not increase the risk of disease. ELISA test is a sovereign diagnostic method. In most cases, after the administered symptomatic therapy, the complete recovery of patients was achieved. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike

  15. Aerosol optical properties relevant to regional remote sensing of CCN activity and links to their organic mass fraction: airborne observations over Central Mexico and the US West Coast during MILAGRO/INTEX-B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Shinozuka

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN would help evaluate the indirect effects of tropospheric aerosols on clouds and climate. To assess its feasibility, we examined relationships of submicron aerosol composition to CCN activity and optical properties observed during the MILAGRO/INTEX-B aircraft campaigns. An indicator of CCN activity, κ, was calculated from hygroscopicity measured under saturation. κ for dry 100-nm particles decreased with the organic fraction of non-refractory mass of submicron particles (OMF as 10(−0.43−0.44*OMF over Central Mexico and 10(−0.29−0.70*OMF over the US West Coast. These fits represent the critical dry diameter, centered near 100 nm for 0.2% supersaturation but varied as κ(−1/3, within measurement uncertainty (~20%. The decreasing trends of CCN activity with the organic content, evident also in our direct CCN counts, were consistent with previous ground and laboratory observations of highly organic particles. The wider range of OMF, 0–0.8, for our research areas means that aerosol composition will be more critical for estimation of CCN concentration than at the fixed sites previously studied. Furthermore, the wavelength dependence of extinction was anti-correlated with OMF as −0.70*OMF+2.0 for Central Mexico's urban and industrial pollution air masses, for unclear reasons. The Angstrom exponent of absorption increased with OMF, more rapidly under higher single scattering albedo, as expected for the interplay between soot and colored weak absorbers (some organic species and dust. Because remote sensing products currently use the wavelength dependence of extinction albeit in the column integral form and may potentially include that of absorption, these regional spectral dependencies are expected to facilitate retrievals of aerosol bulk chemistry and CCN activity over Central Mexico.

  16. Aerosol optical properties relevant to regional remote sensing of CCN activity and links to their organic mass fraction: airborne observations over Central Mexico and the US West Coast during MILAGRO/INTEX-B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Shinozuka

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN would help evaluate the indirect effects of tropospheric aerosols on clouds and climate. To assess its feasibility, we examined relationships of submicron aerosol composition to CCN activity and optical properties observed during the MILAGRO/INTEX-B aircraft campaigns. An indicator of CCN activity, κ, was calculated from hygroscopicity measured under saturation. κ for dry 100 nm particles decreased with increasing organic fraction of non-refractory mass of submicron particles (OMF as 0.34–0.20×OMF over Central Mexico and 0.47–0.43×OMF over the US West Coast. These fits represent the critical dry diameter, centered near 100 nm for 0.2% supersaturation but varied as κ(−1/3, within measurement uncertainty (~20%. The decreasing trends of CCN activity with the organic content, evident also in our direct CCN counts, were consistent with previous ground and laboratory observations of highly organic particles. The wider range of OMF, 0–0.8, for our research areas means that aerosol composition will be more critical for estimation of CCN concentration than at the fixed sites previously studied. Furthermore, the wavelength dependence of extinction was anti-correlated with OMF as −0.70×OMF+2.0 for Central Mexico's urban and industrial pollution air masses, for unclear reasons. The Angstrom exponent of absorption increased with OMF, more rapidly under higher single scattering albedo, as expected for the interplay between soot and colored weak absorbers (some organic species and dust. Because remote sensing products currently use the wavelength dependence of extinction albeit in the column integral form and may potentially include that of absorption, these regional spectral dependencies are expected to facilitate retrievals of aerosol bulk chemical composition and CCN activity over Central Mexico.

  17. Zircon U-Pb age of the Pescadero felsite: A late Cretaceous igneous event in the forearc, west-central California Coast Ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, W.G.; Martens, U.C.; McLaughlin, R.J.; Clark, J.C.; Moore, Diane E.

    2011-01-01

    Weathered felsite is associated with the late Campanian-Maastrichtian Pigeon Point Formation near Pescadero, California. Poorly exposed, its age and correlation are uncertain. Is it part of the Pigeon Point section west of the San Gregorio-Hosgri fault? Does it rest on Nacimiento block basement? Is it dextrally offset from the Oligocene Cambria Felsite, ~185 km to the southeast? Why is a calc-alkaline hypabyssal igneous rock intrusive into the outboard accretionary prism? To address these questions, we analyzed 43 oscillatory-zoned zircon crystals from three incipiently recrystallized pumpellyite ?? prehnite ?? laumontite-bearing Pescadero felsite samples by sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe-reverse geometry (SHRIMPRG) and laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) techniques. Thirty-three zircons gave late Mesozoic U-Pb ages, with single-grain values ranging from 81 to 167 Ma; ten have pre-Mesozoic, chiefl y Proterozoic ages. A group of the four youngest Pescadero zircons yielded an apparent maximum igneous age of ca. 86-90 Ma. Refl ecting broad age scatter and presence of partly digested sandstone inclusions, we interpret the rest of the zircons (perhaps all) as xenocrysts. Twenty-three zircons were separated and analyzed from two samples of the similar Cambria Felsite, yielding a unimodal 27 Ma U-Pb age. Clearly, the origin of the Upper Oligocene Cambria Felsite is different from that of the Upper Cretaceous Pescadero felsite; these rocks are not correlated, and do not constrain displacement along the San Gregorio-Hosgri fault. Peak ages differ slightly, but relative probability curves for Mesozoic and pre-Mesozoic Pescadero zircons compare well, for example, with abundant U-Pb age data for detrital zircons from Franciscan metaclastic strata ~100 km to the east in the Diablo Range- San Francisco Bay area, San Joaquin Great Valley Group turbidites, Upper Cretaceous Nacimiento block Franciscan strata, and Upper Cretaceous

  18. Feature Extraction in the North Sinai Desert Using Spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar: Potential Archaeological Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Stewart

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Techniques were implemented to extract anthropogenic features in the desert region of North Sinai using data from the first- and second-generation Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR-1 and 2. To obtain a synoptic view over the study area, a mosaic of average, multitemporal (De Grandi filtered PALSAR-1 σ° backscatter of North Sinai was produced. Two subset regions were selected for further analysis. The first included an area of abundant linear features of high relative backscatter in a strategic, but sparsely developed area between the Wadi Tumilat and Gebel Maghara. The second included an area of low backscatter anomaly features in a coastal sabkha around the archaeological sites of Tell el-Farama, Tell el-Mahzan, and Tell el-Kanais. Over the subset region between the Wadi Tumilat and Gebel Maghara, algorithms were developed to extract linear features and convert them to vector format to facilitate interpretation. The algorithms were based on mathematical morphology, but to distinguish apparent man-made features from sand dune ridges, several techniques were applied. The first technique took as input the average σ° backscatter and used a Digital Elevation Model (DEM derived Local Incidence Angle (LAI mask to exclude sand dune ridges. The second technique, which proved more effective, used the average interferometric coherence as input. Extracted features were compared with other available information layers and in some cases revealed partially buried roads. Over the coastal subset region a time series of PALSAR-2 spotlight data were processed. The coefficient of variation (CoV of De Grandi filtered imagery clearly revealed anomaly features of low CoV. These were compared with the results of an archaeological field walking survey carried out previously. The features generally correspond with isolated areas identified in the field survey as having a higher density of archaeological finds, and interpreted as possible

  19. Instrumentos em Lingua Brasileira de Sinais para avaliacao da qualidade de vida da populacao surda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neuma Chaveiro

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Construir a versão em Língua Brasileira de Sinais dos instrumentos WHOQOL-BREF e WHOQOL-DIS para avaliar a qualidade de vida da população surda brasileira. MÉTODOS: Utilizou-se metodologia proposta pela Organização Mundial da Saúde (WHOQOL-BREF e WHOQOL-DIS para a construção dos instrumentos adaptados para população surda em Língua Brasileira de Sinais (Libras. A pesquisa para execução do instrumento consistiu de 13 etapas: 1 criação do sinal qualidade de vida; 2 desenvolvimento das escalas de respostas em Libras; 3 tradução por um grupo bilíngue; 4 versão reconciliadora; 5 primeira retrotradução; 6 produção da versão em Libras a ser disponibilizada aos grupos focais; 7 realização dos grupos focais; 8 revisão por um grupo monolíngue; 9 revisão pelo grupo bilíngue; 10 análise sintática/semântica e segunda retrotradução; 11 reavaliação da retrotradução pelo grupo bilíngue; 12 filmagem da versão para o software; 13 desenvolvimento do software WHOQOL-BREF e WHOQOL-DIS em Libras. RESULTADOS: Características peculiares da cultura da população surda apontaram a necessidade de adaptações na metodologia de aplicação de grupos focais quando compostos por pessoas surdas. As convenções ortográficas da escrita das línguas sinalizadas não estão consolidadas, o que trouxe dificuldades em registrar graficamente as etapas de tradução. As estruturas linguísticas que causaram maiores problemas de tradução foram as que incluíram expressões idiomáticas do português, muitas sem conceitos equivalentes entre o português e a Libras. Foi possível construir um software do WHOQOL-BREF e WHOQOL-DIS em Libras. CONCLUSÕES: O WHOQOL-BREF e o WHOQOL-DIS em Libras possibilitarão que os surdos se expressem autonomamente quanto a sua qualidade de vida, o que permitirá investigar com maior precisão essas questões.

  20. Is West Nile virus a potential cause of central nervous system infection in Brazil? Seria o vírus do Oeste do Nilo causa potencial de infecção no sistema nervoso central no Brasil?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane N Soares

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Meningitis and encephalitis are complications of West Nile virus (WNV infection. Although WNV is endemic in North America, the virus has recently been reported in Colombia and Argentina. Investigation of WNV in Brazil is important since this virus has never been studied previously in this country. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the presence of WNV infection in viral encephalitis/meningitis cases of unknown etiology in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. METHOD: Thirty-seven adults with viral meningitis/encephalitis had their serum and CSF tested for WNV antibodies using the ELISA method. RESULTS: Only one case was WNV-positive, but this case was also positive for dengue. The plaque reduction neutralization test distinguished infections, and was negative for WNV. CONCLUSION: WNV can be confused with dengue infection. Their symptoms and neurological picture are similar. We did not find WNV in any patients with encephalitis and meningitis in the city of Rio de Janeiro. Up to now, it has not been detected in BrazilMeningite e encefalite são complicações da infecção pelo vírus do Oeste do Nilo (VON. Embora o VON seja endêmico na América do Norte, recentemente o vírus foi descrito na Colômbia e Argentina. Sua pesquisa no Brasil é importante uma vez que o vírus nunca fora estudado antes em nosso país. OBJETIVO: Investigar a presença do VON em casos de meningite e encefalite viral de etiologia desconhecida, na cidade no Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. MéTODO: Trinta e sete adultos com quadro de meningite/encefalite tiveram seu LCR e soro testados para anticorpos anti-VON, pelo método ELISA. RESULTADOS: Apenas um caso obteve sorologia positiva para VON, mas a sorologia para dengue também fora positiva. O teste da neutralização por redução de placa foi utilizado para distinção entre as infecções, sendo negativo para VON. CONCLUSÃO: A infecção por VON pode ser confundida com a infecção pelo vírus da dengue, seus sintomas e quadro neurol

  1. West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    With its vast expanses of sand, framed by mountain ranges and exposed rock, northwestern Africa makes a pretty picture when viewed from above. This image was acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The Canary Islands can be seen on the left side of the image just off Africa's Atlantic shore. The light brown expanse running through the northern two thirds of the image is the Sahara Desert. The desert runs up against the dark brown Haut Atlas mountain range of Morocco in the northwest, the Atlantic Ocean to the west and the semi-arid (light brown pixels) Sahelian region in the South. The Sahara, however, isn't staying put. Since the 1960s, the desert has been expanding into the Sahelian region at a rate of up to 6 kilometers per year. In the 1980s this desert expansion, combined with over cultivation of the Sahel, caused a major famine across west Africa. Over the summer months, strong winds pick up sands from the Sahara and blow them across the Atlantic as far west as North America, causing air pollution in Miami and damaging coral reefs in the Bahamas and the Florida Keys. The white outlines on the map represent country borders. Starting at the top-most portion of the map and working clockwise, the countries shown are Morocco, Western Sahara, Mauritania, Senegal, Mali, Burkina Fasso, Nigeria, Mali (again), and Algeria. Image by Reto Stockli, Robert Simmon, and Brian Montgomery, NASA Earth Observatory, based on data from MODIS

  2. Cooperation and Competition: The Comparative Assessment of Tribal Dynamics in the Marginal Landscapes of the Wadi el-Hasa, in west-central Jordan in the Early Bronze and Iron ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulent Arikan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of emergent social complexity has long been debated in the anthropological literature. In the eastern Mediterranean context, the archaeological discussions of social complexity focused largely on societies that showed centralized administration, hierarchic social formations, and large urban centers in temperate parts of the region. For the marginal landscapes in the eastern Mediterranean, such as semi-desert regions, scholars have long denied social complexity on the basis of lack of attributes listed in traditional frameworks of complexity. Recently however, alternate models of complexity have been developed for tribal societies following heterarchy and corporate mode of complexity. In these models, the concepts of group fusion (i.e., cooperation and fission (i.e., competition have significant roles and they need to be examined in more detail, especially about how we can identify these group dynamics in the archaeological record, specifically in the settlement systems. This article focuses on the Early Bronze I-III (ca. 3,500-2,400 BC and the Iron Age (ca. 1,200-500 BC of the Wadi el-Hasa, in west-central Jordan, for the evolution of settlement systems as a result of tribal cooperation/competition strategies and the emergence of long-distance trade, which allowed tribes not only to thrive economically but also gain political significance in a marginal landscape in the southern Levant. The use of relatively new analytical methods in archaeology, such as the geographical information systems, for assessing temporal changes in spatial distribution of sites, identifying trade routes, determining the impacts of long-distance trade and other socio-political events in the region on the settlement systems of the Hasa has been discussed.

  3. West Candor Chasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    During its examination of Mars, the Viking 1 spacecraft returned images of Valles Marineris, a huge canyon system 5,000 km long, up to 240 km wide, and 6.5 km deep, whose connected chasma or valleys may have formed from a combination of erosional collapse and structural activity. The view shows west Candor Chasma, one of the connected valleys of Valles Marineris; north toward top of frame. The image is a composite of Viking high-resolution (about 80 m/pixel or picture element) images in black and white and low resolution (about 250 m/pixel) images in color. The Viking 1 craft landed on Mars in July of 1976. West Candor Chasma occupies the westernmost part of the large west-northwest-trending trough of Candor Chasma. This section is about 150 km wide. West Candor Chasma is bordered on the north and south by straight-walled cliffs, most likely faults, and on its west by two segments of north-northeast-trending cliffs. The north wall is dissected by landslide scars forming reentrants filled with landslide debris. The south wall shows spur-and-gully morphology and smooth sections. The high-standing central mesa, informally dubbed Red Mesa has several curvilinear reentrants carved into the caprock, whose anomalously colored layers were interpreted to be caused by young hydrothermal alteration products (Geissler et al., 1993, Icarus, v. 106, p. 380-391). Light-colored lobes flow away from the top of the interior stack and then flow around and embay the same layered stack from which they originated. One of these apparent flow features is composed of at least two or perhaps even three huge, superposed, vaguely layered, very rugged, light-colored lobes as much as 100 km long, 20 km wide, and over 2 km thick. The layered deposits below the caprock also merge with a chaotic material that has local lobate fronts and overlaps landslide deposits. Hummocky material, similar in hue to wall rock, fills the southwestern-most region of west Candor Chasma and is perhaps as much as 3

  4. Two newly recognized species of Hemidactylus (Squamata, Gekkonidae) from the Arabian Peninsula and Sinai, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smíd, Jiří; Moravec, Jiří; Kratochvíl, Lukáš; Gvoždík, Václav; Nasher, Abdul Karim; Busais, Salem M; Wilms, Thomas; Shobrak, Mohammed Y; Carranza, Salvador

    2013-01-01

    A recent molecular phylogeny of the Arid clade of the genus Hemidactylus revealed that the recently described H. saba and two unnamed Hemidactylus species from Sinai, Saudi Arabia and Yemen form a well-supported monophyletic group within the Arabian radiation of the genus. The name 'Hemidactylus saba species group' is suggested for this clade. According to the results of morphological comparisons and the molecular analyses using two mitochondrial (12S and cytb) and four nuclear (cmos, mc1r, rag1, rag2) genes, the name Hemidactylus granosus Heyden, 1827 is resurrected from the synonymy of H. turcicus for the Sinai and Saudi Arabian species. The third species of this group from Yemen is described formally as a new species H. ulii sp. n. The phylogenetic relationships of the members of 'Hemidactylus saba species group' are evaluated and the distribution and ecology of individual species are discussed.

  5. First report of Leishmania tropica from a classical focus of L. major in North-Sinai, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehata, Magdi G; Samy, Abdallah M; Doha, Said A; Fahmy, Adel R; Kaldas, Rania M; Furman, Barry D; Villinski, Jeffrey T

    2009-08-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is prevalent in the Egyptian Sinai Peninsula and previous research has consistently documented the etiologic agent to be Leishmania major. We report the first isolation of Leishmania tropica from human cases of CL in a Northern Sinai community bordering Palestine. Parasite culturing, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), gene sequencing, and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analyses indicate CL cases in this community were caused by either L. major or L. tropica (three cases each). Two wild-caught rodents (Gerbillus pyramidum floweri) were infected with L. tropica. Phlebotomus papatasi sand flies were found harboring L. major, however only non-infected individuals of Phlebotomus sergenti, a vector for L. tropica, were caught. Patients with L. tropica had not traveled from the region in over a year, suggesting these cases are autochthonous. This scenario is consistent with an incursion of L. tropica from bordering countries and raises concerns about expansion of this parasite further into Egypt.

  6. Benthic habitat map of the U.S. Coral Reef Task Force Watershed Partnership Initiative Kā'anapali priority study area and the State of Hawai'i Kahekili Herbivore Fisheries Management Area, west-central Maui, Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Susan A.; Gibbs, Ann E.; White, Darla J.

    2014-01-01

    Nearshore areas off of west-central Maui, Hawai‘i, once dominated by abundant coral coverage, now are characterized by an increased abundance of turf algae and macroalgae. In an effort to improve the health and resilience of the coral reef system, the Kahekili Herbivore Fisheries Management Area was established by the State of Hawai‘i, and the U.S. Coral Reef Task Force selected the Kā‘anapali region as a priority study area. To support these efforts, the U.S. Geological survey mapped nearly 5 km2 of sea floor from the shoreline to water depths of about 30 m. Unconsolidated sediment (predominantly sand) constitutes 65 percent of the sea floor in the mapped area. Reef and other hardbottom potentially available for coral recruitments constitutes 35 percent of the mapped area. Of this potentially available hardbottom, only 51 percent is covered with a minimum of 10 percent coral, and most is found between 5 and 10 m water depth.

  7. Archive of Digital Boomer Sub-bottom Data Collected During USGS Field Activities 97LCA01, 97LCA02, and 97LCA03, West-Central and East Coast Florida, February through July 1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forde, Arnell S.; Dadisman, Shawn V.; Metz, Patricia A.; Tihansky, Ann B.; Davis, Jeffrey B.; Wiese, Dana S.

    2011-01-01

    From February through July of 1997, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted geophysical surveys of several Florida water bodies as part of the USGS Lakes and Coastal Aquifers (LCA) study. These areas include Lakes Dosson, Halfmoon and Round in west-central Florida and Sebastian Inlet and Indian River Lagoon on the east coast of the State. Field activity 97LCA01 was conducted in cooperation with the Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD), and field activities 97LCA02 and 97LCA03 were conducted in cooperation with the St. Johns River Water Management District (SJRWMD). This report serves as an archive of unprocessed digital boomer sub-bottom data, trackline maps, navigation files, Geographic Information System (GIS) files, observer's logbook, and formal Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) metadata. Filtered and gained (showing a relative increase in signal amplitude) digital images of the seismic profiles are also provided. Refer to the Acronyms page for expansions of acronyms and abbreviations used in this report.

  8. On the effectiveness of the vlf-em method For ground water prospecting in the Basement terrains, Sinai, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Shendi, El-Arabi Hendi [العربيى هندي شندي

    1997-01-01

    The VLF-EM method is proved to be an effective, fast and inexpensive tool for ground water prospecting in the basement terrains of Southern Sinai. The resistive shallow alluvial deposits increase the penetration depth of the received VLF waves to as deep as 40 meters which is very reasonable to detect the water bearing alluvium in the studied areas. The measured horizontal and vertical components of the resultant VLF-EM field were used to calculate the apparent resistivities of the conductive...

  9. Failure of the merger of the Mount Sinai and New York University hospitals and medical schools: part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastor, John A

    2010-12-01

    This is the second of two articles in this issue of Academic Medicine that, together, report the author's findings from his study of the attempt by the leaders of Mount Sinai and New York University (NYU) medical centers in New York City to merge their medical schools and hospitals, and the failure of those attempts. After the unsuccessful effort of the trustees to merge the medical schools and hospitals--see the first article--the two institutions successfully created Mount Sinai NYU Health, a new company of the Mount Sinai and NYU hospitals in New York City. Members of the NYU faculty, worried that the new attempt would also include the medical schools, sued their university to prevent the merger. Although they lost the suit, the NYU medical school remained within the university as they had wanted. The hospital merger, like the more comprehensive hospital/medical school merger that failed, was favored by most of the trustees and executives at Mount Sinai. Although supported by many of the NYU trustees, both mergers were strongly opposed by some of the leadership and many of the faculty at the NYU medical center.The hospital merger came into effect in July 1998, but three years later, administration of the hospitals had returned to the separate campuses. In 2008, the merger was officially terminated. Although several of the back-office functions combined, no clinical programs did, as was also the case in other mergers of teaching hospitals. The author concludes with an analysis of why this merger failed while a few others succeeded.

  10. Failure of the merger of the Mount Sinai and New York University hospitals and medical schools: part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastor, John A

    2010-12-01

    This is the first of two articles in this issue of Academic Medicine that, together, report the author's findings from his study of the attempts by the leaders of Mount Sinai and New York University (NYU) academic health centers in New York City to merge their medical schools and hospitals, and the failure of those attempts. The contemporary and predicted effects of managed care, capitation, and the Balanced Budget Act of 1997 were major factors stimulating this and other mergers at academic health centers. The hospital executives and board members also anticipated saving significant amounts of money by consolidating back-office functions and clinical services. The leadership at Mount Sinai were the most enthusiastic proponents of the merger. At NYU, many trustees feared that their hospital, which was generating a surplus when the merger was being planned, and its medical school, which operated at a deficit and was dependent on hospital earnings, would, in time, drain the university's endowment if the merger took place. Accordingly, some of the leading trustees favored separating its hospital and medical school from the university and consigning them to a new company with Mount Sinai. Influential members of the NYU faculty strongly opposed this. The attempt to create a merged entity of the hospitals and medical schools failed after several frustrating months of interinstitutional negotiations. The trustees and executives then attempted to develop a merger of only the hospitals; that process is described in the companion article in this issue of Academic Medicine.

  11. Generic and functional diversity in endophytic actinomycetes from wild Compositae plant species at South Sinai - Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shatoury, Sahar A; El-Kraly, Omnia A; Trujillo, Martha E; El-Kazzaz, Waleed M; El-Din, El-Sayeda Gamal; Dewedar, Ahmed

    2013-09-01

    The diversity of culturable endophytic actinomycetes associated with wild Compositae plants is scantily explored. In this study, one hundred and thirty one endophytic actinobacteria were isolated from ten Compositae plant species collected from South Sinai in Egypt. Microscopic and chemotaxonomic investigation of the isolates indicated fourteen genera. Rare genera, such as Microtetraspora, and Intrasporangium, which have never been previously reported to be endophytic, were identified. Each plant species accommodated between three to eight genera of actinobacteria and unidentified strains were recovered from seven plant species. The generic diversity analysis of endophytic assemblages grouped the plant species into three main clusters, representing high, moderate and low endophytic diversity. The endophytes showed high functional diversity, based on forty four catabolic and plant growth promotion traits; providing some evidence that such traits could represent key criteria for successful residence of endophytes in the endosphere. Stress-tolerance traits were more predictive measure of functional diversity differences between the endophyte assemblages (Shannon's index, p = 0.01). The results indicate a potential prominent role of endophytes for their hosts and emphasize the potency of plant endosphere as a habitat for actinobacteria with promising future applications.

  12. Hydrochemical modeling and assessment of groundwater contamination in northwest Sinai, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Alfy, Mohamed

    2013-03-01

    This study aims to investigate groundwater geochemical characteristics, and to assess the effects of groundwater contamination in northwest Sinai, Egypt. A geographic information system, geochemical modeling, and statistical analyses tools were used. Twenty-five groundwater samples from a Quaternary aquifer were sampled. These water samples were analyzed for major, minor, and trace elements. The results of this study contribute to a better understanding of the hydrochemical characteristic as well as the anthropogenic processes of groundwater pollution. On the basis of these analyses, the geochemical parameters and the anomalous concentration of different elements enable the characterization of salinity sources of the brackish waters and the suspected sources of polluted water. Pollution sources are represented by waste disposal and agricultural activities as well as the probable upward leakage of highly saline water from the deeper aquifers and the saltwater intrusion. Pollution risk is high when the depth of the water table is shallow (0.3 to 15.0 m) and the aquifer has high hydraulic conductivity and poor matrix buffering capacity.

  13. Paleotemperatures and paleodepths of the Upper Cretaceous rocks in El Qusaima, Northeastern Sinai, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orabi, O. H.; Zahran, E.

    2014-03-01

    The planktonic foraminiferal morphogroups and planktonic quantitative analysis as well as the lithological variations across the Coniacian to Maastrichtian sediments of El Qusaima section (Northeastern Sinai, Egypt) are studied in detail in order to detect the prevailing paleoecological conditions along these sediments. At the studied area of El Qusaima section there is a gradual cooling started at the base of Globotruncana elevata Zone (early-middle Campanian) of the lower part of the Markha Member and continued till Globotruncana aegyptiaca Zone (Late Campanian) of the upper part of the Markha Member. This trend corresponds to the onset of a global cooling that began at about 73 Ma (Late Campanian) and ended the Cretaceous greenhouse climate mode. At El Qusaima section, a gradual warming started at the base of Pseudogumbelina palpebra Zone (Late Maastrichtian) and continued till Plummerita hantkeninoides Zone (latest Maastrichtian) due to the high abundance of Plummerita hantkeninoides and Plummeritareicheli, which have been flourishing in warm waters. So this warming near the end of the Maastrichtian is a global event as shown by many authors.

  14. LAND SUITABILITY SCENARIOS FOR ARID COASTAL PLAINS USING GIS MODELING: SOUTHWESTERN SINAI COASTAL PLAIN, EGYPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mohamed Wahid

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Site selection analysis was carried out to find the best suitable lands for development activities in an example of promising coastal plains, southwestern Sinai, Egypt. Two GIS models were developed to represent two scenarios of land use suitability in the study area using GIS Multi Criteria Analysis Modeling. The factors contributed in the analysis are the Topography, Land cover, Existing Land use, Flash flood index, Drainage lines and Water points. The first scenario was to classify the area according to various gradual ranges of suitability. According to this scenario, the area is classified into five classes of suitability. The percentage of suitability values are 51.16, 6.13, 22.32, 18.49 and 1.89% for unsuitable, least suitable, low suitable, suitable and high suitable, respectively. The second scenario is developed for a particular kind of land use planning; tourism and recreation projects. The suitability map of this scenario was classified into five values. Unsuitable areas represent 51.18% of the study area, least suitable 16.67%, low suitable 22.85%, suitable 8.61%, and high suitable 0.68%. The best area for locating development projects is the area surrounding El-Tor City and close to the coast. This area could be an urban extension of El-Tor City with more economical and environmental management.

  15. Construção de um aplicativo digital para o ensino de sinais vitais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Gilberto Fernandes Pereira

    Full Text Available RESUMO Objetivo Descrever a etapa de criação de um aplicativo digital direcionado ao ensino de sinais vitais para acadêmicos de enfermagem. Método Trata-se de um estudo metodológico, desenvolvido entre março a outubro de 2014, no qual foram seguidas as etapas de análise, desenho e desenvolvimento da ferramenta tecnológica, com base no referencial teórico de Galvis-Panqueva. Realizou-se uma revisão narrativa da literatura sobre o tema e, em seguida, escolheu-se a melhor plataforma para a hospedagem do aplicativo. Resultados Seguidas as fases propostas no referencial teórico, a análise permitiu delimitar conteúdo e infraestrutura tecnológica; já o desenho proporcionou a avaliação do ambiente e sua interface e operacionalização e, por fim, o desenvolvimento materializou a projeção do desenho e recursos interativos propostos na etapa anterior. Conclusão O aplicativo constitui um suporte interativo na formação de estudantes de enfermagem, e sugere-se que seja realizada sua validação de conteúdo para aplicação prática posterior.

  16. LAND SUITABILITY SCENARIOS FOR ARID COASTAL PLAINS USING GIS MODELING: SOUTHWESTERN SINAI COASTAL PLAIN, EGYPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Wahid

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Site selection analysis was carried out to find the best suitable lands for development activities in an example of promising coastal plains, southwestern Sinai, Egypt. Two GIS models were developed to represent two scenarios of land use suitability in the study area using GIS Multi Criteria Analysis Modeling. The factors contributed in the analysis are the Topography, Land cover, Existing Land use, Flash flood index, Drainage lines and Water points. The first scenario was to classify the area according to various gradual ranges of suitability. According to this scenario, the area is classified into five classes of suitability. The percentage of suitability values are 51.16, 6.13, 22.32, 18.49 and 1.89% for unsuitable, least suitable, low suitable, suitable and high suitable, respectively. The second scenario is developed for a particular kind of land use planning; tourism and recreation projects. The suitability map of this scenario was classified into five values. Unsuitable areas represent 51.18% of the study area, least suitable 16.67%, low suitable 22.85%, suitable 8.61%, and high suitable 0.68%. The best area for locating development projects is the area surrounding El-Tor City and close to the coast. This area could be an urban extension of El-Tor City with more economical and environmental management.

  17. Radioactivity of sand, groundwater and wild plants in northeast Sinai, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, Khaled A; Seddeek, Mostafa K; Nijim, Abdelkareem; Sharshar, Taher; Badran, Hussein M

    2011-12-01

    The radioactivity levels are poorly studied in non-coastal arid regions. For this reason, 38 locations covering an area of about 350 km(2) in northeast Sinai, Egypt, were investigated by γ-ray spectroscopy. Moderately significant correlations among (238)U, (234)Th, and (226)Ra isotopes and low significant correlations between the concentrations of (238)U-series and (232)Th in sand were obtained. No evidence of correlation was found between the concentrations of radioisotopes and pH, grain size, total organic matter content, bicarbonate or calcium carbonate concentrations of the sand samples. The mean values of soil-to-plant transfer factor were 0.15, 0.18, 1.52 and 0.74 for (226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K, and (137)Cs, respectively. The range of concentrations of (226)Ra,( 232)Th, and (40)K in water samples collected from five wells were<0.4-0.16,<0.4-0.13, and<0.15-1.62 Bq l(-1), respectively. The mean absorbed dose rate in outdoor air at a height of 1 m above the ground surface for the sand samples was 19.4 nGy h(-1). The Ra(eq) activities of the sands are lower than the recommended maximum value of 370 Bq kg(-1) criterion limit for building materials.

  18. Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy in field line diffusion by anisotropic magnetic turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milovanov, Alexander V [Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Via E. Fermi 45, C.P. 65, I-00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Bitane, Rehab [Laboratoire Cassiopee, UNSA, CNRS, Observatoire de la Cote d' Azur, BP 4229, 06304 Nice Cedex 4 (France); Zimbardo, Gaetano [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi della Calabria, Ponte P. Bucci, Cubo 31C, I-87036 Arcavacata di Rende (Italy)

    2009-07-15

    The Kolmogorov-Sinai (KS) entropy in turbulent diffusion of magnetic field lines is analyzed on the basis of a numerical simulation model and theoretical investigations. In the parameter range of strongly anisotropic magnetic turbulence the KS entropy is shown to deviate considerably from the earlier predicted scaling relations (1992 Rev. Mod. Phys. 64 961). In particular, a slowing down logarithmic behavior versus the so-called Kubo number R >> 1 (R = ({delta}B/B{sub 0}) ({xi}{sub ||}/{xi}{sub perpendicular}), where {delta}B/B{sub 0} is the ratio of the rms magnetic fluctuation field to the magnetic field strength, and {xi}{sub perpendicular} and {xi}{sub ||} are the correlation lengths in respective dimensions) is found instead of a power-law dependence. These discrepancies are explained from general principles of Hamiltonian dynamics. We discuss the implication of Hamiltonian properties in governing the paradigmatic 'percolation' transport, characterized by R {yields} {infinity}, associating it with the concept of pseudochaos (random non-chaotic dynamics with zero Lyapunov exponents). Applications of this study pertain to both fusion and astrophysical plasma and by mathematical analogy to problems outside the plasma physics.

  19. Extensivity and additivity of the Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy for simple fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Moupriya; Costa, Anthony B.; Green, Jason R.

    2017-02-01

    According to the van der Waals picture, attractive and repulsive forces play distinct roles in the structure of simple fluids. Here, we examine their roles in dynamics; specifically, in the degree of deterministic chaos using the Kolmogorov-Sinai (KS) entropy rate and the spectra of Lyapunov exponents. With computer simulations of three-dimensional Lennard-Jones and Weeks-Chandler-Andersen fluids, we find repulsive forces dictate these dynamical properties, with attractive forces reducing the KS entropy at a given thermodynamic state. Regardless of interparticle forces, the maximal Lyapunov exponent is intensive for systems ranging from 200 to 2000 particles. Our finite-size scaling analysis also shows that the KS entropy is both extensive (a linear function of system-size) and additive. Both temperature and density control the "dynamical chemical potential," the rate of linear growth of the KS entropy with system size. At fixed system-size, both the KS entropy and the largest exponent exhibit a maximum as a function of density. We attribute the maxima to the competition between two effects: as particles are forced to be in closer proximity, there is an enhancement from the sharp curvature of the repulsive potential and a suppression from the diminishing free volume and particle mobility. The extensivity and additivity of the KS entropy and the intensivity of the largest Lyapunov exponent, however, hold over a range of temperatures and densities across the liquid and liquid-vapor coexistence regimes.

  20. Hydrochemical and multivariate analysis of groundwater quality in the northwest of Sinai, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shahat, M F; Sadek, M A; Salem, W M; Embaby, A A; Mohamed, F A

    2017-08-01

    The northwestern coast of Sinai is home to many economic activities and development programs, thus evaluation of the potentiality and vulnerability of water resources is important. The present work has been conducted on the groundwater resources of this area for describing the major features of groundwater quality and the principal factors that control salinity evolution. The major ionic content of 39 groundwater samples collected from the Quaternary aquifer shows high coefficients of variation reflecting asymmetry of aquifer recharge. The groundwater samples have been classified into four clusters (using hierarchical cluster analysis), these match the variety of total dissolvable solids, water types and ionic orders. The principal component analysis combined the ionic parameters of the studied groundwater samples into two principal components. The first represents about 56% of the whole sample variance reflecting a salinization due to evaporation, leaching, dissolution of marine salts and/or seawater intrusion. The second represents about 15.8% reflecting dilution with rain water and the El-Salam Canal. Most groundwater samples were not suitable for human consumption and about 41% are suitable for irrigation. However, all groundwater samples are suitable for cattle, about 69% and 15% are suitable for horses and poultry, respectively.

  1. Genetic and nutritional characterization of some macrophytes, inhabiting the Bardawil Lagoon, Sinai, Egypt

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    Hosam E. Elsaied

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The ecological and economical significances of macrophytes, inhabiting the Mediterranean Lagoon, Bardawil, northern Sinai, Egypt, are still ambiguous, due to lack of knowledge. This study focused on genetic and nutritional characterization of three dominant macrophyte species at Bardawil Lagoon. Genetic identifications were done through genomic DNA extraction, followed by PCR amplifications and sequencing of 18S rRNA genes of the studied species. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that two of the recorded species showed homologies with the seagrass species, Posidonia oceanica and Halophila ovalis, with nucleotide identities 94.5% and 96.8%, respectively. The third species showed a unique phylogenetic lineage, representing nucleotide identity average, 86.5%, among the brown seaweeds, Heterokontophyta. Nutritional analyses indicated that the recorded seaweed-like macrophyte had the highest recommended nutritional contents, crude protein, 24.67%, with a total amino acid composition of 6.64 g/100 g protein, and carbohydrate, 38.16%, besides a calorific value of 3.063 K cal/g, among the studied macrophytes. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to characterize macrophyte community in Bardawil Lagoon, using both genetic and biochemical approaches.

  2. Rainfall-Runoff Simulations in Arid Catchments in Sinai Peninsula, Egypt, using a Distributed Physically-based Hydrologic Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, E.; Elsayed, E. A.; Abdel-Motaleb, M.

    2008-05-01

    Egypt's Sinai Peninsula falls within an arid climatic belt that crosses northern Africa and southwestern Asia. Despite its aridity, Sinai is occasionally subjected to heavy rainfall causing flash floods, which are commonly characterized by sharp peak discharges with short durations. Several flash floods were recorded in south Sinai, which resulted in significant infrastructural damages, population displacement and, sometimes, loss of lives. Despite their hazardous effects, flash floods in Sinai, and other parts of southern Egypt, represent a potential resource for non-conventional fresh water sources. In order to mitigate flash flood damages and efficiently harvest the flash-flood highly needed fresh water, it is crucially important to accurately predict the occurrence of flash floods in terms of both timing and magnitude. Several studies have been implemented to develop hydrologic models for predicting flash floods in Sinai. In these studies, methodologies that are primarily conceptual, such as synthetic unit hydrographs, have shown little success at reproducing observed flood hydrographs. Physically-based distributed models provide an alternative approach for modeling food events in the Sinai arid environment. This study will examine the utility of a physically-based distributed hydrologic model (Gridded Surface-Subsurface Hydrologic Analysis, GSSHA) to simulate rainfall-runoff response in a small and a mid-size catchment in Sinai. GSSHA is a fully distributed-parameter, process-based hydrologic model that uses finite difference and finite volume methods to simulate different hydrologic processes. The watershed topographic and hydrologic properties are represented using Cartesian grids in the order of 100x100 m2. Overland hydraulic properties and soil hydraulic parameters were varied according to combined spatial classifications of soil type and land use maps. Field measurements of soil types and infiltration parameters were used to initially assign model

  3. Cataract prevalence in Central-West region of São Paulo State, Brazil Prevalência de catarata na região centro-oeste do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil

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    Gabriel Arantes Carlos

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Cataract is considered the main preventable cause of blindness and visual impairment mainly in poor countries. This study was done to evaluate if cataract is still an important cause of blindness in Central-West region of State of São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with a systematically randomized sample of households in five cities located in Central-West region of São Paulo State, Brazil. The sample consisted of 4,229 individuals (8,458 eyes of all ages. All household members were considered eligible. They were submitted to a complete ophthalmological examination (visual acuity with and without visual correction, biomicroscopy, fundoscopy, tonometry, and refractometry. Cataract diagnosis was given to eyes presenting lens opacity in biomicroscopy exam, according to Lens Opacities Classification System II (LOCS II. Eye with a best correction, presenting visual deficiency or blindness caused by cataract was considered after excluded other pathologies that decrease visual acuity (VA. We considered as visual deficiency eyes with 0.05 OBJETIVO: A catarata é a principal causa tratável de cegueira e deficiência visual em países subdesenvolvidos. Este estudo foi realizado para avaliar se a catarata continua sendo uma importante causa de cegueira no centro-oeste do Estado de São Paulo. MÉTODOS: Um estudo transversal, de caráter observacional, realizado em cinco cidades da região centro-oeste do Estado de São Paulo, para as quais o centro de referência é a cidade de Botucatu. A amostra estabelecida para este estudo, de forma aleatória, seria composta por 5.555 indivíduos, sendo que foram examinados 4.229 indivíduos (8.458 olhos, ou seja, 78% da amostra pretendida. Os indivíduos foram submetidos a um exame oftalmológico completo que consistia em avaliação da acuidade visual (com e sem correção, tonometria, biomicroscopia, fundoscopia e exame refracional. O diagnóstico de catarata foi dado aos

  4. Visitor perceptions and the shifting social carrying capacity of South Sinai's coral reefs.

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    Leujak, Wera; Ormond, Rupert F G

    2007-04-01

    To investigate how the perceptions and behaviour of visitors to coral reefs are influenced by their prior experience and knowledge of marine life, a questionnaire-based study was undertaken at sites in the Ras Mohammed National Park and at Sharm El Sheikh, South Sinai, Egypt. It was evident that over the 10-20 years during which these reefs have deteriorated (mainly due to reef-flat trampling), there have been interrelated shifts in the nature of visitors making use of them. First, there has been a shift from experienced divers and snorkellers to inexperienced snorkellers and non-snorkellers with a poorer knowledge of reef biology. Second, there has been a shift in the predominant nationalities of visitors, from German and British, through Italian, to Russian. More recent user groups both stated and showed that they had less experience of snorkelling; they also showed less knowledge of marine life and less interest in learning about it. Visitor perceptions of both the state of the marine life on the reefs and the acceptability of current visitor numbers also varied between groups. More recent visitor groups and visitors with less knowledge were more satisfied with reef health. In general, however, visitor perceptions of reef health did not correlate well with actual reef conditions, probably because more experienced visitors preferred less impacted sites with which they were nevertheless less satisfied than inexperienced visitors at heavily impacted sites. More recent visitor groups were also less bothered by crowding on the shore or in the water. Consequently, the apparent "social carrying capacity" of sites seems to be increasing to a level well above the likely "ecological carrying capacity".

  5. Mount Sinai Hospital dental program for persons with disabilities: role in undergraduate dental education.

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    Sigal, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    Access to dental care for persons with special needs or disabilities continues to be a problem. This population is known to have a high incidence of dental disease, but unfortunately oral health is a significant unmet health need in many cases. To address this need, the Mount Sinai Hospital Dental Program for Persons with Disabilities was developed over 30 years ago by staff within the discipline of pediatric dentistry at the faculty of dentistry of the University of Toronto. Undergraduate students receive hands-on clinical training in dental management of persons with disabilities, the majority of whom have a developmental disability and could receive care in a community-based dental practice. This program has been successful, but access to community care is still an issue for the population served. Two new initiatives have been introduced in an attempt to develop personal links between persons with disabilities and future dentists, the first a series of lectures given by persons with disabilities and the second a nonprofit organization dedicated to raising awareness of the need for dental care for persons with disabilities. Among other activities, the organization sponsors a community-based event called Sharing Smiles Day, which brings together dental students and persons with disabilities in a carnival-like setting where the emphasis is on personal interactions. Dental preventive education is also provided but is of secondary importance. These initiatives and the program as a whole represent recognition of the responsibility of educators to ensure that new graduates have both the education and the desire to provide needed dental care to persons with disabilities.

  6. The influence of diagenesis on the reservoir quality of Cambrian and Carboniferous sandstones, southwest Sinai, Egypt

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    McBride, Earle F.; Abdel-Wahab, Antar; Salem, Alaa M. K.

    1996-04-01

    The diagenetic influence on hydrocarbon reservoir quality was investigated for the Cambrian and Lower Carboniferous sandstones of southwestern Sinai. These quartzose and feldspathic Palaeozoic sandstones were not buried more than 1 to 1.5 km until Late Cretaceous and more recent times, when the most deeply buried rocks may have reached 25 km. Porosity was reduced by compaction from an assumed original 45% to about 26%. In general, both Cambrian and Carboniferous sandstones lost more porosity by compaction (average of 19% for each) than by cementation (average of 17% and 13%, respectively). There is no significant difference in the degree of compaction shown by Cambrian (older, deeper buried) rather than Carboniferous sandstones. Cementation by iron oxide, quartz, calcite and kaolinite reduced porosity to 12-15%, except in silcretes and some ferricretes where porosity was reduced to <5%. Significant secondary porosity was created (5.8 and 5.1 % for Cambrian and Carboniferous sandstones, respectively ) chiefly by dissolution of feldspar. Kaolinite (maximum of 20%) is the most deleterious cement because it has high microporosity, which causes high residual water saturation, and occurs as tiny crystals that have the potential to break loose during rapid fluid flow and block the pore throats. The present-day porosity in these sandstones averages 19% and ranges from 1.5 to 32%. Many sandstone samples (47% of a total of 178 samples) have permeability values higher than 1000 md. The plot of porosity versus the log of permeability has a good correlation indicating that microporosity, even though locally important, does not significantly influence reservoir quality. In spite of their age and the large volumes of groundwater that probably passed through them, these Palaeozoic sandstones retain sufficient porosity and permeability to possess excellent reservoir quality.

  7. Evidence for an Early Archean component in the Middle to Late Archean gneisses of the Wind River Range, west-central Wyoming: conventional and ion microprobe U-Pb data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleinikoff, J.N.; Williams, I.S.; Compston, W.; Stuckless, J.S.; Worl, R.G.

    1989-01-01

    Gneissic rocks that are basement to the Late Archean granites comprising much of the Wind River Range, west-central Wyoming, have been dated by the zircon U-Pb method using both conventional and ion microprobe techniques. A foliated hornblende granite gneiss member from the southern border of the Bridger batholith is 2670??13 Ma. Zircons from a granulite just north of the Bridger batholith are equant and faceted, a typical morphology for zircon grown under high grade metamorphic conditions. This granulite, which may be related to a second phase of migmatization in the area, is 2698??8 Ma. South of the Bridger batholith, zircons from a granulite (charnockite), which is related to an earlier phase of migmatization in the Range, yield a discordia with intercept ages of about 2.3 and 3.3 Ga. However, ion microprobe analyses of single zircon grains indicate that this rock contains several populations of zircon, ranging in age from 2.67 to about 3.8 Ga. Based on zircon morphology and regional geologic relationships, we interpret the data as indicating an age of ???3.2 Ga for the first granulite metamorphism and migmatization. Older, possibly xenocrystic zircons give ages of ???3.35, 3.65 and ???3.8 Ga. Younger zircons grew at 2.7 and 2.85 Ga in response to events, including the second granulite metamorphism at 2.7 Ga, that culminated in the intrusion of the Bridger batholith and migmatization at 2.67 Ga. These data support the field and petrographic evidence for two granulite events and provide some temporal constraints for the formation of continental crust in the Early and Middle Archean in the Wyoming Province. ?? 1989 Springer-Verlag.

  8. The Understanding from the Ground Optimization and Simplify Construction of West Central Area in Sa Oilfield%萨中油田中区西部地面优化简化建设的认识

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田玉凯

    2011-01-01

    萨中油田中区西部产能建设位于大庆油田萨中开发区中部,该区域为已开发区块,区域内有已建各种站共30座,并有备勇村、登峰村、铁人二村、井下做业公司、大庆市百货公司、体育馆、儿童公园、友谊装饰材料市场、联谊商场、六中等居住区和商业区,地面建(构)筑物、生产设施等约占开发区域的68%,地面建设困难,通过采取地上地下一体化优化、布局优化、工艺简化、参数优化等优化简化措施,使该区块得到了经济有效开发.%Sa oil field of eapacity building is located in West Mesa in the Daqing oil field in central zone, the region, as a development block, has built a total of 30 various stations and Fenyong village, Dengfeng village, the Iron man of the village, industry companies in the well, Daqing department stores, gym, children's park, friendship decoration materials market, recreational shopping malls, six residential and commercial middle-ground building (structure) , building materials, production facilities, development of the region account for about 68% developed ground construction, for the difficulty on the ground, through taking below ground integrated optimization, layout optimization, process simplification, optimization and other optimization simplification, the block has been cost-effectively developed.

  9. Anthropometric variation in west-central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, A F

    2001-06-01

    Anthropometric data from five indigenous Mexican groups, collected by Carlos and Manuel Basauri in 1933, were reanalyzed and compared with serological and cranial non-metric data. Ten cranial and 14 postcranial measurements were used, both separately and together. Bias-corrected r0 and FST values were slightly higher for the postcranial analysis (0.033) than for the cranial analysis (0.024). Given the degree of linguistic differentiation among the Mexican populations, not to mention the different histories of the communities sampled, this result is surprisingly low. The two groups which were closest linguistically and geographically, the Cora and Huichol, were also close biologically. The other three groups, Tarascan, Aztecan, and Otomi, were not closely related to each other or to the Cora-Huichol pair. More interesting than the relationship between populations in this case are those within them. The Aztecas of Tuxpan, Jalisco, exhibit high rii values and lower-than-expected phenotypic variance, suggesting the pronounced action of genetic drift. The Otomi of Ixmiquilpan and Cora of the Sierra de Nayarit, despite their very different histories, both exhibit low rii values and higher-than-expected phenotypic variance, indicating a high level of gene flow. Despite the phenotypic similarities between the Cora and Huichol, their residual variance is very different; this mirrors serological investigations of relative admixture. Over all, recent population history, and especially non-indigenous admixture, are at least as explicative of the observed biological variation as historical linguistic ties are.

  10. Landscape evolution of West Kunlun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Chang, Hong

    2010-05-01

    Constituting the northwestern margin of the Tibetan Plateau, the present-day Western Kunlun is a spectacular mountain range, extending from the Pamir Plateau in the west to the Altyn Tagh fault and the Eastern Kunlun Range in the east. Dramatic climate variations have a significant control on the fluvial dissection, glacial erosion and wind transport. The West Kunlun Mountains is one of the key regions for understanding the uplift history of the Plateau and the climate change of Central Asia. The activities of tectonic and erosion make the topography of West Kunlun Mountains complex and varied. However, due to its remote location, there is still limited knowledge about the geomorphologic and geological features in West Kunlun Mountains .This paper tries to figure out the geomorphologic and geological features of this region qualitatively through studying the data of Shuttle Reader Topography Mission (SRTM) and topographic maps by digital elevation models (DEMs) and constructing profiles, aiming to make clear what functions the tectonics and climate exert on the topography of the West Kunlun Mountains. The West Kunlun Mountains, the northwestern margin of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, have strong tectonic activities. From south to north,West Kunlun Mountains developed three major faults: Kangxiwar fracture, North West Kunlun fault and Iron Creek fault. At about 25 Ma B.P., the West Kunlun began to uplift, and from about 5 Ma B.P., the West Kunlun began to grow rapidly. By using topographic analyzing software to make more than 10 vertical profiles across the main faults from south to north, it is obvious that there is a height difference between the upper and lower plate fracture, and the elevation of terrain profiles generally decreases from south to north. There is ~4,500m elevation difference between the main ridge of the West Kunlun Mountains out of Kangxiwar (5500-6000m) and the northern foot of the Tarim Basin (1200-1300m). The same progressively decreasing

  11. Morphotectonics of Kid drainage basin, Southeastern Sinai: A landscape evolution coeval to Gulf of Aqaba - Dead Sea rifting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalaby, Ahmed; Shawky, Mohamed

    2014-12-01

    The Pleistocene fluvio-tectonic conditions have shaped the landscapes of Sinai Peninsula through development of small sedimentary traps following preexisting lineaments. In the Gulf of Aqaba region, orientation of these lineaments with respect to the Pleistocene stress field develops strike-slip simple and dip-slip pure extensional shear models that induced rifting of the Gulf of Aqaba - Dead Sea fault system. The Beida and Nabq grabens are two major rift-related depressions at the southwestern coast of the Gulf of Aqaba region. Both grabens are landscapes that received alluvial sediments of the Kid drainage basin (KDB), which is one of the largest drainage systems in the western region of the Gulf of Aqaba fault-scarp. The Beida graben is formed at a horse tail structure next to Abiad and Kid faults, while the Nabq graben is a pull-apart structure formed as onshore continuation of the Dakar deep. The geometry and origin of these landscapes are the intrinsic themes of this study to investigate the morphotectonic evolution of the KDB terrain within the tectonic framework of the Gulf of Aqaba - Dead Sea rift. The hanging terraces and canyons being at higher elevations on the Gulf of Aqaba fault-scarp; and the accumulation of younger alluvial fans, talus cones and bajada on its footslope indicate that the KDB landscape is basically shaped; and evolutionary modified by hinterland uplifting of the Gulf of Aqaba region. Hence, two morphotectonic evolution periods of the KDB terrain coincide with the early NE- and late NNE-trending extensional Pleistocene axes. The early period started with deposition of the older alluvial fan sediments that emerged at the outlet of KDB, and partially buried the Gulf of Aqaba fault-scarp. Subsequent hinterland uplifting revived the Gulf of Aqaba fault-scarp with development of hanging alluvial and bed-rock terraces; and the older alluvial fan sediments are uplifted on the footwall of southward-dipping normal faults whose hanging

  12. Impact of pregnancy and nutrition on oxidant/antioxidant balance in sheep and goats reared in South Sinai, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawito, M F; Hameed, Amal R Abd El; Sosa, A S A; Mahmoud, Karima Gh M

    2016-08-01

    To monitor the effect of nutrition and pregnancy on oxidative status of animals under the arid condition of South Sinai. Blood samples were taken from two groups of animals: The first group retained in farm and fed on concentrate (high diet) and another group grazing natural forage (low diet). Each group was subdivided into pregnant and non-pregnant animals. Blood samples were assayed for their content of malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymes. MDA level significantly increased in pregnant animals fed either concentrate or grazing low-quality forage and accompanied by a low level of TAC in pregnant grazing animals fed low-quality forage. The activity of CAT decreased in pregnant fed either concentrate or grazing and SOD significant decrease in the pregnant grazing group. These data suggested that the animals might have experienced some degree of oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation and indicating that redox homeostasis was impaired in those pregnant and specially fed on forage rations. Pregnancy constituted the most oxidative stress facing the grazing and concentrated diet feed sheep and goats under arid and saline conditions of Southern Sinai, Egypt.

  13. Impact of pregnancy and nutrition on oxidant⁄antioxidant balance in sheep and goats reared in South Sinai, Egypt

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    M. F. Nawito

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To monitor the effect of nutrition and pregnancy on oxidative status of animals under the arid condition of South Sinai. Materials and Methods: Blood samples were taken from two groups of animals: The first group retained in farm and fed on concentrate (high diet and another group grazing natural forage (low diet. Each group was subdivided into pregnant and non-pregnant animals. Blood samples were assayed for their content of malondialdehyde (MDA, total antioxidant capacity (TAC, catalase (CAT, and superoxide dismutase (SOD enzymes. Results: MDA level significantly increased in pregnant animals fed either concentrate or grazing low-quality forage and accompanied by a low level of TAC in pregnant grazing animals fed low-quality forage. The activity of CAT decreased in pregnant fed either concentrate or grazing and SOD significant decrease in the pregnant grazing group. These data suggested that the animals might have experienced some degree of oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation and indicating that redox homeostasis was impaired in those pregnant and specially fed on forage rations. Conclusion: Pregnancy constituted the most oxidative stress facing the grazing and concentrated diet feed sheep and goats under arid and saline conditions of Southern Sinai, Egypt.

  14. What's West Nile Virus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Puberty Train Your Temper What's West Nile Virus? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's West Nile Virus? Print A A A en español ¿Qué es el Virus del Nilo Occidental? What exactly is the West ...

  15. Riesgos de trabajo en veterinarios del centro-oeste de la provincia de Santa Fe, Argentina Occupational risks in veterinarans from the central-west area of Santa Fe province, Argentina

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    H.D Tarabla

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Se estimaron las frecuencias de accidentes ocupacionales y zoonosis, incapacidad laboral y uso de elementos de protección mediante encuestas telefónicas con cuestionario estructurado en 94 Veterinarios del centro-oeste santafesino. El 75,5% sufrió accidentes laborales en el año previo, y sólo el 7,4% no había tenido al menos uno a lo largo de su trayectoria profesional. Las lesiones más frecuentes fueron punzaduras, contusiones, hematomas, escoriaciones y heridas cortantes causadas por animales, agujas y tránsito vehicular. El 39,4% tuvo accidentes in itinere, la mayoría por tránsito vehicular. El 55,3% requirió atención médica y un tercio sufrió pérdidas de días de trabajo, con un promedio de 25,2±29,6 días por profesional accidentado. En los 12 meses previos a la encuesta se produjeron dos casos de brucelosis (2,9%, mientras que el 28,7% manifestó padecer o haber padecido alguna zoonosis en algún momento de su trayectoria profesional, siendo la brucelosis la más frecuente. El uso de elementos de protección fue claramente insuficiente. Aunque el 53,2% padecía alguna patología atribuible al ejercicio profesional, el 74,5 % manifestó no haber recibido capacitación alguna sobre peligros ocupacionales. La necesidad de capacitación específica en este área aparece como primordial para minimizar los riesgos.The frequency of occupational accidents, zoonosis, lost of work days, and protective practices were estimated by means of telephone interviews using a structured questionnaire on 94 Veterinarians from Central-West Santa Fe Province. Seventy six percent suffered occupational accidents on the previous year, while only 7,4% did not have a single accident throughout their careers. Most frequent lesions were punctures, concussions, haematomas, abrasions, and cutting injuries caused by animals, needles and traffic. Thirty nine percent suffered accidents in itinere, mostly due to traffic. Fifty five percent required medical

  16. Petrologic and geochemical characterization and mineralization of the metavolcanic rocks of the Heib Formation, Kid Metamorphic Complex, Sinai, Egypt

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    Ibrahim H. Khalifa

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Metavolcanic rocks hosting base metal sulphide mineralization, and belonging to the Kid Metamorphic Complex, are exposed in the Samra-Tarr area, Southern Sinai. The rocks consist of slightly metamorphosed varicolored porphyritic lavas of rhyolite-to-andesite composition, and their equivalent pyroclastics. Geochemically, these metavolcanics are classified as high-K calc-alkaline, metaluminous andesites, trachyandesites, dacites, and rhyolites. The geochemical characteristics of these metavolcanics strongly point to their derivation from continental crust in an active continental margin. The sulphide mineralization in these metavolcanics occurs in two major ore zones, and is represented by four distinct styles of mineralization. The mineralization occurs either as low-grade disseminations or as small massive pockets. The associated hydrothermal alterations include carbonatization, silicification, sericitization and argillic alterations. The base metal sulphide mineralization is epigenetic and was formed by hydrothermal solutions associated with subduction-related volcanic activity.

  17. Infarto cerebral e edema avaliação prognóstico-evolutiva por sinais neurológicos

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    Rubens José Gagliardi

    1991-03-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de estudo prospectivo abrangendo 92 doentes com infarto cerebral (IC. O seguimento foi feito durante 10 dias com avaliação diária, sendo os doentes analisados por escala de notas para diferentes sinais costumeiramente pesquisados nesses casos. A metodologia foi especialmente desenvolvida no sentido de analisar exclusivamente alterações devidas ao edema oriundo da isquemia e IC. As conclusões foram obtidas por comparação isolada das médias das notas de cada sinal com a média do total das notas. Os resultados mostram que o exame da «consciência», isoladamente, é o melhor parâmetro clínico para averiguar a evolução do doente após um IC, sem outras complicações que não o edema.

  18. Nonequilibrium steady state and induced currents of a mesoscopically glassy system: interplay of resistor-network theory and Sinai physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurowitz, Daniel; Rahav, Saar; Cohen, Doron

    2013-12-01

    We introduce an explicit solution for the nonequilibrium steady state (NESS) of a ring that is coupled to a thermal bath, and is driven by an external hot source with log-wide distribution of couplings. Having time scales that stretch over several decades is similar to glassy systems. Consequently there is a wide range of driving intensities where the NESS is like that of a random walker in a biased Brownian landscape. We investigate the resulting statistics of the induced current I. For a single ring we discuss how sign of I fluctuates as the intensity of the driving is increased, while for an ensemble of rings we highlight the fingerprints of Sinai physics on the distribution of the absolute value of I.

  19. Disfunções temporomandibulares: sinais, sintomas e abordagem multidisciplinar Temporomandibular Disorders: signs, symptoms and multidisciplinary approach

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    Mariana Del Cistia Donnarumma

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: verificar perfil, queixa e principais sinais e sintomas de uma amostra de pacientes com disfunção temporomandibular que estiveram ou estão em tratamento ortodôntico e observar a ocorrência de atendimentos multidisciplinares. MÉTODOS: foram coletados dados de 125 prontuários em uma clínica odontológica da cidade de Sorocaba e os itens analisados nos prontuários foram: sexo, idade, profissão, queixa, três principais sinais e sintomas dos pacientes e se houve encaminhamento para avaliação fonoaudiológica, fisioterápica e psicológica. RESULTADOS: predominância feminina, sendo 107 mulheres (85,6% e 18 homens (14,4%. Média de idade de 35 anos, sendo a menor idade 14 anos e a maior 74 anos. Relação da disfunção temporomandibular com as profissões: 43 (34,4% eram profissionais com vínculo empregatício. Queixa trazida pelo paciente: dor na região da articulação temporomandibular e masseter: 86 - (68,8%. Três principais sinais e sintomas observados na avaliação ortodôntica: dor na região da articulação temporomandibular e masseter: 98 - 78,4%; estalos unilaterais: 55 - 44% e travamento: 23 - 18,4%. Conduta de encaminhamentos: fonoaudiologia 59 (47,2%; fisioterapia 40 (32% e psicologia 53 (42,4%. CONCLUSÃO: na amostra pesquisada, a prevalência de casos de disfunção temporomandibular foi maior no sexo feminino, com queixa de dor. Os principais sinais e sintomas foram: dor, estalo unilateral e travamento e houve encaminhamento para atendimentos multidisciplinares nas áreas de Fonoaudiologia, Fisioterapia e Psicologia.PURPOSE: to check the main signs and symptoms of a sample of patients with temporomandibular dysfunction that were or are under orthodontic treatment and observe if there was a possible multidisciplinary treatment. METHODS: data from 125 medical records collected in a orthodontic clinic located in Sorocaba and the analyzed items were: gender, age, profession, complains, three main signs and

  20. The assessment of natural radioactivity and its associated radiological hazards and dose parameters in granite samples from South Sinai, Egypt

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    D.A.E. Darwish

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gamma ray spectra of natural radioactivity from 238U- and 232Th series and from 40K of eight (representing 40 collected samples granite samples collected from Saint Katherine region, South Sinai, Egypt, had been measured using a gamma-ray spectrometer with an HPGe detector. The results reported in the present article include: Specific activities (A of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K radionuclides, Radium equivalent activities (Raeq, external and internal hazard indices (Hext, Hint, external and internal level indices (Iγ, Iα, activity utilization index (I, exposure rate (ER and other important parameters to the subject. The results have been presented in table graphs with the permissible maximum limits.

  1. Population structure and dynamics of the endemic species Phlomis aurea Decne in different habitats in southern Sinai Peninsula, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal H. Shaltout

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Phlomis aurea Decne is a rare and endangered species inhabiting high altitudes at southern Sinai Peninsula, Egypt. The present study investigated the population structure of P. aurea, in terms of size distribution, height, diameter, density, frequency and cover at its favourable habitats, and attempted to assess the effect of different habitats, which reflect the elevation gradients, on sizes distribution and density of occurrences of the study species. Sixty five stands (each of 25 × 25 m were sampled to represent most variations among P. aurea populations in four main habitats (basins, mountain slopes, gorges and wadi beds. P. aurea in basins had the highest plant frequency, cover, plant diameter and height, size index, leaf length and width, leaves, branches, flowers, inflorescences and inflorescence length, while slope population had the lowest. Population in gorges and wadi beds had the highest height to diameter ratio, while in basin and slope had the lowest. Plants in gorges had the highest density, followed by those in basins, wadi beds and slopes. The size structures in the gorges and basins approximated the normal distribution; while that of the slope population approximated the positively skewed distribution. The plant cover was positively correlated with silt, clay, Ca, altitude, CaCO3, fine sand and HCO3; while it was negatively correlated with soil pH and Mg. In addition, plant cover response along soil salinity (EC gradient approximated normal distribution. This study may help in planning for conserving this endemic species and we recommend, as a priority, to increase the area of the protected areas at mid- to high altitude in the Southern Sinai to grant further protection in zones with the highest density of endemics.

  2. Determining Potential Sites for Runoff Water Harvesting using Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems-Based Modeling in Sinai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossam H. Elewa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Sinai is increasingly suffering from an overwhelming water crisis. Runoff Water Harvesting (RWH could be a solution for this problem. The determined promising drainage basins for RWH could be used by the decision makers to propose appropriate controlling systems to overcome the problem of water scarcity and for implementing runoff farming and rain-fed agriculture. Approach: Remote sensing, geographic information systems, watershed modeling system were integrated to extract a multi-criteria-decision support system of nine thematic layers, namely; volume of annual flood, lineaments frequency density, drainage frequency density, maximum flow distance, basin area, basin slope, basin length, average overland flow distance and soil infiltration. These criteria were used for conducting a Weighted Spatial Probability Modeling (WSPM to determine the potential areas for the RWH. The potential runoff available for harvesting was estimated by applying Finkel-SCS rainfall-runoff methods. Results: The WSPM classified Sinai into four classes that graded from high (3,201-6,695 km2, moderate (35,923-35,896 km2, low (13,185-16,652 km2, very low (1.38-5.57 km2 for RWH. Promising watersheds like those of Abu Taryfya, Hamma El Hassana, Gerafi, Watir, Geraia, Heridien, Sidri, Feiran and Alaawag, are categorized as high-moderate RWH potential basins. Conclusion: These basins could be investigated in detail with larger scale to determine the appropriate locations for implementing the RWH structures and techniques. Implementing systems and techniques of RWH in the potential watersheds could open new opportunities for sustainable development in the area.

  3. Espondilose cervical: valor prognóstico dos sinais e sintomas pré-operatórios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reynaldo A. Brandt

    1976-03-01

    Full Text Available Cento e quarenta e um pacientes com espondilose cervical foram estudados com o objetivo de se determinar um possível valor prognóstico nos sinais e sintomas pré-operatórios; 99 apresentaram radiculopatia, 19 mielopatia e 23 mielorradiculopatia. Nos pacientes com radiculopatia, recuperação completa foi 2,5 vezes mais frequente nos com paresia moderada dos membros superiores em relação aos com paresia intensa, 4,5 vezes mais frequente nos que não apresentaram atrofia muscular, 4,5 vezes mais frequente nos que não apresentaram distúrbios objetivos da sensibilidade, 4 vezes mais frequente nos que apresentaram defeitos mielográficos em menos do que dois níveis discais; pacientes com mais de 60 anos apresentaram maior proporção de comprometimento motor grave e também tiveram piores resultados com a cirurgia. Nos pacientes com mielopatia, nenhum com paresia intensa e nenhum com espasticidade intensa dos membros inferiores teve recuperação completa no primeiro ano após a cirurgia; resultados melhores foram observados nos que apresentaram paresia moderada nos membros inferiores. Melhores resultados foram vistos em pacientes com número maior de defeitos mielográficos. Comprometimento motor grave dos membros inferiores foi mais frequente nos pacientes com mais de 60 anos e estes apresentaram também piores resultados após a cirurgia em relação aos com menos de 60 anos. A cirurgia foi um marco na recuperação destes pacientes. Conclui-se que a padronização da avaliação destes sinais e sintomas pré-operatórios permite um prognóstico em relação à radiculopatia e à mielopatia consequentes à espondilose cervical.

  4. SUPRESSIVIDADE NATURAL DE SOLOS DA REGIÃO CENTRO-OESTE A Rhizoctonia solani KÜHN NATURAL SUPPRESSIVENESS OF SOILS FROM WEST CENTRAL BRAZIL TO Rhizoctonia solani Kühn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Andrade Botelho

    2007-09-01

    some soils previously submitted to different managements from West Central Brazil. Soil samples were collected in Itumbiara, Silvânia, Jussara and Santa Helena de Goiás counties of Goiás State, and classified as: Purple Latosol, Dark-Red Latosol, Sandy Soil and Purple Latosol, respectively. Each soil sample was collected in the layer of 0-20 cm, in contiguous areas with the following characteristics: a soil cultivated with beans irrigated with central pivot, for more than four consecutive years; b soil under native vegetation, and c soil under Brachiaria decubens pasture. Sorghum grains colonized by Rhizoctonia solani, were ground and mixed to the soil samples. Six inoculum densities were used: 0, 100, 500, 1000, 5000 and 10000 propagules per gram of soil. The experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions, using a randomized complete block design, in a factorial scheme 6 x 4 x 3, with four replications. The experimental unit was a plastic tray with 4 kg of soil and 40 plants. Fifteen days after the emergence symptoms severity were evaluated and the McKinney index estimated. The analysis of variance revealed significance of triple interaction and the degrees of freedom were unfolded in regression analyses among the inoculum doses and the disease index in percentage, in the following exponential equation: ID = A x e (-B/dose do inóculo + 1. In the soil samples from Itumbiara and Silvânia the disease index increased with the increment of the number of propagules for gram of soil, reaching values larger than 70%. However, for both soils, there were no significant differences among the natural vegetation, pasture and bean cultivated soils. On the other hand, in soils from Jussara and Santa Helena, in spite of the disease index increment with the increase of the inoculum doses, the natural and pasture soils showed similar disease indexes for all the inoculum doses used. In soil from irrigated beans, the increment in the diseases index was smaller, not surpassing

  5. Signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders in adolescents Sinais e sintomas de disfunção temporomandibular em adolescentes

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    Leonardo Rigoldi Bonjardim

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to verify the prevalence of signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders (TMD in adolescents and its relationship to gender. The sample comprised 217 subjects, aged 12 to 18. The subjective symptoms and clinical signs of TMD were evaluated, using, respectively, a self-report questionnaire and the Craniomandibular Index, which has 2 subscales; the Dysfunction Index and the Palpation Index. The results of muscle tenderness showed great variability (0.9-32.25%. In relation to the temporomandibular joint, tenderness of the superior, dorsal and lateral condyle regions occurred in 10.6%, 10.6% and 7.83%, respectively, of the sample. Joint sound during opening was present in 19.8% of the sample and during closing in 14.7%. The most prevalent symptoms were joint sounds (26.72% and headache (21.65%. There was no statistical difference between genders (p > 0.05, except for the tenderness of the lateral pterygoid muscles, which presented more prevalence in girls. In conclusion, clinical signs and symptoms of TMD can occur in adolescents; however, gender influence was not perceived.O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a prevalência de sinais e sintomas de disfunção temporomandibular (DTM em adolescentes e sua relação com o gênero. A amostra foi constituída de 217 voluntários, com idade entre 12 e 18 anos. Os sintomas subjetivos e os sinais clínicos de DTM foram avaliados usando-se, respectivamente, um questionário e o "Craniomandibular Index", o qual possui 2 subescalas: "Dysfunction Index" e "Palpation Index". Os resultados para sensibilidade muscular mostraram grande variabilidade (0,9-32,25%. Com relação à articulação temporomandibular, a sensibilidade à palpação nas regiões superior, dorsal e lateral do côndilo ocorreu, respectivamente, em 10,6%, 10,6% e 7,83% da amostra. A prevalência do ruído articular no movimento de abertura foi de 19,8% e no fechamento, 14,7%. Os sintomas relatados mais

  6. Call From China West

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Wei; Guo Jin

    2008-01-01

    @@ The 12th East-West China Cooperation and Investment and Trade Fair was held from April 5 to 8 at the International Conference and Exhibition Center in Qu-jiang,Xi'an.Shaanxi province,in the west of China.

  7. Potential Impacts of Climate Change on Modern Recharge in the Eastern Desert and Sinai Peninsula of Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milewski, A.; Sultan, M.; Becker, D.; Soliman, F.; Yan, E.; Becker, R.; Chouinard, K.

    2011-12-01

    Aquifers in Egypt (e.g., Nubian Sandstone, shallow alluvial) were primarily recharged in previous wet climatic periods in the Quaternary. Previous studies have shown that both aquifers are receiving modern recharge under the current drier climatic conditions. The validity of these advocated models was tested using geophysical (conventional Electrical Resistivity, [ER]) and isotopic (O, H) data, and estimates for modern recharge were obtained using continuous rainfall-runoff modeling over the period 1998-2007. First-order estimates of the average annual modern recharge for the NSS aquifer (~13.0 x 10^6m^3/yr) and the shallow Alluvial aquifers in the Sinai Peninsula for the investigated watersheds (456 x 10^6m^3/yr) and the shallow Alluvial aquifers in the Eastern Desert (147 x 10^6m^3/yr) were computed using the SWAT (Soil Water Assessment Tool) model and readily available global remote sensing data sets (e.g., TRMM). Projections of climate change over North Africa from three of the leading general circulation models (GCMs) (GISS, GFDL, and UKMO) indicate a potentially high degree of vulnerability in the future precipitation amounts in Egypt. For each of the major watersheds and the Nubian Sandstone outcrops, we ran the calibrated model over the investigation period (1998-2007) using the obtained average annual precipitation and additional values of 10, 50, 100, and 150 mm. The SWAT model outputs were then used to extract relationships describing variations in runoff, recharge, and evaporation in relation to average annual precipitation amounts. Using developed tools on a web-based GIS interface we described these relationships under various climatic trends. Using a 10% decrease in rainfall in Egypt results in decreasing the average annual recharge to the shallow Alluvial aquifers in the Sinai Peninsula (384 x 10^6m^3/yr) and in the Eastern Desert (111 x 10^6m^3/yr). The observed differences between the watersheds in the partitioning of precipitation and in their

  8. Magnetic anomalies in Central Bengal fan

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, T.C.S.; Lakshminarayana, S.; Sarma, K.V.L.N.S.

    Total magnetic field anomalies recorded over the Central Bengal Fan are analysed and the depths to the magnetic basement are computed using the analytical signal and the Werner deconvolution methods. To the west and east of 85 degrees E...

  9. O uso da plataforma de desenvolvimento OMAP-L137/TMS320C6747, de processamento digital de sinais, na implementação de filtros digitais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamyres T. C. Palitó

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nas últimas décadas a tecnologia tem evoluído rapidamente com a grande demanda por equipamentos paraprocessamento digital de sinais. O Digital Signal Processor (DSP é um microcontrolador especializado, comalto poder de processamento, utilizado normalmente no tratamento de sinais de áudio e vídeo. Neste trabalho,é apresentada uma ferramenta didática para a implementação de filtros digitais Finite Impulse Response (FIRno módulo de avaliação OMAP-L137/TMS320C6747. Para o projeto do filtro é utilizada a interface gráficafdatool do MATLAB e para a implementação o software Code Composer Studio v3.3. Um filtro passa-baixas foiimplementado e testado no processo de filtragem de um sinal de voz.

  10. Contribuições para a deteção automática de eventos presentes em sinais de eletrocardiograma

    OpenAIRE

    Bagarrão, Mónica Cristina da Conceição Martins

    2015-01-01

    Dissertação de Mestrado, Engenharia Eletrónica e Telecomunicações, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade do Algarve, 2015 O eletrocardiograma (ECG) é um recurso diagnóstico extremamente útil na prática clínica cardiológica pois permite o registro dos sinais elétricos gerados pelo atividade do coração durante diversos ciclos cardíacos. A análise de sinais de ECG com vista à deteção de patologias clínicas requer a utilização de métodos de deteção de eventos precisos, que possibili...

  11. Avaliação da intensidade de dor e sinais vitais no pós-operatório de cirurgia cardíaca

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    Adriana de Fátima Alencar Miranda

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo é analisar as alterações nos sinais vitais de pacientes em pós-operatório de cirurgias cardíacas, mediante intensidade de dor referida. Trata-se de estudo descritivo-exploratório, que utilizou o método de análise quantitativa na investigação de 38 pacientes submetidos à primeira renovação de curativos. A análise dos dados, mensurados antes e após a realização do procedimento de enfermagem, indicaram que a manifestação da dor ocorreu em diferentes classificações. As principais alterações nos sinais vitais ocorreram na pressão arterial. Concluiu-se que a intensidade dolorosa mantém relações com os resultados dos sinais vitais e o cuidado prestado é imprescindível ao restabelecimento do estado de saúde do paciente no pós-operatório.

  12. Mineralogy and source rock evaluation of the marine Oligo-Miocene sediments in some wells in the Nile Delta and North Sinai, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    El sheikh, Hassan; Faris, Mahmoud; Shaker, Fatma; Kumral, Mustafa

    2016-06-01

    This paper aims to study the mineralogical composition and determine the petroleum potential of source rocks of the Oligocene-Miocene sequence in the Nile Delta and North Sinai districts. The studied interval in the five wells can be divided into five rock units arranged from the top to base; Qawasim, Sidi Salem, Kareem, Rudeis, and Qantara formations. The bulk rock mineralogy of the samples was investigated using X-Ray Diffraction technique (XRD). The results showed that the sediments of the Nile Delta area are characterized by the abundance of quartz and kaolinite with subordinate amounts of feldspars, calcite, gypsum, dolomite, and muscovite. On the other hand, the data of the bulk rock analysis at the North Sinai wells showed that kaolinite, quartz, feldspar and calcite are the main constituents associated with minor amounts of dolomite, gypsum, mica, zeolite, and ankerite. Based on the organic geochemical investigations (TOC and Rock-Eval pyrolysis analyses), all studied formations in both areas are thermally immature but in the Nile delta area, Qawasim, Sidi Salem and Qantara formations (El-Temsah-2 Well) are organically-rich and have a good petroleum potential (kerogen Type II-oil-prone), while Rudeis Formation is a poor petroleum potential source rock (kerogen Type III-gas-prone). In the North Sinai area, Qantara Formation has a poor petroleum potential (kerogen Type III-gas-prone) and Sidi Salem Formation (Bardawil-1 Well) is a good petroleum potential source rock (kerogen Type II-oil-prone).

  13. Relationships between ground and airborne gamma-ray spectrometric survey data, North Ras Millan, Southern Sinai Peninsula, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Mohamed A S

    2016-02-01

    In the last decades of years, there was considerable growth in the use of airborne gamma-ray spectrometry. With this growth, there was an increasing need to standardize airborne measurements, so that they can be independent of survey parameters. Acceptable procedures were developed for converting airborne to ground gamma-ray spectrometric measurements of total-count intensity as well as, potassium, equivalent uranium and equivalent thorium concentrations, due to natural sources of radiation. The present study aims mainly to establish relationships between ground and airborne gamma-ray spectrometric data, North Ras Millan, Southern Sinai Peninsula, Egypt. The relationships between airborne and ground gamma-ray spectrometric data were deduced for the original and separated rock units in the study area. Various rocks in the study area, represented by Quaternary Wadi sediments, Cambro-Ordovician sandstones, basic dykes and granites, are shown on the detailed geologic map. The structures are displayed, which located on the detailed geologic map, are compiled from the integration of previous geophysical and surface geological studies.

  14. Spatial distribution of radioisotopes in the coast of Suez Gulf, southwestern Sinai and the impact of hot springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, Kh A; Seddeek, M K; Elnimr, T; Sharshar, T; Badran, H M

    2011-06-01

    This work describes the concentrations of radioisotopes in soil, sediment, wild plants and groundwater in southwestern Sinai. The study area extends from Suez to Abu Rudies along the eastern part of the Suez Gulf. It included two hot springs: Ayun Musa and Hammam Faraoun. No dependence of ¹³⁷Cs concentrations on any of the measured sand characteristics was found, including calcium carbonate. The enrichment of ²²⁶Ra in Hammam Faraoun hot spring was the most prominent feature. The ²²⁶Ra concentration in hot springs of Ayun Musa and Hammam Faraoun were 68 and 2377 Bq kg⁻¹ for sediments, 3.5 and 54.0 Bq kg⁻¹ for wild plants and 205 and 1945 mBq l⁻¹ for the groundwater, respectively. In addition, ²²⁶Ra activity concentration in local sand in the area of Hammam Faraoun was ∼14 times that of Ayun Musa. On the other hand, the ²³²Th concentrations were comparable in the two hot springs, while ¹³⁷Cs concentrations were relatively higher in Ayun Musa. The characteristics and radioelements studies support possible suggestions that the waters in the two hot springs have different contributions of sea and groundwaters crossing different geological layers where the water-rock interaction takes place.

  15. Hydro/Engineering Geophysical Parameters and Design Response Spectrum for Sustainable Development in Ras Muhammed National Park, Sinai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Mohamed H.; Gamal, Mohamed A.

    2016-06-01

    The Egyptian government is preparing a sustainable development master plan for the Ras Muhammed National Park (RMNP), south Sinai. Noteworthy, the scarcity of the freshwater resources and close proximity to the active seismic zones of the Gulf of Aqaba implicate geophysical investigations for the fresh groundwater aquifers and construct a design response spectrum, respectively. Accordingly, 14 VESs, hydro/engineering geophysical analysis, pumping tests, downhole seismic test, a design response spectrum for buildings, and borehole data were carried out in the study area. The unconfined freshwater aquifer was effectively depicted with true resistivities, thickness, and EC ranged from 56 to 135 Ω m, 11 to 112 m, and 1.4 to 7.1 mS/m, respectively. The Northeastern part was characterized by higher aquifer potentiality, where coarser grains size, highest thickness (112 m), high true resistivity (135 Ω m), groundwater flow (0.074 m3/day), tortuosity (1.293-1.312), formation resistivity factor (4.1-4.6), and storativity (0.281-0.276). An increase in pumping rate was accompanied by an increase in well loss, increase in aquifer losses, decrease in well specific capacity, and decrease in well efficiency. Design response spectrum prognosticated the short buildings (<7 floors) in RMNP to be suffering from a high peak horizontal acceleration and shear forces for acceleration between 0.25 and 0.35 g. Therefore, appropriate detailing of shear reinforcement is indispensable to reduce the risk of structural damages at RMNP.

  16. Geomorphic and lithologic characteristics of Wadi Feiran basin, southern Sinai, Egypt, using remote sensing and field investigations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ayman A Ahmed; Mohamed Abdelkareem; Asran M Asran; Tawfig M Mahran

    2017-08-01

    Wadi Feiran is an important drainage basin in southern Sinai Peninsula covering an area of about 1785 km2, its streams drain into the Gulf of Suez crossing variety of rocks and sedimentary units varied in age from Precambrian to Quaternary. Field investigations, geographic information systems (GIS) and remote sensing studies including Landsat-7 ETM+, Radarsat-1, and SRTM DEM were integrated to reveal its lithologic, geologic and geomorphic features. Besides the field investigations, rock units including basement and pre- and syn-rift sedimentary units were discriminated using band ratios and principal component analysis techniques (PCA). Such techniques revealed that the crystalline rocks covering W. Feiran are unaltered rocks lacking OH-bearing minerals. Radar data successfully displayed the structures and geomorphic features related to topography. Moreover, the techniques allowed the extraction of the dyke-like structures along faults and shear zones. This also characterized the topographic variations through analysis of the shaded terrain and the altitudinal profiles. The results of data integration, lineament analysis and lineament density maps revealed that the structural grain in the present study has four different trends: N20–45E, N30–45W, N–S and E–W. Based on analysis of radar data and geomorphic indices, W. Feiran is an asymmetrical basin, its left side occupies ∼34% of the total area that leads to a supposedly massive tilt towards the south which caused the southwestward slope.

  17. Qualidade de vida dos surdos que se comunicam pela língua de sinais: revisão integrativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neuma Chaveiro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available O estudo objetivou revisar a produção científica sobre a qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde (QVRS de surdos. Trata-se de uma revisão integrativa, realizada na Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde, PubMed e Portal de periódicos da Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (Capes. Os resultados indicam que sintomas de ansiedade e depressão são mais acentuados nos surdos e podem estar relacionados a dificuldades de comunicação. As pessoas que vivenciam problemas de comunicação evitam novas relações sociais, e isso pode aumentar o isolamento social e reduzir a QVRS. Para os surdos que se comunicam pela Língua de Sinais, a QVRS só pode ser efetivamente avaliada por instrumentos traduzidos e adaptados em sua língua. Conclui-se que a surdez tem um impacto negativo sobre a qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde (QVRS de pessoas surdas.

  18. Applicability of alkali activated slag-seeded Egyptian Sinai kaolin for the immobilization of 60Co radionuclide

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Naggar, M. R.

    2014-04-01

    The present work was established to determine the applicability of local Egyptian kaolinite and blast furnace slag (BFS) as raw materials toward the synthesis of geopolymers and subsequent immobilization of cobalt-60, which is one of the most abundant radionuclides generated in radioactive waste streams in Egypt. XRF, XRD, FT-IR, and SEM techniques were used to characterize the local raw materials and their corresponding alkali activated products. Metakaolin (MK) was obtained by thermal treatment of Egyptian Sinai kaolin 750 °C/4 h. MK and five different BFS content (5, 10, 30, 50 and 80%) were used to synthesize geopolymeric matrices using an alkaline activator of Si-modulus = 1.35 at solid/liquid ratios of 0.8. Compressive strength tests were performed indicating that 50% BFS addition gave the highest values of compressive strength. The IAEA standard leaching tests of cobalt-60 from the solidified waste matrices were carried out. The effective diffusion coefficients of cobalt-60 radionuclides from the solidified waste matrices were calculated to be in the order of 10-14 cm2/s. Leaching of radionuclides was examined to be controlled by the wash-off mechanism with very acceptable values. These results gave encouragement that the tested Egyptian raw materials can be conveniently applied for the synthesis of geopolymers that can be used as a low-cost and high-efficiency materials for the immobilization of radioactive waste.

  19. Kolmogorov Turbulence Defeated by Anderson Localization for a Bose-Einstein Condensate in a Sinai-Oscillator Trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermann, Leonardo; Vergini, Eduardo; Shepelyansky, Dima L.

    2017-08-01

    We study the dynamics of a Bose-Einstein condensate in a Sinai-oscillator trap under a monochromatic driving force. Such a trap is formed by a harmonic potential and a repulsive disk located in the center vicinity corresponding to the first experiments of condensate formation by Ketterle and co-workers in 1995. We allow that the external driving allows us to model the regime of weak wave turbulence with the Kolmogorov energy flow from low to high energies. We show that in a certain regime of weak driving and weak nonlinearity such a turbulent energy flow is defeated by the Anderson localization that leads to localization of energy on low energy modes. This is in a drastic contrast to the random phase approximation leading to energy flow to high modes. A critical threshold is determined above which the turbulent flow to high energies becomes possible. We argue that this phenomenon can be studied with ultracold atoms in magneto-optical traps.

  20. A África carioca em lentes européias: corpos, sinais e expressões

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eneida Maria Mercadante Sela

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A proposta deste artigo é examinar as maneiras pelas quais alguns viajantes europeus que estiveram no Rio de Janeiro durante a primeira metade do século XIX diferenciaram os africanos na experiência da escravidão, tratando de um viés temático específico: os registros produzidos pela literatura de viagem oitocentista a respeito de suas belezas físicas, sinais corporais e expressões de cantos e danças. A convergência temática e valorativa desses relatos permite-nos observar a reiteração de certas tópicas que cristalizaram os significados mais comuns atribuídos pelos olhares estrangeiros aos africanismos com que depararam na cidade que continha, à época, a maior população escrava das Américas.The proposal of this article is to investigate the ways some European travellers, who have came to the city of Rio de Janeiro during the first half of the 19th century, registered Africans in the slavery experience. Foreigners who visited Brazilian Court until 1850 faced the biggest African slave population of the Americas, and the set of their literature, which describes such cultural and social counterpose, reveals conceptual reiterations of a whole lot of physical and behavioural characteristics given to Africans in captivity.

  1. GEOPHYSICAL CONTRIBUTION TO EVALUATE THE HYDROTHERMAL POTENTIALITY IN EGYPT: CASE STUDY: HAMMAM FARAUN AND ABU SWIERA, SINAI, EGYPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha Ayman I

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The geothermal potentiality in Egypt has a minor significance in the aspects of the Egyptians life, while the hydraulic and hydrocarbonresources are more convenient. However, some other applications for the geothermal activity such as direct warming, pools, and physiotherapy make the research for geothermal as requested. In the present work, two locations with rather good geothermal potentiality will be studied; these are HammamFaraun and Abu Swiera (water temperature is about 70 °C; at Sinai Peninsula.
    The contribution of the geophysical techniques to evaluate such potentiality could be considered, as its capability to identifythe reservoir characteristics and its implementation is acceptable. Therefore, a geophysical survey program has been conductedin terms of seventeen vertical electrical soundings (VES and two wide profiles of Control Source Electromagnetic (CSEM forward step at HammamFaraun and two wide profiles of CSEM at Abu Swiera. The geophysical techniques yield information on the spatial distribution of electrical conductivity, which is the most sensitive parameter to fluids in the rocks. 
    The analysis of the geophysical data, together with the field and geochemical studies lead to the conclusion that, the thermalwater in the subsurface formations might be considered as the preferred cause of the high conductivity in the subsurface on/close to the boarder of tectonically active regions, particularly, where the anomalous conductivity is correlated with high heat flow and other geophysical and geological parameters.

  2. Geomorphic and lithologic characteristics of Wadi Feiran basin, southern Sinai, Egypt, using remote sensing and field investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Ayman A.; Abdelkareem, Mohamed; Asran, Asran M.; Mahran, Tawfig M.

    2017-08-01

    Wadi Feiran is an important drainage basin in southern Sinai Peninsula covering an area of about 1785 km2, its streams drain into the Gulf of Suez crossing variety of rocks and sedimentary units varied in age from Precambrian to Quaternary. Field investigations, geographic information systems (GIS) and remote sensing studies including Landsat-7 ETM+, Radarsat-1, and SRTM DEM were integrated to reveal its lithologic, geologic and geomorphic features. Besides the field investigations, rock units including basement and pre- and syn-rift sedimentary units were discriminated using band ratios and principal component analysis techniques (PCA). Such techniques revealed that the crystalline rocks covering W. Feiran are unaltered rocks lacking OH-bearing minerals. Radar data successfully displayed the structures and geomorphic features related to topography. Moreover, the techniques allowed the extraction of the dyke-like structures along faults and shear zones. This also characterized the topographic variations through analysis of the shaded terrain and the altitudinal profiles. The results of data integration, lineament analysis and lineament density maps revealed that the structural grain in the present study has four different trends: N20-45E, N30-45W, N-S and E-W. Based on analysis of radar data and geomorphic indices, W. Feiran is an asymmetrical basin, its left side occupies ˜ 34% of the total area that leads to a supposedly massive tilt towards the south which caused the southwestward slope.

  3. Doenças do sistema nervoso central em bovinos no Sul do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Sanches Adrien Wilhelm Dilger; Langohr Ingeborg Maria; Stigger Adriana Lücke; Barros Claudio S. L.

    2000-01-01

    Um estudo retrospectivo foi realizado em 6.021 necropsias de bovinos realizadas num período de 36 anos no Sul do Brasil. Desses, 552 (9,16%) apresentaram sinais clínicos de distúrbios nervosos e seus protocolos foram revisados para colher informações sobre os diagnósticos macro e microscópicos, etiologia e sinais clínicos. Em 147 casos (26,63% de 552) não havia lesões significativas no sistema nervoso central, em 79 (14,31% de 552) o sistema nervoso não havia sido enviado e em 21 (3,81% de 55...

  4. Caracterização de amostras do vírus da raiva, isoladas nas regiões Norte e Centro-Oeste do Brasil, com anticorpos monoclonais antilissavírus Antigenic characterization of Brazilian rabies virus isolate North and Central West regions of Brazil with anti-lyssavirus monoclonal antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.B.C.R. Batista

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of rabies virus antigenic variants in North and Central West regions of Brazil was studied using 61 rabies viruses isolated from different species: 30 from domestic dogs, 20 from cattle, four from horses, two from cats, one from a human and four from unidentified species. The isolates were submitted to antigenic analyses by indirect immunofluorescence with a panel of 12 monoclonal antibodies (Mabs to lyssavirus antigens. Antigenic analyses revealed consistent differences between isolates whose natural hosts were dogs and those of haematophagous bats, often isolated from cattle. Three out of four isolates from horses and one from a domestic dog showed patterns of reactivity found only in viruses of insectivorous bats, indicating that non-haematophagous bats do play a unique role in the transmission of the virus to other species.

  5. Quantum chaos for two-dimensional Sinai billiard%二维Sinai台球系统的量子混沌研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦陈陈; 杨双波

    2014-01-01

    We study the classical and quantum correspondence for a two-dimensional Sinai billiard system. By using the Stationary state expansion method and Gutzwiller’s periodic orbit theory, we analyze the quantum length spectrum obtained through the Fourier transformation of the quantum density of state for the Sinai billiard system, and by comparing the peak position with the length of the classical periodic orbit we find their excellent correspondence. We observe that some quantum states are localized near some short period orbits, forming the quantum scarred states or superscarred states. In this paper we also investigate the nearest-neighbor spacing distribution of levels for both concentric and nonconcentric Sinai billiard systems, and find that the concentric Sinai billiard system is nearintegrable, and for the nonconcentric Sinai billiard system withϑ=3π/8 its nearest-neighbor spacing distribution of levels transits from nearintegrable to the Wigner distribution as the distance between the two centers increases.%研究了二维Sinai台球系统的经典与量子的对应关系,运用定态展开法和Gutzwiller的周期轨道理论对Sinai台球系统的态密度经傅里叶变换得到的量子长度谱进行分析,并把量子长度谱中峰的位置与其所对应的经典体系的周期轨道长度做对比,发现两者之间存在很好的对应关系。观察到了一些量子态局域在短周期轨道附近形成量子scarred态或量子superscarred态。还研究了同心与非同心Sinai台球系统的能级最近邻间距分布,发现同心Sinai台球系统是近可积的,非同心Sinai台球系统在θ=3π/8下,随两中心间距离的增加,能级最近邻间距分布将由近可积向维格那分布过渡。

  6. Sistema de informação dos núcleos de atenção integral na saúde da família - SINAI Information system of integral assistance nuclei in family health (SINAI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirella Maria Soares Véras

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available A cidade de Sobral, Ceará, Brasil, inseriu no ano de 2000 equipes multiprofisionais no Programa Saúde da Família (PSF. Essas equipes tinham o objetivo de potencializar as ações do PSF e de garantir a integralidade da atenção na promoção, prevenção, assistência e reabilitação. Um das dificuldades encontradas no processo de trabalho dessas categorias foi a ausência de um sistema de informação que contemplasse o registro de atividades executadas pelas equipes. Entendendo que a informação representava um espaço importante para o desenvolvimento e a produção de saúde, um grupo foi formado para elaborar um instrumento e software para o sistema de informação. Esse grupo era composto de profissionais da Secretaria Municipal de Saúde, do setor de informática do município e residentes da Escola de Saúde da Família. O instrumento criado continha os perfis da população assistida, o registro de atividades e procedimentos realizados e os agravos de notificação que estavam sendo definidos. Depois da criação do instrumento, foi desenvolvido o software em Sistema Operacional Linux, linguagem de programação PHP, banco de dados POSTGRESQL e foi acomodado em um servidor web Apache. O sistema foi chamado, em princípio, de SINAI e contemplava dados importantes para o desenvolvimento de indicadores para vários profissionais, garantindo a produção de informações epidemiológicas necessárias para o processo de controle, a avaliação e o planejamento de ações das equipes.The city of Sobral, state of Ceará, Brazil, introduced, in the year 2000, multi-professional teams in the Family Health Program PSF. These teams aimed to potentialize the actions of PSF and to guarantee the integrality of care in promotion, prevention, assistance and rehabilitation. One of the difficulties encountered in the work process of these categories was the absence of an information system that registered the activities executed by the teams

  7. US west coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aerial surveys are conducted along the US west coast to determine distribution and abundance of endangered leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea), loggerhead...

  8. WEST Physics Basis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdelle, C.; Artaud, J. F.; Basiuk, V.; Bécoulet, M.; Brémond, S.; Bucalossi, J.; Bufferand, H.; Ciraolo, G.; Colas, L.; Corre, Y.; Courtois, X.; Decker, J.; Delpech, L.; Devynck, P.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Doerner, R. P.; Douai, D.; Dumont, R.; Ekedahl, A.; Fedorczak, N.; Fenzi, C.; Firdaouss, M.; Garcia, J.; Ghendrih, P.; Gil, C.; Giruzzi, G.; Goniche, M.; Grisolia, C.; Grosman, A.; Guilhem, D.; Guirlet, R.; Gunn, J.; Hennequin, P.; Hillairet, J.; Hoang, T.; Imbeaux, F.; Ivanova-Stanik, I.; Joffrin, E.; Kallenbach, A.; Linke, J.; Loarer, T.; Lotte, P.; Maget, P.; Marandet, Y.; Mayoral, M. L.; Meyer, O.; Missirlian, M.; Mollard, P.; Monier-Garbet, P.; Moreau, P.; Nardon, E.; Pégourié, B.; Peysson, Y.; Sabot, R.; Saint-Laurent, F.; Schneider, M.; Travère, J. M.; Tsitrone, E.; Vartanian, S.; Vermare, L.; Yoshida, M.; Zagorski, R.; Contributors, JET

    2015-06-01

    With WEST (Tungsten Environment in Steady State Tokamak) (Bucalossi et al 2014 Fusion Eng. Des. 89 907-12), the Tore Supra facility and team expertise (Dumont et al 2014 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 56 075020) is used to pave the way towards ITER divertor procurement and operation. It consists in implementing a divertor configuration and installing ITER-like actively cooled tungsten monoblocks in the Tore Supra tokamak, taking full benefit of its unique long-pulse capability. WEST is a user facility platform, open to all ITER partners. This paper describes the physics basis of WEST: the estimated heat flux on the divertor target, the planned heating schemes, the expected behaviour of the L-H threshold and of the pedestal and the potential W sources. A series of operating scenarios has been modelled, showing that ITER-relevant heat fluxes on the divertor can be achieved in WEST long pulse H-mode plasmas.

  9. Purge at West Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Warren

    1977-01-01

    Tells how the adviser of the student newspaper at West Valley College (Saratoga, California) was dismissed after the newspaper published stories based on investigations into alleged wrongdoings by administration members. (GW)

  10. Dracaena in West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    This taxonomic revision of the genus Dracaena L. (Liliaceae) in West Africa is another contribution towards a monograph on this group.Short general chapters contain historical, phytogeographical, morphological and phylogenetic observations. The taxonomic treatment contains a revised genus descriptio

  11. West Coast, United States and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    This view shows the west coast of the United States and Mexico (32.5N, 118.0W) and gives an indication of the range of view from orbital altitude. The visual range of this particular scene is from Skammon's Lagoon on Baja to the northern tip of California's Central Valley and Sierra Nevada, a range of over 15 degrees of latitude. Coastal fog drapes over southern California and northern Baja California. White Sands, New Mexico is at far right center.

  12. Multiculturalism and Minority Rights: West and East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Will Kymlicka

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Are Western models of multiculturalism and minority rights relevant for the post-Communist countries of Central and Eastern Europe? This article describes a range of Western models, and explores the social and political conditions that have led to their adoption in the West. It then considers various factors which might make the adoption of these models difficult in Eastern Europe, and considers the potential role of the international community in overcoming these obstacles.

  13. Eastern Culture Gone West

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGHONG

    2005-01-01

    THE implication of one of British 19th century writer Rudyard Kipling's most famous quotations: “East is East,West is West and never the twain shall meet” is endorsed by contemporary scholar Dr Samuel Huntington in his work The Clash of Civilizations, in which he asserts that future wars will not be between individual states and political unions but between differing civilizations.

  14. West Nile Virus and wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, P.P.; Griffing, S.; Caffrey, C.; Kilpatrick, A.M.; McLean, R.; Brand, C.; Saito, E.; Dupuis, A.P.; Kramer, Laura; Novak, R.

    2004-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) has spread rapidly across North America, resulting in human deaths and in the deaths of untold numbers of birds, mammals, and reptiles. The virus has reached Central America and the Caribbean and may spread to Hawaii and South America. Although tens of thousands of birds have died, and studies of some bird species show local declines, few regionwide declines can be attributed to WNV. Predicting future impacts of WNV on wildlife, and pinpointing what drives epidemics, will require substantial additional research into host susceptibility, reservoir competency, and linkages between climate, mosquitoes, and disease. Such work will entail a collaborative effort between scientists in governmental research groups, in surveillance and control programs, and in nongovernmental organizations. West Nile virus was not the first, and it will not be the last, exotic disease to be introduced to the New World. Its spread in North America highlights the need to strengthen animal monitoring programs and to integrate them with research on disease ecology.

  15. Aspectos epidemiológicos e clínicos da infecção neurológica associada ao herpesvírus eqüino 1 (ehv-1 em cavalos que morreram com sinais nervosos no Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érica Azevedo Costa

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Durante o período de Outubro de 2004 a Fevereiro de 2006, 75 amostras de sistema nervoso central (SNC oriundas de eqüinos que morreram com sinais neurológicos no estado de Minas Gerais foram enviadas ao Laboratório de Virologia Comparada no ICB/UFMG para o diagnóstico de herpesvírus eqüino. Essas amostras foram previamente diagnosticadas negativas para o vírus da raiva através dos testes de imunofluorescência direta e inoculação em camundongos, no Laboratório de Saúde Animal (LSA do Instituto Mineiro de Agropecuária (IMA. Dentre as amostras analisadas, 39 (52% foram positivas para o herpesvírus eqüino 1 (EHV-1 através da técnica de reação em cadeia pela polimerase (PCR. Na maioria dos casos, o exame histopatológico do SNC revelou uma discreta vasculite com infiltrado perivascular de células mononucleares, congestão, trombose arterial e degeneração do tecido nervoso central. As amostras de SNC positivas para o EHV-1 foram coletadas de eqüinos oriundos de 30 municípios de Minas Gerais. Os casos de EHV-1 ocorreram de forma isolada não apresentando caráter sazonal. Na maioria dos casos (71,8%, a evolução dos sinais clínicos foi aguda, sendo que os sinais clínicos observados com mais freqüência foram ataxia, instabilidade dos membros posteriores, paralisia dos membros posteriores e decúbito. De acordo com informações relatadas pelo IMA, as infecções causadas pelo EHV-1 foram tão freqüentes como as infecções causadas pelo vírus da raiva em eqüinos no estado de Minas Gerais durante o período estudado. Portanto, torna-se importante a inclusão da encefalite pelo EHV-1 no diagnóstico diferencial de outras doenças do SNC de eqüinos no estado de Minas Gerais.

  16. 寺河矿西三盘区集中胶带巷的优化设计%Optimal design of central belt Lane of third pannel in the west of ShiHe coal Mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋庆阳

    2016-01-01

    本文通过对巷道开拓方式的选择及设备选型等关键环节论述,介绍西三盘区集中胶带巷设计过程。%The key links of the way of the roadway development and equipment selection were discussed. And the design process of t central belt Lane of third panel were introduced in this paper.

  17. The relationship between self-concept and academic achievement of grade 10 pupils in the Taung Central Circuit of Vryburg District in the North West Province of South Africa / Sibusiwe Ngoma

    OpenAIRE

    Ngoma, Sibusisiwe

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between self-concept and academic achievement. The subjects were 10th grade male and female pupils in the Taung Central Education circuit in the Northwest Province of South Africa. All the eight secondary schools in the circuit participated in this study. The researcher administered a self-designed 5-point Likert type self-concept scale to a sample of 296 respondents, to measure of both general and academic self-conc...

  18. Assessment of elemental and NROM/TENORM hazard potential from non-nuclear industries in North Sinai, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Mekawy, A F; Badran, H M; Seddeek, M K; Sharshar, T; Elnimr, T

    2015-09-01

    Non-nuclear industries use raw materials containing significant levels of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). The processing of these materials may expose workers engaged in or even people living near such sites to technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive material (TENORM) above the natural background. Inductively coupled plasma and gamma ray spectrometry have been used to determine major and trace elements and radionuclide concentrations in various samples, respectively, in order to investigate the environmental impact of coal mining and cement plant in North Sinai, Egypt. Generally, very little attention was directed to the large volumes of waste generated by either type of industrial activities. Different samples were analyzed including various raw materials, coal, charcoal, Portland and white cement, sludge, and wastes. Coal mine and cement plant workers dealing with waste and kaolin, respectively, are subjected to a relatively high annual effective dose. One of the important finding is the enhancement of all measured elements and radionuclides in the sludge found in coal mine. It may pose an environmental threat because of its large volume and its use as combustion material. The mine environment may have constituted Al, Fe, Cr, and V pollution source for the local area. Higher concentration of Al, Fe, Mn, B, Co, Cr, Mn, Ni, Sr, V, and TENORM were found in Portland cement and Zn in white cement. Coal has higher concentrations of Al, Fe, B, Co, Cr, and V as well as (226)Ra and (232)Th. The compiled results from the present study and different worldwide investigations demonstrate the obvious unrealistic ranges normally used for (226)Ra and (232)Th activity concentrations in coal and provided ranges for coal, Portland and white cement, gypsum, and limestone.

  19. Occurrence of the blue crab Callinectes sapidus, Rathbun, 1896, and its fisheries biology in Bardawil Lagoon, Sinai Peninsula, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma A. Abdel Razek

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the yearly occurrence and the biology of fisheries belonging to the blue crab Callinectes sapidus (Rath. in the catch yield of Bardawil Lagoon (BL in Sinai Peninsula, Egypt over the past 15 years. The study shows that between the years 2000–2015 the crustacean fishery increased (pooling both shrimp and crabs with fluctuations from 40% to 63% of the total production of the lagoon. The crab yield, during this period, increased from 19% to 42% of the total lagoon production. Moreover, the results show that the crab catch of BL is composed mainly of two crab species Portunus pelagicus (L. and C. sapidus (Rath.. The latter is considered the most dominant in the crab yield with 85% of the total crab production, while C. sapidus is only 15%. The size of C. sapidus ranged between 65 and 155 mm (carapace width with a dominance of the class size 105 mm. Furthermore, the ratio of C. sapidus males to females was in favor of males. The regression of width–length relationship showed a marked deviation from the isometric growth. Length–width and body weight regressions also showed deviations from the isometric growth and the analysis of the covariance. This indicates the significant difference between sexes in respect to length weight relationship. The interrelationships between width–length and propodus length and depth of males and with abdomen in females of C. sapidus suggested that in most conditions the relationships were positive and highly significant. This study shows the first insights on the status of C. sapidus in Bardawil Lagoon, Egypt.

  20. Implementation of magnetic, gravity and resistivity data in identifying groundwater occurrences in El Qaa Plain area, Southern Sinai, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selim, El Sayed; Abdel-Raouf, Osama; Mesalam, Mohamed

    2016-10-01

    El Qaa plain is one of the areas that have been proved to be promising as to its soil and groundwater resources in the southwestern part of Sinai. This study was carried out to study the lateral and vertical variations in the subsurface lithologic properties in El Qaa plain area and delineating the subsurface structure that affecting El Qaa plain depression. Gravity, magnetic data, fifty-one (51) vertical electrical sounding (Ves's) and Digital Elevation Model (DEM) map were used. Two-dimensional density modeling, analytical signal, tilt derivatives, Euler deconvolution techniques and interpretation of the resistivity data were applied on potential data. This study concluded that, El Qaa plain is a NE-SW depression confined by two normal faults and subdivided into five sedimentary units. Rock fragments and boulders derived to the plain from the surrounding highlands are the main components of the first surface unit that characterized by high resistivity values. This layer is overly another unit composed of gravelly sand with thickness ranging between 10 and 140 m. The third unit is composed mainly of sand with intercalations of clay with thickness ranging from 2 to 152 m. A Reefal limestone unit is a fourth unit interpreted from this study. The fifth unit is composed of clay. The water bearing formations in El Qaa Plain area are located principally in the second and the third layers. Finally, the depth to the basement surface ranges from 400 m to more than 1.5 km below sea level. Also, there are many minor structural trends interpreted from this study and affecting the El Qaa plain are striking in N-S, E-W and NE-SW directions.

  1. Islam and the West

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd. Kamal Hassan

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The scientific and technological developments during the 18th and' the 19th centuries ensured material progress of the West, as well as emergence of the West as the dominating power which colonized the rest of the world. During the post-colonial phase, Islam emerged as a revitalized sociopolitical force. This has been mistaken as a threat by the West, and Islam has been portrayed as the "new enemy after the demise of communism. This is partly an effort to establish a Western identity, which is disintegrating due to lack of a challenge; and partly a reflection of the failure of Muslims to realize the social and ethical ideals of Islam.

  2. Epidemiology of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis at a Focus Monitored by the Multinational Force and Observers in the Northeastern Sinai Desert of Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL). in the MFO zone of operation, there is concern Logistical limitations made it impossible to in- that the New World L...in the Negev the peace keeping forcc in east Sinai. J Egypt (Yotvata). llarefuah 67: 41-45. Soc Parasitol 19: 725-733. 19. Giladi M. Danon YL...Tech Rep 20. Giladi M. Danon YL. Greenblatt CL. Block C. Ser 793. Schinder E. 1988. Local environmental risk fac- 5. Kubba R. AI-Gindan Y. EI-Hassan AM

  3. Utilização de rádio definido por software para análise de sinais aplicados ao ensino em engenharia

    OpenAIRE

    Diniz, Priscila Crisfir Almeida

    2013-01-01

    A tecnologia de Rádio Definido por Software está induzindo uma revolução nos conceitos de dispositivos para processamento de sinais. O Rádio Definido por Software fornece uma arquitetura de rádio flexível que permite a mudança da função do rádio, possivelmente, em tempo real, e, com um processo que garante uma qualidade de serviço desejado. Essa flexibilidade na arquitetura de hardware combinada com a flexibilidade em arquitetura de software possibilita uma integração com redes e com interfac...

  4. O movimento social surdo e a campanha pela oficialização da língua brasileira de sinais

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Esta tese tem como objeto de estudo a ação coletiva do movimento social surdo no processo histórico que culminou na Lei Federal nº 10.436, de 24 de abril de 2002, que reconheceu a língua brasileira de sinais (Libras) como meio legal de comunicação e expressão no Brasil. A pesquisa foi desenvolvida conforme pressupostos e práticas da metodologia qualitativa, sendo as principais técnicas de coleta de dados utilizadas a entrevista, principalmente com ativistas surdos participantes dos acontecime...

  5. Contribuição da avaliação dos sinais clínicos em pacientes com síndrome da dor patelofemural

    OpenAIRE

    Liporaci,Rogério Ferreira; Saad,Marcelo Camargo; Felício, Lílian Ramiro; Baffa,Augusto do Prado; Grossi, Débora Bevilaqua

    2013-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Como a síndrome da dor patelofemoral (SDPF) é uma desordem comum, caracterizada por etiologia multifatorial e o mais prevalente sintoma na SDPF é uma dor difusa e usualmente localizada na região retropatelar, entretanto, com sinais e sintomas que podem estar relacionados como pronação subtalar excessiva, torsão tibial externa, alterações no deslocamento patelar, amplitude de movimento do joelho dolorosa, dor nas bordas patelares, tensão muscular e alterações no ângulo quadricipital ...

  6. Sinais de transtorno reativo de vínculo em crianças abrigadas por meio do desenho da figura humana

    OpenAIRE

    Melani, Renata Hottum

    2010-01-01

    Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo investigar por meio de desenho da figura humana, sinais de Transtorno de Apego Reativo na Infância em crianças abrigadas. Foram avaliadas 25 crianças (15 do sexo masculino e 10 do feminino), com idades entre 4 a 12 anos, que vivem em um abrigo na região metropolitana de São Paulo. O instrumento utilizado para avaliação foi o Desenho da Figura Humana (DFH) seguindo os 30 indicadores emocionais propostos por Koppitz. Os resultados mostraram que 48% das crianças ...

  7. Correlação entre sinais e sintomas da Disfunção Temporomandibular (DTM e severidade da má oclusão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Azevedo Lemos

    Full Text Available Introdução O papel da oclusão como fator etiológico das disfunções temporomandibulares (DTMs tem sido um assunto polêmico e ainda controverso. Objetivo Avaliar a correlação entre sinais e sintomas da disfunção temporomandibular e a severidade da má oclusão. Método Foram avaliados 135 estudantes de Odontologia da UFPB. A presença de DTM foi estimada através do Índice Anamnésico de Fonseca (DMF e de questões objetivas sobre seus sintomas. Os estudantes também foram submetidos a um protocolo resumido de avaliação clínica de DTM. A avaliação dos fatores oclusais foi realizada através do Índice de Prioridade de Tratamento (IPT aplicado a modelos de gesso dos arcos dentários superior e inferior. As diferenças entre as médias do IPT relacionadas aos sinais e sintomas de DTM foram determinadas por meio dos testes t e One-way ANOVA. As correlações entre os fatores oclusais e a DTM foram determinadas a partir de correlação de Pearson. Resultado A severidade da má oclusão, segundo o IPT, não influenciou no surgimento de DTM e de sinais clínicos musculares ou articulares, e na necessidade de tratamento. A má oclusão de classe II, trespasse vertical acentuado e dentes girados foram estatisticamente correlacionados à necessidade de tratamento e aos sinais clínicos de DTM. Conclusão Em modelos multifatoriais, como na fisiopatologia da DTM, a oclusão pode desempenhar um papel de cofator na predisposição ou perpetuar as diferentes formas de DTM, não devendo ser considerada fator principal.

  8. Textural and Compositional Characterization of Wadi Feiran Deposits, Sinai Peninsula, Egypt, Using Radarsat-1, PALSAR, SRTM and ETM+ Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Gaber

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims at identifying favorable locations for groundwater resources harvesting and extraction along the Wadi Feiran basin, SW Sinai Peninsula, Egypt, in an effort to facilitate new development projects in this area. Landsat ETM+, Radarsat-1 and PALSAR images of Wadi Feiran basin were used in this work to perform multisource data fusion and texture analysis, in order to classify the wadi deposits based on grain size distribution and predominant rock composition as this information may lead to the location of new groundwater resources. An unsupervised classification was first performed on two sets of fused images (i.e., ETM+/Radarsat-1 and ETM+/PALSAR resulting in five classes (hybrid classes describing the main alluvial sediments in the wadi system. Some variations in the spatial distribution of individual classes were observed, due to the different spectral and spatial resolutions of Radarsat-1 (C-band, 12.5 m and PALSAR (L-band, 6.25 m data. Alluvial deposits are mixtures of parent rocks located further upstream often at a great distance. In order to classify the alluvial deposits in terms of individual rock types (endmembers, a spectral linear unmixing of the optical ETM+ image was performed. Subsequently, each class of the fused (hybrid images was correlated with (1 individual rock type fractions (endmembers obtained from spectrally unmixing the ETM+ image, (2 the geocoded and calibrated radar images (Radarsat-1 and PALSAR and, (3 the slope map generated from the SRTM data. The goal was to determine predominant rock composition, mean backscatter and slope values for each of the five hybrid classes. Backscatter coefficient values extracted from both radar data (C- and L-band were correlated and checked in the field, confirming that both wavelengths produced more or less similar textural classes that correspond to specific grain or fragment sizes of alluvial deposits. However, comparison of the spatial distribution of matching

  9. digital de sinais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Antonio Berto

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O gás natural possui alguns contaminantes que, além de serem corrosivos, comprometem a qualidade para o consumo. Dessa forma, a condensação de água residual presente no gás pode iniciar um processo corrosivo localizado, que acarreta prejuízo à estrutura dos gasodutos. Devido à grande extensão dos dutos, os corrosivos comprometem a qualidade do gás e causam grandes transtornos de ordem operacional. Para avaliar a redução da espessura da parede metálica do duto, proveniente de efeitos corrosivos, e identificar fissuras e outras não-conformidades, é fundamental que seja feito o monitoramento contínuo e que se utilizem técnicas e métodos de manutenção preventiva. Atualmente, as técnicas adotadas para tal avaliação consistem na inclusão de um corpo de prova, conhecido como PIG (pipeline inspection gauge, com varredura por meio de ultra-som e termografia, além de levantamentos de campo especiais realizados sobre a superfície do solo. Visando a otimizar o processo de detecção, com vistas à redução de custos, o monitoramento da região interna dos dutos é realizado por um elemento autônomo provido de câmeras com infravermelho. As câmeras fornecem imagens, que são processadas digitalmente e gravadas em uma memória não-volátil. Um software desenvolvido para tal finalidade é utilizado na verificação das imagens e, ao mesmo tempo, na identificação das não-conformidades presentes e na orientação do processo de manutenção.

  10. West Virginia Community Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Eldon L.; Dziagwa, Constance E.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses efforts over the past 25 years to formalize the role of West Virginia's community colleges in the context of the state's rural character and low college graduation rates. Describes a reorganization following a 1987 study by the Carnegie Foundation and state legislation designed to fine tune the colleges' mission. (10 citations) (AJL)

  11. West Greenlandic Eskimo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trondhjem, Naja Blytmann; Fortescue, Michael David

    the principal economic activity. Research projects and language initiatives currently in progress within Greenland will be touched upon, as will the possibilities of communication with North American Inuit. West Greenlandic is unique among the native languages of the North American Arctic and Sub...

  12. The great West Road

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    From right to centre the 'Nationale 84' relying Meyrin to Saint-Genis. The fence limits Lab I on that side. From bottom the road leading to the double inclined tunnel linking Lab I and Lab II. On the foreground the ISR building (left) and the West Hall (centre).

  13. Invigorating West China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The once-poor west China is growing at a faster rate than the east. The trend is set to continue over the next few years. This is good news for China as the country gears up to shrink the economic divide between eastern and western regions.

  14. JPRS Report, West Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-02-18

    member states are to be brought together. The COMETT Program has elicited great interest within the EC. According to Volker Gehmlich, who is active...of a brand name, an efficient distribution mechanism and a com- petitive cost price. The European "winners" are espe- cially West Germany, which has

  15. Database for West Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Such database can prove an invaluable source of information for a wide range of agricultural and ... national soil classification systems around the world ... West African Journal of Appl ied Ecology, vol. .... SDB FAO-ISRIC English, French, Spanish Morphology and analytical ..... Furthermore, it will enhance the state of soil.

  16. FAQ: General Questions about West Nile Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Public Service Videos General Questions About West Nile Virus Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... West Nile virus cases? What is West Nile virus? West Nile virus is an arthropod-borne virus ( ...

  17. Inference of a random potential from random walk realizations: Formalism and application to the one-dimensional Sinai model with a drift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cocco, S [Laboratoire de Physique Statistique de l' ENS, CNRS, UMPC, 24 rue Lhomond, 75005 Paris (France); Monasson, R, E-mail: cocco@lps.ens.f, E-mail: monasson@lpt.ens.f [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique de l' ENS, CNRS, UPMC, 24 rue Lhomond, 75005 Paris (France)

    2009-12-01

    We consider the Sinai model, in which a random walker moves in a random quenched potential V, and ask the following questions: 1. how can the quenched potential V be inferred from the observations of one or more realizations of the random motion? 2. how many observations (walks) are required to make a reliable inference, that is, to be able to distinguish between two similar but distinct potentials, V{sub 1} and V{sub 2}? We show how question 1 can be easily solved within the Bayesian framework. In addition, we show that the answer to question 2 is, in general, intimately connected to the calculation of the survival probability of a fictitious walker in a potential W defined from V{sub 1} and V{sub 2}, with partial absorption at sites where V{sub 1} and V{sub 2} do not coincide. For the one-dimensional Sinai model, this survival probability can be analytically calculated, in excellent agreement with numerical simulations.

  18. Efeitos de modalidade de língua: as línguas de sinais/Language modality effects: the sign languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronice Muller de Quadros

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available As línguas de sinais que são visuais-espaciais oferecem um campo de análise que se refere aos possíveis efeitos que a diferença na modalidade pode implicar para as teorias lingüísticas e para as análises discursivas. Neste artigo, vamos nos deter a discutir os efeitos de modalidade na perspectiva teórica apresentando uma revisão dos estudos clássicos das línguas de sinais, bem como dos estudos que buscam compreender as especificidades dessas línguas. Sign languages that are visuo-spatial languages offer an area of analyses that refer to possible effects in which the difference in the modality can have implication to the linguistic theories and to the discourse analyses. In this paper, we will discuss the modality effects in the theoretical perspective presenting a revision of the classical studies of sign languages, as well as the studies that look for understanding the specificity of the languages.

  19. Groundwater potentiality mapping of hard-rock terrain in arid regions using geospatial modelling: example from Wadi Feiran basin, South Sinai, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnous, Mohamed O.

    2016-09-01

    Identifying a good site for groundwater exploitation in hard-rock terrains is a challenging task. In Sinai, Egypt, groundwater is the only source of water for local inhabitants. Interpretation of satellite data for delineation of lithological units and weathered zones, and for mapping of lineament density and their trends, provides a valuable aid for the location of groundwater promising areas. Complex deformational histories of the wide range of lithological formations add to the difficulty. Groundwater prospect mapping is a systematic approach that considers the major controlling factors which influence the aquifer and quality of groundwater. The presented study aims to delineate, identify, model and map groundwater potential zones in arid South Sinai using remote sensing data and a geographic information system (GIS) to prepare various hydromorphogeological thematic maps such as maps of slope, drainage density, lithology, landforms, structural lineaments, rainfall intensity and plan curvature. The controlling-factor thematic maps are each allocated a fixed score and weight, computed by using a linear equation approach. Furthermore, each weighted thematic map is statistically computed to yield a groundwater potential zone map of the study area. The groundwater potential zones thus obtained were divided into five categories (very poor, poor, moderate, good and very good) and were validated using the relation between the zone and the spatial distribution of productive wells and of previous geophysical investigations from a literature review. The results show the groundwater potential zones in the study area, and create awareness for better planning and management of groundwater resources.

  20. Diferentes pronúncias em uma língua não sonora? Um estudo da variação na produção de sinais da libras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Nogueira XAVIER

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudos fonético-fonológicos sobre a língua de sinais americana (ASL demonstraram que os itens lexicais dessa língua se constituem de unidades distintivas (parâmetros e que estas, por sua vez, podem apresentar variação em sua manifestação concreta. Pouco se sabe sobre os parâmetros constitutivos dos sinais da língua brasileira de sinais (libras, tampouco sobre sua variação. Este trabalho representa um primeiro passo rumo a um entendimento de como se dá a variação na produção de sinais da libras a partir do estudo das produções, por 12 sinalizadores, de 60 sinais dessa língua. A análise dessas produções, eliciadas através de imagens combinadas com glosas em português, não apenas ratificou a ocorrência da variação inter-sujeito nos parâmetros configuração de mão, localização, movimento, orientação, número de mãos e marcações não-manuais, observada na sinalização espontânea, mas revelou também variação em outros aspectos articulatórios dos sinais, entre os quais está o contato entre os articuladores. Além disso, o estudo também evidenciou a ocorrência de variação intra-sujeito em todos os parâmetros analisados.

  1. 我国中西部城中村原住居民犯罪形成机制--以重庆为样本的实证分析%Exploration of the Formation Mechanism of Urban Village Crime by Original Residents in Central and West China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐启明

    2014-01-01

    The dualistic structure not only determines the econ omic and social characteristics in urban villages, but also provides social foundation for urban village crime. The characteristics of urban village crime in the central and western China differ from those in southeast coastal regions, of which the bilateral differences are prominently reflected on crime committed by the original inhabitants. Through integration of criminal sociology theories, we try to establish a model which explains the formation mechanism of crime committed by original inhabitants in urban villages in the central and west China: culture conflict is the fundamental formation mechanism; anomie and strain are the internal formation mechanism; differential association is the direct formation mechanism.%二元结构决定了城中村的经济社会特征,也为城中村犯罪提供了社会基础。中西部城中村犯罪的特点不同于东南沿海地区,原住居民犯罪突出的反映了这种差异。以重庆为样本的实证分析表明:我国中西部城中村原住居民犯罪形成机制模型为:文化冲突是根本形成机制,失范紧张是内在形成机制,差异交往是直接形成机制。

  2. JPRS Report, West Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Banca Commerciale Italiana, Medio Credito Centrale , Banco di Roma, BNL, and Banco di Napoli, along with our own "Gosbank" and "Vnesheconombank...Tuisku-88 exercise, but at the present outlook only 13,000 men and 2,100 vehicles will be trekking toward Central Lapland. "The shortage is in the...business cycle and specifically currency fluctuations. Foreign Indebtedness of the Public Sector, as of 31 December 1986 Central Administration

  3. Distribution of urea in the waters of the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Verlecar, X.N.

    at some levels and very low concentrations at others. Urea concentration increases towards the central west coast of India. Comparison with the other inorganic nutrients indicates that urea constitutes 10% of the available nitrogen in the euphotic zone (0...

  4. Micronutrient density and stability in West African pearl millet – potential for biofortification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bürger, Anna; Jensen, Henning Høgh; Gondah, Jadah

    2014-01-01

    Pearl millet (Cenchrus americanus (L.) Morrone) is one of the most important cereals in West and Central Africa (WCA). Human populations in WCA are strongly affected by micronutrient deficiencies. Biofortification, the development of pearl millet varieties with enhanced micronutrient levels...

  5. JPRS Report, West Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    was no tabula rasa politically. He had worked with EEC Commissioners Sicco Mansholt and Henri Simonet, had represented the Young Socialists in the...OF GERMANY Civil-Military Facilitator Role Proposed for Territorial Army (Hans-Lothar Stegmann; TRUPPENPRAXIS, Mar 87) 80 FRANCE GIAT Problems...supportable. The attitude that Mikhail Gorbachev represents the same type of evil helps them to formulate a specific West German role in the Western world

  6. The West Heslerton Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic Powlesland

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available The excavation of the Early Anglo-Saxon or Anglian Settlement at West Heslerton, North Yorkshire, between 1986 and 1995, represents one of the largest excavations conducted in Britain in the last two decades. The project, funded by English Heritage, combined the fundamental needs of rescue and research archaeology. The excavation has produced a wealth of new evidence which is forcing us to re-evaluate much that has been said about the formative period of the English nation.

  7. Abiotic factors influencing deer browsing in West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler A. Campbell; Benjamin R. Laseter; W. Mark Ford; Richard H. Odom; Karl V. Miller

    2006-01-01

    We present a comparison of woody browse availability and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) use among clearcut interiors, skidder trail edges, and mature forest and an evaluation of the relative importance of aboitic factors in predicting browsing pressure within regenerating clearcuts in the central Appalachians of West Virginia. We sampled...

  8. Moral Self-Cultivation East and West: A Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slote, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Moral Self-Cultivation plays an important, even a central role, in the Confucian philosophical tradition, but philosophers in the West, most notably Aristotle and Kant, also hold that moral self-cultivation or self-shaping is possible and morally imperative. This paper argues that these traditions are psychologically unrealistic in what they say…

  9. Schooling of Immigrant Children in West Germany, Sweden, England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willke, I.

    1975-01-01

    The focus of this article is on children of migrant workers and immigrants in the schools of West Germany, Sweden and England. One central problem, that of language, is considered both as it is dealt with in policy, i. e., in curricula, and as it is actually implemented in some programs, which are typical for the actions in these countries.…

  10. Deglacial History and Paleoceanography of the Umanak System, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sheldon, Christina; Jennings, Anne; Andrews, John

    2012-01-01

    A record of Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS) and ice-stream history, ice-sheet ocean interactions and paleoclimate from the Last Glacial Maximum to present is preserved in the sediments of the Umanak fjord, shelf trough and trough mouth fan system of central West Greenland. The objective of this study i...

  11. To importerede tilfaelde af "West Nile fever" i Danmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Troels Bygum; Wilcke, Jon Torgny R; Andersen, Ove

    2003-01-01

    -old Canadian citizen with Danish ancestry. The former manifested itself clinically as a mild flu-like illness, the latter as serious infection of the central nervous system. Thus, in addition to representing a rare case of West Nile encephalitis, it also constitutes one of the first reported cases of human...... infection of Canadian origin....

  12. Drought in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Drought settled over West Africa's Ivory Coast region when wet season rains came late in 2007. Instead of beginning in February, the rainy season didn't start until March, and steady rains didn't start until late March, said the Famine Early Warning System Network. Though the rain had started to alleviate the drought, vegetation was still depressed in parts of Cote d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) between March 22 and April 6, 2007, when the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite captured the data used to make this image. The image shows current vegetation conditions compared to average conditions recorded since 2000. Areas where plants are growing more slowly or more sparsely than average are brown, while areas where vegetation is denser than average are green. The brown tint that dominates the image indicates that plants through most of the country are more sparse than normal. Among the crops affected by the lack of rain was West Africa's cocoa crop. About 70 percent of the world's cocoa comes from West Africa, and Cote d'Ivoire is a top grower, said Reuters. Cocoa prices climbed as the crop fell short. Farmers called the drought the worst in living memory, Reuters said. The delay in rainfall also led to water shortages in parts of Cote d'Ivoire, according to the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs.

  13. Deployable centralizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grubelich, Mark C.; Su, Jiann-Cherng; Knudsen, Steven D.

    2017-02-28

    A centralizer assembly is disclosed that allows for the assembly to be deployed in-situ. The centralizer assembly includes flexible members that can be extended into the well bore in situ by the initiation of a gas generating device. The centralizer assembly can support a large load carrying capability compared to a traditional bow spring with little or no installation drag. Additionally, larger displacements can be produced to centralize an extremely deviated casing.

  14. Central Asia, Physical Geography Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    over 2,000 m) is not applicable to Central Asia, partly because the general hypsometric level of this region is high and unstable, as a consequence of...organic fossils in them, gastropods have been discovered. On the main territory of the Tarim massif, which evidently represented a weakly elevated...places seams of gypsum and rock salt, and, in a part to the west of the town of Aksu, also a bed of gray limestone with small fresh- water gastropods

  15. Dicionarização da língua brasileira de sinais: estudo comparativo iconográfico e lexical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássia Geciauskas Sofiato

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A língua brasileira de sinais (Libras utilizada pela comunidade surda no Brasil é uma língua de modalidade espaço-visual cuja representação gráfica comumente se dá por meio de imagens em dicionários impressos e em meio digital. No Brasil, o primeiro dicionário de língua de sinais de que se tem notícia é a Iconographia dos signaes dos surdos-mudos, que data de 1875. A partir da elaboração dessa obra, outras surgiram e foram se constituindo como materiais de referência para o ensino e o aprendizado da língua em questão. O presente trabalho objetiva, com base em dicionários de Libras que servem de referência, analisar e discutir a constituição histórica do gênero no Brasil a partir da identificação de características e fragilidades em relação à iconografia e à lexicografia de tais obras, fatores que podem interferir no ensino e no aprendizado dos sinais nos cursos de graduação. Do ponto de vista da abordagem do problema, esse estudo é qualitativo e caracteriza-se como documental. Foram selecionados cinco dicionários de Libras, pautando-se no critério da indicação bibliográfica em disciplinas de Libras em cursos de graduação. As categorias estabelecidas para a análise priorizaram a questão da representação das imagens (a iconografia e os aspectos lexicais que as compõem. Por meio do estudo, observou-se que as obras analisadas apresentavam características bastante semelhantes em relação à apresentação, à constituição das imagens e aos aspectos lexicais, desafiando os profissionais que trabalham com esse gênero de ilustração.

  16. Interpretação interlíngue: as especificidades da interpretação de língua de sinais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Pires Pereira

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7968.2008v1n21p135Com o crescente apoio da legislação, a profissão de intérprete de língua de sinais (ILS, no Brasil, vem ganhando, cada vez mais espaço de divulgação. Até recentemente, o público em geral, conhecia somente os intérpretes de conferência de línguas vocais, mas, atualmente, é necessário traçar alguns estudos comparativos entre as duas modalidades de interpretação interlíngüe. Este artigo dispõe-se iniciar um percurso em direção a estes estudos na área da tradução.

  17. Identificação on-line de motores de indução através de modelo discreto para sinais senoidais

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrari, Sandro Mauro

    2006-01-01

    Neste trabalho são desenvolvidos dois métodos on-line para identificação do motor de indução trifásico baseados em modelos discretos obtidos ao se considerar sistemas contínuos excitados por sinais senoidais. O primeiro método utiliza o modelo discreto da máquina homopolar no referencial estacionário para estimar a resistência estatórica e a indutância de dispersão de estator e o modelo discreto da relação linear existente entre o fluxo estatórico e a corrente estatórica no referencial que gi...

  18. Parâmetros discriminadores de estacionariedade fisiológica em sinais de eletromiografia de superfície aplicados no estudo da fadiga

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha Júnior,Valdinar de Araújo

    2017-01-01

    A presente investigação tem como objeto de estudo o processamento do sinal eletromiográfico utilizado na análise da fadiga muscular. As técnicas de processamento de sinais tradicionalmente aplicadas à eletromiografia de superfície (EMG-S) produzem índices de fadiga com grande variação espacial (os índices sofrem grandes distorções por conta de mudanças na posição dos eletrodos de captação). Os índices de fadiga obtidos com técnicas clássicas também exibem grande variação temporal (eles não ap...

  19. Ocorrência de sinais e sintomas de disfunção temporomandibular em músicos Occurrence of signs and symptoms of temporomandibular dysfunction in musicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Stechman Neto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar a prevalência de sinais e sintomas de disfunção temporomandibular em grupos de músicos profissionais, intérpretes de instrumentos de sopro e de cordas. MÉTODOS: Participaram 92 músicos, com idades entre 18 e 58 anos. Foram entrevistados 70 músicos intérpretes de instrumentos de sopro (76,08% e 22 músicos intérpretes de instrumentos de cordas (23,91% pertencentes à Orquestra Sinfônica do Paraná, à Banda da Polícia Militar do Paraná ou à Banda do Exército. Foi realizada entrevista que constou de questões referentes à identificação, tempo de prática do instrumento e presença de sinais, sintomas e hábitos relacionados às disfunções temporomandibulares. Comparou-se as respostas dos músicos por meio do teste de diferença de proporções. RESULTADOS: Trinta e nove músicos (42,3% percebem que rangem e/ou apertam os dentes, 23 (25% reportaram sentir dor na articulação temporomandibular, 39 músicos (42% relataram escutar ruídos na articulação temporomandibular, 37 (40% sensação de plenitude auricular e 33 (35% presença de zumbido. Não houve diferença significativa entre os instrumentistas de sopro e de corda no que se refere à presença de sinais e sintomas de disfunção temporomandibular. CONCLUSÃO: A somatória dos fatores apresentados coloca os praticantes de determinados instrumentos musicais como um grupo suscetível a apresentar sinais e sintomas de disfunção temporomandibular, incluindo sintomas auditivos, podendo tal prática ser considerada tanto um fator desencadeante, quanto um fator agravante ou perpetuador de um problema já existente.PURPOSE: To verify the prevalence of signs and symptoms of temporomandibular dysfunction in groups of professional musicians, interpreters of brass and string instruments. METHODS: Ninety two musicians, with ages varying from 18 to 58 years, participated on the study. Seventy musicians who played brass instruments (76.08% and 22 musicians who

  20. Hemorragia subaracnoídea com tomografia de crânio sem sinais de sangramento Subarachnoidal hemorrhage with cranial tomography without bleeding signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Francisco

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Foram observados 23 casos de pacientes com suspeita clínica de hemorragia subaracnoídea (HSA, com tomografia de crânio (CT sem sinais de sangramento, com diagnóstico definitivo realizado por exame de líquido cefalorraquiano(LCR. Desses, 20 casos foram submetidos a angiografia cerebral. Estabeleceu-se a classificação clínica de Hunt & Hess. Os principais achados neste estudo foram:1 um terço dos pacientes apresentou intervalo de tempo entre o ictus e a realização da CT e do LCR entre 24 e 48 horas, período de maior sensiblidade da CT; 2 dos pacientes estudados com angiografia cerebral, 55% tiveram o diagnóstico de aneurisma com predomínio no território de carótida e cerebral anterior; 3 o grau clínico dominante foi Hunt & Hess I e II. Todos os achados encontrados demonstraram a necessidade da realização de LCR em suspeita de HSA sem sinais de sangramento na CT.We observed 23 pacients with clinical hypothesis of subarachnoidal hemorrhage (SAH having cranial tomography (CT without bleeding signals. The final diagnosis of SAH was made upon the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF results. Twenty cases were submitted to brain angiography. They were focused under the clinical classification of Hunt & Hess. The main results were: 1 1/3 of patients had interval time between 24 and 48 hours after ictus and before CT and CSF making; this was the most sensitive CT time; 2 55% of patients with brain angiography had aneurysm predominantly in the carotid and anterior cerebral artery territory; 3 the dominant clinical degree was Hunt & Hess I e II. Conclusion: the results demonstrate the need of CSF test in case of SAH clinical diagnosis with CT showing no bleeding signals.

  1. Assessment of genetic diversity and relationships among Egyptian mango (Mangifera indica L.) cultivers grown in Suez Canal and Sinai region using RAPD markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Hassan; Mekki, Laila E; Hussein, Mohammed A

    2014-01-01

    DNA-based RAPD (Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA) markers have been used extensively to study genetic diversity and relationships in a number of fruit crops. In this study, 10 (7 commercial mango cultivars and 3 accessions) mango genotypes traditionally grown in Suez Canal and Sinai region of Egypt, were selected to assess genetic diversity and relatedness. Total genomic DNA was extracted and subjected to RAPD analysis using 30 arbitrary 10-mer primers. Of these, eleven primers were selected which gave 92 clear and bright fragments. A total of 72 polymorphic RAPD bands were detected out of 92 bands, generating 78% polymorphisms. The mean PIC values scores for all loci were of 0.85. This reflects a high level of discriminatory power of a marker and most of these primers produced unique band pattern for each cultivar. A dendrogram based on Nei's Genetic distance co-efficient implied a moderate degree of genetic diversity among the cultivars used for experimentation, with some differences. The hybrid which had derived from cultivar as female parent was placed together. In the cluster, the cultivars and accessions formed separate groups according to bearing habit and type of embryo and the members in each group were very closely linked. Cluster analysis clearly showed two main groups, the first consisting of indigenous to the Delta of Egypt cultivars and the second consisting of indigenous to the Suez Canal and Sinai region. From the analysis of results, it appears the majority of mango cultivars originated from a local mango genepool and were domesticated later. The results indicated the potential of RAPD markers for the identification and management of mango germplasm for breeding purposes.

  2. A Regional Approach to Market Monitoring in the West

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barmack, Matthew; Kahn, Edward; Tierney, Susan; Goldman, Charles

    2006-10-01

    Market monitoring involves the systematic analysis of pricesand behavior in wholesale power markets to determine when and whetherpotentially anti-competitive behavior is occurring. Regional TransmissionOrganizations (RTOs) typically have a market monitoring function. Becausethe West does not have active RTOs outside of California, it does nothave the market monitoring that RTOs have. In addition, because the Westoutside of California does not have RTOs that perform centralized unitcommitment and dispatch, the rich data that are typically available tomarket monitors in RTO markets are not available in the West outside ofCalifornia. This paper examines the feasibility of market monitoring inthe West outside of California given readily available data. We developsimple econometric models of wholesale power prices in the West thatmight be used for market monitoring. In addition, we examine whetherproduction cost simulations that have been developed for long-runplanning might be useful for market monitoring. We find that simpleeconometric models go a long ways towards explaining wholesale powerprices in the West and might be used to identify potentially anomalousprices. In contrast, we find that the simulated prices from a specificset of production cost simulations exhibit characteristics that aresufficiently different from observed prices that we question theirusefulness for explaining price formation in the West and hence theirusefulness as a market monitoring tool.

  3. Deglacial History and Paleoceanography of the Umanak System, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sheldon, Christina; Jennings, Anne; Andrews, John

    2012-01-01

    is to document the timing and rate of ice retreat and the role of the West Greenland Current (WGC) in initiating or sustaining ice retreat. During cruise JR175 of the UK ship RRS James Clark Ross in 2009, sediment cores and geophysical data were collected from the Umanak System to document the glacial history......A record of Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS) and ice-stream history, ice-sheet ocean interactions and paleoclimate from the Last Glacial Maximum to present is preserved in the sediments of the Umanak fjord, shelf trough and trough mouth fan system of central West Greenland. The objective of this study...

  4. Lichens promote flowering Opuntia fragilis in west-central Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, J.P.; Bornar, C.R.; Harrington, C.A.

    2003-01-01

    Clumps of the cactus Opuntia fragilis growing in association with mats of the lichens Cladina mitis, Cladina rangiferina and a spikemoss, Selaginella rupestris, were discovered in an agricultural field in Pepin County, Wisconsin, that had been abandoned for over 50 y. The association appeared to be beneficial to the cactus, which flowered almost exclusively in the presence of lichens. Of 294 cactus clumps examined in 2001, 127 grew in the presence of lichen mats and, of these, 24 flowered, producing 91 flowers, while none of the cacti growing in the absence of lichens flowered. In 2002, 19 out of 265 cactus clumps flowered, all but one in the presence of lichens. All sizes of cacti in the presence of lichens flowered and the probability of flowering increased with cactus size. In addition, the cacti that flowered had cladodes that were on average 19% heavier than those of cacti that did not flower. The presence of lichens lowered summer soil temperatures 2a??4 C compared to soil temperatures in the absence of lichens. Cooler soil temperatures conserve soil moisture better, which may enhance flowering in these cacti.

  5. Restoration of mangroves along the central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Untawale, A.G.

    of various measures taken by the Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India. New Delhi, conservation and management policies were initiated between 1985-1995. During this period it was observed, with remote sensing techniques, that vast...

  6. A comparison of geoid undulations for west central Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roman, D.R.; Csatho, B.; Jezek, K.C.;

    1997-01-01

    The accuracy of a new local gravity field model, GEOID94A, is examined at a site on the western Greenland ice sheet. The model, developed by the Danish National Survey and Cadastre, incorporates several new gravity data sets including an extensive amount of airborne gravity data. Model-derived ge......The accuracy of a new local gravity field model, GEOID94A, is examined at a site on the western Greenland ice sheet. The model, developed by the Danish National Survey and Cadastre, incorporates several new gravity data sets including an extensive amount of airborne gravity data. Model......-derived geoid undulations were compared to independently determined undulations found by differencing the elevations from Global Positioning System controlled airborne laser altimetry and optical levelling surveys. Differences between the two sets of undulations were less than +/-6 cm RMS. The comparison...... improved (+/-5 cm RMS) when GEOID94A undulations were adjusted by local gravity observations also acquired at the site. Our comparisons demonstrate that GEOID94A adequately models the long to intermediate wavelengths of the gravity field. We conclude that GEOID94A constitutes a reliable reference model...

  7. Seabed surveys of Mormugao Harbour, Central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wagle, B.G.; Gujar, A.R.; Subrahmanyam, V.; Mislankar, P.G.

    Detailed echosounding, side scan sonar and shallow seismics (125 line km) covering an area of 6.2 km2 in the Mormugao harbour provided information on seabed topography, surficial distribution of sediments, their thickness and rock outcrops along...

  8. Marine fauna of Malvan, Central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parulekar, A.H.

    demarcated. Mid-littoral zone in the rock pools and mud plat mangrove ecosystem and lower littoral zone on the rocky and sandy shores, harbour maximum number of species. Three critical levels, limiting the vertical distribution of intertidal fauna were...

  9. Agricultural Land Use Change after NAFTA in Central West Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quetzalcóatl Orozco-Ramírez

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that agricultural land use change and modernization in agricultural production techniques are related to the loss of crop diversity. Two processes contribute to this loss; first is the replacement of landraces by modern varieties, and second is the abandonment of traditional crops in favor of cash crops. We studied the expression of these processes in a region that is both an agro-biodiversity and cultural center and one of the most significant fruit exporters of Mexico. We analyzed agricultural change based on the transformation of cropping areas and the primary crops’ locations in Michoacán state. We examined the crop-harvested area statistics from 1950 to 2015, and identified 23 crops as the most important in terms of harvested area and monetary value. After NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement, harvested area for nine crops changed significantly: seven crops increased, and two decreased. Positive trends were observed for commercial fruits oriented to export markets, and negative trends were observed for traditional crops. These crops, such as beans and maize, are important for food security. Additionally, we analyzed how these land-use and agricultural changes overlap in zones of maize planted-area change. Using a maize-race collection database, we identified three native maize races that could be at risk due to the abandonment of maize in favor of commercial crops.

  10. Studies on boron along the central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shirodkar, P.V.; Singbal, S.Y.S.; SenGupta, R.

    Boron in its inorganic form in the Arabian Sea waters varies from 1.17 to 4.74 mg/kg. There is, at some stations, depthwise correlation between inorganic B and primary productivity. B/Cl varies from 0.122 to 0.238 for shallow stations and from 0...

  11. Integrated geophysical study off Goa, Central West Coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramana, M.V.; Desa, M.; Ramprasad, T.

    to 31r). The present study indicates that the Goa offshore is an integral part of the Laxmi Basin. As such it is interpreted that a tectonic boundary between the oceanic crust in the north and the CLR complex in the south lies south of the study area...

  12. A Comparison of Geoid Undulations for West Central Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Daniel R.; Csatho, Beata; Jezek, Kenneth C.; Thomas, Robert H.; Krabill, William B.; vonFrese, Ralph R. B.; Forsberg, Rene

    1997-01-01

    The accuracy of a new local gravity field model, GEOID94A, is examined at a site on the western Greenland ice sheet. The model, developed by the Danish National Survey and Cadastre, incorporates several new gravity data sets including an extensive amount of airborne gravity data. Model-derived geoid undulations were compared to independently determined undulations found by differencing the elevations from Global Positioning System controlled airborne laser altimetry and optical leveling surveys. Differences between the two sets of undulations were less than +/- 6 cm RMS. The comparison improved (+/- 5 cm RMS) when GEOID94A undulations were adjusted by local gravity observations also acquired at the site. Our comparisons demonstrate that GEOID94A adequately models the long to intermediate wavelengths of the gravity field. We conclude that GEOID94A constitutes a reliable reference model for studies of Greenland's gravity field.

  13. Placer chromite along south Maharashtra, central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gujar, A.R.; Ambre, N.V.; Iyer, S.D.; Mislankar, P.G.; Loveson, V.J.

    ) and the mineral phases were identified 18,19 . Chemical analysis of the sepa- rated mineral grains was done using an Inductively Coupled Plasma–Optical Emission Spectrometer (ICP–OES). FeO was determined by titration method 20 . To decipher the sur- face... 2). The coastal strip is between 90 and 150 m wide, has a moderate to gentle foreshore backed by a narrow berm and sand-dune ridges of variable dimensions. The disposition of the rivers Achara and Gad (Figure 1), their tributaries specially...

  14. FAQ: West Nile Virus and Dead Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education Public Service Videos West Nile Virus & Dead Birds Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On This ... dead bird sightings to local authorities. How do birds get infected with West Nile virus? West Nile ...

  15. Recovery of central Appalachian forested watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary Beth Adams; James N. Kochendenfer [sic

    2014-01-01

    The Fernow Experimental Forest (FEF) was established to conduct research in forest and watershed management in the central Appalachians. The 1868-ha FEF, located south of Parsons, West Virginia, is administered by the Northern Research Station of the USDA Forest Service and provides a valuable point of comparison with the Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory (CHL), located in...

  16. Universities and Knowledge Production in Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiek, Marek

    2012-01-01

    The article discusses an East/West divide in Europe in university knowledge production. It argues that the communist and post-communist legacies in the four major Central European economies studied (Poland, Hungary, the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic) matter substantially for educational and research systems. The differences in university…

  17. Reconfiguring the West in Neil Jordan's short story "Love"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stipe Grgas

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In introducing his article,  the author draws attention to the enormous importance space, especially the west of Ireland, has in the Irish culture and in the legitimization of Irish identity. The central part of the article is devoted to an analysis of Neil Jordan's  "A Love" in which the author describes the way Jordan uses the West as the privileged place of Irish self-representation. A close reading of the text shows the writer's strategies which subvert the conventional image of the West of Ireland  and the author voices the opinion that Jordan's text refers to the end of one conceptualization of Irish identity. Offering the concept of heterotopia (Foucault in his conclusion the author opens up the possibility of reading the representation of space in Jordan's story as his inscription of those places which were elided from the utopian Irish national saga.

  18. REFLEXÕES COMPARATIVAS SOBRE PROCEDIMENTOS TRADUTÓRIOS AO PORTUGUÊS DE POEMAS EM LÍNGUA BRASILEIRA DE SINAIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulo Xavier De Souza

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Ao pressupor a existência da poesia em língua de sinais como gênero literário próprio da Literatura oriunda de uma determinada comunidade surda, este artigo pretende apresentar reflexões comparativas e descritivas de procedimentos de tradução na direção língua brasileira de sinais (Libras - português. Nesse sentido, traz-se uma breve revisão de literatura referente ao tema, bem como, expõem-se dois poemas enunciados originalmente em Libras, a saber: "Mãos do Mar" de Henry (2011 e "Bandeira Brasileira" de Castro (1999 juntamente com suas respectivas propostas de tradução para a língua portuguesa. Em nível de resultados e discussão, descreve-se comparativamente e analisa-se criticamente os procedimentos tradutórios utilizados, sugerindo reflexões acerca do valor social, educacional e vocacional que a poesia em língua de sinais pode emanar de seu conteúdo. Finalmente, conclui-se que o reconhecimento e a identificação do efeito poético criativo-visual contribui fundamental e descritivamente com procedimentos de tradução poética para línguas orais de obras em língua de sinais. Palavras-chave: Procedimentos de tradução. Análise comparativa e descritiva. Tradução de poesia. Traduzibilidade. Poesia em Língua de Sinais. Poemas em Libras. Reflexiones comparadas sobre procedimientos traductores al portugués de poemas en lengua de señas brasilera. Resumen: Al presuponer la existencia de la poesía en Lengua de Señas como género literario propio de Literatura oriunda de una Comunidad Sorda determinada, este artículo pretende presentar una reflexión comparada y descriptiva de los procesos de traducción en dirección de Lengua de Señas Brasilera (LIBRAS hacia el portugués. En ese sentido, se hace una breve revisión de la literatura referente al tema; también se presentan dos poemas enunciados originalmente en Libras, a saber "Mãos do Mar" de Henry (2011 y "Bandeira Brasileira" de Castro (1999, acompa

  19. Centralized Support

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2011-01-01

      With the complexities surrounding the choice of decentralized vs. centralized labs, as well as the most optimal use of biomarkers in clinical trials, choosing the right lab or CRO partner is paramount...

  20. Comunidade surda e Língua Brasileira de Sinais nos relatos de uma professora surda. Deaf Community and the Brazilian Sign Language - Reports of a Deaf teacher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos, Saionara Figueiredo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho que apresentamos é parte de um projeto de pesquisa qualitativa mais amplo – uma Dissertação de Mestrado intitulada “Educação Ambiental: recursos imagéticos na produção de significação de um sujeito surdo” –, que foi desenvolvida junto ao Programa de Pós-Graduação em Educação Ambiental da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande (FURG, Brasil. Neste artigo, apresentamos o posicionamento de uma professora surda do Rio Grande do Sul no que se refere à construção da sua identidade surda, considerando o papel fundamental da comunidade surda e da língua materna de um surdo sinalizado – a Língua Brasileira de Sinais (Libras. O presente trabalho fundamenta-se teórica e metodologicamente na abordagem sócio-histórica. Foram realizadas entrevistas semiestruturadas com uma professora surda, além do uso de recursos imagéticos, que possibilitaram o surgimento de narrativas de vida do sujeito pesquisado. Para a análise de dados, foi empregada a técnica da análise de conteúdo, cuja categoria, objeto do presente artigo, refere-se à Comunidade Surda que usa a Libras (Língua Brasileira de Sinais. As narrativas demonstraram a importância que a comunidade surda assume para os surdos, bem como a apreensão de sua língua, a Língua Brasileira de Sinais, ressaltando as conquistas legais e os desafios enfrentados para o reconhecimento e a valorização dessa língua no nosso país, tanto nas escolas regulares e inclusivas quanto no Ensino Superior. Além disso, a comunidade surda configura-se como um espaço e como um lugar de pertencimento, a partir de onde os surdos podem mostrar e valorizar sua identidade surda, suas histórias, exaltando sua diferença cultural. The present study is part of a broader qualitative research - a dissertation entitled "Environmental Education: Imagistic resources in the production of meaning of a Deaf child" - which was developed by the Graduate Program in Environmental Education of the